Three Types Of Costing Techniques In The Organizations Aqa Unit 5 Biology Synoptic Essay Help

Almost all industries have been compelled by the recession to cut their expenses, boost their profit margin, increase their efficiency, and optimize their value-creating potential. Obviously, the cost of the products and services fluctuate as a result of the changes that are experienced throughout their production and delivery. Health care businesses, particularly in the United States, are confronted with high expenses; hence, they feel compelled to use certain costing approaches that satisfy consumer needs, maximize profits, and mitigate losses. Despite the fact that there are numerous costing strategies, we will now cover three of them.

First, let's discuss Activity-based costing (ABC), which is the strategy that redefines cost pools based on an organization's activity composition utilizing loosely specified drivers of resource consumption (McNair, 2007). In other words, Activity-cased costing identifies the organization's core activity or cost centers and allocates costs to the products or services based on the number of transactions, interactions, or events that occur throughout the manufacturing and providing of those products or services (12 Manage, 2009).

For instance, there are products A and B. Product A involves more research, engineering, testing, and setups than product B; therefore, based on the additional activities associated with product A, the corporation would assess the price of resources employed in those additional activities and then set a specific cost level for that product alone.

The cost drivers depend on the product type, product-related activities, market competitiveness, and consumer demand. Regarding the products or services of health care organizations, cost drivers may include the increasing sophistication of medications, high quality, high reliability, successful testing, and the significance of the medicine in question.

In addition, organizations can reduce costs by analyzing the activities and efforts required for particular products, eliminating the unnecessary activities required for the product, achieving efficiency, taking the products with their relevant requirements, and avoiding using the same strategies or activities for all the products. In addition, this strategy can result in continual improvement by informing employees of the activities that add value to the products and those that do not, and by investing more in the items that generate the highest profits.

Price-led costing is another sort of costing technique that identifies the costs of a product's necessary components by tracing the product's development backwards (Fahrenbach, 1999). The market charges the price that the organizations want, which is based on the entire costs incurred by the product. However, the corporation cannot set pricing arbitrarily; prices are contingent on the company's interaction with market competitive forces. In short, the price of the company would be decided by the particular market dynamics.

As far as health care organizations are concerned, outsourcing can save expenses. Since they cannot readily allocate the defined permitted to the manufacturing or marketing department, they typically produce and market the most frequently desired and utilized medications. Therefore, they might outsource key operations, such as packing, labeling, or even the entire manufacturing process, to increase efficiency and minimize costs. It is because, once they have established the formula for a particular drug, they can outsource its production in order to minimize prices, as is the case with many pharmaceutical corporations today.

Target costing is the third sort of costing technique, which is widely utilized by businesses today. Typically, this technique facilitates the development of high-quality goods with the specified characteristics and functionalities. This costing technique is driven by the market, its demand, customer requirements, competitive offerings, and the concept that customers' willingness to pay for a certain product (Ansari, Bell, and Swenson, 2006).

Prior to selling their products, businesses define the desired profit margin by analyzing their strategy, the expectations of shareholders, and the needs of other stakeholders, including customers. This method's equation is Total Cost = Price – Profit, which indicates that the goal cost is achieved by stressing the product, its design, its quality, and continual improvement throughout the product's lifecycle. For instance, a firm that manufactures sports cars can define target costs by considering consumer demand – quality, price, and design –, the primary objective to attain a specific profit level, shareholder expectations, competition, and other tactics linked to car manufacturing and distribution.

This strategy assists the companies by drastically reducing the costs of their products, aligning the pricing of functions with customers' willingness to pay, and addressing the wants and requirements of customers. This (Bird, Albano, and Townsend, 2003) method consists of four steps: defining the product, setting the target, achieving the target, and maintaining competitive costs. This means that companies must first define the prices of their products before attempting to achieve their level of price and remain competitive by providing features that customers are willing to pay for.

Similarly, health care organizations can reduce their costs by developing the product and setting the price based on the customer's desires; this can be done primarily on the machinery or medicines that are categorized as luxury items and are used by customers for reasons other than their basic needs. Such businesses are able to give customers with superior quality, charge relatively high prices, yet remain profitable and competitive.

Therefore, we discussed three types of costing techniques that organizations can use to reduce their costs and increase their profitability; moreover, it has become a requirement for businesses, particularly those in the health care industry, to adopt such costing techniques in order to remain competitive on the market.

References

A Template for Implementing Target Costing. Ansari, S., J. Bell, and D. Swenson, 2006. Cost Management 20 (5); p. 20-28. Web.

Fahrenbach, J. (1999). A primer on price-driven costing. Best's Review (Life/health insurance issue), 100 (5), pp. 69-70. Web.

McNair, C. J. (2007). Beyond the Boundaries: Future Cost Management Trends Cost Management 21 (1); p. 10-22. Web.

H.M.B. Bird, R.E. Albano, and W.P. Townsend (2003). Target Costing: Please Your Customers While Generating Profits.

12 Manage (2009). Costing Based on Activity (ABC). Web.

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The Talent Acquisition And Employee Retention Plan Aqa Unit 5 Biology Synoptic Essay Help

The following policies are adopted by the organization to enhance job performance:
Effective punishment and discipline Positive reinforcement Rewarding based on performance Treating individuals fairly Restructuring jobs addressing employee needs Creating work-related objectives

This is due to the Traditional theory 'X', which is best attributed to Sigmund Freud, who was not hopeful about man's work ethic. This hypothesis assumes that people are unmotivated, dislike work to the point of avoiding it, and are extremely lazy. In addition, it is stated that they take no initiative and avoid taking responsibility; their only concern is safety. To induce them to perform any work, it is necessary to reward, force, intimidate, and punish them. This is commonly known as the management philosophy. In accordance with this approach, Brewmaster limited was required to monitor employees they did not trust and who refused to cooperate. This created a suffocating and demoralizing environment for management and personnel, making it impossible to achieve success or engage in creative endeavors.

The use of the positive reinforcement policy likewise failed to provide the desired results. This view is reinforced by the theory of Douglas McGregor, who felt that individuals like to learn and that labor is their natural activity insofar as they achieve self-discipline and self-development. According to him, they view the reward less as monetary compensation and more as the opportunity to perform difficult and hard job independently. The manager's responsibility is to create an atmosphere in which the human desire for self-improvement and the organization's goal for optimal production efficiency may coexist. Therefore, the fundamental aims of both are attained, and with imagination and honesty, the immense potential can be realized.

However, the failure to properly choose individuals to form a homogenous group prevented the strategy from fulfilling its intended purpose. The purpose of the group leaders to maintain power prohibited people from developing freely; hence, it was not enjoyable to observe the growth and self-actualization of people. As a result, this prohibited everyone and the organization as a whole from benefiting.

Brewmaster Limited also implemented a job reorganization policy. Although the idea was to streamline the occupations in such a way that there is harmony between the job descriptions and the nature of the work being performed, it was ineffective because it failed to achieve the workers' objective of performing hard work as they desired. By redesigning the occupations, some employees believed that the organization was denying them the opportunity to explore and use their strengths, without imposing any limitations on what they should and should not perform according to the new organizational structures. Some additionally felt that, despite their prior experience, they were no longer able to conduct the things they had previously enjoyed prior to the job restructure. This affected their morale and hence their job performance. This rendered Brewmaster restricted unable of achieving its objectives.

By using a program of positive reinforcement in which the Brewmaster limited management established high expectations on its employees, the purpose was to increase the worker’s productivity by setting ambitious goals and reinforcing a 'I can do' mentality. Nonetheless, this resulted in some employees establishing unattainable high standards of performance. The pressure to reach the deadlines and the failure to do so discouraged them to the point that some may have produced subpar goods in desperation to fulfill the deadlines. This ultimately compromised the quality of its products, placing the company at risk of losing its market share.

Frederick Hertzberg categorized human contributors into two categories: Factor Hygiene and Motivation Theory. The hygiene aspects consist of the company, its policies, and its administration, as well as the type of supervision, working conditions, interpersonal relationships, compensation, status, and job security. These do not increase motivation, but their absence results in discontent.

The second component of Herzberg's thesis is what people actually accomplish on the job, which should be incorporated into the tasks performed by the workforce in order to foster intrinsic motivation. They are accomplishment, acknowledgment, interest in the task, responsibility for the expanded task, development, and promotion to higher-level tasks. The motivational group must be present in the organization. Focusing solely on sanitary considerations and disregarding motivators led to the company's inability to reach its intended goals. The second technique utilized by Brewmaster Limited was performance-based compensation. This approach is consistent with David McClelland's notion of Achievement Motivation. He had seen that certain individuals have a strong desire to succeed. Others do not appear interested about accomplishment. His research led him to the conclusion that the desire for success is a distinct human motivation that can be distinguished from other wants. Importantly, achievement can be isolated and evaluated across all groups. One of the characteristics of achievement-driven individuals is their preoccupation with own accomplishments rather than success rewards. However, they do not reject prizes, but they do not view them as being as important as the achievement itself.

According to achievement-driven individuals, money is primarily valuable as a measure of their accomplishment. It gives a method for evaluating development and comparing accomplishments to those of others. They are not concerned with financial stability or social standing.

In addition to concrete input, the nature of the feedback is essential to achievement-driven individuals. Their response to information about their work is positive.

The presence of achievement-motivated individuals in Brewmaster Limited's management did not produce strong managers because they lacked human skills. This is due to the fact that being an effective producer is insufficient to make a competent manager.

The concept of achievement motivation proposed by McClelland is related to Hertzberg's theory of motivation-hygiene. Individuals with strong achievement motivation are typically intrigued by motivators (the job itself).

Achievement-driven people desire feedback because they want to know how well they are performing on the job. Achievement-driven individuals were dissatisfied as a result of the Brewmaster's strategy of merely rewarding workers and neglecting to provide them with real feedback, which did not provide them with the requisite environment to perform at their best. This was the case because the organization failed to provide the environment in which these individuals could: utilize their ability to set high but attainable personal goals; focus on personal achievement rather than the rewards of success; and satisfy their desire for job-relevant feedback as opposed to attitude-based feedback.

The Brewmaster's principle of treating people with fairness was well-intentioned, as it did not intend to undermine or discriminate against anyone. Some employees took advantage of this by looking for reasons and using them to try to convince the management that they were unable to carry out or complete certain responsibilities on time. This got so clear that it turned out to be a general apathy and lack of effort among employees in the organization. Due to the organization's procedures, this subsequently led to a lack of maturation among the employees. This harmed the performance of the personnel, resulting in poor outcomes and a decline in the quality of the organization's products. This is due to the fact that workers were given little control over their environment and were pushed to be docile, reliant, and subservient, resulting in immature behavior. The expectation was that workers would act immaturely rather than maturely.

The formal organization structure also contributed to the misuse of the company's product on the job. This is due to the fact that organizations are typically built to attain goals or objectives that may be fulfilled most effectively together; hence, the formal structure has become an architect's notion of how the goals can be achieved. Thus, the work design came first, followed by the fitting of personnel to the task.

The design was primarily focused on task specialization, a chain of command, direction unity, and control span. Consequently, management attempted to boost and improve organizational and administrative efficiency and output by making employees "interchangeable parts." This was detrimental to the worker's performance and consequently compromised the outcomes.

Brewmaster Limited utilized a leadership style and management control in which power and authority resided in the hands of a few at the top of the organization, and those at the lowest level of the chain of command were therefore rigorously controlled by their superiors or by the system itself.

Specialization of tasks led to the simplicity of the job, so rendering it monotonous, routine, and devoid of challenge.

Brewmaster Limited exhibited a directive, task-focused style of leadership in which the superior made all decisions regarding the work and the employees were simply responsible for carrying them out. This style of leadership resulted in managerial controls such as budgets, some reward systems, time and motion studies, and standard operating procedures that limited the initiative and inventiveness of employees.

References

Berlin, I. (1953). The Fox and the Hedgehog. New York, Simon & Schuster.

The Personality Puzzle by David C. Funder (2nd ed.). Norton, W. W., New York

Ornstein, R. (1993). The Origins of the Self: Exploring the enigma of who we are. Harper Collins is located in New York.

Phares, Jonathan E. (1991). An Overview of Personality (3rd ed.). Harper Collins is located in New York.

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Journal Of Practicum Experience Aqa Unit 5 Biology Synoptic Essay Help

Due to the ability to evaluate the consequences of this managerial principle in a variety of contexts, the study of the fundamentals of servant leadership has proven to be a valuable learning experience for me. As a result of researching pertinent academic sources and other materials, I have discovered the relevance of adhering to a particular style of contact with coworkers and the value of self-dedication as a significant aspect of productivity.

My practicum project for professionals working with stroke victims has the potential to reduce mortality rates in the population following traumatic brain injuries. The evaluation of servant leadership from a Christian viewpoint has enabled me to comprehend the principles of this approach and develop conclusions about the advantages of such a system in connection to actual working settings.

The Christian Perspective on Servant Leadership

Credibility and Service-To-Others Leadership

When evaluating servant leadership from a Christian perspective, one may observe that this form of management is one of the gentlest. According to Krumrei-Mancuso (2018), the primary characteristics of this approach are the ability to prioritize the demands of subordinates and place the interests of others above one's own. According to the findings of my research, such a leadership style is consistent with the biblical canons that inspire selflessness for the benefit of others. According to Lu et al. (2019), operational modes of this management strategy are credible and beneficial to maximizing employee potential. I was able to study the benefits of this methodology and evaluate its value as a practice within the context of an individual approach to work obligations.

A Comparison of the Servant Leadership Paradigm to the Secular View of Power

The servant leadership paradigm revealed by the secular perspective of power can be exemplified by the unconditional consideration of the opinions and wants of the target audience. This problem is analyzed by Gerstein and Friedman (2017) in terms of creativity and impact on employee potential, and it is noted that maximizing professional development possibilities is a natural management strategy. Respect for the thoughts and perspectives of others is a requirement of a secular approach to authority when subordinates have access to knowledge and information. In this instance, the paradigm of leadership entails establishing conditions and incentives for productive work.

Application of Management

In the context of fundamental characteristics, it is possible to highlight valuable leadership attributes that not only contribute to elevating authority among subordinates but also stimulate colleagues' high-performance work. According to my investigation, I've concluded that honesty, compassion, leading by example, justice, and the capacity to listen are essential attributes. All of these characteristics, as stated by Newstead et al. (2019), comprise a solid leadership foundation and are crucial traits. I also endeavor to express these ideals in my working activity and adhere to the chosen virtues.

I do not attempt to conceal my omissions in order to receive impartial feedback, as being honest with my coworkers allows me to maintain productive communication and a positive reputation within the team. Compassion is also essential, and I consider the particular needs of all persons who require assistance and support. Self-improvement is essential to leading by example, and I adhere to the notion of self-education. Fairness is a precondition for an objective approach to work obligations, and I am unwilling to pursue my own personal interests in order to betray my coworkers or be partial to their work. Lastly, developing the ability to listen to others is a vital trait that I cultivate to earn the trust of my interlocutors and generate effective interactions.

Coursework Project Preparation

The evaluation of my participation in educating staff members for changes in their work with stroke patients enables me to comprehend the success and benefits of this practice. The significance of the activities is explained by the chance to increase the effectiveness of medical practice in terms of productive interventions. According to Jones et al. (2018), a serious impediment to providing comprehensive treatment and successful rehabilitation is the lack of stroke-specific training among a small proportion of personnel. Consequently, the training process was conducted in accordance with the concepts of growing the personnel's understanding of contact with the target audience and then validating the achieved credentials.

To begin with, I suggested to my coworkers that they examine the fundamentals of interaction with stroke patients in order to gain an understanding of the particulars of work under specific situations. In addition, we covered ways for reducing common causes of head injuries, such as falls, strokes, and other health issues. I endeavored to convey to my coworkers the significance of observing all the conditions of comprehensive care in order to enhance intervention statistics, so meeting the interests of both patients and medical personnel.

There was no single training curriculum, and numerous instructional resources were utilized. According to Jones et al. (2018), the integrated approach of staff development encourages the participation of specialists and the provision of many chances. Consequently, everyone engaged understood the significance of preparing for the future changes and their own role in this process.

Leadership Reflection on Video

The evaluation of servant leadership in the context of its influence on the workplace is a beneficial method for assessing personal skills and growth prospects. The video presented by GCU Academics & Nursing (2016) immerses the spectator in the fundamentals of this managerial practice and enables the identification of the significant distinctions between this management style and others. According to the speaker, one of the defining characteristics of servant leadership is "submitting to the will of others" (GCU Academics & Nursing, 2016).

This indicates that meeting people's wants for the general good is a more significant objective than pursuing individual priorities and objectives. Personal decisions have an effect on others, which is another important aspect of this strategy. (GCU Academics & Nursing, 2016) The speaker asserts that what we own influences the lives of others ineluctably and has certain implications. Consequently, servant leadership is viewed as a behavior that contributes to the creation of a fair and impartial atmosphere conducive to generating favorable outcomes through managerial initiatives.

Conclusion

Analyzing servant leadership as a management style aligned with Christian ideals enables the determination of its significance and positive influence on all stakeholders. This approach demonstrates, from the standpoint of credibility, the impartiality of the tasks done and the open intentions of power. The initiative to equip personnel for working with stroke patients is an example of the success of decisions made to increase productivity in my profession, which I aspire to acquire. The examination of the proposed film enables analysis of the primary manifestations of this management style and identification of its fundamental distinctions from other techniques of interacting with subordinates.

References

Academics at GCU – Nursing (2016). The question of power and servant leadership [cc] YouTube is a website.

Gerstein, M., & Friedman, H. H. (2017). A paradigm shift in corporate ethics and leadership for the age of creativity. 18(2), 179-230, Journal of Accounting, Ethics and Public Policy.

Jones, S. P., C. Miller, J. M. Gibson, J. Cook, C. Price, and C. L. Watkins (2018). An integrative study of the impact of education and training interventions for nurses and other health care personnel involved in the delivery of stroke care. Nurse Education Today, 61, pages 249 to 251 Web.

Krumrei-Mancuso, E. J. (2018). A longitudinal pilot study of Christian student leaders' humility in servant leadership. Psychology and Theology Journal, 46(4), 253-267. Web.

Lu, J., Zhang, Z., & Jia, M. (2019). Does servant leadership affect the emotional labor of employees? A perspective on social information processing. 159(2) Journal of Business Ethics: 507-518. Web.

T. Newstead, S. Dawkins, R. Macklin, and A. Martin (2019). The virtues project: a strategy for building effective leaders. Web. Journal of Business Ethics, pages 1-18.

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Pizza Restaurant: Analysis, Establishment, Teamwork Aqa Unit 5 Biology Synoptic Essay Help

Introduction

The American Red Cross is a nonprofit organization that provides emergency assistance, disaster relief, and education in the United States. This organization has been selected as the United States affiliate of the "International Federation of Red Cross and Red Crescent Societies." In addition to domestic adversity relief, the ARC also offers assistance for members of the armed forces and their families, as well as community services and communication services for the poor. Additionally, this agency collects, processes, and distributes blood and blood products, as well as conducting educational programs on awareness, health, and safety (American Red Cross & Handal, 1992).

It is important to emphasize that the American Red Cross (ARC) is governed by unpaid volunteers and supported by community contributions, profits from health and safety education and products, and blood product revenues. Currently, more than one million unpaid Red Cross volunteers and around thirty thousand paid staff organize aid for people each year. As a result, the ARC has responded to more than 67,000 disasters, trained roughly 12 million people in important medical knowledge, and exchanged approximately one million emergency alerts for U.S. military troops and their families (Stevenson, 1986).

Objectives of the Red Cross

On the other side, the mission of the American Red Cross is to provide immediate aid in the form of food, clothing, shelter, and confidence to people in impacted societies. In this instance, the organization ensures that local emergency response activities can reach individuals quickly and efficiently (American Red Cross & Handal, 1992).

American Red Cross Fortifications

It is important to emphasize that the ARC responds quickly to clients' catastrophe management needs throughout the year, wherever and whenever they arise. In this situation, it may be said that anytime a disaster strikes, ARC is the first organization on the scene to assist the victims, 24 hours a day, 365 days a year. In 2008, the ARC 'Saratoga chapter' responded to 101 calamities by providing food, clothing, and shelter to 345 individuals in a five-county area (Bensoussan & Fleisher, 2008).

Additionally, it should be mentioned that the ARC effectively raises funds to aid disaster victims. As stated previously, this group raises cash through community contributions, wellness safety education and product sales, and blood product sales. In 2006, for instance, the ARC's total income was $6 billion. As a result, the ARC is better equipped to respond to any tragedy at any time and location, as there are sufficient funds to assist the victims.

In addition, the ARC offices are properly and centrally managed, decreasing the likelihood of corruption. Evidently, volunteers are maximally mobilized since they respond rapidly to calamities whenever they arise. For the purpose of rescuing and assisting disaster victims, the ARC is equipped with advanced technology such as communication and transport technologies, blood collection, processing, and distribution technologies, among others. In addition, this organization's workers are well qualified and therefore respond to calamities effectively (Harvard Business School Press, 2009).

American Red Cross Shortcomings

On the other hand, it should be emphasized that the ARC has its flaws, as evidenced by the volunteers' tardy response to the Hurricane Katrina tragedy, where they appeared unskilled and unable to assist the vast majority of Gulf Coast villages. In addition, the organization has a large number of volunteers and staff, making it difficult for the president to monitor the entire group.

In this instance, the delay in responding to the Katrina disaster might be attributed to dysfunctional management structures within the firm. Another problem of the ARC is that the administration grows at a very slow rate due to the fact that most donors send their money directly to the victims rather than to the organization. On the other hand, it may be claimed that the ARC has made logical investments in telecommunications; nevertheless, it has not been organization-wide nor has it provided financing to the local subdivision where it is needed (Olsen, 2006).

Opportunity with the American Red Cross

It might be argued that the ARC derives its funding from repayments and donations from local, state, and federal government entities for specific projects. It is essential to emphasize that the American Red Cross trains its volunteers and workers in disaster response. Consequently, the company needs training aids such as computers, books, and software, among others, to facilitate its training.

Additionally, the group educates the community on catastrophe preparedness and safety, necessitating enormous numbers of educational materials. This suggests that supplying this organization with computers, books, software, and other learning materials would facilitate the training and education process. In this instance, the organization instructs students on how to aid victims of adversity and how to educate the community. Consequently, local schools typically send their pupils to study at these institutions.

On the other side, local businesses donate their staff as drivers and clinical officers to the organization in exchange for free training. Additionally, several students and employees of local businesses volunteer to study with this organization in order to be able to assist disaster victims. For instance, the Tampa Bay chapter of the American Red Cross educated a large number of shelter managers, nurses, dispatchers, and drivers to aid victims of floods, hurricanes, and other natural disasters (Fine, 2009).

On the other hand, it should be recognized that university and college students may and do give the organization with valuable experience in marketing, accounting, information systems, and communications. In this instance, marketing and accounting students assist the organization in marketing and publicizing its intentions, making it easier for contributors and supporters to fund the organization.

Accounting students use this information to calculate the amount of money to be allocated to each victim. In this instance, they also help to account for every dollar spent on disaster relief. Accordingly, marketing and accounting students contribute to the organization's budget preparations and marketing plans.

