Gender Equality Affects Progress

Progression and Implementation

Progress has been made over the years. “Over the last decade, more than 50 countries have launched gender- responsive budgeting initiatives, including Australia, Bolivia, Egypt, Mexico, Nepal, Senegal, Spain and Tanzania” (Investing in women and girls,2008). Gender responsive budgeting initiatives allow countries to monitor and evaluate the way money is being put to use. “It helps the government understand how they may need to adjust their priorities and reallocate resources to honor their commitments towards achieving gender equality and progress on women’s issues” (Investing in women and girls,2008). As per the journal the aim is not to create separate budgets but to allow countries to analyze what needs to change. This approach is proactive to allow governments to plan ahead with budgets. When budgets are set, it allows governments to identify, record and analyze issues in communities. Budgets enforce governments to distribute funds wisely whether it is put into programs, tools, resources, etc. Initiative needs to be taken to assist both genders. Programs that will influence both men and women and all children. This can occur through building more schools for both genders, implementing programs, giving out resources and knowledge to start a movement. Women need to be empowered, and this all starts from within communities. Awareness needs to formulate, and funds need to be inputted into this time of movement.

Authority in the Workplace

“Studies indicate that the more male-dominated the managerial staff, the larger the gender wage gap among subordinates” (Cohen and Huffman 2007; Hultin and Szulkin 2003). In conclusion the distribution of authority among positions need to respect the gender aspect. Women should be candidates for positions that hold authority. Workplaces need to drift away from distributing authority unequally because it comes with status and power. “Women are less likely to exert workplace authority than are men” (Smith 2002). The need to take on family responsibilities interferes with the ability for a woman to obtain authority. “One consequence of the gender division of labor is that women (mothers) commonly have less work experience than do men” (Edin and Richardson 2002; Hultin 1998; Mueller, Kurvilla and Iverson 1994). Due to child care responsibilities women lack the experience needed which may result in being underqualified to receive higher pay and obtain positions with high authority. Workplaces that have a diverse atmosphere in regards to gender and culture will have enhanced performance due to collaboration of perspectives and problem solving skills. Although there are laws that ensure a gender diverse workplace there are invisible barriers that forbid women from holding positions of authority.

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“Several U.S.-based experimental studies have shown that being a parent activates relatively harsh job-related standards for a woman, but relatively lenient standards for a man, indicating the presence of a status-based discrimination mechanism, to the disadvantage of mothers and the advantage of fathers” (Cuddy, Fiske and Glick 2004; Correll, Benard and Paik 2007; Fuegen et al. 2004). Not wanting to pay for long maternal leave can be the reasoning behind why employers avoid distributing authority among the workplace. Employers may want to avoid this paid time off which results in avoidance of hiring women children or women overall due to the possibility of having children. This mentality has followed throughout years. Back in history women were not hired due to possibility of pregnancy and the responsibility of childcare and household chores. It is more likely for a mother to take maternity leave as opposed to a father. Women take on that responsibility because of gender expectations formed in society. “Gender disparities in the labor market are to a large extent attributable to deeply entrenched stereotypes that restrain women to caregiving and men to breadwinning” (OECD, 2014). Although women received paid maternity leave which last up to six to eight weeks depending on the method of birth men are expected to cover finances while the mother cares for the child. Although we live in a Modern time a woman is likely to be frowned up for leaving her child to go back to work.

Gender Attitudes and Marriage Exposure

“Recent research has suggested that gender attitudes affect how people perceive women’s capabilities as employees, regardless of their actual performance” (Hekman et al. 2010). Beliefs of social structure need to be evaluated. The expectations held for men and women need to be drifted away from. Expectations are formed based off of beliefs, norms and values. Gender roles need to be addressed to enhance gender equality. “Inclusive and quality primary and secondary education for boys and girls are critical to sustainable development and gender equality” (United Nations, 2015). There has been significant progress in providing primary education to both boys and girls but there needs to be work done in providing secondary education equally. “Boys are typically afforded greater independence while more restrictions are placed on girls, contributing to early marriage of girls and girls dropping out of secondary school at higher rates than boys” (Lane, Brundage & Kreinin, 2017). Early marriages interfere with receiving or completing an education and exposes young girls to child bearing and sexual diseases. “Every year, 15 million girls under the age of 18 are forced into marriage; 200 million women have undergone female genital mutilation; only 52 % of women married or in a union freely make their own decisions about sexual relations, contraceptive use and health care” (UN Women, 2018). Various cultures hold the social practice of arranged marriages. Girls lack a voice and it stems from circumstances they face to abide to family expectations. In some cultures, girls cannot refuse to get married and continue on with an education because it will be frowned upon by society. Girls and women are considered valuable because of their virginity in some countries and because of that the families of the grooms are willing to pay more. Girls are sold off into marriage against their will and endure violence whether it is from the spouse or individuals in the community. “Compared to their male peer’s girls are disproportionately expected to do domestic chores and take on caring responsibilities at home, limit movement outside the home and remain virgin until marriage. This system of norms has implications for girls’ school dropout and the practice of child marriage” (Raminik, 2018). As discussed previously it is expected that girls remain virgins until marriage and that instills that abstinence makes them worthy. Girls enter adulthood with these perceptions, beliefs and norms and pass them down to their daughters. Girls and women need to be empowered through receiving an education and resources to help them grow and advance in every aspect of life.

