Marxism In Relation To Native Americans

Throughout his whole life, Karl Marx believed that society should work together to better the country. Everyone would work unconditionally in order to support the country and make sure that no citizen was left behind without reservations. One of Karl Marx’s beliefs was that private property was the destruction of capitalism. Native Americans did not have a political structure in place when the Europeans first came the new world. They did not own private property, and everyone worked to make the tribe/succeed. The material wealth was distributed among each other. Native Americans did not have social classes within the tribe. Hence without even knowing it, one could argue they practiced “Marxism” before Marxism even started. Marxism and Native Americans were in direct correlation with each other which would clash with Christopher Columbus’s own beliefs when he first “discovered” them.

Karl Heinrich Marx (1818-1883) was a Prussian-German philosopher and revolutionary socialist who established the basis of Communist ideology. Karl Marx’s firm ideas played a significant role in the establishment of the social sciences and the development of the socialist movement that disregarded the notion that private property was the greatest threat to Capitalism. One of his best-known ideas is the concept that history is driven by struggles between social classes. He believed that the adaptation of socialism was necessary to supply people with things they need instead of desire. The major idea behind Karl Marx’s theory was that a worker’s revolution was unavoidable and when it did it would destroy Capitalism. Material wealth would be distributed equally among all workers for their own personal well being or contribute to any cause they supported. Marx’s Ideals and his lifelong work, “Das Kapital” was indirectly converted into what is called Communism. This is due to how Marx described the history of the four epochs in different parts. These epochs were the Asiatic, ancient, feudal and the then current bourgeois modes of production. What Karl Marx wasn’t aware however, was that his ideals were not the first he adopted.

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Native Americans prior to the 20th century have shown some qualities of being Communist long before Marx founded it. They all praise and adore their tribe leaders, the men and women do the jobs that are assigned to their gender, and the food they gather is shared among the people of the tribe. At the same time, the weapons they used have been consistent throughout history which were bows and arrows, spears, war clubs, tomahawks, axes, knives, swords, coup sticks, bolas, blowguns, darts, shields, and armor of various materials. The Native Americans all lived in the same specific types of houses which were wigwams, longhouses, tepees, grass houses, wattle daub houses, chickees, adobe houses, earthen houses, among many others. For the majority of for Native Americans, meat was the most important part of their diet which includes buffalos, rabbits, deer, and turkeys. It seemed that the natives were living a peaceful and wonderful way of life, but Christopher Columbus would soon change that.

Christopher Columbus (1451- 1506) was an Italian explorer, navigator, and colonist who completed four voyages across the Atlantic Ocean under the orders of the Catholic Monarchs of Spain. He was the first to lead the European expeditions to South and Central America, along with the Caribbean, which initiated Europe’s colonization into America permanently. This was due to Columbus believing that that sailing across the Atlantic instead of around the massive African continent was the best way to reach Asia without encountering enemy armies. Columbus’s common sense was logical, but his math was not. He incorrectly claimed that the shape of the Earth, at the time believed to have been flat, was much smaller than his superiors stated. Columbus thought that doing this made not only reaching Asia possible but also easy. Columbus . However, Columbus would find himself supporters in the Spanish Monarchs Ferdinand of Aragon and Isabella of Castile. Columbus wanted fame and fortune more than anything which Ferdinand and Isabella also wanted, along with the opportunity to export Catholicism to places across the globe. Columbus’ contract stated that the Spanish rulers promise that he could keep 10 percent of whatever riches he found in these lands, along with a noble title of his choosing and the governorship of said lands he should encounter.

Works Cited

  1. Churchill, Ward. “Marxism and Native Americans : Ward Churchill : Free Download, Borrow, and Streaming.” Full Text of “Passing”, London : F. Warne ; New York : Scribner, Welford, and Armstrong, archive.org/details/MarxismAndNativeAmericans.
  2. Editors, History.com. “Christopher Columbus.” History.com, A&E Television Networks, 9 Nov. 2009, www.history.com/topics/exploration/christopher-columbus.
  3. Stone, Edward T. “Columbus And Genocide.” AMERICAN HERITAGE, www.americanheritage.com/columbus-and-genocide.

