Argumentative Essay About Racial Discrimination: Analyzing Ethnicity And Racism

“America preaches integral action and practices segregation,” Malcolm X says. America’s viewing of each other isn’t always prominent. Throughout many diverse sources, I have found that racial discrimination is portrayed through many races, even one’s own race. If this is true for all races, then how come someone who is only one-fourth white is considered a “mutt” by our society? Well, unfortunately, society considers African Americans as the minority, so this became a centralized way to judge rather someone is equivalent to either white or black.

The Nuances of Ethnicity and Discrimination

Rather that being said, racism never really focuses on one ethnicity oneself rather than even realizing their own ethnicity at the time. Ethnicity comes from a whole developed with the Greek language; ethnicity basically means nation. Although ethnicity is used now to describe a person’s background, there are two different definitions of ethnicity, broad and narrow. The broad definition belongs to a group being a social displayed by race, national origin, and religion. The narrow definition refers to groups that are based on either cultural or national-origin characteristics. The cultural characteristics are language, and the national-original characteristics are the country from which a person or his/her ancestors came.

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Contemporary Racial Discrimination: Same-Race and Cross-Race

Today, the narrower definition is preferred by social scientists because it matches up more precisely with the original Greek meaning of nationality. Ethnocentrism should also be mentioned here because this is a big cause of racism today. Ethnocentrism is the belief that your group or country believes that they are better than all the other groups and countries in the world. Although today we are here to speak on the topics of same-race discrimination and some of the outlying characteristics of what kind of discrimination we have today. For instance, Trump is building a wall to remove all illegal citizens. Most of all, Hispanic and Muslim descent. The organization D.A.C.A. ( Deferred Action For Childhood Arrivals) is an American immigration policy that allows some individuals who were brought to the U.S. illegally as children to receive a two-year renewable period of deferred action from deportation and become eligible for a workers permit in the U.S. Donald Trump believes that all people not born as a citizen must be shut out, starting with the removal of this program. Being so this caused rallies of people holding signs stating, “Continue the dreamers.” Being this said, President Trump, is Applying tons of contradictions to this being of his own descent.

So, therefore, let’s focus back on our very own leaders’ ethnicity as a family whole. Donald Trump’s father, Fred Trump, was born in Germany and was an immigrant for 19 years before coming to America and becoming a us citizen. His mother was born in Stornoway, Scotland, and was in the u.s. Illegally for 13 years. Donald Trump displays much racial discrimination throughout his career and lifetime. Racial discrimination through some black news reporters at his speeches and also many people of his own descent. This being said discrimination may come from any background. In October 2018, pop star singer and rapper Kanye West and Donald Trump met up together in Chicago. While this being said, Kanye posted a Facebook photo wearing a “Make America great again” hat, one of donald trump’s known slogans. This caused an uproar on the internet against most “blacks” and “whites” due to how horribly Trump has treated anyone of color.

Many african americans started to throughout racial slurs at Kanye, discriminating against Kanye in little sentences such as “he’s not very bright to be hanging with such a pig, looks like he’s almost the black version now.” – anonymous. A post that was published in The Washington Post even stated, “It’s depressing to see a gifted artist reduced to grade school provocation, claiming that wearing one of Trump’s signature hats is an act of courage.” Furthermore, When we look at physical characteristics such as skin color from the social definition perspective, there is no clear meaning, but these characteristics do have what is referred to as social meaning. Pierre van den Berghe defined a racial group as a ‘human group that defines itself and/or is defined by other groups as different from other groups by virtue of innate and immutable physical characteristics.’ Racial group distinctions are based upon ideological racism, which links physical qualities to lesser or greater cultural and intellectual characteristics.

Historical Roots and Movements

Originating more than one hundred years ago, people with only one-eighth African ancestry, but even without any physical characteristics, normally. Although racial discrimination is displayed through acts of the minority, people of Caucasian descent can be targeted as well. On a daily basis, we may hear things such as “freaking white people” or “you dress like a white person,” almost as if we are stereotyping a “white” category. White discrimination can be displayed in one of the most popular coffee places in the world, known as Starbucks. This coffee place gets all types of stereotyping and discrimination. Such as, only wealthy people drink from this store, or this is a white people’s coffee place, while Dunkin’ Donuts are for the minority. In April 2017, there was an arrest in a Starbucks for a black person who was trying to use the washroom but was not a customer starting up a riot against the whites for being racist almost. Making statements that Starbucks is not just a racially white store and should be open to the public.

