Knowledge Management: Critical Reflection A Level English Language Essay Help

How did it all start?

The industrialized world was unaware of the significance of Knowledge Management (KM) until individual entrepreneurs and multinational organizations encountered inefficiencies in large-scale manufacturing. In many firms, the upper management teams have recognized that people cannot contribute to the mutual productivity of the organization; hence, task completion becomes progressively more complicated. Individual work did not meet the expectations of upper management, which led to the formation of the notion of working in teams, which later took the shape of management teams, research and development teams, cross-functional teams, self-managed work teams, and task-assigned groups. Later, they realized that the movement toward group work in organizations spawned a similar tendency toward group study among other social and organizational scientists. With the introduction of workgroup performance, corporations discovered a new paradigm for enhancing worker productivity through group collaboration. Today's evidence reveals that businesses attain their objectives easily through workgroup performance (Thompson et al, 1999, p. 3).

As large-scale manufacturing reached its zenith, urban labor became the most important asset for the burgeoning industrialist elite. Following a series of significant technological advances, machinery began to improve, and automation decreased the industry's need on such vast numbers of exhausted laborers. However, machinery costs money, thus access to capital became crucial. Controlling capital flows was the factory owners' primary concern.

With the notion of group performance, industrialists entered the 21st century, where additional waves of technological innovation proceeded to impact people's lifestyles and places of employment. Land, labor, and capital are no longer a problem for enterprises on a local or regional scale, as these three variables of conventional production, i.e. land, labor, and capital, have grown easier to manage. What concerns our businesses and industries in the management of information within these parameters so that we can differentiate between the success and failure of one organization and another? Scientists assert that ‘KM’ has always existed, but they misled us since we never knew how to use the notion properly.

With abundant and accessible land, labor, and capital, KM affords any group the opportunity to reach its objective. Despite having so many advantages, our entrepreneurs and industrialists lack a systematic strategy for maximizing returns through knowledge management. This is due to the fact that knowledge differs significantly from traditional vital assets in a number of respects, including the fact that it is difficult to track and its worth cannot be quantified.

Group Knowledge Sharing

The primary fault of today's doomed organizations is that they seldom take individual characteristics into consideration, including not only the workers' ability but also their demographic traits, beliefs, and personality traits. They directly care about the interests that are pertinent to a group's tasks and assist them in enhancing their productivity.

For instance, the introduction of KM enthused businesses to such an extent that they began to rely on ‘Knowledge Management Systems (KMS). Without a comprehensive understanding of how knowledge management (KM) considerations relate to people, process, technology, and content, (Robertson, March 5, 2007), organizations today are willing to purchase KMS without examining the system's genuine capabilities. Honestly, there is no such system as KMS; enterprises that want KMS anticipate technological solutions without realizing their true IT capabilities.

Instead of increasing the performance of work groups through suitable training, corporations believe that the group's central tendency may be changed by employing employees with desirable traits or terminating employees with undesirable features. Firms must realize that hiring and firing is not the ultimate solution to close the knowledge management (KM) gap; rather, organizations should focus on training workers to strengthen desirable characteristics and weaken undesirable ones, and linking the group to outsiders with desirable characteristics.

(Moreland, Levine, & Wingert, 1996). Mutual collaboration, mutual comprehension, and related group tasks are likely to improve a group's performance, although such advantages are frequently offset by group conflicts and other losses.

Knowledge Management Systems

KMS technologies necessitate training and development prior to deployment in enterprises. These technologies include a variety of management systems, such as web content management systems, electronic processors, word documents, spreadsheets, record management systems, database management systems, websites, search engines, and collaborative tools.

On the other hand, managers who are observed working harder to keep up with the competition and working even harder to drive their firms ahead of the pack are oblivious of the technological revolution and so do not feel the need to upgrade their personal grooming and training. Such inexperienced managers are simple victims of globalization, which creates ever-widening inequalities between winners and losers. Such managers are accustomed to using conventional methods and are uninformed of KM procedures. Even if they are later instructed, they remain confused about which KM solution to use, when, and under what conditions. This causes them to either adopt IT solutions as a quick fix for their knowledge management issues, or they waste business resources and are followed by narrow-minded, pricey, and at worst, destructive approaches (Kulge et al, 2001, p. 6).

A Case Study on the Application of Technology in Novartis Pharmaceuticals

Since the literature suggests that technology deployment in KM is one of the individual-level criteria for assessing the impact of technology within organizations, an empirical study was conducted to determine the extent to which UK pharmaceutical companies have maintained success in deploying KM solutions.

Novartis has undoubtedly been successful in assessing its clients' and workers' shifting needs. (Bozzette et al, 2001, p. 5) In order to improve a patient’s condition or quality of life, the application of technology has been characterized in terms of the patient’s safety and the effectiveness of devices that are suitable for use with medications (Matuszewski, 1997). Despite a thorough evaluation of the technology that Novartis requires, the company is unable to comprehend the use of suitable technology. This paper narrows in on the obstacles that Novartis faces with KM to assist decision-making for managed care enrollee groups.

Novartis was unable to manage its biomedical research after the merger with Sandoz and Ciba-Geigy (anonymous, 2007) until it opted to implement the right KM tools and procedures. Novartis pharma requires a knowledge marketplace in order to establish a framework within which to think and act for the development of a solution while dealing with massive amounts of data. The purpose of incorporating KM solutions into the system was to establish a foundation and methodology for selecting a technology that would enable Novartis to manage and update private and public data. It was also to maintain a systematic method of information preservation (Buchel, 2001, p. 160).

Novartis spent a total of one year between the arrival and operation of the network operating systems that had been created previously. A dearth of pre-packaged software necessitated considerable custom programming in application creation, which contributed to the incredibly lengthy installation time. Internally, all computer systems were interconnected as child networks of a single parent network located at the headquarters. Aside from decentralized dial-up networks used by some branches to access electronic mail, external networking with branches in other cities or the headquarters was uncommon. This lack of connectivity was linked to the national telecommunication infrastructure's expensive fees.

Knowledge Workers' Option in Choosing a Mode of Communication

In the beginning, Novartis was unable to make substantial use of new communication technologies such as the Internet. Only Sandoz created its own webpage. Even though Novartis had acquired a domain name, its website was still under construction at the time of the survey. The use of electronic mail was minimal in these businesses. Although each organization had many modems, electronic mail was not routinely examined. Traditional methods of communication, such as mail, telephone, and fax, remained the most prevalent.

If we evaluate what the literature suggests, we would find that theoretical viewpoints on the use of KM within the framework of communication modes are never met. Theorists such as Mintzberg (1973) demonstrated that managers spend the majority of their time communicating; however, he did not provide a full examination of the mediums utilized to transmit and receive information. Since the publication of Mintzberg's book, communication technologies have penetrated organizational life, providing knowledge workers with new media options. (Buchel, 2001, p. 15) Many theorists believe that the business environment of today is influenced by knowledge workers (workers who must make extensive use of information in their work context; Davis et al., 1993). Literature reveals that the use of electronic mail (e-mail), voice mail, and teleconferencing, in addition to traditional communication channels such as the telephone and face-to-face communication, has increased. Regarding huge pharmaceutical corporations, this perception is false. Telephones and faxes continue to be the key means of communication because it is more convenient for modern clients to follow plain techniques.

This concept is not exclusive to multinational corporations. The outsourcing environment of today, which has shrunk global company opportunities, is impacted by this challenge, which is merely a subset of KM. According to customers, it is a matter of trust and confidence that they prefer face-to-face or telephone connection. This demonstrates that KM cannot sustain efficiency and confidence. What is the purpose of such technology if the company cannot demonstrate its credibility? Given the expanding availability of new communication media and the resulting complexity of media selection, there is no need for ‘effective communication technology’ but rather a “trustworthy” communication option in the eyes of an organization's customers. This is the situation that Novartis Pharmaceuticals is in.

It is argued that a better understanding of the factors of media selection permits organizations to make more educated decisions on the selection of communication technology. Both traditional and modern communication channels were studied for this goal. It was discovered that 65 percent of Novartis employees preferred to use manual apps for data administration. 10% of the employees did not mind using application packages for data recording, whereas 25% were unaware of the use of electronic data management.

How have the new HRM practices affected the sharing of knowledge within organizations?

Knowledge sharing (KS) within the internal and external environment not only encourages and brings new product development concepts followed by group activity, but has also spawned a knowledge-based economy. Cooperation in organizations requires communication, learning, and the exchange of knowledge. KS practices include various types of team-based organization, continuous (often internal and team-based) learning, decentralization of decision rights and incentives, systems for mobilizing employee proposals for improvements, quality circles, and an emphasis on internal knowledge dissemination, among other practices. (1999, Mendelson and Pillai) The strategy adopted by Novartis restricts the organization to a comprehensive study of knowledge development within organizations engaging in several cooperative processes simultaneously, where knowledge creation among organization members must also be considered. Despite establishing a "knowledge marketplace" where employees are free to express their opinions and perspectives, Novartis has been unable to control the flow of information from one mind to another.

While KS procedures appear to be wholly innovative, several of its broad generalizations (Osterman, 2000) entail new HRM practices that do not adhere to the hire-and-fire criterion (Laursen and Mahnke 2001). The new HRM practice has transformed organizational managerial processes, particularly those associated with downsizing, constant restructuring, and outsourcing; this poses a challenge for KM. How can theorists overlook the fact that KM has astronomically increased the cost of downsizing, which results in the loss of knowledgeable, experienced employees? (Bounfour, 2003, p. 155)

Engineers in Chemical Technology at Novartis

The chemical engineering division of Novartis maintains certain practical expressions of the concerns being addressed at the top. During a thorough qualitative and quantitative study, I discovered that two groups of engineers collaborated to create and provide remanufacturing assistance for the two product families. They had a backlog of both new drugs and new items. This youthful, slender group's capabilities was being taxed by aggressive deadlines for the creation of new items and technological breakthroughs demanding frequent updates to existing products. Uncertainty regarding the company's strategic direction contributed to the departure of a number of pharmaceutical chemical engineers, who felt that their skills would be rendered obsolete or, even worse, consigned to product update work rather than the more intriguing development of new medicines. In this high-pressure environment, managers who were "always in meetings" frequently delegated key tasks to junior engineers who received little day-to-day mentoring. Time was wasted before it was determined whether their designs were off course.

Another group was affected by the technology shift. It was halfway toward implementing advanced laboratory systems. About one-third of the engineers had workstations of the most recent generation. Some were learning how to use them, while others were eager to accept assistance from these technologies yet continued to rely on outdated technology. Even more distressing was the fact that layout specialists were leaving, having realized that the new technology rendered them obsolete. This resulted in dissatisfied design engineers who lacked the new system and lacked proper assistance.

The test area, where the final inspection was conducted before products were transferred overseas for assembly, was also perturbed by the perceived lack of discipline. Test personnel thought they received an excessive amount of ‘junk,’ with no indication that QA had a systematic approach to addressing the issues. Nonetheless, their first priority was to build the next generation of test goods and procedures required for the new generation. They were particularly worried that, despite having to build the ability to test the product at the same time it was being designed, they received very little communication from the chemical engineers to guide their work. They were effectively flying blind, with only a general sense of direction and the hope that they were not too far off course (Glinow & Mohrman, 1990, p. 9).

Effectiveness of Employees

In worker-oriented initiatives, competence is largely observed at the professional or even managerial level. Different work-oriented techniques are a result of employees' contributions in the form of KM sharing. Distinct attitudes of employees toward KM indicate that they possess different attributes, knowledge, skills, and abilities (KSA) that are necessary for optimal work performance. (Gerber & Lankshear, 2000, p. 49) Competence influences the process of sharing knowledge; hence, disagreements cause employees to isolate themselves.

Today, the term "competencies" is best characterized by examining and evaluating individuals' attitudes toward their work.

Ethics And Information Techmologies In Business. A Level English Language Essay Help

Table of Contents
Abstract Presentation Conclusions Regarding Business Ethics and Information Technology References

Abstract

This research paper examines the relationship between business ethics and information technology. Companies have exploited their influence and prowess to engage in conduct that is not acceptable in the public sphere, as technological progress has surpassed the regulations in place. Consequently, this article covers ethical and unethical corporate conduct in relation to IT and how businesses are adapting to the advancement of information technology.

Introduction

Business entities engage in commercial transactions with their customers. As a result of market competition, firms have resorted to unethical conduct in order to compete with one another, raising the issue of business ethics. In this paper, I will examine the ethical conduct of businesses in respect to information technology. In the preceding decades, information technology through communication devices such as wireless technology has posed a significant threat to the continued existence of businesses. The inappropriate use of business information by employees has prompted organizations to use a variety of measures to curb such conduct. This has also raised privacy concerns. Companies must therefore adopt IT-compliant policies, while the government must enact regulations that protect and guide ethical problems.

Ethics in Business and Information Technology

Ethics are societally-accepted standards of behavior for individuals within a society. Such deviant behaviors like stealing and adultery are deemed to as unethical in society. Ethical business practices, policies, and guiding concepts constitute business ethics. Additionally, they are considered corporate social responsibility (Harbert, 2007).

Ethical behavior is regarded as sensible behavior, and the term 'ethic' has several connotations depending on the situation and environment in which a person resides. Reasonableness is innate and consistent with human nature. However, the majority-accepted behavior is ethical whereas the behavior that is reviled is unethical. Due to technological innovation and security dangers for businesses and nations, an ethical information system has evolved in the field of information technology and is known as the "Ethic Information System" (Harbert, 2007).

The tools of the information system can be utilized in two distinct ways. Depending on the company's utilization, it can be utilized for good or bad reasons. Professionals in the field of information technology face a conundrum when obtaining information that can be used in either direction. The ethical information system utilizes advanced technological tools to collect sensitive or inappropriately used information. There has been rapid growth in technology infrastructure, such as the utilization of wired and wireless connections. The evolution of wireless technology has posed a number of difficulties for both users and targets (Kush & Kumar, 2005).

In the majority of firms, business ethics is concerned with company information such as trade secrets, future goals, and security. Companies document information pertaining to work-related issues, such as employee interactions, employee use of corporate property, and marketing professional tracking. For all of these tasks, businesses rely on the expertise of specialists in information technology and intelligence (Kirby, 2007).

Companies are obligated to adopt ethical policies that are consistent with business practice and the organizational culture of the business. Typically, legal experts and company personnel specialized in privacy issues write these policies. Typically, the policies reflect the company's historical experiences in terms of ethical behavior (Kirby, 2007).

The information handling behavior of employees within the company's premises is of utmost importance to all management. Employees are expected to maintain the secrecy and confidentiality of information or limit its access to specific levels. For instance, if the chief executive decided to hold a meeting with his or her finance employees to discuss a sensitive subject with them, such as a trade secret, the meeting would need to be secured. Will they be accountable for keeping the meeting's secrecy if it was company-specific? Jeremy Hart was a software engineer at Citadel Systems, Inc. (Citadel), a leading provider of software and database solutions. His coworkers and boss regarded him as one of the most intelligent and perceptive professionals working with database applications. He has been a member of a research team creating a complex new database management system for several years. Citadel developed one-of-a-kind protocols to handle a variety of technological issues in the course of developing and enhancing its database administration tools. Customers and competitors of Citadel were unaware of and unable to easily observe these protocols.

Similarly, another employee, a software engineer who assisted with the design of database management systems for one company, was subsequently employed by a competitor. His initial employer did not require him to sign any formal paperwork prohibiting him from using his research outside of the company. After he began working for his new job, he worked on a project quite similar to the one he had previously completed and used his notes to guide and expedite his work. Ultimately, the database management systems of the two organizations were very similar (Saunders 2006). These cases illustrate how individuals handle ethical dilemmas. The question then becomes who is responsible. Is it the organization's lack of guiding policies or the software engineer's disregard for company confidentiality? (Soukup, 1994; Saunders, 2006).

There are numerous ethical issues inside commercial companies, including hacking and improper use. A hacker is a computer science professional who uses information technology expertise creatively. Without a firewall or other protective system, the hacker can attack any website and steal information or cause damage. In addition, ethical hacking is also known as “penetration testing” and “intrusion testing” or “red teaming,” a phrase coined in the 1970s when the U.S. government began hacking its own systems ( Coffin, 2003).

According to Kush & Kumar (2005), the contemporary mobile networks comprised of infrastructure networks and infrastructure-less mobile networks are continually under attack from both external and internal sources. External attacks, whether passive or active, have the consequence of weakening or destroying the system's message flow. Internal attacks consist of compromised modes, intrinsic characteristics, and active external attacks that cause or deny communication flow access. Multiple interferences are related with the attacks employed by hackers to disrupt communication networks (Begley, 1997).

While improper information utilization is regarded as unethical. Several instances of unethical employee behavior are prevalent in the workplace, including shopping, gambling, and surfing unlawful websites. Therefore, it raises the question of whether or not it is unethical for employees to read their personal email during work hours. In addition, is it ethical to pay bills during work hours? Some firms prohibit employees from using their network connection for such purposes. They also face the difficulty of guarding their company and trade secrets (Kirby, 2007).

According to Harbert (2007), businesses have implemented monitoring systems such as Surf Control PLC to track employees' network usage. He explains that one firm policy required the IT person to monitor and report on all employees who visited pornographic websites. One of the workers identified a senior executive infamous for frequenting such venues. He took the printout and sends it to his superiors. As a result, the executive who broke the policy was promoted to a high position in a subsidiary firm rather than being terminated. This was upsetting for the IT employees who were unable to assess the effectiveness of the decisions. The situation was unethical and against corporate policy.

Other instances in which company policies have presented IT professionals with ethical issues are related to security and other commercial threats. Several significant corporations have developed various strategies to safeguard their trade secrets, gain a competitive advantage, defend their reputation and market dominance. This has created a narrow distinction between spying and protecting company information, for which espionage is one of the ways employed by businesses. For example, Dell Computers and HP Corporation fought in court over HP's role in dispatching spies to study their competitors' intentions. Walmart has initiated surveillance operations to monitor employee and merchandise movement, as well as hired investigators to undermine anti-Walmart organizations. Other corporations that have engaged in unethical business practices include Air Canada and Biovail, Fairfax and New York hedge (Kirby, 2007).

Some businesses lack security policies for their sensitive information. Therefore, the staff may be uncertain about how to utilize the network. Other businesses may have policies but fail to educate their personnel until an ethical infraction has occurred.

The public is concerned about the motivations underlying a number of business companies' ethical difficulties within and outside of their authority. Kirby (2007) observes that corporate codes of ethics have evolved and become more restricted, with the underlying principles and rules being weakened as firms compete for market share. Businesses, such as Walmart, that have experienced many information leaks have created methods to prevent further leaks so they do not lose millions of shillings and client faith. In this sense, they have engaged primarily veteran military intelligence leaders to drive their enterprises' security procedures.

Other firms have commissioned investigative experts in secret to get information about other companies; they have stolen secret documents and dispatched agents to other nations to fraudulently steal commercial secrets and scientific information. Other ethical problems, including privacy, remain unanswered. Regarding who owns electronic mail, for instance, there are contradictory legal requirements. On the one hand, the Electronic Communication Privacy Act of 1986 bans access to e-mail transmitted over public telephone lines, just as it protects mail sent via the post office (Kirby, 2007).

In contrast, courts have ruled that private organizations are permitted to examine email within their own networks. Numerous businesses assert that they monitor calls in order to improve customer service, investigate crimes, and avoid security breaches (Soukup, 1994).

The courts and legislative authorities have been overtaken by technological advancement to the extent that the court system cannot address immoral issues emerging from the use of technology. The use of radio frequency and identification technology, which may collect vast amounts of physical, psychological, and informational data, for instance, has compromised the privacy of individuals, including employees and customers. Their use has aroused worries among the general public and firms employing such technologies, who must now balance ethical and security concerns (McVeigh, 2007).

Companies are obligated to develop policies that define undefined areas of the law and provide staff with clear guidelines for conducting business. Policies typically outline the responsibilities and functions of each employee, making them accountable for any breach of conduct; otherwise, it would be difficult to address an incident involving unethical behavior. In addition, corporate policymakers should educate their managers and employees on the chain of command for reporting unethical activity, which protects whistleblowers from victim retaliation. Although policies are produced by lawyers and other professionals, IT difficulties necessitate the assistance of IT experts in order for policymakers to create IT-compliant policies (Harbert, 2007).

In addition, businesses should develop guidelines for the organization and its personnel. For instance, the business should utilize P2P network structures and analyses. This software application comprises a variety of applications. The programs evaluate peer-to-peer (P2P) network designs and analyze the behavior, threats, and countermeasures associated with prominent P2P applications, instant messaging, and file-swapping tools, according to previous research. As network infrastructures, security rules, political climates, and employee liberties vary widely amongst enterprises, no single solution is presented. Companies contemplating the adoption of a solution to manage inappropriate P2P application usage on their network are advised to evaluate both product and personnel investments (Thyer, 2003).

These ethical problems are particularly widespread in societies where there is no legislative structure to protect ethical business behavior. In poor nations, the issue of property rights is problematic; hence, IT professionals will face a greater ethical conundrum.

Microcomputers are considerably less expensive and do not necessitate specialized spaces or electrical requirements. Neither is specialized manpower required for operation. The expense of safeguarding this data, however, constitutes a significant portion of the overall IT budget. Consequently, firms in poorer nations may not recognize the importance of security. Given this lack of security awareness, there is potential for widespread unethical usage of information technology in underdeveloped nations. Current IT theft is highly sophisticated, and "cracking" such IT operations in developing countries will be difficult. Information exploitation may occur so rapidly that it will be too late to prevent it (Goeller, 1995).

Conclusion

When addressing business concerns and matters of public importance, ethics is a vital topic. Company ethics consist of acceptable conduct within business organizations. It consists of standards and principles that reflect sound business operations. There are, nevertheless, instances of unethical behavior committed by organizations and personnel. When pursuing both ethics and market competition, businesses face a conundrum. Some have resorted to immoral ways to obtain information on how to surpass competitors and other threats. Similar employees are suspected of stealing company information and abusing company property. Concerns have been raised over the use of company policies and legal guidelines to combat unethical behavior.

References

Begley, D. (1997). Wireless technologies transmit data at a rapid rate. Microwaves and radio frequency. 36, 28.

B. Coffin (2003). It Takes a Thief: Ethical Hackers Evaluate Your Security. Risk Management. 50(7), 10-12, 14.

Ethics and technology in developing nations, Business and Society Review (94), pages 40-2, 1995; T. G. Goeller.

Harbert, T. (2007). Computerworld, 41(44), pages 34-6, addresses the topic of ethics in IT.

When the Spies Are Out of Control, J. Kirby, Maclean's, 120(25), 34-6, 2007.

Kush, A. & Kumar, R. (2005). Wireless Network Security Issues, DESIDOC Bulletin of Information Technology, vol. 25, no. 1, pp. 13-18, January 2007.

Peslak, A. R. (2005). Ethical and Radio Frequency, Journal of Business Ethics, vol. 59, no. 4, pp. 327-45, 2004.

Saunders, K. M. (2006). A Case Study on the Law and Ethics of Trade Secrets. 42(2) California Western Law Review 209-47

Soukup, P. S. J. (1994). Issues in Ethics, vol. 8(2), pp. 16-18. Web.

Thyer, Michael (2003). Understanding Application Security, Information Systems Security, 12(5), 42-51.

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Effects Of Recession In The World’s Economy A Level English Language Essay Help

Table of Contents
Introduction Marketing Integration Background and Development Theorizing the European Union as a global actor Conclusion Sources Cited

Introduction

As a result of European integration, the European Union has become a worldwide player. EU policy frameworks are derived from a variety of national policies in order to achieve leverage and consensus on problems such as foreign affairs, economy, security, defense, and immigration. Through its institutions and the collaboration of its member states, the European Union continues to play a major role in international politics.

As far as the development of a common foreign, security, and military policy is concerned, the national politics, policies, and constitutions of EU member states remain unaffected by EU institutions (Vogler& Bretherton 12). The European Union's development of a single monetary policy and currency has positioned it as a significant global actor. The expansion of the European Union into neighboring areas has similarly influenced the formulation of a vital foreign policy that incorporates national interests. The enlargement of the European Union has prompted a revolution in immigration policies, with a focus on international migrations and economic concerns. Several reasons contribute to the European Union's emergence as a worldwide actor on political, social, and economic issues.

Background

In the first place, the European Union is Europe's superpower similar to the United States and China. Thus, the EU facilitates the influential participation of European nations on the international scene. Smaller European nations are interwoven with their larger, economically and socially prosperous neighbors, creating the required synergy for global impact. On the global arena, the total of EU member states has a multiplier impact greater than the contribution of independent nations on any given subject (Rhodes 8).

The second element is the EU expansion, which has transferred the EU institutions' focus from Europe to the rest of the globe through the formation of a common foreign policy, the neighborhood policy, and the European Security and Defense policy. The development of the European Economic Community into the Common Market has had the largest influence on the global reach of the European Union (Sjursen& Peterson 15). Regarding the transfer of authority from sovereign member states to the European Union, there is an obstacle. Progress has been made in European countries' collaboration on economic matters such as the Common Market and the usage of the Euro.

Delegates from participating nations deliberate with exceptional success on external trade policies at EU institutions. The introduction of the Euro as a uniform European currency has placed the European Union at the forefront of international monetary diplomacy. However, delicate problems like sovereignty, prestige, immigration, and security are frequently ignored by EU member states. The Maastricht Treaty established "The EU's Common Foreign and Security Policy," outlining its essential characteristics.

In forming a unified foreign policy, the decision-making process takes into account the diversity of state foreign policies. The EU's economic strategy provides the context for European help to the rest of the globe (Scartezzini& Foradori 18). In addition, there is a balance between the economic power and political influence of the EU.

