An Argument On The Necessity To Drop The Atomic Bomb On Japan During World War II

With the combined might and effort of the U.S., the USSR, and Britain, the war machine known as Nazi Germany was crippled in due time. City after city was liberated, until the most important city, Paris, was liberated in August 1944. However, there was still a mighty belligerent in the South Pacific – Japan. The Empire of Japan had proved to be a worthy opponent since it was over six million troops strong, and it had many military divisions. Moreover, it had won pivotal battles in the Pacific and committed terrible atrocities along the way. Due to these constituents, I believe it was a military necessity to drop the atomic bomb on Japan.

To begin, such a measure was proven necessary partially because of Japan’s rampant imperialistic tendencies. Japan seized French Indochina, Manchuria, part of North China, and much more. As a result of such conquests, Roosevelt rightfully froze all Japanese assets in the United States in July 1941, after the seizure of Indochina, and the British embargoed Japanese assets as well. At that time, 80% of Japan’s oil came from the U.S., so the island nation decided to quickly attack a series of allied bases, including Pearl Harbor, in an effort to cripple those bases and acquire materials necessary for its military and country. A lasting memorial of the unwarranted aggression by this Empire can be found six feet under in the waters of Honolulu, Hawaii. It still leaks about 9 quarts of oil and contains the bodies of navy men killed in action – the U.S.S. Arizona, as stated by Document A. The Japanese killed 2,400 Americans, sank or severely damaged five of the eight U.S. battleships and destroyed more than 300 combat planes. However, to their chagrin, the aircraft carriers would prove decisive in the war that the Japanese provoked. Japanese diplomats spat in the face of U.S. politicians, saying that a peace could be established when they knew the opposite was true.

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Moreover, the barbarous nature of Japan’s forces justified the use of nuclear weapons. Japanese forces took at least 75,000 allied prisoners after their victory in the Battle of Bataan and forced them to make a 65-mile trek to Balanga, the capital of Bataan. The POWs received little to no food or water, and were beaten as they marched, resulting in the deaths of many. Those who fell behind the crowd were bayoneted. Some were even beheaded by Japanese officers wielding samurai swords out of boredom.

After this, surviving prisoners were transported to Camp O’Donnell, which was rampant with dysentery and infectious diseases. Mass graves were dug to dispose of the dead. The Japanese were so disgusted with the allied troops for surrendering that they decided it would be better to treat them as animals. As stated by Document B, one must “Stay on the job till every murdering Jap is wiped out!” The U.S. resentment of the cruelty displayed by the Japanese to POWs would only encourage the nation to pursue the Japanese menace. The same inhumane practices would be applied by Japanese forces to soldiers and civilians in Nanjing, the capital of China at the time. Chiang Kai-shek knew that an invasion of the city was imminent, so he moved the Nationalist capital to Beijing instead, taking his elite soldiers with him. Nanjing was to be defended by untrained auxiliary troops, and they quickly gave way as the Japanese soldiers arrived. During the conquest of Nanjing, Japanese troops sexually assaulted over 20,000 women, looted and destroyed stores, and held infamous killing contests. To this day, some Japanese believe that it is a fabrication, but they are seriously deluded. The savage nature of Japanese troops and their twisted mentality meant there could be no negotiation with such an enemy. Would Japan need to be forced into submission by nuclear means?

Additionally, Japan, militarily speaking, proved to be a force to be reckoned with. It had 2 divisions in Japan and Korea, 12 in Manchuria, and 27 in China for a total of 41 divisions. The Manchurian army division alone contained 75,000 men in infantry and cavalry units. However, don’t be mistaken, this is just the tip of the iceberg. Japan also had 10,500 men in the Armored Division, 4,000 in the Army Amphibious Brigade, and over 3,000 men in the Naval forces. There were also a grand total of over 6 million reserve combat troops ready to be deployed versus the United States’ meager total of about 1,801,101 men when the U.S. was dragged into the war in 1941. After Pearl Harbor, Japanese forces won all battles before suffering their first major defeat at the Battle of Midway. Even then, it would take almost four years for Japanese naval and air power to be eliminated at the Battle of Leyte Gulf in October of 1944 and Operation Ten-Go, which resulted in the destruction of the world’s heaviest battleship and the last of Japan’s navy. Near the end of the war, when the situation was dire for the Empire of Japan, they decided to make use of Kamikaze pilots.

