How Did The Civil War Change The United States: The Transformative Impact

Transformation of Post-Civil War America

A critical time for the United States occurred in the late 1800’ and early 1900s. After the civil war, the state was transformed; over time, the U.S. changed dramatically, and Americans could either enjoy or detest this time, depending on their social status. The author of the textbook The American Nation writes, The United States was a land of opportunity, a democratic society with a prosperous, expanding economy and a few class distinctions. Its people had a high standard of living in comparison with the citizens of European countries. I chose this quote because it reveals how remarkable of a time it was for the United States, and it basically set the stage for future expectations. The country changed from a rural to an urban, more productive, and successful nation. The author of the book American Nations Estates; states that although the United States lived better than other people, for example, in the European countries, poverty still existed. Yet within this rich, confident nation, there existed a class of miserably underpaid and depressed unskilled workers, mostly immigrants who were worse off materially than nearly any southern slave.

The Economic Upswing and its Implications

In my opinion, I believed the economy after the Civil War had more pros than cons. The book writes Great fires burned in these decades to release the incredible energies of America. The poor were the ashes, sifting down silently and unnoticed beneath the dazzle and the smoke. I believe it’s expressing that only the rich were noticed, and the poor were left out. However, as I mentioned previously, the country changed from a rural to an urban, more productive, and successful nation. Americans who had businesses were lucky to have the money and time to produce goods for markets. That helped America become successful and resourceful for its citizens and others as, later in time, goods were able to be exported internationally. Because of the time period previously mentioned, the US has continued to become more industrialized to this day. As time goes on, we are able to enjoy more and more with the development of technology, which is now fundamental to everyone’s life.

Our writers can help you with any type of essay. For any subject

Order now

Technological Advancements: Bell and Edison

With the introduction of the telephone in 1876 at the Centennial Exposition in Philadelphia, Alexander Graham Bell became highly appreciated by Americans. His work showed the United States as a leader in industrial technology. His invention proved to be of great economic benefit to the citizens of Ann Arbor and many other cities around the country.

He was one of those wealthy men who helped change the view of the nation. Along with Bell, Thomas Alva Edison also became well-known in 1882. His team, “devoted to industrial research,” introduced the lamp. Immediately, electricity revolutionized both urban life and industry. Not only did Bell and Edison become well-known for being some of the first wealthy men before Rockefeller and Carnegie, who were also both staggeringly wealthy by the 20th century-, but they are also remarkably known for being the genius of the first Industrial Revolution.

The Second Industrial Revolution and Railroads

During the second industrial revolution, rural America was no longer in existence, with economic growth of about $11 billion between the years 1871 and 1914. In just a couple of years, the U.S. strengthened with its inventions and creativity. The transcontinental railroad done in 1869 helped the economy big time. The author mentions in The American Nation the effects of so much railroad construction were profound. Although the main reason that farmers put more land under the plow was an increase in the price of agricultural products, the railroad helped. To improve it, rail lines were added too, and then transportation could be used for passengers and goods, which helped the nation significantly. Soon enough, people were able to travel more easily, and agencies were constructed, which is an example of how fast America was growing. Raw materials were also able to be transported to urban populations for industry, which helped in the development of rural locations, but most importantly, it helped the economy. According to the author of The American Nation, he states; in 1840, the three countries immediately northeast of Springfield had a population of 8500; they produced about 59,000 bushels of wheat and 690,000 bushels of corn. After the railroads, by 1860, the population of those three countries mentioned above had soared to more than 38,000. Wheat production was over 550,000 bushels, and corn raised to a big number of 5.7 million bushels.

Challenges of Industrialization

The reason I believe some people may have detested times after the Civil War is because of what followed after the Second Industrial Revolution. Not everyone was able to benefit and live happily as wealthy representatives. The assembly line helped manufacture items quicker and more efficiently, but mechanization took away from the pleasure of the workers. The business grew in vertical and horizontal ways. Workers benefitted from vertical integration because they still owned their businesses, and other workers could help earn money. Economic opportunities were great, and taxation was minimal.

Conclusion: Reflecting on the Post-Civil War Era

In conclusion, I believe poverty was hard for the poor after the civil war. The author of The American Nation mentions that this situation still goes on in today’s days and that it’s true we see it not only in this country but also in other countries as well, not just America; however, I think Civil War was not to be blamed for. In my opinion, I say the aftermath of the Civil War was more good than bad. As I mentioned previously, after the Civil War, a lot of things changed the economy wisely, and it was for the better and not only helped construct the wealthy but also the middle class, which according to the author’s words in The American Nation, The middle majority seemed indifferent to or at best unaware of these conditions. I think they were aware of the situation because they did something about it might not have been a big achievement, but they worked for it.


  1. Foner, E. (2010). Reconstruction: America’s unfinished revolution, 1863-1877. Harper Collins.
  2. McPherson, J. M. (1988). Battle cry of freedom: The Civil War era. Oxford University Press.
  3. Chandler, A. D. (1993). The visible hand: The managerial revolution in American business. Belknap Press.
  4. Atack, J., & Passell, P. (1994). A new economic view of American history: From colonial times to 1940. WW Norton & Company.
  5. Phelan, J., Link, B. G., Moore, R. E., & Stueve, A. (1997). “The stigma of homelessness: The impact of the label “homeless” on attitudes toward poor persons.” Social Psychology Quarterly, 60(4), 323-337.