On the other hand, information and communication students aid the organization by distributing information about military members to their families as quickly as possible and providing feedback. In addition, these pupils are able to obtain information on the location of a crisis so that volunteers and staff may attend as promptly as feasible. In light of this, students who volunteer have contributed significantly to the achievement of the organization's goals and objectives (Olsen, 2006).

The American Red Cross Warns

In addition, the American Red Cross has been ranked as the fastest responding charitable organization to the needs of catastrophe victims. In this instance, the organization's favorable reputation has resulted in an influx of volunteers and financial contributions. It might be argued that the American Red Cross competes with other nonprofit organizations, such as the Salvation Army, for cash and grants from towns, governments, and donors (Harvard Business School Press, 2009).

Importantly, many charitable organizations rely on their fundraising abilities. It is evident that the ability of charity organizations to compete for volunteers depends on their experience with and reactivity to disasters. Despite being one of the nonprofit organizations in the United States with the biggest number of volunteers, the ARC faces competition for funding and volunteers from other philanthropic organizations.

This is evidenced by the amount of volunteers the American Red Cross organization has; in this case, about 67,000 crises have been responded to by over a million volunteers. Alternatively, in 2006 the ARC received nearly $6 billion in donations (Bensoussan & Fleisher, 2008).

It can be noticed that the American Red Cross and other nonprofit organizations in the United States have been at risk of being disregarded by the government during recessions and budget difficulties. This is obvious from the 2009 declaration signed by the leaders of all American philanthropic organizations asking political support for their activities. As a result of the budget crisis, President Obama's 2009 budget proposal lowered the amount of money allocated to charitable groups (Fine, 2009).

Another threat to the ARC is the donors' reluctance to donate when the organization does not fulfill their instructions. In this instance, some individuals and businesses attach conditions to their charitable contributions. When their own interests are not satisfied, they diminish or cease their donations. It can be noticed that funders are concerned with how an organization's politics are performed. As a result, the administration of the ARC dissatisfies them, and they reduce their donations. The accountability and effectiveness of the money provided to the ARC, on the other hand, play a key part in determining whether or not donations will be lowered (Williamson, Cooke & Jenkins, 2003).

Bibliography

The American Red Cross and K. (1992). First Aid and Safety by the American Red Cross Little, Brown and Company, New York.

Bensoussan, B. & Fleisher, C. (2008). Analysis without Paralysis: 10 Tools for Better Strategic Decisions, 1st edition, FT Press, Massachusetts.

Fine, L. (2009). (2009). Using Your Strengths to Overcome Your Weaknesses, and Your Opportunities to Overcome Your Threats. CreateSpace in New York

Harvard Business Publishing (2009). SWOT Analysis II: Internal Evaluation of Strengths and Weaknesses Harvard Business School Press, Harvard.

Jenster, P. & Hussey, D. (2001). Analysis of a company's strategic capability. Publishers in London: Wiley

(2006). Strategic Planning for Dummies, by E. Olsen. For Dummies Publishers, New York.

A. Stevenson (1986). The founder of the American Red Cross was Clara Barton. New York: Aladdin Publishing Company

Williamson, D., P. Cooke, W. Jenkins, K. Moreton, and K. Moreton (2003). Management strategy and business analysis. Oxford: Butterworth-Heinemann.

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Pizza Restaurant: Analysis, Establishment, Teamwork Aqa Unit 5 Biology Synoptic Essay Help

Abstract

This study demonstrates the applicability of marketing concepts to the promotion of the Magnolia Web Studio website. The paper provides an outline of the overall marketing concept as well as its actual application in the given scenario. This paper's conclusions will enable the creation of a marketing strategy for Magnolia Web Studio.

Introduction

Having a website is now a requirement for the vast majority of businesses throughout the globe. According to the Small Business Attitudes & Outlook Survey performed by Constant Contact, 68% of small business owners intend to utilize their website as their primary outward communication channel. In this regard, a marketing plan is crucial for the web development and design service sector in order to produce a high-quality product and satisfy client demand. Currently, constructing a website for a company involves not just transferring the company's information to the web and selling its goods, but also creating a distinct identity for the company that complements its mission and goals. Therefore, services such as web development and design should have a defined marketing strategy to ensure that the product reaches its intended audience.

Marketing is defined as

Marketing can be described as the process by which firms raise awareness of their products and services in order to increase sales volume. In order to achieve marketing's ultimate objectives, a relationship with the consumer must be developed, which plays a crucial part in capturing the customer's value. In the process of developing a relationship with the client, the customer must first be identified, kept, and satisfied; this will result in an increase in sales for the business. In addition, marketing involves assessing and fully comprehending the demands of the targeted demographic, as well as performing actions geared toward meeting these goals.

Description of the Product or Service

Magnolia Web Studio, a company focusing in web development and design for small businesses and non-profit organizations, has been selected (Magnolia Web Studio, 2008). In order to study Magnolia Web Studio's marketing capabilities, this article will evaluate the company's awareness of the marketing environment. This will be accomplished by evaluating the micro-environment, the macro-environment, and the internal environment. The initial review of the company's website demonstrated effective customer relationship management, as evidenced by the positive feedback from customers. Product, price, location, and promotion are also covered. However, additional data reveal that only microenvironmental factors are considered while the other two forces are disregarded. The majority of the information pertains to the customer. Moreover, based on the amount of photos featured on the website, visual communication has not been utilized effectively.

Situation Analysis: Marketing Environment Factors Influencing Product/Service

Understanding marketing is vital not just when developing websites, but also when connecting with the intended audience through other means. Therefore, in order to appraise the situation, an analysis of the marketing factors influencing the product is necessary. The microenvironment, the macroenvironment, and the internal environment are the three most influential marketing environment forces.

The immediate environment

This environment consists of suppliers who interact directly or indirectly with the organization, customers, consumers, and other stakeholders. When developing a website, it is crucial to take into account the microenvironment in its entirety, as this factor directly affects the organization. A website that does not appear to adequately handle the issue of customers, for example, may not be effective in promoting the product or services at issue. To ensure the recruitment of new clients and the maintenance of customer loyalty, it is necessary to address questions regarding the quality and availability of goods and services. In a nutshell, this marketing force will seek to develop a positive relationship between the company and the relationship's controlling forces. Consequently, handling the aforementioned criteria correctly on a website shows that the interaction between the firm and its microenvironment is strengthened and sets the organization's products well above those of its competitors (Armstrong, 2006, p. 67).

The macroecosystem

This force consists of cultural, political, and technological elements. A good web design should ensure that all images and text on the web are sensitive to people from varied cultural backgrounds, and depictions of one culture as trivial or superior to others may be detrimental to the product or service in question. Therefore, it is imperative to avoid pictures and utterances that appear biased at all costs. Political topics should not be incorporated into the design of a website, as this can work against the product.

Finally, the site design should take technological progress into account so that the entire process is relevant in terms of generating a market for the product or service. Failure to account for technological advancements may result in a subpar website that cannot meet the different needs of market players (Armstrong, 2006, p. 69).

The interior atmosphere

This comprises all aspects that exist within the organization. In other words, it refers to the aspects that an organization may influence. The latter may consist of markets, machines, cash, materials, men, and cash. Failure to address the internal environment forces when developing a website may impede the company's ability to take the necessary steps to ensure improvements are within its reach. These forces should be considered when designing a website. This can be summed up as the geographic territories that the organization can reach. Thus, targeted buyers may determine whether or not products and services are available in their area. (Armstrong, 2006, p. 78).

Marketing Strategy: Target Market(s) & Positioning

Every business recognizes that its items will not appeal to all consumers. Simply put, there are too many consumers who are geographically dispersed and have diverse needs and requirements (Armstrong & Kotler, 2009, p. 167). In this regard, in order to establish a successful marketing strategy, it is necessary to identify market segments, based on which the product seller can adjust the product, study rivals, and select pricing and distribution strategies appropriate for a specific segment. In order to establish a marketing plan for Magnolia Web Studio, the following part will present a segmentation analysis of the visual communications market, from which a value proposition for the services offered by Magnolia Web Studio will be derived.

Segmentation Criteria

Target marketing, which is the identification and selection of one or more market segments, is used to strike a balance between treating all consumers the same and tailoring marketing efforts to each specific consumer. Thus, segmentation is the process of splitting the market into identifiable groups of consumers, each with distinct qualities and wants, wherein the groups themselves have comparable traits and have similar needs. The primary objective of such a procedure is to set the criteria upon which segmentation will be conducted. The segmentation bases are the set of variables that can be utilized to distinguish across market segments. Two main sets of variables can typically be distinguished, based on demands and profiles. Given that Magnolia Web Studio specializes in website creation and design for small enterprises and non-profit organizations, it is reasonable to presume that the quantitative profiling traits will be too variable to identify commonalities. Therefore, profiling variables such as age, geography, country, and gender may be too dissimilar for a web-based product or service. However, there are a number of other qualities that can be utilized, and the manner of identifying them may provide insight into their nature.

When selecting a segmentation technique, the build-up method is the most appropriate, as well as the most established and known. The build-up entails presuming the customers' distinctions and ascending to identify their similarities (Baines, Fill, & Page, 2008, p. 221). Consequently, given that each potential Magnolia Web Studio customer is unique, the following elements can be identified:

Profile: industry, organization size, and lifecycle psychological: desired benefits Behavioral: product utilization and web users Finance: budget and profit

Description of Target Clientele

Identifying the target market is the second most significant aspect of aftermarket segmentation, in which the identified segments will be targeted based on the segment's desirability. In this regard, the identified target market includes the following characteristics: Small enterprises and nonprofits in their launch and first to third years of development. Suppliers, providers of services, and charitable organizations. Motives include introducing the product to customers and raising their awareness of it. English-speaking nations, most notably the United States, where the analysis of existing customers revealed regional preferences. Products' functionality and pricing recommendations.

More than 96% of the US Chamber of Commerce are small enterprises with 100 or fewer employees, illustrating the market's desirability (US Chamber of Commerce, 2010). 75% of small business owners, according to a poll, expect their businesses to grow in 2009. (Dhakir Warren, 2009). Magnolia Web Studio should pursue a small portion of a huge market, given its limited resources and market peculiarities.

Analysis of Competitors and Positioning

The company eFocus is one of the competitors in the market for visual communications and web design services for small enterprises. The company specializes in affordable web design solutions, and its website expressly targets small businesses as clients (Small Business Web Design, 2010). Recognizing their placement is one of the factors that contribute to a comprehensive examination of rivals. Positioning is the manner in which clients describe the offered services and products, as well as the place it occupies in relation to other offerings (Armstrong & Kotler, 2009, p. 443). Accordingly, the positioning of eFocus can be inferred from the frequency with which the financial component is stated on the company's website. In this regard, the company's stance suggests that its motto could be "increase your sales at low cost."

GetUWired, a website that focuses in internet marketing for small businesses, is another contender (Lee Goff, 2010). Website creation is a component of internet marketing packages that also include content authoring, online marketing, logo design, and others. In this regard, the website promotes the creation of comprehensive marketing plans from scratch, which includes web development as one of the key components. The company's website expressly targets small businesses, while promoting itself as an all-in-one package supplier with a focus on client support and care. Being customer-focused can be viewed as an additional part of the company's positioning, where the "money back" guarantee, in the event that the consumer does not like the design, is one of the differentiating aspects.

Comparative Analysis of Competitive Advantage

A competitive advantage for a business is a marketing mix that is perceived by the target market as being superior to that of competitors. In this regard, this marketing mix should be built on a number of distinctions that contribute to the company's competitiveness. It is crucial for the business to choose the appropriate distinctions and their quantity. According to the analysis of competitors, Magnolia Web Studio's competitive advantages may include the following:

A duration of free support and updates. Uniqueness of artistically different designs. A discount for returning clients. Exclusive complimentary benefits, such as search engine optimization. Affordable pricing.

It is proposed that marketers should push only one customer benefit strongly (Kotler & Armstrong, 2008, p. 455). Several of these competitive advantages, such as competitive pricing and discounts, may be present in the company's offer, but they are not the primary emphasis of the company's advertising campaign. Examining competitors reveals that the first business, eFocus, provides a balance between pricing and the bare minimum of essential features. In the case of GetUWired, the emphasis is on marketing bundles, therefore artistry and visual presentation are not their primary strength. Therefore, the only competitive advantage that can be chosen is the production of distinctive, exclusive, and distinguishing artistic designs.

Values Proposition and Positioning Statement Development

The selected competitive advantage is merely one of the advantages upon which the company will be positioned; the whole positioning of a company, i.e. the full set of benefits upon which the product will be differentiated from competitors, is referred to as the value statement. The value statement is essentially the response to the question "Why should the customer purchase our product?" While other organizations offer functionality at a price comparable to that paid by small enterprises, Magnolia Web Studio will offer identifiable designs with a focus on the visual aspects of web development, which are characteristic of consumers from a higher market segment. Thus, the primary value proposition will be more for the same, giving quality comparable to categories with higher price points for the same cost (Kotler & Armstrong, 2008, p. 442).

The company's positioning statement will have the following form:

Magnolia Web Studio is a web development and design company that provides high-quality, exclusive designs that not only reflect the company's identity but also provide an identifiable and recognizable brand for your product or service to small business owners who need to develop a distinguishable and unique web design that reflects their products and services. Now, your small business may have a substantial online presence at an affordable price.

Conclusion: the identified sectors and target markets enabled for the creation of a marketing strategy that will set the company apart from its competitors. Consequently, the identification of the product's value proposition will enable the satisfaction of the needs of the specified target market segment.

Pricing Methodology

Although price has been disregarded in the marketing mix in comparison to product, place, and promotion, price is nonetheless significant because it symbolizes the company's revenue creation (Drummond & Ensor, 2005, p. 134). In this regard, it should be emphasized that the product's pricing is directly tied to the marketing mix because it is an integral aspect of the product's positioning. In the case of Magnolia Web Studio, the second statement is accurate, as pricing is a component of the value proposition. Price can be broadly described as the sum of all values that the client will exchange for the product's or service's benefits (Kotler & Armstrong, 2008, p. 639).

Several aspects should be taken into account when determining the pricing of a product, as described below.

Jumeirah Hotel’s Customer Relationship Management Aqa Unit 5 Biology Synoptic Essay Help

Table of Contents
Introduction Customer Service Profile for the Jumeirah Hotel Chain CRM Software for the Jumeirah Hotel Chain CRM Strategy for the Jumeirah Hotel Chain Works Cited

Introduction

Customer Relationship Management (CRM) continues to be a fundamental approach utilized by businesses worldwide in order to deliver high-quality customer service. Jumeirah, one of the most renowned hotel chains in the Middle East, is an excellent example of a company that provides guest relations services. The corporation is headquartered in the United Arab Emirates and operates a large number of premium hotels around the world.

In this paper, the benefits of the Jumeirah hotel chain's CRM strategy will be examined. In addition, the company's ideal customer service profile will be developed. In addition, a CRM strategy will be developed based on the company's mission and vision. At the conclusion of the essay, an organization-appropriate CRM software package will be described.

The Meaning of the Jumeirah Hotel Chain's CRM Strategy

It is challenging to overstate the significance of the CRM strategy for customer-centric businesses. The CRM approach necessitates a strong emphasis on key clients and the maintenance of beneficial relationships with them. In order to accomplish this, company executives must strengthen the coordination of customer-focused teams. They should give a "continuous stream of value-rich actions and customer outcomes" and invest the required resources to meet customers' critical needs (Alshourah et al. 234). Since the Jumeirah Hotel chain is a customer-focused business, its profit is dependent on the quantity of its customers. Profitability of the Jumeirah hotel chain is proportional to the number of individuals who utilize its services.

To achieve customer satisfaction, it is crucial that the senior management of the Jumeirah hotel chain adhere to the aforementioned CRM strategy's key components. It will provide the hotel chain with a number of benefits, including the prevention of customer churn, the attraction of new consumers, and the enhancement of services to meet customer demands. All of these advantages contribute to a rise in the hotel's sales and profits. It is also important to note that if all the described steps are completed, the organization has the opportunity to enhance its reputation. Reputation is the most important factor that clients consider when deciding which services to employ.

Customer Service Profile of the Organization

To further improve the company's CRM strategy, it is vital to develop the appropriate customer service profile. The customer service profile is a unique instrument that demonstrates an employee's suitability for a customer-facing position. An great profile for Jumeirah hotel would read: "Bilingual customer service specialist with excellent communication skills." Patient, educated in handling client complaints and giving appropriate problem resolutions."

Initially, this profile indicates that the individual is bilingual. The employees of the Jumeirah hotel chain must be fluent in both Arabic and English. They are able to serve customers from the Middle East who speak Arabic. All international clients can be served in the English language. Second, this profile highlights one of the most essential qualities a customer support representative must possess: communication. Communication skills assist the development of appropriate interactions between customers and the firm, which "creates interdependence and strengthens their relationships" (Makkar and Makkar 62).

Thirdly, the profile conveys that the specialist is capable of addressing issues and concerns that may arise during the job process. This is the most important staff characteristic since it "generates customer satisfaction, the ultimate goal of any customer care system" (Makkar and Makkar 11). Therefore, the profile offered is the most suitable candidate for the Jumeirah hotel network.

CRM Techniques for the Jumeirah Hotel Group

The Jumeirah hotel chain's most effective CRM strategy is its loyalty program and enhanced relationship management. The loyalty program entails the construction of a satisfying experience for customers, so that they become loyal to the organization's brand and services. It is vital because "a happy customer spreads the word and develops an emotional attachment to the services" (Makkar and Makkar 11).

It causes the appearance of new clients and an increase in the organization's earnings. In addition, the Jumeirah hotel network should create a number of customer loyalty programs. Loyalty programs "encourage repeat purchases and enrich the customer's relationship with the organization" (Makkar and Makkar 35). It is accomplished by reward schemes designed to retain existing consumers, such as membership programs that offer discounts on the company's services. It can also be accomplished "by providing a quality product with a warranty/guarantee" (Makkar and Makkar 73). These initiatives are the most effective means of preserving the company's market position.

Advanced relationship management refers to strategic relationship marketing, which entails maintaining clients through good communication and varied interactions. The technology "engages customers in repeated interactions, resulting in stronger ties" (Makkar and Makkar 12).

To thrive in the market, it is also crucial to compete with other businesses. Therefore, the business must be able to adapt to the ever-changing wants and requirements of its clients. Employees of the organization should collect information regarding the wants, wishes, requirements, and expectations of consumers and correlate it with the company's capabilities and core values. It enables the establishment of a solid relationship between the firm and clients (Makkar and Makkar 18). Therefore, the loyalty program and enhanced relationship management strategy is the optimal choice for the Jumeirah hotel chain's vision and objective.

CRM Programs

There are numerous CRM systems that assist managers with diverse company activities, such as customer data management, partner relationship maintenance, and employee training. Web-Interface is the most suitable CRM software for the Jumeirah hotel chain among those described in the e-book. Web-Interface is "the most cost-effective, convenient, and accessible interface between a company and its customers, employees, suppliers, and partners" (Makkar and Makkar 65).

Initially, it will enable the corporation to conduct online consultations with consumers regarding the hotel's services, facilities, and entertainment without any employee involvement. Second, it allows clients to book rooms, pay for services, and provide feedback and complaints online at their convenience. In addition, they will be able to read customer reviews and compare the services of the Jumeirah hotel with those of other hotels. It is also advantageous for the organization because workers no longer have to deal with hotel reservations, payments, or collecting complaints and criticism.

Consequently, it can be argued that the CRM technique is one of the most effective methods utilized in a variety of fields of study. It is particularly crucial for customer-centric businesses, such as the Jumeirah hotel chain, because it implies a strong focus on clients and the maintenance of valuable relationships with them. Therefore, it is vital for the Jumeirah hotel chain to adhere to the CRM strategy.

In order to ensure that employees are adhering to the company's core principles, the company's top management should exercise control over all departments and employees. In addition, while employing new employees, managers must pay close attention to the customer service profile, which summarizes the most important talents and competencies of experts.

It is highly suggested that the Jumeirah hotel chain hire bilingual individuals with excellent communication and problem-solving skills. The loyalty program and advanced relationship management are the finest CRM strategies for the Jumeirah hotel, as they boost customer happiness and brand loyalty. It is a significant aspect for the Jumeirah hotel since it helps obtain favorable feedback from loyal consumers, which in turn attracts new customers and enhances the company's earnings. In addition, it is vital to utilize contemporary technology that would greatly benefit the organization.

There are numerous software options that could be beneficial for the hotel. However, Web-Interface is the most important because it is an amazing customer support tool. It also saves money and time for the organization and its employees. Therefore, the organization must adhere to the strategies outlined in the article.

Sources Cited

However, Sultan et al. The International Journal of Advanced Research and Innovation, volume 6, issue 3, pages 233-239, 2018.

Makkar, Urvashi, and Harinder Makkar. Relationship Management with Clients (for Instructors). McGraw-Hill Education, 2019.

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The Emirates Airways Comprehensive Analysis Aqa Unit 5 Biology Synoptic Essay Help

Introduction

Emirates Airways is an airline corporation headquartered in the United Arab Emirates in the United Kingdom. This is a multinational firm with sub-branches in Dubai, the United States, and the entirety of Europe, among others. Emirates airline is one of the most established airlines, with the greatest number of flights to various places around the globe (Ackoff 32-67).

The goal and objectives of fly emirates airways

The objective of emirates airways is to secure employment for devoted, highly-motivated employees who will provide the greatest customer service with a smile. Moreover, the organization is focused on hiring the personnel that can provide clients with superior quality services (Boulding 122-165).

The primary objective of emirates airlines is to provide its customers with a pleasant, harmonious travel experience by attending to them attentively and hospitably. Specifically, the company seeks to provide its customers with the best air travel experiences in order to be competitive in the supply of air travel services (Anderla et.al. 189-199).

In general, the firm’s mission and vision are created on the premise that the company must strive to provide the greatest care for its customers; as the company’s strength comes in treating customers with real kindness and traditional Austrian charm (Ackoff 32-67).

The macroclimatic conditions of Emirates airways

Emirates Airways' external environment refers to the external variables outside the organization that affect its service delivery and normal operations; aimed towards attaining its aims and objectives. The PESTEL study incorporates these external elements that have an effect on the company's success (Anderla et. al. 189-199).

PESTEL elements encompass the Political, Economic, Social, Technological, Environmental, and Legal settings, which have a substantial impact on Emirates Airways' success. The political environment refers to the external environmental policies in various places, such as Dubai, which impact Emirates Airways Company's performance. Various Arab countries may establish policies banning the entry of other airlines into the country, limiting Emirates Airways' ability to travel to the various regions of the world where such regulations are enacted. The opening of previously restricted airways to entrance also provides additional market for the corporation, hence increasing its profits (Anderla et. al. 189-199).

The economic environment may also influence the company's performance in a variety of ways. Whether the economic conditions of other regions of the world, such as the Arab community, have had a significant impact on the success of the United Arab Emirates. If other regions of the world are economically developed, then the company would have more consumers since more people would be traveling from one country to another, so boosting the company's performance (Ackoff 32-67).

Social factors external to the organization may have an impact on its performance, given that they influence the social networks of many people around the globe. In this situation, people from different regions of the world are more socially connected; this would increase the mobility of people from one place to another, hence increasing the company's customer base (Anderla et. al. 189-199).

