Assessment By Chartered Institute Of Personnel Development Assignment Help Sydney

Table of Contents
Executive Synopsis Introduction Literature Review Research Methodology Phases Recommendations Costs and Estimates of Stakeholder Benefits Conclusion Bibliography

Executive Synopsis

Human Resources (HR) management enables this organization to fulfill its strategic objectives by ensuring that the workforce possesses the essential skills and competences. To guarantee that the organization is employing the most effective approaches and tools for personnel management, the different practice areas should be reviewed and updated on a regular basis. This paper will focus on incentives and performance measurement as one of the most important HR practices, present a summary of the literature findings from secondary sources, and make recommendations that may be used to alter the existing procedures in accordance with best practices.

Introduction

The organization should strengthen its performance and compensation management practices. Performance and reward systems have two key components: measuring and motivating employees to excel in their skills, perform in a certain manner, improve their expertise in a particular area, have a certain number of interactions and sell a certain number of units, or engage in any other activity that will improve the performance of the organization. This paper intends to emphasize the significance of reward and performance systems, analyze recent research, and offer suggestions for this firm.

In the United States, a noteworthy case of misusing performance and reward systems led to major organizational problems, fines from the government, and reputational damage. Wells Fargo – a banking institution whose administrators devised a compensation structure in which staff were compelled to register accounts and conduct transactions from customers' accounts without their knowledge. The bank was fined £149 million and faced legal troubles as a result (Zoltners, Sinha, and Lorimer, 2016). This is a noteworthy case because the root cause of the issue is a flawed performance measurement system. According to Zoltners, Sinha, and Lorimer (2016), CEOs should be aware of the significance of measuring performance, as well as the fact that employees will adapt their work to meet the measured elements; therefore, it is essential to approach this area of practice with prudence. In addition, the Wells Fargo case indicates that failing to recognize variations between departments and branches, such as a lack of clients that prevents meeting sales objectives, is crucial.

This topic was chosen because performance and rewards allow determining whether an employee's work adds to the firm's goals and whether they complete the duties assigned by their management. While it is reasonable to infer that income is the cause, the question of motivation and encouragement is more complex. In addition, the administration, including the chief executive officer, must monitor performance metrics, such as whether employees complete a given number of tasks or sell a certain quantity of a product, among others. Using these data, it is feasible to plan for future development by basing the strategy on current and real performance and calculating the modifications required to boost production volume, revenue, or any other statistic. Consequently, performance measurement is multidimensional and incorporates an essential HRM component.

Moreover, CIPD (2019) claims that investors are growing increasingly concerned in how the organizations they invest in manage, develop, and compensate their "most important asset"

Current trends in performance and compensation are centered on an employee's tenure with an organization. According to King, employer recognition programs remain popular. These are programs in which companies select a specific trait, such as success in a particular area or the number of years the person has worked for the company, and reward those who have attained the benchmark. The most prevalent method for constructing a recognition program is to utilize duration of service as a metric (King, 2019). Others, which were popular in the past and are associated with ROI, such as rewards for fewer errors, waste minimization, and problem reduction, are now less prevalent. Therefore, HR trends continue to emphasize rewards and performance as one of the most important factors for a business's success, but the patterns are shifting.

Review of Published Works

The first source that offers insight into incentive and performance practices is a 2019 report by CIDP that includes responses from 465 firms. According to CIPD’s (2019, p. 2) report, “employee reward was structured to reflect the levels of capability and responsibility in performing a role, and the levels paid tended to reflect the combination of what was deemed to be the “going rate” for particular skill sets across various job families and what the employer could afford to pay. ’ However, there is an unsolved question regarding the definition of fair pay based on a person's talents and aptitude. This paper concludes that, despite the fact that firms have a range of reward systems in place, it is unclear to both employers and employees how fair compensation for labor may be defined, what the criteria are, and how to explain the chosen strategy as acceptable.

Typically, organizations employ the “what feels fair” method, in which they compare the benefits and pay of various groups to select a strategy. As part of the campaign for equal pay for women and men, CIDP (2019) notes that organizations are under pressure to be open regarding their reward and payment systems. This CIPD report is legitimate, trustworthy, and up-to-date since it was conducted by an organization that addresses HR issues and specifies best practices for managers. Moreover, CIPD (2019) stated that the report is based on the responses of employees and managers, making it the definitive source of information regarding the perceptions of these stakeholder groups regarding rewards and performance. Figure 1 is based on a report by the Chartered Institute of Personnel and Development (CIPD) that identifies the most critical criteria that businesses evaluate when determining employee compensation.

Figure 1. Factors influencing compensation, according to CIPD's (2019) study (created by the author).

Next, a Harvard Business Review article describes the case of unethical rewards and incentives, which was covered in the report's opening. The issue involves Wells Fargo, whose management developed the rewards system ‘to fulfill sales targets and receive incentives,’ which is a purpose shared by all employers – to encourage their employees to perform better (Zoltners, Sinha, and Lorimer, 2016). This is not the first instance in which a firm faces legal difficulty because its HR strategy fails to take into account the actual needs of its customers and the skills of its employees, driving the latter to utilize illegal means to meet their monthly or weekly objective. Historically, Sears and Marsh Inc. were required to compensate their customers for unneeded services or as part of a regulatory fine (Zoltners, Sinha, and Lorimer, 2016). This site aids comprehension of the challenges a firm may face if it implements an unethical performance evaluation system.

The third source is a second article from Harvard Business Review that discusses a case study of organizations who choose to eliminate performance reviews and base compensation on performance. As an alternative method, Cappelli and Tavis (2016) claim that some organizations have established a system in which employees receive immediate feedback from their bosses. This may suggest that, in response to the failure of performance evaluations, some organizations have decided to implement a whole other approach for tracking performance ethically. It is essential to consider the company's particular while researching and establishing a performance assessment system, hence the argument is true. In light of Cappelli and Tavis's (2016) analysis of rewards and performance, it is clear that certain firms may need to do their own independent study based on the organization's particular and best practices in order to develop a system adapted to the nature of the task. This dependable and well-organized source provides information on quick feedback as contrasted to conventional performance evaluation approaches.

Phases of the Research Method

Any research procedure should have a quantifiable outcome and begin by defining the audience who will read the collected data. This report was developed for the CEO of the company in response to a request to analyze an area of professional practice that requires improvement. During the course of this investigation, various stages were addressed.

Regardless of the data collection method employed, any study procedure should have a distinct structure. The quantifiable output of such an action is typically a suggestion for the selected organization. The first step in the research process is the generation of researchable ideas or organizational challenges, which may be discovered by the researcher, the chief executive officer, or based on the work of others. In addition, the researcher must specify the problem that will be investigated at this stage. One should always consider a question that will be answered through the research process, and the research's recommendations will be formulated in a way that answers this question.

Following the creation of the research approach based on the sorts of data to be employed, the next step entails data collection, either from the literature or from the organization's own resources. This step assists in examining information obtained by other professionals conducting study on the same topic, as well as understanding what is known and where the theoretical and practical parts of the problem differ. In certain situations, the issue may be unique and necessitate active data collection. Utilizing knowledge from a seasoned HR specialist is essential for success at this stage. Here, one must determine the sorts of data that will be used: quantitative or qualitative, based on the nature of the issue, the number of individuals or sources that will be used to collect the data, and the relevance of the data in connection to the type of issue being analyzed.

Following the stage of formulating research questions, the researcher researched the literature to collect evidence for the analysis phase. Literature is reviewed for parallels and differences, which aids in the formulation of a research topic in the next step. Following an interpretation of outcomes, one then examines the collected evidence, for instance by determining how a phenomenon affects the organization. The eighth and last part of the research process is drawing conclusions, in which the researcher summarizes all of the findings for the audience.

The first stage is creating ideas for the research, in this case, potential areas for HR practice improvement. Next, the available sources, such as HR periodicals, research articles, and books, should be reviewed. This paper relies primarily on qualitative data, although the CIPD (2019) research has some quantitative information. The acquired data must next be examined, which will aid in the formulation of a research topic. In this situation, the material is assessed, summarized, and interpreted for the CEO.

The differences between the primary research methods are the methods of data collection. Some researchers opt to focus on how employees perceive the rewards system by gauging their level of satisfaction and soliciting their comments. Others focus primarily on the perspective of management. Therefore, the impact of performance monitoring systems on income is of more importance to these scholars.

Interviews and surveys are the two basic methods of data collecting that will be contrasted. The primary characteristics of surveys include increased rigor in comparison to interviews and the collecting of information from a bigger group of people; nevertheless, a downside is that only a limited amount of information can be gathered. In contrast to surveys, interviews are done face-to-face between an interviewer and an individual or small groups and allow for the collection of a great deal of information.

This information can be delivered to management and employees in the form of a presentation and a report that summarizes the important results, as these stakeholder groups will require a deeper knowledge of why specific changes are being proposed. For the consumers, who are also stakeholders who should be aware of the new procedures, a press release can be drafted that discusses important adjustments. This will assist in informing customers of the organization's commitment to utilizing ethical procedures and ensuring that the reward system does not try to sell unneeded products.

Recommendations

The Wells Fargo instance exemplifies the necessity of approaching the issue of rewards and performance evaluation with caution in order to avoid major organizational difficulties. The following three recommendations are derived from the viewpoints of these stakeholders: customers, management, and staff. Since the purpose of the business is to deliver the highest level of service and the finest quality products, it is essential that employees consider the experience of consumers when interacting with them. In addition, it is apparent that performance measurement should offer management with an accurate evaluation of how successfully employees complete assigned duties. Lastly, it is essential to examine employee satisfaction rates. Otherwise, Wells Fargo's error of compelling bank employees to forge accounts and activities is unavoidable.

Implementing a periodic evaluation of incentive and performance measurement plans is the first recommendation that will assist enhance the performance and reward system. This can be done every six months or once a year to guarantee that the system is not slipping behind the new company strategy. The objective is to evaluate the employees' performance and their comments on the policy, as it is typically formulated by managers who do not execute the activity and may be biased towards the final outcome. This will ensure that the company's rewards and incentives management is consistently improved.

The second proposal is to build a system that allows employees to analyze the company's performance measurement and awards and provide input on whether the company's goals are attainable given the existing number of consumers. The concept is based on a case study of Wells Fargo, and since then, the employees have not had the ability to contact the management developing the performance and incentive systems to solve the problem of insufficient clients entering the bank to meet sales quotas. Thus, software or another method can be utilized to review input – either anonymously or from each individual – and evaluate the success of the current approach for rewarding employees.

Lastly, a performance and incentive system that is not exclusively reliant on an employee's ability to sell or do another duty should be developed. For instance, many firms use a system in which the employees receive additional benefits

Roles Of Motivation, Leadership, And Communication Assignment Help Sydney

Table of Contents
Introduction Communication, Management, and Inspiration Case of Dan, Lorrie, and Helen Concluding Remarks REFERENCES

Introduction

The goal of this research is to examine management and professional behavior from an analytical perspective. There are interpretive means that must be properly synced for a very dynamic posture. The focus of this study is on the different levels and interpretations of the behavior system that supports and manipulates the modalities of communication, leadership, and motivation.

In this paper, I will also discuss communication, leadership, and motivation in relation to a real-world situation. In order for the organization to operate more effectively, there must be a continual flow of information and a good blending of all of these elements. This will have a positive effect on the company's public image and future profit margins. Behaviour within an organization is seen as the soul of maintaining people's faith and confidence in it. This is the primary topic of comprehension and investigation in this work. I am attempting to interpret the entire situation in light of the information provided.

Communication, Management, and Inspiration

The phrase and action associated with the application and methodical persuasion of communication is the procedure that aids in attempting and delivering the required information from a sender to a receiver. This is accomplished through a specific medium, the majority of which is air. All other mediums exist, and they are all highly useful for communication sharing. It takes place through aural and nonverbal bodily means, including body language. These are some of the specific ways of communication that a threat brings to an organization, and inappropriate handling of these gestures and articulate powers can lead to improper system management and business planning.

There are times when coordination and communication issues within a specific corporate branch are brought to light in a much more prominent manner. In the System and Planning section, there are more reasons provided for this realization than in production. As in a branch, the objective is to make the other person recognize and comprehend his or her feelings, emotions, thoughts, and all other abstract mental modules. As a component of intrapersonal and exclusive interpersonal processing, a vast range of phenomenal skills is utilized. In a branch, the entire mechanism is quite specific, and as a result, there is less room for expanding it or preventing its realization. In contrast, the breadth of communicative circulation is greater in the case of Production, and the issues are less sharply perceived. The development of collaboration and cooperation in social interaction during production is facilitated via communication channels. The inability of the Systems and planning management to deal with the Production division management is one of the primary causes. The sole reason is that the department head emphasizes the significance of the latter point repeatedly.

Karl Darmody is the most influential thinker within this worldview. Based on his 18-month study of bureaucratic structure and leadership style, he provides several separate assessments for the purpose of realizing the motivational state. In a bureaucratic system, obedience and interstate politics play the most significant roles. Karl assessed this stage from an administrative perspective at this moment. The bureaucratic system requires a certain amount of administration that is more specific. Karl identifies motivation as the driving force behind the engagement of leadership traits in human conduct.

In terms of managing a better administrative structure, the optimal strategy is to reduce the system-initiated conflicts with production (Johns, G and Alan Saks., 2008). These factors necessitate a radical shift in occupational attitudes. There is a company-wide need for increased experience and training in order to produce superior footage. System and Planning must have more speculative and analytical tools in order to effectively manage the organizational structure. Modifications must also be made to the distribution of work and joint resources in order to increase one's status within the organization. Due to communication gaps and a lack of openness in the leadership and motivational proceedings, System and Planning are losing a substantial amount of their standing. The most significant item that the modification sector must possess is an attitude that has been carried out in the processing of the Systems and Planning functionality. System and planning must expand in terms of managing projects, and the domain of maintaining and managing motivation within the organization must be well-controlled. For a more communicative and motivating Production work environment, the Systems and Planning process must be followed from multiple perspectives. System and Planning must collaborate for the establishment and maintenance of their reputation through all forms of professional conduct.

The Case of Dan, Lori and Helen

In light of the offered reference, the analytical perspective on communication, leadership, and motivation can be adequately hypothesized. The objective of this case is to implement better policies within a business that is experiencing a persistent "negative atmosphere." In this instance, Dan is the one suffering from stress and mental anguish. The factor which renders him helpless is the company's requirement of him. The company has requested his early retirement. The purpose is to reduce energy use and attract younger members to the organization. The additional justification is that by allowing employees of Dan's age to leave the organization, the younger group will work harder. Dan was dismayed by this choice because he knew he could continue working for the company for a few more years. There is no question that Dan's fear is warranted, and that his job-related concerns will be resolved. It is true that he will receive adequate compensation from the government, but he will no longer be able to work and he fears becoming unemployed. Now, the only alternative he can consider is starting a business. He can now effectively manage a business, and his past experiences will be of tremendous assistance.

In contrast, the character Lori represents the entire younger generation within the organization. She is around 20 years younger than Dan and is not at risk for an early retirement. She is an energetic worker who has a solid grasp of her duties. Although she is far younger than Dan, her efficiency is comparable to his. She is highly effective and has a better outlook in any other organization. The only thing that makes her superior to Dan is her age-appropriate confidence. As against Dan, Lori can surely work more than Dan and can bear greater stress. She is proficient in her position and, as a result, a vital element of the organization. These are identical in Dan's case, however his age causes him to be scored slightly lower than Lori.

Helen, the company's manager, plays a crucial part in all of these contentious company situations. Dan has always had better relations with her, but since announcing his retirement, her attitude seemed to have shifted. She treats him with greater indifference and seldom maintains any cordial relations. This has a very detrimental impact on his reputation. He feels highly disoriented, and his stress level rises. Helen should never conduct herself in such a manner. As a top official, she must have a positive outlook. She is the true corporate representative who can convince Dan that he is not being asked to retire due to his age, but rather because the corporation wants to increase profits by reducing its workforce. Now, the corporation intends to increase profits by focusing on young, scarce individuals. This is part of a larger plan that aims to increase productivity with limited resources.

If the issue is investigated more thoroughly, we will discover that it is crucial for the corporation to establish a favorable working environment in the workplace. For improved working outcomes, it is essential that the organization limit the negative effects of mergers and acquisitions. If negative emotions continue to emanate from supervisors like Helen, the entire employee population will bear the consequences of these early retirements. Dan's stress level is increasing day by day as he continually considers his inefficiencies inside the organization. If something catastrophic occurs to him, the younger generation will undoubtedly rally around him and feel insecure. This will result in a change in employment. The corporation will soon begin to lose its most talented personnel and will regret its unprofessional leadership.

Cognitive dissonance theory is required to put a stop to all of these occurrences. It is this foundation that enables a leader to motivate individuals in order to acquire greater resources. Through the application of altered attitudes, beliefs, and behaviors, this will also aid in minimizing the amount of imbalanced dissonance. This is also a significant component of justifying or rationalizing the employees' attitudes, beliefs, and behaviors. Through cognitive dissonance theory, a leader can become extremely influential and can investigate social psychology in depth. In this situation, it is crucial to hold top-level meetings in which managers and senior managers are taught on how to create a positive work environment. People of Dan's age who are approaching retirement must be supported well and treated with great deference. This will inspire the younger generation and instill confidence in the organization. They will also receive assurance that their effort will be recognized at the end of the day. These senior members of the organization must be accorded the utmost deference and be allowed ample room to instruct the younger generation.

Conclusion

Eventually, we can see that it is a matter of tremendous duty for the company's managers and officers to foster a positive mindset and a healthy culture. Effective communication and total management of motivational attitudes are required. Only when these things are well-structured can the leadership abilities be appropriately acknowledged.

Cognitive dissonance stimulates the maintenance and management of well-structured communication viewpoints. This is the point that holds two uncomfortable feelings simultaneously. This is quite hazardous for the workers. Dan is experiencing a state of conflicting emotions. The specification of motivated attitudes and beliefs must be synchronized effectively. There is a requirement for awareness of one's behavior and its lasting effects. These are some of the key leadership skills that are absolutely necessary for the employer and employee to maintain effective communication. A leader's ability to combine effective communication with good motivational attitudes is the root of the company's success.

REFERENCES

Johns, G., and Alan Saks, "Organizational behavior: Understanding and Managing Life at Work," 7th edition, Pearson Education– Custom Edition for York University, 2008.

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Supply Chain Management Changes And Leadership Assignment Help Sydney

Table of Contents
Abstract Presentation Major Developments in the Supply Chain over the Past Decade Recommendations for Future Improvements Relationship to Future Career Path References

Abstract

Since the current market is characterized by a high propensity for change, it is imperative for organizations to engage in the change management process in order to remain competitive and improve organizational performance. Redesigning the supply chain is one of the most difficult jobs a company can undertake, which may be attributed to ever-evolving technologies, fast product updates, the emergence of new market competitors, and other considerations (Fawcett, Ellram, & Ogden, 2014). The process of change planning and execution is hampered by the absence of a universal approach applicable to all organizations: each change program is entirely unique since it must be implemented in the context of various internal and external contexts. In addition, the change in supply chain management causes a shift in management approaches (Christopher, 2016).

Introduction

Change management can be defined as a planned, well-structured intervention into an organization's process with the objective of altering the current condition of the system in order to improve its operational quality. Essentially, the goal of change management is to improve the company to a more sophisticated condition. Unless the procedure is carried out correctly, a company may not realize the anticipated return on investment and may only reap short-term benefits (Christopher, 2016).

In recent times, supply chains have seen significant transformations due to external business environment variables (e.g., the emergence of new market competitors and the development of new technologies). In fact, advancements over the past two decades have turned them from the simple delivery of a product from the supplier to the client into a highly complex system of interactions that enables the business to raise profits through a variety of innovative tactics (Christopher, 2016).

This article will examine the evolution of the supply chain over the past decade in order to illustrate how the issue of change management has been addressed. In addition, the revisions will relate to the author's future professional path, and there will be recommendations for the field's continued development.

The Significant Alterations to the Supply Chain Over the Past Decade

The tremendous modifications that supply chains have undergone over the past decade are a result of the requirement for regular communication between all company stakeholders. These modifications affect the following key areas:

Shifting technological landscape As a result of the commencement of the acquisition process in the mid-2000s, the U.S. market was left with a very restricted number of service providers in the majority of sectors. This compelled the introduction of cloud-based solutions and other technologies that facilitate the vendor consolidation process (Wisner, Tan, & Leong, 2014). Better software and hardware quality. Prior to ten years ago, supply chain software left much to be desired, as it was riddled with numerous faults that significantly hampered the quality and speed of logistics. Moreover, there were frequent inventory difficulties. Leaders were compelled to invest in functional improvements to eliminate such faults from the system. Today's difficulties, meanwhile, are predominantly configuration-related (Bozarth & Handfield, 2016). Supply chain expansion in new and emerging markets. Before ten years, many economies in developing nations were just beginning to form. In the decade that followed, American and European businesses sought possibilities to enter new markets. The necessity to distribute items to new international destinations had significant effects on the supply chain (Mangan, Lalwani, & Lalwani, 2016). The increasing significance of supply chain risk management. In logistics, risk management was not given much consideration at the beginning of the 21st century. After earthquakes, tsunamis, and other natural disasters struck industrialized nations, risk management has steadily become the focus of the supply chain innovation procedure (Beske & Seuring, 2014). The increasing emphasis on sustainable supply practices. This shift was championed by Walmart CEO Lee Scott, who established the supply chain's sustainability as an industry benchmark (Bozarth & Handfield, 2016). E-commerce expansion. Amazon's impact on the supply chain is difficult to overstate: the number of businesses immune to e-commerce is fast declining. The supply chain faced numerous obstacles in order to provide same-day delivery, Sunday delivery, and other relevant services (Beske & Seuring, 2014). Concentrate on the monetary side. Prior to ten years ago, supply chain leaders were oblivious to the cash flow impact of the supply chain. During the Great Recession, however, many businesses were forced to shift their focus to a supply transformation plan that may save them enough money to remain solvent (Christopher, 2016). Adding the supply chain to the list of fundamental business concerns. Early in the twenty-first century, the supply chain lacked distinct ideals and strategies. Today, supply chain management is a crucial problem for all business leaders (Christopher, 2016). Advanced distribution center automation The inflexibility of technologies that were prevalent a decade ago (such as autonomous guided vehicles and automated storage and retrieval systems) led to their gradual demise (Beske & Seuring, 2014). The shift in management philosophy. The directive and authoritative management styles (defined by explicit instructions and a lack of initiative) were ineffective in encouraging the transition process. These methods have thus been largely supplanted by affiliative and pacesetting approaches, which have led the supply chain to the highest levels of perfection (Fredendall & Hill, 2016).

Recommendations for Additional Enhancement

The following suggestions might be made to leaders who are attempting to modify their supply chain strategies:

Transportation methods and routes should be examined because price differences for different zones and parcel weights can result in cost savings. Fast-moving items should be placed closer to the shipping station to reduce processing time and distance. Inventory must be properly positioned to reduce expenses. To prevent time loss, packaging materials must always be readily available. Ready-made products should be placed straight into the shipment box, which reduces order processing time. As soon as a product has been scanned, wireless mobile printers should be implemented to print a label. Pre-work meetings are required to outline the day's tasks. To reduce material and logistics expenses, on-demand, properly sized packaging should be implemented. With the help of modern technologies, end-to-end visibility must be improved.

Considering the Future Career Path

In order to acquire a competitive edge, economic globalization has prompted a number of prominent worldwide organizations to invest in the creation of global operational networks. Therefore, in the modern corporate world, distribution activities occur in both developed and developing countries, which offers supply chain management professionals promising opportunities. Companies require the guidance of professionals for their change management processes. The supply chain system is expanding and the number of positions is growing: as a specialist, I will be able to choose from a variety of sectors, such as coordination, distribution, integration, quality management, consulting, technology, and research. Therefore, this education opens the door to countless employment opportunities.

References

Beske, P., & Seuring, S. (2014). Integrating sustainability considerations into supply chain management. 19(3), pp. 322-331 in Supply Chain Management: An International Journal.

Bozarth, C. B., and R. B. Handfield (2016). Operations and supply chain management overview. London, United Kingdom: Pearson Higher Education

M. Christopher (2016). Supply chain and logistics management. London, United Kingdom: Pearson UK.

Fawcett, S. E., Ellram, L. M., & Ogden, J. A. (2014). Supply chain management: from strategy through execution. London, United Kingdom: Pearson UK.

Fredendall, L. D., & Hill, E. (2016). Management of supply chain fundamentals London, England: CRC Press

Mangan, J., Lalwani, C., & Lalwani, C. L. (2016). Management of global logistics and supply chains. Hoboken, New Jersey: John Wiley and Sons.

Wisner, J. D., Tan, K. C., & Leong, G. K. (2014). A balanced approach to supply chain management principles. Boston, Massachusetts: Cengage Learning.

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Management And Personal Management Competencies Assignment Help Sydney

Introduction

Management is the process of supervising and guiding individuals inside an organization in order to harmonize and coordinate them toward achieving the goals and objectives that the company has set. The management utilizes the organization's existing resources, such as natural, financial, human, and technological resources, in order for individuals to be able to achieve these organizational objectives.

Due to the nature of the work in this type of workplace, a comprehension of people and organization management is essential in the built environment. The output of the built environment is a type of service supplied to clients, and the quality of the service depends on the capacity of both the people and the organization to work together toward the achievement of the organization's objectives.

Relationship between individuals and the enterprise.

Individuals within an organization are among its most valuable resources. This is due to the fact that the organization's activities are performed by its members. Existing organizational culture typically influences the connection between the organization and the employee. On behalf of the organization, the individual has responsibilities and obligations. For the services done, the management of the organization owes the individuals proper care and fair compensation. Thus, the relationship is mutual. Each of these parties requires the other for survival.

Theories of management

Several theories of management have been developed and utilized over the years to guide and control the management process, according to Stewart, Dorothy M. (1994). Some management theories have been emphasized in the following overview, along with an explanation of how they can be applied to help the organization address some of the most important challenges of the 21st century.

The two-factor theory is one.

People's performance inside an organization is influenced by two elements in management. These criteria are equally vital to the building industry, according to Gennard, John, and Graham J. Graham (1998). Satisfiers are the variables that positively inspire individuals and, as a result, enhance performance. For instance, if employees in the construction business advance in ranks, are appreciated by the work itself, and are respected and recognized, they will be motivated in the company.

The job dissatisfactions are extrinsic elements that do not lead to positive motivation, and as a result, the employee feels unsatisfied. Armstrong, M (1998). In the building industry of the 21st century, dissatisfactions such as pay, corporate policy, and administrative issues should be avoided so that individuals are inspired to work in harmony and be productive.

Theoretical Models X and Y

Two components, X and Y, comprise this management theory. The foundation of Theory X's assumptions is the early school of human interactions. People in organizations despise work by nature, according to hypothesis X. Goleman, D. (1996). According to this theory, individuals are slothful and require constant attentive supervision. It asserts that these individuals are only financially motivated. On the other hand, hypothesis Y takes a different approach to the same idea, arguing that the mental and physical work that people exert is extremely normal, similar to rest and recreation.

These employees or members of the organization are fully capable of exercising self-control and self-direction while in the company and specifically at work. Pepper, Allan D. (1989). The employees are thus more motivated by opportunities to assume responsibility and by their behavior at work than by money, coercion, or threats from management. In the twenty-first century, managers must understand the type of employees they have and what motivates these employees. This will help the organization solve the difficulty of low employee motivation and better understand its people, allowing it to serve them in an appropriate manner.

The scientific theory of management

The theory views management as a function of planning the people, as opposed to a function of the people. According to this approach, management should choose and train potential employees, then foster cooperation and harmony between employees and management, as opposed to dividing work and encouraging individualism. Chris Ridgeway and Brian W. Ridgeway (1997).

This management theory based on the concept of the 21st century is effective for confronting the challenges of discrimination, bias, and animosity between management and the organization's workforce. Pugh, D. (1975). The theory views the organization as an entity that is not separated between employees and workers, but rather seeks to promote collaboration and harmony between the two groups.

