General Motors Case Study

History: In New Jersey, in 1908, the world’s largest automobile manufacturers, General Motors, was founded by William Durant. General Motors was created to “consolidate several motorcar companies such as: Buick, Oldsmobile, Cadillac, Oakland (later Pontiac), Ewing, Marquette, and other autos” (General Motors). During 1910, William Durant lost control of the company due to debt, gained it back in 1916. Only to end up losing it again in 1920, because America was hit by the power depression. This caused William Durant to go bankrupt, which led to Alfred P. Sloan Jr. becoming the president of General Motors during (1923-1937), and then chairman of the board of directors in (1937-1956) (General Motors). Sloan reorganized General Motors into five main automotive divisions Cadillac, Buick, Pontiac, Oldsmobile, and Chevrolet. In 1929, General Motors surpassed the Ford Motor Company, and became the leading American passenger-car manufacturer (General Motors). General Motors added overseas operations in Vauxhall of England in 1925, in Adam Opel of Germany in 1929, and Holden of Australia in 1931.

“In 1931 General Motors became the world’s largest manufacturer of motor vehicles. By 1941 it was making 44 percent of all the cars in the United States and became one of the largest industrial corporations in the world” (General Motors). Because of the competition General Motors had with Japanese automakers they began a new automotive division called Saturn in 1984 (General Motors). In 2008, “General Motors was surpassed by Toyota Motor Corporation as the world’s largest automaker” (General Motors). As of January 15, 2014, Mary T. Barra has been the Chairman and Chief Executive Officer of General Motors. She is also the first woman to take over a large automobile company. Challenges:During 2014, General Motors faced the gravest safety crisis in the companies history. “General Motors issued a record 84 separate recalls in the United States involving more than 30 million cars, 2.6 million of which had a problem with defective ignition switches that could shut down engine power and disable airbags” (Dess, C239). “General Motors had to make compensation offers to the families of 42 people who had died in accidents in vehicles with defective switches, as well as more than 50 people who were injured” (Dess, C239). General Motors continued to deal with the repercussions of the safety problems that it failed to address. In 2016, General Motors was facing several investigations, including a federal trial that would deal with several lawsuits against the firm. General Motors failed to inform The U.S. Department of Transportation of the ignition switch defect in a timely manner, because of this General Motors got hit with $35 million penalty. In June of 2014, internal reports released that General Motors “faulted a lack of responsibility and accountability at the firm for its failure to recall defective cars for years after it had learned about the faulty ignition switch” (Dess, C239). Richard Wagoner took over General Motors in 2000, “he carried out three major restructurings, eliminating dozens of plants, tens of thousands of jobs, and hundreds of dealers” (Dess, 240). Richard Wagoner became short of funds and turned to the U.S government for loans.

Our writers can help you with any type of essay. For any subject

Order now

“The Bush Administration gave General Motors a loan of $13.4 billion to help through the crisis General Motors was facing” (Global Cars Brands). Richard Wagoner was replaced by “Frederick A. Henderson, who had been President and Chief Operating Officer of the firm for General Motors since 2008” (Dess, 240). In 2009 “the Obama Administration forced General Motors to shut down and numerous conferences and meetings were held (Global Cars Brands). In late July of 2009, General Motors had to seek chapter 11 bankruptcy protection. After that, General Motors “was led by two different board members, Edward E. Whitacre, Jr., ran the firm for about a year before being replaced by Dan Akerson” (Dess, 240). Akerson was appointed by the U.S. government following the General Motors bankruptcy. General Motors was finally able to move past bankruptcy in 2014, and Akerson was replaced by Barra. General Motors then began to face issues with the number of brands of vehicles it offered and cut cost by cutting out four of its brands Pontiac, Saturn, Saab, and Hummer. Over the decades General Motors has faced a series of bankruptcies, new board members, and recalls.SWOT Analysis: Swot analysis is one of the basic techniques used for analyzing a firm and their industry conditions. It is utilized to help firms target and understand their strengths, weaknesses, opportunities and threats. “First, it forces managers to consider both internal and external factors simultaneously. Second, its emphasis on identifying opportunities and threats makes firms act proactively rather than reactively. Third, it raises awareness about the role of strategy in creating a match between the environmental conditions and the firm’s internal strengths and weaknesses. Finally, its conceptual simplicity is achieved without sacrificing analytical rigor” (Dess, 42). General Motors has several strengths that have helped them to be a successful company over many decades. The following strengths General Motors have are: Strong Brand Image: General Motors has several well-known brands that it owns around the world that have a strong image, such as Chevrolet, Cadillac, GMC, Buick, etc. These brands help General Motors strengthen their competition with other brands. General Motors has a long list of customer loyalty based on the reliability and attractiveness of these brands. Global Presence: General Motors vehicles are present globally. General Motors produces vehicles in 37 countries under thirteen different brands.

