Reactions To The Hunted And The Hated

The idea that New York City police officers are forced to comprehend with this “Stop-and-Frisk” policy is a hugely controversial topic. The police are supposed to protect the community, but now they are targeted by society. Therefore, when citizens are walking in the streets, they are always going to be afraid that police are going to stop them, for no apprehension. The Hunted and the Hated: An Inside Look at the NYPD’s Stop-and-Frisk Policy shows an abnormal state of contamination inside the police drive and gives an extraordinary translation of the New York City police compel that corresponds with the elements that reason doubt toward the police. The film demonstrates a scope of police misconduct, which includes the abuse of police officers targeting minorities. It shows how police ultimately abuse their power, and it causes distrust between the community and the police. However, my initial reaction towards The Hunted and the Hated: An Inside Look at the NYPD’s Stop-and-Frisk Policy was “Shocking!”

Initially, I was surprised at how it started with the police recordings between Alvin and the encounter with the police. It scared me to hear the police cursing at him and threatening to punch him in the face. But the real “shocking” factor that got to me was the way the film depicted how police do this to 1800 people a day! The film starts with Alvin, who is seventeen years old, and on June 3rd, 2011, he was walking from his girlfriend’s house when two police officers had stopped him. Alvin stated that they had done this to him previously, but he had no evidence that this happened. So, he decided to record the altercation, and it was frightening to hear. It is pretty alarming if one of us were to think about how it would feel like to be stop-and-frisked when you are entirely innocent. The Stop and Frisk strategy gives officers the purview to stop and hunt any person that may derive any suspicious qualities. Every individual can be addressed utilizing the doubt of conveying a hid weapon, respects of their whereabouts, scanned for illegal medications, and other prohibits that may hurt network individuals. Though, in most cases, individuals have none of these items. In this way, it might be said, there is a broad scope of variables that lead to doubt to the police and their neighborhood networks, but The Hunted and the Hated: An Inside Look at the NYPD’s Stop-and-Frisk Policy shows a preview of how much authority these police officers have.

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Based on the film, I believe that corruption and racial bias and critical jobs in causing network doubt. Corruption, which is the leading factor in power abuse is significant in the film. One of the quotes that an anonymous NYPD veteran stated was that a captain walked into the precinct and gave a speech about violating rights, and he said: “We’re gonna go out there, and we’re gonna violate some rights.” They feel as though they have the right to do as they please, and they know the government has their back. What matters the most to police officers is having their quotas, because according to the film, if you do not meet your quota, the cops will be subjected to disciplinary. They want to meet quotas because they know that someday they will have a higher position, and it will benefit them. Racial bias seems to be a factor within the “Stop-and-Frisk” policy because most of these police officers is stopping men who are Latino and African-Americans; in other words, minorities. In 2012, more than 85% of people who were stop-and-frisked were Black and Hispanic people. It would make the world unbalanced and difficult to live in, which is how life is for the minorities who are impacted by this policy. One of the most debated and controversial topics in New York City is the Stop and Frisk policy, and the impact it has on police, Latinos, and African Americans. Stop, and Frisk fails to promote justice and equitable society because it creates a community where one group is lesser than another. Lastly, the idea that scared people is not able to tell their story. The point of this essay is not to say that all police officers are like this, but it is to say that some police officers do not like the idea of this, but ultimately it is their job and life on the line. Forces you to do things you do not want to do, and nobody wants to hear the dreadful.

