An Analysis Of The Use Of Irony In The Most Dangerous Game

In “The Most Dangerous Game” by Richard Connell, an experienced hunter, Rainsford, is washed ashore onto a mysterious island when he falls off his yacht. After hearing gunshots nearby, Rainsford climbs his way up the cliff towards the only house on the island. He then meets a wealthy general, Zaroff, who shares his passion for hunting. Zaroff invites Rainsford to play a game with him—a game where Zaroff hunts the biggest and most unpredictable animal of them all, men. In this story, there are many examples of verbal irony, dramatic irony, and situational irony.

First of all, the most prominent use of verbal irony can be found in the initial encounters between Zaroff and Rainsford. “‘We’ll visit my training school,’ smiled the general. ‘It’s in the cellar. I have about a dozen pupils down there now…’” (65.385). This is an example of verbal irony because Zaroff says one thing and really means another. Zaroff stated that he had pupils and a training school inside his cellar. In reality, he has prison cells filled with captives—captives that came from shipwrecked boats. They were imprisoned by Zaroff and then hunted for his pleasure, which he referred to as a “game”.

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Secondly, dramatic irony is shown in every story but in “The Most Dangerous Game”, there is one outstanding example. “Twenty feet below him the sea rumbled and hissed… Then he leaped far out into the sea… A man, who had been hiding in the curtains of the bed, was standing there. ‘Rainsford!’ screamed the general. ‘How in God’s name did you get here?’ ‘Swam,’ said Rainsford.”(74.679) Rainsford jumped off a twenty-foot cliff into rocky waters, which makes Zaroff think that he died. The audience knows that he didn’t die. Zaroff, however, was convinced otherwise. Believing that Rainsford had died from the fall, Zaroff decided to celebrate by having an elaborate dinner. This diversion allowed Rainsford enough time to swim back and sneak into the castle, catching Zaroff off guard.

Finally, a prime example of situational irony is shown throughout the story. Rainsford is a prized hunter who has even written a book about hunting snow leopards in Tibet. When Zaroff met Rainsford he said, “It is a very great pleasure and honor to welcome Mr. Sanger Rainsford, the celebrated hunter, into my home.” Although Zaroff is humbled in the presence of Rainsford, he still treats him as one of his captives. He plays his games with Rainsford and even tries to kill him for his own entertainment. It’s as if every man represents a new challenge to hunt for him. He sees Rainsford as the biggest and best challenge he could get and seizes that opportunity. The irony is that Rainsford, a hunter himself, ends up being the one hunted.

In conclusion, the many examples of verbal irony, dramatic irony, and situational irony were shown throughout this amazing story. Verbal irony is shown when Zaroff decides to show Rainsford his cellar full of captives waiting to play his games. Later, Richard Connell shows us some dramatic irony when Rainsford jumps off a cliff into the rocky ocean water and Zaroff thinks that he has died. Throughout the story, situational irony is present when Rainsford, the hunter, becomes the hunted. The story tells us that the most dangerous game of all are humans. All of these examples in “The Most Dangerous Game” demonstrate how diverse and useful irony really is.

Importance And Effects Of Education


The chapters covered so far have highlighted various aspects of the study, beginning with the need, background, and relevant review of literature. The methodology and analysis of the data provide a better understanding and comprehension of these elements in simple terms. The chapter of discussion serves as a brief overview of the complete research process at a glance. The readers would be able to understand the study in a much better way if it is supported by a methodologically arranged sequence of findings and interpretations. In a nutshell, the discussion chapter is the heart of the whole thesis, even though it is written at the end. The wise selection of words and an unembellished presentation of facts make the study more acceptable to the readers, simplifying the process.

Summary of the study

The present study was conducted in the month of November-December 2018 with an aim to assess the knowledge of adolescents about cannabis use disorder. The study also aimed to enlighten them with the facts regarding harmful use of cannabis, its effects on the body, mind, work performance, and social life through a psycho-educative module. It was a true experimental study with a pre-test-post-test-only design, including a control and an experimental group. A total of six schools within a 10 km radius, meeting the inclusion criteria, were selected. Two schools did not grant permission, so out of the remaining four, two were chosen through simple random sampling.