Technical advancement, on the other hand, will effect Emirates Airways' performance; in the case of worldwide technological advancement, the company's service delivery levels and efficiency will increase. Alternatively, if the global level of technology is excessively advanced, the management of the organization would be more effective due to the application of more sophisticated management approaches to the administration of its activities (Anderla et. al 189-199).

The environment, on the other hand, has a significant impact on the company's performance. The weather and other atmospheric circumstances will also play a significant impact in deciding the success of Emirates Airways Company. In the event that bad atmospheric circumstances restrict the movement of planes from one region to another, the company's performance would decline due to the restricted movement of its planes from one country to another, which would have a direct impact on its customer service (Ackoff 32-67).

Legal concerns also have a significant impact on Emirates Airways Company's performance. These are the prevalent and regulating legal conditions for airway services across the globe (Andela et. al. 189-199).

Applying the Five Rival Forces Model to the United Arab Emirates

The Emirates airways corporation is a participant in the airline industry, within which it faces a variety of functional boundaries. Emirates Airways is one of the very reputable airlines service providers in the market. In this regard, Emirates airways provides its customers with personal travel agencies and the greatest value packages, resulting in the company's leadership in the provision of frontier travels (Anderla et. al. 189-199).

The Emirates Airways Company is quite powerful in all five Rival Forces, which makes it a very competitive service provider. First, the company faces little threat from new competitors. The company's significant capital expenditure in the aviation business enables it to command a substantial share of the market (Ackoff 32-67).

The corporation, on the other hand, has effectively tackled the competitive intensity. In this sense, the corporation is intensely capable of competing with its rivals, preventing it from losing its market reputation. This is thanks to the company's competent management staff, who work ceaselessly to ensure the company's competitiveness (Andela et al.189-199).

The negotiating power of its clients is also effectively addressed by the Emirates Airways Company, which offers the most reasonable travel rates to its customers. In this regard, consumers are permitted to negotiate travel rates, which contributes to the company's client retention (Ackoff 32-67).

The Emirates Airways Company has also gained the bargaining power of the company's suppliers in an endeavor to sustain the supply of its inputs, so boosting the company's prosperity. Such inputs include planes, fuel for the planes, and other necessities for the successful operation of the business (Boulding 122-165).

Moreover, the threat of substitute products or services in the business has been taken into account by the company. The company has enhanced its services sufficiently to compete with any industry-wide substitute for travel services. This has been accomplished by employing more sophisticated methods in the delivery of its services (Ackoff 32-67).

SWOT analysis of Emirates Airways Company's internal and external environment

Several of the company's strengths make it very competitive in the airline sector. First, the organization has abundant cash resources, which increase its efficiency in providing services. The company's robust economic circumstances make it highly competitive in its industry, hence improving its wealth. The organization also has a highly effective management team that handles clients with respect and decency, thereby retaining them for the long term (Anderla et al 189-199).

Additionally, the company has a number of flaws that, to some extent, hinder its ability to reach its aims and objectives. Lack of sufficient market promoters for its services is one of the company's primary limitations, resulting in a restriction of its global reach in many regions. Additionally, the organization has other other problems that hinder its efficacy in providing services (Ackoff 32-67).

Additionally, the organization has numerous opportunities that contribute to its success in providing services to its customers. The company's greatest opportunity is that the majority of its rivals are not well-established and have inadequate capital resources compared to the Emirates Company. This enables the company to develop and be sufficiently competitive within its industry, hence boosting its wealth (Anderla et al. 189-199).

Finally, the Emirates airways corporation is confronted with a number of threats that appear to impede its long-term growth. As more information can be transferred electronically, fewer people are required to travel and move from place to place. As a result, fewer individuals move from one country to another, resulting in diminished markets for the company's services (Ackoff 32-67).

The value obtained along Emirates Airways' value chain

The Emirates Airways value chain comprises of numerous considerations that appear to impact the company's performance in the aviation business. First, the Qatar analysis is of the utmost importance, as it would entail the numerous possibilities; by which the application of several tangible frameworks, such as the stakeholders and the various inputs sources. This is the case since they are the company's tools and value chain strategies; geared toward increasing the efficiency of the company's service delivery (Anderla et al. 189-199).

Moreover, an examination of the airline business is essential for determining an analysis of the company's key competencies and the various elements that would contribute to Emirates Airways Company's performance. This would be done most appropriately in the SWOT analysis, where the company's strengths, weaknesses, opportunities, and threats are assessed in detail. In this instance, the corporation has devised a well-organized method for measuring its performance relative to other airlines in the industry in order to devise the most effective fight-back response; with the goal of gaining a larger market share (Anderla et al. 189-199).

Emirates Airways Company's marketing plan has been significantly enhanced as a result of the company's competitive advantage, which has resulted from the high level of tourism in the locations in which it operates, resulting in a robust marketing foundation for the company's services. The corporation has also taken clever marketing decisions to preserve its image despite the influx of new competitors. This is a long-term strategy for the Emirates Company that will ensure its success in the marketplace (Anderla et al. 189-199).

In order to attract and maintain customers, the business’s significant international manufacturers on the U.S. market continue to do a wonderful job by providing the firm with affordable, highly effective, fuel-efficient, and technologically advanced aircraft. This strong connection between Emirates Airways and the United States has greatly benefited the company due to its extensive clientele in international trade. Moreover, the strategic location of the firm's headquarters in Washington, D.C., in the United States has established a ready market for the services that the company provides to its airline sector clients (Anderla et al. 189-199).

Within the value chain of emirates Airways, several values are obtained; the company has a well-developed distribution channel for its services. One of the most valuable aspects of the company's supply chain is the well-established system for gaining and retaining customers, particularly those who frequently use Emirates Airways' services. The following are the suggested generic action strategies.

The corporation should create other unions in the industry that will contribute to its long-term growth. The organization should adopt methods for controlling its supply chain to increase its efficiency.

Conclusion

The Emirates Airways Company, as one of the leading airlines, faces the problem of global coordination of its services, which necessitates the use of cutting-edge technology in the administration of its services. This would significantly increase the company's performance, which has a direct impact on its success.

Bibliography

Redesigning the Future: A Systems Approach to Social Problems, by Rodgers Ackoff. 1974: 32-67, John Wiley & Sons, Inc., New York.

Anderla, Gregory, and Son Forge. "Chaos: An Agenda for Business and Society in the Twenty-First Century." 1997, Praeger Publishing, Westport, pp. 189-199.

Kritz Boulding, "The Significance of the 20th Century," 1964, Prentice-Hall, New York: 122-165.

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Inventory Management In Apple INC. Aqa Unit 5 Biology Synoptic Essay Help

Introduction

Apple Inc. is an American multinational firm that was founded in 1976 (O'Grady, 2009). Initially, the company was founded to market Apple's computer kit, which was offered as a motherboard. In subsequent years, the business began manufacturing entire computers to compete with Microsoft and IBM in the computing sector. Apple Inc., one of the largest telecommunications firms, has been conceived through a series of periods of failure and success. Apple Inc. is still a major player in the market for computer products, but it has shifted its focus to the mobile telephone industry.

Apple Inc.'s principal business is the design, production, and sale of mobile electronic products (O'Grady, 2009). Its success can be ascribed to an established supply chain management and an efficient inventory management system. Apple Inc. was selected based on the fact that despite its global existence, it has established and maintained a quality and effective inventory management system. The company's supply chain connects its producers, suppliers, small retailers, and customers. Apple Inc. has a vast distribution network that enables it to successfully reach clients worldwide. The company's global position necessitates highly efficient inventory management to ensure that its items reach customers and that distribution costs are kept to a minimum.

Inventory administration

Apple Inc. is one of the few corporations that has been able to maintain a high inventory turnover rate despite the declining economy in recent years (Bach, 2009). The company's phone products have gone global, necessitating a global distribution infrastructure. Apple Inc.'s inventory management is consequently not straightforward. The company controls its inventory using a well-established system of market research and surveying. Having current market and product movement data enables the organization to determine which things to ship, where, and when. By doing so, the company sends only the necessary products to a market.

Apple Inc. can reduce the expense of returning or transferring products from one market to another when they do not sell in one location by collecting sufficient market information on consumption levels and consumer preferences. Additionally, it reduces Apple Inc. the cost of holding products that are moving slowly in a particular market. Costs associated with damaged or stolen inventory, as well as time spent monitoring inventory, are minimized (Bach, 2009).

Apple Inc. maintains its inventories by producing the appropriate quantity of mobile electronic gadgets and other products. Proper inventory management necessitates maintenance of the appropriate variety and amount. A good inventory management system seeks to prevent a company from accumulating needless extra stock, which raises storage costs and may become obsolete if it remains in warehouses for too long. Apple Inc. wants to prevent this from occurring by keeping accurate records of what is already on the market, what is in storage, what is necessary, and when it is needed.

Since the majority of Apple Inc.'s production is outsourced, its inventory management system must be linked to the manufacturers in order to determine how much is produced and when. Supply chain managers can advise purchasing and sales managers regarding when reorders should and should not be placed. They also advise manufacturing organizations on what items should no longer be manufactured and which products require increased production levels.

Market research is an integral aspect of Apple's inventory management. It enables the firm to comprehend customer trends. For instance, people are more inclined to make purchases during the holiday season than at other times of the year. As a result, distributors will place additional orders, resulting in increased production and transportation. Understanding these trends makes it simple for Apple to adapt its production, purchasing, and sales strategies to the current market activity. Working closely with wholesalers and Apple's phone stores enables the company to have an accurate supply chain, as the retail stores provide information about markets.

Using inventory software, it is now feasible to manage inventory more efficiently thanks to modern technology. Apple Inc.'s consultants have developed software that enables the company seamless inventory management and control. "Apple Inc.'s inventory management technology enables a complete procure-to-pay process that provides a competitive advantage to the business" (Bach, 2009). As a result, the business has a comprehensive understanding of its suppliers and market activity. In addition, the system enables real-time updates of procurement, supply, demand, and market data.

Apple Inc. is able to manage its inventory with a clear perspective of expenses and profitability as a result of improved and updated inventory management systems (Bach, 2009). It has been able to automate its supply chain greatly and strengthen its interactions with the market, suppliers, partners, and even vendors. By increasing the satisfaction of distributors and eliminating the manual inventory management system, the company can save time, which leads to reduced expenses. Most significantly, it can successfully and efficiently address the needs of its clients.

Bibliography

Bach, B. (2009). Apple Inc. ramifications of enabling technologies Routledge, New York

O’Grady, J. (2009). Westport, Connecticut: Greenwood Press.

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Company Transformation Factors That Drive Success Aqa Unit 5 Biology Synoptic Essay Help

Summary of Contents
Introduction Human Aspects Discussion and Concluding Remarks Concerning Organizational Communication Culture References

Introduction

This paper is a summary of six publications by Ezzamel, Willmott, and Worthington (2001), Fleming and Spicer (2003), Orton (2000), Morrison and Milliken (2000), Piderit (2000), and Vince and Broussine (2000). (1996). The researchers investigated the elements that hinder (or facilitate) organizational change. This paper assesses their arguments and hypotheses using a three-pronged framework that describes their findings as organizational culture concerns, communication issues, and human factors (which affect organizational change). By bridging the gap between theory and experience, this research identifies novel insights for change management.

Human Aspects

According to Vince and Broussine (1996), the organizational focus in change management should shift from problem-solving and planning-based techniques to human emotions and interpersonal relationships. Specifically, they emphasize the necessity to comprehend how human uncertainty and defensiveness impact organizational transformation. According to Vince and Broussine (1996), human factors influence change management through influencing the acceptance of the change process by individuals.

In this analysis, we must examine multiple factors. For instance, change resistance is an attitude problem that most firms might resolve by appealing to human needs. Those who do so have a greater likelihood of obtaining staff support for change management. Faucheux (2013), for instance, tells the story of an American church (Jeff's Church) that intended to construct a new sanctuary for its worshippers but got complaints from some of its members for excluding them from the project.

The church resolved this issue by forming a steering committee that solicited input and participation from all church members. Eventually, the majority of members supported the project because they felt engaged in the process of transformation (Faucheux, 2013). This analysis demonstrates that focusing on people's emotions and interpersonal relationships, as Vince and Broussine (1996) emphasize, is essential to the success of organizational change.

Piderit (2000) supports the emphasis on human attitudes as a precondition for organizational change by arguing for a new approach to employee resistance. He asserts that people's attitudes influence their resistance to change (or support for it). In this context, Piderit (2000) asserts that achieving a balance between organizational and personal requirements will promote ambiguous attitudes about change. To achieve this, he suggested gaining an understanding of the evolution of employee resistance to change. Likewise, he underlined the need to comprehend how personnel react to proposed changes (using a bottom-up approach). He utilized this argument to describe the egalitarian transformation process (Piderit, 2000).

Communication

According to Morrison and Milliken (2000), the primary hindrance to organizational change is the failure of organizations to articulate the challenges that affect firm and employee performance. According to them, it is "unwise" for such firms to allow stakeholders to express organizational difficulties. They refer to this as "organizational silence" (Morrison & Milliken, 2000).

To encourage organizational change, the researchers researched the contextual elements that led to organizational change and proposed that removing these variables would promote change. This viewpoint is consistent with Faucheux's (2013) claims, which emphasized the need for managers to explain organizational change challenges to all stakeholders. In addition, he stated that the executive team must convince all stakeholders to support the change management process (Faucheux, 2013; Morrison & Milliken, 2000). Thus, personnel would comprehend the necessity of welcoming change. Such a strategy has been fruitful.

For instance, in 1981 British Airways hired a new manager who wished to restructure the company because he recognized that it was suffering from resource waste (Faucheux, 2013). The airline's staff was reduced as a result of his numerous reorganization efforts. However, before he did so, he informed all the organization's stakeholders of the necessity to restructure. This process geared employees up for the upcoming transformation. In the end, his efforts paid off, preventing the imminent collapse of the London-based airline (Faucheux, 2013).

Organization Culture

According to Fleming and Spicer (2003), subjectivity and power relations are significant elements in organizational change. These components largely comprise organizational culture. In this regard, Fleming and Spicer (2003) assert that the majority of employees who comprehend an organization's culture are likely to favor organizational change, but those who do not comprehend it hinder the process. The latter group does so due to feelings of isolation.

In addition, cynicism becomes a prevalent feature of their work performance. To describe this occurrence, Fleming & Spicer (2003) state, "We call this the ideology interpretation because power is reproduced inadvertently when one disidentifies with it" (p. 157). In general, Fleming and Spicer (2003) feel that cultural power has a significant effect on an organization's capacity to embrace change. Similarly, they assert that subjectivity impacts a company's adaptability (subjectivity might not necessarily come from within the organization). This fact also demonstrates that what many individuals may perceive as change-related frustrations may not necessarily be the case.

Orton (2000) utilized the aforementioned philosophy to illustrate how internal communications impact organizational design processes in the US intelligence community. On the basis of Weick's theory of organization development, he investigated the effect of three design assumptions on an organization's design process. According to his research, the organizational design process was constrained by dominant variables, causal laws, and executive directives (the three organization design assumptions) (Orton, 2000). Overall, Orton (2000) emphasized the necessity for companies to transition from simple to dependable architectures.

Ezzamel et al. (2001) have questioned the reason for employing new waves of management (as mentioned above) as the only prerequisite for re-engineering organizational processes. After analyzing the experiences of dissatisfied managers who attempted to re-engineer organizational processes, the researchers discovered that the majority of employees could easily deploy personal and collective forms of resistance to promote (or oppose) organizational change (Ezzamel et al., 2001). Although the authors recognize that external organizational variables, such as market shifts, play a role in organizational change, they assert that associating with prior working methods has a stronger effect on organizational change. Consequently, the authors acknowledge the importance of focusing on the impact of employee work experiences on organizational development.

Analysis and Conclusion

After reviewing the six studies featured in this paper, it becomes clear that organizational transformation is a dynamic and diverse subject. Human factors, communication, and organizational change emerge as the most significant elements influencing the process. As Ezzamel et al. (2001) note, despite the fact that many types of literature acknowledge the need for adopting modern change management paradigms, such as lean management, it is equally important to recognize the role that an employee's experience plays in shaping his resistance (or support) to the change management process.

Therefore, change management should concentrate on getting the "human aspect" correct before addressing other crucial concerns, such as communication and organizational culture. This study emphasizes the importance of a multidimensional approach to change management. In addition, it emphasizes the importance of combining past and present organizational requirements while designing future organizational processes.

References

The authors Ezzamel, Willmott, and Worthington are M. Ezzamel, H. Willmott, and F. Worthington (2001). In The Factory That Time Forgot, there is power, control, and opposition. 38(8), 1053-1079, Journal of Management Studies.

Faucheux, M. (2013). Successful Change Management Plan Examples Web.

P. Fleming and A. Spicer (2003). Implications of Working at a Cynical Distance for Power, Subjectivity, and Resistance. 10(1), 157-179, Organization.

Morrison, E. W., & Milliken, F. J. (2000). In a pluralistic world, organizational silence is an obstacle to change and growth. 25(4), pages 706-725, Academy of Management Review

Orton, J. D. (2000). Enactment, Sensemaking, and Decision Making: Redesign Processes in the US Intelligence Reorganization of 1976 37(2) Journal of Management Studies.

Piderit, S. K. (2000). A Multidimensional View of Organizational Change Attitudes: Rethinking Resistance and Recognizing Ambivalence The Academy of Management Review, volume 25, number 4, pages 783-794.

R. Vince and M. Broussine (1996). Accessing and Managing the Emotions and Relationships Underlying Organizational Change: Paradox, Defense, and Attachment 17(1) Organization Studies, pp. 1-21.

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Just-in-Time And Manufacturing Resource Planning Aqa Unit 5 Biology Synoptic Essay Help

This research study will examine the just-in-time and manufacturing resource planning inventory systems. Their disadvantages and benefits would also be contrasted to demonstrate the superiority of one inventory method over another. The APICs have defined Management Resource Planning (MRPII) as a technique that enables effective manufacturing firm planning. Ideal conditions exist when this system is used to address all operations; planning units, financial planning, and even a financial stimulation to address "what-if" scenarios and the expansion of the closed-loop.

This system does not qualify as a software function. It is a blend of people skills, database accuracy commitment, and computing resources. However, it is a management idea that enables the organization to utilize human resources more efficiently. Almost all of these systems have a modular design. Included are the Mater Production schedule, Item Master data, Bill of materials, Production Resources data, Inventories and Orders, Material Requirement Planning, Shop Floor Control, Capacity planning, Standard costing, Cost management, and Distribution resource planning, among others.

In addition, it contains a number of auxiliary systems, such as Business planning, Lot traceability, contract management, Tool Management, Engineering Change Control, Configuration Management, etc. Related systems including general ledger, Accounts Payable, Sales Order Management, and Project Management, among others. These modules facilitate the sharing of data and information are incorporated into MRP II. Consequently, it differs from the point solution strategy, in which individual solutions are utilized to assist a business undertaking. This system is fully integrated and interfaced by its own definition. (Davenport 1993).

The just-in-time inventory system is another sort of inventory system. It improves the return on investment by decreasing the processing time and carrying expenses connected with inventories. To achieve this type of inventory system, the process must contain signal devices that can relate to events occurring elsewhere. After deploying this just-in-time inventory system, the organization's return on investment, the reason for having such a system in the first place, can be significantly enhanced.

According to others, just-in-time would be a more appropriate term for this inventory system, as it emphasizes the importance of stock arriving "on time." A crucial element of such a system is the rapid consumption of the prior supply, which will serve as a trigger. This allows the organization to save on warehouse space and expenses. The notion that previous demand dictates stock levels can be problematic. Therefore, fluctuations in demand might have a negative impact on existing supply levels, causing them to deplete more rapidly than usual and affecting customer service.

To compare and contrast these two inventory management systems, the strengths and downsides must be evaluated. A corporation that employs the MRP II system can take advantage of a number of its benefits. It results in improved inventory management, enhanced scheduling, and productive partnerships with suppliers. This inventory method can result in improved design and quality control from an engineering and design perspective.

In terms of financial planning and costing, the benefits include a reduction in working capital for inventory, an increase in cash flow due to faster deliveries, accurate inventory records, and timely and accurate cost and profitability data.

A just-in-time inventory system has the advantage of reducing setup time in the plant, resulting in more efficient output. Additionally, the emphasis time allocated to other areas would rise. Consequently, the volume of products leaving the warehouse increases. These employees make advantage of more efficient and versatile talents, as well as more consistent scheduling and work hours. There is a heightened emphasis on the relationships between suppliers because no business would want a break in the inventory system, which would result in a lack of available inventory supplies. Lastly, supply would continue around-the-clock, ensuring that employees remain fertile and attentive to the turnover.

As demonstrated in the preceding section, both systems have major advantages associated with their implementation. After examining the disadvantages, it is possible to determine which system is more viable. A fundamental concern with the just-in-time inventory system leaves the supplier and downstream consumers vulnerable to supply shocks and huge changes in demand and supply shocks. Consequently, this inventory system is merely a solution to an inventory crisis, not the crisis itself.

Integrity of the data is a significant issue with the MRP II system. As a result of the inventory data problems, the outputted data will also be impacted. The need for a user to specify how long it would take a manufacturer to manufacture a product is a significant drawback of this approach. Additionally, the design of the system assumes that the lead times for each type of manufactured commodity are same.

Therefore, the MRP assumption that no resources are required is of little use to the corporation, which has manufacturing plans in multiple nations, because the materials are already available thousands of miles away. Parts must be booked in and out significantly more frequently than the MRP calculations allow. In order to successfully adopt the MRP system, other systems within the firm will need to be modified.

This inventory system does not account for capacity in its computations, which is an additional significant flaw. The MRP II necessitates variations in the projected data, as well as simulation of the master production schedule, hence establishing long-term management.

Thus, both systems have their own advantages and disadvantages, and the type of system that is best for a firm depends on its needs, product, and even geography.

Benchmarking Technique is a method by which an organization compares and contrasts itself with other organizations that have established industry standards. Therefore, significant differences between the company and the organization that sets the trend are examined and remedied. Various firms employ this method of strategic management to compare their performance to that of the greatest practitioners. In certain instances, it can be viewed as a one-time event; however, in the majority of cases, corporations view it as an ongoing process through which they strive to continuously enhance their performance.

In addition to process, financial, performance, product, and strategic benchmarking, there are also functional benchmarking methodologies. Process benchmarking is a technique that enables a company to concentrate its study on identifying and observing the best practices of one or more benchmarking organizations. In this instance, activity analysis will be required for cost and efficiency benchmarking. Financial Benchmarking is doing a financial study in order to evaluate the competitiveness of a company.

Performance benchmarking enables the company to analyze its performance by comparing its products and services to those of the benchmarking companies. Product benchmarking entails the design of new products and the improvement of existing ones. Strategic benchmarking varies because it compares how competitors compete. Since it is not industry-specific, it can also be applied to other industries. Functional benchmarking entails concentrating the benchmarking technique on a specific function in order to enhance the performance of that function.

In order for a company like Adidas to establish itself as a notable rival against Nike, Puma, etc., it will need to benchmark itself against these competitors. Such an examination may incorporate two benchmarking methods, such as Performance and Product benchmarking. Through the performance study, Nike can determine if its items are superior to others currently on the market. If the disparity in quality is significant, Adidas will need to assess and develop its items accordingly to improve its performance. Regarding product benchmarking, Adidas will need to determine if the items must be upgraded or if new products must be developed to match industry standards.

