Suicide has always been a very difficult discussion to most all people. Suicide or suicidal people are people who choose to take their own life or a person who is thinking about ending their own life. Years past, individuals may have been arrested for reporting such illness to authorities, but within recent years, these persons no longer risk being arrested with so many fatalities in recent studies. Per studies in history, there are some demographics that my group would like to discuss in the final research paper. There are things or leading factors that may add up to the risk of suicide that may include race, sex, history growing up, other illnesses associated, stress, disabilities, substance abuse, or health problems that have been linked to increasing the risk of this illness. There are many warning signs as well such as statements made, withdrawing from society, or drastic changes in ones’ personality that have been associated with suicide. Even though this is a very serious illness that impacts many adolescents and adults, there have been studies of treatments that make these victims survivors in their attempts or thoughts of suicide. We would like to implement the concept of the CDC, or Centers for Disease Control and Prevention which is a group that assists with the treatments of suicide and the rates in recent years.
Suicide has always been a very difficult discussion to most all people. It is often difficult to separate the cognitive components of suicide from the emotional and moral counterparts (Nail, S., Nesrin, S. H., & Sibel, T., 1994, p. 213). Webster’s New American Dictionary defines the term “suicide” as “self-destruction”. Suicide or suicide is when a person chooses to take his own life, and suicidal people are people who choose to take their own life or a person are people who is thinking repeatedly contemplate about ending ending their own life. Years past, individuals may have been arrested for reporting such illness to authorities, but within recent years, these persons no longer risk being arrested with so many fatalities in recent studies. Per studies in history, there are things or leading factors that may add up to the risk of suicide that may include race, sex, history growing up, other illnesses associated, stress, disabilities, substance abuse, or health problems that have been linked to increasing the risk of this illness. There are many warning signs as well such as statements made, withdrawing from society, or drastic changes in ones’ personality that have been associated with suicide. Even though this is a very serious illness that impacts many adolescents and adults, there have been studies of treatments that make these victims survivors in their attempts or thoughts of suicide. Some evident warning signs of suicidal thoughts within adults and teens may be suicidal statements, withdrawing from society, aggressive or hostile behavior and maybe even actions such as running away from home.
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Causes and Symptoms
Suicide is considered to be the ninth leading cause of death nationwide. It is found to be the second leading cause of death among 15 to 24 year olds; this rate has been increasing each year. No age, socioeconomic status, gender, occupational, racial, or ethnic group seems to be immune to or exempt fromto commiting suicide.
In order to explain the causes of suicide, sociological studies try to relate suicide rates to changes in society, such as “political and cultural destabilization, national and international conflicts, urbanization, prolonged obligatory education, secularization, increases in population, production and consumption of drugs and alcohol” (Nail, S., Nesrin, S. H., & Sibel, T., 1994, p. 215). In contrast, psychological studies relate suicide rates to how changes in society cause psychic pain forpsychological harm certain individuals with “certain characteristics, who possess the commonalities of suicidal behaviour” (Nail, S., Nesrin, S. H., & Sibel, T., 1994, p. 215).
One of the principal aspects of suicide is its link with depression; individuals who are clinically depressed are at a high risk of suicidal behavior. To assess the indicators a suicidal individualevaluate the clues of a suicidal individual, it is important to have extensive knowledge of relevant risk factors and observable symptoms. A study examined the knowledge and skills of professional educators as well as assessing the hypothetical adolescents who were at risk for suicide. One of the main purposes of the study was to see how capable successful educators are in identifying signs of adolescents at risk of suicidal behavior when influenced by race, gender, and socioeconomic status (Hamrick, J. A., Goldman, R. L., Sapp, G. L., & Kohler, M. P., 2004). The outcomes of the study suggest the need for regular and special educators to be trained to identify suicidal behaviours.