Essay About Odysseus As A Hero In ‘The Odyssey’

Heroism by definition, is characterized as a person who possesses great bravery and selflessness. A hero is a leader, a savior, who has the respect but also the hatred of many. At times, heroes are faced with decisions that not everyone can handle or support, but a true hero knows the difference between right and wrong. Heroes are ultimately good and choose righteousness. Even though Odysseus can be extremely arrogant, it is what seems to keep him alive. Odysseus holds many admirable character traits that qualify him as a hero, as proven throughout the Odyssey.

Many times throughout the story, Odysseus is faced with challenges or fights that others cannot withstand because they are afraid. Odysseus faces these challenges head on and despite his possible fears of being overcome, he pushes through it. One of the beginning obstacles in his path back to his kingdom was something he had been warned about by the enchantress, Circe: the sirens. The sirens are deadly and use their charming voices to lure sailors to their deaths, but Odysseus had ordered his men to wear candle wax in their ears to avoid becoming trapped by their song, except for himself. “…yet she urged that I / along should listen to their song” (Homer lines 726-727). He urged his shipmates to keep him at bay as he openly listened to the sirens, even if it would be terrifying or painful. One may argue this idea was reckless since it was simply an arrogant call, but he managed to be the only man to survive the sirens.

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Another significant hero trait is wisdom, and when used correctly it is a lifesaver. A hero who uses knowledge as a weapon can be almost unstoppable. For example, when faced with a giant cyclops that had just killed some of his men, Odysseus managed to outsmart the monster and get away. “when sudden fear stayed me: if I killed him / we perished there as well, for we could never / move his ponderous doorway slab aside” (Homer 293-294). The one-eyed monster was the only one strong enough to lift the heavy rock he uses as a door, and Odysseus realized this as he was about to kill him. Rather, he made a plan to be able to sneak out with his remaining crew. Odysseus tricked the cyclops into thinking his name was Nohbdy, so when he attacked him the cyclops said, “Nohbdy, Nohbdy’s tricked me. Nohbdy’s ruined me!”, making him seem insane (Homer 403). After this scene, Odysseus disguised his men by having them hide under sheep as they left the island. Odysseus’s overbearing cockiness prevailed once again because he taunted the monster as they sailed away, but he contradicted it by saving his men.

Finally, a hero is someone who is strong both mentally and physically. With everything they face, heroes must keep a strong head in order to continue leading. This includes: morals, motivation, and resilience. Odysseus bravely and wisely defeated the monsters that stood in his path because he kept going. Also in the story, Odysseus had disguised as a beggar when he reached Ithaca only to find many suitors competing for the hand of his wife. Penelope created a test to challenge the suitors, “…except your lust to marry me. Stand up then / we now declare a contest for that prize” (Homer 1114-1115). The test the queen conjured was to string and shoot Odysseus’s famous bow, which is extremely difficult for anyone besides the king himself to use. The task at hand, once completed, results in the queen. Still disguised as a beggar, the almighty Odysseus took a chance to win the opportunity and successfully did so. “Odysseus in one motion strung the bow / Then slid his right hand own the cord and plucked it” (Homer 1191-1192). Despite the other contenders jeering and picking on the “old beggar,” Odysseus soon demonstrates his incredible strength and worthiness as he effortlessly wins the contest. The test of the great bow further

In the Odyssey, readers follow a king named Odysseus as he fights to find his way home. The king journeys for ten years, and in those ten years he must survive mythical monsters who are constantly trying to kill him. Odysseus proves multiple times his remarkable strength, wisdom, and bravery as he makes his way back to Ithaca. To simply illustrate what a hero is, a hero is someone who cannot be waived. Heroes have fears that they face everyday, problems they must solve on their own, and dangers they survive. Odysseus is the king of Ithaca but also a hero because he found his way home after the countless struggles that tried to stop him. Not only did he deem himself as worthy, he learned many lessons along the way and grew on his journey.

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