The evolution of the European Union's military strategy into a comprehensive Community policy towards the fulfillment of a Common Foreign and Security Policy is a crucial foundation for the EU's global influence. However, the EU has performed poorly in terms of conflict resolution and international foreign policy implementation (Leech 19). The political impasse and subsequent civil war in Yugoslavia showed the European Union's shortcomings in conflict resolution, in addition to its lukewarm attitude to adopting a single foreign and security policy. Member nations have created substantial cooperation around portions that advance their national interests. Using the EU as a model, France has built a foreign policy that is distinct from that of the United States.

In order to rehabilitate its worldwide image following the Second World War, Germany has established its foreign policy in accordance with the EU's shared foreign policy framework. Without actively participating in treaties, European nations rely on the European Union to implement effective foreign policies and security initiatives. This is especially crucial for smaller nations that may lack their own power in international politics. The European Union's central role in coordinating the foreign policies of its member states lays the groundwork for economic integration and the maintenance of security (Smith 20).

Marketing integration

The rationale for market integration is derived from a system in which trade barriers are eliminated and replaced with mechanisms that facilitate the exchange of goods and services in a common market. In this instance, separate national policies are accepted into the common EU market as long as they do not impede international trade. Therefore, the European Union is a significant trading power, particularly among its member nations. Economic and monetary union is essential for the future cohesion of the European Union (Stein& Marsh 14).

Central to the coordination of financial aid to Eastern European countries and the rest of the globe through structured funds is monetary unification. The economies of less prosperous nations such as Ireland, Spain, Greece, and Portugal are gradually catching up to those of the other industrialized nations. In terms of the European Union's cohesion, this has facilitated substantial development. The actual benefits of the union are obtained through the harmonization of business and labor costs among member nations. The monetary integration of a community also affects the geographical distribution of economies of scale within the group.

Aid and advancement

The European Union provides the most donor help to the world's poorest nations, as well as development aid to commercial partners. The European Union uses political discussion, trade, and aid to handle international affairs. The European Development Fund provides additional development assistance to African, Caribbean, and Pacific (ACP) countries beyond the contributions of individual member states. Due to widespread corruption, European Union and member state aid is frequently squandered by recipient nations (Vogler& Bretherton 16). Thus, the emphasis is changing from donating to third-world countries to trade collaboration.

In lieu of donations, the World Trade Organization has reaffirmed this development as a crucial pillar for encouraging sustainable development in third world countries. The ACP nations, particularly those on the African continent, have expressed concern over the EU's preference for free trade in the world, as the majority of them are in severe need of foreign aid to equalize current disparities in economic progress worldwide (Rhodes 10).

The European Union has been extraordinarily involved in Central and Eastern European affairs. "The Euro-Arab dialogue, the pact with Central American countries, and the Association of South-East Asian Nations" explains the current activity of the European Union in the East with respect to future enlargement. The basis of the interaction between the European Union and the countries of Central and Eastern Europe is the accomplishment of the goals of the Common Foreign and Security Policy. In these discussions aimed at eradicating transnational crimes like as drug and human trafficking, border management and security concerns are evaluated.

In addition, the shared security policy prevents the spread of armaments across neighboring borders in a Europe without borders. Therefore, the European Union has been directly involved in the establishment of autonomous states from the former Soviet Union and less developed European nations (Scartezzini& Foradori 20). This was done to enhance the political power of the EU throughout the world, with a focus on Central and Eastern Europe. For leverage reasons, it is necessary to balance commerce with aid, particularly in nations with a high poverty index, such as those in Africa. The European Union's role in global commerce and foreign aid aims to foster international wealth and growth.

Afghanistan has received substantial financial aid in light of the battle there against the Taliban and Al Qaeda terrorists. This was intended to facilitate the successful implementation of peace in Afghanistan and strengthen joint American reconstruction efforts. Similar initiatives have been implemented by the European Union to improve border controls, visa facilitation, asylum, and immigration management throughout the EU's member states and neighboring countries.

Economically, the EU is a formidable participant on the international stage, but its political influence is constrained by the competing national interests and vested interests of its member states (Leech 25). European Political Cooperation (EPC) arose in the 1970s as a mechanism for integrating disparate foreign policy into a unified structure. In instances where national interests and EU foreign policy coincided, the former was prioritized. Nonetheless, the European Political Cooperation has made headway on substantive matters, such as the Arab-Israeli conflict and the disintegration of the Soviet Union.

The EPC also played a significant role in denouncing the apartheid system in South Africa. The EPC has consequently attained treaty status, allowing it to anticipate the diplomatic application of human rights and liberal politics around the globe. Humanitarian assistance, crisis management, peacekeeping missions, and diplomatic resolution of crises are the primary responsibilities of the European Union.

Theorizing the European Union as a global actor

It is believed that the principal achievements of the European Union are limited to the advantages of economic integration and commerce. Other alliances and treaties designed to address international politics and foreign affairs are limited to achieving their short-term goals (Smith 23). European integration and the Common Market are crucial instruments for globalization and international collaboration among participant nations.

Movement of people within a borderless Europe and its neighbors is a crucial factor in achieving economic and labor integration. Through international interconnectedness and the expansion of the market through regional collaboration, shared opportunities are created. As a result of terrorism-related crimes, international collaboration between nations also creates problems to international security.

Therefore, distinct member nations of the European Union have maintained that subjects pertaining to life and death should stay within the purview of sovereign member governments. Security and sovereignty concerns impede the likelihood of moving control from national institutions to the European Union. In addition to the contributions of its member states and the nature of its relationships with other nations, the EU's influence in the international arena is defined by the nature of its relationships with other nations. EU member states collaborate with its institutions based on the potential benefits of the collaboration (Stein& Marsh 19). Due to security and defense concerns, the majority of states are prevented from relinquishing their sovereignty to the EU.

On the subject of economic integration and trade agreements, member nations have exhibited substantial collaboration. Therefore, the complex networks that develop around the institutions of the European Union are the result of competing national interests that overlap with European Union policies and systems.

Conclusion

The European Union has evolved into a global economic powerhouse. The establishment of the Euro currency, which enables international trade between the European Union and the rest of the globe, was assisted by economic and monetary union. The establishment of a single foreign policy with an emphasis on political and economic elements has met with remarkable success. Security and defense problems continue to determine the European Union's effectiveness in the international arena (Vogler& Bretherton 22). Border protection, visa facilitation, and labor mobility are primarily within the control of autonomous national policies.

Therefore, the European Union is effective in promoting international commercial and diplomatic agendas, while security, defense, and sovereignty remain the responsibility of individual member nations. This issue is caused by the lack of a unified EU government capable of implementing its policies and structures across all member states. The European's connection with other international organizations such as the World Trade Organization, the United Nations, and the United States also explains the effectiveness of its policies (Rhodes 13). The lack of a military policy within the European Union presents the largest barrier to an effective foreign and security policy. In essence, diplomatic interventions in problems of peace and conflict resolution are limited.

Sources Cited

Leech, John. Complete and independent: NATO, EU expansion, and transatlantic relations. The Federal Trust for Education and Research, 2002, Prague.

Rhodes, Carolyn. The European Union in global society. 1998, London: Lynne Rienner Publishers

Scartezzini, Riccardo& Foradori, Paolo. Managing a multidimensional foreign policy: the European Union's involvement in international affairs. 2007: New York: Lexington Books.

Sjursen, Helene& Peterson, John. A united foreign policy for Europe? : conflicting visions of the Common Foreign and Security Policy 1998, Routledge, London

European Union foreign policy in a changing world, by Elizabeth K. Smith. 2003, Cambridge: Polity

Stein, Macke H. & Marsh, Steve. The European Union's international relations. Michigan: Pearson/Longman, 2008.

The authors are Vogler, John, and Bretherton, Charlotte. The European Union as an international player. Routledge, London, 2006.

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Tukster Hotel: Business Strategy A Level English Language Essay Help

Consideration of the business environment in strategy formulation
Contexts of Business technique

The key concepts of the business strategy and the framework connected with strategic ways to give greater value, detailing the organization's distinction and core strengths. The context of the plan is intended to clarify the organization's business mission, aims, and objectives included in the business strategy. The hierarchical particularities of the organization are also seen as the context values of the strategy; hence, the context of a business organization should be intimately related to the strategy itself and serve as the backdrop of the strategic approach. In addition, the possible difficulties of the context are directly related to the "growth share matrix" (Bryson, 2004), which reflects the most crucial parts of strategic development.

The structure of the company strategy context can be specified using standard chart design concepts. Therefore, when considering the context of a Tukster Hotel, it should be underlined that the "attractive industry" components of the context will be removed because they have no relevance to the hotel sector (Lamb, 1984).

Figure 1: The organizational environment of the business strategy

Therefore, the framework of the business plan necessary for the Tukster Hotel's successful performance will include an in-depth review of the hotel's resources, capabilities, competitive advantage, and strategic formulation:

Resources: human resources, supply management Capability: collection of services incorporating hospitality and high-quality services targeted at enhancing the business strategy and the performance of the workforce. Competitive advantage: distinctive characteristics that distinguish Tukster from other hotels. These may include unusual and delicious cuisine, a distinctive décor, and multilingual service.

These are the practical applications of the contextual method; nevertheless, there are a number of theoretical considerations to keep in mind. These factors have a close relationship with knowledge structure, principles, and types:

Declarative understanding (knowledge of the general information of descriptive character) A process (information associated with the detailed description of the procedure flow) Casual (information related to the reasons of any process or tendency involved) Conditional (factual information: when) Relational (information, explaining logic relations of the procedures and objects)

In actuality, the context of Tukster hotel's business strategy may be related with either the business environment of the corporation or the short-term objectives. Consequently, the actual analysis will be conducted by several managerial departments, based on the desired achievement domain.

Importance of Stakeholders Analysis

The purpose of stakeholder analysis is to identify and investigate the influence a group or individual has on a company's ability to fulfill its goals. The analysis's findings are utilized to address the stakeholders' interests. The study enables the company to identify potential risks it confronts, as well as unfavorable stakeholders and their negative influence on the company's projects. The opportunity to examine the risks and possibilities connected with market share price variations explains the significance of the analysis. Thus, the stakeholders will have a comprehensive understanding of the market processes that will influence the company sector's inclinations and procedures. Any action made will have a specific result. Therefore, stakeholders must understand the fundamental tendencies and processes in order to predict the outcomes of any action.

Regarding the hotel Tukster's stakeholders analysis, it should be underlined that it is of special importance, given that the hospitality business is quite competitive. Consequently, the analysis will include a study of the competitive advantages and capabilities that are directly related with the performance of company strategy, as well as the outcomes of strategy implementation successes and failures. Regarding the practical ways of the analysis, it is important to note that, according to Coulter (2008, p. 182), the analysis is based on a variety of mapping and listing methods:

These approaches trade the richness of data available under the CRM approach for a holistic view of the entire stakeholder community and largely disregard the complex network of relationships considered in CRPR and the other network theories outlined above in favor of a more straightforward consideration of 'importance' in some form.

However, stakeholders may be included or omitted from the decision-making process; therefore, the actual significance of the analysis may also be explained by considering and analyzing the interests of a group that is involved in this process. Concerning the Tukster hotel, it should be noted that stakeholders are excluded from the decision-making process; therefore, the analysis is conducted to examine the marketing trends that influence the growth of the hospitality business. These include the growth of tourism in general, immigration procedures, building and construction material expenses, etc.

Audit of the environment and organization

An environmental audit is an objective examination of the relationship between an organization's internal and external environments.

An environmental audit at Tukster Hotel

The audit of the environment included a PESTEL analysis. As a medium-sized hotel in its expansion phase, the hotel was not immediately affected by the political forces. Economic expansions and contractions influence the hotel's performance. During economic expansions, the hotel generates large profits due to the influx of customers from throughout the nation. Inflation has a significant impact on the performance of the hotel since it produces an increase in the prices of food and the ingredients needed to prepare food, forcing the hotel to raise the pricing of its cuisine. The hotel should embrace culture by providing cultural cuisine, such as Indian cuisine. The administration should hire additional IT specialists to keep up with the rapidly evolving technologies.

The level of competition was mediocre because there were few rivals. As market entry barriers were low, the threat of new competitors was strong, hence raising the likelihood of having a large number of competitors in the future. According to (Porter,1980; Sanderson, 1998), trade barriers arise whenever it is impossible or economically impractical for an outsider to reproduce the position of the incumbent.

To combat the threat of replacements, the management should devise a strategy to cut the costs of their food and services while maintaining profitability. For the hotel to keep its high buyer power, the management must ensure that the hotel's food and services are of good quality and that they meet the needs of the consumers. According to Kippenberger (1998), one of the two horizontal factors that demonstrate the worth of an industry's products is buyer power. Buyer influence should be one of the hotel's key focuses. (David, 1989)

The hotel should invest in advertising to ensure its popularity, as this increases the hotel's purchasing power. The hotel administration renews its operation license, making the company legal. In addition, a SWOT analysis was conducted, with the subsequent outcomes:

Negative Positive

Internal Strengths

The hotel has a solid reputation in the market. The personnel was exceptional since they were well-trained, customer-focused, and efficient. The purpose of human resources is to hire new employees, train the personnel, and, if required, retrain individuals. The hotel adopts an operating style based on continual development to enhance its offerings throughout time.

Weaknesses

Other hotels provide cuisine at a lower cost than the hotel. High reinvestment expenses

External Opportunities

Build a dance floor and transform the hotel into a part-time club, for example, and the hotel can begin to offer a wider choice of cuisine and more services than accommodation. The hotel has expansion potential in other regions. Due to the low cost of marketing, the hotel can promote its products at a reduced price.

Threats

New entrants to the market; they provide services at a lesser price. Some of the rivals provide an extensive array of services. For the hotel to overcome its disadvantages, it must consistently enhance its products (food quality) and efficiency, hence cutting expenses.

To strengthen its connections with its most valuable customers, a hotel should always meet its service pledges and, in the event of a failure, apologize and seek to improve. To combat reinvestment costs, the hotel should always prepare for all capital expenditures and provide a satisfactory return.

In order to remain competitive, the management of this hotel needs improve the services it provides to guests, such as by repainting the rooms and making them more pleasant than previously. Managers should be aware of all customer requirements and ensure that they are met. The hotel should concentrate on gaining and retaining a comparative advantage, as this will ensure its continued existence in the market.

Apply techniques of strategic positioning to the analysis of a given firm.

Any organization's strategic positioning can be related with either the current depiction of its business strategy or its future goals for its image. In reality, there are numerous strategic positioning methodologies; nonetheless, the organization analysis must consider the following factors:

The organization's path forward The gathering and analysis of data regarding the business environment. Evaluation of the business plan and the competitive landscape Strategic study of corporate performance and implementation of strategic values in practice The outcome of implementing the decision-making procedure is

Positioning method:

Define the tourist and hospitality market. Therefore, the hotel should market itself as a provider of high-quality, low-priced services. Vertical and horizontal dimensions of product development, connected with network expansion and supply chain management enhancement. Information regarding customers: middle-class tourists Placement of the product in the product space. This can only be determined based on information regarding service pricing and quality. If the strategy is altered, the pricing will be adjusted to reflect the new trends.

The strategic planning process

Planning tactically

The Tukster hotel needs a strategic plan that will enable it to compete in the future, such as by being the area's premier and largest luxury hotel. To accomplish this, management must ensure that it comprehends and satisfies all consumer requirements. It should prioritize achieving and sustaining a competitive advantage in its operations. This can be accomplished by making dishes that cannot be replicated by competitors.

It is necessary to do a portfolio analysis of the hotel's financial assets. This allows the management to understand the risks and returns associated with each asset. In the case of the Tukster hotel, it would be more prudent to invest in a large number of smaller outlets with low profits than to take the chance of investing in a single huge hotel with high profits. Investing in numerous smaller hotels will expand the hotel's market share and earn substantial profits over time.

Market penetration is a less hazardous technique because it utilizes a company's current assets. The management should aim to expand the hotel's market share by concentrating more on enhancing and retaining buyer influence. By attracting more guests than its rivals, the hotel will expand its market share, which will allow it remain profitable despite the presence of competition. More possibilities will be made available to the hotel in the event that its competitors surpass capacity limits.

Diversification is possible despite the fact that it is sometimes referred to as "suicide cell" because of the inherent hazards involved. This can be accomplished by expanding the number of lavish amenities provided by the hotel. The hotel can construct additional swimming pools and sport courts, which will attract more guests. Diversification can also be done if the hotel begins to prepare previously unavailable cultural dishes, such as Indian and African cuisine. This allows the hotel to attract more customers by providing a choice of cuisines.

Strategic Plan

The following elements will comprise the strategic plan linked with the strategic development of the hotel's performance:

Vision entails a collection of goals and objectives tied to the necessities of business growth. In addition, it requires knowledge of market trends and achievement of corporate plan objectives. The objectives are strongly related to enhancing the positive and overcoming the negative aspects identified in the SWOT analysis matrix. These include the reduction of prices, the expansion of services, and the enhancement of competitive advantages. The primary purpose of this strategic point will be the continuous evaluation of the business environment and the performance of hotel management and staff. Development. Strategic development will include ongoing reorganization and adaption of the strategic plan to the tourist and hospitality industry's shifting environment and corporate objectives. Evolution: the evolution of the organization necessitates the constant development of the managerial structure, the enhancement of the control and monitoring principles, and the implementation of resource management techniques, including human resource management and financial management.

Methods of strategy selection and evaluation

Alternative tactics – substantial expansion, limited expansion, or contraction

The organization's (Tukster hotel) identified concern is the necessity to combat competition, maintain a high market share, improve the hotel's growth, and simultaneously increase its earnings.

Substantial Development Strategies

There are a variety of substantial growth tactics, including horizontal and vertical integration. Horizontal integration is a significant growth strategy whose objective is to deal with similar items during the merging phase. It may concentrate on merging companies that produce unrelated items. Horizontal integration illustrates ownership and control style, which are two of the most important difficulties. This technique enables companies to expand their market share for the products or services they offer. By addressing the aforementioned information, it is possible to state that the company may profit from scale and scope. The corporation should increase the scope of its positions in order to reduce expenses and uncertainties associated with product manufacturing. This is a significant benefit. This strategy also enables the company to defend itself against substitutes by reducing competition and to meet the needs of its customers.

Diversification Strategy Related and Irrelevant

Related diversification occurs when a business adds or expands the lines of its existing products or increases the markets for those products. An advantage of a related diversification plan for a business is a greater understanding of the business. It also enables management to understand the opportunities and challenges facing the industry. In some circumstances, returns fall short of expectations. This circumstance mentioned above occurs for a variety of reasons. Some of them are due to the fact that diversification analysis does not place a high value on the following issues: management change, merging of two cultures, layoffs and terminations of some personnel, and promotions and recruitment (Coulter, 2008).

Disparate Diversification Technique

A business may involve unrelated diversification in case when new and unrelated lines of the products or markets are added to the already existing ones. For example the hotel might decide

Outsourcing Benefits In Supply Chain Management A Level English Language Essay Help

Introduction

A supply management system coordinates the purchasing functions. This process determines the requirement for commodities, as well as the suitable providers, quantity, and quality. It also examines the efficacy of existing supply practices. The development of capacity and mechanization of production necessitates that the supply system equal production efficiency while maintaining product quality. This analysis aims to examine the notion of strategic outsourcing in supply chain management clearly. The decision-making procedure and operational implementation difficulty of outsourcing are also covered. In addition, the treatise examines the advantages and possible risks of outsourcing in supply chain management.

The outsourcing idea in supply chain management

Strategic supply chain outsourcing is the process of employing an external agent to properly manage and oversee a company's supply chain in order to achieve optimal performance and goals (Hilletofth and Hilmola, 2010). Without and without a company's market capture, confidence and trust are contingent upon a well-outsourced supply chain. Accessibility and transition in the outsourcing strategy will ensure effectiveness and proactive response to the needs of prospective clients, which will be enhanced further (Park et al. 2010).

Process of outsourcing decision making in the supply chain

The outsourcing decision for a company's sensitive supply chain department is extremely difficult since the company must entrust an external party with the management of its supply chain. In order to instill trust in outsourcing the supply chain, the organization must do a thorough analysis of the current supply chain activities that will be outsourced (Hilletofth and Hilmola, 2010). When considering the benefit of outsourcing, the business may also consider a tight contract and avoid the lowest bidder (Park et al. 2010). There should be distinct channels for managing the outsourced activities that define the company's goals and expectations. Since the outsourced agent may have negative intents with regard to the firm's supply chain, the corporation must seek to ensure confidentiality (Hill et al. 2009).

The decision's topological structure should include a communication and operations management system that aids in assessing the outsourced activities' efficient performance and optimal resource use. The continuum of raising the value of quality in staff operations is comprised of data, information, and expertise (Hill et al. 2009). Based on the credo emphasis, it emphasizes ethical behavior and customer pleasure within accepted standards of moral obligation at the top of the triangle, while placing stakeholders at the bottom (Park et al. 2010). As the foundation of the operations management model, management should evaluate a decision that can support a single contact point. This method monitors input-to-output ratio and assesses the outsourced agency's and company's intrinsic efficiency relative to predetermined goals (Hilletofth and Hilmola, 2010).

The organization should strive to establish a decentralized decision-support system. Despite having an effective operations management system, the organization has not fully built a mechanism for micro-level progress monitoring, relies heavily on macro-level auditing for decision-making, and faces the possibility of internal fraud and redundancy (Hilletofth and Hilmola, 2010). The decentralized system could include planning, development, implementation, and investigation (Park et al. 2010). Within a specific time frame, the process reflects the organization chart, status reports, process map, compliance requirements, review structure, activities, dates, and resources engaged (Hill et al. 2009).

The operational strategy obstacles in supply chain outsourcing

The primary impediment to operational strategy in supply chain outsourcing is the potential impact of a management strategy shift on other corporate departments. When the outsourcing contract contains loopholes, the outsourced agent may impede the organization's culture and long-term strategies (Hill et al. 2009). In addition, there may be a communication gap between the parent firm and the outsourced agent if the tasks of the outsourced agency are unclear (Hilletofth and Hilmola, 2010).

Advantages of outsourcing in supply chain administration

Strong distribution, fair retribution, and accurate information transmission

Among the new development aspects that are incorporated to build trust in the outsourced supply chain are the building of a robust distribution, a fair recompense process, and the dissemination of correct information to the target audience (Park et al. 2010). Customer retention is attainable through the development of a dependable and cost-effective marketing channel that is vital for monitoring a matrix that identifies the clients' weaknesses and possible competitors. Input from the manufacturing department is analyzed to determine the trend of a supplier's adherence to quality, quantity, and on-time delivery (Hill et al. 2009). Communication of quality standards reduces the likelihood of product rejection or return. In the absence of a guide, the likelihood of deviation increases. In such a scenario, the wait until replacement may reduce or halt production, resulting in the loss of potential revenue from processed goods (Hill et al. 2009).

A shared supply subsystem permits direct transactions and the compilation of supplier performance reports. Anomalies in supplying quality are immediately conveyed to the provider in order to begin remedial action due to dynamic reporting. During a supplier audit, nonconformities in supplying commodities and ways of supply are uncovered (Park et al. 2010). The audit report is subsequently addressed with the supplier in order to implement corrective action. As a fair evaluation of a supplier's performance, the scorecard is an objective instrument for guiding supply quality (Liu and Nagurney, 2013).

Automation of the plan for outsourced supply chain management

By automating the supply management process, it will be possible to develop a closer relationship with customers. The purchaser will investigate the supplier's values, vision, obstacles, and working environment. Establishing a spirit of collaboration will have a good impact on the firms involved. This cooperation will transform the supply chain from a cost to a competitive advantage (Hilletofth and Hilmola, 2010). This should be supported by a contract. It also stipulates precise conditions for the execution of the contractual relationship. Due to their explicit nature and legal enforceability, contracts guarantee supply quality in accordance with the agreed-upon specifications (Hill et al. 2009).

In the production line, production efficiency is crucial since it is characterized by the optimal exploitation of allotted production elements at the lowest possible cost. Utilizing quality improvement to measure, evaluate, and enhance client service delivery outcomes (Park et al. 2010). The success of quality enhancement and organizational change management relies on the congruence of production soft skills and sustainability plan (Hilletofth and Hilmola, 2010). This can be accomplished by outsourcing.

Cost control in outsourced supply chains

When the purpose of outsourcing is aligned with reducing the cost of conducting business, the aspect of increased competition as part of future development is secured. However, what makes this strategy effective is the supply chain management's ongoing creation and implementation of strategic policies based on its knowledge of consumer wants (Hilletofth and Hilmola, 2010). When outsourcing is adopted as a business development objective, a sustainable business environment is essential (Hill et al. 2009). Generally speaking, outsourcing and supply chain management techniques are linked in order to secure the sustainability of an organization. For the implementation of the strategy, management must balance short- and long-term considerations while making decisions (Park et al. 2010).

Integration of market segmentation, entrance strategy, and comparative advantage

A proper supply chain plan should incorporate entry strategy, comparative advantage, and market segmentation in order to achieve desired sales margins and total revenues, as there is almost always a formidable competitor or competitors that may be difficult to surpass due to consumer perceptions and household names (Park et al. 2010). Afin d'accroître la crédibilité et de maintenir la professionnalisme, le plan de la chaîne de fourniture externalisée devrait comporter des mécanismes et caractéristiques qui flawlessly foster long-term, healthy connections (Hill et al. 2009). Among the new development aspects that can be implemented to reestablish faith in the new networks are the building of a robust distribution, a fair restitution process, and the dissemination of reliable information to the target audience (Hilletofth and Hilmola, 2010).