Treatment for suicidal people is out there, but in all actuality, only those looking for help is what makes treatments successful. For each reason of why suicidal thoughts start, there is a treatment. Doctors are careful not to give suicide patients, with known drug abuse, the anti-idepressants or any other drug used that the patient could abuse and overdose. Instead, psychotherapy, addiction treatment, and family support are options for those who abuse drugs. Psychiatrists help suicidal people in boosting their self-confidence, making them feel important, giving them an open mind and opinion on personal views, and helping their social skills get better (Lu, 2017). Talking to psychiatrist is not for everyone though,. some or mostMost people tend to like being left alone or do not want help at all. Drugs such as anti-idepressants, anti-psychotics, anti-anxiety, etc., are also used to treat suicidal patients. This, however, is not recommended for the severe patients (Lu, 2017). Results have shown treating acute suicidal patients with second generation antipsychotics and mood stabilizers are, in fact, effective. Some that were treated with antidepressants showed a slight improvement or none at all ( Raja and Azzoni, 2008). The more severe cases of suicide leads the patient to be help in a psych ward under 24 hour surveillance at all times. All objects that can be used to commit suicide are nowhere near the patient at this time. The treatments can vary depending on the severity of the suicidal person, but all can use the family support and education treatment for starters.
Suicide has become a critical, worldwide problem culpable of many unanticipated deaths. IResearch shows that in 2016 alone, nearly 45,000 suicides occurred in the United States among persons aged older than 10 years (Stone, D. M., Simon, T. R., Fowler, K.A., Kegler, S. R., Yuan, K., Holland, K M & Crosby, A.E., 2018). Suicide is trending upward it has increased among both male and female, all racial ethnic groups and all urbanization levels. The most recent overall suicide rates (representing 2014 2016) varied fourfold, from 6.9 (District of Columbia) to 29.2 (Montana) per 100,000 persons per year (Stone, D. M., Simon, T. R., Fowler, K.A., Kegler, S. R., Yuan, K., Holland, K M & Crosby, A.E., 2018). Traveling East, New Zealand described as one of the highest teenage suicide rates among industrialized countries. Suicide in the 15-19 age group has increased over the last twenty years, from 5.8 per 100,000 in 1970 to 15.7 in 1991. In 1991, the suicide rate for the 20-24 age group was 31.3 per 100,000, with the increase much higher among males than females. Males aged 15-19 commit suicide at the rate of 26.9 per 100,000, while the rate for teenage girls is only 3.6 (Drummond, W. J., 1997). The rates between men and females show to be higher in New Zealand because men use more irreversible means than women do, men are physically stronger and can hurt themselves more than a woman would be able to. South Korea ran a chi-square test for trend to asses’s trends for the changes in suicide methods over 10-year period. They also conducted a Spearman correlation analyses to assess the correlation between time. Annual suicide rates among adolescents aged 1019 years in South Korea between 2000 and 2009 were also researched., During this period, the suicide rate among Korean adolescents increased from 4.2 to 6.9 per 100,000 population in males and from 3.3 to 6.2 per 100,000 in females. Jumping was the most common method of suicide among Korean females between 2000 and 2009, but the rate of hangings significantly increased (Park, S., Cho, S., Kim, B., Kim, J. Yoo, H. J., & Hong, J. P., 2014). Over time changes in several regions of India have contributed to suicide, India is known as “Suicide Capital of South-East Asia”. In 1967 the suicide rate in India was 7.8, but it has steadily increased to 11.0 in 2013, with a peak rate of 11.4 in 2010 (Ponnudurai, R. 2015). Suicide varies from one career to another, age group etc. A report of the Government of India in 1999 revealed that more than 65% of all suicides are committed by persons between ages of 15 and 24 years. Not surprisingly, higher suicide rate in youth was already observed by several Indian studies too. In the recent report published by National Crime Records Bureau (NCRB) even as 34.4% of all suicides was between 15 and 29 years, almost equally, i.e. 33.8% of all suicides was also between 30 and 44 years (Ponnudurai, R. 2015). Suicide trends vary from one side of the world to another, yet cause the same amount of agony to those left behind. “
The Economic Impact Of Self-Driving Cars
The automobile company is drastically changing over the years. Due to advancements in technology, driverless cars are in the near future. A self-driving car is a motor vehicle that is capable of automated driving and navigating entirely without direct human input. Autonomous cars are able to use cameras, sensory, GPS location, and computer systems to operate accurately and efficiently. Driverless cars have quickly become the most discussed new technologies that will be arriving within the next few years. Once these self-driving cars are in action, they will have many positive and negative effects on the United States economy. In the near future, driving won’t be the same as it used to be. According to the U.S. Department of Transportation’s National Highways Traffic Safety Administration, there are currently five different levels of vehicle automation (Rodgers). The vehicle has no automation at level zero where the driver is in complete control and is responsible for monitoring the roadway. The vehicle is function-specific automation at level one.