These suicide pilots would carry aboard their designated aircraft an explosive missile with the objective of crashing their planes into enemy ships. Although 19% of pilots managed to hit a ship, Japan deemed it a good reason to sacrifice pilots. The rigid fearlessness of its air force pilots demonstrated how far Japan was willing to go to subjugate the U.S. fleet, as referenced by Document C. Japan’s fate was written on the wall, yet her people refused to accept it. Despite the Bombing of Tokyo, which killed well over 75,000 civilians, and strategic air raids elsewhere in Japan, which killed hundreds of thousands, its armed forces remained tenacious and refused to surrender. Furthermore, a mainland invasion of Japan was not considered pragmatic since it was estimated that the U.S. would lose over 2 million men total from Operation Downfall, the planned invasion of Imperial Japan. As shown by the map in Document E, only three of the Japanese islands could serve as potential invasion spots: Kyushu, Hokkaido, and Honshu, all of which were expected to be heavily defended by Japanese forces. This left Truman with three decisions: pursue the Manhattan Project to develop a nuclear weapon, agree to a conditional surrender with Japan, or invade mainland Japan. Due to Japan’s military resilience and fierce determination to eliminate as many allied troops as possible, the U.S. had no choice but to develop a nuclear weapon and use it against Japan to swiftly end the war and save the lives of their soldiers, as stated by Truman in Document I, “We have used it to shorten the agony of war, in order to save the lives of hundreds and thousands of young Americans.”

As evidenced by the documents above, one can clearly see that America was justified in its decision to use nuclear bombs on Japan. Japanese imperialistic tendencies, combined with its merciless strategies and a vast number of soldiers, left the U.S. with no choice but to nuke Japan. There would be no room for bargaining. Japan ignored the call for unconditional surrender at Potsdam, and as a result of its arrogance, Hiroshima and Nagasaki were attacked.

Why Do I Want I Be A Military Officer?

A. Factors that determine the actual wage rate paid to an employee would include: the ability of the industry to pay, demand and supply of labor/skill, the cost of training, the cost of production and doing business, the bargaining power, and government regulations. Referral bonus programs are intended to inspire employees to suggest a qualified candidate for employment. The Employee Referral Plan should specify the rewards for each successful referral and the limitations that apply.

A1. Discuss three factors that are influencing labor demand. 1. The statistical data relating to the population of the city’s current police force: The police officers are ageing, thereby causing the police force to shrink. According to recent data provided, the average age of the city’s officers is 45. This is a job that is somewhat dangerous and requires employees to be physically fit. Most of the officers are approaching retirement age, which is significantly earlier when compared to the retirement age in other industries. Practically, a quarter of the police force will be qualified for retirement over the next few years, and the force is already complaining of being understaffed.

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2. Political & financial pressure: The current mayor and taxpayers are determined to reduce overtime pay by recruiting more police officers rather than paying overtime to the few officers working double shifts to reduce costs. 3. General environment: The weather in the northeastern part of the United States is very unstable. The cold weather, harsh winters, warm summers, heavy traffic, and high rate of criminal activity make it hard to attract candidates. This influences demand in such a way that the city is in critical need of police to keep the public safe. To have the city function properly, the most acceptable approach will be to employ more police officers as needed.

A2. Discuss three factors that are influencing labor supply. 1. General population migration: More people are moving out of the state than into it. Most young adults that might be a good candidate for a police officer are likely to look to the southern US for opportunities. This makes the overall pool for all employers seeking new hires smaller and less viable than in those destination states. 2. Overall attitudes towards police officers are less positive than in past years due to social media, journalistic and TV coverage of purported and actual police brutality, and other negative themes. Young adults may be particularly critical of traditional police methods, and we seek to recruit relatively young hires. 3. Physical discomforts of the job itself: The physical environment influences both supply of and demand for labor. The same difficult winters that require police officers to assist in accident investigations and perform welfare checks on vulnerable populations make the work less appealing. The element of danger from exposure to criminal activity creates a need for more police officers, but the subset of the population who is willing and trustworthy to be put in that danger is somewhat small.

B1. Identify three recruitment objectives. 1. To recruit and hire 25 new police officers before the end of the next quarter. 2. To increase the number of external and internal applicants by 20%.