The hierarchical hypothesis of human requirements

This theory by Abraham Maslow establishes a hierarchy of a person's wants, from the most fundamental to the greatest level, which is the desire for self-actualization. According to this idea of management, once a need is met, it ceases to be a motivator. Mintzberg, H. explains that as a result, employees' requirements are hierarchical (1989). Lower-level wants, such as working environment and employee safety, must be met prior to higher-level needs, such as self-actualization and self-esteem.

In the twenty-first century, the organization that prioritizes the needs of its employees will avoid issues and overcome obstacles. Thomas Peters (1992). The most fundamental demands, such as a good wage, allowances, and promotions, should be satisfied before anything else. This will foster unity and collaboration inside the business. McKevitt, David and Alan Lawton (1994).

Organizational management fundamentals

The management principles are essential to the administration of any business since they provide as guidance for a successful management process. Mike Waterhouse and Geoffrey C. Geoff (1995). The fourteen principles underline the parameters that managers must observe and adhere to in their actions inside the organization and decision-making process. Among them are:

This typically concentrates decision-making power and authority in the hands of the highest level of management. Decentralized organizations are the polar opposite of centralized ones. The company should attempt to achieve a balance between the two.

In an organization, superiors are expected to be organized in a hierarchical manner. They must be arranged from most superior to least superior in a hierarchy. It should be apparent how these rankings differ in terms of duty. Discipline –In any company, discipline is a must. For the organization to run and operate well, all professionals must be obedient, respectful of authority, and demonstrate good conduct with regard to other individuals inside the organization. The members of the company must adhere to the deadlines for assigned duties, achieve the desired outcomes, and arrive on time at their respective workplaces. Equity inside the organization – Within the organization, all individuals must be treated equally. For example, all subordinates at the same level must receive compensation that is relatively comparable. The entire labor force must be handled with respect. Management must be just and fair to everyone. Esprit de Corps refers to the spirit of teamwork. Management concepts advise that a company capitalize on teamwork's benefits. People on a team have diverse ideas, opinions, and perspectives, which can improve the quality of judgments made. Managers are tasked with fostering and maintaining staff morale through teamwork. Individuals with initiative are able to assume duty without supervision. This is one of the areas where the organization may enhance its strengths. This is due to the fact that initiative serves as a source of creativity within an organization and also fosters and generates better ideas among its members. There should be order at the workplace in order to guarantee both safety and productivity. To prevent accidents, all materials and equipment must be well-organized and placed in their proper locations. Presence of unity of command This decreases the probability of disagreement and confusion occurring among the many professionals. Compensation – The organization must compensate its professionals adequately for their services. This not only motivates them but also has an effect on worker productivity. Derek and Laura H. Torrington (1998). People should always be compensated in a manner that is reasonable, fair, and commensurate with their efforts. Responsibility and Authority Individuals should accept the consequences of their obligations. Organizational superiors have every right to provide direction and instruction to their subordinates. The Correct Subordination of Personal Interests – In an organization, personal concerns should be set aside in favor of corporate objectives. The division of labor – When members of an organization specialize in particular areas, they foster professional and personal development within the workforce, hence enhancing productivity. It is well-known that specialization improves labor productivity. This applies extremely well to both the managerial and technical professions. All employees must receive orders from and report to a single superior. Unity of direction – According to this tenet, all employees in a given field must always share a common understanding of their goals. Stephen Taylor (1998). It is necessary to arrange all closely connected activity. One manager should be responsible for supervising all activities according to a standardized plan.

Management personal competencies

The fact that I am committed to my organization and enjoy my work is the primary factor motivating me in my career. In terms of my professional aspirations, there is nothing else I would rather be doing. I am grateful to be in the career of which I have dreamed since I was a child. This contributes to my job satisfaction and enjoyment of my work. To encourage others, I typically tell them to like their work, feel at ease in their profession, and constantly strive to grow their profession so that they progress through the organization's employment positions rather than remaining at the same level.

I am well-spoken and a highly self-assured person, which are my greatest communication strengths. However, I am adamant in my arguments and occasionally repeat myself. I am a charismatic, well-respected leader who is adept at coordinating a wide range of activities.

Throughout my academic career and my two years of professional experience, I have demonstrated exceptional organizational and planning abilities. I was the class team leader while pursuing a degree in architecture. I was capable of coordinating my team's efforts. I have on numerous times hosted architectural displays for my team members. During my two years of employment, I have been able to successfully direct others in the execution of building blueprints. I am completely confident in my ability for leadership. My employer utilized a democratic form of management.

The people in the organization were not told what to do and were involved or consulted in some form in the organization's main decisions and change management. This type of corporate culture stimulated the employees, who were also proud to be a part of the organization. This was the case because they felt a part of the organization and, more significantly, because they felt wanted and valued. I mostly serve as a team leader in organizational teams.

Due to my level of leadership and professionalism, team members typically recommend me for assignments. According to my coworkers, I am a strong leader who is self-assured and self-motivated as well as a good team player. I see myself in this light, and the response from my coworkers reflects just what I think about myself. The process of recruitment and selection is one of the most impressive aspects of management.

This is due to the fact that I meet prospective employees who are qualified and know their respective fields beyond a shadow of a doubt. They are promising and exhibit the potential, ambition, and tenacity of well-trained individuals. Because the organization cannot absorb all of them, the worst aspect is that you end up recruiting a small percentage of the available candidates.

In change management, I constantly check with my coworkers in order to avoid implementing changes that they would subsequently reject. Assuming that my colleagues will take the time to read the change's implementation framework, my shortcoming is that I frequently neglect certain nuances. Occasionally, they are denied access to the plan's specifics, which creates concerns.

Conclusion

The management process guarantees that the organization's activities proceed as planned and that both the organization's and the employee's goals and objectives are attained. The link between the organization and the individual is bidirectional in that both parties depend on each other. This paper provides a thorough explanation of the management ideas that can help a business meet the challenges of the 21st century.

References

Armstrong, M. (1996). A Handbook of Personnel Management Practice (Sixth Edition). Kogan Page, London.

Employee Reward, published by the Institute of Personnel and Development in London in 1998.

Employee Relations. London: Institute of Personnel and Development, 1998. Gennard, John, and Graham J. Graham.

Goleman, D. (1996). Emotional Intelligence: Why It Can Matter More Than IQ. London: Bloomsbury Press.

Public Sector Management: Theory, Critique, and Practice, London: Sage Publications/Open University, 1994. McKevitt, David, and Alan Lawton.

New York: The Free Press, 1989. Mintzberg, H. Mintzberg on Management.

Allan D. Pepper's Managing the Training and Development Function was published by Gower in Aldershot in 1989.

Tom Peters, Liberation Management, Pan Books, London, 1992.

Penguin, Harmondsworth, 1975, D. Pugh, Organization Theory.

Ridgeway, Christopher, and Brian W. Ridgeway. (1997). Empowering Change: The Role of People Management. London: Institute of Personnel and Development.

Stewart, Dorothy M. (1994). Handbook of Management Skills (Second Edition), Gower, Aldershot.

Employee Resourcing, published by the Institute of Personnel and Development in London in 1998.

Human Resource Management (Fourth Edition), London: Prentice-Hall, 1998, by Torrington, Derek, and Laura H. Torrington.

Management and Business Skills in the Built Environment, E & FN Spon, 1995. Waterhouse, Mike, and Geoff C. Waterhouse, 1995.

Watson, Tony J. 1994. In Search of Management: Culture, Chaos, and Control in Managerial Work. London: International Thomson Business Press.

Rediscovering Public Services Management, London: McGraw-Hill, 1992. Willcocks, Leslie, and Jenny Harrow.

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MyBank: The Aspect Of Change Management Assignment Help Sydney

Introduction

Change management is an interdisciplinary field that influences the lives of individuals, groups, companies, society, and nations. Individuals and organizations must adopt new operational procedures in order to carry out their responsibilities effectively and efficiently in light of the escalating rate of technological advancement and competitiveness. Individuals, organizations, and enterprises must modify their work culture and skills to accommodate this transition. Change management is a procedure with distinct phases.

To depart from a given standard practice, one must devise a strategy to introduce a paradigm shift in the approach to a specific work or culture. This is done to guarantee that the process of change is seamless and does not negatively impact the intended population. The first phase of this transformative process comprises change preparedness. Several requirements are necessary for change preparation, including the preparation of the people for the change, the assessment of the change's influence on the people, and the formulation of a strategy to ensure that people adjust and adapt quickly to the change.

The second step entails managing change, which includes comprehensive planning to ensure that all components of change management are accounted for, along with their real dates and resource requirements. In addition, it is vital to analyze resistance to change management and execution. In conclusion, change management necessitates the reinforcement of change through data collection, correlated action, rewards, and recognition. The objective of this article is to examine MyBank's approach to change management.

MyBank has historically embraced business change as part of its strategy to maintain market efficiency and competitiveness (Hayes, 2007p.34). MyBank is marked by a dynamic emphasis on transformation. The company's expansion over the years has allowed it to expand its size and product line (Bush, 2003 p.14). The bank has added stock brokerage to its list of services. MyBank was compelled to departmentalize and specialize its operations due to its expanded portfolio and expansion into new markets in various locations.

The expansion of MyBank necessitated various modifications to its operating system. The bank was required to implement a number of change management measures in order to ensure that both the management and the employees promptly and effectively embraced this transformation. As the corporation grew in size, its operating system got increasingly complicated, necessitating not just technical solutions but also changes in tactics for attaining its goals. In this light, the organization must successfully manage change and adapt to change in order to compete on the market.

Modify Motives and constraints

Change Drivers

According to Nilakant and Ramnarayan, there is a new technological advancement (2006),

New technologies can be a significant catalyst for organizational transformation. Consider the impact of the Internet on traditional media and printing industries. As internet connectivity levels expand globally, businesses are compelled to adjust their operations to changing consumer desires. Companies that disregard emerging trends may see their market share eroded by rivals that better comprehend and meet client needs.

Combinations and Acquisitions

"When corporations merge or consolidate operations, substantial cost reductions and reengineering occur. Organizational change is driven by layoffs and reorganization to meet management objectives (Nilakant, and Ramnarayan, 2006 p.197). "The integration of two or more companies necessitates significant challenges to streamline operations and centralize existing IT operations" (Hayes, 2007). In this regard, the bank will have no choice but to implement change.

Final phase of the product development cycle

"When a product reaches the end of its product life cycle, companies must reduce production and operating expenses or exit the market" (Hayes, 2007 p. 56). "At this juncture, many organizations integrate with existing market competitors" (Hayes, 2007 p. 57). This results in structural adjustments to a company's business processes to either preserve profitability or focused on new opportunities, according to Hayes (2007) on page 63. Under these circumstances, the bank will be compelled to adopt reform.

Strategic Objectives Change

"If a company shifts from a product-centric to a customer-centric orientation, new processes are required to facilitate this re-orientation, which can lead to the redundancy of existing personnel or manufacturing processes" (Hayes, 2007 p. 59). To further on this idea, Hayes (2007, p. 60) states, "Company restructuring from this is a primary driver of organizational change as the old is replaced by the new."

Alter constraints

Inadequate financial resources: Inadequate financial resources diminish an organization's or company's capacity to embrace change, hence retarding the change process inside an organization.

Political conditions and legislation pertaining to a certain market shift impose constraints on the change process. When regressive laws regulate the operations of a business, they impede the company's advancement and, as a result, act as change inhibitors.

Modify Typology

Structural Alteration

accordance with (Koter, 1996 p.85),

The structure is the external manifestation of organization; an indication of the recurring patterns that emerge when groups of individuals pursue a similar goal. Inevitably, structures will emerge from the interactions between individuals: these people will typically work together; this one will typically assume a leadership role; these will perform certain functions, whereas those will perform others; this group will have greater status and power than that one, etc.

Process Variation

According to Koter (1996, p.76), "processes are the sequence of activities used to generate an organization's outputs." According to Koter (1996, p.77), a business process is "a collection of activities that takes one or more types of input and generates customer-valued output."

Nilakant and Ramnarayan Change model

"The authors present a new model of change management that identifies four essential tasks for the success of any organizational change initiative" (Hayes, 2007 p.47). "These fundamental responsibilities are appreciating change, rallying support for change, implementing change, and developing change skill (Koter, 1996 p.78). According to them, failures of change initiatives result from ineffective management of one or more of these activities.

Appreciating alteration

According to Nilakant and Ramnarayan (2006, p.

In this regard, my bank will require that all workers recognize the changed requirement within the institution. In this approach, individuals will not only welcome change, but also participate in the change initiative.

Mobilizing support for modification

According to Nilakant and Ramnarayan (2006, p. 219), "there is a need for support mobilization for change intervention in an organization during the implementation of change."

This requires the preparation of individuals for change prior to the execution of change programs. This is vital for everyone to completely embrace and participate in the transformation. In this line, MyBank will be required to conduct change mobilization prior to its implementation in the bank.

Implementing change

Change implementation is one of the most essential parts of change management. At this stage, Nilakant and Ramnarayan,(2006,p.292) highlight that an organization should be prepared to implement change after completing the first and second tasks, which are appreciating change and mobilizing support for change, respectively. Change programs are implemented through the process of execution. In this line, MyBank should only perform the update after the first and second tasks have been completed successfully.

Developing adaptability

Effective change management necessitates a change capacity (Nilakant and Ramnarayan, 2006, p.296).

A bottom-up strategy for altering My bank

For a bank of Mybank's size to effectively compete for a substantial market share in a highly dynamic and competitive business, it must be efficient in the marketplace. This necessitates the continual switching of many operations. In the 1990s, the bank faced numerous difficulties that necessitated a fundamental transformation. The bank employed a top-down management strategy for this undertaking. In this type of change management, all bank employees are included in the change process. According to the available literature, the employees of the bank were thrilled to be fully involved in its development. Participation in the quality improvement team was open to everybody, and quality managers serve merely as facilitators.

MyBank's non-linear process of change

Individuals and Alteration and Change Agent in MyBank

The process of change in a bank cannot be thoroughly analyzed without the change process methodologies listed below.

Cognitive tuner Individual catalyst Efficacy constructor Systems architect

Cognitive tuning – the prevalent attitude – the process of reflection – takes place through dialogue and conversation. It is a frequent phrase among bank employees that MyBank is their life and their progress depends on its success. In order to strengthen this mentality, the bank needs improve the following factor: There should be unrestricted communication between all bank employees, regardless of their position. In this approach, MyBank will not only attract new customers, but also retain existing ones.

People Catalyst – Change management requires an organization's change agents. A change agent is essential for motivating individuals to embrace change. Several supervisors at MyBank command a great deal of respect, and employees admire their leadership characteristics. These bank managers are the agents of change.

Efficacy booster – confidence is a crucial factor that not only boosts an individual's self-esteem but also motivates them to explore new ideas and opportunities. This is one aspect of the bank that has not been improved. Therefore, it is prudent to implement this change management technique. Confidence will empower bank staff to work as a team and to embrace technological progress as a group.

Systems Architect – "integration and coordination, allowing individuals to collaborate and learn from one another" (Koter, 1996 p.74). Elimination of structural barriers to change, alignment of policies and processes, and incentive systems with unified objectives. Establish new procedures in order to concentrate organizational efforts on transformation.

Change Management Process at MyBank

According to Morrison and Morrison (1998, p.68), organizational change management is an essential managerial activity that must be handled carefully. To achieve change management success in an organization, employees must be completely engaged (Cameron and Green, 2004 p.19). MyBank Company, like any other competitive bank, must develop and accept change; therefore, change management tactics are required. The bank utilized the John Hayes model of change management in its efforts to manage change. In this paradigm, change management is a process that requires multiple interventions to be successful. In addition, when applying the Hayes model, an organization or an individual must adhere to predetermined phases of change management.

In the first phase of change management, the process of preparing for the shift entails preparation, evaluation, and strategy formulation. This phase is illustrated in the activities of Mybank. Literature indicates that the majority of Mybank managers are not only equitable but also approachable. Due to their accessibility, he interacted with numerous employees and managers. This characteristic has been observed to be essential for plan implementation and change management. Galvin prepared Motorola employees for change by delivering a comprehensive and thought-provoking leadership speech. This speech generated several responses from both employees and management.

Managing Change in MyBank

This phase entails planning the change process in detail. A thorough examination of resource allocation, process and method of change implementation, and timing is performed during the planning process. It also includes resistance management, which is required for change management, in which all techniques are applied to ensure that management and the entire workforce accept the change as their own.

This type of ownership is indicative of a company's readiness to adapt change. This phase is exemplified when top management is believed to have fought cultures that fostered competition within the organization. In this regard, he pushed all workforces to work as a unit. Roth (2003, p.66) demonstrates that collaboration spirit is a necessary part of change management for the success of the type of change being implemented in the organization.

Reinforcing change

Several tactics are required to promote change in an organization (Bush, 2003 p.45). These tactics are designed to ensure that the change implemented within the organization is accepted and that everyone is adapting convincingly. In the bank, it was extremely challenging to alter a culture that was deeply rooted in the operation system. This sort of rigidity created a barrier to the transition process (Anderson and Anderson, 2001 p17). The bank commenced training managers on the most effective change management techniques and strategies.

To ensure change management was effectively reinforced inside the organization, management decided to solicit employee feedback on the most effective change implementation and change management practices. The corporation employed corrective action and awards to create a wind of inspiration among its employees in order to not only propel them along the desired road of transformation, but also to recognize their contribution to the company's progress. In this field of business, senior management must coordinate with the heads of all other departments to ensure that they function as a team. Cameron and Green (2004) show on page 51 that;

Change management necessitates an intensive collaborative process. Data refines the analysis and presents it in a manner that the company can understand and use. Equally essential, it enhances the knowledge and abilities of change agents within the organization so that they may independently advance the change process. Central to this approach is the requirement of a relational framework for testing assumptions and questioning ways of thinking; that is, the movement toward change occurs through growth-promoting interactions marked by mutuality, reciprocity, and fluid expertise. Therefore, as managers, it is our responsibility to foster mutuality in all of our contacts, whether with individuals, workgroups, or the management team."

Teamwork in change management is a factor that not only accelerates the change implementation process but also unites employees in pursuit of a common objective. "Motorola developed the participative management program in the 1970s as a means of increasing productivity and employee engagement" (Hayes, 2007 p.102). This program of employee and executive participation in corporate activities had a favorable impact on the company's growth and development. This method enhanced the effectiveness of employee and management communication. In this regard, the effectiveness of any change and its management depends on the existence of effective and efficient communication channels at all levels of the organization.

According to an examination of MyBank's change management, a number of reasons contributed to poor performance and a significant decline in market share. This compelled the multinational corporation to restructure and implement numerous adjustments. The extended production cycle, excessive and superfluous management structures, and rigid decision-making systems compelled Galvin to implement management changes. The top management team is responsible for sponsoring efforts to educate other managers on the role and significance of the transformation. This necessitates the engagement of all management.

Communication in change administration

According to Cook, Macaulay, and Coldicott (2004, p.31), communication is an extremely effective change implementation and change management technique. Effective communication in an organization must take into account the audience, the message's content, and the timeliness of the message. MyBank utilized an efficient way of communication that facilitated the exchange of ideas and opinions. This is a strategy that had a favorable impact on the continued expansion of banking in a competitive banking sector.

Management of change theories

According to Kotter (2010, p.13), "Kotter and Schlesinger have developed approaches to prevent or reduce employee resistance to change." "The strategies are remedies for four major resistance factors, including misunderstanding, self-interest, low tolerance for change, and employee opposition" (Cook, Macaulay and Coldicott, 2004 p.75). MyBank's CEO and managers demonstrated the use of Kotter's management principles through their management style.

MyBank's operational culture is consistent with Kotter's eight-step change model and theories.

The 8 Core Change Management Principles

Consideration is given to the role of taking an active role in people's motivation along with evidence of a rise in urgency levels. This principle is demonstrated by MyBank. The majority of the bank's top executives delivered leadership speeches in which they repeatedly underlined the institution's need for reform. Building a guiding team entails placing the right individuals in the appropriate roles. These individuals should have the appropriate amount of dedication and skill combination (Cook, Macaulay, and Coldicott, 2004 p.17). The appropriate individuals form the proper team, which not only collaborates but also steers the organization in the desired direction. MyBank has adhered to this idea in their ongoing pursuit of success over the years. The team should have the correct vision and plan (Burnes, 2009 p.71). This is essential for teamwork and the company's collective responsibility principle. The team should endeavor to develop a vision that is practical and realizable in order to ensure that the company's future goals are met. Communication requires the transmission of simple techniques. The bank has chosen a communication approach that not only liberates individuals from one another but also fosters teamwork among its staff. The empowering action concept emphasizes the necessity to eliminate hurdles that inhibit effective and efficient communication inside the organization. This facilitates the flow of constructive comments and appeals for help throughout an organization's whole team. The production of short-term victories improves the company's morale and responsiveness. Success is broken down into little, achievable chunks within a defined time frame (Kotter's, 2010, p.33). This fosters and encourages perseverance among the personnel and management. Once a change has been initiated, it is beneficial to see it through. This motivates the company's team members to believe in the company's future success. This principle is demonstrated by the majority of bank personnel. MyBank managers never stop trying to communicate change and change management to the other team members. This aspect of change management entails highlighting the significance of achievement. This is accomplished through a number of interventions, including bringing in a new generation of workers who are more experienced and more suited to participate in the bank's development and change management. These interventions are designed to weave change into the organizational culture.

A table illustrating the Change management Action Plan

Plan for MyBank Change Management

What Should Be Modified in MyBank? YES NO

The bank's structure, rules, procedures, and attitudes

Is the Public?

Is decision-making involved?

Are the benefits people receive?

Who are the important MyBank stakeholders? YES NO

Are they prepared for this transition?

Are they able to influence the change?

Who will assume critical change management roles? YES NO

Is it clear who will perform what and when?

Have resources been allocated for the change? YES NO

How much will be spent on a particular transformation process?

How much time is need for change?

How many individuals are involved in the process of change?

Change process assessment

Evaluation of change is a vital part of the life cycle of change. Therefore, the bank should apply all possible methodologies when analyzing the success of the adopted change. Therefore, the bank can apply the change theory (CTO) method to this process. According to Kotter's (2010, p.43), " theory of change (TOC) is the result of a series of critical-thinking exercises that provides a comprehensive picture of the early- and intermediate-term changes required in a given community to achieve a long-term goal articulated by the community"

The function of Change Agent in MyBank

Change Agent

According to Hayes (2007, p.133), change within an organization can be accomplished by a change agent (an outsider) who is unaffected by the organization's cultural disadvantage. There are pros and cons, however."

Merits

Change Agent is unaffected by the cultural shortcomings of the organization. Hayes (2007 p.13) Employees may listen to an outsider because he or she is not a member of management. Hayes (2007 p.33)

Change agents contribute significantly to the bank's change process. This is because they contribute to the bank's awareness of change. Change agents are both upper and lower management figures who command the bank's confidence, respect, and devotion. Their importance cannot be overlooked in the face of this overwhelming challenge.

Transformation agents mobilize other employees to promote organizational change. They are also responsible for educating other employees about the necessity and advantages of the adopted change. They are the face of the bank in its excellent relationship with its employees. This is an important position since it fosters teamwork inside the bank.

Appreciating alteration

MyBank faces a significant difficulty in ensuring that all employees not only enjoy the company's transformation process, but also understand its necessity and benefits. In this regard, the bank has hired external specialists to train and educate its employees in order to prepare them to accept and value change.

Change support / mobilizing

Mobilization is one of the fundamental conditions for obtaining the complete support of bank personnel. Change implementation requires substantial support from all bank employees. To guarantee that the change process is appropriately mobilized and supported, MyBank's management aggressively educated their department's staff on the necessity to accept change in the bank's operations.

Construction for change

An organization requires effective and enough preparation for the transition process. In this regard, MyBank has utilized all available change preparation and construction methodologies.

Implementing change

Change in an organization is accomplished when all change adoption procedures are followed. Towards this end, implementing change is crucial, and at this stage, management should put forth every effort required.

Change and transfer of knowledge

Change is vital to the growth and development of businesses and organizations. To do this, there should be a transfer of knowledge between departments. This contributes to the growth of the bank. This is because new management practices foster economies of scale within a bank. To enable rapid knowledge transfer, the bank should adopt a management style that emphasizes internal promotions and training.

Suggestion for MyBank

In this dynamic and competitive environment, Mybank should be prepared to adopt the following operational adjustment.

The bank must implement an online customer relationship management system. Additionally, the bank should implement modern e-banking practices.

These two tactics have a good probability of raising the bank's profitability and growth through enhancing its operations.

Globally, the majority of corporations and banks have changed as a result of the economic downturn. This is vital to ensure that these businesses can continue to generate a profit and remain competitive on the market. These alterations include mergers and the introduction of new technologies. Change is a continual process that should be welcomed for the sake of expansion and growth.

Conclusion

MyBank is one of the banking institutions that have survived the wave of market competition and economic recession by positioning themselves strategically to accept and embrace continual change in the workplace culture. In this era of intense competition and rapid technological advancement, change is the key to success. Companies must therefore not only embrace change but also incorporate it into their culture through improved change management strategies. MyBank should increase its rate of innovation in order to compete effectively in a market dominated by large banks.

References

Anderson K., and Anderson, S. A., 2001.

Beyond change management: innovative strategies for the transformative leaders of today. John Wiley & Sons, New York.

Burnes, B., 2009. Managing Change. MyStratLab Series. Pearson Education is based in New York City.

Bush, T., 2003.

Theories of educational administration and leadership. London: Sage.

2004. Cameron, E., and Green, M. Making sense of change management: a comprehensive guide on organizational change models, tools, and approaches. Kogan Page in New York

2004. Cook, S., S. Macaulay, and H. Coldicott. Excellence in change management: utilizing the four intelligences for organizational transformation success. Kogan Page in New York

The Theory and Practice of Change Management, 2nd Edition. London: Palgrave Macmillan, 2007. Hayes, J.

1996. Koter, J.P., Leading transformation. Harvard Business School Press; Harvard Business Press; New York.

Kotter, M., 2010. Kotter's Eight Step Change Model. Website of the Global Literacy Foundation.

1998. Morrison, K., and R.B. Morrison. Change management theories for education. London: Sage.

Nilakant, V. and Ramnarayan, S., 2006. Management of Change: Changing Mindsets in a Global Context. Sage Publications is situated in New Delhi (ca).

W.F. Roth, 2003.

The origins and future of management theory from a systems viewpoint. New York: CRC Publishing.

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Managing Change And Innovation Assignment Help Sydney

Introduction

This article analyzes organizational transformation at the Legal Services Commission (LSC), which was adopting a lean management program. The primary factors were technological change and deteriorating customer satisfaction. Using the LSC as a case study, the goal of this paper is to determine the optimal method for implementing organizational transformation. It will be argued that sensitivity to internal and external climate is necessary for an organization's transition to be successful. In the study, it was determined that the LSC's approach to change centered on hard issues, however greater employee participation might improve the success of this transformation. As a means of maximizing results, the organization should also incorporate systematic innovation.

Change description at the Legal Services Commission (LSC)

The organization selected for analysis is the Legal services commission of the United Kingdom. It is a government-funded organization whose mission is to assist low-income persons in gaining access to legal aid. Since 2008, the Commission has been implementing a lean management approach aimed at reducing waste, increasing customer service, raising productivity, and continuously optimizing the rate of service delivery. The adjustment was implemented after determining what needed to be done; provider surveys and consultations were conducted. Subsequently, the organization implemented a process overhaul in which electronic data replaced the majority of paper labor, unnecessary correspondence was eliminated, and team meetings were held to continue identifying opportunities for improvement.

Motives for this shift

In their drivers of change model, Anderson and Anderson (2002) have identified seven primary drivers of change. They believed that this paradigm was vital for constructing a narrative that explains why change is necessary.

