Behavioral Leadership Theory Admission College Essay Help

Table of Contents
Maturity Ranges Examples Useful Reinforcement Contrary Reinforcement Extinction Conclusion References

Understanding leadership theories enhances the success of any leader in their supervisory and leadership responsibilities, particularly when teamwork or a group of individuals is involved. In addition, understanding leadership theories assists individuals in identifying and applying their management technique or strategy into their leadership job. The behavioral leadership theory is one of the leadership theories that incorporates leadership adaptation in response to changing events or variances in the managed personnel (Blanchard, 2018). Governance is a process of power, and everyone can become a leader at some point in their lives. Those who care about people, are accountable, and are well-organized are successful leaders. This study will therefore focus on behavioral motivational theory, its history, ethical and legal implications, and biblical examples associated with the idea.

The core tenet of behaviorism is that human behavior is modified by observable and quantifiable changes. Behaviorism is comprised of a vast array of positive and negative motivational tactics that have been established over time through considerable research. These approaches cause behaviorism to be considered as a scientific psychology field, which has generated numerous ethical difficulties in the past (Rieger, 2017). In long-term conditions, not all of behaviorism's motivational tactics are effective. Therefore, some will require modifications to ensure organizational procedures are consistent. When implemented into situational leadership, behavioral theory is an ideal philosophy of motivation to explore as a habitual drive to do good (Mea & Sims, 2019). Behaviorists concur that employee motivation is less intrinsic and more purposefully maintained by positive leadership, which promotes behavioral and productivity improvements (Mkandawire, 2017). Therefore, management personnel should utilize operant conditioning in an effort to establish leadership positions and effectively apply behaviorism leadership theory.

Behaviorism is characterized by its use of positive and negative consequences to promote or diminish voluntary acts. Conditioning and enhancing cognitive habits is a task that requires certain procedures. The idea suggests that attitudes can be shaped by a program of rewards and penalties that, by reinforcing constructive activity, strives to eradicate antisocial conduct (Sekar Gondo & Prasetya, 2017). The fundamental tenet of the behaviorism leadership philosophy is that there is no one correct method of leadership. The leadership model is based on the desire and talent of the led team, as well as the purpose or function that must be accomplished (Blanchard, 2018). Effective leadership must also be applicable to the mission and easily adaptable to the individuals being led based on their behaviors.

This essentially dictates the theory and its core premise. All leaders have distinct preferred methods of controlling others, which can be categorized into four styles: supporting, coaching, delegating, or leading (Yasir & Mohamad, 2016). Authentic leadership, however, does not utilize the style with which one is most comfortable, but rather recognizes the type of leadership that team members desire. It is the concept of servant leadership that forms the basis of the teaching paradigm that Jesus employed in the Bible, and it is the ideal strategy for motivational behaviorism.

Maturity Ranges

Before evaluating leadership styles, those in charge should focus on the team members as individuals. In addition to the management style that may be employed, the level of maturity of the team members has a vital part in selecting the leadership style that will be employed. This relates mostly to the amount of expertise and skill of the group's members. According to Blanchard (2018), team members can be categorized into four stages of development, which must be taken into account when selecting a leadership style. The majority of these are eager novices (D1), disillusioned learners (D2), competent though cautious performers (D3), and independent achievers (D4) (Blanchard, 2018). D1 refers to team members who are highly dedicated but lack the necessary knowledge and skills. D2 is for people with specific competence but with flaws that result in a lack of commitment. D3 refers to the team members who are becoming increasingly professional, albeit to varying degrees. The final tier, D4, is comprised of members that are highly qualified and committed.

Additionally, the idea of behaviorism identifies four key leadership styles: guiding, coaching, assisting, and delegating, which are reworked versions of the previously outlined progression phases. Direction entails issuing directives and stipulating what must be accomplished. Coaching involves leading and motivating the group members (Blanchard, 2018). Supporting is more encouraging than guiding, and ultimately, delegation stresses hands-off situations in which team members are solely responsible for making and carrying out decisions. This last one is especially useful at the beginning of the procedure, when the group lacks the required abilities. However, as the project advances and group members get more qualified and experienced, the leader must be adaptable enough to adjust the management style to the next level of maturity. Consequently, the behavioral theory takes into account both the complexity of maturity and the difficulty of choosing the most appropriate leadership style for a given situation (Cafferky, 2017). If an outline has been produced, behaviorism's motivational principle can be implemented in any circumstance.

Examples

The clearest example of behaviorism is found in Matthew 25:14-15, where a master embarked on a journey and delegated his wealth to his employees. According to their respective capacities, he distributed five bags of gold to the first servant, two bags to the second, and one bag to the third and last servant. The first two protagonists sold their gold and increased their savings by twofold. The third individual hid the cash out of fear. When the master returned, the first two workers were “promoted” and given additional responsibilities, while the third employee was “fired” and his gold was transferred to the first employee. The poem is a fantastic illustration of how professions function and the growth of followers through behavioral leadership. It is an accurate representation of how vocations operate and the creation of followers via behavioral leadership. Everyone begins their profession in a different situation, but it is the individual's assessment of their abilities and potential to overcome obstacles that determines their success (Mauer et al., 2017). The servants were not pitted against one another, but they were all given the same instructions and their skills were utilized in diverse ways.

Many individuals conceal their talents due to anxiety, shyness, and lack of exposure to new situations (Mkandawire, 2017). It can be incredibly beneficial if these skills are not withheld and these individuals focus on the areas of development. For individuals who have started at the bottom and risen to become great leaders, success stories are widely available, and these tales have long acted as inspiration for aspiring leaders. Additionally, behavioral leaders are cautious while employing these skills and developing future organization leaders.

Useful Reinforcement

To encourage healthy conduct, the same positive characteristics must be rewarded positively. This is the most essential aspect of David's reward for fighting Goliath. Jonathan, the son of King Saul, praised David to his father. He told him not to kill or even harm David because he had done nothing wrong to him. Instead, David had risked his life to save the country of Israel by killing Goliath, which was to Saul's great advantage. Saul took an oath after hearing Jonathan that he would never hurt David as long as he was alive. In this instance, after David's service to the king, Jonathan refused to let his execution. Jonathan argues that God picked David and that the king is only praised in David's place.

Although normal incentive systems are not as harsh as this scenario of life and death, they may provide a theoretical justification for reward-driven human behavior (Itri et al., 2019). Leaders should seek strategies to dramatically enhance the behavior of their subordinates. Such an engagement provides a notion of the management's judgment of the team's success. Leaders are not always expected to be at the forefront, but they must constantly be in a position to demonstrate their team's deserved virtues.

Contrary Reinforcement

Generally, undesirable action that is followed by discomfort or aggravation is unlikely to be repeated. In Numbers 13-14, Moses dispatches twelve spies from twelve tribes to explore Canaan and report on the land's fertility and fruitfulness. Only two spies returned with a positive report. However, the remaining 10 supplied a bogus report based on their opinions. As a result, only the initial two agents were sent back to Canaan to continue their investigation. Because punishment after intervention modifies behavior, the most common moment for negative behavior to occur is when terrible news is not required (Itri et al., 2019). The key to effectively presenting bad news to behavioral leaders is to craft a message that is direct, factual, and brief. A reduction in dissatisfaction is the result of good communication that outlines objectives.

Teams may endure bad news if they have faith in the messenger, but a lack of consistent communication necessitates corrective control, which could be real or perceived negative reinforcement. In accordance with the truth of this verse, God had prepared the adversaries of Moses's people by instilling fear and anxiety in them when the spies were spotted. By reducing the negative behaviors of ten unreliable agents, the chance of future false reports was lowered.

Extinction

The majority of individuals will avoid performing an ambitious deed if there is no reward. In an environment where change is the only constant, these disparities must be handled to develop well-rounded leaders (Mdluli & Makhupe, 2017). Samson’s story in Judges 15-16 is an evidence that extinction is possible if its popularity is used unethically. God gave Samson vast power, which he utilized for self-gratification rather than for the greater good. Samson's selfishness was compounded by his violation of God's and Nazirite's vows. This demonstrates how performance can induce strain and stress. Stress is an indicator of organizational limitations, and these limitations do not imply that the objective is unachievable, but rather that techniques can be modified. During challenging circumstances, structure or strategy must also be modified. If a business is overburdened, it must reset or reconfigure and add resources or contextual leaders to manage the load. When an organization increases without a concurrent plan expansion to handle unforeseen development, the entity's potential may collapse.

As a team leader, the Human Dignity-Centered Paradigm must be utilized as a set of guiding principles for the formation of teams by building an organization's ethos (Mea & Sims, 2019). Developing such an ethos makes organizations less susceptible to negative and immoral outcomes (Cote, 2017). Organizational plans and manuals cannot account for every event that a leader may encounter during his career or after assuming the leadership position. There is no exhaustive description of the individual being recruited because their behavior has not yet been seen. The offer of employment is contingent on the applicant's resume and a brief conversation during the interview. This can result in the long-term growth of a leader or an increase in the turnover rate of the hired role. Organizational successes can be as overpowering as failures; they can transform the leader into a failure, and if the leader fails to alter the outcome, they can be disastrous.

There are many more opportunities than resources, and if the organization is unprepared and its management cannot adapt, these opportunities might become a disadvantage. Hiring non-behavioral leaders who cannot adapt to organizational alignments will not benefit the organization. To improve while maintaining the new standard of achievement, behavioral leaders build on previous successes. A strong leader is able to apply the concepts of natural law to evaluate if these laws can be disregarded in the best interests of a company or its team members. This combination of culture and ethical day-to-day behavior contributes to improved outcomes in a process that is infinitely repeating. The requirement for ethical servant leaders is the foundation of effective teams. Such leaders focus solely on the welfare of individuals under their care. When representatives desire to help their team win, it is a full celebration of human dignity. Managers of tactical reinforcement and plan implementation will support their teams with altruism by establishing goals.

Conclusion

The behavioral leadership theory demonstrates, in essence, that there is no single suitable leadership style. Nonetheless, these various factors are considered while selecting a suitable style. These criteria are essentially the level of competence and behavior development of team members. Additionally, consideration should be given to the work that must be completed. Leaders can also examine the group's level of maturity when determining the most appropriate leadership style for transformational teamwork. Ultimately, it depends on the leader's integrity and willingness to guide followers through transition, development, or failures. This is the most important characteristic of great leaders today.

References

K. Blanchard (2018). Blanchard on leadership and the development of high-performing companies. The FT Press.

Cafferky, M. E. (2017). Management and leadership ideas in biblical narratives: An editor's description of research potential. 20(2), 78-85, Journal of Biblical Integration in Business.

Cote, R. (2017). A perspective on effective leadership. 14th issue of Journal of Leadership, Accountability, and Ethics (4).

Itri, J. N., M. A. Bruno, N. Lalwani, R. F. Munden, and R. Tappouni (2019). The issue of intrinsic motivation and workplace productivity. American College of Radiology Journal, 16(1), 39-44.

Mauer, R., Neergaard, H., & Linstad, A. K. (2017). Self-efficacy: fostering an entrepreneurial mentality. Reconsidering the entrepreneurial mind (pp. 293-317). Springer.

Mdluli, S., & Makhupe, O. (2017). Africa Expansion Project. Defining leadership competencies required for the fourth industrial revolution: Leadership competencies 4.0.

Mea, W. J., and R. R. Sims (2019). A conceptual framework for business leaders pertaining to a business ethics centered on human dignity. 160(1) Journal of Business Ethics: 53-69.

Mkandawire, C. Y. (2017). The impact of physician versus non-physician leadership on hospital results. (Document No. 78779334) [MSc, University of Derby, United Kingdom] Walden Doctoral Dissertations and Research

Rieger, G. (2017). Merging the contexts of adult education and professional training to conceptualize success and performance for adult learners. Signum Temporis, 9(1), 57-62.

Sekar Gondo, V. A., & Prasetya, A. (2017). The influence of situational leadership style, work ethic, and work motivation on employee performance (research on the production department's personnel at PT. Gudang Garam Kediri). Journal Administrasi Bisnis, 52(1), 154-162.

Yasir, M., & Mohamad, N. A. (2016). Comparing ethical leadership with servant leadership, genuine leadership, and transformative leadership. 6(4S), 310-316 International Review of Management and Marketing

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Organizational Behavior And Management Studies Admission College Essay Help

Introduction

Organizational behavior is a branch of research that examines the influence of individuals and groups on organizational behavior with the goal of applying this knowledge to enhance the performance of the organization. It implies that organizational behavior can be separated into numerous functions, which are determined by an individual's, a group's, or an organization's structure. Organizations are governed by individuals. To forecast a person's conduct, one must be aware of his likes and dislikes; thus, the study of persons' behaviors. (Elsevier, 2005)

Organizational behavior is the study of the behavior of individuals in the workplace. Organizational behavior is the study of how individuals work in an organization, how they interact with one another, and how they coordinate with one another. It involves attempting to comprehend how they operate, predicting their work patterns, and exerting control over them.

In a company, there are a number of elements that influence the employees. Therefore, it is crucial to attempt to comprehend the ideas that influence human resource management, which requires an awareness of the theoretical foundations of organizational behavior. To achieve high levels of performance and productivity at work, it is necessary to effectively manage all factors that affect employees.

Thus, organizational behavior is based on a number of foundational principles, such as psychology, philosophy, sociology, and other essential social science fields. This indicates that behavioral sciences have had a significant influence on organizational behavior.

Organizational behavior can be related to the following three basic approaches:

Classical Systems Human interactions viewpoints.

The classical strategy incorporated the concepts of Taylor, Fayol, Mooney, etc. These individuals understood formal frameworks, technical specifications, management principles, and work planning. They believed there were two forms of behavior: reasonable and logical. They heavily emphasized the coordination principle, the need for a leadership structure in the workplace, and the delegation of responsibilities. They also underlined the importance of specialization and the separation of various types of responsibilities. Charles Taylor, who emphasizes scientific management, was also a contribution to the classical approach. He believed that it was essential to improve management through restructuring in order to increase productivity.

Taylor believed that excellent working techniques would allow employees to be given routines to follow in the workplace in order to perform their tasks. He also believed that scientific methods should be used to break jobs into tasks. However, he is blamed for focusing more on monetary rewards than on work enhancement. He also viewed humans as machines.

This sort of study contains three experiments based on the Hawthorne studies. The human relations school began with the research of Elton Mayo and his colleagues.

The interviewing schedule Observation chamber for bank wiring Relay assembly experiment

Hawthorne Research

This experiment was the outcome of previous investigations based on the scientific management tradition of a firm known as Hawthorne plant, conducted by Western Electric in conjunction with the National Research Council. The investigation entailed determining if the environment would improve or decrease productivity. The purpose of the study was to determine the association between illumination intensity and worker productivity.

And the results demonstrated that an increase in light may result in a drop in output. Nonetheless, output grew. This is due to the fact that illumination is not the only factor that influences how individuals function in real-world settings. This is further supported by the fact that as the experimenters decreased, the lighting output continued to increase rather than decrease. The corporation then sent three additional researchers to conduct three controlled studies to demonstrate the connection between human behavior and the environment. This required five years.

The relay assembly laboratory test

Six females assembling telephones were placed on water and subjected to intensive surveillance to determine their work relationships and working circumstances. The experimenters replaced their supervisor with a person who lacked official authority over the girls, and as a result, the girls were granted autonomy.

They explained the goal of the experiment to the girls and solicited their input as time progressed.

They also introduced a series of factors to determine their effect on output, including working conditions, rest, and the environment. Surprisingly, despite this, production increased, and even more astonishingly, production increased even when they were told to return to the original working conditions, which consisted of long working days with no breaks. My judgment is that productivity in this instance is not due to physical factors, but rather to personal, physical, and physiological aspects. According to the experimenter, they determined that production was the result of a change in the worker's motivation and changing patterns of monitoring.

Observatory for bank wiring

Then there was the bank wiring observation room, where 14 male operators were understudy, and an observer among them quietly recorded all the pertinent issues pertaining to the study. After six months, the experimenters realized that informal workgroups were formed by the workers, which led to conflicts with the work norms and productivity output established by management. This is due to the fact that informal groups have a significant impact on formal groups and are highly persuasive. Consequently, they are a crucial component to examine while analyzing the behavior of individuals at work.

As a result of being paid as a group, i.e. receiving an equal bonus based on the group's performance, the overall output increased, while individual or personal performance decreased. The researchers also discovered that group work controlled the output of individual workers, indicating that production is related to social and not psychological aspects, and that each group had methods for defending itself against members of other groups and those who wished to encroach upon it.

Resulting from two experiments

From the two tests, we may conclude that the majority of individuals view work as a social as well as technical system, and that these systems appear to be informal groupings. And the ideal study in my case is the bank wiring observation room, as covert monitoring of workers would reveal the true picture of an individual at work, allowing one to understand the true factors that affect his production. In organizations, social processes dictate the norms, which may differ significantly from those explicitly established by the organization.

The majority of workers are not primarily motivated by financial incentives such as money, but they are eager to be motivated by social and psychological factors. For instance, in the relay assembly experiment, the girls' output increased due to a simple change of environment as well as good incentives and motivations such as breaks and rests. This resulted in increased output due to psychological motivation.

Also influencing human conduct are feelings, sentiments, and attitudes. Consequently, financial incentives are not the only motivations that might promote productivity; consequently, better worker satisfaction results in increased output and, consequently, greater results at work.

Humans have leadership patterns that are based on typical structures and positions, and just as in the assembly test room, humans should be given leadership based on a democratic rather than an autocratic leadership style; if workers are satisfied, this results in improved workplace performance. Additionally, employees should be given the opportunity to engage in workplace decision-making regarding issues that affect them, as this boosts morale and ultimately increases productivity. Management should therefore possess both technical and social and human relations skills.

These tests were conducted by Elton Mayo and his Harvard colleagues F.T Rothelisberger and T.W Whitehead in an effort to provide a more controlled method for identifying the behaviors of persons at work and the elements that contribute to their low productivity. Good studies in this field should generate a group sample that can be generalized to be representative of a broader population, so that sample results may be generalized to demonstrate their link with the wider population.

Additionally, special experiment conditions must be met; this is the point. I disagree with the relay assembly test room experiment because the women were not adequately studied because none of them were subjected to specific experimental settings. Even if this were to be made apparent, the experiment would not be persuasive because a group of six was too small to produce statistically reliable results.

Influencing Organizational Behaviors

Among the organizational characteristics that influence behavior are the following:

The management principles listed by Fayol if this is an organization

They include the following:

Division of work. This notion is identical to that of Adam Smith's "division of labor." Specialization boosts output by increasing the efficiency of staff. Authority. Managers must be able to issue instructions. This right is conferred by authority. However, with authority comes responsibility. When authority is utilized, responsibility always follows. Discipline. Employees must abide by and respect the organization's regulations. Good discipline is the outcome of good leadership, a shared understanding of the organization's rules between management and employees, and the application of appropriate sanctions for rule violations. Unified Command Every employee should only report to a single superior. Harmony of Direction Each group of organizational operations with the same objectives should be directed by a single manager utilizing a singular plan. Individual interests are subordinate to general interests. The interests of any one employee or group of employees should not take precedence over the organization's overall objectives. Remuneration. Workers must be compensated equitably for their services. Centralization. Centralization refers to the level of participation of subordinates in decision-making. Proper proportion determines whether decision-making is centralized (to management) or decentralized (to subordinates). The challenge is to determine the optimal level of centralization for each circumstance. Scalar network. The scalar chain is the line of authority from top management to the lowest ranks. This chain of communication should be followed. However, if following the chain of command causes delays, cross-communications may be permitted if all parties agree, and superiors are informed. Order. People and resources should be in the proper location and time frame. Equity. Managers should treat their employees with courtesy and equity. Stability of Personnel Tenure A high turnover rate is inefficient. Personnel should be planned for in a systematic manner, and replacements should be available to fill vacancies. Initiative. Employees who are permitted to create and execute strategies will exert considerable effort. Esprit de corps. Promoting team spirit will increase organizational harmony and cohesion. (Winslow, 1998).

Organization culture

The definition of culture is "historically transmitted patterns of meaning embodied in symbols, a system of inherited conceptions expressed in symbolic forms through which men and women communicate, perpetuate, and develop their knowledge and attitudes about life."

Despite the fact that organization culture has been defined at the societal level, it influences individual behavior, which in turn affects the performance of businesses.

Culture of an organization defines how things are conducted within the organization. Depending on the strength of the organization, it is a source of stability or a barrier to change. The organization's culture is comprised of numerous traits, including an emphasis on innovation and risk-taking, outcome orientation, aggressiveness stability, and team orientation. Organizational culture is concerned with how employees perceive qualities such as leadership, delegation, communication channels, and change management.

Organization culture

An organizational structure specifies the formal division, grouping, and coordination of job responsibilities. When designing an organizational structure, managers must consider six essential components. This includes the specialization of labor, departmentalization, and formalization.

References

Introduction to Organizational Behaviors, Oxford University Press, H. Drummond, 2000.

Fundamentals of Organizational Behavior, Pergamon Press, A. Du Brin, 1974.

Communication and Organizational Culture. Sage Publishing, 2004.

When "life is but a dream: eradicating politics through business process reengineering"? Human Resources.

Margulles N. and Wallace J., "Organizational Change Methods and Applications," 1973. Glenview, Illinois: Foresman, Scott.

Mintzberg, H. (1983). Structure in Fives: Effective Organizational Design ( upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice Hall, 1983).

Pfeffer, J. (1992). Managing with power: politics and organizational impact. Harvard business school press, Boston.

Robbins, S., Organizational Behavior, tenth edition, Pearson, 2004.

Scheim, E.H. (1998). Process Consultations: Their Role in Organizational Development.

The Principles of Scientific Management, published by Courier Dover in 1998.

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Single Business Organizations: Strategic Management Admission College Essay Help

What are the primary managerial components of the process of strategy implementation / strategy execution?

"The business term for game plan is strategy." Every enterprise has strategy, whether planned or unplanned." What Is a Business Strategy?, page 2, paragraph 3 Before implementing any strategy, a corporation should conduct a thorough analysis of that approach.

Various approaches, such as the PESTEL analysis, SWOT analysis, Five Forces analysis, Market Segmentation, Directional Policy Matrix, Competitor analysis, and Critical Success Factor analysis, can be used to conduct the analysis. Strategic audits are typically undertaken so that management may determine whether the firm's internal operations are compatible with its operating environment (Porter, 1996, pp. 61-78).

The management should then comprehend the expectations of the stakeholders, identify the strategic options, analyze and select the most suitable strategic options. After analyzing and selecting a strategy, the execution phase follows. This is the most crucial and essential step in the procedure. The following illustration demonstrates the three primary components of the strategic management mechanism.

Figure 1: Process of strategic management.

There are fundamental conditions for strategic implementation to be realized. Following are the principal components:

To keep the efforts of the people concentrated in one direction, i.e., the achievement of the goal, an effective leader is required. Without a leader, the employees' efforts will be dispersed and the goal will not be reached. An effective leader will instill motivation in his or her personnel, who will then operate as a team; such efforts rarely fail.

The strategy's execution is an additional crucial aspect of strategic implementation. The strategy should be performed so that each employee has a role in its implementation. Prior to the execution, all necessary resources should have been acquired. People should be assigned assignments and held accountable for any failures in execution.

Even if the first two steps are adhered to, "Performance Management" will be required to complete the circle of accomplishing the goals. Performance Management entails exercising authority over the performance of departments and individuals. Effective communication is essential for performance management. The expectations must be clearly communicated to the relevant department or individual. Individuals or departments should be assigned objectives. Whether departments or people are performing at the appropriate level or not, proper monitoring is required.

Monitoring the Key Performance Indicators is the greatest technique to evaluate the success of strategic execution (KPIs). The management should monitor whether or not the Key Performance Indicators are being fulfilled or whether or not the staff are working towards fulfilling the KPI standards. Prior to this, however, it must be guaranteed that all personnel are familiar with the purpose and vision statements of the organization.

Identify and briefly outline the three aspects of establishing an organization capable of effective strategic execution.

Achieving and executing any strategy is a result of operation revolving around the management of persons and business processes. "The administrative objective is to establish a connection between the way things are carried out and the requirements for effective strategy execution" (Chanetta, n.d., p. 20). The managerial emphasis is on transforming essential plans into accomplishments and desired results. Management’s management of the methodology of implementing and executing the chosen strategy is deemed effective if the firm achieves the targeted financial and strategic objectives and demonstrates extraordinary progress toward realizing its essential vision. Inadequacies in the show imply either inadequate methodology or execution, or both.

A testing evaluation of what the organization needs do differently and more effectively in order to attain the intended results is the starting point for managers implementing and implementing a new or diversified technique. Then, they should consider explicitly how to implement the necessary internal modifications as quickly as is practical.

The execution of a strategy resembles its creation in many ways. The execution should not be considered the sole responsibility of management. The entire team, including management, managers, administration, and workers, must participate truly to the successful execution of a strategy. People in higher positions must continually rely on their subordinates for timely reporting on the execution's progress. "Good strategy execution typically requires a collaborative effort from the entire management team" (Strategy Execution Process, 2012, para. 2).

To accomplish successful execution of the strategy, organizations must be constructed by combining the proficiency, potential, and strength of their resources. For the strategy's execution, sufficient resources and personnel must be allocated. "In order for the company to achieve its strategic objectives, top management must provide the personnel, equipment, and facilities necessary to execute its portion of the strategic plan" (Barnat, 2007).

Organizational policies should be conducive to execution, as opposed to obstructing it. The execution team should be rewarded for carrying out the strategy in a timely and organized manner. Even the working environment should complement the process of execution.

Who are your organization's owners? What is their function in the organization's strategic management? Describe the culture of your organization. Include instances of how your company's culture manifests itself. How would you change the culture of your organization?

The Clark brothers are our association's owners. As graduates of management programs, they are both well-versed in management policies. They are approachable and get along well with the entire crew. Despite being the owners and having complete decision-making authority, they never make any significant decisions on their own. Before making any decisions, managers from each department are consulted.

All sensible proposals are taken into account before making a decision. The managers are instructed to solicit input from their subordinates, which is then provided to the management. Essentially, the entire organization participates in decision-making. The best aspect of our business is that anytime a new strategy is proposed, we gladly accept it because it incorporates our ideas. Employees are more likely to implement a strategy efficiently if they support it (Boyes & Melvin, 2007, p. 101). According to Neilson, Martin, and Powers (2008), execution is the product of hundreds of daily decisions made by employees acting in accordance with the available information and their own self-interest (para. 2).

Our organization's culture encompasses all seven key values: leadership, zeal, dependability, teamwork, diversity, excellence, and accountability. Our organization employs individuals from all over the world. Operating in a multicultural environment is a critical part of sustainability for any organization. The promotion criteria in our firm are a fantastic illustration of excellent diversity management.

Even though we are an American corporation, our marketing president is Indian and our manufacturing manager is Chinese. There are also additional significant positions held by expatriates. The American workforce has no objections to this, and there is always a pleasant mood within our firm.

Regarding altering the organizational culture of our company, I would like to implement a system in which promotions are contingent on passing a series of examinations. Currently, employee performance is considered for promotion. Performance, in my opinion, is more applicable than theory. For even greater performance, however, precise theoretical knowledge is also crucial. If passing tests becomes a requirement for promotions, I am confident that our organization's performance will improve.

How will you make sense of all these as you manage your profession in the future? What steps will you take to improve your strategic thinking? How would you describe this educational opportunity to your supervisor, peers, or friends? Was it valuable?

I have learned a great deal about strategic management in my current position. The outdoors has served as a source of inspiration for me. In addition to executing my professional obligations, I've also had the opportunity to learn a great deal about many cultures. I shall endeavor to incorporate these characteristics into my conduct and approach. As I indicated previously, having a complete understanding of both theory and practice is essential. Therefore, I intend to take a management course so that I can put all management theories and concepts into practice. By completing such a course, I will undoubtedly develop a mindset conducive to efficient management.

I will describe the entire process of writing this project to my supervisor, friends, and coworkers. The outcome will undoubtedly motivate them. There is a possibility that some of them are unfamiliar with the theoretical parts of strategic management. They may be following the standard procedure. By understanding the principle, individuals will undoubtedly gain from using it in their daily lives. This endeavor has been quite useful and educational for me as well. It will undoubtedly propel me to greater heights in my work.

References

Barnat, R. (2007). A broad strategy implementation framework. Web.

Boyce and Melvin, W. and M. (2007). Microeconomics is available via Cengage Learning in New York.

Chaneta, I. (n.d.). Strategic Management Process, 5(5):17-25, Journal of Comprehensive Research.

Neilson, G., K. Martin, and E. Powers (2008). The keys to effective strategy execution. Web.

Porter, M. (1996). What exactly is strategy? 61-78. Harvard Business Review, 1(1).

Strategy Execution Methodology (2012). Web.

What is enterprise strategy? (n.d.). Web.

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Apple And Dell Companies: Inventory Management Admission College Essay Help

Introduction

Inventory management refers to the strategies and principles managers use to maintain the optimal level of stock for the company. In the modern corporate environment, which is defined by intense rivalry, companies are taking advantage of every chance to reduce operational expenses. Effective inventory management is one method for achieving cost savings (Muller, 2011). Inventory levels should be optimally maintained such that they are neither too high nor too low.

Holding excessive inventory contributes to high warehouse expenses and may raise the danger of stock goods being destroyed or lost (Blanchard, 2010). Insufficient inventory may result in manufacturing delays, which may result in cost overruns. This paper analyzes Apple and Dell's inventory management strategies to establish the effectiveness of inventory management in reducing operational expenses. The report must also provide recommendations for both companies based on the identified deficiencies.

Types of inventories administered

Apple's and Dell's inventories consist of electronic raw materials in the form of computer and mobile phone components. Apple has become one of the global market leaders in the development and sale of Smartphones. In addition to raw materials, its inventory also includes finished laptops and smartphones like as iPad, MacBook, MacBook Pro, iPhone, Mac Mini, Smart Cover, and MacBook Air.

On contrast, Dell specializes in the production of laptop computers; hence, its finished inventory consists of laptops. As is the case with all electronics, both organizations' inventories deteriorate at a rapid rate, necessitating the shortest possible holding period.

Design concept synthesis

Apple employs a build-to-stock strategy in which things are made and placed on shelves in anticipation of purchasers. Apple employs service-based design principles to enhance customer happiness, which have proven effective in enhancing the consumer experience and moving the company ahead of its competitors. The company's primary purpose is to maximize the customer experience via user orientation. The company mixes visual designs and contemporary operating systems into its products for simplicity and a superior user experience, based on extensive customer needs research (Lu, 2016).

In contrast, Dell utilizes an assemble-to-order model in which things are produced only after a consumer has placed an order. Customers are permitted to personalize the product by providing the desired device parameters.

The inventory's impact on performance, operational efficiency, and customer satisfaction

Each enterprise strives to outsmart the other and acquire a significant market share in today's commercial environment, which is defined by intense competition. Among the factors that can lead to the acquisition of a competitive advantage are, among others, low pricing, excellent products, and positive customer relations (Wang & Toktay, 2008). Utilizing a low pricing approach to increase market share necessitates taking advantage of every opportunity to reduce production costs. To achieve cost savings, businesses nowadays are focusing on inventory cost reduction. By maintaining an ideal stock level, a company is assured of cost savings associated with retaining too much or too little inventory.

Apple's competitive edge is partially related to its superior inventory management. Apple used a lean strategy in the late 2000s, when it outsourced the production of raw materials to third parties rather than creating them internally. The plan was influenced by the belief that holding a large quantity of inventory in the company's warehouses would result in depreciation-related losses. Apple's inventory is anticipated to deteriorate by 1% to 2% per week, highlighting the necessity to maintain the lowest possible stock levels. In this sense, Apple maintains a tiny amount of inventory at its central warehouse in the United States, while the majority of stock products are shipped to retail locations for quick consumer disposal.

Similar to Apple, Dell outsources the majority of its raw materials in the form of laptop components to its suppliers and only assembles the finished product. However, Dell is unique in that it compels suppliers to store raw materials in warehouses controlled by Dell rather than in its own stores (Ye, 2013). When a consumer submits an order, the corporation only obtains raw materials from its warehouses, which are located close to its headquarters.

This element assures that the corporation incurs no fees other than transit charges for stock holding. The minimization of inventory reduces operational expenses, resulting in cheaper product prices. In addition, it enables the customization of the product by allowing the buyer to specify additional requirements while placing an order.

Comparing and contrasting the various layout types

Blanchard (2010) contends that a company's design may influence its market success or failure. Apple and Dell, both aware of the significance of layouts in achieving a sustained competitive edge, have creative layouts that explain their success in their respective industries. Apple and Dell share four types of layouts: keyboards, superior operating systems, screen sensors, and retina displays.

Comparing the computing equipment of both firms, the keyboard, operating systems, and screen sensors share commonalities. The apparent reason for the similarity between the two companies' mentioned layouts is that they both source their raw materials from the same vendors and employ comparable technology. However, Apple's products feature superior retina displays compared to Dell's, which explains why Apple is the industry leader.

Apple's relationship with its customers is best exemplified by the simplicity of its layouts, which make the products' functions easy to use. In consequence, the company's products have achieved widespread customer acceptance in recent years, making it the global leader in the Smartphone sector. According to Wang and Toktay (2008), the customer's capacity to comprehend the company's design is crucial, and businesses must make them as clear as feasible. Recognizing the significance of layouts to a company's success, Dell has recently incorporated layouts into its assemble-to-order design.

Two indicators to evaluate firms' supply chain performance

Inventory Supply Days

According to reports, Apple turns over its whole inventory every five days, whereas its nearest competitor, Dell, turns over its inventory every ten days (Campbell, 2012). Apple's low inventory days of supply are facilitated by the company's multiple outlets located in various regions of the world. The large number of locations helps that the company's products reach more customers. The excessive number of inventory days of supply at Dell may be attributable to the company's limited customer base. The company reaches customers exclusively over the Internet and has no retail locations. In order to increase sales in a shorter amount of time, the corporation must construct permanent retail locations.

Cycle Time for Cash to Cash (C2C) Transactions

The cash-to-cash cycle indicator counts the time between when a company pays for its raw materials and when it receives payment for its finished goods. Since Dell only pays for raw materials when a customer placed an order and receives payment from the consumer upon delivery of the final product, its C2C cycle is shorter (Lu, 2016). Dell obtains the raw materials on the same day it pays its vendors, and orders are delivered to customers within five business days. Apple, on the other hand, has a longer C2C cycle than Dell since it stores finished stock items for a longer time before selling them.

Methods for improving inventory management

Currently, Dell's production system is order-based, and the company only purchases raw materials from retailers when a consumer places an order. The technique not only eliminates the cost of maintaining inventory, but also reduces overall operational costs, resulting in cheaper product prices. The raw supplies are obtained every two hours from warehouses located a few miles from the headquarters branch (Campbell, 2012).

Due to the significant transportation costs involved, the frequent procurement of small quantities of raw materials may increase operational expenses. The corporation must determine the typical daily raw material requirements based on historical data, then procure and transport the items everyday in full. This action will reduce transit expenses and the time between ordering and receiving the raw materials.

Apple must make substantial investments in research and development in order to expand its product markets. The rise in market share will ensure that the company sells its finished goods as quickly as possible, hence reducing the expenses associated with maintaining finished inventory (Lu, 2016). In light of the widespread use of e-commerce around the world, the corporation should likewise embrace the notion of Internet stores. Internet stores are less expensive than traditional warehouses, and as a result, they may minimize operational expenses, resulting in lower product pricing. A price drop may result in a high turnover rate, hence decreasing the stock holding duration for finished goods.

Conclusion

This study contrasts Apple Inc. with Dell's inventory management procedures. Regarding stock levels and procurement procedures, the inventory management strategies of the two organizations are vastly distinct. Dell maintains no inventory in its retail locations and only orders components from suppliers when a consumer places an order. Apple, on the other hand, maintains a little amount of stock at its headquarters store, while the retail stores carry the remainder of the stock items for quick consumer disposal.

The comparison of each company's inventory management system reveals a few shortcomings, such as Dell's high transportation costs and Apple's lengthy stock holding periods. To address the shortages at Dell, the raw materials should be transported in big quantities based on daily demand forecasts. On the other hand, Apple should build additional online retail locations to aid the acquisition of more customers, thereby reducing the amount of time finished merchandise spends in stores prior to being made available to customers.

References

D. Blanchard (2010). Excellence in supply chain management practices. Hoboken, New Jersey: John Wiley and Sons.

Campbell, M. (2012). Every five days, Apple turns its whole inventory over. Web.

Lu, C. (2016). Four years ago, Apple had the best supply chain in the world; here is what you can learn from that. Web.

Muller, M. (2011). Management of inventory fundamentals American Management Association, New York.

Wang, T., & Toktay, B. L. (2008). Inventory management with demand forecasting and delivery flexibility. Management Science, 54(4), 716-732.

Ye, Z. (2013). Dell’s inventory management. Web.

[supanova question]

Human Resources Research Methods Admission College Essay Help

Table of Contents
Introduction Diversity in the workplace as a factor of strength Diversity management ethics Conclusions References

Introduction

The United Nations General Assembly has designated the new millennium and this century as the century to celebrate diversity. Diversity has become routine in the economic world, just as it has in many other spheres of life. Globalization, combined with the triumph of free trade and a capitalistic view of the economy, has resulted in a significant increase in the mobility of labor forces from all over the world. Today, it is the standard for worldwide organizations and corporations to employ employees from a wide variety of backgrounds. This circumstance is due to both internal and external forces. The internal pressure can be revealed through the implementation of additional "universal human rights" devices and the battle against discrimination and all forms of prejudice. As a result, many businesses were eager to declare in their ethical standards and mission statements that they not only endorse these principles, but will also actively pursue them for the greater good of the community. Such an instance is the Boston Consulting Group, which we will cover in further detail later in this paper.

'External factors' are the academic term for the additional variables impacting this situation. These events pertain to the globalization that began after World War II and increased following the collapse of the Berlin Wall and the end of the 'Cold War' During this time, since they have been "expanding" to every corner of the globe, local community members are employed in their branches, but not exclusively.

In order to build the appropriate policies and projects for the company's success in an increasingly worldwide market, they hire individuals from diverse backgrounds at its headquarters.

Herein lies the main argument of this work. Diversity in the workplace, if managed effectively, may become a driving force for innovation and company success. In the following pages, we will attempt to show this thesis by establishing the theoretical framework and then providing two specific situations as evidence for this thesis.

Diversity in the workplace as a factor of strength

First, we must address the question, "What is diversity?" According to the consensus of numerous scholars, "diversity" refers to the assortment, combination, variety, and scope of individuals and their features. This term also alludes to the vast array of traits that define individuals as distinct beings (Jones, 2004, p. 14).

According to the preceding definition, diversity is a mixture of people in terms of their external behavior and their internal beliefs about what is good or evil, accurate or incorrect. Until the end of the 20th century, company managers viewed the variety of their workforce as an impediment to commercial growth and the internal cohesion required to accomplish that growth. The 'concern' was that employee diversity would demotivate them to work more closely together.

In contrast, numerous efforts have been made in the academic community since the late 1990s to demonstrate that diversity in the workplace, in a corporation or commercial enterprise, is a source of strength and not weakness. Many corporate leaders are now confident that their organizations may exploit this variety to "ignite" the innovation and intrinsic drive required for success.

Innovation is an indispensable instrument for corporate growth and success. In today's corporate environment, the majority of large market organizations have their own Research & Development divisions or departments, which are continually searching for new market-winning strategies. These businesses heavily rely on the inventiveness of their employees. Numerous authors argue that in order to attain a comfortable market share, or to maintain leadership once you've achieved it, a corporation must continually offer new items to entice clients (Ghosh, 2005). The purpose of this paper is to demonstrate that market research cannot benefit a business without several interpretations of its findings. Here, diversity begins to play an extremely important role.

Having a workforce with a distinct background helps you to have only one perspective, and thus only one method to understand the market research report and design a market strategy. From this, we may assume that the corporation will only have one approach to the market that is beneficial to a single community or social group. In fact, it will be consistent with customers who share the same background as the staff members who examined the data and developed the strategy.

Therefore, having a varied workforce within your organization is crucial, if not "crucial," to establishing more lucrative business opportunities. The process of formulating a market strategy entails procedures that must be executed meticulously for a business to attain success. Here, variety serves as the "catalyst." Societies today are formed of several communities and social groups. These communities and social groups have diverse origins, frequently so dissimilar that their values and norms vary substantially.

However, a corporation recognizes that in order to achieve its goal as effectively as possible, it must address all of these social groups and communities, or at least the majority of them. This requires a deeper understanding of its consumer target groups.

Having a crew comprised of individuals from diverse backgrounds allows a business to comprehend the various factors that shape the world today. The first reason why staff diversity is a good and strength aspect for a company is that it may learn from the experiences and backgrounds of every employee.

By sharing their own experiences, each can gain insight from the other and become more equipped to comprehend how 'others' differ from him and how this 'different from him other' perceives reality. Once this is evaluated, it may be simpler to discern and comprehend this 'other"s worldly expectations. You will have numerous ways of understanding the data of, say, a market research, which is another strength. The same is true when developing and executing a market strategy. Due to their diverse backgrounds, the staff members are able to "combine" various puzzle pieces, resulting in a larger perspective.

At this point, a smart manager should demonstrate his or her ability to maximize the diversity of each individual. However, we shall examine this in the following section.

Diversity management ethics

We should begin by emphasizing that managing a group of individuals is difficult. And the reason it is difficult is due to the'strength' of the circumstance, which is that you must deal with people from diverse backgrounds. However, having a distinct background implies having different mentalities, beliefs, or perspectives.

Consequently, each member of the workforce possesses a unique set of qualities and potentials.

A smart manager must evaluate his diverse employees and attempt to capitalize on their unique skills, cultures, perspectives, and backgrounds. Effective leaders appreciate diversity and use it as a competitive advantage by recognizing its potential (Jones, 2004, p. 22). A successful manager must also be capable of coordinating the group to accomplish the necessary results on the company's aim goals. A supervisor overseeing a group of employees must be knowledgeable of his employees' abilities and characteristics in order to "get the most out of them." A manager's ethics and intellect should include the ability to maximize the potential of a diverse workforce. All of this may be taught at our colleges and institutions in order for the manager to have the proper understanding of this issue, if it presents itself, prior to the real-world contact. The ultimate goal is that he will be able to benefit himself, them, and the organization by managing a varied group of employees in his company.

Understanding and appreciating the diversity of his personnel allows the manager to create a more enriching work environment. However, if the manager fails to handle the concerns, challenges, and possibilities that this diverse team brings, it could lead to the development of a toxic and unsatisfying workplace. Two possible outcomes would be an increase in employee friction and a decline in performance. This environment will discourage workers from putting forth their best effort at work, which will ultimately harm the organization.

A manager must be aware of preconceptions and stereotypes in order to transform this variety into a positive element and favorably influence the performance of the team. It is his or her responsibility to establish and implement policies to eliminate prejudice among the personnel. The management must demonstrate that he (or she) truly loves diversity and does not discriminate against any of his employees on the basis of their differences.

Neither does he let bigotry to be a part of his everyday job routine (Gomez-Mejia et al., 2008, p. 35). If necessary, he should implement a variety of workshops, seminars, and programs to eradicate prejudices and discrimination among the personnel.

The cases of Sanyo Incorporated and the Boston Consulting Group, both in the United States, might be cited as examples of effective diversity management. The policy of these two companies was not only to admit refugees, but also to manage them so as to "get the most out of them."

Sanyo International is a Japanese corporation that manufactures digital gear such as televisions, computer components, etc. It first entered the market in the mid-1970s, when it acquired a local company in the southern United States.

There were significant cultural and mental differences between the new property owners and the local workforce, which caused a great deal of initial difficulties for this business. Since Sanyo brought along numerous Japanese employees. Initially, there was a problem with integrating these workforce with the current American employees.

The subsequent issue was stigmatization and stereotyping on both sides. Sanyo's management team devised and implemented a 'cultural integration plan' that had a profoundly favorable effect on the organization (Gomez-Mejia et al., 2008, p. 43-44). We cannot give Sanyo's whole approach due to space constraints, but we can identify the pillars upon which it was built. It all began with several lectures and workshops on each other's cultures.

There were dedicated hours and workshops devoted to introducing Japanese employees about American principles and emphasizing the similarities between these values and their own. Similar Japanese cultural values were also imparted to the American local workforce through numerous workshops and seminars.

In addition, a strategy of cultural inclusion was implemented during working hours. Japanese and American workers were intertwined in their regular work activities in order to build a stronger communication bridge. And finally, the corporation created a feedback system inquiring about the workforce's perspectives on what they deem significant, positive, or negative within the organization. This strategy let all employees feel valued within the organization, regardless of their cultural background.

Similarly, the Boston Consulting Group was among the first American businesses to develop a cultural diversification program. This time, though, it was addressed not only at its internal workers, but also at its target customers. It utilized comparable strategies throughout its workforce as Sanyo International. This organization considered staff diversity to be its greatest competitive advantage and actively recruited a diverse workforce ("The Boston Consulting Group", para. 1).

Additionally, this corporation established policies aimed at various cultural groupings in American culture. It targeted the most underprivileged and stigmatized communities. Initially, there was no positive response from the general public, but as time passed, this circumstance assisted the corporation in establishing positive brand recognition among the general public. In turn, this circumstance drew the attention of investors. This arrangement ultimately benefitted the company's revenues and profitability.

Conclusions

In the conclusion, we reiterate our argument that, if effectively managed, diversity in the workplace may become a driving force for innovation and economic success. Today, numerous experts assert that diversity is one of the most significant benefits of the American workforce (Jones, 2004, p. 43). This position is well understood by multinational firms, which is why many of them are now developing cultural initiatives and promoting this fact actively. Tomorrow's successful manager must be able to comprehend and effectively manage diversity throughout the workforce. But in order to effectively manage it, he (or she) must first have a thorough understanding of it.