Delivery and customer fulfillment

In addition to service quality, delivery and customer happiness are dependent on marketing segmentation as part of the program for outsourced supply chain management. Therefore, customer retention is attainable through the development of a dependable and cost-effective marketing channel that is vital for monitoring a matrix that identifies the weaknesses and strengths of the clients and maps out future competitors (Hill et al. 2009). In addition, the reporting criteria used by the outsourced supply chain agents should represent the effectiveness of the marketing calendar and create goals that are periodically generated (Hilletofth and Hilmola, 2010).

In essence, the success of brand and product management in a new market is contingent upon the correct alignment of a functional concept with the development of a flexible, involuntary, and measurable measurement of perception within the target audience in the supply chain (Park et al. 2010). This thought should contain crucial aspects that can readily persuade the mind in either a favorable or negative direction.

Outsourcing logistics relieves a corporation of fixed expenditures regardless of seasonality and market demand (Park et al. 2010). The outsourced unit will build a balanced control system for a sustainable level of efficiency, cost, dependability, speed, quality, and flexibility through value delivery, value addition, and innovation through a competitive process (Hilletofth and Hilmola, 2010). The outsourced logistics team will be responsible for rationalizing the scientific parts of the supply chain, such as the use of statistical tools, their implementation, and monitoring and management assessment standards. When the outsourced logistics regulator is correctly adjusted, supply chain management efficiency may be achieved (Hill et al. 2009).

Risks of outsourcing supply chain

In order to apply marketing function, the outsourced supply chain management strategy may mismatch the marketing mix elements to improper plans, so reversing the gains earned with loyal consumers, as the new approach may not be well received by traditional customers and suppliers (Hilletofth and Hilmola, 2010). For example, through uncontrolled supply chain outsourcing, core competencies such as market knowledge, supplier relations, and expansion of business operations may be jeopardized because the outsourced agency may only be concerned with maximizing profits and ignoring other equally crucial aspects of a sustainable supply chain (Park et al. 2010).

The supply management system, the supplier manual, the supplier scorecard, and the supply contract are essential instruments for preserving quality. However, violation of contract may occur, necessitating a legal remedy (Hilletofth and Hilmola, 2010). Before an award for claimed damages is issued, the procedure is lengthy, and mistrust between the parties is frequently irreparable. In order to balance the outsourced supply chain activities, a company in this situation should brand its business as the most competitive in terms of charges for service delivery and reliability in its outsourced supply chain (Hill et al. 2009). In addition, the firm must implement tight procedures and strategies for monitoring and controlling expansionary modules in the outsourcing of supply chain agents within reasonable levels.

Conclusion

Supply management system outsourcing plays a crucial part in company processes. A current approach to its management recommends strengthening customer relationships to reduce quality variation. The supply management system, supplier handbook, supplier scorecard, and supply contract are essential tools for ensuring the quality of the outsourced supply chain. However, supply chain outsourcing contracts may be breached, necessitating legal remedy. Before an award for claiming damages is issued, conflict resolution is frequently arduous, and mistrust between the parties is frequently irrevocable. Therefore, while outsourcing the supply chain function, a firm must strike a balance between the agency's goals and capabilities.

Bibliography

The influence of unethical behavior on trust in a buyer-supplier relationship: The mediating function of psychological contract violation.

Hilletofth, P., and Hilmola, O. (2010). "Role of logistics outsourcing on supply chain strategy and management: Survey findings from Northern Europe." Strategic Outsourcing: An International Journal, vol. 3, no.

Liu, Z., and Nagurney, A. (2013). "Supply chain networks with global outsourcing and quick-response production under demand and cost uncertainty." Annals of Operational Research, vol. 208, no. 1, pp. 251-257.

Park, J., Kitae S., Tai-Woo C., Jinwoo P 2010, “An integrative framework for supplier relationship management”, Industrial Management & Data Systems, vol. 110. no. 4, pp. 495-515.

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Observing Ethics And Professionalism When Developing Systems Strategically: Bogart Case Study A Level English Language Essay Help

Summary of Contents
Introduction Human Aspects Discussion and Concluding Remarks Concerning Organizational Communication Culture References

Introduction

This paper is a summary of six publications by Ezzamel, Willmott, and Worthington (2001), Fleming and Spicer (2003), Orton (2000), Morrison and Milliken (2000), Piderit (2000), and Vince and Broussine (2000). (1996). The researchers investigated the elements that hinder (or facilitate) organizational change. This paper assesses their arguments and hypotheses using a three-pronged framework that describes their findings as organizational culture concerns, communication issues, and human factors (which affect organizational change). By bridging the gap between theory and experience, this research identifies novel insights for change management.

Human Aspects

According to Vince and Broussine (1996), the organizational focus in change management should shift from problem-solving and planning-based techniques to human emotions and interpersonal relationships. Specifically, they emphasize the necessity to comprehend how human uncertainty and defensiveness impact organizational transformation. According to Vince and Broussine (1996), human factors influence change management through influencing the acceptance of the change process by individuals.

In this analysis, we must examine multiple factors. For instance, change resistance is an attitude problem that most firms might resolve by appealing to human needs. Those who do so have a greater likelihood of obtaining staff support for change management. Faucheux (2013), for instance, tells the story of an American church (Jeff's Church) that intended to construct a new sanctuary for its worshippers but got complaints from some of its members for excluding them from the project.

The church resolved this issue by forming a steering committee that solicited input and participation from all church members. Eventually, the majority of members supported the project because they felt engaged in the process of transformation (Faucheux, 2013). This analysis demonstrates that focusing on people's emotions and interpersonal relationships, as Vince and Broussine (1996) emphasize, is essential to the success of organizational change.

Piderit (2000) supports the emphasis on human attitudes as a precondition for organizational change by arguing for a new approach to employee resistance. He asserts that people's attitudes influence their resistance to change (or support for it). In this context, Piderit (2000) asserts that achieving a balance between organizational and personal requirements will promote ambiguous attitudes about change. To achieve this, he suggested gaining an understanding of the evolution of employee resistance to change. Likewise, he underlined the need to comprehend how personnel react to proposed changes (using a bottom-up approach). He utilized this argument to describe the egalitarian transformation process (Piderit, 2000).

Communication

According to Morrison and Milliken (2000), the primary hindrance to organizational change is the failure of organizations to articulate the challenges that affect firm and employee performance. According to them, it is "unwise" for such firms to allow stakeholders to express organizational difficulties. They refer to this as "organizational silence" (Morrison & Milliken, 2000).

To encourage organizational change, the researchers researched the contextual elements that led to organizational change and proposed that removing these variables would promote change. This viewpoint is consistent with Faucheux's (2013) claims, which emphasized the need for managers to explain organizational change challenges to all stakeholders. In addition, he stated that the executive team must convince all stakeholders to support the change management process (Faucheux, 2013; Morrison & Milliken, 2000). Thus, personnel would comprehend the necessity of welcoming change. Such a strategy has been fruitful.

For instance, in 1981 British Airways hired a new manager who wished to restructure the company because he recognized that it was suffering from resource waste (Faucheux, 2013). The airline's staff was reduced as a result of his numerous reorganization efforts. However, before he did so, he informed all the organization's stakeholders of the necessity to restructure. This process geared employees up for the upcoming transformation. In the end, his efforts paid off, preventing the imminent collapse of the London-based airline (Faucheux, 2013).

Organization Culture

According to Fleming and Spicer (2003), subjectivity and power relations are significant elements in organizational change. These components largely comprise organizational culture. In this regard, Fleming and Spicer (2003) assert that the majority of employees who comprehend an organization's culture are likely to favor organizational change, but those who do not comprehend it hinder the process. The latter group does so due to feelings of isolation.

In addition, cynicism becomes a prevalent feature of their work performance. To describe this occurrence, Fleming & Spicer (2003) state, "We call this the ideology interpretation because power is reproduced inadvertently when one disidentifies with it" (p. 157). In general, Fleming and Spicer (2003) feel that cultural power has a significant effect on an organization's capacity to embrace change. Similarly, they assert that subjectivity impacts a company's adaptability (subjectivity might not necessarily come from within the organization). This fact also demonstrates that what many individuals may perceive as change-related frustrations may not necessarily be the case.

Orton (2000) utilized the aforementioned philosophy to illustrate how internal communications impact organizational design processes in the US intelligence community. On the basis of Weick's theory of organization development, he investigated the effect of three design assumptions on an organization's design process. According to his research, the organizational design process was constrained by dominant variables, causal laws, and executive directives (the three organization design assumptions) (Orton, 2000). Overall, Orton (2000) emphasized the necessity for companies to transition from simple to dependable architectures.

Ezzamel et al. (2001) have questioned the reason for employing new waves of management (as mentioned above) as the only prerequisite for re-engineering organizational processes. After analyzing the experiences of dissatisfied managers who attempted to re-engineer organizational processes, the researchers discovered that the majority of employees could easily deploy personal and collective forms of resistance to promote (or oppose) organizational change (Ezzamel et al., 2001). Although the authors recognize that external organizational variables, such as market shifts, play a role in organizational change, they assert that associating with prior working methods has a stronger effect on organizational change. Consequently, the authors acknowledge the importance of focusing on the impact of employee work experiences on organizational development.

Analysis and Conclusion

After reviewing the six studies featured in this paper, it becomes clear that organizational transformation is a dynamic and diverse subject. Human factors, communication, and organizational change emerge as the most significant elements influencing the process. As Ezzamel et al. (2001) note, despite the fact that many types of literature acknowledge the need for adopting modern change management paradigms, such as lean management, it is equally important to recognize the role that an employee's experience plays in shaping his resistance (or support) to the change management process.

Therefore, change management should concentrate on getting the "human aspect" correct before addressing other crucial concerns, such as communication and organizational culture. This study emphasizes the importance of a multidimensional approach to change management. In addition, it emphasizes the importance of combining past and present organizational requirements while designing future organizational processes.

References

The authors Ezzamel, Willmott, and Worthington are M. Ezzamel, H. Willmott, and F. Worthington (2001). In The Factory That Time Forgot, there is power, control, and opposition. 38(8), 1053-1079, Journal of Management Studies.

Faucheux, M. (2013). (2013). Successful Change Management Plan Examples Web.

P. Fleming and A. Spicer (2003). Implications of Working at a Cynical Distance for Power, Subjectivity, and Resistance. 10(1), 157-179, Organization.

Morrison, E. W., & Milliken, F. J. (2000). (2000). In a pluralistic world, organizational silence is an obstacle to change and growth. 25(4), pages 706-725, Academy of Management Review

Orton, J. D. (2000). Enactment, Sensemaking, and Decision Making: Redesign Processes in the US Intelligence Reorganization of 1976 37(2) Journal of Management Studies.

Piderit, S. K. (2000). A Multidimensional View of Organizational Change Attitudes: Rethinking Resistance and Recognizing Ambivalence The Academy of Management Review, volume 25, number 4, pages 783-794.

R. Vince and M. Broussine (1996). Accessing and Managing the Emotions and Relationships Underlying Organizational Change: Paradox, Defense, and Attachment 17(1) Organization Studies, pp. 1-21.

[supanova question]

Managing Change: Case Study A Level English Language Essay Help

Executive Summary

The offered report's objective was to explain how the CEO of CAR may address the management issues presented in the case scenario. In the first section of the report, the organization's and CEO's challenges are identified. They relate mostly to Megan's bad leadership reputation, the uncertainty produced by CAR's loss of competitive advantage, and the employees' inherent resistance to change.

In the second section of the study, several solutions to the issues are presented. They include establishing Megan's credibility as a leader, creating a clear vision statement, developing communication techniques to cope with employee opposition, and involving change agents to facilitate the change implementation procedure. On the basis of the proposed solutions, a strategy for execution has been developed, the scope for more research has been indicated, and Megan has been given some advice.

Introduction

Change is now an integral part of the existence of every organization. This is due to the rapidly changing external business environment, to which businesses must adapt in order to remain profitable, satisfy client expectations, and maintain their competitive advantage. However, organizational change is associated with a variety of complexities that, if not managed appropriately and in a timely manner, can cause significant harm to both the organization and its employees. Change frequently elicits anxiety and active and passive opposition from employees, which, in addition to significant staff turnover, can result in the failure of change.

In the context of change, good leadership is typically regarded as a crucial part of work that determines an organization's success. The supplied study focuses on the identification of the management challenges encountered by CAR and its CEO Megan, the discussion of potential remedies, and the development of a plan to improve the performance of employees and assist CAR in regaining its industry-leading expertise.

The Identification of Management Issues

Initially, Megan's management issues should be discovered and evaluated critically so that feasible remedies can be determined. According to the case study materials, there are at least three significant concerns in CAR. First, Megan's staff do not view her as a CEO or a leader. The majority of the workforce does not wish to work for a female manager. This issue is also evident in Megan's lack of confidence among senior members.

Despite the fact that CAR's primary challenges involve the appearance of new competitors and the loss of consumers, it is possible to assert that none of these concerns can be resolved without the CEO's effective leadership. As a leader, Megan is responsible for navigating and resolving employee issues and conflicts (Clegg et al., 2019). However, she cannot reach her full potential as CEO until employees accept her as a leader. Possibly, if Megan was able to create better relationships with her coworkers, they would be less likely to leave the organization and more willing to assist in the change implementation process.

A CEO who is not viewed as a leader by his or her workforce is incapable of promoting organization development initiatives, inspiring and motivating people to embrace change, lowering attrition rates, and overcoming employee resistance. As an internal organizational driver, a new CEO can define a new course and provide innovative ideas to enable CAR to adapt effectively to global market pressures. However, leadership is an additional internal organization driver whose absence impedes planning and implementation of a change program.

The second issue is the lack of a compelling, empowering vision that could garner the support of the workforce. Given that a leader is accountable for communicating a new vision to the employees, one may argue that this issue arises from the previous one. The change vision might not only provide the business with a picture of the future once the change has been effectively executed, but it could also describe how each employee will benefit from the change. As of today, employees are uncertain about how they should operate and what advantages will result from altering their routine. It is feasible to presume that the failure of prior CEOs to lead a change initiative was due in part to the unpreparedness of the workforce for a substantial transition.

The third concern relates to the personnel's ambiguity over the environment's alterations. Since product innovation has always drawn new customers and kept old ones, employees are concerned about a few of the R&D department's suggestions. CAR is not projected to achieve its typical profit margin unless its structure is altered. People who are uncertain about the future of their firm and, by extension, their own future either leave their place of employment or are unsure about what to do there. Consequently, the high turnover rate and the lack of employee motivation are among the other important management issues.

Discussion of Possible Answers

According to the current literature on change management, change agents and change leaders have a variety of implementation options accessible to them. This section will focus on a subset of these topics. Megan can utilize the Change Kaleidoscope framework to determine the required change type and scope. Among the contextual limitations and facilitators on which the CEO can focus are time (how much time does Meg have for change? ), scope (how extensive is the change? ), and preservation (is it necessary to maintain process continuity?) (Hailey and Balogun, 2002). She may also evaluate diversity (are the staff's values and attitudes homogenous or heterogeneous?) and capability (what is the level of competence for managing change?).

Other contextual constraints include capacity (the quantity of financial resources available to enable change), change preparedness, and power. Clearly, a change is necessary immediately, as CAR is already losing money and personnel. Regarding its extent, the move should have an impact on the entire organization and the R&D division in particular. All employees should be retained, but exceptional new engineers must also be hired. The level of variety in terms of values and norms is minimal, and the majority of employees are resistant to change. Megan's capacity to handle change is low as of today since employees do not view her as an effective leader.

As previously said, the primary problem is the absence of a strong leader who could rally the employees and implement change. Megan cannot be seen as a leader, though, unless employees respect and trust her. Therefore, Megan should focus on breaking the ice with people and informing them of her professional history, management style, and ambitions at CAR. It is unlikely that her male coworkers will quickly begin to trust her, but the ice will be broken and Megan will likely become more integrated into the company.

Leadership Credibility Development

It may be noted that Megan must build her personal credibility as a leader. To do this, she should treat her coworkers with respect to earn their loyalty and respect. The CEO should only provide genuine information and maintain a consistent demeanor, which will promote a stable work environment. Megan's judgments should not be reversed, nor should her course of action be altered, so as not to cause stress within her team. As a leader, Megan must show people the way and set a good example by considering particular principles.

It is essential to remember that employees pay attention to and are motivated by the positive characteristics of senior management. Even though Megan is a woman, what gains a leader respect is not gender but behavior. For instance, Megan is advised to work side-by-side with colleagues, encourage employees and address their problems with eagerness and optimism, promote good two-way communication, and respond with composure to important occurrences.

Identifying a Leadership Style

Megan must carefully decide what kind of leader she desires to be. It is the leadership style that determines how an organization is directed, how plans are accomplished, and how personnel are motivated.

Transactional, transformational, coaching, democratic, laissez-faire, servant, and autocratic leadership are among the most prevalent leadership styles. It may be suggested that Megan reflect on the type of leader she is and the type of leader required by CAR and its personnel. For instance, if Megan operates as a laissez-faire leader, this may exacerbate the situation, as the CEO's active participation is required to improve the company's success. Even if Megan decides to operate as a transactional leader, this is not an appropriate option because CAR's employees are too afraid of the external environment's constant changing.

One can recommend that Megan examine the position of a transformational leader who is committed to the organization's goals. According to the transformational leadership philosophy, in order to support an organization, leaders must focus on reforming people (Palmer, Dunford and Buchanan, 2017). These leaders drive the workforce through inspiration and motivation, focusing not only on the organizational development but also on the individual growth of each employee. Low levels of this leadership style may result in a decline in employee motivation. If Megan assumes the role of a transformational leader, she will be able to motivate employees to embrace change by building a culture of mutual trust and respect, accountability, and autonomy in the workplace.

Creation of a Mission Statement

Megan should build a clear vision to address the second issue highlighted in the preceding section. Unlike the mission statement, the vision is focused on the future. It is the vision statement that employees adhere to and that governs their work. Megan must note that the vision statement's primary purpose is to inspire and motivate the employees. In addition, the vision statement should be founded on the organization's key objectives and be clear so that employees may match it with their everyday activities.

Megan must therefore determine what she desires from the business. If she intends to concentrate mostly on product innovation, which is crucial to CAR, this should be specified in the vision statement. It is essential for the CEO to encourage staff participation in the vision statement's creation. Motivated by a shared vision, the workforce will work toward the shared objective.

Increasing Work Participation

Uncertainty within an organization has a propensity to generate rumors, making it harder for employees to do their jobs and have faith in senior management. Megan should therefore consider how she may engage employees during unpredictable times. First, Megan may be advised to maintain honesty and consistency. During times of uncertainty, individuals do not want management's good intentions. Instead, they desire leaders that are truthful and really concerned about the personnel's safety. Megan should therefore provide truthful responses to any questions posed by the personnel. She must confess that CAR is experiencing difficult times.

Megan might consider meeting with employees more frequently so they can express their thoughts (Schein, 2005). This will help Megan engage her colleagues and have a clear grasp of how they feel and what they believe regarding the uncertainty. As CEO, Megan must pay close attention to all CAR-related activities. She may discuss her notes and observations with her coworkers at the next staff meeting in order to have a deeper understanding of how to handle stress.

Sharing Key Moments of Learning

Megan should also share her significant learning moments at impromptu sessions, in addition to letting colleagues know that she is attentive to their problems. In this manner, the people will recognize that the CEO is capable of turning a potentially unpleasant scenario into something beneficial. Moreover, this is an effective way for increasing employee engagement and orienting them toward making a positive influence in any workplace.

Managing Employee Resistance

Megan must keep in mind that aversion to change is a natural human trait, since most individuals desire stability and predictability. For some employees, the organizational shift may appear quite painful, and they may need to progress through a series of stages before accepting it. Change is typically disturbing because it requires people to adapt to a new order of things. Megan can utilize Fisher's personal transition curve to determine how her employees will respond to change. Their responses might range from worry, dread, and menace to happiness, eventual acceptance, and onward movement (Fisher, 2012). If the CEO is aware of each employee's unique reaction to change, she may be able to influence their views and facilitate the reorganization process.

Plan for Implementing the Selected Solution

Taking into account all of the alternative options outlined previously, a strategy for execution may be formed. In the first step, the organization's direction must be determined, which requires a review of its mission, vision, and strategy. This will assist in elucidating the objective of CAR and establishing goals that align with this purpose. Megan must articulate in detail the ways in which employees will benefit from the change. In the second step, the chief executive officer should evaluate the specific responses of employees, as well as their personal challenges and worries, and establish measures to overcome resistance to change.

Those with the authority and commitment to lead the personnel transition should be identified. Megan should collaborate with senior management to identify strategies to realize the vision, taking CAR's resources and capabilities into mind. In the fourth step, employees should be given the authority to implement the vision. The potential challenges to change implementation must be identified and addressed. A system of monetary awards may be devised in the fifth step to motivate staff and achieve short-term victories.

Rationale for the Selected Solution

The plan for implementing change that was defined in the preceding section has numerous advantages. It allows for the formulation of a vision statement that establishes a clear direction for the workforce. Second, the plan takes into account psychological responses to change and emphasizes an individualized approach to overcoming employee resistance. Consequently, both active and passive resistance will be more efficiently managed. Thirdly, according to the plan, selected employees will be given the authority to lead the transformation, which may motivate the rest of the staff, given that the CEO has not yet established sufficient trust. Fourthly, this approach will assist Megan in establishing herself as an honest, transparent, self-assured, and trustworthy transformational leader who cares about her workers and can effectively drive organizational change.

Potential for Further Study

Why the R&D department did not generate more than a handful of ideas, and why the concepts it did generate encountered implementation difficulties, is a subject that the CEO should investigate more. CAR lost its long-term customers because its goods lacked technological or economic excellence. Megan should evaluate why the R&D department's performance declined and whether this was related to the layoff of specific individuals.

Conclusions

Megan's lack of the credibility required to lead change effectively, the absence of a strong vision statement that could offer employees benefits from change implementation, and the uncertainty among the workforce caused by the decline in company performance are the primary management issues in the given scenario. Among the potential answers to these problems are the construction of a vision statement, the design of tactics to deal with employee resistance as well as strategies to express the need for change to the employees, and the development of a rewards system to boost employee motivation.

Recommendations

Given that CAR has lost its reputation as a "funky" or "creative" firm, it is necessary to develop strategies for recruiting young, talented engineers. The organization need an influx of qualified employees who can develop a fresh product concept and attract new clients. If the company is able to regain its know-how leadership in the sector and deliver an innovative product to its customers, it is likely that the stock prices will cease declining and no longer have a negative impact on CAR's profitability.

Bibliography

Managing and organizations: an introduction to theory and practice. Clegg, S., et al., 2019. 5th edn. Los Angeles: Publications by SAGE.

Fisher, J. (2012) The transitional process. Web.

Long Range Planning, 35(2), pp. 153-178. Hailey, V., and Balogun, J. (2002). "Devising context sensitive approaches to change: the example of Glaxo Wellcome."

Palmer, I., Dunford, R. and Buchanan, D. (2017) Managing organizational change: a multiple perspectives approach. New York, New York: McGraw-Hill.

Schein, E. (2005) ‘From brainwashing to organizational therapy: a conceptual and empirical journey in search of ‘systemic’ health and a general model of change dynamics. A five-act drama', Organization Studies, vol. 27(2), pp. 287-301.

[supanova question]

McDonald’s Coffee Spill Heard Around The World A Level English Language Essay Help

The major concerns in the Liebeck case and the subsequent events

Stella Lieback's accident lies at the center of the Liebeck case's most significant difficulties. Liebeck had ordered coffee from a McDonald's drive-through window. She suffered third-degree burns to her groin, inner thigh, and buttocks when she spilled coffee while opening the jar's lid. During the time that Liebeck was hospitalized for one week, recuperating, and receiving a skin graft, her daughters were required to stay with her and care for her. The family filed a case on the basis of the mother's out-of-pocket expenses, anguish, and the daughters' lost salaries. The lawsuit also argued that McDonald's was negligent regarding the safety of its customers by supplying dangerously hot coffee (Carroll and Bucholtz, 2006).

Following the Liebeck case, further incidents occurred. In 2000, Karen Muth suffered second-degree burns when a McDonald's employee with a disability spilled hot coffee on her lap. The employee's disability made it impossible for her to grasp the cardboard tray, which then dropped onto the plaintiff's lap along with a cup of coffee. Muth filed a complaint through her attorney, but the terms of the settlement are confidential. 2004 saw a third of hot coffee-related incidents. This case involves a 70-year-old grandmother who sustained third-degree burns to her legs as a result of coffee spillage. This case is similar to that of Liebeck. In yet another incident, a McDonald's customer received second-degree burns and lasting scarring on her chin after a hot pickle from a hamburger dropped on it. Veronica Martin filed a $110,000 lawsuit against McDonald, alleging that the burn caused her physical and psychological trauma. In addition, her husband filed a $15,000 lawsuit against the company, claiming that the burn deprived him of his wife's services and relationships. This matter was resolved outside of court (Carroll and Bucholtz, 2006).

McDonald's social responsibility vs. consumers' responsibilities

McDonald’s, as a fast-food restaurant, owes its customers a number of social duties. The company is accountable for the protection of its clients first and foremost. Therefore, the corporation must sell products that are unlikely to cause bodily, psychological, or mental harm to consumers. In Liebeck's case, for example, the sold coffee was "unreasonably hazardous and defectively manufactured" (Carroll and Bucholtz, 2006, p. 691). Second, it was asserted in the case that McDonald's sells a billion cups of hot coffee annually due primarily to its sale of extremely hot coffee. This implies that McDonald's prioritizes its profits over its customers' safety. This should not hold true. Thirdly, McDonald's is obligated to uphold the law. McDonald's employment of a disabled person in the Karen Muth case reflects the company's legal responsibilities. However, the corporation must also guarantee that these steps are conducted with client safety in mind. For instance, the handicapped employee could be assigned a different work to reduce the likelihood of her committing an accident.