The environment comprises of an individual's external pressures, which may be social, political, economic, technological, demographic, natural, and governmental in nature. Change was necessary by three key environmental drivers in the case study (introduction of lean management at the LSC): technological, governmental, and economic pressures. The majority of organizations in the legal sector embraced the advantages of technology in data management, record keeping, and other areas. This organization needed to progress with the times. Due to the fact that the legal services commission is a government-affiliated organization, it is directly affected by it. This would demand a shift in the company's operations, as the government had decided to reduce the amount of assistance provided to such organizations. Probably due to economic restrictions, the government acted in this manner. For the Legal Services Commission, customers required improved efficiency, as wastefulness impeded the majority of clients' access to legal advice. The commission had extremely large lines of people waiting to speak with them. In addition, solicitors would have to repeat the procedure of filling out forms because it was difficult and infrequently done correctly. Important components of the company's market requirements were prompt delivery and the demand for quality. As a result of falling behind in meeting consumer demands, it was vital for the company to incorporate continual improvement into its corporate culture. Consumer requirements were always evolving, but the company's rate of progress did not. Organisational imperatives: Inefficient use of financial and technological resources prompted a reorganization. Cultural imperatives: The Commission rarely included lower-level staff in decision-making, which hindered their progress. Leader and employee conduct: the existing organizational culture placed a great deal of focus on day-to-day issues as opposed to long-term organizational imperatives. This decreased employee satisfaction with their jobs. Here, a leader's and employee's underlying beliefs and assumptions impact their behavior and the organization's culture as a whole. Consequently, the prevalent attitudes at the Legal services commission were impeding their effectiveness, since the majority of staff frequently took for granted how they utilized their resources.

utilized change management style

Sirkin et al. (2005) say that the majority of change management attempts fail because many organizations focus an excessive amount of attention on soft factors as opposed to hard elements. They highlighted that soft variables include organizational culture characteristics like communication and transformational leadership. He asserts that such an approach is problematic because it is so difficult to alter these soft elements. Hard variables, on the other hand, can be easily monitored and analyzed; hard factors are difficulties that can directly influence project outcomes. By focusing on difficult factors, firms can alter project outcomes by analyzing them and expressing their significance to stakeholders. Sirkin et al. (2005) developed the DICE model, which emphasizes four critical project success factors: performance integrity, project duration, additional effort expended by employees to implement the change, and staff and management commitment to the change. It might be claimed that the LSC implemented their shift using this management approach. They focused mostly on these hard factors. Prior to the change's implementation, the organization verified that both workers and management were on board. This was accomplished by convincing them of the necessity of those modifications. In addition, the staff's extra effort to implement the change was visible in their idea sharing, data management, and customer interactions. The organization implemented a long-term project with regular reviews, which is preferable to a short project with inadequate reviews. Consequently, this managerial style was strictly adhered to.

How opposition to change was handled

Since the organization did a good job of incorporating employees in the change implementation process, there was little resistance from employees. The majority of them grasped the benefits of lean production, and they took it well. However, as Stace and Dunphy (2000) point out, resistance to change will always be a part of the process; the only difference is that the magnitude of this opposition will vary based on the magnitude of the implemented change. According to the scale of change paradigm, there are four significant types of organizational change (fine tuning, modular transformations, incremental adjustments, and corporate transformations), each with its own form of resistance. Changes made at the department level to realign departments with processes, people, and structures constitute fine tuning. Organizations make tiny alterations to match with their external contexts through incremental adjustments. Reengineering a company's divisions is part of modular transformations. Organizational transformation encompasses the entire organization. In the instance of the legal services commissions, the entire organization participated in the process; hence, their shift fell within the corporate transformation change scale. This, according to Stace and Dunphy (2000), is frequently important in order to return the company to its strategic direction and is quite forward-looking. However, this form of change is likely to encounter considerable opposition among organizational members. The majority of LSC personnel had been accustomed to performing their duties in a customary manner. Most of them were keen to retain the status quo, thus this requirement to continually evaluate their job was not well received. Employees were less resistant to lean production as a result of consistent interactions with management and favorable service delivery outcomes, which made employees aware of the benefits of lean production. They would also be required to undertake less work, which would allow them to focus on their primary responsibilities; a desirable development.

Appropriateness of the change and methods for enhancing the change

Duck (1993) says that most businesses fail to implement organizational change because they fail to consider the big picture and instead focus on individual components of the transformation. Consequently, they can be compared to a succession of uncoordinated surgeries intended to treat multiple bodily dysfunctions. The problem of such a patient may not be rectified since too much shock will have been produced. According to Duck (1993), the underlying objective of every change process is to encourage employees to think strategically, recognize trends, and identify possibilities. In part, the analyzed corporation acknowledged the understanding of the latter author. They did their best to ensure that staff members owned the process of change. In addition, the organization integrated its just-in-time model and comprehensive quality management initiatives with their strategic objectives. Therefore, they were moving in the correct direction. However, it might be argued that the majority of employees just focused on eliminating waste. They did not connect this to their primary organizational strategy of providing clients with efficient services. In addition, employees were not as empowered as they should have been under TQM; the commission merely implemented a recommendations process where employees could submit ideas for assessment by upper management. Therefore, employees were not given the ultimate say, despite the fact that this is a crucial element of effective organizational change management. Furthermore, Hemp and Stewart (2004) indicate that successful organizational transitions are those that involve the entire workforce, as was the case with IBM in 2003, and solicit their input. The Legal services commission conducted a number of provider opinion polls, but did not delve into the heart of their operational processes: the employee. Their perspectives on the weaknesses and strengths of the company would have been essential in determining the most effective strategy for implementing change within the company. Bettencourt and Ulwick (2008) agree that job mapping is an innovative concept. This involves determining everything consumers require from a company and then decomposing this into procedures that can be executed by the company. If this had been done, the Legal Services Commission would have achieved better results.

How the Legal Services Commission might prioritize innovation more prominently

Choices most suitable for the lifecycle stage of the organization

Currently, the legal services commission is at the bureaucratic phase of its lifetime. It should be emphasized that, as described by Dunphy and Stace, businesses typically pass through four stages (2000). In ascending sequence of complexity, these include the entrepreneurial stage, the collective stage, the formalized stage, and the developed stage. The first stage is characterized by survival as a motivator, whereas the others are characterized by labor, bureaucracy, and teamwork, respectively. In the case of the legal services commission, it may be claimed that it should be at stage four, i.e., the elaborated stage, as opposed to the formalized stage where it currently resides. Based on an examination of its past, customer base, and service offerings, the fourth stage seems the most feasible. As stated previously, the organization takes employee proposals for quality improvement and submits them to upper management for approval. However, for this business to function, it must recognize that its stage in the life cycle requires a different approach to change. In other words, the utilization of teams can generate very productive and novel ideas. As their interpersonal skills have already improved, this would be a good fit for them. In contrast, the adoption of a watchdog approach is indicative of a bureaucratic system that inhibits innovation. In addition, a team-based strategy leads to the simplification of information systems, which can help a company determine where innovation is headed.

Type of advancement (product, process, operational)

The legal services commission has implemented an innovation based on processes and operations. However, there are still a number of areas that require development when one approaches this issue. Iyer and Davenpourt (2008) propose that businesses should learn from internet behemoth Google how to implement efficient operational innovations. Google's ascent to the top was facilitated by their intentional patience. The Legal Services Commission must accept this by forgoing minimal short-term gains. Additionally, it should develop its infrastructure around innovation by incorporating third-party ideas. Lastly, organisational design must incorporate innovation into job descriptions so that employees feel as though they are not only performing a favor for their organization, but rather are performing a key function through innovation. Members of the majority of government-based organizations fear failure. The majority of them choose to conform rather than innovate. In reality, this is the reason why such businesses are mired down by inefficiency, lengthy client lists, and other issues. The Legal Services Commission must foster an environment of constructive disorder and failure, as it is user failure that leads to learning. Iyer and Davenport (2008) conclude that data can be utilized to generate ideas for the innovation of a company's processes by providing members with objective evaluations of decision making, since the majority of new ideas are the result of improvisation. This will indicate that the organization can limit the turmoil caused by innovative decision making by providing criteria for evaluating ideas.

As a result of the creation of new work processes, operational innovation has the potential to transform the performance of a company. According to Hammer (2004), operational innovation propelled Walmart to the next level; it also led to the success of Dell, GM, and IBM. Consequently, the Legal Services Commission must think creatively and try something that no other company in the legal industry has attempted; this may be revolutionary.

How to create creative ideas systematically and other aspects of innovation

Drucker (1985) asserts that good innovations are not random; they must be executed methodically. Here, four areas must be identified: market and industry developments, process requirements, incongruities, and the unexpected. The legal services commission should be cognizant of industry shifts that can inform its innovative strategy. It should regularly examine new process requirements and look for novel solutions there. Regarding unanticipated occurrences, the organization should immediately embrace these areas and try to improve them immediately.

In contrast, Edmondson (2008) explains how systematic invention generation might be supported. The Legal services commissions must foster a sense of security among their employees by promoting learning processes rather than punishing failure. Additionally, process rules might serve as a conduit because they standardize knowledge processes. In addition to collaborative decision making and data collecting, the legal services commission can find chances for innovation in other areas.

Conclusion

Change management differs from other company tasks because models that function flawlessly in other areas may fail in this area. Therefore, organizations must use diverse approaches to innovation and change. This method is centered on identifying areas that require change; doing so with all organisational members and at the appropriate frequency, i.e. continuously. This will guarantee that innovation contributes to the organization's transformation.

References

D. Stace and D. Dunphy (2000). Choosing Innovation Change Tools. Beyond the limitations. New York: McGraw Hill

Anderson, L. A. & Anderson D. (2002). Identifying the change's driving forces. Urango: Being First Inc

Sirkin, H., Keenan, P. & Jackson, A. (2005). The Difficulties of Change Management Web site: Harvard Business Review, 109-18.

Hemp, P., and A. Stewart (2004). When the economy is booming, leaders must be adept at implementing change. 61-70 Harvard Business Review Web.

Daniel Duck, J. (1993). Managing Change: the Art of Striking a Balance 71(6) Harvard Business Review, 109-18. Web.

A. Edmondson (2008). The Competitive Imperative of Learning, Harvard Business Review, 60-67, The Competitive Imperative of Learning

Drucker, Peter F. (1985). The Discipline of Innovation, Harvard Business Review, pages 95-100, 2004. Web.

M. Hammer (2004). Deep Change: How Operational Innovation Can Transform Your Organization. 85-93 in Harvard Business Review.

Bettencourt, L., and A. Ulwick (2008). Customer-focused innovation road map. April Harvard Business Review, pages 109 to 114 Web.

Iyer, B. & Davenport, T (2008). Harvard Business Review, 59-69, Reverse Engineering Google's Innovation Machine. Web.

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Alternative Plans For The Unexpected Problems Assignment Help Sydney

Introduction

In the modern business world, organizations face numerous obstacles. The financial crisis shook the corporate world and caught many businesses off guard. To avoid failure, being prepared for market shocks has become one of the top concerns for businesses. Many businesses were required to develop and implement alternate plans in response to these unique circumstances. What firms realized was that these alternative plans should not only include a temporary response to unforeseen challenges, but also build a mode of response, a course of action to be implemented whenever it is necessary to respond to a particular extreme event.

There are different ways to respond to market shocks and protect your business from them. Among them is organizational design and structure. The larger a corporation becomes, the more it tends to bureaucratize and have inefficiencies issues. Organizational design is the aspect of business planning that aims to make an organization's administrative structure as efficient and successful as possible. Thus, the organization will be able to withstand various external dangers and shocks. This is a sensible strategy for avoiding, at worst, collapse and, at best, significant losses from situations like the current financial instability of the previous year.

These market shocks and external dangers can also be countered through organizational coordinating measures. If organizational design and structure pertain to the regulation of a company's administration, then organizational coordination is what "accelerates" communication and interaction between the various departments of this administration.

Thus, we can deduce that it has to do with the timing of responses to shocks and external threats. Through the process of organizational coordination, businesses are able to get their many divisions and structures to work together more effectively, to the advantage of the entire organization. Coordination reduces the time it takes for businesses to respond to external market risks and shocks. Combined with the process of organizational design, this cooperation brings together all of the company's structural components in response to the challenging scenario.

In this study, we shall review the prevalent theories on organizational design and organizational coordination. These are relatively new domains of expertise in management, but they are expanding rapidly as their demand increases. During the previous two decades, they emerged as a type of response to market shocks and the difficulty faced by many enterprises in responding to these shocks. Since then, they have grown significantly.

In this section of the literature review, an overview of organizational design and organizational coordination will be provided. There will be a presentation of the most recent concepts in these disciplines, particularly in relation to the recent financial crisis, which continues to have a significant impact on many businesses. Obviously, the two fields are related, as they are both alternatives to unforeseen circumstances, but they must be presented sequentially. Organizational coordination is the second step in responding to an unforeseen challenge, following organizational design. Therefore, we shall start with organizational design. However, they are ineffectual without one another.

Organizational design as a sort of market shock response

This section will give a literature review of the most recent organizational design concepts and trends. Over the past two decades, markets, particularly financial markets, have experienced extreme fluctuations. Numerous corporations suffered significant share losses, with some even going bankrupt. This condition supported the improvement of organizational design and structural design research as a sort of alternative plan to be executed if necessary in order to "save the ship." We will begin by analyzing the fundamentals of what organizational design is and its fundamental components.

According to Sefa, the organizational design process arose from the necessity to convert a company's personnel and resources into a market advantage. This method is considered by many to be the most effective way for a troubled firm to avoid market failure (Sefa, 2010). There are two fundamental roles anticipated of organizational design:

The company desires to divide the organization into effective and controllable groups that support the firm's competitive advantages. The process of designing an organization organizes and integrates the organization's many operations while also delegating responsibilities down the organizational ladder.

It has the effect of ensuring that the company's personnel and activities meet its overall objectives. This capacity for organization and coordination is essential for adapting to and responding to emerging strategic concerns (Benham et al, 2006).

The scholars in this topic have been separated into those who "cure" this type of company reaction plan. Some authors contend that organizational design should focus on counseling businesses on how to make their internal structures more useful by consolidating them (Centeno and Correa, 2008). The benefits a corporation will receive from using this form include:

Enhanced operational efficiency while jobs are routine; Preserves centralized control over strategic results; Permits maximizing the effects of specialization and the learning/experience curve;

Other authors highlight certain shortcomings of this organizational structure:

Possesses coordination difficulties; There may be interfunctional rivalry, conflict, and empire building; Promotes excessive specialization and limited managerial perspectives; (Berlemann and Markward, 2007)

These authors support a more regional organization of firm structures. The company will be more efficient if its structures are reorganized by geographical area of function. The outcome will be the same benefits as in the previous scenario, with the added bonus of avoiding the downsides. In the late 1990s, this viewpoint was prevalent, but detractors pointed out that it led to duplication of staff services and provides a challenge for central management of local operations (Crim, 2008).

They advocate instead a decentralized organizational style for businesses. This model will grant functional autonomy to the company's multiple structures and allow the headquarters to monitor ongoing activities and establish the guiding agenda and principles for these autonomous entities.

This paradigm provides a rational and effective method for decentralizing and assigning responsibility in a diverse company. It also places market closer to the duty of business strategy (Martin, 2005).

Organizational coordination as a precaution against business failure

Let us now conduct a literature review on organizational coordinating concepts. For any of the above-mentioned styles of organizational architecture, the issue of coordination between multiple departments and company components arose. This was especially true for geographical organizational structures and decentralized models. This organizational coordination is essential to the strategy process because it connects, directs, and incentivizes the personnel and capabilities that fuel a company's success (Freeman et al, 2005).

To achieve this necessary level of coordination, a corporation must implement specific methods. Both informal and formal processes exist. Among the formal mechanisms listed by the authors are:

When there is a high level of risk associated with the operations and activities, direct control or supervision — typical hierarchical structure — is crucial. A potential issue is that it does not push employees to be better or work harder. Managers can actively manage an operation's inputs. Managing inputs may involve the hiring of personnel, the acquisition of supplies, finance, training, and the organization of conferences. This highlights the significance of the organization incorporating new knowledge, skills, and experiences in order for the company and its members to continuously progress. Managing activities, actions, and processes is a task performed by many businesses, which requires the creation of policies, procedures, and assembly-line operations. The issue is that it tends to impede the creative and upgrading processes (Jannifer, 2005). Managing remuneration is a technique used to incentivize employees to accomplish financial, operational, and subjective output targets, such as customer satisfaction. It should be noted that these objectives must be measurable and manageable. However, this approach is quite effective in motivating sales employees to meet sales goals (Casson, 2003). This is an essential consideration when we consider that these approaches are implemented with the intention of "saving" the company from market failure.

In addition to formal methods, a business may also use informal channels to enhance coordination. These are sometimes referred to as "mutual adjustments" in the literature (Gomez-Mejia et al, 2008).

Grouping essential workers or departments in close proximity to foster relationships, or cycling employees between many departments and project teams. Using information sessions to gain a deeper understanding of the difficulties faced by each department.

However, there are also a number of significant factors that must be considered, including formal and informal systems. These are the most recent advancements in this discipline.

Information system has become a crucial instrument for decision-making in the contemporary business sector (Timmons and Spinnelli, 2004). In this regard, information technology is a key invention.

This planning and control procedure facilitates task and functional area synchronization. Informally and formally, the information system disseminates information and knowledge throughout the organization (Gomez-Mejia et al, 2008).

The implementation of a reward system is another crucial element that a business must include in its emergency plans. The purpose of the reward system, promotions, and other related components is to reinforce the desired behavior and corporate culture. In particular, the corporate reward system assists individuals and teams in concentrating on strategic goals. These systems promote efficacy and efficiency, core competencies and status, as well as group preferences (Jones, 2004).

In addition, it is suggested to pay attention to personnel and leadership style. The organization must recruit, train, and develop personnel in every department. The organization must recruit and retain the most motivated, skilled, and productive employees. Executives have leadership styles that motivate and direct personnel to achieve the organization's goals (Ghosh, 2005).

Conclusions

In conclusion, there have been numerous advancements in emergency planning management. An intense degree of scholarly activity is still ongoing. Every day, new ideas are introduced, and notions evolve swiftly.

Nonetheless, there are other factors to be addressed. Functionality and effectiveness are two organizational structuring ideas. Utilizing specialized staff to handle diverse activities, a functional organizational structure focuses primarily on boosting the efficiency of the organization. Since the late 1980s, the market has been global, requiring many businesses to compete internationally. This worldwide rivalry resulted in many enterprises concentrating in one or two items of the confectionary industry and focusing their efforts on certain market segments. Numerous businesses failed to do so in a timely manner, which is one of the reasons why the industry was becoming less competitive and earning less profit. The company's financial condition was hampered by overhead expenses. These businesses should undoubtedly go toward market specialization. This is why a restructuring of its structures is required. This structural rearrangement will increase the company's operational efficiency for everyday duties, enable it to specialize in specific industries, and make it more responsive to market shocks and changes.

This organizational structure should encompass all firm departments participating in this emergency planning. In the majority of these organizations, only one or two members of the management team serve on the Board of Directors, which is the highest decision-making body. The issue that arises is that the Board of Directors lacks the competence to fix what is wrong with the company, despite the fact that its members are very committed and professional ("Boston Consulting Group, 2009"). The cause is that board members are unaware of the company's management history.

They are not in constant contact with the company's processes. That is extremely important. Every day, managers are on the front lines, but their opinions are not adequately expressed. The structural adjustment should begin by granting more voice and decision-making authority to the company's managers. A decentralization process would be of enormous advantage to the organization.

By granting managers greater control over decision-making and implementation, you will influence their performance. First, the response time to an issue or scenario will decrease. Even for ordinary issues, managers will not have to wait until the board determines what to do, but will act autonomously. This will also raise their obligation toward the area over which they have authority. And finally, this will encourage them to enhance their performance. The board will continue to be instrumental. It will monitor each sector's activity and hold managers accountable for mistakes or poor performance. However, it will also be easier for the board, as they can simply determine which area is underperforming.

There are numerous new advancements occurring in this sector currently. Especially in the aftermath of the most recent financial crisis, many businesses have discovered that these new tactics are efficient at rescuing them from difficult situations and securing their market future. This is why more and more people are seeking their assistance.

References

Cambridge Consulting Group (2009). People management & human resource capabilities. Web.

Berlemann, M. and Markward, B. (2007). "The Effects of Unexpected Election Results on Unemployment and Inflation" Volume 39, Issue 8 of the Journal of Money, Credit, and Banking (Blackwell), pages 1919-1945.

Woody, E. Wilson, K. Sh., Michael R. Benham (2006). Expect the Unexpected: Hypnosis Capability, Attitude, and Receptivity Volume 91, Issue 2 of the Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, pages 342 to 350.

The Entrepreneur: An Economic Theory, by M. Casson, Edward Elgar Publishing, Cheltenham, 2003.

Crimm, M. (2008). "Succession plans! Be ready for the unforeseen." Defense Counsel Journal, Vol. 75 Issue 3, p265-266

Centeno, M & Correa, M. (August 2008). "Employment compatibility, unforeseen obligations, and retirement decisions" Pensions: An International Journal, Volume 13 Issue 3, Pages 159-166, Third Quarter, 2004.

Dennis, J. Freeman, N. Adam, S. (2005).

The influence of risk on price reactions to unexpected earnings. Journal of Accounting, Auditing, and Finance, Volume 20, Number 4, Pages 461 to 482

Gomez-Mejia, R. David, B. Robert, L., and L. Robert (2008) published the third edition of Management: People, Performance, and Change. Manhattan: McGraw-Hill

Ghosh, Guatam. (2005). Guatam Ghosh on human resources: perspectives on organizations, work, and individuals. Web.

Jannifer, D. (2005). "The Unexpected Employee and Organizational Costs of Skilled Temporary Employees." Human Resource Planning, volume 28, number 2, pages 32 to 40.

Jones, R. G. (2004). Fourth edition of Organizational Theory, Design, and Change: Text and Cases. United States of America, Prentice Hall Publishing House

M. Neil, M. Fenton, and M. Tailor (2005). "Modeling Anticipated and Unanticipated Operational Losses Using Bayesian Networks." Risk Analysis: An International Journal, Volume 25, Number 4, Pages 963-972.

"Unexpected Consequences of Institutional Design and Welfare State Changes," by E. Sefa (2006). Social Policy and Administration [online series]. Volume 43(3), pag. 226-244. Business Source Premier, Ipswich, Massachusetts.

Timmons, A. & Spinelli, S. (2004) New Venture Creation: Entrepreneurship for the 21st Century, McGraw Hill Professional, Boston MA.

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Small And Medium Enterprises In Kenya Assignment Help Sydney

Introduction

Small enterprises are essential to the prosperity of every nation. They play a vital role in sub-Saharan economies in mobilizing idle resources, hence aiding economic development. As stated by, they contribute significantly to employment development and make up a major amount of Kenya's national GDP and family income. In Kenya, they account for up to one-third of the labor force and thirteen percent of the national GDP, he adds. This emphasizes their essential role in fostering economic growth in these nations.

Small businesses in sub-Saharan Africa face a number of obstacles. These have a negative impact on their capacity for growth and profitability, thereby diminishing their contribution to economic sustainability. He observes that in Kenya, the development of small firms, often known as small and medium enterprises (SMEs), has been limited mostly by financial gaps. In this paper, I will analyze the most significant obstacles facing small enterprises in Kenya and suggest potential solutions.

Difficulties confronting small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) in Kenya

Limitation in capital

Small and medium-sized firms in Kenya are typically restricted by financial constraints that prevent them from expanding and growing. In comparison to major businesses, small businesses find it extremely difficult to secure credit facilities due to inadequate collateral. This tends to place a limit on their expansion, resulting in production stagnation. In addition, investment into new companies and purchase of capital equipment and machinery is very constrained. The law of declining marginal returns argues that as more and more variable input is added to a fixed quantity of input, the firm suffers diminishing marginal productivity. This is the cause for the low production of numerous businesses. Identifies inadequate access to capital as the primary obstacle to the growth of small and medium-sized enterprises.

Poor infrastructure

Similar to other Sub-Saharan nations, Kenya has a very weak infrastructure that hinders the business activity of these small and medium-sized firms. The deterioration of the country's road and rail systems over a number of years has increased the cost of transporting raw materials and distributing finished goods. Such severe business environments hinder small and medium-sized enterprises from investing. For instance, the transportation of raw materials to and from the port to the manufacturing centers is excessively time-consuming, lowering production efficiency. Inadequate development of the telecommunications network exacerbates the difficulties faced by these companies. This restricts the flow of information and increases the cost of information transfer, which raises manufacturing costs. Cite inadequate supply of water, roads, sewage system, and communications as the greatest barrier to the development of small and medium-sized enterprises in Kenya.

High input prices

The high cost of raw materials and labor in the country increases the cost per unit of output. This has the impact of increasing manufacturing costs due to the tiny size of enterprises that produce in small amounts. When one considers that these businesses are predominantly labor-intensive and employ very little machinery, the situation becomes dire. This typically limits their manufacturing capacity, hence restricting their growth potential.

Energy costs are costly

Energy is one of the most crucial inputs in the manufacturing process. It constitutes a substantial component of the variable costs, and as a result, a substantial portion of the price of the final product. The country's installed energy capacity appears to be extremely low relative to its demand. Due to the country's reliance on hydroelectricity, which is highly unreliable as a result of repeated droughts, this situation is particularly hazardous for the small business. This results in severe electrical outages that disrupt manufacturing, resulting in enormous losses. In addition, the installation of diesel-powered emergency generators significantly reduces profit margins by increasing energy costs.

Insufficient technology

Numerous SMEs in Kenya utilise obsolete industrial technologies, which diminishes their competitiveness in comparison to larger companies. Consequently, their cost per unit of output, as well as their production efficiency, are higher. These firms' research facilities are likewise poor and underdeveloped, which hinders their innovativeness. Consequently, the quality of their products is typically inferior to that of larger enterprises.

Globalization

The effects of globalization have been catastrophic for the majority of underdeveloped small companies. This was a result of exposure to competition from multinational corporations with superior capitalization and cheaper production costs than domestic firms. The arrival of these corporations into the local market resulted in the closure of certain businesses as a result of competition from abroad. Apart from the mainstream competition from foreign corporations there also appeared damping of substandard goods which threatens to kill the domestic businesses as they are cheaper relative to domestic goods. The situation is exacerbated by the smuggling of counterfeit goods onto the local market, which dodge taxes and give them a competitive advantage over native items.

Corruption

Corruption is extremely widespread in Kenya, particularly in the transport industry, which tends to reduce the profit margins of small enterprises. Businesses are frequently compelled to pay bribes to government officials in order to acquire essential services and to prevent harassment by officials. This is especially prevalent in the procurement of public services and goods, making it difficult for small businesses to win government contracts. They are at a disadvantage relative to larger business players due to the lack of competitive bidding. In government, excessive bureaucracy and red tape only serve to fuel corruption.

Inadequate management skills

Due to the numerous financial constraints, small businesses have a restricted ability to attract talented and experienced management employees, which hinders the quality of their management and, consequently, their production. Due to their limited budgets, many of these small businesses are typically unable to employ skilled workers. In reality, the salaries are a disproportionately large amount of their operating expenses, making their employment untenable. As a result, the owners, who are typically deficient in management skills, are required to perform the majority of management tasks.

Insufficient market for items

The underdeveloped local market in Kenya further restricts the potential of small enterprises. The unequal distribution of wealth in the country and the resulting high level of poverty tend to diminish the marginal propensity to consume, hence lowering the per capita demand. The lower per capita demand and total expenditures further contract the domestic market, hence impeding output.

Political uncertainty

Intertribal disputes and political conflicts typically cause the most damage to small businesses. For instance, the post-election fighting that ensued in Kenya after the 2007 election had catastrophic consequences. Many of the business establishments were destroyed by fire, vandalized, or buried. According to the report, larger enterprises had cash reserves to keep them viable during the turbulent period, whereas smaller businesses functioned on shoestring budgets. This decreased their likelihood of withstanding such effects in the future, even if they were to repeat.