General Motors maintains business presence in other countries, “such as Isuzu Truck South Africa, General Motors Egypt, India, Uzkeistan, Ghandhara Industries in Pakistan, etc” (Global Cars Brands). Every company has weaknesses, and General Motors is very familiar with their weaknesses. They have worked hard over the years to improve on them. The following weaknesses General Motors have are: Product Recalls: As previously stated, General Motors has recalled numerous amounts of vehicles before due to defective ignition switches. Because of these past recalls the brand image of General Motors has been affected negatively. General Motors always has opportunities arising. These opportunities are what will help General Motors grow. The following opportunities General Motors have are: Increasing demand for Hybrid Electric Vehicles: Hybrid Electric technology is still new to the market which will give General Motors a chance to compete and become a global leader. Two of the well known hybrids General Motors provides are the Chevrolet Malibu Hybrid, and the Cadillac CT6 plug-in Hybrid. New Models: General Motors are always working on ways to update their products with the latest technology, due to the fact that what is popular today might not be popular tomorrow. General Motors works hard to stay up to date with the latest trends in order to exceed customer expectations as well as sales, and revenue to keep the company growing. Businesses will more than likely encounter threats from time to time. General Motors is aware of the threats they have encountered and may still yet encounter in the future. The following threats General Motors have are:Rising Competition: The competition has continued to rise in the auto industry. General Motors has many competitors such as Toyota Motor, Ford Motor, Honda Motor, Daimler, Hyundai Motor, Nissan Motor, etc.

As stated earlier, Toyota is currently ahead of General Motors as number one in the auto industry.Threatened Brand Image: The various recalls that General Motors has faced over the years has threatened their image. Not only has it affected their image, it has also affected their sales. Customers’ are taking their business to other auto companies. Conclusion: General Motors continues to work hard to make improvements and try to stay on top of the auto industry. They have improved financially over the years since the recession. General Motors has released new models and continues to stay up to date with trends to increase their sales as well as customer loyalty. General Motors has the potential to be number one in the auto industry again as long as they keep striving to be better and work harder. Porter’s Five Forces will be a good tool to help General Motors. Porter’s Five Forces would help them identify any factors that will affect the firm’s ability to compete. The five forces include: The threat of new entrants, the bargaining power of buyers, the bargaining power of suppliers, the threat of substitute products and services, and the intensity of rivalry among competitors in an industry. Using Porter’s Model would allow General Motors to gain a better understanding of their status as a company and to make the necessary changes in order to continue being successful in the auto industry.

The Question Of Human Nature

The question of human nature is a topic that has polarized mankind for centuries. The desire to understand human nature is the desire to understand the essence of what it means to be human. So what underlying themes are common to all man? Are humans simply intellectually elevated animals that are motivated solely by unconscious primitive instincts or are human beings capable of possessing higher level drives like maturity, social adjustment, independence, and productivity (Rogers, 1946)? Freud opted for an evolutionary view, believing that humans are inherently aggressive and dominated by unconscious urges that must be forcibly tamed through repression in order to adapt to modern society. Rogers however, held a more optimistic view that while yes, there are unconscious elements to the mind, they are more easily accessible than Freud believed. Additionally, humans are not only capable of, but desire to experience psychological growth and maturity (Rogers, 1946). An added point of contention is whether or not we are just a summation of our past experiences. Freud argued that will power or the desire to overcome our traumas was nothing more than repression finally being set free (Freud, 1917). While Rogers believed that individuals are more than their unconscious desires and that within them resides growth forces and a tendency toward self-actualization that alone can motivate a human (Rogers, 1946). This paper seeks to compare and contrast each theorist’s views on human nature in regards to the unconscious,methods of accessing the unconscious, and drives.