3. To encourage diversity in the police department, we aim at recruiting and hiring applicants from different races, using the demographic split of the city as a guideline. The city’s demographic split is as follows: 40% Black, 40% White, 10% Asian, and 10% Hispanic. B2a. Let’s determine the size of the applicant pool: Military Police (5 applicants, 3 in step 6) – this equates to 3/5*100 =60%; Correction Officer (9 applicants, 1 in step 6) – this equates to 1/9*100 = 11%; Security Guard (14 applicants, 0 in step 6) – this equates to 0/14*100 = 0%; Criminal Justice Graduate (10 applicants, 5 in step 6) – this equates to 5/10*100 = 50%; Other Police Departments (5 applicants, 4 in step 6) – this equates to 4/5*100 = 80%. The combined ratio is 43, 13, equating to 13/43*100 = 30.2%. The targeted goal is 25 candidates with a yield ratio of 30% or .30, hence, 83 applicants need to apply. B2b. I recommend focusing our recruitment efforts on two target groups: 1. Military police officers, and 2. Officers from other Police departments.

B2b1. To justify my recommendation: 1. I singled out other police departments because officers from this group will not require the 12-week training course, as indicated by the recruitment data on the police officers’ memo. 2. I suggest targeting military police officers because they had the second-highest yield ratio and their roles most closely resemble those of actual police officers. Given the similarity in their job requirements, this will lessen the time span between application and hiring a new police officer. B2c. Here are two effective methods for reaching each target group: Group One – Military Police: 1. Electronic job postings, which will save the police department a significant amount of money. Costs of posting jobs and/or searching for candidates on job portals can be up to 90% lower than the costs of using traditional search firms and/or advertising methods ( 2. Job postings in Journals for Military Personnel will ensure that our vacancies are seen by the intended audience – military personnel looking for employment after their military careers.

Group Two – Other Police Departments: 1. Electronic job postings. Online recruiting reaches a much larger and more targeted audience than other methods. It not only reaches job seekers anywhere, but also attract candidates with very specific skills ( 2. Employee Referral. Employee referrals tend to pass through the hiring process much quicker than typical external candidates. A study by JobVite reveals that, on average, it takes 29 days to hire a referred candidate, compared to 39 days to hire a candidate through a job posting or 55 days to hire a candidate through a career site ( C1. I recommend 3 appropriate selection methods for all target candidates: 1. Personality testing 2. Integrity testing 3. Work sample testing. C

Personality testing will allow the department to avoid making job offers to those who are seeking police jobs for negative reasons. Certain positive traits, such as good ethics and professional responsibility, are associated with success in police work and other careers. 2. Integrity testing works hand in hand with personality testing. Police officers are expected to make good decisions when called upon to make decisions impacting health and the lives of citizens. The police department expects police officers to be trustworthy. It is paramount to place authority in good hands. 3. Work sample testing is a test that requires setting up scenarios similar to what the candidate may encounter on the job, with live-action skits and having someone observe the candidate’s reactions.

This will provide valuable information that would not be available with a verbal or written interview. 2. Describe two selection tests. 1. Structured Interview: This ensures that each candidate is presented with the same questions in the same order. This makes it easy for comparisons to be made and to determine the basic qualifications of each candidate. 2. Situational/Behavioral Interview: Creating a scenario for a candidate and watching them think through how they would respond, gives better insight than simply answering straightforward questions.

Identify two background verification checks and when in your selection process you use them. 1. Reference Check/Verification of previous employment: Reference checking is used to determine how well the candidate is able to work well with other employees, how well the candidate did his job and whether his duties and responsibilities match the requirements of the job for which he is being considered. This should be done after interviews and testing, and before a decision regarding employment is made. 2. Criminal Background Checks: A criminal background check is often required in situations where an organization needs to know about major criminal activity, including felony convictions, sex crimes, and fraud, etc. This should also be done after interviews and testing before a decision regarding employment is made.

Discuss four methods for evaluating the effectiveness of recruitment and selection plans. 1. How long do new employees stay? A quick turnover could mean we need to re-check our recruitment methods. Are we hiring the wrong people? Do we need to adjust our onboarding process? Does our training program need to be changed? 2. What is the average fill time? How long does it take from posting the job to filling the vacancy with a job acceptance? Can we shorten the time span? Are we filling the vacancies too quickly and getting the wrong candidates? Did we skip any steps that would increase the likelihood of a successful hire? 3. Average cost per hire: Since we are only hiring for the position of City Police Officer 1, we can easily calculate the average cost per hire. We are looking to save costs. Is there anything we can do to reduce the average cost per hire? Are all of the assessments necessary and giving us the information we require? Can they be replaced with something more efficient? 4. Are the recruitment methods effective? Are we getting the number of applicants we desire? Are the advertisements being seen by the ideal candidates? If not, what other recruitment advertisements are more likely to bring in the desired applicants?

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