In fast food outlets such as McDonald's, customers are also obligated to behave responsibly. Customers are responsible for handling potentially hazardous items such as hot coffee with extreme care and caution. In the case of Liebeck, for example, the petitioner could have avoided the accident by placing the hot coffee cup away from her as she opened the lid. Alternately, she may have leapt from her seat the moment she saw the coffee was spilling. McDonald's is able to provide its customers with what they request while still maintaining their safety. This can be accomplished by informing customers about the products they demand. In the case of hot coffee, this objective has been accomplished by the label that reads "Caution: Contents Hot!" Customers who buy hot coffee will see the label and take caution when handling it (Carroll and Bucholtz, 2006).

There are arguments on both sides of the Liebeck case.

McDonald's is supported by two grounds in the Liebeck case. First, the defense attorneys stated that the petitioner ordered the excessively hot coffee with full knowledge of its temperature. In summary, the petitioner desired the coffee in its current state. Given that the coffee was extremely hot, the defense asserted that the petitioner was negligent and irresponsible in handling it. As Liebeck placed the cup of hot coffee between her knees and did not leap from her seat when the coffee began to leak, her carelessness and negligence were clear. There are also two supporting arguments for Liebeck in his case. The jury found McDonald's guilty of "willful, reckless, malicious, or wanton conduct" (Carroll and Bucholtz, 2006, p. 692). By selling excessively hot, hazardous, and defectively made coffee, the corporation acted with callous indifference toward the safety of its customers. Second, the McDonald's coffee that burned Liebeck caused him severe physical injury and excruciating anguish. Thirdly, Liebeck incurred enormous financial expenses due to hospitalization, treatment, and a skin graft as a result of the accident with the hot coffee. It also prevented Liebeck's daughters from receiving compensation for the weeks they spent caring for her.

If I had served on a jury,

If I had been a juror in Liebeck's case, I would have sided with Liebeck for a variety of reasons. First, McDonald's coffee is a potentially hazardous product that should not be supplied at such high temperatures. The company should prioritize the safety of its clients before its pursuit of profit (Kotler and Lee, 2005). Making the firm responsible for the harm caused to McDonald's would assist the company in becoming more accountable. Second, the quality assurance monitoring undertaken after the lawsuit revealed that McDonald's customers had previously lodged hundreds of burn complaints. McDonald's refused to reduce the temperature of its coffee despite the amount of complaints (Feinman, 2006). This demonstrated McDonald's disregard for its customers and failure to prioritize their safety over profits. Thus, supporting Liebeck would increase McDonald's consumer safety responsibility. In addition, it would serve as a reminder to other fast food restaurants that earn millions of dollars by selling products that not only pose a threat to the safety of customers, but also to their general health. If I had been a jury in the pickle burn case, I would have supported the petitioner, Veronica Martin, for the same reasons stated previously: McDonald's gross negligence.

The coffee burn cases in comparison to the pickle burn case

One connection between the coffee burn case and the pickle burn case is that in both instances, the customers received serious burns to various regions of their bodies, resulting in astronomical hospital bills. A second similarity is that each case included a McDonald's product that was manufactured at extraordinarily high temperatures. Therefore, the products were hazardous and constituted a significant threat to the safety of the restaurant's patrons. A third similarity between the instances is the presence of an out-of-court settlement. In the Liebeck case, an out-of-court settlement was reached to halt the petitioner's appeals after the jury reduced the award by more than 75 percent. In the case of Veronica Martin's pickle burn, an out-of-court settlement was reached from the outset, preventing the case from being heard in court (Carroll and Bucholtz, 2006).

There are several distinctions between coffee burn cases and pickle burn cases. One distinction is the utilization of a trial court. McDonald's declined to settle the Liebeck's case outside of court, therefore the case was tried in court. The restaurant only used the out-of-court settlement towards the end of the trial in an effort to halt the petitioner's appeals after the jury reduced the award by more than 75 percent. In contrast, the pickle burn case was settled outside of court, thus it was not tried. The second distinction between the cases is the petitioners' considerable role in triggering the accidents. In the case of Liebeck, the petitioner was partially responsible for the accident and resulting burns. When handling the coffee and opening the lid, Liebeck did not take any precautions. She did not take care when the coffee began to leak. Taking precautions would have prevented or at least mitigated the severity of the burns caused by the incident. In the situation of the pickle burn, the petitioner is in no way accountable for the burn. The pickle burn instance poses a greater threat to consumers, given the burn was caused solely by McDonald's hazardous items. McDonald's and other fast food businesses should lower their hot food temperatures to prevent similar tragedies (Carroll and Bucholtz, 2006).

Stella Award Winners

The Stella Awards is a program that recognizes the year's most absurd litigation. The initiative appears to favor corporations and their profit-driven goals at the expense of the safety and health of customers. Numerous consumers across the world have endured severe physical, mental, and psychological harm as a result of obtaining and utilizing hazardous products sold by corporations. A significant proportion of these incidents go unreported. This is the primary reason why corporations continue to avoid accepting accountability for their actions. Lawsuits such as the Liebeck case shed light on the numerous wrongs committed against humans by profit-driven corporations. Such lawsuits also encourage numerous more victims of excessive carelessness to report their occurrences. The Stella Awards program discriminates against customers and fails to recognize the daily mistreatment they endure at the hands of businesses (Carroll and Bucholtz, 2006).

Business implications of the cases

The lawsuits filed against McDonald's have significant ramifications for the restaurant's future operations. First, they would require the restaurant and others like it to assume greater customer responsibility. This means that firms are now required to manufacture items that are safe for their customers to consume, such as by selling foods at safe temperatures (Kerin, Hartley, and Rudelius, 2003). Second, McDonald's and other restaurants would be required to hire personnel who do not pose a threat to the safety of their customers and who comply with local, state, and federal laws and regulations. In the case of Karen Muth, for example, the disabled employee would have been assigned jobs other than serving clients, a task that is likely to be associated with her disability-related mishaps.

We live in a world where human rights are respected. Numerous groups fighting for the rights and justice of disadvantaged and politically vulnerable citizens have emerged. Individuals are also increasingly cognizant of their human and consumer rights. Consequently, situations such as burns caused by a company's carelessness are most likely to be brought to light. Businesses are being compelled to assume responsibility for their conduct and the security of their customers (Kotler and Lee, 2005). In addition, businesses are fighting for their right to manufacture customer-focused goods and earn profits. Consequently, many enterprises also defend themselves against lawsuits alleging that customer irresponsibility caused accidents. In short, we live in an era in which all individuals, whether they are businesses or customers, are required to accept responsibility and bear the consequences of their actions (Fuller, 2001).

Reference

Carroll, Arthur B. (2006). Ethics and stakeholder management in the context of business and society. Mason, Ohio is a southwestern city.

Feinman, J.M. (2006). One hundred and one laws Oxford: Press of Oxford University

Fuller, G.W. (2001). Consumers of food and the food industry: disaster or opportunity? New York: CRC Publishing.

Kerin, R., Hartley, S.W. & Rudelius, W. (2003). Marketing: The Foundation McGraw Hill Professional, New York.

Kotler, C. & Lee, N. (2005). Corporate social responsibility entails doing the greatest good for your business and cause. John Wiley & Sons, New York.

Levenson, B.M. (2001). The codfish of Habeas: musings on food and the law. University of Wisconsin Press, Wisconsin.

[supanova question]

McDonald’s Coffee Spill Heard Around The World A Level English Language Essay Help

The major concerns in the Liebeck case and the subsequent events

Stella Lieback's accident lies at the center of the Liebeck case's most significant difficulties. Liebeck had ordered coffee from a McDonald's drive-through window. She suffered third-degree burns to her groin, inner thigh, and buttocks when she spilled coffee while opening the jar's lid. During the time that Liebeck was hospitalized for one week, recuperating, and receiving a skin graft, her daughters were required to stay with her and care for her. The family filed a case on the basis of the mother's out-of-pocket expenses, anguish, and the daughters' lost salaries. The lawsuit also argued that McDonald's was negligent regarding the safety of its customers by supplying dangerously hot coffee (Carroll and Bucholtz, 2006).

Following the Liebeck case, further incidents occurred. In 2000, Karen Muth suffered second-degree burns when a McDonald's employee with a disability spilled hot coffee on her lap. The employee's disability made it impossible for her to grasp the cardboard tray, which then dropped onto the plaintiff's lap along with a cup of coffee. Muth filed a complaint through her attorney, but the terms of the settlement are confidential. 2004 saw a third of hot coffee-related incidents. This case involves a 70-year-old grandmother who sustained third-degree burns to her legs as a result of coffee spillage. This case is similar to that of Liebeck. In yet another incident, a McDonald's customer received second-degree burns and lasting scarring on her chin after a hot pickle from a hamburger dropped on it. Veronica Martin filed a $110,000 lawsuit against McDonald, alleging that the burn caused her physical and psychological trauma. In addition, her husband filed a $15,000 lawsuit against the company, claiming that the burn deprived him of his wife's services and relationships. This matter was resolved outside of court (Carroll and Bucholtz, 2006).

McDonald's social responsibility vs. consumers' responsibilities

McDonald’s, as a fast-food restaurant, owes its customers a number of social duties. The company is accountable for the protection of its clients first and foremost. Therefore, the corporation must sell products that are unlikely to cause bodily, psychological, or mental harm to consumers. In Liebeck's case, for example, the sold coffee was "unreasonably hazardous and defectively manufactured" (Carroll and Bucholtz, 2006, p. 691). Second, it was asserted in the case that McDonald's sells a billion cups of hot coffee annually due primarily to its sale of extremely hot coffee. This implies that McDonald's prioritizes its profits over its customers' safety. This should not hold true. Thirdly, McDonald's is obligated to uphold the law. McDonald's employment of a disabled person in the Karen Muth case reflects the company's legal responsibilities. However, the corporation must also guarantee that these steps are conducted with client safety in mind. For instance, the handicapped employee could be assigned a different work to reduce the likelihood of her committing an accident.

In fast food outlets such as McDonald's, customers are also obligated to behave responsibly. Customers are responsible for handling potentially hazardous items such as hot coffee with extreme care and caution. In the case of Liebeck, for example, the petitioner could have avoided the accident by placing the hot coffee cup away from her as she opened the lid. Alternately, she may have leapt from her seat the moment she saw the coffee was spilling. McDonald's is able to provide its customers with what they request while still maintaining their safety. This can be accomplished by informing customers about the products they demand. In the case of hot coffee, this objective has been accomplished by the label that reads "Caution: Contents Hot!" Customers who buy hot coffee will see the label and take caution when handling it (Carroll and Bucholtz, 2006).

There are arguments on both sides of the Liebeck case.

McDonald's is supported by two grounds in the Liebeck case. First, the defense attorneys stated that the petitioner ordered the excessively hot coffee with full knowledge of its temperature. In summary, the petitioner desired the coffee in its current state. Given that the coffee was extremely hot, the defense asserted that the petitioner was negligent and irresponsible in handling it. As Liebeck placed the cup of hot coffee between her knees and did not leap from her seat when the coffee began to leak, her carelessness and negligence were clear. There are also two supporting arguments for Liebeck in his case. The jury found McDonald's guilty of "willful, reckless, malicious, or wanton conduct" (Carroll and Bucholtz, 2006, p. 692). By selling excessively hot, hazardous, and defectively made coffee, the corporation acted with callous indifference toward the safety of its customers. Second, the McDonald's coffee that burned Liebeck caused him severe physical injury and excruciating anguish. Thirdly, Liebeck incurred enormous financial expenses due to hospitalization, treatment, and a skin graft as a result of the accident with the hot coffee. It also prevented Liebeck's daughters from receiving compensation for the weeks they spent caring for her.

If I had served on a jury,

If I had been a juror in Liebeck's case, I would have sided with Liebeck for a variety of reasons. First, McDonald's coffee is a potentially hazardous product that should not be supplied at such high temperatures. The company should prioritize the safety of its clients before its pursuit of profit (Kotler and Lee, 2005). Making the firm responsible for the harm caused to McDonald's would assist the company in becoming more accountable. Second, the quality assurance monitoring undertaken after the lawsuit revealed that McDonald's customers had previously lodged hundreds of burn complaints. McDonald's refused to reduce the temperature of its coffee despite the amount of complaints (Feinman, 2006). This demonstrated McDonald's disregard for its customers and failure to prioritize their safety over profits. Thus, supporting Liebeck would increase McDonald's consumer safety responsibility. In addition, it would serve as a reminder to other fast food restaurants that earn millions of dollars by selling products that not only pose a threat to the safety of customers, but also to their general health. If I had been a jury in the pickle burn case, I would have supported the petitioner, Veronica Martin, for the same reasons stated previously: McDonald's gross negligence.

The coffee burn cases in comparison to the pickle burn case

One connection between the coffee burn case and the pickle burn case is that in both instances, the customers received serious burns to various regions of their bodies, resulting in astronomical hospital bills. A second similarity is that each case included a McDonald's product that was manufactured at extraordinarily high temperatures. Therefore, the products were hazardous and constituted a significant threat to the safety of the restaurant's patrons. A third similarity between the instances is the presence of an out-of-court settlement. In the Liebeck case, an out-of-court settlement was reached to halt the petitioner's appeals after the jury reduced the award by more than 75 percent. In the case of Veronica Martin's pickle burn, an out-of-court settlement was reached from the outset, preventing the case from being heard in court (Carroll and Bucholtz, 2006).

There are several distinctions between coffee burn cases and pickle burn cases. One distinction is the utilization of a trial court. McDonald's declined to settle the Liebeck's case outside of court, therefore the case was tried in court. The restaurant only used the out-of-court settlement towards the end of the trial in an effort to halt the petitioner's appeals after the jury reduced the award by more than 75 percent. In contrast, the pickle burn case was settled outside of court, thus it was not tried. The second distinction between the cases is the petitioners' considerable role in triggering the accidents. In the case of Liebeck, the petitioner was partially responsible for the accident and resulting burns. When handling the coffee and opening the lid, Liebeck did not take any precautions. She did not take care when the coffee began to leak. Taking precautions would have prevented or at least mitigated the severity of the burns caused by the incident. In the situation of the pickle burn, the petitioner is in no way accountable for the burn. The pickle burn instance poses a greater threat to consumers, given the burn was caused solely by McDonald's hazardous items. McDonald's and other fast food businesses should lower their hot food temperatures to prevent similar tragedies (Carroll and Bucholtz, 2006).

Stella Award Winners

The Stella Awards is a program that recognizes the year's most absurd litigation. The initiative appears to favor corporations and their profit-driven goals at the expense of the safety and health of customers. Numerous consumers across the world have endured severe physical, mental, and psychological harm as a result of obtaining and utilizing hazardous products sold by corporations. A significant proportion of these incidents go unreported. This is the primary reason why corporations continue to avoid accepting accountability for their actions. Lawsuits such as the Liebeck case shed light on the numerous wrongs committed against humans by profit-driven corporations. Such lawsuits also encourage numerous more victims of excessive carelessness to report their occurrences. The Stella Awards program discriminates against customers and fails to recognize the daily mistreatment they endure at the hands of businesses (Carroll and Bucholtz, 2006).

Business implications of the cases

The lawsuits filed against McDonald's have significant ramifications for the restaurant's future operations. First, they would require the restaurant and others like it to assume greater customer responsibility. This means that firms are now required to manufacture items that are safe for their customers to consume, such as by selling foods at safe temperatures (Kerin, Hartley, and Rudelius, 2003). Second, McDonald's and other restaurants would be required to hire personnel who do not pose a threat to the safety of their customers and who comply with local, state, and federal laws and regulations. In the case of Karen Muth, for example, the disabled employee would have been assigned jobs other than serving clients, a task that is likely to be associated with her disability-related mishaps.

We live in a world where human rights are respected. Numerous groups fighting for the rights and justice of disadvantaged and politically vulnerable citizens have emerged. Individuals are also increasingly cognizant of their human and consumer rights. Consequently, situations such as burns caused by a company's carelessness are most likely to be brought to light. Businesses are being compelled to assume responsibility for their conduct and the security of their customers (Kotler and Lee, 2005). In addition, businesses are fighting for their right to manufacture customer-focused goods and earn profits. Consequently, many enterprises also defend themselves against lawsuits alleging that customer irresponsibility caused accidents. In short, we live in an era in which all individuals, whether they are businesses or customers, are required to accept responsibility and bear the consequences of their actions (Fuller, 2001).

Reference

Carroll, Arthur B. (2006). Ethics and stakeholder management in the context of business and society. Mason, Ohio is a southwestern city.

Feinman, J.M. (2006). One hundred and one laws Oxford: Press of Oxford University

Fuller, G.W. (2001). Consumers of food and the food industry: disaster or opportunity? New York: CRC Publishing.

Kerin, R., Hartley, S.W. & Rudelius, W. (2003). Marketing: The Foundation McGraw Hill Professional, New York.

Kotler, C. & Lee, N. (2005). Corporate social responsibility entails doing the greatest good for your business and cause. John Wiley & Sons, New York.

Levenson, B.M. (2001). The codfish of Habeas: musings on food and the law. University of Wisconsin Press, Wisconsin.

[supanova question]

Marketing: Buying Behavior And Product Success A Level English Language Essay Help

Table of Contents
Consumer Conduct and Marketing Efforts Digital Marketing Personalized Data and Marketing Environment of Marketing and Competitive Advantage References

Consumer Conduct and Marketing Efforts

His purchasing behavior is influenced by his identity, values, specialized needs, attitudes, and the types of products and brands accessible on the market for that product category. Customers' purchasing decisions are substantially influenced by marketing initiatives. In order to successfully introduce a product to the market, marketers seek an in-depth understanding of customers' purchasing behavior. The success or failure of a product or service is contingent on a company's ability to comprehend consumer behavior. However, it is important to highlight that customer behavior is influenced by a variety of factors that impact their product and brand preferences. Several of these factors, according to Jobber and Fahy (2006), include cultural factors, social class, social factors such as reference groups and family, personal factors such as age and lifecycle stage, occupation and financial status, and psychological factors such as superstitions, beliefs, and attitudes.

The selected product is medical products, and consumption is influenced by a number of factors in addition to cost, accessibility, and supply. Other factors that affect the demand for a medical service or product include social factors, demand factors that can be subdivided into advertising, population change, real disposable income change, wealth distribution change, changes in the prices of competitors' productions, market inflation rates, and government policy.

The demand for medical items can only be changed by the availability of equivalents on the market, and it is these substitutes that will effect demand. People can become ill at any moment, hence medical services are typically somewhat inelastic. They will only forsake the product if they have a strong desire to do so, which is not the case. Consequently, price adjustments will result in a less than proportional change in the amount demanded of pharmaceuticals. The following graph demonstrates that this product's demand is relatively inelastic.

Based on the preceding figure, I can confidently assert that when the price of medical services varies, the amount demanded changes either favorably or negatively.

The following variables are considered to influence customer behavior:

Changes in disposable income – this product will be impacted by changes in the consumer's disposable income. If disposable income for customers drops, especially during a period of economic downturn, this means that consumers will have less money to spend and will therefore purchase inexpensive medications. In this circumstance, people will switch to cheaper products. This will result in a decline in both demand and amount demanded. However, if the price is decreased to the level of replacements, the demand will remain relatively unchanged.

Price of alternatives – the desire for substitutes is another element that will influence consumer behavior toward pharmaceuticals. If cheaper alternatives are available, they will be acquired and the original product will remain unsold.

In contrast to conventional products, medical products are affected by diseases; if there are no ailments, the product will not be in demand. Nonetheless, the disease plays a crucial part in assuring that the product will be purchased. Consumer behavior, such as the consumer's demands as well as what the consumer desires from the medication, will ensure that the product sells effectively. If the consumer develops a bad attitude toward the product, he or she will switch to a substitute product, resulting in the following demand curve shape.

If the price stays the same, the quantity will continue to diminish. Assume the income decreased and demand decreased from Q to Q1. The pricing remained unchanged. It is evident that the variations in demand were not attributable to price adjustments, but rather to changes in income levels.

Returning to demand considerations Individual modifying demand factors, such as the physical characteristics of the individual customer, individual consumer, individual reactions to sensory perceptions, individual ethical and moral values and conceptions, intellectual capacities, and general individual motivations can be distinguished by me.

Social demand factors result from the fact that consumer units live in a particular social environment and respond to influences and stimuli emanating from the actions of other individuals or groups, regardless of whether they are members of a family, a specific group, a larger community, or even the nation as a whole. The economic standing of customers and legal sociocultural issues might impact consumer behavior. Interpersonal and group impacts arise mostly from the following phenomena: the fundamental human urge for accomplishment, the need to feel equal, and the need to display one's superiority.

Economic demand determinants include disposable income relative to current pricing, the impact of advertising on consumer behavior, the availability of consumer credit, and certain technological and economic advancements. Among these criteria, purchasing power is the most significant. The conscious concrete needs of consumer units can only be turned into effective demand when they are supported by this factor, namely purchasing power, independent of the multiplicity of causes that create and modify such demands. Consumption efficiency and economic success are contingent upon and contingent upon purchasing power. The causes of a particular spending pattern must be explored elsewhere, specifically in the community's dynamics and, in particular, in the group contexts of both the consumer and the entrepreneur.

After discussing the factors that influence customer demand for the medical product, it is essential to examine availability and supply. When the supply of a medical product varies, so does the demand. Increases in production and availability of the commodity may enhance the supply.

Digital Marketing

Digital marketing primarily relies on the consumer's consent to use their personal information to establish a long-lasting marketing connection. By ‘digital,’ we strongly mean the organization's usage of Internet services to maintain communication with its customers. Internet has expanded as a medium of communication since it has altered the organization's overall structure and the manner in which it maintains consumer interactions. As satellite transmission becomes more and more common, the public's preference is turning toward it. The marketing firms recognize that consumers should be treated differently than in the past. Digital types of marketing differ significantly from traditional forms of marketing in that they are more niche-oriented and demographically targeted. Digital services have enabled the free flow of information between buyers and sellers. Costs have been cut, and consumers now have more options to select from, to their advantage. The initial phase of the online services has yielded the necessary profits, and now it is time for the second phase of the Internet's development, in which organizations and the general public will utilize their current habits and practices to make greater use of the online services. Companies are developing new prospects and techniques that will increase their total profitability. The factors that contributed to the decline of traditional marketing are briefly explained.

It is not utilized extensively in international, industrial, or service marketing. In traditional marketing, the concept of exchange was established based on the experiences gained from the vast US consumer goods markets. The traditional paradigm is founded on the concept of the marketing mix. Traditional marketing places a little too much emphasis on the immediate transaction. Inability to establish a long-term relationship with consumers is another drawback that impedes this type of marketing. Traditional marketing frequently prioritizes particular tasks at the expense of the entire enterprise and the customer. Inadequate coordination between functions, departments, and customers has also proven fatal for this type of marketing. The decline of traditional marketing is also attributable to poor levels of business performance and even lower levels of consumer satisfaction.

For instance, "TiVo" is a device that allows users to record television broadcasts and erase ads. It has become a big benefit for the audience. In contrast, marketing executives are experiencing nightmares as a result of the invention of this technology. In certain locations, "TiVo" has proven a success, while in others, the technology has been reluctant to catch on. In the next five years, "TiVo" will allow users erase all commercials, according to a study. Now, how will a company's marketing department survive if this technology accelerates? The answer is that they must rethink their strategy, particularly online and offline, in order to attract their target consumers. Since consumers are paying greater attention to "TiVo," they have more power over the channel they are utilizing. Due to the arrival of such technologies, the market will be required to provide consumers with intriguing fare. As it is economically beneficial for them, consumers will desire to receive more from the interchange between "TiVo" and a company's marketing strategy.

According to Jobber et al. (2006), when a marketing team considers launching an internet advertising campaign, it suggests the campaign's benefits. Regarding the internet, it is the most adaptable and versatile advertising channel. It enables the marketing team to modify the advertisements whenever necessary at no additional cost. Without additional delay, information is readily available to all people worldwide. This is an essential step for businesses, as it enables them to make fast adjustments in this dynamic market. This information will aid in campaign adjustments. It will boost the conversion rate for that reason. Pop-up advertisements are an integral part of online advertising and are utilized for a variety of purposes. We must emphasize the importance of these pop-up advertisements to the organization's marketing department. When marketing an event, a banner advertising campaign is a form of advertising. Such banners are designed to attract the visitor's attention.

Customized Information and Marketing

According to Jobber et al. (2006), consumers and markets rely heavily on individualized data. Through this data, the organization is able to comprehend the customer's purchasing habits, allowing them to give the essential information. This means that in order for a company to successfully develop and promote an existing or new product, it must conduct market research through surveys and focus group talks. Professional market researchers will conduct interviews with a representative sample of the target market in high-traffic areas. The surveys attempt to collect information regarding consumers' perceptions and preferences regarding the product, as well as their opinions regarding competing brands. The FGD will be utilized to establish product characteristics, price, packaging design, flavor preferences, and other pertinent customer data.

Once a corporation has access to individualized data, a product strategy and product development activity are executed. This program shall include the following tasks for the company's product development team to complete:

Conduct product and customer surveys and focus groups; Determine the product's taste and health qualities; Create and finalize the formula for the new product; Develop and finish the design of packaging;

The consumer data will assist the corporation in comprehending the participation, and they will be able to establish brand distinctions to prevent consumers from transferring brands. The consumer has certain beliefs, selects a cake brand, and analyzes it during consumption; therefore, if the brand was not nice or tasty, the consumer may switch to a different brand. The marketer will entice consumers to try something new by providing reduced prices, discounts, coupons, and advertising featuring compelling arguments for doing so.