Business Process engineering is a technique that tries to improve the efficiency and effectiveness of processes within and across an organization by increasing their efficiency and effectiveness. Importantly, the observations must be conducted from a fresh and objective vantage point, providing for an unbiased assessment of how the organization performs its activities.

The diagrams below will be used to illustrate the concept of business process engineering. Considering two instances of object interaction, the following diagram could be constructed:

If orders were regarded a part of the production process, it has been found that the amount of stockouts would be reduced without the need for actual overstocking. A customer survey revealed that clients could often tolerate a lead time of up to two weeks before the actual delivery date.

A revised version of the two-object interaction can be constructed as follows:

It has been observed that if the behavior and interactions of the individual items were altered, the production line would be able to achieve maximum output. In reality, if the production schedule is altered even little, orders can still be fulfilled. In this instance, replenishment can be avoided. In other instances, additional inventory of certain lines may be necessary to fulfill requests.

However, the fundamental operating structure of the business will not be drastically altered. In the event of the manufacture of chemicals in bulk, this may be conceivable. If we were to source some goods from a different provider, the following diagram would apply:

However, it can be noticed that the corporation is doing just what it would if it were designing software. In this instance, the commodities are tangible.

Quality is the degree of excellence of goods and services for individuals and populations that leads to consumer satisfaction. Quality improvement initiatives such as zero defects, quality circles, etc., are seen essential since quality increases the utility of a product or service. In addition, it guarantees that projects are future-proof by making quality assurance, documentation, and processes meaningful.

A statistician from the United States made a significant impact on Statistical Process Control and Total Quality Management. He established fourteen management principles that allowed the Japanese to attain efficiency. These fourteen ideas might be rather beneficial for a firm like Nestle in terms of increasing its efficiency. Nestle will be able to replace short-term planning with long-term planning if the first criterion of ensuring consistency of purpose and continuous development is achieved. Workers and management would adhere to a single system if they adopted the new Japanese ideology. According to a different philosophy, quality would no longer rely on inspection but would be integrated into the product and process.

Nestle would be able to prioritize quality suppliers above low-cost suppliers, hence minimizing raw material and supply fluctuation. By instituting a reduction in all areas, the organization would be able to improve continuously. On-the-job training will be conducted for both management and employees. Proper leadership would be in place not only to accomplish objectives, but also to improve productivity. With a two-way communication network, Nestle would be able to alleviate employees' fear and urge them to work in the company's best interest. Internal barriers would be eliminated, and departments would operate as a single entity.

Any slogans that would result in a negative environment would be abolished, as it would be understood that processes, not people, are responsible for errors. The elimination of numerical targets in favor of MBOs would help Nestle increase employee happiness. Effectively removing all obstacles to employee pleasure would allow motivation to rise. Self-development and education for all would be encouraged at Nestle, and most crucially, all employees and management would be held accountable for the continuous improvement of quality and output.

In operations management, the transformation process is the use of resources to alter the character of something in order to produce output. In order to achieve the intended level of output, it is essential that the quality of inputs be continuously assessed, and that the actual output be compared to the desired output. In certain instances, this process might occur in a random environment and can therefore be unexpected.

Operations Management applies the aforementioned idea by systematically directing and controlling the processes that transform inputs into outputs. In the case of large enterprises, operations is a sizable functional area staffed by specialized personnel; it is as significant as its effect on customer satisfaction. Operations Management incorporates the transformation paradigm by reforming the system's design and management to transform products and services. Therefore, operation managers must contribute to all actions that may entail the supply of goods or services. These managers have a wide variety of tasks, ranging from managing the operations process through design, planning, control, performance management, and operations strategy. Decision-making is a major responsibility of all operations managers and must occur during the system's design, management, and enhancement. Therefore, these managers must adopt a transformational strategy in order to obtain the intended results from their varied decisions.

Order Winners and Order Qualifiers is a Terry Hill-created methodology that refers to the transformation of internal operational skills into criteria that can lead to a competitive advantage and market success. The individuals responsible for supplying the order-winning and order-qualifying criteria enable the market-winning of items. An order qualification is a characteristic of a product or service that is necessary for a consumer to consider a product or service. An order winner can be classified as a bid-enhancing attribute. Nestle is an organization that might be used to highlight these concepts. Consequently, Nestle would be required to give qualifiers in order to establish itself on the market and even maintain its presence on the market. If qualifiers are offered, they must be comparable to the competition or sales will be lost.

Additionally, Nestle would need to exercise discretion when making selections based on order qualifiers and winners. Order winners and qualifiers are market- and time-specific, as they function in different combinations for different customers and markets. Therefore, Nestle would need to establish a variety of marketing strategies to satisfy the ever-changing marketing requirements. A “fit” exists between the two views if Nestlé’s perception of the order winners and qualifiers corresponds to that of the customers. In actuality, this is a rare occurrence. The sales performance is positively impacted when there is a good fit, as is the case with Nestle, which has modified its products to attract a good market.

Dell created a dynamic business model that enabled the corporation to sell custom-built systems at competitive costs directly to customers. This technique enabled Dell to become a prominent provider of servers. Under this new approach, the corporation retains less inventory and reacts rapidly to consumer orders. Therefore, a reliable supplier communication system must be in place to match customer criteria.

The deployment of the Dell Sales ODS custom application, which covers the customer-facing element of the process, has enabled the continuation of this successful policy. This procedure transformed the value chain system, including consumer satisfaction.

This technique enables sales professionals to quote, order, and offer customer information during direct client contact. It enables the organization to collaborate with the client to enter accurate orders into the system and to keep the consumer informed throughout the process. Thus, response is enhanced, resulting in higher client satisfaction and sales.

Oracle 9i made it possible for the organization to run a single database across a cluster of Dell servers, hence enhancing the overall availability. In addition, Dell incorporated a configuration system that enabled the client to have a comprehensive solution, lowering risk and streamlining installation. The concept of system failure was eliminated, and the breakdown of individual servers was also addressed. Due to the usage of industry-standard servers and a tried-and-true setup, future upgrades and continuing management were easier and less costly.

In order to match the capacity with the level of external demand, numerous strategic options, including revenue, costs, technologies, volumes, markets, acquisitions, sourcing decisions, capital equipment, and growth decisions, are examined for capacity planning.

Outsourcing is described as the subcontracting of product design and manufacturing to a third party. It was frequently done to decrease costs and maximize efficiency. It also involves the transfer of management and the implementation of an entire business area on a daily basis. The client and the supplier execute the contractual agreement, and the means of production are transferred. Typically outsourced segments include technology, human resources, customer service, accounting, etc.

Reasons for engaging in this pastime are highly compelling. They range from cost reduction to cost limitation. Through outsourcing, the company can achieve a balanced operating leverage ratio and more predictable variable costs. By means of a legal contract, the degree of quality rises, crucial information is shared, and services are rendered. Additionally, operational expenses are significantly reduced, a broader pool of human resources is accessible, and as a result, a more sustainable source of capabilities is available. When the provider assumes the risk of excess capacity, a more effective technique of capacity management is implemented. The greater creation of products is accomplished by introducing more capability, a broader variety of enterprises now have access to services that were previously only available to major corporations, and risk management standards can be implemented effectively.

However, there are a number of disadvantages to this process, including the public's perception that it harms the local labor market because all skilled labor is outsourced, the failure of outsourcing to deliver the promised business value to the client, the presence of language barriers, and the exploitation of lower-paid workers in areas where outsourcing is used to fill lower-paying jobs. In certain contracts, the quality of the service is not specified, which becomes a concern for the client in the future. Since there are numerous parties involved, it is difficult to arrive at a consensus regarding quality. The number of employees being outsourced is also questionable, as it may result in a decline in the quality of workers at existing companies. It can also lead to communication problems for the transferred employees, as they may no longer have access to the same data.

In certain instances, the qualifications of the outsourcers are dubious. The real productivity of a company may suffer as a result of this behavior, as firms may wind up hiring unproductive workers. The laborers may also feel exploited, particularly if they are dispatched to lower-quality work sites. When employees are outsourced, they are no longer subject to the same rules and regulations, and as a result, legal and security issues may occur.

Kaizen is a technique that emphasizes continual improvement across the entire life cycle of a product. This approach results in the enhancement of operations such as manufacturing and management, and the reduction of waste through the standardization of processes. Initially introduced in Japan, it has since been used in numerous enterprises across the globe.

It is a daily activity whose purpose extends beyond the basic boost of productivity. It results in the humanization of the workplace by training employees how to identify and reduce waste. Individuals and even big groups can participate in this process, which is open to all management levels. This procedure entails making modifications and monitoring the resulting adjustments.

Business Process Engineering is an entirely different perspective, as it focuses on enhancing the organization's existing levels of efficiency and effectiveness rather than reducing waste. According to this method, everything must be evaluated objectively; therefore, it is extremely distinct from Kaizen, which engages the entire management workforce.

The idea of constraints is a philosophy that assists organizations in achieving their objectives. It is accomplished by the use of a few processes, logic tools, and applications to the necessary areas.

According to this notion, every business faces internal or external constraints at some point. As time passes, the constraint may change, necessitating a new analysis. The solution engages the materials throughout the system, and its major way for doing so is a waste-free procedure. As a result, the Kaizen process is applicable since, according to the limitations theory, waste is reduced. Therefore, the Kaizen concept is integral to the application of this idea. This theory also employs the business engineering principle, as it seeks to both eliminate waste and increase efficiency. Thus, both of the above-mentioned principles can be utilized successfully through the application of such a theory.

The just-in-time method is a production organization strategy that reduces waste by supplying components only when required by the assembly process. This technology is generally utilized for manufacturing processes with a high volume of repeated flow. This approach aims to accelerate customer answers while simultaneously minimizing minimum inventory levels. This can be accomplished by a smaller inventory, smaller production lots and batch sizes, a more stringent quality control system, a decrease in complexity and transparency, a flat organizational structure and delegating, and a reduction in waste.

Bibliography

The Toyota Way: 14 Management Principles from the World's Largest Manufacturer, by Jeffrey Liker.

Ohno, Taiichi, "The Toyota Production System: Beyond Mass Production," 1898.

National Academy of Public Administration, Norwood et al., "Off-Shoring: An Elusive Phenomenon," 2006

2005. Babu, M. "Myth: Every Outsourcing Is Offshoring." Web.

Moffitt Associates, 2008. Cooper, Mary Pat. "Kaizen Sketchbook: A Comprehensive Illustrated Field Guide to Kaizen."

Thomas Davenport, "Process Innovation: Reengineering Work Through Information Technology," Harvard Business Press, Boston, 1993.

Classification of Model Transformation Approaches. In: Proceedings of the OOPSLA'03 Workshop on Generative Techniques in the Context of Model-Driven Architecture. Czarnecki, K., and S. Helsen. USA, California, Anaheim

Boone, Louis E., and David L. Kurtz, "Contemporary Business 2006", The company Thomson South-Western.

Camp, R. (1989). The hunt for best practices in the industry that contribute to exceptional performance.

Michael Dell and Catherine Fredman published "Direct from DELL" in 1999. HarperCollins, pg. 13.

Monk, E., and B. Wagner. "Enterprise Resource Planning Concepts." Second Edition, edited by Mac Mendelsohn, published in Canada by Thomson Course Technology.

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Creative Accounting And Normative Accounting Aqa Unit 5 Biology Synoptic Essay Help

Introduction

Accounting is one of the primary functions of every organization. There is no standard method for firms to produce their books of accounts; rather, each firm develops its own conceptual framework in accordance with the International Accounting Standards (IAS), the International Financial Reporting Standards (IFRS), and any other applicable accounting standards. The methodologies used by a business to compile its financial statements depend on the business's industry, environment, and other variables.

This allows a great deal of space for manipulating a company's financial status and performance to appear more accurate. This misinformation affects the decisions of investors, creditors, shareholders, and other company stakeholders. Creative accounting is the subjective application of accounting norms and principles to present a healthier financial position than actually exists. This can be accomplished without violating any rules or regulations (Mulford, 2002).

Why Creative Accounting Is Usually Not Evident Until After a Business Begins to Struggle

Differentiation of Functions

The accounting function of a business is exclusively responsible for preparing a company's accounting records. In a modern organizational structure, the corporation is subdivided into specialized functional divisions, each with its own employees supervised by a department manager. The firm's accountants will therefore report to the accounting department. This grouping provides no interdepartmental checks and balances because internal communication is straightforward.

In addition, workers from other departments may lack the expertise to detect creative accounting, and what the accounting department offers cannot be contested. Internal collaboration to mislead auditors and investigators in order to conceal any sort of misrepresentation is very simple to achieve. Despite the fact that HIH's auditors bypassed the CEO and consulted with audit committee members, it is possible that both the audit committee members and the CEO are reading from the same script.

a number of Accounting standards Policies and Guidelines

In addition to internationally recognized accounting standards, the accounting profession is governed by national regulatory agencies. Accountants are able to select the standards and guidelines that best fit them and avoid those that would negatively reflect on their financial statement due to the existence of several standards and guidelines. The accounting structure is subjectively tailored to benefit the company. Therefore, creative accounting can be performed without violating any regulations.

This makes it difficult for stakeholders and auditors to identify wrongdoing until the company is in jeopardy. In the case of HIH, they employed an off-item to inflate the goodwill of the purchased subsidiary FAI in 1998 without raising any red flags. In 2002, the finance director was called and he admitted to the wrongdoing. (Shiliu, 2002)

The makeup of the auditing profession

Auditors' primary role is to render a judgment on the veracity and accuracy of a company's financial accounts. They are also responsible for advising the organization and making recommendations regarding the accounting and other systems they think required. Since creative accounting utilizes standard accounting techniques, it is difficult for auditors to discover it.

Even if they did exist, auditing rules for creative accounting are superficial. Auditors have no choice but to accept the accounts and make suggestions that may or may not be implemented. Therefore, auditors lack teeth when it comes to creative accounting issues; consequently, accounts are approved only to be questioned when problems arise. Similar to HIH, the accounts were ratified and suggestions were made, however the company disregarded these recommendations.

Accounting Complicatedness

Accounting is a highly technical field that requires years of study and practice to fully comprehend. Therefore, it is simple for accountants to deceive other stakeholders through creative accounting, as they lack the knowledge to distinguish between accounts that provide a truthful view and those that have been modified creatively. Additionally, auditors might be readily duped into approving the financial statements. When anything goes wrong and a thorough inquiry is conducted, the truth is revealed.

Does Unexpected Corporate Failure Suggest Limitations in Auditors' and Regulators' Roles?

The instance of HIH revealed unequivocally that an auditor's clearance does not guarantee that the company's financial statements are accurate and honest. HIH failed as a result of the auditor's inability to authoritatively point out creative accounting and set rules for the modification of accounting practice. Auditors are incapable of dealing with creative accounting effectively enough to prevent the potential demise of a company due to the limits of their roles.

Major Limitations

The typical accounting cycle is one year. Auditors examine a company's account after the financial statement has been prepared. The majority of audit work is completed within a time that is shorter than the accounting term. Therefore, the auditor lacks sufficient time to educate himself with the firm's background, historical, and industrial information in order to distinguish between creative accounting and proper accounting practice.

Auditors are governed by International Auditing Standards, which do not equip them with sufficient authority to combat creative accounting in a manner that can prevent future failures. As with HIH, auditors are restricted to making recommendations that may be missed. The company's management can readily compromise the auditors' independence. Despite the establishment of the audit committee, which exists to safeguard the auditors' independence, managers can nonetheless influence an auditor's conclusion. Similar to the instance with the CEO of HIH Business, the management may tarnish the auditors' reputation or even argue for their removal as company auditors. The auditor's objectivity may be compromised if he or she fears losing business by being overly harsh.

Due to cost and time constraints, audits are typically conducted on a sampling basis. Only a sampling of the accounts and practices of the company are audited. Since the majority of audits are not exhaustive, the occurrence of sample errors limits an auditor's ability to determine the truth and fairness of financial statements.

Accounting estimates are a component of generally accepted accounting principles. Accountants provide subjective estimates for the organization. It is challenging for an auditor to verify the accuracy of some estimates. These estimations can be easily adjusted to reflect a more accurate financial situation of the organization (Mulford, 2002).

What Solutions Can Normative Accounting Theories Provide for Creative Accounting Problems?

Using HIH as a case study, we may identify the issues associated with creative accounting and the conditions under which it thrives.

Issues with Creative Accounting

Creative account is difficult to recognize and counter because it can be executed without violating restrictions. As in the case of HIH, auditors have the ability to approve creatively constructed accounting, which may have negative consequences for the company in the future.

As has been discussed and is evident in the instance of HIH, creative accounts are identified only when the organization is experiencing difficulties. In most cases, this is too little, too late, since the damage has devastating financial and reputational ramifications on the organization.

Creative accounting influences the decisions of shareholders, investors, and lenders, who, as a result of misleading financial statements, make the incorrect choice and incur losses.

The primary cause of the HIH insurance company's demise was creative accounting, which decreased the company's losses in order to depict a healthier financial condition. Short-term benefits may result from clever accounting, but the long-term implications are typically catastrophic. (Shiliu, 2002)

Resolutions for Normative Theory

Normative accounting theory acknowledges that every business has distinct accounting requirements. It employs a variety of techniques to develop accounting processes that are optimal for a business. Due to the fact that normative accounting is not dependent on the observation of what other firms in the industry are doing, it can be used to address the issues of creative accounting.

A company can establish an objective accounting system using normative accounting. This framework, if fully adhered to, restricts the use of only advantageous accounting methods. Since normative accounting theory acknowledges industry-specific characteristics, the auditor will be able to determine whether or not the procedures are appropriate. The auditor will concentrate on the industry, so it will be simple to determine whether the company is departing from industry standards.

Instead of relying solely on observations, normative accounting establishes the optimum accounting techniques through extensive research. As a result, the corporation cannot exaggerate estimates to reduce losses, as the usual method for calculating estimates shall be specified. Normative accounting theory distinguishes between firm-appropriate accounting practices and those that are inappropriate. A departure from the established procedures should be considered an attempt at creative accounting.

Bibliography

Financial Numbers Game: Detecting Creative Accounting Practice, by E. C. Mulford. Library of Congress Cataloging In Duplication Data, New York.

H. Shiliu (2002). Financial Swindles. New York: Macgraw-Hill Commercial.

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Culture As An Important Element For Organizational Success Aqa Unit 5 Biology Synoptic Essay Help

Table of Contents
Culture in the Business/Construction Sector Culture and expectations about H, S, and W in projects Examples Conclusion References

Culture in the Commercial/Construction Sector

"The culture of an organization consists of the set of values, beliefs, assumptions, principles, myths, legends, and norms that define how people think, decide, and behave" (Understanding Organizational Culture, p. 1) Schein (1985, p. 6) defines culture as;

"The pattern of basic assumptions that a given group has invented, discovered, or developed in order to learn to cope with its problems of external adaptation and internal integration, and that has worked well enough to be considered valid and therefore to be taught to new members as the correct way to perceive, think, and feel about these problems."

When addressing the health, safety, and well-being of construction industry employees, culture is an essential factor for organizational performance (Understanding Organizational Culture 2001, p.1). According to the publication Understanding Organizational Culture (2001), the four organizational components, which encompass the physical characteristics of an organization, must incorporate a cultural element. These include the infrastructure of an organization, which consists of organizational structures and procedures, human and organizational behavior, and the organization's culture. The article Understanding Organizational Culture (2001) defines culture as the individual and organizational values, beliefs, norms, and related assumptions that distinguish and identify persons and organizations.

According to Brockmann and Birkholz (1999), the construction industry's culture is integrated in the organic structure of an organization with distinct management levels. Brockmann and Birkholz (1999) distinguish two types of culture in the construction industry: head culture and project culture. In contrast to Brockmann and Birkholz (1999), Hofstede (1998) views culture as a result-oriented endeavor. Brockmann and Birkholz (1999) assert that neither culture is well-defined in the construction industry, and there is a lack of understanding regarding company philosophy in projects. Hofstede (1998) states that construction sector culture varies in terms of process versus outcome oriented, organizational versus professional characteristics, weak versus strong where prices are thought irrelevant, meetings not beginning on time, and practical jokes concerning business work. According to Hofstede (1998), for the safety, health, and welfare of construction workers, an organization's culture is a crucial factor that must be accepted.

Project culture and expectations around H, S, and W

Given the difficulties faced by workers in the construction sector, a culture of health, safety, and welfare is essential. Compared to other industries, the construction business has a high incidence of injuries. In addition to the conditions under which construction work is performed, this is required. These situations are detrimental to worker health and safety. The majority of construction work is performed in the open air, under varying weather conditions, and in the vast majority of cases, workers must constantly interact with one another. Moreover, construction activity is characterized by the continual movement of workers between locations. Consequently, a strategy framework must exist for integrating culture into housing, healthcare, and employee welfare. These ideals must exist on both an individual and organizational level. "The majority of accidents indicate that the construction industry is unique, involving human behavior, different construction sites, the difficulties of work, an unsafe safety culture, dangerous machinery and equipment, and involvement in numerous procedures" (2007, p.1).

In addition, "studies indicate that accidents and injuries on the job are the result of the behavior, work practices, or behavior and work culture of workers" (Misnan, Skudai, Mohammed, & Utm 2007, p.1). The research also confirms that:

"Safety and health culture have a stronger relationship with workers' safety practices" (Misnan, Skudai, Mohammed, and Utm 2007, p.1).

Consequently, the welfare, safety, and housing of construction workers play a crucial role in fostering organizational and individual culture. This assessment and inculcation inside the individual and the company give an ideal cultural fit, making employees more adaptable to varying construction sites and enhancing employee interactions with management. Organizations can only grow if they are successful, and company executives can only achieve organizational goals and objectives if they establish a culture of concern for the housing, safety, and welfare of their employees. According to Coffey (2010), the culture of a corporate organization is manifested in the manner in which employees do business and the interactions between managers and employees. Consequently, when a strong culture is integrated into an organizational context, the language workers speak, everyday work routines, and how workers interact with one another reveal the behavior of employees within those organizations. According to research, company leaders can only integrate culture into the housing, health, and welfare of employees through an educational process. This could be based on the incentive individuals receive when a corporate organization appears to value the contributions of its employees in attaining its goals and objectives. This award may consist of introducing a cultural aspect into the construction business by taking into account the nature of the labor in that industry.

Examples

The construction sector is strongly motivated by its culture. When considering the health, safety, and welfare of workers who operate in various contexts, business executives, like those in all other industries, believe it necessary to include it. There are numerous instances of cultural integration in the building sector. When addressing the health, safety, and welfare of construction workers, Mandell (2005) gives a plethora of instances demonstrating the necessity of incorporating culture. As an example, consider the performing arts center. Mandell (2005, p.1) argues that "Lincoln Center was the first campus of its kind to demonstrate the power of culture as urban renewal, and it has been imitated by cities across the country, albeit to varying degrees of success." In addition, McDonald and Hrymak (2005) provide several instances of fatal injuries in the construction business. McDonald and Hrymak (2005) state that hundreds of thousands of Americans and Europeans sustain injuries annually. In addition, the health of workers is of the utmost importance given the nature of the labor they perform in this business.

