Dennis Rader And His Brutal Killings

This assignment will critically analyse the story of Dennis Rader and his brutal killings, his upbringing will be discussed along with his modus operandi and the reasons behind his killings, how he got away with it for such a long period and how he eventually got caught. The mass media and the influence they had in his killings and him eventually being tracked down and arrested, as well as the relevant psychodynamic, labelling and Social Learning theories will be discussed throughout the essay, how they relate to the case of Dennis Rader and the potential drawbacks and criticism of the theories themselves from relevant sources.

The official definition of a Serial Murderer according to (FBI, 2015) is broken down and a definition from that has been made. The breakdown is as follows-

– One or more offenders

– Two or more murdered victims-

– Incidents should be occurring in separate events, at different times

– The time period between murders separates serial murder from mass murder

From this, the FBI have come up with their own definition of what they believe is a serial murderer. ” The unlawful killing of two or more victims by the same offender(s), in separate events”. There are also different types of murder, one being ‘spree’ and the other being ‘mass’ and there are differences between the three. The official definition of a Spree Killer is ”Murderers who kill two or more victims, but are more than one location. Although their murders occur in separate locations, their spree is considered a single event, because there is no “cooling off” period between the murders. An example of a Spree killer is Robert Polin, who killed one student and wounded 5 others at a high school in 1975. The definition of a Mass murderer is an individual who kills four or more people at one location during one period of time, it can be over a few minutes or a period of days. An example of a Mass murderer would be Richard Speck, who killed eight student nurses in one night in 1966 (Crime About, 2014).

Dennis Rader was born in Kansas on March 9th, 1945; he was the first of four sons. However, as a child there are contradicting views on how he behaved. Some say Rader appeared ‘outwardly normal’ and unremarkable. He also took part in youth group activities when in Church. Those who knew Rader also commented on how much of a ‘polite’ young man he was, and how he was often quiet and didn’t say much. Rader graduated from school with relatively poor grades, which led him to look for part time work and eventually join the Air Force in 1966 at the age of 21. It was also then his fantasies came to light, his constant attempts to engage in bondage activities we’re rejected. However, once in school his behaviour dramatically changed. Rader often had fantasies about bondage and torture. He also by his own admission, admitted to having sexual fantasies about tying girls up and ‘having his way’ with them (Denis Rader BTK, 2014). His first fantasies he admitted to was as a youngster, he said it was like a ‘picture show’ that he wanted to direct and take part in, no matter what cost. He started by strangling local cats and dogs around his neighbourhood before finally in 1974, Rader made his fantasies a reality when he killed 4 people, all from the same family (Crime and Investigation, 2014). Throughout his killing spree, he named himself BTK (Blind, Torture Kill). He ended up killing 10 separate people over a 20 year period. He started with Joseph Otero (38), his wife Julie (34) and their two children Josephine, aged eleven and her seven-year-old brother Joey. Rader was in complete control of the situation, at first promising the family that all he wanted was cash and their car whilst they we’re tied up (Independent, 2015).

After that, he went onto killing Julie Otero, who he said was ‘surprised’ with the time and effort it took to strangle someone, his first attempt was unsuccessful whilst Otero pleaded to let her go. She then went on to say ‘May God have mercy on your soul’ before succeeding in killing her after his second strangulation. He then strangled Joseph Otero II, who was only 9 years old whilst in his bedroom before finally killing Josephine Otero. He did this by tying a noose around her neck and hanged her from a pipe in the basement.

On the 4th April 1974 Rader continued his murder spree by killing Kathryn Bright. Despite her constant attempts and effort to restrain him, she died in hospital hours later after suffering stab wounds. Three year later, Rader killed again. This time on the 17th of March 1977, the victim was named Shirley Vian. When Rader got into the house, he put Vian’s three young children in the bathroom and told them he was ‘only’ going to rape her, then proceed to letting her go. However, he then proceeded to strangling her with a cord after revealing who he was. He also left semen next to her underwear found lying by her body.

In December that year, Nancy Fox was Rader’s latest victim. He broke into Fox’s flat, raped her and tied her to the bed. He also strangled her and left semen next to her nightgown. It would be 8 years until Dennis Rader committed his next murder, being 53 year old widow Marine Hedge. Rader hid on a closet whilst Hedge came home accompanied by a male friend, he waited for the friend to leave and then strangled her in her bed. He then took her body to church and posed for photographs in her basement.

A year later, Rader murdered his 9th victim. He posed as a telephone repairman and entered the home of victim Vicki Wegrele. He strangled her with a ligature as she tried her best to fight him off, before killing her and taking several photos of her dying body.

Dennis Rader’s 10th and final victim came 5 years later, in 1991. The victim was named Dolores Davis. He again posed as someone else, this time a criminal vagrant who was seeking food before binding and strangling her to death. He then dumped her body under a bridge (Free Webs, 2007).

After so many years of Police and authorities attempting to track down Rader, he was finally caught and arrested on 25th February, 2005 and charged with 10 counts of first degree murder. To the major surprise of everyone involved within the case, Rader pleaded guilty to all charges on June 27th, 2005. Whilst in court, he also gave the horrendous details of his crimes and how he committed them. Rader also managed to escape the death penalty as the law wasn’t enforced until 1994 (Biography, 2015).

The Mass Media had a massive impact on Rader’s crimes, and also his eventual arrest. When committing his crimes, Dennis Rader stayed in regular contact with the Police and Media, which in the end the Police exploited and managed to take advantage of when tracking him down. The Police investigation went on for nearly 30 years, with no one getting close to finding him. BTK sent letters and anagrams to the media and Police, this was to terrorise as much as possible and have a sense of power for the individual. During the investigation, the Police used Rader’s unusual fascination with the media to keep him communicating to find out as much information as possible. The FBI also got involved with the case and offered advice on how to handle press briefings which would help with their investigation and keep communication levels as high as possible. When releasing Police statements, they would carefully construct what they would say, not only to reach out for public help but also because they wanted him to continue talking with law enforcement so they could ‘close in’ on their suspect, in the end the medias strategy paid off when he was eventually arrested. (Police Chief Magazine, 2006).

Within the case of Dennis Rader, there is relevant theoretical perspectives which relate to Rader and the crimes he committed. Psychodynamic approach is one example. Some assumptions for the Psychodynamic approach are that the behaviour and feelings are powerfully affected by our unconscious motives. Also, that behaviour and feelings as adults are from previous childhood experiences. The theory also suggests that the personality is made up of three parts. The id, ego and superego. The behaviour of the individual is also made up of two separate drives, one being Eros (Sex Drive and Life instinct) and Thanatos (the aggressive drive and death instinct), (Simply Psychology, 2007). The general explanations of crime came from the influential work of Sigmund Freud, his belief was that sexuality is present from birth and there is a subsequent course of development which is the basis of psychoanalysis and one that has come with a certain level of controversy (Roger Hopkins Burke, 2009, P92). Some of the suggestions of this theory have a direct link to Dennis Rader’s killings, for example by his own admission Rader admitted his crimes we’re sexually motivated. This was Rader’s modus operandi behind his crimes. Dennis Rader also told Police that one of his victims (Josephine Otero) was a specific target as he was sexually attracted to Hispanics. He also admitted how he would satisfy his sexual fantasies by hunting his victims and referring to his killings as his ”projects” (BBC, 2005). He also strangled cats and dogs and had a fetish for women’s underwear when he was younger, which again suggests from previous childhood experiences the Psychodynamic approach links in with Rader’s killings. However, there are some arguments that this theory comes with, Freud originally claimed that experiences of sexual seduction in childhood are the basis of neurosis, which wasn’t the case with Rader as there was no record on him having sexual experiences when he was young, instead creating his own fantasies. Freud did eventually change his mind on this belief though, saying that the seductions may not have taken place, and that they were in fact fantasies, just like the case of Dennis Rader (Roger Hopkins Burke, 2009, P92). The fact that Sigmund Freud changed his mind on psychodynamic theory could suggest that it is unreliable and not completely accurate. On the other hand, Aichorn (1925) argued that when a child is first born, they have specific instinctive drives that ‘demand’ satisfaction that he or she is unaware and unaffected by it. This could be a counter argument that Rader had no control over what he was doing, and was just engaging and satisfying the urges he was ‘born’ with (Roger Hopkins Burke, 2009, P93).

Labelling theory is also relevant to Dennis Rader. The theorists believe that no behaviour is inherited, and instead only comes to the individual when other people influence the label upon the act (Roger Hopkins Burke, 2009, P168) When committing his crimes, he wanted to be known as BTK (Bind, Torture, and Kill). Rader clearly embraced this label as much as possible, he was quoted saying ‘I had a label on me. It was like the ‘Green River Killer’ and ‘Son of Sam’. These quotes from Rader links also links in with Power and Control theory, in which Rader believed he was a ‘dominant’ figure and felt powerful with such a nickname, he also said he wanted just his nickname to be on the ‘list’ of the world’s worst serial killers (Herald Sun, 2014). Labelling theories themselves have different concepts and insights (Roger Hopkins Burke, 2009, P167). Labelling theory can also have an effect on the way someone behaves in their life (like the case of Rader), meaning the label cannot be shaken off which could have been one of the reasons Rader was so keen to have a nickname and insisted on being called it by the general public. (History Learning Site, 2014). A critique of the labelling theory could be that although the argument is that crimes and behaviour only come to the individual once the label has been put upon them, Dennis Rader was committing crimes and his horrific murders before the mass media labelled him as the ‘BTK’, which shows that labelling theory might not be relevant in some cases. There is also criticisms of labelling theory from other sources since it became far more prominent in the 1960’s. One of those was Plummer (1979) who argued that the perspective of the theory isn’t defined and could harbour many different theoretical positions and leaving itself open for further criticism down the line. Gibbs (1966) also argued that labelling theorists claim that an act is deviant if a reaction follows, however at the same time the theory refers to ‘secret and primary deviants’ (Roger Hopkins Burke, 2009, P175). This shows the potential drawbacks that come with labelling theory and how there is an argument for contradicting within the theory itself.

Social Learning theory is also relatable to Dennis Rader. The theory first emerged in the 1970’s as the product of two separate theories all together (behaviourism and cognitive psychology). The main three concepts of Social Leaning theory are learning, social and cognition. The term ‘learning’ in the theory means that many things individuals do are learned, even from a basic age (Tim Newburn, 2007, P153). A Social Learning theory argument in the Dennis Rader case could be that he acted upon his fantasies based on what he observed in the past, whether that was through a poor upbringing and family members or something he found out for himself. On the other hand, to criticize this particular theory, unlike most Serial Killers Dennis Rader had a relatively trauma-free upbringing. In which case he wouldn’t have acted upon actions he hadn’t seen when growing up. Another critique of Social Learning theory came from Albert Bandura during the 20th century. He argued during an experiment which required learners to find a description of certain behaviours, experts suggest that the learning actually occurs after the observation and they might not repeat the same behaviour time after time (EHow, 2015). This suggests that there are shortcomings in the theory.

To conclude, the effect serial murderers have on law enforcement agencies is massive, however with more technology now developing every day it’s becoming easier for law enforcement to catch criminals much quicker. For example, CCTV is constantly improving, making it easier to identify any criminal at one time, as well as thermal imagining. Crime mapping is also a technique law enforcement agencies are using more often, this gives the Police the ability to predict future crime locations, they do this through intelligence led policing (Police Chief, 2004). With the ability to constantly improve different technology systems, this can only improve resources for law enforcement agencies to make sure there isn’t a moral panic amongst the general public and also so that a case like Dennis Rader, which took so many years to conclude, will never happen to that extent again.

A Report on E-Commerce Industry: essay help site:edu

A Study on Indian E-Commerce Industry

Executive Summary

Following report has been made on the ‘Indian E-commerce Industry’. All the data has been collected from the internet, research papers and surveys. The e-commerce is one of the biggest things that have taken the Indian business by storm. It is creating an entire new economy, which has a huge potential and is fundamentally changing the way businesses are done. It has advantages for both buyers as well as sellers and this win-win situation is at the core of its phenomenal rise. Rising incomes and a greater variety of goods and services that can be bought over the internet is making buying online more attractive and convenient for consumers all over the country.

The report gives information on different aspects of the Indian E-commerce industry. For simplicity it is divided into various chapters.

Chapter 1 ‘ Introduces to the Indian E-commerce industry and defines its importance to the economy. The objective of the study is set in this chapter.

Chapter 2 – Briefs about the Global and Indian scenario. Comparison of U.S and Indian E-commerce

Chapter 3 ‘ Provides a brief insight into the Structure of the industry with the HHI index the Chapter 4 ‘ Has the macro environmental analysis of E-Commerce industry which includes the PESTEL analysis.

Chapter 5 – Briefs the Competitive analysis using Porters 5 Forces.

Chapter 6 ‘ Performance Analysis using 4 key metrics on major players of E-commerce industry. Also included the Internet users traffic comparison on top 10 e-commerce sites in India.

A Study on Indian E-Commerce Industry




A Study on Indian E-Commerce Industry


1.1 Introduction

Since from few years, Growth of internet has changed the world in terms of expectations of

the consumer and consumer behaviour. Online websites for product purchasing concentrate

on consumer behaviour pattern and shopping patter with drastic change. Company are now a

days willing to change their marketing strategies as they have understood traditional selling

practices won’t work with changing technology world.

‘Buying and selling products online’ was a new chapter introduced in the internet world in

year 1991. played a significant role to create a revolution in the online ecommerce.

Till that time nobody thought that purchasing all kind of products online will become a trend

in world and India will share a good part of success. In the late 1990’s,

and gave a first-hand experience for Indians towards E-retail.

Initially when it use to come for weekly shopping of groceries, clothes, shoes and cosmetics,

majority of the people preferred to get into their cars and drive to the supermarket to get the

groceries, shops or malls for other basic products. Now it is becoming common news that

people even buy their groceries online in India.

1.2 Business Model of E-commerce Industry

A Study on Indian E-Commerce Industry


Deals Websites

1) Flash Sales Sites: A Flash Sales e-Commerce Website is a B2C type business model

where the website sells the products directly to the end customers. They normally

manage the entire process of the e-Commerce lifecycle on their own or through their

partners and the consumer make the payment directly to the business owning and

managing the website. The consumers take the benefit of huge discounts, which at

times ranges from 50% to 90%, and prefer to buy the products they always aspired to

own. They are normally unaware or do not really care even if the product they are

buying from such websites are obsolete or no longer in fashion.

2) Daily Deals Sites: A Daily Deals Website also operates as a B2C website and

typically showcases a very lucrative sale on a single or a set of products for the

customers. Unlike the Flash Sales website, such a deal is time bound (usually for a

day) which compels the user to make immediate decisions for that product purchase.

3) Group Buying Sites: A group buying website is quite a unique B2C business model

where the website invites the buyers to buy the products / services at a discounted or

at a wholesale price. Like the Daily Deals site, the products advertised on the group

buying sites are also time bound, but usually not limited to a day.

Online Subscriptions

An online subscription website works in a similar manner like an offline subscription

for any kind of service. Such websites showcase the entire catalogue of subscription

options for the users to choose from and subscribe online.


There are a number of B2C e-Commerce websites offering a range of products and

services to customers across different brands and categories. Such websites buy the

products from the brands or their distributors and sell to the end customer on market

competitive prices. Though their modus operandi is same like a flash sales website,

but their business objective is to offer the latest products to the end customers online

at the best possible prices.

A Study on Indian E-Commerce Industry



Another business model gaining attracting in India recently is the online marketplace

model which enables the buyers get in touch with the sellers and makes a transaction.

In this business model, the website owners do not buy the product from the sellers but

act as mediators to facilitate the entire e-commerce transaction. They do assist the

sellers in various services like payment collection, logistics, etc. but do not prefer to

hold inventory in their own warehouse.

1) C2C Marketplace

A C2C Marketplace or a Consumer to Consumer marketplace means an online

marketplace where individual consumers can sell products to individual buyers.

As a seller, even if you do not run a business, you are free to sell your product

through such marketplace to the end customers.

2) B2C Marketplace

A B2C Marketplace or a Business to Consumer marketplace means an online

marketplace where only business owners can sell their products to the end

customer. The process is more or less the same like that of a C2C Marketplace

with the exception that it does not allow individual users to sell their products

A Study on Indian E-Commerce Industry


online. Best example of this kind of a website would be which has

now become a B2C Marketplace.

3) B2B Marketplace

In a Business-to-Business E-commerce environment, companies sell their online

goods to other companies without being engaged in sales to consumers. B2B web

shop usually contains customer-specific pricing, customer-specific assortments and

customer-specific discounts. and TATA groups are few

popular sites in India.

A Study on Indian E-Commerce Industry


Exclusive Brand Stores

This is the latest business model of its kind recently started in India. In this business

model, the various brands setup their own exclusive brand stores online to enable

consumers buy directly from the brand. A few examples of brands operating through

an Exclusive Online Brand Store are Lenovo, Canon, Timex, Sennheiser, HP,

Samsung, etc.

1.3 Role of Internet in E-Commerce

Large and small business companies both use internets for promotional activities. Some of

the advantages of E-Commerce are:-

1. Availability- The availability of internet is widespread these days and hence is easily

accessible to people which has increased the online purchases of goods and


2. Open to All- Internet open page allows everyone to access and transact from any

global location. Moreover it provides an extension of product choice to the customers

which in turn is not possible at local retail stores, etc .

A Study on Indian E-Commerce Industry


3. Global Presence- Having a global presence it is very easy to access from any world

location just by having a laptop and an internet connection. All such happenings have

encouraged E-Commerce as any commodity is just a step away from oneself.

4. Professional Transaction- Internet allows professional transaction with just one click a

professionalism that consists of decision making.

5. Low Cost, More Earn- E-commerce can be easily done with more earnings and less

expenses. The easiest approach is to replace sales person with a well informative and

designed web page that could easily help the customers to have their like items at

their doorsteps with a click of a mouse.

1.4 Changes due to online shopping in India

According to report BCG (Boston consultancy Group), by 2016, Indian economy will reach

$10.8 trillion. In global chart India’s rank is 8th. India ranks top in services and china occupies

top position in goods in terms of export through internet. As of now, June 2014, India has

user base of about 250.2 million. It is estimated that by 2024-26, e-commerce market in India

will be $260 billion.

At an Exponential rate, E-commerce is growing in India. According to recent online retailing

report by Forrester, twenty eight percentage of growth is experienced by every retailer year

after year in 2012. As per the study digital consumers spend alomostaround$1.46 billion on

cyber cafes. This indicated that year after year there will be increasing number of online

users. Consumer behaviour is one of the biggest reasons of e-commerce boom in India.

Major reasons for online shopping growth in India

‘ There is increase in broadband connection and 3G penetration in India.

‘ Much wider range of products are available then what is available in brick and mortar


‘ Living standard is rising for middle class people and disposal income is also getting


A Study on Indian E-Commerce Industry


‘ Online products are usually available at discount which is less than the products

available in normal shops.

‘ Lack of time and busy lifestyle for offline shopping.

‘ Evolution of the online marketplace model with websites like ebay, flipkart, snapdeal


‘ Takes less time for purchasing as there is no need to stand in the queues which usually

done in offline shopping.

1.5 Advantages of E-Commerce

‘ With E-Commerce as an alternative shopping is no longer a barrier for the customers

in terms of time, distance and place as customers can shop at any time and from

anywhere they prefer to.

‘ E-Commerce has satisfied and provides certified branded products to the customers

that even typical Indian customers are ready to buy products such as clothes, shoes,

etc. without even touching or trying them for fitness.

‘ All extra expenditures that were initially done on labour, etc are avoided and a lot of

funds get saved.

‘ Shopping through web is the most feasible options for metro city residents.

‘ Transaction time has reduced.

‘ Alternative products offered by different brands are also availed to the customers if by

chance the current product in a particular brand is unavailable.

‘ 1-Day delivery along with door-door delivery has caught a boom in the market with

the evolution of E-Commerce.

1.6 Disadvantages of E-Commerce

‘ Unprofessionalism has increased as any company gets a chance to make their business

portal out of trust or belief.

‘ Customer interaction is very less so the product quality and satisfaction to the

customer remains a matter for concern.

‘ Hackers and crackers are day in and day out searching for a chance to hack into

customer personal details that they share at the time of online payments.

A Study on Indian E-Commerce Industry


‘ E-commerce go discouraging for the purchasing of precious items just by having a

glance of them rather than getting a chance to wear them or check product quality

such as jewellery etc.

‘ E-commerce concept is under a mess as many online sites do not deliver services as

promised at the time of placing the order.

‘ Authenticity for the product is untrustworthy.


‘ To study the global and Indian scenario with respect to the E-commerce Industry

‘ To study the structure of the Indian E-commerce industry

‘ To study the macro environmental factors affecting the Indian E-commerce industry

‘ To analyze the industry using Porters 5 Forces

‘ To study the performance of major players in the industry

‘ To compare the U.S and Indian E-commerce industry

‘ To study the future opportunities and prospective growth in the industry

A Study on Indian E-Commerce Industry





A Study on Indian E-Commerce Industry


2.1 Status of the global e-commerce industry

Middle class in many of the developing countries, including India, is rapidly embracing

online shopping. However, India falls behind not only US, China and Australia in terms of

Internet density, but also countries like Sri Lanka and Pakistan. Sri Lanka has an internet

penetration of 15 percent. Better internet connectivity and the presence of an internet-savvy

customer segment have led to growth of e-commerce in Sri Lanka with an existing market

size of USD 2 billion. Pakistan, with an internet penetration of 15 percent has an existing

market size of consumer e-commerce of USD 4 billion. Incidentally FDI in inventory-based

consumer ecommerce is allowed in both these countries. (IAMAI-KPMG report, September


A.T. Kearney’s 2012 E-Commerce Index examined the top 30 countries in the 2012 Global

Retail Development Index’ (GRDI). Using 18 infrastructure, regulatory, and retail-specific

variables, the Index ranks the top 10 countries by their e-commerce potential.

Following are some other major findings of the Index:

i) China occupies first place in the Index. The G8 countries (Japan, United States, United

Kingdom, Germany, France, Canada, Russia, and Italy) all fall within the Top 15.

A Study on Indian E-Commerce Industry


ii) Developing countries feature prominently in the Index. Developing countries hold 10 of

the 30 spots, including first-placed China. These markets have been able to shortcut the

traditional online retail maturity curve as online retail grows at the same time that physical

retail becomes more organized. Consumers in these markets are fast adopting behaviors

similar to those in more developed countries.

iii) Several “small gems” are making an impact. The rankings include 10 countries with

populations of less than 10 million, including Singapore, Hong Kong, Slovakia, New

Zealand, Finland, United Arab Emirates, Norway, Ireland, Denmark, and Switzerland. These

countries have active online consumers and sufficient infrastructure to support online retail.

iv) India is not ranked. India, the world’s second most populous country at 1.2 billion, does

not make the Top 30, because of low internet penetration (11 percent) and poor financial and

logistical infrastructure compared to other countries.

It is seen that countries making in the top list of the table of e-commerce have required

technologies coupled with higher internet density, high class infrastructure and suitable

regulatory framework. India needs to work on these areas to realize true potential of ecommerce

business in the country.

2.2 Comparison of E-Commerce in US and India

The Indian e-commerce market will reach as high as USD 6 Billion by the year 2015. This

implies that if we compare the e-commerce market with the statistics from the year 2014,

there is a substantial growth of 70%. It is evident that India is slowly becoming like the US in

the area of e-commerce.

It is stated that India has started doing well in the market of e-commerce because of the

growing number of people who have access to mobile Internet. Broadband usage has

increased by about three times in the last two years (2013 & 2014).

A Study on Indian E-Commerce Industry


2.2.1 Cash on Delivery (COD) system in India

Cash on Delivery is an Indian thing. US consumers mainly transact online using Credit Cards

or through PayPal. Indians are known to be price sensitive. Even though with heavy

discounting e-retailers are trying to lure them to buy online, consumers are still wary of

making prepaid orders.

The situation is different in US. Even though the discounting games continue, users generally

go with prepayment. This is also because the penetration of credit cards and electronic

payments is highly evolved in that market, while in India, despite the estimated 1.252 billion

strong population of India, only 18.8 million credit cards existed in the country, with

approximately 331 million debit cards till last year. The popularity of CoD is directly

dependent on the trust issues consumers have on the online retailers.

2.2.2 Offers and excitement created among customers

The trend of mega online shopping festivals started in the West. From offline trends of

Macy’s Day parade and Black Friday to taking these festivals online, and creating further

new trends like Cyber Monday.

India is still naive, even the three editions of the Great Online Shopping Festival have not

been able to make the impact they were expected to. The festive season of Diwali is a time

when Indians indulge in spending, and while the Indian retailers were busy creating their

respective versions of ‘mega sales’, US based Amazon was the first to step on this

opportunity with ‘Diwali Dhamaka Sale’. Also, the consumer shopping behaviour is different

in the two countries.

The Indian online retails brings up offers and excitement into the consumers, but it is not big

like how it is in US.

A Study on Indian E-Commerce Industry


2.2.3 Type of Product that People Buy Online.

Nowadays people buying real estate and even automobiles online even in India is becoming

common. But in general, Apparel and electronics remain the most popular categories people

buy online, and the same is seen in the US as well. These two categories dominate both the


An area where India is lacking is online grocery retail. Grocery retail and logistics is highly

evolved in US. In India, it was a taboo, and wasn’t touched for a long time even though the

sentiment was strong. Players are emerging now in this segment, with start-up’s like

BigBasket, LocalBanya etc. and mature players like Reliance Fresh taking the lead.

The local Indian ‘banya’ is still stronger than online stores. The unorganised retail in India is

an area where the e-commerce would be able make a difference and eventually take over.

2.2.4 Logistics and Regulations

The logistics infrastructure is still not up to the mark in India. While India Post is doing a

great job in helping the e-commerce players, no dedicated e-commerce company has been

able to scale up its operations to reach all the postal codes. The penetration of internet in

India is 18% as against 87% in US, is a big hindrance.

When it comes to technology, site crashes, issues in ERP systems etc. are commonly heard

things in India. Whereas in US, the technology is very strong.

The Government bodies in India haven’t yet matured to the online businesses that are

operational. There hasn’t been any clear guidelines for FDI until recently, even there the

Government has decided to treat both online and offline retail alike. Some of the other online

marketplace keeps running into warehousing policy issues. The heavy discounting is another

questionable area, since the Government has clear guidelines for Maximum Retail Price,

there is no lower bar set.

A Study on Indian E-Commerce Industry





A Study on Indian E-Commerce Industry



A commonly accepted measure of market concentration. It is calculated by squaring the

market share of each firm competing in a market, and then summing the resulting numbers.

The HHI number can range from close to zero to 10,000.

The HHI is expressed as: HHI = S1^2 + S2^2 + S3^2 + … + Sn^2 (where Sn is the market

share of the Ith firm) the closer a market is to being a monopoly, the higher the market’s

concentration (and the lower its competition).

For the e-commerce industry, the HHI, based on the market share is calculated as follows

Company Sales(in cr) market


HHI index

Flipkart 2846.13 53.89683186 2904.868484

Jabong 202 3.82525044 14.63254093

Myntra 441.58 8.362148958 69.92553519

Snapdeal 830 15.7176132 247.0433646

Amazon 168.99 3.20014392 10.24092111

Ebay 107 2.02624652 4.105674961

naptol 460 8.710966349 75.88093474

Yebhi 120 2.272426004 5.163919944

Yepme 80 1.514950669 2.295075531

bewakoof 25 0.473422084 0.22412847

total sales 5280.7 100 3334.38058





The HHI can have a theoretical value ranging from close to zero to 10,000. If there exists

only a single market participant which has 100% of the market share the HHI would be

10,000. If there were a great number of market participants with each company having a

market share of almost 0% then the HHI could be close to zero.

‘ When the HHI value is less than 100, the market is highly competitive.

‘ When the HHI value is between 100 and 1000, the market is said to be not concentrated.

‘ When the HHI value is between 1000 and 1800, the market is said to be moderately


‘ When the HHI value is above 1800, the market is said to be highly concentrated.

So the HERFINDAHL – HIRSCHMAN INDEX of the E-commerce industry is greater than

1800. Hence it is highly concentrated.

A Study on Indian E-Commerce Industry




A Study on Indian E-Commerce Industry



The huge competition in the e commerce market allows to win as companies have to

keep their prices in check to attract buyers.

Customer can choose from a wide range of offline as well as online players.

Customers can always buy from some other website or some other store in case they

are not satisfied with any one player

Buyers in this industry are customers who purchase products online. Since this

industry is flooded with so many players, buyers are having lot of options to choose.

Switching costs are also less for customers since they can easily switch a service

from one online retail company to other one. Same products will be displayed in

several online retail websites. So, product differentiation is almost low. So, all these

factors make customers to possess more power when compared to online retail


Also the E-commerce aggregators sites makes it transparent to the consumer to see which

site offers the product in the least price

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4.1.1 Bargaining Power of Buyers

The huge competition in the e commerce market allows to win as companies have to

keep their prices in check to attract buyers.

Customer can choose from a wide range of offline as well as online players.

Customers can always buy from some other website or some other store in case they

are not satisfied with any one player

Buyers in this industry are customers who purchase products online. Since this

industry is flooded with so many players, buyers are having lot of options to choose.

Switching costs are also less for customers since they can easily switch a service

from one online retail company to other one. Same products will be displayed in

several online retail websites. So, product differentiation is almost low. So, all these

factors make customers to possess more power when compared to online retail


Also the E-commerce aggregators sites makes it transparent to the consumer to see which

site offers the product in the least price

4.1.2 Bargaining Power of suppliers

Tens of millions of sellers list their products on ecommerce marketplaces; hence

their individual bargaining power is limited.

However, sellers can also list their products on multiple platforms and sites,

including Amazon, and various international e-commerce sites. Hence, if

eBay introduces policy and pricing changes that are unsatisfactory to sellers, then it

could result in lower number of product listings on its marketplace.

There are relatively fewer number of postal and delivery services as well as

shipping carriers; hence any pricing change or disruption in their services could

hamper eBay’s ability to deliver products on time. Hence, these carriers hold some

bargaining power.

A Study on Indian E-Commerce Industry


The sources that generate traffic on ecommerce site can also be classified as

suppliers. Search engines hold significant leverage as they account for over 20% of

traffic on eBay if we account for both organic and paid search (according to Similar

Web estimates). Changes in Google SEO (search engine algorithm) have a negative

impact on traffic. eBay’ seller marketplace model leads to large amounts of

unstructured data on the site, which is detrimental to its SEO efforts.

Additionally, several referring sites such as, and social

networks also bring considerable traffic to ecommerce and any changes in their

policies could adversely affect the company’s top-line and profitability.

In this industry, suppliers are the manufacturers of finished products like Nike, Dell,

Apple etc. Online retail companies sell various products ranging from books to

computer accessories to apparels to footwear. Since there are many suppliers for any

particular category, they can’t show power on online retail companies. For example,

if you take computers category, there are many suppliers like Dell, Apple, Lenovo,

and Toshiba who wants to sell their products through these online retail companies.

So, they won’t be having power to control the online retail companies. Online

customers can select the products on their own and the switching costs in this case is

zero. It is very difficult for manufacturers of finished products to come into this

industry because of challenges in Logistics. Online retail industry is important to

suppliers because it acts as one of the channel to sell the products. Now, with most

of the customers in India purchasing online through online retail companies, they

can’t afford to lose this channel. So, they can’t dictate terms with online retail

companies. So, in this industry the supplier power is low.

4.1.3 Competitive Rivalry within the Industry

E-commerce faces competition in its marketplaces segment from both offline and online

players. Customers can buy products from a wide range of retailers, distributors,

auctioneers, directories, search engines, etc and hence the competition is intense.

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Various factors such as price, product selection and services influence the purchasing

decision of customers. E-commerce companies frequently engage in price-based

competition to woo buyers, which limits their ability to raise prices.

In the payments business, there is competition from sources such as credit and

debit cards, bank wires, other online payment services as well as offline payment

mechanisms including cash, check, money order or mobile phones.

Considering the entry of newer players such as Apple Pay and Alibaba, the

competition is expected to heighten in the online payments space.

Competition is very high in this industry with so many players like Flip kart,

Myntra, Jabong, Snap deal, Amazon, India plaza, Homeshop18 etc.