Evaluating Gender Equality

Through providing education for girls health will be improved, gender inequality reduced and it plays a significant role in empowering girls and women. Education is not a right in every society, and females are deprived and dehumanized. As discussed in great length throughout the weeks MDGs goal is gender parity in primary and secondary schools by 2005 and at all levels of education by 2015. Girls attaining primary education can decrease barriers faced by women and improve health. Analyzing gender equality requires addressing it through global dynamics and at a lower level through societies. Through evaluation of global dynamics, one can identify the forces which influence inequalities. The advancement in technology has allowed individuals to connect through various social platforms such as Instagram, Facebook, Twitter and YouTube. Through evaluating everyday life, we can analyze beliefs, values, social practices and norms. The real issue is that gender perceptions held today have been carried on after numerous years. Educating individuals can distill and break down the perceptions held for genders. As the WE program focuses on providing the youth with education, skills and resources. Through providing individuals with resources needed a change can occur. There needs to be implementation in schools to evoke character and determination in the youth to work towards making a change. Gender roles and perceptions are instilled in children throughout childhood. From as early as the ages of 3-5 where children are told what to play with and how to express themselves. A change needs to occur throughout interaction in childhood. Since a young age girls feel a sense of rejection in some cultures. Through conversing with females of the Indian culture parents favor having sons as opposed to daughters.

There has been an ongoing journey to promote gender equality which has endured through centuries. Progress has been made in certain aspects of equality such as opportunities to enter the workforce and receiving an education but there are still countries in need of a change in policies and attitudes toward gender equality. Process is being made but it is slow and there is still a lack of power experienced by numerous women in societies. Laws need to be amended and new laws need to be implemented. Societies views on gender, the influence of family views, and political views need to undergo a change in structure. The way women are portrayed in the media plays a significant role in the way women and girls view themselves. Girls/ women are expected to look a certain way and do certain things. Images created and portrayed in the media have an impact on self esteem and self respect. Women are portrayed cleaning, cooking and caring for children and those are portrayed as good qualities. The image of women is sexualized on the media and women lack power and respect due to that. Malala is a prime example of what happens to a girl when she stands up to the rules. She stood up the Taliban in her country and because of that she was shot in the head. She wanted to be the voice of all girls and women who lacked having one and it resulted in her life being at risk. She took her negative experience and started a movement to empower girls and women at such a young age. A lot can be done from implementing programs in school, government funding campaigns, and starting movements as Malala has done.

Among various countries women have access to few resources and lack opportunity to improve their lives. Restrictions and lack of opportunities are linked to countries poverty and their lack of development. Wealth and poverty play a significant role in the movement to address gender inequality. In countries that experience poverty there will be lack of resources to provide. There are few opportunities for both genders as opposed to a wealthy country. However, gender inequality is present in both poor and wealthy countries due to social, cultural and political views.

Implementation and Monitoring

“Discriminatory social institutions are formal and informal laws, social norms and practices that restrict women’s and girl’s rights, access to empowerment opportunities and resources (OECD, 2014) This is the explanation for the slow progress being made along with the lack of improvement. Improvement needs to made in regards to data collection to better understand the root factors of gender inequality. It is much more to implementing education and employment opportunities. There needs to be a drift in attitudes and in laws and policies. Unity is needed to work towards resolution for this global social issue. “The Social Institutions and Gender Index (SIGI) is a cross country measure of discrimination against women in social institutions (formal and informal laws, social norms and practices) across 180 countries” (OECD). There are country profiles and an index for the countries. This data allows monitoring of gender equality/inequality in countries. It allows one to track progress. All aspects and stages of life for girls and women are looked upon. Education, employment and health are aspects evaluated. In order to determine whether progress has been made, countries must enhance data collection methods in order to track progress.