The car has one or more specific control functions, such as brake and steering, that is automated, but the driver is responsible for the overall control of the car. At level two, the vehicle has combined function automation. This is when the vehicle has at least two primary control functions that work in unison to relieve the driver of control, but the driver is still responsible for monitoring the roadway. Level three consists of limited self-driving automation where the driver forgoes all key driving functions, but is able to resume control once those conditions no longer exists. In the future, vehicles are expected to reach level four where the car has full self-driving automation. The vehicle is designed to perform all primary driving functions and monitor roadway conditions for the entire length of travel without the need of a driver. The driverless cars of the future are able to outperform most humans driving ability.
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These autonomous cars will have greater perceptive abilities, better reaction times, and fewer distractions than most humans (Kirkpatrick). With the technology of cameras, sensors, and computer vision, driverless cars have the ability to make the roads much safer for everyone. Based on the recent Safety Fact Sheet, highway traffic accidents are becoming one of the leading causes of death (Kassu). Of these vehicle accidents, 90% can be attributed to human error (Howard, D., & Dai, D.). Human drivers are forced to make a moral and an ethical decision that impact both their safety and the safety of others around them. The key contributors to car accidents are speeding, driving drunk, driving aggressively, and being distracted (Kirkpatrick). All of these are decisions that potentially put so many people at risk of injury and/or death. With the use of self-driving cars, all of the automated cars will be programmed to a setting where all questionable driving decisions are made the same, whereas all humans have different perspectives. The automation will simply choose the outcome that will result in the greatest potential benefits of the passengers and the environment around them. On the other hand, humans make decisions without knowing the risk they are taking or putting someone into. Self-driving car sensors will have the ability to follow traffic rules and be more alert and responsive than drivers today, leading to fewer accidents (Public Perceptions of self driving cars).
With the use of driverless cars, productivity in everyday life will increase in many forms. On average, the American commuter spends about 250 hours a year behind the wheel of a vehicle. Most of that time is taken up in rush hour traffic or by driving around the streets looking for a parking space (Self-Driving Cars). The amount of time humans waste in traffic and/or commute time can now be spent doing work in a driverless car. The average commute time in the United States is about 25 minutes (Self-Driving Cars). During this time, people can catch up on anything they have to do since they won’t have to pay attention to operating the vehicle. They are able to focus all of their attention on what they need to get done, increasing their productivity. Humans will be able to maximize their time during their commute every day with the self-driving car, making lives more convenient.
Driverless cars will reduce the demand for parking facilities and allow for more necessary buildings such as office space and apartments. In some U.S. cities, parking lots cover more than a third of the land area (Self-Driving Cars). The self-driving cars do not necessarily need to park in a parking area during the day since it can make multiple trips and drive on its own. People are able to program the car to pick you up at a certain time and take you to where you need to go. With this, vehicle sharing will increase allowing people to use the same car to get to where they need to go.
One major economic issue with self-driving cars is the number of job losses in the transportation industry that will result from these automated cars. 47% of the United States total employment will be at risk from automation. According to the Bureau of Labor Statistics, jobs such as truck drivers, taxi drivers, and bus drivers account for 4.87 million jobs in the United States (Arinze). Driverless cars will put a tremendous amount of people to become unemployed in the United States. According to Goldman Sachs, if the automated cars clear government and becomes widely adopted, about 300,000 jobs per year will be lost (LeSage). Replacing driverless cars with people’s job will allow there to be more productivity in that business. Self-driving cars can constantly run 24/7 which will allow businesses to get more work done without the need to pay people. Another major concern of the driverless cars is liability issues.
If driverless cars do get into accidents, who is responsible for any damages? In the future, everyone necessarily will not be driving full automated vehicles. These driverless cars can get into accidents involving human drives, semi-automated drivers and fully-automated drivers. Self-driving vehicle collisions will be more complicated to assign liability to. Did the accident happen due to human error or the automated car? Did the vehicles software malfunction? The types of claim most likely associated with the self-driving cars will be based upon product liability issues (Rogers). Under product liability, judges seem to assign liability to whoever built the vehicle liability since this person was to create a product that is supposed to move people around safely. On the other hand, courts can determine who is responsible in situations where a human could have intervened to stop the accident but did not (Calo).