Competition

A survey conducted in Nairobi, the capital of Kenya, on small and medium-sized businesses identified competition as their main obstacle. Since the majority of the examined enterprises relied on urban markets, globalization had exposed them to worldwide competition. This is in addition to the threat provided by competition between businesses and competition from major enterprises. These competitors are especially formidable since they can afford costly advertising campaigns that are out of the grasp of small businesses.

Recommendations

Policy development

The Kenyan government should establish comprehensive measures to boost the availability of credit to small and medium-sized businesses. By decreasing the standards for assessing financing, small businesses will be incentivized to invest in better technology and produce higher-quality goods. This will raise their market competitiveness and aid increase their sales volume and market profitability.

augmentation of infrastructure

Construction, repair and maintenance of road and railway networks, upgrading of telecommunicating facilities would help lower the cost of production plus encouragement of investments and growth of the capacity of the small enterprises. This will cut the cost of transportation and distribution, hence lowering the unit price of the output. The savings will result in economic growth stimulation and more employment possibilities.

Reduction of energy expenditures

As I've mentioned previously, energy is a crucial component of the production process. Only by increasing the country's energy producing capacity in parallel with the rising demand can the cost be reduced. Governments will have to make substantial investments in energy generation in order to build the reserve capacity, which will assist the nation avoid the effects of energy output changes caused by droughts. In relation to this, the government must investigate new energy sources to replace its reliance on unreliable hydropower. More study must be conducted on other, more sustainable renewable energy sources, such as wind and geothermal, which are cleaner and more environmentally friendly.

Expenditure on education

According to experts, education has a highly favorable impact on the growth of enterprises.

They note that business owners with a high degree of education are better able to adjust their companies to the ever-changing business environment. Investing in education facilitates the acquisition of the knowledge and abilities required to manage a lucrative and sustainable SME. This would also enable the training of a pool of qualified management and technical personnel to stimulate the expansion of SME.

Sound administration

Disciplined management and prudent leadership are essential to the success of any organization. Numerous other small businesses fail owing to poor management, which prevents them from seeing expansion opportunities and maximizing economies of scale. In this sense, the management team should have the proper education and expertise to drive the company to success.

Acceptance of globalization

As much as globalization is viewed as a potential threat to local businesses, it also represents a significant opportunity for small enterprises. International expansion and diversification is one of its greatest opportunities. It also facilitates the flow of knowledge and technology, which could lead to enhanced product and service quality. To maximize their potential, small businesses should expand their business opportunities beyond the confines of their local market.

Promotional offers and competitive prices

For SMEs to effectively compete with their rivals, they will need to develop novel methods of marketing and pricing their products. As noted by the majority of individuals polled in Nairobi, efficient customer care service would play a significant part in guaranteeing high customer retention and also recruiting new customers. Offering of discounts and competitive pricing will also go along way in reaching these goals. The most acceptable business plan for these companies would be one that integrates product and service differentiation to fulfill the diverse needs of clients. The business should also be strategically located within reach of its target market for it to succeed.

Conclusion

In Sub-Saharan Africa, small enterprises confront a variety of obstacles, and Kenya is no different. Within a few years of its founding, many of these enterprises endure deteriorating performance. Many small and medium-sized firms cite competition as their greatest obstacle, which leads to the demise of many companies within a few years of their inception. Poor governance and poor regulatory systems are a major obstacle to the expansion of small and medium-sized businesses that must be addressed peacefully. According to available data, inadequate funding hinders the business development processes of these small businesses.

Reference

Seth A. Ayers Scaling Up ICT-Enabled Innovation and Entrepreneurship in Developing Countries: The Role of Private Sector Finance, n.d.

Physical infrastructure. Bokea, C., A. Dondo, & J. Mutiso. Edited by A. Mullei and C. Bokea. Agenda for Improving the Policy Climate for Micro and Small Enterprises in Kenya 1999. 57–80. Nairobi: International Centre for Economic Growth.

A substantial contribution or a final resort? 1999. Web.

Globalization, Enterprise, and Knowledge: Educational Training and Development (2002)

Michael Bowen, Morara Makarius and mureithi Samuel. Small and micro enterprises in Nairobi, Kenya face business challenges that must be managed. The inaugural volume of the KCA journal of business management (2009). Web.

National Survey of Baselines "National Micro and Small Business Survey." 1999, Nairobi: ICEG and K-REP.

Ronge, E., Ndirangu. L. and Nyangito, H. A review of government policy in Kenya aimed at promoting micro and small firms. KIPPRA Research article (2002).

Improving the potential of the small scale and informal sector. Tomecko, J., and A. Dondo, 1992. K-REP and GTZ are headquartered in Nairobi.

Buzzle.com, 2009. Wanjohi, Anthony M. "Challenges Facing SMEs in Kenya." Web.

Wesonga, John. 2009. Web. "Facing and addressing the challenges as a SME in Kenya."

[supanova question]

Implementing Change: Steps And Responsibilities Assignment Help Sydney

Introduction

The modern business climate is rapidly evolving, presenting businesses and organizations with new problems. Globalization compounds the difficulty, since firms must adapt to a global town where the rules of the game change daily. To conform to the system, firms must alter their operational methods; hence, Organizational Change. According to Gareth and Jennifer (2008), Organizational Change is the process of transforming an organization from its current condition to a more efficient future state. Every organization continues to be motivated to change by the need to increase its efficacy and be superior to its current condition. Organizations are perpetually faced with the difficulty of executing change in a way that positively affects all their key departments, as a result of their desire for transformation. Therefore, the purpose of this article is to analyze the manager's role in implementing change and overcoming resistance to change. The article also includes a summary of the key phases of the change process.

Process of Change Steps

Change is seldom immediate. It follows a procedure with various steps, as described further below.

Assessment is the method by which an organization evaluates its own performance (Anderson, 2009). Through assessment, an organization examines how well it satisfies the needs of its employees, the community it serves, and other stakeholders using accessible data (Anderson, 2009). At this stage of the change process, a company is primarily concerned with identifying operational difficulties. An organization also strives to identify the source of its difficulties in order to develop suitable remedies.

Planning: Following the identification of problems and their underlying causes, the next step in the Change Process is the identification of suitable solutions for the problems. During the evaluation of its services, a health care institution may uncover discrepancies in healthcare provision. To tackle this issue, the health care organization will need to generate a variety of potential solutions and select the one that best fits the organization's needs. Planning entails determining the organization's future (O'Grady & Malloch, 2007).

Implementation: Following the identification of the most suitable change, the next step in the Change Process is the implementation of the selected change. This is the most difficult phase of the transition process. Change implementation entails putting the identified solution into effect (Anderson, 2009). Change implementation can follow either a top-down or bottom-up strategy, depending on the organization's requirements.

After executing a change, it is essential for the organization to assess the change's effectiveness. Did it produce the desired results? If not, then what was the issue? As the final step of the Change Process, evaluation enables an organization to assess its capability to undertake change (Gareth & Jennifer, 2008). In order to rate your organization's ability to begin change relative to other organizations, it is also essential to conduct a benchmark comparison with other organizations.

The duties and responsibilities of departmental managers in effecting change

Managers are crucial participants in their organizations' transition processes. Managers are change agents within their departments and are therefore tasked with managing change in a way that allows their staff to adapt readily (O'Grady & Malloch, 2007). The managers must facilitate change in their respective departments as change agents. Managers, as change agents, perform the following roles in the implementation of change.

The detective: Employees' responses to change vary. As investigators, managers are tasked with delving deeply into the dynamics of employee behavior to uncover hints about planned efforts to thwart change, and then determining the most effective means of removing the impediments.

The advocate: Managers are the change agents in their respective departments. As a change advocate, the manager is responsible for promoting change within his department and encouraging employee participation in the change process.

Change impacts employee behaviors, attitudes, and responsibilities, says the counselor (Kanter, Stein & Jick, 1992). This has a significant impact on the emotional stability of employees. As a counselor, the manager is tasked with understanding the personal reactions of employees and assisting them in developing a positive attitude toward adopting change.

The manager's job in implementing change is to assist staff in changing. As agents of change in their particular departments, managers should make it easier for employees to carry out their responsibilities amidst change (Anderson, 2009). As a facilitator, the manager must devise innovative techniques to change to ensure employee success in the change's mainstream.

Change always results in conflict because employees have competing priorities, says the mediator. The manager's responsibility as a mediator is to ensure that employees accommodate one other's perspectives and reach consensus on competing ideas for the benefit of all employees (Anderson, 2009).

The Expert: As experts in their respective departments, managers should give the necessary expertise for employees to adapt to change. They should provide their staff with consultancy services and the essential information to assist them adapt to change.

The enforcer: As the enforcer, the manager is in charge of ensuring that staff meet their deadlines and achieve the change process's objectives and aims (Anderson, 2009). Managers deploy both punitive measures and rewards to motivate staff during the transition process.

Managing staff opposition to change

No matter how appealing a change may be, not all employees will embrace it. There are some who will oppose change for a variety of reasons, including intellectual disagreement and fear of the possible impact of change (Kanter, Stein & Jick, 1992). The following tactics provide managers with methods for addressing staff change resistance. First, educate employees to assist them comprehend the need for change, and then effectively communicate change so that all employees get the reason for the change and hence cooperate. Second, include all staff members in the process of transformation so that they feel a part of the program. Third, listen to the concerns of staff members who are reluctant to change and assist them as needed so that they feel facilitated enough to embrace the change. Fourth, negotiate with recalcitrant employees and find a solution for the organization's overall benefit. Fifth, influence change-resistance leaders to guarantee that they persuade their group to participate in the change process. If all of these techniques fail, managers may be forced to resort to coercion in order to instill fear in recalcitrant staff.

Conclusion

Change is inevitable in the current global business climate. Change is a continual process that consists of four basic steps: evaluation, planning, implementation, and evaluation. Change implementation is difficult; therefore, managers must be more than just change process leaders. No matter how appealing a change is, there will always be opposition; therefore, managers implementing change in their departments must be prepared to cope with resistance.

References

Anderson, D. L. (2009). Organizational development is the process of guiding change within an organization. Sage Publications Inc., Thousand Oaks.

Gareth, R. J., & Jennifer, M.G. (2008). The fundamentals of modern management. Chicago, Illinois: Irwin Professional Publications

Kanter, R. M., Stein, B. A., & Jick, T. D. (1992). The difficulty of organizational transformation. The New York location of Free Press.

O'Grady, T. P., and K. Malloch (2007). Managing health care to achieve success. Amsterdam: Elsevier Inc.

[supanova question]

Introduction

The modern business climate is rapidly evolving, presenting businesses and organizations with new problems. Globalization compounds the difficulty, since firms must adapt to a global town where the rules of the game change daily. To conform to the system, firms must alter their operational methods; hence, Organizational Change. According to Gareth and Jennifer (2008), Organizational Change is the process of transforming an organization from its current condition to a more efficient future state. Every organization continues to be motivated to change by the need to increase its efficacy and be superior to its current condition. Organizations are perpetually faced with the difficulty of executing change in a way that positively affects all their key departments, as a result of their desire for transformation. Therefore, the purpose of this article is to analyze the manager's role in implementing change and overcoming resistance to change. The article also includes a summary of the key phases of the change process.

Process of Change Steps

Change is seldom immediate. It follows a procedure with various steps, as described further below.

Assessment is the method by which an organization evaluates its own performance (Anderson, 2009). Through assessment, an organization examines how well it satisfies the needs of its employees, the community it serves, and other stakeholders using accessible data (Anderson, 2009). At this stage of the change process, a company is primarily concerned with identifying operational difficulties. An organization also strives to identify the source of its difficulties in order to develop suitable remedies.

Planning: Following the identification of problems and their underlying causes, the next step in the Change Process is the identification of suitable solutions for the problems. During the evaluation of its services, a health care institution may uncover discrepancies in healthcare provision. To tackle this issue, the health care organization will need to generate a variety of potential solutions and select the one that best fits the organization's needs. Planning entails determining the organization's future (O'Grady & Malloch, 2007).

Implementation: Following the identification of the most suitable change, the next step in the Change Process is the implementation of the selected change. This is the most difficult phase of the transition process. Change implementation entails putting the identified solution into effect (Anderson, 2009). Change implementation can follow either a top-down or bottom-up strategy, depending on the organization's requirements.

After executing a change, it is essential for the organization to assess the change's effectiveness. Did it produce the desired results? If not, then what was the issue? As the final step of the Change Process, evaluation enables an organization to assess its capability to undertake change (Gareth & Jennifer, 2008). In order to rate your organization's ability to begin change relative to other organizations, it is also essential to conduct a benchmark comparison with other organizations.

The duties and responsibilities of departmental managers in effecting change

Managers are crucial participants in their organizations' transition processes. Managers are change agents within their departments and are therefore tasked with managing change in a way that allows their staff to adapt readily (O'Grady & Malloch, 2007). The managers must facilitate change in their respective departments as change agents. Managers, as change agents, perform the following roles in the implementation of change.

The detective: Employees' responses to change vary. As investigators, managers are tasked with delving deeply into the dynamics of employee behavior to uncover hints about planned efforts to thwart change, and then determining the most effective means of removing the impediments.

The advocate: Managers are the change agents in their respective departments. As a change advocate, the manager is responsible for promoting change within his department and encouraging employee participation in the change process.

Change impacts employee behaviors, attitudes, and responsibilities, says the counselor (Kanter, Stein & Jick, 1992). This has a significant impact on the emotional stability of employees. As a counselor, the manager is tasked with understanding the personal reactions of employees and assisting them in developing a positive attitude toward adopting change.

The manager's job in implementing change is to assist staff in changing. As agents of change in their particular departments, managers should make it easier for employees to carry out their responsibilities amidst change (Anderson, 2009). As a facilitator, the manager must devise innovative techniques to change to ensure employee success in the change's mainstream.

Change always results in conflict because employees have competing priorities, says the mediator. The manager's responsibility as a mediator is to ensure that employees accommodate one other's perspectives and reach consensus on competing ideas for the benefit of all employees (Anderson, 2009).

The Expert: As experts in their respective departments, managers should give the necessary expertise for employees to adapt to change. They should provide their staff with consultancy services and the essential information to assist them adapt to change.

The enforcer: As the enforcer, the manager is in charge of ensuring that staff meet their deadlines and achieve the change process's objectives and aims (Anderson, 2009). Managers deploy both punitive measures and rewards to motivate staff during the transition process.

Managing staff opposition to change

No matter how appealing a change may be, not all employees will embrace it. There are some who will oppose change for a variety of reasons, including intellectual disagreement and fear of the possible impact of change (Kanter, Stein & Jick, 1992). The following tactics provide managers with methods for addressing staff change resistance. First, educate employees to assist them comprehend the need for change, and then effectively communicate change so that all employees get the reason for the change and hence cooperate. Second, include all staff members in the process of transformation so that they feel a part of the program. Third, listen to the concerns of staff members who are reluctant to change and assist them as needed so that they feel facilitated enough to embrace the change. Fourth, negotiate with recalcitrant employees and find a solution for the organization's overall benefit. Fifth, influence change-resistance leaders to guarantee that they persuade their group to participate in the change process. If all of these techniques fail, managers may be forced to resort to coercion in order to instill fear in recalcitrant staff.

Conclusion

Change is inevitable in the current global business climate. Change is a continual process that consists of four basic steps: evaluation, planning, implementation, and evaluation. Change implementation is difficult; therefore, managers must be more than just change process leaders. No matter how appealing a change is, there will always be opposition; therefore, managers implementing change in their departments must be prepared to cope with resistance.

References

Anderson, D. L. (2009). Organizational development is the process of guiding change within an organization. Sage Publications Inc., Thousand Oaks.

Gareth, R. J., & Jennifer, M.G. (2008). The fundamentals of modern management. Chicago, Illinois: Irwin Professional Publications

Kanter, R. M., Stein, B. A., & Jick, T. D. (1992). The difficulty of organizational transformation. The New York location of Free Press.

O'Grady, T. P., and K. Malloch (2007). Managing health care to achieve success. Amsterdam: Elsevier Inc.

[supanova question]

Implementing Change: Steps And Responsibilities Assignment Help Sydney

Introduction

The modern business climate is rapidly evolving, presenting businesses and organizations with new problems. Globalization compounds the difficulty, since firms must adapt to a global town where the rules of the game change daily. To conform to the system, firms must alter their operational methods; hence, Organizational Change. According to Gareth and Jennifer (2008), Organizational Change is the process of transforming an organization from its current condition to a more efficient future state. Every organization continues to be motivated to change by the need to increase its efficacy and be superior to its current condition. Organizations are perpetually faced with the difficulty of executing change in a way that positively affects all their key departments, as a result of their desire for transformation. Therefore, the purpose of this article is to analyze the manager's role in implementing change and overcoming resistance to change. The article also includes a summary of the key phases of the change process.

Process of Change Steps

Change is seldom immediate. It follows a procedure with various steps, as described further below.

Assessment is the method by which an organization evaluates its own performance (Anderson, 2009). Through assessment, an organization examines how well it satisfies the needs of its employees, the community it serves, and other stakeholders using accessible data (Anderson, 2009). At this stage of the change process, a company is primarily concerned with identifying operational difficulties. An organization also strives to identify the source of its difficulties in order to develop suitable remedies.

Planning: Following the identification of problems and their underlying causes, the next step in the Change Process is the identification of suitable solutions for the problems. During the evaluation of its services, a health care institution may uncover discrepancies in healthcare provision. To tackle this issue, the health care organization will need to generate a variety of potential solutions and select the one that best fits the organization's needs. Planning entails determining the organization's future (O'Grady & Malloch, 2007).

Implementation: Following the identification of the most suitable change, the next step in the Change Process is the implementation of the selected change. This is the most difficult phase of the transition process. Change implementation entails putting the identified solution into effect (Anderson, 2009). Change implementation can follow either a top-down or bottom-up strategy, depending on the organization's requirements.

After executing a change, it is essential for the organization to assess the change's effectiveness. Did it produce the desired results? If not, then what was the issue? As the final step of the Change Process, evaluation enables an organization to assess its capability to undertake change (Gareth & Jennifer, 2008). In order to rate your organization's ability to begin change relative to other organizations, it is also essential to conduct a benchmark comparison with other organizations.

The duties and responsibilities of departmental managers in effecting change

Managers are crucial participants in their organizations' transition processes. Managers are change agents within their departments and are therefore tasked with managing change in a way that allows their staff to adapt readily (O'Grady & Malloch, 2007). The managers must facilitate change in their respective departments as change agents. Managers, as change agents, perform the following roles in the implementation of change.

The detective: Employees' responses to change vary. As investigators, managers are tasked with delving deeply into the dynamics of employee behavior to uncover hints about planned efforts to thwart change, and then determining the most effective means of removing the impediments.

The advocate: Managers are the change agents in their respective departments. As a change advocate, the manager is responsible for promoting change within his department and encouraging employee participation in the change process.

Change impacts employee behaviors, attitudes, and responsibilities, says the counselor (Kanter, Stein & Jick, 1992). This has a significant impact on the emotional stability of employees. As a counselor, the manager is tasked with understanding the personal reactions of employees and assisting them in developing a positive attitude toward adopting change.

The manager's job in implementing change is to assist staff in changing. As agents of change in their particular departments, managers should make it easier for employees to carry out their responsibilities amidst change (Anderson, 2009). As a facilitator, the manager must devise innovative techniques to change to ensure employee success in the change's mainstream.

Change always results in conflict because employees have competing priorities, says the mediator. The manager's responsibility as a mediator is to ensure that employees accommodate one other's perspectives and reach consensus on competing ideas for the benefit of all employees (Anderson, 2009).

The Expert: As experts in their respective departments, managers should give the necessary expertise for employees to adapt to change. They should provide their staff with consultancy services and the essential information to assist them adapt to change.

The enforcer: As the enforcer, the manager is in charge of ensuring that staff meet their deadlines and achieve the change process's objectives and aims (Anderson, 2009). Managers deploy both punitive measures and rewards to motivate staff during the transition process.

Managing staff opposition to change

No matter how appealing a change may be, not all employees will embrace it. There are some who will oppose change for a variety of reasons, including intellectual disagreement and fear of the possible impact of change (Kanter, Stein & Jick, 1992). The following tactics provide managers with methods for addressing staff change resistance. First, educate employees to assist them comprehend the need for change, and then effectively communicate change so that all employees get the reason for the change and hence cooperate. Second, include all staff members in the process of transformation so that they feel a part of the program. Third, listen to the concerns of staff members who are reluctant to change and assist them as needed so that they feel facilitated enough to embrace the change. Fourth, negotiate with recalcitrant employees and find a solution for the organization's overall benefit. Fifth, influence change-resistance leaders to guarantee that they persuade their group to participate in the change process. If all of these techniques fail, managers may be forced to resort to coercion in order to instill fear in recalcitrant staff.

Conclusion

Change is inevitable in the current global business climate. Change is a continual process that consists of four basic steps: evaluation, planning, implementation, and evaluation. Change implementation is difficult; therefore, managers must be more than just change process leaders. No matter how appealing a change is, there will always be opposition; therefore, managers implementing change in their departments must be prepared to cope with resistance.

References

Anderson, D. L. (2009). Organizational development is the process of guiding change within an organization. Sage Publications Inc., Thousand Oaks.

Gareth, R. J., & Jennifer, M.G. (2008). The fundamentals of modern management. Chicago, Illinois: Irwin Professional Publications

Kanter, R. M., Stein, B. A., & Jick, T. D. (1992). The difficulty of organizational transformation. The New York location of Free Press.

O'Grady, T. P., and K. Malloch (2007). Managing health care to achieve success. Amsterdam: Elsevier Inc.

[supanova question]

Introduction

The modern business climate is rapidly evolving, presenting businesses and organizations with new problems. Globalization compounds the difficulty, since firms must adapt to a global town where the rules of the game change daily. To conform to the system, firms must alter their operational methods; hence, Organizational Change. According to Gareth and Jennifer (2008), Organizational Change is the process of transforming an organization from its current condition to a more efficient future state. Every organization continues to be motivated to change by the need to increase its efficacy and be superior to its current condition. Organizations are perpetually faced with the difficulty of executing change in a way that positively affects all their key departments, as a result of their desire for transformation. Therefore, the purpose of this article is to analyze the manager's role in implementing change and overcoming resistance to change. The article also includes a summary of the key phases of the change process.

Process of Change Steps

Change is seldom immediate. It follows a procedure with various steps, as described further below.

Assessment is the method by which an organization evaluates its own performance (Anderson, 2009). Through assessment, an organization examines how well it satisfies the needs of its employees, the community it serves, and other stakeholders using accessible data (Anderson, 2009). At this stage of the change process, a company is primarily concerned with identifying operational difficulties. An organization also strives to identify the source of its difficulties in order to develop suitable remedies.

Planning: Following the identification of problems and their underlying causes, the next step in the Change Process is the identification of suitable solutions for the problems. During the evaluation of its services, a health care institution may uncover discrepancies in healthcare provision. To tackle this issue, the health care organization will need to generate a variety of potential solutions and select the one that best fits the organization's needs. Planning entails determining the organization's future (O'Grady & Malloch, 2007).

Implementation: Following the identification of the most suitable change, the next step in the Change Process is the implementation of the selected change. This is the most difficult phase of the transition process. Change implementation entails putting the identified solution into effect (Anderson, 2009). Change implementation can follow either a top-down or bottom-up strategy, depending on the organization's requirements.

After executing a change, it is essential for the organization to assess the change's effectiveness. Did it produce the desired results? If not, then what was the issue? As the final step of the Change Process, evaluation enables an organization to assess its capability to undertake change (Gareth & Jennifer, 2008). In order to rate your organization's ability to begin change relative to other organizations, it is also essential to conduct a benchmark comparison with other organizations.

The duties and responsibilities of departmental managers in effecting change

Managers are crucial participants in their organizations' transition processes. Managers are change agents within their departments and are therefore tasked with managing change in a way that allows their staff to adapt readily (O'Grady & Malloch, 2007). The managers must facilitate change in their respective departments as change agents. Managers, as change agents, perform the following roles in the implementation of change.

The detective: Employees' responses to change vary. As investigators, managers are tasked with delving deeply into the dynamics of employee behavior to uncover hints about planned efforts to thwart change, and then determining the most effective means of removing the impediments.

The advocate: Managers are the change agents in their respective departments. As a change advocate, the manager is responsible for promoting change within his department and encouraging employee participation in the change process.

Change impacts employee behaviors, attitudes, and responsibilities, says the counselor (Kanter, Stein & Jick, 1992). This has a significant impact on the emotional stability of employees. As a counselor, the manager is tasked with understanding the personal reactions of employees and assisting them in developing a positive attitude toward adopting change.

The manager's job in implementing change is to assist staff in changing. As agents of change in their particular departments, managers should make it easier for employees to carry out their responsibilities amidst change (Anderson, 2009). As a facilitator, the manager must devise innovative techniques to change to ensure employee success in the change's mainstream.

Change always results in conflict because employees have competing priorities, says the mediator. The manager's responsibility as a mediator is to ensure that employees accommodate one other's perspectives and reach consensus on competing ideas for the benefit of all employees (Anderson, 2009).

The Expert: As experts in their respective departments, managers should give the necessary expertise for employees to adapt to change. They should provide their staff with consultancy services and the essential information to assist them adapt to change.

The enforcer: As the enforcer, the manager is in charge of ensuring that staff meet their deadlines and achieve the change process's objectives and aims (Anderson, 2009). Managers deploy both punitive measures and rewards to motivate staff during the transition process.

Managing staff opposition to change

No matter how appealing a change may be, not all employees will embrace it. There are some who will oppose change for a variety of reasons, including intellectual disagreement and fear of the possible impact of change (Kanter, Stein & Jick, 1992). The following tactics provide managers with methods for addressing staff change resistance. First, educate employees to assist them comprehend the need for change, and then effectively communicate change so that all employees get the reason for the change and hence cooperate. Second, include all staff members in the process of transformation so that they feel a part of the program. Third, listen to the concerns of staff members who are reluctant to change and assist them as needed so that they feel facilitated enough to embrace the change. Fourth, negotiate with recalcitrant employees and find a solution for the organization's overall benefit. Fifth, influence change-resistance leaders to guarantee that they persuade their group to participate in the change process. If all of these techniques fail, managers may be forced to resort to coercion in order to instill fear in recalcitrant staff.

Conclusion

Change is inevitable in the current global business climate. Change is a continual process that consists of four basic steps: evaluation, planning, implementation, and evaluation. Change implementation is difficult; therefore, managers must be more than just change process leaders. No matter how appealing a change is, there will always be opposition; therefore, managers implementing change in their departments must be prepared to cope with resistance.

References

Anderson, D. L. (2009). Organizational development is the process of guiding change within an organization. Sage Publications Inc., Thousand Oaks.

Gareth, R. J., & Jennifer, M.G. (2008). The fundamentals of modern management. Chicago, Illinois: Irwin Professional Publications

Kanter, R. M., Stein, B. A., & Jick, T. D. (1992). The difficulty of organizational transformation. The New York location of Free Press.

O'Grady, T. P., and K. Malloch (2007). Managing health care to achieve success. Amsterdam: Elsevier Inc.

[supanova question]

Human Resource Processes In Qatar National Bank Assignment Help Sydney

Document Justification Title of the Project

The proposed study is titled "The Effect of Human Resource Bundles on Change Management at Qatar National Bank." As suggested by the title, the proposed study will investigate how the configuration of human resource management techniques in bundles is applied within the framework of Qatar National Bank in order to facilitate or enhance change management processes. The choice of study context is influenced by the researcher's affiliation with this institution. The elements of human resource management that will be the subject of the study will be determined through a survey of the pertinent literature.

Background

Human resource management (HRM) practices adopted by organizations play a significant role in developing human capital, fostering the unique and irreplaceable traits of strategic human resource (HR), and achieving a sustainable competitive advantage through the effective and efficient exploitation of the organization's resources (Gooderham, Parry and Ringdal 2008; Afiouni, Karam & El-Hajj 2013; Chowhan 2016).