Conclusion

It is clear from the preceding explanation that culture, the driving force behind successful organizations, is a factor that can be incorporated into both the individual and the organization. According to the paper, organizations in the building business must integrate culture while considering housing, safety, and welfare. The reported occurrence of severe injuries and occasionally fatalities as a result of the sort of work performed in the construction industry demonstrates the need for company executives to initiate and integrate the crucial aspect of culture into companies and individuals. Culture is not visible, but becomes apparent through the interactions of employees in their everyday tasks and the attachment they acquire to an organization that gives them a sense of belonging.

References

Brockmann, C. Birkholz, A., 1999. Industry Culture in Manufacturing and Construction [online]. Web.

Understanding Organizational Culture in the Construction Industry, by V. Coffey, 2010 [online]. Web.

Hofstede, G. 1998. Masculinity and Femininity: the taboo component of national cultures, Sage Publications, Thousand Oaks.

Web. Mandell, J. (2005). Culture and Construction: Arts.

Neither McDonald nor Hrymak (2005). Health and Safety Authority Construction Industry Safety Behaviour [online]. Web.

Misnan, M.S., Skudai, J., Mohammed, A.H., & Utm, S. J., 2007. A Framework for the Development of Safety Culture in the Construction Industry Web.

Schein, E 1985. Understanding Organizational Culture and Leadership, published by Jossey-Bass in San Francisco. Web.

[supanova question]

Culture As An Important Element For Organizational Success Aqa Unit 5 Biology Synoptic Essay Help

Table of Contents
Culture in the Business/Construction Sector Culture and expectations about H, S, and W in projects Examples Conclusion References

Culture in the Commercial/Construction Sector

"The culture of an organization consists of the set of values, beliefs, assumptions, principles, myths, legends, and norms that define how people think, decide, and behave" (Understanding Organizational Culture, p. 1) Schein (1985, p. 6) defines culture as;

"The pattern of basic assumptions that a given group has invented, discovered, or developed in order to learn to cope with its problems of external adaptation and internal integration, and that has worked well enough to be considered valid and therefore to be taught to new members as the correct way to perceive, think, and feel about these problems."

When addressing the health, safety, and well-being of construction industry employees, culture is an essential factor for organizational performance (Understanding Organizational Culture 2001, p.1). According to the publication Understanding Organizational Culture (2001), the four organizational components, which encompass the physical characteristics of an organization, must incorporate a cultural element. These include the infrastructure of an organization, which consists of organizational structures and procedures, human and organizational behavior, and the organization's culture. The article Understanding Organizational Culture (2001) defines culture as the individual and organizational values, beliefs, norms, and related assumptions that distinguish and identify persons and organizations.

According to Brockmann and Birkholz (1999), the construction industry's culture is integrated in the organic structure of an organization with distinct management levels. Brockmann and Birkholz (1999) distinguish two types of culture in the construction industry: head culture and project culture. In contrast to Brockmann and Birkholz (1999), Hofstede (1998) views culture as a result-oriented endeavor. Brockmann and Birkholz (1999) assert that neither culture is well-defined in the construction industry, and there is a lack of understanding regarding company philosophy in projects. Hofstede (1998) states that construction sector culture varies in terms of process versus outcome oriented, organizational versus professional characteristics, weak versus strong where prices are thought irrelevant, meetings not beginning on time, and practical jokes concerning business work. According to Hofstede (1998), for the safety, health, and welfare of construction workers, an organization's culture is a crucial factor that must be accepted.

Project culture and expectations around H, S, and W

Given the difficulties faced by workers in the construction sector, a culture of health, safety, and welfare is essential. Compared to other industries, the construction business has a high incidence of injuries. In addition to the conditions under which construction work is performed, this is required. These situations are detrimental to worker health and safety. The majority of construction work is performed in the open air, under varying weather conditions, and in the vast majority of cases, workers must constantly interact with one another. Moreover, construction activity is characterized by the continual movement of workers between locations. Consequently, a strategy framework must exist for integrating culture into housing, healthcare, and employee welfare. These ideals must exist on both an individual and organizational level. "The majority of accidents indicate that the construction industry is unique, involving human behavior, different construction sites, the difficulties of work, an unsafe safety culture, dangerous machinery and equipment, and involvement in numerous procedures" (2007, p.1).

In addition, "studies indicate that accidents and injuries on the job are the result of the behavior, work practices, or behavior and work culture of workers" (Misnan, Skudai, Mohammed, & Utm 2007, p.1). The research also confirms that:

"Safety and health culture have a stronger relationship with workers' safety practices" (Misnan, Skudai, Mohammed, and Utm 2007, p.1).

Consequently, the welfare, safety, and housing of construction workers play a crucial role in fostering organizational and individual culture. This assessment and inculcation inside the individual and the company give an ideal cultural fit, making employees more adaptable to varying construction sites and enhancing employee interactions with management. Organizations can only grow if they are successful, and company executives can only achieve organizational goals and objectives if they establish a culture of concern for the housing, safety, and welfare of their employees. According to Coffey (2010), the culture of a corporate organization is manifested in the manner in which employees do business and the interactions between managers and employees. Consequently, when a strong culture is integrated into an organizational context, the language workers speak, everyday work routines, and how workers interact with one another reveal the behavior of employees within those organizations. According to research, company leaders can only integrate culture into the housing, health, and welfare of employees through an educational process. This could be based on the incentive individuals receive when a corporate organization appears to value the contributions of its employees in attaining its goals and objectives. This award may consist of introducing a cultural aspect into the construction business by taking into account the nature of the labor in that industry.

Examples

The construction sector is strongly motivated by its culture. When considering the health, safety, and welfare of workers who operate in various contexts, business executives, like those in all other industries, believe it necessary to include it. There are numerous instances of cultural integration in the building sector. When addressing the health, safety, and welfare of construction workers, Mandell (2005) gives a plethora of instances demonstrating the necessity of incorporating culture. As an example, consider the performing arts center. Mandell (2005, p.1) argues that "Lincoln Center was the first campus of its kind to demonstrate the power of culture as urban renewal, and it has been imitated by cities across the country, albeit to varying degrees of success." In addition, McDonald and Hrymak (2005) provide several instances of fatal injuries in the construction business. McDonald and Hrymak (2005) state that hundreds of thousands of Americans and Europeans sustain injuries annually. In addition, the health of workers is of the utmost importance given the nature of the labor they perform in this business.

Conclusion

It is clear from the preceding explanation that culture, the driving force behind successful organizations, is a factor that can be incorporated into both the individual and the organization. According to the paper, organizations in the building business must integrate culture while considering housing, safety, and welfare. The reported occurrence of severe injuries and occasionally fatalities as a result of the sort of work performed in the construction industry demonstrates the need for company executives to initiate and integrate the crucial aspect of culture into companies and individuals. Culture is not visible, but becomes apparent through the interactions of employees in their everyday tasks and the attachment they acquire to an organization that gives them a sense of belonging.

References

Brockmann, C. Birkholz, A., 1999. Industry Culture in Manufacturing and Construction [online]. Web.

Understanding Organizational Culture in the Construction Industry, by V. Coffey, 2010 [online]. Web.

Hofstede, G. 1998. Masculinity and Femininity: the taboo component of national cultures, Sage Publications, Thousand Oaks.

Web. Mandell, J. (2005). Culture and Construction: Arts.

Neither McDonald nor Hrymak (2005). Health and Safety Authority Construction Industry Safety Behaviour [online]. Web.

Misnan, M.S., Skudai, J., Mohammed, A.H., & Utm, S. J., 2007. A Framework for the Development of Safety Culture in the Construction Industry Web.

Schein, E 1985. Understanding Organizational Culture and Leadership, published by Jossey-Bass in San Francisco. Web.

[supanova question]

Gender And Leadership Aqa Unit 5 Biology Synoptic Essay Help

Everything in the modern world appears to have taken a different path, perhaps for the better, as a result of the numerous development plans that have resulted from industrialization and urbanization. In actuality, the era in which men held the greatest positions in politics and corporate organizations, while women remained at home as mothers and housewives has passed. Despite the fact that there are considerable differences between the roles of men and women in the modern workplace, women have emerged to collaborate with men on significant societal development issues.

Globally, there are a variety of perspectives and perceptions regarding gender and leadership in particular. However, these preconceptions have had a significant impact on the chances available to women in professional matters. Promotion placement, managerial selection, and strategies regarding workplace training are examples of typical profession or career factors that are influenced by gender.

On the basis of these factors, numerous businesses throughout the world have built distinct coexisting platforms for male and female employees in the workplace, especially in relation to the prevalent attitudes regarding gender and leadership. The fact that women are treated differently when it comes to leadership training is a notable component of this situation. Even while this practice appears to have taken hold in many commercial organizations, women and men are still the same in terms of leadership training and should not be treated differently.

In truth, women have demonstrated their ability in the modern world, where they have had a stronger impact in politics, business, and other prestigious sectors (Klenke, 1996). Despite the fact that it is now evident that women can do anything their male counterparts can do, and in some cases even better, this does not make women socially equal to men.

This should explain why various characteristics of duty and accountability across labor markets and business organizations in a variety of nations would be gender-specific. In addition to other factors, cultural ideas and attitudes continue to play a key role in the establishment and maintenance of gender inequalities across labor markets. Cultures are significant, and they play a significant part in moulding our lives in the most appropriate ways.

However, current global communities must develop healthy cultures to ensure that neither the present nor the future generations are enslaved by the ties of the past, particularly with regards to gender roles in society. In this sense, it is crucial for contemporary organizations to establish and sustain cultures that encourage the participation of women in leadership roles, particularly in labor markets and commercial sectors.

Certainly, the adoption of gender equality in public and political matters has been a gradual process, but it won't be long before the entire world adopts this concept, which is required by modernity. Women, like males, have continued to play an active part in corporate and political managerial positions. Women's effective participation in historically male-dominated professions has had a profound effect on the contemporary world, resulting in the recognition of women's abilities in global labor markets (Rhode, 2003).

A country such as the U.S., for example, has long recognized the enormous potential of women, offering them equal chances in all areas of societal accountability, including economic affairs. According to recent reports by the U.S. Department of Labor, women held approximately 49 percent of the nation's jobs and approximately 50 percent of high-profile posts in the past few years. Moreover, there have been significant instances in which the number of women in various managerial positions in the country's commercial sector has exceeded that of men. If there are circumstances in which women should be treated differently than their male counterparts, it is not in professional concerns, given these facts. Men and women do not differ as leaders or managers; consequently, they should be exposed to the same leadership and managing training environments.

Seen as superior to their male counterparts in virtually all aspects of management, it is commonly believed that women are natural leaders. This implies that women possess the same talents as males in the contemporary professional environment. In this regard, both men and women today are intelligent in commercial affairs. Based on this insight, it is necessary to bring the sexes together for shared learning activities.

Modern societal trends have demonstrated conclusively that both men and women may flourish in topics concerning organizational leadership and management. In this regard, it is imperative that global organizations create balanced leadership styles for both men and women, without favoring one sexe over the other. In fact, if a company with both male and female employees is to provide training specifically for women, it should encourage women to participate actively in leadership matters. These types of training activities are acceptable since they raise awareness of the frequent obstacles that impede the advancement of women in career and professional affairs in modern society.

Some have stated that women are weaker than men when it comes to managerial responsibilities; consequently, all firms should embrace corporate programs and resources that ensure they receive special attention (Feyerherm and Vick, 2005). Based on this assertion, women would require specific training or mentoring through appropriate women leadership courses in order to match the business and organizational acumen of their male colleagues. The proponents of this claim have also indicated a strong desire to advocate for programs aimed at expanding women's access to leadership positions in organizational structures. Personally, I believe that this notion should be rejected due to the fact that both genders are equally intelligent and academically intelligent.

Moreover, past research has demonstrated that women have a high potential for leadership and other qualities that are critical for commercial and organizational success. In this regard, providing women with specialized leadership training will only improve their standing in the workplace, allowing them to outperform males in managerial and leadership capacities. Moreover, such gifts given only to women sometimes result in strained relationships between the sexes. This is likely to occur when women believe they are more qualified than their male coworkers and can, therefore, perform better in leadership and management roles. People vying for recognition and leadership positions inside businesses could, if left unchecked, result in severe workplace disputes and conflicts over the long run.

Motivating equal treatment of all employees in areas concerning leadership and business management is an effective method of encouraging and bringing workers together in a nice workplace environment. This can be accomplished through integrated training in the workplace, in which both men and women are exposed to the same management lessons. This type of interaction in which workers are permitted to connect on purpose not only fosters respect amongst them, but also contributes to the development of leadership in the workplace, thereby fostering gender-balanced knowledge and skills in business (Kaplan and Norton, 2001).

The general involvement of members of different sexes in a common workplace engagement is likely to result in the development of effective interpersonal communications, the management and resolution of workplace conflicts, and the appropriate matching of leadership styles to the management and leadership challenges. In addition, this fosters a sense of teamwork, which is vital for improved corporate performance and efficiency. Viewing and treating women as though they were different in regards to leadership training implies that people will have to forget about the many benefits associated with developing leadership in the workplace as a means of boosting employee relationships.

Even if it is true that women have particular demands and interests that may require special attention and approach, likely due to rapidly changing cultural trends, this should not be used as an excuse to treat them differently when it comes to leadership training. In reality, people of different genders are likely to excel in particular facets of leadership.

However, this implies that there are certain areas of accountability where women tend to outperform men and vice versa. According to research on leadership competencies undertaken in a number of industrialized nations, for instance, women tend to perform better than males in the competences connected with managerial operations (Yoder, 2001). In addition to interpersonal characteristics and planning-related fields, women tend to perform better than males in a number of other areas. Men would score higher than women in terms of personal contact, strategic vision, and commercial focus. Men excel at asserting their presence and expressing their opinions with greater assurance, among other leadership and management qualities.

In addition, the female leadership style is reportedly more social, whereas the masculine approach is visionary and strategic. This is conclusive evidence that the natural leadership styles of men and women are very compatible. In this sense, firms may be confident that their workforce will produce exceptional results if they establish a balance between these two types of leadership. This can only be accomplished by the participation of both genders in general training and other activities that are likely to play a pivotal role in enhancing employees' leadership and management skills.

According to Powell (1990), bringing men and women together through collaborative activities typically alters each other's leadership style, so bringing out the best in the overall workforce. Despite the fact that specific circumstances may necessitate that women receive leadership training in different settings, the majority of women prefer to be trained with their male coworkers rather than by themselves. However, this is a natural tendency that also applies to men.

According to the findings of this article, women are not fundamentally different from males when it comes to leadership training. Equally demonstrated in this article, women are as intelligent as men in virtually every area of accountability, a fact that is undeniable in the contemporary economic and political spheres. As noted in the United States and other industrialized nations, women have also been actively involved in key managerial positions.

As Burke and Collins (2001) note, women are also believed to have significant leadership potential, as well as in other parts of management that are crucial to good performance and productivity. This research has also heightened awareness of the likelihood that individuals of different genders may differ in several elements of management and leadership. In this regard, there is also an emphasis on how these individuals should be brought together for their own benefit and for the corporation as a whole through shared training environments. All of these observations are obvious signs that modern women are no longer distinct from their male counterparts; hence, there should be no restrictions on how male and female employees interact in today's political and professional spheres.

References

Burke, S., & Collins, K. (2001). Differences in leadership styles and management abilities based on gender. Women in Management Review, 16(5), 244-257. Web.

Feyerherm, A., & Vick, Y. (2005). Generation X women in high technology: overcoming gender and generational obstacles to achieve success in the business world. 10(3), 216-227, in Career Development International. Web.

Kaplan, R., & Norton, D. (2001). How balanced scorecard organizations thrive in the current business environment. Web site of Harvard Business Press in Boston, Massachusetts.

Klenke, K. (1996). Women and leadership from a contextual standpoint. Web site of Springer Publishing Company in New York.

Powell, G. (1990). One more time: do female and male managers differ? The Executive, 4(3), p. 68 to 75 Web.

Rhode, D. (2003). Women and leadership: The difference” that makes the difference” Web. Palo Alto, California: Stanford University Press.

Yoder, J. (2001). Efforts to make leadership more effective for women. 57(4), pp. 815–828 in Journal of Social Issues. Web.

[supanova question]

Everything in the modern world appears to have taken a different path, perhaps for the better, as a result of the numerous development plans that have resulted from industrialization and urbanization. In actuality, the era in which men held the greatest positions in politics and corporate organizations, while women remained at home as mothers and housewives has passed. Despite the fact that there are considerable differences between the roles of men and women in the modern workplace, women have emerged to collaborate with men on significant societal development issues.

Globally, there are a variety of perspectives and perceptions regarding gender and leadership in particular. However, these preconceptions have had a significant impact on the chances available to women in professional matters. Promotion placement, managerial selection, and strategies regarding workplace training are examples of typical profession or career factors that are influenced by gender.

On the basis of these factors, numerous businesses throughout the world have built distinct coexisting platforms for male and female employees in the workplace, especially in relation to the prevalent attitudes regarding gender and leadership. The fact that women are treated differently when it comes to leadership training is a notable component of this situation. Even while this practice appears to have taken hold in many commercial organizations, women and men are still the same in terms of leadership training and should not be treated differently.

In truth, women have demonstrated their ability in the modern world, where they have had a stronger impact in politics, business, and other prestigious sectors (Klenke, 1996). Despite the fact that it is now evident that women can do anything their male counterparts can do, and in some cases even better, this does not make women socially equal to men.

This should explain why various characteristics of duty and accountability across labor markets and business organizations in a variety of nations would be gender-specific. In addition to other factors, cultural ideas and attitudes continue to play a key role in the establishment and maintenance of gender inequalities across labor markets. Cultures are significant, and they play a significant part in moulding our lives in the most appropriate ways.

However, current global communities must develop healthy cultures to ensure that neither the present nor the future generations are enslaved by the ties of the past, particularly with regards to gender roles in society. In this sense, it is crucial for contemporary organizations to establish and sustain cultures that encourage the participation of women in leadership roles, particularly in labor markets and commercial sectors.

Certainly, the adoption of gender equality in public and political matters has been a gradual process, but it won't be long before the entire world adopts this concept, which is required by modernity. Women, like males, have continued to play an active part in corporate and political managerial positions. Women's effective participation in historically male-dominated professions has had a profound effect on the contemporary world, resulting in the recognition of women's abilities in global labor markets (Rhode, 2003).

A country such as the U.S., for example, has long recognized the enormous potential of women, offering them equal chances in all areas of societal accountability, including economic affairs. According to recent reports by the U.S. Department of Labor, women held approximately 49 percent of the nation's jobs and approximately 50 percent of high-profile posts in the past few years. Moreover, there have been significant instances in which the number of women in various managerial positions in the country's commercial sector has exceeded that of men. If there are circumstances in which women should be treated differently than their male counterparts, it is not in professional concerns, given these facts. Men and women do not differ as leaders or managers; consequently, they should be exposed to the same leadership and managing training environments.

Seen as superior to their male counterparts in virtually all aspects of management, it is commonly believed that women are natural leaders. This implies that women possess the same talents as males in the contemporary professional environment. In this regard, both men and women today are intelligent in commercial affairs. Based on this insight, it is necessary to bring the sexes together for shared learning activities.

Modern societal trends have demonstrated conclusively that both men and women may flourish in topics concerning organizational leadership and management. In this regard, it is imperative that global organizations create balanced leadership styles for both men and women, without favoring one sexe over the other. In fact, if a company with both male and female employees is to provide training specifically for women, it should encourage women to participate actively in leadership matters. These types of training activities are acceptable since they raise awareness of the frequent obstacles that impede the advancement of women in career and professional affairs in modern society.

Some have stated that women are weaker than men when it comes to managerial responsibilities; consequently, all firms should embrace corporate programs and resources that ensure they receive special attention (Feyerherm and Vick, 2005). Based on this assertion, women would require specific training or mentoring through appropriate women leadership courses in order to match the business and organizational acumen of their male colleagues. The proponents of this claim have also indicated a strong desire to advocate for programs aimed at expanding women's access to leadership positions in organizational structures. Personally, I believe that this notion should be rejected due to the fact that both genders are equally intelligent and academically intelligent.

Moreover, past research has demonstrated that women have a high potential for leadership and other qualities that are critical for commercial and organizational success. In this regard, providing women with specialized leadership training will only improve their standing in the workplace, allowing them to outperform males in managerial and leadership capacities. Moreover, such gifts given only to women sometimes result in strained relationships between the sexes. This is likely to occur when women believe they are more qualified than their male coworkers and can, therefore, perform better in leadership and management roles. People vying for recognition and leadership positions inside businesses could, if left unchecked, result in severe workplace disputes and conflicts over the long run.

Motivating equal treatment of all employees in areas concerning leadership and business management is an effective method of encouraging and bringing workers together in a nice workplace environment. This can be accomplished through integrated training in the workplace, in which both men and women are exposed to the same management lessons. This type of interaction in which workers are permitted to connect on purpose not only fosters respect amongst them, but also contributes to the development of leadership in the workplace, thereby fostering gender-balanced knowledge and skills in business (Kaplan and Norton, 2001).

The general involvement of members of different sexes in a common workplace engagement is likely to result in the development of effective interpersonal communications, the management and resolution of workplace conflicts, and the appropriate matching of leadership styles to the management and leadership challenges. In addition, this fosters a sense of teamwork, which is vital for improved corporate performance and efficiency. Viewing and treating women as though they were different in regards to leadership training implies that people will have to forget about the many benefits associated with developing leadership in the workplace as a means of boosting employee relationships.

Even if it is true that women have particular demands and interests that may require special attention and approach, likely due to rapidly changing cultural trends, this should not be used as an excuse to treat them differently when it comes to leadership training. In reality, people of different genders are likely to excel in particular facets of leadership.

However, this implies that there are certain areas of accountability where women tend to outperform men and vice versa. According to research on leadership competencies undertaken in a number of industrialized nations, for instance, women tend to perform better than males in the competences connected with managerial operations (Yoder, 2001). In addition to interpersonal characteristics and planning-related fields, women tend to perform better than males in a number of other areas. Men would score higher than women in terms of personal contact, strategic vision, and commercial focus. Men excel at asserting their presence and expressing their opinions with greater assurance, among other leadership and management qualities.

In addition, the female leadership style is reportedly more social, whereas the masculine approach is visionary and strategic. This is conclusive evidence that the natural leadership styles of men and women are very compatible. In this sense, firms may be confident that their workforce will produce exceptional results if they establish a balance between these two types of leadership. This can only be accomplished by the participation of both genders in general training and other activities that are likely to play a pivotal role in enhancing employees' leadership and management skills.

According to Powell (1990), bringing men and women together through collaborative activities typically alters each other's leadership style, so bringing out the best in the overall workforce. Despite the fact that specific circumstances may necessitate that women receive leadership training in different settings, the majority of women prefer to be trained with their male coworkers rather than by themselves. However, this is a natural tendency that also applies to men.

According to the findings of this article, women are not fundamentally different from males when it comes to leadership training. Equally demonstrated in this article, women are as intelligent as men in virtually every area of accountability, a fact that is undeniable in the contemporary economic and political spheres. As noted in the United States and other industrialized nations, women have also been actively involved in key managerial positions.