4.1.4 Threat of New Entrants

Given the nature of the business, there is always a threat of new entrants as it is

relatively less costly to enter the market and setup operations. There is no additional

cost incurred to set up any physical stores and locations. In addition, traditional

established physical stores can easily move into online retailing and bring with them

their substantial consumer base. These stores such as Target or Wal-Mart, already enjoy

economies of scale, have recognizable brands and a strong supply chain. So they do

pose strong competition to Amazon.

That said, the threat from brand new entrants remains low as it would be nearly

impossible for a new company to match the cost advantages, economies of scale and

variety of offering as These advantages will deter most brand new

entrants to the market.

Substantial Economies of Scale

Ecommerce like Amazon works with over 10,000 vendors and boasts an impressive 75

percent repeat purchasers. Its market capitalization is substantially ahead of its nearest


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First Mover Advantage

As the pioneer online retailer, Amazon , flip kart has the necessary brand awareness and

credibility as a strong reliable presence in the market.

Massive product Variety

Way beyond a bookstore now, , Flipkart provides any type of product

there is in its online stores. This means that there is a strong supplier base relationship

that cannot be replicated. In addition, as a bookseller and a provider of other

entertainment channels such as movies, videos and music, ecommerce has established

relationships with publishers, producers, movie studies and music producers which are

not easy to form and replicate.

The e-commerce market is characterized by low barriers to entry. It is relatively easy

for newer players to enter the market and start selling products. Having said that, it’s

difficult for newer players to gain brand recognition and attain high ranking on search


Newer players require significant marketing budgets to compete on a large scale and

this restricts entry of newer players to an extent.

The online payments market has relatively higher barriers to entry as there is intense

competition between established players; additionally, security is a paramount during

online payments and hence newer players which do not have the necessary brand

recognition will find it difficult to attract new customers.

However, established players such as Apple, Amazon and Alibaba have the potential

to make a dent in PayPal’s strong market position.

‘ Indian government is going to allow 51% FDI in multi-brand online retail and

100% FDI in single brand online retail sooner or later. So, this means foreign

companies can come and start their own online retail companies.

‘ There are very less barriers to entry like less amount of money required to start a

business, less amount of infrastructure required to start business. All you need is

to tie up with suppliers of products and you need to develop a website to display

A Study on Indian E-Commerce Industry


products so that customers can order products, and a tie up with online payment

gateway provider like bill desk.

‘ Industry is also going to grow at a rapid rate. It is going to touch 76 billion $ by

2021. Industry is going to experience an exponential growth rate. So, obviously no

one wants to miss this big opportunity.

4.1.5 Threat of substitute products

The threat of substitutes for ecommerce is high. The unique characteristic Amazon has is

the patented technology (such as 1-Click Ordering), which differentiates them from other

possible substitutes. However, there are many alternatives providing the same products

and services, which could reduce Amazon’s competitive advantage. Therefore, Amazon

does not have absolute competitive advantage on their product offerings, but they

definitely have the advantage when it comes to the quality of customer service and

convenience provided.

There is no technology that can substitute the Internet so far in the market. Even, analog

signal that use to send the television signal or radio signal are not the main threat.

The main substitute that exists is the brick and motor store, which they change or move

their place to be on the Internet. Therefore, the e-commerce industry has low threat of

substitutions. When we compare relative quality, relative price of product that he/she

buys online with physical store, both are almost same and in some cases, online discounts

will be available which makes customers to buy products online.

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Porters 5 Force Model of E-Commerce Industry

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A Study on Indian E-Commerce Industry



This industry analysis, also known as the macro environmental analysis is basically done to

determine the conditions in which the industry is operating in. The analysis of these factors

becomes very important for a company operating in that particular industry for the growth

and sustenance.


E-commerce has introduced many changes in the Indian consumers and customers. However,

e-commerce in India has also given rise to many disputes by the consumers purchasing the

products from e-commerce websites. In fact, many e-commerce websites are not following

Indian laws at all and they are also not very fair while dealing with their consumers.

Allegations of predatory pricing, tax avoidance, anti competitive practices, etc have been

levelled against big e-commerce players of India. As a result, disputes are common in India

that is not satisfactorily redressed. This reduces the confidence in the e-commerce segment

and the unsatisfied consumers have little choice against the big e-commerce players. At a

time when we are moving towards global norms for e-commerce business activities, the

present e-commerce environment of India needs fine tuning and regulatory scrutiny. In fact,

India is exploring the possibility of regulation of e-commerce through either Telecom

Regulatory Authority of India (TRAI) or through different Ministries/Departments of Central

Government in a collective manner.

It is obvious that e-commerce related issues are not easy to manage. E-commerce disputes

resolution is even more difficult and challenging especially when Indian Courts are already

overburdened with court cases. Of course, establishment of e-courts in India and use of online

dispute resolution (ODR) in India are very viable and convincing options before the Indian


Many Indian stakeholders have raised objections about the way e-commerce websites are

operating in India. These websites are providing deep discounts that have been labeled as

predatory by offline traders and businesses. Further, Myntra, Flipkart, Amazon, Uber, etc

have already been questioned by the regulatory authorities of India for violating Indian laws.

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Laws regulating ecommerce in India are still evolving and lack clarity. Favorable regulatory

environment would be key towards unleashing the potential of ecommerce and help in

efficiency in operations, creation of jobs, growth of the industry, and investments in back-end

infrastructure. Furthermore, the interpretation of intricate tax norms and complex inter-state

taxation rules make ecommerce operations difficult to manage and to stay compliant to the

laws. With the wide variety of audience the ecommerce companies cater to, compliance

becomes a serious concern. Companies will need to have strong anti-corruption programs for

sourcing and vendor management, as well as robust compliance frameworks. It is important

for the E-Commerce companies to keep a check at every stage and adhere to the relevant

laws, so as to avoid fines.Myntra, Flipkart and many more e-commerce websites are under

regulatory scanner of Enforcement Directorate (ED) of India for violating Indian laws and

policies. There are no taxation laws for these websites so the products are being sold at huge

discounts in these sites. Some of the major causes not keeping taxation laws over ecommerce

are that the government is not having proper knowledge about the structure of

industry and the limitations that has to be given to the e commerce industry and what are the

rights that should be given to them for selling the product Security of the information

provided during the online transaction is a major concern. Under section 43A of the I T Act

the ‘Reasonable practices and procedures and sensitive personal data or information Rules,

2011’ have been proposed, which provide a framework for the protection of data in India

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Mass usage of internet:

The usage of internet is increasing rapidly in INDIA, it is said that India is said to be the 3rd

largest internet population country after USA and CHINA. Current India internet users are

205 millions .The total no of users are expected to be 330-370 millions in just 3 years. The

internet usage in cities has been increased rapidly.

Increased aspiration levels and availability

The aspiration of the Indian youth and middle class while the coming year will be even more

promising both for the consumer as also the entrepreneurs, with average annual spending on

online purchases projected to increase by 67 per cent to Rs 10,000 from Rs 6,000 per person.

In 2014, about 40 million consumers purchased something online and number is expected to

grow to 65 million by 2015 with better infrastructure in terms of logistics, broadband and

Internet ready devices will be fuelling the demand in ecommerce. The smart phones and

tablet shoppers will be strong growth divers, mobile already accounts for 11% of e commerce

sales, and its share will jump to 25% by 2017. Computer and consumer’s electronics as well

as app

eral and accessories account for the bulk of India retail ecommerce sales will contribute 42%

of its sales.

A Study on Indian E-Commerce Industry


Liberal policies (FDI in Retail and Insurance)

The E-commerce Association of India (ECAI) is looking for a positive response from the

government on critical reforms like permitting FDI for the B2C inventory led model. This has

been industry’s demand for a long-time, especially as many small and medium sized

ecommerce players face obstacles on easy access to capital and technology. The industry has

been hoping that the government would at least review a partial opening of the sector to FDI.

In 2015 budget the FDI has been increased to 51 %. So there is a positive response from the

international e commerce industry that is trying to enter into India. Even is also

trying to enter into India with the help of But on the other side the small e

commerce companies are finding it difficult because may face difficulty in the future when

the MNC e commerce companies enter India.

Supply chain and the productivity growth

The most important impact of ecommerce is maintained supply chain and the productivity of

the products. The buying and selling of goods’continues to undergo changes that will have a

profound impact on the way companies manage their supply chains. Simply put, e-commerce

has altered the practice, timing, and technology of business-to-business and business-toconsumer

commerce. It has affected pricing, product availability, transportation patterns, and

consumer behavior in developed economy in India. Business-to-business electronic

commerce accounts for the vast majority of total e-commerce sales and plays a leading role in

supply chain network. In 2014, approximately 21 percent of manufacturing sales and 14.6

percent of wholesales are done in India.

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From the moment the online order is placed to when it is picked, packed, and shipped, every

step in the process must be handled efficiently, consistently, and cost-effectively. In ecommerce,

the distribution center provides much of the customer experience. Simply

delivering the goods is no longer an adequate mission for the fulfillment center’customer

satisfaction has to be a critical priority. The typical e-commerce consumer expects a wide

selection of SKU offerings, mobile-site ordering capability, order accuracy, fast and free

delivery, and free returns. Understanding how online consumers shop and purchase across

channels is critical to the success of online fulfillment. More consumers are browsing the

Internet for features and selection, testing products at brick-and-mortar stores, acquiring

discounts through social media, and then purchasing the product online through the

convenience of their mobile device. Some retailers,’including those that also sell through

catalogs’have been in the direct-to-consumer marketplace for some time. These companies

have fulfillment facilities established and information technologies in place to manage orders

with speed and efficiency, doing it well and profitably. But to many distribution executives,

online fulfillment poses a significant challenge to their existing knowledge, experience, and



A Study on Indian E-Commerce Industry


Better comfort level and trust in online shopping:

‘ Consumers feel easy to access the ecommerce sites 24×7 support. Customer can do

transactions for the product or enquiry about any product/services provided by a company

anytime, anywhere from any location. Here 24×7 refers to 24 hours of each seven days of a


‘ E-Commerce application provides user more options and quicker delivery of products.

‘ E-Commerce application provides user more options to compare and select the cheaper and

better option.

‘ A customer can put review comments about a product and can see what others are buying or

see the review comments of other customers before making a final buy.

‘ E-Commerce provides option of virtual auctions.

‘ Readily available information. A customer can see the relevant detailed information within

seconds rather than waiting for days or weeks.

Advantages to the society:

‘ Customers need not to travel to shop a product thus less traffic on road and low air pollution.

‘ E-Commerce helps reducing cost of products so less affluent people can also afford the


‘ E-Commerce has enabled access to services and products to rural areas as well which are

otherwise not available to them.

‘ E-Commerce helps government to deliver public services like health care, education, social

services at reduced cost and in improved way.

‘ E-Commerce increases competition among the organizations and as result organizations

provides substantial discounts to customers.

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5.4 Technological factors:

Cloud computing in e commerce:

According to analysts, within 10 years’ time 80% of all computer usage worldwide, data

storage and e-commerce will be in the cloud. It is called the third phase of the internet.

During the first phase software and operating systems were combined to create a simple flow

of communication through ‘ for instance ‘ email. The second phase brought the user to the

World Wide Web, where he had access to millions of websites. This increased internet usage

by a factor of one hundred in only 2 years’ time. In the third phase everything is in the cloud,

both data and software.

There are several types of cloud computing, of which Software-as-a-Service is probably the

best-known. The others are Platform-as-a-Service (PaaS) and Infrastructure-as-a-Service


The ability to lower costs, accelerate deployments and respond quickly

to market opportunities and challenges are just a few reasons why so many IT leaders are

leveraging cloud based e commerce applications. Given the variety of solutions, IT leaders

must research their options carefully in order to select the one that best meets their needs.

Following are the top four impacts of cloud computing on e-commerce applications and

steps IT leaders should take during their evaluation process.

It’s easy for business leaders to focus on the benefits of cloud computing without considering

the time and effort involved in implementing a viable solution. However, whatever cloud

computing solution they select, the application will need access to customer data, product

data, fulfilment systems and other operational systems in order to support e-commerce. Cue

the IT team.

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Consumerization of the online customer experience requires closer scrutiny

of e commerce:

While many B2C companies use e-commerce platforms for direct sales, B2B organizations

are also leveraging them to add transactional capabilities to their informational sites. In

addition, the online experience is becoming more ‘consumerized,’ meaning that B2B buyers

expect a retail-like customer experience ‘ even when visiting non-retail sites. Cloud solution

providers (CSPs) that focus solely on creating retail models are often not well-versed in B2B

requirements which can be more complex. As a result, their offerings don’t include B2B

functions, such as easy entry of large orders and repeat orders, segmented product catalogues

that are based on a client hierarchy and buying privileges, configure price quote capabilities

and extended payment terms. IT leaders have an unprecedented number of CSPs from which

to choose. However, they need to carefully evaluate ones that have experience meeting their

industry-specific needs, whether it’s B2B, B2C, or a combination of both.

Usage of bandwidth for E-commerce:

Transmission capacity of a communication channel is a major barrier for products that

require more graphical and video data. For this e commerce companies need higher

bandwidth than usual. These all depend on the no of the customers visiting websites, the

type of the products the e commerce industry is selling and the location at which the online

users are mostly visiting the website. These all are some of the factors that affect the usage

of bandwidth. Web processing is also some of the key factors that make e commerce

industry to run. Another key factor is: High cost of developing, purchasing new software,

licensing of software, integration into existing systems, costly e business solutions for


Benefits of using cloud computing over E-commerce:

‘ Trust. Cloud computing enables online store owners to use the same platform and use

the same functionality. That means that new features can be made available to

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everyone with a simple modification. Moreover, the maintenance is taken care of

centrally, which means that store owners can rely on a stable platform.

‘ Cost saving. In many cases this is the most important reason for companies to choose

cloud computing. Since companies do not need to purchase hardware or bandwidth,

costs can be decreased by 80%.

‘ Speed. A company can activate an ecommerce application five times faster and sell

directly through a platform that is managed remotely.

‘ Scalability. Cloud computing makes a company more elastic and able to respond to

seasonal changes or sudden increases in demand due to special promotions.

‘ Security. Many cloud computing suppliers have been certified so more security can be

guaranteed to customers.

‘ Data exchange. The explosive growth of cloud ecommerce will lead to more data

exchange between the clouds. Suppliers will offer more and more possibilities to add

features to their clouds for users, partners and others.

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A Study on Indian E-Commerce Industry



‘ Flipkart

‘ Snapdeal

‘ Amazon

Four key metrics have been used to evaluate the performance of

E-Retailers in India.

1. Gross Margin

2. Subscriber Growth Rate

3. Average Order Size:

4. Percentage of Mobile Visits

6.1 Gross Margin (Financial year 2013-2014)

Online shopping in India is growing at a very fast clip. At the same time, there is an intense

competition in ecommerce space, especially among the top 3 players. There is aggressive

pricing and discounts are being paid by Venture Capitalists’ pockets.

Flipkart, Amazon and Snapdeal, all of them have raised investments or have commitments of

$1 Billion or more. This money is being burned to acquire new customers, offer discounts

and pump up products on offers. At the same time these sites are losing money, the quantum

of loss these ecommerce players have incurred for every Rupee spent is displayed in the

below figure.

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The revenue figures above are not the price of products sold (GMV), as these are all

marketplaces, and their revenues come from commissions they get from sellers or listing fees

that they charge to list the products on their site.

GMV or Gross Merchandize Value represents the price of products sold and net revenues are

just a fraction of that.

Flipkart leads the race with net revenue of 179 crore followed by Amazon at 168.9 crore and

Snapdeal at 154.11 crore.

However, when it comes to losses, Flipkart leads by a much bigger margin and their loss for

2013-14 stands at Rs. 400 Crore. Comparatively, Amazon losses are pegged at Rs. 321.3

crore and Snapdeal had least losses of 3 with 264.6 crore.

The figure below shows the loss each player incurs for every rupee in net revenues.

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Flipkart leads the race to losing 2.23 rupees for every 1 rupee of revenue. Amazon loses 1.90

and Snapdeal has least amount of losses at Rs. 1.72.

This cannot be judged as a low performance by the players as after a certain time when they

gain major part of market. Every product they sell would be a profit for them.

6.2 Subscriber Growth Rate

Flipkart was founded in the year 2007. By the end of year 2013 they have acquired 22

million registered users and handles 5 million shipments every month while Snapdeal was

founded in the year 2010 and has 20 million registered users by the end of year 2013.

Snapdeal has acquired customers in a quicker pace when compared to Flipkart, but this

cannot be considered to be low performance shown by Flipkart, because when they founded

e- retail in India, the people were not much familiar to e-commerce and online purchasing at

that period.

6.3 Average ordering size of Flipkart for Financial year 2011-2012

Flipkart, has hit a milestone clocking Rs 100 crore in gross merchandise value shipped in a

month for the first time in June 2012. The jump is from an average of around Rs 42 crore

financial year 2010-2011. Flipkart had clocked Rs 500 crore for the 12 months ended March

31, 2012.

In the year 2012 the number of daily orders has hit 25,000 mark (or seventeen orders per

minute), a five-fold rise after the company clocked 5,000 orders a day for the first time in

May 2011. Flipkart first clocked 1,000 orders a day in March 2010.

Average order size= Total Revenue/Number of Orders

=Rs.5000000000 / 25,000 x 365


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6.4 Percentage of Mobile Visits

Mobile is now one of our most strategic channels for driving revenue and customer acquisition. The eretailers

are investing to build strong technology and marketing platforms that will allow them to

accelerate their growth on mobile

Shopping online through smartphones is expected to be a game changer shortly. In the year 2014

there were nearly 123 million smartphone users in India. Affordability of smartphones is

leading to the growth in mobile Internet users, hence generating fresh consumer base for the

online players. Mobile Internet users in India are estimated to be 120 million compared to 100 million

users using Internet on their personal computers.


60 percent of Snapdeals orders are coming over mobile in the end of year 2014. It is growing really fast.

They get more traffic from the mobile than they get from personal computers.


Flipkart a year ago, less than 10 percent of their orders, transactions and visits used to come from mobile


Now those numbers are greater than 50 percent for them. It is accelerating at a very rapid pace. Flipkart

is seeing more than 2 times or 3 times growth from the mobile front compared to desktop,

where Flipkart is growing overall but mobile is growing at a much faster pace.

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6.5 Top 10 Indian E-Commerce Sites Traffic Comparison

Stats have been taken for month of April 2014

Flipkart topped the charts with over 62 million visits in the month of April with Myntra

coming shade lower at 59.5 million. Given that both of them have now come together, purely

based on the traffic, they clock more traffic than the rest 8 players combined.

While we expected either Amazon or Snapdeal to grab the 3rd place in terms of traffic,

Jabong took the bronze position with 42.5 million visitors followed by Snapdeal (31.4

million). clocked a respectable 27.6 million visits in month of April (Remember, they have

not even completed a year since launch as yet). Also, if you combine Junglee, which is

owned by Amazon, their traffic bulges to close to 40 million visits.

Infibeam and Tradus both have not been doing too well in terms of traffic. They clocked 3.4

million & 3 million respectively. Also, according to similar web, their traffic has been

steadily dropping over last 6 months. Both of them had close to 5 million visits at the start of

the year.

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Stats have been taken for month of April 2014

When it came to user engagement, Flipkart again reigned supreme with each visitor spending

an average of 8:35 minutes per visit. Ebay also had very high levels of engagement with 8:15

mins followed by Snapdeal (7:49 mins).

Myntra had surprisingly low (in fact lowest of all) visitor time spent at 3:04 minutes. Junglee

and Jabong were other two sites who had low visitor time spent.

Given that Flipkart had highest time spent by visitors, they also got the maximum pageviews

per visitor (8.53) followed by Ebay (8.04). Surprisingly, Tradus did quite well in terms of

page views with a average of 7.57 views per visit.

6.6 Conclusion

Ecommerce industry in India is in their blooming stage now. E-commerce including online

retail in India constitutes a small fraction of total sales, but is set to grow to a substantial

amount owing to a lot of factors such as rising disposable incomes, rapid urbanization,

increasing adoption and penetration of technology such as the internet and mobiles, rising

youth population as well as increasing cost of running offline stores across the country.

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Electronic banking


The term electronic banking means all day access to cash through an Automated teller machine or direct deposit of pay checks into checking or savings account. But electronic banking involves many different types of transactions, rights, responsibilities and sometimes, fees. Electronic banking can also be defined in a very simple form, it can mean provision of information or services by a bank to its customers, via a computer, television, telephone, or mobile phone.


During the Structural Adjustment Programme (SAP) in 1986, in Babangida regime brought to an end the kind of banking services rendered by the first generation of banks in Nigeria. The SAP changed the content of banking business. Just as the number of banks increases from 40 in 1985 to 125 in 1991, the SAP provided licence to more banks which posed more threat to existing ones and the more aggressive the marketing techniques adopted by them. In the process competition among themselves, the adoption of electronic banking was put in place in order to maintain a good competitive position.


Banking as come from a very long way from the periods of ledger card and other manual filling system to a period of computer age. Computerization in the banking industry was first introduced in the 1970s by Society General Bank (Nigeria) Limited. Until the mid-1990, the few banks that were computerised made use of the Local Area Network (LAN) within the banks. The sophisticated ones among the banks then implemented the WAN by linking branches within cities while one or two implemented intercity connectivity using leased lines (Salawu and Salawu, 2007).

Banks have adopted technology to their operations and have advanced from very simple and basic retail operations of deposits and cash withdrawal as well as cheque processing to the delivery of sophisticated products which came as a result of keen competition in view of unprecedented increases in the number of banks and branches. There was the need to modernize banking operation in the face of increased market pressure and customers demand for improved service delivery and convenience. According to Sanusi (2002) as cited by Dogarawa (2005). The introduction of e-banking (e-payment) products in Nigeria commenced in 1996 when the CBN granted All States Trust Bank approval to introduce a closed system electronic purse. It was followed in February 1997, with the introduction of similar product called ‘Pay card’, by Diamond Bank.

CBN additionally gave permission to a number of banks to introduce international money transfer products, on-line banking via the internet, and telephone banking though on a limited scale. It must also be stated that the deployment of Automated teller machine (ATM) by some banks to facilitate card usage and enhance their service delivery. Today, nearly all banks in Nigeria make use of a website. The service or ordering bank drafts or certified cheque made payable to third parties has also been increasingly automated (Irechukwu, 2000).


The revolution in the Nigerian banking system which led to the increase in paid up capital from N2 billion to N25 billion effective from 1st of January 2006. This result to liquidation of weak banks in Nigeria that could not find merger partners. The revolution brought about changes to banking operations in Nigeria with aggressive competition among various banks. Each banks came up with new products, repackaged the old ones and came up with more efficient service delivery strategies. This more efficient service delivery was made possible through investment in information and communication technology (ICT) (Sanni, 2009). The huge investment in ICT has been the backbone of electronic banking, using different distribution channels. It should be noted that electronic banking is not just banking via the Internet. The term electronic banking can be described in many ways.


Personal Computer used by customers allows the customer to use all e-banking facility at home without them going to the bank. It gives consumers a variety of services so they can move be able to move money between accounts, pay their bills, check their account balances, and buy and sell goods.


Mobile phones are used a lot for financial services in Nigeria. Banks enable their customers to conduct banking services such as account inquiry and funds transfer through the mobile telephone.


This is an electronics device provided by the banks which allows bank’s customers to make to withdraw cash and to check their account balances at any time of the day without the need for a human teller. Many ATMs also allow people to transfer money between their bank accounts or even buy postage stamps. To withdraw cash, make deposits, or even transfer funds between accounts, you will insert your ATM card and enter your personal identification number known as pin. Some ATMs impose usage fee on consumer who are not member of their institution. ATMs must allow the customers to be aware of the fee that will be charged provided on the terminal screen or on a sign next to the screen. If one incurred a loss or stolen ATM card, he or she should notify the bank.


This is involves conducting of banking transactions through the use of electronic cards such as (Value Card, ATM Card, Debit Card, Credit Card etc.). It makes it easy for bank customers to have access to cash, carry out transfers and make enquiries about their accounts balance without them visiting the banking hall.

(i) Credit cards: These are cards that are plastic in nature encoded with electromagnetic identification. Credit cards allow the holders of the cards to make purchases without any immediate cash payment. Credit limit is fixed by the issuing banks based on the financial history of the user.

(ii) Debit card: When compare with credit cards is an instrument which enables an immediate charge or debt into cardholders account on the sales of goods and services made to him or her in other words the holder is using the balance standing in is deposit account


A Point of Sales (POS) Terminal are machines that are used to accept cards for payment of goods and services. POS Terminal allows owners of card to have a real-time online access to funds and information in his or her bank account through the use of debit or cash cards.


Customers carry out debit or credit transactions on their accounts on daily basis and the need to keep track of those transactions prompted the creation of the alert system by the Bank to notify customers of those transactions when it take place. The alert system also notify or reach out to customers when necessary information need to be communicated.


The transfer of information between organizations in machine readable form.


Internet banking permits bank customers to perform or conduct transaction on the account from any location across the world such as making enquiries, bills payment etc. with speedy respond through the web and email system online.


This allows users of the internet to pay their bills directly over the internet without having to send the paper cheque.


Electronic banking is important to both customers and banks in various ways

To banks;

(1) Improve customer service: Electronic banking allow banks to provide new, faster and better service to its customers, thereby, bringing up the banks to international standards and enhancing competition among other banks.

(2) Reliability of transaction: when transaction are done manually, error is prone to happen, but Electronic banking helps to ensure accurate and timely transactions.

(3) Satisfy: Electronic banking ensures the safety of bank dealing with their customers. Unsafe banking practice can cause huge loses to the bank especially in the cause of misrepresentation of account owners.

(4) Reduction in workload: Due to introduction in electronic banking the workload of the bank as reduce as more people conduct their various transactions electronically rather than them coming to the bank.

(5) Information: Electronic banking makes it easy for banks to convey information about their service to customers through the use of internet, banks can also easily communicate or send information to customers through the use of Electronic mail.

These are some of the services provided by banks to customers, they can also provide statement of account easily to their customers, by sending it to their e-mails, this will make it more comfortable for the customers.

To customer;

Electronic banking provide various benefit to customers such as;

(1) Availability of cash: Electronic banking makes it easy for customers to easily get cash any time they need it from their account, this is possible through the use of Automated Teller Machine (ATM)

(2) Stress Relieve: Since transaction can be done anywhere through the use of electronic banking, this will make customers comfortable.

(3) Payment of bills: It is easy for customers to pay their bills such as PHCN bills (Power holding company of Nigeria) Payment for DSTV card when it as expire. This is possible because banks as provide various means for this payment to occur such as Quick teller etc.

(4) Access to Information: Bank customers can easily get information from their banks about the provision of new product or about a problem that as occur.

(5) For Consumers: Increase convenience for customers, more service options for customers, reduced risk of cash-related crimes, cheaper access to banking services and access to credit.


According to Idowu (2005), the following are the reasons for adoption of e- banking in Nigeria; (a) to the bank

(1) Facilitation for easy decision making

(2) Availability of quality information

(3) Improve in service delivery

(4) Development of new product

(5) Savings in space and running costs

(6) Relevance among league of global financial institution.

(b) To the customer

(1) The quality of service they enjoy

(2) Reduction in time being spent at banking halls

(3) Confidentiality

(4) Statement of account obtain easily

(5) 24 hours service delivery.

(6) Customer account could be accessed almost anywhere in the world

(c) To the economy

(1) Creation of jobs

(2) Improvement in commerce

(3) Development in technology

(4) Data bank for National planning


Some of the problems facing electronic banking in Nigeria are;

(1) MONEY LAUNDERING: Money laundering can be defined as a derivation of washy money from illicit activities especially drugs trafficking, advance fee fraud and other forms illegal activities. Development in Electronic banking makes it possible to transact business electronically which can be used to launder money.

(2) FRAUD: Fraud which literally means a conscious and deliberate action by a person or group of persons with the intention of altering the truth or fact for selfish personal gain. The high exposure of the system to fraudsters, and other criminally minded persons who could access confidential information from the system if security measures are weak to check personal files is a challenge of electronic banking.

(3) CONSUMER PROTECTION: Another problem of electronic banking is the absence of regulatory body to protect the consumers of the product or services.

(4) SYSTEMS OPERATIONAL RISKS: Bank rest on the use of electronic banking to conduct business which could result to system failure.

(5) POOR NETWORK: Bad network is a major challenge facing electronic banking in Nigeria, poor network can lead to inability to withdraw money from the Automated Teller Machine (ATM), inability to send alert to the customer if money has been deposited into is account or if money has been deducted from is account.

(6) LITERACY ISSUES: This can be refer to as a situation when all targeted people are not educated, while some do not know how to make use of electronic banking. For instance, a dubious businessman may see a customer finding it difficult to operate the POS (POINT OF SALE) terminal and decided to deduct more than what the person consume.


Fraudsters or 419, which is one of the most popular of all internet frauds in Nigeria, Has its origin from Nigeria in the 1980s. Its development and spread started through the developments in information technology at inception. Later in the early 1990s, it became integrated into the telecommunication facilities such as fax and telephone from the late 1990s following the introduction of internet and computers, 419 crimes became prevalently perpetrated through the use of e-mail and other internet means (Amedu, 2005). The latest dimension taken by this fraudsters is the use of fake internet bank site, and using it to encourage victims to open accounts with them. These issues basically causes problem to electronic banking, which includes confidentiality, integrity and availability.

Several factors are responsible for the above situation. They include weakness of the judicial institutions to make and enforce laws on cyber-crimes; inordinate tolerance for corruption among Nigerian public and government agencies; unemployment among graduates, and the gap between the rich and the poor caused mainly by bad governance. In the main, erosion of good value principles and corruption constitute the greatest cause of rising cyber-crimes among Nigerian (Domestic electronic payment in Nigeria) (Amedu, 2005).


Jamal (2003) defined customer satisfaction as the meeting of one’s expectations relating to the product used by the customer; these are sentiments and feelings about the product used by the customer. Previous studies (Schultz and Good, 2000; Churchill and Surprenant, 1982; and Patterson, (1993) they agreed that the service performance has direct impact on customer satisfaction. They believed that interaction between them and the customer plays a key role in organizational success or failure and customer satisfaction is a critical performance indicator. File and Prince, (1992) according to File and Prince they explained that satisfied customers will be loyal to the organization and they will tell others about their favourable experience thereby leading to positive word of mouth advertising. Sahereh et al, (2013) identified ten (10) factors influencing satisfaction as follows:

(1) Properly behaviour with friendly: Being polite and friendly to customers will definitely generate more customers and will make customer relationship with bank strong. Friendly service is a necessary condition for development of activities and impress a good name about the bank.

(2) To speed in delivery of services: Anything that leads to customer satisfaction will help them to reach their goal earlier.

(3) Accuracy in providing services: This factor wants to minimize in error rate of doing things and improving quality of work to the standards and acceptable by the people so as to result to the trust and confidence of customers and increasing their satisfaction.

(4) Standard-Oriented: If customers have to ensure that the relationship does not rule and providing facilities request them is done based on standard and criteria, trust isn’t deprive and will not lead to their disappointment.

(5) Interest of deposits: Without doubt depositors are attending to the actual interest that should be considered inflation and other costs carefully.

(6) Secrecy: The banks customers expect that bank personnel in maintaining statements of accounts function or other financial issues do not disclose their account to anybody even their closest relatives.

(7) Skills of personnel: based on the researches done the necessary conditions for employment post include: The ability to move, speed in the work, balancing, and the ability of such.

(8) Guiding and presenting the necessary information and helpful: The right guidance on how to use customers from service will result to the speed of work and customer satisfaction.

(9) Discipline: Discipline is a very important features in all aspect of human life. Discipline led to focusing on the work and higher level of service delivery.

(10) Ease of access to services: Banks could easily apply to most services, this will result to greater customer satisfaction.


Bank customer relationship, is a special contract where a person entrusts valuable items (the customer) with another person (the bank) with the intention that such items shall be retrieved on demand from the keeper by the person who so entrust. The banker is the one entrusted with above mentioned valuable items, while the person who entrust the items a view to retrieving it on demand is called the customer.