Available management literature supports an evolving conviction that organizations' survival in the increasingly competitive information economy is contingent on the adoption and execution of world-class HR competencies and the practices required to manage such resources (Darwish, Singh & Mohamed 2013). This belief has led to research on the configuration of human resource practices in bundles and its effect on organizational outcomes such as performance and competitiveness (Gooderham, Parry, and Ringdal, 2008) and employee outcomes such as turnover intentions and organizational commitment (Gooderham, Parry, and Ringdal, 2008). (Chen & Wang 2014).

HRM systems comprise a highly integrated collection of HRM practices that can be segmented into bundles of HRM practices through which activities are aligned to achieve the organization's goals and objectives, according to research (Ceylan 2013).

According to Bello-Pintado (2015, p. 311), the bundling premise is based on the notion that "individual HRM practices do not function in isolation but rather work in tandem so that employees are simultaneously exposed to multiple practices." Verburg, Hartog, and Koopman (2007) acknowledge that the bundling proposition is embedded in the configurational approach to strategic human resource management (SHRM), which assumes that organizations perform better through both internal and external fit (HRM practices comprising bundles in a consistent and coherent manner)

From this vantage point, the question of which mix of HRM packages can lead to optimal organizational results in terms of performance and competitiveness is a common topic of research.

Cheng and Wang (2014) used the promising process-based approach to SHRM to examine the relationship between two types of HR attributions (commitment-focused and control-focused HR attributions) and two important employee outcomes (turnover intention and task performance) in an organisational change context in China.

Here, it is essential to comprehend that proponents of the process-based approach to SHRM "argue that employees may not respond directly and passively to HR practices, but rather actively perceive, recognize, conceive, judge, and reason about HR practices before acting" (Cheng & Wang 2014, p. 1432).

According to these authors, in organizational change contexts, many employees may respond passively to organizational initiatives, and some of their responses may be objectionable to the employer; therefore, it is necessary to strengthen commitment-focused HR attributions in order to achieve perceived organizational support and reduce turnover intentions during the change process. Molineux (2013) emphasizes the significance of using a systematic approach to SHRM to achieve successful cultural change in an organization, while Crouse, Doyle, and Young (2011) stress the need for HRM practitioners to develop new competencies in change management in order to steer their respective organizations' change processes to success. Despite the abundance of studies on HRM and organizational change, the literature on the impact of the bundled approach to HRM on organizational change outcomes appears to be insufficient and severely fragmented.

Rationale for the Research

While there is widespread agreement regarding the significance of implementing sophisticated HRM practices in enhancing the performance and competitiveness of organizations (Bello-Pintado, 2015), there is still an ongoing debate regarding the configuration of HRM in bundles and its impact on organizational change processes (Cheng & Wang 2014). The performance, productivity, and competitiveness of organizations are dependent on the effective amalgamation of HRM practices in accordance with both internal (internal fit) and external (external fit) factors. However, there appears to be a gap in the literature regarding how the adoption of HRM practices in bundles influences the organisational change process.

In addition, it is obvious that previous research studies on HRM packages and organizational outcomes, such as change management, have focused primarily on the United States, with a few outliers in a few European nations (Gooderham, Parry and Ringdal 2008). Despite the fact that these studies demonstrate that the arrangement of HRM practices in bundles has a favorable impact on organizational outcomes, it may be difficult to generalize these findings to enterprises operating in Arab nations due to context-dependent variables such as religion and culture (Afiouni, Karam & El-Hajj 2013). Due to Qatar's dissimilarity to the United States and Europe, it is necessary to undertake a study that takes into account national characteristics while examining the impact of HRM packages on change management procedures.

The final argument is buried within the necessity to generate evidence-based incremental knowledge regarding which of the most prevalent HRM bundles can be utilized by organizations to enhance change management procedures. The research on HRM packages and organizational performance demonstrates that there is no consensus among academics "on what these practices should be or even on the number of practices that can improve organizational performance" (Darwish, Singh & Mohammed 2013, p. 3345). Assuming that research on organizational performance matches that of change management faces difficulties in determining whether HRM bundles result in beneficial outcomes, it is crucial to conduct the suggested study to address this research gap.

Literature Review

Introduction

This section examines the existing research regarding organizational configurations of human resource management methods and change management processes. As expected, a review and appraisal of the relevant literature will aid the researcher in identifying existing research gaps that merit future investigation.

Understanding HRM

According to Darwish, Singh, and Mohamed (2013, p. 3347), the majority of organizations' HR procedures include "recruitment and selection, training, internal career opportunities, evaluations, and incentive and rewards." Gooderham, Parry, and Ringdal (2008) distinguish between two generic classifications of HRM practices: control or calculative HRM practices (e.g., performance-based pay that emphasizes quantifiable exchanges between the organization and the employer) and commitment-based or collaborative HRM practices, such as those emphasizing employee strategy briefings with the goal of fostering or nurturing employer-employee mutuality of interest. A more sophisticated contribution to the SHRM literature is made by Bello-Pintado (2015), who argues that an effective HRM strategy requires the development of three characteristics:

the necessary skills, abilities, and competencies to make HR effort more meaningful, the capacity of HR practices to motivate workers to put in discretionary effort, and the capacity to offer employees the chance to participate in shop-floor decision-making processes regarding the organization of their work.

The "capabilities" attribute is typically associated with HR practices such as recruitment/selection and training and development, whereas the "motivation" attribute is typically associated with compensation systems, employee-related incentives, performance management practices, internal promotion, and job security. According to Bello-Pintado (2015), the "opportunities" component is typically related with HR strategies focusing around information exchange, employee autonomy, and teamwork.

Groups of HRM

The origins of the bundled perspective on HRM may be traced back to configurational theoretical frameworks claiming that the association between HRM and firm performance involves complex interactions between bundles of HRM practices and organizational outcomes. According to Gooderham, Parry, and Ringdal (2008), these integrated HRM strategies produce significantly superior performance outcomes than individual or independent HRM activities.

The available research indicates that organizations can obtain the greatest gains in productivity and competitiveness by implementing groups of complementary HRM practices rather than modifying individual HRM practices using the configurational method. Scholars and theorists agree that the bundled approach to HRM is a source of competitive advantage that is both sustainable and difficult to reproduce (Ng & Dastmaichian 2011; Teng & Yazdanifard 2015).

Gooderham, Parry, and Ringdal (2008) state that "the impact of HRM on organizational performance is contingent on the adoption of an effective combination of HRM practices, also known as HRM bundles." Darwish, Singh, and Mohammed (2013) contend that bundles of HRM practices should be able to produce stronger organizational impacts due to the fact that the whole is greater than the sum of its parts.

Guchait and Choo (2010) recognise that the integration of HR processes into packages that are well-aligned with specific business strategy increases effectiveness. Gooderham, Parry, and Ringdal (2008) distinguish between universalistic and configurational approaches to HRM by noting that the former consists of single HR practices combined in an additive manner, whereas the latter involves combining HR practices in a way that promotes internal consistency with the goal of achieving interrelated and synergistic practices.

Thus, "different employment modes (knowledge-based employment, job-based employment, contract work, and alliance/partnership) should have corresponding HR configurations (commitment-based, productivity-based, compliance-based, and collaborative)" (Verburg, Hartog & Koopman 2007, p. 185). HR practices can also be grounded by the strategic and administrative environment, organizational structures, and organizational culture of an organization.

Extensive research has been conducted on HRM bundles and how they are categorized for best effectiveness and efficiency in enhancing organizational outcomes. The majority of these sources classify HRM practices into three primary categories: ability-enhancing HR activities, motivation-enhancing HR practices, and opportunity-enhancing HR practices (Chenevert & Tremblay 2009; Bello-Pintado 2015).

Ability-enhancing HR practices include employee recruitment/selection techniques (the multiplicity of recruitment/selection techniques during the staffing procedure, such as interviews, personality and ability tests, and simulations), employee recruitment/selection criteria (standards developed by the employer to measure employees' capabilities in learning, developing interpersonal relationships, achieving a cultural fit, and developing a positive work attitude), an employee recruitment/selection process, and an employee recruitment/selection strategy (Bello-Pintado 2015).

Motivation-enhancing HR practices include job security, internal promotion, high-performance compensation, and formal performance evaluation.

Lastly, opportunity-enhancing HR practices include job autonomy, information sharing, and employee participation (Chenevert & Tremblay 2009; Ceylan 2013; Bello-Pintado 2015).

Research on HRM Bundles

One study assessing the effect of HR practices on organizational effectiveness in the Jordanian financial sector discovered a favorable association between a collection of HR practices and a company's financial performance (Darwish, Singh & Mohammed 2013).

This study demonstrated that a package of HRM strategies consisting of recruiting and selection, training, and internal career possibilities had a significant influence on enhancing financial performance and decreasing employee turnover intentions. In a similar study, Guchait and Cho (2010) examined the effect of an HRM bundle encompassing eight HRM activities (performance evaluation, training, staffing, rewards, benefits, working conditions, equal employment opportunity, and information sharing) on the intention to leave. This study discovered that the bundled approach to HRM increased the commitment of service sector employees in India, hence decreasing their intention to leave the organization.

According to Guchait and Cho (2010, p. 1242), this finding suggests that bundles of HRM practices may in fact be used by companies to demonstrate their commitment to their employees "or to demonstrate their support, concern, and caring for their employees, and in turn to compel the employees to be more committed to the organization." Gooderham, Parry, and Ringdal (2008) discovered that calculative and intermediate HRM bundles had some effect on the performance and competitiveness of European firms, whereas collaborative HRM bundles have no discernible effect on company performance. This finding led the researchers to the conclusion that offering bundles of HR practices is insufficient because these bundles play a minor influence in describing an organization's overall performance.

A seminal study investigating the causal relationships between commitment-based HR practices, different typologies of innovation activities, and organisational innovativeness found that a commitment-based HR bundle has a positive and significant impact on the process, organisational, and marketing innovation activities of firms in the Turkish context; however, this study found an indirect impact of the commitment-oriented HRM bundle on the performance and competitiveness of the firm (Ceylan 2013).

Notably, "the benefits of commitment-based HR practices are to provide career development and long-term growth opportunities, as well as to increase group motivation and social interactions" (Ceylan 2013, p. 211). In a study focussed on examining the level to which the configuration of HRM practices in bundles and the interactions among them impacts manufacturing performance outcomes across the Uruguayan manufacturing industry, Bello-Pintado (2015) found that only the motivation-enhancing HR bundle (job security, internal promotion, high-performance compensation, and formal performance evaluation) has a significant main effect on manufacturing outcomes in terms of improving performance on its own and also enhancing the effects of other bundles of practices to improve performance.

Since other bundles of practices were dependent on the motivation-enhancing bundle to improve the performance outcomes of manufacturing firms, Bello-Pintado (2015) concluded the study by emphasizing the need for firms to begin the design of an HRM system by implementing or adopting a configuration of HRM practices aimed at motivating employees.

HRM and Organizational Change Research

Consistently, research demonstrates that organizations can develop the capacity to unlock leverage for sustainable transformation and competitive advantage by viewing HR as a system rather than as a collection of procedures (Molineux 2013). According to this author, understanding HRM as a "system" or "bundle" of HR practices enables organizations to implement successful transformation projects.

Biophysical Assessment: Demographics, Health, Etc. Assignment Help Sydney

Demographics

Since he has never had a serious girlfriend, the client is single, does not have a partner or a history of former relationships.

Client does not have any children. The Client's relationship with his mother is strained, as he was removed from her at the age of 14 under PINS and resided in a care facility until the age of 16. He does not communicate with his biological father and claims he has not seen him since the age of three. Client recalled having a nice relationship with his grandma until he was a teenager, when she and his mother had an altercation and stopped speaking. Client is currently unaware of the residences of his mother, father, and grandma. It is unknown whether or not his grandmother is still alive. Client is estranged from his parents and grandparents.

Client has a younger half-sister named Jeny XXXXX with whom he maintains touch. Until her partner discovered narcotics in Client's room and ordered him to leave, he lived with Jeny and her boyfriend for several months. Client maintains contact with his sister and has a positive relationship with her.

Current Information about Family and Relationships

Client was born when his mother was a teen, specifically 17 years old, and his father was an adult (23). His father assisted in Client's upbringing until he was three and a half years old, after which Client has no memory of talking with him. The Client's parents were never married, but his mother had several other relationships and gave birth to his younger sister when he was 1 years old. His mother, Ms. XXXX, reared him alone, with occasional assistance from her mother until they fell out and stopped communicating. Ms. XXXX had other additional relationships, including one with Client's younger sister, Jeny XXXX, and others. Growing up in a home with separated parents and experiencing multiple other separations could have a devastating effect on a child's development and perspective on relationships. Moreover, according to Saini et al. (2017), women play a crucial role in supporting the bond between a kid and their father following a divorce. In the case of the Client, it appears that no steps were made to ensure that he is in contact with his father, either owing to parental differences or the father's unwillingness to visit his child.

Client and his mother resided in the same area until he was 14 years old, when he was removed from his family via the PINS program. After their previous move, Client lost contact with his grandma because he no longer knows where she resides.

At the age of eight, the Client's mother moved home with her five-month lover. Client can not recall suffering violence or abuse as a child, but police records indicate that they were called to Client's residence in response to domestic violence accusations, although no legal action was taken. Client does not communicate with the boyfriends of her mother.

The Client's first documented drug use occurred when he was 14 and his school administration requested a drug test due to his strange conduct. He declined, but after making a PINS report, the authorities conducted a search of the Client's residence since he claimed to have found the drugs there. The Client was placed in an outpatient facility for treatment, but he did not complete the program because his mother refused to drive him to the facility. According to Widom (2017), child neglect affects a person's image of themselves and others and can lead to substance misuse issues, and "children who have experienced physical abuse become violent as adolescents and adults" (p. 186).

Educational/Professional Past

Client attended a single school district throughout his entire youth. Client has earned marks in the C/B range throughout his academic career. At the age of seven, he had an argument with his teacher, and at the age of fourteen, he arrived at school under the influence of marijuana. Several times, his mother was requested to come to school to discuss the Client's behavior. In every instance, she postponed the meetings and never spoke with the school's administration. Client reports not having completed his GED, and he was enrolled in a local HVAC program that he did not complete.

The Economic/Employment Past

After being discharged from a juvenile facility at the age of 20, the client reports not having a permanent job. The majority of his employment was in the construction industry. At the age of 20, he lived with his mother until moving in with his sister, who helped him sustain himself. The Client was homeless at the age of twenty before moving into his sister's household.

Medical Record

The client has been diagnosed with Bipolar Disorder, but he provides no treatment specifics. The client admits to using unprescribed Xanax. Client was involved in a physical altercation with her mother's boyfriend prior to his arrest, although he was not hospitalized. In prison, he does not take any medication, although he may begin Bipolar treatment.

Trauma Background

The client denies experiencing physical or sexual abuse as a child. However, he claims that the employees of the juvenile detention center where he was confined until the age of twenty attempted to sexually attack him, which may have created psychological trauma. As the Client was still a juvenile when this occurrence occurred, it may have caused emotional distress. Due to unfulfilled childhood demands, the Client's interactions with his mother and the absence of his father may have also contributed to his trauma (Aas et al., 2016).

Mental Health Background

The client was diagnosed with bipolar disorder at age 20, but did not receive treatment. Nevertheless, he acknowledged self-medicating for his illness. Notably, some researchers associate bipolar disorder with early trauma. Aas et al. (2018), for instance, indicate that “childhood traumatic events are risk factors for developing bipolar illnesses, as well as a more severe clinical presentation over time.” (p. 10). Since childhood, this client's relationship with his mother was difficult, and he had no interaction with his father. Separation at a young age may lead to future psychological difficulties. Separation at an early age influences a person's future relationship-building skills, such as the ability to maintain a connection with a partner (Paccione-Dyszlewski, 2018). In addition, “when a child is abruptly separated from a parent, vital needs go unfulfilled, the parent-child trust relationship is destroyed, and the child is pushed into a horrific free fall” (Paccione-Dyszlewski, 2018, p. 8).

Substance Background

Client has a history of substance abuse, commencing at age 14 when he was admitted to an outpatient clinic for marijuana use. Later, at the age of (28), previous to his current arrest, he was asked to leave his sister's residence because he was in possession of illegal substances. There are no additional documented episodes of substance misuse by the Client; nevertheless, he reports taking Xanax without a prescription. The client never completed his outpatient treatment and did not participate in any other substance addiction treatment programs.

Fortifications/Social Support

Prior to his incarceration, client lived with his younger sister, with whom he has a tight bond. She provided him with assistance by enabling him to reside with her and her boyfriend following his imprisonment and regular visits to the juvenile facility. The Client does not maintain contacts with other family; he is estranged from his mother and is unaware of his father's and grandmother's current whereabouts.

Mental Health Examination

Cognitive (memory, intellect): historian with adequate memory, average intelligence

Positive attitude toward social worker

Behavior: serene

Fluid thought process/speech

Evaluation/Insight: Average

Mood/Affect: Suitable

Perceptual Disturbances: Has bipolar, does no reveal having hallucinations.

Adverse Childhood Experiences (ACEs), according to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) (n.d.), damage the future of children by predisposing them to violent behavior and perpetration. These encounters might occur between 0 and 17 years of age. Examples include, but are not limited to, living in an area with a high crime rate and witnessing violent behavior. It is likely that the Client's behavior is the product of adverse childhood experiences (ACEs), in which case he must be assisted in overcoming the damage he endured. Wisdom (2017) contends that such exposure generates a "cycle of violence" in which a youngster exposed to abuse and violence repeats the same behavior (p. 186). ACES is visible in the Client due to the neglect he encounters, such as when his mother refused to drive him to an outpatient care facility or only saw him once at the juvenile detention center. The author of this report gathered information about Brian, and based on the CDC's information about adverse childhood experiences (ACEs), it can be concluded that Brian's mental health was negatively impacted by adverse childhood environments, relationships with his parents, and neglect, as well as an attempt to sexually assault him in a juvenile detention center.

AI

Alternative imprisonment (AI) programs are designed for offenders who have been sentenced to an alternative to jail. The objective for the Client is to enroll him in a long-term substance abuse or mental health program that will assist him in addressing his childhood trauma or addiction. The author of this report offers many programs in New York that are suited for this client based on this information. Among the programs, there is one that focuses on substance misuse and can aid the Client in overcoming his addiction. There are qualified psychiatrists in this program who can assist the Client with his diagnosis and develop an appropriate treatment plan for him. Bronx Mental Health Diversion Services is an example of an appropriate alternative to incarceration for a client with Bipolar (“Alternative to incarceration,” n.d.). The Client's case aligns with the goals of this AI program because they work with offenders who have co-occurring mental health issues and addiction.

The Nathaniel Project is an alternative to the Bronx Mental Health Diversion program. This project was designed by the Center for Alternative Sentencing and Employment Services (CASES) to assist convicts with mental health issues and substance misuse issues (Alternative to incarceration, n.d.). Under this program, offenders are under 24-months of supervision, and specialists help treat mental health diseases and substance abuse disorders. In addition, they provide housing assistance upon completion of the program, which is particularly pertinent given that the Client was homeless for a period of time prior to incarceration and does not have a permanent residence.

The Nathaniel Project is possibly the most suited AI for this client, as it will not only assist him in resolving his current issues, but will also continue to assist him once the program has been completed. Thus, the Client will be able to reintegrate into society, as having a permanent place to stay is linked to one's ability to find employment and “constraints in shelter bed supply may limit responses of homelessness to changes in economic conditions” (Hanratty, 2017, p. 640). This AI program can provide the Client with an opportunity to establish a new life after he completes his term, as he has minimal social support outside of his sister, as demonstrated in this report. Due to the lack of social assistance, he may have trouble getting employment and accommodation, which increases his likelihood of committing a crime. Consequently, the Nathaniel Project is an excellent AI option for this Client, as it will not only serve the purposes of justice but also assist him in becoming a better citizen.

Additional Considerations

The author of this report can collect additional information regarding the Client's life to assist in selecting an appropriate ATI program, in addition to the information listed above.

For instance, it would be useful to know how the Client supported himself between the ages of 18 and 28 given his lack of employment history. In addition, questioning him about his hobbies would assist him in selecting a program that not only targets his illegal behavior, but also teaches him new skills so that he may get a steady job and live independently afterward. In addition, more information regarding the Client's Bipolar experience is required for a more accurate evaluation of his mental state. It may be important to report him to a psychiatrist to guarantee that he receives treatment, given that he does not take prescribed medicine despite the fact that bipolar disorder is a significant mental health condition.

In addition, the information given by the Client throughout this evaluation, particularly the fact that he admitted to committing an unresolved crime, is frightening. State regulations typically require a social worker to report information that could lead to child abuse or harm to a third party, even if the Client objects to such disclosure. In this instance, however, the Client does not threaten to harm a kid, an elderly person, or a third party; rather, he admits to committing a crime. In this instance, a social worker is required to protect the Client's confidentiality until the judge rules otherwise.

Nonetheless, this revelation would upset me, and I would address my concerns with a supervisor without identifying the Client. Primarily, I believe it is unjust that the Client admits to committing a crime in which he injured another person, yet will not be prosecuted for it. Regardless, I would stick to ethical standards and refrain from revealing any information related to this confession.

References

M. Aas, C. Henry, O. A. Andreassen, F. Bellivier, I. Melle, and B. Etain (2016). Childhood trauma's significance in bipolar illnesses. Web.

Programs offering alternatives to incarceration (ATI) (n.d.). Web.

CDC stands for the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (n.d.). Avoiding negative childhood experiences. Web.

Hanratty, M. (2017). How does the local economy effect homelessness? The effect of regional housing market conditions, unemployment, and poverty on local homelessness rates. 27(4), pages 640-655 in Housing Policy Debate. Web.

Paccione-Dyszlewski, M. R. (2018). Parental separation: an immediate traumatic event with lifelong repercussions. The Child and Adolescent Behavior Letter of Brown University, 34(9), 8–8. Web.

Saini, M. A., Drozd, L. M., & Olesen, N. W. (2017). The effects of adaptive and maladaptive gatekeeping practices and attitudes on child outcomes during separation and divorce. Family Court Review, 55(2), 260–272 on the Internet.

Long-term effects of childhood abuse and neglect on crime and violence, Widom, C. S. (2017). 24(2), 186–202, Clinical Psychology: Science and Practice. Web.

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Lower Oil Prices’ Impact On The Stock Markets Assignment Help Sydney

Executive summary

This article will examine the connection between falling oil prices and the stock market. Lower oil prices are the dependent variable in this scenario, whereas stock market performance is the independent variable. The report will be based on the analysis of the Moscow Exchange Market. In addition, the objective of the research paper is to examine the relationship between oil prices and stock performance on the ideal stock exchange. The investigation will utilize regression with a sample of one hundred companies from the Moscow Exchange Market.

Problem statement

Establishing the impact of lower oil prices on stock markets is essential for making informed investment decisions, particularly when it is anticipated that the lower prices would last for a considerable period of time. A number of earlier research projects have examined the broad impact of oil price fluctuations on stock market performance. The vast majority of these research have concentrated on Western stock markets. On the Moscow Exchange Market, however, there is no prior research examining the correlation between stock returns and decreased oil prices. It is essential to examine the relationship between decreased oil prices and Moscow's stock market performance. This relationship will explain the influence of oil prices on the behavior of stock markets.

Aims and purposes

This research endeavor aims to determine the underlying relationship between falling oil prices and stock market performance. Specifically, this research paper will determine the direct and indirect effects of reduced oil prices on the stock market.

Research questions

The scope of the research study will be restricted to the following issues:

What is the relationship between decreasing oil prices and the Moscow Exchange Market's stock market performance? Following the decline in global oil prices, what is the relationship between stock returns and the Moscow Exchange Market?

Research proposition

Neither the decrease in oil prices nor the performance of stocks on the Moscow Exchange Market are related.

In contrast, there is no correlation between the decline in oil prices and the performance of stocks on the Moscow Exchange Market.

Justification for the research

The outcomes of the research project will assist Moscow Exchange Market investors in making investment decisions based on the correlation between falling oil prices and overall stock market performance. In addition, the recommendations offered may assist companies trading on the Moscow Exchange Market to develop the most sustainable stock strategies in order to survive the oil price fluctuations. The study will not be a silver bullet for changing investor behavior in relation to the influence of oil price fluctuations on stock returns. It will only provide structures that must be integrated with the values and objectives of various investment possibilities affected by fluctuations in the worldwide price of oil. Consequently, enterprises and investors cannot apply the advice without considering the external and internal variables that impact the global oil price decline.

Methodology

Research Methodology Research strategy

This research will employ a qualitative methodology. Utilizing qualitative research methods will aid comprehension of the dynamics behind the decline in oil prices and stock markets. This method will allow for additional investigation employing diverse and distinct techniques to determine the error level and assumption bounds.

Sample selection and size considerations

The researcher will utilize convenience sampling to identify 100 companies from each of the three industries. The primary justification for the adoption of convenience sampling is its time-saving nature. The formulas developed in 1972 will be utilized to determine the sample size for this study population.

n=N/ (1+N (e2))

Where:

n = sample size N=Population aimed towards e= Degree of freedom n=100/ (1+100*0.052) n=100/1.25 n= 80

According to the Central Limit Theorem (CLT), X-bar is generally normally distributed regardless of the population shape if the sample size is more than 30, as will be the case in this investigation. Therefore, this selected sample population is appropriate for the investigation.

Dependability and dependableness

Clear, comprehensive, and sequential explanations of data gathering and analysis techniques will ensure dependability. It depends on the study design being congruent with clear research questions, having an explicit explanation of the researcher's status and roles, providing findings with meaningful parallelism across data sources, specification of basic theoretical constructs and analytical frameworks, and data collection across settings. This study aims to meet these requirements as closely as feasible.

Justification of methods

The relationship between stock returns and accounting ratios will be easier to comprehend if qualitative research methods are employed. Observation will be used to do qualitative research on the subject's attributes, with the researcher collecting data utilizing an observation schedule during data mining from various financial websites. In general, the qualitative methods employed in this study will be applied to the analysis of the acquired data, where analytical tools such as chi-square, regression, and correlation procedures will be employed. These approaches will facilitate the detection of statistical patterns in the data regarding the correlation between stock returns and accounting ratios.

Expected outcomes

It is anticipated that the decreased oil prices will have direct and indirect effects on the performance of the Moscow Exchange Market.

Methods of Analysis Data analysis

The collected data will be encoded and passed through version 17 of Statistical Package for the Social Sciences (SPSS). Cross-tabulation will be utilized to compare and contrast the relationship between the decline in oil prices and the performance of the stock market. In addition to figures, charts, and tabular representations of the inquiry, regression analysis is necessary for quantifying the relationship between the independent and dependent variables. Software such as Google Docs, Excel, SPSS, and Views will be utilized to facilitate the regression analysis.

Regression model

Ordinary least square regression will be employed to examine the relationship between stock returns and oil price declines. The formula follows.

Y = α + β1X1

Where:

Y = Stock Return (dependent variable). =Value of Y at the point where the values of the explanatory variables are zero. =Parameter representing the average change in Y; related to each unit change in variable X. X= Independent Variable.

X1 will reflect the ratio of reduced oil prices relative to the New York Stock Exchange and London Stock Exchange.

Ethics-related factors

Throughout the data collection phase of this study, the researcher will adhere to scientific research ethics. To maintain transparency, authorization for conducting this study will be sought from competent authorities. The researcher has expertise and experience in college-level data collecting and analysis. Adopting diverse quantitative and qualitative techniques to data collection and report writing increases credibility. Theoretically, transferability of results is conceivable with a sufficiently big sample that is typical of the data population.