Gender equality affects various aspects of life, and it interferes with the development of countries. Women need to be heard and gain a voice. Gender equality will be of convenience for the economy, the workplace, and society in general. Well-being will enhance through tackling gender inequality. Every bit of effort counts whether it is within small communities to global movements. Lack of knowledge, resources and skills plays a significant role in why there is slow progression in achieving gender equality. It will be a long journey and as of now I conclude that a lot more can be done.

Equality: Past, Present, And Future In ‘To Kill A Mockingbird’

Most Americans would agree that our country needs to work on achieving true equality, but the process of getting there has been challenging. America is divided because people have their own views and experiences and are not always willing to change, or agree. Inequality dates back to when our country was founded, and the way things were then affects how they are now. Most people think they know what equality means but they don’t. Equality is the state in which everyone is treated equal in opportunities and rights. Sadly people who do not fit the images in the majority of people’s heads are given fewer opportunities in life.

Our country has improved greatly since its founding but sadly the U.S. still has segregation. People of color still feel and are treated unfairly compared to white people. According to a Pew Research Center survey, “88 percent” of black people say change needs to happen so they can obtain equal rights. On the other side of the survey about “53 percent” of whites say there is room for improvement and that black people should have more opportunities and rights. As the survey shows there is a major difference between how black and white people feel about equal rights. A lot more black people believe things need to change compared to white people. Also a major finding that the survey found was that “38 percent” of whites say the changes have already been made. On the other hand only “8 percent” of black people say the changes have already happened. There is a drastic difference between what white and black people believe needs to change. America will never achieve racial equality because not everyone agrees that things need to change. People of color still face discrimination from not getting paid as much as white people and to being treated poorly and killed by the police, and has since been proven not necessary. How can white people believe that black people are treated equally when a black person has trouble applying for and getting a job just because their skin is a different color? Inequality isn’t always race it can be anything from health to gender. White males make up most of the people who work at high paid and high power jobs. Women are belittled in high paid and in major jobs. In addition women are interpreted in which a way that paints them as if they can only handle low level jobs. According to research, “Women represent only 5 percent of CEOs at Fortune 500 firms.” Black people receive a lot of discrimination but women of color seem to receive even more. Women of color and transgender people face some of the worse economic hardship and discrimination. Transgender people tend to experience more unemployment and double the amount of poverty than most Americans and people in general. In addition gender biased and sexual harassment causes social and economic divides. Most people wouldn’t think that health has to do anything with inequality, but contrary to what you might think health and inequality have a lot to do with each other. Income levels can cause stress, and stress can lead to health issues. Economic inequality has a direct affect on people’s health. People who work long hours and don’t get paid very much may experience health issues. According to, “U.S. households with annual incomes below $50,000 report higher levels of stress than other families.” Stress can cause many health issues like diabetes, depression, and obesity. Some of these issues can be life threatening and could make it so that person cannot work. People may experience health inequality because they cannot afford medical care. Most of the inequality starts from money and history. People might not be able to get jobs because of their race or gender. Since people can’t even get a job because of there gender or ethnicity then we are a far way from equality.

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Equality has improved greatly since our country’s founding, but there is still is inequality. Slavery is no longer existent and women can vote now. However people of color still face discrimination and there are pay gaps between women and men. In To Kill A Mockingbird by Lee, Harper, Scout was told to act and dress like a girl, and she wasn’t doing anything wrong she was just being a kid. This still happens today girls are supposed to “act and dress like a girl” and are discouraged from playing with toys meant for the opposite gender or wearing boys clothing. Also in To Kill A Mockingbird, Tom Robinson is automatically seen as being guilty just because he’s black. Today people of color still can be seen as guilty just because they are from a bad area or happen to be black. Even though there is still discrimination people are trying to make a change like Atticus Finch. In To kill A Mockingbird, Atticus said “ You never really understand a person until you consider things from his point of view—” “Sir?” “—until you climb into his skin and walk around in it (Lee 39).” Even in a time of segregation and discrimination Atticus knew it wasn’t right and taught Jem and Scout the importance of doing the right thing even when it isn’t the easy thing.

It’s clear that America will never achieve true equality, because time and time again we’ve tried and were not successful. There is more equality now but people still have their own opinions and views. Some people still discriminate towards people of different races and genders. People still experience inequality when trying to find a job or medical care. In the past there were similar issues that we face now. Today we face many new challenges but sadly we face ones from the past that won’t ever change.

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