The relationship between the bank and customer is based on contract. It is based on certain terms and conditions. For instance, the customer has the right to collect his money on demand personally or by proxy. The banker is under obligation to pay, so long the proxy is duly authorized by the customer. The terms and conditions governing the relationship should not be allowed to be leaked to a third party, particularly by the banker. Also the items kept should not be released to a third party without authorization by the customer.

A key issue here is how to handle the rising level of frauds prevalent in the entire banking system, and how to make the Internet banking fit so well in the banking structure of a country.



CBN will monitor the technology acquisitions of banks, and all investments in technology, which exceed 10% of free funds, will henceforth be subject to approval. Where banks use third parties or outsource technology, banks are required to comply with the CBN guidelines.


(a) Networks used for transmission of financial data must be demonstrated to meet the requirements specified for data confidentiality and integrity.

(b) Banks are required to deploy a proxy type firewall to prevent a direct connection between the banks back end systems and the Internet.

(c) Banks are required to ensure that the implementation of the firewalls addresses the security concerns for which they are deployed.

(d) For dial up services, banks must ensure that the modems do not circumvent the firewalls to prevent direct connection to the bank’s back end system.

(e) External devices such as Automated Teller Machines (ATMs), Personal Computers, (PC’s) at remote branches, kiosks, etc. permanently connected to the bank’s network and passing through the firewall must at the minimum address issues relating to non-repudiation, data integrity and confidentiality. Banks may consider authentication via Media Access Control (MAC) address in addition to other methods.

(f) Banks are required to implement proper physical access controls over all network infrastructures both internal and external.


Banks must take additional steps to ensure that whilst the web ensures global access to data enabling real time connectivity to the bank’s back-end systems, adequate measures must be in place to identify and authenticate authorized users while limiting access to data as defined by the Access Control List.

Banks are required to ensure that unnecessary services and ports are disabled.

Standards on Application and System Software

(a) Electronic banking applications must support centralized (bank-wide) operations or branch level automation. It may have a distributed, client server or three tier architecture based on a file system or a Database Management System (DBMS) package. Moreover, the product may run on computer systems of various types ranging from PCs, open systems, to proprietary main frames.

(b) Banks must be mindful of the limitations of communications for server/client-based architecture in an environment where multiple servers may be more appropriate.

(c) Banks must ensure that their banking applications interface with a number of external sources. Banks must ensure that applications deployed can support these external sources (interface specification or other CBN provided interfaces) or provide the option to incorporate these interfaces at a later date.

(d) A schedule of minimum data interchange specifications will be provided by the CBN.

(e) Banks must ensure continued support for their banking application in the event the supplier goes out of business or is unable to provide service. Banks should ensure that at a minimum, the purchase agreement makes provision for this possibility.

(f) The bank’s information system (IS) infrastructure must be properly physically secured. Banks are required to develop policies setting out minimum standards of physical security.

(g) Banks are required to identify an ICT compliance officer whose responsibilities should include compliance with standards contained in these guidelines as well as the bank’s policies on ICT.

(h) Banks should segregate the responsibilities of the Information Technology (IT) security officer / group which deals with information systems security from the IT division, which implements the computer systems


Mobile Telephony: Mobile phones are increasingly being used for financial services in Nigeria. Banks are enabling the customers to conduct some banking services such as account inquiry and funds transfer. Therefore the following guidelines apply:

(a) Networks used for transmission of financial data must be demonstrated to meet the requirements specified for data confidentiality, integrity and non- repudiation.

(b) An audit trail of individual transactions must be kept.

Automated Teller Machines (ATM): In addition to guidelines on e-banking in general, the following specific guidelines apply to ATMs:

(a) Networks used for transmission of ATM transactions must be demonstrated to meet the guidelines specified for data confidentiality and integrity.

(b) In view of the demonstrated weaknesses in the magnetic stripe technology, banks should adopt the chip (smart card) technology as the standard, within 5 years. For banks that have not deployed ATMs, the expectation is that chip based ATMs would be deployed. However, in view of the fact that most countries are still in the magnetic stripe conversion process, banks may deploy hybrid (both chip and magnetic stripe) card readers to enable the international cards that are still primarily magnetic stripe to be used on the ATMs.

(c) Banks will be considered liable for fraud arising from card skimming and counterfeiting except where it is proven that the merchant is negligent. However, the cardholder will be liable for frauds arising from PIN misuse.

(d) Banks are encouraged to join shared ATM networks.

(e) Banks are required to display clearly on the ATM machines, the Acceptance Mark of the cards usable on the machine.

(f) All ATMs not located within bank premises must be located in a manner to assure the safety of the customer using the ATM. Appropriate lighting must be available at all times and a mirror may be placed around the ATM to enable the individual using the ATM to determine the locations of persons in their immediate vicinity.

(g) ATMs must be situated in such a manner that passers-by cannot see the key entry of the individual at the ATM directly or using the security devices.

(h) ATMs may not be placed outside buildings unless such ATM is bolted to the floor and surrounded by structures to prevent removal.

(I) Additional precaution must be taken to ensure that any network connectivity from the ATM to the bank or switch are protected to prevent the connection of other devices to the network point.

(j) Non-bank institutions may own ATMs, however such institutions must enter into an agreement with a bank for the processing of all the transactions at the ATM. If an ATM is owned by a non-bank institution, processing banks must ensure that the card readers, as well as, other devices that capture/store information on the ATM do not expose information such as the PIN number or other information that is classified as confidential. The funding (cash in the ATM) and operation of the ATM should be the sole responsibility of the bank. (k) Where the owner of the ATM is a financial institution, such owner of the ATM must also ensure that the card reader as well as other devices that capture information on the ATM does not expose/store information such as the PIN number or other information that is classified as confidential to the owner of the ATM.

(l) ATMs at bank branches should be situated in such a manner as to permit access at reasonable times. Access to these ATMs should be controlled and secured so that customers can safely use them within the hours of operations. Deplorers are to take adequate security steps according to each situation subject to adequate observance of standard security policies.

(m) Banks are encouraged to install cameras at ATM locations. However, such cameras should not be able to record the keystrokes of such customers.

(n) At the minimum, a telephone line should be dedicated for fault reporting, and such a number shall be made known to users to report any incident at the ATM. Such facility must be manned at all times the ATM is operational.


Banks should put in place procedures for maintaining the bank’s Web site which should ensure the following:-

(a) Only authorized staff should be allowed to update or change information on the Web site.

(b) Updates of critical information should be subject to dual verification (e.g. interest rates)

(c) Web site information and links to other Web sites should be verified for accuracy and functionality.

(d) Management should implement procedures to verify the accuracy and content of any financial planning software, calculators, and other interactive programs available to customers on an Internet Web site or other electronic banking service.

(e) Links to external Web sites should include a disclaimer that the customer is leaving the bank’s site and provide appropriate disclosures, such as noting the extent, if any, of the bank’s liability for transactions or information provided at other sites.

(f) Banks must ensure that the Internet Service Provider (ISP) has implemented a firewall to protect the bank’s Web site where outsourced.

(g) Banks should ensure that installed firewalls are properly configured and institute procedures for continued monitoring and maintenance arrangements are in place.

(h) Banks should ensure that summary-level reports showing web-site usage, transaction volume, system problem logs, and transaction exception reports are made available to the bank by the Web administrator.


(a) Banks are obliged not only to establish the identity of their Customers (KYC principle) but also enquire about their integrity and reputation. To this end, accounts should be opened only after proper introduction and physical verification of the identity of the customer.

(b) Digital signature should not be relied on solely as evidence in e-banking transactions, as there is presently no legislation on electronic banking in Nigeria

(c) There is an obligation on banks to maintain secrecy and confidentiality of customer’s accounts. In e-banking scenario, there is the risk of banks not meeting the above obligation. Banks may be exposed to enhanced risk of liability to customers on account of breach of secrecy, denial of service etc. because of hacking /other technological failures. Banks should, therefore, institute adequate risk control measures to manage such risks.

(d) Banks should protect the privacy of the customer’s data by ensuring:

(1) That customer’s personal data are used for the purpose for which they are compiled. (2) Consent of the customer must be sought before the Data is used

(3) Data user may request, free of cost for blocking or rectification of inaccurate data or enforce remedy against breach of confidentiality

(4) Processing of children’s data must have the consent of the parents and there must be verification via regular mail.

(5) Strict criminal and pecuniary sanctions are imposed in the event of default.

(e) In e-banking, there is very little scope for the banks to act on stop payment instructions from the customers. Hence, banks should clearly notify the customers the time frame and the circumstances in which any stop-payment instructions could be accepted.

(f) While recognizing the rights of consumers under the Nigerian Consumer Protection Council Act, which also apply to consumers in banking services generally, banks engaged in e-banking should endeavour to insure themselves against risks of unauthorized transfers from customers account’s, through hacking, denial of services on account of technological failure etc., to adequately insulate themselves from liability to the customers.

(g) Agreements reached between providers and users of e-banking products and services should clearly state the responsibilities and liabilities of all parties involved in the transactions.

12 years a slave: college essay help

According to Drew Faust, author of Culture, Conflict, and Community, There was a slave owner named James Henry Hammond who did not really have any idea of how to control the slaves. He did not know what to do and how to command them. He had been married into it. He began to listen to his friends who had suggested to ‘Be kind to them make them feel an obligation and by all means keep all other Negros away from the place, and make yours stay at home- and raise their church to the ground-keep them from fanaticism for God’s sake and your own.’ So he did just that. He began to tear down churches just so they could assimilate more into the white Churches and hopefully show up by taking their churches away. They began to become less religious for quite some time but then they began to rise up again. They started to act lazy and defiant because of the lack of authority. ‘The slaves, accustomed to a far less rigorous system of management, resented his attempts and tried to undermine his drive for efficiency.’ Because of the disobedience he began to severely punish them. Constantly beat them senseless if they did not follow orders. That was the norm throughout most slave owners. They would casually beat their slaves for disobeying their master and sometimes even for the hell of it. This is evidently clear in 12 years a Slave.

In 12 Years a Slave, an African American man named Solomon Northup is a free man in the North, living in New York with this wife and two children. He is a savvy violinist and is approached by two individuals asking if he wants to perform for a circus they are opening up in Washington which would pay greatly. He agrees but is drugged and sent back to the South under the name Platt, a runaway slave from Georgia. He gets sold to a plantation but is later sent to another. The reason why will be later stated. In this second plantation, his owner John Epps is known as not being the nicest slave owner. He was actually known for being incredibly cruel for those who disobey his order. He interprets the bible in a way saying that if the slaves were to disobeyed their master they would get 100 slashes if necessary. Epps would have the slaves pick cotton. The average pounds picked by slaves were 200 pounds and whoever didn’t meet the average would get whipped. Northup would usually not meet the quota so he would usually take part of those lashings. Epps would lash out at slaves when he didn’t get what he wanted. His wife would also beat one of the slaves because of jealousy towards her.

Now of course most slave owners are not usually that mean when it comes to the way they treat their slaves. According to Faust before Hammond took the course of action to beat the slaves for their disobedience, he began to kind of give slaves some of what they asked for. After he took away their churches and they failed to join the white churches he began to become more lenient and allowed a traveling minister just for slave services. ‘For a number of years he hired itinerant ministers for Sunday afternoon slave services.’ He would also imply a system of reward for those who did well in their task, instead of not getting any gratitude. Of course he would still punish those that failed in their duties but I suppose it is a start. ‘Hammond seemed not so much to master as to manipulate his slaves, offering a system not just of punishments, but pf positive inducements, ranging from contests to single out the most diligent hands, to occasional rituals of rewards for all, such as Christmas holidays; rations of sugar, tobacco, and coffee; or even pipes sent to all adult slaves from Europe when Hammond departed on the Grand Tour’ So as you can see sometimes some slave owners would be kinder to their slaves than most other slave owners.

In 12 Years a Slave, this is evident as well. Northup, during the slave auction gets sold to a plantation owner named William Ford. Ford tries to convince the seller to give sell him the daughter of a woman he was buying just to keep their family together but the man wouldn’t budge after Ford practically begged for her. Once they all arrive to the farm, Northup works and shows his ingenuity by impressing Ford with a waterway that will help transport logs quickly and cheaper. Ford’s carpenter, John Tibeats, said that couldn’t work and when it did he quickly resented Northup for it. One day he began to harass Northup and they both got into a scuffle in which Northup won but Tibeats threatened him. Ford’s overseer Chapin came and told him to stay on the plantation because if he left he would not be able to protect him. Tibeats came back later with two of his friends and began to lynch Northup. That’s when Chapin came and rescued him from the three men and warned them with a gun pointing at them saying that Ford held a mortgage on Platt and if they hung him, he would lose that money. He then told them to leave Northup and run away. Chapin then left Northup on his tip toes just so the noose won’t wring his neck all day until Ford came and rescued him. That night, Ford keeps Northup in the house protecting him and tells him in order to save his life he has given his debt to Epps. This shows how tender and nice some slave owners were compared to some cruel slave owners like Epps.

Elizabeth Keckley

Elizabeth Keckley’s life was an eventful one. Born a slave in Dinwiddie Court-House, Virginia, from slave parents, she did not have it easy, as her early years were crowded with incidents.

She was only four year old when her mistress, Mrs. Burwell delivered a beautiful black-eyed baby, whose care was assigned to Elizabeth, a child herself. This task didn’t seem very hard to her, as she had been educated to serve others and to rely much on herself. If she met Mrs. Burwell’s expectations, it would be her passport into the plantation house, where she could work alongside her mother, who did most of the cooking and sewing in the family. Trying to rock the cradle as hard as she could, she dropped the baby on the floor and immediately panicked, attempting to pick it up with the fire-shovel, until her mistress came into the room and started screaming at her. It was then that she received her first lashing, but that would not be her last punishment. It was the one she would remember most, though.

At seven years old, Elizabeth saw a slave sale for the first time. Her master had just acquired the hogs he needed for the winter and didn’t have enough money for the purchase. To avoid the shame of not being able to pay, he decided to sell one of his slaves, little Joe, the cook’s son. His mom was kept in oblivion, in spite of her suspicions. She was told little Joe was coming back the next morning, but mornings passed and his mother never saw him again.

By the time she was eight, the Burwell family had four daughters and six sons, with a large number of servants. She didn’t see much of her father, as he served a different master, but it was also because they were enable to be together as a family only twice a year, at Christmas and during the Easter holidays. Her mother, Agnes, was thrilled when Mr. Burwell made arrangements for her husband to come live with them, and little Lizzie, as her father used to call her, was ecstatic to finally have her family together. That only lasted until Mr. Burwell came on one fine day bringing with him a letter saying that her father had to leave to the West with his master, where he had decided to relocate. And that was the last time she ever saw her dad.

Another memory that Elizabeth could not shake was the death of one her uncles, another slave of Mr. Burwell’s. After one day, he lost his pair of plough-lines, but Colonel Burwell offered him another, a new one, and told him he would be punished if he lost those too. But a couple weeks later his new pair got stolen and he hung himself for fear of his master’s reaction. It was Lizzie’s mother that found him the next morning, suspended by one of the willow’s solid branches, down by the river. He chose taking his life over the punishment from his master.

Because they didn’t have any slaves of their own, at 14 Lizzie was separated from her mom and given as a chore girl to her master’s oldest son, who lived in Virginia. His wife was a helpless, morbidly sensitive girl, with little parenting skills. Reverend Robert Burwell was earning very little money, so he couldn’t afford to buy Elizabeth, only to benefit from her services thanks to his father. Living with the minister, she had to do the work of three people, and they still didn’t find her trustworthy. By the time she was 18, Elizabeth had grown into a proud, beautiful young woman. It was around that time that the family moved to Hillsboro, in Northern Carolina, where the minister was assigned a church of his own.

Mr. Bingham, the school principal, was an active member of the church and a frequent visitor of the church house. He was a harsh, pitiless man who became the mistress’s tool in punishing Lizzie, as Mrs. Burwell was always looking for vengeance against her for one reason or another. Mr. Burwell was a kind man, but was highly influenced by his wife and took after her behavior fairly often. One night, after Elizabeth had just put the baby to sleep, Mr. Bingham told her to follow him to his office , where she was asked to take her clothes off because he was going to whip her. Then she did something that no slave had ever done. She refused. She dared him to give her a reason or otherwise he would have to force her, which he did. She was too proud to give him the pleasure of seeing her suffer, so she just stood there like a statue, with her lips firmly closed, until it was over. When he finally let her go, she went straight to her master and asked for an explanation, but Mr. Burwell didn’t react in any way, and only told her to leave. When she refused to go, the minister hit her with a chair. Lizzie couldn’t sleep that night, and it wasn’t from the physical pain, but more from the mental torture she had suffered. Her spirit stoically refused this unjust behavior and as much as she tried, she couldn’t forgive those who had it inflicted it upon her.

The next day all she wanted was a kind word from those who had made her suffer, but that didn’t happen. Instead, she continued to be lashed on a regular basis by Mr. Bingham, who convinced Mrs. Burwell it was the right thing to do to cure her pride and stubbornness. Lizzie continued to resist him, more proud and defiant every time, until one day he started crying in front of her, telling her she didn’t deserve it and he couldn’t do it anymore. He even asked Lizzie for forgiveness and from that day on he never hit one of his slaves ever again.

When Mr. Bingham refused to perform his duty anymore, it was Mr. Burwell’s turn to do it, urged by his jealous wife. Elizabeth continued to resist though, and eventually her attitude softened their hearts and they promised to never beat her again, and they kept their promise.

Sadly, this kind of event was not the only thing that caused her pain during her residence at Hillsboro. Because she was consider fair-looking for one of her race, she was abused by a white man for more than four years, when she got pregnant and gave birth to a boy, the only child she ever had. It wasn’t a child that she wanted to have, because of the society that she was part of, as a child of two races would always be frowned upon and she didn’t want him to suffer like she did.

The years passed and many things happened during that time. One of Elizabeth’s old mistress’s daughters, Ann, married Mr. Garland, and Lizzie went to live with them in Virginia, where she was reunited with her mother. The family was poor and couldn’t afford a living in Virginia, so Mr. Garland decided to move away from his home to the banks of Mississippi, in search of better luck. Unfortunately, moving didn’t change anything, and the family still didn’t have the resource needed to make a living. It got to a point where they were considering putting Agnes, her mother, out of service. Lizzie was outraged by the idea that her mom, who was raised in this family and grew up to raise their children years later and love them as her own, would have to go work for strangers. She would have done anything to prevent this from happening. And she did. She convinced Mr. Garland to let find someplace to work to help the family and to keep her mother close to her. It wasn’t hard to find work , and she soon had quite a reputation as a seamstress and dress-maker. All the ladies came to her for dresses and she never lacked clients. She was doing so well that she managed to support a seventeen-member family for almost two and a half years. Around that time, Mr. Keckley, whom she had met earlier in Virginia, and regarded with a little more than friendship, came to St. Louis and proposed to her. She refused at first, saying that she had to think about his offer, but what scared her was the thought of giving birth to another child that would live in slavery. She loved her son enormously, but she always felt it was unfair for the free side of him, the Anglo-Saxon blood that he had, to be silenced by the slave side that he was born with. She wanted him to have the freedom that he deserved. After thinking about it for a long time, he decided to go to Mr. Garland and asked him the price she should pay for her freedom and her son’s. he dismissed her immediately and told her to never say such a thing ever again, but she couldn’t stop thinking about it. With all the respect the had for her master, she went to see him again and asked him what was the price she had to pay for herself and her son to be free.

He finally gave in to her requests and told her that 1200$ was the price of her freedom. This gave her a silver lining to the dark cloud of her life and with a perspective of freedom she agreed to marry Mr. Keckley and start a family with him. But years passed and she couldn’t manage to save that amount of money because her duties with the family were overwhelming and she didn’t leave much time for anything. Also, her husband, Mr. Keckley, proved to be more of a burden than a support for her and the boy. Meanwhile Mr. Garland died and Elizabeth was given to another master, a Mississippi planter, Mr. Burwell, a compassionate man who told her she should be free and he would help with anything she needed to raise the amount of money needed to pay for this freedom.

Several plans were thought through, until Lizzie decided she should go to New York and appeal to people’s generosity to help her carry out her plan. All was set; all she needed now was six men to vouch with their money for her return. She had lots of friends in St. Louis and didn’t think it would be a problem, and she easily gathered the first five signatures. The sixth one was Mr. Farrow, an old friend of hers, and she didn’t think he would refuse her. He didn’t, but he didn’t believe she would came back either. Elizabeth was puzzled that he didn’t believe in her cause, and she couldn’t accept his signature if he really thought it was the final goodbye from her. She went home and started to cry, looking at her ready-to-go trunk and at the luncheon her mother had prepared for her, believing that her dream of freedom was nothing but a dream and she and her son would die slaves, the same way they were born.

And then something happened, something she never expected. Mrs. Le Bourgois, one of her patrons, walked in and changed her world around. She said it wouldn’t be fair for her to beg strangers for money and it was the ones who knew her that should help her. She would give her 200$ from her and mother and she would ask all her friends do help Elizabeth. She was successful and rapidly managed to find the 1200$ Elizabeth needed. And that was it. Lizzie and her sixteen year old son, George, were finally free. Free to go anywhere they wanted. Free to start over and to have the life they always wanted. Free by the laws of men and by the smile of God.

Critical review II: The Dependency theory

Latin American countries have always been exposed to western influence. With its neo-liberalist stance the west encourages Latin America to open up its trade and cooperate with the west. During the 1960s many countries wanted to keep Western influence outside because they were convinced that this would negatively influence their development. A consequence of this attitude was the development of a theory that criticized the western liberalist stance; the dependency theory. Dependency theory criticizes western modernity. This critical stance can be explained by the fact that Latin America is historically exposed to the political, economic, cultural and intellectual influence of the US and its recurrent attempt to diminish US domination (Tickner 2008:736). The region, being part of the non-core, wants their understanding of global realities to be explored. (Tickner 2003b). However, the theory has been influenced by the west and thereby has lost strength. Moreover, its empirical validity has been questioned. For the above mentioned reasons the theory is hardly used anymore. It should not be forgotten, however, that the theory has some qualities which do contribute to the field of international relations. First this essay will discuss the post-colonial argument that dependency theory is not critical enough and gives an explanation why the theory is Eurocentric. Afterwards it will discuss its empirical validity and finally it addresses the theory its contribution to the field of international relations. Dependency theory originated in the 1960s in Latin America. Frank, the leading theorist, argues that due to the capitalist system, developing countries are underdeveloped and development is impossible as long as they remain in the capitalist system (Frank 1969). Opposed to Frank, Cardoso and Faletto argue that development is possible despite structural determination and that the local state has an important role, they call it associated dependent development ((1979:xi). Yet, both Frank and Cardoso and Falleto eventually argue that dependency paths need to be broken by constructing paths toward socialism. The dependency theorists are thus critical of Western liberalism. As mentioned above, dependency theory attempts to criticize western-modernity. Post-colonialism, however, argues that dependency theory is not counter-modernist and not critical enough. Post-colonial theorists, in contrast to many conventional theorists, state that attention to colonial origins is needed to get a better understanding of the expansion of the world order (Seth 2011). Dependency theory does pay attention to its colonial origins. For example, Frank argues that dependency occurred historically through slavery and colonialism and continues today through western dominance of the international trading system, the practices of multinational companies and the LDC’s reliance on Western aid (Frank 1969). However, post-colonialism does criticize the way how dependency theorists address the colonial origins. The first critique stems from the fact that the homogenizing and incorporating world historical scheme of dependency ignores, domesticates, or transcends difference. It does not take into account the differences in histories, cultures and peoples (Said, 1985: 22).The second critique stems from the fact that to get a sufficient understanding of the emergence of the modern international system, it should not be examined how an international society that developed in the West radiated outwards, but rather the ways in which international society was shaped by interactions between Europe and those it colonized. (Seth 2011:174). Pos-colonalists, however, argue that dependency theory is Eurocentric. Dependency theorists are not aware of the way in which culture frames their own analysis. While trying to look at imperialism from the perspective of the periphery, dependistas fail to do this (Kapoor 2002:654). For dependistas the ‘centre’ continues to be central and dominant so that the West ends up being consolidated as sovereign subject. Dependency’s ethnocentrism appears in its historical analysis as well. Dependistas use the way how capitalism developed in Europe as a universal model that stands for history and see developing countries as examples of failed or dependent capitalism. (Kapoor 2002:654) Post colonialism thus would argue that while challenging the current capitalist system, dependency theory is not critical enough because it does not adequately address history and culture and is Eurocentric. Tickner (2008) may provide an explanation of why dependency theory is not critical enough and why it is described in terms of adherence to the capitalist system dominated by the west. IR thinking in Latin America is influenced by -among other things- US intellectual knowledge. As Tickner argues, dependency theory is not a genuine non-core theory but it is influenced by US analysts. According to Cardoso (1977) this led to severe distortions in its original contents because it local internal problems of greatest concern to social scientists in Latin America became invisible and external factors such as US intervention and multinational corporations were prioritized. Furthermore, IR thinking in that region has been influenced by conventional theories. For example, through the influence of realism in Latin America, much attention was paid to the role of the elite and furthermore, theorists were concerned with the concept of power but replaced it with a more suitable concept autonomy (Tickner 2008:742).Thus the influence of US IR knowledge and conventional theories may have contributed to the fact that dependency theory is not critical enough and has lost its influence. Although post-colonialism addresses dependency’s problem – that is does not sufficiently addresses culture because of its sole focus on capitalism – it should be noted that not only culture is not taken into account but a whole range of other factors which could help explain underdevelopment are left out the theory as well. This shortcoming clarifies why dependency theory is empirical invalid.For example, dependency does not address local, physical, social or political forces that might have had a role in the inability to generate industrial development and does not acknowledge that imperialism is only partly responsible for underdevelopment (Smith 1981). As Smith argues; ”dependency theory exaggerates the explanatory power of economic imperialism as a concept to make sense of historical change in the south” (1981:757). Smith rightly points out that in some instances dependistas do recognize the influence of local circumstances but this is only so to reaffirm ultimately the overriding power of economic imperialism. Moreover, the theory does not pay any attention to the positive effects that the contact with the international system can provide for developing countries. Thus, dependistas solely look at economic power and state that as long as countries remain part of the international capitalist system development is impossible. The only way to escape is to isolate from this system or if the colonizer relinquishes political power. (Kapoor 656) However, South-Korea’s development shows the invalidity of this argument. South-Korea experienced rapid growth during the 1970s despite its dependency on the US. The case of South-Korea shows that development is possible despite dependency and that dependency can have positive effects. Another case which shows dependency’s invalidity is Ghana. During the 1980s Ghana adopted dependency policies that were consistent with the denial of the relevance of the western economic principles and tried to keep western influence outside. However, instead of bringing prosperity and greater independence for the Ghanasian economy, these policies caused poverty and greater dependence on international aid or charity (Ahiakpor 1985:13). The dependency policies did not support Ghana’s development because it only focused on capitalism without taking other factors into account. The theory thus has significant shortcomings which explains its loss of influence. However, it should be noted that the theory has some qualities as well. Despite its homogenizing and Eurocentric history, the theory is aware that history is an important factor. The advantage of dependency’s structural-historical perspective is that broad patterns and trends can be recognized. Moreover, it allows one to learn from past mistakes to change the future (Kapoor 2002:660). On top of that, as Wallerstein argues ”One of the crucial insights and contributions of dependency is the conceptualization of the unicity of the world system” (1974:3). It clearly describes how the world is incorporated in the capitalist system and it shows the importance of economic considerations on political issues. Furthermore, it addresses the importance of local elites and foreign companies to the internal affairs of weak states whereby it provides an analytical framework. (Smith 1981:756). For example, Cardoso and Faletto argue that if there is no strong local state, the ruling elite may ally themselves with foreign companies pursuing their own interests and this way upholding dependency and underdevelopment. This analysis is applicable to Congo and shows for example that Congo’s development is restrained because a strong local state is absent and the local elite allies with foreign companies pursuing their own interests (Reno 2006). In short, dependency theory has lost influence because – from a post-colonial perspective – it is not counter-modernist and not critical enough. It does not adequately address history and culture and is Eurocentric. Moreover, it is empirically invalid because it solely focuses on capitalism without taking other factors into account. In contrast to what dependistas argue, dependent development is possible within the capitalist system and the proposed isolation from this system may even worsen the economy instead of bringing prosperity. However, the theory did influence foreign policymakers and analysts not only in Latin America but also in Africa between the 1960s and the 1980s and it is still useful because it provides an analytical framework on which other analysts can elaborate.

Data Acquisition and Analysis – Curve fitting and Data Modelling: college application essay help

1 Part 1: Track B: Linear Fitting Scheme to Find Best-Fit Values


In a linear regression problem, a mathematical model is used to examine the relationship between two variables i.e. the independent variables and dependent variable (the independent variable is used to predict the dependent variable).

This is achieved by using the least square method using excel plotting data values and drawing a straight line to derive the best fit values. A nonlinear graph was obtained on plotting the data points provided but the least square method applied obtained a linear graph with a straight line which estimated and minimized the squared difference between the total sum of the data values and model values.


The aim of this coursework Part1, Track B is to carryout data analysis assessment with respect to linear model fitting by manual calculation working obtaining the best-fit values with the decay transient data provided in table 1 below which is implemented using excel.

Time (sec) Response (v)

0.01 0.812392

0.02 0.618284

0.03 0.425669

0.04 0.328861

0.05 0.260562

0.06 0.18126

0.07 0.1510454

0.08 0.11254

0.09 0.060903

0.1 0.070437

Table 1.1: data for decay transient


The data in the table 1.1 above represents decay transient which can be modelled as an exponential function of time as shown below:

V(t)=V_0 exp'(-t/??) ”””””””””””””’ (1.1)

The equation above is nonlinear; to make it linear the natural logarithm method is applied

Logex = Inx ”””””””””””””””. (1.2)

From the mathematical equation of a straight line

Y = mx + c”””””””””””””””. (1.3)

Y = a0 + a1x + e””””””””””””””. (1.4)

Y = Inx”””””””””””””””’… (1.5)

In this case

Y = InV”””””””””””””””’… (1.6)


InV = InV0 + Ine(-t/??) ””””””””””””’. (1.6)

But Inex = x; eInx = x

InV = InV0 ‘ t/”””””””””””””’??. (1.7)

Applying natural logarithm method to the equation obtained two coefficients InV0 and t/?? which represent a0 and a1 respectively from equation (1.4)

The normal equation for a straight line can be written in matrix form as:

[‘(n&’[email protected]’xi&”xi’^2 )] {‘([email protected])} = {‘(‘[email protected]’xiyi)} ”””””””””.””. (1.8)

This is separated to give

[‘(‘(1&1)&’&[email protected]'(xi&x2)&’&xn)] [‘(‘([email protected])&'([email protected])@’&’@1&xn)]{‘([email protected])} = [‘(‘(1&1)&’&[email protected]'(x1&x2)&’&xn)] [‘(‘([email protected])@’@yn)] ””’.””. (1.9)

From (1.9) the general linear least squares fit equation is given as

[[Z^T ] [Z]]{A}= {[Z^T ] {Y}}

The main purpose is to calculate for {A} (InV0 and t/??) which are the coefficients of the linear equation in (1.7). Matrix method using excel is used to achieve this by finding values for [Z],[Z^T ],[Z^T ][Z],[Z^T ][Y],’and[[Z^T ] [Z]]’^(-1).

The table below shows the calculated values for InV when natural logarithm was applied to the response V using excel.

Table 1.2: Excel table showing calculated values for InV

[Z]= [‘(1&[email protected]&[email protected]&[email protected]&[email protected]&[email protected]&[email protected]&[email protected]&[email protected]&[email protected]&0.1) ]

The transpose of [Z] is given as

[Z]= [‘(1&1&1&1&1&1&1&1&1&[email protected]&0.02&0.03&0.04&0.05&0.06&0.07&0.08&0.09&0.1)]

The product of [Z^T ][Z] is given as

[Z^T ][Z] = [‘(10.0000&[email protected]&0.0385)]

The inverse [[Z^T ] [Z]]^(-1) of the matrix [Z^T ][Z] is given as

[[Z^T ] [Z]]^(-1) = [‘(0.4667&[email protected]&121.2121)]

The product of the transpose of [Z], [Z^T ] and [Y] (InV) is given as

[Z^T ][Y] = [‘([email protected])]

To obtain {A} the product of [[Z^T ] [Z]]^(-1) and [Z^T ][Y] was calculated to give

{A} = [‘([email protected])]; {A}= [‘([email protected]/??)]