Expenses and assets involved Resources

Past case study research, financial journals, academic publications, and internet finance websites such as yahoo.com, aastocks.com, reuters.com, google.com, and bloomberg.com will inform the literature review. These websites are legitimate because the majority of their content comes from respected companies. The academic publications that will be used for this research paper will be selected from reputable academic and financial websites, such as Pro Quest, Harvard Business Review, Emerald, ABI, google.com, and BNU e-database. The paper will utilize eight sources, including four academic publications and four other sources such as books, pamphlets, past reports, and credible websites.

Costs

Due to the fact that this research will rely on secondary data, the estimated cost to conduct the study will be significantly less than $300.

Additional Specifics: Research Timeline

Week 1: Start of Research

This stage will comprise a review of the suggested research subject and its justification. This phase could take one week, as the selection of the topic will rely on the available material.

Week 2: Case study selection

Choosing a case study will be a difficult task, given that research publications employ various methodologies. Specifically, I will have to select the most convincing study variables from a variety of research articles addressing the research topics from various perspectives.

Week 3: Background investigation

As a result of the availability of materials for the research topic, I will have no trouble integrating the pertinent material with the research question. This phase may require two weeks to complete.

Conducting the literature review in Week 5

This stage will be quite hard, since numerous information sources will be investigated. Internet, the university library, course notes, and public libraries with pertinent information on the research topic will be explored as information sources. I'll focus on scientific articles, conference proceedings, and pertinent books.

Week 6: Collecting data and assessing data

This will be the most challenging phase of the research project. To convey information about the topic, I will need to balance several research approaches. The information extracted from financial statements must be evaluated in depth. Using Google documents software, each model and strategy must be exhaustive to ensure that the researcher creates answers that provide insight into the research topic to be solved.

Week 7: Research Summary

Emerging themes will be found, and the results will be analyzed and connected to the study topic. Regardless of any research dynamics that may emerge during the process, I will have to manage the data results and interpretation within the limits of the research topic. Before submission, the final study will be examined to validate its comprehensiveness in answering the research topic. The preceding schedule is summarized here.

Research schedule

Literature review

Several studies have been conducted in the past to establish the association between falling oil prices and the performance of various stock markets around the world.

Economic effects of reduced oil prices

As is currently the case in Russia, lower oil prices have the potential to systematically push the prices of several commodities downward. Consequently, this effect is terrible for new enterprises that rely on the sale of raw commodities due to capital flight and rising inflation. If oil prices remain low for an extended length of time, deflationary pressures are likely to increase and destabilize the stock performance of many corporations over the long term. This will result in the Russian central bank implementing rigorous policies to reverse the trend, and the economy may enter a phase of growth stimulation.

According to Giblet and Bang (2003), oil is a vital financial asset on a worldwide scale. Consequently, "oil price deflation can'spill over' to other financial assets, causing their decline in a 'chain-like' fashion." The negative consequences will ripple throughout the primary and secondary sectors of all global economies. Derivatives of various bonds that are traded on the stock market, for instance, are likely to crash. Ultimately, "when debts can no longer be serviced, defaults ensue, sapping the system's liquidity and leading to a sudden (and excruciating) re-pricing event"

According to Basher and Sandusky (2009), the deflation of oil prices has the potential to accelerate financial firm defaults. The "collapse of oil-related financial assets could also have a 'chain effect' on other types of financial assets, thereby spreading financial instability to other credit markets." This has a negative impact on the performance of stocks of various companies trading on a stock exchange.

Theoretical viewpoint

In the context of financial analysis, the efficient market hypothesis (EMH) is a body of thought predicated on the notion that "existing stock prices indicate the value of a company based on its available resources." This idea posits that traders are unable to realize excessive profits based on the information supplied. However, the fundamental assumptions behind the efficient market hypothesis are very debatable. For example, the hypothesis asserts that stock returns are highly unlikely since they are approximations of price fluctuations. According to the efficient market hypothesis, the level of innovative idea accessibility is the key factor contributing to price fluctuations. A sustained decline in oil prices may result in an unforeseen decline in the trading liquidity of corporations on the stock market. Consequently, stockholders may be compelled to sell their shares. When everyone is selling their stocks, the share prices of the market's key players will inevitably decline.

Bibliography

Energy Economics, vol. 31, no. 2, 2009, pp. 838-851, Karma, Q.F., "Commodity prices, interest rates, and the dollar."

Basher, S.A., and P. Sadorsky, "Oil price risk and emerging stock markets," Global Finance Journal, vol. 17, no. 1, 2009, pp. 224-251, are cited in this entry.

Blanchard, O., and Gali, J., "The macroeconomic effects of oil shocks: Why are the 2000s so different from the 1970s?," Journal of Macroeconomics, vol. NBER Working Paper 13368, vol. 14, no. 5, 2011, pp. 23-32.

2003. Grinblatt, M., and Bing, H., The Disposition Effect and Momentum, New York: Wiley and Sons.

J.D. Hamilton, "What is an oil shock? Journal of Econometrics, volume 113, issue 12, pages 363-398, 2008.

Index Funds: The Twelve-Step Program for Active Investors, published by IFA Publishing in Alabama in 2007.

The efficient market theory and its detractors, by B. Malkiel, Journal of Economic Perspectives, volume 17, number 1, 2003, pages 59-82.

Shiller, R., Irrational Exuberance, Princeton University Press, New York, 2005.

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Ineffective Leadership Assignment Help Sydney

Bibliography with Notes

However, L. C. Spears (2010). Character and servant leadership: Ten traits of effective, compassionate leaders. 1(1), 25-30. The Journal of Virtues & Leadership.

This article acknowledges the continuous, rapid changes in various businesses and nonprofits. The traditional authoritarian and hierarchical leadership styles are being replaced with a servant leadership model. Leaders have new chances to create relationships with their followers and coworkers through servant leadership. Leaders that exhibit servant leadership characteristics are more likely to include other stakeholders in the decision-making process. They demonstrate moral fortitude and compassion. Simultaneously, they focus on the professional and personal growth of their subordinates while developing positive and supportive organizational behaviors. This article examines eleven characteristics connected with servant leadership. These traits constitute effective leadership, and they include "listening, empathy, healing, awareness, persuasion, conceptualization, foresight, stewardship, commitment to the growth of individuals, and community building" (p. 25).

Worst Leader Ever

Many individuals are aware with the idiom, "Employees don't leave bad companies; they leave bad bosses!"

Following are the top five reasons why a certain biology instructor made the Worst Leaders Ever list. The biology instructor, who is regarded as a difficult educator, lacks basic leadership traits.

First, the instructor does not collaborate with students or peers. He has a tendency to behave autonomously and frequently views other professors as his competition. Consequently, the instructor has widened the chasm between students and their peers, whose insights and help he may need. Second, the instructor lacks passion and vigor. Several times, the teacher has referred to fresh ideas or projects as "burdens" when rejecting them. He never volunteers to accompany pupils to lectures or workshops. The biology instructor tends to adhere to his schedule and will not accept additional work for fear of being overwhelmed. Instead, he prefers that other teachers handle these responsibilities. Thirdly, the instructor has accepted his mediocre performance.

Although he has been challenged to improve his performance in experiments, delivery of results, and other areas, his instructor has tolerated his mediocre performance and always provides technical explanations for why such goals may be difficult to attain, but only to make him look good once he has achieved them. He tends to "under-promise" with the intention of exceeding expectations. Fourthly, the biology instructor rarely learns from his mistakes, nor has he mentored or developed his peers. He makes no efforts to enhance performance and finds no chances in failures. Similarly, he has a tendency to concentrate on himself, avoids questioning, and is frequently disengaged from classmates and students. Lastly, the teacher lacks the interpersonal skills necessary to interact with students effectively. He is rude, aloof, reluctant to participate in group activities, and rarely engages in normal conversation.

These practices have greatly diminished the teacher's leadership effectiveness. Behaviors and characteristics of leaders, such as directional, personality, participatory, intelligence, charisma, and even servant leadership, distinguish between effective and ineffective leadership. It was discovered that leadership effectiveness is most accurately predicted by leaders' behaviour. It is important to highlight, however, that negative qualities typically incline leaders to certain actions that can impede their leadership effectiveness. Effective leaders are more likely to demonstrate situational awareness and a focus on others rather than themselves. In addition, leaders must be diligent and amiable in order to increase their effectiveness and performance within the team. However, leaders who disdain their peers, are self-centered, and lack diligence tend to limit their leadership skills and success. The leadership outcomes of leaders should not be constrained by their behavior. Leaders should transform their peers and followers by consistently demonstrating positive habits. Leaders must provide aid to others, advocate and facilitate change in order to be effective. Without these credentials, leaders may be less effective and have a negative influence on their followers and peers.

Teachers who demonstrate passive leadership tend to underperform, and the huge discrepancies between negative leadership characteristics and performance indicate that even poor action is preferable to inaction. Therefore, leaders with limited influence due to their behaviors should take leadership development initiatives, actively engage colleagues and followers, and assume their leadership responsibilities, rather than focusing on displaying their negative behaviors that impede the development of leadership qualities.

Character qualities are the strongest predictors of leadership effectiveness, according to studies (Spears, 2010). People should be trained to grasp leadership skills and increase their effectiveness in this regard. Although it may be easier to select individuals with desirable leadership abilities, those who should be promoted must have a track record of good interpersonal skills, task comprehension, promoting change, and mentoring colleagues, among other qualifications.

The instructor exhibited essential characteristics of character that are profoundly ingrained in behavioral tendencies. In this regard, it has been essential to comprehend the nature and personalities of leaders, as well as their effects on leadership outcomes. It is considered that good leadership characteristics can be obtained through studying and teaching in a learning environment. In the realm of leadership, this adage is essential. It demonstrates that ineffective leaders can improve their character to become more effective. To increase their efficacy, leaders might acquire character traits such as "trustworthiness, respect, responsibility, fairness, compassion, and citizenship" (Spears, 2010). Because of its effects, character as a feature of leaders has become an intriguing topic in leadership.

Scholars have concentrated on the characteristics of leaders in order to comprehend the personality or habits of effective and unproductive leaders (Spears, 2010). In addition, they seek to examine those characteristics that can be altered to improve performance. In this regard, effective leaders' personality traits have been established to exemplify the concept of leadership and its associated actions. "Vision, empathy, inspiration, and trustworthiness" (Spears, 2010) have been highlighted as essential characteristics of good leaders. In fact, the majority of leadership studies tend to illustrate or presume that positive leadership traits should be fostered and cultivated. This school of thought advocates servant leadership as a reflection of leadership and character traits of leaders (Spears, 2010).

Successful leadership can be mitigated by understanding and exercising effective leadership traits. Nonetheless, it is essential to acknowledge that leadership is a crucial component of human behavior, and that several methodologies can be used to evaluate its efficacy. Various models or hypotheses exist to explain leadership in this area. In this situation involving the educator, servant leadership skills can be utilized to prevent undesirable results. It is considered that these traits can improve meaningful behaviors and guarantee leadership effectiveness.

First, listening is a crucial leadership quality. In reality, leaders have long been acknowledged for possessing this skill. No leader can be effective if they do not listen to their people. Effective communication and decision-making are enhanced by the ability to listen. Therefore, listening is a quality that leaders should strive to cultivate. A servant leader has a tendency to listen to followers and peers in order to determine the optimal answers. Leaders must learn to listen attentively, deliberate, and then make a final determination.

A good leader should also strive to understand and empathize with followers. Followers require leaders who are able to recognize their special and unique qualities. The only way for leaders to be effective is if they have empathy for others, as they must be able to recognize followers' good intentions as indicated by their behaviors and actions.

Third, leaders should have self-awareness and a broad perspective. Leadership awareness aids leaders in understanding concerns pertaining to ethics, authority, and values. It ensures that leaders have a comprehensive understanding of issues. A good leader must demonstrate the necessity to behave rationally and not seek comfort.

Fourthly, an effective leader must possess persuasive abilities. The decision-making process should be governed by persuasion rather than coercion. A leader should seek to persuade followers with evidence rather than force them to comply. This characteristic illustrates the distinction between traditional authoritarian leadership and servant leadership (Spears, 2010). A competent leader must always seek consensus among his or her followers. As a leadership characteristic, persuasion should alter a leader's coercive tendencies.

Fifthly, leaders must be able to comprehend or envision the larger picture. Leaders should demonstrate their capacity to pursue ambitious goals. They must think beyond the day-to-day operations of a business and see the future. Conceptualization requires dedication and practice from leaders. In this situation, leaders focus on creating and attaining long-term objectives rather than short-term ones. For a servant leader to achieve long-term success, it is essential to gain a greater understanding of concepts and to see the future of the firm. In any organization, those who conceptualize ideas are primarily the most senior leaders. However, these top executives may have additional responsibilities inside an organization, such as overseeing everyday operations. In this way, they may fail to provide their organizations with visionary insights. This is a circumstance that organizations should not foster. Therefore, senior leaders should concentrate on defining vision for their firms, while staff should handle operational tasks. This is a delicate balance, particularly for businesses with limited personnel. On this note, servant leaders can ensure a balance between the competing needs of defining a vision and participating in the company's everyday operations.

Sixth, leadership foresight is intimately related to conceptualization. Leaders should possess talents in foresight. They can predict outcomes in challenging conditions. In order to comprehend foresight, leaders can experience it. They can apply lessons learnt in the past to comprehend current conditions and the most likely future results of their actions (Spears, 2010). A leader's intuitive thinking is responsible for foresight. However, foresight has not been extensively studied by leadership researchers.

Seventh, leaders should exhibit stewardship characteristics. This is an opportunity to have faith in an organization. Leaders, employees, and other stakeholders should have confidence in organizations for the good of stakeholders and society. As with stewardship, servant leadership focuses on serving others rather than oneself. These leaders promote transparency and continuous involvement in order to account for the requirements of all stakeholders.

Seventh, a leader must exhibit dedication to the growth of followers. In general, individuals are distinguished by their unique intrinsic qualities rather than their outstanding performances in roles. Such ideals should be recognized by leaders. As a result, a good leader must demonstrate dedication to developing followers inside a company. Leaders should be responsible for fostering and cultivating distinctive talents in their teams. In most cases, employee development and growth may involve training and development, the supply of finances for professional and personal growth, the inclusion of others in decision-making processes, and the promotion of other employees.

The instance of the biology teacher indicates that stakeholder input is crucial for proving leadership success. In an organizational structure, leaders must serve the multiple interests of stakeholders and, as a result, they must develop the ability to meet all of these unique requirements. All of these distinct interests demonstrate that leadership performance involves a variety of factors, including those related with the leader's team, peers, and external stakeholders.

It is necessary to identify the most effective leadership techniques based on the expected outcomes in crucial areas where leaders are involved. The purpose of leadership should be to influence followers. Nevertheless, it is essential to note that leadership is distinct from other techniques such as administration and supervision. Thus, it is inappropriate to simply refer to any technique as leadership. To achieve their objectives or influence their peers, leaders must rely on consensus-based methods. This is a collaborative strategy, thus it is not coercive. However, limitations may be encountered.

It is essential to watch or measure the efficacy of leadership. Certain behaviors should always be observed by leaders and followers in order to establish leadership effectiveness. It is essential to have a distinct plan and vision for achieving company objectives. In addition, the efficacy of leaders can be measured by the amount to which they assist their teams or individuals in achieving their objectives. Leaders are responsible for strengthening the connection between peers and coworkers, fostering teamwork, and encouraging efficiency. Excellence in leadership should be represented in all aspects of evaluations.

The conclusion of the essay was on the worst leader in history. The biology instructor was utilized to illustrate this scenario. Certain actions are demonstrated to hinder leadership effectiveness and have negative effects on followers and coworkers. To prevent such unfavorable results in leaders and to assure leadership effectiveness through their actions, servant leadership attributes were utilized. Leadership effectiveness can only be achieved when leaders recognize their positions and accept the challenges necessary to improve their organizations and positively influence their stakeholders. Existing leadership theories and models demonstrate that leadership may be explored from multiple perspectives. However, leaders must accommodate the unique needs of a variety of stakeholders while pursuing corporate objectives. Consequently, it appears that behaviors are the most fundamental predictors of leadership performance. Leadership characteristics may be innate, but leaders can learn and improve these characteristics via practice. Learning and practice provide opportunities for leaders to develop their leadership effectiveness and move out of the Worst Leader Ever List. Leadership effectiveness perhaps can be demonstrated through the strong positive relationship between stakeholders and their leaders, and the result can be shown through effective partnership among all stakeholders.

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Human Resource Management And Organisational Dynamics Assignment Help Sydney

Introduction

As competition intensifies in the marketplace, organizations across the globe are increasingly undergoing profound structural and operational shifts. Despite the fact that some of the changes are fundamental and long overdue, there are significant hazards associated with them, including decreased productivity, increased healthcare costs, low morale, and low levels of job satisfaction. As firms alter their strategy to remain competitive, the Human Resources Management (HRM) function in organizations frequently faces formidable obstacles. This is because HRM is central to the management of organizations' complex change processes (Caroline 2007). The purpose of this paper is to discuss how various organizational development theories and Human Resource strategies can be used to effectively implement change in a company.

In many competitive firms, organizational reform is essential for achieving long-term success. Managers have understood that they must continuously realign the processes and systems of the organizations they oversee in order to make them more efficient. What is organizational change, though? According to McNamara (2008), organizational transformation occurs when organizations progress through several life cycles in the same manner as individuals move through various life stages. When businesses shift their nature of operations, their overall strategies for success, or when they add or remove significant sections of their business practices, they undergo significant organizational transformation (Change Management, 2008). Managers and leaders frequently pioneer organizational transformation, and they must exert tremendous effort to implement the desired changes. Some leaders consistently struggle and fail to implement the necessary organizational transformation, whereas others are adept at this endeavor. At the center of all of this is the Human Resource function, which is tasked with managing the very individuals charged with achieving the desired organizational changes. Human Resource management is fundamental to the success or failure of any proposed organizational change.

Causes and characteristics of organisational change

When challenged with certain circumstances, organizations adapt similarly to individuals. The hospitality business, for instance, has been compelled to alter its operations due to technological advancements. A traveler may now book a flight, hotel, accomodation, and meals with a single mouse click. The hotel business, in particular, was profoundly impacted by internet booking, to the point where it altered its operational procedures (Rathore 2006). Organizations must continually undergo the process of change in order to bring their processes and systems in line with prevalent internal and external influences.

Both organizational development and organizational change contribute to an organization's increased effectiveness. Organizational development, sometimes known as OD, is an organization-wide, top-down, organized endeavor focused at enhancing an organization's health and effectiveness (McNamara, 2008). Consequently, organizational change and organizational development are both sophisticated organizational strategies that try to modify the beliefs, attitudes, structures, and values of an organization so that it can adapt to new markets, technologies, and problems. Both require organizational introspection, self-analysis, self-improvement planning, and planning. Change within an organization can take various forms. Changes in an organization's size, culture, or structure may occur. The nature of such changes can frequently result in modifications to the decision-making process, organizational structure, leadership, or day-to-day operations of staff (Bolognese, 2002). For instance, the Kenyan hospitality industry saw enormous layoffs as a result of the political unrest that followed the 2007 presidential elections. This alteration in size and composition was precipitated by an external political cause.

In the contemporary business environment, numerous causes are believed to need organizational reform. Such variables include government laws, technological advancement, and globalization. According to the PESTLE business analysis model, organizational change can be triggered by political, economic, social, technical, and environmental factors (Change Management 2008). Customers, rivals, and markets are other possible reasons of organizational change, particularly in the hospitality business. Tough rivalry among tour operators, for instance, has compelled the industry to develop customer-tailored goods that have altered the way enterprises operate. Change can originate from specific departments, employees, and labor unions within the corporation.

In this study, Lewin's Change Process model is utilized to better characterize the change process. It involves three stages: the unfreezing phase, the new level, and the refreezing phase (Caroline 2007). In the initial phase, present organizational objectives must be deemed unfavorable and, therefore, inappropriate. In a modern corporate context, a manual booking method employed by a hotel will be deemed inappropriate if tourists buy their accommodations online. The second phase, known as the new level, is characterized by the quest for and establishment of new behaviors. Referring back to my previous example, this will involve hotel management and other key stakeholders shopping for internet business solutions. This may necessitate the purchase of software packages such as Galileo, the training of personnel, and the modification of processes and systems to make optimal use of the software package. Internalizing the new behaviors and making them the norm inside the company constitutes the last phase. The affected organization must completely institutionalize and internalize the change process in order to achieve the desired organizational success. If such a model is employed to manage the transition process, success is assured. In addition to the Burnes and Griner models, the Burnes model for organizational change and the Griner model can be utilized to guide the change process to its successful conclusion.

Human Resource conceptualization and strategy in effecting organizational transformation

The human resource function has faced an increasing number of obstacles in defending its existence and standing inside enterprises. According to Caroline (2007), the purpose of human resource management (HRM) is to assist a business in accomplishing its stated goals and objectives through the efficient utilization of its people. Incontrovertibly, organizational strategy is the foundation of any human resource strategy. Consequently, the human resource strategy and formulation must be defined by the senior management team of the organization, led by the HR manager. However, personnel assigned to the HR department and all line managers must have a thorough understanding of the human resource strategy, as they are directly accountable for its implementation (Cummins & Christopher 2005).

The term strategy is linked with long-term planning in the twenty-first century. Therefore, the objective of the human resource strategy is to foresee how the human capacity of the business might be maximized or made more productive. According to Tyson (1995), HR strategy refers to an organization's intentions towards the management of its human capital, as expressed through HR practices, policies, and philosophy. Mintzberg (1994) contends that any strategy must be shaped by events as opposed to systematic calculations. According to this paradigm, any organizational strategy must emphasize the significance of employees. Organizations rely on their employees to decrease costs, manage resources, and optimize profits.

Any organization can effectively achieve organizational change through HR strategy and formulation.

A effective human resource strategy must present a compelling business case for connecting the company plan with the people and the organization (Dunphy, Griffiths, & Benns 2007). It must be capable of gaining the attention of management and establishing the fundamental commitment to provide the necessary resources and assistance for change implementation. The human resource strategy must generate discontent with the current state of affairs and a heightened feeling of urgency and organizational change preparedness. For the change process to be successfully implemented, the human resource strategy must identify the activities and goals necessary for organizations to achieve competitive advantage through effective management of people.

People and organization difficulties are directly linked to specific business objectives, which are determined from important business success elements and the forces that drive the business, according to the fit model. For a human resource strategy to effectively drive the process of change in an organization, it must be consistent with the business strategy, address the essential combination of relevant human resource and organizational management practices, be able to effectively define the required changes to employees, and take a universal management perspective to ensure that all actions taken effectively address the challenges posed by the impending change (Action Research, 2008). It must be able to contribute innovations and ground-breaking ideas to the process of change and enable the business to differentiate itself in an increasingly competitive market. Additionally, a human resource strategy intended to bring about organizational change must be able to give value to the change process, so lowering the inevitable resistance from employees. In addition to being able to provide solutions that help firms to grow, it must also contribute to the value chain that ensures customer retention and happiness (McNamara 2008). Above all, it must be effective in assisting managers to regulate and manage the expectedly turbulent and rapid change process.

Conflict, power, and politics in organizational reform

Power is typically defined as the capacity of a department or individual to exert influence over other individuals to bring about desired organizational changes. It is the capacity to influence other persons inside an organization with the specific goal of obtaining the power holders' desired outcomes. According to Mcshane (2004), politics in an organization refers to behaviors that other persons perceive as self-serving techniques designed for personal gain at the expense of the organization and other individuals. According to Sarah (1999), conflict is a natural consequence of the close connection of persons who have distinct values and viewpoints, pursue different goals, and have unequal access to organizational resources and knowledge.

People are known to use politics and power to manage their differences inside an organization, thereby reducing conflict. Consequently, the dynamics of power, politics, and conflict must be addressed for any organizational transformation to be successful. These three aspects of organizational and social life are indisputable. Any manager faces the issue of maximizing organizational change while minimizing resistance to the change through efficient utilization of these elements (Bolognese, 2002). In this situation, corporate managers can use both the logical model and the political model to assure the success of the transition process. The Rational model requires all stakeholders in an organization to align their aims in order to achieve some sort of pooling interdependence, maximize resources, and decrease differentiation. The political model presupposes that conflict and discord are typical in every organization, and that they bring the influence and power that are important to enact the desired reforms. In the majority of firms, both models are utilized to implement change because they help employees align their company objectives, hence minimizing resistance to the change factors (McNamara, 2008).

Leadership strategies and employee participation in organisational change

Leadership is a vital component of Human resource administration. It is the process by which an individual is bestowed with the ability to influence others to achieve predetermined goals (McNamara 2008). Additionally, leadership is a process through which an individual guides an organization in a way that makes it more coherent, cohesive, and progressive. Through their leadership qualities, attitudes, beliefs, abilities, knowledge, and character, leaders are tasked with pioneering organizational change. For the process to be successful, the organization's leadership must first attempt to comprehend what the proposed change entails and communicate this information to the workforce.

McNamara (2008) argues in Transformational Leadership Theory that leadership roles are learnt, and hence individuals can learn the necessary roles to become leaders. The notion asserts that individuals observe their leaders' actions to determine who they truly are, and then decide whether or not to follow their directions. Observation alone can inform employees whether their leader is self-serving or trustworthy and honorable. The hypothesis posits that self-interested leaders are less effective in spearheading the change process because employees would just obey their change policies rather than adopt them. In order for the process of change to be successful, the leadership of any company must have a noble character and the ability to command respect from those lower on the organizational hierarchy. To effectively oversee the process of organizational transformation, leaders must be ethical and possess a strong sense of direction based on a compelling vision for the future.

Employee participation is complementary to leadership strategies. Many organizational changes without employee participation are doomed to fail. In this regard, many firms involve their staff in various phases of the transition process. In certain firms, employees are involved in the writing stages of a change, whereas in others, they are only involved in the implementation phase (McNamara, 2008). Research has shown that firms that involve their employees in the beginning stages of the change process are frequently more successful at steering the process than those who just involve their employees during the implementation phase. However, employee participation is critical to the success of the organizational change process. It is the responsibility of senior managers, particularly in Human Resource Management, to involve employees in the process of change by soliciting their ideas, concerns, fears, and anticipated advantages. This can be accomplished through meetings, conferences, and internal memoranda. Therefore, the organization's human resource function must develop management tactics that will promote employee commitment and involvement in performance management and organizational objectives (Caroline, 2007). This will make employees more adaptable to the transition process, hence decreasing opposition to the planned organizational change.

Corporate social responsibility and organizational transformation

Organizations exist to assist the external environment's individuals. To make this ecosystem significantly more sustainable, a coalition between citizens, governments, and organizations must exist. For any process of change to be successful, stakeholders, particularly human resource managers, must address concerns of ecological sustainability and Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR) in an efficient manner (Dunphy, Griffiths, & Benn, 2007). For managers, any organizational change must prioritize attaining and sustaining a competitive advantage over rivals, while simultaneously empowering communities and consumers to prosper and expand.

Generally speaking, organizational changes are successful when business managers are compelled to consider the interests of their employees, customers, communities, shareholders, and the environment in general. For organizational change to be effective, managers must also consider the environmental and social implications of the change processes they aim to implement. Successful corporations have incorporated corporate social responsibility into essential business processes, such as change processes. In this aspect, environmental and societal challenges must be incorporated into sound business strategy for any organization's change process to be effective. Any organization's responsible competitiveness must be related to its CSR initiatives, particularly in corporate philanthropy (Dunphy, Griffiths, & Benn, 2007).

Managers, particularly those in Human Resource management, must recognize that they do business in a setting shaped by environmental, social, ecological, and human elements. To be successful, every intentional process of change must take into account the aforementioned variables. CSR has a significant impact on the hotel business due to its focus on providing services to the public. Any action in the hotel industry that affects the environment is heavily punished by the public's refusal to utilize such a facility, effectively reducing sales revenues (Rathore, 2006). This is supported by the fact that hotels that encourage game hunting are punished harshly in nations that oppose the practice. Prior to introducing game hunting in such countries, a hotel must do a thorough examination of the environmental restrictions.