Racial Profiling in “Stop-and-Frisk”

Though corruption is a significant topic in this film, I believe that it all ties up with racial profiling. These police officers feel as though they have some authority over these individuals. In the film, Trevor, who is 19, had the same experience as Alvin, 17. In the film, he states, “They just don’t got no respect for us, and they wonder why we don’t have the same respect for them. And, for them to just call him a name like that… it is just crazy.” These two teenagers, who are both Latino and African-American, feel as though their rights are violated because of how these White-male police officers mistreat them and call them names. According to Butler, he states, Police routinely draw their guns during Terry stops in high-crime neighborhoods. For example, Jeff Fagan’s expert report in the recent case Floyd v. The city of New York found that in New York “force was 14 percent more likely to be used in stops of Blacks compared to White suspects, and 9.3 percent more likely for Hispanics’” (2014, page 61). Only five years ago this article was presented, and it seems to be that minorities are targeted. In our textbook, Burns states that “Frisks are permitted if the officer has reasonable belief that the suspect poses a threat to the officer or others. The protection of lives is the sole purpose of frisking suspicious individuals (del Carmen, 2007)” (2014, 330-331). In most of these cases, this does not seem to be the case; they are going up to these individuals without any reason that they would be harming the lives of others. For example, in the film, when Officer Tuttle tells Alvin that he looked suspicious because he had his hoodie on, seems to be ridiculous. This relates to when Reuss-Ianni states, “Frequently, they will spot someone who ‘looks dirty’ and follow them until they either leave the precinct boundaries, or the officers decide that they are relatively “clean, at least for tonight,” or until they violate some law that is observed by the officers and are picked up immediately” (1983, page 108). This ultimately does not seem morally correct or responsible as a police officer.

Racism, on its own, is a compelling topic that seems to be relevant in our point in time today. One would think that after many powerful movements and through the years, that race would be equal by now, but that does not seem to be the case. In Butler’s article, he shares a surprising story about a young boy that states, “In 2012, the New York Times published an article about Tyquan Brehon, an African-American male who claimed that he had been “unjustifiably stopped by the police more than sixty times” before he turned eighteen years old” (2014, page 64). That is unbelievable! This is unfortunate for young minorities because it can lead to many outcomes, such as depression and a fear of leaving their home, as described in the article. The topic of stop-and-frisk, as stated before, has entirely to do with abusing their power and taking advantage of another. Burns describes a force on an individual, stating, “To begin, it infringes on an individual’s right to freedom. It also reinforces the belief that the police will use whatever it takes to control, the less powerful groups in society, and it contributes to a lack of respect for the police” (2014, 363). In the film, The Hunted and the Hated: An Inside Look at the NYPD’s Stop-and-Frisk Policy, they give a horrifying story about how they abuse their power against minorities. The anonymous NYPD veteran stated that two minorities were standing on the wall, minding their own business, and his sergeant ordered him to write that they were blocking pedestrian traffic, if you are a certain ethnicity, they have no problem searching and violating their rights. This concludes the idea that police officers want to abuse their power for their benefits. To me, this is absurd, and it makes me no longer trust police officers entirely. I believe those police officers use the “Stop-and-Frisk” policy to show that they are at a much higher standard than others. The reason as to why these resources are useful to my point is since racial profiling is an enormous problem in our society. It causes distrust between our local communities and our precinct. After all, are we not supposed to feel protected by these officers? Apparently not, I would say.

In conclusion, the point of this isn’t to propose that all cops are racists, as in they have hostility towards Blacks or Hispanics exclusively based on their race. Racial hostility isn’t essential to take an interest in or be an assistant to a national subjection framework. The point of this is to make it aware that we are dealing with racial profiling today. Burns makes an essential statement about Stop-and-Frisks, in which he says, “In conducting the stop, officers must self-identify as police officers and make reasonable inquiries” (2014, page 330). According to the film, there were no “reasonable inquiries” involved in Alvin’s case. Also, according to the anonymous police officers who chose to speak up in The Hunted and the Hated: An Inside Look at the NYPD’s Stop-and-Frisk Policy repeatedly talk about how officers stop innocent people, they run around and stop everybody. When police departments put pressure on officers, the “us vs. quota” game exists, and this game would mean that the individuals are being hunted, and the officers are being targeted. Butler leaves a burning statement towards the end of his article that states, “Some readers may find it difficult to make the mental connection between slavery, lynching, police brutality, and stop and frisk as all part of the same racial subordination scheme” (2014, page 68). To me, this seems to be why there are always videos on social media showing that minorities are continually protesting against our government. They feel as though they are being targeted for the color of their skin, and the way they look. In the ending of the film, Alvin concludes that he once wanted to be an officer because of how much he wanted to help people, but now he does not want to be a part of that community. He now views the police as individuals who want to stop and humiliate others, to make them feel bad about themselves. I wish there were some way to encourage Alvin, because maybe if he joined the police force, he would be able to change the way the system works. For now, we need to be compelled to keep fighting to improve Stop-and-Frisk policies.