Diversity is, in fact, a strength aspect that organizations should be aware of, as demonstrated by a reevaluation of the above-mentioned examples of two corporations (Ghosh, 2005).

References

Gomez-Mejia, R. David, B. Robert, L., and L. Robert (2008) published the third edition of Management: People, Performance, and Change. Manhattan: McGraw-Hill

Ghosh, Guatam. (2005). Guatam Ghosh on human resources: perspectives on organizations, work, and individuals. Web.

Jones, R. G. (2004). Fourth edition of Organizational Theory, Design, and Change: Text and Cases. United States of America, Prentice Hall Publishing House

The consulting firm Boston (2009). People management & human resource capabilities. Web.

[supanova question]

Human Resources Research Methods Admission College Essay Help

Table of Contents
Introduction Diversity in the workplace as a factor of strength Diversity management ethics Conclusions References

Introduction

The United Nations General Assembly has designated the new millennium and this century as the century to celebrate diversity. Diversity has become routine in the economic world, just as it has in many other spheres of life. Globalization, combined with the triumph of free trade and a capitalistic view of the economy, has resulted in a significant increase in the mobility of labor forces from all over the world. Today, it is the standard for worldwide organizations and corporations to employ employees from a wide variety of backgrounds. This circumstance is due to both internal and external forces. The internal pressure can be revealed through the implementation of additional "universal human rights" devices and the battle against discrimination and all forms of prejudice. As a result, many businesses were eager to declare in their ethical standards and mission statements that they not only endorse these principles, but will also actively pursue them for the greater good of the community. Such an instance is the Boston Consulting Group, which we will cover in further detail later in this paper.

'External factors' are the academic term for the additional variables impacting this situation. These events pertain to the globalization that began after World War II and increased following the collapse of the Berlin Wall and the end of the 'Cold War' During this time, since they have been "expanding" to every corner of the globe, local community members are employed in their branches, but not exclusively.

In order to build the appropriate policies and projects for the company's success in an increasingly worldwide market, they hire individuals from diverse backgrounds at its headquarters.

Herein lies the main argument of this work. Diversity in the workplace, if managed effectively, may become a driving force for innovation and company success. In the following pages, we will attempt to show this thesis by establishing the theoretical framework and then providing two specific situations as evidence for this thesis.

Diversity in the workplace as a factor of strength

First, we must address the question, "What is diversity?" According to the consensus of numerous scholars, "diversity" refers to the assortment, combination, variety, and scope of individuals and their features. This term also alludes to the vast array of traits that define individuals as distinct beings (Jones, 2004, p. 14).

According to the preceding definition, diversity is a mixture of people in terms of their external behavior and their internal beliefs about what is good or evil, accurate or incorrect. Until the end of the 20th century, company managers viewed the variety of their workforce as an impediment to commercial growth and the internal cohesion required to accomplish that growth. The 'concern' was that employee diversity would demotivate them to work more closely together.

In contrast, numerous efforts have been made in the academic community since the late 1990s to demonstrate that diversity in the workplace, in a corporation or commercial enterprise, is a source of strength and not weakness. Many corporate leaders are now confident that their organizations may exploit this variety to "ignite" the innovation and intrinsic drive required for success.

Innovation is an indispensable instrument for corporate growth and success. In today's corporate environment, the majority of large market organizations have their own Research & Development divisions or departments, which are continually searching for new market-winning strategies. These businesses heavily rely on the inventiveness of their employees. Numerous authors argue that in order to attain a comfortable market share, or to maintain leadership once you've achieved it, a corporation must continually offer new items to entice clients (Ghosh, 2005). The purpose of this paper is to demonstrate that market research cannot benefit a business without several interpretations of its findings. Here, diversity begins to play an extremely important role.

Having a workforce with a distinct background helps you to have only one perspective, and thus only one method to understand the market research report and design a market strategy. From this, we may assume that the corporation will only have one approach to the market that is beneficial to a single community or social group. In fact, it will be consistent with customers who share the same background as the staff members who examined the data and developed the strategy.

Therefore, having a varied workforce within your organization is crucial, if not "crucial," to establishing more lucrative business opportunities. The process of formulating a market strategy entails procedures that must be executed meticulously for a business to attain success. Here, variety serves as the "catalyst." Societies today are formed of several communities and social groups. These communities and social groups have diverse origins, frequently so dissimilar that their values and norms vary substantially.

However, a corporation recognizes that in order to achieve its goal as effectively as possible, it must address all of these social groups and communities, or at least the majority of them. This requires a deeper understanding of its consumer target groups.

Having a crew comprised of individuals from diverse backgrounds allows a business to comprehend the various factors that shape the world today. The first reason why staff diversity is a good and strength aspect for a company is that it may learn from the experiences and backgrounds of every employee.

By sharing their own experiences, each can gain insight from the other and become more equipped to comprehend how 'others' differ from him and how this 'different from him other' perceives reality. Once this is evaluated, it may be simpler to discern and comprehend this 'other"s worldly expectations. You will have numerous ways of understanding the data of, say, a market research, which is another strength. The same is true when developing and executing a market strategy. Due to their diverse backgrounds, the staff members are able to "combine" various puzzle pieces, resulting in a larger perspective.

At this point, a smart manager should demonstrate his or her ability to maximize the diversity of each individual. However, we shall examine this in the following section.

Diversity management ethics

We should begin by emphasizing that managing a group of individuals is difficult. And the reason it is difficult is due to the'strength' of the circumstance, which is that you must deal with people from diverse backgrounds. However, having a distinct background implies having different mentalities, beliefs, or perspectives.

Consequently, each member of the workforce possesses a unique set of qualities and potentials.

A smart manager must evaluate his diverse employees and attempt to capitalize on their unique skills, cultures, perspectives, and backgrounds. Effective leaders appreciate diversity and use it as a competitive advantage by recognizing its potential (Jones, 2004, p. 22). A successful manager must also be capable of coordinating the group to accomplish the necessary results on the company's aim goals. A supervisor overseeing a group of employees must be knowledgeable of his employees' abilities and characteristics in order to "get the most out of them." A manager's ethics and intellect should include the ability to maximize the potential of a diverse workforce. All of this may be taught at our colleges and institutions in order for the manager to have the proper understanding of this issue, if it presents itself, prior to the real-world contact. The ultimate goal is that he will be able to benefit himself, them, and the organization by managing a varied group of employees in his company.

Understanding and appreciating the diversity of his personnel allows the manager to create a more enriching work environment. However, if the manager fails to handle the concerns, challenges, and possibilities that this diverse team brings, it could lead to the development of a toxic and unsatisfying workplace. Two possible outcomes would be an increase in employee friction and a decline in performance. This environment will discourage workers from putting forth their best effort at work, which will ultimately harm the organization.

A manager must be aware of preconceptions and stereotypes in order to transform this variety into a positive element and favorably influence the performance of the team. It is his or her responsibility to establish and implement policies to eliminate prejudice among the personnel. The management must demonstrate that he (or she) truly loves diversity and does not discriminate against any of his employees on the basis of their differences.

Neither does he let bigotry to be a part of his everyday job routine (Gomez-Mejia et al., 2008, p. 35). If necessary, he should implement a variety of workshops, seminars, and programs to eradicate prejudices and discrimination among the personnel.

The cases of Sanyo Incorporated and the Boston Consulting Group, both in the United States, might be cited as examples of effective diversity management. The policy of these two companies was not only to admit refugees, but also to manage them so as to "get the most out of them."

Sanyo International is a Japanese corporation that manufactures digital gear such as televisions, computer components, etc. It first entered the market in the mid-1970s, when it acquired a local company in the southern United States.

There were significant cultural and mental differences between the new property owners and the local workforce, which caused a great deal of initial difficulties for this business. Since Sanyo brought along numerous Japanese employees. Initially, there was a problem with integrating these workforce with the current American employees.

The subsequent issue was stigmatization and stereotyping on both sides. Sanyo's management team devised and implemented a 'cultural integration plan' that had a profoundly favorable effect on the organization (Gomez-Mejia et al., 2008, p. 43-44). We cannot give Sanyo's whole approach due to space constraints, but we can identify the pillars upon which it was built. It all began with several lectures and workshops on each other's cultures.

There were dedicated hours and workshops devoted to introducing Japanese employees about American principles and emphasizing the similarities between these values and their own. Similar Japanese cultural values were also imparted to the American local workforce through numerous workshops and seminars.

In addition, a strategy of cultural inclusion was implemented during working hours. Japanese and American workers were intertwined in their regular work activities in order to build a stronger communication bridge. And finally, the corporation created a feedback system inquiring about the workforce's perspectives on what they deem significant, positive, or negative within the organization. This strategy let all employees feel valued within the organization, regardless of their cultural background.

Similarly, the Boston Consulting Group was among the first American businesses to develop a cultural diversification program. This time, though, it was addressed not only at its internal workers, but also at its target customers. It utilized comparable strategies throughout its workforce as Sanyo International. This organization considered staff diversity to be its greatest competitive advantage and actively recruited a diverse workforce ("The Boston Consulting Group", para. 1).

Additionally, this corporation established policies aimed at various cultural groupings in American culture. It targeted the most underprivileged and stigmatized communities. Initially, there was no positive response from the general public, but as time passed, this circumstance assisted the corporation in establishing positive brand recognition among the general public. In turn, this circumstance drew the attention of investors. This arrangement ultimately benefitted the company's revenues and profitability.

Conclusions

In the conclusion, we reiterate our argument that, if effectively managed, diversity in the workplace may become a driving force for innovation and economic success. Today, numerous experts assert that diversity is one of the most significant benefits of the American workforce (Jones, 2004, p. 43). This position is well understood by multinational firms, which is why many of them are now developing cultural initiatives and promoting this fact actively. Tomorrow's successful manager must be able to comprehend and effectively manage diversity throughout the workforce. But in order to effectively manage it, he (or she) must first have a thorough understanding of it.

Diversity is, in fact, a strength aspect that organizations should be aware of, as demonstrated by a reevaluation of the above-mentioned examples of two corporations (Ghosh, 2005).

References

Gomez-Mejia, R. David, B. Robert, L., and L. Robert (2008) published the third edition of Management: People, Performance, and Change. Manhattan: McGraw-Hill

Ghosh, Guatam. (2005). Guatam Ghosh on human resources: perspectives on organizations, work, and individuals. Web.

Jones, R. G. (2004). Fourth edition of Organizational Theory, Design, and Change: Text and Cases. United States of America, Prentice Hall Publishing House

The consulting firm Boston (2009). People management & human resource capabilities. Web.

[supanova question]

Impact Of Employee Motivation On Employees’ Performance Admission College Essay Help

Introduction

Social scientists and psychologists have discussed and debated the topic of human motivation for decades. Recently, managers and executives have turned to motivation to increase the performance and productivity of their staff in order to gain a competitive advantage (Davis, 2017). According to Wernerfelt's resource-based theory, HR managers can incentivize the company's employees to make them a main source of competitive advantage because 'HR must work to connect people strategy with firm competitive strategy and replace transactional HR practices' (Davis, 2017, p. 9). Therefore, the challenge for modern HR managers is to connect more intimately with the organization's internal culture and alter it to meet the needs of the business and its strategic objectives. Understanding the relationship between people's motivations for work and the results of their efforts is one factor that can aid them in this endeavor. The purpose of this study is to conduct a literature review on the subject of employee motivation and productivity and develop recommendations for organizations and HR professionals.

The most influential motivational ideas originated in the 20th century. Maslow presented the needs theory in 1942, Herzenberg created the two-factor model in 1959, and Vroom formulated the expectation theory in 1964. (Nduka, 2016; van der Kaap-Deeder et al., 2017). Particularly, Herzberg defined motivation as "performing a work-related action because you want to" (as cited in Nduka, 2016, p. 1). According to the motivation theory, there are two fundamental components of "motivation": intrinsic and extrinsic, or internal and external. Nduka, 2016, p. 1). Later theorists were able to describe and examine the two components in greater depth. However, Herzberg was the first to suggest this distinction (Alshmemri, Shahwan-Akl and Maude, 2017). The employer or management can exert control over extrinsic elements, such as compensation and benefits. However, these elements are not necessarily decisive in terms of productivity and optimal outcomes, as intrinsic drive has a considerably greater influence on an individual (Cho and Perry, 2012). This systematic literature review seeks to investigate the issue of employee motivation and the relationship between motivation and performance by analyzing the relevant literature and research.

Research questions

What influence does employee motivation have on their performance? What are the factors that influence employee motivation? How do extrinsic and intrinsic motivation affect the performance of employees?

This systematic literature review is a compilation of material from seventy papers on employee motivation and performance, all of which were used to conduct template study. The consequence is that research findings can serve as a foundation for implementing suitable HR policies in any organization seeking to boost employee productivity. This research effort is motivated by the desire to provide empirical evidence for the idea of employee motivation and to propose techniques that HR managers may implement in the workplace. The primary purpose of this dest-research is to locate and analyze scholarly literature on the topic of workplace motivation.

Objectives

Examine in the literature the relationship between motivation and performance Examine the association between the literature-identified motivational factors and performance.

This chapter provides an overview of the study and the theory of employee motivation, as well as its application in the workplace. The research questions that this literature study will investigate are offered. In addition, the significance of employee motivation as a source of a company's competitive advantage and the function of motivation in enhancing job results are highlighted in this part.

Literature Review

This section provides a summary of the 70 articles and books utilized in this research. Each of the three motivational theories—requirements Maslow's hierarchy, Herzenberg's two-factor model, and Vroom's model—has its own section. This section concludes with a summary of results about the relationship between motivation and performance and what managers may do to influence the motivation of their people.

The connection between motivation and people's performance has been recognized for a long time, and both practitioners and academics acknowledge the importance of motivation. The management handbooks of Alvesson (2002), Armstrong (2002), Daft (2009), Forgas et al. (2009), Goman (1991), Griffin (2006), and Lee and Saunders (2017), for instance, explain the importance of addressing employee motivation and its effect on performance. Prior to the 1980s, study on the subject of motivation was limited. Despite this, Maslow's hierarchy of needs, Herzenberg's two-factor model, and Vroom's expectation theory were among the most influential motivational theories to emerge in the 1950s and 1960s (Nduka, 2016). Modern HR practitioners and theorists continue to use Herzenberg's theory due to the distinction between internal and external elements that might serve as an individual's motivation to perform a task.

In the literature, motivation is defined differently depending on the setting of the study. From the standpoint of an HR manager, for instance, it is the process of encouraging subordinates to accomplish duties and perform better (Nduka, 2016). This process is finished by presenting these individuals with a purpose that coincides with their unmet needs and the organization's potential advantages. Others, such as Forgas, Williams, and Laham (2005), define it as a system that compels individuals to take action. Psychologists view motivation as a process that gives one's behavior purpose or a drive to satisfy particular requirements (Nduka, 2016). Motivation can be described in a variety of ways, but in the broadest sense, it is the intense desire to undertake an action (Marchington and Wilkinson, 2005; Pang and Lu, 2018). In other instances, motivation can be aversion to something, such as missing a deadline or failing to meet a benchmark. Alternately, the absence of motivational stimuli or the failure to address the personnel's fundamental requirements may have a detrimental effect on their motivation to work. The definitions differ, but they all reflect an impelling force and a goal or desire that a person seeks to satisfy by his or her activities.

Since this factor is highly individualized and subject to change, the next essential question is what the aim of employee motivation is. Amabile (1993) and Smith (1994) support the premise that organizations depend on their employees' motivation to work since it influences the company's ability to survive and develop (as cited in Nduka, 2016). Individuals who lack motivation to work are more likely to complete activities with minimal effort and achieve subpar results. Individuals that are motivated to work, on the other hand, can assist their companies in overcoming obstacles.

Empirical evidence supports the hypothesis that a highly motivated employee would create higher-quality work. According to Twalib and Kariuki (2016, p. 421), an employee's performance depends on their level of motivation in addition to their abilities. ’ Consequently, productivity is not completely dependent on an individual's motivation; qualifications and professional skills also play a role; yet, motivation is one of the most important elements. In addition, the concept of rewards is an essential component of motivation, as both internal and extrinsic motivation are dependent on the anticipated reward. This study is a continuation and synthesis of the existing employee motivation and performance ideas.

Considering the importance of motivation to the organization's success, it is essential to emphasize that the HR manager cannot influence all motivational elements. Internal and external, or intrinsic and extrinsic motivation, are examined from two perspectives within the motivation theory. In general, an employer can only influence extrinsic motivation – external elements like as compensation, benefits, interesting assignments, teamwork, and others – and not intrinsic motivation (Manukonda et al., 2019; Mitchell, 1982; Lee and Raschke, 2016). However, intrinsic motivation is entirely dependent on an individual's innate abilities and characteristics (Furnham et al., 1998). However, an organization can influence an employee's intrinsic motivation by giving possibilities for growth and development, in order to satisfy the demand for self-actualization.

Herzberg’s Two-Factor Model

The first model that investigates motivational elements establishes two categories of workplace settings that influence motivation. All factors of motivation, according to Herzberg's view, can be divided into two categories: cleanliness and motivation (Alshmemri et al., 2017). Notably, a factor can either be motivational or hygienic, but not both. Additionally, these factors cannot be viewed as polar opposites. A human resource management should recognize that the absence of hygiene elements leads to discontent, whilst motivation aspects increase contentment.

The first group consists of items that do not contribute to employee motivation. However, if these hygiene characteristics are absent from the workplace, employees will be less motivated to succeed. In contrast, the motivation factors are elements that a company can change to encourage people to work more. The hypothesis was created in 1959 and was known by various names (Story et al., 2009). Herzberg drew his results from 200 interviews he conducted with employees; as a result, his theory is founded on employee feedback, which helps to clarify which variables they deem essential and which can be neglected.

Each business is obligated to provide workers with basic hygiene considerations. Ganta (2014) identifies the following as examples of hygiene factors: policies, supervision, relationships, working conditions, wage, security, and compensation. Without them, the individual will likely seek a new position or may lack motivation to work successfully.

Complex motivational components include accomplishment, acknowledgment, responsibility, the capacity to advance, the nature of the task, and growth chances. Combining Herenber’s and Maslow’s theories leads to the conclusion that hygiene factors correspond to the base of Maslow’s pyramid, whereas motivation elements permit self-actualization. The four statistics were formulated based on Herzenberg's theory, and the ideal scenario for a corporation has high hygiene and high motivation (Obiekwe, 2016; Obiekwe et al., 2001). In this instance, the conditions for the employees' development are optimal.

Maslow's Hierarchy of Needs

Maslow's hierarchy is sometimes portrayed as a pyramid, illustrating the various needs a person must fulfill in order to function correctly. The theorist identified five fundamental kinds of demands that must be met for a person to be motivated: psychological, security, social, esteem, and personal development (Nbuka, 2016, p. 10). According to the hierarchy of needs, a person's internal motivation is to work towards self-fulfillment and, as a result, to meet the requirements of each group.

People are full when they meet the needs of each level of Maslow's hierarchy of needs. When a person is hungry or thirsty, for instance, they will have the physiological desire to meet these requirements by locating food and water. Notably, at the pinnacle of the pyramid lies self-actualization, the force responsible for personal and professional progress (Neelima and Koneru, 2019). Self-actualization is the realization of one’s potential, and an employee who has achieved self-actualization may perform better than one who has not. At the base of this pyramid are physiological necessities such as food, safety, shelter, and others. Some of these elements are within the control of the employer, such as the ability to meet basic physiological needs for food and shelter through a reasonable income.

As a symbol of Maslow's theory, the pyramid implies that as a person satisfies one level of need, another level that demands attention emerges, from lower-order to higher-order requirements. If a person's requirements are met in full, they become driven (Nduka, 2016). Maslow devoted a whole pyramid level to an individual's self-respect. Further research on this topic revealed the connection between an individual's motivation and self-esteem; hence, his theory has implications for examining the relationship between the two factors. According to Maslow, esteem requirements include respect, acknowledgment, freedom, and associated factors (Nbuka, 2016). According to der Kaap-Deeder et al. (2016), research on the association between self-esteem and motivation is limited, despite the fact that studies on other elements have demonstrated the influence of this factor on an individual's well-being. The empirical study conducted by the authors allowed them to infer that self-esteem is a predictor of success, such as when assessing the academic success of high school pupils. Consequently, contingent self-esteem (CSE), or a person's ability to achieve certain internal or external requirements, influences their self-perception.

Internal Inspiration

The organizational structure and talent management strategy can have an impact on an employee's motivation, but there are a number of fundamental characteristics that do not change, such as an individual's personality, goals, experiences, and other internal processes. Cho and Perry (2012) discovered that intrinsic motivation or internal factors had an effect on turnover rates and job satisfaction. No association was found between intrinsic components and performance, suggesting that this part of work is influenced by other motivational domains. Extrinsic motivation, or external variables, such as workplace circumstances, compensation, opportunity, and other elements that can motivate a person to work more, is the opposite of intrinsic motivation.

External Inspiration

In addition to the motivation theories, which focus mostly on internal variables, perks and worker remuneration should be included as sources of incentive. According to Güngor (2011), monetary compensation is a crucial aspect in determining employee motivation. However, non-financial incentives also contribute to the improved motivation of employees. For instance, Yousaf et al. (2014) and Burton (2012) claim that the provision of professional training by the employing organization enhances motivation. The favorable relationship developed as a result of cooperation between employees and supervisors is one explanation for this phenomenon. The findings of Mudiyanselage and Wijesundera (2018) support the notion that monetary incentives play a role in motivating individuals. However, it is crucial to analyze the circumstances in this instance, including the type of economy, industry, wage level, and other factors. This is because study by Rynes et al. (2004) indicates that at a certain amount, money gains have little effect on a person's level of happiness. On the basis of this, it is possible to hypothesize that financial rewards have psychological effects on employees, such as increased happiness and motivation, up to a certain extent.

The Vroom Theory

The expectation theory suggests that a person directs their efforts toward maximizing pleasure and minimizing discomfort. This idea, when applied to the workplace, suggests that a person's performance and motivation depend on a collection of personal and professional traits, such as abilities, experience, knowledge, and others (Nduka, 2016). Therefore, if an employee recognizes a link between their talents and performance, they will perform better (Cho and Perry, 2010, p. 10). Or, if their efforts will result in a reward that can satisfy one of their wants and is worth pursuing, they will be extremely driven to work toward this objective. The essential components of this theory are valence, expectation, and instrumentality (Nduka, 2016, p. 8). From the standpoint of this theory, managers should be aware of the rewards they promise, their capacity to deliver the promised rewards, and the valence, or emotional orientation, of particular incentives.

Motivation and performance have a correlation

In general, this evaluation focuses on

Best Cost Managerial Accounting Approach For Web Ad Admission College Essay Help

Table of Contents
Description of the problem Context of the problem and ongoing study in the subject Justifications for the problem's existence and justifications for selecting it Methodology for a Literature Review Principal research queries References

Description of the problem

Internet advertising is a highly profitable endeavor, but the improper application of management accounting techniques can prevent a company from achieving profitability. After conducting an analysis of the companies' financial situation from the perspective of the cost managerial accounting approaches, i.e. standard cost accounting, activity-based costing, throughput accounting, lean accounting, and resource consumption accounting, it may be possible to identify the accounting system failures those businesses are experiencing and make suggestions for improving the strategy and increasing profit through the implementation of good decisions. In addition, the facts regarding the optimal method to use in the sector of web advertising will be considered.

The problem's context and ongoing research in the field

There is a great deal of current research in the field devoted to Internet advertising; however, it was unable to discover research committed to data collecting in the field for accounting purposes. In addition, there is a paucity of internet resources devoted to cost accounting-based recommendations for enhancing the profitability of online advertising. In addition, it can be stated that the research will be novel, as no previous research has identified the optimal cost accounting method for decision-making in the sector of web advertising.

Reasons for the problem's existence and justifications for selecting it

Despite the fact that advertising on the Internet is becoming a very lucrative business, the intense competition poses some difficulties for the organizations engaged. Some businesses do not achieve the anticipated profit. One of the primary reasons for the development of problems is that procedures that work in other fields are ineffective on the Internet. This topic is chosen because Internet and advertising present an excellent chance for creative study in the field of accounting. In addition, the choice of cost accounting methodologies (standard cost accounting, activity-based costing, throughput accounting, lean accounting, and resource consumption accounting) may assist some businesses in making advertising-related decisions.

Literature review

Conducting a literature review on the issue of web advertising and the profit companies can make from it, it should be noted that advertising in this manner is inexpensive and available "24 hours a day and up to 365 days a year" (Janoschka 2004, p. 41), especially when compared to traditional advertising methods. Information Resources Management Association, International Conference, and Khosrowpour (2001) suggest that, from the perspective of cost accounting, Web advertising should take into consideration "accounting system characteristics only as network effects resulting from association" (p. 1109). Furthermore, it is normal for businesses to develop websites for marketing purposes. This permits them to advertise their products on their personal websites online (Stickney, Weil, & Schipper 2009, p. 349). However, the authors do not evaluate the best cost accounting methods that may be utilized to make decisions regarding the placement of advertisements on the Internet.

Albrecht, Stice, Stice, and Swain (2007) discuss the significance of considering the recent accounting scandals that erupted in relation to the revenue that should be recognized from internet advertising operations. The web-based advertising campaign should not only address accounting systems for decision-making, but also the taxes of the Internet (Laurence & Miller 2000). Armstrong and Barrett (2001) propose the adoption of the CPM online approach for profit computation, as Procter & Gamble did when it made its first amount of money over the Internet, without utilizing any cost accounting method. Nonetheless, this technique may be deemed obsolete and ineffectual for the time being. Brown (2006) offers to simplify the decision-making process by locating all accounting-related information on the Internet utilizing the most modern software, which enables users to employ various cost accounting methods and perform calculations online at minimal cost.

Methodology

The research approach should be qualitative, as it will help determine which accounting system is optimal for making judgments on the Internet. It is necessary to evaluate the firms that utilize the Internet for advertising and the Internet organizations that supply online advertising services to those enterprises. The survey should be designed using cost accounting techniques, with questions pertaining to the company' operations.

Principal research queries

The primary research questions should be:

What cost accounting procedures do businesses employ when making decisions with online advertising agencies? Which strategy is deemed to be the most suitable for both the companies' clientele and their service providers? Which cost accounting techniques are most effective for determining profit?

References

Albrecht, W. S., J. D. Stice, E. K. Stice, and M.R. Swain, 2007. The concepts and applications of accounting. Cengage Learning is based in Stamford

Armstrong, S. & Barrett, N., 2001. How to communicate your message on the World Wide Web with Internet advertising. Kogan Page Publishers, London.

Brown, Benjamin C., 2006. How to advertise, promote, and market your business or website on the Internet at little or no cost. Atlantic Publishing Company, Ocala, Florida.

International Conference of the Information Resources Management Association, and M. Khosrowpour, 2001. Information technology management in a global economy. Hershey, Pennsylvania: Idea Group Inc (IGI).

Janoschka, A., 2004. Web advertising: new types of Internet communication. John Benjamins Publishing Organization.

Laurence, H., & Miller, W., 2000. Internet research for academic purposes: choices for scholars and libraries. Routledge, London

Stickney, C. P., Weil, R. L., & Schipper, K., 2009. An Introduction to Financial Accounting Concepts, Methods, and Applications. Cengage Learning is based in Stamford

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Supermarkets Of Australia. Corporate Restructurings Admission College Essay Help

Introduction

Woolworth (WOW) is the largest retailer in Australia and New Zealand based on revenue and market capitalization. The majority of the company's profits in 2010 came from the operation of supermarkets, which accounted for 80% of overall profits. Other trades, including gasoline, food, and alcoholic beverages, contributed $51.7 billion to the fiscal year that ended in June 2010. The company's yearly sales increased by 4.8% during the same period, based on its 30% market share in Australian food, groceries, and alcohol (Books 2010). WOW would pursue a merger and acquisition with an Australian Securities Exchange (ASX)-listed firm in order to meet its 2010 corporate responsibility obligations. This research analyzes a potential merger with JB Hi-Fi (JBH), an ASX-listed firm.

Acquisition objectives

Mergers and acquisitions should be utilized by Woolworth to expand its business and maximize revenues. For a company to be eligible for purchase, the following objectives must be met. The company should be able to introduce fresh, marketable products that will be sold under the Woolworth brand. Information Systems and Technology – The company must have established information systems and technology for online product marketing and availability. This will facilitate the selling of Woolworth products. Woolworth's items have a high turnover rate in retail outlets. Any company worth acquiring should deal with rapidly moving, high-revenue and profit-index products. Woolworth is a well-established business in Australia and New Zealand. The company must be of comparable size or deal with products that are internationally marketable. New Customer Base – As a result of selling the company's products, Woolworth should gain access to new customers who purchase its goods. Mergers and acquisitions should expand both companies' markets. Obligation-Free – The company should not be subject to assets or other liabilities stated by the ACCC.

JB Hi-Fi

Australia-based JB Hi-Fi specializes in automotive audio systems, consumer electronics, home entertainment devices, music CDs, and DVDs. According to estimates from 2010, the company, which was founded in Keilor East, Melbourne, has more than 130 locations throughout Australia and 10 in New Zealand (2010). The company distributes high-quality Hi-Fi brands in addition to movies and music. With partnerships with internationally recognized firms such as LG, Apple, Compaq, Sony, Sharp, Toshiba, HP, and Samsung, among others, the company has created a market foundation in Australia, allowing it to become the largest retailer of these brands' products.

JB Hi-SWOT Fi's analysisStrengths

Since 2004, JB Hi-Fi has had phenomenal development in terms of both outlets and earnings. In 2010, the company has 150 locations, up from 66 in 2003. The company expanded its operations from CDs and DVDs to encompass consumer electronics, computers, telecommunications devices, and visuals. During the fiscal year ending 30 June 2010, the company's comparable store sales increased by 4.8%, resulting in a net profit of 118.7 million Gaughans (2010). Compared to its rivals, the company's media advertising in 2010 was significantly more extensive. The company's website was important in establishing its supremacy in Australia and New Zealand. The company obtains electronics and computer brands directly from the producers, avoiding the need for middlemen. Brands have enhanced the company's image and reputation, resulting in an increase in client base. Some clients rely on particular brands and are content to purchase them at reasonable costs in JB Hi-Fi

Weaknesses

In recent years, JB Hi-Fi has invested a great amount in marketing. The company spent $265,142 on marketing in 2010, compared to $230,414 for the same period in 2009. This has led to a rise in expenses, which has led to an increase in product pricing. Additionally, the corporation is hampered by its reliance on CDs and DVDs for music and movie revenues. The current trend of adopting IPods and memory cards for music could cause the corporation to lose ground in the music industry. Additionally, internet music accessibility has risen, but the corporation has not positioned itself properly to provide these services. The corporation is losing millions to competitors that already sell music and films in digital format (Gaughan 2010).

Opportunities

While outdated technology is decreasing at a rate of 23%, items such as mp3 and iPod are increasing by 207%. Investing in information technology has helped the Hi-Fi store to enhance sales due to the marketability of market developments. The company is able to sell these new products at reduced prices due to fewer costs associated with acquiring them. Increased demand for home entertainment and electrical equipment has accelerated the development of new retailers. Due to the low prices of these products on the market, newly formed stores are finding a niche that supports their development and growth. The implementation has enhanced the company's profit margins and, as a result, its assets. The 2004 and 2006 acquisitions of Clive Antony, Hill, and Stewart expanded its market presence (Gaughan 2010).

Threats

The operations of the company are threatened by fresh developments. The introduction of new means for downloading music and movies poses a danger to the company's music sales. The company's sales also depend on stock returns and operating expenses, which are contingent on international trade and policies that are inconsistent at times. The daily introduction of new products that provide the same or better services poses a danger. The majority of mobile phones and other electronic devices are displacing CDs, DVDs, and other music-related media since these functions are integrated into them. Without trading in them, the corporation risks stocking things that will never sell. The corporation is also in jeopardy for failing to trade online, a common practice among businesses nowadays.

JB Hi-Compliance Fi's with the CriteriaNew Products

Woolworth sells all retail items, but lacks distinct electrical brand names. JB Due to its partnerships with manufacturers from many locations, Hi-Fi has access to the majority of home electronics. A well-stocked Woolworth will sell music and movie accessories alongside home electronics and computer supplies.

Information Technology and Systems

Even though it was obvious, JB has not yet fully embraced online commerce. Hi-Fi, E-marketing is present. The majority of the company's items are available online, and the corporation has strengthened its product promotion through supporting website-based companies.

Rapidly Moving Goods

The company specializes in consumer electronics, white goods, vehicle systems, and music and film-related devices. The company guarantees that these innovative products be sold as quickly as possible. This is due to the fact that if a commodity is stored for an extended period of time, it risks being rendered obsolete by new technology and not being sold at all. The corporation guarantees that things move quickly by maintaining a sufficient inventory.

Goods with International Marketability

JBH is allowed to engage in worldwide trade as a result of its contracts with globally known corporations. Australia's distribution of music and films from many countries has increased the company's global recognition. Apple, Sony, Phillips, Toshiba, and HP electronics indicate that the corporation has not restricted its operations to Australia and New Zealand.

New client base

This will also attract a consumer base that was not existing prior to the trade of these commodities. Adopting the products and branding them with the Woolworth name will allow Woolworth to market its own products, thereby gaining new customers. The acquisition of some JBH stores will also result in the opening of new Woolworth sites.

Obligations

Guan states that JBH was required to sign a court-enforcement commitment for violating Section 45 of the Trade Practices Act of 1974. (2008). ACCC accused JBH of pushing Satisfaction, a competitor company, to close its locations. According to Guan, a court ordered JBH not to "enter into a contract with a person with whom it is likely to be in competition, which could cause him to cease trading" (2008). This requirement, which has been in effect for three years since 2008, prevents JBH from meeting one of Woolworth's goals.

Acquisition Methodology

The purpose of acquiring other companies is to grow Woolworth Assets and increase its commerce. JBH is a good company with which these goals will be attained, in addition to being a large investment with promising profits. According to the completed SWOT analysis, it is apparent that JBH must diversify its product line in order to survive the intense rivalry from its rivals. As a result, Woolworth will submit an acquisition proposal through JBH's three managing directors. The purchase proposal will be confidential in order to persuade the managing directors of the necessity and benefits of the acquisition. The managers will next convene a board meeting, the approval of which will give the merge the go-ahead. During the first six months of the year, there will be no changes to the company's management, but there will be an increase in new items and retail personnel. In addition to the cash paid for the merger, Woolworth will extend a two-year contract to both management teams, after which new terms will be negotiated in accordance with Woolworth's current practice. The transaction will be conducted in two stages. The first will occur six months after the agreement and will require Woolworth to acquire a 70% stake in JHB, followed by a final 100% stake six months later.

acquisition timeline in 2011:

Woolworth management contacts JBH directors on February 2 to inform them of its intent to acquire JBH. By the third of March, Woolworth will have received feedback from its managers and board of directors. A affirmative reaction will advance the process. If the managers reject the agreement, a fresh plan to persuade them will be devised by March 15, 2011. Otherwise, a market strategy in which Woolworth acquires enough JBH shares to acquire ownership rights will be examined. 15th of March – A feasibility team comprised of managers and board of directors from both companies will examine the benefits of a merger. They will draft the merger's terms and conditions. The pricing of the transaction is determined on March 25 with the assistance of external auditors by the management of both parties. 30th of March – Both parties' boards of directors and management sign the terms of the agreement as determined by the feasibility teams. The agreement is finalized and written documents are signed on April 1. 4th of April: The agreement is made public. On September 5th, Woolworth acquires JBH.

Valuation

The company's 2010 net profit after taxes was $ 118.65 million, and its market capitalization is $ 1,921 million for 109 million shares. Its entire assets are worth 61.54 million dollars. This is worth $2 billion, especially when compared to its competitors, as seen in the following table (Sherman 2010).

Funding

To raise $900 million, Woolworth will sell 31 Australian shopping malls to retailers. These non-essential assets are available for sale. $469 million will come from the balance sheet's available cash. 200 million shares will be split and sold to raise $435 million. 96 million dollars from the sale of used machinery and cars. Clearance of 100 million dollars in debts.

Completion Issues

JB Hi-Fi is subject to ACCC regulations as a result of a 2008 court order. This will terminate in 2011, thus Woolworth will rely on JBH management for one year following the acquisition to ensure compliance with the responsibilities. Before a merger, the terms of the agreement will consider ACCC regulations. The merger will enhance both companies, making them compliant with ACCC laws. Woolworth will however ensure compliance with all requirements. The JBH administration will remain intact till 2012. Assuming that the merger will boost customer base, JBH will be modified to function like Woolworth by the middle of 2012, after Woolworth has provided a year of support to ensure its smooth operation. Three years will pass until Woolworth realizes investment returns.

References

Books (2010). Supermarkets of Australia: Aldi, Franklins, Bi-Lo, Coles Supermarkets, Woolworths, Safeway, IGA, IGA, Supabarn Supermarkets, and Jewel Food Stores. Tennessee, LLC Books. 2010; Mergers, Acquisitions, and Corporate Restructurings by P. Gaughan. Wiley's San Francisco office. Guan, L. (2008) JB Hi-Fi to launch additional outlets despite ACCC issues in Ballarat. CRN 13 (6). Sherman, A. (2010). A to Z of Mergers and Acquisitions. New York, AMAZON.COM Stephen J. Sherman (Author)

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Introduction

Woolworth (WOW) is the largest retailer in Australia and New Zealand based on revenue and market capitalization. The majority of the company's profits in 2010 came from the operation of supermarkets, which accounted for 80% of overall profits. Other trades, including gasoline, food, and alcoholic beverages, contributed $51.7 billion to the fiscal year that ended in June 2010. The company's yearly sales increased by 4.8% during the same period, based on its 30% market share in Australian food, groceries, and alcohol (Books 2010). WOW would pursue a merger and acquisition with an Australian Securities Exchange (ASX)-listed firm in order to meet its 2010 corporate responsibility obligations. This research analyzes a potential merger with JB Hi-Fi (JBH), an ASX-listed firm.

Acquisition objectives

Mergers and acquisitions should be utilized by Woolworth to expand its business and maximize revenues. For a company to be eligible for purchase, the following objectives must be met. The company should be able to introduce fresh, marketable products that will be sold under the Woolworth brand. Information Systems and Technology – The company must have established information systems and technology for online product marketing and availability. This will facilitate the selling of Woolworth products. Woolworth's items have a high turnover rate in retail outlets. Any company worth acquiring should deal with rapidly moving, high-revenue and profit-index products. Woolworth is a well-established business in Australia and New Zealand. The company must be of comparable size or deal with products that are internationally marketable. New Customer Base – As a result of selling the company's products, Woolworth should gain access to new customers who purchase its goods. Mergers and acquisitions should expand both companies' markets. Obligation-Free – The company should not be subject to assets or other liabilities stated by the ACCC.

JB Hi-Fi

Australia-based JB Hi-Fi specializes in automotive audio systems, consumer electronics, home entertainment devices, music CDs, and DVDs. According to estimates from 2010, the company, which was founded in Keilor East, Melbourne, has more than 130 locations throughout Australia and 10 in New Zealand (2010). The company distributes high-quality Hi-Fi brands in addition to movies and music. With partnerships with internationally recognized firms such as LG, Apple, Compaq, Sony, Sharp, Toshiba, HP, and Samsung, among others, the company has created a market foundation in Australia, allowing it to become the largest retailer of these brands' products.

JB Hi-SWOT Fi's analysisStrengths

Since 2004, JB Hi-Fi has had phenomenal development in terms of both outlets and earnings. In 2010, the company has 150 locations, up from 66 in 2003. The company expanded its operations from CDs and DVDs to encompass consumer electronics, computers, telecommunications devices, and visuals. During the fiscal year ending 30 June 2010, the company's comparable store sales increased by 4.8%, resulting in a net profit of 118.7 million Gaughans (2010). Compared to its rivals, the company's media advertising in 2010 was significantly more extensive. The company's website was important in establishing its supremacy in Australia and New Zealand. The company obtains electronics and computer brands directly from the producers, avoiding the need for middlemen. Brands have enhanced the company's image and reputation, resulting in an increase in client base. Some clients rely on particular brands and are content to purchase them at reasonable costs in JB Hi-Fi

Weaknesses

In recent years, JB Hi-Fi has invested a great amount in marketing. The company spent $265,142 on marketing in 2010, compared to $230,414 for the same period in 2009. This has led to a rise in expenses, which has led to an increase in product pricing. Additionally, the corporation is hampered by its reliance on CDs and DVDs for music and movie revenues. The current trend of adopting IPods and memory cards for music could cause the corporation to lose ground in the music industry. Additionally, internet music accessibility has risen, but the corporation has not positioned itself properly to provide these services. The corporation is losing millions to competitors that already sell music and films in digital format (Gaughan 2010).

Opportunities

While outdated technology is decreasing at a rate of 23%, items such as mp3 and iPod are increasing by 207%. Investing in information technology has helped the Hi-Fi store to enhance sales due to the marketability of market developments. The company is able to sell these new products at reduced prices due to fewer costs associated with acquiring them. Increased demand for home entertainment and electrical equipment has accelerated the development of new retailers. Due to the low prices of these products on the market, newly formed stores are finding a niche that supports their development and growth. The implementation has enhanced the company's profit margins and, as a result, its assets. The 2004 and 2006 acquisitions of Clive Antony, Hill, and Stewart expanded its market presence (Gaughan 2010).

Threats

The operations of the company are threatened by fresh developments. The introduction of new means for downloading music and movies poses a danger to the company's music sales. The company's sales also depend on stock returns and operating expenses, which are contingent on international trade and policies that are inconsistent at times. The daily introduction of new products that provide the same or better services poses a danger. The majority of mobile phones and other electronic devices are displacing CDs, DVDs, and other music-related media since these functions are integrated into them. Without trading in them, the corporation risks stocking things that will never sell. The corporation is also in jeopardy for failing to trade online, a common practice among businesses nowadays.

JB Hi-Compliance Fi's with the CriteriaNew Products

Woolworth sells all retail items, but lacks distinct electrical brand names. JB Due to its partnerships with manufacturers from many locations, Hi-Fi has access to the majority of home electronics. A well-stocked Woolworth will sell music and movie accessories alongside home electronics and computer supplies.

Information Technology and Systems

Even though it was obvious, JB has not yet fully embraced online commerce. Hi-Fi, E-marketing is present. The majority of the company's items are available online, and the corporation has strengthened its product promotion through supporting website-based companies.

Rapidly Moving Goods

The company specializes in consumer electronics, white goods, vehicle systems, and music and film-related devices. The company guarantees that these innovative products be sold as quickly as possible. This is due to the fact that if a commodity is stored for an extended period of time, it risks being rendered obsolete by new technology and not being sold at all. The corporation guarantees that things move quickly by maintaining a sufficient inventory.

Goods with International Marketability

JBH is allowed to engage in worldwide trade as a result of its contracts with globally known corporations. Australia's distribution of music and films from many countries has increased the company's global recognition. Apple, Sony, Phillips, Toshiba, and HP electronics indicate that the corporation has not restricted its operations to Australia and New Zealand.

New client base

This will also attract a consumer base that was not existing prior to the trade of these commodities. Adopting the products and branding them with the Woolworth name will allow Woolworth to market its own products, thereby gaining new customers. The acquisition of some JBH stores will also result in the opening of new Woolworth sites.

Obligations

Guan states that JBH was required to sign a court-enforcement commitment for violating Section 45 of the Trade Practices Act of 1974. (2008). ACCC accused JBH of pushing Satisfaction, a competitor company, to close its locations. According to Guan, a court ordered JBH not to "enter into a contract with a person with whom it is likely to be in competition, which could cause him to cease trading" (2008). This requirement, which has been in effect for three years since 2008, prevents JBH from meeting one of Woolworth's goals.

Acquisition Methodology

The purpose of acquiring other companies is to grow Woolworth Assets and increase its commerce. JBH is a good company with which these goals will be attained, in addition to being a large investment with promising profits. According to the completed SWOT analysis, it is apparent that JBH must diversify its product line in order to survive the intense rivalry from its rivals. As a result, Woolworth will submit an acquisition proposal through JBH's three managing directors. The purchase proposal will be confidential in order to persuade the managing directors of the necessity and benefits of the acquisition. The managers will next convene a board meeting, the approval of which will give the merge the go-ahead. During the first six months of the year, there will be no changes to the company's management, but there will be an increase in new items and retail personnel. In addition to the cash paid for the merger, Woolworth will extend a two-year contract to both management teams, after which new terms will be negotiated in accordance with Woolworth's current practice. The transaction will be conducted in two stages. The first will occur six months after the agreement and will require Woolworth to acquire a 70% stake in JHB, followed by a final 100% stake six months later.

acquisition timeline in 2011:

Woolworth management contacts JBH directors on February 2 to inform them of its intent to acquire JBH. By the third of March, Woolworth will have received feedback from its managers and board of directors. A affirmative reaction will advance the process. If the managers reject the agreement, a fresh plan to persuade them will be devised by March 15, 2011. Otherwise, a market strategy in which Woolworth acquires enough JBH shares to acquire ownership rights will be examined. 15th of March – A feasibility team comprised of managers and board of directors from both companies will examine the benefits of a merger. They will draft the merger's terms and conditions. The pricing of the transaction is determined on March 25 with the assistance of external auditors by the management of both parties. 30th of March – Both parties' boards of directors and management sign the terms of the agreement as determined by the feasibility teams. The agreement is finalized and written documents are signed on April 1. 4th of April: The agreement is made public. On September 5th, Woolworth acquires JBH.