In conclusion, McNamara (2008) defines organizational change as a process encompassing extensive organizational changes, as opposed to minute changes such as employing a new employee. Elements of organizational transformation include restructuring operations, the introduction of new technology, large collaborations, rightsizing or downsizing, and the implementation of Total Quality Management initiatives. In many cases, organizational change is prompted by external influences, such as the need for large productivity increases, funding cuts, or the requirement to handle major new clients or markets. In this regard, leadership styles, employee participation, corporate social responsibility, the nature and reasons of organizational change, HR strategy and implementation, and power influences are significant elements in determining the success or failure of any targeted organizational change.

References

Action Research: The Process of Action Research CTE John Hopkins University in 2008. Bolognese, A.F 2002. Resistance of employees to organizational change. Web. Caroline, P.S. 2007. Conditions for Effective HR Strategy. IT personnel Cummins, T.G., and Christopher, G.W. (2005). Organizational Change and Development. Change Management, Organizational Development, and Culture from Thomson South-Western. About.com was first established in 2008. Web. Dunphy, G., Griffiths, A. & Benns, S 2007. Future leaders and agents of change will study Organizational Change for Corporate Sustainability. ISBN: 9780415393300 Taylor & Francis, Inc. Carter McNamara, 2008, The Field of Organization Development (OD). Free Administration Library. Free Management Library. Web. McNamara Carter (2008). Organizational Change and Development. McNamara, Carter Free Management Library. Web. 2008. Basic Context for Organizational Change. Rathore, M. 2006. Leading Change in the Dynamic Hospitality Sector. Sarah, M.N 1999. What Constitutes a Superior Human Resource Strategy? Web.

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Analysis Of The Commercial Bank Of Ceylon Plc. Assignment Help Sydney

Introduction

This report's primary objective is to collect information about the Commercial Bank of Ceylon Plc. These statistics are collected from both primary and secondary sources. There are Qualitative Analysis, Quantitative Analysis, and Content Analysis included in the analysis data.

Principal text

The report contains interviews conducted at various levels of bank management. These include the Top Management, Frontline Management, customers, and administrative personnel.

Qualitative, quantitative, and content analysis are applied to data. Comparative Evaluation

Between Qualitative Research and Quantitative Research, there are differences. Qualitative Researches are ones comprised of numerical data and closed-ended questionnaire questions, in which the respondent is not permitted to express his or her opinions or provide suggestions. It occasionally employs multiple direct quotations, and respondents should answer the question they believe to be correct. This refers to the process of interpreting qualitative research findings. (Data analysis: a definition of qualitative analysis, 2007)

Quantitative Evaluation

Quantitative Analysis generalizes data from a small sample of populations to represent the entire nation or state. These are the data utilized to examine a state-wide investigation or study. "A quantitative analysis does identify fundamental truths, but it does not necessarily provide a detailed description of a subject." (2010). (Harris, 2010).

Primarily, there are two sorts of data sources: Primary Data Sources and Secondary Data Sources. The Primary Data Sources include of interviews with bank employees, moderators, mediators, clerks, and consumers. Visual data, including films and documents, is yet another sort of primary data.

Secondary Data is a sort of Quantitative Analysis of data that contains information from journals and other media archives. Quantitative Research is the systematic examination and analysis of quantitative data. The quantitative technique is based on the application of mathematical and statistical models and the evaluation of hypotheses. The book Quantitative Approaches for Decision Makers assists us via a comprehensive grasp of the role and application of quantitative techniques in effective administration and administrative decision-making. The quantitative link is the most important connection between empirical approaches and mathematical analysis.

Content Evaluation

It is any description that provides information about the interviews, observations, and other data collection methods. "Content analysis is a way for summarizing any type of content by enumerating its numerous components. This allows for a more objective review than comparing content based on a listener's impressions. An impressionistic synopsis of a television program, for instance, is not content analysis. Neither is a book review: it is an assessment. (List 2005).

There are two primary categories of content study: conceptual and relational. Conceptual analysis facilitates the survival and appearance of ideas in a text. They utilize the data collected from earlier research. Conceptual analysis necessitates the use of particular dictionaries for enhanced comprehension of the instance it describes. It also conveys the breadth and depth of the subject the data addresses. Relational research builds upon conceptual study by studying the content-based relationships between ideas. Its primary benefit is that it contains a great deal of statistical information and is therefore extremely useful.

Cognitive Mapping.

(Cognitive Mapping of the various organizational functions)

Cognitive Mapping can serve a variety of objectives.

It is a process utilized for the design, investigation, and creation of troubled account logic. Cognitive Mapping has shown its utility for operational investigators to carry out a variety of obligations through its submission. These responsibilities include assisting with the structure of messy or complex material for problem-solving, facilitating the interview process by enhancing comprehension and developing interview agendas, and handling vast quantities of qualitative data extracted from documents. (Ackermann, Eden & Cropper 1996).

In order to purchase a product or service, consumer behavior involves both simple and complicated mental processes. The sellers are unable to fully comprehend the customers' personalities. A great deal of research, analysis, and contemplation regarding customers are required to comprehend this concept. The three components of Emotional, Conative, and Cognitive influence the buyer's behavior and the elements that influence the purchase. Emotional relates to the buyer's attitude or feelings toward the service. Cognitive refers to a perceptive, psychological view of the service. Cognitive relates to the procedures and acts required to get a service.

Delphi Method

During the questionnaire session with selected respondents, the Delphi Method is utilized to get a conclusion on the subject. The primary objective is to develop two or three rounds of interactive forecasting algorithms that are selective and systematic. It is thought that at the conclusion of each round, the facilitator offers an unidentified review of what transpired in previous sessions. On the basis of this information, members modify their viewpoints to conform to the overall consensus, thereby bolstering group efforts. A consensus decision that may be acceptable by everybody is reached. Thus, the primary objective of the Delphi Method is to seek compromises on contentious subjects that required its employment in the first place.

Decision Diagrams

Decision Tree logarithms are an analytical form that employs graphically arranged data regarding possible alternatives, penalties, and final evaluation. Additionally, it utilizes exercise for planning possibilities and information extraction. Decision Trees also employ a judgment between multiple activities. It provides a diagram representing a variety of risks, benefits, and potential implications for each option. "Decision Trees are helpful tools for choosing between multiple courses of action. They give a highly effective framework for exploring options and investigating the potential implications of selecting those options." (2010, Decision tree analysis)

Decision Trees for Data Analysis

Do you believe banks offer competitive interest rates? Level 1

Customers

29 Yes 21 No

Why deal directly with customers? Level 2

Customers

35 Quality services 13 Stability 2 meaningless

important aspect of bank Level 3

Customers

50 reputable

In ten years, will the bank be competitive? Level 4

Customers

40 Yes 02 No 08 Uncertain

Level 5 Critical bank variables

Clerical staff

40 possibilities for expansion 30 equal opportunity

Customers

50 jump in deposit interest

Front line managers

It must ensure a level playing field

Level 6 What the client desires from the bank.

Customers

50 customized client service

What are the most typical complaints at Level 7?

Clerical staff Additional tellers at the counter Front line managers Technical issue during the transaction

Are customers satisfied with Level 8 service?

Clerical staff

45 Yes 20 No 5 yes & no

Front line managers

20 Yes 5 No

Do you like the Level 9 bank's customer service?

Customers

35 Yes 10 may be enhanced 5 No

Which 1-10 scale do you assign to bank Level 10?

Customers

Scale 8 – 32 Scale 6 – 10 Scale 4 – 8

Level 11 Whether the bank has a large variety of products, consider switching to a different bank.

Customers

Yes, 35 years ago. No – 15 Unmovable – 40 It depends – 10

Utilizing Linear Programming to Analyze Data

The Linear Programming examination of data evaluates its quality and usefulness. Additionally, diverse knowledge is offered that determines the data's features. These are used by corporations to determine criteria based on the business's various values. This knowledge also incorporates essential values. This provides customers with a better understanding of the firm. The study also identifies various decision-making functions. The linear programming method produces a more accurate classification. The primary downside is that it reduces the system's speed inconsistently. It is based on the data warehousing technique.

Conclusion

This study describes various approaches for locating data at the Commercial Bank of Ceylon. Included are crucial details that will assist the bank in determining the optimum criteria for the consumer. These data are crucial for providing information about the current state of the Bank and whether or not its customers are satisfied. By inquiring about the outcomes of these strategies, the bank is able to examine consumer wants in order to satisfy them. The paper also discusses decision-making strategies, such as linear programming, which assist firms in identifying their most pressing problems.

Bibliography

Ackermann, F., Eden, C & Cropper, S., 1996. How to get started with cognitive mapping. Web-based Banxia Decision Explorer.

Data analysis: a definition of qualitative analysis, 2007. Bristol's University of the West of England. Web.

2010 decision tree analysis Mind Tools. Web.

2010 D.C. Harris. Quantitative analysis. Analytical Chemistry Journal.

List, D., 2005. Knowing your audience: a content analysis of Chapter 16 Web.

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“Where Do You See Yourself In The Next 5 Years?” Assignment Help Sydney

In the next five years I would like to see myself in an HR manager role for a well-known international corporate company. My current position is an administration manager for a private care home and involves using complex computerised systems to input residents and employee’s details to keep a record of everything and update information when needed as well as a logging in and logging out using a hand print scan system to generate the payroll system at the end of each month. I am still adapting to new rules of the game as I started at the end of January this year so the process of learning is crucial for me during this new period.

My role involves a variety of different tasks for instance making sure all policies and procedures are adhered to assisting the home manager maintain a good CQC (Care Quality Control) rating within the sector and ensuring requirements to health and safety, local authority, environmental and other regulatory bodies are adhered to as well as managing people and delegating tasks efficiently to other staff members. Communication is a huge factor in the role so I could say that is one of my strength’s when relating it to the SWOT analysis.

There are several skills I require to improve and develop throughout my educational and professional career timeline and this is one of my main reasons I have created a SWOT analysis to demonstrate clearly what my current strengths, weaknesses, opportunities and threats are (see appendix 2). MY CDP plan will help me eliminate my weaknesses and improve my abilities to succeed towards my SMART goals as well as achieve my long term goals of becoming an HR manager in addition to becoming an associate of the CIPD.

I have set ‘.. SMART goals to work towards improving myself and increase my HR knowledge making sure I apply Kolb’s theory of setting the task, doing it then reflecting back on the different tasks to see if I have improve or how I could improve next time I have to carry out the same procedure.

During one of the lectures I took part in a learning and styles Questionnaire taken from Honey & Mumford the results showed that I am a reflector learner highlighting that my most preferred learning style involves appreciating time to think about things, collecting data, thinking before giving a conclusion, keeping a low profile during meetings, reflecting back on real life work situations I can agree that it is accurate as this is why one of my smart goals is to improve my assertiveness when it comes to attending meetings as well as delegating tasks to others. My most preferred learning style could also be an addition to the strengths box in my personal SWOT analysis (appendix 2). The questionnaire also showed that my least preferred learning style is the activist learner who likes to try anything once, becomes bored easily is extrovert, not sceptical and useful to have in teams this is certainly an area I can improve in and apply during work practices for instance trying a different method of doing the end of week reports or being more extrovert during staff meetings.

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Universal healthcare nursing essay help

Universal healthcare it is a primary right or a privilege, It has many flaws in various countries and limited access to outrages expenses in MRI’s, long awaiting periods for surgical procedures. Many people have their care delayed and their medical condition gets much worse and can no longer receive treatment. In Germany healthcare is higher in taxes and have no problems receiving medical care. The French claim their salary is way lower as an employer and are required to pay in order to have national healthcare system and their care needed is always available. The American Journal of Public health confirms that 45,000 people die each year in the United States because of no Health Insurance. Yes, we have a right to healthcare.

Universal healthcare goal is to have people live in better health and protect from over charged care for medical hardships with billing. The uninsured are the main ones, who need Universal healthcare. People who make too, much money from working don’t qualify for Medicaid and end up with financial hardship and aren’t able to get the care needed for their health. The common issue for all universal healthcare programs is they need some form of government connection. The law determines what type of care is available and how the coverage will be paid. Many people choose to support the system known as a single payer health insurance. It’s when the government funds the healthcare and does not supply the care, Just like Medicare and Medicaid.

The poor people can’t afford healthcare and live in much worse environments and have more medical problems. We as Citizens of the United States have rights to Healthcare and our health is jeopardized by not being able to pay for insurance. People who work are struggling to pay for healthcare and have health conditions that need medical attention. Due to lack of work for health issue some people lose their jobs and are forced to file bankruptcy. This is why poor people are struggling in the economy and are forced to live in bad health. The right to healthcare should be a civil right. People should not be categorized by their illness and have financial problems paying for their medical treatments. Americans that are poor have bad health and one doctor visit can diagnose their condition before it leads to death.

Therefore, I am for our rights to have universal healthcare for people who need it and can’t afford insurance. This coverage will not only save peoples life and help us get out of debt with medical bills over charging major countries. It is funded through taxation and every day, we people could use this form of coverage I support the government in helping us as the economy to live healthier and longer with better care from universal healthcare coverage.

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Implementing Swifinet college essay help service

ABSTRACT

Use of wireless sensor networks (WSN) has resulted in many revolutionary changes in human life. WSN has gain significant concentration from scientist and end users. ‘SWiFiNet’ is task distributed reusable system architecture. In this architecture complex functionality has been transfer to the second tire devices of the system. Second tire devices are provided with more resources. ‘SWiFiNet’ satisfy the desire architecture of the WSN. This paper aims to analyze various reusable wireless sensor networks and concept related to ‘SWiFiNet’. And it provides the existing architecture of ‘SWiFiNet’ and also the functionality of the component of the reusable network architecture. This paper also provides idea about the proposed ‘SWiFiNet’ which will be developed on IEEE 802.15.4 MAC/PHY layer which will be having more advantages over its counterparts.

Keywords:- WSN, SWiFiNet, Reusable architecture.

I. INTRODUCTION:

Use of wireless network is increasing in every field, day by day. WSN is extensively use where wired network cannot be deployed or is expensive to deploy. WSN opens many ways for research community to further enhance wireless communication efficiency and productivity. Many protocols and algorithms has been developed to addressed many kind of issues related to WSN. But most of these protocols and algorithms concentrate on routing, energy efficiency, reliability and congestion control.

No more research is done on creating some integrated network architecture that will make the implementation of any WSN application easy. It means to make the components of the WSN system reusable. The main focus of WSN is on creating more and more efficient wireless interfaces. The wireless sensor network generally developed for specific work. These work include climate reporting, military applications, fuel level indicator and many more. While creating such system one has to start from the scratch and it becomes burdensome.

So, for all these difficulties, one solution is to create reusable WSN framework. This kind of framework is developed in ‘SWiFiNet’. It is a task distributed System Architecture for WSN.

This paper provides overview of ‘SWiFiNet’ and reusable architecture for WSN. In first section provided introduction about WSN and ‘SWiFiNet’. Second section provides related work regarding task distributed network architecture. Third section provides design goals of reusable architecture. Fourth section provides WSN architecture along with ‘SWiFiNet’ architecture comparison. Fifth and last part concludes the paper.

II. RELATED WORK

There has been attempts to make hierarchical task distributed reusable wireless sensor network architecture. Most of such proposals were developed using 802.11. The different applications related to reusable WSN architecture is as follows:-

ART wise gateway architecture was presented by Leel et al [4]. The architecture is two tire architecture. Tier one uses IEEE 802.15.4 and tire two uses 802.11. Linfeng develop Environmental adaptive Architecture model for wireless sensor network [5]. It was two tire architecture. The second tire was capable of adding number of nodes without affecting two tire architecture. ANGLE [5] architecture was develop for the health care applications. In this application authors claims that it can be reused for any other application.

Open and reconfigurable wireless sensor network has been proposed by Triantafyllidis. It was developed for pervasive health monitoring. Its main emphasis was on easy extension with additional sensor functionality. ZUMA [6] was developed for centralize smart phone platform which will interconnects all kinds of smart phone devices.

The ReWINS [3] research initiative is an attempt to advance such an end-to-end solution with support for incremental arrangement through a transparent lower layer implementation and control architecture and a user-friendly application interface.

Wireless Integrated Network Sensors or the WINS [7] project and NIMS project at University of California, Los Angeles is about ad-hoc wireless sensor network research dealing mainly with constructing micro-electronic mechanical sensors (MEMS) [8], effective circuit design, and design of self-organizing wireless network architecture. Though these projects have been successful in demonstrating a network of self-organized sensor wireless nodes, they seem to have a bias towards environmental and military applications. Also they use proprietary RF communication technology and hence the solutions are limiting for wide scale deployments in industries.

Motes and Smart Dust project [9] at University of California, Berkeley involved creating particularly low-cost micro-sensors, which can be suspended in air, buoyed by currents. Crossbow Inc. has commercialized the conclusion of this project. Here again the solution is limiting, as exclusive communication technologies have been used to achieve inter-device communication. Further, the focus has been on development of sensors and their communication rather than how the sensors will be integrated to form systems. This is generally termed as the ‘bottom-up’ approach, which may not be suitable for building complex systems.

Pico-Radio [10] ‘ A group headed by Jan Rabaey at University of California, Berkeley is trying to build an integrated wireless application interface called Sensor Network Service Platform. An attempt is to develop an interface that will abstract the sensor network and make it transparent to the application layer. A introductory draft describing the application interface has been recently released. They believe in a ‘top down approach’ (from control to sensor nodes) for building sensor networks which is probably more suitable for building complex systems.

Recently, there have been several work initiatives like TinyDB [11], Cornell’s Cougar etc. to develop a declarative SQL-like language to query sensors and define certain standard query services. Here the employment is sensor-interface specific and not a general or abstracted sensor networking platform. These query services can be implemented with ease on top of our (developed) wireless interface and sensor networking platform and can be made generic by extending them for other sensors.

Other research initiatives in this field include MIT’s ??AMPS, Columbia University’s INSIGNIA, Rice University’s Monarch. Though there have been a lot of research efforts in developing ad-hoc wireless networks, the focus has been on developing smart wireless sensor interfaces and not much attention has been paid to the actual application integration. Typical approach has been to develop powerful smart wireless interfaces, which supports the important features/requirements for a particular class of applications (like military, environment sensing or more focused applications like fuel-level control in automobiles). The result is a number of wireless interfaces appropriate for a certain class of application; but almost no interoperability between them. We believe that the deployment of wireless infrastructure in industries will occur in incremental stages and thus interoperability (between different sensor-networks) and extendibility (according to application needs) will form the basic requirements of any prospective solution. A prospective good solution would be an end-to-end solution, which is modular and extendable.

All of the above applications were the forward steps towards the making of reusable network architecture. From the comparison of the above all network architecture, it is clear that user of hierarchical network give advantage over flat network. And three tire architecture is also better for reusable WSN architecture.

EXISTING SYSTEM:-

‘SWiFiNet’ [1] is task distributed and reusable component architecture. The task layer hierarchical model of ‘SWiFiNet’ is as shown in the given figure. It follows hierarchical architecture comprising of Master node, router node and sensor node. The base layer is 802.15.4 MAC/PHY layer.

Table 1. Comparison between different reusable wireless sensor network applications

Sr. No Application/Project Purpose of Application/Project Limitations

1 ART gateway architecture To develop Hierarchical two tire architecture each tire having different base MAC/PHY The system is more complex due to different protocol in each layer.

2 EAWNA To develop tire two in such a way that adding more sensor dose no affect the architecture The focus is given more on second tire of architecture.

3 ANGEL For health care application. Claimed to be reusable Reusable for specific health care application

4 ReWins To develop such an end-to-end solution The main focus is given on industrial scenarios.

5 Wireless Integrated Network Sensor Building efficient circuit design, and design of self-organizing wireless network architecture These project seems to have bias towards environmental and military application

6 Motes and smart dust project Creating low cost micro sensor which can suspended in air The focus is on sensors rather how they will be integrated

7 Pico-Radio To make sensor network transparent to application layer Suitable for building complex systems only

8 TinyDB To develop declarative SQL-like language to query sensor Not a generic or abstracted sensor networking platform

.

The upper layer to this layer is DLL task layer. All the network communication is controlled by this layer. The functionality of different device component of the architecture is as given below:

Sensor node: The task of sensor node is restricted to sensing background and connecting the neighboring nodes or the master node. When the packet is handed over to any parent node, then it is the responsibility of the parent node to transfer the packet to the master node. In this node’s layer architecture, the network layer will have the addresses of the parent devices. It will be stored in the table. Two types of addresses are present in the table. First one is primary parent address and the other is secondary parent address. If primary address parent is not available then secondary parent address will be try by the node.

If network layer don’t contain any table then a ‘Hello’ packet request is broadcast into the network. Then the neighboring device will issue the join request. The join request will be accepted if the device meets LQI threshold criteria.

Router Node: – Router nodes are come in use when sensor nodes are not in the range of Master Node. Clustering is also possible using router node. In ‘SWiFiNet’ distributed architecture the functionality of the router node increased remarkably. The complex implementation of any application or protocol will be deployed on the second tire devices. The router node network layer also maintains the table containing entries of the parent devices to the router node. It can be router node again or router will send the information directly to the master node. Router nodes will generate join request if they receive hello packet request from any sensor node.

Master node: The complete topology information of the network is maintain by the master node. When there is queried transmission model, master node will generate query and send it in the network. Whenever the routing tables are updated in end nodes or router nodes will send the information to the master node.

Sensor node Router Node Master Node

Fig 1. Distributed architecture of ‘SWiFiNet’

III. PROPOSED MODEL:

The ‘SWiFiNet’ model developed [1] is successfully implemented on the hardware as the architecture of the ‘SWiFiNet’ is defined. But ns-2 simulation of ‘SWiFiNet’ is based on 802.11a. As the basic idea of MAC/PHY layer is to have 802.15.4 which will work more efficiently on the ‘SWiFiNet’ architecture. The architectural diagram [1] is as shown below:-

In many of the sensor network architecture the sensor nodes are based on the 802.11a, but in ‘SWiFiNet’ MAC/PHY layer is based on 802.15.4. It is having low bandwidth comparative to the 802.11a. As the ns-2 modulation of the architecture is done using 802.11a, we cannot compare the exact result of hardware simulation and the software simulation.

Dynamic source routing (DSR) has similar characteristics as of ‘SWiFiNet’. After comparing the hardware results [1] with DSR it is found that ‘SWiFiNet’ is having better performance against many parameters. Implementation of ‘SWiFiNet’ using ns-2 on 802.15.4 IEEE is not yet checked against other protocols and hardware results.

The software architecture [2] of the ‘SWiFiNet’ agent is as shown in figure 2. This diagram shows the network component simulation in ns-2. The devices can be identified by the variable passed from TCL script. 1 value represent master node. 2 value represent router node and 3 value represent sensor node.

Fig 2: Component simulation in ns-2

IV. Conclusion:-

The survey paper provides a detailed comparison and description of the well-known projects and applications which are developed from reusable architecture point of view. ‘SWiFiNet’ is basically a task distributed generic reusable architecture for WSN. The functionality of sensor node is reduced and has been transferred to the second tire devices like router node. By doing so sensor nodes are restricted to gather information and connecting to neighboring nodes. As time synchronization overhead is not present the lifetime of the network increase.

This reusable architecture can be used for various range of applications and can be configured accordingly. This paper gives proposed ‘SWiFiNet’ system which will be based on 802.15.4 IEEE standard and will be useful for researchers in many ways.

V. REFERENCES:

[1] A. H. Willig, J. H. Karowski, N. Baldus, H. Huebner, A., “The ANGEL WSN Architecture,” in Electronics, Circuits and Systems, 2007. ICECS 2007. 14th IEEE International Conference on, 2007, pp. 633-636.

[2] A. W. Rohankar, Mrinal K. Naskar, Amitava Mukharjee, ‘SWiFiNet’: Task Distributed System Architecture for WSN’ in IJACSA Special Issue on Selected Papers from International Conference & Workshop On Advance Computing 2013.

[3] A. W. Rohankar, Mrinal K. Naskar, Amitava Mukharjee, ‘A step towards reusable WSN architecture’, International Journal of Research and Reviews in Wireless Sensor Networks (IJRRWSN) vol. Vol. 2, 2012.

[4] B. S. P. Harish Ramamurthy, Rajit Gadh, “Reconfigurable Wireless Interface for Networking Sensors (ReWINS),” in proceeding of the 9th IFIP International Conference on Personal Wireless Communications (PWC 2004), 2004.

[5] J. C. Leal, A. Alves, M. Koubaa, A., “On a IEEE 802.15.4/ZigBee to IEEE 802.11 gateway for the ART-WiSe architecture,” in Emerging Technologies and Factory Automation, 2007. ETFA. IEEE Conference on, 2007, pp. 1388-1391.

[6] L. Linfeng, “Research on Environment-Adaptive Architecture Model of Wireless Sensor Networks,” in Networks Security Wireless Communications and Trusted Computing (NSWCTC), 2010 Second International Conference on, 2010, pp. 130-133.

[7] M. N. K. V. G. Soini, J. Rabaey, J. M. Sydanheimo, L. T., “Beyond Sensor Networks: ZUMA Middleware,” in Wireless Communications and Networking Conference, 2007.WCNC 2007. IEEE, 2007, pp. 4318-4323.

[8] Micro-Adaptive Multi-domain Power-aware Sensors (??AMPS) project at University of California, Berkeley, URL: http://www-mtl.mit.edu/research/icsystems/uamps/

[9] Pico-Radio project at University of California, Berkeley,URL:http://bwrc.eecs.berkeley.edu/Research/Pico_Radio/

[10] Smart Dust and motes project at University of California, Berkeley, URL: http://robotics.eecs.berkeley.edu/~pister/SmartDust/

[11] ] TinyDB project at University of California, Berkeley, URL: http://telegraph.cs.berkeley.edu/tinydb

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The Relationship between Manager Assertiveness and having to tell Employees Exactly What to Do high school essay help

Not only is it important to tell workers exactly what to do by being direct, but it is of an equal importance to be assertive with them. If a manager is too passive with his or her employees, it may lead to a managerial mess, as many workers constantly try to test managers’ boundaries.

One of the main reasons as to why employees end up misbehaving in the workplace is primarily because they are not managed correctly, and those who are in authority allow them to get that way. When it comes to being a manager, you shouldn’t expect employees to respect you on a personal level, but you should expect them to respect your authority on a professional level.

Managers should not only be consistently setting up new boundaries, but they should also be enforcing them. Without enforcing them, if an employee overpasses it and nothing is advised to him or her, they will think it is okay to continue to do so. How will they know that it is wrong unless you tell them? It is of an utmost importance to also advise them that you can’t tolerate it.

As a manager, to do their job they have the innate obligation to do only the things that is right for the company that he or she works for. This includes of setting the appropriate boundaries, and not exercising too much sympathy and empathy as it may cause the manager to get too involved with their personal lives. Otherwise, he or she may promote favoritism thereby causing other employees to be jealous. Although this may be true, there is no need to be overly rude and cold towards employees. Being assertive and setting boundaries doesn’t always mean one has to be disrespectful or even rude to their employees. The difference between an authoritarian manager who respects their employees and for managers who don’t differentiates the results of whether or not employees comply or commit themselves to work. In order to have them commit rather than only comply, it is important to be respectful while being assertive. When employees are willing to commit, they are more than likely to deliver work that exceeds a manager’s expectations. (Alexander Hamilton Institute, 2012)

The Importance for Managers to Be a Leader

When it comes to capabilities to effectively communicate with employees, good managers are able to sustain and encourage self-assurance, enthusiasm, and emotional stability while pursuing their day-to-day activities. The position of being a manager can, at times, be quite stressful and overwhelming, so the ideal manager should not let it get to them.

Why is this important when it comes to effectively advising employees as to what has to be done?

If managers aren’t able to maintain self-control of their emotions, then it is likely that they won’t be able to do well at leading employees. Managers are commonly seen as a workplace role model, so if their employees see them as unable to maintain control, it is likely the employees won’t either, thereby leading to decreased amounts of productivity.