In Summary/ Final Thoughts

Racial-profiling will always be the “hot topic” when it comes to police vs. the community. The Stop-and-Frisk policy should be analyzed and changed because it is not fair that minorities seem to be mistreated. If they see someone with “baggy pants,” they will stop them because they need the quota and they look dangerous, which is absurd to me. I am interested in this topic, and I would like to do something about it. Something that I had in mind regarding this would be to write some petition, to change the policies within the policing communities to make New York and other states a better place to live in. Individuals should not be afraid to walk out of their house, and it is not right whatsoever. The film The Hunted and the Hated: An Inside Look at the NYPD’s Stop-and-Frisk Policy helps us to reiterate the fact that police officers can become corrupt and it leads to adverse consequences for us. The idea of Stop-and-Frisk, similar to torment light, exhibits which are in charge, and the rough results of the dispute.

Working Culture And Norms In Spain Essay

This research paper will discuss the cultural norms and struggles within Spanish working culture while comparing and contrasting norms in America focusing on how Spanish working culture creates hurdles for its people making it difficult for Spaniards to thrive and live comfortably. The working culture in Spain to many is considered a “perfect storm”. According to El País it’s generally seen that Spanish workers tend to sleep fewer hours and work longer hours than their European counterparts, however, they are less productive. Spanish working culture fails to attract oversees prospects and it is often seen that many educated Spaniards leave the country to find better work opportunities. The country takes care of its people in terms of weather, healthcare, education etc. but fails in working practices. It seems that overall Spanish people lack a sense of professionalism in their work in just about every profession whether it be a taxi driver, civil servant, or waitress (Barbería). The general consensus is that while Spain is a great place to live, it’s not a great place to work.

Working culture has additionally traveled into aspects of peoples at-home lifestyle and has begun to affect household structure. When both parents working full-time is coupled with the lack of childcare facilities in Spain there is an issue with the inability of families to care for their children during the week. Due to this trend grandparents increasingly play a large role in supporting Spanish families who have limited recourses (“Work-Life Balance”). Due to these imbalances the government has stepped in to search for new ways to mend the issues. However, it is debated whether or not it is in fact necessary to bring about a legitimate change in cultural attitudes. Overall, it is seen that the working environment of Spain tends to reflect the attitude of the Spanish people, that is it is: polite, lax, and sometimes a bit messy or chaotic. Additionally, since the economic crisis of 2008 many Spanish workers and families cannot afford to take time off and reduce their income (“Work-Life Balance”). InterNations reflects that the recession hit Spain hard. In 2007 the unemployment rate rose to 8% and in 2013 it hit a peak of almost 27%. Thankfully the unemployment rate has decreased by 15.28% in the second quarter of 2018. The future of Spanish working culture and norms untimely rests in the hands of the people and government.

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There is a hierarchical trend in Spanish business culture. Most companies are hierarchically structured; however, Spain is a fast-changing country that overall demands an open and flexible work force (“Work Culture in Spain”). According to Hierarchy Structure the Spanish business hierarchy is a wonderful example of labor mobility as well as general etiquette. We see a sort of “hierarchical tree” in the system. At the top begins there are Managing directors and the tree moves descending to the board of directors, senior managers, managers, executives, and staff at the bottom of the tree. Throughout the Spanish economy as a whole individualism is predominant especially in the business structure hierarchy. Teamwork is not as appreciated and carries less importance in Spanish business culture. This is in contrast to the United States where it’s important to emphasize your ability and proficiency to work with others and have good teamworking skills when applying for a job. Although, as previously mentioned since the fast pace of Spanish culture and the need for a new market this old mindset is beginning to change quickly. This need for changes within Spanish society has created change in an organizational structure as it moves away from hierarchical structure and closer to a bureaucratic organization (“Business Culture in Spain”).