Although many workers do feel attacked because they are seen as a store for only those of pale skin when really most of the workers are the most welcoming people. Initially, racial discrimination is not just the center of today’s time; it also was a huge spark in history. Let’s go back to the late 1800s. Many groups may be widely known, such as K.K.K. (ku klux klan), founded in 1865 as a secret society. as well as the U.N.I.A. (universal negro improvement association), founded in 1914 by a Jamaican immigrant. The K.K.K. is known to absolutely hate the african american race, causing riots and a disturbance to peace by killing a brutally threatening the black race. While the U.N.I.A. is an organization in which african americans got together to build strong bonds to work against racial discrimination, such as groups like the K.K.K. Although my main topic has been about whites against the minority, I would like to talk about the reverse. The MOVE group is a black liberation group founded in Pennsylvania by John Africa.

They believed in many ideologies, such as Anchor-primitivism, animal rights, and black liberation. They were very discreet, believing that the whites were racially discriminating against them, especially the police officers believing that they were out to get them. The move was ordered to evacuate their houses in 1978 in order to give rights to other blacks that felt almost trapped when they gathered together to strive over their conspiracies. Unfortunately, the move violated to remove themselves from their homes, causing the police officers to violently bomb their houses after many rages and altercations that the move set out for the authorities. This led to a lot of shootouts and burned houses. This initial fire killed almost thirty people majority of ages 3-13. After this incident simmered down, in the next couple of years, the society would meet in court with some of the police officers.

Racial Tolerance Globally

Mainly giving out their idealism behind why they didn’t evacuate their premises. Many police authorities believed that a child should never have to grow up a certain way. Although the police were in the wrong by bombing somewhat of innocent people, this dilemma did take a toll on them for the worst. Most police at this time were white, causing an uproar, especially because the movie group was fighting for liberation. Hence, race is one of the main topics of violence in today’s time; the ratio of racial violence in the U.S. is for every ethnic group; 46.7% of people commit hate crimes. The least tolerant country is Jordan. Racial tolerance is low in ethnically diverse Asian countries. western, central Europe, and the U.S. are racially tolerant. The second most racist country is India; african americans are especially affected by racism in India, denied living accommodations, and even attacked or killed. A large portion of racial discrimination in the U.S. is in the labor market.

Racial Discrimination in Varied Domains

There are two types of discrimination in the work unit, being disparate treatment and disparate impact. The disparate treatment being that an employee is treated differently than one another due to color or race and disparate impact is rather a practice or rule that one should be treated differently in the workplace to protect rather. Race also plays a huge role in housing, for every 1 in 5 blacks and every 1 in 4 Hispanics. Racial segregation is not just a poll between blacks and whites. Race is also violated within the medical field. For example, the Serena Williams case was a huge topic in 2018. After the birth of her daughter via c-section, the tennis player began to feel shortness of breath and ludicrous amounts of pain. It took her multiple to convince her nurse that something was actually wrong with her before the nurse eventually took action. The doctor eventually ordered a C.T. scan showing that she had blood clots forming in her lungs and also a hematoma in her abdomen.

A Call for Unity and Change

If this isn’t treated within the time, Serena could’ve died shortly after her daughter’s birth. Looking at many files, pain heard from people of color at some hospitals is an understatement due to the pain heard from someone who is of Caucasian descent. Overall, Racial discrimination was a more persistent topic in the late 1800s- all the way to the end of the 1900s. Although today racial division is still a huge part of our century’s struggle, it doesn’t just affect only americans. Racial discrimination does have a big role even through the same race. Not only that but discrimination has its effects on people’s thinking, rather that be towards someone of higher wealth or even the kind of dog they have. not only through race but through many other topics, almost anything you can think of. Discrimination does exist. Being of great importance to the world because it affects the way we treat each other, not just through the media but through everyday lifestyles.

Occasionally, same-race discrimination is an existing event, something so powerful that no matter what skin color you have, you can be affected somehow and someday. Initially, I believe that if we do everything to see every person as just one, we can change the way our future looks at one another, no matter who it is, what the color the skin is, or the person riding next to us on the bus or the guy in you woods class, or even the husband of your sister. We are O.N.E.

