Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus Aureus


Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) is linked with difficult-to-cure contagions and high levels of illness. It has become widespread globally in the healthcare setting, and community-associated Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus is spreading in the society at large. This paper offers a literature review of Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) as it applies to the hospitals and the community. It will provide an overview of this health infection with the provision of prevalence and susceptibility of Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus in the world. It will also conduct an overview of public health impact or significance based on this contagious ailment.

Additionally, this review will provide health outcomes developed Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus. It will analyse the roots or the cause of Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus infections. It will also demonstrate various treatment options of the Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus linked disorders. The MRSA medication options will examine the drugs used to treat MRSA diseases, as well as the screening aspects based on Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus infections. Furthermore, there will be a demonstration of prevention activities and programs applied to avoid infection and transmission of MSRA bacteria.

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The paper will conclude by offering a summary and analysis of essential issues discovered about Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus including remaining MRSA challenges and future directions of combatting Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus.


I. Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) is a health infection that resists numerous antibiotics including oxacillin, penicillin, amoxicillin, as well as methicillin.

II. Thesis statement: This paper offers literature review about Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) infection.

Body I. Overview of Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA)

II. Summary of public health significance or impact

III. Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) Health outcomes

IV. Causes of Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA)

V. Treatment options for Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA)

VI. Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) prevention activities and programs


I. Significant Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) summary and analysis

II. Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) remaining challenges

III. Future directions or recommendations


Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) is a staph bacterium that resists various antibiotics. MRSA is any S. aureus strain that has evolved via multiple medicine resistance to beta-lactam antibiotics, as well as through natural selection and horizontal gene transfer (Most, 2014). Beta-lactam antibiotics are a broad-spectrum cluster which involves some penams, cephems such as the cephalosporins, penicillin derivatives such as oxacillin and methicillin. Strains that do not resist antibiotics are categorized as methicillin-susceptible Staphylococcus aureus (MSSA) (Bella & Nobili, 2017). In the healthcare context, such as nursing home or hospital, MRSA leads to several problems ranging from pneumonia to skin infections and sepsis to bloodstream contagions.

This paper purposes at providing a literature review based on MRSA as a critical global issue in public health. It critically identifies and analyses Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus infections, its incidence, and prevalence, causes, treatment, prevention, as well as future directions based on this contagious ailment. Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus overview Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) developed as a source of hospital illnesses in America in the year 1960 and instances of hospital Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus epidemics commenced intensifying in the mid-1970s (Igbinosa & Beshiru, 2016).

The incidence of Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus increased progressively, and in the year 1990s, the infection was considered endemic in American large urban clinical centers. The initial reports of Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus identified in community contexts were inscribed in the year 1980, and the prevalence in that context continued to intensify. Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus ailments range from trivial dermatological situations like folliculitis, boils, and pustules, to severe systemic infections like osteomyelitis. Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus is a prevalent problem in healthcare clinics, sports facilities, and the society.

The MRSA strains linked with health institutions are denoted as hospital-acquired MRSA (HA-MRSA) and are the chief facilitator of health-acquired contagions. Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus is the leading cause of soft tissue and skin infection in clients reporting to emergency units for treatment with increasing rates in intensive care departments and primary care clinics (Johnson & Harris, 2017). Invasive Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus-connected situations most commonly reported involve cellulitis with 6%, bacteremia with 10%, endocarditis with 19%, pneumonia with 32% and septic shock with 56%. Strains linked with the society are termed as community-acquired Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus (CA-MRSA) and are as well present in individuals especially asymptomatic carriers (Sengupta & Banerjee, 2016).

Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus may not be restrictive to any geographical location since it is a global issue. Europe depicts a higher presence of Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus which accounts for about 44% of nosocomial contagions. Providentially, this is advancing based on the stringent outbreak control and surveillance programs criteria (Paterson,et al, 2014). Hospital-acquired Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus is extensively depicted in Australia, East Asia, the Middle East, and North Africa and accounts for about 25%. There are more of Staphylococcus aureus isolates in the United Kingdom, Turkey, Spain, Romania, Ireland, Portugal, Malta, Italy, Israel, Greece, Cyprus, Croatia, and Bulgaria.