Valuation

The company's 2010 net profit after taxes was $ 118.65 million, and its market capitalization is $ 1,921 million for 109 million shares. Its entire assets are worth 61.54 million dollars. This is worth $2 billion, especially when compared to its competitors, as seen in the following table (Sherman 2010).

Funding

To raise $900 million, Woolworth will sell 31 Australian shopping malls to retailers. These non-essential assets are available for sale. $469 million will come from the balance sheet's available cash. 200 million shares will be split and sold to raise $435 million. 96 million dollars from the sale of used machinery and cars. Clearance of 100 million dollars in debts.

Completion Issues

JB Hi-Fi is subject to ACCC regulations as a result of a 2008 court order. This will terminate in 2011, thus Woolworth will rely on JBH management for one year following the acquisition to ensure compliance with the responsibilities. Before a merger, the terms of the agreement will consider ACCC regulations. The merger will enhance both companies, making them compliant with ACCC laws. Woolworth will however ensure compliance with all requirements. The JBH administration will remain intact till 2012. Assuming that the merger will boost customer base, JBH will be modified to function like Woolworth by the middle of 2012, after Woolworth has provided a year of support to ensure its smooth operation. Three years will pass until Woolworth realizes investment returns.

References

Books (2010). Supermarkets of Australia: Aldi, Franklins, Bi-Lo, Coles Supermarkets, Woolworths, Safeway, IGA, IGA, Supabarn Supermarkets, and Jewel Food Stores. Tennessee, LLC Books. 2010; Mergers, Acquisitions, and Corporate Restructurings by P. Gaughan. Wiley's San Francisco office. Guan, L. (2008) JB Hi-Fi to launch additional outlets despite ACCC issues in Ballarat. CRN 13(6). Sherman, A. (2010). A to Z of Mergers and Acquisitions. New York, AMAZON.COM Stephen J. Sherman (Author)

[supanova question]

Supermarkets Of Australia. Corporate Restructurings Admission College Essay Help

Introduction

Woolworth (WOW) is the largest retailer in Australia and New Zealand based on revenue and market capitalization. The majority of the company's profits in 2010 came from the operation of supermarkets, which accounted for 80% of overall profits. Other trades, including gasoline, food, and alcoholic beverages, contributed $51.7 billion to the fiscal year that ended in June 2010. The company's yearly sales increased by 4.8% during the same period, based on its 30% market share in Australian food, groceries, and alcohol (Books 2010). WOW would pursue a merger and acquisition with an Australian Securities Exchange (ASX)-listed firm in order to meet its 2010 corporate responsibility obligations. This research analyzes a potential merger with JB Hi-Fi (JBH), an ASX-listed firm.

Acquisition objectives

Mergers and acquisitions should be utilized by Woolworth to expand its business and maximize revenues. For a company to be eligible for purchase, the following objectives must be met. The company should be able to introduce fresh, marketable products that will be sold under the Woolworth brand. Information Systems and Technology – The company must have established information systems and technology for online product marketing and availability. This will facilitate the selling of Woolworth products. Woolworth's items have a high turnover rate in retail outlets. Any company worth acquiring should deal with rapidly moving, high-revenue and profit-index products. Woolworth is a well-established business in Australia and New Zealand. The company must be of comparable size or deal with products that are internationally marketable. New Customer Base – As a result of selling the company's products, Woolworth should gain access to new customers who purchase its goods. Mergers and acquisitions should expand both companies' markets. Obligation-Free – The company should not be subject to assets or other liabilities stated by the ACCC.

JB Hi-Fi

Australia-based JB Hi-Fi specializes in automotive audio systems, consumer electronics, home entertainment devices, music CDs, and DVDs. According to estimates from 2010, the company, which was founded in Keilor East, Melbourne, has more than 130 locations throughout Australia and 10 in New Zealand (2010). The company distributes high-quality Hi-Fi brands in addition to movies and music. With partnerships with internationally recognized firms such as LG, Apple, Compaq, Sony, Sharp, Toshiba, HP, and Samsung, among others, the company has created a market foundation in Australia, allowing it to become the largest retailer of these brands' products.

JB Hi-SWOT Fi's analysisStrengths

Since 2004, JB Hi-Fi has had phenomenal development in terms of both outlets and earnings. In 2010, the company has 150 locations, up from 66 in 2003. The company expanded its operations from CDs and DVDs to encompass consumer electronics, computers, telecommunications devices, and visuals. During the fiscal year ending 30 June 2010, the company's comparable store sales increased by 4.8%, resulting in a net profit of 118.7 million Gaughans (2010). Compared to its rivals, the company's media advertising in 2010 was significantly more extensive. The company's website was important in establishing its supremacy in Australia and New Zealand. The company obtains electronics and computer brands directly from the producers, avoiding the need for middlemen. Brands have enhanced the company's image and reputation, resulting in an increase in client base. Some clients rely on particular brands and are content to purchase them at reasonable costs in JB Hi-Fi

Weaknesses

In recent years, JB Hi-Fi has invested a great amount in marketing. The company spent $265,142 on marketing in 2010, compared to $230,414 for the same period in 2009. This has led to a rise in expenses, which has led to an increase in product pricing. Additionally, the corporation is hampered by its reliance on CDs and DVDs for music and movie revenues. The current trend of adopting IPods and memory cards for music could cause the corporation to lose ground in the music industry. Additionally, internet music accessibility has risen, but the corporation has not positioned itself properly to provide these services. The corporation is losing millions to competitors that already sell music and films in digital format (Gaughan 2010).

Opportunities

While outdated technology is decreasing at a rate of 23%, items such as mp3 and iPod are increasing by 207%. Investing in information technology has helped the Hi-Fi store to enhance sales due to the marketability of market developments. The company is able to sell these new products at reduced prices due to fewer costs associated with acquiring them. Increased demand for home entertainment and electrical equipment has accelerated the development of new retailers. Due to the low prices of these products on the market, newly formed stores are finding a niche that supports their development and growth. The implementation has enhanced the company's profit margins and, as a result, its assets. The 2004 and 2006 acquisitions of Clive Antony, Hill, and Stewart expanded its market presence (Gaughan 2010).

Threats

The operations of the company are threatened by fresh developments. The introduction of new means for downloading music and movies poses a danger to the company's music sales. The company's sales also depend on stock returns and operating expenses, which are contingent on international trade and policies that are inconsistent at times. The daily introduction of new products that provide the same or better services poses a danger. The majority of mobile phones and other electronic devices are displacing CDs, DVDs, and other music-related media since these functions are integrated into them. Without trading in them, the corporation risks stocking things that will never sell. The corporation is also in jeopardy for failing to trade online, a common practice among businesses nowadays.

JB Hi-Compliance Fi's with the CriteriaNew Products

Woolworth sells all retail items, but lacks distinct electrical brand names. JB Due to its partnerships with manufacturers from many locations, Hi-Fi has access to the majority of home electronics. A well-stocked Woolworth will sell music and movie accessories alongside home electronics and computer supplies.

Information Technology and Systems

Even though it was obvious, JB has not yet fully embraced online commerce. Hi-Fi, E-marketing is present. The majority of the company's items are available online, and the corporation has strengthened its product promotion through supporting website-based companies.

Rapidly Moving Goods

The company specializes in consumer electronics, white goods, vehicle systems, and music and film-related devices. The company guarantees that these innovative products be sold as quickly as possible. This is due to the fact that if a commodity is stored for an extended period of time, it risks being rendered obsolete by new technology and not being sold at all. The corporation guarantees that things move quickly by maintaining a sufficient inventory.

Goods with International Marketability

JBH is allowed to engage in worldwide trade as a result of its contracts with globally known corporations. Australia's distribution of music and films from many countries has increased the company's global recognition. Apple, Sony, Phillips, Toshiba, and HP electronics indicate that the corporation has not restricted its operations to Australia and New Zealand.

New client base

This will also attract a consumer base that was not existing prior to the trade of these commodities. Adopting the products and branding them with the Woolworth name will allow Woolworth to market its own products, thereby gaining new customers. The acquisition of some JBH stores will also result in the opening of new Woolworth sites.

Obligations

Guan states that JBH was required to sign a court-enforcement commitment for violating Section 45 of the Trade Practices Act of 1974. (2008). ACCC accused JBH of pushing Satisfaction, a competitor company, to close its locations. According to Guan, a court ordered JBH not to "enter into a contract with a person with whom it is likely to be in competition, which could cause him to cease trading" (2008). This requirement, which has been in effect for three years since 2008, prevents JBH from meeting one of Woolworth's goals.

Acquisition Methodology

The purpose of acquiring other companies is to grow Woolworth Assets and increase its commerce. JBH is a good company with which these goals will be attained, in addition to being a large investment with promising profits. According to the completed SWOT analysis, it is apparent that JBH must diversify its product line in order to survive the intense rivalry from its rivals. As a result, Woolworth will submit an acquisition proposal through JBH's three managing directors. The purchase proposal will be confidential in order to persuade the managing directors of the necessity and benefits of the acquisition. The managers will next convene a board meeting, the approval of which will give the merge the go-ahead. During the first six months of the year, there will be no changes to the company's management, but there will be an increase in new items and retail personnel. In addition to the cash paid for the merger, Woolworth will extend a two-year contract to both management teams, after which new terms will be negotiated in accordance with Woolworth's current practice. The transaction will be conducted in two stages. The first will occur six months after the agreement and will require Woolworth to acquire a 70% stake in JHB, followed by a final 100% stake six months later.

acquisition timeline in 2011:

Woolworth management contacts JBH directors on February 2 to inform them of its intent to acquire JBH. By the third of March, Woolworth will have received feedback from its managers and board of directors. A affirmative reaction will advance the process. If the managers reject the agreement, a fresh plan to persuade them will be devised by March 15, 2011. Otherwise, a market strategy in which Woolworth acquires enough JBH shares to acquire ownership rights will be examined. 15th of March – A feasibility team comprised of managers and board of directors from both companies will examine the benefits of a merger. They will draft the merger's terms and conditions. The pricing of the transaction is determined on March 25 with the assistance of external auditors by the management of both parties. 30th of March – Both parties' boards of directors and management sign the terms of the agreement as determined by the feasibility teams. The agreement is finalized and written documents are signed on April 1. 4th of April: The agreement is made public. On September 5th, Woolworth acquires JBH.

Valuation

The company's 2010 net profit after taxes was $ 118.65 million, and its market capitalization is $ 1,921 million for 109 million shares. Its entire assets are worth 61.54 million dollars. This is worth $2 billion, especially when compared to its competitors, as seen in the following table (Sherman 2010).

Funding

To raise $900 million, Woolworth will sell 31 Australian shopping malls to retailers. These non-essential assets are available for sale. $469 million will come from the balance sheet's available cash. 200 million shares will be split and sold to raise $435 million. 96 million dollars from the sale of used machinery and cars. Clearance of 100 million dollars in debts.

Completion Issues

JB Hi-Fi is subject to ACCC regulations as a result of a 2008 court order. This will terminate in 2011, thus Woolworth will rely on JBH management for one year following the acquisition to ensure compliance with the responsibilities. Before a merger, the terms of the agreement will consider ACCC regulations. The merger will enhance both companies, making them compliant with ACCC laws. Woolworth will however ensure compliance with all requirements. The JBH administration will remain intact till 2012. Assuming that the merger will boost customer base, JBH will be modified to function like Woolworth by the middle of 2012, after Woolworth has provided a year of support to ensure its smooth operation. Three years will pass until Woolworth realizes investment returns.

References

Books (2010). Supermarkets of Australia: Aldi, Franklins, Bi-Lo, Coles Supermarkets, Woolworths, Safeway, IGA, IGA, Supabarn Supermarkets, and Jewel Food Stores. Tennessee, LLC Books. 2010; Mergers, Acquisitions, and Corporate Restructurings by P. Gaughan. Wiley's San Francisco office. Guan, L. (2008) JB Hi-Fi to launch additional outlets despite ACCC issues in Ballarat. CRN 13 (6). Sherman, A. (2010). A to Z of Mergers and Acquisitions. New York, AMAZON.COM Stephen J. Sherman (Author)

[supanova question]

Introduction

Woolworth (WOW) is the largest retailer in Australia and New Zealand based on revenue and market capitalization. The majority of the company's profits in 2010 came from the operation of supermarkets, which accounted for 80% of overall profits. Other trades, including gasoline, food, and alcoholic beverages, contributed $51.7 billion to the fiscal year that ended in June 2010. The company's yearly sales increased by 4.8% during the same period, based on its 30% market share in Australian food, groceries, and alcohol (Books 2010). WOW would pursue a merger and acquisition with an Australian Securities Exchange (ASX)-listed firm in order to meet its 2010 corporate responsibility obligations. This research analyzes a potential merger with JB Hi-Fi (JBH), an ASX-listed firm.

Acquisition objectives

Mergers and acquisitions should be utilized by Woolworth to expand its business and maximize revenues. For a company to be eligible for purchase, the following objectives must be met. The company should be able to introduce fresh, marketable products that will be sold under the Woolworth brand. Information Systems and Technology – The company must have established information systems and technology for online product marketing and availability. This will facilitate the selling of Woolworth products. Woolworth's items have a high turnover rate in retail outlets. Any company worth acquiring should deal with rapidly moving, high-revenue and profit-index products. Woolworth is a well-established business in Australia and New Zealand. The company must be of comparable size or deal with products that are internationally marketable. New Customer Base – As a result of selling the company's products, Woolworth should gain access to new customers who purchase its goods. Mergers and acquisitions should expand both companies' markets. Obligation-Free – The company should not be subject to assets or other liabilities stated by the ACCC.

JB Hi-Fi

Australia-based JB Hi-Fi specializes in automotive audio systems, consumer electronics, home entertainment devices, music CDs, and DVDs. According to estimates from 2010, the company, which was founded in Keilor East, Melbourne, has more than 130 locations throughout Australia and 10 in New Zealand (2010). The company distributes high-quality Hi-Fi brands in addition to movies and music. With partnerships with internationally recognized firms such as LG, Apple, Compaq, Sony, Sharp, Toshiba, HP, and Samsung, among others, the company has created a market foundation in Australia, allowing it to become the largest retailer of these brands' products.

JB Hi-SWOT Fi's analysisStrengths

Since 2004, JB Hi-Fi has had phenomenal development in terms of both outlets and earnings. In 2010, the company has 150 locations, up from 66 in 2003. The company expanded its operations from CDs and DVDs to encompass consumer electronics, computers, telecommunications devices, and visuals. During the fiscal year ending 30 June 2010, the company's comparable store sales increased by 4.8%, resulting in a net profit of 118.7 million Gaughans (2010). Compared to its rivals, the company's media advertising in 2010 was significantly more extensive. The company's website was important in establishing its supremacy in Australia and New Zealand. The company obtains electronics and computer brands directly from the producers, avoiding the need for middlemen. Brands have enhanced the company's image and reputation, resulting in an increase in client base. Some clients rely on particular brands and are content to purchase them at reasonable costs in JB Hi-Fi

Weaknesses

In recent years, JB Hi-Fi has invested a great amount in marketing. The company spent $265,142 on marketing in 2010, compared to $230,414 for the same period in 2009. This has led to a rise in expenses, which has led to an increase in product pricing. Additionally, the corporation is hampered by its reliance on CDs and DVDs for music and movie revenues. The current trend of adopting IPods and memory cards for music could cause the corporation to lose ground in the music industry. Additionally, internet music accessibility has risen, but the corporation has not positioned itself properly to provide these services. The corporation is losing millions to competitors that already sell music and films in digital format (Gaughan 2010).

Opportunities

While outdated technology is decreasing at a rate of 23%, items such as mp3 and iPod are increasing by 207%. Investing in information technology has helped the Hi-Fi store to enhance sales due to the marketability of market developments. The company is able to sell these new products at reduced prices due to fewer costs associated with acquiring them. Increased demand for home entertainment and electrical equipment has accelerated the development of new retailers. Due to the low prices of these products on the market, newly formed stores are finding a niche that supports their development and growth. The implementation has enhanced the company's profit margins and, as a result, its assets. The 2004 and 2006 acquisitions of Clive Antony, Hill, and Stewart expanded its market presence (Gaughan 2010).

Threats

The operations of the company are threatened by fresh developments. The introduction of new means for downloading music and movies poses a danger to the company's music sales. The company's sales also depend on stock returns and operating expenses, which are contingent on international trade and policies that are inconsistent at times. The daily introduction of new products that provide the same or better services poses a danger. The majority of mobile phones and other electronic devices are displacing CDs, DVDs, and other music-related media since these functions are integrated into them. Without trading in them, the corporation risks stocking things that will never sell. The corporation is also in jeopardy for failing to trade online, a common practice among businesses nowadays.

JB Hi-Compliance Fi's with the CriteriaNew Products

Woolworth sells all retail items, but lacks distinct electrical brand names. JB Due to its partnerships with manufacturers from many locations, Hi-Fi has access to the majority of home electronics. A well-stocked Woolworth will sell music and movie accessories alongside home electronics and computer supplies.

Information Technology and Systems

Even though it was obvious, JB has not yet fully embraced online commerce. Hi-Fi, E-marketing is present. The majority of the company's items are available online, and the corporation has strengthened its product promotion through supporting website-based companies.

Rapidly Moving Goods

The company specializes in consumer electronics, white goods, vehicle systems, and music and film-related devices. The company guarantees that these innovative products be sold as quickly as possible. This is due to the fact that if a commodity is stored for an extended period of time, it risks being rendered obsolete by new technology and not being sold at all. The corporation guarantees that things move quickly by maintaining a sufficient inventory.

Goods with International Marketability

JBH is allowed to engage in worldwide trade as a result of its contracts with globally known corporations. Australia's distribution of music and films from many countries has increased the company's global recognition. Apple, Sony, Phillips, Toshiba, and HP electronics indicate that the corporation has not restricted its operations to Australia and New Zealand.

New client base

This will also attract a consumer base that was not existing prior to the trade of these commodities. Adopting the products and branding them with the Woolworth name will allow Woolworth to market its own products, thereby gaining new customers. The acquisition of some JBH stores will also result in the opening of new Woolworth sites.

Obligations

Guan states that JBH was required to sign a court-enforcement commitment for violating Section 45 of the Trade Practices Act of 1974. (2008). ACCC accused JBH of pushing Satisfaction, a competitor company, to close its locations. According to Guan, a court ordered JBH not to "enter into a contract with a person with whom it is likely to be in competition, which could cause him to cease trading" (2008). This requirement, which has been in effect for three years since 2008, prevents JBH from meeting one of Woolworth's goals.

Acquisition Methodology

The purpose of acquiring other companies is to grow Woolworth Assets and increase its commerce. JBH is a good company with which these goals will be attained, in addition to being a large investment with promising profits. According to the completed SWOT analysis, it is apparent that JBH must diversify its product line in order to survive the intense rivalry from its rivals. As a result, Woolworth will submit an acquisition proposal through JBH's three managing directors. The purchase proposal will be confidential in order to persuade the managing directors of the necessity and benefits of the acquisition. The managers will next convene a board meeting, the approval of which will give the merge the go-ahead. During the first six months of the year, there will be no changes to the company's management, but there will be an increase in new items and retail personnel. In addition to the cash paid for the merger, Woolworth will extend a two-year contract to both management teams, after which new terms will be negotiated in accordance with Woolworth's current practice. The transaction will be conducted in two stages. The first will occur six months after the agreement and will require Woolworth to acquire a 70% stake in JHB, followed by a final 100% stake six months later.

acquisition timeline in 2011:

Woolworth management contacts JBH directors on February 2 to inform them of its intent to acquire JBH. By the third of March, Woolworth will have received feedback from its managers and board of directors. A affirmative reaction will advance the process. If the managers reject the agreement, a fresh plan to persuade them will be devised by March 15, 2011. Otherwise, a market strategy in which Woolworth acquires enough JBH shares to acquire ownership rights will be examined. 15th of March – A feasibility team comprised of managers and board of directors from both companies will examine the benefits of a merger. They will draft the merger's terms and conditions. The pricing of the transaction is determined on March 25 with the assistance of external auditors by the management of both parties. 30th of March – Both parties' boards of directors and management sign the terms of the agreement as determined by the feasibility teams. The agreement is finalized and written documents are signed on April 1. 4th of April: The agreement is made public. On September 5th, Woolworth acquires JBH.

Valuation

The company's 2010 net profit after taxes was $ 118.65 million, and its market capitalization is $ 1,921 million for 109 million shares. Its entire assets are worth 61.54 million dollars. This is worth $2 billion, especially when compared to its competitors, as seen in the following table (Sherman 2010).

Funding

To raise $900 million, Woolworth will sell 31 Australian shopping malls to retailers. These non-essential assets are available for sale. $469 million will come from the balance sheet's available cash. 200 million shares will be split and sold to raise $435 million. 96 million dollars from the sale of used machinery and cars. Clearance of 100 million dollars in debts.

Completion Issues

JB Hi-Fi is subject to ACCC regulations as a result of a 2008 court order. This will terminate in 2011, thus Woolworth will rely on JBH management for one year following the acquisition to ensure compliance with the responsibilities. Before a merger, the terms of the agreement will consider ACCC regulations. The merger will enhance both companies, making them compliant with ACCC laws. Woolworth will however ensure compliance with all requirements. The JBH administration will remain intact till 2012. Assuming that the merger will boost customer base, JBH will be modified to function like Woolworth by the middle of 2012, after Woolworth has provided a year of support to ensure its smooth operation. Three years will pass until Woolworth realizes investment returns.

References

Books (2010). Supermarkets of Australia: Aldi, Franklins, Bi-Lo, Coles Supermarkets, Woolworths, Safeway, IGA, IGA, Supabarn Supermarkets, and Jewel Food Stores. Tennessee, LLC Books. 2010; Mergers, Acquisitions, and Corporate Restructurings by P. Gaughan. Wiley's San Francisco office. Guan, L. (2008) JB Hi-Fi to launch additional outlets despite ACCC issues in Ballarat. CRN 13(6). Sherman, A. (2010). A to Z of Mergers and Acquisitions. New York, AMAZON.COM Stephen J. Sherman (Author)

[supanova question]

Accounting For Non-Profit Entities Admission College Essay Help

The governmental non-profit organization is the institution that operates in a given nation and is governed and managed by the current governing body as they carry out their obligations without regard to profit. Their resources are typically sponsored by the government, despite the fact that they do not generate returns that may be reported as capital profits. According to Michael (2002), non-profit organizations do not donate their surplus funds to their shareholders or sole owners; rather, they use the funds to pay their efforts to achieve other goals motivated by their own motives. Charitable institutions and trade unions are two well-known examples of non-profit organizations. Governmental non-profit organizations exist solely for the purpose of creating services and providing them to the needy for their own benefit. These organizations are able to earn a surplus, but it is retained for the organization's self-sustainability and future plans of growth and expansion, and some institutions use this surplus to reward their micro-corporate leaders. Non-profit organizations place a premium on successfully managing its internal forces, ensuring accountability, and evaluating the performance of different divisions in order to derive benefits from their capital base and employees. Non-governmental non-profit organizations, on the other hand, are institutions that are legally recognized, established by legal persons, and have no government representation or participation. Some non-governmental institutions are wholly or largely sponsored by governments, but they must still retain their membership strategies for the organization's governing body (Wilson & Kattelus, 2003). Non-governmental non-profit organizations are civil society organizations under various jurisdictions that operate without the primary purpose of making a profit, but some do work as lobbyists and others perform services and programs.

According to Michael (2002), external consumers of state and local government financial reports divide the total net resources into three consortiums: capital assets subject to speculation, linked debt net, confidential net assets, and unrestricted net assets. the duty to evaluate the performance of any of the financial reporting organizations. These external users of the information are tasked with determining whether these businesses match the performance targets and criteria outlined by citizens and readers of financial documentation. Thus, the Governmental Accounts Standards Board must prioritize providing information that satisfies the needs of users of financial statements. This could be accomplished through the use of a comprehensive annual financial report or various forms of future reports. According to Paul (2003), external users of financial reports evaluate the efficacy and efficiency with which government entities employ their resources to sustain the standard of living of their inhabitants. External consumers of information do monitor the manner in which the entities charged with making the lives of residents easier and more favorable have utilized the assigned resources. In assessing the exploitation of the resources, the use of financial statements is determined by the resulting effectiveness.

The objective of the external user of state and local government financial reports is to comprehensively evaluate the government's performance. For this to be accomplished more efficiently, SEA reporting in accordance with the Governmental Accounts Standards Board specification is essential, and the resulting information is used for accountability evaluation and making informed decisions. For external parties to be able to assess the utilization of the resources, information regarding the outputs and outcomes of service provision is also required. By focusing on the many measures of inputs, outputs, and outcomes, external users of the report are in a better position to obtain an accurate picture of the situation. The external users of the documentation are given the opportunity to actively contribute to the development and measurement of the procedures used by state and local governments. Since the GASB has not yet determined the relevant metrics, the external users of the documentation could provide their input on the issues, which is fueled by their reading of the documentation. On the other hand, according to Paul (2003), the Comprehensive Annual Financial Report (CAFR) is a financial record that the government prepares at the conclusion of a fiscal year, and this statement exceeds the national council of government accounting's minimums for the public sector. The primary sections of the comprehensive annual financial report are the introduction, the financial section, and the statistical section. The purpose of this document is to provide a holistic view of the financial outcomes of all the involved parties, both from an independent and a budget perspective, as well as the entire finance management units that have been created since the establishment of the particular local government, and it must be a combination of the general purpose budget for the current fiscal year. A full annual financial report can be cross-referenced with the budget document in order to compare the financial condition of the twelve-monthly budget for general purposes with the other papers as a whole (Wilson & Kattelus, 2003).. This paper represents the fundamentals of all financial cashiering general purpose budget reporting, and it should not be confused with the Rainy day funds, which are one of the many types of governmental accounts on investments that are managed in budget reports and processes. States and local governments recognize the Governmental Accounting Standards Board Statements as the most powerful and authoritative papers since they are based on accounting principles. Governmental Accounts Standards Board is the organization tasked with establishing the generally accepted accounting rules for municipal and state governments. The unit does provide the metric by which states should disclose their assets.

The combined financial statement of a government organization includes the assets, liabilities, net worth, and operational figure of at least two or more affiliate states. According to Warren (2004), the statement includes columns that display each state separately, as well as a column that offsets intercompany transactions and the resulting statement of finances. This statement provides a quick and simple way to assess the current status of the many forms of financial statements. The statement is a combination that includes information about all types of assets and account balances. The Basic Financial Statements, on the other hand, are the individual financial statements that break through to the units of local government as a single organization. Basic financial statement concepts include the accounting equation, double-entry posting, and credits and debits; the local government balance sheet and income statement are shown under the same classification; and this is a statement of finances that reconciles the investment and capital accounts of a subsequent unit (Wilson & Kattelus, 2003). Economic measurement emphasis is the style of measurement in which all organization assets and liabilities related to the operation of propriety finances, non-expendable trust funds, and internal service financing are accounted for in the statements of net assets. The total net assets are then separated into three categories: principle asset invested and related net debt, limited total net assets, and unconstrained total net assets. This sort of measurement utilizes propriety funds, trust funds with consumable assets, and internal service funds. Current financial measurement emphasis, on the other hand, is a method under which all government money and trust funds are managed. Under such a measurement focus just the present asset (GASB) are the financial document reporting styles that conform to widely recognized accounting principles. The current emphasis on financial measurement does include government money and expendable trust funds. According to Warren (2004), the measurement focus also refers to the phenomenon being measured, whereas the accounting foundation explains when revenues and expenses are eligible for recognition in the various accounts reporting made in the financial statements.

References

Wilson & Kattelus (2003). Government and nonprofit accounting. McGraw-Hill: an academic publisher.

Paul, A. C. (2003). Accounting Fundamentals for Governmental and Nonprofit Organizations. The Guilford Press, McGraw-Hill New York:

Interpretation and Application of Generally Accepted Accounting Principles for State and Local Governments, by Warren R. Wiley, 2004. Free Spirit Publishing, Minneapolis, Minnesota

Michael, H.G. (2002).

Accounting for the government and non-profit organizations. London, United Kingdom: Oxford publishers.

[supanova question]

L&D And The Organization Management Admission College Essay Help

Establishment, Classification, and Organizational Structure
Organizational Formation

There are numerous causes for the formation of groups. One of these reasons, according to Kandogan and Hiller (2018), is the confluence of abilities and efforts to accomplish predetermined goals. In order to accomplish this, organizations combine diverse talents to achieve a single objective. One could argue that individuals are still capable of achieving their objectives on their own. Nonetheless, this may take longer than when an organization does the same duties.

This concept can be further explained with an illustration. It would take an individual around two days to relocate. However, it would only take a team of five workers five hours to move into the same residence. The combination of skill and physical power facilitates labor. In addition, the same group will complete the work at a considerably faster rate.

The second motive for the formation of organizations is to reduce the cost of conducting business (Kandogan & Hiller 2018). There are two ways organizations can assist in reducing transactional expenses. The first is through the company's many departments and employees. When the need arises, it is less expensive for a company to have an in-house specialist than to outsource. The second reason firms reduce transaction costs is that prices for acquiring products and services are less expensive and payment procedures are more flexible. Organizations can choose suppliers they can afford and wait longer to pay off their debts than individuals if they employ sound procurement procedures.

Similarly, organizations are established because they are more accountable than individuals. For instance, it is usual for individuals to place more trust in firms that are legally registered, have a physical address, and employ personnel, as opposed to a lone individual.

Classifying organisations. Critics have devised numerous classification schemes for organizations. Formal and informal, centralized and decentralized, and public and private organizations are three methods. Formal organizations adhere to a direct and stringent process flow. These companies place a premium on organizational charts, structures, and policies. Each employee must learn and adhere to the company's policies.

Formal organizations feature tight reporting and communication frameworks, according to Yang (2017). This implies that staff must adhere to a stringent reporting mechanism for both decision-making and crisis management. In contrast, the informal organization is quite flexible. Critics now urge firms to be informal in order to incorporate creativity and design thinking into their problem-solving (Yang 2017).

The centralization and decentralization of organizations is the second classification discussed. According to Yang (2017), a centralized organization concentrates all decision-making at the highest level of management. The junior employees are prohibited from making any choices and must verify everything with their line managers and supervisors, who must then verify with more senior managers. However, the decentralized structure is as adaptable as the informal corporation. This is because the decentralized company has decentralized decision-making. It is customary for verification of a decision to need access to a single superior by a subordinate employee. Due to this, decentralized businesses make decisions more quickly than centralized businesses.

The third classification classifies organizations as either public or private. Yang (2017) clarifies that public organizations are those affiliated with the government or state. They are infrequently profitable. Moreover, public institutions predominantly serve the broader public. Private companies, on the other hand, are profit-driven and service people or groups of individuals. Yang (2017) shows that despite being frequently accused of corruption and poor management, public enterprises have persisted due to their ties to the government.

Nevertheless, badly managed private enterprises typically go bankrupt. There are businesses with both public and private aspects (Yang 2017). Abu Dhabi National Oil Firm is an example of a public company that is simultaneously operated as a private business (ADNOC). Although the corporation is owned by the government, it is a collection of commercial energy enterprises in UAE (Abu Dhabi National Company 2017).

Organizational Structures

According to Erhardt and Harkins (2013), there are six primary organizational frameworks. The first is the functional structure, which organizes employees according to departments. In this organizational structure, staff are assigned to departments such as communications, finance, information technology, and administration. Such a system facilitates departmental collaboration. However, as Erhardt and Harkins (2013) point out, this structure can also create departmental warfare, as employees may only endeavor to fulfill departmental goals and not those of the firm as a whole. Additionally, organizations can be characterized by their product or service structure.

As the term implies, personnel are typically segregated by product or service. The ADNOC Sour Gas Company example can be used to further define the product and service structure. The personnel of ADNOC Sour Gas are split primarily according to three primary business elements (Abu Dhabi National Company 2017). Marketing and distribution, processing and refining, and exploration and production are the aspects (Abu Dhabi National Company 2017).

Additionally, organizations might have a geographical structure. According to Erhardt and Harkins (2013), this system classifies personnel based on the region in which they operate. If the corporation has activities in multiple states, countries, or even continents, its structure can be determined by its actual location. Each employee in the matrix structure has two reporting lines. For example, a marketing department employee who does administrative duties will report to both the marketing manager and the administration manager. Alternatively, a corporation can organize its staff into teams (project teams).

In such a framework, individuals are assigned diverse projects and selected from various divisions. These employees may participate in the project as long-term, partial, or temporary members. Sometimes, project team members may have two reporting lines, especially if they are only partially involved in the project. Lastly, we have the hybrid structure. This structure, according to Erhardt and Harkins (2013), combines the functional and product or service structures.

Analysis Device

Using the PESTLE analysis technique, one can claim that political influence is one of the external factors that affect an organization's opening rate. Using ADNOC as an illustration, one could argue that political goodwill (an external factor) influences how each member of the firm interacts with the government. This is because the government owns the company, yet it requires all energy companies to become members.

Inflation is an external economic influence on open rates. The culture of the people might affect the open rates as a social factor. If the population is not technologically advanced, it will take longer for any technology product or service to penetrate the market. Similarly, technology affects open rates since the ease of creating something makes it more cost-effective. This simplicity is greatly aided by the appropriate technology. The legal aspect and the political aspect go hand in hand. For ADNOC, all connected enterprises must comply with all regulatory regulations. The product's impact on the global climate is one of the environmental elements influencing a company's open rates. If not adequately monitored, the production of Sulphur by ADNOC Sour Gas can have a harmful impact on the environment.

Learning and Development Positioning in Organizations

Organization and Integration of Learning and Growth

According to Bohlich and Oleti (2017), the structure of learning and development in a company is crucial for both employee motivation and increased production. Aligning learning and development with the organization's goals and objectives is one strategy to implement it into an organization. Learning and growth should also be incorporated into strategies and outcomes, according to the idea. This connection, according to Bohlich and Oleti (2017), will ensure that everyone understands the significance of learning and development. One of the greatest problems of L&D in a business is staff adoption of training. Companies that incorporate L&D into their plans must also provide an environment favorable to learning.

Utilizing free webinars hosted by influential individuals is a second feasible method of implementing L&D into a firm. Trevitt et al. (2017) assert that traditional learning, which entails attending lectures for several hours, is no longer a feasible L&D strategy in the twenty-first century. Many employees will either reject or find alternative reasons not to learn using this traditional method. Influential individuals' usage of webinars will contribute to the development of a culture of L&D. This is especially true for firms that have never before implemented an L&D practice, as the approach is learner-centric. Additionally, webinars are accessible from the outside.

Arrangement and Access to Learning and Development Affecting Factors

Time management is one of the most influential variables on assimilation and access to learning and development in a company. Vey et al. (2017) acknowledge that many employees find it challenging to balance learning and employment. Frequently, one of the two tasks falls behind, and frequently, the learning part is neglected in favor of reaching work-related objectives. As a result of globalization, many employees are required to travel extensively for work.

This disturbs any learning and development activities that they may have planned. Regarding time management in connection to learning and development, businesses have devised a variety of methods. Training employees in effective time management is a critical solution. Second, firms have made substantial investments in online and long-distance learning for their employees. This ensures that employees can engage in learning activities wherever and whenever they choose.

Personal objectives and professional advancement also influence an organization's adoption of learning and development initiatives (Vey et al. 2017). It is vital to note that if the company's learning and development objectives boost the employee's ability to attain his or her personal goals, then the employee would actively participate in L&D activities.

In order to achieve this objective, the organization must promote all L&D activities as essential for professional development. It is also essential that the L&D activities are relevant to the individual's department and desired career path. L&D initiatives involving technical finance, for instance, will help staff in the finance department. However, delivering the same training to employees in the communications department could result in future L&D initiatives being rejected.

L&D and the Accomplishment of Organizational Goals

Offering Services, Learning and Development

L&D's offerings include continuing professional development through pertinent courses. The HR department, which oversees L&D, is responsible for selecting relevant courses for the personnel (Stephen 2018). It is essential to recognize that each individual and department will have unique L&D requirements. To guarantee that everyone's demands are met, the Human Resources department must conduct a poll on the performance-enhancing skills employees would like to acquire.

This survey must be conducted by department. Then, a tailored course may be designed to guarantee that each employee acquires the skills and knowledge they need. As a result, the L&D activities will also contribute to the accomplishment of organizational goals, as they will equip personnel with the skills and knowledge required to attain those goals. All staff will be required to participate in CPD programs.

Human resource management is an additional service that can be provided through the L&D mechanism. As stated, the HR department is responsible for all L&D requirements within a firm. This requires the department to have an interest in both its personnel and the organization. In addition, the HR department must guarantee that all employees have an environment conducive to learning. All of these factors contribute to improved human resource management. One may claim that this service targets all human resource department staff. It is essential for HR to also participate in L&D initiatives. Appropriate human resource management will assist a business in achieving its objectives by motivating its employees to complete duties.

L&D Objectives and Organizational Goals

Learning and growth are essential to achieving company objectives. It contributes to the attainment of the company's goals by equipping employees with the skills and information necessary to complete jobs. In business, the greatest method for completing a task is the quickest and most effective one. Through learning, employees can comprehend new concepts that can help them complete their work more quickly and effectively. In addition, the acquisition of new skills and information will encourage employees to think creatively and provide improved solutions to some of the organization's difficulties.

It is also crucial to highlight that L&D can assist in achieving organizational goals by motivating employees. Stephen (2018) emphasizes that L&D is advantageous for both the workers and the organization. In addition to ensuring that employees have the necessary skills and knowledge to fulfill goals, the organization also provides employees with additional certifications to enhance their resumes. This increases their value to the organization and to potential future employers. To increase employee motivation, it is essential for the organization to promote individuals who have actively participated in L&D activities. In doing so, management will also urge additional employees to enroll in such courses.

Reference List

About Abu Dhabi National Company sour gas in 2017 Web.

Bohlich, S., & Oleti, M. (2017). "Designing and delivering a learning & development strategy for generation Y," in 7th Annual International Conference on Human Resource Management and Professional Development in the Digital Age (HRM & PD 2017) Conference Proceedings, New York, NY, pp. 48–53.

Knowledge transfer across hierarchical lines: the significance of organizational structure and knowledge type, Academy of Management Annual Meeting Proceedings, vol. 2013, no. 1, pp. 823–825, 2013.

Journal of International Business Studies, vol. 49, no. 6, pp. 729–742, 2018. Kandogan, Y., and J. Hiller. "Alliances in international government organizations, regional trade agreement formation, and multinational enterprise regionalization strategy."

Stephen, D. (2018). "Five learning and development metrics that matter to the C-Suite," Chief Learning Officer, vol. 17, no. 3, pp. 28–29.

Leading entrepreneurial e-learning development in legal education, Learning Organization, vol. 24, no. 5, pp. 298–311; Trevitt, C., A. Steed, L. Du Moulin, and T. Foley.

Vey, K., Fandel-Meyer, T., Zipp, JS, and Schneider, C. (2017). Learning and development in times of digital transformation: fostering a culture of change and innovation.

Yang, F. (2017). Better understanding the perceptions of organizational politics: its impact under diverse types of work unit structure. European Journal of Work & Organizational Psychology, volume 26, number 2, pages 250–262.

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Business Plan For Global Curios Admission College Essay Help

Executive summary

Global Curiosities will sell artifacts. Chicago, Illinois, in the United States has been recognized as the location of the principal store. The curios' suppliers will hail from Africa, Asia, and South America. At first, it will be a one-man operation. This indicates that the administration ideas and management philosophies of a sole proprietorship would be utilized. However, there is optimism that more investors will join. This is why this business plan is not only comprehensive, but also presented in a way that clearly illustrates the immense potential of the curio industry.

The management approach will transition to a partnership with shared duties when more investors join. The business's objectives include the distribution of curiosities to Americans, the financial stability of its investors, and the acquisition of a productive activity for after retirement. Appropriate tactics will be implemented to ensure the company can withstand national and international demand (Porter1980, pp. 29-30).

Organizational Formation and Objectives

Formation

Global Curiosities will be the company's name. At the time of formation, it will be organized as a sole proprietorship, with the ability to convert to a partnership upon the addition of additional partners. As a sole proprietorship, Global curios will be managed by a single person. This is the best option at this time (Pinson & Jinnet1999, pp.103-104). Family members are the primary alternative labor source. The company is anticipated to be functioning within three months. All legal standards that the state of Illinois expects businesses to meet prior to obtaining a license will be satisfied (Aaker1995, pp.71-72). The documentation covering all business-related information is expected to be finalized within three months. This documentation will adequately describe the organizational structure and operational theories. It shall be noted where the original capital came from. For the sake of clarification, the initial investment for the business will come from my HK$ 30 million in retirement benefits. In the documentation, the ability to add more members and transform the firm into a partnership will be made obvious (Miles 2003, pp.54-55). In fact, I intend to invite additional people to join me in pursuing this ambitious goal to investigate an underexplored business industry with great growth potential. I am prepared to share the anticipated wealth and huge potential of the curio business with others through an authentic, well-structured, and focused collaboration.

At the moment of membership expansion, the capital contributed by new members will represent the shares owned and, consequently, the profits to be realized at the end of each trading period. The purpose of this is to adhere to the fundamental capital norm in a joint enterprise.

Corporate Objectives

As with every profitable endeavor, this firm was founded with a set of objectives to be attained as a means of achieving its primary objective. The foundation of the Global Curios Company has the following primary objectives:

Delivering Unique Curiosities To The American People

The American market is larger than the American supply of curiosities. What does this signifier? This indicates that the size of the demand for curios in the United States is not entirely met by the current supply of curios. The human spirit is perpetually in search of novelty. In this scenario, the adage "a change is as good as a rest" holds true, as the American curio market is ravenous for foreign curios. The majority of available relics are representative of local heritage. It is therefore the mission of Global Curios to scour the globe in search of high-quality curios and provide them to the American public at affordable pricing.

Financial Safety Upon Retirement

The establishment of a firm is always motivated by a logical consideration. As I begin my retirement, it is imperative that I establish a solid investing strategy for my retirement benefits, so that my nest egg can support me for an extended length of time. Keeping the HK$30 million in a bank may be a smart idea, but it will diminish as I withdraw and spend the funds. Opening a firm, on the other hand, will allow me to produce a profit, which will not only make the capital last a bit longer but also generate additional income to help me meet my ever-growing financial obligations. Given that I am now unemployed, these obligations have the potential to be stressful. Having a successful firm, however, will allow me to avoid this financial strain.

The financial obligations that stand to benefit from the business include caring for a sick family member whose medication requires a large amount of money annually and covering the tuition expenditures of my law school sophomore son.

A Way To Maintain Myself After Retirement

If there are insufficient plans for how to spend this retirement period, the abrupt transition from worked to retired life might be problematic. Given that I am accustomed to a busy lifestyle, facing the reality of doing nothing after retirement is challenging. Then, what should I do to deal with this difficult time? The idea is to build a business that will keep me pretty busy so that I may transition into the world outside of official employment with reasonable ease. The concept of Global Curios will allow me to keep my mind and body busy so that I can avoid the health concerns associated with the sedentary lifestyle that most retirees lead.

Employment creation

The ultimate objective of this project is to generate employment for more than ten individuals. How will this be accomplished? I developed the idea with the intention of convincing other individuals to invest more funds in the firm. With additional funding, the business will transition from sole proprietorship to partnership. Increased capital will result in bigger activities, a larger market, and thus a greater demand for employees. More labor will necessitate the hiring of additional employees to help operate the business. In light of the difficult national and international economies, any possibility to create even a single job must be supported. This is especially crucial for our college-educated youth who are having problems finding employment. Note that this aspect of employment creation will occur more quickly if the capital base of the business is widened by more people contributing operating capital. At the individual level, it will take much longer for the business, which will be a sole proprietorship, to reach the requisite size to hire more people.

Industry Analysis: Past, Present, and Future Local, Regional, and Global Competition

The business of curiosities has not begun today. Therefore, it would be misleading to argue that this enterprise represents an innovative step. In the past, Americans had to rely on locally produced trinkets or purchase them when traveling abroad, primarily to African nations such as Kenya and South Africa. There were few establishments selling oddities, and there was little variety. Regionally, the curio industry is still largely untapped, with countries such as Mexico exhibiting little interest in the sector. On a global scale, I can speculate that Europeans were and continue to be more curious than the majority of the globe. How will the future of the business of curiosities effect Global Curiosities? The future of the collectibles industry appears bright. The rise of the curios market will be propelled by the growing interest in African and Oriental art in the western world. It is not unfair to claim that the western world has few curiosities to offer. Paintings by ancient or medieval artists such as Leonardo da Vinci and Michelangelo are the only well-known works of art produced by the western world. These great artists' paintings are the only important works of art that the vast western globe has to display to the world. In contrast, the Oriental globe and the African continent include a range of curiosities. Kenyan curio artisans, for instance, are renowned worldwide for the caliber of their craftsmanship. The Kisii district of Kenya is renowned for its curios made of soapstone, while the Makonde people of Tanzania are famed for their high-quality curios. With appropriate initiative, these two locations can serve as a significant supply of items, while the western world will function as a market for curios. Market identification is vital to a company's success, and Global Curiosities's management will execute this process with care (Pearce & Robnson2008, pp.32).

Competition

It is difficult to conceive of a commercial industry that lacks rivalry in the modern world. There are more than twenty-seven curio shops in the Chicago area, where I aim to place the company. However, this is a minor quantity when compared to the size of Chicago. This indicates that there will be rivalry, but it will not be intense enough to hinder company. The other viewpoint of rivalry in this industry is that of suppliers. The development of Global Curios will be required to conduct business with more established European curios merchants that have been in the sector for a long time and so has business experience. These dealers are in a better position to provide suppliers reasonable prices. In order to develop a foothold in the industry, Global Curios will need to make daring business decisions early on.