As a result of the analysis of diverse data, the company will be aware of the evolving needs of the consumer and will have a more consumer-centric, profit-driven attitude. Through the establishment of departments such as the consumer affairs/public affairs, which will spend more time ensuring the products, i.e. ingredients, safety features, packaging, labeling, advertising, etc., it is essential for every company, particularly those in managerial positions, i.e. leadership positions, to be committed to establishing and formulating the company's policies and guidelines. This can be achieved through the training of organizations' personnel in workshops. Follow the consumerist code. By doing so, a resourceful and forceful manager will seek out the good and positive parts of consumerism and push the company towards the objective of creating a win-win situation between the company's mission and goals and the protection of customers.

Environment for Marketing and Competitive Advantage

In the field of marketing, a significant portion of the essential information resides outside the organization, such as data on why consumers purchase only some products and not others. Due to the external nature of the elements influencing marketing decisions, the study of the external environment is crucial to market planning. The marketer must take extra care to determine which of the environmental elements – social, political, cultural, economic, legal, and technological – are currently the most significant for the products he is selling on the market and which may become the most significant in the near future. Additionally, the marketer should focus on external agents, including as competitors, suppliers, customers, trade unions, governments, shareholders, and local communities, that have the greatest impact on the organization.

According to Jobber et al. (2006), when the environment is known, product differentiation and diversification strategies are devised and implemented. In pursuing a benefit more than its competitors, a company can choose from numerous competitive strategies. In this case, however, they have pursued product differentiation. Product differentiation is based on the product's quality, dependability, technological leadership, and image, allowing the company to maintain its position as market leader.

According to Jobber et al. (2006), a variety of internal and external elements, including functional competitive and corporate aspects, are considered while designing organizational strategies. Functional considerations assess the aims of an organization to maximize resource productivity. At this step, the competency of the organization is considered. Corporate variables determine the direction of the firm. This evaluates and summarizes economic, social, cultural, demographic, environmental, political, technological, and governmental variables, as well as those pertaining to competitiveness. Consequently, the organization is able to identify and analyze organizational features such as capabilities, resources, and competences.

According to Jobber et al. (2006), a company's positioning advantage is the primary contributor to its sustained competitive advantage. The positioning advantage of a business is determined by its assets, talents, and resources. Differentiation is built on the product's and company's quality, dependability, technological leadership, and reputation. On the basis of the aforementioned environmental elements, the marketing mix and promotion plans must be determined. The most important element to consider is the intense rivalry from equally powerful opponents. Based on the environmental study, advertising and other sales promotion policies, such as offering discounts and special offers, are proposed. Therefore, a proper analysis of the environment, particularly the examination of the external environment, will allow the business to identify its strengths and prospects.

The management must be aware of its strengths, weaknesses, opportunities, and dangers, according to Jobber et al. (2006), because of the increasing rivalry in the marketplace and the necessity to achieve the full benefits of promotion strategies. The first phase is to evaluate and appraise the brand's current status in terms of market share, significant competitors, and brand performance among brand users, non-users, and lapsed users. This standard should then be correlated with market size and predicted potential. It will pave the way for identifying the function of sales promotion in achieving the desired shift in the brand's market share. This activity will result in the availability of the necessary data to establish quantifiable and attainable objectives. The second step involves the identification of different sales promotion schemes and the selection of the scheme(s) best suited to achieving the set objective within the available budget. The third phase involves infusing innovation into the proposed system. This renders the plan unique, appealing, and challenging from the perspective of its intended audience, i.e., the consumer, trade, or sales force. The legality of the sales promotion program to be presented is the fourth phase. The fifth step includes main decisions regarding the timing and duration of the schemes to be presented, the selection of dealers by location, and the dissemination of information to the trade and sales force regarding the scheme's suitability. A company must limit the scope of its hunt for economic possibilities and protect itself against relevant environmental concerns. Nonetheless, it should be remembered that environmental changes are frequent and unpredictable. No company or organization can expect the environment will remain unchanged during its existence.

References

Jobber, D., and J. Fahy, "Foundations of marketing," 2006. New York McGraw-Hill Higher Education

[supanova question]

Marketing: Buying Behavior And Product Success A Level English Language Essay Help

Table of Contents
Consumer Conduct and Marketing Efforts Digital Marketing Personalized Data and Marketing Environment of Marketing and Competitive Advantage References

Consumer Conduct and Marketing Efforts

His purchasing behavior is influenced by his identity, values, specialized needs, attitudes, and the types of products and brands accessible on the market for that product category. Customers' purchasing decisions are substantially influenced by marketing initiatives. In order to successfully introduce a product to the market, marketers seek an in-depth understanding of customers' purchasing behavior. The success or failure of a product or service is contingent on a company's ability to comprehend consumer behavior. However, it is important to highlight that customer behavior is influenced by a variety of factors that impact their product and brand preferences. Several of these factors, according to Jobber and Fahy (2006), include cultural factors, social class, social factors such as reference groups and family, personal factors such as age and lifecycle stage, occupation and financial status, and psychological factors such as superstitions, beliefs, and attitudes.

The selected product is medical products, and consumption is influenced by a number of factors in addition to cost, accessibility, and supply. Other factors that affect the demand for a medical service or product include social factors, demand factors that can be subdivided into advertising, population change, real disposable income change, wealth distribution change, changes in the prices of competitors' productions, market inflation rates, and government policy.

The demand for medical items can only be changed by the availability of equivalents on the market, and it is these substitutes that will effect demand. People can become ill at any moment, hence medical services are typically somewhat inelastic. They will only forsake the product if they have a strong desire to do so, which is not the case. Consequently, price adjustments will result in a less than proportional change in the amount demanded of pharmaceuticals. The following graph demonstrates that this product's demand is relatively inelastic.

Based on the preceding figure, I can confidently assert that when the price of medical services varies, the amount demanded changes either favorably or negatively.

The following variables are considered to influence customer behavior:

Changes in disposable income – this product will be impacted by changes in the consumer's disposable income. If disposable income for customers drops, especially during a period of economic downturn, this means that consumers will have less money to spend and will therefore purchase inexpensive medications. In this circumstance, people will switch to cheaper products. This will result in a decline in both demand and amount demanded. However, if the price is decreased to the level of replacements, the demand will remain relatively unchanged.

Price of alternatives – the desire for substitutes is another element that will influence consumer behavior toward pharmaceuticals. If cheaper alternatives are available, they will be acquired and the original product will remain unsold.

In contrast to conventional products, medical products are affected by diseases; if there are no ailments, the product will not be in demand. Nonetheless, the disease plays a crucial part in assuring that the product will be purchased. Consumer behavior, such as the consumer's demands as well as what the consumer desires from the medication, will ensure that the product sells effectively. If the consumer develops a bad attitude toward the product, he or she will switch to a substitute product, resulting in the following demand curve shape.

If the price stays the same, the quantity will continue to diminish. Assume the income decreased and demand decreased from Q to Q1. The pricing remained unchanged. It is evident that the variations in demand were not attributable to price adjustments, but rather to changes in income levels.

Returning to demand considerations Individual modifying demand factors, such as the physical characteristics of the individual customer, individual consumer, individual reactions to sensory perceptions, individual ethical and moral values and conceptions, intellectual capacities, and general individual motivations can be distinguished by me.

Social demand factors result from the fact that consumer units live in a particular social environment and respond to influences and stimuli emanating from the actions of other individuals or groups, regardless of whether they are members of a family, a specific group, a larger community, or even the nation as a whole. The economic standing of customers and legal sociocultural issues might impact consumer behavior. Interpersonal and group impacts arise mostly from the following phenomena: the fundamental human urge for accomplishment, the need to feel equal, and the need to display one's superiority.

Economic demand determinants include disposable income relative to current pricing, the impact of advertising on consumer behavior, the availability of consumer credit, and certain technological and economic advancements. Among these criteria, purchasing power is the most significant. The conscious concrete needs of consumer units can only be turned into effective demand when they are supported by this factor, namely purchasing power, independent of the multiplicity of causes that create and modify such demands. Consumption efficiency and economic success are contingent upon and contingent upon purchasing power. The causes of a particular spending pattern must be explored elsewhere, specifically in the community's dynamics and, in particular, in the group contexts of both the consumer and the entrepreneur.

After discussing the factors that influence customer demand for the medical product, it is essential to examine availability and supply. When the supply of a medical product varies, so does the demand. Increases in production and availability of the commodity may enhance the supply.

Digital Marketing

Digital marketing primarily relies on the consumer's consent to use their personal information to establish a long-lasting marketing connection. By ‘digital,’ we strongly mean the organization's usage of Internet services to maintain communication with its customers. Internet has expanded as a medium of communication since it has altered the organization's overall structure and the manner in which it maintains consumer interactions. As satellite transmission becomes more and more common, the public's preference is turning toward it. The marketing firms recognize that consumers should be treated differently than in the past. Digital types of marketing differ significantly from traditional forms of marketing in that they are more niche-oriented and demographically targeted. Digital services have enabled the free flow of information between buyers and sellers. Costs have been cut, and consumers now have more options to select from, to their advantage. The initial phase of the online services has yielded the necessary profits, and now it is time for the second phase of the Internet's development, in which organizations and the general public will utilize their current habits and practices to make greater use of the online services. Companies are developing new prospects and techniques that will increase their total profitability. The factors that contributed to the decline of traditional marketing are briefly explained.

It is not utilized extensively in international, industrial, or service marketing. In traditional marketing, the concept of exchange was established based on the experiences gained from the vast US consumer goods markets. The traditional paradigm is founded on the concept of the marketing mix. Traditional marketing places a little too much emphasis on the immediate transaction. Inability to establish a long-term relationship with consumers is another drawback that impedes this type of marketing. Traditional marketing frequently prioritizes particular tasks at the expense of the entire enterprise and the customer. Inadequate coordination between functions, departments, and customers has also proven fatal for this type of marketing. The decline of traditional marketing is also attributable to poor levels of business performance and even lower levels of consumer satisfaction.

For instance, "TiVo" is a device that allows users to record television broadcasts and erase ads. It has become a big benefit for the audience. In contrast, marketing executives are experiencing nightmares as a result of the invention of this technology. In certain locations, "TiVo" has proven a success, while in others, the technology has been reluctant to catch on. In the next five years, "TiVo" will allow users erase all commercials, according to a study. Now, how will a company's marketing department survive if this technology accelerates? The answer is that they must rethink their strategy, particularly online and offline, in order to attract their target consumers. Since consumers are paying greater attention to "TiVo," they have more power over the channel they are utilizing. Due to the arrival of such technologies, the market will be required to provide consumers with intriguing fare. As it is economically beneficial for them, consumers will desire to receive more from the interchange between "TiVo" and a company's marketing strategy.

According to Jobber et al. (2006), when a marketing team considers launching an internet advertising campaign, it suggests the campaign's benefits. Regarding the internet, it is the most adaptable and versatile advertising channel. It enables the marketing team to modify the advertisements whenever necessary at no additional cost. Without additional delay, information is readily available to all people worldwide. This is an essential step for businesses, as it enables them to make fast adjustments in this dynamic market. This information will aid in campaign adjustments. It will boost the conversion rate for that reason. Pop-up advertisements are an integral part of online advertising and are utilized for a variety of purposes. We must emphasize the importance of these pop-up advertisements to the organization's marketing department. When marketing an event, a banner advertising campaign is a form of advertising. Such banners are designed to attract the visitor's attention.

Customized Information and Marketing

According to Jobber et al. (2006), consumers and markets rely heavily on individualized data. Through this data, the organization is able to comprehend the customer's purchasing habits, allowing them to give the essential information. This means that in order for a company to successfully develop and promote an existing or new product, it must conduct market research through surveys and focus group talks. Professional market researchers will conduct interviews with a representative sample of the target market in high-traffic areas. The surveys attempt to collect information regarding consumers' perceptions and preferences regarding the product, as well as their opinions regarding competing brands. The FGD will be utilized to establish product characteristics, price, packaging design, flavor preferences, and other pertinent customer data.

Once a corporation has access to individualized data, a product strategy and product development activity are executed. This program shall include the following tasks for the company's product development team to complete:

Conduct product and customer surveys and focus groups; Determine the product's taste and health qualities; Create and finalize the formula for the new product; Develop and finish the design of packaging;

The consumer data will assist the corporation in comprehending the participation, and they will be able to establish brand distinctions to prevent consumers from transferring brands. The consumer has certain beliefs, selects a cake brand, and analyzes it during consumption; therefore, if the brand was not nice or tasty, the consumer may switch to a different brand. The marketer will entice consumers to try something new by providing reduced prices, discounts, coupons, and advertising featuring compelling arguments for doing so.

As a result of the analysis of diverse data, the company will be aware of the evolving needs of the consumer and will have a more consumer-centric, profit-driven attitude. Through the establishment of departments such as the consumer affairs/public affairs, which will spend more time ensuring the products, i.e. ingredients, safety features, packaging, labeling, advertising, etc., it is essential for every company, particularly those in managerial positions, i.e. leadership positions, to be committed to establishing and formulating the company's policies and guidelines. This can be achieved through the training of organizations' personnel in workshops. Follow the consumerist code. By doing so, a resourceful and forceful manager will seek out the good and positive parts of consumerism and push the company towards the objective of creating a win-win situation between the company's mission and goals and the protection of customers.

Environment for Marketing and Competitive Advantage

In the field of marketing, a significant portion of the essential information resides outside the organization, such as data on why consumers purchase only some products and not others. Due to the external nature of the elements influencing marketing decisions, the study of the external environment is crucial to market planning. The marketer must take extra care to determine which of the environmental elements – social, political, cultural, economic, legal, and technological – are currently the most significant for the products he is selling on the market and which may become the most significant in the near future. Additionally, the marketer should focus on external agents, including as competitors, suppliers, customers, trade unions, governments, shareholders, and local communities, that have the greatest impact on the organization.

According to Jobber et al. (2006), when the environment is known, product differentiation and diversification strategies are devised and implemented. In pursuing a benefit more than its competitors, a company can choose from numerous competitive strategies. In this case, however, they have pursued product differentiation. Product differentiation is based on the product's quality, dependability, technological leadership, and image, allowing the company to maintain its position as market leader.

According to Jobber et al. (2006), a variety of internal and external elements, including functional competitive and corporate aspects, are considered while designing organizational strategies. Functional considerations assess the aims of an organization to maximize resource productivity. At this step, the competency of the organization is considered. Corporate variables determine the direction of the firm. This evaluates and summarizes economic, social, cultural, demographic, environmental, political, technological, and governmental variables, as well as those pertaining to competitiveness. Consequently, the organization is able to identify and analyze organizational features such as capabilities, resources, and competences.

According to Jobber et al. (2006), a company's positioning advantage is the primary contributor to its sustained competitive advantage. The positioning advantage of a business is determined by its assets, talents, and resources. Differentiation is built on the product's and company's quality, dependability, technological leadership, and reputation. On the basis of the aforementioned environmental elements, the marketing mix and promotion plans must be determined. The most important element to consider is the intense rivalry from equally powerful opponents. Based on the environmental study, advertising and other sales promotion policies, such as offering discounts and special offers, are proposed. Therefore, a proper analysis of the environment, particularly the examination of the external environment, will allow the business to identify its strengths and prospects.

The management must be aware of its strengths, weaknesses, opportunities, and dangers, according to Jobber et al. (2006), because of the increasing rivalry in the marketplace and the necessity to achieve the full benefits of promotion strategies. The first phase is to evaluate and appraise the brand's current status in terms of market share, significant competitors, and brand performance among brand users, non-users, and lapsed users. This standard should then be correlated with market size and predicted potential. It will pave the way for identifying the function of sales promotion in achieving the desired shift in the brand's market share. This activity will result in the availability of the necessary data to establish quantifiable and attainable objectives. The second step involves the identification of different sales promotion schemes and the selection of the scheme(s) best suited to achieving the set objective within the available budget. The third phase involves infusing innovation into the proposed system. This renders the plan unique, appealing, and challenging from the perspective of its intended audience, i.e., the consumer, trade, or sales force. The legality of the sales promotion program to be presented is the fourth phase. The fifth step includes main decisions regarding the timing and duration of the schemes to be presented, the selection of dealers by location, and the dissemination of information to the trade and sales force regarding the scheme's suitability. A company must limit the scope of its hunt for economic possibilities and protect itself against relevant environmental concerns. Nonetheless, it should be remembered that environmental changes are frequent and unpredictable. No company or organization can expect the environment will remain unchanged during its existence.

References

Jobber, D., and J. Fahy, "Foundations of marketing," 2006. New York McGraw-Hill Higher Education

[supanova question]

ABC Inventory Analysis And Inventory Costs Reduction A Level English Language Essay Help

Introduction

The ABC analysis is one of the most successful materials management tools. It entails classifying inventory into three distinct categories depending on unit costs and the quantity of stock kept during a specific period (Heizer & Render, 2011). These categories are characterized as

Class A is comprised of the most precious objects. They account for 70%-80% of the total inventory expenditures and represent 10%-20% of the total inventory items. Class B consists of things that are fairly priced. These commodities represent 20% to 30% of the entire cost of inventories. Class C products contribute for 5% to 10% of the overall cost of the inventory. Nonetheless, this category has the most goods in the inventory record. 50-60 percent of all inventory products often fall under this category.

Controlling Inventory Using the ABC Method

The ABC inventory control method was used to assess 25 goods in one of a company's production lines. The entire cost of inventory for this line was around $2.5 million. The classifications of the various objects based on the ABC analysis are displayed in Table 1.

Class Item Count Quantity of Items Percent of Items in Category Percentage of each category's value

A 20,18,12,9,14 5 20% 2048250 81%

B 21, 4, 16, 15, 22, 25 6 24% 349750 14%

17, 23, 24, 5, 13, 11, 2, 7, 10, 19, 3, 6, 1 8 14 56% 120075 5%

Totals

25 100

100%

Table 1 contains item categorization.

Table 1 reveals that category A products represent only 20% of total inventory yet account for 81% of total inventory expenses, category B items contribute 14% of inventory costs, and category C items contribute only 5%. In addition, 56 percent of all inventory products are designated as Class C.

Methods for Reducing Inventory Expenses

A-Class Items

These products have the biggest effect on the stock. The following measures might be employed to reduce their expenditures:

Ensure stringent inventory control: For these items, the minimum and maximum inventory levels must be defined and maintained. This reduces the total cost of inventories. Reordering: Class A items should be reordered periodically to prevent stock-out problems. This is because these components are crucial to the manufacturing process. Always, the precise amount of these materials must be ordered. This decreases the costs associated with inefficient inventory management. Excess materials may degrade, diminishing the final product's quality. Increasing inventory also increases storage, insurance, and inspection fees, as well as material handling expenses. Materials in class A require periodic counting to maintain accurate records and prevent inventory errors. Class A items should be counted more frequently than B and C materials. Examine prospective stocking alternatives: Studies should be conducted to explore alternate stocking arrangements, as well as ways to reduce transit and storage costs, in order to reduce the overall cost of these supplies. Utilize the Just-in-time (JIT) method. In this class, JIT can be used to manage material ordering. During a certain period, only the quantity required should be purchased. This reduces material waste and storage expenses. It is required that these documents be subjected to frequent reviews. As these materials play a crucial role in the production process, the demand need and order quantity should be assessed and any adjustments documented and implemented. The management is able to track changes in the stock requirement and modify accordingly, hence reducing inventory expenses. Since these items are often ordered, methods for lowering lead times should be identified. This prevents material delivery delays that cause manufacturing schedule interruptions.

Class B Objects

These inventory items fall between the A and C classes. It is essential that they be regularly maintained to ensure that they do not grow into class (A) or class (B) items (C). The most important inventory management for cost reduction include:

Counting on a cycle: The materials should be counted less frequently than class (A) items. These products should be ordered in accurate quantities to prevent waste and costly storage. Ordering surplus materials may result in a decline in quality and an increase in handling expenses. Control: These materials should be subject to moderate control. This guarantees that the correct quantity is delivered within the specified time frame. Constantly, the exact quantity must be determined and ordered.

Class C Objects

These things have a very low value but account for 50 to 60 percent of the overall inventory. The primary inventory cost reduction initiatives include:

Less frequent reorders: These materials should not be reordered frequently, as doing so would increase transportation and other handling costs. Order huge amounts: Large quantities of these commodities should be ordered based on estimates. Priority: These items should be given lower priority and less control because they do not significantly alter inventory levels. Stock in this category should be inspected for obsolete products that may no longer be necessary. These components can be omitted from the manufacturing process.

References

Heizer, J., & Render, B. (2011).

Operations Management Flexible Version with Lecture Guide & Activities Manual Package. Prentice Hall, New Jersey

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Scorecard Inc.’s Human Resource Strategy A Level English Language Essay Help

Case Summary Synopsis
A Company Overview

Scorecard, Inc. is a privately held business that develops and sells a variety of athletic goods for games and practice, including items for football, soccer, baseball, basketball, tennis, and hockey. In addition, Scorecard, Inc. is a mid-sized company. The company's objective is to provide consumers with high-quality, custom-made equipment for various leagues, including the professional, collegiate, high school, junior, municipal, and peewee levels.

The company's owners prioritize product quality and consistent financial growth. Moreover, both customer interactions and employee job satisfaction are deemed crucial to the structure of the organization. The company's culture is mostly concentrated on attracting repeat clients and promoting innovative human resource management. The CEO has an aim of preserving a "family" atmosphere among the workforce. The executive staff is intimately involved with the production process.

Key Objectives and Organization

Peter Wolfe, the company's CEO for the past thirty-five years, has maintained that the organization's strategy is geared on modest and steady growth. Scorecard, Inc. concludes that consistent annual growth is what has maintained the firm on the market for so long. The business refuses any proposals to be acquired by larger corporations and remains privately owned. Two notable firms, Ruth Industries and Playoffs International, are the leading competitors on the market for sporting goods.

Together, these two businesses control around seventy-five percent of the market. However, Scorecard, Inc. has a strong position in the market because to its consistent course and large number of recurring clients. Scorecard, Inc.'s major stakeholders are the chief executive officer, the board of directors, the executive management team, and the company's clients. This company is privately held. Thus, the CEO has the authority to make decisions without consulting other executive team members. Nonetheless, the Board of Directors has some influence over the company's decisions. The executive team participates in the majority of corporate operations, and the majority of its members have close relationships.

Customers

Scorecard, Inc. takes pleasure in developing a network of clientele who frequently purchase their products. The company's equipment is designed for both professional and amateur players, as well as different age groups of children and adults. The corporation was placed in a precarious position due to the availability of diverse levels of equipment and the market's ongoing evolution. However, the company's mission to provide every consumer with high-quality products enables it to maintain a steady clientele.

In addition, the company primarily manufactures items for entire teams of players, making each collection unique. Thus, the majority of sales are custom-made products that frequently comply to varied criteria. Scorecard, Inc.'s approach to customers is founded on dependable connections and strong client retention rates.

Human Resources Methodologies

Scorecard, Inc.'s human resources strategy is well-known. In reality, the company's programs consistently win a variety of accolades. About five hundred hourly workers and one hundred fifty professionals are employed by the company. Moreover, the business recruits additional temporary workers throughout the peak season. As the company frequently employs members of the same family, it is conceivable that Scorecard, Inc. has an effective program of internal referral rewards.

The Evaluation

Currently, Scorecard, Inc. has the challenge of coping with the aftermath of a failed acquisition of Partners Marketing. The executive management team encouraged the CEO to explore acquiring a smaller company in order to expand the product line and acquire greater market control. All team members presented their thoughts and reassured the company's owner that the purchase would have a significant impact on the company's earnings. However, throughout the purchase process, the CEO and the team of designated advisors made several critical errors that led to the sale of the new firm and the loss of a significant amount of money and employees. In addition, the Scorecard, Inc.'s stability and internal company connections were undermined.

Prior to the acquisition, Scorecard, Inc.'s HRM practices were well aligned with the company's vision. Wolfe, the organization's chief executive officer, and Flynn, the vice president of human resources, reviewed several methods for increasing human resource management. Flynn built a robust structure that featured frequent performance reviews and fostered employee growth. Scorecard, Inc. introduced programs such as employee education and training, economic development, health care programs, family-friendly benefits, and continuous improvement. The organization takes pride in their focus on employee satisfaction and development.

However, during the acquisition process, Wolfe hired a new specialist, Dave Willow, to manage Partners Marketing's human resources. Willow lacked significant experience in the field of human resource management. Thus, he failed to implement the system that Flynn recommended. The first issue that the company's employees noticed was a lack of communication between the executive board members and the newly constituted acquisition team.

The company's chief executive officer disregarded every criticism from the board and decided not to alert employees about the acquisition. The majority of the management team lost their capacity to influence the company's decisions. The Scorecard, Inc. programs that Flynn designed and implemented were not also considered. Due to the level of secrecy, the new company was acquired without any quality or performance reviews. Scorecard, Inc. and Partners Marketing switched their focus from employees to profit. Thus, Willow made modifications that were inconsistent with the company's initial vision. Scorecard, Inc.'s leadership became extremely ineffectual.

The policies and benefits of the new company did not meet corporate requirements. There was no uniformity in terms of benefits and vacation time. Willow did not have a formal compensation scheme. In addition, Willow failed to conduct performance reviews that revealed the qualifications of its personnel. Willow was unprepared for the significant levels of personnel turnover that resulted at Partners Marketing.