Community-acquired Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus is highly prevalent in Australia, Canada, and United States (Johnson & Harris, 2017). Overview of public health significance Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus can be acquired via the use of invasive objects or extended hospital stays. It can also be obtained in the society with occurrences taking place in gyms, learning institutions and other crowded contexts. The CA-MRSA usually colonizes either the skin or the nasal passages. According to Leonetti (2016), Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus typically presents with several soft tissue infection or cutaneous diseases occasionally enhancing acute systemic ailments. It can as well cause osteomyelitis through penetration of bone tissues.

Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus has acquired various immune evasion features including the invasion of leukocytes, the creation of biofilms, and the production of super-antigens (Mascaro & Leonetti, 2016). At any specified time, between twenty to thirty percent of general populace carry staph bacteria in their noses or on their hands though they are not infected. Some of these bacteria may be Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus while others are not resistant to an antibiotic. One may be having Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus, and one is not ill though the individual can transmit it to others and they get infected (Stryjewski & Corey, 2014). Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus is typically transmitted via contacts with contaminated objects or through physical conduct with contaminated body fluids.

When an individual picks up the bacteria in one’s hands, one can spread it to others if the hands are not washed properly. One can as well infect him/herself via open wound or cut in the body (Liu, Capitano, et al, 2017). Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus Health outcomes In human beings, Staphylococcus aureus is the regular microbiota part of the gut mucosa, on the skin and in the upper respiratory tract. Staphylococcus aureus, among other related species that act symbiotically and can colonize though, may cause an infection if they start taking over the colonized tissues or affect other parts are denoted as ‘pathobionts.’ In 3 days, Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus takes hold in individual muscles and eventually gets resistive to medication.

The original depiction of Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus is small red bumps resembling boils, spider bites, or pimples and occasional rushes and fever follow them. In few weeks, the bumps enlarge and get more painful and ultimately open into deep boils filled with pus (Arshad, Hartman, et al 2016). The primary risk factor based on Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus infection in the inpatient context is compromised the immune system. The individuals prone to this MRSA health outcome are burn survivors, people living with AIDs, intravenous medical users, diabetes clients, steroid users, cancer clients receiving chemotherapy agents, recipients of organ transplants, the chronically ill, elderly, and the infants (Morgan, Pineles, et al, 2017).

There is an increase in the economic and clinical effect of Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus ailments in the hospital, community, and the patient. MRSA illnesses mainly depict a considerable burden of resistant contagions in health institutions. They increase hospital costs since patients are delayed in hospitals when infected with the MRSA bacteria (Sengupta & Banerjee, 2017). Causes of Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus Staphylococcus aureus is significantly depicted bacterium in people and a potent pathogen giving out many virulence features that offer its thriving opportunity.

Several strains of Staphylococcus aureus have undergone resistance to antibiotic treatments including drugs and methicillin in its class providing such particular strains of Staphylococcus aureus that deserved the name of Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus (Equils & Costa, 2016). This drug/medicine resistance has evolved fast and intensifies in its development with each new medication established to eliminate this infectious agent. Therapists who operate directly with clients in healthcare context should be made aware of this fatal infection to administer curative and preventive measures. Additionally, garden-various staph is also prevalent bacteria that live in individual bodies (Kraemer & Pires, 2017). Numerous healthy individuals carry staph deprived of their infection though they can transmit it to others.

Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus treatment options

The medication of Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus is based upon the type of contagion, the severity, and the location. When Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus infection is detected, clinical admission procedures on the medication of MRSA recommend referral to initiate suitable medical care. The client should evade transmitting the disease and not apply wet compresses. For the skin abscesses, clinical wellness is done using incision and drainage as the medication of choice. There should be day-day skin cleansing with a disinfectant to enhance Community-acquired Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus dermatological welfare (Bradley & Campbell, 2017). When an indication of surrounding cellulitis is discovered, antibiotics are used.