The two psychologists were in agreement on the existence of the unconscious mind. However, Freud believed that the unconscious mind was largely motivated by sexual forces and desire for pleasure that have over time become repressed and the only way to achieve catharsis is to trace back into the patient’s past history and bring those repressions to conscious thought (Freud, 1917). Rogers’ view on the unconscious was not rooted in sexual forces, rather he believed humans are equally influenced by all experiences to which they are exposed (Rogers, 1946).

Our writers can help you with any type of essay. For any subject

Order now

Both men agreed that the repressed unconscious must be brought to the surface in order to experience growth and relief of psychological stress. But a method on how to effectively unleash the unconscious was a concept of opposition. In psychoanalysis, treatment is very much therapist focused. The therapist maintains control over the session and provides insight, guides the client through making choices, and instructs them on how to handle difficult occurrences. Very little autonomy was given to the patient because Freud believed that most humans are lazy and unintelligent and must be led by an atypically competent human that was superior to them (Freud, 1930). Rogers held that therapy must be client-centered and that there are constructive forces within the patient that can be trusted to guide the client through repressed thoughts (Rogers, 1946). Full confidence must be placed unto the individual because Rogers felt that motivations of greater complexity than pleasure can and will prompt recovery. Psychoanalysis claims that the therapist knows best and they alone should receive credit for the patients’ recovery. Client-centered therapy states that the expert must merely provide an empathetic space where the client feels comfortable enough to access these dangerous and painful repressions. There should be no probing, advice, or interpretation given on part of the therapist (Rogers, 1946). This allows the client the sole responsibility of navigating their own experiences and attitudes and accepting them. Once accepted, only then may the client, on their own accord, choose new behaviors that are more constructive than the previous ones.

The amount of faith these two psychologists put into the human species is perhaps the most telling of their starkly contrasting views on human nature. Freud believed that more intellectually stimulating tasks -those not associated with pleasure or instinct- such as art or science, are prestigious and only a few people are capable of such a capacity (Freud, 1930). But the intensity of satisfaction from these activities is mild compared to the satisfaction received from engaging in our inherent instincts. Freud adamantly believed that men are not gentle creatures rather they are aggressive and under the right circumstances could unleash savagery upon their fellow man with consideration and compassion becoming foreign traits. He thought society would permanently be on the brink of collapse because primitive drives are stronger than rationality and reason (Freud, 1930). Clearly bleak in his views, Rogers took a vastly different approach proposing that while humans are subject to instinct, they also possess creative and integrative capabilities that can overpower primordial urges (Rogers, 1946). He also thought that all, not just a select few, were fit to have goals of self-actualization. He deduced that humans are capable of achieving emotional intelligence, exhibiting self control, and are in command of their own minds.

In pursuit of understanding who we are, many have theorized about human nature. What exactly it is, what the implications are, or if it even exists at all. Rogers theory is a more favorable approach that has endured to modern society, while Freud’s reductionist approach is limited in scope and not sustainable in the contemporary era. Rogers’ ideas do not focus on a narrow definition of human nature like Freud’s focal surmise about sexuality and aggression as the dominating human motivations. Freud’s psychoanalysis method places the therapist in control of the session, enabling the client to fall to their manipulations and influence. Instead Rogers speaks on the importance of client-centered therapy that allows the individual to come to conclusions autonomously and decide for themselves a solution to their trials. Lastly, the abstraction of pleasure alone is a much too simple answer for the question of a human life’s purpose. In contrast Rogers, believes in a person’s ability to find purpose externally and understands that humans have free will, a desire for improvement, and needs other than those of carnal nature. Though Freud’s theory is influential and interesting, he fails to account for reason and our ability to think critically. Collectively most of society is proud to say that there simply is more to us than animalistic tendencies. These higher order functions is what makes us unique as a species. Not all is yet know about human nature, but part of being human is the simultaneous acceptance of the unknown and the desire to forge past it.

Leave a Comment

Your email address will not be published. Required fields are marked *

× How can I help you?