He focused on hiring low-skilled people and delivering disproportionate rewards to new hires. This scenario demonstrated that the new company's recruitment processes were flawed. Second, Scorecard, Inc.'s desired product quality was not met by newly hired personnel because they were not trained. Therefore, the equipment failed on the field, and customers demanded refunds. Both Wolfe and Willow disregarded these issues and did not modify their hiring and training procedures in response. They failed to develop a strategic plan for integrating the company, resulting in a huge investment in the new business.

The company is currently coping with the effects of the CEO's conduct. The original senior management team is requested to assist Wolfe with the current issues. They saved the remaining Partners Marketing assets and sold the business.

Recommendations

Alterations to the HRM Strategy

The organization must first and foremost restore to its fundamental values. Scorecard, Inc. possessed an outstanding HRM strategy with a multitude of programs and initiatives. These programs should be reimplemented and reevaluated for improved effectiveness. The company lost a substantial amount of money as a result of the acquisition, which makes it difficult for human resource management to employ the same techniques as before.

Therefore, Flynn and his department should evaluate the costs associated with essential programs and make changes where necessary. For instance, programs such as employee education and training are crucial to the effectiveness of the business. Therefore, these activities should be reintroduced without a significant funding reduction. During the acquisition, Willow neglected the significance of training, resulting in the failure of manufactured equipment on the field. This error should not be repeated because it discourages customers from purchasing additional products.

It is possible that Partners Manufacturing employees would not return to Scorecard, Inc. and would not suggest the company to other prospective employees. Thus, the HRM team should devise a plan to attract new employees and maintain high retention rates. However, they should use solutions that do not demand a substantial amount of capital. Alternately, customers can choose non-monetary advantages or benefits that do not require immediate payment.

For instance, Flynn can direct his team's efforts toward recreating the business culture and interacting with current employees to determine which benefits they prefer. If employees begin to feel appreciated once more, their morale will improve. Additionally, the procedure for selecting and employing new employees should be revised. Individuals' professional and personal qualifications should take precedence. Therefore, human resource managers should develop assessments that enable them to select the most qualified candidates for open positions. Because qualifications are more essential than number, the organization can have a better staff with fewer personnel than before.

Revisions should be made to the programs that provide health care and family benefits in order to identify the optimal cost-to-satisfaction ratio. In addition, it is possible that the corporation should prioritize rewarding performance over service length. These forms of prizes will increase the retention of new workers and improve the performance of new employees. In addition, the corporation can save money employing this strategy because the quality of the items is likely to improve, resulting in more customers and fewer refund requests.

Considerations and Outcomes for the Future

Included among future considerations should be new purchases. While the CEO of Scorecard, Inc. appears hesitant about the possibility of expansion, he should be reminded that his company cannot advance in a market controlled by two large corporations. Therefore, Wolfe should consider acquiring a small, steady business. However, the new acquisition requires a different approach.

First, the executive board should engage in all acquisition-related discussions and procedures. Avoid the confidentiality that accompanied the prior merger. Doug Franks, the vice president of operations, should be granted access to the structure and production process of the new company. Chief financial officer Joe Heyer should investigate the financial activities of the new business and evaluate the potential for financial growth. Flynn and Wolfe should continue to collaborate to implement Scorecard, Inc.'s HRM strategy at the new company in order to transition new employees to the new system. All elements must be reviewed with each team member in order to arrive at the best decisions.

To ensure a smooth transition for a newly acquired business, some high-performing staff may be granted promotions at the new company in exchange for mentoring other employees and bringing them up to corporate standards. Therefore, the transfer of staff between two organizations should improve performance and provide some employees with additional prospects for career progression. In addition, such integration can aid in fostering team spirit and increasing employees' expertise without the need for costly training courses. Career advancement is vital to many individuals. Consequently, this chance may draw additional employees to the organization.

The CEO of the organization should alter his perspective on the topic of business expansion. Although his emphasis on stability allows the company to grow slowly, the sporting goods market forces enterprises to be more adaptable and sensitive to customers' changing needs. Additionally, the requirement for open dialogue should be regarded as crucial. The company's executives should develop a plan to continue promoting high-quality services and employee happiness.

The growth of the business should be seen as an opportunity for Wolfe and Flynn to bring their award-winning human resources strategies to other companies. In the end, the company should not only surpass its previous goals of stable existence but also expand its practices to more locations.

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Psychological Differences In Cross-Cultural Communication In Organization A Level English Language Essay Help

Businesses have operated across national borders for millennia. Nevertheless, it is generally agreed that we currently inhabit an era of unprecedented global economic contact and interconnectedness. The increasing globalization of industry, the growth of new economies, and the growing popularity of firms creating strategic alliances and engaging in joint ventures bring numerous opportunities and problems for multinational organizations. This covers the recruiting of employees from diverse cultural, gender, linguistic, ethnic, religious, and socioeconomic backgrounds, among others. In the cross-cultural communication variety of the contemporary corporate environment, psychological differences are a key concern inside the organizational structure, and they have a significant impact on the organization.

Workforce variety is a promotion of new ideas and comprehension, and through the process, a measure of "outside the box" would develop. A diversified workforce is always capable of generating ideas, whether useful or ineffective, and would reflect the active intellect behind the daily work schedule. A creative employee would adhere to the company's policies but would also be energised enough to devise plans that would be motivated by the company's best interests. This open-minded and inventive approach would generate an atmosphere of cultural tolerance that would accommodate people of various cultures, ethnicities, and hues. Consequently, there would be minimal actual confrontation. However, there would be competition, and a creative message is always appreciated. (Sims, 101-113)

There are numerous obstacles or multiple sources of the problem that can lead to an ineffective communication process. Language, self-protectiveness, confused perceptions, misinterpretation of body language, self-fulfilling assumptions, pre-assumptions, perceptual biases, Cultural Differences, etc. are a few examples. People in diverse organizations and societies spend the majority of their time in interpersonal situations. This is typically the source of an organizational or social issue. Interpersonal, intergroup, intragroup, organizational, and external communication must be effective in order for an organization to be successful. (Black, 511-530)

Globalization denotes increasing worldwide connectedness, inclusion, and interdependence in the economic, cultural, technological, social, and ecological spheres. Globalization possesses a variety of qualities that impact the planet in multiple distinct ways. As example, the many forms of globalization Industrial Globalization, fictitious term Transnationalization is fostering the emergence of global manufacturing markets and broader consumer and business access to a variety of goods. On the other hand, it looked that the end outcome of this process would be a world with only one culture, in which cultural pride, sovereignty, and uniqueness would cease to exist. This conclusion was deduced with the use of sociopolitical instruments and economic factors that directly affect the emergence and fall of culture. Thus, even if a cultural minority could achieve or retain independence for an extended period, economic viability would not allow it to maintain its cultural sovereignty. Consequently, minority societies based on ethical culture would cease to exist over time. (Chamberlain, 435-477)

Cultural Globalization is the intensification of cross-cultural relations, the introduction of new categories of perceptions and uniqueness, such as Globalism, which exemplify cultural conduction, and the desire to gain access to and profit from foreign goods and ideas, adopt innovative technology and practices, and participate in world culture. Ecological Globalization refers to the emergence of global ecological challenges that cannot be resolved without international cooperation, such as climate change, cross-border water and air contamination, excessive ocean fishing, and the proliferation of invasive species. Social Globalization is the attainment of the free flow of people from all nations.

Westernization is the most prominent type of this, but Sinicization of cultures has occurred over most of Asia for centuries. Greater than before intercontinental travel and tourism, which may also pave the way for illegitimate immigrations, the spread of local consumer goods such as food products to other countries repeatedly, acquainting them with their culture, the globalization of fashion and pop culture such as Pokémon, Origami, Idol series, etc., and global sporting events such as the FIFA World Cup and the Olympic Games. (Chamberlain, 435-477)

Consequently, it might describe the fundamental issue of globalization and hybridization as a two-way street. There, the fundamental tenets of a capitalist economy are considered at each stage of designing marketing strategy. The fundamental purpose of any firm is to focus on profit maximization and profit maximization concepts. In this setting of a market-driven economy, cultural and ethnic minorities seeking independence should have examined the challenges of globalization and hybridization. In today's world, a cultural or ethnic minority may win freedom, but they would never be able to uphold the values and traditions that were the impetus for independence in the first place. (Dierickx, 1504-1511)

Throughout the past decade, various authors have attempted to outline the essential abilities required for MNCs and their managers to achieve success. Regardless of management or operational area, managers are expected to possess general competences such as adaptability, ingenuity, and the ability to express the organization's vision. While these general competences are essential, there are additional skills necessary for success as a global manager. MNCs require managers with "global mindsets" who are equipped to navigate the complexities of transnational business and able to articulate and execute the corporate strategy from a multi-country perspective, requiring them to connect and engage with multiple parties, including employees, staff, customers, suppliers, and government officials with fundamentally different values, assumptions, beliefs, and traditions.

IHR Management, in this context, can be defined as the art of creating industrial relations of any kind, between people engaged in the industry, such as the relationship between employers and employees, individuals entering into commercial contracts, investors and debtors, etc., in order to maintain genuine cooperation among all parties involved. By applying fresh knowledge, new procedures, new designs, new machinery, and novel production processes, as well as by assuaging suspicion and hostility, management can not only force employees to work, but also motivate them to do so freely, honestly, and intentionally. In this instance, the most crucial factor is to create a context that aligns the various national cultures. (Sims, 101-113)

To comprehend this remark, it is necessary to assess and evaluate a cross-cultural difference in the context of organizational culture and country culture. China and the United Kingdom are a wonderful example of this. China is rapidly becoming an economic superpower, and this is having a direct effect on the business culture of the United Kingdom. Prior to China's debut on the global stage, the United Kingdom adhered to a strict ethical and mandatory code of conduct, including dress code and other variables. However, with China's development, a uniform pattern of business culture is observed to be rapidly evolving. Chinese businesses from many places have displayed their unique identities. In business dealings amongst themselves, Chinese occasionally engage in "cold calling" or arrive bereft of a suitable introduction. In Chinese business culture, tardiness to a scheduled meeting is regarded as a grave offense.

Similar to the business culture of the United Kingdom, if an individual will be late for an appointment, a contact should be made to the Chinese business partner advising them of the obstruction and allowing them to make adjustments or reschedule. Before visiting a Chinese business associate, it is unquestionably a good idea to familiarize oneself with Chinese language, culture, history, and geography. Chinese businessmen are appreciative of such initiatives. Consequently, it is necessary to appreciate the disparities with the aid of IHRM and numerous vivid investigations. (Dierickx, 1504-1511)

In the contemporary IHRM system, it is assumed that the business should be team-based, routine-focused, administratively-led, and extremely aggressive. In addition to these characteristics, the organizations must have a humane working environment. Workplaces should provide flexible circumstances. The business process should be improvement-oriented, and personnel should be efficient and highly skilled in order for them to be able to handle the increasing demand and new challenges in the workplace, as required by the current organizational infrastructure. The purpose of a trade union in an organization is to facilitate communication between employees and management. It can establish an environment conducive to dialogue between employee groups and the organization. (Black, 511-530)

Only prosperous relationships between countries, management, and employees may deliver success to the organization, it can be concluded. Consequently, the International Human Resources Management (IHRM) system is not only concerned with labor unions and industrial relations. Instead of the limitations in IHRM management ideologies, it has various advantages. Thus, corporations could always use this strategy to solve their management-employee issues, and all of these elements would result in competitive advantages for the MNE/MNEs. (Dierickx, 1504-1511)

Diversity is the challenge of thinking and expression is the most successful technique that a corporation can use to encourage the "outside the box" procedure, from a personal standpoint. To attain this objective, a corporation must encourage its employees to gather together in informal settings and discuss topics that are not necessarily official. Communication is the process of transmitting information from one individual or group to another. Superior communication will guarantee that all of these individuals and institutions understand the message. It will increase the likelihood of a positive reaction if the message appears reasonable and fair to both the recipient and the sender. Consequently, it is evident that, in the context of Behavior in Organizations, psychological variations in cross-cultural communication produce a number of issues that must be addressed and handled for the benefit of any organization.

References

A practical but theoretical framework for selecting conflict management training approaches, by James Black Human Resource Management, 28.4: 511-530 (2005).

"Teaching & Learning Guide for: Social Psychology and Media: Critical Consideration," by Karl Chamberlain. Social and Personality Psychology Compass, 71.6, 435-477 (2009).

Asset Stock Accumulation and the Sustainability of Competitive Advantage, by Ivan Dierickx. Management Science, 35.4 (2006): 1504-1511.

Comparing ethical views across cultures," Cross Cultural Management 13.2 (2006): 101-113 Richard Sims

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Statistical Methods In Business And Economics A Level English Language Essay Help

Table of Contents
Introduction Methods of Statistics in Applied Data Mining Statistics Methods Classification Statistical Techniques in Industry and Business Control Conclusion Bibliography with Notes

Introduction

The statistical techniques used in business and economics to describe and summarize the data gathered. Modern mathematical research distinguishes various statistical procedures in consideration of the manner of data modeling. It should be mentioned that descriptive and inferential statistics are utilized in numerous areas of business and economics where applied statistics interfere.

Data mining, a fundamental concept in contemporary business activities, is regarded as the process of exploring and modeling various databases in order to discover patterns and models. This paper will focus on the fundamental characteristics of statistical methods given in economic and commercial journals, taking into account the practices and expertise of actual experts in this field.

Methods of Statistics in Applied Data Mining

Current information society exists in a climate of rising data availability, necessitating a variety of tools for modeling and in-depth analysis. One of the most significant features is the ability to extract relevant knowledge from accessible data; hence, statistical approaches and data mining are regarded as the most practical and effective means for this. Typically, application is a component of numerous disciplines, including computer science, statistics, economics, machine learning, finance, and marketing. Waters (2003)

According to Paolo Giudici, statistical modeling and the adoption of a rigorous and consistent approach to it serve as a perfect bridge between industrial and business applications and data mining techniques. (Guidici, 2006)

Modern data-based intelligence is centralized in company collaboration operations; hence, statistical analytics and its function are of critical importance. According to Yasuo Amemniya, a business researcher and analyst, the development of statistical methodologies affects the processing, storage, and collection of business monitoring data; it is a vital aspect of forecasting, comprehension, and decision making. Business analytics challenge estimates the model parameters; one of the fundamental methods in the field of innovative business approaches is highlighted by Yasuo Amemniya, who devoted it to the description of risk factors model evaluating the company's output in the client's termination of the business contract:

The financial stability of the client; The level of cooperation with the service provider; The competitiveness and cost of the service; The potential impact of service cancellation. Renegotiations have a long history.

It should be highlighted that conventional approaches are typically characterized by termination estimations that permit observing the influence level of decision-making elements. Traditional methods, such as logistic regression, reveal correlations between hidden variables based on the five-risk-model principle. In such instances, data is collected for the purpose of procedure estimate. (Amemiya, 2003)

Statistics Methods Classification

Typically, the objective of statistical projects is to investigate multiple causal factors in order to form an accurate judgment regarding the advantages or costs of change. In causal data analysis, statistical methods are classified into two fundamental categories:

Observational research; experimental methods.

Both approaches are deemed effective; the primary differences lie in the manner in which research and data analysis are conducted. (Connors, 2003)

Observation approach is based solely on the notion of data evaluation and statistically effective factor comparison. In contrast to the observational method, experimental investigation is a complex process involving the investigation of system measurements and the identification of modifications. It is important to note that the Western Electric Company used this strategy in the process of evaluating adjustments in order to boost production and the effect of increased illumination. This case entailed measuring the plant's productivity and evaluating all degrees of change in light of their impact on the company's productivity. The experimental settings were able to increase production, despite the fact that this statistical method cannot be called ideal. Business and economics continue to criticize experimental investigations and data analysis for their blindness and lack of group control, as witnessed during data analysis techniques. This strategy is known as Hawthorne studies in contemporary statistical research, and it has been widely criticized for committing major errors. Considered to be the fundamental phases of this statistical procedure are the following:

Data search and project planning; System model design complexity Involvement of descriptive statistics; Achieving consensus; Presentation of the survey of verified facts.

This procedure is typically employed in accordance with all of its necessary phases. (David& Sweeney, 2001)

Statistical forecasting is a widely employed statistical technique in business. This element focuses on predicting the future based on historical data for the aim of forecast development. In business and economics, for instance, sales forecasting can be studied. This technique must divide the sales phase into manageable pieces in order to forecast them independently. Typically, this statistical method is used to forecast annual sales. It should be mentioned that the subsequent stages are geared at the creation of sales forecasts that may be used to diverse business kinds and economies.

Initially, it is vital to develop a client profile and determine the fundamental industry trends. In the majority of instances, ideal determiners account for approximately 20% of client sales. The determination of trends is based on the collaboration of trade suppliers and a search of the Business Periodicals Index.

Second, it is required to determine the location and size of the trading region, taking all relevant statistics and trading features into account. Future sales forecasts will be greatly influenced by the examination of distribution and promotion methods. In addition, it must be emphasized that the examination of other trading companies and their trading reputations will be beneficial.

The forecasting method then necessitates creating a profile and a list of all competitors selling in adjacent regions. Analyzing the products, services, advertising strategies, and various business handouts of competitors, as well as their prices and consumer volumes, can aid in estimating sales profits for one's own organization.

The second phase involves estimating revenues based on previous annual activities. For the first month of sales, a 50 percent discount must be accounted for. Such aspects as economic expansion and population requirements should be consolidated in the forecasting procedure. In addition to considering one's personal market share, which should be decreased to 15%, one should establish all available methods for attracting clients. (Sales Forecasting Techniques, 2006)

Control Utilizing Statistical Methods in Industry and Business

One of the most significant challenges for investors who are responsible for a number of active portfolios is identifying the business partnership items to which one should pay attention. In the majority of instances, this identification process can take years. Utilizing statistical approaches permits the evaluation of productivity and profitability within a very brief time frame. 1997 (Lee Carlson & Thorne)

The scheme CUSUM, which is completely under the control of the statistical process, is closely related to the ration test of Wald's Sequential Profitability, which yields an effective result in approximately two years, despite the fact that the underperformance of data collection and presentation can be observed much more quickly. The CUSUM technique enables investors to focus on the most serious issues that have the potential to have the most substantial effects.

The premise underlying the method's operation is that for each rate of false alarms, there is no faster identification of underperformance. It is utilized in monitoring instances involving $500 billion in managed assets, as well as fixed income, equities, and currencies. (Phillips & Stein, 2003)

Conclusion

The application of statistical approaches appears to play a vital role in the development of numerous industries and businesses. The actual management challenges of the information society lay in the need to comprehend, analyze, and describe corporate data, which serves as the foundation for effective cooperation and industrial growth. The foundations of such fields as marketing, finance, computers, management, and industry are based on the widespread application of statistical methods.

The study was able to concentrate on the typology of fundamental statistical approaches, revealing the significance of each factor for business and economic development. In addition, it revealed the role of data analysis in applied data mining through the illustration of data model construction. The examination of observational, experimental, and forecasting techniques seems to be widely utilized across all businesses in order to forecast annual sales, earnings, or even potential difficulties.

The process of data interpretation, analysis, and forecasting enables the achievement of success and the acquisition of advantageous results from existing data.

Bibliography with Notes

Applied Data Mining: Statistical Methods for Business and Industry by Guidici, P.G. 2006, Wiley-Blackwell Ltd. Web.

The article under consideration revealed the peculiarities of data mining processing in the information society; the work is devoted to the disclosure of applied statistical approaches and suitable data processing techniques utilized in contemporary industry.

2003. Web. Amemiya, Y. Statistical Methods for Business Intelligence, Innovation Matters.

The author of the essay concentrated on the most efficient business-related difficulties associated with statistical operations and emphasized the importance of survey and experimental design in the processing of information. A number of statistical models and colorful assessments utilized in business practice are presented in this article.

Michael Connors is named. Applying statistical methodologies to the computation of the loss reserve. 2003. Business Credit.

It should be mentioned that the author emphasized the importance of scoring and customer treatment. The essay describes the fundamental procedures that any business must take to calculate statistically valid data.

Using Statistical Process Control to Monitor Active Managers. CUSUM, 2003. Web. Phillips, Thomas and David Stein.

The article is devoted to a description of the CUSUM statistical method, which is widely used in the field of management control. The author aimed to demonstrate the benefits of the method's application for investors, including the ability to monitor the productivity process and determine the most profitable transactions.

Sales Forecasting Techniques. Statistical Forecasting. Web in 2006.

This article discusses forecasting techniques in business processes. The information aims to explain how forecasting statistical calculations may be used to predict annual sales and budgets by outlining the fundamental planning and organization steps for forecasting.

David, R., and D. Sweeney, Quantitative Methods for Business, West Publishing Company, 2001.

The publication is concerned with the depiction of business models in statistical operations through quantitative analysis of business data; the authors paid particular attention to the depiction of observational and experimental statistical approaches while providing vivid examples of company operations.

Applied Statistical Methods for Business and Economics. edited by W. Lee Carlson and B. Thorne. Prentice Hall. 1997.

The book is devoted to the process of constructing and designing statistical methodologies through the description of various business sample components and testing configurations; the data aim to present the planning of statistical documentation and its application in various areas of business and economic development.

Market Risk Modeling: Applied statistical methods for practitioners by Waters, Risk. 2003. Web.

This book is devoted to the explanation of designed models and practices of statistical methods usage in business operations. The information is geared toward practitioners and demonstrates to them real-world examples of industrial statistics and its function in forecasting and successful data analysis.

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Inequality In Business Organizations A Level English Language Essay Help

Introduction

Unfair attitudes, discrimination, and prejudice were pervasive in the workplace for decades. Women, the elderly, the disabled, racial, political, sexual, and religious minorities, etc., were subjected to the harsh repercussions of this unethical behavior. Even while significant progress has been made in eliminating workplace inequality in recent years, there are still many challenges associated with it. In the following study, the possibility of reducing inequality in corporate organizations will be investigated. Based on the research of Ainsworth, Knox, and O'Flynn (2010), Jonnergard, Stafsudd, and Elg (2010), Pocok (2005), and Dipboye and Halverson (n. d.), the argument will begin by addressing the issue of gender bias. In general, these publications underline the seriousness of the problem of gender discrimination that women confront, demonstrate some good trends in addressing gender disparity, and provide more potential remedies to this issue. Then, the problem of ethnic and racial inequality will be discussed in light of Dipboye and Halverson's (n.d.) and Konrad's (2003) observations of the most significant advancements in this field during the previous few decades. On the basis of Strachan, French, and Burgess (2010), Morgan and Spicer (2011), and Watson (2003), the problem of prejudice against the disabled and old, as well as alternative solutions, will be discussed next. Based on Habbis & Walter's (2009) paper, the remaining patterns of inequality in corporate organizations will be examined along with potential ways for addressing these inequalities.

The Problem of Gender-Based Discrimination and the Potential for Its Elimination

Despite the efforts of Australian top officials and human rights campaigners, women's working capacity and inner potential have been overlooked for a long time due to several obstacles, including "social, structural, and systematic" ones (Ainsworth, Knox, and O'Flynn, 2010, p. 659). Even the implementation of EEO legislation did not improve the situation, as evidenced by the following statement by Ainsworth, Knox, and O'Flynn (2010, 659): Women's work prospects and outcomes have not increased considerably despite the existence of EEO legislation, as has been the case for the majority of women's progress reports. In business organizations, gender inequality can be observed in a variety of areas, beginning with women's pay, which is substantially lower despite performing the same work, and ending with workplace programs, organizational policies and statements such as maternity leave policies and statements about workers' pregnancy. Women continue to be underrepresented in many higher-paying occupations and to have fewer prospects for advancement and career advancement than men (Habbis & Walter 2009; Jonnergard, Stafsudd & Elg 2010).

However, numerous experts are optimistic about women's ability to obtain equal employment chances. According to Ainsworth, Knox, and O'Flynn (2010), for instance, women can apply for employment, promotions, transfers, and extra professional training, engage in development programs, and take additional vacations on par with males. This demonstrates that managers and state officials have made significant progress in decreasing gender imbalance in Australian commercial enterprises. In addition, modern social norms undergo dramatic transformations in western nations, including Australia. In this way, the traditional breadwinner model of family/work-life has declined, as Pocok (2005, p. 36) notes: "putting together the changing story on family structure and patterns of paid work, we can see the declining role of the traditional breadwinner model of family/work-life." Consequently, women now have greater career opportunities.

It is also expected that women will contribute to the betterment of the situation of gender disparity in the workplace. Certain employment and advancement prospects, for instance, have long been viewed as exclusive to men since women have not demonstrated the essential qualities. Thus, women should continue to develop their inner potential in order to exhibit such essential character traits as initiative, proactivity, emotional intelligence, ambition, and dedication. In addition, women must improve their educational attainment and skill availability. Moreover, the current state of affairs in a variety of fields demonstrates that the majority of women lack sufficient motivation for professional and career advancement, and as a result, they miss out on promotion possibilities. Therefore, women must continue to cultivate their inner potential, since this will be crucial to eliminating gender bias in the workplace.

The Problem of Ethnic and Racial Discrimination and the Potential for Its Elimination

Ethnic and racial minorities confront a widespread problem of racial and ethnic bias in the workplace, as indicated by global statistics. For instance, according to Dipboye and Halverson (n.d., p. 134), in 2002 the unemployment rate for whites in the United States was 4.2%, compared to 7.7% for blacks and 6.1% for Hispanics. In addition, whites are more likely to have higher-paying jobs than blacks and Hispanics, as whites are typically employed as managers and office workers, whereas blacks and Hispanics work as cleaners, handlers, laborers, etc (Dipboye & Halverson n. d.). According to Konrad (2003, p. 9), "when African Americans predominate in lower-level organizational positions while managers and professionals are nearly exclusively Anglo, organizational boundaries highlight the historical disparity between these ethnic groups" Indigenous Australians continue to be severely disadvantaged on the job market. According to Habbis and Walter (2009, p. 167), the indigenous unemployment rate in 2006 was approximately 14%. Thus, the situation of ethnic and racial prejudice is the most problematic both globally and domestically.