Administration

At the outset, the business will be managed by a single individual. However, the door is wide open to more investors. The first operational and managerial theory will be sole proprietorship, with one person making all the choices and the labor coming from this one person, with or without the support of family, friends, or a few employees. In addition to the simplicity of decision-making as a result of the absence of many competing and conflicting voices and the sole ownership of all earnings by this individual, this management philosophy includes drawbacks, such as the absence of additional views in decision-making. This can result in poor decision-making. Other drawbacks of this management approach include a limited labor supply, the individual bearing of losses, and a small financial foundation.

Will this managerial approach endure forever? No is the answer to this question. This is due to the fact that the company is attracting more investors. The new investors will provide the company with a new identity and, as a result, a new management style. If it becomes a partnership, the management will fall on the shoulders of the partners rather than a single person. In this scenario, most decisions will be made collectively, and capital will increase. There will be more ideas, which will benefit the business. However, the decision-making process will become more time-consuming and difficult as more deliberation becomes inevitable.

Organizational Design and Personnel

The business will begin as a sole proprietorship, as described elsewhere in this business plan. The Chicago main store will be managed by either a family member or an employee, while the business owner will be responsible for sourcing curiosities from across the world. It will be the job of agents in the various providing nations to select and reserve quality curios. These agents will be paid by the business owner. One agent in the South American continent, one agent on the African continent, and one agent on the Asian continent will suffice for the beginning. The expansion of the business will necessitate the hiring of additional personnel, whilst contraction will inevitably result in layoffs.

If further capital is injected into the business, the aforementioned organization will take a different path. The increase in capital will necessitate more purchases from suppliers, necessitating more agents at the various supplying locations. The Chicago curio business will also require one or two full-time employees. This will change to include more stores in the Chicago metropolitan area and other cities and states around the nation. As the company expands, the management will hold strategy meetings to determine the optimal technique to enter new markets and launch new goods.

Product/Service Planning

The plan for introducing curiosities to the market will include the implementation of extremely competitive rates. This is due to the fact that this is a new firm that must attempt to attract clients in order to have a shot at capturing a portion of the market. Additionally, the following initiatives will accompany the product:

Oddity Handouts: These will be small pamphlets with in-depth descriptions of each curio. The pamphlet will be assigned a value, such as $15, but will be sent free of charge to any buyer who purchases the collectible. The pamphlet will contain information about the production method, cultural beliefs associated with the curio, the individuals responsible for its creation, and its purpose. As a means of providing the consumer with a complete picture of the curio, the booklet will also include color images of the curio from all angles.

Marketing Plan

The viability of a firm depends on how well its services or products are marketed. The following will comprise Global Curios' marketing strategy:

Purchasing Advertising Space in Newspapers, Magazines, and Journals: Space in the daily newspapers with a high readership in Chicago will increase the business's visibility among the city's people. Additionally, residents' favorite magazines will be considered for placement. Radio and Television: Radio stations with widespread distribution in the Chicago area will also be utilized for marketing purposes. The appearance of the Global Curios store will also be communicated to the public via television advertisements. This firm will benefit from these media's capacity to reach a large audience (Komenar1999, pp.25). Online Marketing: The concept of e-marketing has taken a mainstream position in the whole business of marketing (Choi & Whinston 2000, pp.12-13). Consequently, Global Curios will have a well-designed, publicly accessible website (Deitel, Deitel & Nieto2001 pp.34). The public will be able to view the stock of curios in

Leadership, Theory And Practice Of The United States Of America Admission College Essay Help

Overview

Leadership is a quality without limitations and restrictions. Every company, institution, and government requires leadership to operate efficiently. Any location involving a group of individuals requires leadership to provide direction and guidance. Leadership is required for the creation of vision within corporate organizations. However, practically every leadership situation requires the creation of a vision.

As a concept, leadership has been the focus of numerous ideas and practices. There have been numerous attempts to describe the notion and practice of leadership. The purpose of this study is to examine the concept of leadership from both theoretical and practical perspectives. To exemplify the concept of leadership, the United States of America's leadership has been chosen. All aspects of leadership will be explored in relation to the United States in particular.

The managers

In this instance, the leaders will consist of all the individuals and institutions that exercise leadership in all facets of the state. The United States is a federal republic with a centralized executive and legislative branch. Therefore, the state's leaders consist of the following:

The president of the United States The cupboard Congressmen

What characteristics define a leader?

Leadership is a criterion with a strong connotation. Several characteristics identify or characterize a leader (Northouse, 2009). Therefore, what makes a leader is a highly relative criterion (Walumbwa, 2005). Consequently, what makes a leader in one area may differ from what makes a leader elsewhere. One is recognized as a leader for matters of the state, particularly in the United States of America, through the political process of elections (Walumbwa, 2005). During this procedure, a number of candidates offer themselves for election, with the winner assuming the position and authority of a leader.

For instance, the 2008 presidential election in the United States resulted in the election of incumbent President Obama. In contrast, Congress is divided into two parts: the house of representatives and the senate. During an assembly election, the house of representatives is elected directly by the people. For the senate, elections occur concurrently with state elections in which the states elect individuals to represent them.

Leadership principles

Leadership philosophy is the most important part of any leadership because it specifies the methods utilized throughout the entire process (Yukl 2002). However, leaders' philosophies might take either a situational or a personality-based perspective. Under the situational approach, the leadership philosophy is decided by the prevailing circumstances (Walumbwa, 2005). In this situation, the leader has fewer options and must choose the most practical course of action.

However, the personality method is the most prevalent, in which the personality of the leader at the moment molds the leadership philosophy for the duration of their tenure. Both approaches have been important for the United States in developing the ideology of leadership. Existing leadership philosophy is based on representation and dialogue. This authority belongs to the people, and the leaders are merely its stewards. Under this strategy, all choices made by the leadership must be reviewed by the people through their elected representatives. President Obama occupies the highest position of leadership in the state and can be considered the state's leader. His leadership strategy is based on representation and dialogue.

Leadership features

Leaders' leadership qualities determine how far they go to fulfill their responsibilities. As far as success and failure are concerned, a leader's characteristics are a clear indicator of their identity (Martin 2006). President Obama's leadership qualities include the following:

Diplomacy. Firmness. Independent-minded. Pragmatic.

Effective measures

Numerous activities by the American leadership in the United States, led by President Obama, have portrayed the leadership as effective and successful; some of these actions are included here.

The enactment of a health care bill. Elimination of Guantanamo Bay. Conversation with Iran and North Korea. The end of hostilities with Muslim nations.

Situational management

The emergency response to the terrorist attacks on September 11 in New York City and the Pentagon exemplifies situational leadership in the United States. The attack occurred at a moment when it was least anticipated. The US leadership's response system was adequate, since the crisis was immediately brought under control. The presidency commissioned rescue services in the first place. The next stage was to increase security in all potential attack targets (Gill 2006). The authorities then pursued those responsible for the attack. The search for terrorists and the overthrow of the Taliban administration in Afghanistan were concluded at this point.

The Basics of Leadership

The distinction between leadership and management has long been the subject of dispute. Experts have attempted to determine what differentiates the two notions that are closely related. According to one school of view, management is responsible for the organization's daily operations. According to this school of thought, leadership is responsible for determining the appropriate path of action. The following elements are essential for determining the principles of leadership.

Developing a collective vision Collaboration transmitting the vision

Developing the plan

Vision-making is the most crucial obligation of a leader. The next step is the capacity to effectively explain the vision. Leadership is defined by vision; without vision, there is no leadership. Under normal conditions, the destiny of an organization is determined by its vision. Through the organization's future leaders, is it possible to determine the organization's future course of action? Concurrently, it is necessary to define objectives that will facilitate the realization of the vision. The objectives divide the vision into portions that can be attained independently, leading to the organization's success. Therefore, leadership must be in the forefront of establishing objectives consistent with the developed vision. Vision is synonymous with anticipation.

Vision is substantially impacted by the actions and perspectives of the most senior executives. Nonetheless, the requirement of vision and the leadership's role in deciding the organization's future trajectory are more important aspects of the entire. A well-established vision for the business clarifies the desired outcomes and each individual's involvement in the process. The staff must be included in the company's overall vision projection. This is necessary because their job is so important. Without the active engagement of the employees, the organization's vision cannot be accomplished.

Therefore, for the vision to be realized, the employees must be convinced of it. If the human resource does not embrace the vision, it will be difficult to realize it. The procedure of gaining the employees' support must be executed with great care so as not to appear as if anything is being imposed upon them. The method must involve persuasion in order to get their free will to achieve the vision. There will always be certain employees who oppose the vision. However, it is most vital to concentrate on the majority, since the rest will fall into place over time.

Advantages and disadvantages

Depending on how well it performs, every leadership style has its strengths and drawbacks. The leadership of the United States is not an exception. Leadership, like every other skill, possesses both strengths and weaknesses.

Strength

Dialogue. Welfare. Situational reaction mechanism.

Weaknesses

Bureaucracy. Marginalization.

Lessons

The state leadership of the United States of America exemplifies how state affairs should be managed. The role of leadership in such a circumstance is effectively reflected by the leadership structure as a whole (Northhouse 2009). Lessons acquired from the leadership model and style can be summarized as follows:

Decentralization. Collective accountability

Conclusion

The concept of leadership has generated numerous hypotheses, the majority of which aim to explain how the concept operates as a whole. Leadership is necessary for the operation of any organization, nation, or institution. This study examines the application of leadership in the United States of America. A comprehensive investigation and review of the state's leadership has been conducted. This demonstrates how the state approaches issues of leadership.

The paper identifies the president and congress as leaders. Since the majority of administrative work is performed by a government led by the president in cooperation with Congress, they have been identified. Leadership is a dynamic concept susceptible to transformation. Leadership changes with the passage of time to accommodate the ever-changing corporate environment. However, the fundamentals of leadership are static in some way.

The fundamental aspects of leadership have not changed. Therefore, leadership is the most essential part of a commercial organization. Typically, the limits of an organization are set by the decisions taken by its leadership. The organization draws its direction and directionality from its leadership. By developing a vision, executives set the pace for the organization's actions in every way. The future course of action is determined by the formulation of the organization's vision; hence, the most important role of leaders in an organization is the formulation of vision. Vision characterizes leadership.

The vision must then be communicated to the rest of the organization's members by the organization's leadership. These include the employees who comprise the organization's foundation. It is crucial that the vision is communicated effectively in order to gain the support of the personnel. Failure on the part of the leadership to engage the personnel might be fatal for the entire vision. Numerous leadership theories have been proposed to explain the concept of leadership. The report has carefully analyzed the numerous leadership philosophies that are offered.

References

Gill, R. (2006).

The study and application of leadership theory and methodology. The New York location of SAGE.

B. Martin (2006). Leadership in the outdoors: philosophy and practice. Human Kinetics, Washington

P. Northouse (2009). Leadership: Concepts and Applications The New York location of SAGE.

Walumbwa, K. (2005). Theory and practice of authentic leadership: origins, effects, and development. Emerald Group Publishing, London.

Yukl, P. (2002). Leadership in Organizations. New York: Pearson Education.

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Financial Statements Definition, Types, & Examples Admission College Essay Help

There are three primary financial statements.

Balance Sheet, Income Statement (also known as Profit and Loss account), and Cash Flow Statement are the three primary financial statements required by GAAP.

Balance Sheet is "nothing more or less than a statement of what a company owns and owes at a specific point in time." Equity is the difference between the company's assets and liabilities. (Karen Berman et al., page 77) The balance sheet consists of two major components. One portion describes the entity's assets, while the other describes how those assets were financed. In other words, the other section displays the entity's investments in the form of equity and borrowings, as well as current and non-current liabilities. Current assets, non-current assets (Fixed assets), and other assets comprise the assets. Current assets consist of short-term assets that are transformed into cash from assets such as inventory and receivables, and vice versa, during an entity's operational cycle. The entity acquires long-term assets for the purpose of maximizing shareholder value through generating revenue and profits from their use. Other assets include intangibles like as patents and purchased goodwill, but not in-house goodwill.

A profit and loss account or income statement is a report that details the revenue, costs, and consequent net income for a given period.

” (Peter J Eisen, page 14)

2 There are two ways to construct an income statement. Companies having a primary revenue stream and easily identifiable costs tied to that revenue source will generate a multi-step income statement. This strategy divides the income statement into sections, with each segment addressing a distinct aspect of the firm. A company would generate a single-step statement when it is impossible to draw meaningful conclusions about a specific area of the business based on income statement classifications. Certain unusual transactions or circumstances will be reported individually at the bottom of an income statement, regardless of whether of the two styles is employed. In the order of discontinued activities, extraordinary items, and cumulative effect of a change in accounting principle, these items are reported net of taxes. The distinction between a balance sheet and a profit-and-loss statement is illustrated by comparing the balance sheet to a static photograph and the profit-and-loss statement to a moving photograph. ” (Ronald C Spurga, page 7) 3

The Cash Flow Statement depicts the sources and uses of cash throughout the time covered by the statement.

(Gorman, Tom, page 163)

4 The cash flow statement classifies cash inflows and outflows into three categories: operating operations, investment activities, and financing activities. Due to the fact that all corporate activities are concerned with cash flow, the balance sheet and income statement have a logical link with the cash flow statement. However, not all company activities have an immediate and direct impact on cash flow, which is why it is necessary to compile an income statement to calculate the consequences of transactions over the period and a balance sheet to comprehend the financial position at a certain time.

Assessment of the information requirements of four non-management users

Banks, investment bankers, investors, and tax authorities are the designated non-management users of financial statement information.

Banks

In addition to monitoring the normal financial transactions of receipts and payments of their constituents, bankers provide loans and other facilities to suit the business's short- and long-term demands. Therefore, banks are directly concerned with the financial statements prepared by firms in accordance with GAAP. Banks require not only annual financial statements, but also quarterly or other interim financial statements that match their standards.

Important information extracted by banks from audited financial statements relates mostly to aging accounts receivables, payables, and inventories. During the decision-making process for granting loans, credit lines, issuing guarantees to commercial clients of a company, and other similar financing facilities, banks construct a variety of ratios based on financial statement information. Relevant ratios include the current ratio, the debt-equity ratio, the inventory turnover rate, the return on assets, the profitability ratios, the return on equity, and others. This data is requested to evaluate compliance with debt covenants. Banks require financial statement information for collateral reports and quarterly cash flow coverage. Asset-based financing activities require information about the financed assets, and banks obtain this information primarily from the balance sheets of the borrowers.

Investment Bankers

Investment banking encompasses a variety of activities, including underwriting, selling, and trading securities; providing financial advising services, such as merger and acquisition counsel; and managing assets.

(Wet feet, 2008)

5 All of these actions require information from their clients' financial statements. In the case of an IPO, the company must give investment bankers with financial statements for the preceding three years so that investors can assess the entity's performance. Investment bankers must examine the capital structure of the company, and the balance sheet is the only source of information regarding the company's borrowed and owned funds. Investment bankers must examine several years' worth of financial documents in order to anticipate future financial performance.

Investment bankers' primary responsibilities include assisting companies with capital-raising, arranging finances for larger projects, and assisting with merger and acquisition transactions; for these transactions and activities, investment bankers require extensive financial and informational resources. Consequently, investment bankers must rely heavily on the information contained in their clients' financial accounts.

Investors

Before making investment decisions, investors require information from financial statements regarding the financial health of the firm in which they intend to invest. The information sought by investors is typically crucial, such as the company's liquidity position, or its capacity to satisfy its short-term obligations. In order to determine the company's ability to satisfy long-term obligations, they are also interested in the rate of return on assets and equity. Investors need information regarding the usage and sale of their investments in order to evaluate their own returns and the security of the amount invested. All such information is either clearly accessible in the financial accounts or may be extrapolated from the financial statements' data.

Fiscal Authorities

Income is subject to taxation, with the company's income statement serving as the basis for computing income. "Revenue collection necessitates the extensive exchange of financial information on economic transactions, revenue, expenditures, and income with a high level of voluntary compliance." (Glenn P Jenkins, page 2) 6. Taxpayers calculate their tax liabilities using financial statements; and whenever revenue authorities determine that voluntary compliances in tax computations and tax payments lack genuineness, they have the legal authority to assess income calculations by summoning or seizing financial statements and other records. Consequently, the financial statements of taxpayers are the only direct source for revenue authorities to prove the authenticity of taxpayers' estimated taxable income.

Statutes requiring financial statements

According to generally accepted accounting principles, financial statements are prepared (GAAP). In essence, GAAP regulate the compilation and presentation of a company's financial accounts. The following are the origins of GAAP and other legislation governing financial reporting in the UK:

Chapter 15: Accounts and Reports contains the Companies Act of 2006 and the necessary provisions regulating financial statements. Other provisions of the act also control and effect the creation and presentation of the financial statements of the companies, either directly or indirectly. UK Accounting Standard Board (ASB) has developed Financial Reporting Standards (FRS), which are a direct source of GAAP for the production of financial statements for UK-based organizations. Urgent Issue Task Force (UTTF) of the Accounting Standard Board produces UITF Abstracts on subjects of high importance and urgency pertaining to accounting difficulties. The entities must consider these concepts while creating financial statements. In accordance with the agreements between listed firms and the London Stock Exchange, all listed companies must formulate their financial statements in accordance with International Accounting Standards (now International Financial Reporting Standards) beginning in January 2005. International Financial Standard Board (IFSB) is making attempts to align national standards of member nations with IFRS, which is a significant development in the international accounting arena. British Bankers Association (BBA) has also released the Statement of Recommended Accounting Practice, and its requirements must be observed in addition to the generally accepted accounting principles (GAAP). Similarly, the Association of British Insurers has produced a statement of Recommended Practices (SORP) requiring the application of FRS, SSAPs, ASB, and ASB(UITF) abstracts to ensure a fair representation of the financial performance and financial situation of the businesses.

As stated previously, the requirements of the Companies Act of 2006 seek an accurate and fair depiction of the profit or loss for the accounting year and the condition of affairs reflected in the balance sheet of the company. Companies are required to maintain different accounts when operating as a group in order to generate distinct financial statements. In addition, firms are expected to include group financial statements inside their annual reports. Companies are also required to disclose remuneration and other benefits provided to directors. The board of directors is also required to issue a report about certain financial statement matters. In addition, the corporation must seek the judgment of an independent auditor on its financial accounts. It is vital to note that the corporations Act has authorized the UK Accounting Standard Board to set and regulate accounting standards for UK entities.

References

Financial Intelligence, Karen Berman and others, Harvard Business Press, 2006, page 77 14 Balance Sheet Basics, edited by Ronald C Spurga and published in 2004 by Ronald C Spurga, page 7 2003.p.163 Tom Gorman, The Complete Idiot's Guide to MBA Fundamentals, Alpha Books Wet feet, Investment Banking. An Autonomous Revenue Authority for South Africa, by Glenn P. Jenkins, 1995, page 2.

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Leadership And Personality From Students In Iran Admission College Essay Help

Table of Contents
Overview Methodology Discussion of Results and Literature Review Conclusions Bibliography Citations

Overview

Operating and managing large organizations requires individuals with exceptional leadership qualities. The selection of leaders is dependent on their personalities, as these individuals may naturally inspire others to assume leadership responsibilities. The term Big Five is used to denote the five primary personality classifications that are visible in humans. Each individual has a distinct and innate behavioral pattern that sticks out and can be utilized to identify Big Five and leadership. This research examines the impact of the Big Five personality types on leadership, particularly in terms of task or people orientation, as well as a personality survey of Iranian engineering and business students.

Methodology

Extraversion tops the list of the Big Five personality traits. Sometimes, this personality type is referred known as Surgency. People who are extroverts are sometimes described as being forceful, high-energy, and talkative. The second Big Five characteristic is agreeableness. Those who belong to this category are characterized by a disposition to be kind or compassionate, as well as by a disposition of affection and sympathy. Next is conscientiousness as a personality type. Characters that are conscientious are shrewd, well-organized, and strategic. Emotional Intelligence represents the fourth characteristic. This personality type is also known as neuroticism and is typically connected with those who are tense, emotional, thoughtful, or anxious1. Lastly, the Openness personality is characterized by the capacity to be attentive, perceptive, or intellectual2. There are no well-known research examining the connection between the Big Five and leadership.

To understand and appreciate the relationship between personality and leadership, a survey was conducted among male and female engineering and business students to determine their perceptions on three important components of personality: whether they are task-oriented or people-oriented, and whether a woman is suitable for a higher leadership position. The acquired primary data were logged and tabulated for subsequent investigation. For instance, the shared average of task-oriented and people-oriented individuals was calculated. In addition to the grand total of shared qualities, i.e. between task- and people-oriented students, the average score of task- or people-oriented students was also determined.

Results

The table below summarizes the findings of the survey questionnaire, taking into account the overall average scores for each category.

Engineering students Business students

Male female Male Female

Average on task-oriented 9.517241379 7.357142857 6.48387098 6.75

Average regarding people-focused 6.551724138 7.214285714 9.58064511 11.125

The common mean for people- and task-oriented 8.034482759 7.285714286 8.032258065 8.9375

A woman in a position of authority 2.206896552 1.071428571 3.322580645 1.375

Discussion and Review of the Literature

As evidenced by the sample data, the majority of male engineering students are task-oriented, with an average score of 9.5, compared to 7.4 for their female colleagues in the same department. The primary question, however, is why the majority of male engineering students are task-oriented and whether this attribute may be utilized to characterize a leadership style.

The most plausible explanation for this discrepancy is that engineers are task-oriented and, as a result, are eager to guarantee that their work is completed flawlessly. In addition, engineers are not required to take a management course, thus it could be due to a lack of a defined leadership style. Furthermore, engineering students are less religious than their business counterparts. The likely explanation for this is because the business course has a tenuous connection to Islamic customs, whereas the engineering course has no connection to Islam whatsoever.

The task-oriented attitude of the majority of male engineering students is indicative of an autocratic leadership style. This form of leadership is sometimes referred to as authoritarian, and it is undesirable when good ties and friendship are required. Because male engineering students are not people-oriented, they likely have fewer relationships with others and fewer friends. This is a strong indicator of autocratic leadership, in which the leader places little weight on interpersonal relationships, focuses on the work at hand, and frequently exercises entire control over a group3. In this leadership style, a leader does not accept proposals from subordinates, regardless of how helpful the suggestions may be to the team as a whole. In the event that a group must be led in a school context or for a specific project, an authoritarian leader will focus solely on the project or task at hand, dismissing the group members who are particularly deviating from the task. As a result, they lose popularity inside the group.

Despite the unpopularity of this leadership style, there are a multitude of benefits that can be realized when it is used. In group initiatives, for instance, it is essential to recognize that strong and uncompromising leadership is required. As an authoritarian leader, it is of the utmost importance to focus on the task at hand, especially when specific targets with precise deadlines must be met. Leaders who place a premium on fostering relationships may not do well in such circumstances4.

In contrast, the poll reveals that female engineering students tend to maintain a healthy balance between tasks and people, with average scores of 7.35 and 7.21, respectively, compared to their male counterparts, who had a large disparity between the two scores (9.51 and 6.55 for task and people respectively). This is a frequent trait of women, as the majority of them are capable of balancing building relationships and employment. How about the leadership styles of the majority of female poll respondents? It is intriguing to learn that the majority of female engineering students appear to be OK with another woman assuming a position of authority at a higher level. Females frequently assume they can multitask by completing a variety of jobs. The responses to question 36 indicate that the majority of female engineering students believe that women have leadership potential at higher levels. This is demonstrated by a mean score of 1.07, compared to scores of 3.3, 2.2, and 1.3 for the other categories evaluated. The female engineering students can be utilized to illustrate a conscientious personality in terms of the Big Five personality traits. Keeping in mind that the survey answers are unique, they tend to be assertive and dynamic; this reflects the inner thought or mood of the group of women polled. In addition, the outcomes have not followed the general trend. Similarly, female engineering students can be good indications of personality openness to experience. Although it is clear that they are both task- and people-focused and can therefore provide balanced leadership, they feel more comfortable with a woman running a high-profile office.

However, while considering the Big Five leadership styles, it is important to note that the Big Five personality types can be used to create a broad variety of other subtraits. In the case of female engineering students, they share a leadership style characterized by strong morale and productivity. Autocratic leadership is typically associated with more production, but laissez-faire leadership, sometimes known as the Laissez-Faire leadership style5, is associated with greater morale. The female engineering students have a healthy balance of tasks and people.

A poll of both male and female Business students revealed astounding results. Both male and female business students are more concerned with people than with tasks. However, females are more people-oriented than males, with an average score of 11.125 compared to 9.58. Previous research has demonstrated that businesswomen are more concerned with the emotions of others than with their work6. Then, they fall within the agreeableness category of the Big Five personality trait paradigm. They are more empathetic and will prefer to show sympathy to those in need rather than complete a task. Nonetheless, as shown in the table, both male and female students in the Business class are people-oriented, mostly because business values require one to create long-lasting relationships as part of acquiring and retaining consumers. The results of the survey conducted on the Business class can be utilized as a predictor for the laissez-faire leadership style. In this form of leadership, the manager or group leader does not have sole authority over the decision-making process. Group members make pertinent decisions. It is a style of leadership in which no instructions are issued and connections take precedence over the work at hand. Previous study has determined with unanimity that the laissez-faire style of leadership is the least productive.

In a laissez-faire administration, distribution of responsibilities is typical. Leaders provide limited or no instruction, whereas followers exercise maximum autonomy in decision-making. Although the leadership may supply the required resources, group members are expected to find answers to difficulties. To ensure the success of a laissez-faire leadership style, team members must be highly skilled, intrinsically driven, and able to operate with minimal or no supervision7. When male Business students were asked about a woman's suitability for leadership in a higher position, the average score was 3.3, the highest of all categories; they tend to disagree that women can hold positions in higher offices, in contrast to male engineering students who believe that women can provide excellent leadership in businesses. Their female companions averaged 1.3 points. Similar to earlier studies, women tend to believe they can provide effective leadership in positions of authority. Through this statistical study, it is now able to establish a relationship between the Big Five personality frameworks and leadership, taking both people and task orientations into account.

To comprehend leadership, personality has been integrated throughout the process. This is primarily due to the fact that how people behave or act is a reflection of who they are. Another probable explanation why personality has been associated with leadership is that, throughout adulthood, personality is a component of and a function of day-to-day activities, and its longitudinal predictive capacity can be presumed.

T The five-factor model has been utilized in order to establish an analytical measure of personality. This model has also been shown to be accurate and exhaustive in determining global personality, or better yet, a vast array of personality traits. The majority of research investigations undertaken in both the distant and recent past reach the same conclusion: despite varied degrees of functionality, all personality types may be classified into five broad categories.

The five-factor approach has also shed light on personality and attribute differences across individuals and how this impacts individual leadership styles8. These five characteristics have proven to be equally dependable and have a high level of validity; when combined, the personality structure is well-established. Moreover, the Big Five can be utilized in a variety of advantageous contexts. The survey conducted on both male and female engineering and business students is an excellent evidence of how profitable the concept is. Male engineering students who were determined to be mostly task-oriented nonetheless belong under the Big Five, particularly if these characteristics are associated with personality traits. One of the most prevalent personality traits among male engineering students is conscientiousness. The fact that they are task-oriented suggests that they are meticulous. They are constantly focused on their work and rarely ponder on or cultivate relationships with others.

In elucidating the Big Five model, it is essential to emphasize that extraversion correlates with a person's ability to display more energy when executing tasks. Due to their extroverted disposition, a person with this attribute is highly passionate and capable of forming strong, long-lasting relationships. Additionally, the individual is typically talkative9. These characteristics can be used to predict an individual's leadership style. It was discovered that female business students are more people-oriented than task-oriented. They are also extroverted and have a tendency to talk freely whenever necessary.

Openness to experience, conscientiousness, and extraversion are crucial factors in determining a leader's performance. For instance, there is a strong correlation between conscientiousness and particular jobs. In this aspect, those who are goal-oriented and dependable perform well in most jobs. Jobs like sales and management demand an extraverted disposition. This is due to the requirement for ongoing connection with the client or group being managed for optimal performance. This situation is comparable to that of the business students who were surveyed. Due to the nature and eventual practice of their chosen profession, they will be expected to be outgoing, sociable, and conversational, and to make friends10. This explains why their average score in the people-oriented category was significantly higher than in other areas. Additionally, extraversion and openness to experience can be utilized to predict performance, particularly in the context of leadership.

Conclusions

In conclusion, it is vital to note that the Big Five personality framework is an essential toolkit that has been demonstrated in a multitude of research studies to accurately predict leadership styles, attributes, and desirable performance criteria in various occupations. The five dimensions are comprehensive metrics for analyzing the primary personality kinds of various individuals. To develop their leadership skills, some management courses should be introduced into the engineering curriculum, keeping in mind that engineering courses are more focused on tasks than on people. The male business students who do not feel that women can hold higher offices can change their attitude toward women by focusing on work rather than persons and imagining that women can also perform well in higher managerial positions.

The survey administered to both engineering and business students was an illustrative example of how task- and people-oriented personalities can impact leadership styles or needs.

The various attitudes depicted in the study are a potent instrument that firms and governments can utilize for ineffective personnel hiring. For example, the hiring process for various leadership roles is solely task-oriented and hierarchical. Therefore, task-oriented individuals, such as engineers, are deployed in areas that require intense concentration on the task at hand. People-focused individuals tend to do better in various leadership positions. As a result, firm leadership hierarchy is strongly dependent on either task or people orientation in terms of personality.

Bibliography

Frick, J. Paul, T. Christopher Barry, and W. Randy Kamphaus. Bacon: Springer, 2009. "Clinical Assessment of Child and Adolescent Personality and Behavior."

Griffin, W. Ricky, and Gregory Moorhead, "Organizational Behavior: Managing People and Organizations," South-Western Cengage Learning, Mason, 2010.

2003, McGraw-Hill, New York, Lewis, P. James. "Project Leadership."

Leadership: Theory and Practice was published by Sage Publications in London in 2010.

The five-factor model of personality: theoretical insights, by S. Jerry Wiggins, New York: Guilford Press, 1996.

Footnotes

2009's Bacon: Springer edition of "Clinical Assessment of Child and Adolescent Personality and Behavior" by Paul J. Frick, Christopher T. Barry, and Randy W. Kamphaus. Peter G. (Guy) Northouse is also known as Peter G. Northouse. "Leadership: Theory and Practice," Sage Publications, London, 2010. Christopher T. Barry, Paul J. Frick, and Randy W. Kamphaus. Bacon: Springer, 2009. "Clinical Assessment of Child and Adolescent Personality and Behavior." James P. Lewis, "Project Leadership," McGraw-Hill, New York, 2003. James P. Lewis, "Project Leadership," McGraw-Hill, New York, 2003. The name Jerry S. Wiggins. "The five-factor model of personality: theoretical perspectives," published by Guilford Press in New York in 1996. James P. Lewis, "Project Leadership," McGraw-Hill, New York, 2003. James P. Lewis, "Project Leadership," McGraw-Hill, New York, 2003. James P. Lewis, "Project Leadership," McGraw-Hill, New York, 2003. Ricky W. Griffin and Gregory Moorhead. “Organizational Behavior: Managing People and Organizations”, Mason: South-western Cengage Learning, 2010.

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Strategies For An Effective Product Development Process Admission College Essay Help

Table of Contents
Product Development Process Enhancing Manufacturability, Abstract Technical and Customer Requirements: QFD Format Defects in a Product Conclusions References

Abstract

Companies in the manufacturing industry must examine a variety of tactics to maximize output while minimizing faults. This talk gives four case studies for organizational leaders to consider in order to improve the profitability of their company. The first section explains how AutoNation may adopt an efficient product development process for its automobiles and attract more clients in the American market. The second section outlines the primary strategies that companies in the automobile sector can implement to enhance manufacturability, boost quality, and ultimately lower operational expenses. The third section uses a Quality Function Deployment (QDD) diagram to highlight the major customer and technical requirements for a laptop, as well as how buyers and firms must focus on their goals while addressing the needs of all key stakeholders. Using a fishbone diagram, the final section describes the key causes of faults and the most effective mitigation strategies using the example of General Motors.

Product Development Methodology

AutoNation is one of the nation's biggest retailers of both used and new automobiles. Since 1996, this company has expanded by opening more than 360 locations across the country. In addition, it offers support systems and replacement components for some of the most popular brands in the specified locations. According to Nguyen (2019), this automobile dealer was allegedly selling damaged or recalled vehicles. This choice was made because some of them were defective and incapable of safeguarding the user or providing their needs. Due to the nature of this issue, AutoNation may become unprofitable and lose the majority of its clients if its management fail to implement superior remedies.

This organization's chosen product is the autos it obtains from dealers and sells for a profit. Before they can be sold, the most appropriate product development method for these automobiles is to recruit skilled people to inspect each vehicle. These employees should be familiar with the mechanical and electrical components of automobiles. Utilizing contemporary technologies for diagnostic purposes allows for the detection of faults (Singh & Banton, 2016). The affected vehicles will then need to be restored or enhanced to satisfy the needs of the intended customers. This project will ensure that all customers are certain that every automobile will meet or exceed their expectations.

Similarly, AutoNation must communicate with the main automotive manufacturers and suppliers. Nguyen (2019) reveals that 59 percent of this company's automobiles are new. A collaborative approach will make it simpler for the partners to identify probable sources of faults and identify vehicles with a greater likelihood of being recalled. The application of these product development methods implies that all automobiles, new and old, will receive the necessary tweaks and enhancements to satisfy the sustainability and quality criteria mentioned. These actions will make AutoNation more competitive in its industry.

Enhanced Manufacturability

The automotive industry has continued to revolutionize human experiences and lives by producing high-quality automobiles that facilitate a variety of activities, such as transportation and protection from severe weather. Customers have become more discerning due to sustainability concerns and the increased availability of competing items. As a result, the majority of manufacturers have built robust systems and models to streamline the entire manufacturing process (Lumsakula et al., 2018). The automobile has been determined to be the best product for this examination and description. Numerous firms in various regions of the world have been eager to create and design new cars that reflect the evolving demands of the recognized users. However, design flaws and defects tend to develop, impacting the profitability of such businesses.

Several design principles should be considered if the majority of enterprises in the global vehicle industry are to overcome these barriers. Design for manufacturing is the overarching principle that all sector participants must take seriously (DFM). First, firms can guarantee that their vehicles have a large number of standardized components to reduce the likelihood of failure and delays. Second, these components are multifunctional and able to support several aspects or phases of the automobile production process (Evans & Lindsay, 2016). Thirdly, businesses may assure that the majority of pieces can be assembled without screws. As a result of this design strategy, the production process will be streamlined and precise. The effort can also reduce labor costs and save time.

Fourthly, the established procedure must be suitable for the tasks being performed. Fifthly, firms can build their components so that employees have minimum interaction with them (Lumsakula et al., 2018). Sixth, all operations and surface treatments must fulfill acceptable criteria without focusing on spectacular or superfluous results for the targeted automobiles. Lastly, manufacturers must adjust the robotic system in place to handle a wide variety of parts based on the nature of the automobile being produced.

Given the nature of this suggestion, it is evident that any corporation that adopts these design principles will increase the pace and rate at which it manufactures automobiles. The majority of parts and procedures will be comparable for the majority of vehicle brands. The organization will eventually lower operational expenses as a result of a considerable reduction in handling and duplicating operations. Due to the fact that the majority of the components will not need to be mended or joined, the likelihood of error or damage will decrease. The seamless integration of robotic technologies will ensure that the products are supplied promptly. Such a procedure will eventually facilitate the manufacturing or manufacturability of high-quality automobiles that satisfy the needs of end-users (Lumsakula et al., 2018). The decrease in expenses will allow the corporation to generate more earnings.

QFD Format for Customer and Technical Requirements

A product requirements (PRs) idea is essential since it assists stakeholders in comprehending the distinctive characteristics of a certain product or service. A thorough research of such factors can enable clients to make informed judgments and comprehend the specific benefits a certain product is capable of giving. Professionally conducted, this analysis should avoid describing how the product can achieve the desired outcomes (Min et al., 2018). The significance of such a strategy or model is to prevent influencing the purchase decisions of an individual. The product used for this analysis is a laptop computer.

Prior to making pertinent judgments, it is important to take into account the primary customer requirements for such a product. The first is the quality or material of the packaging used to transport the laptop to the end customer. In an effort to increase the level of environmental sustainability in light of the emergence of climate change-related challenges, many people would be focused on this need (Min et al., 2018). The second factor to consider is the weight, with a quality laptop weighing between 4 and 8 pounds. To suit the demands of the user, this product must be lightweight and portable. Color is the third outstanding client demand that many persons would monitor. Laptops can be maroon, red, black, white, or silver, among other hues. The fourth distinct need that consumers would examine is whether or not the computer is waterproof or capable of resisting damage.

Fifthly, the product must be compatible with Windows operating system software. The sixth factor that many consumers would evaluate is whether or not the package includes a power adaptor (Min et al., 2018). Customers would not purchase a computer that lacks this component. The ability of the laptop to quickly transmit large files is the sixth criteria. Computers that are incapable of completing this task may be deemed unreliable or undesired by the customer. The final factor prospective customers might evaluate is the product's compatibility with USB versions 2.0 and 3.0.

Technical requirements are vital because they fulfill the needs and expectations of the greatest number of product stakeholders, including customers, government agencies, environmentalists, and community members, throughout the product's lifecycle. The first need is that the producer places a premium on the client. The second factor is the choice of high-quality, lightweight material for product packaging. This is crucial because it must safeguard the environment and satisfy the requirements of all stakeholders (Min et al., 2018). The import chip and plug-and-play capability are also crucial technical needs (see Fig. 1). Next is the product's compatibility with the majority of operating systems. Another distinctive feature is the use of lightweight materials to prevent the waste of scarce resources (Evans, 2012). This Quality Function Deployment (QFD) transforms such demands into solutions intended to transform the customer's experiences (see Fig. 1).

Figure 1. QFD for a laptop

Product Flaws

Every customer anticipates receiving a product of superior quality that exceeds his or her expectations. Companies must execute robust initiatives to discover potential causes of faults and eliminate them before they compromise the item's functionality and appearance. Depending on their possible impact on the product, these flaws could be minor, serious, or even substantial. When flaws develop, there is a strong likelihood that the afflicted business will be unable to keep up with customers' shifting demands (Pyzdek & Keller, 2012). To raise the degree of customer satisfaction and ultimately optimize sales, companies must identify the potential sources of such errors and correct them.

Figure 2: Fishbone illustration of General Motors' manufacturing gaps in 2014

General Motors has been chosen for this investigation to determine the potential causes of product failures (GM). In 2014, GM was embroiled in a big scandal after being forced to recall over 30,4 million automobiles that had already been sold worldwide. These automobiles were equipped with defective ignition switches that were able to shut down engines without prior notice. This procedure could deactivate the brakes, power steering, and airbags (Wright, 2015). This issue caused around 124 fatalities throughout the world. The inadequate design of these ignitions in 2014 vehicles was the first potential reason of this result. This would be classified as a technical part of the production procedure. GM's failure to test the ignition systems before releasing them to the market was the second issue. This gap can be studied through the viewpoint of human resources or workforce characteristic (Goetsch & Davis, 2014). The nature of the manufacturing process that failed to test the ignition before installing it in the cars was the third cause of this fault (see Fig. 2). The fifth potential element that contributed to this issue was the inability to effectively test the finished vehicle and identify any probable failure causes.

These violations explain why the automobile delivered to the market was faulty and capable of causing fatalities. Because they have the potential to affect the level of profitability, a thorough comprehension of these potential causes of flaws in various automobiles can help more businesses discover and manage them (Wright, 2015). The collaboration of all employees, engineers, and stakeholders could have enabled this company to spot the defective switches and prevent their mass production. Such a move would have also provided GM with a fresh opportunity to reduce the losses it incurred after recalling the damaged vehicles.

Conclusions

The effort has resulted in the elaboration of evidence-based solutions that businesses may use to improve their products and increase their market appeal. Utilizing professionals, doing research and development (R&D), and monitoring consumer needs continuously can result in the supply of high-quality products. Consideration of efficient design standards can enhance the manufacturing process and save operational expenses. The exercise has demonstrated the importance of customer and technical needs in the development and successful marketing of a particular product. These characteristics will inform the most pertinent considerations to guarantee that all stakeholders' needs are addressed. Finally, the fishbone diagram has evolved as a strong tool for analyzing or detecting potential product failure origins and applying improved countermeasures.

References

Evans, J. R. (2012). Management and quality control (8th ed.). College of the South West Publisher. Evans, J. R., and W. M. Lindsay (2016). Managing for superior quality and performance (9th ed.). Cengage Education. Goetsch, D. L., & Davis, S. (2014). Total quality management for organizational excellence: an introduction (8th ed.). McGraw Hill. Lumsakula, P., Sheldrickb, L. & Rahimifarda, S. (2018). Sustainable product and production system co-design. Procedia Manufacturing, volume 21, pages 854-861. Web. Min, H., Yun, J., & Geum, Y. (2018). An approach to analyzing dynamic changes in client requirements utilizing Kano analysis based on review. Sustainability, 10(3), 746-762. Web. Nguyen, T. (2019). The largest auto retailer in America sells recalled vehicles. That does not violate federal law. Vox. Pyzdek, T., & Keller, P. (2012). The Quality Management Handbook: A Comprehensive Guide to Operational Excellence (2nd ed.). McGraw Hill. Singh, V., & Banton, S. (2016). In a fragmented sector, AutoNation is fostering client loyalty by fostering customer satisfaction. Applied Marketing Analytics, 2(2), pages 161 to 168. (2015). Web. Wright, R. GM faces paying more than $1.5bn over fatal ignition switch fault. Financial Times.

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SEHA Company’s Performance Appraisal Admission College Essay Help

Introduction Context of the Research

SEHA, which translates to "health" in Arabic, is one of the organizations that seeks to enhance the performance of its employees in order to increase productivity, service delivery, and competitiveness, as well as to meet the performance goals and objectives that have been established through training and development functions (Hajat & Harrison, 2010). The idea is that people are the most valuable organizational assets and play a crucial role in the organization's success. However, employees cannot make significant contributions to the success of the organization if they lack the appropriate knowledge and skills, which are acquired through training and development programs that are part of the Human Resources department's responsibilities.

This is the case with the SEHA, which is a "publicly traded company established to assume the role of hospital and clinic operator and whose mission is to provide Abu Dhabi residents with world-class medical care" (Hajat & Harrison, 2010, p.3). The organization specializes in delivering quality and cost-effective health care services to locals and individuals from other countries. SEHA "owns and operates 15 health care facilities, 2600 licensed beds, and over 55 Ambulatory and Primary Health Care Clinics." With over 15,000 people, SEHA is among the major employers in the Middle East (Hajat & Harrison, 2010, p.3). However, due to the breadth of health care service supply, the institution, as part of its human resource management function, seeks to improve service provision in order to remain competitive on the local and international markets by emphasizing the training and development of staff abilities. Organizations place a premium on training and development because such programs enable employees to contribute to the organization's competitive advantage in all main areas of operations.

The department of human resources executes training and development as one of its primary duties by utilizing numerous programs, including workshops, coaching, mentorship programs, and educational programs. According to Dessler (2003), training and development programs enhance the intrinsic and extrinsic motivation of employees in order to bring out their greatest qualities. In addition, training and development programs were formerly viewed as the tools to improve employee attachments to the organization, and the majority of human resource managers evaluate the success of an organization based on its ability to attract highly qualified and trained personnel. However, the success of an organization depends on its ability to coordinate the workers by aligning them with the organization's goals and objectives. Armstrong and Taylor (2014) suggest that the study is an important challenge for academics to solve in order to determine how to motivate employees to create the kind of commitment required to achieve organizational goals. Impact of training and development on organizational performance is the greatest obstacle. The research raises the question of how training and development enhances organizational effectiveness. What is the relationship between training and development and an organization's performance? To address the questions, the following objectives served as the study's guiding framework.

Description of the Problem

Numerous businesses have realized the necessity of investing in the training and development of their personnel in order to improve service delivery, service quality, staff productivity, and employee enthusiasm and loyalty to the business. Despite this understanding, the human resource function must define the relationship between training and development and its effect on the performance of the organization's fundamental functions. The purpose of this study is to examine the issue of employee training and development, as well as its consequences on their organizational loyalty. Prior research demonstrates that salary, pay packages, and performance evaluation contribute to organizational success.

Purposes and Objectives

The purpose of the study is to determine the relationship between employee training and development and the organization's performance.

Objectives

Among the research objectives are:

Determine how training and development programs are implemented by organizations. Determine ways to achieve organizational dedication. Investigate the factors that affect the organization's performance. Determine the underlying organizational development factors Conduct the SEHA case study

Objectives of the Project

Focusing on training and development as the main tasks of the human resource department of the organization, the study was undertaken to explore the impact of employee training and development on organizational performance.

The Emphasis of the Study

The focus of the study was to determine the purpose of training programs, the phases of the training and development program, and the training and development techniques that can be used to increase employee commitments, as well as how these key areas contribute to the enhancement of organizational performance.

Importance of theS

Organizations can use this research to find the most effective techniques and antecedents for increasing employee engagement and enhancing organizational performance through customized training and development programs.

Hypothesis

An organization's core competencies can be strengthened by creating a training and development program to raise personnel knowledge and abilities.

Research Concerns

The following research questions serve as the basis for proving the hypothesis.

How does training and development affect the commitment of employees to an organization? If so, what is its function and how does it influence training and development? In academia and other scholarly articles, it has been established that absenteeism, the execution of the roles and responsibilities assigned an employee, withdrawal from the responsibilities assigned an employee, and job performance are indicators of an employee's level of commitment to an organization. In order to answer the research questions, the study investigated the relationship between training and development and job performance.

