Mental Disorders And Correctional Psychology

Rape myths are misconceptions that make the perpetrator the survivor blame for the sexual assault. Rape myths have grown from the long-standing role played by gender, acceptance of violence and misinformation on sexual violence in our society. One myth that most people say is “ Rape happens to certain types of women” and we all know everyone can be raped, regardless of gender, age, race, class, religion, profession, physical capacity, sexual identity or appearance. The victim is not chosen as the perpetrator is young, beautiful or provocatively dressed; the offender chooses the vulnerable victim. The perpetrator may choose a victim who is smaller or weaker than they are, who is alone or alone, who is disabled or is not in any way suspected.

The six types of female sex offender as outlined by Vandiver and Kercher are heterosexual nurturers, noncriminal homosexual offenders, female sexual predators, young adult child exploiters, homosexual criminals, and aggressive homosexual offenders. The study of sex offenders is quite new and our comprehension is growing. The literature to date provides them an insight into the difference between women and men. The majority of female sex offenders are Caucasian in the late 1920s and early 30s.

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Psychosexual evaluation is a psychosexual assessment that focuses on the psychological and sexual functioning of a student. This evaluation examines the sex, attitudes, and behavior of the student in order to see if differences exist. It also assesses the risk of student re-injuring or sexual acting in the future. This part of the assessment is referred to as a risk assessment. These evaluations include Interviews with primary caregivers, Interviews with the student, Additional information such as victim’s statements, police reports, etc., Questionnaires completed by parents, Psychological testing, IQ testing, Specific sexual questionnaires answered by the student. These questionnaires assess the student’s sexual interests, attitudes and behaviors, Risk assessment, and validation test administered by an expert in adolescent sexual issues.

Correctional Psychology in Adult Settings

The process that I would use to go about conducting a competency to be executed evaluation has many question and test to see where the person mind state is. I would see if they feel any remorse for the crime they did. I would interview the victim once a week to see if I see improvement in their behavior. Next, I would keep a log sheet of all the things they have done and the behavior actions they have been showing. I would interview the people over him to see if he is making any improvements from his start until the present date. When I get the results from all of these test I would go about how I will give them their punishment.

I feel as if things that contribute to therapeutic success in prisons is Trauma and Hopelessness, Inmate Identity and Culture, Gender-Specific Issues. I feel as if this plays a huge role because trauma and hopelessness could possibly lead up to Post-traumatic Stress Disorder. This develops after or after an extended traumatic experience, after a very stressful, scary or troubling event. Crimes that could come from this is violent personal assaults, such as sexual assault, mugging or robbery. When it comes to inmate identity and culture you have to realize that they are still human. When they are locked up in prison they are basically not free of anything anymore. I think the worst part is when they are wiped away of their name and is given a number to be recognized by. This could make them feel less of a person and could cause them to do anything when the stress builds up in them. Last, I will talk about gender-specific issues. The issues of gender include all aspects and concerns related to the lives and situation of women and men in society as well as the way they relate to one another, their differences in access and use of resources, and how they react to change, intervention and policy. I feel like this could all be solved if the prison interacts and include the prisoners more. Not saying let them live a free life behind bars but they should not make them feel like they are not a human anymore just because they are behind bars.

When you look at the difference between jail and prison there are many differences between the two systems. Jails are usually held by local law enforcement agencies or local authorities, with the purpose of keeping prisoners waiting for trial or serving a brief sentence. Often short is a misdemeanor conviction versus felony, so one can spend more than a year in prison in cases where misdemeanor sentences are executed consecutively. Jails often run work-release programs and boot camps, some offer educational, drug abuse, and professional programmes. While many of these programs help inmates to improve their lives and to avoid a return, they also benefit from keeping the inmates occupied and less likely to cause problems for inmates. When you take a look at prisons they are designed to be detained for long periods, are better developed for their populations living needs. Jails tend to have more transient populations and less advanced facilities. In view of the more regular lives, the greater the availability of programs and the improved facilities many prisoners prefer their stays in prison. Many repeat offenders are indeed going to ask for time in jail instead of time if the option is granted then for probation. Some prisoners are critical of this prison because of its constant flow of individuals who often interfere with the ability of a detained person to sleep, eat regularly or practice.

Juvenile Justice and Corrections

Mental disorders affect a juvenile’s experience and treatment in mental health facilities. There are special risks and obligations are posed by placing children with behavioral health conditions in corrections. Children with behavioral conditions are particularly vulnerable in correctional premises to harsh and sometimes depressing conditions. Overcrowding often helps to inadequate behavioral healthcare services and the inefficient classification and separation of confined people, which can exacerbate vulnerable children’s problems. Failure to manage can improve vulnerability and exacerbate conditions of behavioral health. I feel like these children go through this because they do not know how to control their anger and emotions at a young are. I feel like they are still maturing. Data reveal that 50 to 75 percent of the 2 million youth encountering the juvenile justice system meet criteria for a mental health disorder. When this happens it causes the juveniles to trigger off easily and cause problems in the detention center. The bad thing is there are many youths with these disorders and when they come in contact they have problems with one another.

The token-economy model is a symbolic economy is a form of behavioral change that enhances desirable behavior and reduces unwanted behavior by using token. People receive tokens after the desired behavior has been displayed. The talks are collected for a significant object or privilege and exchanged later. The bigger objective of token economies is to teach appropriate behavior and social skills in a natural environment. It can also be used for special training for children with developmental or learning disabilities, hyperactivities, attention deficits or behavioral disorders, regular education, schools, group homes, military divisions, nursing homes, treatment for addiction, employment, marital or parental difficulties families, and hospitals. The economy of the token can be used in groups or individually. If I had to choose a group to not use this it will be for the kids with learning disabilities.