Complex is the purpose of resolving ethnic discrimination's pervasive problems. First and foremost, managers should strive to create a good environment for employees from racial minorities. However, managers' efforts will be insufficient until society changes its way of thinking about members of ethnic minorities. This is extremely important since managers typically make decisions regarding their employees based on the opinions of consumers, and if these customers have a prejudiced attitude toward “colored” personnel, managers continue to employ them. Consequently, minimizing ethnic and racial inequality in commercial organizations is not only a problem that managers must address, but also one of the most important societal goals that governments should endeavor to achieve.

How Disabled and Senior Citizens Experience Inequality Possible Solutions

According to Strachan, French, and Burgess (2010, p. 21), only 8.2% of the worked population in Australia was between the ages of 55 and 59 in 2008, while only 20% of the employed population had a disability. These figures demonstrate that older and disabled job applicants in Australia encounter discrimination. Despite the government's efforts to promote extra employment opportunities for the disabled, firm managers tend to prioritize healthy individuals when making employment selections. Even if the government were to subsidize firms with disabled employees, the discrimination against vulnerable individuals would still exist.

To lower the level of disparity in the employment of the disabled and elderly, managers must experience considerable mental shifts (Morgan & Spicer 2011). They must recognize that discriminating against people with disabilities is unethical. Obviously, a number of professions in businesses require excellent health and high work capacity. However, there are numerous aspects of commercial organizations in which disabled and elderly individuals function well. In addition, employees with characteristics such as age or disability are typically more appreciative of their employer, which helps to their outstanding performance at work. Consequently, employers should not shy away from hiring such candidates. Consequently, the solution to the problem of discrimination in dealing with the disabled and aged in business organizations lies in adhering to the highest ethical standards in business (Watson 2003).

The Other Patterns of Inequality and Possible Solutions

In Australia, inequality in the workplace is not only associated with criteria such as gender, race, ethnicity, disability, and age, but also with other situational issues. As in other regions of the world, for instance, people belonging to various minorities, such as political, religious, sexual, etc., are vulnerable to prejudice. In addition, geographical and qualification variables contribute to disparity. Recent research investigations have indicated that residents from Central Australia have less employment options than those from Coastal Australia (Habbis & Walter 2009). In addition, those with lesser levels of education and competence are only able to obtain work in informal fields, and they tend to hold part-time and temporary contracts. According to Habbis & Walter (2009, p. 163), "Australian and international research consistently links lower levels of education to labor market disadvantage and marginalization via such factors as unemployment, low labor force participation, and part-time and casual work with inferior conditions or pay." Consequently, young people who choose to have a low level of professional abilities and certifications or who quit school before the twelfth grade are at danger of encountering inequality in the job.

Reflecting on the above-mentioned elements that may potentially lead to inequality in business organizations, it is essential to recognize that sometimes, not only managers but also individuals are accountable for overcoming the problem of bias at work. Particularly, everyone must do their best to acquire the essential skills and credentials in order to have equal employment and professional advancement prospects. Obviously, some things are challenging to overcome. For instance, the geographic issue necessitates relocation to regions with greater work opportunities. Additionally, managers should consider this factor. Particularly when companies have the choice to choose where to site new industrial facilities, they should prefer locating them in territory far from the coast (Morgan & Spicer 2011). This will contribute to the growth of the nation's industry and the improvement of living conditions in remote places. Obviously, when it comes to a discrimination factor such as belonging to a certain type of minority, including political, religious, and sexual minorities, a response is required from managers, as they are the primary individuals responsible for the positive work environment and harmonious relationships.

Conclusion

Currently, it is obvious that progress has been made in reducing the levels of inequality in the workplace. Managers still have more work to do to significantly reduce inequality in commercial organizations. Women, the disabled, the elderly, and members of racial, political, sexual, and religious minorities continue to face prejudice and bias in the workplace. Therefore, managers in commercial organizations should develop new ways for cooperating with employee groups impacted by inequality. First, supervisors should acquire a new perspective on these employees, as they frequently appear to be the root of the harsh attitude. Managers must reevaluate the norms of business ethics and make the appropriate mental adjustments. In addition, they must persuade the remaining employees in their commercial organizations to adopt a new perspective on women, the aged, the disabled, racial, ethnic, political, and other minorities. In addition, those who experience bias in the workplace should contribute to improving their circumstances. For instance, women may continue to improve their professional abilities and cultivate essential business traits such as ambition, dedication, and initiative. Thus, it can be concluded that lowering inequality in corporate organizations is doable, but it requires a great deal of effort on the part of managers and collaboration from the affected groups.

References

Ainsworth, S., Knox, A., & O'Flynn, J. (2010). "A Blinding Lack of Progress": Management Rhetoric and Affirmative Action. Gender, Work and Organization, 17(6), 658-678.

Dipboye, R., and Halverson, S., "Subtle (and Not So Subtle) Discrimination in Organizations," in R. Griffin and A. O'Leary-Kelly (eds. ), A Dark Side of Organizational Behaviour, A Wiley Imprint, Australia, pages 131-158.

Social Inequality in Australia: Discourses and Realities, Futures, Australia and New Zealand: Oxford University Press, 2009.

Jonnergard, K., Stafsudd, A., and Elg, U. (2010). Performance Evaluations as Gender Barriers in Professional Organizations: A Study of Auditing Firms.

Special Issue Introduction: Defining the Domain of Workplace Diversity Scholarship, by A. Konrad, in Group & Organization Management, vol. 28, no. 4, 2003, pp. 1-17.

Critical Approaches to Organizational Change, in The Oxford Handbook of Critical Management Studies, Oxford University Press, New York, 2011, pp. 251-266.

Work/Care Regimes: Institutions, Culture, and Behaviour in Australia, Gender, Work, and Organization, vol. 12, no. 1, 2005, pp. 32-49.

Strachan, G., E. French, and J. Burgess. Managing Diversity in Australia: Theory and Practice. Sydney: The McGraw-Hill Companies, 2010.

Human Relations, vol. 56, no. 2, pp. 167-185, 2003, T. Watson, "Ethical choice in managerial work: The scope for moral choices in an ethically irrational world."

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Leadership And Group Behavior Relationship A Level English Language Essay Help

Introduction

A team leader's primary responsibility is to manage and build an orchestrated team. The leadership strategy of an organization influences the behavior of a team, which is further influenced by the relationship between the leader and team members. The relationship between leaders and subordinates is intricate and firmly rooted in human psychological growth (Parker, 2009). A person's conduct, values, and attitude are influenced by both hereditary and environmental characteristics. According to the operant learning hypothesis, positive or negative reinforcements can shape human behavior. An organization's leadership approach influences the response to leadership behavior and respect for the organization's ideals (Lewis, 2004). The relationship between leadership and group behavior is the subject of this research.

In team management, group leaders are viewed as role models, and their actions encourage a particular behavior inside their respective groups. Group leaders are viewed as the heads of direction and the group's behavior shapers; they are expected to have a clear vision for the group and a defined path for its development. The success of Apple Inc. in the highly competitive electronic industry has been attributed to the leadership qualities of Steve Jobs. The leader's approach has encouraged innovative behavior in the organization; the leader's approach is that when an employee develops anything, he gets rewarded and recognized for it.

Steve Jobs's strategy has strengthened the company's innovative capabilities. Starbucks Coffee Organization's success in the hospitality industry has been ascribed to the institution's leadership style; managers ensure that they have fostered good team spirit, which has increased ethical behavior inside the company. Environmental stewardship has been successfully integrated into the company's organizational culture, resulting in strong business respect and customer loyalty (Newstrom & Scannell, 1998).

Formal and Informal Administration

Formal teams include the human resources management team and the project management team, both of which have specific purposes and objectives within a business. The powers of the leaders are delegated by the appointing authority; the formal leader is the point of reference for the upper management and is required to be aware of all the dynamics of the team he is heading. Depending on the size of the team, he may have the authority to operate with the assistance of subordinate line leaders. Through the appointment process, he should be evaluated for leadership qualities; it is not always the case that he is a charismatic leader (Bass & Bass, 2008).

Whether formal or informal, the quality of leadership determines motivation and the creation of positive relationships that contribute to the success of a company. Although top management may not have employed information leadership, managers must learn and comprehend the impact they have on group behavior. In addition to official groups, some informal groups exist by virtue of the fact that humans are social creatures with a propensity to live in communities. Informal groups are held together by members' shared interests; examples of informal teams include social welfare groups, security, knowledge development, and organizations promising to liberate the organization.

Informal leaders have a significant impact on the direction, rate of change adoption, and attitude of a team; when empowered, they become influential leaders who can be trusted with group dynamic adjustments. Sometimes it is necessary to establish programs that focus on changing the direction of informal leaders, because once their path has been altered, the rest of the team is likely to follow suit. Change can only be implemented in change management programs when the group can progress toward a predetermined goal (Wheelen & Hunger, 1998).

In group dynamics and operations, this is where leaders emerge; they are individuals who are viewed performing key jobs and who may influence the group's direction. Leaders impact the group's adaptability and performance; they are responsible for establishing the group's relationships and team spirit. Whether informal or formal conduct develops within a group, behavior is an element of group conformity and group culture. When a group adopts a particular type of behavior, it is usually accepted. In an effort to adhere to the group, whether official or informal, team members must comply to the team's unobservable behavior and culture. Thus, the evolution of conduct within formal and informal teams becomes an important factor in the determination of group behavior, with formal and informal leaders playing a significant part in the development of group behavior (Hughes, Ginnett & Curphy, 2009).

Literature on Administration

Leadership may be defined as the science of managing and designing business plans to be implemented inside an organization: the success of an organization is contingent upon the caliber of its leaders; managerial decisions are the engine that propels an organization forward. Within teams, leaders are responsible for establishing the pace and direction that the team will follow; when leaders choose an ineffective path, the team's functioning is likely to suffer. Pioneering, mentoring, shaping, leading, focusing, and directing teams to achieve organizational goals and objectives are the primary responsibilities of leaders. They are also responsible for mentoring, cultivating, establishing, and identifying potential within the group (Kotlyar & Karakowsky, 2006).

The Concept of "There Are No Followers Without Leaders"

For a group to qualify as a group, two crucial elements must be present: individuals and leaders. When there are individuals, the followers, but there is no leadership, the entire group lacks direction. In a group environment, the direction provided by the leaders determines the achievement of goals and objectives; in the absence of leaders, group members are likely to pursue their own objectives. The business definition of group specifies that a team has a sense of direction that it follows; a move in a certain path that the company forges; and the acknowledgement of team spirit is also included in the definition.

BASS (1990) acknowledged the benefit of collaboration in groups and stated that when a corporation implements a teamwork strategy, corporate goals and objectives are effectively accomplished; there is a greater possibility that the organization will achieve its corporate goals and objectives. With team spirit, employees are highly motivated and eager to utilize their knowledge and intelligence for the organization's benefit (Crother-Laurin, 2006). The success of an organization is contingent upon the caliber, timeliness, effectiveness, and acceptance of its leaders' judgments. The total performance of an organization mirrors the caliber of managerial decisions. In an effort to remain competitive, businesses are dramatically altering their strategies; it is the role of leaders to steer the firm toward success and transformation.

Follower Conduct

Under the followership concept, leaders are given the responsibility of being the forerunners and commanding for follower values and trust, as well as developing effective characteristics of effective followership. Leaders are viewed as role models and the individuals who forge a path to be followed by their team.

In times of transition, the transformational leadership model is crucial; the leader must be viewed as the agent of change and must endeavor to develop a successful change strategy. The transformation can only be achieved if there is emotional intelligence and high team cohesion; the manner in which teams adapt to change can be interpreted as a behavior that they must adopt; as change is unavoidable, it is crucial to have an effective change process.

In transformational leadership, the following four characteristics are essential:

Idealistic impact

The leader's duty is to be the agent of change who fosters a sense of identity, self-respect, and ethical behavior inside the team; to achieve this effect, a leader must be of high moral standing and have a clear vision of where he wants the team to go.

Intellectual stimulation

Leaders stimulate the development of one's talents, inventiveness, and originality through fostering high-career-development environments.

Individual consideration

As much as it is a leader's responsibility to ensure the success of the group as a whole, they should recognize that groups are comprised of individuals with various concerns, and they should be willing to listen to each individual.

Inspirational motivation

Leaders are responsible for defining a shared vision within the team and ensuring its realization (Pielstick, 1998).

A Conditional Leadership Model: Fielder's LPC

According to Fred Fiedler's (1922) theory, there is no single model of leadership; rather, the model of leadership adopted by an organization is a function of situational contingency. The theory explains that leadership style and situational favorableness determine the approach that leaders take in various situations. According to the notion, leaders are responsible for establishing the group's conduct and influencing the situation's trends and dynamics. Low-LPC (task-oriented) and high-LPC (relationship-oriented) leaders might be crucial in certain scenarios, depending on the task. The idea specifies three scenarios that necessitate a different leadership approach: leader-member The utilization of relationships, task structure, and the authority of the role of group leader influences the effectiveness of group development dynamics.

In the case of emergencies or situations requiring immediate judgments, it is ineffective for the leader to consult team members on the next steps; instead, he should adopt a task-oriented leadership style. Alternately, leaders can be more successful in change management if they embrace a leader-member Relations approach.

The theory's assumptions constitute its weaknesses, the first of which is the theory's inflexibility; the theory thinks that circumstances in the real world are unambiguous, however the real world is comprised of a variety of difficulties requiring diverse leadership qualities and approaches.

Another assumption of the theory is the leader-situation match / mismatch; it assumes that some situations demand for attributes of leadership that can be found in a variety of persons; hence, the theory assumes that leaders are rigid and their leadership styles can be flexible. The reality is that leaders have a great degree of adaptability and can handle situations requiring diverse leadership styles. (Lewis, 2004)

Delegation and Authority

In the context of in-group management, effective leaders adopt the spirit of delegation. Delegation can be re-defined as a strategic approach to shifting roles and empowering subordinates to perform duties that were previously performed by individuals in a position of higher authority. Team leaders must cultivate the talents, skills, and leadership abilities of their team members, and strategic delegations are the most effective method for doing so. When individuals are given a significant role to perform, they feel valued and driven, and collaboration increases as a result.

Note that under delegation, the team leader is still accountable for the outcome of the delegated job, since he has provided instructions to be followed. The empowered staff is given complete responsibility over a project and is held accountable for its results.

When empowering and delegating, it is essential to examine the following factors: the nature of the work being delegated, the level of criticality of the work, the experience, the attitude and behavior of the subordinate, and their dependability. Delegation requires the mentorship qualities of the leader to emerge, and the outcomes of a delegation and empowerment exercise should be quantifiable.

When a team has an effective delegating, mentoring, and empowerment approach, the team's behavior includes good communication within the group, high cohesion, a positive attitude, and a sense of team spirit. Delegation and empowerment are leadership motivational strategies that result in a team with positive conduct that contributes to the team's success (Margerison, 2002).

Conclusion

Group leaders are responsible for building and orchestrating teams, and they play a significant role in shaping team behavior; the team's performance is contingent on their decisions and the manner in which they execute their leadership authority. Leaders must fulfill two primary roles: team player and strategist.

In moments of transition, leaders play a critical role in transitioning the organization to a new environment; they must motivate and oversee change strategy. To build a well-orchestrated team, leaders must delegate, empower, and provide effective communication channels. The behavior, attitude, perception, and decisiveness of leaders have a direct effect on the work environment and work outputs; the success of an organization is contingent on the quality, timeliness, efficiency, and acceptance of its leaders' decisions.

References

Bass,B., & Bass, R. (2008). The Bass Handbook of Leadership: Theory, Research, and Applications in Management. Boston: Simon and Schuster.

C. Crother-Laurin (2006). Effective teams are a sign of sound leadership. The Journal of Quality and Participation, Volume 29 Issue 3, Number 4,

Hughes, R.L., R.C. Ginnett, and G.J. Curphy (2009). Leadership: enhancing experience's lessons The New York-based McGraw-Hill Irwin company.

Kotlyar, I., & Karakowsky, L. (2006). Leading Strife? Leadership Behaviors and Group Conflict. Small Group Research, (37), 4, 377–403.

Lewis, P. (2004). Team-Based Project Management, Beard Books, Washington.

C. Margerison (2002). The leadership of a team. Cengage Learning: Gale

Newstrom, J.W., and E.E. Scannell (1998). The comprehensive guide to team building games, including trust-building exercises and other enjoyable activities. Manhattan: McGraw-Hill

Parker, G. (2009).

Team Leadership: 20 Successful Methods. Human Resource Development Press, New Jersey.

Pielstick, C.D. (1998). A meta-ethnographic investigation of the transforming leader Community College Review, 26(3), pages 15 to 34.

Wheelen, L.,& Hunger, J. (1998). Strategic Management and Business Policy: Entering the Global Society of the 21st Century Addison Wesley, Massachusetts

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McDonald’s Accounting Information System A Level English Language Essay Help

Introduction

This article investigates McDonald's information system to provide answers to questions regarding information systems and the accounting information system. These concerns are addressed in four cases involving McDonald's. The article discusses the internal and external users of the system, the information generated by McDonald's information system, the decisions made as a result of the system's outputs, as well as the company's strategy and strategic position. In addition, the article covers the company's transaction cycles as well as the activities that comprise these cycles, the source documents involved, the reports generated, and the company's chart of accounts. The article examines the business cycle of the corporation to identify data processing personnel, information flow within the organization, and documents and databases utilized by the system. The article finishes with an evaluation of the company's database management system and the DBMS logical data model, as well as the benefits of the database system, implementation issues, and the level of accountant engagement.

Regarding McDonald's

McDonald's Corporation, commonly referred to as McDonald's, is the "largest fast-food service chain in the world" (Ferrante, 2008, p.143). It was developed in 1940 in the United States and has since expanded throughout the world. The corporation is currently present in the Middle East, where the branch under investigation in this article is situated.

McDonald's vision is to provide the best quick-service restaurant experience in the world. Being the best necessitates delivering superior quality, service, cleanliness, and value in order to make every client in every restaurant happy (Pradhan, 2006, p.326).

The data processing systems

The information system at McDonald's is founded on an Enterprise Resource Planning system. This system supports the "office and user productivity support system," "transaction processing system," and "decision making support system" (Morley & Parker, 2009, p.504). The office and user productivity support system is utilized to facilitate organization-wide communication and productivity. The transaction processing system aids in transaction recording and processing. The decision making support system provides decision makers with relevant information.

In the office and user productivity support system, the document processing system and communication system are subsystems. The transaction processing subsystems consist of the order entry system, accounting systems (including accounts receivable, accounts payable, and general ledger) and the payroll system (Morley & Parker, 2009, p.508). The decision making support system is comprised of the management information system (MIS). The MIS is intended to give timely and consistent information to decision makers.

External and internal users of information

The department managers and company executives are the primary internal users of the company's information. The majority of external users are shareholders or investors, business partners, and financial institutions. Financial information, sales and accounting information, information on human resources, and inventory data are produced for external consumers. Information for external consumers consists primarily of financial data, particularly the company's financial status.

The systems' outputs

The outputs of the company's information system facilitate decision making. For instance, the sales prediction can be used to make decisions regarding the manufacturing of items; the quantity of goods produced is depending on the anticipated sales. Human resource output is beneficial for making decisions on staff recruiting, personnel training and development, payroll decisions, and incentive providing. Financial information facilitates decisions regarding dividends to shareholders, investments to be made, and whether to seek credit (loans) and additional inventors.

Daily sales figures are data that could be used to generate sales projections. The output of human resources is determined by information such as the number of workers hired by the organization, the number of employees on leave in each department, and the number of employees who have departed each department. Each piece of information intended for the organization's information system is maintained in centralized electronic databases. A computer system (software) is employed to store and manipulate database information. Workstations are a component of the company's information system; they are linked to the central database, allowing for data input and output via these workstations.

McDonald's information system provides extremely valuable information to the organization. It is timely (i.e., available at the time it is required), comprehensive and adequate, and highly accurate. Since the information is accurate and verifiable, it can be considered reliable. Moreover, the information is objective and the majority of it is quantifiable. Additionally, the information is pertinent and inexpensive.

The strategy and strategic position of McDonald's

To enhance its competitiveness, the corporation is targeting both "cost leadership" and "differentiation" (Porter, 2008). Utilizing diverse economies of scale, modern technology, and standardization, the corporation intends to reduce its operational expenses to an acceptable level. The corporation also seeks to distinguish its products from those of its rivals. Its strategy is to develop high-quality items.

McDonald's seeks to obtain the highest market share possible for their products. A higher market share would necessitate increased product research and development activities.

In numerous ways, the Accounting Information System (AIS) assists McDonald's in realizing its goal and strategic position. It delivers pertinent information that is useful for the efficient allocation of resources, eliminates some human processes that would incur additional expenses, and ensures the timely availability of information. Additionally, the AIS improves the effectiveness of data collecting and information reporting.

McDonald's has transaction cycles.

There are numerous transaction cycles at McDonald's. The transaction cycles consist of the accounting cycle, the financial cycle, the payroll cycle, the income cycle, the conversion/production cycle, and the expenditure cycle.

The economic cycle

The financial cycle describes the preliminary business operations of a company. It focuses on the acquisition of resources for the operation of the firm, especially during the startup phase. It entails acquiring the funds required to support various company processes. Capitalization may entail collecting loans from financial institutions or soliciting contributions from shareholders.

The spending pattern

The spending cycle consists mostly of utilizing budgeted resources to complete company tasks and acquiring additional resources required to operate the business.

The earnings cycle

In transaction processing, the revenue cycle is equally significant. It consists of the transactions linked with the selling of business products and the costs associated with sales operations. The conversion cycle comes before the revenue cycle.

Cycle de production/conversion

The production cycle entails the transformation of raw materials into completed goods through the employment of labor, machines, and other equipment. It comprises both payroll and expenditure operations.

The payroll period

Primarily, the payroll cycle entails staffing the organization, or rather recruiting personnel. The varied levels of power among the company's employees affect their wage and bonus packages. This disparity between wage and bonus necessitates accounting.

Accounting process cycle

Each of the aforementioned transaction cycles contains an accounting cycle component. The accounting cycle includes tasks including verifying payrolls and work tickets, issuing invoices, and making purchase orders. In addition to transferring data from paper to the database, the accounting cycle includes validating the data to assure its accuracy. In addition, the cycle includes the creation of financial reports.

McDonald's transaction cycles are depicted in Figure 1.

The accounting and expenditure cycles' transactions

The accounting and expenditure cycles are each comprised of a series of activities (or transactions). The accounting cycle transaction entails the identification of transactions and compilation of source documents, the analysis and classification of transactions, the enumeration of transactions in financial terms, and the determination of the accounts of interest. In addition to documenting transactions (making journals) and constructing T-accounts, or rather ledger accounts, the cycle also entails recording transactions. In addition, trial balances are established during the accounting cycle. The cycle also includes correcting trial balance discrepancies and errors and amending diary entries. In addition, the cycle includes the creation of financial statements, such as balance sheets, income statements, and cash flow statements.

The transactions linked with the spending cycle consist of purchases, payment of goods and services (cash disbursement), and accounts payables.

Source documents

McDonald's utilizes a variety of source documents to collect data for accounting and expense activities. Staff time cards, cash receipts, order forms, invoices, cheques, credit memos, and credit card receipts are among the source documents (Morley & Parker, 2009, p.149).

Reports

During accounting transaction cycles, a number of reports are generated. The majority of these are financial statements, such as income statements, cash flow statements, balance sheets, auditor reports, statements of shareholders' equity, and statements of retained earnings (Brigham & Houston, 2009, p.62; Rich et al, 2009, p.23). These reports are utilized by investors for investment decisions, business owners and executives for strategic management and investment decisions, banks and suppliers for credit decisions, and the government for taxation. These reports are also utilized by applicants for employment within the organization.

Purchase reports, cash disbursement reports, accounts payable reports, and receiving reports are among the reports generated during the expenditure transaction cycle (Delaney & Whittington, 2009, p.94). The buy reports are used to make procurement choices, while the receiving reports are used to authorize payments. The accounts payable reports are useful for making supplier-related choices.

All of these reports provide the pertinent information that the company's stakeholders require in order to make effective decisions.

Accounts ledgers

A listing of the company's accounts defines the chart of accounts. The structure of the chart of accounts is hierarchical and tree-like in appearance. This structure and tree-like view is advantageous because it provides decision makers with an overview of the accounts, simplifies semantic search, is more intuitive, and enables one to view and compute the accounts of interest (Cornyn & Mays, 1997, p.416). The framework is so adaptable that rearranging the accounts is a breeze. The structure's adaptability also permits future expansion or the addition of accounts in response to changing requirements.

Examining McDonald's payroll cycle, one of its business cycles

The McDonald's information system consists of six business cycles: finance, revenue, payroll/personnel, expenditure, production/conversion, and accounting. A thorough evaluation of the payroll/personnel cycle will aid in demonstrating the information system's data flow.

The payroll/personnel cycle involves employee hiring and payment. These include employing employees, approving payroll rates, making deductions, timekeeping, preparing payroll, paying employees, reimbursing payroll taxes, and completing payroll-related tax returns.

Figure 2: Revenue/personnel cycle

Individuals involved in data processing

Numerous individuals and organizations are involved in the payroll/personnel cycle. These individuals and organizations consist of HR personnel and managers, accountants, data entry clerks, banks, financial department employees, and the government's revenue authority.

McDonald's organization chart illustrating employee relationships

Flow of information within the organization

Broad information flows throughout the organization during the payroll cycle. It comprises the personnel rates, number of employees, number of employees departing the organization each year, productivity of employees, etc.