How to Address the Research Challenge

The study was influenced by a review of the facts produced by many researchers in the field of human resource management, with a focus on the effects of the precursors of training and development aspects on employee performance and organizational success. The study focuses on the elements that influence the commitment of employees to the organization's goals and objectives (Armstrong & Taylor, 2014). According to researchers, the majority of organizations employ training and development programs through their human resource departments in order to enhance the quality of their products and services. However, little research has been conducted on the ways required to use employees through training and development programs to support employee commitment to utilize their skills and knowledge to innovate and develop new products and services for the organization's benefit. The new insights human resource managers have towards employee training and development programs and how these programs contribute to the performance of the firm are indicative of a paradigm shift.

The primary research findings were founded on evidence collected from the use of both qualitative and quantitative approaches. The rationale for using mixed research methods was that it was informed by the use of data derived from both qualitative and quantitative paradigms, allowing the researcher to obtain sufficient information regarding the impact of training and development programs and the resulting level of employee commitment to the organization. It has been shown that the qualitative paradigm permits a thorough investigation of a topic to answer the "why" and "how" questions of a research question. Qualitative paradigms provide the study an exploratory and descriptive focus, stress the human as the data gathering tool, and led to a more realistic understanding of the problem and its solutions (Feilzer, 2010). In addition, it was feasible to communicate with the research participants on their own terms, which made it possible to gain a communal understanding of the investigated phenomena.

By delivering questionnaires to respondents, numerical data for statistical analysis was collected using a quantitative paradigm. The questions gave responses to fill a vacuum in the academic literature regarding the impact of training and development programs on an organization's performance (Feilzer, 2010). The failure of earlier academics to identify the potential of training and development as a tool to increase employee commitment to the business as a knowledge gap.

The purpose of the study was to examine the viability of utilizing training and development programs to increase employee commitment, hence improving organizational performance. Typically, performance is one of the most important indications of the effectiveness of a training and development program, as it has been demonstrated that individuals with higher levels of commitment work harder to increase organizational performance (Dessler, 2003; Harzing & Pinnington, 2010; Ivancevich, 2010; Armstrong & Taylor, 2014). In this instance, the study revealed a high association between training and development and organizational performance, providing the evidence for the claim that dedication is the foundation of improved organizational performance. The major indications of performance-committed employees consist of the manner in which individuals carry out their duties and obligations.

Expected Results

It was anticipated that the study would lay the groundwork for determining how training and development programs influence the performance of an organization based on the strategic approach of enhancing employees' commitment to organizational goals and objectives, and how commitment and performance are related. The idea is that training and development programs assist employees to acquire improved skills and knowledge to successfully and efficiently carry out their duties and obligations (Armstrong & Taylor, 2014). It was anticipated that the study will clarify how firms use training and development programs to affect employee perceptions regarding their organizational commitment.

The findings of the study indicate that successful utilization of training and development programs results in better-skilled and better-trained personnel who are more likely to remain on the job rather than leave because they lack the necessary abilities. Additionally, training boosts employee confidence on the work by strengthening their skills, knowledge, and morale (Yousef, 2000). Training contributes to a better image, stronger decision-making skills, increased employee job satisfaction and retention, employee confidence when tackling new jobs, and management assistance in resolving work-related issues and group conflicts. According to Ivancevich (2010), training and development programs offer employees with job satisfaction and the drive to work hard by reducing absenteeism, boosting self-esteem, and enabling them to gain the skills necessary to undertake repetitious jobs effectively.

Ivancevich's (2010) proposal for additional areas for organizations to address through training and development programs includes equipping employees with the appropriate skills and knowledge to communicate effectively, resolve conflicts among team members, improve coordination between employees and management, and motivate employees to work in effective teams.

Assumptions

The study was predicated on the premise that the human resource department was committed to the training and development program, which may assist management in increasing employee dedication to the organization. It was anticipated that commitment would boost employee participation in organizational responsibilities and duties, leading to improved organizational performance. Here, performance is highly correlated with the training and development program and the effective execution of duties and responsibilities.

Research Restrictions

The study was limited by the availability of time and the inability to determine truthful responses to the research questions.

Literature Review

Training

Organizations use employee training programs to modify employees' attitudes and behaviors toward work-related tasks in order to effect the intended transformation. Training is an interventional approach used to determine optimal learning outcomes based on aptitude, motivation, and self-regulations, as well as individual variances. Specifically, it has been demonstrated that training programs that emphasize individual differences are beneficial at instilling the skills necessary for improved performance (Al Junaibi, Abdulle, Sabri, Hag-Ali & Nagelkerke, 2013). Key factors highly correlated with positive outcomes include locus of control, improvement of job attitudes, improvement of employee personality, motivation, and awareness of the level of commitment expected from each individual working for the firm.

Based on embedded training design elements and contextual training systems, Al Junaibi et al. (2013) believe that training enables enterprises to bridge the gap between the existing employee skills and performance and the expected skills and performance. It has been demonstrated via study that training programs promote employee growth and provide employees with the necessary abilities to accept and manage work-related obstacles and performance issues that arise when doing job-related duties. The contextual or situational aspects of the training setting, including the climate that facilitates the transfer of the appropriate skills, reward systems, and individual characteristics.

Harzing and Pinnington (2010) noted that better-trained personnel have contributed significantly to an organization's favorable performance. Scholars believe that effective training programs have a positive impact on cognition, behavior, including personality and level of commitment, interest in work-related tasks, and cognitive capacities. Training bolsters employee mastery of the abilities necessary for them to meet new job-related obstacles with greater confidence, so enhancing overall work efficiency and enabling them to fulfill corporate goals and objectives. The training programs must be designed and fine-tuned to provide the desired skills and knowledge in the workforce. Here, variables such as career orientation, education, and vocational training serve as the foundation for enhancing employee abilities so that they may contribute more effectively to the organization's performance.

Training is a methodical, skills-gap-focused activity that must be linked to the aims and objectives of the organization (Harzing & Pinnington, 2010). In each instance, the intervention methods include the ability to train personnel to enhance their information processing, emotional regulation and control, effort allocation and motivation, and metacognitive processing capacities. The program's outcomes include increased staff commitment to organizational objectives and enhanced employee performance.

According to Ivancevich (2010), the training program must be meticulously planned to influence the skills and desired competence of the employees in order to assure organizational managers of positive performance outcomes, which is a clear indication of the relationship between training and performance. In each instance of the training and development program, the applied effort, the desired direction, the intensity of the training program, and the trainees' capacity to apply task-oriented activities illustrate the training program's significant effects on employee productivity and task performance.

Investigations give proof of the reason for adopting staff training programs that account for individual characteristics and contributions to the organization's success (Ivancevich, 2010). Training and development programs are administered to employees with varying outcomes in mind. In each instance of the training program, particular abilities, skills, and talents must be considered in order to optimize the capabilities of each employee for the organization's success.

The objective of training programs

Training programs are used by organizations to improve organisational performance by enhancing staff skills, talents, knowledge, and contributions to organisational productivity (Harzing & Pinnington, 2010). To

Money Markets Admission College Essay Help

Money market refers to the investment in short term because the assets which are bought and sold with maturities within a year. Normally, they can be converted into cash easily. The examples of money market’s instruments are bank deposits, certificates of deposit, interbank loans, money market mutual funds, commercial paper, treasury bills, and securities lending and repurchase agreements (repos). (Dodd, R., 2012). Interbank loans are loans between banks which are not secured by collateral. Commercial paper is a promissory note as an unsecured debt that issued by highly rated banks and some large non-financial corporations. Some safer investments in the money market are treasury bills and repurchase agreements (repos). T-bills are securities issued by the government with maturities of less than a year as it is covered by securities laws while Repos are usually less than two weeks and often overnight. Besides that, money market mutual fund (MMMFs) is another instrument in money market which are securities offered by companies that invest in other money market instruments. Furthermore, asset-backed commercial paper (ABCP) is another money market instrument which is safer compare to the ordinary commercial papers because it is secured by the underlying assets. During financial crisis, these money market instruments are greatly affected and show a big downturn. They are helped by the country treasury and the federal reserved. These agencies created special lending for them to overcome the crisis. Today, some of the money market like ABCP and REPO has shrunk dramatically. (Dodd, R., 2012).

The interest rates and calendar-time effects do affect both the MMFs and bank deposits cash flow for either the institutional or retail investors. (Kotomin,V., et al., 2014) The research found out that institutional money fund investors appear to take advantage of arbitrage opportunities created by the MMFs using the amortized cost valuation technique. A key test variable is used which call ‘Spread’. It is used to measure the direction and magnitude of changes in short-term interest rates and thus capture potential arbitrage opportunities in the money markets arising due to recent changes in interest rates. When Spread is positive, investors would earn a higher rate of return in the alternative investment but when Spread is negative, investors will earn a higher return in MMFs. This shows Spread and MMF flows have a negative relation. (Kotomin,V., et al., 2014) The research on calendar-time effect found out that calendar time effects make money market investors are willing to forego some return to strategically time their cash flows to meet calendar-based cash obligations. Both retail and institutional MMFs moved cash out of MMFs before calendar break points associated with cash obligations and move back into MMFs following the break points. The cash which taken out from the MMFs tend to flow into bank demand deposits. (Kotomin,V., et al., 2014).

The average maturity of the fund will be shortened in order to increase the yield faster if the interest rates are expected to increase and vice versa. Therefore, managers who possessed this ability to anticipate forthcoming movements in the market are able to address the adverse impact and exploit the opportunities available. (Mansur, I., Odusami, B., & Nasseh, A, 2011) The data being used in this study are weekly 90-day T-bill yields and weekly one-month AA financial CP rates. Besides that, they also obtained the weekly weighted average maturity (WAM) on all taxable MMMFs. The results show that weekly changes in WAM have a negative correlation with changes in CP yields and there is no relationship between changes in WAM and changes in T-bill yields. Then, further investigation is made to find out the relationship between interest rates and WAM by applying Granger causality tests. The results showed that the T-bill market is highly efficient. This is because investors cannot gain any deeper understanding by analyzing the maturity structure of MMMFs for information that is not reflected in the T-bill rates.(Mansur, I., Odusami, B., &Nasseh, A, 2011).

There are two theories for bank run their subject of academic and regulatory which are Diamond and Dybvig and the second theory is run in rationally driven by information. The prime money fund is category to give the explanation about covariates of the money fund run, because this category is by far and is most effective by the money fund crisis. The institutional investor moved their money in the same time or later one day in or out of prime money market, especially in the complex within same fund. Besides that, we also find that investment is sensitive no easy to liquidity the money fund holding; correlated flow less happen money fund with greater level of security mutual period is short ‘term. In the other hand, the money fund runs at ‘deep pocket backing’ ,this is indicate with investor infer the fund is guaranteed by their management company and the institution investor, for the most part, moved their money into the U.S government .

According to Fecht, Gr??ner and Hartmann (2007) banks contribute to inter-regional risk sharing. They recommend that the risk sharing depends on the size of the interbank market through secured and unsecured interbank trading. Using LIBOR for some currencies, Kotomin et al. (2008) mentioned the liquidity preference at the end of the year or trimester is the main factor that drives the interest rates’ behavior on short term. Cerrato et al. (2010) discovered that the Euro zone monetary policy is transmitted into CEE interest rates by the framework of the influence of global monetary shocks. Besides, they discovered the presence of structural breaks at the beginning of financial crisis for almost all rates which present long memory. The long run equilibrium relationship between the overnight rates and the corresponding 1 month and 3 month rate was found. From Gregory-Hansen test, these are valid in the presence of a structural break in integrating relationship between the interbank money markets.

The risk-taking behaviour of money market funds during the financial crisis of 2007-2010 was examined by Kacperczyk, M. and Schnabl, P. (December 2012). Starting at August 2007, money funds experienced an extension in their risk-taking opportunities. The analysis shows that ‘fund flows are extremely responsive to past returned and one-standard-deviation increase in fund returns raises annualized fund assets by 46%.’ which makes money market funds had strong incentives to take on risk. (Kacperczyk, M. and Schnabl, P.) The characteristic that predicts risk taking is if fund sponsors has interests in businesses (business concerns) who will reduce risk and a fund sponsor’s financial strength who found that greater financial strength increases risk taking. Other (unobserved) sponsor characteristics, like quality of risk management, risk aversion, investment style, or access to private information would directly affect risk taking. In September 2008, the government introduced unlimited deposit insurance, which effectively replaced the sponsors’ role in providing support that makes the differences in risk taking become smaller. Money market funds lack safety relative to other safe instruments because when the opportunity increases the incentives to take on risk is high but they are vulnerable to runs once the risk materializes.

The demand deposit contracts in open-end mutual fund are same with the bank which can cause the investor withdraw the money from time to time. The higher return was provided by evidence that pursuit to motivate the investors reacting to bad by withdrawing the money. The fund can outperform from the other fund as long as liquidity in the higher market by investing illiquid asset. When investing less liquid asset, the narrow structure of money market fund and make them weak to run. The study also included the risks which involve in investment in illiquid assets when the open-ended structure is involved. Besides that, it was present the run are possible in the money market. The financial intermediaries were given to reform the regulation of the money market fund in U.S and Europe to archive the target for stability the money market fund. Before financial crisis, there only have limited information about asset composition of German money market fund was able to the public and not standardized. The insurance provide with a fund issuer might play on the important role in the stability of money market fund. Money market also is a set large remain stable in the U.S where an implicit insurance is provided.

The sterling overnight money market is important to implement the monetary policy. The development of sterling overnight markets can be sum up into an increased sensitivity of bank liquidity risk and credit risk, introduction of the ‘floor’ system; reduced volatility in overnight interest rates after introducing floor’ system, a drop and growth in unsecured and secured money market activity respectively, introduction of international prudential liquidity regulations andchanging incentives to arbitrage overnight interest rates.(Jackson, C., &Sim, M, 2013). The Bank has introduced a ‘floor system, whereby all reserves account balances were recompense at Bank Rate. Banks preferred to transact among themselves instead of using the money market to manage liquidity which shows that they are more sensitive to credit and liquidity risk. The unsecured interbank trading has dropped drastically after the introduction of the floor system and increase in reserves. After the reinforcement of prudential liquidity regulation, banks have dramatically reduced their use of wholesale unsecured market. They use a longer-term funding combine and hold reserves at the central bank to manage liquidity needs (Jackson, C., &Sim, M, 2013).

The markets for federal funds and Eurodollars are the two core components of the dollar money market which relate for both financial analysis and the execution of monetary policy. The degree of integration of the federal funds and the Eurodollar markets is also important for the implement and transmission of monetary policy. This paper provides a detailed analysis of the extent of integration of the markets for federal funds and for Eurodollar deposit by using a new set of transactional-level data which gained from one of the largest U.S based dollar markets brokers and detailed empirical modelling of the daily and intra-day behaviour of federal fund and Eurodollar interest spread. Besides that, this paper also significant the liquidity effects of money market. The higher money market trading volume lowers the volatility of spreads which keeping federal funds and Eurodollar yields more close. Furthermore, daily news on money market conditions as captured by results of morning Federal Reserve open market auctions are absorbed quickly within a couple of hours into yield spreads was shown. Close integration of federal funds and Eurodollar trading has two immediate implications which are from the standpoint of financial analysis and the standpoint of policy design and analysis of the transmission of monetary policy.

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Literature review: Defining services argumentative essay help

LITERATURE REVIEW – Defining services. The services marketing literature contains many definitions of services.

Christian Gr??nroos (2000, p. 46) defines a service as ‘ a process consisting of a series of more or less intangible activities that normally, but not necessarily always, take place in interactions between the customer and the service employees and/or physical resources or goods and/or systems of the service provider, which are provided as solutions to customer problems’.

Philip Kotler (1991) defines services as: ‘any act or performance that one party can offer to another one that is essentially intangible and does not result in the ownership of anything. It’s production may or may not be tied to a physical product.

However, there are some common features in all of these definitions. At first, these commonalities refer to the fact that services deal with something that is intangible. This means that it is difficult to hold or to stock services.

Services are originally intangibles and relatively quickly perishables activities whose buying, which does not lead to material possession, takes place in an interactive process aimed at creating customer satisfaction.

The nature of service

In general, services are intangibles. The intangibility feature is most dominant when defining services. It determines the other characteristics of services; simultaneous production and consumption, heterogeneity and perishability. Given the lack of material possession, the inability to own a service is also considered to be a characteristics of services. Consequently, creating a service usually requires the presence and participation of the customer during the production and consumption of the service. This two-sided human influence on the service often leads to a fluctuating quality of the service. Thus, controlling service quality, motivating employee to deliver service quality and the introduction of technology (especially ICT) are some of the important ways to avoid heterogeneity in service quality.

These characteristics of services are frequently referred to as the five I’s of services. Berkowitz et al. (1986, pp.608-610) discussed the four I’s which are intangibility, inseparability, inconsistency, inventory and the fifth I, the inability to own based on the 2004 Lovelock and Gummesson article. Each of these characteristics are considered to be relative and exist in all services, but some will be more important than others depending on the service.

‘ Intangibility : as a degree of intangibility

‘ Inseperability :as a degree of simultaneous production and consumption

‘ Inconsistency : as a degree of heterogeneity

‘ Inventory : as a degree of perishability; and

‘ Inability : as a degree of the lack of ownership

What is quality

The application of quality to the management of services is very important and the way that it has been achieved is to drawn upon and adapt a number of approaches already in use in other contexts. Before we can investigate service quality specifically, we need to understand the various definitions and approaches to quality that exist in the wider social and business environment. This will allow some understanding of where current issues in the application of quality to services have arisen. We know that quality can be viewed from many different points of view. Garvin (1988) presented five different approaches quality is viewed as well as providing a framework for appreciating some of the problems associated with service quality. These different ways of looking at quality are :

‘ Transcendent-based

‘ Attribute-based

‘ User-based

‘ Manufacturing-based

‘ Value-based

Transcendent-based quality

According to this approach quality cannot always be defined and is partly the result of individual rather than shared experienced. This ability to understand what something is but not be able to describe it is characteristic of something known as an ‘ epiphenomenon ‘. The way we get around this problem is to use either comparators or attributes.

Attribute-based quality

Quality is zero defects ‘ doing it right the first time (Parasuraman, Zeithaml and Berry, 1985).

The attribute-based approach maintains that quality is a direct outcome of the number of features or attributes of a product. The product with more attractive attributes is higher quality. This approach suggests that quality is an objective and absolute terms and therefore measurable. The problem is that is the characteristics of services prevent ‘ side by side ‘ comparison. Similarly, even if you could identify all the attributes of the services you were assessing, your assessment wouldn’t be completed until the service ended, or the service benefit is reveal.

User-based quality

Quality is the fitness for use, the extent to which the product successfully serves the purpose of the user during usage (Juran, 1974).

The problem of course is that this approach to quality is highly subjective because every user has a different view of quality. In reality we are dealing with perceived quality, which is not a totally reliable indicator of actual quality.

Manufacturing-based quality

Quality is conformance to requirements (Crosby, 1983).

Quality following this approach is considered entirely in terms of conformance to a previously set standards.

Value-based quality

Quality is exceeding what customers expect from the service (Zeithaml, Parasuraman and Berry, 1990).

The value based approach sees quality simply as a function of customer benefit relative to price or cost.

DIMENSIONS OF SERVICE QUALITY

Parasuraman, Zeithaml and Berry (1985) identified ten determinants of service that may relate to any service : reliability, responsiveness, competence, access, courtesy, communication, credibility, security, understanding/Knowing the customer, and tangibles.

Later, in 1988 these ten determinants were boiled down to five by the same authors : tangibles, reliability, responsiveness, assurance, and emphathy

Gr??nross (1988) has suggested six criteria, five of which is the same as those previously cited, and whereas the sixth adds an essential dimension which is recovery.

Reliability, responsiveness, assurance and empathy are business values that foster patronage and profitability. Likewise, corporate branding or imaging is increasingly becoming a vital point of success for companies. As such, the company that recognises the value of service quality not only ensures customer loyalty but also stands out in an increasingly competitive business environment.

THE IMPORTANCE AND IMPACT OF SERVICE QUALITY

Customers will always look for quality. Quality is one of the main drives of customer satisfaction. Therefore quality is a natural pursue for any organisation seeking a source of competitive advantage. However when you think about it a bit more, you start to realise that this oversimplifies what is a complex issue. For example, what is quality? Can every customer see it? If so, is it the same for every customer? How does it relate to the price paid or the value extracted from the service? In the case of physical goods which have a degree of standardisation and are able to be compare, these issues are complicated enough. When applied to service, where the product is heterogeneous, intangible, inseparable, perishable, and difficult to own, quality become very difficult to comprehend and even more difficult to implement and manage.

For any organisation, improving the quality of their service costs money and so they need to know where to focus resource to make the best impact. They need to understand the relationship between investment in service quality and the return on that investment, through profitability or loyalty for example. Put simply, most organisations are seeking to deliver the highest quality of service to the largest number of customers over the longest period of time at the lowest unit cost. For the customer, quality is perception and like most perceptions differs in subtle ways from objective reality. Before consumption, it is generally understood that customer perception is a function of their prior experience with the service or similar services, their individual opinion, reaction to other people’s opinions and communications such as advertising. Taken together these combine to generate expectation about the service performance. During consumption, customers react to service delivery events, such as the attitude of sales staff, the environment where the service is delivered, the involvement in service delivery, or the behaviour of other customers. Finally after consumption there is a process of reflection on the outcome, and assessment of the service, such as education or health services, in respect of its enduring value. These are just some of the issues which make the study and implementation of service quality intellectually and managerially challenging.

Given the problems of pursuing quality for a service organisation one might question whether it is worth the effort but service quality is not pursued as an outcome in its own right but because of its association with satisfaction and through this to profitability and customer retention. Current research has expanded the range of potential benefit from a high quality service to include:

‘ Creating competitive advantage by insulating customers from competitors. This is due to customer inertia. If the service delivered is perceived to be of equal or higher quality than that of competitors then there is no motivation for customers to defect regardless of poaching tactics.

‘ Lowering customer recruitment costs occurs due to positive word of mouth from existing customer who provide a free recruitment service for the organisations fortunate enough to have satisfied customers. Equally, by spending less on attracting new customers marketing expenditure can be directed at ensuring existing customers are happy.

‘ Promoting positive word of mouth and reputation occurs as customers talk the service to others. Customers regularly poll other people in their work and social networks about consumption experiences looking for re-assurance that their provider is as good as everyone else’s, looking for status associated with having found a better provider than others and looking for alternative suppliers if current businesses are not providing satisfaction.

‘ Improved financial performance is a natural corollary of increase customer loyalty, reduce customer recruitment spend and positive word of mouth.

‘ Reduced staff turnover although widely canvassed as only limited empirical support. However, the argument goes that as customer are more satisfied and less likely to complaint they also exhibit ‘helping’ behaviour and are more forgiving of service failure, and the extended time available through higher loyalty rates allows for more enduring service relationship.

These benefits represent substantial advantage to an organisation that can provide a service of quality. The problem of course is how to do it.

MODELS FOR UNDERSTANDING AND MEASURING SERVICE QUALITY

Various approaches have been developed for understanding and measuring service quality. Some examples are :

‘ The disconfirmation model (Oliver, 1980)

‘ The perceived quality model (Gr??nroos, 1982a, 1982b)

‘ The SERVQUAL model (Parasuraman, Zeithaml and Berry, 1988)

‘ The SixSigma designed by Motorola

While it would be desirable to review all the approaches to service quality we will focus upon those which have the greatest applicability and widest uses in business and academic circles. The models the researcher has chosen are:

‘ The disconfirmation model (Oliver, 1980)

‘ The SERVQUAL model (Parasuraman, Zeithaml and Berry, 1988)

The disconfirmation model (Oliver, 1980)

It is important to recognise that customers approach events, including purchases, with some expectation of what will occur. For example, if someone invites you to a party, you may not know what will happen precisely, but you will have some expectations of what will happen.

When we actually experience an event or service transaction, we understand it through our perception of what happened and we assess the situation. The service is relative to what we expected. We experience Positive Disconfirmation if what we experienced was better than expected, Confirmation if same as expected and Negative Disconfirmation if worse than expected. Because of the emphasis on differences between expectations and perceptions, this type of model is often referred to as a Disconfirmation Model.

The SERVQUAL model (Parasuraman, Zeithaml and Berry, 1988)

The SERVQUAL approach to service quality engineered the most profound shift in our understanding of both consumer and organisational responses to the problem of managing service quality. A consistent theme in the field of service quality is the problem of identifying what comprises a service in order to determine the dimensions of the service which customers used to assess quality. The SERVQUAL started by trying to develop a more comprehensive understanding of service quality dimensions. The original qualitative interviews produced a set of ten dimensions:

‘ Tangibles ‘ the appearance of physical facilities, equipment, personnel, etc.

‘ Reliability ‘ ability to perform the service dependably and accurately

‘ Responsiveness ‘ willingness to help customers

‘ Competence ‘ possession of the require skill/ knowledge to perform the service

‘ Courtesy ‘ politeness, respect, consideration and friendliness

‘ Credibility ‘ trustworthiness, believability and honesty

‘ Security ‘ freedom from danger

‘ Access ‘ approachability and ease of contact

‘ Communication ‘ keeping customers informed

‘ Understanding ‘ Making an effort to know customers

Later the ten dimensions were collapse into five. They are often referred to as the RATER dimensions :

Reliability ‘ dependability of service provider, accuracy of performance.

Assurance ‘ knowledge & courtesy of employees, ability to inspire trust & confidence.

Tangibles ??- including physical components of the service, e.g, seating, lighting and so on.

Empathy – caring, individualised attention the firm gives to its customers.

Responsiveness – promptness and helpfulness.

The SERVQUAL instrument is made up of 22 items that measure customer’s expectations and a corresponding set that measure customer’s perceptions of a service. It is based on the premise that service quality is the variance that arises by comparing customer’s expectation with what they perceive they got from a specific service provider in that sector (Parasuraman et al. 1988). They developed SERVQUAL with purpose of measuring customer’s perceptions of service quality along the five dimensions.

The Gap model of Service quality

The figure below shows the “GAP” model of service quality from Parasuraman et al. (Zeithaml & Bitner 1996). This model offers an integrated view of the consumer-company relationship. It is based on substantial research amongst a number of service providers. In common with the Gr??nroos model it shows the perception gap (Gap 5) and outlines contributory factors. In this case expected service is a function of word of mouth communication, personal need and past experience, and perceived service is a product of service delivery and external communications to consumers.

‘ Parasuraman et al. GAP model (Zeithaml 1996)

LIMITATION OF THE SERQUAL MODEL

Clearly, the SERVQUAL instrument has been extensively adopted by several academic researchers and practitioners worldwide to measure service quality. The previously mentioned academic research studies are examples of this. However, regardless of its extensive use, numerous theoretical, operational, conceptual, and empirical criticisms of the measurement instrument have been identified and mentioned (Buttle, 1996; Van Dyke et al., 1997, 1999; Ladhari, 2008).

Buttle (1996) identified several theoretical and operational criticisms of SERVQUAL. He argued that theoretically SERVQUAL is founded on the basis of an expectation-disconfirmation model instead of an attitudinal model. Moreover, it is not based on a well-known established economic, statistical, psychological theory or background. In terms of the gap analysis, there are a few supports that customers evaluate service quality on the basis of perception-minus-expectation scores. Furthermore, SERVQUAL stress and emphasise the process of service delivery rather than the endings and the outcomes of the service encounter. From an operational perspective, he stated that consumers evaluate service quality on the basis of standards other than expectations. Also, he argued that it is not possible to capture the changeability of each service quality dimension by four or five items.

Van Dyke et al. (1997, 1999) recognised a number of conceptual and empirical criticisms of SERVQUAL. Conceptually, they criticised using two different instruments for measuring two different concepts (perceptions and expectations) to measure a third concept (perceived service quality). Instead, they argued that direct measurement of perceived service quality is more reliable. Moreover, they argued on the uncertainty of the expectations construct as different definitions and views of the concept resulted from uncertainly defined concept. Empirically, they argued that SERVQUAL has a number of empirical problems including low reliability and unstable dimensionality.

Ladhari (2008) summarised a list of theoretical and empirical criticisms of the model. First, he argued that the use of gap scores is not the right method because of the lack of the support in literature to consumers evaluating service quality in terms of perception-minus-expectation. He stated that it has been recommended that service quality is more precisely and correctly evaluated by measuring only perceptions of quality. On the other hand, he mentioned that the concept expectation is not well defined and can be interpreted from different perspectives; as a result, the operationalisation of SERVQUAL may have different interpretations as well. In addition, he pointed out that previous research suggested using perception-only scores rather than gap scores for the overall assessment of service quality. Last but not least, he emphasised that previous research studies criticise SERVQUAL for its focus on the process of service delivery instead of the result and the outcome of service encounters.

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Performance personal essay help

Those who ever performed on stage could never forget their first time, as it is memorable for varied and numerous reasons, regardless of its being a successful or an embarrassing experience. However, for me, as a former dancer, the most memorable and powerful moment occurred before the actual performance. It was rather when I first entered the rehearsal room full of girls and boys of my age, evidently sharing the same feeling of excitement and anticipation of something new and compelling. From the very first moment, when our instructor made us sit in a circle on the floor and started to teach us a beautiful song from the hundreds of years old Hungarian village of M??ra to ease the tension and comfort us with his soft and calming voice, I knew that this was the group I belonged to with my whole heart. The steps, the motifs and other elements of movement we started to learn later that night along with the traditional folk music accompaniment made this feeling even deeper, and I knew that this room with the old wooden floor and the mirrors all around would be my second home. From that night on I have always felt that without the knowledge of this ethnic tradition in music and dance and the actual practicing of it, my ‘Hungarianness’ would not be round. Besides our unique language that can hardly be related to any other language in the world, this heritage makes me feel truly Hungarian.

I was drawn to this present project by my personal experience and the interest towards the ways in which the ethnic identity of cultural groups other than mine is articulated and formed through the preservation and recreation of traditional movement patterns. This paper is also inspired by the fascination I feel about dance, let it be ethnic, modern, concert, folk or classic. In addition, dances that combine elements from different genres, thereby representing various human categories, always bring great awe and provide the richest field of research in historic, social and aesthetic sense, and this is another reason why I chose to research into how Black tradition in dance ‘ African and Afro-Caribbean – contributed to the formation of African-American ethnic identity in the 20th century.

The universality of dance has long been recognized by scholars and artists, however for long dance was only considered from a theatrical and entertainment point of view. The comparative analysis of its different forms and its significance historically, sociologically, biologically and psychologically only emerged in the mid 20th century when it became the subject of interest to anthropologists, ethnologists and psychologists. This essay wishes to contribute to the field of dance research within the discipline of cultural studies by pointing to the social and artistic significance of dancer-anthropologist, Katherine Dunham’s Caribbean research.

Both the original recordings of Dunham’s fieldwork and her choreographies demonstrate the ways in which the elements of movement patterns produce cultural differences that contribute to the articulation and construction of Black ‘diaspora’ identity in dance. On the one hand, these dance pieces are a presentation of her fieldwork findings as a trained anthropologist and the preservation of a rich heritage; on the other hand, they are fascinating pieces of visual art by which, along with her own dance technique, she contributed to the Modern Dance idiom in the United States. Besides the fact that Katherine Dunham’s talent as dancer and choreographer was outstanding, her work seems to be the perfect choice to serve as primary source for my research, because between 1937 and 1945 Dunham established a ‘research-to-performance’ method to which her first dance company was exposed. She used this method of scholarly inquiry as a means to recreate the memory of regional dances among her dancers and a variety of audiences in North America and abroad.

As Anthea Kraut asserts Dunham’s work helps to illuminate how dancing bodies participate in historical change. It has widely been accepted that the body is the primary locus for construction of identity, thus dance studies has become a highly valued academic discipline. Placing dance forms and practices center of investigation of changing formulations of racial identity has historicized dance as a cultural practice.

In this thesis I read the Caribbean bodily movements and the choreographic pieces as social text to understand how social identities are signaled, formed and negotiated through dance, as well as to analyze how these social identities are codified in dance styles. My approach is based on Jane Desmond’s theory on movement style as an important mode of distinction between social groups.

In the first chapter I give a brief overview of the history of Dance Studies as a separate arena along with its main approaches and research methodology. I will argue that this palette can be extended to different methods that were established to serve analysis in Cultural Studies. I will indicate to what extent Erwin Panofsky’s three-tiered analysis is appropriate to close read dacne, as it was originally developed to analyze static pieces of art.

Chapter two discusses the problem of African-American dance in the framework of expressing black identity. Based on Desmond’s claim that movement and performance styles are denotative of social/ethnic relations by tracing the history of dance styles and their spread from one group to another, we can uncover ideologies attached to movement patterns.

Chapter three will put the theory in chapter one into practice. I will look at Katherine Dunham’s choreography, L’Ag’Ya to isolate elements of black tradition ‘ African and Afro-Caribbean – and to explore how Black ‘diaspora’ identity is articulated through this choreography based on the Caribbean tradition. I adopt the analytical approach developed by Erwin Panofsky; specifically, his three-tiered method of analysis (iconology), in order to understand how certain movement patterns negotiate and construct African-American ethnic identity in L’Ag’Ya. The first stage is the ‘pre-iconographic’ interpretation , which is the perception of the work’s pure form without any added cultural knowledge. The secondary or ‘iconographical’ interpretation connects artistic motifs or groups of motifs identified generically in the pre-iconographic analysis with traditional themes and concepts. Finally, the tertiary level or ‘iconological’ interpretation considers social and cultural history. Knowing cultural history and background of different social groups and their distinctions is crucial for understanding the dance expression. I look at this piece not as isolated incidents but as evidence of a historical, cultural environment.

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Placement college essay help free

The Placement I chose was with The Garden Team, Sunbeam House Services (S.H.S), which is based off the Veveay Road, Bray, Co Wicklow .This location is a day service which provides a day centre facility to a number of adults with intellectual disabilities.

The S.H.S ethos and philosophy aim to empower people within their care with the necessary skills to live full and satisfying lives as equal citizens of their local communities. The Garden Team day service focus is on the individual, their growth, development and care. The individual is encouraged and empowered to pursue their goals, dreams and aspirations on an ongoing basis. The Sunbeam organisation, via The Garden Team, in partnership with the individual implement supports to facilitate realisation of their service users goals and aspirations.

A quality system known within the organisation as personal outcomes ensures that the organisation provides service to and for its service users based on the principles of basic assurances, shared values, responsive services and community life. The main role of this system is that the individual???s personal preferences are supported and their personal choices facilitated. S.H.S is also committed to forging links with other organisations in order to ensure their service users goals and aspirations are met.

My Role within this placement was to shadow existing staff, assist them with whatever activities they undertook with the service users attending the day service and interact with the same said service users as and when they attended this day service. This interaction required communication skills such as active listening and non-verbal communication. Social care practice requires me to participate in reinforcing daily social skills such as interpersonal greeting and adherence to social norms. This practice involved daily rituals around breakfast in the day service involving everyone attending the service, such as staff, students and service users greeting each other appropriately, catching up on what each other had done the previous night /weekend .This is an idea opportunity for the staff to touch base with some of the service users who come from troubled backgrounds and also to judge the mood of the service users and through this they can detect when there is an issue that may need to be resolved.

The Garden Team placement ethos is based on the work ethic, social norms and personal outcomes of the individual service user. This is to ensure that the service users both individually and as a group have daily, weekly and long term goals to work towards .The service users have a keyworker within The Garden Team their role is to assist the service user and support them to achieve their personal outcomes.

A long term goal for a service user might be their wish to live independently as they may currently be living in the family home or in a residential service, this long term goal would be broken up into shorter term goals such as budgeting, social skills, personal hygiene and personal shopping this would all take place of a period of time and with each new skill

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Universal healthcare college admission essay help

Universal healthcare it is a primary right or a privilege, It has many flaws in various countries and limited access to outrages expenses in MRI’s, long awaiting periods for surgical procedures. Many people have their care delayed and their medical condition gets much worse and can no longer receive treatment. In Germany healthcare is higher in taxes and have no problems receiving medical care. The French claim their salary is way lower as an employer and are required to pay in order to have national healthcare system and their care needed is always available. The American Journal of Public health confirms that 45,000 people die each year in the United States because of no Health Insurance. Yes, we have a right to healthcare.

Universal healthcare goal is to have people live in better health and protect from over charged care for medical hardships with billing. The uninsured are the main ones, who need Universal healthcare. People who make too, much money from working don’t qualify for Medicaid and end up with financial hardship and aren’t able to get the care needed for their health. The common issue for all universal healthcare programs is they need some form of government connection. The law determines what type of care is available and how the coverage will be paid. Many people choose to support the system known as a single payer health insurance. It’s when the government funds the healthcare and does not supply the care, Just like Medicare and Medicaid.

The poor people can’t afford healthcare and live in much worse environments and have more medical problems. We as Citizens of the United States have rights to Healthcare and our health is jeopardized by not being able to pay for insurance. People who work are struggling to pay for healthcare and have health conditions that need medical attention. Due to lack of work for health issue some people lose their jobs and are forced to file bankruptcy. This is why poor people are struggling in the economy and are forced to live in bad health. The right to healthcare should be a civil right. People should not be categorized by their illness and have financial problems paying for their medical treatments. Americans that are poor have bad health and one doctor visit can diagnose their condition before it leads to death.

Therefore, I am for our rights to have universal healthcare for people who need it and can’t afford insurance. This coverage will not only save peoples life and help us get out of debt with medical bills over charging major countries. It is funded through taxation and every day, we people could use this form of coverage I support the government in helping us as the economy to live healthier and longer with better care from universal healthcare coverage.

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Implementing Swifinet college admission essay help houston tx

ABSTRACT

Use of wireless sensor networks (WSN) has resulted in many revolutionary changes in human life. WSN has gain significant concentration from scientist and end users. ‘SWiFiNet’ is task distributed reusable system architecture. In this architecture complex functionality has been transfer to the second tire devices of the system. Second tire devices are provided with more resources. ‘SWiFiNet’ satisfy the desire architecture of the WSN. This paper aims to analyze various reusable wireless sensor networks and concept related to ‘SWiFiNet’. And it provides the existing architecture of ‘SWiFiNet’ and also the functionality of the component of the reusable network architecture. This paper also provides idea about the proposed ‘SWiFiNet’ which will be developed on IEEE 802.15.4 MAC/PHY layer which will be having more advantages over its counterparts.

Keywords:- WSN, SWiFiNet, Reusable architecture.

I. INTRODUCTION:

Use of wireless network is increasing in every field, day by day. WSN is extensively use where wired network cannot be deployed or is expensive to deploy. WSN opens many ways for research community to further enhance wireless communication efficiency and productivity. Many protocols and algorithms has been developed to addressed many kind of issues related to WSN. But most of these protocols and algorithms concentrate on routing, energy efficiency, reliability and congestion control.

No more research is done on creating some integrated network architecture that will make the implementation of any WSN application easy. It means to make the components of the WSN system reusable. The main focus of WSN is on creating more and more efficient wireless interfaces. The wireless sensor network generally developed for specific work. These work include climate reporting, military applications, fuel level indicator and many more. While creating such system one has to start from the scratch and it becomes burdensome.

So, for all these difficulties, one solution is to create reusable WSN framework. This kind of framework is developed in ‘SWiFiNet’. It is a task distributed System Architecture for WSN.

This paper provides overview of ‘SWiFiNet’ and reusable architecture for WSN. In first section provided introduction about WSN and ‘SWiFiNet’. Second section provides related work regarding task distributed network architecture. Third section provides design goals of reusable architecture. Fourth section provides WSN architecture along with ‘SWiFiNet’ architecture comparison. Fifth and last part concludes the paper.

II. RELATED WORK

There has been attempts to make hierarchical task distributed reusable wireless sensor network architecture. Most of such proposals were developed using 802.11. The different applications related to reusable WSN architecture is as follows:-

ART wise gateway architecture was presented by Leel et al [4]. The architecture is two tire architecture. Tier one uses IEEE 802.15.4 and tire two uses 802.11. Linfeng develop Environmental adaptive Architecture model for wireless sensor network [5]. It was two tire architecture. The second tire was capable of adding number of nodes without affecting two tire architecture. ANGLE [5] architecture was develop for the health care applications. In this application authors claims that it can be reused for any other application.

Open and reconfigurable wireless sensor network has been proposed by Triantafyllidis. It was developed for pervasive health monitoring. Its main emphasis was on easy extension with additional sensor functionality. ZUMA [6] was developed for centralize smart phone platform which will interconnects all kinds of smart phone devices.

The ReWINS [3] research initiative is an attempt to advance such an end-to-end solution with support for incremental arrangement through a transparent lower layer implementation and control architecture and a user-friendly application interface.

Wireless Integrated Network Sensors or the WINS [7] project and NIMS project at University of California, Los Angeles is about ad-hoc wireless sensor network research dealing mainly with constructing micro-electronic mechanical sensors (MEMS) [8], effective circuit design, and design of self-organizing wireless network architecture. Though these projects have been successful in demonstrating a network of self-organized sensor wireless nodes, they seem to have a bias towards environmental and military applications. Also they use proprietary RF communication technology and hence the solutions are limiting for wide scale deployments in industries.

Motes and Smart Dust project [9] at University of California, Berkeley involved creating particularly low-cost micro-sensors, which can be suspended in air, buoyed by currents. Crossbow Inc. has commercialized the conclusion of this project. Here again the solution is limiting, as exclusive communication technologies have been used to achieve inter-device communication. Further, the focus has been on development of sensors and their communication rather than how the sensors will be integrated to form systems. This is generally termed as the ‘bottom-up’ approach, which may not be suitable for building complex systems.

Pico-Radio [10] ‘ A group headed by Jan Rabaey at University of California, Berkeley is trying to build an integrated wireless application interface called Sensor Network Service Platform. An attempt is to develop an interface that will abstract the sensor network and make it transparent to the application layer. A introductory draft describing the application interface has been recently released. They believe in a ‘top down approach’ (from control to sensor nodes) for building sensor networks which is probably more suitable for building complex systems.

Recently, there have been several work initiatives like TinyDB [11], Cornell’s Cougar etc. to develop a declarative SQL-like language to query sensors and define certain standard query services. Here the employment is sensor-interface specific and not a general or abstracted sensor networking platform. These query services can be implemented with ease on top of our (developed) wireless interface and sensor networking platform and can be made generic by extending them for other sensors.

Other research initiatives in this field include MIT’s ??AMPS, Columbia University’s INSIGNIA, Rice University’s Monarch. Though there have been a lot of research efforts in developing ad-hoc wireless networks, the focus has been on developing smart wireless sensor interfaces and not much attention has been paid to the actual application integration. Typical approach has been to develop powerful smart wireless interfaces, which supports the important features/requirements for a particular class of applications (like military, environment sensing or more focused applications like fuel-level control in automobiles). The result is a number of wireless interfaces appropriate for a certain class of application; but almost no interoperability between them. We believe that the deployment of wireless infrastructure in industries will occur in incremental stages and thus interoperability (between different sensor-networks) and extendibility (according to application needs) will form the basic requirements of any prospective solution. A prospective good solution would be an end-to-end solution, which is modular and extendable.

All of the above applications were the forward steps towards the making of reusable network architecture. From the comparison of the above all network architecture, it is clear that user of hierarchical network give advantage over flat network. And three tire architecture is also better for reusable WSN architecture.

EXISTING SYSTEM:-

‘SWiFiNet’ [1] is task distributed and reusable component architecture. The task layer hierarchical model of ‘SWiFiNet’ is as shown in the given figure. It follows hierarchical architecture comprising of Master node, router node and sensor node. The base layer is 802.15.4 MAC/PHY layer.

Table 1. Comparison between different reusable wireless sensor network applications

Sr. No Application/Project Purpose of Application/Project Limitations

1 ART gateway architecture To develop Hierarchical two tire architecture each tire having different base MAC/PHY The system is more complex due to different protocol in each layer.

2 EAWNA To develop tire two in such a way that adding more sensor dose no affect the architecture The focus is given more on second tire of architecture.

3 ANGEL For health care application. Claimed to be reusable Reusable for specific health care application

4 ReWins To develop such an end-to-end solution The main focus is given on industrial scenarios.

5 Wireless Integrated Network Sensor Building efficient circuit design, and design of self-organizing wireless network architecture These project seems to have bias towards environmental and military application

6 Motes and smart dust project Creating low cost micro sensor which can suspended in air The focus is on sensors rather how they will be integrated

7 Pico-Radio To make sensor network transparent to application layer Suitable for building complex systems only

8 TinyDB To develop declarative SQL-like language to query sensor Not a generic or abstracted sensor networking platform

.

The upper layer to this layer is DLL task layer. All the network communication is controlled by this layer. The functionality of different device component of the architecture is as given below:

Sensor node: The task of sensor node is restricted to sensing background and connecting the neighboring nodes or the master node. When the packet is handed over to any parent node, then it is the responsibility of the parent node to transfer the packet to the master node. In this node’s layer architecture, the network layer will have the addresses of the parent devices. It will be stored in the table. Two types of addresses are present in the table. First one is primary parent address and the other is secondary parent address. If primary address parent is not available then secondary parent address will be try by the node.

If network layer don’t contain any table then a ‘Hello’ packet request is broadcast into the network. Then the neighboring device will issue the join request. The join request will be accepted if the device meets LQI threshold criteria.

Router Node: – Router nodes are come in use when sensor nodes are not in the range of Master Node. Clustering is also possible using router node. In ‘SWiFiNet’ distributed architecture the functionality of the router node increased remarkably. The complex implementation of any application or protocol will be deployed on the second tire devices. The router node network layer also maintains the table containing entries of the parent devices to the router node. It can be router node again or router will send the information directly to the master node. Router nodes will generate join request if they receive hello packet request from any sensor node.

Master node: The complete topology information of the network is maintain by the master node. When there is queried transmission model, master node will generate query and send it in the network. Whenever the routing tables are updated in end nodes or router nodes will send the information to the master node.