InV0 = a0; and – 1/?? = a1

{A} = [‘([email protected])]


InV0 = 0.0626; and 1/?? = -28.8434

V0 = exp(0.0626) = 1.0646; and ?? = 1/-28.8434 = 0.03467



Since Y = InV(t)

Y = 1.0646exp'(-t/0.03467)

Table 1.3: Excel table showing calculated values for InV [Y] and InV(t) [Y]

Table 1.4: Diagram of Excel calculation for curve fitting

Figure 1.1: Diagram of transient decay for response V and response V(t)

Figure 1.2: Diagram of transient decay for response V and response V(t)


The solutions to this linear regression exercise was achieved by manually calculating the generalized normal equation for the least square fit using the matrix method and Microsoft excel program obtaining the unknown values of the coefficients V0 and ??. The method provides accurate results and the best fit values obtained show the relationship between the straight line response and the transient line response shown in figure above and is seen to have given

2 Part 2: Track B: Type K thermocouple


The thermocouple is a sensor that is used to measure temperature and is commonly used in many industries. For this lab work, a Type K thermocouple is used to acquire a first order transient data (non-linear) response to a temperature change, a signal conditioning element called the AD595 thermocouple amplifier is used to improve thermocouple signal since it produced a low voltage output proportional to the input temperature, a data acquisition device the NI-USB 6008 is used to acquire signals from the signal conditioning circuit, a resistor-capacitor (RC) low-pass filter is built for reduce the frequency and noise of the signal generated and further investigations and analysis are carried out. In this part, the non-linear regression was used to obtain the transient response of thermocouple signal using Labview program


The aim of the assignment is to produce a Labview program which can obtain transient real data values from a Type K thermocouple which is a sensor that produces voltage by the differential temperature its conductors sense (i.e. a first order response) followed by a non- linear model fitting procedure which allows the user capture the thermocouple initial first order response to a rising input temperature and an appropriate response function model to the transient response. The program displays the transient data, fitted model response and calculated model parameters.

Reason of the choice of model response

The model output transient response obtained from the input (temperature) of the Type K thermocouple was a first order can be defined as having only s to the power of one in the first order transfer function which is characterised with no overshoot because the order of any system is determined by the power of s in the transfer function denominator and has a transfer function as 1/(??s+1) for a unit step signal of 1/s in the Laplace transform domain or s domain and is given as

Y(s) = 1/(s(??s+1)) ””””””””””””””’… (2.1)

Partial fraction method is used to find the output signal Y(t) to give

Y(s) = A/s+B/(??s+1) ””””””””””””””’ (2.2)

A = [s * Y(s)] for s = 0 = 1

B = [(??s+1) * Y(s)] for s = (-1)/?? = -1

Y(s) = 1/s-1/(??s+1) ””””””””””””””’ (2.3)

Therefore the output signal in the time domain is given as:

Y(t) = L-1 [1/s-1/(??s+1)] ”””””””””””””’ (2.4)

Y(t) = U(t) – e^((-t)/??) ”””””””””””””’ (2.5)

Y(t) = 1- e^((-t)/??) where t’0 ””””””””””” (2.6)

Substituting the output response V(t) for Y(t) , the equation (2.6) can also be re-written as:

V(t) = 1- e^((-t)/??) ”””””””””””””’ (2.7)

Assuming for a given input temperature T0 an output response V0 was derived and for a given increase in temperature T1 an output response voltage V1 was derived, so therefore the output voltage for the change in voltage relative to the change in temperature is given as:

V(t) =(V1 ‘ V0)( 1- e^((-t)/??) ) ”””””””””””. (2.7)

V(t) =V0 + (V1 ‘ V0)( 1- e^((-t)/??) ) (thermocouple voltage response) ”””’. (2.8)

V(t) = (V1 ‘ V0)( 1- e^((-t)/??) ) + V0 ””””””””””. (2.9)

Where (V1 ‘ V0) = ??V

V(t) = ??V ( 1- e^((-t)/??) ) + V0 ”””””””””””. (3.0)

T(t) = ??T ( 1- e^((-t)/??) ) + T0”””””””””””. (3.1)

T(t) = a ( 1- e^((-t)/b) ) + c

Equation (3.1) is similar to the general nonlinear model given as:

F(x) = a ( 1- e^((-t)/b) ) + c ”…””””””””””’. (3.2)


F(x) = V(t) ; a = ??V; b = 1/??; and c = V0

The thermocouples voltage output is nonlinear given a first order response curve (Digilent Inc., 2010)


0 (-t)/??

Table 2:1: showing thermocouple output voltage first order response curve

Explanation on the principles of non-linear regression analysis

The principle of non-linear regression is a method that can be used to show how the response and the unknown values (predictors) relate to each other by following a functional form i.e. relating Y as being a function of x or more variables. This is to say that the non-linear equation we are trying to predict rely non-linearly mainly upon one or more variables or parameters. The Gauss Newton Method is a method used to solve non-linear regression by applying Taylor series expansion to express a non-linear expression in a linear for form.

A non-linear regression compared to a linear regression cannot be manipulated or solved directly to get the equation; it can be exhausting calculating for this as an iterative approach is used. A non-linear regression model is given as:

Yi = f(xi, a0, a1) + ei


Yi = responses

F = function of (xi, a0, a1)

ei = errors

For this assignment the non-linear regression model is given as

f(x) = a0(1 ‘ e-a1x) + e


F(x) = V(t) ; a0 = ??V; b = (-t)/??; and e = V0

T(t) = (T1 ‘ T0)( 1- e^((-t)/??) ) + T0 ””””””””””. (3.3)

V(t) = (V1 ‘ V0)( 1- e^((-t)/??) ) + V0 ””””””””””. (3.4)

Where (V1 ‘ V0) = ??V

V(t) = ??V ( 1- e^((-t)/??) ) + V0 ”””””””””””. (3.5)

Description of measurement task

The intent of the measurement experiment was to seek, identify, analyse the components of that make measurement task and to examine the transient response from the Type k thermocouple. It analyses the method, instruments and series of actions in obtaining results from measurements. Equipment such as the Type K thermocouple, NI-PXI-6070E 12 bit I/O card, AD595 thermocouple amplifier, and a Labview software program which was used for calculation of model parameters were used to carry out this task.

The measurement task is to introduce the Type K thermocouple sensing junction in hot water to analyse the temperature change and the corresponding voltage response is generated and observed on a Labview program. This activity is executed frequently to acquire the best fitted model response and parameters.

Choice of signal conditioning elements

The choice of a signal conditioning element used in measurement is important because the signal conditioning element used can either enhance the quality and efficiency of a measurement system or reduce its performance.

The AD595 thermocouple amplifier is the choice signal conditioning element used with the Type K thermocouple for this experiment because it is has a built in ice-point compensation (cold junction compensator) and amplifier which is used as a reference junction to compare and amplify the output voltage of the Type K thermocouple which generates a small output voltage corresponding to the input temperature. AD595AQ chip used is pre-calibrated by laser trimming to correspond to the Type K thermocouple characteristic feature with an accuracy of ??3oC, operating between (-55 oC – 125 oC) and are available with 14 pins/low cost cerdip. The AD595 device resolves this issue by providing amplification of low output voltage (gain), linearization of the nonlinear output response of the thermocouple so as to change to the equivalent input temperature, and provide cold junction compensation to improve the performance and accuracy of thermocouple measurements.

Equipment provided for measurement

There were three equipment provided for the measurement exercise and they include:

Type K thermocouple

The Type K thermocouple (chromel/alumel) is the most commonly used transducer to measure temperature with an electromotive force (e.m.f) of 41 microvolts per degree(??V/ oC) which is nonlinear and the voltage produced between its two dissimilar alloys changes with temperature i.e. the input temperature corresponds to the output voltage it generates. It is cheap to buy with the ability to perform in rugged environmental conditions and is calibrated to operate at wide temperature range of about -250 oC to 1370 oC. It is made of a constituent called nickel which is magnetic and its magnetic component may change direction or deviate when subjected to a high enough temperature and can affect its accuracy.

Signal connector signal conditioner


Cold junction ‘([email protected])

Figure 2.2: Circuit diagram of a thermocouple, signal connector and signal conditioner

NI-USB 6008

The NI-USB 6008 is a National Instrument device that provides DAQ functionality for some applications like portable measurements, data logging and lab experiments. It is cheap for academic purposes and is used for more complicated measurement tasks. It has a ready to run data logger software which allows the user to perform quick measurements and can be configured by using Labview National Instruments software. It provides connection to 8 analog single-ended input channels (AI), 2 analog output channels (AO), 12 data input and output (I/O) channels, 32 bit counter bus with a very quick USB interface and are compatible with Labview 7.x, LabWindowsTM/CVI, and Measurement Studio DAQ modules for visual Studio.

Figure 2.3: NI-USB 6008 pin out

AD595 thermocouple amplifier

The AD595 thermocouple amplifier is a thermocouple amplifier and a cold junction compensator on a small chip of semiconductor material (microchip or IC) which produces a high output of 10 mV/oC from the input signal of a thermocouple as a result of combining a cold junction reference with a pre-calibrated amplifier. It has an accuracy of ??10C and ??30C for the A and C performance grade version respectively and can be powered by a supply including +5V and a negative supply if temperatures below 00C are to be measured. It laser trimmer is pre-calibrated so as to conform to the Type k thermocouple specification and is available in 14-pin side brazed ceramic dips (Devices, 1999).

Figure 2.4: Block diagram showing AD595 in a functional circuit

Configuration of the I/O channel(s)

The I/O channel(s) provide a way (path) for communication between the input device (thermocouple sensor) and the output device (DAQ). The thermocouple senses temperature as input and sends the data to the DAQ which receives the data and displays the information through a computer on the Labview front panel graph.

The following explain the configuration of the DAQ for the thermocouple measurement:

Channel Settings: this is used to select an I/O channel in the DAQ device either AI0 or AI1 can be chosen and rename to suit user

Signal Input Range: this is used to select the minimum and maximum voltage of the AD595 thermocouple amplifier which also helps to achieve better resolution of the NI-USB 6008 Data Acquisition Device

Scale Units: this is used to select the scale unit of the analog signal generated and since the thermocouples output signal measured corresponding to temperature is Voltage, then the Scaled unit chosen will be ‘Volts’

Terminal Configuration: this is used to choose terminal on the DAQ for which the signal conditioning circuit is connected

Custom Scaling: No scale was chosen since no custom scale was adopted

Acquisition Mode: this is used to select how the sample are played, the continuous samples was chosen because it allows the DAQ to collect data signals continuously from the circuit until the user decides to stop

Samples to Read: this allows the user to choose how many samples to read depending on the frequency of the input signal generated. It is important to choose at least twice the frequency signal to acquire all the desire signals. One thousand (2K) samples was chosen

Rate (Hz): this allows the user to choose the rate of the sample signals generated. Rate (Hz) 1k was chosen.

Connection of Circuit to DAQ and Configuration of I/O channel(s)

The connection of the circuit to the NI-USB 6008 data acquisition device was carried out by connecting two wires from the output voltage and ground of the signal conditioning unit i.e. the AD595 device.

The red wire from the signal conditioning unit was connected to the positive port of the analog input channel 0 (+AI0) of the DAQ device and the black wire from the ground was connected to the negative port of the analog input channel 0 (-AI0) of the DAQ. The diagrams below show the connections between the signal conditioning circuit and the connector block (DAQ).

Figure 2.5: Picture showing the connection of the signal conditioning circuit with the DAQ

Description of the Labview VI

Labview is a National instrument programming system design software that is optimal for control measurements and provides an engineer with tools to test, solve practical problems in a short amount of time, and the design of control systems. It is less complex and very easy to use compared to other programming simulation applications. The Labview Virtual Instrument (VI) program includes the Front Panel and the Block diagram and for this lab experiment, it is used to examine and determine the thermocouple frequency response and to carry out an analysis of the noise present in the filtered and unfiltered signal of the thermocouple voltage generated, displaying the result on its Graph indicators. The description of the Labview VI Front Panel and Block diagram are as follows:

Figure 2.6: Block diagram of the Labview design

Block diagram:

It is where a user can create the basic code for the Labview program. The program can be created when the block diagram is active by using the functions palette which contains objects like structure, numeric, Boolean, string, array, cluster, time and dialog, file I/O, and advanced functions which can be added to the block diagram.

Front Panel:

It is a graphic user interface that allows the user to interact with the Labview program. It can appear in silver, classic, modern or system style. The controls and indicators are located on the controls palette and used to build and add objects like numeric displays, graphs and charts, Boolean controls and indicators etc. to the front panel.

DAQ Assistant:

It allows a user to configure, generate and acquire analog input signals from any one of the data acquisitions (DAQ) input channel. For this experiment the signal conditioning circuit was connected to the analog input 0 channel of the NI-USB 6008 data acquisition device and the DAQ assistant is used to configure to DAQ so as to be able to acquire signals from the AD595 thermocouple amplifier.

For Loop:

The For loop like the while loop allows codes to be executed repeatedly by executing a subdiagram a required number of times (N). The For loop is found on the structure palette and can be placed on the block diagram. It is made up of the count and iteration terminal.

Trigger and Gate VI:

It is used to take out a part (segment) of a signal and its mode of operation is either based on a start or stop condition or can be static.

Curve Fitting VI:

It is used to calculate and determine the best fit parameter values that best depict an input signal. It can be used for linear, non-linear, spline, quadratic and polynomial models type. It minimizing the weighted mean squared error between the initial and best fit response signal generated. For this experiment initial guesses were made for the coefficients of non-linear model used.


It is a type of special indicator accepts different data types and used to display an array of input data or signals. In this case a waveform graph was used.

Numeric Function:

It is used to carry out mathematical and arithmetic actions on numbers and converts numbers from one data type to another. The multiply numeric function was used to return the products of inputs.

Figure 2.7: Configuration of Trigger and Gate

Figure 2.8: Curve fitting configuration

The diagram in figure 2.8 above is a window showing the configuration for curve fitting and the configuration steps are as follows:

Model Type: Non-linear model was chosen because the signal observed is a first order response (non-linear) curve.

Independent variable: t was the independent variable chosen

Maximum iterations: The default maximum iterations 500 is chosen.

Non-linear model: The equation for the non-linear model a*( 1- exp'(-t/b)) ) + c

Initial guesses: Values for a, b, and c were chosen to get the best fitting values for the curve. The values for a, b, and c are 15.000000, 0.040000, and 29.000000 respectively.

Figure 2.9: Transient response of the thermocouple for best fit 1st measurement

Figure 3.0: Transient response of the thermocouple for best fit 2nd measurement

Figure 3.1: Transient response of the thermocouple for best fit 3rd measurement

The diagrams in figures 2.9, 3.0 and 3.1 above show the transient response of the thermocouple after being inserted in warm water to get the best fit curve i.e. to replicate the actual thermocouple response curve. It is observed that with the use of the Trigger and Gate Express VI, the delay experienced in the in the three graphs were removed making the thermocouples signal response more appropriate providing a more decent best fit curve result. Carrying out multiple measurements to get the best fit curve reduces the time constants and produces a better response curve compared to taking one measurement. The table below shows the results from the three measurement activities with their residual and mean squared error values.

Model Parameters First Measurement(1st) Second Measurement(2nd) Third Measurement(3rd)

a (0C) 21.4671 10.2373 8.60708

b (sec) 0.0232065 0.039578 0.0432934

c (0C) 32.1068 29.661 29.4745

Residual 0.666461 0.0357227 0.124069

Mean Squared Error 0.431833 0.0181012 0.0227711

Table 2.1: Showing results from the three measurements with best fit parameters mean squared error and Residual for curve fitting.

From Table the second measurement was observed to have the best fitting curve with the minimum residual and Mean Squared error that are closest to zero compared to the 1st and 3rd measurements. The best fit parameter results of the second measurement will be inserted in the non-linear model equation which is given as:

y = a*( 1- exp'(-t/b)) ) + c””””””””””””(3.6)

T(t) = ??T ( 1- e^((-t)/??) ) + T0””””””””””””…(3.7)


a is the change in temperature of thermocouple (??T)

b is the time constant (??)

c is the initial temperature of the thermocouple (T0)

t is the time

Substituting values for a, b, and c of third measurement in the equation

T(t) = 10.2373( 1- exp'(-t/0.039578)) ) + 29.661”’..”””””..(3.8)

Equation 3.7 above is the non-linear model equation with best fit parameters for the thermocouple response signal at every value of time (t).

To achieve the output voltage response, the change in temperature and the initial temperature values from equation 3.7 need to be converted to volts this can be obtained by dividing the temperature value by 100 since 100oC is equal to 1V. So the resulting output voltage of the thermocouple is as follows:

V(t) = ??V ( 1- e^((-t)/??) ) + V0”’..””””””””””'(3.9)


a = ??V; b =1/??; and c = V0

V(t) = 0.102373( 1- exp'(-t/0.039578)) ) + 0.29661””””””’.(4.0)


The curve fitting experiment using the Type K thermocouple, the AD595 signal conditioning device, and the NI-USB 6008 to acquire and display signals using Labview software was carried out successfully. Curve fitting of the transient response signal of the thermocouple was achieved by analysing and obtaining the transient response of the thermocouple and using a non-linear model implementing best fit values to replicate the response curve by subjecting the thermocouple to temperature. This can be used to obtain the behaviour of an input response signal and improve efficiency for control systems.


Cimbala, J. M., 2013. Dynamic System Response. [Online]

Available at:

[Accessed 10 March 2014].

Devices, A., 1999. Analog Devices. [Online]

Available at:

[Accessed 2 March 2015].

Digilent Inc., 2010. Introduction to First Order Responses. [Online]

Available at:

[Accessed 6 March 2014].


Job evaluation

Job evaluation is defined as a method for determining the worth of a job in comparison to the different jobs in the organization. To establish a justified pay structure for all the employees of the organization, job evaluation gives a means to compare the quality of the work in a particular job, in other words, the worth of a job.

It is different from job analysis; rather job evaluation is done after the stage of job analysis in order to obtain some information about the concerned jobs. Job analysis is defined as a process of determining the skills, duties and responsibilities, in a systematic way, required for a particular job. Thus job evaluation is a method which commences from job evaluation from job analysis but it ends at a point where the worth of the job is determined by ensuring internal as well as external pay equity. In this competitive business environment, it is essential to maintain pay equity otherwise the organization may lose its crucial talent.


Overpayment Inequity (Positive Equity):

Underpayment Inequity (Negative equity):


Input: Any value that person brings to a job.

Outcome: any sort of benefit that an employee is awarded from his/her job.

Objectives of job evaluation

‘ To build a systematic, reasonable, deliberate structure of jobs based on their worth to the organization.

‘ To support a current pay rate structure or to build up one that accommodates internal equity.

‘ To support in setting pay rates that are tantamount to those of in comparable jobs in different organizations to contend in market place for best talent.

‘ To give a balanced premise to arranging pay rates when bargaining collectively with a recognized union.

‘ To guarantee the reasonable and fair remuneration of workers in connection to their obligations.

‘ To guarantee equity in pay for jobs of comparable efforts, responsibility, efforts and working conditions by utilizing a framework that reliably and precisely surveys contrasts in relative quality among jobs.

‘ To create a system of techniques to determine the grade levels and the resulting pay range for new jobs or the jobs which have advanced and changed.

‘ To distinguish a ladder of progression for future development to all workers who are interested in enhancing their remuneration.

‘ To comply with equal pay legislation and regulations deciding pay contrasts as indicated by job content.

‘ To add to a base for merit or performance-related pay.

Characteristics of job evaluation

The essential goal of job evaluation is to figure out the value of work; however this is a quality which differs occasionally and from spot to place affected by certain economic pressure. The principle features of job evaluation are:

‘ To supply bases for compensation arrangement established on realities as opposed to on dubious moderate thoughts.

‘ It endeavors to assess jobs, not individuals.

‘ Job evaluation is the yield given by job analysis.

‘ Job evaluation does not plan pay structure, it helps in supporting the framework by decreasing number of separate and diverse rates.

‘ Job evaluation is not made by people rather it is carried out by gathering of specialists.

‘ Job evaluation decides the estimation of job. Further the estimation of each of the perspectives, for example, aptitude and obligation levels are additionally related and concentrated on regarding the job.

‘ Job evaluation helps the administration to keep up abnormal amounts of representative gainfulness and worker fulfillment.

Process of job evaluation

Job analysis describes the skills, duties and responsibilities required for a job. Job evaluation adds to an arrangement for contrasting jobs regarding those things the association considers vital determinants of job worth. This procedure includes various steps that will be quickly expressed here and afterward talked about all the more completely.

1. Job Analysis: The primary step is an investigation of the jobs in the association. Through job analysis, data on job substance is acquired, together with a valuation for worker prerequisites for effective execution of the job. This data is recorded in the exact, steady dialect of a job description.

2. Compensable Factors: The following step is choosing what the association “is paying for” – that is, the thing that variable or elements put one job at a more elevated amount in the job chain of importance than an alternate. These compensable elements are the measuring sticks used to focus the relative position of jobs. As it were, picking compensable components is the heart of job evaluation. Not just do these variables spot jobs in the association’s job progressive system, yet they additionally serve to advise job officeholders which commitments are remunerated.

3. Building up the Method: The third venture in job evaluation is to choose a technique for evaluating the association’s jobs as indicated by the factor(s) picked. The technique ought to allow reliable situation of the association’s jobs containing a greater amount of the elements higher in the job progression, than those jobs lower in the progressive system.

4. Job Structure: The fourth step is contrasting jobs with build up a job structure. This includes picking and relegating chiefs, arriving at and recording choices, and setting up the job progression.

5. Pay Structure: The last step is evaluating the job structure to land at a compensation structure.

Merits of job evaluation

Job evaluation is a procedure of deciding the relative worth of a job. It is a procedure which is useful actually for encircling remuneration arranges by the personnel manager. Job evaluation as a methodology is worthwhile to an organization from multiple points of view:

‘ Decrease in disparities in pay structure – It is discovered that individuals and their inspiration is needy upon how well they are being paid. Accordingly the primary target of job evaluation is to have outer and interior consistency in compensation structure so that imbalances in pay rates are lessened.

‘ Specialization – Because of division of work and subsequently specialization, an expansive number of endeavors have landed hundred positions and numerous representatives to perform them. Hence, an endeavor ought to be made to characterize a job and accordingly settle pay rates for it. This is conceivable just through job evaluation.

‘ Aides in choice of representatives – The job evaluation data can be useful at the time of determination of applicants. The elements that are resolved for job evaluation can be considered while selecting the workers.

‘ Amicable relationship in the middle of workers and administrator – Through job evaluation, agreeable and harmonious relations can be kept up in the middle of representatives and administration, so that a wide range of pay rates debates can be minimized.

‘ Institutionalization – The procedure of deciding the pay differentials for distinctive jobs get to be institutionalized through job evaluation. This aide in bringing consistency into compensation structure.

‘ Pertinence of new jobs – Through job evaluation, one can comprehend the relative estimation of new jobs in a worry.

Demerits of job evaluation

‘ In spite of the fact that there are numerous methods for applying job evaluation in an adaptable way, fast changes in innovation and in the supply of and interest for specific aptitudes, make issues of change that may need further study.

‘ At the point when job evaluation brings about considerable changes in the current pay structure, the likelihood of executing these progressions in a generally brief time may be limited by the money related breaking points inside which the firm needs to work.

‘ At the point when there is an extensive extent of motivating force workers, it might be hard to keep up a sensible and worthy structure of relative profit.

‘ The methodology of job rating is, to some degree, vague on the grounds that a portion of the components and degrees can be measured with precision.

‘ Job evaluation takes quite a while to finish, requires specific specialized staff and quite expensive.

Methods of job evaluation

Job Ranking:

As indicated by this technique, jobs are arranged from highest to lowest, in place of their worth or legitimacy to the organization. Jobs can likewise be organized by relative trouble in performing them. The jobs are analyzed in general instead of on the premise of essential considers the job; the job at the highest priority on the rundown has the most astounding quality and clearly the job at the base of the rundown will have the least esteem. Jobs are typically positioned in every division and afterward the office rankings are joined to build up an authoritative positioning. The variety in installment of compensations relies on upon the variety of the way of the job performed by the workers. The positioning technique is easy to comprehend and practice and it is ideally equipped for a little association. Its straightforwardness however attempts to its inconvenience in huge associations on the grounds that rankings are hard to grow in an extensive, complex organization. Besides, this sort of positioning is very subjective in nature and may outrage numerous workers. In this way, a more investigative and productive method for job evaluation is called for.

Job Classification:

As per this system, a predetermined number of job groups or job classes are built and jobs are allotted to these characterizations. This technique spots gatherings of jobs into job classes or job grades. Separate classes may incorporate office, administrative, administrative, work force, and so on.

Class I – Executives: Further order under this classification may be Office Manager, Deputy Office administrator, Office director, Departmental chief, and so forth.

Class II – Skilled workers: Under this classification may come the Purchasing partner, Cashier, Receipts assistant, and so forth.

Class III – Semiskilled workers: Under this classification may come Stenotypists, Machine-administrators, Switchboard administrator and so on.

Class IV – Unskilled workers: This classification may involve peons, delivery people, housekeeping staff, File agents, Office young men, and so forth.

The job reviewing system is less subjective when contrasted with the prior positioning strategy. The framework is straightforward and adequate to pretty much all representatives without a second thought. One in number point for the system is that it considers all the elements that a job involves. This framework can be viably utilized for a mixed bag of jobs. The shortcomings of the Grading technique are:

‘ Actually when the prerequisites of distinctive jobs contrast, they may be joined into a solitary class, contingent upon the status a job conveys.

‘ It is hard to compose all inclusive descriptions of a grade.

‘ The system distorts sharp contrasts between diverse jobs and distinctive evaluations.

‘ At the point when individual job depictions and grade portrayals don’t match well, the evaluators tend to characterize the job utilizing their subjective judgments.

The problems that foreign workers face in a host country: essay help online

According to the latest figures CSO (Central Statistical Office), the number of foreign workers in Mauritius has been constantly increasing and is now at approximately 39, 032. From those figures we can state that there are 27, 408 men and 11 624 women. This amount of expatriates is mainly made up of workers coming from Bangladesh, 18 429, from India, 9105, China, 4656 and Madagascar with 3596.

It is the manufacturing sector that employs the largest number of foreign workers, that is29 846, while the construction comes second with 6070 workers. Last September, the ministry of Labour took the decision to freeze the recruitment of foreign workers in the construction sector. In all case, the bar of 40 000 foreign workers in Mauritius will quickly be reached by the end of the year announcing an increase of 20% compared to 2008. Those workers are supposed to be treated the same way as local workers and to take advantage of the local welfare.. Though Mauritius did not signed ICRMW (International Convention on the protection of the Rights of All Migrant Workers), the country needs to apply its own laws. Here, it is the Employees Rights Act (2008) which stipulates all the law concerning any work related issues. This causes the migrant workers to rebel in order to voice out through violent actions. Those persons are actually migrating to another country in order to get a better living conditions, also, promises are made but rarely respected. From the point of view of management, they prefer employing migrants as they are more hard-working, skilled and cheaper compared to a local worker. It is a fact that it is not always easy for the foreign workers to cope with the working conditions applied to them and moreover their cultures and those that we have in Mauritius are not always the same.


The research objectives of this study are:

‘ To explore the different difficulties that the expatriates face in the host country

‘ To explore the foreign workers’ opinions about the way they are treated

‘ Propose recommendations to those organizations who employ foreign workers to improve their working and living conditions.


Wilson & Dalton (1998) describe expatriates as, ‘those who work in a country or culture other than their own.’

Connerly et al. (2008) stated that ‘many scholars have proposed that personal characteristics predict whether individuals will succeed on their expatriate assignment.’ Due to globalization, there is the need for expatriates. Thus, companies dealing with external workers should find ways to solve problems faced by these workers and make them comfortable in their daily life so that they do not want to go back to their native country. (Selmer and Leung, 2002)


1. Culture Shock

Hofstede (2001) defined it as ‘the state of distress following the transfer of a person to an unfamiliar environment which may also be accompanied by physical symptoms’.

According to Dr Kalvero Oberg, expatriates are bound to experience four distinct phases before adapting themselves to another culture.

Those four phases are:

1. A Honeymoon Phase

2. The Negotiation Phase

3. An Adjustment Phase

4. A Reverse Culture Shock

During the Honeymoon Phase, the expatriates are excited to discover their new environment. They are ready to lay aside minor problems in order to learn new things. But eventually, this stage ends somehow.

At the Negotiation Phase or the Crisis Period, the expatriates start feeling homesick and things start to become a burden for them. For example, they might feel discomfort regarding the local language, the public transport systems or the legal procedures of the host country.

Then the Adjustment Phase starts. Six to twelve months after arriving in the new country, most expatriates start to feel accustomed to their new home and know what to expect. Their activities become routines and the host country is now accepted as another place to live. The foreign worker starts to develop problem-solving skills to change their negative attitudes to a more positive one.

The final stage called the Reverse Culture Shock or Re-entry Shock. It occurs when expatriates return to their home country after a long period. They are surprised to find themselves encountering cultural difficulties.

There are physical and psychological symptoms of culture shock such as:

1. Physical factors

‘ Loss of appetite

‘ Digestion problems

2. Cognitive factors

‘ Feeling of isolation/ home sickness

‘ Accusing the host culture for own distress

3- Behavioural factors

‘ Performance deficits

‘ Higher alcohol consumption

2. Communication/ Language Barrier

Communication is crucial to both management and employees. Sometimes, due to this language barrier, employees do not understand what is expected from them. They thus tend to make mistakes at the workplace and conflicts arise between the parties concerned. Also, the language barrier is the major obstacle when it comes to the changing of environment for expatriates. These people usually feel homesick and lonely as they are unable to communicate with the local people they meet. This language problem becomes a barrier in creating new relationships. A special attention must be paid to one’s specific body language signs, conversation tone and linguistic nuances and customs. Communicative ability permits cultural development through interaction with other individuals. Language becomes the mean that promotes the development of culture. Language affects and reflects culture just as culture affects and reflects what is encoded in language. Language learners may be subconsciously influenced by the culture of the learned language. This helps them to feel more comfortable and at ease in the host country.

3. Industrial Laws

Laws are vital for the proper conduct of such activity as that of welcoming expatriates in Mauritius. The Ministry of Labour, Industrial Relations and employment are meant to produce a ‘Guidelines for work permit application (February 2014)’ manual for those organisations which are engaged in this activity. This manual describes procedures that should be followed in case of a Bangladeshi, Chinese or Indian worker. Any breach of the law will lead automatically to severe sanctions.

For example, Non-Citizens (Employment Restriction) Act 1973 which provides, among others, that ‘a non-citizen shall not engage in any occupation in Mauritius for reward or profit or be employed in Mauritius unless there is in force in relation to him a valid work permit.’ A request to the government should be made if an organization wishes to recruit foreign workers in bulk.

Expatriates are human beings so they should have some fundamental ‘Rights’ in the host country. In Mauritius, the contract for employment of foreign workers stipulates all the necessary information concerning the expatriates’ rights, conditions of work, accommodation and remuneration amongst others. This contract is based on the existing Labour law and the contents of the contract are to large extent the same with some slight differences in conditions of work. Mauritius has adopted the good practices in relation to labour migration and has spared no efforts to develop policies and programmes to maximize benefits and minimize its negative consequences. However, there are still improvements to be brought to the living and working conditions of foreign workers.

4. Living Conditions

The NESC published a report in February 2007 which advocated that foreigners working in the island should enjoy the same rights as local workers. In reality, many foreign workers suffer from bad working conditions. Some workers have intolerable living conditions, sleeping in dormitories on benches without mattresses or in tiny bedroom containing many people. Those who intend to voice out or those considered as ‘ring leaders’ are deported.

In 2006, some workers from China and India who tried to form a trade union or to protest were deported. Peaceful demonstrations often turn into riots which the police brutally suppressed.

In August (2007) some 500 Sri Lankans were demanding better wages at the company Tropic Knits and in response, the Mauritian authorities deported 35 of them. At the Companie Mauricienne de Textile, one of the biggest companies of the island employing more than 5,000 people, 177 foreign workers were deported after taking part in an ‘illegal demonstration’ about the lack of running water, the insufficient number of toilets and poor accommodation.