Figure 4 depicts payroll cycle seeding entities and system participants.

A context diagram depicts stakeholders external to the system (i.e., the source and destination of (data) information), whereas a data flow diagram (DFD) depicts the source and destination of data at each level in greater detail.

Figure 5: a context diagram of employee compensation

Data flow diagrams

Figure 6 is a data flow diagram illustrating the payment of employees. Figure 7 is a data flow diagram depicting the payment of tax returns.

Documentation utilized by the system

A variety of papers are utilized by the company's information system. These include cash and credit card receipts, purchase orders, cancelled checks, employee time cards, invoices, and credit memos.

Reports are additional papers utilized by the company's information system. As stated previously, the reports of the corporation comprise financial statements such as cash flow statements, balance sheets, income statements, statements of owners' equity, and statements of retained earnings. Other reports include reports on purchase orders, cash disbursements, accounts payables, and receipts.

Files and databases

The company's information system includes three enormous databases with various tables and files. These databases consist of the database for customers and orders, the database for asset management and inventory control, and the database for human resources. The customers and orders database contains information about customers and purchase orders, such as customers' contact information, whether customers are corporate entities or individuals, customers' relationship with the company, customers' purchase orders and purchases, customers' geographical region and country, and other marketing-relevant data. The asset management database contains information and data pertaining to the company's assets and equity. It contains details about the company's innovations and products. The human resource database contains information about the company's staff, including the current staff, retired employees, and terminated staff, as well as the authority and responsibilities of each staff member. The HR database also contains the wage scales of current employees, their connections and addresses, their academic credentials and other professional information, as well as the important personal information of corporate personnel. In addition to time card data, leave schedules and durations, and other employee-related information, the HR database also stores data regarding employees' tasks. The database's human resource data can be characterized as follows: employee data, training data, job data, project data, and applicant data.

Other devices

In addition to the asset management tool, inventory control system, human resource management tool, and payroll software, other tools comprise the information system.

The database administration system

McDonald's database management system is Oracle (DBMS). This DBMS employs a relational logical data model and possesses a number of advantages that persuaded the company's management to implement it for its information system. Oracle's database management system offers the advantages of a relational data architecture, such as the simple linking of data in multiple entries. In addition, the Oracle DBMS is excellent for supporting the information system due to a number of other characteristics. These characteristics include better security (Oracle allows secure client-to-server connections), rapid operating speed, and support for numerous platforms. This software is enhanced with Oracle features such as flush back recovery and real cluster. Oracle DBMS's atomicity, isolation, durability, and consistency also had a role in the selection of its software to support the information system.

The company's initial database management system for its information system was likewise built on Oracle technologies, although it was inferior to the current system. Therefore, there were no significant data transfer operations to the improved database management system. In reality, the upgrade consisted primarily of updating the software to provide additional capabilities, such as greater security and information system support. However, as the organization has expanded, additional tables and entries have been added to the databases.

The benefits of the DBMS to the business

The advantages of the Oracle DBMS to McDonald’s have been enormous. The system has improved efficiency in storage and retrieval of data and

World Macroeconomics: Positive And Negative Aspects A Level English Language Essay Help

Describe the perspectives held by classical and Keynesian economists. How did the economics at the time these theories were developed influence them? Which hypothesis is more applicable to the current economic climate? Why?

Classical economists adhere to the laissez-faire market theory. This is also known as the free market, and it is important to stress that it requires minimal or no government intervention. Regarding economic decisions, this notion empowers individuals to behave in accordance with their self-interests, and it is via this that economic resources are allocated in accordance with market demands.

Keynesian economists, on the other hand, rely on expenditure and aggregate demand to understand market economics. Under this theory, it is believed that private and public actions typically affect aggregate demand. Keynesian economics is currently the most applicable to the economy because it is based solely on extremely simple logic and there is no deity, so everything is under control (Colander, 2010).

Why do Keynesian economists argue that unemployment and inflation are not automatically adjusted by market forces? How do they intend to stabilize economic fluctuations? Why do they assume that changes in government expenditure have a different impact on the economy than changes in income taxes?

Keynesian economists believe that market forces do not automatically adapt for unemployment and inflation since production is more important than consumption capability. According to (Colander, 2010), "under this concept, economists determine unemployment and inflation levels within an economy by applying the aggregate demand level" (p. 89). According to the economists of this school of thinking, the economy gains when the government uses its funds to generate a high rate of return. In addition, proponents of Keynesian economics think that reducing taxes will enhance economic activity in a country. In this instance, a reduction in the tax rate will result in a subsequent expansion of the economy.

Which two factors have the biggest impact on aggregate demand and supply, in your opinion? Justify your response with a specific instance

Shocks of the aggregate market are fluctuations at the aggregate market equilibrium caused by changing aggregate demand and aggregate supply drivers. Due to the fact that aggregate supply is represented by two curves, the long run and the short run, aggregate market shocks analysis are frequently considered for both the short run and the long run. On the aggregate demand side, the expenditures on consumption, investment, net exports, and government purchases determine the shift in the demand curve (Colander, 2010, p. 104). On the supply side, however, the quality and amount of accessible resources are the most important factors, both in the short and long term (Colander, 2010).

What distinguishes contractionary fiscal policies from expansionary fiscal policies? Which is more suitable today? Explain your response. How might budgetary contraction and expansion influence your organization?

The government employs expansionary fiscal policy, which results in an increase in money through tax cuts or by raising the purchasing power of services and goods. When the economy is deemed to be functioning below full employment, this instrument is utilized to increase total revenue. In contrast, contractionary fiscal policy is a weapon used by the government to reduce the money supply through taxation, expenditure restrictions, or both.

It occurs when the economy produces more than its potential production. Both approaches are effective in the current economy only when government expenditure exceeds total revenues and there is a budget deficit. In order for these two policies to be advantageous and maintain equilibrium within an organization, they must be implemented appropriately and in a timely manner. Failing to do so may result in more economic problems.

What purposes does money serve? How do commercial banks and the Federal Reserve create currency? Is monetary policy in the United States done independently? Explain your response. Is it essential that monetary policy remain impartial to all parties? What is the rationale, or why not?

Money acts as a medium of exchange, unit of exchange, and store of wealth. Commercial banks produce money when they lend out deposits, so converting their liabilities within the bank into assets for the individual receiving the loan. The federal banks can additionally expand the money supply by purchasing bonds. Monetary policy cannot be called independent in the United States. The federal banks have the freedom to choose the means of achieving their objectives, but not the freedom to select the objectives themselves. In order for equity to prevail on the market, it is essential that monetary policy retain its independence. These parties may also use it for their own benefit (Colander, 2010).

What distinguishes contractionary from expansionary monetary policy? What is the purpose of each policy during a depression, a recession, or a thriving economy? Which style of monetary policy is more suitable at present, and why?

The difference between expansionary and contractionary monetary policy is the difference between the banking system and the economy. The purpose of contractionary policy is to lower money supply in order to combat inflation, whereas one of the objectives of expansionary policy is to raise money supply in order to stimulate economic growth. The objective is shifting, which indicates that the lower the monetary demand policy, the larger the interest rate decline. Today's fiscal monetary policy is appropriate given the economy's participation in the entire endurance of the recession.

What impact does a government deficit have on the economy? Identify two instances in modern American history where budget deficits occurred. What were the causes of the shortfalls during these epochs?

When there is deficit spending during periods of recession, there are positive effects of the deficit. During these recessions, unemployment rates are high and aggregate demand is low (Colander, 2010). According to Keynesian economists, deficit spending enables a government to create additional employment possibilities and thus enhance aggregate demand. Negative features of a deficit, on the other side, include weak currencies, stagnant debt, increased interest rates, and ultimately poor economic growth. In light of the current state of the economy, deficit spending is the optimal course of action, as it generates liquidity and jobs.

How are foreign exchange rates established? How do fluctuations in interest rates, inflation, productivity, and income affect currency exchange rates? What are the pros and cons of a weak dollar vs a strong dollar in terms of imports, exports, foreign and domestic markets?

Foreign exchange occurs when banks sell and purchase huge volumes of foreign currency from other nations. The currency exchange rate is mostly determined by the floating currency system, which functions similarly to the supply-and-demand technique. In this instance, the rate is spontaneously adjusted by the market to account for inflation and other economic forces. The pegged system, also known as a fixed system, is employed when currency rates are regulated and artificially maintained by a government. When a country's interest rates are high, more investors will purchase its currency, hence increasing its demand.

Increased inflation results in a decline in the value of the currency, whereas high productivity causes the demand to increase. A strong dollar results in increased purchases of foreign goods, which is advantageous for both consumers and international tourists. A weak dollar results in less purchases of foreign goods, hence increasing the price of imported goods.

How does a surplus in the federal budget influence the U.S. economy? Identify two instances in modern American history where budget surpluses existed. Why did these historical periods have surpluses?

As a result of having additional funds to spend, a government budget surplus results in lower tax rates and an expansion of benefit programs. 1998-1999 and 2000-2001 are examples of budget surpluses in the United States' recent past.

1998 – $69.2B 1999 – $125.6B 2000 – $236.4B 2001 – 127.3B

The surplus was due to the existence of additional revenues from the Social Security trust fund and the Federal Reserve's decrease of short-term interest rates.

What are the advantages and disadvantages of deficits and surpluses? What policy is optimal for the current economy? Explain your response

As the government functions with insufficient cash, a budget deficit results in higher tax rates and a reduction in beneficiary programs. This scenario in U.S. history may be traced back to when the country became a superpower during the Second World War. The deficit resulted from the enormous accumulation of loans and the increase in defense spending.

What are the probable repercussions of a nation's high overall debt? If you could implement a remedy to the nation's long-term debt, what would it be and why?

The possible risks faced by nations with enormous overall indebtedness result in a downgrading of government obligations, which causes concern on the financial markets. In addition to increasing bond yield spreads, it could also undermine a nation's confidence. This causes countries to fear partnering with the suffering nation in trade difficulties. I would develop global governance to prevent countries from maintaining large current account imbalances as a long-term solution (Colander, 2010).

It is always the country that imports goods that gains from a tariff, while the country that exports goods loses since they must pay a tax that is factored into the overall price.

What impact does the Federal Reserve's net sale of government bonds have on the money supply, interest rates, and the economy? What impact does the Federal Reserve's net purchase of government bonds have on money supply, interest rates, and the economy? Why would the government adopt an economic stimulus program?

When the Federal Reserve sells net government bonds, the money supply grows and interest rates fall. Where there is a buyer, money supply decreases and interest rates rise. The government launches an economic stimulus program to improve purchasing power by raising the money supply.

Order the elements that influence the discount interest rate from most to least significant. Justify your positions.

Inflation; Inflation lowers the value of the dollar, hurting both investment returns and purchasing power.

This is based on monetary objectives, and hence the monetary committee determines interest rates.

Investment risk; as investment risk rises, investors will seek compensation for the risk, and as a result, they favor riskier investments over less risky ones.

Who gains from tariffs and quotas? Who loses? Why do protectionist trade policies assist domestic markets? How do protectionist trade policies effect the wealth and fiscal policy of a government?

There are several sorts of tariffs connected to importation and exportation, and their purpose is to safeguard consumers and domestic employment from the increased competition posed by imported goods, which threatens domestic industry. It is important to recognize that protectionist trade policies help domestic markets by limiting competition from foreign goods. Additionally, developing industries are given with protection, while national economic security is overly protected. The resulting fees are added to the government's coffers, and the decrease in domestic competition is anticipated to boost the nation's gross domestic product.

Who gains from tariffs and quotas? Who loses? Why do protectionist trade policies assist domestic markets? How do protectionist trade policies effect the wealth and fiscal policy of a government?

Tariffs and quotas are essential for protecting domestic producers and jobs. Foreign producers and importers are the primary losers here. Domestic markets profit from the protectionist strategy since the price of domestically produced items is lower than the high-priced imports that result from tariffs. Tariffs and quotas create government revenue. Import tariffs are a sort of tax that goes directly to the government. On the other side, quotas are advantageous to the government because the protected firms employ more workers.

What impact does a trade surplus have? What impact does a trade deficit have? What impact do trade deficits and surpluses have on your industry?

A trade surplus provides a route for incoming foreign currency. A trade deficit results in an outflow of funds from the country. Within the context of an organization's commerce, a surplus results in excellent living standards since excess supplies are received, resulting in enough for everyone, but a deficit results in bad debts and consequently low living standards because there is a shortage and not everyone is satisfied (Colander, 2010).

Why are trade agreements essential for the countries involved? How does international trade affect the U.S. level of life relative to that of a small industrial nation or a developing nation? How does international trade affect the standard of living in a country? What influence does it have on the way Americans live, spend, and consume?

Trade agreements are contracts that are both legally enforceable and legally binding. Trade agreements have a tremendous impact on how a nation interacts and operates in terms of the trade of goods and services. Initially, they improve accountability and transparency since parties are compelled to fulfill their commitments and ensure that their concerns are delivered.

Failure may ultimately result in costly financial consequences, which increases commitment. International trade has provided the United States with a diversified market and employment options, resulting in a higher quality of life as compared to a small industrial or emerging nation where such opportunities appear to be scarce. A nation that engages in international trade will often enjoy growth in all fields. The developments may take the shape of infrastructure and international relations, which lead to an improvement in the level of living.

Reference

Colander, D. C. (2010). Macroeconomics (8th ed.). Boston: McGraw-Hill.

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Information Systems Strategic Planning In Business A Level English Language Essay Help

Executive Synopsis

In 1995, Perisher Blue Pty. Ltd. was established. The corporation consists of the Perisher Valley, Smiggin Holes, Mount Blue Cow, Guthega, station, and Skiupe Alpine railway's infrastructure and resources. The ambition of Perisher Blue to be the preeminent four-season destination mountain resort in Australia, with world-class amenities based on ecologically friendly principles, required a complete reengineering of corporate operations. This reengineering approach is founded on the Information Systems strategy. This paper promotes a more straightforward realignment of information technologies with company objectives and the management strategy.

The strategic strategy for the information system addresses not only technology challenges but also the administration of Perisher Blue's information resources. Management of the information systems implementation plan necessitates networking between service departments and the IT department. This relationship has been outlined in the plan to guarantee that the ownership of the project is established precisely.

Introduction

Information systems strategic planning is a significant part of enterprises in the 21st century. It is always possible for business strategy plans to lack the technical competencies essential to translate them into the practical competitiveness required in today's cutthroat global market. Information technology also evolves at a rapid rate, necessitating that businesses keep pace with it or fail and close their doors. Without a marriage between business requirements and existing information communication technologies facilitated by an IT strategic plan and vice versa, firms risk becoming obsolete in the global market. In prior years, IT strategies were considered as change enablers; however, this perception has shifted, and IT strategies are now viewed as change drivers. This necessitates IT solutions that not only aid in the attainment of company goals, but also revolutionize and reengineer business processes. In summary, enterprises are seeking proactive and reactive information systems, making IT strategy development a continuous process involving environmental analysis, strategy development, strategy execution, evaluation, and strategic modification (Bischoff-Turner, 2008).

Strategy development methodology

Perisher Blue as an organization requires an Information systems strategy plan that will support the achievement of its business objectives of being a market leader, achieving customer happiness, and providing clients with quality services. This strategic plan will address the development of technology infrastructure and applications to guarantee that Perisher Blue achieves its business objectives. The plan shall be revised annually to ensure its continued relevance to Perisher Blue's expansion. This strategy was established by combining service-driven and technology-driven approaches.

Following an assessment of the current system, business requirements, government rules, and environment, the IT strategy has been designed. Relevant technologies are recommended, but they will need to be modified to fit Perisher Blue precisely. There is no ultimate IT system or solution for a business process; therefore, Perisher Blue must conduct an annual evaluation of its IT infrastructure to guarantee that it continues to satisfy its needs and provide the essential competitive advantage. Routine hardware maintenance also contributes to the effectiveness of their operations.

Object of IS strategy

Information technology is a vital corporate tool that permeates nearly all company functions. The Perisher Blue resort's information systems strategy is a document that details the technology solutions required to meet the strategic goals defined in the master plan. The aims of the information systems strategy are connected with the business objectives of Perisher Blue; hence, it is a document driven by business objectives. The goal of the IS strategy is to facilitate the technical interventions required to realize Perisher Blue's vision of becoming Australia's preeminent four-season destination mountain resort with world-class facilities based on ecologically friendly principles. IS strategy and business strategy are linked, however as IS strategy is a catalyst for change and innovation, additional tactical and departmental strategies have been added (Ingman, 2002). The approach emphasized not only the provision of cutting-edge technologies, but also the incorporation of resilience characteristics within such systems. The objective of Perisher Blue's IS approach is as follows:

Facilitate access to lifts and resort facilities at Perisher Blue. Develop a robust, secure, and sustainable IT infrastructure that will support all Perisher Blue-related systems. Ensure that business operations and processes continue to operate at an effective and competitive level.

Summary of corporate strategy

The business strategy of Perisher Blue has been outlined in its management master plan. It seeks to dominate the resort and skiing industry. The primary focus of the business strategy is the provision of infrastructure and services for alpine skiing. It also seeks to ensure conformity with international and environmental norms. Based on the planned objectives, Perisher Blue's aspires to operate a business that provides high-quality customer service and is also environmentally conscious. Perisher Blue's customer-centric business approach is supported by its goals of providing high-quality services and providing world-class facilities.

Analysis internal/external of business objectives Internal

The internal evaluation of corporate objectives guarantees that they are realizable with the available resources and, if necessary, identifies strategies to overcome obstacles. This analysis will recommend the infrastructure and technologies required to accomplish a specific objective. In addition, it determines the essential management and financial interventions. Included among internal corporate objectives are the following:

Increased snowmaking to allow skiing throughout the year. Create a client relationship management system. Enhanced systems for sharing information Customers have increased through a global advertising approach. Enabling convenient access to the resort's services by providing upgraded lifts and a lift control system.

External

This examination examines the objectives of Perisher Blue from an external standpoint. These variables are crucial because they define Perisher Blue's interactions with customers, government, civic society, and environmentalists. Among the constraints resulting from external analysis are:

Environmental compliance regarding facilities development. Harmonization of safety and ambiance for visitors. Competition. Superior services and facilities.

Environmental Assessment

Negative Positive

Internal Strengths

Most dependable snowfall Maximum amount of lifts highest elevations Snowmaking technique Alpine train

Weaknesses

Separate Ski areas Unwieldy system of security management Few accommodations available Access to construction lifts is restricted due to the building site's rugged topography.

External Opportunities

Forecasted expansion of the ski resort market Available expansion spaced year-round winter sports

Threats

Environmental deterioration Competitors Unfavorable climate conditions Substitute leisure activities Accidents Global warming

Strengths

According to the Perisher Blue SWOT analysis, the resort's strengths include its relatively big size (12 km2) and diversity of activities. The supporting infrastructure, which includes power, hydraulics, and communications, is crucial to the success of the Perisher Blue resort. Possessing a strong technical infrastructure, ski amenities such as a ski school, competition facilities, and restaurants gives Perisher Blue an advantage over its rivals; hence, these are considered as strengths that the company may utilize to enhance its market position. Perisher Blue might also use the fact that their excellent customer service aids in the development of a brand that is instantly identifiable to clients.

Weaknesses

The SWOT analysis found that Perisher Blue has several weaknesses, including high operational expenses and technology issues. The guests of the Perisher Blue resort fumble with their identification cards, gloves, and jackets in preparation for the lift's scanning procedure. This demonstrates that the current IT infrastructure is insufficient to address these issues. The additional problem of high operational costs is that financial resources are spent on servicing and maintaining technology, which has a negative impact on Perisher Blue's overall performance. Skier management and resort facilities are not well managed to increase the company's efficiency; the company should outsource some of its activities since technology is inadequately used to regulate the flow of visitors through the resort.

Opportunities

The market for ski resorts is projected to increase at a consistent pace of between 2% and 4.6% over the next 25 years, presenting Perisher Blue with numerous opportunities. The IT department of the Perisher Blue resort is extendable, which enables the establishment of more effective company management solutions. The resort may optimize its potential by outsourcing a portion of its IT in order to improve the overall management of the resort without inconveniencing its guests, as evidenced by the lift identification process and their movement within the resort. As part of its business objectives, Perisher Blue might take use of all of these opportunities in conjunction with a strategic IT vision implementation approach that can boost business performance if the implementation process is executed correctly.

Threats

Threats to Perisher Blue's activities include competition, the natural environment, and other unforeseeable external influences. Snow production is predicted to decrease as a result of global warming and rising temperatures, hurting the operations of Perisher Blue as snow is their primary resource. There is a potential that Perisher Blue's competitors will take advantage of inconveniencies created by technology flaws, such as the lift malfunction, and lower the resort's clientele as a result of increased competition. There is no framework in place to monitor the performance and evaluation of the company's systems in order to increase its competitive edge (Lowson, 2002). Among the unanticipated variables that pose a danger to Perisher Blue are the growing choice of tourists for less expensive areas and the rising expense of winter tourism. In the SWOT analysis, these risks plus the fact that data indicate an increase in accidents involving skiing and winter sports were evaluated as potential threats.

Important Success Factors

Without benchmarks, comparisons cannot be made; therefore, the success of an information systems strategy must be measured (Leavy, 2003). The value of an information systems strategy is typically difficult to assign, but one of the success indicators is the delivery of actual planned systems that function as expected. Perisher Blue has the following markers of success:

Customers from all around the world who are really satisfied. Integrated and secure business apps A scalable, robust, and secure IT infrastructure that incorporates resilience. Skier management systems and amenities of the highest caliber.

Requirements for Business Process and Information

Current systems evaluation (findings) Infrastructure Hardware Communications

The communications network is comprised of network equipment that facilitates voice and data transmission. Additionally, the network architecture supports both cable and wireless communication. There are no documented continuity of operations and catastrophe recovery strategies in place.

Desktop and Server Environment

Multiple servers at Perishable Blue run Microsoft Windows 2003. These servers provide support for existing e-mail communication systems and application software. Through network architecture, all desktops in the organization are linked to the servers. Perisher Blue utilizes mobile computer equipment but also has a wireless network.

Programming application

Perishable blue has not relied much on technological applications to optimize business procedures. The majority of corporate and operational processes are manual, bureaucratic, and paper-based. The Microsoft Office suite serves administrative and clerical tasks.

The business application portfolio of Perisher Blue is confined to MYOP with a very rigid accounting and finance system. The usefulness of MYOP is limited to enhancing accounting functions, which in the majority of firms are not strategic functions. Moreover, this system lacks the ability to integrate with other finance-related systems, resulting in redundant and duplicate data.

The website of Perisher Blue is extremely simplistic, containing solely static information and no applications. Without an interactive Internet presence, a competitive firm such as Perisher Blue should have a dynamic website that supports e-commerce apps and provides users with up-to-date information. Additionally, the website should include applications such as customer relationship management and an online payment system.

There are no customer management systems in place at Perisher Blue. This is a crucial advantage that every competitive organization must possess. Microsoft office suite is one of the software products utilized by Perisher Blue to handle basic office operations.

SQL database management systems are in place at Perisher Blue, which are quite strict and support limited data capacity. Due to the absence of an anti-virus application, the information security systems in place are not very dependable.

IT management

Information technology assets are of the utmost importance and must be protected by any progressive organization. Without a defined IT assets management system and a customer support handling system, even the most fundamental IT operational plan is doomed to fail (Griggs, 2002). Perishable Blue is missing an IT helpdesk and IT asset management software.

Currently, Perisher Blue lacks an established and functioning information systems disaster recovery and preparedness plan. This leaves the business vulnerable to the destructive powers of nature and man. Every IT infrastructure must incorporate a disaster recovery strategy.

Analyse of business process redesign

All business operations must be realigned in order to achieve Perisher Blue's vision of being the preeminent four-season destination mountain resort in Australia, with world-class amenities based on ecologically friendly principles. This vision cannot be realized without a process realignment because the current systems are redundant. Changes to company procedures must be essential and pertinent to achieving objectives (Lowson, 2002). The subsequent stages require readjustment.

Visitor security administration

This requires reorganization to eliminate the inconvenience of customers hunting for their identification cards. Systeme de gestion de la sécurité qui éliminent cette encumbrance et maintiennent la sécurité an un niveau élevé, tout en assurant que l'ambiance des clients n'est pas

Database management

Data storage and processing by several processes and applications need the replacement of the current SQL database management system with a strong BDMS that possesses huge storage capacities and increased data security.

Skier management

The primary form of recreation at Perisher Blue is skiing, and this sport needs to be enhanced through the development of facilities and the implementation of a skier management system. This will be a source of interest for recreation-based clients, a portion of Perisher Blue's customer base.

Ecofriendly structures

Perisher Blue's natural features are one of its strengths; consequently, ecologically appropriate facility building is required. Being environmentally sustainable will allow Perisher Blue to maintain its customer attraction activities. This will also exempt the company from environmental degradation-related lawsuits, which can pose reputational concerns detrimental to commercial operations.

Customer Management System

Customer happiness is essential to the success of any enterprise. Without providing clients with superior goods and services, the company will constantly be on the verge of failure. Therefore, Perisher Blue must rethink its customer engagement operations immediately. All facilities must adhere to international standards, and customer service must be enhanced through the use of customer relationship management tools. This system is interactive since it will collect the necessary client feedback for development and quality enhancement.

Justification of new IS/IT opportunities Cost saving

Integration and reengineering of business processes produce lean organizations. Since integration reduces the number of employees, personnel costs will decrease. With the proactive systems approach, new information technologies will be able to merge different functional departments through the process of reengineering (Boyle, 2001). This usually reduces personnel