Sensor node Router Node Master Node

Fig 1. Distributed architecture of ‘SWiFiNet’

III. PROPOSED MODEL:

The ‘SWiFiNet’ model developed [1] is successfully implemented on the hardware as the architecture of the ‘SWiFiNet’ is defined. But ns-2 simulation of ‘SWiFiNet’ is based on 802.11a. As the basic idea of MAC/PHY layer is to have 802.15.4 which will work more efficiently on the ‘SWiFiNet’ architecture. The architectural diagram [1] is as shown below:-

In many of the sensor network architecture the sensor nodes are based on the 802.11a, but in ‘SWiFiNet’ MAC/PHY layer is based on 802.15.4. It is having low bandwidth comparative to the 802.11a. As the ns-2 modulation of the architecture is done using 802.11a, we cannot compare the exact result of hardware simulation and the software simulation.

Dynamic source routing (DSR) has similar characteristics as of ‘SWiFiNet’. After comparing the hardware results [1] with DSR it is found that ‘SWiFiNet’ is having better performance against many parameters. Implementation of ‘SWiFiNet’ using ns-2 on 802.15.4 IEEE is not yet checked against other protocols and hardware results.

The software architecture [2] of the ‘SWiFiNet’ agent is as shown in figure 2. This diagram shows the network component simulation in ns-2. The devices can be identified by the variable passed from TCL script. 1 value represent master node. 2 value represent router node and 3 value represent sensor node.

Fig 2: Component simulation in ns-2

IV. Conclusion:-

The survey paper provides a detailed comparison and description of the well-known projects and applications which are developed from reusable architecture point of view. ‘SWiFiNet’ is basically a task distributed generic reusable architecture for WSN. The functionality of sensor node is reduced and has been transferred to the second tire devices like router node. By doing so sensor nodes are restricted to gather information and connecting to neighboring nodes. As time synchronization overhead is not present the lifetime of the network increase.

This reusable architecture can be used for various range of applications and can be configured accordingly. This paper gives proposed ‘SWiFiNet’ system which will be based on 802.15.4 IEEE standard and will be useful for researchers in many ways.

V. REFERENCES:

[1] A. H. Willig, J. H. Karowski, N. Baldus, H. Huebner, A., “The ANGEL WSN Architecture,” in Electronics, Circuits and Systems, 2007. ICECS 2007. 14th IEEE International Conference on, 2007, pp. 633-636.

[2] A. W. Rohankar, Mrinal K. Naskar, Amitava Mukharjee, ‘SWiFiNet’: Task Distributed System Architecture for WSN’ in IJACSA Special Issue on Selected Papers from International Conference & Workshop On Advance Computing 2013.

[3] A. W. Rohankar, Mrinal K. Naskar, Amitava Mukharjee, ‘A step towards reusable WSN architecture’, International Journal of Research and Reviews in Wireless Sensor Networks (IJRRWSN) vol. Vol. 2, 2012.

[4] B. S. P. Harish Ramamurthy, Rajit Gadh, “Reconfigurable Wireless Interface for Networking Sensors (ReWINS),” in proceeding of the 9th IFIP International Conference on Personal Wireless Communications (PWC 2004), 2004.

[5] J. C. Leal, A. Alves, M. Koubaa, A., “On a IEEE 802.15.4/ZigBee to IEEE 802.11 gateway for the ART-WiSe architecture,” in Emerging Technologies and Factory Automation, 2007. ETFA. IEEE Conference on, 2007, pp. 1388-1391.

[6] L. Linfeng, “Research on Environment-Adaptive Architecture Model of Wireless Sensor Networks,” in Networks Security Wireless Communications and Trusted Computing (NSWCTC), 2010 Second International Conference on, 2010, pp. 130-133.

[7] M. N. K. V. G. Soini, J. Rabaey, J. M. Sydanheimo, L. T., “Beyond Sensor Networks: ZUMA Middleware,” in Wireless Communications and Networking Conference, 2007.WCNC 2007. IEEE, 2007, pp. 4318-4323.

[8] Micro-Adaptive Multi-domain Power-aware Sensors (??AMPS) project at University of California, Berkeley, URL: http://www-mtl.mit.edu/research/icsystems/uamps/

[9] Pico-Radio project at University of California, Berkeley,URL:http://bwrc.eecs.berkeley.edu/Research/Pico_Radio/

[10] Smart Dust and motes project at University of California, Berkeley, URL: http://robotics.eecs.berkeley.edu/~pister/SmartDust/

[11] ] TinyDB project at University of California, Berkeley, URL: http://telegraph.cs.berkeley.edu/tinydb

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The Relationship between Manager Assertiveness and having to tell Employees Exactly What to Do online essay help

Not only is it important to tell workers exactly what to do by being direct, but it is of an equal importance to be assertive with them. If a manager is too passive with his or her employees, it may lead to a managerial mess, as many workers constantly try to test managers’ boundaries.

One of the main reasons as to why employees end up misbehaving in the workplace is primarily because they are not managed correctly, and those who are in authority allow them to get that way. When it comes to being a manager, you shouldn’t expect employees to respect you on a personal level, but you should expect them to respect your authority on a professional level.

Managers should not only be consistently setting up new boundaries, but they should also be enforcing them. Without enforcing them, if an employee overpasses it and nothing is advised to him or her, they will think it is okay to continue to do so. How will they know that it is wrong unless you tell them? It is of an utmost importance to also advise them that you can’t tolerate it.

As a manager, to do their job they have the innate obligation to do only the things that is right for the company that he or she works for. This includes of setting the appropriate boundaries, and not exercising too much sympathy and empathy as it may cause the manager to get too involved with their personal lives. Otherwise, he or she may promote favoritism thereby causing other employees to be jealous. Although this may be true, there is no need to be overly rude and cold towards employees. Being assertive and setting boundaries doesn’t always mean one has to be disrespectful or even rude to their employees. The difference between an authoritarian manager who respects their employees and for managers who don’t differentiates the results of whether or not employees comply or commit themselves to work. In order to have them commit rather than only comply, it is important to be respectful while being assertive. When employees are willing to commit, they are more than likely to deliver work that exceeds a manager’s expectations. (Alexander Hamilton Institute, 2012)

The Importance for Managers to Be a Leader

When it comes to capabilities to effectively communicate with employees, good managers are able to sustain and encourage self-assurance, enthusiasm, and emotional stability while pursuing their day-to-day activities. The position of being a manager can, at times, be quite stressful and overwhelming, so the ideal manager should not let it get to them.

Why is this important when it comes to effectively advising employees as to what has to be done?

If managers aren’t able to maintain self-control of their emotions, then it is likely that they won’t be able to do well at leading employees. Managers are commonly seen as a workplace role model, so if their employees see them as unable to maintain control, it is likely the employees won’t either, thereby leading to decreased amounts of productivity.

Why Communication Is a Key Aspect for Managers

In order to ensure efficient productivity among employees, it is important for them to be able to effectively communicate with them. Moreover, they must also be able to report to higher managers regarding productivity statistics and the like. Not only will great managers be able to communicate well with employees to advise them what they have to do, but they will also be active listeners. Without being able to listen to an employee when he or she has questions about their job or what they have to do, it is likely that they won’t end up doing what they are supposed to do. Another important trait for managers is being able to get a message across without having to overly emphasize it verbally. They know how to implement non-verbal communication techniques such as body language in order to get an important message across to employees. (Melinda Hill Mendoza, n.d).

Common Traits of a Good Employee’ Where You Don’t Have to Be As Specific

There are various indicators that strongly determine whether or not if you have to be overly specific when trying to get an employee to do something. Here I’ve included some of the top traits when it comes to being an effective listener as an employee.

‘ Action Oriented: When you tell an employee to do something, and if he or she is action-oriented, you will see them do it right away’ no questions asked. Although sometimes their work may not be sufficient, most of the time they will provide great work with high levels of productivity. Also, when it comes to productivity, they usually get things done a lot sooner than employees who are stagnant.

‘ Intelligent: Intelligence is important for an employee to thoroughly understand what you want them to do without you having to be too specific with them. Not only that, but when you tell an intelligent employee what to do, most of the time they will do it perfectly correct. It is very rare for an employee who has high levels of intelligence to ask too many questions for additional specificity.

‘ Ambitious: Having an employee with ambition is important because they are well-known to come up with creative ideas that can bring the productivity of any company to the next level. So rather than spending extra time telling them exactly what they have to do, they will work right away, and by the time they are done they will provide you with a genius idea to do things quicker, and you may want to consider forwarding it to your boss.

‘ Autonomous: Employees with an autonomous trait are known to begin working on a project the second you explain to them what needs to be done. They are extremely independent and they require no ‘hand-holding’ whatsoever. This is an important trait, because as a manager, they have a lot of tasks on hand and they don’t want to be wasting it answering a hundred questions about completing a simple task.

‘ Confidence: It is more likely for an unconfident employee to ask questions about exactly what they need to do than a confident employee. This is primarily due to the fact that employees who are confident will trust there instinct on what they’ve heard from the manager, and they won’t second guess their initial impression. On the other hand, unconfident employees will lack their confidence in trusting their understanding, causing them to ask a lot of unnecessary questions.

‘ Leadership: After confidence comes leadership. When you are explaining a task to an employee with leadership skills, you will be confident that they will over-deliver on your expectations. They have the experience to not only deliver the job promptly without any questions ask, but they can set the bar higher in terms of quality and productivity.

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Learning Theory Behaviorism (Teori Pembelajaran Behaviorisme) persuasive essay help

2.0 Teori Pembelajaran Behaviorisme

Teori Behaviorisme merupakan satu pendekatan pemikiran yang menekankan peranan pengalaman dalam mengawal tingkah laku. Pengasas teori ini adalah J.B Watson yang popular dengan teori Little Albert. Namun, selain daripada J.B Watson terdapat tokoh lain yang turut mengkaji tentang teori ini. Mereka adalah Skinner, Thondike dan Pavlov. Teori pemerolehan bahasa Behavioris pada zaman sebelum ini lebih menekankan tingkah laku yang dapat dilihat sahaja. Bagi mereka perkara yang berlaku dalam otak manusia tidak dapat dikenalpasti. Mereka membuat analogi otak manusia sama seperti sebuah kotak hitam yang gelap. Oleh itu mereka tidak mementingkan peranan otak dalam pemerolehan bahasa.

Golongan mazhab ini menolak pendapat yang menghubungkan operasi kognitif dengan pemerolehan bahasa. Seseorang dianggap telah belajar sesuatu jika dia dapat menunjukkan perubahan perilakunya. Menurut teori ini dalam belajar yang penting adalah input yang berupa stimulus dan output yang berupa reaksi (respond). Stimulus adalah apa saja yang diberikan guru kepada pelajar, sedangkan respon berupa reaksi atau tanggapan pelajar terhadap stimulus yang diberikan oleh guru tersebut. Proses yang terjadi antara stimulus dan respon tidak penting untuk diperhatikan kerana tidak dapat diamati dan tidak dapat diukur. Yang dapat diamati adalah stimulus dan respon. Oleh sebab itu, apa yang diberikan oleh guru iaitu stimulus dan apa yang diterima oleh pelajar iaitu respon harus dapat diamati dan diukur. Teori ini mengutamakan pengukuran kerana pengukuran merupakan perkara yang penting untuk melihat terjadi atau tidak perubahan tingkah laku tersebut.

2.1 Teori Behaviorisme menurut J.B Watson

J.B Watson (1878-1958), seorang ahli psikologi di Amerika Syarikat, merupakan orang pertama mencipta istilah behaviorisme untuk menghuraikan tingkah laku manusia. Kajian banyak dipengaruhi oleh Teori Pelaziman Klasik Pavlov. Kajian beliau, yang terkenal ialah mengenai emosi kanak-kanak dengan menggunakan Model Pelaziman Klasik. Mengikut Watson, tingkah laku manusia merupakan reflex terlazim iaitu suatu gerak balas yang dipelajari melalui proses pelaziman klasik. Dengan kata lain, semua pembelajaran adalah pelaziman klasik Watson berpendapat gerakan-gerakan refleks yang mudah misalnya berkelip mata, bersin apabila hidung gatal dan sebarang tindakan yang dilakukan secara semulajadi adalah tingkah laku yang diwarisi dan tidak perlu dipelajari. Selain daripada tingkah laku, Watson pula menjalankan kajian tentang pembelajaran emosi semula jadi iaitu takut, marah, dan kasih saying. Emosi manusia atau perubahan dipelajari melalui proses pelaziman.

2.1.1 Implikasi Teori Pembelajaran J.B Watson

Menurut beliau, semua tingkah laku boleh dipelajari melalui proses pelaziman. Tingkah laku positif boleh diajarkan melalui ransangan yang sesuai. Seterusnya, untuk menguasai kemahiran menyelesaikan masalah, pelajar perlu belajar cara perhubungan gerak balas secara sistematik. Selain itu, teori ini memberi implikasi untuk mengukuhkan apa yang telah dipelajari dalam ingatan, latihan- latihan hendaklah dijalankan secara kerap. Dalam proses pengajaran,guru hendaklah menggunakan rasangan yang boleh memotivasikan murid untuk minat belajar dan mengelakkan pengunaan ransangan yang membawa kepada kesan negatif.

2.2 Teori Behaviorisme menurut Thorndike

Menurut Thorndike, belajar adalah proses interaksi antara stimulus dan respon. Stimulus adalah apa yang merangsang terjadinya aktiviti belajar seperti fikiran, perasaan, atau hal-hal lain yang dapat dikesan melalui pancaindera. Manakala, respon adalah reaksi yang muncul apabila peserta dididik ketika belajar, dan yang dapat pula adalah berupa fikiran, perasaan, gerakan atau tindakan. Jadi, perubahan tingkah laku akibat kegiatan belajar dapat dikategorikan sebagai konkrit, iaitu yang dapat diamati, atau tidak konkrit iaitu yang tidak dapat diamati. Meskipun aliran behaviorisme sangat mengutamakan pengukuran, tetapi tidak dapat menjelaskan bagaimana cara mengukur tingkah laku yang tidak dapat diamati. Teori Thorndike ini disebut pula dengan teori koneksionisme. Thorndike berjaya membentuk tiga hokum iaitu Hukum kesediaan, Hukum latihan, Hukum kesan. Hukum kesediaan merupakan keupayaan persiapan seseorang individu di dalam kendirinya untuk memulakan sesuatu aktiviti pembelajaran. Manakala hokum latihan pula menyatakan bahawa semakin byak latihan yang dijalankan semakin bertambah kukuh ikatan gerak balas yang tertentu dengan ransangan yang berkaitan. Hukum kesan menyatakan bahawa ikatan ransangan dengan gerak balas akan bertambah kukuh sekiranya individu memperolehi kesan yang memuaskan selepas gerak balasnya dihasilkan.

2.1.2 Implikasi Teori Pembelajaran Thorndike

Antara implikasi Teori Pembelajaran Thorndike ialah untuk meningkatkan tahap kesediaan belajar, guru harus menggunakan motivasi yang sesuai. Selain itu, ia juga dapat mengukuhkan pertalian antara ransangan dengan gerak balas pelajar dengan memperbanyak aktiviti latihan, ulangkaji, aplikasi serta pengukuhan dalam keadaan yang menyeronokkan. Seterusnya memberikan ganjaran atau peneguhan untuk respon antau gerak balas yang betul daripada pelajar. Memberi peluang kepada pelajar untuk menikmati kejayaan dalam pembelajaran mereka.

2.3 Teori Pembelajaran Behaviorisme Ivan Pavlov

Ivan Pavlov merupakan salah seorang daripada ahli teori Behavioris selain daripada Skinner, Thondike dan Watson. Beliau dilahirkan pada 14 September 1849 di Ryazan, Rusia Tengah. Beliau telah meninggal dunia pada 27 Februari 1936 di Leningrad Rusia ketika berusia 86 tahun. Ivan Pavlov merupakan ahli fisiologi, psikologi dan ahli fizik berbangsa Rusia. Sebagai seorang yang sangat mencintai bidang fisiologi beliau telah meminta seorang pelajar duduk di sebelah katilnya dan merekodkan perihal kematiannya. Beliau terkenal dengan orang pertama yang mendeskripsikan fonomena pelaziman klasik atau pelaziman responden. Teori pelaziman klasik adalah tentang tingkah laku pembelajaran yang telah dipelopori oleh Ivan Pavlov ( 1849-1936). Pada tahun 1980-an. Pavlov mengkaji fungsi pencernaan pada anjing dengan melakukan pemerhatian pada kelenjar air liur. Dengan cara itu, beliau dapat mengumpulkan, menyukat dan menganalisis air liur haiwan itu dan bagaimana ia dapat diberikan makanan pada keadaan yang berbeza. Beliau sedar anjing akan mengeluarkan air liur sebelum makanan sampai ke mulutnya dan mencari hubungan timbal balik antara air liur dengan aktiviti perut. Pavlov hendak melihat rangsangan luar dapat mempengaruhi proses ini. Oleh itu contoh paling awal dan terkenal bagi pelaziman klasik melibatkan pelaziman air liur pada anjing kajian Pavlov.

2.4 Teori Pembelajaran Behaviorisme B.F Skinner

Manakala menerusi B.F Skinner pula, beliau mengutarakan teori behaviorisme adalah teori. Menurut Nana Sudjana, 1990 pendekatan Skinner adalah operant conditioning, yang merupakan penerusan dan perluasan secara tepat dari hokum Thorndike. Ia mengakui adanya fenomena conditioning yang klasik dari Pavlov dalam perilaku manusia dan binatang, tetapi itu tidak dianggap terlalu penting.

2.4.1 Implikasi Teori Pembelajaran B.F Skinner

Sesuatu kemahiran atau teknik yang baru dipelajari hendaklah diberi peneguhan secara berterusan dan diikuti secara berkala supaya kemahiran atau teknik itu dapat dikukuhkan dan dikekalkan. Selain itu, penggunaan peneguhan positif yang membawa keseronokan adalah lebih berkesan daripada peneguhan negative yang membawa kesakitan. Seterusnya, prinsip penghapusan melalui proses pelaziman operan adalah sesuai digunakan untuk memodifikasikan tingkah laku pelajar yangtidak diingini, misalnya menghentikan peneguhan yang diberikan dahulu sama ada peneguhan positif atau negatif

2.5 Kelebihan teori pembelajaran behaviorisme

Kelebihan yang pertama yang kami perolehi melalui teori ini adalah teori ini sangat sesuai untuk melatih atau mendidik kanak-kanak yang masih memerlukan bantuan daripada orang dewasa di sekeliling mereka. Sebagai contoh kanak-kanak tadika memerlukan bimbingan dan perhatian yang khusus daripada orang di persekitarannya terutamanya guru-guru mereka kerana mereka mudah mengikuti apa yang diajar dan disuruh selain suka meniru perlakuan orang di sekelilingnya. Selain itu, mereka juga suka dengan bentuk-bentuk penghargaan yang diberi kepadanya seperti pujian dan melalui bentuk penghargaan tersebut ianya dapat membangkitkan semangat ingin belajar dalam diri mereka.

Kelebihan yang kedua adalah guru tidak perlu mengambil masa yang lama untuk memberi penerangan yang panjang tentang pembelajaran kepada murid-murid. Hal ini kerana murid-murid akan dibiasakan belajar dengan sendiri kecuali sekiranya murid menghadapi sesuatu masalah dan memerlukan penjelasan yang lebih daripada guru. Dalam hal ini guru perlu memberikan penerangan dengan jelas.

Selain daripada itu, teori ini juga menekankan kemahiran lisan berbanding kemahiran membaca dan menulis. Melalui aspek kemahiran lisan yang ditekankan dapat memberikan kelebihan kepada murid kerana aspek lisan iaitu mendengar dan bertutur penting dalam situasi harian murid. Boleh dikatakan bahawa kemahiran ini adalah kemahiran terkerap yang digunakan manusia untuk berkomunikasi antara satu sama lain.

2.6 Kelemahan Teori Behaviorisme

Dari segi kelemahan pula, penerapan teori behavioris yang kurang tepat dalam sesuatu situasi pembelajaran boleh mangakibatkan berlakunya proses pembelajaran yang tidak kondusif bagi murid-murid kerana pembelajaran berlaku dalam keadaan sehala dimana ianya berpusatkan kepada guru sahaja. Guru hanya mengajar dan melatih murid manakala murid hanya menerima apa yang diajar oleh guru mereka tanpa memberi sebarang maklum balas. Malah dalam teori pembelajaran ini murid berperanan sebagai pendengar dan mereka menghafal apa yang didengar dan dipandang sebagai cara belajar yang efektif. Penggunaan hukuman merupakan salah satu cara untuk guru mendisiplinkan murid dan hal ini akan mendatangkan akibat buruk kepada murid.

Kelemahan yang kedua ialah proses pembelajaran dikatakan kurang memberikan gerak balas yang bebas bagi pelajar untuk berinteraksi serta untuk mengembangkan idea. Hal ini kerana sistem pembelajaran tersebut lebih tertumpu kepada rangsangan dan gerak balas yang ditunjukkan. Sekiranya tiada rangsangan maka tindak balas tidak akan berlaku. Sebagai contoh, guru akan memberi rangsangan dalam bentuk hadiah dan daripada situ barulah murid akan memberikan jawapan yang dikehendaki oleh guru. Sekiranya perkara ini berlaku secara berterusan dikhuatiri murid akan terlalu bergantung terhadap rangsangan dari luar sedangkan murid harus memiliki rangsangan dari dalam diri mereka sendiri sebagai satu cara pembelajaran.

Kelemahan yang ketiga menurut teori ini adalah penambahan ilmu pengetahuan lebih tertumpu kepada buku teks. Hal ini kerana mereka belajar mengikut urutan kurikulum yang sangat ketat sehinggakan buku teks merupakan buku wajib dalam pembelajaran mereka malah mereka juga perlu dikehendaki memahami dan mempersembahkan kembali isi pembelajaran di dalam buku teks tersebut dengan baik. Hal ini boleh mendatangkan kesan buruk kepada pelajar kerana ilmu pengetahuan yang mereka peroleh tidak begitu berkembangan dengan hanya tertumpu kepada satu buah buku sahaja.

2.7 Implikasi teori pembelajaran behaviorisme

Yang pertama ialah guru perlu sedar bahawa kaitan antara rangsangan dan gerak balas boleh dilazimkan iaitu dipelajari. Sebagai contoh apabila guru ingin menyuruh murid-murid beratur ketika waktu rehat di kantin sekolah guru boleh mengaitkannya dengan cara untuk berjaya dalam kehidupan. Implikasi yang seterusnya ialah kaitan antara rangsangan dan gerak balasdapat dikukuhkan melalui latihan. Semakin kerap rangsangan itu dikaitkan dengan sesuatu gerak balas, semakin kukuh gerak balas terlazim itu. Sebagai contoh guru ingin murid-murid supaya tidak mengaitkan mata pelajaran matematik dengan kesukaran, dengan memberi mereka latihan- latihan yang mudah dan apabila mereka beransur mahir menyelesaikan masalah yang sukar maka guru bolehlah menukar aras pembelajaran kepada tahap yang sederhana sukar dan seterusnya ke aras pembelajaran yang sukar.

Di samping itu, dalam proses pembelajaran, generalisasi boleh berlaku. Ini bermakna perkara yang dipelajari dalam situasi A boleh dipindahkan ke situasi B. Sebagai contoh guru mata pelajaran sains mengaitkan kejadian pencemaran alam sekitar yang mengakibatkan kemusnahan alam semula jadi dengan kemusnahan alam yang berlaku seperti tsunami yang melanda Bandar Acheh.

faktor motivasi memainkan peranan yang penting bagi menghasilkan gerak balas yang diinginkan. Dalam hal ini pemberian ganjaran perlu diberi perhatian. Sebagai contoh ketika murid menjawab soalan yang diberikan oleh guru dengan betul maka guru boleh memberikan pujian kepadanya atau dengan memberikannya hadiah supaya pada waktu pembelajaran yang seterusnya pelajar tersebut akan lebih menumpukan perhatian di dalam kelas untuk memperoleh pujian yang diingini. Namun sekiranya pelajar tersebut tidak dapat menjawab soalan yang diberi maka guru perlulah membimbing pelajar tersebut supaya mereka tidak berasa terpinggir dan seterusnya dapat bersama-sama memahami tajuk pembelajaran pada ketika itu.

Selain itu juga, dalam proses pembelajaran tingkah laku yang dapat dilihat, diamati, diukur dan dikawal hendaklah diberi perhatian. Hal ini kerana melalui perubahan tingkah laku yang ditunjukkan oleh murid guru boleh mengambil sebarang tindakan sekiranya ianya di kesan lebih awal. Sebagai contoh sekiranya seseorang murid menunjukkan tingkah laku yang negatif seperti tidak faham tentang apa yang diajar oleh guru maka guru boleh membuat pemulihan terhadap dirinya. Dalam pembelajaran, penghapusan boleh berlaku jika peneguhan tidak diberikan. Ini bermakna, sekiranya sesuatu tingkahlaku tidak diperkukuhkan melalui ganjaran, tingkahlaku itu mungkin akan terhapus begitu sahaja. Konsep pemulihan serta-merta juga dapat membantu seseorang guru meningkatkan keberkesanan pembelajaran

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Research design writing an essay help

2.7 RESEARCH DESIGN USED :

The conception of research design plan is the critical step in the research process. The design ,of the study constitutes the blue print for the collection, measurement and analysis of data. In other words the research design is a conceptual structure with in which,h research is conducted.

2.8 DATA COLLECTION METHODS :

Primary Data: – Primary data are those data which are collected for the first time, and thus hap,pen to be original in character. It is extracted with the help of discussions co,nducted with senior managers with respect to factors affecting the performance.,

Secondary Data: – Secondary data are those data which are already collected by someone else ,and which have already passed through the statistical process. These data are g,athered by Books, Lectures, Notes, and Official Websites etc.

The study make,s extensive use of secondary data. ‘Secondary data are those which have already,y been passed through the statistical process’. The data which is pre-essential for ,this study relating to comparative analysis of Balance Sheet and PROFIT AND L,OSS A/c was based on secondary source of data. This data will be collected fro,m materials provided by Rakshitas Pvt. Ltd., discussions conducted with store m,anagers and some essential

Financial Accounts books.

2.9 LIMITATIONS :,

‘ Data provided is very limited due to the subjectivity of it being highly confidential.,

‘ The data taken for interpretation is for a limited period.

‘ Assumptions, are to be taken into consideration while doing analysis and interpretation, of data.

‘ Due to limited, information, depth analysis could not be made.

2.10 RESEARCH MEASURE TOOLS :

Various financial techniques and statistical tools are used to measure the data used in the study. Column graphs, pie chart etc. is used to highlight the statistical inference,s. The study cannot be completed without balance sheet and profit and loss a/c. ,Therefore three years balance sheet and profit & loss a/c has been taken out for ma,king proper research.

2.11 ANALYSIS OF DATA :

The data collected is secondary, and it’s compiled, classified, tabulated and then analyzed u,sing financial techniques and statistical tools. Graphs and charts are used to hig,hlight the statistics. Based on this data and analysis, inferences are drawn accor,dingly.

2.12 OVER VIEW OF THE CHAPTER :

The Project I,s Presented in the following chapter :-

CHAPTER 1 : INTRODUCTION

This chapter includes introduction to finance, theorectical back ground for the study of the ,various performance, introduction to finance, definition of retail industry and di,fferent type of industry.

CHAPTER 2 : DESIGN OF THE STUDY

This chapter I,ncludes the projects introduction of the subject background, statement of the, problem, objectives of the study, scope of the study, need and purpose of study,, research methodology, research design, data collection method primary and seco,ndary data, limitations, research measure tools and analysis of data.,

CHA,PTER 3 : PROFILE OF THE COMPANY

This c,hapter contains the profile of the company, its origin and background, board of directors, number of branches and organization structure.

CHAP,TER 4 : DATA ANALYSIS AND INTERPRETATION

This ch,apter consists of Table, Graphs, Analysis and Interpretation based on the question,nairies.

CHAPT,ER 5 : SUMMARY OF FINDINGS, CONCULSIONS AND RECOM,MENDATIONS

This chap,ter includes findings based on objectives of the study, conclusion drawn from the f,indings and recommendations given from the analysis.

Chapter:-3

PROFILE OF THE ORGANIZATION

COMPANY PROFILE

RAKSHITAS PVT.LTD.

Rakshitas business con,cept is to offer a broad and varied range of apparels that allows customers to fin,d their own personal style to choose from more than 150 remiums national and int,ernational brands.

Rakshitas is aimed at everyone in the family with an interest in modern basics, fashion, quality and affo,rdable pricing. Customers should always be able to find clothes and accessories ,at Rakshitas for every occasion. The collections are extensive and new arrivals, being launched week after week in each of the 4 floors spread across 20,000 s,q. ft. for Men, Women, Kids and Teen’s casual wear, formal wear, denim wea,r, ethnic and Kancheevaram silks etc. The range and collections are supplemen,ted by matching costume jewellery, premium international watches, perfumes, ,lingerie’s.

Mission

Our mission is to achieve excelle,nce in the products and services we offer, in the methods we employ and in the res,ult we produce.

Products

Menswear: menswear,r means clothing for men. Rakshitas provide various brands for menswear which ,includes formal shirts, casual shirts, trousers, jeans etc. of several variety of int,ernational as well as national brands, for example: -levis, pepe jeans, killer, lee, w,rangler etc.

Women’s wear: Women’s wear means ,clothing for women. Rakshitas provides the best options for women’s apparel rang,ing from skirts to ethnic, casuals as well as formals.

Kids wear: Kids wear are meant only for kids or children ranging below age of 12 years. Rakshitas provides awesome collection for kids which include children formal wear, kurtas, shirt,s etc.

Party wear: Party wear dresses are meant for wearing in parties, functions, special occasions etc. Rakshitas provides variety ranges of party wear which includes lehngas, wedding dresses, traditional indian dress etc.

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Control and organisational behaviour (pengendalian dan perilaku organisasi) college essay help free

PENGENDALIAN DAN PERILAKU ORGANISASI

PERILAKU ORGANISASI

Untuk membuat dasar yang nantinya dapat digunakan manajemen dalam menyusun system pengendalian manajemen, maka kita perlu mengetahui lebih dalam mengenai perilaku organisasi. Berikut ini adalah beberapa penjelasan mengenai teori akuntansi sebagai bentuk pemahaman terhadap organisasi.

Definisi Organisasi

Secara umum, organisasi diartikan sebagai sekumpulan orang yang melakukan kerjasama demi mencapai tujuan ‘ tujuan yang telah ditentukan bersama. Organisasi tercipta ketika orang ‘ orang bergabung dan melakukan sesuatu untuk berbagai tujuan dan organisasi dapat mencakup segala aspek dalam kehidupan. Organisasi dapat bersifat formal dan informal. Pekerjaan di dalam suatu organisasi dapat dibagi ‘ bagi dan dikoordinasi sesuai dengan kebutuhan dan keahlian tiap ‘tiap anggota organisasinya untuk mencapai tujuan organisasi tersebut. Suatu organisasi haruslah going concern, dalam arti organisasi tersebut diasumsikan akan hidup selamanya.

Teori Perilaku Organisasi (Theory of Organization Behaviour)

Ada beberapa teori yang menjelaskan mengenai mengapa dan bagaimana orang ‘ orang berperilaku dalam organisasi. Berikut ada dua penjelasan mengenai teori tersebut :

1. Teori jenjang kebutuhan

Teori ini menjelaskan bahwa setiap manusia memiliki kebutuhan yang banyak dan harus dipenuhi dan kebutuhan serta keinginan tersebut tersusun secara rapih, sehingga apabila ada satu kebutuhan terpenuhi maka setelah itu ia akan berusaha memenuhi kebutuhannnya yang lebih tinggi. Dalam teori ini tersirat bahwa system pengendalian manajemen juga didasarkan pada kebutuhan manusia yang terkoordinasi dan dilakukan sesuai dengan tujuan organisasi.

2. Teori motivasi pencapaian

Teori ini lebih mengacu pada perilaku atasan atau manajer dalam perannya saat berorganisasi. Untuk mencapai keberhasilan dan mendapat sebuah kekuasaan, maka manajer tersebut juga perlu memiliki keinginan yang kuat agar dapat menghasilkan prestasi dalam organisasi.

TEORI ORGANISASI

Pengetahuan yang dalam mengenai organisasi sangatlah diperlukan oleh para pelaku organisasi dalam pelaksanaan system pengendalian manajemen organisasi tersebut. Para pelaku organisasi harus benar ‘ benar mengetahui semua poin dalam organisasi termasuk sejarah organisasi, tujuan organisasi, bagaimana perilaku para pelakunya hingga reaksi organisasi tersebut terhadap lingkungan.

Tak berbeda dengan teori perilaku akuntansi, dalam teori organisasi juga terdapat banyak teori yang membahas mengenai organisasi. Dan disini akan dibahas mengenai dua teori juga tentang organisasi, yaitu :

1. Teori Organisasi yang Berorientasi ke Dalam

Banyak organisasi dianggap indepen dan tidak terlalu memperhatikan lingkungan luar oleh beberapa teori. Teori organisasi yang berorientasi ke dalam ini banyak dijadikan dasar oleh sebagian besar system pengendalian manajemen dalam suatu organisasi hal tersebut didasarkan karena dalam teori ini mencakup tanggung jawab dalam pengambilan keputusan yang berlaku menurut proyek ‘ proyek, program ‘ program serta komponen ‘ komponen fungsionalnya.

2. Teori Organisasi yang Berorientasi ke Luar

Teori ini adalah teori kebalikan dari teori sebelumnya yaitu teori organisasi yang berorientasi ke dalam. Teori ini beranggapan bahwa suatu organisasi selalu berhubungan dengan lingkungan di sekitarnya. Ada dua jenis organisasi yang menganut teori organisasi yang berorientasi keluar ini, yaitu :

– Organisasi system umum terbuka

– Organisasi system manajemen

TIPE ORGANISASI

Ada tiga jenis atau tipe organisasi, yaitu :

1. Organisasi Fungsional

Dalam tipe organisasi ini, penekanan lebih ditujukan kepada manajer yang sangat harus bertanggung jawab terhadap suatu fungsi tertentu, seperti fungsi produksi, fungsi pemasaran dan fungsi lainnya yang diterapkan dalam organisasi tersebut. Fungsi ‘ fungsi tersebut dapat dihimpun oleh fungsi yang lebih tinggi dalam organisasi itu juga. Organisasi ini berpotensi membuat efisiensi perusahaan yang lebih baik karena menggunakan masukan ‘ masukan dari manajerial yang lebih tinggi.

2. Organisasi Divisi

Dalam organisasi ini, semua manajer harus bertanggung jawab terhadap hamper keseluruhan fungsi dalam proses produksi serta distribusi lini pada organisasi tersebut. Orientasi organisasi divisi lebih terbuka yang berarti lebih menekankan bahwa para manajer harus peka terhadap pengaruh ‘ pengaruh yang dating dari luar yang mungkin dapat mempengaruhi kinerja organisasi.

3. Organisasi Matriks

Ada dua struktur organisasi dalam organisasi matriks, yaitu ditata berdasarkan fungsi dan ditata berdasarkan program. Pada organisasi matriks, para manajer bertanggung jawab penuh atas profitabilitas dari lini produk organisasi tersebut dimana proses produksi dilakukan oleh unit ‘ unit organisasi fungsional.

Teori Kemungkinan (Contingency Theory)

Untuk mengendalikan suatu manajemen menggunakan tiga macam pendekatan, antara lain :

1. Pendekatan tradisional

Pendekatan ini menekankan pada perencanaan, pendekatan dan pengendalian.

2. Pendekatan system

Pendekatan ini menekankan padapenggunaan sumber daya manusia sebagai pertimbangan dalam pengambilan keputusan.

3. Pendekatan perilaku

Pendekatan ini menekankan pada pengendalian manusia termasuk di dalamnya motivasi dan prediksi.

PERILAKU MANAJEMEN

Organisasi dan sistemnya yang rumit akan mempengaruhi perilaku manusia menjadi rumit pula.

Konsep Fundamental

Agar suatu organisasi ‘terkendali’ maka para anggota organisasi harus mengetahui dengan baik apa sebenarnya yang diinginkan oleh manajemen. Untuk merealisasikan hal tersebut, dapat menggunakan banyak informasi yang telah disediakan oleh manajemen organisasi seperti anggaran hingga kebijakan organisasi. Tujuan organisasi dibuat oleh para manajer senior dan dilaksanakan oleh manajer operasional untuk selanjutnya para manajer senior menerapkan system pengendalian manajemen untuk mengontrol organisasi tersebut.

Persepsi Tujuan

Para manajer operasional harus benar ‘ benar mengetahui apa tujuan organisasi. Para manajer operasional tersebut dapat secara mudah mendapatkan informasi ‘ informasi yang mereka butuhkan dari berbagai sumber baik dari dokumen maupun percakapan informal saja. System pengendalian manajemen yang efektif dapat menguatkan kepastian suatu perusahaan.

Organisasi Informal

Adanya organisasi informal di dalam organisasi formal sering menyebabkan adanya salah persepsi mengenai tindakan yang diharapkan. Hubungan pada organisasi informal tidak tercantum di dalam bagan organisasi, padahal hal tersebut cukup penting untuk pemahaman system pengendalian organisasi tersebut.

Motivasi

Reaksi pada pelaku organisasi terutama manajemen terhadap organisasi dapat berbeda tergantung pada motivasinya. Motivasi dapat bermacam ‘ macam, misalnya kenaikan gaji, promosi, pujian dan lain ‘ lain. Motivasi timbul dari dalam pribadi masing ‘ masing, tetapi motivasi dapat dipengaruhi oleh rangsangan dari lingkungan sekitarnya.

Keselarasan Tujuan (Goal Congruence)

Setiap manusia memiliki tujuan pribadi, begitu juga dengan organisasi yang juga memiliki tujuan bersama. Salah satu tugas penting system pengendalian adalah menyelaraskan kedua tujuan tersebut serta mencapainya demi mendapatkan kepuasan bersama. Semakin kuat hubungan antara tujuan pribadi dan tujuan organisasi, maka ssistem pengendalian organisasi tersebut akan semakin kuat juga.

Kerjasama dan Konflik

Suatu organisasi tidak akan berjalan dengan baik apabila para anggotanya tidak bekerjasama dengan baik secara terkoordinasi, untuk itu di dalam organisasi sangat dibutuhkan kerjasama yang terkoordinir dan selaras. Selain itu, organisasi juga harus menjaga koordinasi dan keselarasan tersebut agar tidak terjadi konflik yang dapat mengganggu kinerja organisasi. Konflik tersebut dapat terjadi karena berbagai alasan, salah satunya adalah dengan adanya persaingan didalam organisasi tersebut.

Iklim Organisasi (Organizational Climate)

Secara singkat, iklim organisasi dapat diartikan sebagai hasil kombinasi dari struktur formal dan struktur informal pada suatu organisasi. Dan menurut pemahaman saya iklim organisasi merupakan suasana di dalam organisasi dimana tiap pelaku organisasi di dalam organisasi saling membantu, saling menilai, dan memahami antara satu dengan yang lain. Iklim organisasi ikut mengambil bagian penting dalam organisasi. Keduanya saling mempengaruhi satu sama lain.

Tipe Pengendalian

Pelaku pengendalian Sumber arah pengendalian Macam ‘ macam Pengendalian

Ukuran prestasi dan tingkah laku Isyarat untuk tindak koreksi Imbalan untuk prestasi Hukuman untuk kegagalan

Organisasi formal Rencana organisasi, strategi, tanggapan atas persaingan Anggaran, biaya standar, target penjualan penyimpangan Penghargaan manajemen, insentif uang, promosi Minta penjelasan

Kelompok informal Keterikatan bersama cita’cita kelompok Norma-norma kelompok penyimpangan Pengakuan rekan, keanggotaan, kepemimpinan Ejekan, pengasingan, permusuhan

Perorangan Tujuan pribadi, aspirasi Harapan pribadi, target antara Dugaan akan kegagalan di masa yang akan dating, target tak tercapai Kepuasan karena ‘terkendali’ kegembiraan Merasa gagal

Sumber : Disarikan dari Gene W. Dalton dan Paul R. Lawrence, Motivation and Control in Organizations (Homewood, III. : Richard D. Irwin, 1971). Hak Cipta 1971 oleh Richard D. Irwin Inc.

Variasi dalam Pengendalian

Hakekat system pengendalian manajemen dibedakan menurut sifat pekerjaan, macam organisasi, lingkungan daan peran manajer. Berikut adalah tiga dimensi yang perlu diperhatikan dalam penggunaan dan pengembangan system pengendalian manajemen :

1. Besar keleluasaan manajemen

2. Besar interdependensi

3. Rentang waktu pelaksanaan

FUNGSI KONTROLER

Kontroler dapat diartikan sebagai petinggi atau pejabat yang bertanggung jawab atas apa yang telah direncanakan oleh organisasi dan bagaimana pengoperasiannya. Tanggung jawab para kontroler berbeda ‘ beda di tiap organisasi bahkan di tiap divisinya. Tanggung jawab kontroler didasarkan pada posisinya masing ‘ masing. Tanggung jawab tersebut dilaksanakan secara langsung. Selain tanggung jawab dalam perencanaan dan pengoperasian tersebut, berikut ini adalah fungsi lain dari kontroler :

a. Menyiapkan laporan kepada pihak pemerintah serta pihak ‘ pihak luar lainnya.

b. Mempersiapkan pengembalian pajak.

c. Mempersiapkan dan melakukan analisa terhadap laporan prestasi keuangan.

d. Membantu para manajer dengan cara melakukan analisa sertab menafsirkan laporan ‘ laporan tersebut.

e. Menggunakan prosedur pemeriksaan intern dan pengendalian akuntansi, memastikan validitas informasi, menetapkan usaha perlindungan yangcukup terhadap berbagai penyimpangan serta melakukan pemeriksaan operasional.

f. Melakukan pengembangan kepada orang ‘ orang yang ia pimpin serta berperan langsung dalam penambahan pengetahuan mengenai fungsi kontroler

g. Mengadakan manajemen kas, asuransi serta kegiatan ‘ kegiatan lainnya demi pengamanan kekayaan perusahaan.

Hubungan dengan Organisasi Lini

Kontroler juga memiliki hak untuk membuat kebijakan ‘ kebijakan dalam organisasi. Namun keputusan ‘ keputusan tersebut merupakan realisasi pelaksanaan kebijakan ‘ kebijakan yang telah dibuat oleh manajer lini. Dengan kata lain, terdapat keselarasan antara kedua belah pihak. Hal tersebut tentunya sangat baik untuk menjaga kelancaran jalannya organisasi tersebut.

Kontroler Divisi

Kebanyakan perusahaan atau organisasi membagi organisasinya tersebut menjadi beberapa divisi yang dikepalai oleh seorang manajer. Manajer divisi tentu juga memiliki kontroler divisi. Dalam hal ini, kontroler divisi harus patuh kepada manajer divisi dan juga kontroler perusahaan yang terkadang beda kepentingannya. Penilaian prestasi terhadap kontroler divisi dapat dilakukan dengan menilai beberapa poin, antara lain :

– Laporan akuntansi dan keuangan

– Pengetahuan mengenai operasi divisi

– Sasaran dan pelaksanaan kepatuhan terhadap kebijakan

– Kontribusi manajemen

– Pengetahuan terhadap akuntansi

– Kejujuran dan profesionalisme

– Kemauan bekerjasama

– Organisasi dan staf

– Inisiatif dan semangat

HUBUNGAN LINI-STAF

Seorang manajer divisi dapat dikatakan tidak memiliki staf maupun asisten pribadi. Manajer tersebut mendapatkan bantuan dari :

1. Tenaga yang ditugaskan untuk membantunya dari staf umum, insinyur serta petugas pembelian

2. Staf pusat yang dapat dimintai bantuan kapan saja sebanyak mungkin.

HUBUNGAN MANAJER DIVISI ‘ KONTROLER

Untuk mencapai kesuksesan organisasi dalam hubungannya dengan manajer divisi, maka organisasi perlu membina kerjasama yang baik dan solid di tiap ‘ tiap manajemen. Berikut merupakan beberapa factor yang dapat mempengaruhi hubungan baik adalah :

1. System akuntansi yang seragam dan terpusat

2. Sasaran ‘ saasaran keuangan yang telah ditetapkan sebelumnya untuk tiap ‘ tiap divisi.

(Pertumbuhan penjualan serta besar laba penjualan)

3. Pembagian laba antara kontroler dan manajer

SISTEM AKUNTANSI

Selain memiliki tanggung jawab dalam perencanaan dan pengoperasian organisasi, divisi kontroler juga memiliki kewenangan atas system akuntansi yang akan digunakan oleh organisasi tersebut termasuk di dalamnya menetapkan cara dan jenis pos ‘ pos yang harus mereka awasi. Sistem akuntansi dijadikan dasar dalam penyusunan laporan keuangan beserta analisisnya.

SASARAN ‘ SASARAN DIVISI

Seperti yang telah disebutkan pada bagian sebelumnya, perusahaan atau organisasi memiliki sasaran keuangan, yaitu pertumbuhan penjualan dan tingkat laba. Tingkat laba dalam organisasi atau perusahaan ditetapkan sebaga persentase penjualan. Berikut ini adalah beberapa factor penentu target laba penjualan :

1. Kemungkinan pematenan produk

2. Besar laba atas investasi yang diinginkan

3. Besar laba industry bersangkutan

4. Besar laba investasi bersangkutan

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Business notes: Creative problem solving melbourne essay help

1 Unit 1 – Creative problem solving

1.1 Introduction

A business leader is expected to identify problems, implement solutions and find business opportunities. To do so, they must learn to plan, analyse situations, identify and solve problems (or potential problems), make decisions, and set realistic and attainable goals for the business/unit. These are the fundamental thinking/creative requirements for leadership, and these set direction to a successful future. Without this critical competence, you will have to rely on others to do your thinking for you, or you will simply have to learn to nurture your creative thinking skills which will help you on your journey towards successful business.