During the year (2011) a visit at two of the Trend Clothing’s Ltd by (Jeppe Blumensaat Rasmussen) shows how several Bangladeshi workers were living under inhumane living conditions. Furthermore, workers were paid an hourly rate of Rs15.50, which was even less than the previous amount of Rs16.57 bringing the monthly salary to an amount of Rs3500 ‘ 5000 depending on overtime. One woman even said that she had work 43 hours and was paid only 32. The Bangladeshi workers were also living in dormitories containing several holes in the ceilings and signs of water damage next to electrical sockets. We also have the case of the migrant Nepal’s workers who decided to leave Mauritius due to their bad working and living conditions. They were living in an old production space which was turn into dormitories, hosting 34 migrants’ workers. There were no water connection in the kitchen and no running water to flush toilets. They also did not receive any allowance and their salary was decreased from Rs5600 to Rs5036 per month. On the 9th June 2011, eight workers wrote a letter to their boss, giving their employer a month notice.

In September (2013) more than 450 Bangladeshi workers working in the textile company, Real Garments, in Pointe-aux-Sables were on strike claiming for better working conditions. They also protested in the streets of Port-Louis and had gone to the Ministry of Labor to submit their claims one day before (L’Express; Mauritius). Fourteen Bangladeshi workers were considered as the main leaders and were deported by the authorities.

5. Foreign workers and Income

Foreign workers take the decision to leave their native country to work in other countries with the aim of making more money and then send it to their family. However, they did not predict that they will be paid less than that was promised to them before their departure to the host country. Some organisations pay them only half of what they were supposed to. Having already signed their contract, they are forced to work hard for a low salary. Many Bangladeshis, Indians or Chinese choose to leave the host country after their contract termination and the more courageous ones stay and renew their contract for more years. Despite their low paid jobs, it is still better than in their native country where they are even more exploited or where life is far more difficult for them.

The Employment Rights Act (2008) stipulate that if a local worker ‘works on a public holiday, he shall be remunerated at twice the national rate per hour for every hour of work performed.’

However, some expatriates who are forced to work on a public holiday are usually paid the same amount as a usual day. As human beings, they should be treated as any other worker either local or foreign, with the same rights and possibilities.

6. Unions

Unionism is about workers standing together to improve their situation, and to help others. Some unions are reactive, that is waiting for the employer to act and then choosing how to attack or respond and others are proactive, that is developing their own agenda and then advancing it wherever it’s possible. When unions and management fail to reach agreement, or where relations break down, the union has the option of pursuing industrial action through a strike, a go-slow, a work-to-rule, a slow-down, an overtime ban or an occupation.

However, the Expatriates are often not aware of the law protecting their rights (e.g. many migrant workers are not informed of the laws that provide them with the same level of protection as Mauritian nationals and Employers refused to recognize union representatives. It is also often difficult for unions to get access to and organize for foreign workers.

An ICFTU-AFRO (the African regional organization of the former International Confederation of Free Trade Unions) mission to Mauritius in February 2004 was told that the few men they saw were mainly supervisors who were said to be hostile to unions.

During 2006 there were a series of reports that workers from China and India who had tried to form a trade union or protest against their employers had been summarily deported. On 23 May 2006, policemen armed with shields and truncheons beat female workers from Novel Garments holding a sit-in in the courtyard of the factory in Coromandel protesting against plans to transfer them to other production units.

According to the MAURITIUS 2012 HUMAN RIGHTS REPORT, section 7: Worker Rights, a. Freedom of Association and the Right to collective Bargaining, the constitution and law provide for the rights of workers, including foreign workers, to form and join independent unions, conduct legal strikes, and bargain collectively With the exception of police, the Special Mobile Force, and persons in government services who were not executive officials, workers were free to form and join unions and to organize in all sectors, including in the Export Oriented Enterprises (EOE), formerly known as the Export Processing Zone.

Alzheimer's disease (AD): college essay help online

Alzheimer’s disease (AD) is the most common cause of dementia and chronic neurodegenerative disorder among the aging population. Dementia is a syndrome characterized by progressive illnesses affecting memory, thinking, behavior and everyday performance of an individual. Dementia affects older people, but 2% of people starts developing before the age of 65 years (Organization 2006). According to the Worlds Alzheimer Report 2014, 44 million of people are living with dementia all across the globe and its set to get doubled by 2030 and triples by 2050 (Prince, Albanese et al. 2014). Its estimated that 5.2 million Americans have AD in 2014 (Weuve, Hebert et al. 2014). This includes 200,000 individuals under 65 age have early onset of AD and 5 million people of age 65 and above (Weuve, Hebert et al. 2014). Women are affected more than men in AD and other dementias (Weuve, Hebert et al. 2014). Among 5 million people of above 65 years of age, 3.2 million are women and 1.8 million are men (Weuve, Hebert et al. 2014). The Multiple factors that leads to AD are age, genetics, environmental factors, head trauma, depression, diabetes mellitus, hyperlipidemia, and vascular factors. There are no treatments for AD that slows or stops the death and malfunctioning of neurons in the brain, indeed many therapies and drugs are aimed in slowing or stopping neuronal malfunction (Association 2014). Currently five drugs have been approved by the U.S food and Drug Administration to improve symptoms of AD by increasing the amount of neurotransmitters in the brain (Association 2014). It has been estimated that Medicare and Medicaid covered $150 billion of total health care for long duration care for individuals suffering for AD and other dementias (Association 2014).

Diagnostic criteria

Neurological and Communicative Disorders and Stroke’Alzheimer’s Disease and Related Disorders Association (NINCDS’ADRDA) in 1984 proposed a criteria which is as follows (1) clinical diagnosis of AD could only be designated as ‘probable’ while the patient was alive and could not be made definitively until Alzheimer’s pathology had been confirmed post mortem (McKhann, Drachman et al. 1984) and (2) the clinical diagnosis of AD could be assigned only when the disease had advanced to the point of causing significant functional disability and met the threshold criterion of dementia (McKhann, Drachman et al. 1984).

In 2007, IWG proposed criteria that AD could be recognized in vivo and independently of dementia in the presence of two features (Dubois, Feldman et al. 2007). The first criteria was a core clinical that require evidence of a specific episodic memory profile characterized by a low free recall that is normalized by cueing (Dubois and Albert 2004). The second is the presence of biomarker evidence on AD which include (1) structural MRI, (2) Neuroimaging using PET (18F-2-fluoro-2-deoxy-D-glucose PET [FDG PET] or 11C-labelled Pittsburgh compound B PET [PiB PET]), and (3) CSF analysis of amyloid ?? (A??) or tau protein (total tau [T-tau] and phosphorylated tau [P-tau]) concentrations (Dubois, Feldman et al. 2007)

In 2011, the NIA and Alzheimer’s association proposed guidelines to help pathologist and categorizing the brain changes with AD and other dementias (Hyman, Phelps et al. 2012). Based on the changes absorbed, they classified into three stages (a) preclinical Alzheimer’s disease, (b) mild cognitive impairment (MCI) due to Alzheimer’s disease, (c) Dementia due to Alzheimer’s disease (Hyman, Phelps et al. 2012). In pre-clinical AD, the individual have changes in the cerebrospinal fluid but they don’t develop memory loss. This reflects that Alzheimer’s related brain changes occur 20 years onset before the symptom occurs (Petersen, Smith et al. 1999, H??nninen, Hallikainen et al. 2002, Reiman, Quiroz et al. 2012). In MCI due to AD, individuals suffering from MCI has some notable changes in thinking that could be absorbed among family members and friends, but do not meet criteria for dementia (Petersen, Smith et al. 1999, H??nninen, Hallikainen et al. 2002, Reiman, Quiroz et al. 2012). Various studies show that 10 to 20% of individual of age 65 or above have MCI (Petersen, Smith et al. 1999, H??nninen, Hallikainen et al. 2002, Reiman, Quiroz et al. 2012). Its is estimated that 15% and 10% progress from MCI to dementia and AD every year (Manly, Tang et al. 2008). In Dementia due to AD, Individual is characterized by having problem in memory, thinking and behavioral symptom that affects his routine life (Association 2014).

In 2014, IWG proposed criteria for maintaining the principle of high specificity, based on the framework they classified as follows (1). Typical AD can be diagnosed in the presence of an amnestic syndrome of the hippocampal type, which could be associated with different cognitive or behavioral changes and having one of following changes in vivo AD pathology such as decreased A??42 together with increased T-tau or P-tau concentration in CSF or increased retention on amyloid tracer PET (Dubois, Feldman et al. 2014). (2) Atypical AD could be made in the presence of the following, which includes clinical phenotypes that is consistent with one of the known atypical presentation and at-least one of the following changes indicating in-vivo AD pathology (Dubois, Feldman et al. 2014). (3) Mixed AD can be made in patients with typical or atypical phenotypic feature of AD and presence of at-least one biomarker of AD pathology (Dubois, Feldman et al. 2014). (4) Preclinical states of AD require absence of clinical symptoms of AD (typical or atypical phenotypes) and inclusion of at-least one biomarker of AD pathology for identifying the presence of asymptomatic at-risk state or the presence of a proven AD autosomal dominant mutation of chromosome 1, 14 or 21 for the diagnosis of presymptomatic change (Dubois, Feldman et al. 2014). (5) To differentiate biomarkers of AD diagnosis from those of AD progression (Dubois, Feldman et al. 2014).


Dr. Alois Alzheimer, a German physician in 1906 observed pathologic abnormalities in autopsied brain of women who suffered from memory related problems, confusion and language trouble (Prince, Albanese et al. 2014). He found the presence of plaques deposits outside the neurons and tangles inside the brain cells (Prince, Albanese et al. 2014). Thus, the senile plaques and neurofibrillary tangles have became two pathological hallmarks of AD (Prince, Albanese et al. 2014).

The histological hallmarks of AD in brain are intracellular deposition of microtubule-associated tau protein called neurofibrillary tangles (NTF) and extracellular accumulation of amyloid ?? peptide (A??) in senile plaques (Bloom 2014). A?? derived from the larger glycoprotein called amyloid precursor protein (APP) can processed through two pathways amyloidogenic and non-amyloidogenic (Gandy 2005) . In amyloidogenic pathway ??-secretase and ??-secretase proteolysis APP to produce soluble amyloid precursor protein ?? (sAPP??) and a carboxyl terminal fragment CTF?? (C99) to produce A?? peptides (Gandy 2005). Alternatively APP is proteolysed by the action of ?? and ??- secretase generating soluble amino terminal fragments (sAPP??) and a carboxyl terminal fragment CTF?? (C83) to produce non amyloidogenic peptide (Esch, Keim et al. 1990, Buxbaum, Thinakaran et al. 1998).

Figure 1. Amyloidogenic and non-amyloidogenic pathways of APP

APP is cleaved by ??-?? secretases (amyloidogenic) releasing amyloid A?? peptide(s) or by ??-?? secretases (non-amyloidogenic), adapted from (Read and Suphioglu 2013)

The amino acid sequences of A?? include A??42 and A??40. During normal condition A??40 is 10-fold higher concentration level, when compared to A??42 central nervous system (CNS) (Haass, Schlossmacher et al. 1992). However during inflammation, stress and injury in the brain causes A??40 and A??42 for a dynamic change and leads to an upregulation of A??42. In AD A??42 accumulates as misfolded proteins in extracellular space (Gurol, Irizarry et al. 2006).

Tau is a microtubule-associated protein (MAP), most abundant in central and peripheral nervous system that help in assembly and stabilizing of microtubules that is crucial among the cellular morphology and trafficking (Tolnay and Probst 1999, Iqbal, Liu et al. 2010, Cohen, Guo et al. 2011). NFT is the major hallmarks of AD patients in brain. In AD, phosphorylation of tau leads to the loss of neuronal function and death. Degeneration of synapse strongly correlates with cognitive decline in AD, while soluble oligomeric tau contribute to synapse degeneration (Morris, Maeda et al. 2011). Although, the protein aggregating into NFT are unclear, number of NFT and the progression of neurodegeneration as well as dementia showed a significant positive correlation in AD (Cohen, Guo et al. 2011) (Arnaud, Robakis et al. 2006).

Figure 2. AD pathology

Deposition of A?? and tau in neurons. The boxes shows the different biomarkers which are used for examination, adapted from (Nordberg 2015)


A characteristic that is objectively measured and evaluated as an indicator of normal biological processes, pathogenic process or pharmacologic responses to a therapeutic intervention (Atkinson, Colburn et al. 2001).The pathology of neurodegenerative for individuals is provided by using imaging and fluid biomarkers (Dickerson, Wolk et al. 2013).

CSF Biomarkers

The CSF biomarkers play a major role in diagnosing probable AD. However, abnormality in the CSF is found long before the symptoms occur.

Amyloid beta (A??) is synthesized in brain and diffused into CSF. In cognitively normal individuals A?? appears in moderate condition, however for individuals suffering from AD has reduced A??42 in CSF which act as an useful biomarker during diagnosis (Sunderland, Linker et al. 2003). The low levels of A??42 appears at-least 20 years prior to clinical dementia in individuals with familial AD mutations (Ringman, Coppola et al. 2012). In addition, reduced levels of A??42 appear early in cognitively normal which precedes MCI by years (Fagan, Head et al. 2009). Therefore A??42 cannot be used individually as a specific biomarkers in discriminating from other dementia hence it should be combined with other biomarkers for determining specific dementia.

Tau in CSF relates with the progression of tau related pathology in cerebral cortex. Increased in the tau level in CSF for AD patients reflects the neuronal loss in brain (de Souza, Chupin et al. 2012). Similarly, like A??42 elevation in tau seems to occur at cognitive normal individuals (Fagan, Head et al. 2009). Hence its important to consider other biomarker for differential diagnosis of AD. Moreover, phosphorylated (p)-tau have 85% sensitivity and 97% specificity in discriminating AD from other neurological disorder (Tan, Yu et al. 2014). P-tau is therefore more superior to t-tau in differentiating diagnosis, thus helps in overcoming the short coming of A??42 and t-tau in differentiating diagnosis (Buerger, Zinkowski et al. 2002). CSF t-tau and p-tau occurs after A??42 initially aggregates and increases as amyloid accumulates (Buchhave, Minthon et al. 2012).

Imaging Biomarkers

Structural MRI

Structural MRI studies helps in subjects diagnosed with AD and MCI who consistently show change in atrophy in entorhinal cortex and hippocampus of medial temporal lobe (MTL) and cortical thinning in AD signature region are the MRI sign of emerging AD (Du, Schuff et al. 2001). MRI studies focus on normal subjects who have maternal history of AD, has reduced volume of MTL and precuneus (Berti, Mosconi et al. 2011). Voxel based analysis on whole brain determines the structural MRI could be used to identify the presence of brain atrophy in cortical regions up to 10 years before clinical symptoms of AD, with greater impact in MTL (Du, Schuff et al. 2001).

Positron Emission Tomography (PET)

PET is based on the principle of spontaneous emission of positron by the nuclei of unstable radionuclide, whose number of protons exceeds that of electrons (Granov, Tiutin et al. 2013). PET images in-vivo distribution of radiopharmaceutical substances with higher resolution and sensitivity (Fahey 2003). The positron which is a ??-particle with positive charge annihilates with an electron of negative charge, releasing equal number of gamma photons of same energy (511 keV) moving in 180 degree opposite to each other to conserve momentum (Kukekov and Fadeev 1986, Fahey 2003).

The components involved in the PET scanner are movable bed, detector, gantry and computer. The detector consist of multiple crystals attached with a photomultipliers (Granov, Tiutin et al. 2013). The interaction among the gamma photon and crystal produces scintillation which induces electric impulse in the photomultipliers and could be detected and processed using computer (Khmelev, Shiryaev et al. 2004). If the two detectors are in coincidence, then the positron emitted along the line connects the detectors which is termed as line of response (LOR) (Fahey 2003).In most of the scanners the two detectors are in coincidence, if they are detected with in 10 seconds (Fahey 2003). The sensitivity of the PET can be increased by increasing the number of detectors into a ring. The data examined from the individual is acquired in computer in the form of sinogram. There are different techniques of reconstruction such as filtered back projection (FBP), Iterative Method, OSEM are used for reconstructing an image. In modern PET scanners, LSO crystals with minimum size are used which permits high resolving capacity, high resolution, effective algorithm for image reconstruction and field of view sufficient for single stage scanning of the brain or heart (Granov, Tiutin et al. 2013).

The cyclotron, a particle accelerator provides the production of radionuclides for clinical use. Heavy particles are accelerated to a higher energy level of 5-100MeV using cyclotron (Granov, Tiutin et al. 2013). The beam of particles is focused on the target substance by using radio magnetic lens. The target material is bombarded with heavy particle to generate the required radionuclide (Granov, Tiutin et al. 2013).

The requirements of a good tracer which include higher affinity towards the target receptor, selectivity versus other receptors (Bmax / Kd of at least 10-fold,where Bmax is the density of the receptor and Kd is the concentration of the radiotracer) and good permeability (McCarthy, Halldin et al. 2009). The tracers has to be a poor substrate of p-glycoprotein if it has been developed for imaging targets in brain (Terasaki and Hosoya 1999). It has been found that low hydrogen bonding plays an important role in predicting good PET tracers (McCarthy, Halldin et al. 2009). For a good tracers, time to binding equilibrium should be long relative to washout of non-specifically bound tracer, but short relative to isotope decay (McCarthy, Halldin et al. 2009) .

Amyloid PET

PET imaging of amyloid binding agent Pittsburg compound B (PET-PiB) helps to determine the ??-amyloid (A??) and its distribution over the brain that were previously restricted to postmortem studies. The longitudinal study provided evidence relating with a direct relationship between PET-PiB and likelihood of conversion from clinical diagnosis of MCI to AD over three years (Klunk 2011). Since there is significant overlap between amyloid imaging and CSF- A??42, researchers attempt to address the areas where these two biomarkers may be equivalent and areas where one measurement could hold unique advantages (Vlassenko, Mintun et al. 2011). In addition, current hypothesis states that higher amyloid burden assessed by florbetapir 18F (18F-AV-45) amyloid PET is related with lower memory performance among clinically normal older subjects (Sperling, Johnson et al. 2013).


FDG-PET (2-deoxy-2[18F]fluoro-D-glucose) is one of the neurodegeneration biomarkers included in the new research criteria proposed for the various diagnosis of AD by the International working group (IWG) in 2007 and 2010, also in the new diagnostic criteria of AD by National Institute of Aging-Alzheimer Association (NIA-AA) (McKhann, Drachman et al. 1984, Dubois, Feldman et al. 2007, Dubois, Feldman et al. 2014). FDG-PET measures the local glucose metabolism for neuronal activity at resting state to asses cerebral function. It is evident that AD individuals has reduced FDG uptake predominantly in tempoparietal association areas, precuneus and posterior cingulate region (Minoshima, Giordani et al. 1997). These changes could be observed in subjects from 1-2 year before the onset of dementia and are closely related to cognitive impairment (Herholz 2010). Although MRI is more sensitive in detecting and monitoring hippocampal atrophy (Fox and Kennedy 2009), FDG is more sensitive in detecting neuronal dysfunction in neocortical association areas. Hence FDG is well suited for monitoring the progression of the disease syndrome (Alexander, Chen et al. 2002).

Regional functional impairment of glucose metabolism in AD is related with the severity and progression of different cognitive deficits (Langbaum, Chen et al. 2009)


Great Britain had colonized the nation of India amid the 1700’s when East India organization picked up control of India in 1757 however the Company ruled India without impedance from British Government until 1800s With the measure of crude materials and the developing business for British products, the British government starts to build its control. In 1858, British government takes complete control of India after the Sepoy Mutiny and the British subdued and displayed bigotry against local Indians. Indian nationalistic developments, for example, ones drove by the Indian National Congress, had endeavored endeavors at lead toward oneself yet had never been entirely effective. The immense supporter of a free India, Gandhi, was influential in the Indian Pro-independence Movement. Known as the Mahatma, or the Great Soul, Gandhi constrained change and an end to British colonization through a strict approach of peacefulness, or detached resistance. This development picked up energy after the world war 1 however the llianwala Bagh Massacre where number of individuals had gathered at Jallianwala Bagh in Amritsar for going to the yearly Baisakhi reasonable were encompass by the armed force at the requests of General Dyer and opened fire on the swarm, slaughtering several individuals. The Aftermath of this slaughter brought about general hubbub when the swarms took to the roads in numerous north Indian towns. The British utilized ruthless suppression, trying to embarrass and threaten individuals. Individuals were flagellated and towns were besieged and this savagery constrained Gandhi to stop the development

A feeling of solidarity and patriotism was motivated by history and fiction, folktale and melodies, prevalent prints and images. Abanindranath Tagore’s picture of Bharat Mata and Bankim Chandra melody Vande Mataram united numerous individuals and groups During the Swadeshi Movement; a tri-shading (red, green and yellow) banner was outlined. It had eight lotuses speaking to eight regions of British India and a sickle moon, speaking to Hindus and Muslims In 1921, Gandhi had planned the tri-shading Swaraj banner (red, green and yellow) with the turning wheel at the focal point. This banner spoke to the Gandhian perfect of self improvement and turned into an image of resistance. This ingrained pride and united the Indians.

However Despite the impact of Gandhi, India fell into confusion. Hindu individuals needed an all-Hindu state and Muslims, drove by the Muslim League needed a different state. Gandhi was killed in light of this contention. In the end, Pakistan was framed as a different Muslim state. Along these lines, the quality and will of the basic individuals both attained to Indian autonomy and shredded India. The tale of Mahatma Gandhi and Indian patriotism is one of history’s most prominent ironies


Soon after the end of World War II, most European countries were sometime during closure magnificent control of Africa. Skillet Africanism got to be overwhelming on the mainland of Africa. Container Africanism is a nationalistic development that requires the solidarity of all African countries. While is has immense impact, for example, the African National Council, it has never succeeded in uniting all of Africa. Difference and a hefty portion of the issues confronting Africa since the end of WWII into present-day can be faulted for European colonialism. Political defilement is uncontrolled in light of the fact that European colonialists left without making stable governments. Ethnic pressure exists in light of the fact that European fringes were made with no idea given to the tribal framework. Tribalism is one of the greatest impediments to Africa in light of the fact that conventional adversaries were contained inside one European-made outskirt. A decent sample of ethnic strain is the contention between the Hutus and Tutsis in which 1,000’s on both sides were slaughtered and numerous more fled to Zaire to look for shelter. Both the countries of Rwanda and Burundi had noteworthy populaces of Hutus and Tutsis, both customary tribes. Notwithstanding the mind-boggling issues, there have been some significant achievements where patriotism has brought about positive change.

The principal Arab-Israeli clash set two nationalistic developments against one another. The War for Independence (1948-49) was the disappointment of the Arab world to prevent Israel from being framed as a Jewish sovereign state. This war brought about Jerusalem falling under the control of the Israelis and the end to a proposed arrangement for a free Palestinian state to be shaped. The Suez War of 1956 brought about Nasser’s Egypt losing control of the Sinai Peninsula, debilitating the dependability of the immeasurably critical Suez Canal. The Six-Day War of 1967 saw large portions of the encompassing Arab countries assault Israel and afterward continue to lose region (the challenged ranges recorded above) to Israel in under a week. The Yom Kippur War of 1973 was an Egyptian assault over the Sinai and turned into a Cold War occasion as the Americans and Soviets got to be included. Nasser’s successor, Anwar al-Sadat, (envisioned here) was the first Arab pioneer to perceive Israel as a country. For this alone, he was killed, viably finishing any endeavors at enduring peace. The contention proceeds with today.


During the days of empire-building, the nation now called Ghana was called the Gold Coast, an English settlement. The nationalist leader Kwame Nkrumah called on the souls of the African people by renaming the obviously imperial European “Gold Coast” to something that back to the golden age of western Africa, the Empire of Ghana. As he was a believer in the principles of Gandhi. He established autonomy for Ghana through civil defiance and passive resistance. Through the superiority and bravery of Nkrumah and the Ghanaian people, Great Britain left. To quote the words of Nkrumah, “No people without a government of their own can expect to be treated on the same level as people of independent sovereign states. It is far better to be free to govern or misgovern yourself than to be governed by anybody else . . .


The situation in the British colony of Kenya was similar to Ghana. The exploitation of Kenyan resources and oppression of its people were the typical traits of British domination. The path to independence, however, was radically different. Kenya’s nationalist leader, Jomo Kenyatta, initiated his movement by means of passive confrontation. However, Great Britain refused to end its imperial rule of Kenya and had confined Kenyatta for paramilitary warfare he may or may not have asked for. Irrespective, the Mau Mau, Kenyan guerilla troops, resisted British troops until Great Britain released Kenyatta and left in 1963 with Kenyatta as the prime minister of a free Kenya.

South Africa:

The circumstance in South Africa was distinctive. It had encountered colonialism, however the nation had picked up self-rule when the new century rolled over. White setters called Afrikaners had control of the South African government and had forced a social structure known as apartheid. Apartheid comprised of two social classes, upper white and lower dark. The races were kept separate and unequal, with the dark populace enduring awful ill-uses. Illustrations of this misuse incorporate pass cards for blacks just, voting rights for whites just, and isolated reservations called Home Lands.

However the most acclaimed of all African patriot pioneers Nelson Mandela talked against these segregations and began his hostile to apartheid developments. Anyhow Mandela, because of taking a stand in opposition to apartheid, was detained for a long time and not discharged until the mid 1990’s. South African president F.W. De Klerk liberated Mandela and finished the bigot convention. In 1994, South Africa had its first free race and Mandela was chosen president. Mandela and De Klerk earned the Nobel Peace Prize together for their endeavors.

Canada Current Immigration Policies: essay help online free

A policy is a plan or course of action that an organized body undertakes to guide in decision making and other matters. Immigration policies are meant to guide the immigration of people into a country for which ever reason. Canada is a country found on the northern part of North America’s continent. It has ten provinces and three territories. Canada is a constitutional monarchy and a federal parliamentary democracy headed by queen Elizabeth II. It is a bilingual state that has a diverse cultural base owing to the large influx of immigrants to the country. The country’s economy is among the world largest since it depends on its natural resources and developed trade networks.

Canada has been shaped greatly by immigration in society and culture. With Its small population and large tracts of unoccupied Canada’s immigration policy was fuelled by the need for expansion with immigrants encouraged to settle in rural areas .In the early 20th century the country began to control the flow of immigrants using policies that excluded the applicants of non Europeans .1n 1976 new laws removed the ethnic criteria and it became a destination for all from a variety of countries.

There are three categories of immigrants the family class which consists of those closely related, independent immigrants who are admitted on the basis of skill capital and labor market requirements and refugees. When applying for settlement immigration officers are instructed to give priority to family reunifications and refugees before independent job seekers with skill or capital without families. Arrivals in the family category are usually unskilled or the skills they posses do not match the community they have settled in thus disrupting the labor market. This results to economic insecurity which might create disappointment and hostility among the immigrants or among Canadians who feel threatened by the newcomers.

Canada’s immigration policy encourages dispersal of immigrants across the country. Current policy has attempted to encourage immigrants to settle in smaller communities in the less-populated province of Canada. The organizations within the society that are tasked with the formulation of immigration policies and regulations are churches, employers, organized labor groups and community-based and ethnic organizations. Many of these organizations aims is to promote family reunification and to attain financial adjustment schemes.

Canada policy is non discriminatory to ethnicity however individuals suffering from diseases that pose a danger to the public, those with no clear means of financial support or criminals and terrorists are excluded. An undetermined number of persons in this undesired category have however gained entry through back doors while others who have been admitted rightfully on short term visas choose to remain by extending the time permitted by the Canadian law. The group of those entering the country illegally has grown for the recent and has become a major challenge to the government especially at border crossings and airports. This group usually operate in low tones and are unnoticed till they try to acquire some public service which will bring them to the attention of government authorities .the government is working towards sealing any loop holes that have facilitated the admission of persons not authorized under the current regulations and legislations. Claims falsified by refugees status trying to avoid normal overseas screening and processing constitute one of the more serious problems confronting immigration officials.

In accommodating the immigrants Canada provides immigrants with language training and access to Canada’s national health care and social welfare programs. However, the immigrants in the 80s do not match the economical success of those in the 90s and many find difficulty in finding jobs according to their qualifications. Other immigrants are not fluent in either English or French to be able to exploit their degrees while other qualifications are not recognized by the country.In employment a Canadian born income rises same as those of European origin individuals unlike the non -white Canadians who receive low income rates.

The admission of highly skilled professionals to Canada from less developed countries has continued to provoke controversy since the governments of these countries where these immigrants originate complain of poaching of people they cannot afford to lose. Canada has maintained the need for freedom of movements of people in the midst of the controversy that it should not encourage the outflow of trained individuals from the regions that require there services.

For the immigrants who are seeking asylum Canada is known for having a fairly liberal policy on asylum. Any person who arrives in Canada can apply for refugee status at any border, airport, or immigration office inside the country. Anyone who arrives and claims to be a refugee Canada will look at the claim even if they are could not be as considered to be a in other countries. The process is divided into two a claim is submitted to Citizenship and Immigration Canada . CIC determines within three days whether the claim is eligible to be referred to the Immigration and Refugee Board , the body that makes the final determination as to whether the applicant will receive protected status. After a person has received refugee status, he or she can apply for permanent residency. This system has been criticized as to encourage backdoor applications and posing a threat to security since after they apply they are free to move around as they wait for their determination

The Canadian policy is divide into two parts temporary entry to the country and permanent entry. Under the temporary entry one can apply while inside the country or outside the country. While outside the one applies for a visitor visa when they wish to visit the country as a tourist or a visitor. The purpose of such a visit should be to visit relatives, to attend a business meeting, to attend a conference or convention, pleasure trip or participating in a cultural show. the second class is the student authorization or the student visa which is granted to a person who wishes to come to the country to study as an international student. The third class is the employment authorization or work permit which is granted to one who wishes to come to Canada and work for a Canadian company. It is referred to work permit visa in many countries. Under any of this classes one can apply for an extension of their visas while they are within the country. While in the country one may apply for an immigrant visa as a conventional refugee also referred to as a political asylum work permit visa as a live-in-caregiver known as a domestic help, immigrant visa of Canada as a spouse granted to an application made if one gets married in Canada while on a temporary visa and immigrant visa of Canada under humanitarian and compassionate reasons. If an individual changes the visa status this may lead to permanent immigration visa of Canada.

One can apply for permanent immigration to Canada under three categories while outside Canada. In the independent class assessment is done based on a point system. It is a very popular class also called professional class or skilled worker class. This category is based on an individual’s desire to come to Canada based on qualification, work experience and knowledge of English or French. The other class is the entrepreneur class investor class or self employed class. It is also known as business migration class. Entrepreneur class and self employed is for individuals who wish to start a business in Canada while the investor class is for those who do not wish to start a business in Canada. Applying for immigrant visa to Canada under the family class is for those who have close relatives in Canada under family sponsorship.

Canadian citizens and permanent residents may make an application to sponsor their relatives under the class of family class relatives and private sponsorship for refugees. Another application is by a permanent resident if one wishes to stay outside Canada for more than six months and wants to return. It’s called a return resident permit. A person can be granted Canadian citizenship provided he or she is a permanent resident of Canada for more than three years. When applying for proof of citizenship, also called citizenship certificate the applicant may do this while within or outside of Canada.

Canada is currently a country of choice for many people from all over the world. That may not be the case in future, especially for highly skilled people. The current policies have both positive and negative effects to the society of Canada.. Some of the positive impacts of the current policies include refocusing the federal skilled worker program, an initiative to bring in skilled trades to the country who bring with them jobs and investments.

Increased protection for caregivers who come into the country for the nanny jobs or housekeeping. Those who go into foreign countries are usually abused by their workers at times and end up working in deplorable conditions such as working for long hours without time to rest, depriving them day-offs and confiscation of vital documents such as passports for the immigrants. Some also face sexual harassment which is against the laws .The immigrants are thus faced with difficult conditions yet they cannot report or if reported they cannot get help. The current policies have therefore come in handy to protect this individuals from such torture. Permanent resident status to be granted to eligible students. The students who apply for student visas and perform exemplary well will be granted permanent residency in Canada after completion of studies. This can enable students to acquire citizenship and settle in the country after completion of studies. This ensures a retention of skilled people to work towards the growth of the economy.

