Plastic Pollution In Ocean

Abstract

The use of plastic is a part and parcel of modern life. Because of its non-biodegradable nature, plastic garbage creates hazards both on the surface and in the water of seas and oceans. Inhabitants of the oceans are endangered due to plastic pollution. Moreover, the presence of tiny plastic particles in the marine food chain also raises questions about human health and food security. The UN Environment Assembly passed a resolution in Dec. 2017 to eliminate plastic pollution in our seas and oceans. A “Clean Sea Campaign” has already been launched to clear the “Great Pacific Garbage Patch.” Much more needs to be done.

Introduction

In modern civilization, plastic plays a key role in everybody’s life. It finds use in every aspect of life, starting from plastic bags, household materials, automobiles, clothes, and furniture, to aircraft, spacecraft, biomedical and surgical equipment because plastics are sustainable, unaffected by acid and alkalis, and remain unaffected in nature. Industrial production of plastic started in 1950 and since then, it has gained momentum every year. The estimated amount of plastic in the world a couple of years ago was about 8.3 billion tons, of which about 6.3 billion tons were turned into plastic waste, creating tremendous environmental hazards both on the surface, and in the seas and oceans of our planet.

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How are ocean polluted by plastic?

The annual amount of plastic thrown into the oceans is about 8 million tons. If it continues at the present rate, it is estimated that by 2050, there will be more plastic by weight in the oceans than the total amount of fish. Only 5% of the plastic debris floats on the ocean’s surface, while the remaining 95% is submerged in water, up to a depth of 11 km from the surface. Plastic trash has been found in both the Arctic and the Antarctic. In addition to large-sized synthetic plastic materials, there are billions of tiny pieces of plastic called microbeads. These are added to products such as toothpaste, face wash, cleaning agents and abrasives. These microbeads are so tiny that they can easily pass through water filtration and sewage treatment. Microplastics also come from synthetic fabrics washed in washing machines, table salts, and tap water. A recent study established the presence of plastic fibres in 80% of water samples collected from five continents of the world.

The consequences

Plastic in the ocean has a large adverse effect on ocean wildlife and inhabitants. Plastic materials under seawater are not biodegradable, but over the years, they break down into tiny particles called “microplastic”. The inhabitants of the ocean often are unable to distinguish between the microplastic and their normal food. Consequently, they consume the plastic, which is indigestible. From coral reefs smothered in bags, to turtles gagging on straws, to whales and seabirds starving and ultimately facing death as their bellies are so jammed that they cannot consume normal food. Very recently, it has been revealed that the possible long-term impacts of tiny plastic particles on the marine food chain ultimately have an adverse effect on human health and food security.

The measures

The plastic is concentrated by ocean currents in five areas of the world, referred to as “ocean garbage patches.” The largest of these is the “Great Pacific Garbage Patch” between Hawaii and California. The plastic in these patches remains untreated. However, based on the UN Environmental Resolution of December 7, 2017, a massive initiative has been launched in the Pacific Ocean to clear the plastic debris, under the “Clean Sea Campaign.” Many governments have pledged to join the Clean Sea Program. As marine products become increasingly more important in the future, human civilization will heavily depend on plastic garbage-free seas and oceans.

SOURCES

1. U.N. Environment Assembly Resolution, Dec. 2017.

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A Theme Of Abortion

Introduction

“I’ve noticed that everyone who is for abortion has already been born.” A quote from Ronald Reagan. Abortion has been the main topic for years and for many years to come. People have different views if abortion is the right or wrong thing. Many women don’t know what they feel like after the abortion process. Abortion can cause many complications to females but they are not putting the child through a struggling life. People get an abortion for different reasons because maybe they are a rape victim or etc. Other women feel that people know what they are doing when making the baby and they should take responsibility for the child. They are taking a child’s life because they made the wrong decision by not using a condom or using birth control. Pro-life people feel like taking a child life is selfish because the child does not deserve not to live because of your decision. In this current issue, I will be talking about how abortion should be limited to a certain issue, and that it should be more educated to students in school earlier.