Causes Of Air Pollution: Understanding The Impact Of Human Activities


The environment continues to suffer due to the careless actions of human beings. I believe we do not realize the impact on the environment all the manmade items have that we continue to develop daily. The Earth was a beautiful place, to begin with. Now we have new technologies and amenities to make life convenient for us. Having your own transportation is extremely convenient because you do not have to wait for public transportation, which can sometimes be unsafe. In addition, having a car presents problems deeper than we know. To operate a vehicle, it burns a lot of fossil fuel, which is released back into the air. Pollution of the air affects humans daily in regions that have more manufacturing plants and are overpopulated. There are six common air pollutants they are carbon monoxide, ground-level ozone, lead, nitrogen dioxide, particulate matter, and sulfur dioxide. These toxins can create not only problems in the environment but also impacts the health of humans. One thing I personally suffer from is allergy and sinuses, which are triggered by pollen, but I believe air pollution plays a major role as well. Air pollution, global warming, ozone depletion, overpopulation, waste disposal, and loss of biodiversity are all outcomes of human activities or natural events.

The current resources that we have today will soon diminish to nothing if we continue to neglect and make too many changes. The development of “fake” food or also known as genetically modified. Is society truly making our lives earlier or more difficult? Eating these items, I believe, has caused a plethora of health issues that are present today.

The wildlife has begun to migrate into areas where people reside. Part of this is because the habitat as they know it has been taken over by houses, buildings, or highways. These animals have nowhere else to go, so we have snakes that would normally be in other areas showing in homes and bugs that didn’t exist before do now. If we want to preserve what we still have, we must change our ways to make Earth a better place and improve our environment.

Our writers can help you with any type of essay. For any subject

Order now

Air Pollution

Pollution of the air can be blamed on both human and natural actions. A few natural events that pollute the air include volcanic eruptions, forest fires, evaporation of organic compounds, wind erosion, pollen dispersal, and natural radioactivity. Human activities that impact air pollution include:

· Emissions from industries and manufacturing

· Burning Fossil Fuels

· Household & farming chemicals

If you’ve ever seen a manufacturing plant, they are equipped with long tubes; known as chimneys, which are located high into the air. These long tubes have lots of smoke and fumes coming out. Waste incinerators, manufacturing industries, and power plants release high levels of carbon monoxide, organic compounds, and other chemicals into the air. Although these are safety precautions to ventilate the inside of the plant to protect the staff, it does nothing for everyone outside inhaling these toxins.

We all appreciate the convenience of having cars, heavy-duty trucks, trains, airplanes, and shipping vessels; these items all burn lots of fossil fuels to operate them. Automobile engines contain primary and secondary pollutants, which are difficult to manage because we as a society heavily rely on our vehicles or another form of transportation to travel. Car fumes from the exhaust contain dangerous gases such as carbon monoxide, oxides of nitrogen, hydrocarbons, and particulates; they can be deadly if fumes are inhaled in an unventilated area. (For example, closed garage)

We may not realize items such as crop dusting, fumigating homes, household cleaning products, paint supplies, pesticides, and fertilizer dust emits harmful chemicals released into the air. All these items have a warning not to use in unventilated areas.

Ozone Depletion

Ozone depletion is the gradual thinning of the Earth’s ozone layer in the upper atmosphere. Chemical compounds containing gaseous chlorine or bromine are released into the air from human activities and industry. The ozone is more distinct in the polar regions, specifically in Antarctica. Ozone depletion in this region is a major issue because of the increased amount of ultraviolet radiation that reaches the Earth’s surface. In 1985, a British Antarctic Survey was documented by scientists Joseph C. Farman, Brian G. Gardiner, and Jonathan D. Shanklin about the most severe case of ozone depletion, known as the Antarctic “ozone hole.” A number of hypotheses appeared that attempted to explain the Antarctic “ozone hole” but were without success. Later in 1987, the National Aeronautics & Space Administration and the National Oceanic & Atmospheric Administration conducted a special measurement campaign; it was proven chlorine and bromine chemistry were deemed the respondents for the ozone hole.

Global Warming

As we power our modern lives by releasing heat-trapping gases into the air, it is causing glaciers to melt; sea levels are dying wildlife is struggling just to stay alive. These are a few issues that are described as global warming. Many people describe global warming and climate change as synonyms. Climate change can be best described as the complex shift in weather and climate systems. A few examples of climate change include extreme weather events, shifting wildlife populations and habitats, and rising sea levels.

Since 1880, the average global sea level has increased eight inches and is currently rising a little more than an inch per decade. It is rising much faster on the Gulf of Mexico and the U.S. East Coast. As temperature rises in the Western U.S., the greater the possibility of wildlife igniting resources.