An antibiotic decision is guided by society vulnerabilities though it typically starts with trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole or for the Sulfa-allergic client, minocycline or doxycycline (Reddy & Kumari, 2016). Extra medication of methicillin-vulnerable streptococci and Staphylococcus aureus is offered by clindamycin, dicloxacillin, or cephalexin. MRSA illnesses that are not initially medicated may need multidrug treatment such as a combination of one or more other antibiotics with vancomycin (Cheung & Otto, 2016). Proper admission of curative measures enhances useful results to the patients thus attaining healing to the patients. Screening for Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus takes place in some facilities like long-term care facilities, nursing homes and hospital inpatient facilities to detect MRSA and apply control procedures to avoid transmission of MRSA.

Historically, screening involved nasal swabbing in checking colonization of MRSA in the anterior nares before the admission. There was incubation of samples to identify Staphylococcus aureus colonies and then vulnerability tests are carried out to depict Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus presence. These investigations take sixteen to forty-eight hours to reveal outcomes and not applied in the outpatient context. Therefore, there lacks rapid, specific, sensitive and inexpensive test for some health professionals such as manual therapist can utilize to screen Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus (Canty, Luke-Marshall, et al, 2017).

Preventive programs or activities For the healthy people deprived of symptoms or even signs of infection, basic hygiene exercises are the backbone to evade Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus illnesses. There should be thorough wash of hands with warm water and soap. The alcohol-based hand rubs can be used to replace washing when people hands are not noticeably stained. To reduce the risk of Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus infections, persons are not supposed to share own stuff dirty clothes, razors, towels, washcloths, as well as keeping individual items clean like work/study area, beddings, wardrobes (Whittington, Atherly, et al, 2017).

For victims of known Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus illnesses, it is significant to avoid transmission to others. Individuals taking part in the wound dressing and changing should keep their hands clean. Wounds have to be protected with a bandage until it healing is attained. A fresh, dry bandage should be applied to the scars/wounds containing pus to avoid transmission of the ailment. There should be a regular disposal of tape and bandage used to cover the wound. According to Bauer and Sampathkumar (2017), when Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus skin illness is detected in an individual, the person should be prohibited from self-medication by lancing, draining or popping it and seek medical attention from a health care professional. Standard precautions should be recommended when medicating clients with MRSA ailment and who are vulnerable to infection.

Consequently, health care provides should put on gloves when treating or examining body parts with a suspected cutaneous cut and washing of hands following medication or examination is needed (Bauer & Sampathkumar, 2017). The equipment should be cleaned with disinfectants, and they should as well administer laundry cleaning. Through healthcare programs and strategies, people should be enlightened about these significant MRSA preventive measures.


Summary of important MRSA aspects Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus is usually found in the people and may potentially result in a fatal and harmful ailment. There is straightforward recognition of probable Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus cutaneous lesions and can result in early medication and possibly the avoidance of the systemic disorder.

Health practitioners can apply several samples and routine ailment control operations to prevent illnesses and the Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus spreading amongst their clients, community, as well as other medical staff members. Remaining challenges with the Methicillin Resistant Staphylococcus aureus This paper is a description literature review and thus has failed to include quantitative procedures to analyse extensive literature on medical effectiveness or enactment of prevention plans. Not all comprehensive Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus information is comprised in this literature review.

Additionally, there lacks extensive research for advanced clinical procedures of combatting MRSA infections. Future directions or recommendations Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus infection might result where contact takes place with individuals who have skin eczema or open wounds. It is recommended that one should evade particularly intimate and close contact with these individuals in the Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus-carrier state.

Health care providers should always get aware that there are numerous asymptomatic Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus carriers (potentially involving the health care associates) which further underscore the requirement of suitable clinic and hand hygiene. Furthermore, international health organizations in collaboration with governments should establish and implement strategies for combatting MRSA infections. This would enhance thorough research based on this critical health issues hence coming up with more efficient curative measures.


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Equils, O., da Costa, C., Wible, M., & Lipsky, B. A. (2016). The effect of diabetes mellitus on outcomes of patients with nosocomial pneumonia caused by methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus: data from a prospective double-blind clinical trial comparing treatment with linezolid versus vancomycin. BMC infectious diseases, 16(1), 476.