Multisystem therapy is an intensive family and community-based treatment program designed to make good improvements in the different social systems at home, schools, communities, and other people who are at risk of being placed off-home. These out-of-home investments could include foster care, group homes, hospital care or hospitalization. The focus will primarily be on building the capacity for future difficulty management for parents/caregivers, reducing youth criminal activities, reducing other types of antisocial behavior, such as the use of medicines, and achieving these results by reducing prison rates as well as other out of home placements, at a cost-saving level. This program has reached over 200,000 youth and helped them out a lot. The data I have seen displays that most people that get this help soon will have better behavior and will continue to get the treatment to continue to get better.

“The Odyssey” Reading Response

In his encounter with Polyphemus, Odysseus justifiably broke the law of xenia as evidenced by his ulterior desire to visit the cave, his plunder of the host’s cheese, and his blinding the one-eyed giant with a wooden beam. Xenia is the concept of hospitality, courtesy, and generosity shown to guests and travelers. Worried that an unknown traveler may be a powerful god in disguise, ancient Greeks strived to follow the law of xenia with any foreigner or guest they encountered. They did this with the hopes of receiving a reward and avoiding godly wrath. Xenia was not simply a set of manners or customs; rather it was also comprised of religious obligations, with the belief that the god Zeus, or Zeus Xenios, “…oversaw appropriate observation of the xenia laws.” (Potter)

Based on the axiom of a mutual respect, xenia is severed by a lack of duty on either side. “Undesirable hospitality and a bad reception of that hospitality ultimately results in a break in the sacred guest-host relationship.” (Biggs) An analysis of the examples in this epic poem reveal that there is a formula for the development of xenia, with several elements necessary for a guest to be properly received. (Knipfer) According to the formula, the host welcomes a guest into their home with food, drink, and a bath. The host should not ask any questions until the guest is both satisfied and comfortable. Finally, upon the guest’s departure, the host will endow them with a gift and the promise of transport and protection.

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In The Odyssey, there are numerous examples of xenia in play—both good and bad. In the beginning, Telemachus visits the courts of Menelaus and Nestor and is welcomed in accordance to this law. However, the 108 suitors of Penelope display apathy for the law and disregard it altogether, “eating [them] out of house and home.” (Homer, Book IV) The role of xenia is vital to the story of The Odyssey as “the moral/heroic quality of the majority of characters is determined (or reflected) by their adherence to, or rejection of, the conventions of xenia.” (Potter) Odysseus’ episode with Polyphemus demonstrates a failure to uphold the law of Xenia. Polyphemus deviated from the formula by immediately asking, “Strangers, who are you? Where do you sail from?”, skipping the previously required steps of welcoming and providing hospitality. (Homer, Book IX) In fact, the Cyclops Polyphemus eats a number of Odysseus’ men rather than giving them food, drink, and a bath. Odysseus reminds the Cyclops of his duty to provide hospitality but is met with disdain for the law and Zeus. It is evident that Polyphemus violated the law of xenia and had no intention to follow it. Despite bringing a gift of wine to Polyphemus, Odysseus did not follow the spirit of the law of xenia. Odysseus said numerous times that he didn’t believe the Cyclopes “would respect neither right nor law” and didn’t take “account of their neighbors.” (Homer, Book IX) If Odysseus already knew that Polyphemus wouldn’t respect the law of xenia there would be no purpose in visiting his cave, unless there were an ulterior motive to his decision. It is my belief that Odysseus visited Polyphemus to steal his goats believing he had the protection and approbation of the gods. It is evident that Odysseus exercised poor judgement in visiting the Cyclops. Not only did Odysseus steal cheese from his host, he ultimately blinded the one-eyed monster.

This is the antithesis of xenia. Instead of being a gracious guest, Odysseus does the opposite and causes harm to his host. Despite the failure of the host to follow the law, the guest accompanied him in abandonment of xenia. While Odysseus did break the law of xenia, it is evident in the text that he was justified in his action to do so. Zeus gave his approval of Odysseus’ actions by saying, “there is no mortal half so wise.” (Homer, Book I) Odysseus was justified by the fact that Polyphemus technically broke the law of xenia first by asking his guests questions without providing a meal. However, being justified does not mean that Odysseus followed nor fulfilled the law. In fact, justification is a legal term signifying acquittal, meaning that the person is not guilty of the crime with which the person has been charged, not necessarily innocent of any wrongdoing. Since the law of xenia was broken by Polyphemus, Odysseus was under no obligation to fulfil the law. It is my belief that Odysseus had little intention to follow the law, given his parti pri, or preconceived view, of Polyphemus.

In conclusion, the text provides overwhelming evidence that Odysseus broke the law of xenia during his encounter with Polyphemus. This is established by Odysseus’ statements about the lawless nature of the Cyclopes, and his possible ulterior desire to visit the island cave. Additionally, it is made clear that Odysseus broke the law of xenia by stealing and blinding the host. Furthermore, it seems that Zeus’ approbation of Odysseus’ actions and the dual responsibility of guest and host to fulfil the law of xenia justify and warrant this response. Despite the justification of his actions, Odysseus did break the law of xenia in his encounter with Polyphemus in The Odyssey.

Works Cited

  1. Biggs, Cory, et al. “The Value of Hospitality.” The Value of Hospitality, Union College, Accessed 3 May 2019.
  2. Homer. “The Odyssey.” Project Gutenberg, Accessed 3 May 2019.
  3. Knipfer, Cody. “The Development of Xenia and Its Role in The Odyssey.” A Really Cool Blog,27 Nov. 2012, Accessed 3 May 2019.
  4. Potter, Ben. “The Odyssey: Be Our Guest with Xenia.” Classical Wisdom Weekly, 19 Apr. 2013, Accessed 3 May 2019.

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