Diving further into this idea of a hierocracy it is seen that women in business in Spain experience some discrimination within Spanish working culture. There are fewer women than men in top positions. According to Expatica only 37% of managerial positions in Spain are held by women. This number is just slightly above the EU average but regardless its below Spain’s quota of 40% by 2015. Women’s hourly earnings are seen to be up to 12.7% lower than men’s according to a 2017 study. Very recently, in March of 2019, a new decree was passed in attempt to reduce the pay gap and promote equality between men and women within business. In this article, Gómez explains that the decree includes the equalization of paternity leave with maternity leave and demands Spanish businesses complete a gender audit on average salaries of male and female employees. In the United States discrepancies in pay are seen as well with strides to mend the difference in progress. While this is a step in the right direction for Spain the decree will take time to fall into place and start having positive constant impact on Spanish working culture.

Stepping away from logistics and into culture and environmental aspects, women face other challenges within the workplace in regard to sexual discrimination. Sexual discrimination has been strong historically throughout Spain as women are treated poorly in various aspects of everyday life, even at home. Women tend to get a lot of attention in the office from their male counterparts. It is commonplace to hear men commenting on or complimenting the appearance of their female coworkers. In America, even subtle remarks may be considered sexual harassment in the workplace and such blatant comments would not be tolerated and could be grounds for a severe punishment. Spain has implemented anti-discrimination laws which cover forms of discrimination such as race, age, and health. While there is mention of sexual discrimination it is not strongly enforced as women may still be objectified by their male counterparts more often than not. Due to the historical trend of women struggling to be treated equally in every aspect of life it is hard to imagine a strong push for change in their business life.

To best understand the working environment as a whole, it’s important to consider how employees interact with one another within the workplace. There are many factors that contribute to the overall work environment in Spain. According to Barbería in El País the professional and personal aspects of work are hardly separated in the workplace. The same article touches on how Spaniards consider their goals in the workplace. A common theme within the workplace is the lack of clear goals, in addition to the emphasis on deadlines and the difficultly of feeling like one’s boss is relatable in any sense. The relationship between bosses and employees seems to be a complex one as bosses are in reality quite average even though they behave as though they are godlike, however, they are unable to explain themselves and what they’re asking for (Barbería). The work environment seems to come across as somewhat lax (especially in comparison to other countries) as most Spaniards would admit that they “spend more time chatting with colleagues about non-work-related matters or answering personal emails than their counterparts in other countries” (Barbería). A large aspect of Spanish working culture is the Spanish people’s belief that it is important to get to know their peers better. However, these interactions don’t get to a point of being comfortable enough where it would be normal to invite business friends to your home as a café or restaurant is preferred. Furthermore, when considering a lunch break or business dinner, there is certain etiquette to be considered (“Business Culture in Spain”).

A large aspect of Spanish working culture is how Spaniards approach meals in a professional sense. Lunch and dinner are an important part of the business culture in Spain and siestas have been a debated topic for quite some time. The siesta is a mid-afternoon break that can last around three hours. Most people may go home for lunch and spend time with their families or relax during this extended break. Although, according to Expactica, siestas don’t exist in Spain, however, lunch breaks may be around two hours and generally end around 2:30/3 PM. However, other sources explain that while siestas are on the decline in larger cities, they are still a major part of the working day in Spain (“Work-Life Balance”). While the legitimacy of a siesta is debated across sources, it is generally agreed upon that this Spanish tradition of unrealistically long lunches and midday breaks is being challenged in the more recent years (“Work-Life Balance”). Lunch is an integral part of the Spanish work culture and the working day in general. The idea of the three-hour lunch break is changing, and lunches tend to be shortened so employees can finish earlier. These long lunches can be difficult for working parents who may have to pick up their kids in the middle of the day at 4 or 5 PM. In this sense the three-hour break is shaved down to a two-hour break where employees typically retire to a restaurant to enjoy their time off. This time is seen as a chance for employees to socialize and wind down and many Spaniards would consider it equivalent to an American lunch break.

