Biology Question

A literature review makes up the bulk of the introduction of most papers.
In addition to reviewing previous research, the introduction should list research objectives, provide a justification for the research, and hypothesis(es) and prediction(s).
Your work should be 3-5 pages long
12 pt. Times New Roman font
1.5 spaced with 1 inch margins
Literature citedAt least 5 primary sources
You are welcome to include additional primary sources as well as reliable secondary sources (ex. review articles).
See below for examples of the citation format used in this course

In-text citationsAuthor-year format Single author: “Interesting science stuff here (Smith 2013).”
Two authors: “Interesting science stuff here (Smith and Jones 2013).”
Three or more authors: “Interesting science stuff here (Smith el al. 2013).”
Starting a sentence with a citation: “Smith et al. (2013) found interesting science stuff.”

Scientific names of organisms should be italicized and on first mention. Should include capitalized genus name and lower case specific epithet (ex. Orconectes rusticus). If mentioned again you can abbreviate the name with the first initial of the genus and the specific epithet (ex. O. rusticus).
Begin with a general paragraph introducing your topic. This paragraph should make a general case about why the topic is worth studying and conclude with your broad research question.
The body of your paper should review what is already known about your topic. Do this by:Focusing on the findings (AKA results) of your primary sources. If a primary article gives relevant findings from another study in the introduction and you would like to include that information, look up the cited paper (i.e., the original paper) before including that information. Do not cite a paper without reading it.
Organizing your review by subtopics. For example if your project is looking at the effects of bacterial symbionts on host plant range of pea aphids, one paragraph could focus on what bacterial symbionts are and what role they play on different aspects of insects’ biology (e.g., reproduction, survival). The next paragraph could describe your study organism, i.e., pea aphids and their host plant range. The next paragraph could describe why bacterial symbionts on host plant range is an important question to study, citing examples.
Each paragraph should have a clear thesis statement at the beginning and you should have clear transitions between paragraphs,
In the concluding paragraph, give a brief summary of what other studies have done about the topic (e.g., the role bacterial symbionts on host plant range of other insects) and point out what is still unknown about this topic. Then provide research objectives, hypothesis(es), prediction(s), and justification for seeking the unknown.

Flores-Cruz Z, Allen C. 2011. Necessity of OxyR for the hydrogen peroxide stress response and full virulence in Ralstonia solanacearum. Appl Environ Microbiol. 77(18):6426-6432.
Allen C, Prior P, Hayward AC. 2005. Bacterial wilt: the disease and the Ralstonia solanacearum species complex. St. Paul (MN): APS Press 508 p.
Allen, C. 2007. Bacteria, bioterrorism, and the geranium ladies of Guatemala. In: Cabezas AL, Reese E, Waller M, editors. Wages of empire: neoliberal policies, repression, and women’s poverty. Boulder (CO): Paradigm Press. p. 169-177.
Williamson RC. 2004. Deciduous tree galls [Internet]. Madison (WI): University of Wisconsin-Madison; [cited 2013 Sep 12]. Available from…
Working Group on Diversity in the Biomedical Research Workforce (US). 2012. Draft report diversity in the biomedical research workforce [Internet]. Bethesda (MD): National Institutes of Health (US); [cited 2013 Sep 12]. Available from in the Biome…

Council of Scientific Educators (CSE) citation format
Journal articles
References for journal articles follow the order Author(s). Year. Article title. Abbreviated journal title. Volume(issue):pages.
References for books follow the order Author(s). Year. Title. Edition. Place of publication: publisher. Extent.

Book chapter
References for chapters or other parts of a book follow the order Author(s). Year. Chapter title. In: Editor(s). Book title. Place of publication: publisher. Page numbers for that chapter.
Internet resources

Government document
Possible points
Introductory paragraph establishes the main idea of the review.
Review demonstrates a clear understanding of the material.
Review is well-supported by relevant primary and secondary sources
Review is thoughtful, well-organized with appropriate theses and transitions.
Correct grammar, punctuation, formatting and spelling used.
In-text citations and list of references properly formatted.
Includes at least 5 relevant primary sources.
Total points

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