“Of Mice And Men” Theme: The Heartache Of Loneliness

One thing in life that everyone needs is a friend. Without having someone who can be there for us, we can cause us to be lonely. In the novella Of Mice and Men by John Steinbeck, he shows many characters who suffer from loneliness. George and Lenny share a close friendship, whereas Crooks, Candy, and Curley’s wife show their lonesomeness. In the novella, George and Lenny live their somewhat isolated lives on a ranch. They were at the bottom and had to switch jobs from time to time. They also had dreams other men had, and that was to buy land and never work again. Although the dream never came true, John Steinbeck still shows many important themes throughout the story, one being loneliness. In the novella, John Steinbeck shows the theme of loneliness through many characters and the never-ending search for a fulfilled friendship.

Loneliness Through the Character of Crooks

Crooks is one of the main characters who shows many examples of loneliness. Crooks is isolated from everyone else on the ranch due to the color of his skin. He cannot go to the other men’s bunkhouse, nor can he go to town with the other men. Crooks is also cripple and cannot work as well as the other men, which makes him seem less of a worker. As all the workers have dreams of their own, Crooks’s dream is to have equality throughout the ranch. He makes many remarks about being by himself and never having visitors come to his room. “Guys don’t come into a colored man’s room very much. Nobody has been here but Slim” (p.75). From this quote from Crooks, you can see the loneliness and inequality of others. You can also see how he never gets to spend time or talk to anyone since he is separated. Another quote from Crooks is, “A guy goes nuts if he ain’t got nobody. Don’t make no difference who the guy is, long’s he’s with you. ‘I tell ya’ he cried. ‘I tell ya a guy gets too lonely an he gets sick” (Page 72-73). Imagine having no one to spend time with and talk to. It would be a hard situation, and as Crooks said, “A guy goes nuts” if you have no one to talk to. This quote shows that everyone needs a friend; we always need someone along the side of us to help us when we struggle through hard times.

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The Isolation Experienced by Candy

Candy is another one of the workers who suffer from lonesomeness throughout the novella. Candy has no hand, which makes him unable to work with the other men on the ranch. Not only does his lack of work due to his hand make him lonely, but the death of his dog also does too. Ever since Candy’s dog died, it has been like he lost a best friend, his companion. “Candy looked helplessly at him… ‘maybe it’s hurt him…I don’t mind takin’ care of him” (p.45). This quote shows sadness and carelessness of Candy just by the thought of his dog, which he has had since it was a puppy, dying. When Candy had no one else with him, he had his dog, but he was not going to have it for much longer.

Curley’s Wife and Her Battle with Loneliness

Curley’s wife shows her loneliness many times throughout the novella. Curley’s wife is the only woman on the ranch and has no one to talk to, even her husband; she hardly talks. Her husband, Curly, does not like when she talks to other people, so it restricts her, but when she does see someone, she immediately tries to seek their attention. She suffers from boredom, so in the meantime, she tries to engage the attention of other men, which only pushes her away more because the men are not very fond of it. When she does try to have a conversation with others, they always take it the wrong way due to her lack of socialism. “‘I get lonely,’ she said. ‘You can talk to people, but I can’t talk to nobody but Curley. Else he gets mad…’” (p.87). You can see Curley’s wife’s struggle to talk to others and how lonesome she gets when she has no one to talk to.


Overall, loneliness through the characters of Curley’s wife, Crooks, and Candy is portrayed throughout the novella Of Mice and Men. It comes to show that everybody needs family and friends because they are always there for us, and we are always there for them when needed.

Works Cited

  1. Steinbeck, J. (1937). Of Mice and Men. Penguin.
  2. Heavilin, B. A. (2000). John Steinbeck’s Of Mice and Men: A reference guide. Greenwood Press.
  3. Owens, L. (2002). The Novels of John Steinbeck: A first critical bibliography. Scarecrow Press.
  4. Cacioppo, J. T., & Patrick, W. (2008). Loneliness: Human Nature and the Need for Social Connection. W. W. Norton & Company.
  5. Hawkley, L. C., & Cacioppo, J. T. (2010). Loneliness matters: A theoretical and empirical review of consequences and mechanisms. Annals of Behavioral Medicine, 40(2), 218-227.

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