Meals and snacks are important in Spanish culture and its often seen that another very typical aspect of Spanish working culture is coffee breaks. Spanish people love their coffee. It may be seen that employees have two or three short coffee breaks a day and a longer lunch. Its typically for Spaniards to have one coffee break earlier in the morning and another coffee break after lunch to break up their day and give them energy throughout the long work day. These coffee breaks are the norm and a part of the work routine.

When considering extended time off holidays in Spain are more or less similar to what is seen around the globe. Employees typically get at least 30 days of annual paid leave in addition to time off for the 14 paid public holidays each year (two of which vary depending on local municipality). This policy of time off is much more relaxed than American holiday as Spaniards see more paid time off. For Spaniards, holidays are usually taken in the months of July, August, or September as these months are seen to be slower for business with shorter hours.

A typical Spanish work day is also consistent with other countries more or less. The day tends to begin around 8:30/9:00 AM to around 1:30/3:00 PM and then picks up again from 4:30/5:00 PM ending at around 8:00 PM (“Work-Life Balance”). While the standard working week hours in Spain vary depending on the job it is generally 40 hours a week. Additionally, the law creates a minimum of 12 hours of rest between working days explaining that employees cannot legally work more than 80 hours of overtime in a year unless there is some type of agreement made within the workplace. While the concept of working from home is increasingly popular around the world, and especially in America, it is quite alien in Spain. A study in The Local found that 92% of Spaniards never work from home. These long work days restricted to office environments become a place in which employees can create relationships with coworkers and learn to thrive in a business environment.

Negotiations and business meetings in Spain have a specific format that follows Spanish cultural norms. This structure and understanding of how business is done in Spain is crucial to know especially for an outsider coming into a Spanish work environment. According to Expactica the negotiation process for Spanish business is on the longer side. To begin, there must be a buildup of the personal relationship and trust before negotiations. It is important to be punctual to meetings but not a-typical to wait 15-20 minutes for your peers to arrive as meetings generally start and finish late (“Business Culture in Spain”). Meetings aren’t typically done over the phone even though an over the phone meeting would be typical in a country such as America. Rather, meetings and relationships are built through lunch and social interactions. It is common to shake hands with one’s business partner and not uncommon for women and men to kiss each other on both cheeks as typically done. It is important, since these meetings are done in person to dress in neat and professional clothing as well. It is very a-typical to jump into negotiations immediately as business colleagues want a chance to feel comfortable before speaking business. Final decisions may take some time and are made by the most senior managers or in a verbal agreement of formal contract that is drawn up for approval. As previously mentioned, since the hierarchy is vertical important decisions are made from the top down. Meetings are more so for giving instructions and exchanging ideas and decisions are made later on (“Work Culture in Spain”).

Whether you’re in a meeting or in the office it’s important to dress accordingly. Being properly dressed is of great importance for Spanish people. Spaniards put great time and effort into their appearance and in business settings the dress code is typically classic, conventional, and professional. Men may wear dark suits and women may wear suits too either with skirts or trousers. Bare legs are allowed in the summertime and women may wear more makeup than seen in northern countries, however, it is never flashy and often more modestly done (“Work Culture in Spain”).

The Spanish people have taken it upon themselves to create changes within their own system. There are unions in Spain, however, membership is not obligatory. Strikes among airport workers are most common, often happening on a regular basis. However, there are fewer strikes now than there were 10 years ago. According to “Expat Focus” strikes tend to happen as a “result of a lack of agreement when negotiating a collective bargaining agreement although strikes also take place when the terms of an old agreement are disputed”. Most companies have a protocol for handling concerns of their employees and there are various mediation bodies readily available for those who wish to resolve a dispute without industrial action (“Expat Focus”).