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Effects Of Binge Drinking On College Students

Binge drinking is a growing problem in the United States that shows no signs of slowing down. According to the National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism, binge drinking can be defined as, “a pattern of drinking that brings a person’s blood alcohol concentration (BAC) to 0.08 grams percent or above”. The NIAAA also states that binge drinking usually occurs when men consume five or more drinks within two hours, or when women consume four or more within the same amount of time. Binge drinking is a serious problem and one specific group of people that can be greatly affected by it is college students. Binge drinking in colleges has been responsible for over 1,800 deaths every year in college students. In addition, an average of 600,000 students get injured while intoxicated and over 100,000 students are victims of sexual assault on campus because of alcohol abuse and binge drinking. One in four students also claim that binge drinking has negatively impacted their grades, (McMurtrie 2014). Another interesting statistic about binge drinking in colleges is that on average about 44% of students in all colleges nationwide are binge drinkers, (McMurtrie 2014). This is a problem that is worth investigating because although binge drinking in colleges is such a growing problem, its shows no signs of slowing down. In addition to this, colleges and universities around the country are aware of this problem, but do very little to try to combat it. The colleges and universities that do try to combat binge drinking among students are generally unsuccessful and try to combat it by using ineffective and outdated methods that show little to no results. Binge drinking can affect students mental and physical health, affect academic performance and can lead to serious alcohol addictions later in life. Although there are many known negative consequences of binge drinking among college students, very little is being done to prevent it.

Some of the factors that contribute to binge drinking among college students are peer pressure and marketing to the youth. For many people, college is one of the first times that they have freedom to do what they want because there is no supervision from parents or family. Peer pressure and lack of supervision can lead students to try alcohol for the first time, or can lead them to binge drink. Watching peers can affect a student’s preferences, and can make a student who is watching other students drink, have the desire to drink themselves, (Levy, Kremer 2008). In a study done by Michael Krever and Dan Levy, students were paired with their roommates either randomly through a lottery system or paired with a students who admitted to binge drinking before college. The results of this study showed that students who were paired with a previous binge drinker had on average a lower grade point average than those paired with someone who did not drink. Through their findings, they determined that student’s alcohol use is influenced heavily by peers (Levy, Krever 2008). Another potential cause of binge drinking is that alcohol is marketed to the youth. Before an individual is of legal age to consume alcohol, it is estimated that they will see over 75,000 scenes of alcohol consumption in television, movies, commercials and other advertisements.(Roth, Friedman 1987). In addition to this, these commercials often have celebrity endorsements from musicians or professional athletes. These people are role models to the youth, and can influence them to drink alcohol later in life (Roth, Friedman 1987). Modern examples of this are drinks like pro athlete Conor McGregor’s, Proper No. Twelve, Whiskey and rap superstar P. Diddy’s, Ciroc, vodka. Peer pressure from peers and youth marketing are some of the potential causes of binge drinking in colleges.

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The reason that binge drinking among college students is so problematic is because it can have negative effects on student’s health and safety, and can lead to alcoholism in their futures. Every year, it is estimated that 1,800 college students die because of alcohol related accidents. In addition to this, over 600,000 students are injured each year and there are over 100,000 sexual assaults occur because of an alcohol related incident (McMurtrie 2014). In addition to this, students can suffer from a lack of self esteem and problems getting along with others including their family because of alcohol and binge drinking (Mills, Pfaffenberger, McCarty 1981). Heavy binge drinking and consumption of alcohol can also lead to a lifetime of alcohol addiction. On average, alcoholism can shorten an individual’s life span up anywhere from 10-12 years (Mills, Pfaffenberger, McCarty 1981). The term “Problem Drinker” is used to describe someone that consumes alcohol in a way that cause them problems with their health, relationships, or self esteem. There are an estimated 9-10 million problem drinkers on the United States, and the most amount of these problem drinkers are aged 18-20 (Mills, Pfaffenberger, McCarty 1981). Binge drinking among college students is problematic because it can negatively affect students mental and physical health, and can lead to alcohol addiction later in life.

Some of the social costs of college binge drinking and alcohol abuse are reduced productivity of workers and increased health care costs.

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