Creative thinking forms part of this continuous problem solving process, and is the fundamental basis for facilitating in the development of solutions, new initiatives, products or services. In an entrepreneurial context, the end result of this process should be directly linked to a feasible opportunity in the market environment.

Quote – What lies behind us and what lies before us, are tiny matters, compared to what lies within us. – William Morrow

The creative problem solving process consists of the following four steps:

‘ Problem analysis

‘ Solution analysis

‘ Decision analysis

‘ Solution implementation

1.2 The process

The creative problem solving process consists of an important core process, namely the idea generation process see figure 1. This is an important step, especially if you need to come up with creative ideas for products, services, and processes, to solve a consumer problem. The idea generation process consists of the following four steps:

‘ Step 1 – Generating ideas

‘ Step 2 – Developing ideas into a concept

‘ Step 3 – Converting a concept into a tangible or intangible product

‘ Step 4 – Finally protecting the tangible or intangible product

Figure 1 – The process of creative thinking (idea generation)

Initially you need to understand the problem and find the root cause of the problem. Many techniques are available to find the causes of problems, you can use the 5 Why technique in this case, if you are familiar with it. The more advanced courses will describe how to use the major problem identification techniques, but this course will focus on the idea generation process.

1.3 Where to start

In the entrepreneurial phase, the best way to start the idea generation process is when you are required to come up with a new product or service, to identify a potential consumer problem. Initially, focus on identifying problems in the area of your expertise (your knowledge base).

If you have no knowledge of the problem, the product development stage could be a challenge for you.

You will learn in the next section that not all problems are opportunities, and entrepreneurs should be careful as to how they approach this stage, when generating ideas in trying to identify a new product or service.

1.4 Problem versus opportunity

In most cases, the idea-generation phase in the creative problem solving process is neglected. Individuals normally identify a problem or an opportunity (which may seem like an opportunity, but is actually just an idea), and then develop a new product in line with the new assumed idea or opportunity. It is therefore important to distinguish between an idea and an opportunity. Resources may be wasted if a mere idea is incorrectly perceived as an opportunity.

Any opportunity is initially problem based (e.g. a coffee shop in a destination where there is a lack thereof, this creates several problem situations and potentially feasible opportunities for the entrepreneur). The creative thinking (idea generation process) involved, is the means to solving these problems, and bring forth solutions to the market problems, which create further opportunities.

1.4.1 Difference between problem and opportunity

There is, however, a critical difference between a problem and opportunity. Consider the following:

‘ Is it an idea or an opportunity to develop a high speed train between two major cities which are not far from each other? Some may say it is a great idea, but when you need to pay R200 a day to make use of it, it is simply not an opportunity. Only a few people would make use of the service, resulting in a negative impact on the market.

‘ If it is possible to transport people between the two cities for a lower cost, say R10, it would possibly be a more feasible opportunity.

Here is a good example of an opportunity – Around the turn of the twentieth century, a shoe manufacturer sent a representative to Africa, to open up a market in the undeveloped area in that continent. After exploring the culture for a month, the rep sent a telegram to the home office shouting,

‘Disaster! Disaster! These people do not wear shoes. Bring me home immediately!’

A short time later, another shoe company sent their agent to Africa for the same purpose. A month later his home office also received a telegram:

‘Opportunity! Opportunity! These people do not wear shoes! Triple production immediately!’

Quote – Every situation contains the potential for disastrous problems or unprecedented success. The event is what we perceive it to be. Unknown

Now the question arises: How do I distinguish between an idea and an opportunity? Looking at above examples, every problem is not an opportunity, and it really depends at how you are looking at the problem. If you see a viable opportunity in a problem then you are looking at the problem with a different perception than most people (the glass is half full or half empty). From a business perspective all opportunities are not necessarily a viable opportunity, the market determines the available opportunities. Without the knowledge to interpret the market conditions, you could miss it totally in terms of your opportunity analysis.

Table 1 shows the different industries in South Africa, the level of entrepreneurial activity, and how the same opportunity differs in each of these market areas.

1.4.2 The global entrepreneurship monitor

The Global Entrepreneurship Monitor ‘ specifically identified the entrepreneurial activity in the various industries of South Africa. It can be generalized to state that an industry with a high level of entrepreneurial activity, gives away more business opportunities (e.g. manufacturing, retail, hotel, restaurant and business services), while one with a lower level will indicate far less opportunities (e.g. agriculture, forestry, hunting, fishing, finance, insurance, real estate and health, education and social services).

If we analyse just one ‘high-opportunity’ industry, for instance manufacturing, it may be an opportunity today to manufacture a final product, and export it to an international market. A ‘low-opportunity’ industry, for instance insurance (especially in the market entry phase), may be negative as having an extremely high crime rate and insurance companies have to pay out claims at an alarming rate. It is also evident that low-opportunity industries may create feasible opportunities.

An entrepreneur should therefore be wary of following a fad, (latest trend) and exploiting assumed opportunities in a ‘popular’ industry.

Percentage of Entrepreneurs

ISIC Category Start-ups New Firms Total

Agriculture, forestry, hunting, fishing 1,3 2,6 1,6

Mining, construction 9,7 5,0 4,1

Manufacturing 14,3 19,1 13,8

Transport, communications, utilities 9,8 0,7 8,0

Wholesale, motor vehicle sales, repairs 6,0 6,5 6,3

Retail, hotel, restaurant 40,8 47,7 43,5

Finance, insurance, real estate 0,3 5,2 1,4

Business services 10,1 7,9 9,4

Health, education, social services 2,6 0,7 2,3

Consumer services 11,0 3,5 9,7

Source: Driver. Wood, Segal & Herrington, 2001

Table 1 – The percentage of entrepreneurs in the different industries in South-Africa

1.4.3 What is an opportunity?

What exactly is an opportunity and how does an entrepreneur exploit a feasible opportunity? According to Hesrich & Peters (2002), an opportunity is the process whereby the entrepreneur assesses whether a certain product, service or process, will yield the necessary earnings based on the resource inputs that are required to manufacture and market it.

The nature of opportunities needs to be assessed – thus, what leads to the existence of an opportunity? The following factors may result in an opportunity:

‘ General and specific problems faced by consumers

‘ Market shifts

‘ Government regulations

‘ Competition

There are two equally important criteria in the assessment of an opportunity. Firstly, the size of the market – will the number of customers reward the input and energy required, to create and deliver the product?

Secondly, the length in terms of the frame of the opportunity (window of opportunity). For example, is the demand for this product only a short fashionable phenomenon or is it based on sustainable business, or how long will it take before someone else (a competitor), to grab the opportunity?

These two aspects should also link directly to the personal skills and competence of the entrepreneur. For example, entrepreneurs with no skills or interest in information technology will not necessarily achieve their personal goals. They should rather venture into an opportunity which suits their experience and personality.

1.4.4 Transform opportunity into a business

Table 2 shows how the development of a business plan links to the identification and evaluation of opportunities, the determination of the resources required and the eventual management of the enterprise. All of these factors play a significant role in the correct assessment of the business opportunity.

This means that the business plan must explain in sufficient detail how the business will exploit the situation, to transform the opportunity, into solving a problem for the consumer, which generates extraordinary profits for the people involved.

Identify and evaluate the opportunity Develop the business plan Determine the resources needed Manage the enterprise

Creation and length of opportunity

Real and perceived value of opportunity

Risk and returns of opportunity

Opportunity versus skills and goals

Competitive situation Title page

Table of contents

Executive summary

Description of business

Description of industry

Marketing plan

Financial plan

Production plan

Organisational plan

Operational plan

Summary

Appendices Existing resources of the entrepreneur

Resource gap and available supplies

Access to needed resources Management style

Key variables for success

Identification of problems and potential problems

Implementation of control systems

Source: Hisrich, R.D. & Peters, M.P. 2002: 40. Entrepreneurship. Boston: Irwin/McGraw-Hill.

Table 2 – Link between Opportunity and business plan

1.5 Instruction

Exit and resume to your current page.

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The importance of employee engagement in an organization personal essay help

1.4 Literature Review

Mark Kilsby and Stephen Beyer (1996) ‘ Engagement and Interaction : A comparison between supported employment and acts’. This research study was conducted with the help of interaction and commitment patterns of 13 supported employees and 38 regular adult training center attainders of the organization. Direct observation was used as method of data collection, within the 13 employment sites and a representative sample of ATC organized activities. Because of the higher level of task specific dialogue between individuals and the service of the organization it is found that there is more of social interaction in ACT. Interaction of employees with public within office hours was the cause for this as per the study conducted.

Douglas R. May, Richard L, Gilson and Lynn M . Harter (2004) ‘The Psychological Conditions Of Meaningfulness ,Safety And Availability And The Engagement Of The Human Spirit At Work’. This shows the study about a U.S western company which explored the determinants and mediated the effects of tree psychological conditions they are meaningful, safe and available. The above studies shoes that all the three factors (meaningfulness, safety and availability) have a positive relation with the engagement of an employee in the organization. In other words they are completely associated with the psychological safety where as loyalty to co worker norms and self- consciousness are negatively related.

Despoina Xanthopaolou, Arnold B, Bakker, Evangelia Demerouti and Wilmar B.Schaufeli (2009) ‘Work Engagement And Financial Returns : A Diary Study On The Role Of The Job And Personal Resources’. The above study shows that how daily fluctuations in job can affect the level of personal resource , financial returns and work engagement. Different level of analysis revealed that day level job resources had an effect on work engagement through the day level personal resources. When there was a control for the general level of personal resources and organizational engagement Day level work engagement showed a positive way towards day level training, which in turn showed the financial returns.

Dan-Shang Wang and Chia ‘Chun Hsieh (2013) ‘The Effect Of Authentic Leadership On Employee Trust And Employee Engagement’ they have examined the genuine leadership on employee engagement through employee trust. They have collected data from 386 employees from top 1000 manufacturing companies and top 500 service companies in Taiwan. Hierarchical multiple regression was used to test the hypothesis on the employees. Later on the results shows that the consistency between the supervisors , words and actions as well as their moral perceptions are optimistically related to employee engagement , when only supervisors are consist between the words and actions in positively related employment trust. The study shows how employee engagement had a positive trust on employee. Employee trust has a partial link between authentic leadership and employee engagement.

Benjamin J.C, Yuan and Michael B.H. Lin (2012) ‘Transforming Employee Engagement Into Long-Term Customer Relationships: Evidence From Information Technology Salespeople In Taiwan’. This article shows that when information sales people in Taiwan have perceived more transformational leadership and they were more expected to show increased development in work engagement. Over a period of time it was found that increased development in work engagement influenced the increased customer relationship. It showed how employee engagement is indirectly co related with customer relationship.

Xander M.Bezuijen, Karen Van Dam, Peter T . Van Den Berg and Henk Thierry (2010) ‘How Leaders Stimulate Employee Learning : A Leader ‘ Member Exchange Approach’. This study investigated how the three factors as such as leader member exchange, goal setting, and feedback are related to employee engagement in the learning activities. Here, two different mechanisms were proposed , first one a mediating mechanism telling that leader member exchange shows specific leader behavior. The second one is it as a moderating mechanism , holding that leader member exchange will strengthen the effect of leader behavior from 7 organizations a sample of 1112 employees was taken , to measure the leader member exchange approach. 233 of the direct leaders answered that they find difficulty in rating employee engagement in learning activities.

Maureen F.Dollard and Arnold B. Bakker (2010) ‘Psychosocial Safety Climate As A Precursor To Conducive Work Environment , Psychological Health Problems , And Employee Engagement’. This article shows the gap between work psychology and psychosocial working condition. Where we construct a psychosocial working condition PSC. It explains how PSC influences the senior management in psychological working conditions and in psychological health and engagement. They use the job demand and resources as a frame work and uses a multi level thinking into their explanation

James R.Jones (2009) ‘Comparative Effects On Race/Ethnicity And Employee Engagement On Withdrawal Behavior’. This study have added knowledge on the basis of effects on employee attachment. In addition to that it provides more evidence on looking at all types of employees as a single entity which can lead to false results.

Shane Crabb ( 2011) ‘The Use Of Coaching Principles To Foster Employee Engagement’. The above article focuses on the human condition that leads to the happiness of fulfillment and flourishing of employee engagement. Where positive psychology results in so many questions from traditional psychological approaches .Which have mean to focus on a different model of human functioning with healing people fail. In another way positive psychology takes additional holistic approach to human life. Seeing the positive and negative aspects of context when establishing what is right , working and good of people.

Roberta A . Neault and Deidre A .Pickerel (2011) ‘Career Engagement : Bridging Career Counseling And Employee engagement’ . this article is showing that employee counselors helps individuals in maximizing their career engagement at any career stage of an individual. When you facilitate career engagement it contributes to employee engagement which employee are looking for. They even encourages others to use the career engagement and employee engagement models as vehicles to combine the employers to interest in engagement counselors to create interest in supporting the development of employee an motivate them to work.

2.1 Title: A Cross Sectional Study Of Employee Engagement In Apollo Hospitals.

2.2 Objectives:

1. To determine the level of Employee Engagement in Apollo Hospitals.

2. To identify the factors of Employee Engagement.

3. To analyze and suggest strategies for improvement.

2.3 Research Methodology:

I had adopted descriptive research design for the purpose of this

Survey on employee engagement. The primary data was collected from the 100 employees conveniently selected from Apollo Hospitals Bangalore, through structured questionnaire.

2.4 Limitations:

1) The survey was carried out for a sample sized of 100 working staff only.

2) Findings and suggestion of this research are applicable only to Apollo Hospitals.

3) As an fact finding study advanced statistical tools or analysis are not used.

Table 1.1 Weighted Average on Opportunities for growth

X 1 2 3 4 5

I have adequate opportunities for professional growth in this organization. (X1) 10 20 32 19 19

I receive the training I need to do my job well.(X2) 2 52 22 16 08

My manager is actively interested in my professional development and advancement.(X3) 32 21 12 18 17

My manager encourages and supports my development (X4) 08 10 40 18 24

I am encouraged to learn from my mistakes (X5) 52 23 16 04 05

My work is challenging, stimulating, and rewarding(X6) 28 14 33 16 09

X1 ?? XI X2 ?? X2 X3 ?? X3 X4 ?? X4 X5 ?? X5 X6 ?? X6

10 50 2 10 32 160 08 40 52 260 28 140

20 80 52 208 21 84 10 40 23 92 14 56

32 96 22 66 12 36 40 120 16 48 33 99

19 38 16 32 18 36 18 36 04 08 16 32

19 19 08 08 17 17 24 24 05 05 09 09

TOTAL 283 TOTAL 324 TOTAL 333 TOTAL 260 TOTAL 413 TOTAL 336

Table 1.2 Calculation Of Weighted Average on Opportunities for growth

283/100 2.83 324/100 3.24 333/100 3.33 260/100 2.60 413/100 4.13 336/100 3.36

RANKED 6 RANKED 4 RANKED 3 RANKED 5 RANKED 1 RANKED 2

Table 1.3 Showing The Rank Of Each Component of Opportunities for growth

INFERENCE

The above table shows that the employees are encouraged to learn from their mistakes that is 4.15 out of 5.the work is stimulating rewarding and challenging is ranked 2nd.the manager is actively interested in employees professional growth is

ranked 3rd.the level of opportunity for professional growth shows the least ranking.

Table 1.4: Showing Adequate Opportunities/ Professional growth

STRONGLY AGREED AGREED NEUTRAL DISAGREE STRONGLY DISAGREE TOTAL

10 20 32 19 19 100

Chart 1.1: Showing Adequate Opportunities/ Professional growth

Interpretation:

32% of the employees from the given population says that they have a neutral opportunity to grow where as 10 % stands in the outstanding category and 20% of them in good category. An equal no of employees disagree to the fact in the other hand that is 19% of the given population.

STRONGLY AGREED AGREED NEUTRAL DISAGREE STRONGLY DISAGREE TOTAL

2 52 22 16 8 100

Table 1.5: Showing Training

Chart 1.2: Showing Training

Interpretation:

In the given sample 52% of the employees agrees to the fact that they receive good training in order to do their job efficiently and 2% strongly agrees. where 22 % is neutral to the situation given.16 % of them do not get proper training they required to do their jobs and 8 % strongly disagree to it. It is clear that the organization is giving a proper training to employees to make their work effective.

Table 1.6: Showing Professional Development And Advancement

STRONGLY AGREED AGREED NEUTRAL DISAGREE STRONGLY DISAGREE TOTAL

32 21 12 18 17 100

Chart 1.3: Showing Professional Development And Advancement

Interpretation:

Most of the employees agree that their manager takes attention in their professional development steps. 32 % to 25 of the employees from the given sample have strongly agreed and agreed to it respectively. whereas 12 % is neutral to it . but 18% to 17% disagrees and says that they are not taken care in respective of their advancement in profession.

Table 1.7: Showing Encouragement And Support

STRONGLY AGREED AGREED NEUTRAL DISAGREE STRONGLY DISAGREE TOTAL

8 10 40 18 24 100

Chart 1.4: Showing Encouragement And Support

Interpretation:

From the above graph its clear that 40% of the employees neither agree or disagree that management encourage them or support them. 8% to 10% agrees that they have been supported by the management . but 18 % to 24 % disagree to the fact that management supports them .

Table 1.8: Showing Challenges, Stimulation And Reward

STRONGLY AGREED AGREED NEUTRAL DISAGREE STRONGLY DISAGREE TOTAL

52 23 16 4 5 100

Chart 1.5: Showing Challenges, Stimulation And Reward

Interpretation:

More than half , 52% of the employees states that they have a challenging stimulating and rewarding work. A very few of them disagree to it 4 % to 5% . and 23 % of them agrees t it there is a majority of people agreeing to it.

Table 1.9: Showing Encouragement

STRONGLY AGREED AGREED NEUTRAL DISAGREE STRONGLY DISAGREE TOTAL

28 14 33 16 9 100

Chart 1.6: Showing Encouragement

Interpretation:

There is a 28% of people agreeing to it. And 16 % to 9 % disagreeing to the fact that they are not encouraged to learn from their mistakes .

Table 1.10: Showing Weighted Average on Work/Life Balance; Stress and Work Pace

X 1 2 3 4 5

My manager understands the benefits of maintaining a balance between work and personal life. (X1) 02 13 08 48 29

My job does not cause unreasonable amounts of stress in my life. (X2) 30 13 08 48 29

The amount of work I am asked to do is reasonable. (X3) 40 20 12 14 14

I am able to satisfy both my job and family/personal responsibilities. (X4) 27 12 08 09 44

X1 ?? X1 X2 ?? X2 X3 ?? X3 X4 ?? X4

02 10 30 150 40 200 27 135

13 52 13 52 20 80 12 48

08 24 08 24 12 48 08 24

48 96 48 96 14 28 09 18

29 29 29 29 14 14 44 44

TOTAL 211 TOTAL 351 TOTAL 370 TOTAL 269

Table 1.11: Showing Calculation Of Weighted Average on Work/Life Balance; Stress and Work Pace

Table 1.12: Showing The Rank Of Each Component of Work/Life Balance; Stress And Work Pace

211/100 2.11 351/100 3.51 370/100 3.7 269/100 2.69

RANKED 4 RANKED 1 RANKED 2 RANKED 3

INFERRENCE

By analysing the given data using weighted average method that the level of stress reduced in the employees is 3.51 out of 4 , and the amount of work the employee is asked to do is 3.7. the employee is able to balance between family and personal responsibility is 2.69 . the managers understanding in the benefits and maintaining balance between work and personal life should be taken care because it is got only 2.11 which have least rank

STRONGLY AGREED AGREED NEUTRAL DISAGREE STRONGLY DISAGREE TOTAL

2 13 8 48 29 100

Table 1.13: Showing Work/Life Balance; Stress And Work Pace Balance Between Work And Personal Life

Chart 1.7: Showing Work/Life Balance; Stress And Work Pace Balance Between Work And Personal Life

Interpretation:

Only 2% of the employees says that there is a balance between work life and personal life. 13% of them agrees to it and 8% is neutral to it.but 48% of the sample disagrees and 29 % of them strongly disagrees to it.

Table 1.14: Showing Stress Level In Employees Life

STRONGLY AGREED AGREED NEUTRAL DISAGREE STRONGLY DISAGREE TOTAL

30 13 8 48 29 100

Chart 1.8: Showing Stress Level In Employees Life

Interpretation:

30% of the employees strongly agrees that the job doesn’t cause much stress where 13% of them agrees and 8% is neutral to it. But 48%of them disagree nd 29% strongly disagrees and states that job causes stress in their life.

Table 1.15: Showing Amount Of Work Asked To Do

STRONGLY AGREED AGREED NEUTRAL DISAGREE STRONGLY DISAGREE TOTAL

40 20 12 14 14 100

Chart 1.9: Showing Amount Of Work Asked To Do

Interpretation:

40% of them strongly agrees that they have sufficient amount of work and they do not feel any stress where 20 % of them agrees. 12% of the sample is neutral.14% of them disagrees they don’t have suffient amount of work or they are overloaded with the work given.

Table 1.16: Showing Satisfying Family / Personal Responsibilities

STRONGLY AGREED AGREED NEUTRAL DISAGREE STRONGLY DISAGREE TOTAL

40 20 12 14 14 100

Chart 1.10: Showing Satisfying Family / Personal Responsibilities

Interpretation:

44% of them strongly disagree that they are not able to complete their job, family and personal responsibilities. 27 % to 12 % agrees to it and 8% is neutral to that. It shows that employees are not satisfied with the amount of work given to them.

Table 1.17: Showing Weighted Average on Personal Expression / Diversity

X 1 2 3 4 5

My ideas and opinions count at work. (X1) 03 18 19 32 28

I am comfortable sharing my opinions at work. (X2) 10 08 28 42 12

We work to attract, develop, and retain people with diverse backgrounds. (X3) 10 13 09 56 12

Senior management is genuinely interested in employee opinions and ideas. (X4) 24 23 36 07 10

People with different ideas are valued in this organization. (X5) 20 18 40 13 09

Table 1.18: Calculation Of Weighted Average on Personal Expression / Diversity

X1 ?? X1 X2 ?? X2 X3 ?? X3 X4 ?? X4 X5 ?? X5

3 15 10 50 10 50 24 120 20 100

18 72 08 32 13 52 23 92 18 72

19 57 28 84 09 27 36 108 40 120

32 64 42 84 56 112 07 14 13 26

28 26 12 12 12 12 10 10 09 09

TOTAL 234 TOTAL 262 TOTAL 253 TOTAL 344 TOTAL 327

234/100 2.34 262/100 2.62 253/100 2.53 344/100 3.44 327/100 3.27

RANKED 5 RANKED 3 RANKED 4 RANKED 1 RANKED 2

Table 1.19: Showing The Rank Of Each Component of Personal Expression / Diversity

INFERRENCE

By analysing the above table it shows that senior management is interested in personal opinions which shows the rank 1. And people with different ideas are valued in the organisation are considered 3.27 out of 5. Employees are free to share their ideas 2.62. the employees work in such a manner to attract and retain others 2.53 ,which has got the 4th rank. Ideas counted at work has got the least rank where they have to work on that part.

Table 1.20: Showing Idea And Opinion Count

STRONGLY AGREED AGREED NEUTRAL DISAGREE STRONGLY DISAGREE TOTAL

3 18 19 32 28 100

Chart 1.11: : Showing Idea And Opinion Count

Interpretation:

Only 3% of the employees agree that the management listens to their ideas and opinions. 18% of them agree to it as well. 19 % is neutral to the situation. Whereas there is a huge no of the sample size that is32% to 28% who is disagreeing to it. Their opinions and ideas are not taken seriously by the management.

Table 1.21: Showing Level Comfort in Sharing Opinions

STRONGLY AGREED AGREED NEUTRAL DISAGREE STRONGLY DISAGREE TOTAL

10 8 28 42 12 100

Chart 1.12 : Showing Level Comfort in Sharing Opinions

Interpretation:

The conducted shows that onl10% to 8% employees are comfortable in sharing their problems with the upper management. Rest of the sample that is 42% is disagreeing that they are not comfortable in sharing their ideas or problems.12% of them strongly disagrees.

Table 1.22: Showing The Work They Do Is To Attract , Develop And Retain

STRONGLY AGREED AGREED NEUTRAL DISAGREE STRONGLY DISAGREE TOTAL

10 13 9 56 12 100

Chart 1.13: Showing The Work They Do Is To Attract , Develop And Retain

Interpretation:

56% of the employees disagrees that they don’t work to attract ,develop or retain customers. Where 10% to 13% agrees to the statement . a little sample size of 12% strongly disagrees to the statement .

Table 1.23: Showing Senior Management Interest In Employee Opinion And Ideas

STRONGLY AGREED AGREED NEUTRAL DISAGREE STRONGLY DISAGREE TOTAL

24 23 26 7 10 100

Chart 1.14: Showing Senior Management Interest In Employee Opinion And Ideas

Interpretation

The management shows interest in taking employees ideas and opinions.24% of them agrees and 23% of the strongly agrees to the statement. A huge sample ,36% id neutral to the statement. But a little sample, 7% to 10% disagrees to the statement.

Table 1.24: Showing People With Different Ideas Are Valued

STRONGLY AGREED AGREED NEUTRAL DISAGREE STRONGLY DISAGREE TOTAL

20 18 40 13 9 100

Chart 1.15: Showing People With Different Ideas Are Valued

Interpretation:

20% to 18% of the employees agree that people with different ideas are well accepted in the organization. 40% to the employees are neutral to the statement. 13 % to 9% of the sample disagrees to the statement on the other hand.

Table 1.25: Showing Weighted Average On Compensation

X 1 2 3 4 5

I am paid fairly for the work I do. (X1) 19 42 12 25 2

My salary is competitive with similar jobs I might find elsewhere.(X2) 32 12 28 23 5

My benefits are comparable to those offered by other organizations.(X3) 8 29 28 32 3

I understand my benefit plan. (X4) 42 15 19 9 15

I am satisfied with my benefit package. (X5) 58 12 11 6 13

Table 1.26: Calculation Of Weighted Average On Compensation

X1 vX1 X2 ?? X2 X3 ?? X3 X4 ?? X4 X5 ?? X5

19 95 32 160 08 40 42 210 58 290

42 168 12 48 29 116 15 60 12 48

12 36 28 84 28 84 19 57 11 33

25 50 23 46 32 64 09 18 06 12

02 02 05 05 03 03 15 15 13 13

TOTAL 351 TOTAL 343 TOTAL 307 TOTAL 360 TOTAL 396

Table 1.27: Showing The Rank Of Each Component Of Compensation

351/100 3.51 343/100 3.43 307/100 3.07 360/100 3.60 396/100 3.96

RANKED 3 RANKED 4 RANKED 5 RANKED 2 RANKED 1

INFERENCES

The above table shows that the employees are satisfied with the benefit package they are given 3.96 out of 5.the employees understand their plan is 3.60. the fair pay is ranked 3rd.the employees salary is competitive with others is ranked 4th. The salary is not comparable with salary with others which has been ranked the least, rank 5.

Table 1.28: showing Fair Pay

STRONGLY AGREED AGREED NEUTRAL DISAGREE STRONGLY DISAGREE TOTAL

19 42 12 25 2 100

Chart 1.16: Showing Fair Pay

Interpretation:

19% to 42% of the Employees agree that they are paid fairly according to the amount of work they do. But 25% to 2% of the sample size disagrees to the statement. And 12% is neutral to it.

Table 1.29: Showing Salary Competitiveness

STRONGLY AGREED AGREED NEUTRAL DISAGREE STRONGLY DISAGREE TOTAL

32 12 28 23 5 100

Chart 1.17: Showing Salary Competitiveness

Interpretation:

32% of the employees agrees that they get a competitive salary when compared to other organizations with same designation. 12% of them strongly agrees to it .28% of them are neutral to the statement. 23% to 5% is disagrees to the statement in the other hand.

Table 1.30: Showing Comparability Of Benefits

STRONGLY AGREED AGREED NEUTRAL DISAGREE STRONGLY DISAGREE TOTAL

8 29 28 32 3 100

Chart 1.18: Showing Comparability Of Benefits

Interpretation:

There is balance, 29% of the employees agrees and 32 % of them strongly disagrees that they have a comparable benefits.28% of them are neutral in the other hand.

Table 1.31: Showing Understanding Of Benefit Plan

STRONGLY AGREED AGREED NEUTRAL DISAGREE STRONGLY DISAGREE TOTAL

42 15 19 9 15 100

Chart 1.19: Showing Understanding Of Benefit Plan

Interpretation:

42% of the employees agrees that they understand their benefit plan. 15% strongly agrees ,where 19% is neutral.9% to 15% disagrees to the fact and says they don’t understand the benefit plans they are given.

Table 1.32: Showing Satisfaction With Benefit Package

STRONGLY AGREED AGREED NEUTRAL DISAGREE STRONGLY DISAGREE TOTAL

58 12 11 6 13 100

Chart 1.20: Showing Satisfaction With Benefit Package

Interpretation:

58% of them are satisfied with their benefit package. 12% strongly agrees. Whereas little sample of 6% to 13% disagrees to the statement. Or they are not happy with their benefit package.11% is neutral to it.

Summary of Findings

‘ Most of the employee’s ability state the opinion firmly and positively is better than acceptable standards.

‘ Majority of the employee’s ability in exercising the professional duties without assistance is better than acceptable standard.

‘ The Emotional Stamina of the majority of the employees is better than acceptable standard.

‘ Majority of the Employee’s Ability to work co-operatively and collaboratively to achieve common goal is better than acceptable.

‘ Majority of the employees Ability to effectively guide a group through an appropriate process to help to achieve their desired outcomes is better than acceptable standard.

‘ Majority of the employee’s ability to clarify and establish with a group roles and responsibilities, common goal and plan to achieve them and group behavioural is outstanding.

‘ Majority of the employees Ability to deal with multiple issues and details, alertness and learning capacity is better than acceptable standard.

‘ Majority of the employee’s ability to see and think beyond the obvious and formulate original solution is better than acceptable standards.

‘ Majority of the employee’s ability to present ideas, concept, plan and procedure clearly to the target group is better than acceptable standard.

‘ Concern for excellence of the majority of the employee’s is better than acceptable standard.

‘ Majority of the employee’s Aware of what is going on in the workplace and responds in a suitable manner to situations as they is better than acceptable.

‘ The understanding between the top level and employees are in good terms.

‘ Employees do understand their benefits and opportunities given by the organisation.

‘ The employees are paid fairly according to the work done.

‘ Freedom of sharing new ideas and opinions are welcomed in the organisation.

‘ The employees are able to make a balance between personnel and work life. which reduces the amount of stress in them.

‘ The organisation encourages the employee to learn from their mistakes.

‘ Recommendations

‘ In this organization employee engagement study must be regularly done in order to check the level of employee effectiveness.

‘ Since many of the employees are performing different jobs to what they were doing at the time of their joining they need training to perform the new work allotted them.

‘ Different sources of employee engagement tactics must be encouraged in employees.

‘ The top management should support the lower level employees since it is considered a major hurdle in effective employee engagement and the employees must also be made aware of importance of engagement at work system

‘ The employees should be then and there motivated for work.

‘ The understanding between management and employees should be increased.

‘ Level of stress in work should be reduced.

‘ Better benefit package should be given to the employees.

Conclusion

In the report we have discussed the importance of employee engagement in an organization and how it affects the efficiency of work and productivity. Employment counselors should help individuals to maximize their career engagement at any stage of their career. Basically employee engagement should be a buzz word for the employee engagement and a positive attitude held by the employees towards the organization. Employee engagement is gaining its importance and popularity in work places and its impact in many ways. It emphasis on the importance of employee engagement in a organization, an organization should thus give more importance for its employees than any other variable as they are the powerful contributors to a company’s competitiveness. Thus it shows that employee engagement should be a continues process for learning, improvement, measurement and action of an employee.

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The limitations of the Chit Acts mba essay help

1.1 BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY

The financial system assumes strategically a very important role in channelling the funds from surplus units to deficit units. The financial system here refers to the group of institutions, markets and instruments which helps in formation of capital and thus accelerates to the pace of economic development.

The base of this study stems from the fact that there exists a gap between gross capital formation and gross domestic savings in India. So, there exists the need to augment the growth rate of voluntary domestic savings. This goal can be realized by widening and strengthening the working of different financial intermediaries which will result in mobilizing savings from various income level categories. .It is in this context that the role of the Non-Banking Financial Intermediaries like Chit Finance should be appreciated in supplementing the functions of the Banking Institutions.

Chit funds are Chit funds are the Indian equivalent of the Rotating Savings and Credit Associations (ROSCA). ROSCAs are famous in many parts of the world and is seen as an instrument to ‘save and borrow’ simultaneously. ROSCAs basically started as a way to help in fulfilling the needs of the low-income households as it enables the people to convert their small savings into lump sums. The concept of chit funds originated more than 1000 years ago. Initially it was in the form of an informal association of traders and households within communities, wherein the members contributed some money in return for an accumulated sum at the end of the tenure. Participation in Chit funds was mainly for the purpose of purchasing some property or, in other words, for ‘consumption’ purposes. However, in recent times, there have been tremendous alterations in the constitution and functioning of Chit funds. A significant difference between Chit Funds and ROSCAs are that in most places ROSCAs are user-owned and organized informally, but chit funds have been formally institutionalized in India. (Chit Funds-An innovative access to finance for low income households, 2009)

1.1.1 WHAT DO WE MEAN BY CHIT FUNDS?

Chit fund is a savings-cum-borrowing instrument. The basic aim of this instrument is to pool small amount of savings by all the members which is then managed by a foreman. The foreman has the responsibility to act as a trustee-cum-supervisors for the process of collection and allotment of the pooled amount.

Chit funds represent a traditional form of saving-cum-credit institution evolved before the bank system was introduced in rural India. There are many who avail themselves of this avenue for saving for a reasonable return.

1.1 NEED AND RATIONALE OF THE STUDY

Despite the growth of a wide range of savings avenues and the widespread network of banks and other financial institutions, it has been found that Chit scheme still forms an important part in the asset portfolio of many households and firms in India and especially in South India including Karnataka. Also, the review of literature shows that there are only a few studies on Chit Finance. Therefore, the need to conduct the study stems from the requirement to understand Chit Funds in Bangalore.

1.2 NEED TO CONDUCT THE STUDY

The research titled ‘A Study on Chit Funds in Bangalore to understand the behaviour and financial needs of the chit fund members as well as to identify the important predictors of regular participation in chit funds’ The study estimates the net returns and interest rate on Chit funds. This study tries to point out the limitations of the Chit Acts and suggests feasible recommendations for improving the working of such institutions.

.3.2 STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM

‘A Study on Chit Funds in Bangalore to understand the behaviour and financial needs of the chit fund members as well as to identify the important predictors of regular participation in chit funds’.

VARIABLES UNDER INVESTIGATION

1. Age

2. Occupation

3. Monthly income

4. Gender

5. Bank loan

6. Regular participation in chit fund

7. Membership in multiple chit schemes

8. Cause for participating in multiple schemes

9. Preferred avenue of saving

10. Preferred source of finance

11. Safety

12. Better service

13. Flexibility

14. Timely Payment

15. Low commission

16. Personal contact

17. Unregistered chit funds membership

18. Cause for participating in unregistered chit funds

19. Cause for not participating in unregistered chit fund

3.5 OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDY

3.5.1 OBJECTIVE(PRIMARY)

1. To understand the behaviour and financial needs of the chit fund members.

2. To identify the important predictors behind chit fund participation

3.5.2 OHER OBJECTIVES OF RESEARCH

1. To estimate interest rates in registered chit funds.

2. To compare the relative ratings of Chit subscribers towards registered and unregistered chit funds on

3. To estimate the return on Chit Funds.

3.6 HYPOTHESIS

There are two types of statistical hypotheses.

1. Null hypothesis

2. Alternative hypothesis.

Hypothesis 1:

H0: There is no significant relation between gender and cause for participation in chit fund.

H1: There is significant relation between gender and cause for participation in chit fund.

Hypothesis 2:

H0: There is no significant relation between occupation and cause for participation in chit fund.

H1: There is significant relation between occupation and cause for participation in chit fund.

Hypothesis 3:

H0: There is no significant relation between age and causes for participation in chit fund

H1: There is significant relation between age and cause for participation in chit fund

Hypothesis 4:

H0: There is no significant relation between monthly income and cause for participation in chit fund

H1: There is significant relation between monthly income and cause for participation in chit fund

Hypothesis 5:

H0: There is no significant relation between gender and causes for bidding in chit fund

H1: There is significant relation between gender and cause for bidding in chit fund

Hypothesis 6:

H0: There is no significant relation between occupation and cause for bidding in chit fund

H1: There is significant relation between occupation and cause for bidding in chit fund

Hypothesis 7:

H0: There is no significant relation between age and cause for bidding in chit fund

H1: There is significant relation between age and cause for bidding in chit fund

Hypothesis 8:

H0: There is no significant relation between monthly income and cause for bidding in chit fund

H1: There is significant relation between monthly income and cause for bidding in chit fund

Hypothesis 9:

H0: There is no significant relation between gender and cause for saving in chit fund

H1: There is significant relation between gender and cause for saving in chit fund

Hypothesis 10:

H0: There is no significant relation between occupation and cause for saving in chit fund.

H1: There is significant relation between occupation and cause for saving in chit fund.

Hypothesis 11:

H0: There is no significant relation between age and cause for saving in chit fund

H1: There is significant relation between age and cause for saving in chit fund

Hypothesis 12:

H0: There is no significant relation between having bank loan and membership in multiple chit schemes.

H1: There is significant relation between having bank loan and membership in multiple chit schemes.

Hypothesis 13:

H0: There is no significant relation between monthly income and participation in unregistered chit funds

H1: There is significant relation between monthly income and participation in unregistered chit funds

Hypothesis 14 :

H0: There is no significant relation between causes to prefer chit fund over bank and having bank loan.

H1: There is significant relation between causes to prefer chit fund over bank and having bank loan.

Hypothesis 15:

H0: Presence of safety, flexibility, timely payment, low commission, better service, personal contact, having a bank loan are no significant predictors of regular participation in chit fund.

H1: Presence of safety, flexibility, timely payment, low commission, better service, personal contact ,having a bank loan,are significant predictors of regular participation in chit fund.

.

3.8 SAMPLING METHOD

Members of four registered chit fund companies in Bangalore. The four registered chit fund companies were selected due to the large size of their subscriber base.

3.8.3 SIZE OF SAMPLE

150 respondents

3.9 MECHANISM OF STUDY

3.9.1 PRIMARY RESEARCH

Questions relating to behaviour and financial pattern will be found out through questionnares

3.9.2 SECONDARY RESEARCH

‘ Reports on chit fund industry

OVERVIEW OF INDIAN CHIT FUND INDUSTRY

4.1.1 NUMBER OF REGISTERED CHIT FUND COMPANIES:

According to the Ministry of Corporate Affairs, as on 31st December, 2013:

Volume of registered chit companies: 5412

Volume of chit companies in Karnataka: 703

Number of chit fund companies in Bangalore: 315

UNREGISTERED CHIT FUND INDUSTRY

Although unregistered chits are an informal source of finance but still they are a significant part of the chit fund industry. Though they are more easily accessible as compared to registered chit funds.

4.3 PURPOSE OF THE STUDY

The study titled ‘A Study on Chit Funds in Bangalore to understand the behaviour and financial needs of the chit fund members as well as to identify the important predictors of regular participation in chit funds’ attempt in The study estimates the net returns and interest rate on Chit funds. This study also examines the limitations of the Chit Acts and suggests suitable recommendations for improving the functioning of such institutions.

4.4 LIMITATION OF STUDY

‘ Unwillingness of the members to share their income and financial details made the task of data collection somewhat difficult.

‘ Collecting data became difficult since I don’t know the regional languages.

5.2 ANALYSIS OF DATA

The analysis is done on the primary data collected from 150 chit funds members in Bangalore

TESTING OF HYPOTHESES

5.4.1 Hypothesis 1:

H0: There is no significant relation between gender and cause for participation in chit fund.

H1: There is significant relation between gender and cause for participation in chit fund.

Chi-Square Tests

Value df Asymp. Sig. (2-sided)

Pearson Chi-Square 31.070a 16 .013

Likelihood Ratio 35.945 16 .003

Linear-by-Linear Association 8.809 1 .003

N of Valid Cases 150

a. 1 cells (10.0%) have expected count less than 5. The minimum expected count is .30.

Symmetric Measures

Value Approx. Sig.

Nominal by Nominal Phi .455 .013

Cramer’s V .228 .013

N of Valid Cases 150

a. Not assuming the null hypothesis.

b. Using the asymptotic standard error assuming the null hypothesis.

INTERPRETATION:

The value of chi-square=31.070 was p=.013, less than 0.05.

We can see that the strength of association between the variables is moderate (Phi and Cramer’s V -0.455).

Therefore, the research hypothesis that differences in ’cause to participate in chit funds’ are related to differences in ‘age” is supported by this analysis. This means that different age groups of the chit fund members have different reasons of participating in chit funds. As can be seen from the table above that those who belong to ’36-45 years’ have saving as the predominant reason to participate whereas members of other age groups do not have any dominant reason to participate.

5.4.2 Hypothesis 2:

Hypothesis 2:

H0: There is no significant relation between occupation and cause for participation in chit fund.

H1: There is significant relation between occupation and cause for participation in chit fund.

Hypothesis 3:

. Hypothesis 3:

H0: There is no significant relation between age and causes for participation in chit fund

H1: There is significant relation between age and cause for participation in chit fund

Chi-Square Tests

Value df Asymp. Sig. (2-sided)

Pearson Chi-Square 10.018a 4 .040

Likelihood Ratio 10.478 4 .033

Linear-by-Linear Association 6.876 1 .009

N of Valid Cases 150

Symmetric Measures

Value Approx. Sig.

Nominal by Nominal Phi .258 .040

Cramer’s V .258 .040

N of Valid Cases 150

a. Not assuming the null hypothesis.

a. Using the asymptotic standard error assuming the null hypothesis.

INTERPRETATION:

The value of chi-square=10.018 was p=.040, less than 0.05.

.We can see that the strength of association between the variables is weak (0.258)

Therefore, the research hypothesis that differences in ’cause to participate in chit funds’ are related to differences in ‘gender” is supported by this analysis. This means that males and females have different reasons of participating in chit funds. As it can be seen that males participate in chit funds for business and personal consumption purposes apart from saving whereas women predominantly participate to save.

5.4

Hypothesis 4:

H0: There is no significant relation between monthly income and cause for participation in chit fund

H1: There is significant relation between monthly income and cause for participation in chit fund

Chi-Square Tests

Value df Asymp. Sig. (2-sided)

Pearson Chi-Square 82.176a 12 .000

Likelihood Ratio 97.665 12 .000

Linear-by-Linear Association 15.696 1 .000

N of Valid Cases 150

Symmetric Measures

Value Approx. Sig.

Nominal by Nominal Phi .740 .000

Cramer’s V .427 .000

N of Valid Cases 150

INTERPRETATION:

We can see that the strength of association between the variables is strong (0.740)

Therefore, the research hypothesis that differences in ‘reason to participate in chit funds’ are related to differences in ‘occupation” is supported by this analysis. It can be seen that the self-employed members mainly participate to avail for business reasons whereas salaried employee participate mainly for personal consumption purposes.

Hypothesis 5:

Hypothesis 5:

H0: There is no significant relation between gender and causes for bidding in chit fund

H1: There is significant relation between gender and cause for bidding in chit fund

Chi-Square Tests

Value df Asymp. Sig. (2-sided)

Pearson Chi-Square 66.691a 20 .000

Likelihood Ratio 43.579 20 .002

Linear-by-Linear Association 4.804 1 .028

N of Valid Cases 150

a. 1 cell (10.0%) has expected count less than 5. The minimum expected count is .07.

Symmetric Measures

Value Approx. Sig.

Nominal by Nominal Phi .667 .000

Cramer’s V .333 .000

N of Valid Cases 150

a. Not assuming the null hypothesis.

b. Using the asymptotic standard error assuming the null hypothesis.

INTERPRETATION:

The (chi-square=66.691) was p=.000, less than 0.05.

We can see that the strength of association between the variables is moderately strong (0.667)

Therefore, the research hypothesis that differences in ’cause to bid in chit funds’ are related to differences in ‘age” is supported by this analysis. It can be seen that the members of age group’36-45 years’ are more interested in bidding for business related purposes where members of other age groups bid mainly for emergency needs.

5.4.6 Hypothesis 6:

. Hypothesis 6:

H0: There is no significant relation between occupation and cause for bidding in chit fund

H1: There is significant relation between occupation and cause for bidding in chit fund

Chi-Square Tests

Value df Asymp. Sig. (2-sided)

Pearson Chi-Square 7.167a 5 .209

Likelihood Ratio 7.885 5 .163

Linear-by-Linear Association 1.120 1 .290

N of Valid Cases 150

a. 5 cells (41.7%) have expected count less than 5. The minimum expected count is .81.

Symmetric Measures

Value Approx. Sig.

Nominal by Nominal Phi .219 .209

Cramer’s V .219 .209

N of Valid Cases 150

a. Not assuming the null hypothesis.

b. Using the asymptotic standard error assuming the null hypothesis.

INTERPRETATION:

The probability of the chi-square test statistic (chi-square=7.167) was p=.209, more than the alpha level of significance of 0.05.

Therefore, the research hypothesis that differences in ‘reason to bid in chit funds’ are related to differences in ‘gender” is not supported by this analysis.