Another struggle within Spanish working culture is the unemployment rate. The issue begins with cultural issues that spring from people living with their parents until their 30’s or sometimes 40’s creating less drive and need to make money on their own. Due to this lack of motivation the youth unemployment rate is very high despite the status of the economy. While companies have seen an economic boost, it is not being passed down to their employees. Salaries are low or non-existent with unpaid internships despite already high and continually rising cost of living. According to Spain Insider young people have to fear short term contracts or unpaid internships early on as they struggle to understand and navigate the corporate environment. The term “enchufe” refers to having significant professional connections.

A lot of jobs are given through enchufes from parents, friends, or other family members. In the United States while connections help you excel faster and with ease there is definitely an ability to excel on your own with hard work and drive. However, throughout Spain many young people have to worry about their connections and ability to grow professionally, as without an enchufe, it can be nearly impossible to excel reasonably.

Overall, it rings true that Spain is a great place to live but a difficult place to work and live comfortably. The hierarchical structure makes it difficult for mobility. Additionally, women continue to struggle in many regards in terms of pay and sexual discrimination. The working norms of meals can be seen positively or negatively depending on outstanding circumstances such as family life and responsibilities outside the workplace. Furthermore, in relation to hours, Jones explained how Spain is one of the most inflexible countries in the EU when it comes to aspects such as working hours. She goes on to explain how these hours have negative repercussions on their home and family lives and affect their lives on a larger scale. There are positive aspects to consider with the great relationships formed in the workplace, however, this can also shed a negative light as the work environment is extremely lax and doesn’t lend well to motivating employees. In my opinion one of the most notable struggles is the cultural aspects that support the high unemployment rate. The pressure on the need for “enchufes” creates stress on young people and may deter them from thinking they have a chance to succeed professionally without connections. Overall, I believe that the norms of Spanish working culture create instability and are generally inefficient, creating various problems for Spanish people not only professionally but moving into home life as well.

Bibliography

  1. Barbería, José Luis. “Spain – A Great Place to Live, a Terrible Place to Work?” EL PAÍS, Síguenos En Síguenos En Twitter Síguenos En Facebook Síguenos En Instagram, 20 Oct. 2015, elpais.com/elpais/2014/12/17/inenglish/1418816737_691083.html.
  2. “Business Culture in Spain” Expatica, 19 Feb. 2019, www.expatica.com/es/employment/employment-basics/business-culture-102512/.
  3. “Expat Focus.” Spain – Business and Workplace Culture | ExpatFocus.com, www.expatfocus.com/expatriate-spain-business-culture.
  4. Gómez, Manuel V. “Spanish Cabinet Cracks down on Gender Discrimination in the Workplace.” EL PAÍS, Ediciones EL PAÍS S.L., 4 Mar. 2019, elpais.com/elpais/2019/03/04/inenglish/1551692454_012972.html.
  5. Jones, Jessica. “Spain Has Most Inflexible Working Conditions in the European Union.” The Local, The Local, 2 Dec. 2015, www.thelocal.es/20151202/spain-has-most-inflexible-working-conditions-in-europe.
  6. “Spain Business Culture Hierarchy.” Hierarchy Structure, 4 Dec. 2017, www.hierarchystructure.com/spain-business-hierarchy/.
  7. “Work Culture in Spain.” CareerProfessor.works, 26 Apr. 2018, careerprofessor.works/work-culture-spain/.
  8. “Work Culture in Spain: The Truth about Working in Spain.” Spain Insider, 21 June 2018, spaininsider.blog/2018/07/06/work-culture-in-spain-the-truth-about-working-in-spain/.
  9. “Working in Spain.” InterNations, www.internations.org/spain-expats/guide/working-in-spain-15498.
  10. “Work-Life Balance.” Business Culture, businessculture.org/southern-europe/business-culture-in-spain/work-life-balance-in-spain/.

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