The decline in the death rate is an issue because the number of children born each year does not match or exceed the number of deaths. People have better options because they have healthcare insurance. They also have better options for healthcare facilities too. Research is done daily on how to cure diseases such as cancer, which is responsible for lots of deaths. All of these allow people more time to live. In an overpopulation environment, the number of people may be more than the available amount of resources such as transport, water, shelter, food, and social amenities. In addition, it can contribute to environmental deterioration, worsening the quality of life, or even the breakdown of the population. If the human population continues to continue to grow, natural resources such as arable land, coral reefs, fresh water, fossil fuel, and wilderness forests will continue to drop rapidly.

Water Disposal

The proper disposal of used products requires appropriate disposal to lessen the chance of harming the environment. Waste disposal is a synthetic action for managing waste because it includes incineration or burning, burial at landfill sites, or discharge at the sea, lake, river, and recycling. A major issue with waste disposal is too much is being generated, 220 million tons of waste per year to be exact. According to the World Bank, the average worldwide municipal solid waste generation per person on an everyday basis is about 1.2 kg, and the expectation is to rise to 1.5 kg by 2025. Landfills lack the appropriate on-site waste management. This contributes to serious threats long term, for example, leaks and pollution of groundwater. The toxins from these landfills release unsafe toxic gases. Recycling is a possible solution for waste disposal. Recycling technologies like gasification, pyrolysis, and plasma arc, usually marked “Green,” is considered safer to burn with little to no oxygen, and it does not involve fossil fuel.

Loss of Biodiversity

The primary reason for the loss of biodiversity is accredited to the influence of human beings. Humans have altered the environment by modifying the territory, which directly impacts species. Biogeochemical cycles, transferring species from one area to a different area of the world, fishing & hunting are a few examples of changes humans have made. A major concern for the survival of species because of the disruption in their habitat. The last century consisted of changes in the territory in surface areas taken by agriculture & livestock farming. Furthermore, the development of road networks, construction of hydroelectric plants, and underground deposits have also caused problems because natural environments were changed, destroyed, or subdivided. This would explain why the wildlife has moved to what we consider to be “residential” areas. These are areas that were developed into residential and those animals were disrupted and taken out of their environment. Exotic species is another factor that is neglected. These species are placed in areas they would never survive otherwise but have learned to adopt due to their habitat being disrupted. The reverse is death because these species are not able to adapt to these unfamiliar areas. The food supply may be limited, and these areas may be dangerous for them due to certain predators. These factors all make them endangered.

Genetically modified organisms (GMOs) are also known as transgenic organisms. GMO is an organism whose chromosomes and foreign genes are taken from a different species. My personal concern about this is they involve the food that we intake. It’s sad because these food products are sold at a cheaper price making the consumer believe they are receiving a deal. But because people normally do not read the label, they do not realize what they are buying. Sometimes people know what they are buying but are unable to afford anything else due to limited income. The long-term effects of intaking these GMO products can lead to severe health problems.


In order to improve the environment and make it better, we have to make some changes to our lifestyles. Governments throughout the world have begun to take action to improve air pollution by introducing green energy. In efforts to minimize the burning of fossil fuels, the government has invested in wind energy, solar energy, and renewable energy. In addition, they have made companies more responsible for their manufacturing activities, even though they continue to play a role in polluting the air. Individuals are also encouraged to use the train or bus when commuting. Upon development, chlorine and bromine presented dangers to the ozone layer and generated an international effort to restrict the production of CFCs and other halocarbons. These efforts decreased the consumption of ozone-depleting chemicals controlled by 90-95%.

The value of life is important to me, so to hear the Earth is overpopulated and our resources are diminishing because of this is unbelievable to me, but it makes sense. If we continue our efforts to improve medicine, more and more people will live longer lives. However, if the continues sales of genetically modified products, more and more humans will become sick with unfamiliar illnesses and may die. I believe this is a way to control this overpopulation.

Waste disposal can easily be improved if laws are passed to mandate procedures to dispose of trash. Every day a new product is developed to help save the environment. I believe once these issues are made law, more people will embrace the shift in our culture. I personally don’t believe everyone is aware of all the effects our daily casual behaviors have on the Earth. We take for granted that these things will always be there because we do not see the direct impact except in the climate and air we breathe. Once these issues that are unseen are brought to the forefront and mandate change, society will begin to shift its mindset and not take for granted that life as we know it will always be in existence.


  1. (2019). What causes Air Pollution? Here are some natural and human activities that cause air pollution. [online] Available at: [Accessed 2 Feb. 2019].
  2. 15 Current Environmental Problems That Our World is Facing. (2016, December 25). Retrieved from

    Global Warming Impacts. (n.d.). Retrieved from

  3. Overpopulation: Causes, Effects, and Solutions – Conserve Energy Future. (2017, April 12). Retrieved from
  4. Various Waste Disposal Problems and Some Fantastic Solutions – Conserve Energy Future. (2017, June 30). Retrieved from
  5. Causes of the loss of biodiversity – Eniscuola. (n.d.). Retrieved from

Leave a Comment

Your email address will not be published. Required fields are marked *

× How can I help you?