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The populations of both schools were homogeneous. The total study population amounted to 1275. Stratified random sampling was implemented, dividing the accessible population into four strata as per their education level – class 9th, 10th, 11th, and 12th standard students were placed into strata I, II, III, and IV respectively. Out of these, a sample of 260 was selected using proportionate sampling. A structured, non-standardized self-administered questionnaire of 20 MCQs, devised by the researcher and validated by various field experts, was used for data collection. The psycho-educative module used in the study was designed by the researcher. Its content was assessed for validity and reliability by a group of experts. The pre-test was conducted on day one for both groups, whereas the post-test of the control group was taken after three days. Psychoeducational instruction was then given to both groups together, followed by the post-test of the experimental group conducted seven days after the intervention.

The researcher adopted Maiman and Becker’s Health Belief Model. The Health Belief Model (HBM) is a psychological model developed to explain and predict health-related behaviors, particularly concerning the use of health services. In the present study, the model aids the researcher in elucidating how individual perceptions of cannabis use disorder guide their health-related behavior. Currently and in the future, the model will take into account their current family, peer group, exposure to media, and education level. These factors will ultimately decide their health-related behavior by either avoiding cannabis use or seeking treatment to reduce the effects of cannabis use that has already occurred, in light of an enhanced understanding of cannabis and its issues.

To support the study, an in-depth literature review was carried out. This review explored various substance use-related studies among adolescents across the world, with a special focus on those conducted in India. Emphasis was placed on studies relating to cannabis, its associated problems, management strategies, and the prevention of substance use disorders.

The present study focused on the knowledge of cannabis use disorders among adolescents aged 15 to 18 years. The effectiveness of the module was assessed by an increase in post-test scores after intervention. Additionally, the association of relevant socio-demographic data with the pre-test knowledge score was also evaluated.

Major Findings of the study-

• The sample belonging to the 15 to 16 years of age group comprised 68 (52.3%) in the experimental group and 75 (57.7%) in the control group. There were very few candidates of 18 to 19 years of age, with 6 (4.6%) in the experimental group and 4 (3.0%) in the control group.

• In the experimental group, 64 (49.2%) were male and 66 (50.8%) were female, whereas in the control group 78 (60.0%) were male and 52 (40.0%) were female.

• In the experimental group, 42 (32.3%) of the sample and 43 (33.1%) of the sample in the control group were in the 9th standard. The least number of samples were in the 11th standard, being 27 (20.8%) of the experimental group and 27 (20.8%) of the control group.

• As per the mother’s education level, 37 (28.5%) in the experimental group and 38 (29.2%) in the control group were graduates. A very low percentage, 4 (3.1%) of mothers, were educated until primary school in the experimental group, and 1 (0.8%) mother was illiterate in the control group.

• An equal number of fathers were graduates and postgraduates, 36 (27.7%), and 3 (2.3%) were educated until primary school in the experimental group. In the control group, 44 (34.8%) fathers were graduates and one (0.8) was illiterate.

• In the experimental group, 103 (79.2%) samples were from a nuclear family, 21 (16.2%) were from a joint family, and 6 (4.6%) were from an extended family. In contrast, 102 (78.5%) in the control group were from a nuclear family, 23 (17.7%) were from a joint family, and 5(4.0%) were from an extended family.

• In the experimental group, 47 (36.2%) samples and in the control group, 49 (37.7%) samples had a family monthly income above 50,000. Additionally, 16 (12.0%) samples had a monthly income. A significant number of samples, 112 (86.1%) from the experimental group and 96 (74.0%) from the control group, denied the presence of substance use by family, friends, relatives, and others. Conversely, 18 (13.9%) of the samples in the experimental group and 34 (26.0%) in the control group admitted that there is a substance use problem in the family, among relatives, friends, and significant others.

• Among the substance users (family, relatives, friends, others), 10 (55.6%) parents were using substances and 1 (5.6%) friend or significant other was involved with substances in the experimental group. In the control group, 21 (62.0%) parents and 2 (5.9%) significant others were using substances.

• Among all the substance users, the most commonly used substances were alcohol and tobacco, with 8 (44.4%) in the experimental group. Smoking tobacco was the least used substance, with 2 (11.2%) in the experimental group. There

• When assessing the previous knowledge of cannabis and its associated problems, 90 (69.2%) participants in the experimental group and 82 (62.8%) in the control group denied any previous knowledge. Conversely, 40 (30.8%) of the experimental group and 48 (37.2%) of the control group admitted that they knew about cannabis. The primary sources of information were books and the internet, with 9 (22.5%) respondents in the experimental group citing these. In the control group, television was mentioned by 13 (27.2%) of the respondents and movies by 12 (25.0%).

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