As Burke and Collins (2001) note, women are also believed to have significant leadership potential, as well as in other parts of management that are crucial to good performance and productivity. This research has also heightened awareness of the likelihood that individuals of different genders may differ in several elements of management and leadership. In this regard, there is also an emphasis on how these individuals should be brought together for their own benefit and for the corporation as a whole through shared training environments. All of these observations are obvious signs that modern women are no longer distinct from their male counterparts; hence, there should be no restrictions on how male and female employees interact in today's political and professional spheres.

References

Burke, S., & Collins, K. (2001). Differences in leadership styles and management abilities based on gender. Women in Management Review, 16(5), 244-257. Web.

Feyerherm, A., & Vick, Y. (2005). Generation X women in high technology: overcoming gender and generational obstacles to achieve success in the business world. 10(3), 216-227, in Career Development International. Web.

Kaplan, R., & Norton, D. (2001). How balanced scorecard organizations thrive in the current business environment. Web site of Harvard Business Press in Boston, Massachusetts.

Klenke, K. (1996). Women and leadership from a contextual standpoint. Web site of Springer Publishing Company in New York.

Powell, G. (1990). One more time: do female and male managers differ? The Executive, 4(3), p. 68 to 75 Web.

Rhode, D. (2003). Women and leadership: The difference” that makes the difference” Web. Palo Alto, California: Stanford University Press.

Yoder, J. (2001). Efforts to make leadership more effective for women. 57(4), pp. 815–828 in Journal of Social Issues. Web.

[supanova question]

Gender And Leadership Aqa Unit 5 Biology Synoptic Essay Help

Everything in the modern world appears to have taken a different path, perhaps for the better, as a result of the numerous development plans that have resulted from industrialization and urbanization. In actuality, the era in which men held the greatest positions in politics and corporate organizations, while women remained at home as mothers and housewives has passed. Despite the fact that there are considerable differences between the roles of men and women in the modern workplace, women have emerged to collaborate with men on significant societal development issues.

Globally, there are a variety of perspectives and perceptions regarding gender and leadership in particular. However, these preconceptions have had a significant impact on the chances available to women in professional matters. Promotion placement, managerial selection, and strategies regarding workplace training are examples of typical profession or career factors that are influenced by gender.

On the basis of these factors, numerous businesses throughout the world have built distinct coexisting platforms for male and female employees in the workplace, especially in relation to the prevalent attitudes regarding gender and leadership. The fact that women are treated differently when it comes to leadership training is a notable component of this situation. Even while this practice appears to have taken hold in many commercial organizations, women and men are still the same in terms of leadership training and should not be treated differently.

In truth, women have demonstrated their ability in the modern world, where they have had a stronger impact in politics, business, and other prestigious sectors (Klenke, 1996). Despite the fact that it is now evident that women can do anything their male counterparts can do, and in some cases even better, this does not make women socially equal to men.

This should explain why various characteristics of duty and accountability across labor markets and business organizations in a variety of nations would be gender-specific. In addition to other factors, cultural ideas and attitudes continue to play a key role in the establishment and maintenance of gender inequalities across labor markets. Cultures are significant, and they play a significant part in moulding our lives in the most appropriate ways.

However, current global communities must develop healthy cultures to ensure that neither the present nor the future generations are enslaved by the ties of the past, particularly with regards to gender roles in society. In this sense, it is crucial for contemporary organizations to establish and sustain cultures that encourage the participation of women in leadership roles, particularly in labor markets and commercial sectors.

Certainly, the adoption of gender equality in public and political matters has been a gradual process, but it won't be long before the entire world adopts this concept, which is required by modernity. Women, like males, have continued to play an active part in corporate and political managerial positions. Women's effective participation in historically male-dominated professions has had a profound effect on the contemporary world, resulting in the recognition of women's abilities in global labor markets (Rhode, 2003).

A country such as the U.S., for example, has long recognized the enormous potential of women, offering them equal chances in all areas of societal accountability, including economic affairs. According to recent reports by the U.S. Department of Labor, women held approximately 49 percent of the nation's jobs and approximately 50 percent of high-profile posts in the past few years. Moreover, there have been significant instances in which the number of women in various managerial positions in the country's commercial sector has exceeded that of men. If there are circumstances in which women should be treated differently than their male counterparts, it is not in professional concerns, given these facts. Men and women do not differ as leaders or managers; consequently, they should be exposed to the same leadership and managing training environments.

Seen as superior to their male counterparts in virtually all aspects of management, it is commonly believed that women are natural leaders. This implies that women possess the same talents as males in the contemporary professional environment. In this regard, both men and women today are intelligent in commercial affairs. Based on this insight, it is necessary to bring the sexes together for shared learning activities.

Modern societal trends have demonstrated conclusively that both men and women may flourish in topics concerning organizational leadership and management. In this regard, it is imperative that global organizations create balanced leadership styles for both men and women, without favoring one sexe over the other. In fact, if a company with both male and female employees is to provide training specifically for women, it should encourage women to participate actively in leadership matters. These types of training activities are acceptable since they raise awareness of the frequent obstacles that impede the advancement of women in career and professional affairs in modern society.

Some have stated that women are weaker than men when it comes to managerial responsibilities; consequently, all firms should embrace corporate programs and resources that ensure they receive special attention (Feyerherm and Vick, 2005). Based on this assertion, women would require specific training or mentoring through appropriate women leadership courses in order to match the business and organizational acumen of their male colleagues. The proponents of this claim have also indicated a strong desire to advocate for programs aimed at expanding women's access to leadership positions in organizational structures. Personally, I believe that this notion should be rejected due to the fact that both genders are equally intelligent and academically intelligent.

Moreover, past research has demonstrated that women have a high potential for leadership and other qualities that are critical for commercial and organizational success. In this regard, providing women with specialized leadership training will only improve their standing in the workplace, allowing them to outperform males in managerial and leadership capacities. Moreover, such gifts given only to women sometimes result in strained relationships between the sexes. This is likely to occur when women believe they are more qualified than their male coworkers and can, therefore, perform better in leadership and management roles. People vying for recognition and leadership positions inside businesses could, if left unchecked, result in severe workplace disputes and conflicts over the long run.

Motivating equal treatment of all employees in areas concerning leadership and business management is an effective method of encouraging and bringing workers together in a nice workplace environment. This can be accomplished through integrated training in the workplace, in which both men and women are exposed to the same management lessons. This type of interaction in which workers are permitted to connect on purpose not only fosters respect amongst them, but also contributes to the development of leadership in the workplace, thereby fostering gender-balanced knowledge and skills in business (Kaplan and Norton, 2001).

The general involvement of members of different sexes in a common workplace engagement is likely to result in the development of effective interpersonal communications, the management and resolution of workplace conflicts, and the appropriate matching of leadership styles to the management and leadership challenges. In addition, this fosters a sense of teamwork, which is vital for improved corporate performance and efficiency. Viewing and treating women as though they were different in regards to leadership training implies that people will have to forget about the many benefits associated with developing leadership in the workplace as a means of boosting employee relationships.

Even if it is true that women have particular demands and interests that may require special attention and approach, likely due to rapidly changing cultural trends, this should not be used as an excuse to treat them differently when it comes to leadership training. In reality, people of different genders are likely to excel in particular facets of leadership.

However, this implies that there are certain areas of accountability where women tend to outperform men and vice versa. According to research on leadership competencies undertaken in a number of industrialized nations, for instance, women tend to perform better than males in the competences connected with managerial operations (Yoder, 2001). In addition to interpersonal characteristics and planning-related fields, women tend to perform better than males in a number of other areas. Men would score higher than women in terms of personal contact, strategic vision, and commercial focus. Men excel at asserting their presence and expressing their opinions with greater assurance, among other leadership and management qualities.

In addition, the female leadership style is reportedly more social, whereas the masculine approach is visionary and strategic. This is conclusive evidence that the natural leadership styles of men and women are very compatible. In this sense, firms may be confident that their workforce will produce exceptional results if they establish a balance between these two types of leadership. This can only be accomplished by the participation of both genders in general training and other activities that are likely to play a pivotal role in enhancing employees' leadership and management skills.

According to Powell (1990), bringing men and women together through collaborative activities typically alters each other's leadership style, so bringing out the best in the overall workforce. Despite the fact that specific circumstances may necessitate that women receive leadership training in different settings, the majority of women prefer to be trained with their male coworkers rather than by themselves. However, this is a natural tendency that also applies to men.

According to the findings of this article, women are not fundamentally different from males when it comes to leadership training. Equally demonstrated in this article, women are as intelligent as men in virtually every area of accountability, a fact that is undeniable in the contemporary economic and political spheres. As noted in the United States and other industrialized nations, women have also been actively involved in key managerial positions.

As Burke and Collins (2001) note, women are also believed to have significant leadership potential, as well as in other parts of management that are crucial to good performance and productivity. This research has also heightened awareness of the likelihood that individuals of different genders may differ in several elements of management and leadership. In this regard, there is also an emphasis on how these individuals should be brought together for their own benefit and for the corporation as a whole through shared training environments. All of these observations are obvious signs that modern women are no longer distinct from their male counterparts; hence, there should be no restrictions on how male and female employees interact in today's political and professional spheres.

References

Burke, S., & Collins, K. (2001). Differences in leadership styles and management abilities based on gender. Women in Management Review, 16(5), 244-257. Web.

Feyerherm, A., & Vick, Y. (2005). Generation X women in high technology: overcoming gender and generational obstacles to achieve success in the business world. 10(3), 216-227, in Career Development International. Web.

Kaplan, R., & Norton, D. (2001). How balanced scorecard organizations thrive in the current business environment. Web site of Harvard Business Press in Boston, Massachusetts.

Klenke, K. (1996). Women and leadership from a contextual standpoint. Web site of Springer Publishing Company in New York.

Powell, G. (1990). One more time: do female and male managers differ? The Executive, 4(3), p. 68 to 75 Web.

Rhode, D. (2003). Women and leadership: The difference” that makes the difference” Web. Palo Alto, California: Stanford University Press.

Yoder, J. (2001). Efforts to make leadership more effective for women. 57(4), pp. 815–828 in Journal of Social Issues. Web.

[supanova question]

Everything in the modern world appears to have taken a different path, perhaps for the better, as a result of the numerous development plans that have resulted from industrialization and urbanization. In actuality, the era in which men held the greatest positions in politics and corporate organizations, while women remained at home as mothers and housewives has passed. Despite the fact that there are considerable differences between the roles of men and women in the modern workplace, women have emerged to collaborate with men on significant societal development issues.

Globally, there are a variety of perspectives and perceptions regarding gender and leadership in particular. However, these preconceptions have had a significant impact on the chances available to women in professional matters. Promotion placement, managerial selection, and strategies regarding workplace training are examples of typical profession or career factors that are influenced by gender.

On the basis of these factors, numerous businesses throughout the world have built distinct coexisting platforms for male and female employees in the workplace, especially in relation to the prevalent attitudes regarding gender and leadership. The fact that women are treated differently when it comes to leadership training is a notable component of this situation. Even while this practice appears to have taken hold in many commercial organizations, women and men are still the same in terms of leadership training and should not be treated differently.

In truth, women have demonstrated their ability in the modern world, where they have had a stronger impact in politics, business, and other prestigious sectors (Klenke, 1996). Despite the fact that it is now evident that women can do anything their male counterparts can do, and in some cases even better, this does not make women socially equal to men.

This should explain why various characteristics of duty and accountability across labor markets and business organizations in a variety of nations would be gender-specific. In addition to other factors, cultural ideas and attitudes continue to play a key role in the establishment and maintenance of gender inequalities across labor markets. Cultures are significant, and they play a significant part in moulding our lives in the most appropriate ways.

However, current global communities must develop healthy cultures to ensure that neither the present nor the future generations are enslaved by the ties of the past, particularly with regards to gender roles in society. In this sense, it is crucial for contemporary organizations to establish and sustain cultures that encourage the participation of women in leadership roles, particularly in labor markets and commercial sectors.

Certainly, the adoption of gender equality in public and political matters has been a gradual process, but it won't be long before the entire world adopts this concept, which is required by modernity. Women, like males, have continued to play an active part in corporate and political managerial positions. Women's effective participation in historically male-dominated professions has had a profound effect on the contemporary world, resulting in the recognition of women's abilities in global labor markets (Rhode, 2003).

A country such as the U.S., for example, has long recognized the enormous potential of women, offering them equal chances in all areas of societal accountability, including economic affairs. According to recent reports by the U.S. Department of Labor, women held approximately 49 percent of the nation's jobs and approximately 50 percent of high-profile posts in the past few years. Moreover, there have been significant instances in which the number of women in various managerial positions in the country's commercial sector has exceeded that of men. If there are circumstances in which women should be treated differently than their male counterparts, it is not in professional concerns, given these facts. Men and women do not differ as leaders or managers; consequently, they should be exposed to the same leadership and managing training environments.

Seen as superior to their male counterparts in virtually all aspects of management, it is commonly believed that women are natural leaders. This implies that women possess the same talents as males in the contemporary professional environment. In this regard, both men and women today are intelligent in commercial affairs. Based on this insight, it is necessary to bring the sexes together for shared learning activities.

Modern societal trends have demonstrated conclusively that both men and women may flourish in topics concerning organizational leadership and management. In this regard, it is imperative that global organizations create balanced leadership styles for both men and women, without favoring one sexe over the other. In fact, if a company with both male and female employees is to provide training specifically for women, it should encourage women to participate actively in leadership matters. These types of training activities are acceptable since they raise awareness of the frequent obstacles that impede the advancement of women in career and professional affairs in modern society.

Some have stated that women are weaker than men when it comes to managerial responsibilities; consequently, all firms should embrace corporate programs and resources that ensure they receive special attention (Feyerherm and Vick, 2005). Based on this assertion, women would require specific training or mentoring through appropriate women leadership courses in order to match the business and organizational acumen of their male colleagues. The proponents of this claim have also indicated a strong desire to advocate for programs aimed at expanding women's access to leadership positions in organizational structures. Personally, I believe that this notion should be rejected due to the fact that both genders are equally intelligent and academically intelligent.

Moreover, past research has demonstrated that women have a high potential for leadership and other qualities that are critical for commercial and organizational success. In this regard, providing women with specialized leadership training will only improve their standing in the workplace, allowing them to outperform males in managerial and leadership capacities. Moreover, such gifts given only to women sometimes result in strained relationships between the sexes. This is likely to occur when women believe they are more qualified than their male coworkers and can, therefore, perform better in leadership and management roles. People vying for recognition and leadership positions inside businesses could, if left unchecked, result in severe workplace disputes and conflicts over the long run.

Motivating equal treatment of all employees in areas concerning leadership and business management is an effective method of encouraging and bringing workers together in a nice workplace environment. This can be accomplished through integrated training in the workplace, in which both men and women are exposed to the same management lessons. This type of interaction in which workers are permitted to connect on purpose not only fosters respect amongst them, but also contributes to the development of leadership in the workplace, thereby fostering gender-balanced knowledge and skills in business (Kaplan and Norton, 2001).

The general involvement of members of different sexes in a common workplace engagement is likely to result in the development of effective interpersonal communications, the management and resolution of workplace conflicts, and the appropriate matching of leadership styles to the management and leadership challenges. In addition, this fosters a sense of teamwork, which is vital for improved corporate performance and efficiency. Viewing and treating women as though they were different in regards to leadership training implies that people will have to forget about the many benefits associated with developing leadership in the workplace as a means of boosting employee relationships.

Even if it is true that women have particular demands and interests that may require special attention and approach, likely due to rapidly changing cultural trends, this should not be used as an excuse to treat them differently when it comes to leadership training. In reality, people of different genders are likely to excel in particular facets of leadership.

However, this implies that there are certain areas of accountability where women tend to outperform men and vice versa. According to research on leadership competencies undertaken in a number of industrialized nations, for instance, women tend to perform better than males in the competences connected with managerial operations (Yoder, 2001). In addition to interpersonal characteristics and planning-related fields, women tend to perform better than males in a number of other areas. Men would score higher than women in terms of personal contact, strategic vision, and commercial focus. Men excel at asserting their presence and expressing their opinions with greater assurance, among other leadership and management qualities.

In addition, the female leadership style is reportedly more social, whereas the masculine approach is visionary and strategic. This is conclusive evidence that the natural leadership styles of men and women are very compatible. In this sense, firms may be confident that their workforce will produce exceptional results if they establish a balance between these two types of leadership. This can only be accomplished by the participation of both genders in general training and other activities that are likely to play a pivotal role in enhancing employees' leadership and management skills.

According to Powell (1990), bringing men and women together through collaborative activities typically alters each other's leadership style, so bringing out the best in the overall workforce. Despite the fact that specific circumstances may necessitate that women receive leadership training in different settings, the majority of women prefer to be trained with their male coworkers rather than by themselves. However, this is a natural tendency that also applies to men.

According to the findings of this article, women are not fundamentally different from males when it comes to leadership training. Equally demonstrated in this article, women are as intelligent as men in virtually every area of accountability, a fact that is undeniable in the contemporary economic and political spheres. As noted in the United States and other industrialized nations, women have also been actively involved in key managerial positions.

As Burke and Collins (2001) note, women are also believed to have significant leadership potential, as well as in other parts of management that are crucial to good performance and productivity. This research has also heightened awareness of the likelihood that individuals of different genders may differ in several elements of management and leadership. In this regard, there is also an emphasis on how these individuals should be brought together for their own benefit and for the corporation as a whole through shared training environments. All of these observations are obvious signs that modern women are no longer distinct from their male counterparts; hence, there should be no restrictions on how male and female employees interact in today's political and professional spheres.

References

Burke, S., & Collins, K. (2001). Differences in leadership styles and management abilities based on gender. Women in Management Review, 16(5), 244-257. Web.

Feyerherm, A., & Vick, Y. (2005). Generation X women in high technology: overcoming gender and generational obstacles to achieve success in the business world. 10(3), 216-227, in Career Development International. Web.

Kaplan, R., & Norton, D. (2001). How balanced scorecard organizations thrive in the current business environment. Web site of Harvard Business Press in Boston, Massachusetts.

Klenke, K. (1996). Women and leadership from a contextual standpoint. Web site of Springer Publishing Company in New York.

Powell, G. (1990). One more time: do female and male managers differ? The Executive, 4(3), p. 68 to 75 Web.

Rhode, D. (2003). Women and leadership: The difference” that makes the difference” Web. Palo Alto, California: Stanford University Press.

Yoder, J. (2001). Efforts to make leadership more effective for women. 57(4), pp. 815–828 in Journal of Social Issues. Web.

[supanova question]

Ethical Team Leadership In Organizations Aqa Unit 5 Biology Synoptic Essay Help

Abstract

Leadership is visible in daily life through the decisions that individuals make. It is the form of decisions that people make daily in a variety of contexts and scenarios. There are numerous ideas that explain various facets of leadership and its impact on business and private life. To achieve the best results, it is vital to comprehend how leadership should and should be utilized in diverse situations.

The study investigates the existing theories of ethical leadership in companies and team leadership in order to combine the most effective practices into a single idea that might have been utilized to improve the odds of success for the existing team. The concept is referred to as ethical team leadership.

Introduction

Leadership is a fundamental component of life. It is one of the most essential components of life and economic success. Some researchers feel that leaders are born, not made. Others believe leadership may be learned. In any event, numerous leadership theories have been established and created. Exploration of leadership is an ongoing process, and the concept of leadership cannot be limited to currently accessible theories alone.

The rationale is in the nature of leadership as it evolves and changes. Changes in technology have made imaginable things that were previously inconceivable. Consequently, the context for leadership has also shifted. To be considered true leaders in the twenty-first century, leaders must possess many more attributes than they did two or three decades ago. Today, leadership ethics has become one of the most important issues.

Teamwork and good effort allocation are additional areas that require very effective leadership. Taking into account the existing theories of ethical leadership in organizations and team leadership, the purpose of this paper is to investigate these theories in depth, evaluate their peculiarities in terms of leadership, and present the personal experience through the lens of combining the theories into a single practically-applicable concept.

Morality and Leadership

The concept of ethics is fundamental to any civilized society. It is the foundation of all laws and standards, whether in business, the healthcare industry, science, or politics. Ethical leadership is the combination of two ideas that try to apply leadership qualities in an ethical framework (Mullane, 2009). Thus, a good leader cannot be dishonest with anyone, as dishonesty destroys the trust necessary for leading others.

Organizational ethical leadership is a difficult and multifaceted problem. For an ethical leader in an organization or business, the concept of being good with all people involved may be difficult to apply. It is impossible to be good when personnel are relieved of their responsibilities. Nonetheless, it is possible to maintain integrity and honesty. According to Monahan (2012), CEOs at large organizations define ethical leadership as "simply a matter of leaders possessing good character and the right values or being a person of strong character" (p. 57).

Clearly, this explanation is incomplete and a more scientific approach is required to comprehend ethical leadership in depth. Thus, “a leader is regarded ethical when inner virtues guide the leader's decision-making process” (Monahan, 2012, p. 58). In this instance, the concept of ethical leadership is straightforward to comprehend and apply.

The leadership theories of transformative leadership, servant leadership, and authentic leadership are the closest to the concept of ethical leadership (Monahan, 2012). The first hypothesis describes the process of a leader's transformation, as well as the transformation of the followers he or she leads, in situations requiring moral decisions that enhance the ethical level and boost morale in the current environment. The second hypothesis is predicated on the notion that a leader's highest priority should be the development of others via service.

The third theory defines ethical leadership as the leadership based on the principle of being truthful with oneself (Mullane, 2009). The confluence of these theories can provide the context for emphasizing the concept of ethical leadership as the foundation of becoming a good, genuine leader.

Effective leadership requires ethical behavior, especially within teams. Multiple contacts and interconnections have a considerable impact on the success of teamwork. It is possible for a deceitful but gentle leader to be worse than an honest despot. The most difficult challenge for a team leader is to earn the team's trust and respect. Failure in this area typically results in ineffectiveness and a negative team climate (Mullane, 2009; Monahan, 2012). The greatest contributor to the success of a firm or organization is ethical team leadership.

Team Management

In the 1970s, Meredith Belbin examined the concept of the advantages of teamwork in terms of outcomes. Individual differences of team members investigated by Belbin played a greater role when the strengths of each team member were combined than when each team member attempted to accomplish the given task separately (Bolden, Gosling, Marturano & Dennison, 2003).

Successful teams were able to compensate for or avoid their members' flaws due to the harmonious blending of their unique individual strengths. Belbin noticed that individuals attempted to avoid assuming responsibilities with which they felt uncomfortable. Simultaneously, individuals in the experiment tended to adopt multiple roles (about three), combine them, and act accordingly (Bolden et al., 2003).

During his investigation, Belbin was unable to identify a team member who would be able to successfully perform the wide spectrum of roles required for the team to work well. The gathered research served as the basis for identifying the two most important roles of a team leader. These roles were referred to by Belbin as "Solo" and "Team" roles (Bolden et al., 2003). These positions are crucial to the ideas of team leadership.

The “Solo” role presupposed the incapacity of a leader to acknowledge his/her flaws, the ability to make quick judgments under the pressure of negative conditions, and, in general, the disrespect for the opinions of others. Such a model of leadership can be extremely helpful for firms where the speed of decision-making is crucial and the employees performs a small number of highly specialized tasks. In such situations, a lone leader assumes responsibility for decisions and makes them alone (Bolden et al., 2003). However, such a strategy is inappropriate for the vast majority of contemporary organizations.