The current policies have helped in addressing the current short-term labor market needs for the country because of the small population of Canada which cannot meet its labor requirements. The immigrants solve the labor situation which otherwise the country would not have addressed.

These policies have their negative sides. In the long term Canada will be viewed as no longer welcoming as it was. These include decision to wipe out immigration application backlogs legislatively. The applications of immigrants to get visas for whatever reason has been denied by immigration officers thus preventing serious developments on either the job market or education sector. A suspension or delay on family sponsorships which will deny the coming in of family to reunite with the rest of the families. This will affect the status of those who seek to migrate to Canada for the fear of being isolated from their families.

Reliance on temporary foreign workers to meet labor market needs. These has affected the attitude of the skilled workers who jet into the country and have not been able to get jobs. The Canadian citizens at times feel insecure by the immigration of the people into the country since they view them as a threat to their jobs and opportunities in the country. Hostility has been reported against the immigrants to an extent of some losing their lives. Organized crime has been witnessed against the immigrants to scare them so as to instill fear in them.

Tightened citizenship requirements which has locked out a lot of people who have genuine reasons to apply for the citizenship. Some of the requirement has locked out skilled workers and potential job creators to get into the country. Jobs would have boost the economic state of the country but due to the being looked out vast opportunities are also shut out. A list of refugees tagged as safe whose claims would be checked vigorously to determine if the claims are true. This has affected those who genuinely seek to immigrate as refugees.

Mandatory detention of asylum seekers who arrive for the fear terrorist or criminal activities especially after the 9/11 attack on the us. The asylum seekers will not be allowed to walk freely before the determination of their pending applications. This usually creates unnecessary anxiety for the asylum seekers.

These policies are made in a flashy speed and the breadth of them is likely not to be understood by the masses. The way the policies interact with each other is also an issue that will impact negatively on the society.


The current policies on immigration has impacted the society of Canada in both negative and positive ways. Some have been very fruitful to the growth of the economy and the cultural state of the country. The cultural state of the country has been made diverse by the different origins of the immigrants. the economic growth has been made possible by the influx of highly qualified individuals to the job market and the coming in of investors and job creators.

Canada has however been accused of poaching of the best brains from less developed and still developing countries worldwide. In its defense however it has said that there is freedom of movement for all the people.

In general the current immigration policies have helped in several ways for the betterment of the society but has introduced some problems too to the people living in Canada.

Sex Offenders in the Community

The United States government has rules in place to register the names of sex offenders, but unfortunately seems to overlook the idea of sex offenders living near children. In that respect, there is an injustice in the fact that sex offenders live on the same streets as children without parole officers making this information explicit to the parents. There are many child molesters who, even if they do have a professional job, work near minors. The government has laws, which state that a sex offender must be registered, but there are no laws saying that a sex offender cannot live around children. I do not agree with the idea that sex offenders are allowed to live in communities near children. In order to keep our children safe, child molesters should be banned from living and working near a school.

Realistically, allowing sex offenders to continue living near school systems enables them to target individuals, the majority of which are adolescents. Unknowingly, I worked with a sex offender when I was sixteen. Between the ages of sixteen and eighteen, a different sex offender targeted me. Any child could come into contact with a situation in which she is vulnerable and unaware of the danger. As a young person, one should not have to worry about whether or not he or she will be a victim of rape or sexual assault. I was fortunate enough not to be a victim, but I could have been. There was another situation where I had to stay with my grandparents for a period of time because my parents were fearful of the child molester who lived nearby. These are perfect examples of why we need laws that regulate an offender’s proximity to young children. Individuals should not have to be frightened in their daily life.

According to Understanding Child Molesters, there are a number of ways in which a sex offender may be disciplined, including probation, parole, and incarceration. When an individual decides to assault another person, there are consequences, such as having a parole officer, experiencing felony or misdemeanor changes, and registering as a sex offender’among many other methods of discipline. Even though a sex offender has to register every year, he is able to continue living in the community. This registration is compiled into an online database, but some individuals may have difficulty accessing this information due to a lack of technology. Sometimes sex offenders even have jobs where they work with minors and this should be prevented to minimize the perpetuation of a reoccurring crime.

The Washington Department of Corrections goes into further detail regarding sex offenders who live in our communities. The sex offenders must allow their parole officers to know where they live, and the parole officers must visit the sex offender regularly. Parole officers must be notified if the sex offender moves, and the parole officer must also approve of where the offender lives. From this point, sex offenders must become registered and allow the neighborhood to know that they are living within the community (‘Rules’). Registration alone is not sufficient because having their name on list will not prevent sex offenders from committing future sexual assault.

After a person becomes known as a sex offender, he must follow precise supervision. A parole officer will then monitor the offender for a period of time that is determined by the court system. Then, the offender will register as a child molester, and continue to do so indefinitely. By order of the court, he cannot leave the state. A parole officer will make a determination of whether or not the sex offender is allowed to live in a particular location. If the offender decides to move, he must also get the approval of the parole officer (‘Rules’).

The offender’s parole officer will ensure that the offender does not have possession of a computer or any other forms of media. Having possession of magazines, computers, televisions, phones, or any similar item could enable the offender to have access to pornography. The offender must also ensure not to attend any events partaking in an adults’ club. Essentially, the offender must stray from any type of pornography or sexual setting. If an offender decides to date or marry, the potential candidate must be notified of the offender’s criminal history (‘Rules’).

In addition to notifying the potential dating or marriage partner, a sex offender must also alert family and friends of the incident. Once a person becomes labeled as a sex offender, the neighborhood must be aware that there is a sex offender living amongst the community (‘Rules’). The public is only notified via a website they can visit if they choose, but this information should be presented to them more explicitly. There are many individuals who do not know how to use a computer. A parole officer should visit the neighbors to discuss safety protocol and other warnings. The offender’s address should be shared with all of the local residents, as well as individuals who find the offense report on the internet. Having the offender’s information online is not sufficient. In order to protect children, we must make better efforts to notify the community in a better way. Making sure that the public is aware of sex offenders in the community is crucial, and may save the lives of many children.

Sex offenders may be required to attend counseling sessions, for the duration of time determined by the court system. The offender must continue to update the parole officer to ensure proper attendance of the sessions. A polygraph may be used on the offender, if necessary. He is required to submit to the polygraph, as well as any drug tests that may be administered. With that being said, the offender must refrain from consuming alcohol or using drugs. Taking a polygraph and being drug-free are required to show that the offender is making changes in his life. Ideally, making these requests is to ensure that the offender will not sexually assault another child.

The offender cannot, by any means, contact the victim of the crime. Possible contact of the victim is one of the reasons as to why the offender cannot have a phone or a computer. Offenders cannot have any methods of communication with the victim, but the offenders still live in communities, near children. Since the offenders cannot contact their victims, it is essential that the offenders not be able to contact other innocent children. Seeking Justice in Child Sexual Abuse explains that, ‘Child abuse is one of the most difficult crimes to detect and prosecute, in large part because there often are no witnesses except the victim,’ (Staler 3). Unfortunately, many times when a minor is sexually assaulted, there are no witnesses. Having a sex offender near school districts enables more children to possibly be harmed and ultimately, there may not be any witnesses.

Through Civil Disobedience, Thoreau argues that breaking laws is sometimes necessary. Thoreau goes on to justify his argument, saying that breaking the law can often be the only thing that changes the mindsets of individuals. In a parallel example of Thoreau’s theory, we must break the misconception that having sex offenders living near children is perfectly acceptable. Change will not happen unless we, as a community, do something drastic to make a change happen (Thoreau).

Unfortunately, children are still placed in danger when sex offenders live near the school systems. In Martin Luther King Jr’s Letter From the Birmingham Jail, he makes a comment that his children are afraid of their surroundings. In today’s society, children are still afraid of their environment. Martin Luther King Jr. has the idea that one should break a law, if he or she deems it as ‘unjust.’ (King). I completely agree with King, and in this situation, I feel as though it is completely unjust to have sex offenders live near children. Ultimately, we cannot simply remove sex offenders from the communities, because they must live somewhere. But, as Martin Luther King Jr. was calm and rational in his approach, I believe that is the best method for the nation to make a difference.

Martin Luther King Jr. and Henry David Thoreau are very similar in the sense that they both want to take a stand for the people, and essentially, do what is morally right. They both agree that if a law is unjust, it needs to be broken. And both men stay determined to break the laws that they deem ‘unjust.’ Neither man is willing to give up on what he believes, yet both men face imprisonment for doing the right thing. If these men can be incarcerated for doing the right thing, perhaps sex offenders can have more severe punishments for doing horrendous acts to children (Thoreau, King).

Both of these men are true inspirations as to how we can handle our disagreements in a rational manner. I do not feel comfortable having sex offenders live near children. We cannot completely remove child molesters from our streets, but there are many other ways to reduce the amount of rapes and sexual abuse. The first possibility is that sex offenders stay imprisoned indefinitely. Yes, that is an unfortunate experience, but the children that are raped are emotionally scarred for the rest of their lives. So, maybe it would be rational for sex offenders to stay in prison indefinitely.

Another alternative may be to have a ban, where sex offenders cannot live within a certain radius of schools. Either way, a list of sex offenders will still be posted to notify the community. But, in my proposal, there will be more ways of warning everyone. These registries will be abundantly clear, even to those who may not have access to the existing lists. Not everyone has access to the internet, or knows how to operate a computer. Perhaps, in addition to being posted online like they are now, the lists will also be given to each homeowner in a more noticeable method. Advising the community is the first step in making this situation better. Maybe we cannot eliminate sex offenders from our streets, but we can take better precautions.

I believe that, in order to protect innocent adolescents, it is necessary to make a stand. We, as a community, should make every effort to ensure that children are not put into a situation where they are harmed. No child should be raped, sexually assaulted, or murdered. There are simple changes that this country can take at this very moment to ensure better safety of children. Law enforcement can improve methods of notifying the public that there is a sex offender present. Sex offenders can have a ban on how close they live to a school system, or they can be incarcerated indefinitely. Child sex abuse is a very serious issue that we could possibly eliminate, or reduce the number of victims.

Facebook as a learning platform


The past decade has seen a growing popularity of social networking sites and out of all that is available, Facebook is the one that stands out for being unique and offering a range of user-friendly features. This site has frequently topped the ranks with record number of memberships and daily users. Facebook is often considered as a personal and informal space for sharing pictures, information, webpages, forming ‘Groups’, participating in discussions and debates, and providing comments on wall posts etc. The aim of this paper is to explore the use of Facebook as learning and teaching tool. It will highlight some of the theoretical debates and existing research to understand the effectiveness of this site as an informal and learner driven space, and ways in which it empowers students and stimulates their intellectual growth. The conclusion highlights the on-going contested nature of technological advances and its influences on traditional ideas of teaching and learning.

Keywords: Facebook; Situated Learning Theory; Community of Practice; Connectivist Approach; Personal Learning Environment; Informal Learning; Criticical Thinking; Creativity; Communicative Confidence; Collaborative Learning.


Over two decades ago, theorists Jean Lave & Etienne Wenger (1991) introduced a theory of learning called ‘situated learning’ and the concept of community of practice (CoP from here on), so as to describe learning through practice and participation. The CoP can be bracketed as a group of individuals who share a common interest and a desire to learn from and contribute to the community. Wenger (2010) elaborated the idea by stating that:

Communities of practice are formed by people who engage in a process of collective learning in a shared domain of human endeavor: a tribe learning to survive, a band of artists seeking new forms of expression, a group of engineers working on similar problems, a clique of pupils defining their identity in the school, a network of surgeons exploring novel techniques, a gathering of first-time managers helping each other cope. In a nutshell: Communities of practice are groups of people who share a concern or a passion for something they do and learn how to do it better as they interact regularly.

According to Wegner, the CoP needs to meet three essential characteristics i.e. domain, community and practice. The CoP has an identity defined by a shared domain of interest. Therefore, membership implies a commitment to that particular domain, and a shared competence that distinguishes members from other individuals (namely non-members). The community then becomes a way through which members can pursue interest in their domain, engage in collaborative activities and discussions, provide assistance to each other, and share or disseminate information. They build a co-operative relationship that enables them to learn from each other. Wegnner terms the members of a CoP as practitioners ‘ as they develop a shared repertoire of resources, experiences, stories, tools, and ways of addressing repetitive problems. This in short can be called a shared practice, which takes time and sustained interaction. It is the combination of these three components constitutes a CoP, and it is by developing these in parallel that one cultivates such a community (ibid).

Social networking sites are often seen as promoting CoP. In simple terms, these sites can be defined as: ‘web-based services that allow individuals to (1) construct a public or semi-public profile within a bounded system, (2) articulate a list of other users with whom they share a connection, and (3) view and traverse their list of connections and those made by others within the system.’ (Boyd and Ellison, 2008: 211). What makes social networking sites unique is not whether they allow individuals to meet new people, but rather that they enable users to articulate and make their social networks visible (ibid). Therefore, social networking can be seen as ‘the practice of expanding knowledge by making connections with individuals of similar interests’ (Gunawardena et al. 2009:4). Researchers have frequently concluded that social networking sites are at the core of what is described as online CoP (Watkins, and Groundwater-Smith, 2009).

According to Wong et al. (2011), growth in technology and social networking sites have contributed to an increase in the opportunity to operate in an improved learning environment through enhanced communication and incorporation of collaborative teaching and learning approaches. Amongst all the social networking sites, Facebook (FB from hereon) is the one that stands out the most. There are a number of reasons as to why FB can be used for building an online CoP and ways in which its features are considered as unique and suitable for Higher Education purposes:

1) Ability to create a ‘Group’: FB is equipped with dynamic features, such as, messaging, and ability to post videos, weblinks and pictures. However, Group is one of the most powerful features on the site, and it can encourage and enhance collaborative learning. Learners can create a Group or join an existing Group related to their interest, and they can use the site features for sharing information and performing variety of tasks. FB Group features can build an online CoP, as they meet the three fundamental components of communities (i.e. domain, community and practice). (ibid: 319)

2) Share information: FB features, such as, Groups, Chats and Docs enable sharing of information. Learners can form groups for a specific purpose, and post messages, have discussions/debates and share resources on a specific domain within the group. The members of a CoP are practitioners, and they can develop a shared repertoire of resources.(ibid:319)

3) Encourage collaborative tasks: ‘Docs’ feature on FB site can help with collaborative tasks, and it can allow Group members to work collectively (if required). Any/all group members can view, edit, add or remove sections of the ‘Doc’. (ibid:319)

While the above shows the ways in which FB can be useful in building an online CoP, a more careful analysis is required, in order to establish its usefulness as learning and teaching tool in Higher Education. Therefore, rest of this paper will draw upon theoretical debates and evidence from within the literature, so as to explain the ways in which FB could be a powerful tool ‘ one that could enhance learning and criticality amongst learners, and also boost their communicative confidence.

Why Facebook?

Created in 2004, by the end of 2013 FB was reported to have more than 1.23 billion monthly active users worldwide, and 24 million Britons logged on to the site each day (The Guardian, 2014). Due to its ease of use and availability in the form of mobile applications, FB has now become integral part of its users social lifestyle ‘ conventional estimates suggest that a typical user spends around 20 minutes a day on the site, and 2/3 of users log in at least once a day (Ellison et al. 2007). Since its creation, FB has been subjected to immense academic and scholarly scrutiny, especially for its uses within the educational settings. The initial literature largely focused on the negative aspects associated with its use, such as, identity presentation and lack of privacy (See Gross & Acquisti, 2005). It was argued that, amount of information FB users provide about themselves, (somewhat) open nature of the information, and the lack of privacy controls could put users at risk online and offline, for e.g. bullying, stalking and identity theft (Gross and Acquisti, 2005). However, constant changes made to the privacy settings have subsequently reversed these concerns. The users can control the release of information by changing the privacy settings. Issues surrounding student perceptions of lecturer presence and self-disclosure (Mazer, Murphy, & Simonds, 2007), and inconsistent patterns of use were also highlighted as potential causes of concern (Golder, Wilkinson, & Huberman, 2007). However, the positive effects of social networking tools in teaching and learning soon took precedence, as these computer-mediated communication modes are often seen as lowering barriers to interaction and encouraging communicative confidence amongst students. For instance, during a qualitative study at the Yale University, the members of staff praised FB for breaking the barriers between themselves and students, and it also encouraged students to feel part of the same academic community (mentioned in Bosch, 2009). Similarly, a study conducted by Ellison et al. (2007) explored maintained social capital, which assesses one’s ability to stay connected with members of a community. They concluded that FB usage amongst students is linked to psychological well-being, and it could especially be of benefit to students with lower self-esteem and low life satisfaction. It could also trigger a process, whereby goal attainment amongst students is significantly increased.

The above uses of FB in Higher Education and as a tool for enabling the maintenance of social capital, can be contrasted with its value as a learning environment. Selwyn (2009) has strongly cautioned against the use of FB for teaching and learning, as students might be reluctant to use it for learning purposes, shifting its focus away from being an academic tool and becoming considered purely as a site for socialisation and sharing mundane information. Selwyn presented an in-depth qualitative analysis of the FB ‘wall’ activity of nearly 1000 students in a British educational establishment, and his study offered a very pessimistic conclusion. He noted that students did not use this site for educational purposes and their interactions were limited to offering negative comments on learning/lecture/seminar experiences, casual comments about events, sharing factual about teaching and assessment requirements, seeking moral support for assessment or learning, and even boasting oneself as being academically incompetent and/or disengaged (2009:157). The evidence from this study suggests that, FB in Higher Education must be approached with severe caution and lecturers need to use it in a considered, strategic, logical and objective manner (ibid).

It is likely that FB could clash with traditional pedagogical models. Nevertheless, it can provide channels for informal and unstructured learning. For instance, Bugeja (2006:1) suggested that, social networking offers the opportunity to ‘re-engage’ individuals with learning, and promote ‘critical thinking’, which is one of the traditional objectives of education (explained further in subsequent paragraphs). Siemens (2005) connectivist approach also recognises these impacts of technology on learning and ways of knowing. According to him, learning in the digital age is no longer dependent on individual obtaining/storing/retrieving knowledge, but instead relies on the connected learning that occurs through interaction with various sources of knowledge and participation in communities of common interest, including social networks, and group tasks (Brindley et al. 2009). The shift of focus to group and network as the epicentre of learning relies on a concept of learning based on ‘exploration, connection, creation and evaluation within networks that connect people, digital artefacts and content’ (Manca and Ranieri, 2013:488). This type of learning through socialisation can foster student interest in the subject material. Duffy (2011) proposed that FB could be used for teaching and learning, as it enables students to share knowledge and information with the ‘Group’ members’ and the associations between them. Duffy (2011) further argued that FB provides a range of educational benefits by: Allowing students to demonstrate critical thinking, take creative risks, and make sophisticated use of language and digital literacy skills, and in doing so, the students acquire creative, critical, communicative, and collaborative skills that are useful in both educational and professional contexts. (p. 288). This in turn will also help to achieve the Abertay Graduate Attributes ‘ and encourage development of students’ intellectual and social capacity, give them tools to find creative solutions to real world problems, and work within a complex and interdisciplinary contexts. It could trigger intellectual, communicative and collaborative confidence amongst students, train them to take creative risks and help them broaden their knowledge base.

What is particularly fascinating about FB is the fact that it encourages a creation of Personal Learning Environment (PLE) ‘ which is an emerging pedagogical approach for both integrating formal and informal learning, supporting self-regulated learning, and empowering students intellectually (these values are also outlined in the Abertay Strategic Plan). According to Attwell (2010):

PLEs are made-up of a collection of loosely coupled tools, including Web 2.0 technologies, used for working, learning, reflection and collaboration with others. PLEs can be seen as the spaces in which people interact and communicate and whose ultimate result is learning and the development of collective know-how. A PLE can use social software for informal learning which is learner driven, problem-based and motivated by interest ‘ not as a process triggered by a single learning provider, but as a continuing activity.

PLEs are spaces for the modern learner to create, explore and communicate, and they are characterised as an approach to learning rather than a set of computer assisted applications (Dalsgaard 2006:2). The use of PLEs can help to reinforce classroom learning by extending communication outside of the classroom hours (but at the same time not creating classroom outside of the classroom), and thinking about topics beyond the weekly seminar sessions both individually and in collaboration with classmates through posting materials (like files, website links, notes etc.) and leaving comments. This type of engagement can result in the development of (informal) communities of learning. Whereas, collaborative learning can lead to deeper level learning, critical thinking, and shared understanding (Kreijns, Kirschner and Jochems, 2003). A study conducted by Churchill (2009) highlighted that ‘online-blogs’ can foster a learning community, and it makes learners feel as an important part of the classroom. The best is achieved from such blogs when they are designed to facilitate student access of course material, posting reflections on learning tasks and commenting on peer contribution. Taking into account that FB is one of the most popular network and method of community building, through which students today are communicating ‘ it can prove an useful tool in collaborative student-led learning (in prove equal or more beneficial than blogs). Downes (2007) argues that FB is distinctive when compared to other forms of computer-mediated communications because it has stronger roots in the academic community. One of the reports by the UK government body for technology in learning lists several potential uses of FB in education, and for developing communities of practice, communication skills, e-portfolios, and literacy ‘ all of which are essential aspects of the Abertay Graduate Attributes.

FB can be used not only to gain knowledge and information, but also to share information, as and when needed. McLoughlin and Lee (2007;2010) have pointed out that ‘learning on demand’ is becoming a type of lifestyle in modern society, and learners are constantly seeking information to solve a problem or to satisfy their curiosity. Learners should therefore not be considered as passive information consumers, but as active co-producers of content. This also makes learning highly independent, self-driven, informal and integral part of University life (ibid). Formal learning is described as highly structured (one that happens in classrooms), whereas informal learning happens through observation, listening to stories, communicating with others, asking questions, reflecting and seeking assistance. Informal learning rests primarily in hands of the learner and use of FB could allow learners to create and maintain a learning space that facilitates self-learning activities and connections with classmates and other academic/educational networks (ibid). However, informal learning outside of the classroom must be considered as a continuum, rather than either/or dichotomy (Attwell, 2007). The informal learning can be used to supplement formal learning (not substitute) and PLE as a pedagogical tool should be viewed as intentioned merger of formal and informal learning spaces.

PLEs are increasingly becoming effective in addressing issues of learner control and personalization that are often absent in the University Learning Management Systems, such as, Virtual Learning Environment (VLE) or Blackboard ( Dabbagh and Kitsantas, 2011). VLEs do not accommodate social connectivity tools and personal profile spaces, and they tend to replicate traditional models of learning and teaching in online environments. They create a classroom outside of the classroom, which may explain as to why educators ‘can’t ‘ stop lecturing online’ (Sheely, 2006). Also, VLEs are largely considered as tutor dissemination tools (for lecture notes, readings and assessment related information), over student learning tools. The University faculty and administrators control VLEs, and learners cannot maintain learning space that facilitates their own learning activities, and connection with and fellow classmates (Dabbagh and Kitsantas, 2011:2). When FB is employed as a learning tool, it moves away from this very hierarchical form of learning and empowers students through designs that focus on collaboration, connections and social interactions. It is much more dynamic and evolved in this sense.

It has been long argued that VLEs have had only a relatively slight impact on pedagogy in higher education, despite their commercial success (Brown, 2010). However, FB has the potential not only to fundamentally change the nature of learning and teaching but, through the creation of learner-controlled devices, it may challenge the role of traditional institutions in a way that previous technologies could not. Brown (2010:8) imposes a crucial question regarding VLE (such as Blackboard), and that it is ‘reasonable to wonder how much longer the return on investment will stand up to scrutiny’ (Brown 2010:8).


FB is increasingly becoming a popular learning platform that has a true potential in HE. A FB ‘Group’ can facilitate learning, by increased interaction between students and staff. The research has so far (despite being plausible in nature) indicated FB can be used to enhance the literacy, critical thinking, and collaborative and communicative skills amongst students. Some researchers have argued that social networking sites, such as, FB could offer ‘the capacity to radically change the educational system’ to better motivate students as engaged learners rather than learners who are primarily passive observers of the educational process’ (Ziegler 2007, 69). However, this overly-optimistic view is strongly contested by others, who have raised grave concerns about heightened disengagement, alienation and disconnection of students from education and to the detrimental effect that FB may have on ‘traditional’ skills and literacies (Brabazon, 2007). Academics have feared that FB could lead to intellectual and scholarly ‘de-powering’ of students, incapable of independent critical thought. According to Ziegler (2007:69), sites such as FB could lead to ‘the mis-education of Generation M’ (cited in Selwyn, 2009), and despite of its popularity as innovative educational tool, studies have indicated that it may distract learners from their studies and purely become a tool for socialisation (ibid). The use of FB remains controversial and further research is needed in this area to establish its effectiveness in HE teaching and learning.

Causes of drug failure: essay help online

One of the most common causes of drug failure is drug-induced liver injuries (DILIs). The majority of these failures are idiosyncratic reactions, which occur in small patient populations (between 1 in 1.000-10.000) in an unpredictable manner.1 The underlying mechanism of this type of DILI is very complex and still not completely understood.2 However, recent data have suggested that the crosstalk between cytokine-mediated pro-apoptotic signalling and drug reactive metabolite-mediated intracellular stress responses is essential in the comprehension of DILI.3

Various xenobiotics (e.g. diclofenac) can induce liver damage via the tumor necrosis factor ?? (TNF??) pathway. Excretion of this major cytokine will initiate through liver macrophages (Kuppfer cells) after exposure to bacterial endotoxins (e.g. Lipopolysaccharide).4 After binding of TNF?? to its receptor (TNFR1), the transcription factor nuclear factor kappa-B (NF-??B) is activated.5 In general, NF-??B is detained in the cytoplasm by binding to an inhibitor of ??B (I??B) complex. The initiated NF-??B leads to activation of I??B kinase (IKK), which eventually leads to the ubiquitination and phosphorylation of the I??B complex.6 Subsequently, this complex is targeted for proteosomal degradation. Hereafter, NF-??B translocates to the nucleus in an oscillatory way and activates the transcription of several genes which primarily encode survival proteins, such as cellular FLICE-like inhibitory protein (c-FLIP), inhibitor of apoptosis proteins (IAPs) and negative regulators proteins (e.g. A20, I??B??).7 After protein synthesis, A20 and I??B?? will inhibit the function of NF-??B in a negative feedback manner (Figure 1). Modified TNF??-induced NF??B translocation by various compounds is believed to shift the balance between cell survival and cell death.

Furthermore, reactive compound metabolites are capable of altering cellular molecules, which could lead to intracellular disturbances and eventually to the induction of various stress response or toxicity pathways.8 These pathways, combined with a decreased response for cell damage recovery and protection, will enhance the susceptibility to cell death of various cells. Up to now, insufficient studies have been performed to investigate the contribution of various pathways to DILI. It still remains uncertain which drug-induced toxicity pathways modulate the pro-apoptotic activity of TNF?? signaling in DILI reactions. However, there are different stress responses which are most likely involved in the formation of DILI. The Kelch-like ECH-associated protein 1 (Keap1)/nuclear factor-erythroid 2 (NF-E2)-related factor 2 (Nrf2) antioxidant response pathway and the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress-mediated unfolded protein response (UPR) have been studied in drug-induced toxicity of hepatocytes [2]. The Keap1/Nrf2 pathway is essential in recognizing ROS and/or cellular oxidative stress [6]. Keap1 maintains Nrf2 in the cytoplasm and guides it toward proteasomal degradation under normal circumstances. Nrf2 signaling is important in the cytoprotective response against ROS, but its role in the TNF??/drug interaction in idiosyncratic DILI remains unclear.

Furthermore, the ER stress-mediated UPR is a stress response due to enhanced translation and/or disturbed protein folding. Should the modification fail, a pro-apoptotic system will be initiated to eliminate the injured cell. The exact mechanism and role of the ER stress signalling response in managing DILI in relation to TNF??-induced apoptosis still remains unclear.

In this research, we hypothesize that stress response mechanisms (e.g. ER stress responses, oxidative stress responses) are involved in the delay of NF-??B nuclear translocation upon exposure to various NF-??B nuclear translocation compounds.

In this project, a human HepG2 cell line will be used to study the interaction between five different compounds (amiodarone, carbamazepine, diclofenac, nefazodone, ximelagatran) and cytokine TNF alpha. To investigate the overall percentage of cell death, a lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) assay will be performed. Furthermore, in order to quantify the amount of apoptotic cells, an Annexin V affinity assay will be executed. It is expected that the concentration-dependant toxicity of the compounds is enhanced with the presence of TNF??. Live cell imaging with HepG2 GFPp65 cells will be used to follow the NF-??B translocation after exposure to the five various compounds. Subsequently, an automated image quantification of the p65 signal intensity ratio of nucleus/cytoplasm is measured to show the exact onset of the second nuclear entry of NF-??B. It is estimated that the data of the NF-??B translocation will show a compound-induced delayed onset of NF-??B.

The activation of NF-??B target genes cIAP and c-FLIP will be measured using a Western Blot analysis. Moreover, the negative regulators of NF-??B, A20 and I??B??, will be studied to investigate the negative feedback loop of NF-??B. We anticipate that the data of the Western Blot analysis will show a decrease in production of the investigated target genes, because of the reduced TNF??-induced NF-??B transcriptional activity.

Ultimately, a data analysis will be applied on the results using t-test or two-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) in case of multiple comparisons.

Karma by Kushwant Singh

The text ‘Karma’ is written by Kushwant Singh in 1950 who is a English novelist.

The short story is 65 years old today but it is still relevant today, many of the issue that the text show.

The story deal with problems of the Indian cultures. Novel tells us the impact the empire have had on India, and shows us that the British norms have had influence on India.

It shows us that there is a big clash between women and men in India, and the way that men looks at women, but also the clash between rich and poor, is very big, in the story men and women does not sit in the same side of the train.

The text take place in a train.

And we have main character who names is Sir Mohan Lal, he is an Indian Man, and he think self he is very handsome and beautiful like the English men. He actually think of himself as an Englishman.

He think he is better than he Indians.

He despratly trys to fit in with the Englishmen.

Sir Mohan is very well iducated his job is a vizeier and barrister, he has been in England to stody, and maybe that is the reason that he thinks of himself as an Englishman. He think he is a good looking man, a time in the story he looks in the mirror ‘Distinguished, efficient – even handsome. That neatly trimmed moustache – the suit from Savile Row, the carnation in the buttonhole.’ It shows that he is proud of himself, and he knows which image he want to send to other people, but also that he only speaks to himself.

Sir Mohan Lal obsessed with how other people think of him. He will do anything to get to know an Englishman. In the train he meets many Englishmen and he always have an old copy of ‘The Times’ which shows how desperately he want to get in touch with an Englishman. And also that he think he as a well education, and also to show that he is a man of manners and English culture. He feels like he is an English man and not an India, he think that Indian people is poor, and not like him. He will not being seen with some of them, and also his wife would he not been seen with.

In the short story we also meet his wife, which is an Indian women, he doesn’t love her and think she is ugly, the only reason he is married to her is because he want to have children.

This shows us the problematic we have reading in the class, were many married has been arranged, and that the people there is married doesn’t love each other. Sir Mohan Lal makes her travel in the zenana(a section in the train only for women).

In the train Sir Mohan Lal meet two English soldiers, who he wants to travel and talk to them, that he tell the guard that they could sit in his coupe. Mohan should never had does that. The men were not looking for an Indian man to talk with, and they sees themselves as better than Sir Mohan Lal. Just like he had done before with the Indians people, then he could see how it feels, to not be an excepted person.

Karma is when something you have done comes back to you and it certainly does.

Human Resource Management and Employee Commitment: essay help

The concept of employment commitment lies at the heart of any analysis of Human Resource Management. Really, the rationale for introducing Human Resource Management policies is to increase levels of commitment so positive outcome can result. Such is the importance of this construct. Yet, despite many studies on commitment, very little is understand of what managers mean by the term ‘commitment’ when they evaluate someone’s performance and motivation. Development of organizational commitment is basically by major theoretical approaches emerge from previous research on commitment: Firstly, commitment is view as an attitude of attachment to the organization, which leads to particular job-related behaviors. The committed employee, for example, is less often absent, and is less likely to leave the organization voluntarily, than are less committed employees.