Background

Abortion has been around for a while. It has been around since the 1800s. In 1821 people sold poison to women for purposes of abortion. Quickly it became a felony for women and sellers to accept and take the poison. Abortion was made illegal mid-1800s. In the 1920s birth control is movements is on the rise. In 1967 Colorado is the first state to liberalize abortion laws.  In 1995 congress the nationwide ban on partial-birth abortion. A couple year later the bill died by the end of the congressional session. In 2009 Congress passes healthcare reform for tax-payer funded abortions

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My issue with abortion is that is some people take advantage of it. I am pro-choice to abortion. I have a couple of issues with the abortion topic. I feel like if you want to have an abortion you should get one it is not my business. Some people get an abortion for many different reasons. Abortion should not be used as a condom. It should not be overused because it can cause many complications to the body. Even though I am pro-choice against abortion, it is still ways we can decrease them. We could start educating kids earlier in schools. I know the majority of abortions are not teens, but we could start with them. Kids are starting to hit puberty earlier and don’t understand what is going on. We could start them because most of them are not ready for kids. We start educating them starting in intermediate school. Educating them with diseases, condom and birth control. This could most definitely reduce the number of abortions.

This issue is important because abortion is not healthy for the body. After getting an abortion there are many risks you can have. You could have heavy bleeding, infection or even damage the cervix. The topic of abortion is nothing to play with. Some people have even died from it. It is important to know what you are getting yourself into. That’s why we should educate people more and earlier to help benefit them from getting an abortion and going through these complications. The government really has not done anything with these issues. The government dealt with this issue in the past by passing and banning laws. They set limits about abortion. The government hasn’t really done anything other than that. Groups have been made to try to persuade lawmaker that the government needs to make a decision. The groups feel like nothing is being made and abortion is not going down.

Government

The government legislation branch of the government is addressing abortion as they should. They promised to work hard and restrict access to essential reproductive health services advancing unconstitutional such as federal abortion bans. In the first couple days of the new Congress, they pronounced a couple new bill to make it rigid. It was made almost impossible for a woman to get an abortion. Some politicians are preoccupied with halting a females personal, private decisions. Politicians believe that they have control of people in this topic. This is why some states have branched away and created their own laws. There is a group called ACLU protects abortion access and stops them from getting into women personal health choices. In 2014 they fastened an insurance coverage for women that have gotten an abortion. The Supreme had to rule on abortion in 1973.

The Supreme Court stated that on the issue of constitutionality that laws are criminalized entry to abortions. Trump plan has prohibited clinics that receive government money to help patient’s information about abortion. Agency reports have been big also. The last 40 years government centers like (CDC) have associated with different states on stats on abortion in the U.S. The agency reports had different stats about women that had abortions. They ask different states where to keep different thing abortion about confidential. Government funding has been an issue too. Tax-payers pay for abortions for people not getting abortions. Healthcare is continuing to raise millions of dollars are used to pay for abortions when it could be spent on other things in the health areas. People who oppose abortions want their tax dollars spent on a procedure that is not very violent and not hurting anybody.

Opinion

My opinion about abortion is diverse. Abortion to me I feel like it should be a choice to have one. Some women have their life in front of them and maybe they think the child will slow them down. Sometimes you got to put yourself in their position to make the decision that they made. I also feel like abortion shouldn’t be abused. You can get an abortion because for whatever reason, but they should be a limit. You shouldn’t be able to get an abortion continuously because you do not want to use protection or get on birth control. This is why I feel like we should educate people more. If people were educated more this would not be a big problem for us. We would start educating people in schools earlier and actually teaching them it would be fewer diseases and abortions

Pro-Life people have a different opinion on abortion. They consider that the U.S. has a duty to save all human life, no matter what the circumstances are.  Most likely if you are pro-life you are a religious person. People that are Roman Catholic are pro-life. They say that have an abortion is that equal to the death penalty and war.  Pro-life people are concerned with the life of the egg, not necessarily the women. Some women decide to get abortion very late in there pregnancy, and after a certain amount of time, you are hurting the baby.  86% of Americans say abortion should be illegal after 6 months of being pregnant. They want the government to make abortion illegal throughout the United States. Most likely if you are pro-life you are a religious person.

This article is Pro-choice and they are with abortion. They say that each tax dollar spent saves about $3 in Medicaid cost for pregnancy and newborns. A decision for women to get an abortion is because they don’t want to bring in a child who will grow up struggling. 14000 women who have abortions are from incest or rape. In the article, it says that it is 10 time as high to give childbirth than to get an abortion.

Conclusion

In Conclusion of my report about abortion, it should be a choice. It should be a choice but I still think it should be decreased. My action plan is that we should start with the younger group and having a sex-ed class throughout high and middle school. They are the next generation, we should let them know everything they need to know about this topic. This change will change the government to use the extra money to spend on better things. A taxpayer would be happier than that their money is going to something that is actually useful for everybody, not certain people

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