In the reality of the modern workplace, the “Team” position is desirable. It demands a workforce that is very diversified and capable of adapting to impending developments (Bolden et al., 2003). A team leader is responsible for the following responsibilities. The true team leader wants to distribute tasks to the most qualified members of the team, rather than taking on all of the responsibilities himself/herself. This type of leader tends to construct the team on the basis of diversity principles, valuing the existing disparities among team members (Bolden et al., 2003).

As one of the team leader's responsibilities, identifying talent is not a danger to those with exceptional skills or attributes. The primary responsibility of the team leader is to strengthen the employees' strengths and mitigate their deficiencies in order to foster the growth of their best attributes (Bolden et al., 2003). Finally, the team leader must be able to build a vision that the team members can easily perceive and use to pursue their goals.

Conductive Team Leadership

Taking into account the investigated theories, ethical team leadership would be the greatest option for modern businesses. The days of inflexible hierarchical management systems in organizations and huge businesses are long gone. Today, balanced teams of varying sizes are capable of performing tasks of any difficulty far more efficiently in terms of results, time spent, and effort expended. To be effective, teams must have the necessary leaders.

The core values of such leaders should be identified by the Belbin principles (Bolden et al., 2003). To be as effective as possible, great team leaders must adhere to the ideals of ethical leadership. This type of ethical leadership should incorporate all three leadership theories (transformational, servant, and authentic) to ensure the most effective approach to the sensitive process of team management.

Transformational leadership should aid team leaders in adapting to a quickly changing work environment, such as when they are appointed to a new team. The team leader should provide assistance to subordinates as part of servant leadership. Such assistance would be incredibly valuable for the newest members of the team, for instance, who require additional efforts to make the adaption process less stressful.

Lastly, real leadership must be sincerely accepted by the team leader as the basis for decision-making. Today, only the combination of ethical leadership practices and effective team leadership can produce the optimal outcome. In addition, modern teams are under tremendous strain due to the necessity to adapt to developing trends in a number of fields; therefore, the assistance of the team leader based on the stated principles can be of great assistance.

Personal Experience

If analyzed through the lens of the new model, a particular circumstance in my practice could have been resolved differently. It was a situation in which ethical team leadership would have protected my employment and my relationships with coworkers. However, that did not happen. I once sought for a position as a sales agent at one of the largest insurance firms. Our division's emphasis was on life insurance.

I was successful as a sales agent because I believed in what I was doing; consequently, the number of insurance policies I sold increased, as did my drive to climb the career ladder. Josh, my supervisor was a fit middle-aged man. Per his request, we called him J, as he seemed to be a pretty kind, humorous, and affable individual. He appeared to be one of us. His actions were consistent with those of a genuine team leader.

However, after some time, I saw that J was too self-absorbed throughout our work-related and sometimes non-work-related interactions. He typically stopped whoever was speaking, whether it was a sales person or a manager, and began to brag about himself and his accomplishments. We could have ignored it until J decided to alter the policy, structure, and script for the phone conversations.

One morning, he convened a meeting to advise us of this news. It was not a bargaining process, regardless of how hard we tried to persuade him that J's modifications were not fully suitable and were occasionally unethical. J listened to us and instructed us to return to the stations and begin making calls with his new policy. We had no argument against the boss's request, so we complied. Our futile attempts to schedule a meeting according to J's script led to a decline in sales. After two weeks of unsatisfactory results, he changed his mind, yelled at us, and claimed we were not professionals.

Within six months, I was promoted to unit manager. It was my responsibility to interview fresh applicants for my sales team, employ and fire them, coach them, and do whatever was required to get them to generate revenue. I believed I was an excellent leader until J summoned me to his office and inquired about my daily outcomes and time spent with my staff. I detailed my daily program and stated that the team was not yet fully prepared to produce satisfactory results. J deemed it nonsensical and asked that I raise sales and minimize the amount of time I normally spend coaching my sales agents so that they have more time for meetings.

I attempted to object, but it was ineffective. I did as he said, and that was the end of my career as team leader and as an insurance business employee. Obviously, sales did not increase because agents lacked the professionalism necessary to execute the required number of successful transactions. Individually, they decided to depart. Eventually, I was unable to hire the new team, and I was relieved of my unit manager duties and forced to quit the organization. I understood upon reflection that I was not a true leader. I had failed those who had placed their trust in me due to my inauthenticity and poor management. It was the lesson I learned throughout my entire life.

Conclusion

In conclusion, the study examined the existing theories of ethical leadership in companies and team leadership in depth, assessed their characteristics in terms of leadership, and presented the personal experience based on combining the theories into a single realistically applicable concept. Ethical team leadership is the idea of leading a team using ethics as the foundation for constructing an effective team.

Personal experience demonstrated that only an ethical approach to the team-building process may yield the best long-term benefits. Any other technique resulted in short-term success, but after several months of hard work, the team had failed to sustain both integrity and good outcomes. It supported the notion that only ethical team leadership could afford the team the opportunity to grow and flourish.

References

The authors' names are Bolden, Gosling, Marturano, and Dennison (2003). The examination of leadership theory and competency frameworks. Web.

Monahan, K. (2012). A literature review on the topic of ethical leadership in organizations. Emerging Leadership Journeys, volume 5, number 1, pages 56-66. Web.

Mullane, S.P. (2009). Ethics and leadership. Web.

[supanova question]

Change Management: Error Analysis And Solution Search Aqa Unit 5 Biology Synoptic Essay Help

Table of Contents
Introduction Process Problematization Reframing the Issue Literature Review Insight Potential Work-Based Problem Resolutions Conclusion Bibliography

Introduction

Change management is a necessary ability for any manager who aspires to steer a company toward attaining sustainable success. However, change can have a detrimental impact on the motivation of human resources because firms do not always consider its long-term effects while implementing it. Therefore, ensuring that change is executed as transparently and inclusively as feasible is a primary responsibility of change managers. Therefore, all affected parties should actively participate in the creation of the new policies. Given that change management is one of the most difficult aspects of contemporary management practice, this is not always simple (Isabell, 1990). Unmotivated employees are likely to exert less effort and be far less creative than motivated employees. Additionally, job turnover is typically inversely related to employee motivation. In the setting of this paper's case study, the Oil and Gas Company's management has implemented a series of dramatic adjustments aimed at doing more with less resources. This has been a tremendous success, and profits have skyrocketed. However, the staff do not share the executive's happiness, primarily because they are subjected to extreme pressure and stress. They are under great pressure to work more and longer in order to fulfill the new goals established without their participation. Their biggest concern is that they do not feel valued by the organization, which appears to be motivated solely by financial gain and has little regard for their welfare.

Problematizing Process

For change management to be effective, managers must transcend executive-centered tactics and focus universally on everyone who will be touched by the change. Due to the persistent inability to evaluate this element, the majority of organizational change initiatives fail to produce the anticipated results. The managers of the oil and gas industry have not involved employees in the decision-making process. As a result, they are unable of seeing the wider picture or appreciating the advances the company is making, as they believe it is at their expense. Employee apathy will inevitably lead to decreased motivation, and short-term gains may be lost if employees believe they are functioning on different planes than their managers. Due to the exclusion of the change's primary drivers from the process, the company's management has manifestly failed to implement the change effectively. Ironically, "doing more with less" in the context of human resources means that fewer teams are expected to work more and create more.

Recasting the Issue

The research for this article and the process of problematization have provided me with a fresh perspective on how to rethink the issue and possibly bring it closer to a solution. Instead of treating it as a problem of dealing with employee apathy and likely attrition, the oil and gas company's employer can ask what can be done to increase staff participation. It is evident that manager-centric change marginalizes a company's most valuable asset (Tsoukas and Chia, 2002), and I urge that the business take conscious steps to prevent this. Employees are demotivated when they feel not only exploited but also disregarded, which will limit their creative energy and ultimately unproductive. Change is unlikely to result in indifferent worker-employee interactions when the problem's root, the exclusion of employees from decision-making, is addressed.

Literature Review

Among the leading reasons of change management failure are executive-focused approaches that exclude the insight and perspective of the workers (Alvesson & Sveningsson, 2007). Employees will not fully comprehend their particular role in the change implementation if they are not involved. Consequently, the organization will face the danger of engaging in inefficient and morale-killing cross-purpose operations (Balogun & Johnson, 2005). Employee participation in change management is an effective means of bringing the process to a timely and effective conclusion. According to Brockner and James (2008), when employees participate actively in the change process, they can make significant contributions. Given that they work with the numerous aspects of production on a daily basis, their process optimization knowledge is vital (Palmer & Dunford, 2008). In addition to being the ethical thing to do, including those affected by the change is vital because, if the change fails, the retrospective data can be used for damage management (Brockner & James, 2008). Employees are significant stakeholders in every firm, and they have much to gain from its long-term success. Therefore, their participation can provide management with a broader understanding of the change process from knowledgeable insiders (Graetz and Smith, 2010).

Insight

The literature research presents multiple views that can be applied to the case study's oil and gas company. For instance, while the adjustment was clearly helpful to the bottom line, it had a negative effect on human resources. From the process of problematization, I've learned that contextualizing a problem to include all stakeholders, no matter how seemingly small, is essential for understanding and resolving organizational and personal change. In the example described above, the refusal of managers to produce a guideline to help their employees understand the change is a significant factor contributing to failure.

Possible Solutions to the Problem at Work

Based on what I have learned via reading and reflection, my final critical learning report will emphasize identifying the essence of the employee-employer problem from the outset rather than focusing on its effects. In this instance, it is employee dissatisfaction with management (Palmer & Dunford, 2008). To tackle challenges similar to those faced by the company in question, managers must include human resources in both major and minor choices, as opposed to including people solely during the implementation phase. In fact, it is completely possible that in some circumstances employee apathy is caused by a sense of exclusion rather than any extrinsic loss.

Conclusion

Ultimately, the best course of action for the organization is to concentrate on enhancing communication between managers and employees, particularly in the areas of change management and implementation. Moreover, management should recognize that maximizing profits at the price of employee welfare is not a viable business strategy. There should be a system in which the benefits of their hard work trickle down to them in the form of greater allowances, time off, and promotion possibilities, among other perks. However, the affected staff and employees must actively participate in these decisions.

References

Alvesson, M., & Sveningsson, S. (2007). Changing organizational culture; ongoing cultural transformation. Routledge, New York, NY

Balogun, J., & Johnson, G. (2005). From intended tactics to unanticipated consequences: the influence of change management recipient sensemaking. London, United Kingdom: Sage Publications.

Brockner, J., and E. James (2008). To comprehend when leaders view a crisis as an opportunity. 44(1), 94–115, Journal of Applied Behavioral Science.

Graetz, F., & Smith, A. (2010). Managing organizational transformation; change philosophy methodology. 10(2) Journal of Change Management: 135-154.

Isabella, L. (1990). As a shift evolves, managers' perspectives of significant organizational events evolve. 33(1), 7–41, Academy of Management Journal.

Palmer, I., & Dunford, R. (2008). Change within an organization and the significance of entrenched assumptions British Journal of Management, 19(1), pages 20 through 32.

Tsoukas, H., and R. Chia (2002). On organizational becoming: reconsidering organizational transformation. Organization Science, 13(5), 567–582.

[supanova question]

Quality Culture In TNT Express UAE Aqa Unit 5 Biology Synoptic Essay Help

Introduction

Despite the amount of literature on quality practices to be followed by organizations, there appear to be few research on the relationship between quality culture in the organizational setting and actual organizational performance (National Research Council, 1997). The culture of quality can be regarded a component of the total organizational culture. Any organization's quality culture involves the discovery of faults, the avoidance of errors, and the constant maintenance of product and service quality.

The presence of quality culture can be determined by comparing the performance of individual enterprises to the average performance of the industry. Comparison with the performance of rival organizations, the firm's ability to satisfy customer expectations, and the firm's prior performance in a number of functional areas are a few of the additional criteria that might indicate and quantify the quality culture of an organization.

Prior research demonstrates that organizations with advanced quality cultures have a close relationship between the efficacy of organizational performance and the quality accomplishment of the respective firms (National Research Council, 1997). In today's highly competitive corporate world, developing a whole quality culture has become the chosen strategy for achieving organizational productivity excellence.

Total Quality Management (TQM), a recently developed concept adopted by a number of prosperous firms, is a participatory method. This strategy entails empowering all organizational members to bear responsibility for implementing quality enhancements in all functional areas (Knol, 2009). This method does not believe in the typical bureaucratic mindset; rather, it is predicated on the evolution of an organization's culture in order to advance toward a whole quality culture.

Due to the tight relationship between quality culture and organizational performance, it is essential to examine the idea of quality culture in order to comprehend its effect on organizational performance. This paper elaborates on the concept of quality culture and its effect on organizational performance in this setting. This paper investigates the quality culture at TNT Express Dubai, UAE, as a case study.

What constitutes Quality Culture?

In general, "organizational culture is defined as the pattern of shared values and beliefs that help individuals comprehend organizational functioning and meaning, as well as the norms and rules of behavior within the organization" (Deshpande & Webster, 1989). According to this definition, a quality culture reflects the "values and professionalism" of an organization. To instill a culture of quality in an organization, the leadership must ensure that quality is ingrained in that culture.

In order for quality to become ingrained in the corporate culture, the personnel must be forced to embody the quality standards that they are required to adhere to. Even though the establishment of a quality culture is not difficult, it is a tedious and lengthy process. Creating a quality culture depends on the organization's ability to implement multiple processes capable of monitoring all organizational members' actions and ensuring quality outputs in all functional areas of the organization. "Quality represents an organization's commitment to having the highest industry standards and a reputation for excellence" (Noe, 2002).

Those firms that are able to embrace a quality culture become customer-centric and adhere to guiding principles that strive to increase and maintain customer satisfaction. The only approach to increase customer satisfaction is to develop a culture of quality in which every employee understands and embodies the organization's quality ideals. Employees must be persuaded that quality is more than merely satisfying set requirements; it must be cultivated as part of the company's culture.

Another key part of a quality culture is the existence of teams within the business charged with maintaining and enhancing quality aspects organization-wide. When an organization has a notable quality culture, the need of sustaining quality is communicated to all members through efficient channels. In addition, there is a constant examination of the established quality guidelines in order to make any necessary adjustments in light of the fluctuating needs and preferences of customers.

It is the job of the leadership to ensure that an environment conducive to effective change management is constantly present in the company, so that it can rapidly adjust to the shifting quality culture. To remain competitive, it is crucial that the business is able to quickly adjust to change and retain a high-quality culture. Leaders of an organization should ensure that their members comprehend the changes in the quality culture by explaining the necessity and scope of the adjustments. When employees are informed of the extent and significance of changes to quality requirements, they will be in a better position to internalize such adjustments. This action will ensure that the organization establishes and enforces a culture of the highest quality.

Research Procedure

This research investigates the connection between quality culture and organizational excellence. This study employs the qualitative case study and secondary research methodologies. According to Saunders et al. (2003), hybrid research methodologies can attain their distinct benefits and drawbacks. A case study, for instance, can be a useful source for providing a complete perspective on the research subject. Numerous approaches can give researchers with a comprehensive understanding of study (Malhotra & Birks, 1999). Following is a discussion of the importance of secondary research and the case study method.

Case report

Qualitative research methods allow the researcher to examine in depth the crucial features of any social issue. A case study is one of the instruments and methods utilized by the qualitative research methodology to conduct research. According to Creswell (1994), qualitative research is a phase of the research process that studies the social or human behavior related to the research topic. The qualitative method adds value to the research by eliciting the perspectives of many informants expressing their thoughts in their natural environment. Within a variety of research contexts, the case study has been one of the chosen research approaches.

Case study is an ideal research strategy when a comprehensive, in-depth analysis is required (Feagin et al., 1991). Numerous sociological studies have been aided by the case study as a fundamental research approach in gathering pertinent information about the examined issues. The case study technique enables the researcher to apply well-developed, tried-and-true procedures to any type of inquiry. "Whether the study is experimental or quasi-experimental, it is common knowledge that the data collection and analysis methods conceal details" (Stake, 1995).

However, case studies can collect information and data from a variety of sources. Case study research is ineligible to be considered sample research. The case study method is widely criticized for its inapplicability to real-world situations and lack of generalizability. Nevertheless, according to Yin (1984), this method is suitable for analytic generalization. In analytic generalization, the previously created theory serves as a template against which the case study's actual findings are compared (Yin, 1984)

Secondary Analysis

Secondary research employs data obtained in a different setting for the purpose of achieving distinct research aims. It is useful not only to obtain information to answer the study topic, but also to better comprehend and explain it. Ghauri & Gronhaug (2005) In addition to aiding in the research process, mention that secondary research is important for gaining a deeper understanding of the study problem. It is a quick, valuable, and efficient approach for conducting extensive research, particularly when some of the essential data is limited for primary data collecting (Malhotra & Birks, 1999). Malhotra and Birks (1999) recognized a number of benefits of secondary data:

Identifying the research issue Creating a solution to the issue Developing a sampling plan Developing a suitable research design Answering specific research questions and evaluating specific theories Improved understanding of primary data interpretation Validate qualitative research findings saving money and time on research

However, there are also a number of downsides to using secondary data:

It may not meet the researcher's needs due to its multiple purposes and insufficient updates (Malhotra & Birks, 1999). Accessing specific data such as market research reports is costly. Access to secondary data is typically inexpensive or free, but specific data is only made available upon purchase by researchers. This could raise research expenditures (Ghauri & Gronhaug, 2005).

This research utilizes secondary data due to the limitations of this study and the previously described advantages of secondary data. This study will rely heavily on documentary data from different sources. Regarding the London transport industry, many responses to the following questions are expected:

What are the preferences and needs of a current customer? What is a current and emerging trend in the international delivery-focused eastern transport industry? What is the market climate for development in the future? Who are your primary clients and competitors?

The Internet is the most valuable and effective method for collecting this data for our study. In addition, websites such as Keynote, Global Market Information Database (GMID), The Economist, Data monitor, and Financial Analysis Made Easy (FAME) provide access to voluminous articles and pertinent data. However, legitimacy and dependability of resources may be a concern due to the lack of information about the transport business needed to choose the appropriate website. Consequently, selecting a suitable website and evaluating its content will be crucial when collecting data via the Internet.

To increase authenticity and dependability, this project only uses data from well-established, reputable, and well-managed websites. Furthermore, no information from anonymous or implausible websites is utilized for this research. The second step is to utilize published sources, such as newspapers and specialized publications, that are more relevant and reputable. It provides a clear grasp of the subject matter, however bias issues should be noted because the articles may contain the author's own opinions. Consequently, pertinent material or information written by several authors is compared and assessed. In addition, the Metal library serves as the primary resource for this activity, linking to e-journals, databases, and report archives.

These are the secondary sources:

Written items and non-written materials constitute documentary evidence. Censuses, reports, continuous and regular surveys, and ad hoc surveys provide survey-based data. Multiple sources: geographic and temporal series

Literature Review

Introduction

Numerous academics and researchers regard corporate culture to be a crucial success factor (Detert et al., 2000). Culture is seen as a crucial catalyst and key aspect for establishing organizational commitment for any type of change intended to be implemented in any firm (Huq & Martin, 2000). Culture has a significant impact on the success of an organization. Culture is "a powerful, latent, and frequently unconscious set of forces that determine the employee's behavior and the collective behavior of the organization" (Brendler 2006).

Culture serves as the foundation for setting the mode of operation of business processes, the means of determining goals, and reflects the values of the leaders. Consequently, it has a bigger bearing on organizational performance. This article examines the relationship between organizational culture and quality management inside every corporate company. Bright & Cooper (1993) found a paucity of preceding literature and research findings examining the relationship between organizational culture and quality management. Detert et al. (2000) supported this conclusion by highlighting the paucity of research on the relationship between organizational culture and the application of new quality management strategies.

Culture of an Organization – an Overview

According to Kroeber & Kluckhohn (1952), "culture is something that all or nearly all members of a social group share, something that the older members of the group attempt to transmit to the younger members, and something that influences behavior." Consequently, it may be determined that every culture comprises of beliefs about how people should live by identifying the ideals, values, and assumptions that create the distinct behavioral patterns of various people.

Brislin (1993) asserts that culture is the product of people that is transmitted from one generation to the next. Further, he asserts that emotional reactions are inevitable when the distinctive values of one culture are violated, and that emotional outbursts may also occur when the typical behaviors of a culture are not observed. Similarly, the influence of religion on culture cannot be overlooked.

Therefore, culture is constrained by a variety of limiting variables that depend on the places, regions, or countries. It is anticipated that such cultural differences will have differing dimensions and degrees of influence on employee behavior in commercial organizations across countries. Especially in an era of economic globalization, commercial and industrial houses disseminate to geographically distant countries, breaking down all barriers.

In such situations, multinational and transnational corporations are compelled to employ both the local labor force and expatriates. While doing so, in order to improve organizational performance, businesses must consider the impact of cultural differences on employee behavior, which may eventually affect both individual and organizational performance.

There is a wealth of earlier research on culture that is diverse, expansive, and contradictory in nature. The phenomena of culture has been approached differently by different disciplines' meanings of the term (Chew & Putti, 1995; Eagleton, 2000). According to Maull et al. (2001), the organizational culture has four distinct perspectives of culture. Culture is considered as

A learnt entity, a set of beliefs, a plan of action, and mental programming.

Nonetheless, Maull et al. (2001) find it challenging to precisely characterize the nature of organizational culture. According to the authors, it cannot be determined if organizational culture is a dependent or independent variable. On the basis of a review of prior research on the subject, Lewis (1996) asserts that the majority of findings from prior studies view culture as a variable subject to the influence of both external and internal organizational factors and that it is easier for organizations to manage their own culture.

"Although there is no clear consensus on the definition of organizational culture, an analysis of numerous definitions suggests that some scholars consider culture as "shared values," another group as a "method of working," and a third as a combination of "shared values" and "style of functioning" (Gallear & Ghobadian, 2004).

Based on the research of O'Reilly and Chatman (1996: 160), Detert et al. (2000) defined culture as "a system of shared values defining what is important and norms defining appropriate attitudes and behaviors that guide members."

Business School In London: Business Plan Aqa Unit 5 Biology Synoptic Essay Help

Overview

Education is essential to national economy. Statistics indicate that countries with highly educated people typically have greater economic stability, with a few notable exceptions. Individuals' careers are shaped by business schools by providing them with the required management skills. To satisfy market requirements, education is consequently indispensable. Nature Business School will initially cater to graduate students desiring to enroll in flexible, high-quality MBA programs that are tailored to their schedules and financial preferences. Despite its London location, the organization will prioritize prospective clients from Italy and Sweden. This article examines the defining characteristics of the planned business school establishment.

Corporate Ownership

The establishment of a business school is capital-intensive and resource-intensive. Quality is crucial to the provision of education and must thus be prioritized by educational institutions. Furthermore, financing is essential for the provision of quality education. After noting the desire of numerous European organizations in forming partnerships with educational institutions, the firms will be approached for more funding (Covin & Slevin, 2006: 40). This will be accomplished by encouraging them to engage with colleges to build curricula centered on market demands. Individual sponsors who are interested in investing in the education industry will also be sought as potential investors. 40% of money will be contributed by myself, however. Depending on the above-mentioned financing goals, several corporations, individual funders, and I will hold shares in the school. Planning is essential for ensuring that corporate goals are adhered to and adequately met (Eric et al., 1993: 56).