Secondly, one line of research in organizations focuses on the implications of certain types of behaviors on subsequent attitudes. A typical finding is that employees who freely choose to behave in a certain way, and who find their decision difficult to change, becomes committed to the chosen behavior and develop attitudes consistent with their choice. One approach emphasizes the influence of commitment attitudes on behaviors, whereas the other emphasizes the influence of committing behaviors on attitude. Although the ‘commitment attitude behavior’ and ‘committing behavior attitude’ approaches emerge from different theoretical orientations, and have generated separate research traditions, understanding the commitment process is facilitated by viewing these two approaches as, inherently, inter-related. Further by virtue of commitment the human recourse management department can fully utilized their talent, skill, and efficiency of the employee in productive way to fulfill the personal goals of the employees and organizational goals. More over commitment helps in fulfilling the purpose of training imparted to the employees because in spite of increasing the level of skill through training without commitment these cannot be maintained. After all existence of adequate commitment amongst employees create an work culture environment and there by all employees can be motivated and encourage towards the excellent performance of their duties.

3.5 Social Support ‘ its Concept, Purpose, Types, Relations with Social Network and social Integration

3.5.1 Concept of Social support

The concept of social support is strategic which defined as the belief that one is cared for and loved, esteemed and valued. It is a strategic concept in not only giving understanding to the maintenance of health and the development of (mental and somatic) health problems, but also their prevention. Types and sources of social support can vary. Four main categories of social support are (i) emotional, (ii) appraisal, (iii) informational and (iv) instrumental support. Social support is closely related to the concept of social network, the ties to family, friends, neighbors, colleagues, and others of significance to a person. Within this context, social support is the potential of the network to provide help.

It is important for organizations to collect information on social support in the employees, to enable both risk assessment and the planning of preventive interventions at different level such as:

a) Lack of social support increases the risk for Organizational Commitment:

Lack of social support is shown to increase the risk of both mental and somatic disorders, and seems to be especially important in stressful life situations. Poor social support is also associated with enhanced mortality. Social support may affect health through different pathways i.e. behavioral, psychological and physiological pathways.

b) Social support is determined by individual and environmental factors:

Social support is determined by factors at both the individual as well as the social level. Social support in adulthood may be to some extent genetically determined. Personality factors that might be associated with perceived social support are interpersonal trust and social fear. The position of a person within the social structure, which is determined by factors such as marital status, family size and age, will influence the probability of them receiving social support. The occurrence of social support depends on opportunities that an organization creates to commitment with employees.

c) Preventive interventions stimulate social support at different levels:

There are three types of preventive interventions aimed at stimulating social support: universal, selective or indicated interventions. The ultimate goal of universal interventions is to promote health. They are aim at providing social support at the group or community level. Selective preventions aim to strengthen social skills and coping abilities with, for example social skill training. Social support groups and self-help groups are other examples of selective prevention programs. Indicated prevention programmes aim to reduce the risk of people who already have symptoms of psychological stress, developing a mental disorder.

Social support is defining as help in difficult life situations. Social support is a concept that is generally understands in a spontaneous sense, as the help from other people in a difficult life situation. It is social support as ‘the individual belief that one is cared for and loved, esteemed and valued, and belongs to a network of communication and mutual obligations’. In spite of these widely accepted definitions of social support, there are very few consensuses in the literature about the definition and consequently the operation implementation of the concept. There is a need for further research, especially about what kind of support is most important for organizational commitment. Researcher tried to the applied social support score is the sum of the raw scores for each of the items. In the Guwahati Metro region, the sum-score of the Social Support Scale ranges. A score is classified as poor support, intermediate support and strong support.

3.5.2 Purpose of Social Support

Researcher thinks that in defining social support the qualities of support perceived (satisfaction) and provided social support for the managerial employees are significant here. Most of studies are constructed on the measurement of subjectively perceived support, whereas others aim at measuring social support in a more objective sense. One could also distinguish between the support received, and the expectations when in need, and between event specific support and general support. The definition in terms of a subjective feeling of support raises the question whether social support reflects a personality trait, rather than the actual social environment (Pierce et al., 1997). Most researchers will agree that the person as well as the situation affects perceived social support, and that the concept deals with the interaction between individual and social variables. In the present study researcher has tried to observe percentage of male and female managerial employees with poor support, intermediate support, and strong support in Public and private organizations of Guwahati Metro region.

3.5.3 Types of Social Support

Types and sources of social support may vary. Mainly four major categories of social support such as emotional, appraisal, informational and instrumental are in the use of research work. Researcher tried to observe it in her study.

a) Emotional support generally comes from family and close friends and is the most commonly recognized form of social support. It includes empathy, concern, caring, love and trust.

b) Appraisal support involves transmission of information in the form of affirmation, feedback and social comparison. This information is often evaluative and can come from family, friends, coworkers, or community sources.

c) Informational support includes advice, suggestions, or directives that assist the person respond to personal or situational demands.

d) Instrumental support is the most concrete direct form of social support, encompassing help in the form of money, time, in-kind assistance, and other explicit interventions on the person’s behalf.

3.5.4 Social Support & Concept of a Social Network

Social support is closely related to the concept of a social network, or the ties to family, friends, neighbors, colleagues, and others of significance to the person. However, when the social network is described in structural terms, like size, range, density, proximity and homogeneity, social support normally refers to the qualitative aspects of the social network within this context, social support is the potential of the network to provide help in situations when needed. However, the social network may also be the cause of psychological problems.

Halle and Wellman present the interplay between social support, the social network, and psychological health in a model: The social network as a mediating construct. This model shows that social support can be seen as resulting from certain characteristics of the social network, which are in turn caused by environmental and personal factors. The model suggests that it is important to distinguish between the structural and quantitative aspects of the social network on the one side, and social support on the other. In this study researcher has correlated stress and social support with organizational commitment taking in to consideration managerial employees of Public and private sector in Guwahati Metro region.

3.5.5 Social integration and Social Support

Whereas the concept of social support mainly refers to the individual and group level, the concept of social integration can refer to the community level. A well-integrated community refers to well developed supportive relationships between people in the community, with everybody feeling accepted and included. A related concept is social capital, which is often used as the sum of supportive relationships in the community. Social capital may, however, also be used in a somewhat different meaning, such as solidarity’. It is an important for the development of organizational commitment.

In the fields of Organizational Behavior and Industrial/Organizational Psychology is, in a general sense, the employee’s psychological attachment to the organization. It can be contrasted with other work-related attitudes, such as job satisfaction, defined as an employee’s feelings about their job, and organizational identification, defined as the degree to which an employee experiences a ‘sense of oneness’ with their organization. Nobel laureate Amartya Sen said that the sense of oneness in every individual should he ‘dynamic’ and not confined within the narrowness of a single identity. People have to judge contextually as to what oneness means in several aspects of our life. A person cannot have just one identity of oneness based on one’s nationality or religion.

Encompass the systematic study and careful application of knowledge about how people act within organizations. Organizational studies sometimes are considered a sister field for, or overarching designation that includes the disciplines like industrial and organizational psychology, organizational behavior, human resources, and management.

However, there is no universally accepted classification system for such subfields. Beyond this general sense, organizational scientists have developed many feelings especially in creative expression of organizational commitment; the present study is combination of the higher level employees stress and social support, which effects on organizational commitment. Researcher have selected Guwahati Metro region for their study. The study is design based on types of organizations i.e. Public and private organizations.

Climate Effect On Building facade: essay help

Abstract : Building facade is one of an important element of the architecture. It have a significant effect on energy conservation and the comfort of the building users. The facade is affected by the environmental conditions and it designs should take into consideration the climate of it regions this research will explain the facade treatment on different region, also the Basic methods for designing high-performance building facade it will explain two case studies that illustrate facade design methods for two different climate conditions.


1. Introduction ”””””””””””””….. 3

2. Literature Review””””””””””””’ 4

3. Research discussion and data analysis””””””””’ 5

3.1. Design criteria For Mixed Climate”””””””’.. 5

3.2. Design criteria For Hot Climates””””””””.8

4. Conclusion””””””””””’..”””11

5. References”””””””””””””’11

1. Introduction

Climate is always affect our daily life ether if it’s sunny ,cloudy ,rainy it have an Influences on our sense of comfortable when we go outside the building. When we are inside the building, the building separate use from the outer environment and. It have it own conditions depend on the technology inside the building such as , HVAC systems which allows us to change the temperature or humidity’etc . Building protects us from the Weather problems that are not favored to stay out in it. Building interior spaces conditions also depends on the exterior facade treatment For example the interior heat or lighting that comes through the glazed windows will affect the temperature of the interior.

This research will explain the influence of the climate on the building facade , what is the main factor that affect the facade of the architecture on the other hand ,the techniques of treatment the facade to provide a suitable interior environment for it users in cretin climate condition, also how can we design the facade in simple way to fit with the changing in the climate , and facade materials selection to help in adaptation the building to the climate conditions.

2. Literature Review

Across the history Human used the shelter to protect them from danger Such as wailed animals and Climatic conditions. Later on with the evolution of human the dwellings has developed after it was a cave in Mount it became a building in various forms and functions. Buildings provide the foundation for our daily activities, for example ,educational ,commercial , Health care ‘. Etc.

Climate is generally the weather conditions of a region, as temperature, air pressure, humidity, precipitation, sunshine, cloudiness, and winds, throughout the year, averaged over a series of years (n.d, The American Heritage?? New Dictionary of Cultural Literacy). Every region have it own climatic characteristics that can affect the architecture facade differently, for example In warm areas like middle east region, people avoid the glare and the heat of the sun, as demonstrated by the decreasing size of the windows. On the other hand in north Europe they use glass in Exaggeration way to allow the sun light to inter the building and heat the interior space because of the cold weather of their region (””””” 2010).

3. Research Discussion And Data Analysis

facade is generally one exterior side of a building, usually but not always, the front side of the building(n.d, 2011). The building facade acts as a skin that wraps around the building and affects the internal environment as it interacts with the external one. Building facades is not only about the aesthetic of the building, it’s also perform as the barriers that separate a building’s interior from the external environment. facades are one of the most Important contributors to the energy consumptions and the comfort norms of any building. facade designs and performance are one of the main factors for sustainable, energy-efficient, and high performance buildings. A facade should satisfy the design as well as the functional requirements .The Climate of the area plays a major role in designing the facade, different design strategies are required for different climatic zones. One of the traditional way to deal with the climate in the Middle East the use of small opining and Mashrabia or (Roshan) to cover the windows. this techniques that characterized the facade in this region were use to prevent the heat to enter the building and to Imprisonment the cool inside the building, also to filter the air from the dust associated with it (Mady, 2010).

3.1. Design Criteria For Mixed Climate

the Center for Urban Waters is a Public laboratory building, in Tacoma, Wash. A Tacoma is in a region with a mixed marine climate. Designed by Perkins+Will and got LEED Platinum award.

Figure 1 shows average daily temperatures and the solar radiation for each month.

This temperature of this climate zone allows cooling by natural ventilation, and the quite soft winters with low solar radiation .This climate conditions using a reasonable amount of glazing on the south and west orientations will not have a negative affect a building’s energy performance.

This view of the building is the west and south facade. It shows the differ??ent treatments for different building sides.

– The west facade consists of an aluminum cladded rain screen system, with integration of win??dows that some of it operable and non operable, and exterior blinds.

– The south facade consists of a curtain wall of fritted glass and external hori-zontal shading devices.

It is located in industrial waterfront on a long narrow site. The building program element located according it’s possible needs of air and natural ventilation. The waterside of the building provides a fresh cold air which is idle foe ventilation, so the designer placed offices on the waterway to provide a good ventilation. On the road and industrial side the opportunities of fresh airs is reduced so the designer placed the laboratories on this side because of it need of mechanical ventilation.

The shading strategies used based on the facade orientation. The western orientation of the building receives the greatest solar heat gain so it designed with a low window to wall ratio, vertical Shading devices used to moderate the solar heat gain and glare from low afternoon sun. the south facade consist of a curtain wall that provide clear views to the waterside, while horizontal shading devices obstruct the solar heat gain. The north facade mainly consists of solid elements and minimum amounts of glass. This design approach improves thermal resistance , limiting the heat transmit from exterior to interior environment. The rain screen on the east facade are made of horizontal corrugated metal panels faces the industrial side. It covered the upper half of the 2nd and 3rd level with small win??dows opining on the corrugated metal screens. These aluminum screens help to manage the early morning sun and reduce it poten-tial glare, on the other hand maintaining of the exterior views and maximizing natural day lighting of the interior spaces. It uses natural ventilation to decrease the building’s energy loads, also control the amount of natural ventilation through the Operable windows.

In summary the center for urban water designed consist of many sustainable elements not only in the facade but also in the roof system sewage and mechanical system , see building section on (Figure 3).These sustainable systems will rise the building performance and suitable the real-time energy use(Aksamija, 2014).

3.2. Design Criteria For Hot Climates

The University of Texas at Dallas. It’s a Student Services Building located Texas ,USA. It’s in a hot climate region. Designed by Perkins+Will and got LEED Platinum award.

Figure 4 shows annual average daily temperatures in rela??tion to thermal comfort zone and the available solar radiation.

In designing the facade of this building, the main con??cern was the hot climate conditions, because In this region the climate is usually hot and sunny at the summer session ,while the other sea??sons are relatively mild.

The longer sides of the rectangular form building is facing north and south orientations. All sides of the build??ing are covered by a curtain wall. Add to that the shading devices which supported by the curtain wall are wrapping the east, west, south, and small part of north facade. The shading system consists of horizontal terra-cotta louvers and vertical stainless steel rods (Figure5). The shading devices are distributed around the building creating an asymmetrical pat??tern over the building facades however, the terra-cotta shading element is important for reduc??ing solar heat gain in summer hot climate.

In the interior of the Building there are three internal atriums pro??vide daylight to interior spaces (Figure6).

The location of the lobby is on the east side of the building in one of the atriums, it provide natural day light and limit the gaining of the heat.

This design strategy is suitable for hot climates regions, especially when reducing solar heat gain while providing a natural daylight for the interior spaces. The arrangement of shad??ing devices along the facade and internal atriums is an ideal for providing a natural daylight. Almost all of the spaces in the Building have views to the outside. The building also contains other sustainable design strategies which improves the energy efficiency and the comforts interior spaces (Aksamija, 2014).

4. Conclusion

Design the facade is important because it’s the connection between building exterior and interior. Architect has to take in consideration the building’s location and climate to make a high performance facades and to provide a sustainable and com-fortable spaces for building occu??pants, also significantly reducing a building’s energy consumption. Strategies differentiate from each other depending on the geographical and climatic regions, so criteria that work best in hot climates are different from those in hot and humid or cold regions. Architect should know the characteristics of each climatic condition and location as well as the program and function requirements to create a sustainable facade fit to it environment.

Online Behavioral Advertising (OBA)

In order to understand where online privacy concerns of consumers origins from it first need to be noted what OBA is and what is the main mechanism behind it. It is of great importance to note that this main mechanism behind OBA are cookies. These cookies in accordance cause privacy concerns among consumers.

1.1 Online behavioral advertising

Online advertising is the provision of content and service for free, from the website publishers to the website visitors. In this case advertisements are aimed at everyone visiting their websites (, 2012). However, there is a type of online advertising specifically aimed at providing tailored advertisement content to a specific customer. This type of advertisement is known as Online Behavioral Advertising. Online behavioral advertising is the practice of gathering information regarding someone’s activities online. This data is used in order to determine which form and content to display to the web site visitor (McDonald & Cranor, 2009). This practice provides advertisements on the websites the individual visits and make them with the collection of their content relevant to their specific interests (Leon et al., 2012). When they consequently visit a website which correlates with their specific interests, suiting advertisement will be provided.

Consumers can control OBA by the application of tools, including those concerned with self-regulatory programs. If these tools are applied appropriately, the consumer could reach more control of self-disclosure. Tools to control OBA are for instance op-outs tools, built-in browser settings, blocking tools (Leon et al., 2011). Tools such as Do Not Track headers to websites show a message that the website visitor does not prefer to be tracked. Opt-out tools on other side, create the ability for the user to set opt-out cookies for multiple advertising networks. The issue that arises with the latter case is that if a consumer chooses to opt-out, the network of the establisher will discontinue to show customized advertising but on the other hand will keep tracking and profiling the website visitor (Leon et al., 2011). The continuation of tracking and profiling website visitors has caused considerate privacy concerns among consumers. This situation shows high correlation with the case of NPO. NPO didn’t make the consumer aware of an opt-out option even before using an opt-out option, which is expected to create even more privacy concerns (B. Comb??e, 2013).

1.2 Cookies

The most important feature of OBA is the utilization of cookies. Third-party HTTP cookies are the main mechanism used for online tracking. In comparison to first party cookies, which are located by the domain the website user is visiting. Third party cookies are visited by a different domain such as an advertising network. Other cookies such as flash cookies and HTML 5 (local storage) continue to stay on the user ‘s PC even if the website visitor deleted cookies or change browsers (B. Krishnamurthy and C. Wills, 2009;M. Ayenson et al., 2011 and M. Dahlen and S. Rosengren, 2005).

Cookies are directly linked to OBA because as earlier explained OBA uses third-party cookies to provide customized advertisements. A cookie is a small document of signs in the form of numbers and letters. For example: lghinbgiyt7695nb. The computer provides the cookie an unique code. These signs are downloaded on an individuals’ web browser when they access most websites (Zuiderveen Borgesius, 2011). Cookies enable websites to notice them whenever they return back to a website. Only the server that sent the cookie can read and therefore utilize that cookie. These cookies are vital in order to offer a more customized experience. (, 2015).

1.2.1 Types of Cookies

There are different types of cookies. The most important cookies relevant to this research are discussed. The selection of cookies are derived from the cookies used by NPO. There are 2 different categories of cookies. First party cookies are cookies which make sure the website functions optimally. The behavior of the website visitor is tracked within one website, the website the consumer visits. Third party cookies on the other hand, are placed by third parties, in order for the website to be analyzed by google analytics. This type of cookie makes sure the website visitor will receive customized advertisements (Zuiderveen Borgesius, 2011 ).

First party cookies (, 2015):

‘ Functional cookies: Cookies that make the website functioning as it should. These cookies keep track of the web site visitors’ preferences and memorize the individual previously visited the website.

Third party cookies (, 2015):

‘ Analytics: Cookies to measure utilization of website.

‘ Social media: Cookies to share the content of the NPO website through social media. The video’s and articles opened on the website can be shared through buttons. To make these buttons function, social media cookies are used by different social media parties. This in order for them to recognize the website visitor whenever it wants to share an article or video.

‘ Advertisement cookies: Cookies to show Star- adverts. These advertisements are placed by the website owner or third parties on the website of the website owner.

‘ Recommendations: Cookies to make more suitable recommendations. The NPO wants to make suggestions to website visitors on other program’s for consumers to watch online.

The main information these cookies store are:

‘ Keeping track of visitors on their webpages

‘ Keeping track of time it spends on its visit

‘ What are areas the website should take notice of in order to improve

‘ Keeping track of the order of visits of different webpages within the website

If this information is gathered, this data can be added to the existing profile information. In time third parties will be able to create a personal profile of the consumer, even though there is no name attached to it. Today third-party tracking is subject to privacy debates (Zuiderveen Borgesius, 2011 ). Consumers can feel invaded in their privacy if they suspect digital marketers from creating a personal profile, by gathered information from consumers visiting websites. Third party tracking and consumer privacy get a significant amount of attention from the government and consumer protection (Zuiderveen Borgesius, 2011 )

1.2.2 Cookie use by marketers

Since the law is updated continuously on privacy regulations and there is no uniform law concerning privacy of consumers marketers are recommended to weigh out the benefits of using practices that are not 100% conform privacy regulations against the financial and risks on their reputation that comes along with this consideration. (Chaffey & Ellis-Chadwick, 2012; Zuiderveen Borgesius, 2011)The organization must inform the website visitors properly the reasons and the procedure of data collection. The marketers’ website needs to provide its visitors with information on how they will make use of a website visitors’ data . Next to that, the consumer has to give consent for the utilization of consumer data. The figure below, indicates the issues that should get considerate attention when a data subject is informed by how his/her data will be utilized. These issues are described below the figure.

Figure 1. Information flows that need to be understood for compliance with data protection legislation.

Source: D. Chaffey and F. Ellis-Chadwick, Digital Marketing, 2012, p. 163

‘ Whether the consumer will receive future communications

‘ Whether the data will be passed on to third parties with consent explicitly required. Referring to section 2.1 on privacy and the recommendation section, on privacy issues regarding NPO, it can be obtained that the NPO didn’t comply with explicit ‘consent’ from the website visitor which caused their bad publicity.

‘ The length of data storage. Referring to the models in section 2.3 confidence, knowledge and control are major indicators on consumer behavior regarding OBA.

According to (2011) A business making use of OBA has to know whether it properly understands its application. It is important to adopt an ‘cookie audit’. A cookie audit is the principle of understanding the types of third-party tracking systems that are available and which are located on the browser of consumers when they visit the company’s website. This is important since third-party tracking can cause deceleration on a company’s website. Next to that, information obtained from customers can leak out to even unknown companies.

Furthermore, it is important to clearly give website visitors the option to opt out and to provide them with information on any form of tracking. First the website visitor needs to be aware where the website is about. Secondly the consumer need to be provided with information about the substance of the ads. Last the website visitor should get the ability to learn more about how to opt-out.

An opt out means a company will discontinue collecting and utilizing information from different web domains for the aim of providing personalized based advertising from data gathering using third party cookies in OBA. However it should be noted to the website visitor that opting out does not specifically mean they will cease receiving online advertising. The website visitor will continue to receive advertisements but not tailored to their specific preferences. (, 2012;, 2009). Some companies make use of flash cookies. These cookies make regular cookies come to life again after the website visitor has deleted the cookies. The new cookie will get the same code as the web site visitor has removed (Soltani, 2009).

In addition it is of great importance to give website visitors the control of their data. 67% of the website visitors entrust transparent brands more. This confidence makes the chance of purchase 36% more likely than if a brand is not transparent. Companies that do not obey regulations regarding privacy also showed decreases in turnover. (Brown, 2009). Furthermore it is important to take measures for website visitors to manage cookie tracking and privacy. The website visitor should very easily know what the purpose if of the data obtained from them. As earlier explained they should also have the quick option to opt-out. (, 2011)

1.2.3 Drawbacks cookie use

Netscape Navigator, the first successfully implemented web browser, introduced cookies. Version 1.0 of the web browser was introduced in 1994. In Netscape 1.0 cookies where introduced. (Turnbull, 2013). Even though the cookies are introduced almost 20 years ago, until recently two thirds of the samples used in research are not even able to explain what a cookie actually is. Even up to now customers believe more data is collected from them than is the case. Next to that consumers do not understand who are involved and how these companies are involved in OBA. Neither there is a understanding of technologies present (Ur et al 2012).

Next to that, the majority of web users don’t know about opt out cookies. Even nowadays the perception still exists it can be done through turning to their web browsers or delete cookies.(Ur et al., 2012). However if the website visitors are aware that if they have the ability to opt out and gain more knowledge on privacy matters, visitors feel more positive about the application of OBA by businesses (McDonald & Cranor , 2008) . If consumers do not understand their rights on privacy, they are pre-biased on this matter. This issue will be discussed further in chapter 2. If organizations easily and properly inform website visitors on their privacy rights they can possibly break through this pre-assumption. (McDonald& Cranor, 2008 and 2009)

In addition, the icon for opt-out options demonstrated in section 2.1, is subject to discussion whether the aim of this icon is reached. According to critics the meaning of this icon is not known by consumers, therefore opt-out possibilities are perceived as difficult. (‘Volg-me-niet register is wassen neus’, 2011).

Furthermore, according to (2011) consumers should be better informed about opt-out opportunities in order to take away uncertainty of privacy matters. The privacy issues that are involved as partly discussed above will be further analyzed in chapter 2 and with the assistance of models the effects of privacy matters on consumer behavior are analyzed.

Besides, consumers complain they find privacy important but ease of use as equally important. They are annoyed by the question they are asked continuously regarding accepting the use of cookies (B. Comb??e, 2013). Next to that consumers complain about websites which place a cookie wall which makes it only possible to enter the website if the use of cookies is agreed upon.

2. How do consumers react to current privacy concerns in OBA?

2.1 Privacy

Privacy is defined as a moral right of having the possibility to prevent intrusion into someone’s personal information. Nowadays, privacy is of high importance to consumers with increasing technology increasing possibilities to more enhanced practices in identity theft, such as hacking or just invasion of consumers’ online privacy practices. By gathering personal information of consumers with the use of earlier explained cookies, the degree of customization can highly increase. (Chaffey & Ellis-Chadwick, 2012)

2.1.1 Root of privacy concerns online

In Europe the legal framework concerned with online behavioral tracking is regulated by the European Data Protection Directive. These regulations enclose gathering, processing, filing and transmission of personal information. Next to that the European e-Privacy Directive mainly regulates privacy of data and the use of cookies. This regulation made third parties placing cookies apply a regulation to give website visitors the ability to opt-out. This gave web site visitors the chance to reject cookies. Consequently, websites provided information on how to opt-out or reject cookies.

J. Zuiderveen (2011) did research on to what extent practice is complying with data protection directives on ‘permission’: a willingly, specific, based on information volition. Research has shown that the processing of personal data cannot be based on article 7.b data protection directives: there should be a positive agreement. There is no form of agreement if consumers are not aware of exchanging personal information in turn for a service. Next to that collection of personal information can neither be justified by article 7.f which states that the interests of third parties are important, unless the privacy of the concerned is invaded. Privacy interests also means that the right on privacy is a significantly important right. By following online behavior of web site visitors, Dutch companies cannot refer to these 2 articles. However in 2011 article 2.h came to attention which states that with unambiguous permission the website is not allowed to make to quick assumptions that the website user give permission to make use of personal information (European commission, 2003; 2006). This latter was specifically the case with NPO as described in the introduction. They explicitly did not asked for permission before collecting data.

Even though policies on cookies are changing continuously, it is important to describe how consumers are up dated on getting more insight into their privacy rights and consequently what effect the extent of privacy has on consumer behavior discussed with models in chapter 2.3.

Components consumer update on privacy (, 2015):

‘ Advertising option Icon : This icon will represent that the form of advertising is supported by a self-regulatory program. If the consumer clicks on this icon it will be provided with a disclosure statement concerning data gathering and where the information is used for and a simple opt-out system.

‘ Consumer choice mechanism: At consumers are provide with information on how to opt out.

‘ Accountability and enforcement: Since 2011, DMA (Direct marketing association) and CBBB employed technologies to provide website visitors with information on a company’s transparency and control purveyance.

‘ Educational programs: Businesses and consumers will be educated on opt-out options and thus self-regulatory systems.

For now self-regulatory systems are opt-outs with the future possibilities of opt-ins. These mentioned components above all provide consumers with more information on opt-out possibilities. According to privacy concerns this self-regulatory systems proofs that consumers should be educated about opt-out options. Privacy regarding personal information using cookies needs considerate attention. Previous research has shown that if consumers have the perception their privacy is invaded they consider it as invasive and obstructive. Therefore, it is important for companies to be transparent. (Goldfarb & Tucker 2011). Even though advertisement becomes more personalized web site visitors do feel uncomfortable with companies tracking their online affairs. (Beales, 2010; Goldfarb & Tucker 2011).

2.2 Statistics

With assistance of statistics it will be analyzed in which area the problems of consumers and their privacy occur. If this is obtained, with the application of multiple online behavior models in section 2.3 , the problem areas can be theoretically analyzed in order to come up with a decent recommendation on how consumers actually are behaving and how marketers can respond to this.

(TRUSTe, 2008) Areas of consumer concerns regarding to online privacy in OBA:

Advertising relevance:

‘ Of 87% respondents, 25% of the ads were actually personalized.

‘ 64% would only choose to see ads of online stores they are familiar with and trust.

‘ 72% find OBA intrusive if it’s not to their specific needs.

Awareness of OBA:

‘ 40% are familiar with OBA and a higher percentage knows of tracking. 71% knows their browsing data is gathered by third parties.

Attitudes toward OBA:

‘ 57% say they are not comfortable with collecting browsing history for customized advertising.

‘ 54% state they delete their cookies 2-3 times monthly.

‘ 55% are willing to get customized online ads in order by filing in an anonymous form. 19% did not. 37% would still fill out a form about products services and brands to buy even if they aren’t held anonymous.

‘ 40% of participants in our online study agree or strongly agree they would watch what they do

online more carefully if advertisers were collecting data. (McDonald & Cranor, 2010)

Intent to take measures:

‘ 96% want to take measures on protecting their privacy settings. However respondents don’t state they don’t want to be part of OBA at al. even 56% won’t click to reduce unwanted ads. And 58% would not register in the don’t-follow-me registration.

From these statistics it can be obtained that the majority of respondents of this study have negative attitudes towards privacy matters in OBA. However referring to the first heading advertising relevance and the last heading; intent to take measures, it could be stated that the majority of consumers do prefer some form of OBA. This implies cookies are needed. Therefore the problem area as earlier discussed lies more in that consumers do not know enough about opt-out and are not confident with privacy statements. Therefore knowledge and trust will be the major factors to be analyzed in order to see how companies can overcome this issue.

These factors which will be analyzed using models are of great importance. This because TRUSTe states that knowledge and trust are great factors influencing online behavior since there is an increased level of awareness that website visitors are being tracked, to be provided with customized advertisements. Even though they are aware that they are anonymous because their name is not obtained (, 2015; J. Zuiderveen 2011) they do not feel comfortable with them being followed and targeted. Therefore website visitors strongly prefer to limit and have more control on OBA practices. (TRUSTe, 2008).

2.3 Models concerned with consumer behavior

2.3.1 Knowledge: Consumer Privacy States Framework

In order to assess to what extent consumers consider their privacy as important and what are the factors that influence this degree, the use of a Consumer Privacy States Framework will be applied. This framework is derived from the Journal of Policy & Marketing and established by G. Milne and A. Rohm. According to G. Milne and A. Rohm, this framework focuses on 2 dimension. The dimensions of this framework are a reaction to consumers privacy concerns and their willingness to provide marketers with their personal information (Sheehan & Hoy 2000; Milne & Rohm 2000). These dimensions are awareness of data collection and knowledge of name removal mechanism.

According to this model privacy is only present in cell 1. In this stage consumers are aware that their personal information is being gathered. Next to that they know how to opt-out. In this stage consumers are more satisfied and react more positive towards direct marketing relationships (Milne & Rohm 2000). Research has shown that consumers are willing to exchange private information for benefits. Consumers will give more information to digital marketers if there are perceived long term benefits. Next to that, if consumers are able to control their privacy, consumers are more willing to give up their personal information. (Ariely, 2000).

Table 1: Consumer Privacy States Framework (G. Milne and A. Rohm, 2000)

Consumer is knowledgeable about name removal mechanisms Consumer is not knowledgeable about name removal mechanisms

Consumer is aware of data collection Cell 1: Privacy exists Cell 2: Privacy does not exist

Consumer is not aware of data collection Cell 2: Privacy does not exist Cell 4: Privacy does not exist

( Note: opt-out options in the study of 2008 is used as a similar concept as name removal mechanisms in the study of 2000)

Research has shown that 34% of the population is positioned in cell 1, 74% was aware of data collection and 45% knew how to handle name removal mechanisms. This research has shown that organizations need to educate consumers more intensively about name removal mechanisms (Culnan 1995; Milne 1997). Nowadays this issue is still the case. According to TRUST E (2008) 70% of consumers is aware of data collection and 40% knows about opt-out options.

On the other hand, Wood & Quinn (2003) evaluated the effects on attitudes of forewarnings. If consumers are pre-informed on what is the function of cookies, biased thinking can be encouraged which will generate negative attitudes to its function. However, if people are not provided with information on how to opt-out or opt-in possibilities they are more likely to share their personal information. The cookie-icon could be seen as a pre-warning. This makes consumers see a pre-warning as being warned for something which makes their behavior turn to resistance. This resistance occurs because individuals will feel invaded in their privacy. Next to that consumers do not feel comfortable with others knowing their preferences. Therefore, according to Jacks and Devine (2000), resistance occurs in the form of keeping personal freedom. If resistance occurs, resistance strategies could be applied.