5.4.7 Hypothesis 7:

Hypothesis 7:

H0: There is no significant relation between age and cause for bidding in chit fund

H1: There is significant relation between age and cause for bidding in chit fund

Chi-Square Tests

Value df Asymp. Sig. (2-sided)

Pearson Chi-Square 180.915a 15 .000

Likelihood Ratio 160.460 15 .000

Linear-by-Linear Association 28.379 1 .000

N of Valid Cases 150

a. 1 cell (10.0%) has expected count less than 5. The minimum expected count is .13.

Symmetric Measures

Value Approx. Sig.

Nominal by Nominal Phi 1.098 .000

Cramer’s V .634 .000

N of Valid Cases 150

INTERPRETATION:

The (chi-square=180.915) was p=.000, less than 0.05.

We can see that the strength of association between the variables is extremely strong (1.098)

Therefore, the research hypothesis that differences in’ are related to differences in ‘occupation” is supported by this analysis. It can be clearly seen that self-employed people bid in chit scheme mostly for business purposes, salaried people for emergency needs and housewives for household purposes.

5.4.8 Hypothesis 8:

Hypothesis 8:

H0: There is no significant relation between monthly income and cause for bidding in chit fund

H1: There is significant relation between monthly income and cause for bidding in chit fund

Chi-Square Tests

Value df Asymp. Sig. (2-sided)

Pearson Chi-Square 123.331a 35 .000

Likelihood Ratio 106.298 35 .000

Linear-by-Linear Association 4.957 1 .026

N of Valid Cases 150

INTERPRETATION:

The probability of the chi-square test statistic (chi-square=123.331) was p=.000, less than the alpha level of significance of 0.05.

We can see that the strength of association between the variables is extremely strong (.907)

Therefore, the research hypothesis that differences in ‘reason to bid in chit funds’ are related to differences in ‘income” is supported by this analysis. It can be clearly seen that low income members bid mostly for consumption reasons whereas higher income members bid for business related and emergency purposes.

SUMMARY:

Reason to bid in chit fund has the strongest association with the occupation of the chit fund members as the probability of the chi-square test statistic (chi-square=180.915) was p=.000 and the strength of association between the variables is extremely strong (1.098).

5.4.

Hypothesis 9:

H0: There is no significant relation between gender and cause for saving in chit fund

H1: There is significant relation between gender and cause for saving in chit fund

Chi-Square Tests

Value df Asymp. Sig. (2-sided)

Pearson Chi-Square 21.702a 16 .153

Likelihood Ratio 23.775 16 .095

Linear-by-Linear Association 2.397 1 .122

N of Valid Cases 150

INTERPRETATION:

The chi-square=123.331) was p=.153, more than 0.05. Therefore, the research hypothesis that differences in ’cause to save in chit funds’ are related to differences in ‘age” is not supported by this analysis.

5.4.10 Hypothesis 10:

H0: There is no significant relation between occupation and cause for saving in chit fund.

H1: There is significant relation between occupation and cause for saving in chit fund.

Chi-Square Tests

Value df Asymp. Sig. (2-sided)

Pearson Chi-Square 20.510a 4 .000

Likelihood Ratio 29.038 4 .000

Linear-by-Linear Association 7.062 1 .008

N of Valid Cases 150

a. 1 cell (10.0%) has expected count less than 5. The minimum expected count is .81.

Symmetric Measures

Value Approx. Sig.

Nominal by Nominal Phi .370 .000

Cramer’s V .370 .000

N of Valid Cases 150

a. Not assuming the null hypothesis.

b. Using the asymptotic standard error assuming the null hypothesis.

INTERPRETATION:

The chi-square=20.510) was p=.000, less than 0.05.

We can see that the strength of association between the variables is weak (.370).Therefore, the research hypothesis that differences in ’cause to save in chit funds’ are related to differences in ‘gender” is supported by this analysis.

5.4.11 Hypothesis 11:

Hypothesis 11:

H0: There is no significant relation between age and cause for saving in chit fund

H1: There is significant relation between age and cause for saving in chit fund

Chi-Square Tests

Value df Asymp. Sig. (2-sided)

Pearson Chi-Square 67.261a 12 .000

Likelihood Ratio 60.380 12 .000

Linear-by-Linear Association 9.507 1 .002

N of Valid Cases 150

a. 1 cell (10.0%) has expected count less than 5. The minimum expected count is .13.

Symmetric Measures

Value Approx. Sig.

Nominal by Nominal Phi .670 .000

Cramer’s V .387 .000

N of Valid Cases 150

INTERPRETATION:

The chi-square=67.261 was p=.000, less than 0.05.

We can see that the strength of association between the variables is moderately strong(.670).Therefore, the research hypothesis that differences in ‘reason to cause in chit funds’ are related to differences in ‘occupation” is supported by this analysis. Salaried people save their money in chit fund with no particular purpose. But self-employed people are equally interested in saving for house purchase as well as for general purpose.

SUMMARY:

chit fund is most closely associated with occupation of the chit fund members as it has the highest value of chi-square statistic and Phi coefficient.

5.4.12 Hypothesis 12:

Hypothesis 12:

H0: There is no significant relation between having bank loan and membership in multiple chit schemes.

H1: There is significant relation between having bank loan and membership in multiple chit schemes.

Chi-Square Tests

Value df Asymp. Sig. (2-sided)

Pearson Chi-Square 56.697a 3 .000

Likelihood Ratio 67.900 3 .000

Linear-by-Linear Association 36.400 1 .000

N of Valid Cases 150

INTERPRETATION:

The probability of the chi-square test statistic (chi-square=56.697) was p=.000, less than the alpha level of significance of 0.05.

We can see that the strength of association between the variables is strong (.615).

Therefore, the research hypothesis that differences in ‘membership in multiple chit schemes are related to differences in ‘having currently bank loan” is supported by this analysis. It is clearly evident that those members currently having bank loan have invested in only one chit scheme whereas those members who do not have availed bank loan have invested in more than one chit schemes.

5.4.13 Hypothesis 13:

Hypothesis 13:

H0: There is no significant relation between monthly income and participation in unregistered chit funds

H1: There is significant relation between monthly income and participation in unregistered chit funds

.

Chi-Square Tests

Value df Asymp. Sig. (2-sided)

Pearson Chi-Square 96.660a 7 .000

Likelihood Ratio 85.378 7 .000

Linear-by-Linear Association 59.577 1 .000

N of Valid Cases 150

a. 1 cell(10.0%) has expected count less than 5. The minimum expected count is 1.08.

INTERPRETATION:

The chi-square=96.660 was p=.000, less than 0.05.

We can see that the strength of association between the variables is extremely strong (.803).

Therefore, the research hypothesis that differences in ‘participation in unregistered chit funds’ are related to differences in ‘income” is supported by this analysis. It is clearly evident that mostly low- income members have participated in unregistered funds. This is because the registered funds have become expensive due to the increase in their operational cost as a result of stringent regulations.

5.2.14 Hypothesis 14 :

H0: There is no significant relation between causes to prefer chit fund over bank and having bank loan.

H1: There is significant relation between causes to prefer chit fund over bank and having bank loan

Chi-Square Tests

Value df Asymp. Sig. (2-sided)

Pearson Chi-Square 28.049a 5 .000

Likelihood Ratio 31.806 5 .000

Linear-by-Linear Association 2.967 1 .085

N of Valid Cases 150

a. 2 cells (15.0%) have expected count less than 5. The minimum expected count is 1.79.

Symmetric Measures

Value Approx. Sig.

Nominal by Nominal Phi .432 .000

Cramer’s V .432 .000

N of Valid Cases 150

INTERPRETATION:

The probability of the chi-square test statistic (chi-square=28.049) was p=.000, less than the alpha level of significance of 0.05.

We can see that the strength of association between the variables is moderate (.432).

Therefore, the research hypothesis that differences in ’cause to prefer chit fund over bank’ are related to differences in ‘having bank loan” is supported by this analysis. It is clearly evident that members who have bank loan have preferred chit fund over bank mainly due to better dividends. But those who do not have bank loan prefer chit fund over bank mainly due to better service in terms of more personalized service.)

5.2..15 Hypothesis 15: To identify significant predictors of regular participation in chit funds using Binary Logistic Regression

Hypothesis 15:

H0: Presence of safety, flexibility, timely payment, low commission, better service, personal contact, having a bank loan are no significant predictors of regular participation in chit fund.

H1: Presence of safety, flexibility, timely payment, low commission, better service, personal contact ,having a bank loan,are significant predictors of regular participation in chit fund.

Variables in the Equation

B S.E. Wald df Sig. Exp(B)

Step 0 Constant -1.046 .186 31.574 1 .000 .351

Model Summary

Step -2 Log likelihood Cox & Snell R Square Nagelkerke R Square

1 37.170a .533 .576

a. Estimation terminated at iteration number 6 because parameter estimates changed by less than .001.

Variables in the Equation

B S.E. Wald df Sig. Exp(B)

Step 1a bank_loan(1) 1.068 1.265 14.715 1 .000 11.720

reason_2 2.286 4 .683

reason_2(1) 1.336 1.077 1.540 1 .215 3.805

reason_2(2) .134 2.239 .004 1 .952 1.143

reason_2(3) -.559 1.896 .087 1 .768 .572

reason_2(4) .731 1.347 .294 1 .588 2.076

reason_3 4.874 5 .431

reason_3(1) 1.188 .924 1.652 1 .199 3.279

reason_3(2) 1.661 2.048 .658 1 .417 5.263

reason_3(3) -1.654 1.228 1.813 1 .178 .191

reason_3(4) .404 1.192 .115 1 .735 1.497

reason_3(5) -17.379 20.722 .000 1 .700 .000

reason_4 .355 4 .986

reason_4(1) -1.047 1.850 .320 1 .571 .351

reason_4(2) -.839 1.979 .180 1 .672 .432

reason_4(3) -.932 1.637 .324 1 .569 .394

reason_4(4) 3.519 4.199 .000 1 .600 3.746

reason_5 8.553 5 .128

reason_5(1) -.254 1.768 .021 1 .886 .776

reason_5(2) -19.245 9.890 .000 1 .999 .000

reason_5(3) 1.420 1.338 1.126 1 .289 4.136

reason_5(4) -.747 1.306 .327 1 .567 .474

reason_5(5) .561 1.342 .174 1 .676 1.752

B S.E. Wald df Sig. Exp(B)

Step 1a Safety -.075 .320 4.377 1 .011 0.928

Flexi -.178 .426 3.337 1 .021 0.837

commision -.185 .188 1.868 1 .026 0.831

payment -.267 .178 1.657 1 .097 0.766

service -.859 .412 1.348 1 .083 0.424

personal -1.122 .163 .996 1 .079 0.329

Constant 3.058 2.440 1.571 1 .010 21.291

a. Variable(s) entered on step 1: : bank_loan, reason_2, reason_3, reason_4, reason_5.imp1, imp2, imp3, imp4, imp5, imp6.

INTERPRETATION:

‘ -2 Log Likelihood statistic is 37.170. This statistic how poorly the model predicts the decisions — the smaller the statistic the better the model. Since, 37.170 is a relatively small number therefore, this model is able to predict the decisions in a better way.

‘ Here Cox & Snell R Square statistic indicates that 53.3% of the variation in the regular participation in chit funds is explained by the logistic model.

‘ In our case Nagelkerke R Square is 0.576, indicating a moderate relationship of 57.6 % between the predictors and the prediction.

‘ If it is less than .05 then, we will reject the null hypothesis and accept the alternative hypothesis.

‘ In this case, we can see that bank loan, safety, flexibility and low commission have contributed signi’cantly to the prediction of regular participation in chit funds but other variables are not significant predictors of regular participation in chit funds.

‘ Since only bank loan has p=.000, therefore we can say that bank loan is the most significant predictor

among other significant predictors. This is followed by safety (p=.011), flexibility (p=.021) and low commission (p=.026).

‘ Here, the EXP (B) bank loan is 11.727. Hence when bank loan is availed by one unit (one person) the odds ratio is 11 times as large and therefore people are 11 more times likely not to regularly participate in chit funds.

‘ Here, the EXP (B) with safety is .928. Hence when safety is increased by one percent the odds ratio is .928 times as large and therefore people are .928 more times likely to regularly participate in chit funds.

‘ Here, the EXP (B) flexibility is 837. Hence when flexibility is increased by one percent the odds ratio is .928 times as large and therefore people are .837 more times likely to regularly participate in chit funds.

‘ Here, the EXP (B) low commission is .831. Hence when flexibility is increased by one percent the odds ratio is .928 times as large and therefore people are .831 more times likely to regularly participate in chit funds.

SUMMARY

Bank loan is the most significant predictor of regular participation in chit funds. This is followed by safety, flexibility and low commission.

Instalment no No of months remaining Monthly subscription Prize amount PV of monthly subscription(PV of outlow at 10%) PV of Prize amount(PV of inflow at 10%) Net Present Value(PV of inflow – PV of outflow)

1 24 2000 50000 2000 50000 10444.9

2 23 1500 35000 1488.1 34723.1 -4832.0

3 22 1500 35000 1476.4 34448.4 -5106.7

4 21 1500 35000 1464.7 34175.9 -5379.2

5 20 1500 35000 1453.1 33905.5 -5649.6

6 19 1500 35000 1441.6 33637.3 -5917.8

7 18 1500 35000 1430.2 33371.2 -6183.9

8 17 1500 35000 1418.9 33107.2 -6447.9

9 16 1620 38000 1520.3 35660.6 -3894.5

10 15 1620 38000 1508.2 35378.5 -4176.6

11 14 1700 40000 1570.2 36945.9 -2609.2

12 13 1700 40000 1557.8 36653.6 -2901.5

13 12 1780 42000 1618.2 38181.8 -1373.3

14 11 1780 42000 1605.4 37879.8 -1675.3

15 10 1780 42000 1592.7 37580.1 -1975.0

16 9 1860 44000 1651.1 39058.2 -496.9

17 8 1860 44000 1638.0 38749.2 -805.9

18 7 1860 44000 1625.1 38442.6 -1112.5

19 6 1940 46000 1681.6 39872.1 317.0

20 5 1940 46000 1668.3 39556.6 1.5

21 4 1940 46000 1655.1 39243.7 -311.4

22 3 1940 46000 1642.0 38933.2 -621.8

23 2 1940 46000 1629.0 38625.2 -929.8

24 1 1940 46000 1616.1 38319.7 -1235.4

25 0 1940 46000 1603.3 38016.5 -1538.6

39555.1 934465.9 -54411.4

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Merit goods essay help app

Merit goods are goods which will be under-provided by the market, therefore they will be under-consumed. They are thought by the governments to be good for the populations and so the governments want them to be consumed to a great extent. They increase the private and social benefits and cause the social benefit be higher than the private one. The best examples of them, apart from all the public goods, can be the education, health care, sports facilities and the opera.

Although the majority of the merit goods is provided by the private sectors, not all the people can afford buying them, therefore they will be under-consumed. That is why the government is needed to destroy the market failure increasing the supply and consequently raising the consumption.

To explain the reasons for government to provide the merit goods, I need to apply some examples of them. The first one can be the education. It is significant for the governments to provide it so that the society would be well-educated. Governments determine the period of education required for people (the compulsory education) to maintain the proper level of education of the society. The governments find education an important aspect that should be available for everyone as it cause the whole country to have better both economic growth and economic development.

Considering another example such as health care, the situation is quite similar. The governments want to provide the population with it because they care about the high states of health of society in their country. To gain these, the countries need to have high quality of health care. Governments often offer people unpaid programs consisting of preventative medical examination which contribute to maintain the high number of healthy people. This is also connected with the problems of the labour market. The healthier people are, the more efficient their work is, the greater revenue firms have and countries are more developed because of taxations.

Other examples like sport facilities or the opera are meant for people to become physically and culturally developed but their availability is not as important as in the case of the previous examples. That is why they are not as much provided by the governments as the rest of the merit goods.

Although most of the merit goods provided by the governments are free, the fact is that they are paid through the taxes that the societies pay. The number of the merit goods of particular types that the governments provide or subsidize depends on the necessity of them. If they are provided, the societies’ benefits get higher and so is the public treasury of the countries.

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Research proposal: The effect of pregnancy on the adolescent pregnant teen & father college application essay help online

Abstract: The purpose for this research paper is to address the adolescent pregnant teen & father and the effects a pregnancy has on both of their lives during and after her pregnancy. How the teens need the support of the family, community, church, and the school system. I will also address the teen father mostly disregarded in any aspect of the teen’s pregnancy and how this affects him, and how both teens need support in our society. How we can address the social problem of teen pregnancy from all avenues.

‘Three issues that have an impact on the pregnant adolescent are discussed education, identity development, and maternal support’ (Turnage & Pharris, 2013). My research focuses on adolescent pregnant teen women 19 years old and younger. It will also reflect the problems of the teen pregnant adolescents journeying thru the process of becoming a teen mother, finishing high school, developing her own identity and the maternal support she gets from her mother during her transition from pregnant teen to motherhood.

‘Several issues that differently influence the pregnant teen is individually based on the female’s chronological age’ (Turnage & Pharris, 2013). ‘For the pregnant adolescent, her pregnancy supersedes high school graduation as the benchmark for her being viewed as an adult’ (Turnage & Pharris, 2013). ‘Failure to graduate high school is associated with poor social and educational outcomes for teen mothers and their children’ (Turnage & Pharris, 2013).

‘While the pregnant adolescent is defining who she is as a person she experiences a transition to the new identity of mother’ (Turnage & Pharris, 2013). ‘During her pregnancy the adolescent’s mother is seen as the primary source of support that contributes to a positive self-image and can assist her in the adapting to the role of parent’ (Turnage & Pharris, 2013).

My research paper will also show how important it is to support the teen during and after pregnancy. It addresses the need for the teen mothers to finish high school, and find her identity. How important it is to have the support system of her mother and family to achieve all of these things. Without these support systems, the pregnant adolescent could end up in poverty, no social skills, homeless and a host of other social problems for her and her baby.

Addressed and examined is teen motherhood and its long-term mental and physical health of the teen mother’ (Patel & Sen, 2012). They used a (PCS) health survey known as SF-12 NLSY79 a study that compared two major comparisons groups of which only teens who experienced teen pregnancy and girls who did not experience teen pregnancy. On average the survey for teen mothers was on average 50.89.

The study to access the health outcome of ‘two major comparison groups, which consisted of women who were only experienced teen pregnancy & women who were having unprotected sexual relation as a teen but did not become pregnant ‘ (Patel & Sen, 2012). Estimated is that teen mothers are more likely to have poor health later in life in the study of all the comparison groups.

Along with support, they desperately need help taking care of an infant as a teen; they need a support system to take notice of how they are managing their health & well-being so that they can be a successful teen parent. In addition, being a teen parent can affect the mother’s mentally as the pressure of being new teen mom can be stressful.

The teen mothers who marry after they give birth to their children statistics state that 30 % of them will not remain in their marriages into their 40’s. This result comes from teen adolescents in a single parent home raising their child. This can put a strain on the teen adolescent because she will financially have to seek support from her family or enter into the welfare system and suffer mental health issues.

‘Adolescent teen mothers identify social support with, parenting and emotional support primary emanating from family members, particularly their own mothers, as well as from the father of the baby (Savio Beers & Lee, 2009)’. ‘Older sisters may play an important role in the support network for adolescent mothers, the supportive sister relationships decrease depressive and anxiety-related symptoms in adolescent mothers (Savio Beers & Lee, 2009).

‘For some adolescent parents, participation in a religious community programs may provide the significant social support and serve as a protective factor’ (Savio Beers & Lee, 2009). This directly stresses the point that without the support of family, community, and church with the support of the father the adolescent teen mother can suffer mental issues, poverty issues, and marriage problems.

We addressed the many issues that teen mothers have to face, so now I would like to address the teen father in our society. What are their concerns on becoming a teen father, and how do they view their role as father where their masculinity is concerned? While most of the research done on teen pregnancy and parenting mainly focusing on the mother, the father is invisible.

Interviewed were 26 young teen fathers in the mid-western American towns. The in depth survey of three themes of gender discord focused on teen father narratives, which took on responsibility, sex, being a man, this is the direct viewpoint of the invisible teen father. What they feel about getting a teen girl pregnant and what responsibility they take in the pregnancy if any. How they relate to getting a teen pregnant and how that affects his identity as a man and their masculinity.

‘Gendered assumptions regarding pregnancy and contraception’specifically that women are in charge of preventing pregnancy and they have the belief that male sexuality is uncontrollable; and that use of love and intimacy talk (Weber, J. B., 2013). The teen fathers that took the questionnaire did not blame themselves for getting the teen girl pregnant. They see the teen’s pregnancy as her problem.

Studies suggest that teen fathers are more likely to be of a minority race. He has a mother who had a baby as a teen; his parents have a minimal education. His parents do not have high expectations of him finishing school; all of these factors result in the likelihood that makes him a candidate to becoming a teenage father. ‘The research states that the teen fathers go to school fewer years less than non-teenage fathers (Fletcher & Wolfe, 2011).

‘Evidence shows that men who have children before marriage leave school earlier and have worse labor markets outcomes’ (Fletcher & Wolfe, 2011). ‘Data was used only on young men who reported a pregnancy as an adolescent’ (Fletcher & Wolfe, 2011). It affects his completion of high school.

It also affects his ability to take care of the teen mother & baby, which causes him to drop out of school early. Statistically, ‘teen fathers work more hours and earn more money following the birth of a child then his non-parent counterparts’ (Fletcher & Wolfe, 2011). Teen fatherhood results in the teen father getting married early or co-habitation with the teen mother.

In conclusion, teen pregnancy is a social problem in the United States both teens will have to suffer in their education, grow up before their time, take on adult responsibilities, and suffer financial problems to take care of the child. Which ultimately falls on the parents of the teens, society or the welfare system in which the teen mother becomes a social statistic or shall I say a number.

Teen pregnancy as of 2014 have been on the decline in the United States and increased in other states, however a positive support system for both teens is minimal at best. Socially as communities, churches and government we have to take an active role in education of abstaining from sex, talking to the teens about sex, and protecting themselves against pregnancy.

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Reconnaissance attacks in IPv6 networks extended essay help biology

2.1.1 Reconnaissance attacks in IPv6 networks

The 1st larger attack in IPv6 is usually a reconnaissance attack. An attacker try reconnaissance attacks to get some confidential information about the victim network that can be misused by the attacker in further attacks. For this he uses active methods, such as scanning techniques or data mining strategies. To start, an intruder begins to ping the victim network to determine the IP addresses currently used in the victim network. After getting some of the accessible system, he starts to scan the port to find out any open port in the desired system. The size of subnet is bigger than that of the in IPv4 networks. To perform a scan for the whole subnet an attacker should make 264 probes and that???s impossible. With this fact, IPv6 networks are much more resistant to reconnaissance attacks than IPv4 networks. Unfortunately, there are some addresses which are multicast address in IPv6 networks that help an intruder to identify and attack some resources in the target network.

2.1.2 Security threats related to IPv6 routing headers

As per IPv6 protocol specification, all of the IPv6 nodes must be able to process routing headers. In fact, routing headers can be used to avoid access controls based on destination addresses. Such action can cause security effects. It may be happen that an attacker sends a packet to a publicly accessible address with a routing header containing a ???forbidden??? address on the victim network. In such matter the publicly accessible host will forward the packet to the destination address stated in the routing header even though that destination is already filtered before as a forbidden address. By spoofing packet source addresses an intruder can easily perform denial of service attack with use of any publicly accessible host for redirecting attack packets.

2.1.3 Fragmentation related security threats

As per IPv6 protocol specification, packet fragmentation by the intermediate nodes is not permitted. Since in IPv6 network based on ICMPv6 messages, the usage of the path MTU discovery method is a duty, packet fragmentation is only allowed at the source node.1280 octets is the minimal size of the MTU for IPv6 network. The packets with size less than 1280 octets to be discarded unless it???s the last packet in the flow as per security reasons. With use of fragmentation, an attacker can get that port numbers not found in the first fragment and thus they bypass security monitoring devices expecting to find transport layer protocol data in the very first fragment. An attacker will send a huge amount of small fragments and create an overload of reconstruction buffers on the victim system which resulted to the system crash. To prevent system from such attacks it???s necessary to bound the total number of fragments and their permissible arrival rate.

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WMBA 6000-13 Topic: Course Evaluation essay help site:edu

WMBA 6000-13

Topic: Course Evaluation

Date: March 2, 2014

Based on the assigned readings for this course (Dynamic Leadership), I have read an enormous amount of information about the different categories of leaders and leadership styles. Today’s leaders are different from the leaders of twenty to fifty years ago. In the past leaders gave commands and they controlled the actions of others. Today leaders are willing to involve others in their decision making and they are more open to new possibilities.

A good leader has a vision for their organization and they know how to align and engage employees in order to promote collaboration. The successful leader knows how to lead by using superior values, principles and goals that fit the organization’s values, principles and goals. Also these leaders know that leadership is not made from authority, it’s made from trust and followership. Coleman, J., Gulati, & Segovia, W.O. (2012)

I am impressed most by the characteristics of the authentic leader because they know how to develop themselves; they use formal and informal support networks to get honest feedback in order to drive long-term results. Authentic leaders build support teams to help them stay on course and counsel them in times of uncertainty. George, B., Sims, P., Mclean, A.N. & Mayer D. (2007)

In addition, I found the Leadership Code to be important because it provides structure and guidance and helps one to be a better leader by not emphasizing one element of leadership over another. Some focus on the importance of vision for the future; others on executing in the present; others on personal charisma and character; others on engaging people’; and others on building long-term organization. The code represents about 60 to 70 percent of what makes an effective leader. Ulrich, D., Smallwood, N., Sweetman, K. (2008)

The information that I acquired from this course will help me to pursue the goal of owning a beauty supply business. Another goal that I can add to my action plan is to include not only wigs and welted hair, but I will add hair, skin and nail products to my inventory. A future goal will be to add handbags and accessories as well.

After completing my short-term goal of finishing my MBA, I can take the knowledge from this course along with my values, ethics and principles to help me to manage employees and operate a successful business. Annie Smith (March 2, 20

Coleman, J. G. (2012). Educating young leaders. Passion and Purpose , 197-202.

George, B. S. (2007). Discovering your authentic leadership. Harvard Business Review , 129-138.

Lyons, R. (2012). Dean of Haas of School of Business University of California, Berkely. It’s made from followership. (J. G. Cole, Interviewer) Coleman, J., Gulati, D., & Segovia, W.O.

Ulrich, D. S. (2008). Five rules of leadership. In The leadership code five rules to lead by. Defining Leadership Code , 1-24.

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Family presence during CPR (cardiopulmonary resuscitation) university essay help

In a pre-hospital setting, there are few moments that are as intense as the events that take place when trying to save a life. Family presence during these resuscitation efforts has become an important and controversial issue in health care settings. Family presence during cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) is a relatively new issue in healthcare. Before the advent of modern medicine, family members were often present at the deathbed of their loved ones. A dying person’s last moments were most often controlled by his or her family in the home rather than by medical personnel (Trueman, History of Medicine). Today, families are demanding permission to witness resuscitation events. Members of the emergency medical services are split on this issue, noting benefits but also potentially negative consequences to family presence during resuscitation efforts.

A new study has found that family members who observed resuscitation efforts were significantly less likely to experience symptoms of post-traumatic stress, anxiety and depression than family members that did not. The results, published in an online article in The New England Journal of Medicine, entitled ‘Family Presence during Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation,’ were the same regardless of the survival of the patient. The study involved 570 people in France whose family members were treated by emergency medical personnel at home. These EMS teams were unique in that they were comprised of a physician, a nurse trained in emergency medicine, and two emergency medical technicians. The study found that the presence of relatives did not affect the results of CPR, nor did it increase the stress levels of the emergency medical teams. Having family present also did not result in any legal claims after the incidents occured. While the unique limitations of the study warrant consideration, the results show a definite benefit in having families stay during CPR (Jabre Family Presence).

Historically, although parents of children have been allowed to be present for various reasons, relatives of adult patients have not. As medical practices change to increasingly involve family in the care of patients, growing numbers of emergency medical practitioners say that giving relatives the option of watching CPR can be a good idea. Several national organizations, including The American Heart Association, have revised their policies to call for giving family members the option of being present during CPR (AHA Guidelines for CPR). Witnessing CPR, say some emergency medical experts and family members, can take the mystery out of what could be a potentially terrifying experience. It can provide reassurance to family members that everything is being done to save their loved ones. It also can offer closure for relatives wanting to be with their family members until the last minute (Kirkland Lasting Benefit). Another benefit is that it shows people why reviving someone in cardiac arrest is much less likely than people assume from watching it being done on television (Ledermann Family Presence During). Family members who can truly understand what it means to ‘do everything possible’ can go on to make more informed decisions about end-of-life care for themselves or their families.

There are three perspectives on this issue- that of the emergency medical personnel providing care, the family, and the patients. The resistance on the part of the medical community to family presence during CPR stems from several different concerns. The most common concern among these is that family members, when faced with overwhelming fear, stress and grief, could disrupt or delay active CPR. Another concern raised by emergency medical personnel is that the realities of CPR may simply be too traumatic for loved ones, causing them to suffer more than they potentially would have if they had never witnessed the event. Some families share this view, citing the potential for extreme distress as a main reason for not wanting to witness resuscitation (Grice Study examining attitudes). Many emergency medical personnel also fear an increased risk of liability and litigation with family members present in the room (Fullbrook the Presence of Family). The worry is that errors can occur, inappropriate comments may be made, and the actions of the personnel involved may be misinterpreted. In an already tense situation, the awareness of the family could increase the anxiety of the personnel and create a greater potential for mistakes.

Another complication that arises from having families present during resuscitation attempts is that of patient confidentiality. The patient’s right to privacy should not be circumvented with implied consent. There is always the possibility that medical information previously unknown to the family may be revealed in the chaos of resuscitation. In addition, patient dignity, whether physical or otherwise, may become compromised (Fullbrook the Presence of Family). Beyond moral considerations, legal concerns regarding revealing patient information are real. This could become an even larger issue if there is no one available to screen witnesses, which could result in unrelated people gaining access to personal information. Eventually, a breach in confidentiality can lead to a breach in the confidence that the public has gained in pre-hospital emergency care.

Family presence during CPR in a pre-hospital setting remains a highly debatable topic. This could be largely due to the fact that the needs of the emergency medical providers and the rights of the patients can be at odds with the wishes of the family members. Although there are several possible reasons why family presence is not being welcomed into daily practice, one of the major reasons could be the lack of formal written policies that define the roles of families and providers placed into this situation. Bringing family members into a situation where CPR is being performed on a loved one should not happen haphazardly. It should happen with careful concern and support for everyone involved. Policies and protocols, defined by experienced personnel, can provide legal and emotional support. They can also potentially help ease anxiety by defining expectations and placing responsibility in the hands of people who are experienced enough to know how to handle the situation appropriately. The policies and protocols should address the basic needs of all people involved. Five basic needs should be addressed:

1. The number of people allowed to be present

2. Which relatives should be allowed to be present (age, relationship, etc.)

3. The role of the family members present and what is expected of them.

4. The place where the family should remain during the duration of CPR.

5. The formal wishes of the patient- written as a directive like a living will.

An important component of this is available, trained staff that can prepare the family members for what they will witness, support them through the event, and then direct them after the event’s conclusion.

The American Heart Association states that the goals of cardiopulmonary resuscitation are, ‘to preserve life, restore health, relieve suffering, limit disability, and respect the individual’s decisions rights and privacy’ (AHA Guidelines for CPR). The practice of offering family members the opportunity to be present during CPR is a controversial ethical issue in emergency medical services. While the results of the study published on this topic in The New England Journal of Medicine clearly show no negative side effects from having families present during resuscitation attempts, the limitations of the study lend to the need for more research before it could be universally accepted.

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Respondeat Superior rice supplement essay help

Legal claims that derive from a situation where there are claims of negligence can sometimes involve an entity other than the neglectful parties. In certain circumstances employers are fully responsible for their employees, and the tasks they perform during working hours. During the course of this paper, the doctrine of respondeat superior will be defined and explained. Two case studies in which the doctrine was applied will also be analyzed to determine if it was applied correctly.

Respondeat superior is a legal theory that holds employers responsible for any negligent or harmful act performed by an employee during the commission of their employment duties (Thornton, 2010). The Maryland Supreme Court in 1951 was the first court to utilize respondeat superior in a court case involving a question of employer liability (Burns, 2011). This doctrine is important as it holds employers liable in court cases where one of its employees does harm to an individual. Vicarious liability and indirect liability are two base concepts that make-up respondeat superior (Thornton, 2010). Respondeat superior shows that the employer did not have to be responsible for the employee???s negligent behavior, in the form of improper training or instruction to perform harmful acts, in order for the employer to be held legally responsible.

In the case of Valle v. City of Houston, the police force was sued for excessive force and an illegal search in an attempt to remove an individual from his parent???s home (Nicholl & Kelly, 2012). The situation stemmed from a man, Omar Esparza, barricading himself in his parent???s home and refusing to come out (p. 285). After a long police standoff, the SWAT team was ordered to forcefully enter the home and remove Mr. Esparza (p. 285). The SWAT team utilized taser gun and bean bag ammunition in an attempt to subdue Mr. Esparza after they felt he posed a physical threat by wielding a hammer, but as those attempts failed the suspect was fatally wounded when an officer fired his weapon (p. 286). Shortly after the incident the mother was allowed into the home, and she reported no visible evidence that her son was possession of a hammer (p. 286). The court found that the city was not liable for damages under the theory of respondeat superior, because the order to remove the individual from the home was not made by an individual deemed as a decision-maker by the city (p. 286).

From the outside, this case seems to fit the theory of respondeat superior. As the employer, the city should be held responsible for the actions of its employees. The police, serving as the city???s employees acted in a manner that was unnecessary for the situation and in conflict of their training (p. 286). However, the court sided with the City of Houston because the chain of command was not followed in regards to the use of force (p. 286). The end result is a case where an individual made a decision that was not his to make; that ultimately cost a man his life.

[supanova_question]

Psychological Egoism And Ethical Egoism Admission College Essay Help

I have always looked at myself as an unselfish person with a good sense of empathy towards my friends and other people. I have always thought about egoism as something solely negative. That was before I knew the true meaning and concept of the word. Now I am no longer so sure; is it possible to be an absolute altruist? Is it possible to keep going on an absolute altruistic line of life without any egoistic subsidiary interference?

Psychological egoism is a human beings factual motivation in life. Psychological egoism builds around that our intended actions are always controlled by our own interests, wishes and motives. We are motivated by a wish to accomplish a sort of self-fulfillment, meaning that our actions in all aspects of our lives (from buying a sandwich because we are hungry, to studying for an exam to get a good grade) are all done because it is for our own beneficial interests, wishes and motives.

The definition for ethical egoism is basically ‘how we ought to act’. Ethical egoism builds itself around the idea that the best way to promote collective reimbursement, is to follow self-interests. By always striving for our own personal self-fulfillment a person will better be able to promote what is in the best interest of the community, more so than always striving to promote the community’s interests. A person is able to hold a sociable role that supports the general public by taking care of his or her own well-being and self-interest first.

The relationship between psychological egoism and ethical egoism is very clear. Since ethical egoism states that the best way to promote the welfare of others is by promoting your own self-interest, they kind of go hand in hand. But they are different since psychological egoism focus only on self-fulfillment and self-interest. The term ego means self. A body without an ego is just empty, without a soul. To deny one’s own ego is to deny one’s own mental existence, which is naturally not good for one’s mental health. To have a good mental health involves being an integrated and harmonized human being. This anticipates that you are an egoist. Without good mental health and personal harmony one does not make the right choices for either yourself or the welfare of other people around you.

The word altruism was first used by the French philosopher, Auguste Comte. Every human beings moral purpose is to serve others well-being on the expense of your own values. Altruism considers personal interest as something negative. Self-interest is per definition unmoral. It seems like being an altruist is to go against one’s self and breaking the connection between actions and beliefs, interests, and moral thoughts. It seems that in the altruistic model one constantly is trying to please other people and letting other’s needs and interests control their own actions. By always doing this there will be a constant split between one’s actions and one’s ego, making it very hard to be a harmonized human being. Being raised in an altruistic way seems to like living in a constant conflict with one’s self. By living a life of constant conflict with one’s self, there must be a big chance of developing poor self-confidence and irrational guilt.

Guilt is something you experience when something is in conflict with your own moral belief. Rational guilt is to feel guilt when one actually harms others. That type of guilt is good, because it aids learning to show consideration when it comes to others and their feelings. But irrational guilt, feeling guilty when you have not done anything wrong, is never positive. By reflecting about altruism, the feeling that altruism can create guilt in times when one does not do what other people want becomes apparent. That could make it very hard to say no, which lead to situations of victimization and being taken advantage of. In many situations in life, it is important to have a self-defense to protect one ‘s self and interests. The concept of a self-defense will always be egoistic, and involves the sub consciousness sense what is right or wrong. If a person believes that it’s wrong to think about themselves and feel guilty to do acts that are in their own interests, it gets very hard to make the right decisions. It makes you self-destructive to feel irrational guilt all the time. One has no emotional support for your own actions. To have personal opinions, it’s necessary to have sub-conscious support. The sub-consciousness needs to work for the personal best interest, because if the sub-consciousness gives priority to other’s beliefs, it will increase one’s sensitivity to criticism. To be sensitive to criticism is the same as being sensitive to other people’s thoughts.

It might seem logical that collectivism and altruism are important values to collaborate socially. This is completely wrong. Social competence is a quality of the individual. To work socially is to work as an individual in relation to other people, and to work as an individual one needs to be an egoist. It is not possible to become social by denying one’s ego. Altruistic behavior makes it easier for other people to manipulate feelings and actions. Confidence anticipates that one can trust their own sub-consciousness. Insecurity is driven by a lack of support from the sub-conscious. An altruistic belief leads to being very influenced by other people’s beliefs, and becoming insecure in social situations. It is also hard to work socially, if one is sensitive to criticism, and feel irrational guilt. Altruism makes one a target of outside control, which makes a self-controlled life problematic.

In conclusion, there is little to no room for altruism where egoism dominates. Altruists get motivated by what other people believe is best, and it seems like they need to be part of a collective were they can agree with others and feel safe. By having this as a priority the world would not develop without egoism, because to gain full potential one needs a sense of inner motivation to reveal their talents and gain a knowledge of who they really are and of what they as a single person can become capable.

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Family presence during CPR (cardiopulmonary resuscitation) essay help online

In a pre-hospital setting, there are few moments that are as intense as the events that take place when trying to save a life. Family presence during these resuscitation efforts has become an important and controversial issue in health care settings. Family presence during cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) is a relatively new issue in healthcare. Before the advent of modern medicine, family members were often present at the deathbed of their loved ones. A dying person’s last moments were most often controlled by his or her family in the home rather than by medical personnel (Trueman, History of Medicine). Today, families are demanding permission to witness resuscitation events. Members of the emergency medical services are split on this issue, noting benefits but also potentially negative consequences to family presence during resuscitation efforts.

A new study has found that family members who observed resuscitation efforts were significantly less likely to experience symptoms of post-traumatic stress, anxiety and depression than family members that did not. The results, published in an online article in The New England Journal of Medicine, entitled ‘Family Presence during Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation,’ were the same regardless of the survival of the patient. The study involved 570 people in France whose family members were treated by emergency medical personnel at home. These EMS teams were unique in that they were comprised of a physician, a nurse trained in emergency medicine, and two emergency medical technicians. The study found that the presence of relatives did not affect the results of CPR, nor did it increase the stress levels of the emergency medical teams. Having family present also did not result in any legal claims after the incidents occured. While the unique limitations of the study warrant consideration, the results show a definite benefit in having families stay during CPR (Jabre Family Presence).

Historically, although parents of children have been allowed to be present for various reasons, relatives of adult patients have not. As medical practices change to increasingly involve family in the care of patients, growing numbers of emergency medical practitioners say that giving relatives the option of watching CPR can be a good idea. Several national organizations, including The American Heart Association, have revised their policies to call for giving family members the option of being present during CPR (AHA Guidelines for CPR). Witnessing CPR, say some emergency medical experts and family members, can take the mystery out of what could be a potentially terrifying experience. It can provide reassurance to family members that everything is being done to save their loved ones. It also can offer closure for relatives wanting to be with their family members until the last minute (Kirkland Lasting Benefit). Another benefit is that it shows people why reviving someone in cardiac arrest is much less likely than people assume from watching it being done on television (Ledermann Family Presence During). Family members who can truly understand what it means to ‘do everything possible’ can go on to make more informed decisions about end-of-life care for themselves or their families.

There are three perspectives on this issue- that of the emergency medical personnel providing care, the family, and the patients. The resistance on the part of the medical community to family presence during CPR stems from several different concerns. The most common concern among these is that family members, when faced with overwhelming fear, stress and grief, could disrupt or delay active CPR. Another concern raised by emergency medical personnel is that the realities of CPR may simply be too traumatic for loved ones, causing them to suffer more than they potentially would have if they had never witnessed the event. Some families share this view, citing the potential for extreme distress as a main reason for not wanting to witness resuscitation (Grice Study examining attitudes). Many emergency medical personnel also fear an increased risk of liability and litigation with family members present in the room (Fullbrook the Presence of Family). The worry is that errors can occur, inappropriate comments may be made, and the actions of the personnel involved may be misinterpreted. In an already tense situation, the awareness of the family could increase the anxiety of the personnel and create a greater potential for mistakes.

Another complication that arises from having families present during resuscitation attempts is that of patient confidentiality. The patient’s right to privacy should not be circumvented with implied consent. There is always the possibility that medical information previously unknown to the family may be revealed in the chaos of resuscitation. In addition, patient dignity, whether physical or otherwise, may become compromised (Fullbrook the Presence of Family). Beyond moral considerations, legal concerns regarding revealing patient information are real. This could become an even larger issue if there is no one available to screen witnesses, which could result in unrelated people gaining access to personal information. Eventually, a breach in confidentiality can lead to a breach in the confidence that the public has gained in pre-hospital emergency care.

Family presence during CPR in a pre-hospital setting remains a highly debatable topic. This could be largely due to the fact that the needs of the emergency medical providers and the rights of the patients can be at odds with the wishes of the family members. Although there are several possible reasons why family presence is not being welcomed into daily practice, one of the major reasons could be the lack of formal written policies that define the roles of families and providers placed into this situation. Bringing family members into a situation where CPR is being performed on a loved one should not happen haphazardly. It should happen with careful concern and support for everyone involved. Policies and protocols, defined by experienced personnel, can provide legal and emotional support. They can also potentially help ease anxiety by defining expectations and placing responsibility in the hands of people who are experienced enough to know how to handle the situation appropriately. The policies and protocols should address the basic needs of all people involved. Five basic needs should be addressed:

1. The number of people allowed to be present

2. Which relatives should be allowed to be present (age, relationship, etc.)

3. The role of the family members present and what is expected of them.

4. The place where the family should remain during the duration of CPR.

5. The formal wishes of the patient- written as a directive like a living will.

An important component of this is available, trained staff that can prepare the family members for what they will witness, support them through the event, and then direct them after the event’s conclusion.

The American Heart Association states that the goals of cardiopulmonary resuscitation are, ‘to preserve life, restore health, relieve suffering, limit disability, and respect the individual’s decisions rights and privacy’ (AHA Guidelines for CPR). The practice of offering family members the opportunity to be present during CPR is a controversial ethical issue in emergency medical services. While the results of the study published on this topic in The New England Journal of Medicine clearly show no negative side effects from having families present during resuscitation attempts, the limitations of the study lend to the need for more research before it could be universally accepted.

[supanova_question]

Respondeat Superior college admission essay help houston tx

Legal claims that derive from a situation where there are claims of negligence can sometimes involve an entity other than the neglectful parties. In certain circumstances employers are fully responsible for their employees, and the tasks they perform during working hours. During the course of this paper, the doctrine of respondeat superior will be defined and explained. Two case studies in which the doctrine was applied will also be analyzed to determine if it was applied correctly.

Respondeat superior is a legal theory that holds employers responsible for any negligent or harmful act performed by an employee during the commission of their employment duties (Thornton, 2010). The Maryland Supreme Court in 1951 was the first court to utilize respondeat superior in a court case involving a question of employer liability (Burns, 2011). This doctrine is important as it holds employers liable in court cases where one of its employees does harm to an individual. Vicarious liability and indirect liability are two base concepts that make-up respondeat superior (Thornton, 2010). Respondeat superior shows that the employer did not have to be responsible for the employee???s negligent behavior, in the form of improper training or instruction to perform harmful acts, in order for the employer to be held legally responsible.

In the case of Valle v. City of Houston, the police force was sued for excessive force and an illegal search in an attempt to remove an individual from his parent???s home (Nicholl & Kelly, 2012). The situation stemmed from a man, Omar Esparza, barricading himself in his parent???s home and refusing to come out (p. 285). After a long police standoff, the SWAT team was ordered to forcefully enter the home and remove Mr. Esparza (p. 285). The SWAT team utilized taser gun and bean bag ammunition in an attempt to subdue Mr. Esparza after they felt he posed a physical threat by wielding a hammer, but as those attempts failed the suspect was fatally wounded when an officer fired his weapon (p. 286). Shortly after the incident the mother was allowed into the home, and she reported no visible evidence that her son was possession of a hammer (p. 286). The court found that the city was not liable for damages under the theory of respondeat superior, because the order to remove the individual from the home was not made by an individual deemed as a decision-maker by the city (p. 286).

From the outside, this case seems to fit the theory of respondeat superior. As the employer, the city should be held responsible for the actions of its employees. The police, serving as the city???s employees acted in a manner that was unnecessary for the situation and in conflict of their training (p. 286). However, the court sided with the City of Houston because the chain of command was not followed in regards to the use of force (p. 286). The end result is a case where an individual made a decision that was not his to make; that ultimately cost a man his life.

[supanova_question]