Executive Summary

The startup costs for the school are depicted in the table below. This funding will primarily fund the development of classrooms, offices, and computer laboratories (Business Plan Questions and Answers, 2010: 10). In addition, funding will be needed to create a website from which the majority of international programs will be administered to customers via online resources. Funds for personnel will also be required to develop a solid team of educators and support personnel (Covin & Slevin, 2006: 43). Additionally, the company will need early cash reserves and additional facilitation assets. The remaining funds will be used to rent houses in their respective markets.

The table below covers the startup costs and capital needed. Given that supplying the program will necessitate substantial technology and asset investments, the program's launch will be relatively costly. Additionally, it must be understood that initial launch preparations will provide for anticipated future program expansion. In addition to being included in the starting costs of a business, licensing fees are also accounted for.

Beginning-of-business financing

Funding Startup Costs of $136,000

Funding Startup Assets at $359 000

Total Funds Required $490,000

Assets

$115,000 in non-cash start-up assets

Initial capital needs $244,000

Beginning Cash Balance $144,000

Total Assets $359,000

Liabilities and Resources

Liabilities

No borrowings

Long-Term Obligations of $160,000

Zero dollars in payable accounts

Other Current Obligations $0

Total Liabilities $160,000

Capital

Budgeted Investment

Businesses $197,000

Individuals $198,000

Individual investment of $100,000

Additional Investment Requirement $0

Total Investment Budget $490,000

Beginning Loan ($65,000)

Total Assets and Obligations: $490,000

Total Funding $560,000

Start-up

Requirements

Initial Expenses

Legal Requirements $1800

$1500 for office supplies and the like

Pamphlets $1300

Consultations $0

Coverage of $1,900

Rentals $53,500

Equipment $115,000

Construction of Facilities $125,000

Total Start-up Expenses $306,000

Start-up Assets

Cash Needed of $100,000

Initial Inventory $59,000

Additional Current Assets $0

Permanent Assets $200,000

Total Assets $359 Thousand

Total Requirements $495,000

Location

This company's headquarters will be located in the Westminster neighborhood of London (Barman, 2010). It will be outfitted with cutting-edge technology to assist the delivery of education both within the school and via online services. The construction site will be determined by a number of criteria, including:

Calm office and studying atmosphere. Effortless accessibility. Possibility of constructing an easily accessible parking lot on available land (Croft, 2002: 32). Access to high-ranking authorities during business hours. Reduced presence of competition

These are consistent with our mission to provide inexpensive, high-quality services to our clients. They would be expected to facilitate client happiness and education quality within the educational institution.

The primary purpose is to supply clients with high-quality classroom and online education. Online education is aimed for international clientele and is designed to accommodate their work schedules.

The business will consist of the following core elements:

Online learning platforms and lecture resources. Institutional administration presentation Collaboration center.

Mission

The university will try to provide customers with high-quality, reasonably-priced education that is tailored to their schedules and time constraints. Our mission will consequently be predicated on adaptability.

Offerings & Services

Though the eventual objective is to provide a variety of business-related training programs, the current emphasis will be on MBA programs that will be offered both on a part-time and full-time basis. The MBA will be available both online and on the school's campus. The full-time program will be conducted on-site, while the part-time program will be offered online and on-site as evening and morning classes. However, given our initial emphasis on Sweden and Italy, it is anticipated that the majority of projected clients will enroll in the part-time program via the online facility. In addition, clients will be offered a flexible payment structure that allows them to pay the session fees in three installments. It is anticipated that this will attract working clients who desire to fund their education independently and retain their employment schedules.

Marketing

Analyse of the market

A large number of colleges and institutions in London and Europe offer business courses. These schools and universities are anticipated to provide us with competition. New London College, William's College, Imperial College, Thames Valley University, and London School of business are among the anticipated significant contenders. These colleges provide both full-time and part-time business education, including MBA programs. Due to their extensive market presence and expertise, they create formidable competition to our target market. However, despite the fact that other competitors offer comparable items, we anticipate that our adaptable program and reasonable payment terms will win us clients in our target regions. In addition, we plan to invest extensively in marketing to combat the possibility of intense competition from other institutions offering the course.

Marketing Analysis

Target Market

Our target market will consist primarily of Italians and Swedes. These markets were selected because to the large amount of college-educated individuals wishing to pursue their education. In these markets, we will concentrate our focus to the working population and recent college graduates seeking to further their education and experience. Our target market will be classified as follows:

Middle-Class Earners

These individuals will include those with a moderate income who are unable to pay big quantities of money at once for their tuition and therefore intend to choose colleges that permit flexible payment.

Tightly scheduled staff

This group is comprised of individuals with constrained job schedules and insufficient time to devote to full-time education progress. In order to advance their education, these individuals will be in severe need of flexible learning programs accessible from their workplaces and homes.

Recent College Graduates

Students who have recently graduated are sometimes unable to spend big quantities of money for their MBA school and must save before enrolling. This software will allow people to save by accepting payments in installments.

Strategic Plan

Client expansion forecast

As our target clients will have access to a number of payment and study alternatives, we anticipate that client growth will remain stable during the first five years. The expected expansion during the first two years of operation is detailed below.

Rate of development

2011 2012 2013

Middle-Class Earners

20.00% 16.67%

Tightly scheduled staff

20.00% 11.11%

Recent college graduates

20.00% 0.00%

Market segmentation

Our market will be categorized based on our target customers, who include middle-income earners, employees with tight schedules, and fresh graduates (Croft, 2002).

Pricing technique

Our pricing strategy is comparable to that of our competitors, but we will offer flexible payment plans to ensure that clients can afford our services with their monthly incomes, so eliminating the need for loans and borrowings that frequently surprise clients (Covin & Slevin, 2006: 79). In a previous poll, we discovered that the majority of clients chose flexible payment methods that permit them to pay bills using individualized payment plans.

Plan for Advertising and Promotion

Our advertising methods will consist of the following:

Objective formulation. Budget preparation for advertising initiative. Strategy development. Evaluation of the used advertising strategy

Setting advertising objectives

It all begins with establishing a goal. The first stage is to establish the advertising goal. A marketing aim communicates the precise tasks, audience, and timeframe to be attained (Jerome, 1975: 3).

Our advertising purpose will initially be to enlighten consumers, and after a period of time, to remind them. The justifications for the aims are:

Our advertising will be informative, as we are bringing a new educational institution to the market. The fundamental goal is to increase public demand. We will also engage in persuasive advertising by stating that we provide education of the highest quality and flexible payment plans (Don, 1993: 45). Reminder advertising will utilize social media, existing clientele, and media (both print and visual)

Establishing a marketing budget

We will have a substantial marketing expenditure ($5000) given that we are fresh to the market. The big budget is necessitated by the necessity to create our own market from scratch in addition to acquiring clients from competitors (Kraten, 2007:57).

Developing advertising strategy

(Don, 1993: 45) Developing a budget for advertising will rely heavily on two primary factors:

Developing a marketing message Selecting advertising media.

Advertisement campaign evaluation

This will require continuous examination of the impact of our advertising on customers (George, 1994:56). In addition to product characteristics, price, and customer happiness, a multitude of other variables influence sales results. But the impact of communication depend solely on advertising (George, 1994:57). After the institution's inauguration, the number of students enrolling each semester and the frequency of website visits will indicate that successful communication has been established (Barney, 1986: 1236).

SWOT analysis

Strengths

Staff and owners with expertise in the education industry.

Integration of technology into the educational process. Weaknesses

Thus, a new entrant to the market begins at a disadvantage.

Funding limitation

Opportunities

The education markets in Sweden and Italy have grown.

Increasing demand for educational advancement among the current labor force. Threats

Competition from well-established and seasoned institutions.

Sales Forecast

According to a report on the current hotel market trends, it is anticipated that the sales projection would increase over time.

Sales Forecast (in thousands)

2011 2012 2013 2014 2015

Sales

Part-time courses £1,8530 £2,9590 £3,8060 £4,2470 £4,2890

Full-time courses £4200 £5520 £6300 £8940 £100

Total Sales £2,2730 £3,5110 £4,4360 £5,1410 £5,2890

Direct Sales Expense

Total expenses for part-time courses are £1,980 £2,100 £2,400 £2,800.

Total Course Fees: £720 £760 £770 £790 £80,000

Total Subtotal Direct Expenses $2,700 $2,760 $2,870 $3,190 $360,500

Net Sales £230 £3,2350 £4,1490 £4,8220 £4,928,500

Personnel plan

The school will require a variety of employees in order to operate. These will comprise educators and support personnel who facilitate the educational process. Diverse individuals will be hired to ensure the smooth operation and professionalism of the institution's operations. The following table provides an overview of personnel expenditures.

Personnel Plan

Year 1 Year 2 Year 3

Director £5360 £5390 £5420

Director Assistant £4420 £4450 £4480

Education personnel £2,110.00 £2,210.00

Staff Support £6390 £6430 £6460

Maintenance and stock personnel £5350 £5390 £5420

Technicians: £ 6,200 £ 6,600 £ 7,050

Cleaning staff £3,720 £3,760 £3,790

Transport personnel £23000 £23000 £23000

Personnel de Sécurité £2450 £2450 £2450

Total Payroll £57290 £57970 £58630

Checking Procedures

Monitoring our plan's implementation is crucial to its success (Stern, 2008:90). A formidable monitoring and evaluation team will be assembled as a result of the need for extensive logistics. The team will be expected to stick to stringent deadlines and notify any changes in planning to management in a timely manner.

A marketing audit will be conducted to guarantee that the budget allotted for the activity is not being squandered by the individuals involved (Ginter, 1987: 7). This will boost the confidence of shareholders and investors in our company and be financially beneficial to our organization. This confidence will generate customer and consumer loyalty to our brand and products. Audits will check our advertisement revenues (Zaltman, Deshpande, & Moorman, 1992: 17). All of our finances, which will be used for the expansion of the company, will be watched to ensure that they are employed appropriately.

Risk Analysis/Mitigation

Inadequate start-up period

The likelihood of a prolonged start-up period represents a significant threat to the company. There is a possibility that our forecasts will not be profitable within the anticipated two-year period (Zaltman, Deshpande & Moorman, 1993: 90). However, this is accounted for by a three-year budget extension that provides a buffer against volatility. The budget includes an operational contingency account to cover any shortages that may incur financial responsibilities.

Market acquisition

Obtaining customers is a basic obstacle we must face, especially because we are new entrants into the industry (Zaltman, Deshpande, & Moorman, 1992: 18). It is impossible to overlook the possibility of not achieving the targeted client base within the stipulated time frame (Naresh & David, 2010). Mitigation is exemplified by the marketing methods described previously and the substantial marketing spend reflected in the startup resource allocation plan.

Competition

In an effort not to lose customers to us, our big competitors introduce items identical to ours to impede our market entry (George, Kress & John, 1994: 56). This threat will be countered by the distinctive, tranquil environment we provide, which will appeal to our new clientele regardless of substitute products offered by our competitors.

It is essential to recognize that the first year will be key to our success and will entail heightened operational risk. As our company activities take up, we expect these risks to diminish and finally settle at low, acceptable levels.

Conclusion

In conclusion, it is important to note that the company's success will depend on the dedication and efforts of its employees, and thus a great deal of emphasis will be placed on staff recruitment to ensure that high levels of professionalism are maintained throughout its operations. Additionally, the company's viability will largely depend on its capacity to persuade clients that the products and services we provide are superior to those of our prospective competitors. Additionally, being new entrants into the market, advertisement is given priority as it is considered key to growth of the business (Cruikshank, 1987: 43). This effort is expected to yield continuous business growth and expansion with more students enrolling over the years.

China Becoming World-Dominant Power In Economy Aqa Unit 5 Biology Synoptic Essay Help

Table of Contents
Introduction Economy Historical Context Economics of Information Technology Ren Min Bi (Chinese dollars) Economic analysis of China Future tendencies Conclusion Functions Cited

Introduction

China is one of the world's oldest civilizations, with its earliest governments and cultures reaching back around six millennia. China's culture and ethnicity are the foundation of one of the world's oldest and most diverse civilizations. The country has a rich history that spans over five thousand years of political, philosophical, artistic, and scientific development. China's history of science and technology predates the 1st millennium BCE. This nation's technological contributions to the evolution of civilization and humanity have a long and illustrious history. In antiquity, rather than relying on Greek or other cultures' philosophers, ancient Chinese philosophers produced significant advances in science, astronomy, technology, and mathematics. Only in this country were the first recorded observations of solar eclipses, comets, and supernovas, according to the available evidence. Traditional Chinese Medicine, including herbal medicine and acupuncture, is a collection of conventional medical techniques originating in China that have evolved over the course of several thousand years. In China, hypotheses, medications, and diagnoses such as herbal medicine, massage, and acupuncture, etc. were also utilized. China has been far more civilized and advanced than the rest of the world from its inception. (Kynge, 26) However, in today’s globe, China is becoming an economic superpower, and the world’s viewpoint on China has changed for the better in recent years.

Background

The stalemate of the final Chinese Civil War, which lasted from April of 1927 to May of 1950, was civil conflict on the territory of China between the Kuomintang (KMT or Nationalist Party) and the Chinese Communist Party (CCP). As a result of this battle, the People's Republic of China (PRC), which administers mainland China, Hong Kong, and Macau, and the Republic of China (ROC), which administers Taiwan and its surrounding islands, use the same, formerly used name China. (Nyland, 49-73)

In January of 2006, People’s Republic of China President Hu Jintao called for his country to transition from a manufacturing-based to an innovation-based economy, and this year, the National People’s Congress has approved a substantial increase in funding for research. Stem-cell research and genetic therapy, which, according to some Westerners, constitutes a contentious endeavor, must adhere to China's minimum quantity requirement. China has roughly 926,000 researchers, the second-highest number in the world after the United States with its 1,3 million researchers. (Fleisher, 249-261)

China's semiconductor, software, and energy industries, which include renewable energies such as solar, wind, and hydro, are also expanding rapidly at now. In an effort to reduce pollution generated by coal-burning power plants, China has been at the forefront of implementing pebble-bed nuclear reactors. It has been observed that technological advancement frequently leads to political dominance, and China is rapidly nearing the summit currently inhabited by the world's leading nations. (Garnaut, 134)

Economy

According to nominal gross domestic product, the economy of the People's Republic of China ranks as the fourth largest in the world. In 2006, its cost-effective output was $2.68 trillion USD. Its GDP per capita is rising quickly. According to a 2006 estimate, over 73% of China's gross domestic product is comprised of privately owned assets. (Fishman, 33) Since 1978, the People’s Republic of China (PRC) government has restructured its economy from a Soviet-style centrally planned economy, in which the state or government has sole control over the issue of production and makes all decisions regarding their utilization and the distribution of income, to a new market-oriented economy, in which the production and distribution of goods and services are conducted through the system of free markets directed by a gratia Within the political framework provided by the Communist Party of China, this economic system has been labeled "socialism with Chinese characteristics" and is classified as a mixed economy (Zhu, 133-156). Since 1978, when these changes were implemented, millions of people have been lifted out of poverty, reducing the poverty rate from 53% of the population in 1981 to 8% of the population in 2001.

The government has replaced the earlier collectivization in agriculture with a system of home dependence in which agricultural laborers are not paid wages. Instead, they were awarded a portion of the farm's net produce. This increased the authority of local officials and plant managers in the sector, opened the door to a vast array of small-scale operations in services and light industries, and exposed the economy to an increase in overseas trade and foreign investment. The political administration has prioritized encouraging individual earnings and usage, as well as implementing new organizational procedures to facilitate increased output. The administration has also prioritized international commerce as a significant driver of economic growth. The upshot has been a tenfold increase in GDP since 1978. During the majority of the 1990s and early 2000s, China's economic growth was understated, according to a number of international economists, since private enterprise advancements were not accounted for in their entirety. In 1952, China's total industrial output was estimated to reach 34,900 billion yuan at current rates. That amounts to around 3% of the global market. Current GDP per capita showed a negligible increase of 17% in the Sixties, rising to 70% in the Seventies, while China surged ahead of other developing nations such as India, registering an exceptional rise of 63% in the unstable Eighties and reaching a peak growth of 175% in the Nineties (Jianfa, 497-516).

The People's Republic of China implemented agricultural reorganization by dismantling the collective farm system and establishing the family responsibility system, which provides peasants with greater autonomy in agricultural activities. The government also supported nonagricultural activities, such as the establishment of village enterprises in rural areas, endorsed more self-management schemes for state-owned projects, increased market competition, and facilitated direct transactions between mainland Chinese and foreign trading enterprises. Additionally, the People's Republic of China relied heavily on foreign support and imports. 118 (Naughton)

During the 1980s, a number of changes contributed to average annual growth rates of 10 percent in agricultural and industrial output. The rural per capita real income doubled. Foreign investment helped to encourage the production of both local and export goods in the coastal regions next to Hong Kong and across the passage from Taiwan, where the industrial sector generated the majority of its earnings. China became self-sufficient in grain production. Rural enterprises accounted for 23% of agricultural output, helping to absorb surplus labor in rural areas. The variety of consumer and light industrial items expanded (Xiaohua, 37-51). The economic, financial, labor, price-setting, and banking sectors began to improve. In 1993, output and pricing were accelerated, investment outside the state budget grew, and Special Economic Zones (SEZs) and the resulting influx of excess foreign capital stimulated economic growth. Beijing backed more reforms designed to expand the role of market-oriented institutions and strengthen the central government's grip on the fiscal system. In the economy that is referred to as a “socialist market economy”, state companies remained to manage a large number of vital industries. ” (Nyland, 49-73) The government of the People's Republic of China canceled provisional loans, raised interest rates, and reevaluated investment chances. The rate of economic expansion accelerated up near the turn of the century, reaching 9.1% in 2003, 9.5% in 2004, and 9.9% in 2005. (Fleisher, 249-261).

Information Technology Economy

China may boast in an extremely specific manner that it is the major outsourcing destination for primarily American companies. The primary explanation for this phenomena is that the country produces approximately 100,000 English-speaking IT specialists each year. However, the underlying cause is China's low wage structure. Several studies have been conducted in this direction. Software development, expansion, and maintenance, as well as business processing, and a major advantage in back-office administration, such as data analysis, accounting, call centers, and human resources, have all contributed in this regard, as these are the primary areas of outsourcing to China.

China surpasses other nations such as India, Russia, the Philippines, Canada, and Ireland due to its English-speaking IT specialists, attractive labor pools, and low-cost compensation system. These five locations were likewise determined to be debatable, but when compared to China, they were all found wanting. The summit was logically held in China's territory. By virtue of its Information Technology policy, China was also a step ahead of other formidable rivals. China was judged to have the most accommodating IT policies and obligations after examining the profiles of the most likely countries, and its commitment to the industry ensured the best possible conditions for its development of "Outsourcing" (Zhu, 133-156).

Here, outsourcing is so ingrained in the economic framework that both the Chinese and Indian governments have ministries of information technology. The top administrations of the countries are overwhelmingly in favor of foreign IT ownership and require no export taxes. The future is bright for China, and it is reasonable to anticipate that China's outsourcing industry will expand and take on more complex and complicated tasks as time passes. Over time, simple pedestal-staged back-office payroll and data input will go to nations with the lowest wages, while countries such as China and India will ascend the pyramid and assume responsibility for more complex software and product development services. It is anticipated that US corporations will outsource around 3.5 million jobs to China by 2010, up from the current level of approximately 300,000. Thus, it is not surprising that every phone enquiry to Bank of America is redirected to India or China, where a Chinese or Indian responds to the question of an American citizen (Fleisher, 249-261).

Ren Min Bi (Chinese dollars)

China’s National Bureau of Statistics revised its 2004 nominal GDP in December 2005, resulting in an increase of 16.8%, or Rmb2, 336.3 billion (US$281.9 billion). This made China the sixth largest economy in the world, surpassing Italy, with a GDP of about $2 trillion USD. At the beginning of 2006, based on the USD exchange rate, the People's Republic of China declared itself to be the fourth largest economy, surpassing France and the United Kingdom. China became the second-largest economy in the world based on domestic PPP (purchasing power parity) measure at the start of 2006, with an estimated value of approximately $10 trillion USD. However, such an estimate should be taken with a great deal of caution, as PPP estimation is extremely imprecise, especially in a country as large as China, Chinese purchasing capacity varies significantly between Shanghai and Sichuan, and PPP is irrelevant for imported products and overseas acquisitions. China expects (measured by exchange rate) to surpass Germany as the third-largest economy by the end of 2010 and to surpass Japan by 2015. China is rapidly becoming a worldwide superpower, at least economically, and its logical transition into a political power will be widely acknowledged (Nyland, 49-73).

Discussion regarding China's economy

On closer inspection, China's record loses some of its luster. China's economic performance since 1979, for instance, has been less impressive than that of its East Asian rivals. Despite China's remarkable economic development, its per capita and overall GDP growth have been surpassed by other nations. Russia's minimal per capita GDP climbed from $1334 to $6,879 (515 percent) between 1999 and 2006, whereas that of the People's Republic of China increased from $850 to $2000. (229 percent). Middle Eastern oil-producing states such as Qatar, the United Arab Emirates, Bahrain, Kuwait, and Brunei are similarly outstanding. Kazakhstan, Azerbaijan, Turkmenistan, and Angola had surpassed China in simultaneously exploiting enormous energy reserves. In contrast, the real GDP of Equatorial Guinea, an African country, increased by 79% in 2004. Even other Asian nations, such as Vietnam, saw their nominal per capita GDP triple between 1999 and 2006, which is astonishingly higher than China (Xiaohua, 37-51). This is mostly due to China’s enormous labor force, which restrains inflation, and its refusal to increase the value of the Chinese yuan, which could have showed the way to faster statistical escalation, but may have sacrificed growth consistency. The strength of the global economy is a fundamental predictor of political significance nowadays, and China is performing fairly well in this regard. (Adler, 88)

In addition, it must be remembered that per capita income in absolute dollars (not percentages) GDP per capita is rising far more rapidly in the majority of industrialized nations of the world than in China, due to China's extremely low starting income level. The Central Committee of the Chinese Communist Party just authorized the eleventh five-year plan for 2006 to 2010. The plan aims for a relatively standard 45% increase in GDP and a 20% reduction in energy intensity by 2010. (Jianfa, 497-516). Intriguingly, China’s per capita proportion of world GDP cannot reach the levels of the United States, Japan, or several European nations in the 1990s on the basis of economic growth alone. Alternately stated, the average Chinese person will never hold the same economic power as the average American, Western European, and some Japanese in the 1990s. In April 1995, Japan had 20% of the world's GDP despite having less than 2% of its population. China has around 20% of the world’s population; therefore, it would require 200% of the world’s GDP to match with Japan's level in April 1995, which is virtually unachievable. For this to occur, China's proportion of the global population would have to decrease to much below 10%. (Xiaohua, 37-51).

Future trends

The BRIC economies, comprised of Brazil, Russia, India, and China, are likely to become a considerably stronger presence in the global economy during the next 50 years, with China being the most powerful of them. The rate of increase of gross domestic product, profits per capita, and financial activity in the BRICs economies indicates the possibility of their surpassing the G6 in terms of US dollars within the next 30 years. By 2025, they may surpass half the size of the G6.