According to Jacks and Cameron (2003) consumers could respond with resistance strategies. These strategies are built as described below. The individual could show resistance by not responding to the customized advertisement message or by leaving the situation as it is. This is called selective exposure. Either the receiving individual could immediately start making counter arguments. In this case counter arguing finds place. On the other side, attitude bolstering implies the individual strengthens its own original view without directly making up counter arguments. Source derogation implies insulting the source or reject the validity of the source. In case of social validation, individuals resist the customized message and bring to mind others who share the same viewpoint. In case of negative effect, individuals get angry because their personal information is utilized without the source indicating what it is used for.

Eventually resistance doesn’t have to appear when getting a pre-warming in the form of an icon. Instead of resistance strategies, individuals could choose to make adjustments to their cookie settings or choose to register to not be followed anymore by signing in an authorized non-registration register. As explained under the heading statistics it could be stated that indeed 40% would take measures if their personal information would be collected (TRUSTe, 2008), therefore resisting strategies play a significant role.

2.3.2 Rank order table: Trust

Next to this framework Earp & Baumer (2003) introduced a rank order of most influential factors affecting consumer behavior regarding their privacy. The table below states that consumers that have high confidence in privacy practices of a website are more willing to provide personal information.

Table 2: Rank ordering of stated influential factors in confidence of privacy practices of web site . Bron: J. Earp and D. Baumer, 2003

Rank of most influential factors Factor

1 Company name

2 Option ‘to opt out’

3 Presence of a privacy policy

4 Presence of a web seal

5 Design of the site

76% of respondents from this study showed that having the ability to opt-out as an important factor for having reliability in the privacy practices of the website. However according to research 87.5% of consumers expect detailed information about privacy policies when visiting websites, while only 54% of this amount is actually reading these privacy policies. 66% of this study showed a rise in reliability if a website provides comprehensive privacy policies.(Earp & Baumer, 2003). Next to that consumers believe websites having a comprehensive privacy policy, will make the website always live up to its policy (Ant??n et al. 2002). This again implies that most internet users prefer assurance of privacy policy but are less apprehensive about what the policy actually says (J. Earp and D. Baumer, 2003). Therefore trust and confidence plays a more important role on providing private information than what the policy actually says.

2.3.3 The consumer profile

The consumer profile is relevant to this particular situation in the sense that the effect of consumers’ perceptions of OBA can be measured. Risk and privacy invasion are major areas of concern among consumers and therefore it could be analyzed to what extent these perceptions will affect their online behavior. By making an analyses, companies could get more focused on what areas to improve in order to not deal with privacy issues in future.

The first factor in the consumer profile that should be analyzed is that security and privacy information should be considered. As described earlier, consumers need to be secured that accurate privacy information is provided to them, however in reality this doesn’t make them read it. Referring back to the rank order table, 66% of website visitors expect proper privacy disclosure but only 54% of the website visitors is actually reading it (Earp & Baumer, 2003). Therefore it could be stated that customers are not focused on explicitly security but only on the idea of security. Therefore the issue that evolves around privacy is more on the security of privacy information but not specifically the content of privacy information. Therefore websites with just being able to demonstrate proper regulations on privacy will have greater chance of creating customers having a more positive perception on online privacy practices. Next tot that according to C. Hoofnagle (2010) internet users rarely read privacy statements. However on the other side, if consumers are better informed on opt-out options there is a possibility this knowledge will create resistance as earlier described (Wood & Quinn, 2003) .

Secondly risk plays an important role in behavior on consumers online. The degree of online sales effectiveness can be raised substantially if the perception of risk is reduced. If customers would read the stipulations it would even be questionable whether they realize the consequences of gathering and analyzing their personal information by cookies (Barocas & Nissenbaum, 2009). Even if anonymized information can be linked to an individual, this individual might think there is a small chance of this happening (Zuiderveen Borgesius, 2011). Therefore again privacy regulations are supposed to just be there to gain security. Risk is sometimes not even considered in its essence but more the perception of risk. Because if web site visitors think there is a small chance of third party’s getting access to information perceived personal, evaluation of risk is seemingly poor.

Third, trust is highly correlated to risk. Increased trust is the consequence of a decrease in perceived risk. This will cause positive beliefs in the business’s online reputation. Fourth, Perceived usefulness. This incorporates the time and effort required for an individual to educate itself on how to opt-out (Perea et al., 2004). Website visitors only have limited knowledge on technology, information and communication technology. Consumers need to understand what is written in privacy statements and what they actually sign an agreement with (Perea et al., 2004). As earlier described, educating web site visitors more by forewarnings can create resistance, which will negatively impact their purchasing behavior (W. Wood & J. Quinn 2003) .

At last the ease of use also has significant impact on consumers their online behavior. Using a new technology need to be free of effort. If an internet user visits a website, he or she experiences this as very time consuming to completely analyze the statement. This makes the website visitor not read it and either state they do not care about their privacy. In statics this is about 3%. On the other side incorporating the law, it cannot be assumed that website visitors not reading the privacy statements willingly accepts the browser settings of cookies. Therefore according to article 2 subsection h Data protection directive which demand for permission a free, specific and on information founded volition will cause considerate problems. (Group privacy protection 29, 2008)

3 What strategies should marketers apply to respond to current privacy concerns regarding cookies in OBA?

3.1 Coercive vs. non- coercive strategies

Organizations that deal with online privacy concerns among consumers should realize whether they are adopting an coercive influence strategy or a non-coercive influence strategy. The coercive influence strategy involves web sites offering incentives to consequently make consumers increase self-disclosure (provide more personal information) (Acquisti & Varian, 2005). Incentives to provide personal information can be categorized into economic incentives such as promotions, discounts and coupons. Non-economic incentives are for instance translated into customization, personalization and access to exclusive content. Threats indicate a penalty or exclusion of benefits for noncompliance. Therefore if the request is not honored, the website visitor cannot make use of the content of the website. For example, NPO, like more websites demand from customers to provide their personal information to get the ability to register on the website and to access specific information on the website. This method of data gathering is aimed at punishing people who refuse to provide their personal information by not providing them with the website content they requested (Sheehan, 2005).

Non-coercive influence strategies. In this case NPO would still take the same actions but without making use of rewards or penalties. For example, a website could explicitly demand the web site visitor by using web forms for these visitors to provide their personal information without the use of non-economic incentives, in this case providing customized advertisement. Instead of providing incentives, NPO could start providing recommendations, such as making the consumer believe, if they provide personal information it can improve their experience on the website (customization) and therefore making the website still reach its original aim. In this case websites can make use of information provision, where they can provide web site visitors with privacy policies which states how and why information will be collected (Milne, Rohm and Bahl, 2004) . Next to that they will provide seals of trust to provide website visitors the guarantee of privacy protection. (Gabbish, 2011).

The main focus for websites such as NPO is identifying strategies for gathering information from website visitors that provide the opportunity to reduce privacy concerns and increase consumers’ trust. According to Payan & McFarland (2005) the application of non-coercive influence strategies have shown positive relational effects. On the other side, coercive strategies have shown the opposite effect. According to Hausman & Johnston (2009) non- coercive strategies have a positive influence on trust while coercive strategies show the opposite. Privacy literature also shows that privacy policies and seals make concerns on privacy decrease and trust to rise. Rewards and threats on the other side makes trust decrease and privacy concerns to increase (Gabbish, 2011).

3.2 Application of the structural model of privacy policy

For companies to reduce the chances of the adoption of resistance strategies from consumers, they could opt for making use of a structural model of privacy policy, privacy concern, trust and willingness to provide personal information. This model showed that if applied properly companies can increase consumer confidence and willingness to provide their personal information (Wu et al., 2012). The model consist of the parameters notice, choice, access, security and enforcement.

Source: Wu et al., 2012

Notice is the most important parameter, stating that consumers should be informed about the collection of personal data before personal data is gathered from these individuals (Wu et al., 2012). In the NPO case, personal data from consumers was collected from consumers without them being aware of it (Pijnenburg, 2014). Choice gives consumers the ability to control the personal data obtained from them. Access gives web site users the ability to have insight into their data. Next to that, website visitors can check whether the data collected from them is correct and complete. Security is concerned with checking whether information is secure and correct.

In order for data integrity to occur, web site owners and third-parties should take measures that provide consumers the ability to have insight into data, erase information and change it to anonymous characters. Enforcement is one of the most important parameters of privacy protection, since privacy can only be assured if there are measures that enforce privacy protection (Wu et al., 2012).

According to Wu et al. (2012) the study came to the conclusion that security ranks highest in concerns of consumers. If the web site owner is aimed at increasing trust among web site visitors, in order for them to provide more personal information, they increase their focus on the provision of security and security data along with creating privacy statements.

This study done by Wu et al. 2012 did research on the relationship of the content of privacy policy to trust and online privacy concern. There are moderating variables that can affect the relationships. These moderating variables tend to describe consumer behavior. Therefore these factors shouldn’t be left out of the original model. The moderating variables that have been researched are cross-cultural effects, age and gender. According to this study, culture has an important moderating effect on the behavior of website visitors to the content of Privacy Policy. Some cultures show a rise in trust in websites when they give consumers access to their data and when their personal data is secure. Differences in cultures have a significant function in the behavior of website users and have influence on their choices in activities online. Gender also influences privacy concerns and willingness to provide personal information. Woman show more openness and therefore more self-disclosure. However they have higher needs for privacy (Wu et., al 2012). Age on the other hand could also have significant impact on the relationship of content of privacy policy and privacy concern/trust. Research showed, the older people get, the more worried they are on their online privacy.

3.3 Web bugs

According to Goldfarb &Tucker (2010) web bugs can be described as 1×1-pixel parts of a code that give online advertisers the ability to follow consumers online. Web bugs are not similar to cookies since they are not visible to the website user and are not saved on the computer of the website visitor. A consumer is therefore not aware of being tracked, unless they analyze the html. code of the webpage. Web bugs track the consumer from website to website. Next to that, web bugs are able to track how far a visitor scrolls down a page. This will have a positive impact on the collection of the preferences of the website visitor (Goldfarb &Tucker, 2010). According to Murray &Cowart (2001) web bugs are used by approximately 95% of top brands. Since consumers are not aware of data collection, privacy concerns will not occur as much as with cookies. However if the law would make websites inform consumers about web bugs, privacy concerns could rise again (Goldfarb &Tucker, 2010). Therefore web bugs could be seen as an alternative for cookies. But if the Privacy Directive adjusts the law, web bugs would become similar to cookies, with the same privacy concerns as consequence.

4 Conclusion/ Recommendation

The reason why this paper focuses on NPO is because in July 2014 they received a penalty by the Dutch authority for consumers and markets known as ACM (, 2014). The NPO placed cookies which track the web site visitors without giving accurate information to its visitors. ACM claimed the NPO was not complying with article 11.7A of the Dutch telecommunication, neither complying with the Dutch data protection act. The NPO is only allowed to track consumers if consent of the web-site visitor is given willingly and unambiguously, according to the information that is disclosed (Fouad, 2014). Referring back to section chapter 2 it can be obtained that the NPO didn’t comply with laws referring to article 2.h. In 2011 article 2.h came to attention that with ‘unambiguous’ permission the website is not allowed to make to quick assumptions that the website user gives permission to make use of personal information (European commission, 2003; 2006).

From the models of factors influencing consumer behavior in section 2.3, it can be obtained that the Consumer Privacy States Framework states that according to consumers if the consumer is aware of data collection and the consumer is knowledgeable about opt-out practices, it could be stated that privacy exists, therefore NPO went wrong in not giving consumers the idea that privacy exists.

The rank order table in section 2.3.2 statistics showed that consumers do need assurance from websites that a website have a comprehensive privacy policy. However websites having privacy policies don’t make consumers actually read them (Earp & Baumer, 2003; Ant??n et al. 2002). Therefore consumers not feeling knowledgeable about their rights show resistance. This can be emphasized by figures showing that the cookie wall of NPO is perceived as a pressure. They actually state; if you don’t accept my cookies you can’t visit my website, with the consequence that they lose visitors. Other businesses use a softer approach with the risk of a loss of personal information. This cookie wall has resulted in a loss in turnover of 0-5% in short term. The NPO expects on the long term a rising trend in visitors on their website (Douma & Verspreek, 2014).

Referring back to the Customer profile model in 2.3.3, influencing factors in consumer behavior online show that if consumers feel more secure on how to control their privacy online they will show a more positive perception about OBA. However on the other side, more control would mean more resistance (Wood & Quinn 2003) . Next to that actual risk is not really experienced but the perception of risk.

Therefore NPO should in the future focus on having their privacy statements accurate and clear and create confidence among website visitors. In the end, the consumers are not specifically worried about their privacy and the detailed information in privacy statements but more on their degree of control, what all 3 models confirm.

In order for consumers not to choose to turn to resistance strategies, influence strategies could be applied. Some of these influence strategies could be considered as manipulative. However on the other side, other influence strategies could increase consumers’ perception of security (Kirmani & Campbell, 2004). The effect of influence strategies is not similar to all individual website visitors. Differences may appear in privacy concerns, consumers ‘trust and their willingness to provide personal information (Milne et al., 2009). Research has shown that non-coercive strategies, such as placing privacy policies on a website, decreases concerns on disclosure of personal information. However on the other side, coercive strategies offering a reward would increase privacy concern and decrease self-disclosure willingness (Andrade et al., 2002). Therefore it is recommended to NPO to adopt a non-coercive strategy to increase trust and willingness to provide personal information.

Referring back to the structural model of Wu et al. (2012) the study came to the conclusion that security ranks highest in concerns of consumers. If the web site owner is aimed at increasing trust among web site visitors, in order for them to provide more personal information they increase their focus on the provision of security and security data along with creating privacy statements or building the website. Therefore again, this strategy shows that NPO should increase attention to the parameter trust in order to increase willingness to provide personal information. This strategy highly correlates with the non-coercive strategy. In the coercive strategy NPO would put too much focus on trying to let customers know about the customization provided which would increase resistance and reduce trust. The non-coercive strategy and (the importance of trust in) the structural model both focus on providing security to increase trust and in turn reach a higher willingness to provide personal information.

The alternative of using cookies could be the application of web bugs. However the application of web bugs is only a short term solution until privacy regulations will change. When privacy regulations will change web bugs would become similar to cookies. Therefore it is recommended that NPO as an example organization should not turn to this strategy.

MPPT CONTROLLER UNDER PARTIAL: essay help online free

ABSTRACT: Maximum Power Point

Tracking (MPPT) is the most important part

of an energy conversion system using

photovoltaic arrays. Maximum power point

tracking (MPPT) techniques are used in

photovoltaic (PV) systems to maximize the

PV array output power by tracking

continuously the maximum power point

(MPP) which depends on panel temperature

and on irradiance conditions. The power

voltage characteristic of PV arrays

operating under partial shading conditions

exhibits multiple local maximum power

points (LMPPs). In this paper, a review of

various characteristics curves of MPPT

controller under partial shading conditions

has been presented to analyze the

performance of MPPT controller under

such conditions.

Keywords: Maximum Power Point

Tracking (MPPT), Global Maximum Power

Point (GMPP), Local Maximum Power

Point (LMPP), Multiple Maxima, Partial

Shading, Photovoltaic (PV).


A PHOTOVOLTAIC (PV) cell is an

electrical device that converts the energy of

light directly into electricity through PV

effect. PV cells have a complex relationship

between solar irradiation, temperature, and

total resistance, and exhibit a nonlinear

output efficiency characteristic known as

the P’V curve. Therefore, maximum power

point tracking (MPPT) techniques should be

developed in PV systems in order to

maximize the output power of PV systems.

Nowadays, there have been many MPPT

methods reported in the literature, such as

hill climbing, perturb and observe

incremental conductance (INC) and ripple


However, when there is multiple local

power maxima, from partially shading or

from installation on a curved surface,

conventional MPPT techniques do not

perform well. Multiple maxima may occur

due to bypass diodes, which are used to

avoid hot spots from forming when some

cells in a module or some modules in a

string receive less irradiance than others.

Without the remediation of power

electronics, the lost energy due to partial

shading can be significant. Thus, it is

imperative to utilize MPPT techniques that

reliably track the unique global power

maximum present in shaded arrays.

Some researchers have proposed global

maximum power point tracking (GMPPT)

algorithms to address the partial shading

condition. It is observed that the peaks

follow a specific trend in which the power at

a peak point continues to increase until it

reaches the GMPP, and afterward, it

continuously decreases. The proposed

algorithm incorporates an online current

measurement and periodic interruptions to

address certain challenges associated with

rapidly changing insolation and partial

shading. This method can be an effective

solution to mitigate the effect of partial

shading. The simulation results, however,

obtained by measuring environmental

parameters and the actual case will be

drastically different, because the actual

characteristic of the solar panels depends on

many factors (e.g., light intensity,


Fig. 1 PV array under different partial

shading conditions.

ageing, dust, and partial shading). In

addition, the method increases the PV

system cost in practical commercial




Fig. 1 shows a PV array which has

four PV modules connected in series under

uniform insolation conditions. Fig. 2(a)

illustrates typical I’V and P’V curves for

the PV array under a uniform solar

irradiance of 1000 W/m2 on all the PV

modules. The traditional MPPT algorithm

can reach this peak and continue oscillating

around the MPP. The P&O method, e.g.,

perturbs the solar array voltage in one

direction in each sampling period and tests

the power change afterward. It is assumed

that initially PV array is operating at point

A, as shown in Fig. 2(a).

An operating voltage of the PV array

is perturbed in a given direction (from A to

B), and an increase in output power is

observed (PB > PA). This means that point B

is closer to the MPP than point A, and the

operating voltage must be further perturbed

in the same direction (from B to C). On the

other hand, if the output power of the PV

array decreases (from D to E), the operating

point has moved away from the MPP, and

therefore, the direction of the operating

voltage perturbation must be reversed (from

D to C). Through constant perturbation,

eventually the operating voltage will reach

and continue oscillating around the MPP


However, in some practical

conditions, the series strings of PV modules

are not under the same solar irradiance

condition. The partial shading condition is a

common situation due to the shadows of

buildings, trees, clouds, dirt, etc. Fig. 1

shows several different partial shading

situations. Under the partial shading

condition, if there is one module in a PV

string that is less illuminated, the shaded

module will dissipate some of the power

generated by the rest of the modules. It

means that the current available in a series

connected PV array is limited by the current

of the shaded module. This can be avoided

by using bypass diodes which can be placed

in parallel with the PV module.

The method of using bypass diodes

allows the array current to flow in the

correct direction even if one of the strings is

completely shadowed. Bypass diodes are

widely implemented in commercial solar

panels. Because of bypass diodes, multiple

maxima appear under the partial shading

condition. The P’V curve of PV array in

Fig. 1 possesses multiple maxima under the

partial shading condition, as shown in Fig. 2

(b). The unshaded modules in the sample

PV array are exposed to 1000 W/m2 of

solar insolation and the shaded module is

exposed to 400 W/m2 of solar insolation.

There are two observed peaks in the P’V

curve, because of the natural behavior of the

bypass diode and PV array connection

inside the module. Point A is the GMPP,

while point B the local maximum power

point (LMPP). When the area covered by

the shadow changes, the P’V curve and the

location of GMPP also changes, as shown in

Fig. 2(c) and (d). Under these conditions,

traditional algorithms can only track either

of the two MPPs, and cannot distinguish

between GMPP and LMPP.

Continuing with the P&O method as

an example, both points satisfy the

conditions to be the ‘MPP.’ If the operating

point obtained by the PV array algorithm is

LMPP, the output power is significantly

lower. Some researchers proposed a global

scan method to obtain the PV output curves.

Then a complex algorithm is required to

calculate the GMPP of the curves. This

method is able to obtain the GMPP, but it

cannot determine whether the PV cell is

operating under shading conditions, and

blindly and constantly scans for the MPP,

wasting the output energy. For these

reasons, a new improved MPPT method for

the PV system under the partial shading

condition is proposed in this paper.

Fig. 2 P’V and I’V characteristics curves

of a PV array under different partial

shading conditions





In order to avoid blind global scan,

methods to determine the presence of partial

shading are essential. It is noted that when a

series of PV array is under the identical

solar irradiance condition [Fig. 1], every PV

model works as a source, and all modules

are identical in their voltage, current, and

output power at any time. But this state

changes when there is shadow. Fig. 1 is an

example in the following analysis. The

models in the series array are exposed to

two different solar irradiances, and the solar

irradiation levels are 1000 and 400 W/m2,

respectively. The voltages of the modules

that are exposed to different irradiation

levels are completely different.

The two peaks on the P’V curve are

divided into two separate parts, as shown in

Fig. 2(c). Part A is the curve containing the

left peak (curved A’C), and part B is the

curve containing the right peak (curve C’B’

E). In part A, the current of the PV array IPV

is greater than the maximum current that the

PV module can

Fig. 3 Every module output voltage with

array output power.

(a) Unshaded module. (b) Shaded


produce under the shade (M3 and M4);

therefore, the current will flow through the

bypass diode of each module. At this stage,

only PV M1 and M2 are supplying power,

and PV M3 and M4 have been bypassed by

the diodes. The characteristic curves of the

PV module voltage with output power are

shown in Fig. 3(a) and (b). The voltages of

PV M3 and M4 are approximately negative

0.7V (the diode’s forward voltage drop) in

part A, as shown in Fig. 3(b).

Therefore, the module voltages

being equal to the negative of the diode’s

forward voltage can be used as one effective

way to estimate partial shading condition. In

part B, all PV modules are supplying power,

but the unshaded and shaded modules are in

different working conditions. Because the

PV modules receive different amounts of

solar radiation, the voltages of the PV

modules are different. In part B (curve C’

B’E), the voltage of the unshaded modules

is greater than that of the shaded modules,

as shown in Fig. 4. It is evident that this is

another indicator to efficiently identify

partial shading. Following the above

analysis, some of the observations are listed

as follows.

1) I’V curves under partial shading

conditions have multiple steps, while the

P-V curves are characterized by multiple


2) The number of peaks is equal to the

number of different insolation levels

irradiated on the PV array, and any peak

point may be the GMPP.

Fig 4 Array output power with unshaded

module output voltage and shaded

module output voltage.

3) The voltages of PV modules that receive

different solar radiations are different.

4) The voltage of the PV module that is

bypassed by a diode is equal to the negative

of the diode’s forward voltage drop.


In this paper, a review of concepts &

developments in the field of MPPT has been

shown. Also various partial shading

conditions have been briefly reviewed. The

comparison between this various conditions

of partial shading has been summarized with

the help of various characteristic curves.

Finally it is concluded that conventional

MPPT techniques have disadvantages like

energy loss, not able to determine partial

shading conditions, etc. Majority of these

problems can be eliminated by improved

MPPT controller method. Therefore

application of Improved MPPT controller

method now a day’s not limited up to

generation level but research work

suggested that it is having ability to replace

the conventional MPPT methods too in near



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Learning theories – behavioural, social & cultural, constructivism, cognitive

Learning is defined as the permanent change in individuals mind, voluntary or involuntary. It occurs through an experience that can bring about a relatively permanent change in an individual’s knowledge or behavior. Behaviorist defines learning as the changes in an individual’s mind resulting in a permanent change. It is learning that takes place intentional or unwillingly in individuals. Cognitive psychologist defines learning as the changes in knowledge that can be an internal mental activity that cannot be observed directly. Learning involves obtaining and modifying knowledge, skills, strategies, beliefs, attitudes and behaviors to understand old or new information. Individuals learn skills from experiences that tend to take the form of social interactions, linguistic or motor skills. Educational professionals define learning as an ‘enduring change in behavior or in the capacity to behave in a given fashion which results from practice or other forms of experience’.

One may ask how does learning happen? Learning happens every day to every individual, it doesn’t only happen in the classrooms, colleges or universities buildings but it can happen anywhere and every day. Learning can occur through interacting with others, observing or simply as just listening to a conversation. Learning happens through experiences good and bad, or ones that can provoke an emotional response or simply offer a moment of revelation. Behaviorist and cognitive theorist believed that learning can be affected by the environment an individual resides but behaviorist focused more on the role of the environment and how the stimuli is presented and arrange and the responses reinforced. Cognitive theorist on the other hand agrees with behaviorist but tend to focus more on the learners abilities, beliefs, values and attitudes. They believe that learning occurs by consolidation which is the forming and strengthening of neural connections which include the factors organization, rehearsal, elaboration and emotional. Learning occurs in many ways, psychologist believe that learning is the key concept of living whether it’s intentional or unintentional which is why they came up with the learning theories.

Learning theories are considered theoretical frameworks in describing how information is contain, refined and maintain during learning. Learning is an important activity in the lives of individuals; it is the core of our educational process, even though learning begins out of the classroom. For many years psychologist sought to understand what is learning, the nature of it, how is it transpired and how individuals influence learning in others through teaching and similar endeavors. Learning theories tend to be based on scientific evidence and more valid than personal opinions or experiences. There are five basic types of theories used in educational psychology which are: Behavioral, Cognitive, Social & Cultural, and Constructivism.

Behavioral Theory

The behavioral approach is the behavior view that generally assumes that the outcome of learning is the change in behavior and emphasizes the effects of internal events on an individual. In the behaviorist approach, they believed that individuals have no free will, and that the environment an individual is place in determines their behavior. They believe that individuals are born with a clean slate and that behaviors can be learned from the environment. The learning theories from the behaviorists Pavlov, Guthrie and Thorndike have historical importance on learning. Although they may differ each theory has its own process of forming associations between stimuli and responses. Thorndike believed that responses to stimuli are strengthening when it is followed by a satisfying consequence. Guthrie reasoned that the relation between stimulus and responses is established through pairing. Pavlov, who developed the classical conditioning, demonstrated how stimuli can be conditioned to obtain certain responses while being paired with another stimulus. The behavior theory is expressed in conditioning theories that explains learning in the terms of environmental events but is not the only conditioning theory.

B. F. Skinner developed the Operant conditioning; this form of conditioning is based on the assumptions that the features of the environment serves as cues for responding. He believed that we learn to behave in certain ways as we operate on the environment. In operant conditioning reinforcement strengthens the responses and increases the likelihood of the occurring when the stimuli are present. The operant conditioning is a three-term contingency that involves the antecedent (stimulus), the behavior (response) and the consequences. Operant conditioning involves consequences which can determine how individuals respond to environmental cues. Consequences can be either good or bad for individuals, it can reinforce behavior that increases it or a reinforcement that decreases behavior. There are other operant conditioners such as generalization, discrimination, primary and secondary reinforcements, reinforcement schedules and the premack principle.

Shaping is another form of operant conditioning, it is the process used to alter behavior in individuals. Shaping is the successive approximations which involves the reinforcing progress. It is the complex behaviors that are formed by the linking of simple behaviors in the three-term contingencies. This operant conditioning involves self-regulation which is the process of obtaining an individual stimulus and reinforcement control of themselves.

Cognitive Theory

The cognitive theory focuses on the inner activities of the mind. The cognitive theory states that knowledge is learned and the changes in knowledge make the changes in behavior possible. Both the behavioral and cognitive theory believe that reinforcement is important in learning but for different reasons. The behaviorist suggests that reinforcement strengthens responses but cognitive suggest that reinforcement is a source of feedback about what is likely to happen if behaviors are repeated or changed. The cognitive approach suggests an important element in the learning process is the knowledge an individual has towards a situation. Cognitive theorist believe that they information we already know determines what we will perceive, learn, remember and forget.

There are three main theorist of the cognitive development Gestalt, Kohler and Koffka. Gestalt learning theory approach proposes that learning consists of grasping of a structural whole and not just a mechanistic response to a stimulus. The main concept of his theory was that when we process sensory stimuli we are aware of the configuration or the overall pattern which is the whole. Kohler theory stated that learning can occur by a ‘sudden comprehension’ as to gradually understanding. This theory could happen without any reinforcement and there will be no need for review, training or investigations. Koffka theory suggested that he supported the fact that animals are can be participants in learning because they are similar to humans in many ways. He believed that there was no such thing as meaningless learning, and that the idea interdependent of facts was more important than knowing many individual facts.

Social & Cultural theory

The social and cultural theory is based on how individuals functioning are related to cultural, institutional and historical context. Vygotsky was a psychologist in Russia who identified the Social & Cultural theory also known as sociocultural theory. The Sociocultural theory is known as the combining theory in psychology because it discussed the important contributions society makes on an individual development and cognitive views of Piaget. The theory suggested that learning occurs between the interactions of people. Lev. Vygotsky believed that Parents, Caregivers, Peers and culture played an important in the development of a high order function. According to Vygotsky ‘Every function is the children cultural development that appears twice: firstly on the social level, secondly on an individual level. In the social cultural theory tends to focus not only on how adults or peers influence learning but how an individual culture can impact how learning takes place.

According to Vygotsky children are born with the basic constraints on their mind. He believed that each culture provides ‘tools of intellectual adaptation’ for each individual. Theses adaptation allows children to use their basic mental ability to adapt to their culture for example a culture may utilized tools to emphasize on memorization strategies. Vygotsky was a brilliant man, he worked along with Piaget in developing the cognitive theory their theories differ in certain ways. Firstly Piaget theory was basically based on how children interactions and explorations influenced development, Vygotsky placed greater emphasis on the social factors that influence development. Another difference is the Vygotsky suggested that cognitive development can be different between cultures while Piaget theory suggested the development in universal. There is one important concept in the sociocultural theory known as the zone of proximal. The Zone of proximal is considered to be the level of independent problem solving and a level of potential development, through problem solving under the guidance of an adult or with peers. It includes the skills that a person cannot understand or perform on their own yet, but is capable of learning with guidance.

Constructivism Theory

The constructivism learning theory is defined as how learners or individuals construct knowledge from pervious experiences. Constructivism is often associated with a pedagogic approach that often promote learning or learning by doing. Constructing is known as the meaning for learning because constructivism focuses on the individual thinking about learning. The constructivist theory argues that individuals can generate knowledge from interactions between experiences and ideas. Constructivism examined the interactions between individuals from infancy to adulthood to try to comprehend how learning is done from experiences and behavior patterns. The constructivist theory is attributed to Jean Piaget who articulated the mechanisms by stating that knowledge is internalized by learners. Piaget stated that through the processes of adaptation the accommodation and assimilation, individuals can construct new knowledge from past experiences.

According Piaget theory of constructivism accommodation is the process of an individual reframing one’s mental view of the world and tries to fit in new experiences. Accommodation can be understood when failure leads to learning, as humans if we have an idea that the world works only one way and that way fails us then we will fail. In accommodation we learn from our failure or the failures of others. The constructivism theory describes how learning happens whether the individuals learn from using their experiences to understand information or by just following instructions to construct something. In both cases constructivism suggest that learner construct knowledge from experiences. The constructivism theory tends to be associated with active learning because5 individuals learn from experiences, something that was already did. Several cognitive psychologists argued that constructivist theories are misleading or can contradict findings.

As an educator I can facilitate learning by encouraging my students, helping them to develop to their fullest potential. As an educator I am compelled to vie and asses learning styles so that I can meet every student needs within the classroom. As an educator I want to be able to allow students to learn gradually. I would want my students to thrive academically and socially in and out of the classroom. From my understanding the four learning theories discussed in the paper all contribute to my understanding of learning. Despite all the different theories each theory gave me a new insight on learning occurs in and out of a class, college or university. From Behaviorist perspective view of learning is the change in behavior and emphasis of external events on an individual. For example Pavlov experiment in classical conditioning, where he taught dogs to salivate when they hear the tuning of a fork. If we used both conditioning theories with the classrooms can train students to behave and operant in the way they would want them to.

The theory that can be used in Music is the Behaviorist theory, I say this because music is the incorporating of knowledge and feeling. Music sets the atmosphere for an environment for example if a relaxing song is being played at home, that song puts the individual in a relaxing mood , in the behaviorist theory the environment influences the response of an individual so the relaxing song will evoke a relaxed response as done in Pavlov experiment of classical conditioning with the dogs that provoke salivating when hearing the tuning of a fork. In music classical conditioning is where students can be conditioned to like or enjoy a piece of music. For example if a classical song is being played that the students don’t know or like the teacher can play it repeatedly so they can get an understanding of it and eventually the students will enjoy the music because of the repetition of the song being played. There response to the song might be in the way of moving their bodies, tapping their feet or nodding their head.