Why Communication Is a Key Aspect for Managers

In order to ensure efficient productivity among employees, it is important for them to be able to effectively communicate with them. Moreover, they must also be able to report to higher managers regarding productivity statistics and the like. Not only will great managers be able to communicate well with employees to advise them what they have to do, but they will also be active listeners. Without being able to listen to an employee when he or she has questions about their job or what they have to do, it is likely that they won’t end up doing what they are supposed to do. Another important trait for managers is being able to get a message across without having to overly emphasize it verbally. They know how to implement non-verbal communication techniques such as body language in order to get an important message across to employees. (Melinda Hill Mendoza, n.d).

Common Traits of a Good Employee’ Where You Don’t Have to Be As Specific

There are various indicators that strongly determine whether or not if you have to be overly specific when trying to get an employee to do something. Here I’ve included some of the top traits when it comes to being an effective listener as an employee.

‘ Action Oriented: When you tell an employee to do something, and if he or she is action-oriented, you will see them do it right away’ no questions asked. Although sometimes their work may not be sufficient, most of the time they will provide great work with high levels of productivity. Also, when it comes to productivity, they usually get things done a lot sooner than employees who are stagnant.

‘ Intelligent: Intelligence is important for an employee to thoroughly understand what you want them to do without you having to be too specific with them. Not only that, but when you tell an intelligent employee what to do, most of the time they will do it perfectly correct. It is very rare for an employee who has high levels of intelligence to ask too many questions for additional specificity.

‘ Ambitious: Having an employee with ambition is important because they are well-known to come up with creative ideas that can bring the productivity of any company to the next level. So rather than spending extra time telling them exactly what they have to do, they will work right away, and by the time they are done they will provide you with a genius idea to do things quicker, and you may want to consider forwarding it to your boss.

‘ Autonomous: Employees with an autonomous trait are known to begin working on a project the second you explain to them what needs to be done. They are extremely independent and they require no ‘hand-holding’ whatsoever. This is an important trait, because as a manager, they have a lot of tasks on hand and they don’t want to be wasting it answering a hundred questions about completing a simple task.

‘ Confidence: It is more likely for an unconfident employee to ask questions about exactly what they need to do than a confident employee. This is primarily due to the fact that employees who are confident will trust there instinct on what they’ve heard from the manager, and they won’t second guess their initial impression. On the other hand, unconfident employees will lack their confidence in trusting their understanding, causing them to ask a lot of unnecessary questions.

‘ Leadership: After confidence comes leadership. When you are explaining a task to an employee with leadership skills, you will be confident that they will over-deliver on your expectations. They have the experience to not only deliver the job promptly without any questions ask, but they can set the bar higher in terms of quality and productivity.

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Learning Theory Behaviorism (Teori Pembelajaran Behaviorisme) a level english language essay help

2.0 Teori Pembelajaran Behaviorisme

Teori Behaviorisme merupakan satu pendekatan pemikiran yang menekankan peranan pengalaman dalam mengawal tingkah laku. Pengasas teori ini adalah J.B Watson yang popular dengan teori Little Albert. Namun, selain daripada J.B Watson terdapat tokoh lain yang turut mengkaji tentang teori ini. Mereka adalah Skinner, Thondike dan Pavlov. Teori pemerolehan bahasa Behavioris pada zaman sebelum ini lebih menekankan tingkah laku yang dapat dilihat sahaja. Bagi mereka perkara yang berlaku dalam otak manusia tidak dapat dikenalpasti. Mereka membuat analogi otak manusia sama seperti sebuah kotak hitam yang gelap. Oleh itu mereka tidak mementingkan peranan otak dalam pemerolehan bahasa.

Golongan mazhab ini menolak pendapat yang menghubungkan operasi kognitif dengan pemerolehan bahasa. Seseorang dianggap telah belajar sesuatu jika dia dapat menunjukkan perubahan perilakunya. Menurut teori ini dalam belajar yang penting adalah input yang berupa stimulus dan output yang berupa reaksi (respond). Stimulus adalah apa saja yang diberikan guru kepada pelajar, sedangkan respon berupa reaksi atau tanggapan pelajar terhadap stimulus yang diberikan oleh guru tersebut. Proses yang terjadi antara stimulus dan respon tidak penting untuk diperhatikan kerana tidak dapat diamati dan tidak dapat diukur. Yang dapat diamati adalah stimulus dan respon. Oleh sebab itu, apa yang diberikan oleh guru iaitu stimulus dan apa yang diterima oleh pelajar iaitu respon harus dapat diamati dan diukur. Teori ini mengutamakan pengukuran kerana pengukuran merupakan perkara yang penting untuk melihat terjadi atau tidak perubahan tingkah laku tersebut.

2.1 Teori Behaviorisme menurut J.B Watson

J.B Watson (1878-1958), seorang ahli psikologi di Amerika Syarikat, merupakan orang pertama mencipta istilah behaviorisme untuk menghuraikan tingkah laku manusia. Kajian banyak dipengaruhi oleh Teori Pelaziman Klasik Pavlov. Kajian beliau, yang terkenal ialah mengenai emosi kanak-kanak dengan menggunakan Model Pelaziman Klasik. Mengikut Watson, tingkah laku manusia merupakan reflex terlazim iaitu suatu gerak balas yang dipelajari melalui proses pelaziman klasik. Dengan kata lain, semua pembelajaran adalah pelaziman klasik Watson berpendapat gerakan-gerakan refleks yang mudah misalnya berkelip mata, bersin apabila hidung gatal dan sebarang tindakan yang dilakukan secara semulajadi adalah tingkah laku yang diwarisi dan tidak perlu dipelajari. Selain daripada tingkah laku, Watson pula menjalankan kajian tentang pembelajaran emosi semula jadi iaitu takut, marah, dan kasih saying. Emosi manusia atau perubahan dipelajari melalui proses pelaziman.

2.1.1 Implikasi Teori Pembelajaran J.B Watson

Menurut beliau, semua tingkah laku boleh dipelajari melalui proses pelaziman. Tingkah laku positif boleh diajarkan melalui ransangan yang sesuai. Seterusnya, untuk menguasai kemahiran menyelesaikan masalah, pelajar perlu belajar cara perhubungan gerak balas secara sistematik. Selain itu, teori ini memberi implikasi untuk mengukuhkan apa yang telah dipelajari dalam ingatan, latihan- latihan hendaklah dijalankan secara kerap. Dalam proses pengajaran,guru hendaklah menggunakan rasangan yang boleh memotivasikan murid untuk minat belajar dan mengelakkan pengunaan ransangan yang membawa kepada kesan negatif.

2.2 Teori Behaviorisme menurut Thorndike

Menurut Thorndike, belajar adalah proses interaksi antara stimulus dan respon. Stimulus adalah apa yang merangsang terjadinya aktiviti belajar seperti fikiran, perasaan, atau hal-hal lain yang dapat dikesan melalui pancaindera. Manakala, respon adalah reaksi yang muncul apabila peserta dididik ketika belajar, dan yang dapat pula adalah berupa fikiran, perasaan, gerakan atau tindakan. Jadi, perubahan tingkah laku akibat kegiatan belajar dapat dikategorikan sebagai konkrit, iaitu yang dapat diamati, atau tidak konkrit iaitu yang tidak dapat diamati. Meskipun aliran behaviorisme sangat mengutamakan pengukuran, tetapi tidak dapat menjelaskan bagaimana cara mengukur tingkah laku yang tidak dapat diamati. Teori Thorndike ini disebut pula dengan teori koneksionisme. Thorndike berjaya membentuk tiga hokum iaitu Hukum kesediaan, Hukum latihan, Hukum kesan. Hukum kesediaan merupakan keupayaan persiapan seseorang individu di dalam kendirinya untuk memulakan sesuatu aktiviti pembelajaran. Manakala hokum latihan pula menyatakan bahawa semakin byak latihan yang dijalankan semakin bertambah kukuh ikatan gerak balas yang tertentu dengan ransangan yang berkaitan. Hukum kesan menyatakan bahawa ikatan ransangan dengan gerak balas akan bertambah kukuh sekiranya individu memperolehi kesan yang memuaskan selepas gerak balasnya dihasilkan.

2.1.2 Implikasi Teori Pembelajaran Thorndike

Antara implikasi Teori Pembelajaran Thorndike ialah untuk meningkatkan tahap kesediaan belajar, guru harus menggunakan motivasi yang sesuai. Selain itu, ia juga dapat mengukuhkan pertalian antara ransangan dengan gerak balas pelajar dengan memperbanyak aktiviti latihan, ulangkaji, aplikasi serta pengukuhan dalam keadaan yang menyeronokkan. Seterusnya memberikan ganjaran atau peneguhan untuk respon antau gerak balas yang betul daripada pelajar. Memberi peluang kepada pelajar untuk menikmati kejayaan dalam pembelajaran mereka.

2.3 Teori Pembelajaran Behaviorisme Ivan Pavlov

Ivan Pavlov merupakan salah seorang daripada ahli teori Behavioris selain daripada Skinner, Thondike dan Watson. Beliau dilahirkan pada 14 September 1849 di Ryazan, Rusia Tengah. Beliau telah meninggal dunia pada 27 Februari 1936 di Leningrad Rusia ketika berusia 86 tahun. Ivan Pavlov merupakan ahli fisiologi, psikologi dan ahli fizik berbangsa Rusia. Sebagai seorang yang sangat mencintai bidang fisiologi beliau telah meminta seorang pelajar duduk di sebelah katilnya dan merekodkan perihal kematiannya. Beliau terkenal dengan orang pertama yang mendeskripsikan fonomena pelaziman klasik atau pelaziman responden. Teori pelaziman klasik adalah tentang tingkah laku pembelajaran yang telah dipelopori oleh Ivan Pavlov ( 1849-1936). Pada tahun 1980-an. Pavlov mengkaji fungsi pencernaan pada anjing dengan melakukan pemerhatian pada kelenjar air liur. Dengan cara itu, beliau dapat mengumpulkan, menyukat dan menganalisis air liur haiwan itu dan bagaimana ia dapat diberikan makanan pada keadaan yang berbeza. Beliau sedar anjing akan mengeluarkan air liur sebelum makanan sampai ke mulutnya dan mencari hubungan timbal balik antara air liur dengan aktiviti perut. Pavlov hendak melihat rangsangan luar dapat mempengaruhi proses ini. Oleh itu contoh paling awal dan terkenal bagi pelaziman klasik melibatkan pelaziman air liur pada anjing kajian Pavlov.

2.4 Teori Pembelajaran Behaviorisme B.F Skinner

Manakala menerusi B.F Skinner pula, beliau mengutarakan teori behaviorisme adalah teori. Menurut Nana Sudjana, 1990 pendekatan Skinner adalah operant conditioning, yang merupakan penerusan dan perluasan secara tepat dari hokum Thorndike. Ia mengakui adanya fenomena conditioning yang klasik dari Pavlov dalam perilaku manusia dan binatang, tetapi itu tidak dianggap terlalu penting.

2.4.1 Implikasi Teori Pembelajaran B.F Skinner

Sesuatu kemahiran atau teknik yang baru dipelajari hendaklah diberi peneguhan secara berterusan dan diikuti secara berkala supaya kemahiran atau teknik itu dapat dikukuhkan dan dikekalkan. Selain itu, penggunaan peneguhan positif yang membawa keseronokan adalah lebih berkesan daripada peneguhan negative yang membawa kesakitan. Seterusnya, prinsip penghapusan melalui proses pelaziman operan adalah sesuai digunakan untuk memodifikasikan tingkah laku pelajar yangtidak diingini, misalnya menghentikan peneguhan yang diberikan dahulu sama ada peneguhan positif atau negatif

2.5 Kelebihan teori pembelajaran behaviorisme

Kelebihan yang pertama yang kami perolehi melalui teori ini adalah teori ini sangat sesuai untuk melatih atau mendidik kanak-kanak yang masih memerlukan bantuan daripada orang dewasa di sekeliling mereka. Sebagai contoh kanak-kanak tadika memerlukan bimbingan dan perhatian yang khusus daripada orang di persekitarannya terutamanya guru-guru mereka kerana mereka mudah mengikuti apa yang diajar dan disuruh selain suka meniru perlakuan orang di sekelilingnya. Selain itu, mereka juga suka dengan bentuk-bentuk penghargaan yang diberi kepadanya seperti pujian dan melalui bentuk penghargaan tersebut ianya dapat membangkitkan semangat ingin belajar dalam diri mereka.

Kelebihan yang kedua adalah guru tidak perlu mengambil masa yang lama untuk memberi penerangan yang panjang tentang pembelajaran kepada murid-murid. Hal ini kerana murid-murid akan dibiasakan belajar dengan sendiri kecuali sekiranya murid menghadapi sesuatu masalah dan memerlukan penjelasan yang lebih daripada guru. Dalam hal ini guru perlu memberikan penerangan dengan jelas.

Selain daripada itu, teori ini juga menekankan kemahiran lisan berbanding kemahiran membaca dan menulis. Melalui aspek kemahiran lisan yang ditekankan dapat memberikan kelebihan kepada murid kerana aspek lisan iaitu mendengar dan bertutur penting dalam situasi harian murid. Boleh dikatakan bahawa kemahiran ini adalah kemahiran terkerap yang digunakan manusia untuk berkomunikasi antara satu sama lain.

2.6 Kelemahan Teori Behaviorisme

Dari segi kelemahan pula, penerapan teori behavioris yang kurang tepat dalam sesuatu situasi pembelajaran boleh mangakibatkan berlakunya proses pembelajaran yang tidak kondusif bagi murid-murid kerana pembelajaran berlaku dalam keadaan sehala dimana ianya berpusatkan kepada guru sahaja. Guru hanya mengajar dan melatih murid manakala murid hanya menerima apa yang diajar oleh guru mereka tanpa memberi sebarang maklum balas. Malah dalam teori pembelajaran ini murid berperanan sebagai pendengar dan mereka menghafal apa yang didengar dan dipandang sebagai cara belajar yang efektif. Penggunaan hukuman merupakan salah satu cara untuk guru mendisiplinkan murid dan hal ini akan mendatangkan akibat buruk kepada murid.

Kelemahan yang kedua ialah proses pembelajaran dikatakan kurang memberikan gerak balas yang bebas bagi pelajar untuk berinteraksi serta untuk mengembangkan idea. Hal ini kerana sistem pembelajaran tersebut lebih tertumpu kepada rangsangan dan gerak balas yang ditunjukkan. Sekiranya tiada rangsangan maka tindak balas tidak akan berlaku. Sebagai contoh, guru akan memberi rangsangan dalam bentuk hadiah dan daripada situ barulah murid akan memberikan jawapan yang dikehendaki oleh guru. Sekiranya perkara ini berlaku secara berterusan dikhuatiri murid akan terlalu bergantung terhadap rangsangan dari luar sedangkan murid harus memiliki rangsangan dari dalam diri mereka sendiri sebagai satu cara pembelajaran.

Kelemahan yang ketiga menurut teori ini adalah penambahan ilmu pengetahuan lebih tertumpu kepada buku teks. Hal ini kerana mereka belajar mengikut urutan kurikulum yang sangat ketat sehinggakan buku teks merupakan buku wajib dalam pembelajaran mereka malah mereka juga perlu dikehendaki memahami dan mempersembahkan kembali isi pembelajaran di dalam buku teks tersebut dengan baik. Hal ini boleh mendatangkan kesan buruk kepada pelajar kerana ilmu pengetahuan yang mereka peroleh tidak begitu berkembangan dengan hanya tertumpu kepada satu buah buku sahaja.

2.7 Implikasi teori pembelajaran behaviorisme

Yang pertama ialah guru perlu sedar bahawa kaitan antara rangsangan dan gerak balas boleh dilazimkan iaitu dipelajari. Sebagai contoh apabila guru ingin menyuruh murid-murid beratur ketika waktu rehat di kantin sekolah guru boleh mengaitkannya dengan cara untuk berjaya dalam kehidupan. Implikasi yang seterusnya ialah kaitan antara rangsangan dan gerak balasdapat dikukuhkan melalui latihan. Semakin kerap rangsangan itu dikaitkan dengan sesuatu gerak balas, semakin kukuh gerak balas terlazim itu. Sebagai contoh guru ingin murid-murid supaya tidak mengaitkan mata pelajaran matematik dengan kesukaran, dengan memberi mereka latihan- latihan yang mudah dan apabila mereka beransur mahir menyelesaikan masalah yang sukar maka guru bolehlah menukar aras pembelajaran kepada tahap yang sederhana sukar dan seterusnya ke aras pembelajaran yang sukar.

Di samping itu, dalam proses pembelajaran, generalisasi boleh berlaku. Ini bermakna perkara yang dipelajari dalam situasi A boleh dipindahkan ke situasi B. Sebagai contoh guru mata pelajaran sains mengaitkan kejadian pencemaran alam sekitar yang mengakibatkan kemusnahan alam semula jadi dengan kemusnahan alam yang berlaku seperti tsunami yang melanda Bandar Acheh.

faktor motivasi memainkan peranan yang penting bagi menghasilkan gerak balas yang diinginkan. Dalam hal ini pemberian ganjaran perlu diberi perhatian. Sebagai contoh ketika murid menjawab soalan yang diberikan oleh guru dengan betul maka guru boleh memberikan pujian kepadanya atau dengan memberikannya hadiah supaya pada waktu pembelajaran yang seterusnya pelajar tersebut akan lebih menumpukan perhatian di dalam kelas untuk memperoleh pujian yang diingini. Namun sekiranya pelajar tersebut tidak dapat menjawab soalan yang diberi maka guru perlulah membimbing pelajar tersebut supaya mereka tidak berasa terpinggir dan seterusnya dapat bersama-sama memahami tajuk pembelajaran pada ketika itu.

Selain itu juga, dalam proses pembelajaran tingkah laku yang dapat dilihat, diamati, diukur dan dikawal hendaklah diberi perhatian. Hal ini kerana melalui perubahan tingkah laku yang ditunjukkan oleh murid guru boleh mengambil sebarang tindakan sekiranya ianya di kesan lebih awal. Sebagai contoh sekiranya seseorang murid menunjukkan tingkah laku yang negatif seperti tidak faham tentang apa yang diajar oleh guru maka guru boleh membuat pemulihan terhadap dirinya. Dalam pembelajaran, penghapusan boleh berlaku jika peneguhan tidak diberikan. Ini bermakna, sekiranya sesuatu tingkahlaku tidak diperkukuhkan melalui ganjaran, tingkahlaku itu mungkin akan terhapus begitu sahaja. Konsep pemulihan serta-merta juga dapat membantu seseorang guru meningkatkan keberkesanan pembelajaran

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Research design college admissions essay help

2.7 RESEARCH DESIGN USED :

The conception of research design plan is the critical step in the research process. The design ,of the study constitutes the blue print for the collection, measurement and analysis of data. In other words the research design is a conceptual structure with in which,h research is conducted.

2.8 DATA COLLECTION METHODS :

Primary Data: – Primary data are those data which are collected for the first time, and thus hap,pen to be original in character. It is extracted with the help of discussions co,nducted with senior managers with respect to factors affecting the performance.,

Secondary Data: – Secondary data are those data which are already collected by someone else ,and which have already passed through the statistical process. These data are g,athered by Books, Lectures, Notes, and Official Websites etc.

The study make,s extensive use of secondary data. ‘Secondary data are those which have already,y been passed through the statistical process’. The data which is pre-essential for ,this study relating to comparative analysis of Balance Sheet and PROFIT AND L,OSS A/c was based on secondary source of data. This data will be collected fro,m materials provided by Rakshitas Pvt. Ltd., discussions conducted with store m,anagers and some essential

Financial Accounts books.

2.9 LIMITATIONS :,

‘ Data provided is very limited due to the subjectivity of it being highly confidential.,

‘ The data taken for interpretation is for a limited period.

‘ Assumptions, are to be taken into consideration while doing analysis and interpretation, of data.

‘ Due to limited, information, depth analysis could not be made.

2.10 RESEARCH MEASURE TOOLS :

Various financial techniques and statistical tools are used to measure the data used in the study. Column graphs, pie chart etc. is used to highlight the statistical inference,s. The study cannot be completed without balance sheet and profit and loss a/c. ,Therefore three years balance sheet and profit & loss a/c has been taken out for ma,king proper research.

2.11 ANALYSIS OF DATA :

The data collected is secondary, and it’s compiled, classified, tabulated and then analyzed u,sing financial techniques and statistical tools. Graphs and charts are used to hig,hlight the statistics. Based on this data and analysis, inferences are drawn accor,dingly.

2.12 OVER VIEW OF THE CHAPTER :

The Project I,s Presented in the following chapter :-

CHAPTER 1 : INTRODUCTION

This chapter includes introduction to finance, theorectical back ground for the study of the ,various performance, introduction to finance, definition of retail industry and di,fferent type of industry.

CHAPTER 2 : DESIGN OF THE STUDY

This chapter I,ncludes the projects introduction of the subject background, statement of the, problem, objectives of the study, scope of the study, need and purpose of study,, research methodology, research design, data collection method primary and seco,ndary data, limitations, research measure tools and analysis of data.,

CHA,PTER 3 : PROFILE OF THE COMPANY

This c,hapter contains the profile of the company, its origin and background, board of directors, number of branches and organization structure.

CHAP,TER 4 : DATA ANALYSIS AND INTERPRETATION

This ch,apter consists of Table, Graphs, Analysis and Interpretation based on the question,nairies.

CHAPT,ER 5 : SUMMARY OF FINDINGS, CONCULSIONS AND RECOM,MENDATIONS

This chap,ter includes findings based on objectives of the study, conclusion drawn from the f,indings and recommendations given from the analysis.

Chapter:-3

PROFILE OF THE ORGANIZATION

COMPANY PROFILE

RAKSHITAS PVT.LTD.

Rakshitas business con,cept is to offer a broad and varied range of apparels that allows customers to fin,d their own personal style to choose from more than 150 remiums national and int,ernational brands.

Rakshitas is aimed at everyone in the family with an interest in modern basics, fashion, quality and affo,rdable pricing. Customers should always be able to find clothes and accessories ,at Rakshitas for every occasion. The collections are extensive and new arrivals, being launched week after week in each of the 4 floors spread across 20,000 s,q. ft. for Men, Women, Kids and Teen’s casual wear, formal wear, denim wea,r, ethnic and Kancheevaram silks etc. The range and collections are supplemen,ted by matching costume jewellery, premium international watches, perfumes, ,lingerie’s.

Mission

Our mission is to achieve excelle,nce in the products and services we offer, in the methods we employ and in the res,ult we produce.

Products

Menswear: menswear,r means clothing for men. Rakshitas provide various brands for menswear which ,includes formal shirts, casual shirts, trousers, jeans etc. of several variety of int,ernational as well as national brands, for example: -levis, pepe jeans, killer, lee, w,rangler etc.

Women’s wear: Women’s wear means ,clothing for women. Rakshitas provides the best options for women’s apparel rang,ing from skirts to ethnic, casuals as well as formals.

Kids wear: Kids wear are meant only for kids or children ranging below age of 12 years. Rakshitas provides awesome collection for kids which include children formal wear, kurtas, shirt,s etc.

Party wear: Party wear dresses are meant for wearing in parties, functions, special occasions etc. Rakshitas provides variety ranges of party wear which includes lehngas, wedding dresses, traditional indian dress etc.

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Control and organisational behaviour (pengendalian dan perilaku organisasi) free college essay help

PENGENDALIAN DAN PERILAKU ORGANISASI

PERILAKU ORGANISASI

Untuk membuat dasar yang nantinya dapat digunakan manajemen dalam menyusun system pengendalian manajemen, maka kita perlu mengetahui lebih dalam mengenai perilaku organisasi. Berikut ini adalah beberapa penjelasan mengenai teori akuntansi sebagai bentuk pemahaman terhadap organisasi.

Definisi Organisasi

Secara umum, organisasi diartikan sebagai sekumpulan orang yang melakukan kerjasama demi mencapai tujuan ‘ tujuan yang telah ditentukan bersama. Organisasi tercipta ketika orang ‘ orang bergabung dan melakukan sesuatu untuk berbagai tujuan dan organisasi dapat mencakup segala aspek dalam kehidupan. Organisasi dapat bersifat formal dan informal. Pekerjaan di dalam suatu organisasi dapat dibagi ‘ bagi dan dikoordinasi sesuai dengan kebutuhan dan keahlian tiap ‘tiap anggota organisasinya untuk mencapai tujuan organisasi tersebut. Suatu organisasi haruslah going concern, dalam arti organisasi tersebut diasumsikan akan hidup selamanya.

Teori Perilaku Organisasi (Theory of Organization Behaviour)

Ada beberapa teori yang menjelaskan mengenai mengapa dan bagaimana orang ‘ orang berperilaku dalam organisasi. Berikut ada dua penjelasan mengenai teori tersebut :

1. Teori jenjang kebutuhan

Teori ini menjelaskan bahwa setiap manusia memiliki kebutuhan yang banyak dan harus dipenuhi dan kebutuhan serta keinginan tersebut tersusun secara rapih, sehingga apabila ada satu kebutuhan terpenuhi maka setelah itu ia akan berusaha memenuhi kebutuhannnya yang lebih tinggi. Dalam teori ini tersirat bahwa system pengendalian manajemen juga didasarkan pada kebutuhan manusia yang terkoordinasi dan dilakukan sesuai dengan tujuan organisasi.

2. Teori motivasi pencapaian

Teori ini lebih mengacu pada perilaku atasan atau manajer dalam perannya saat berorganisasi. Untuk mencapai keberhasilan dan mendapat sebuah kekuasaan, maka manajer tersebut juga perlu memiliki keinginan yang kuat agar dapat menghasilkan prestasi dalam organisasi.

TEORI ORGANISASI

Pengetahuan yang dalam mengenai organisasi sangatlah diperlukan oleh para pelaku organisasi dalam pelaksanaan system pengendalian manajemen organisasi tersebut. Para pelaku organisasi harus benar ‘ benar mengetahui semua poin dalam organisasi termasuk sejarah organisasi, tujuan organisasi, bagaimana perilaku para pelakunya hingga reaksi organisasi tersebut terhadap lingkungan.

Tak berbeda dengan teori perilaku akuntansi, dalam teori organisasi juga terdapat banyak teori yang membahas mengenai organisasi. Dan disini akan dibahas mengenai dua teori juga tentang organisasi, yaitu :

1. Teori Organisasi yang Berorientasi ke Dalam

Banyak organisasi dianggap indepen dan tidak terlalu memperhatikan lingkungan luar oleh beberapa teori. Teori organisasi yang berorientasi ke dalam ini banyak dijadikan dasar oleh sebagian besar system pengendalian manajemen dalam suatu organisasi hal tersebut didasarkan karena dalam teori ini mencakup tanggung jawab dalam pengambilan keputusan yang berlaku menurut proyek ‘ proyek, program ‘ program serta komponen ‘ komponen fungsionalnya.

2. Teori Organisasi yang Berorientasi ke Luar

Teori ini adalah teori kebalikan dari teori sebelumnya yaitu teori organisasi yang berorientasi ke dalam. Teori ini beranggapan bahwa suatu organisasi selalu berhubungan dengan lingkungan di sekitarnya. Ada dua jenis organisasi yang menganut teori organisasi yang berorientasi keluar ini, yaitu :

– Organisasi system umum terbuka

– Organisasi system manajemen

TIPE ORGANISASI

Ada tiga jenis atau tipe organisasi, yaitu :

1. Organisasi Fungsional

Dalam tipe organisasi ini, penekanan lebih ditujukan kepada manajer yang sangat harus bertanggung jawab terhadap suatu fungsi tertentu, seperti fungsi produksi, fungsi pemasaran dan fungsi lainnya yang diterapkan dalam organisasi tersebut. Fungsi ‘ fungsi tersebut dapat dihimpun oleh fungsi yang lebih tinggi dalam organisasi itu juga. Organisasi ini berpotensi membuat efisiensi perusahaan yang lebih baik karena menggunakan masukan ‘ masukan dari manajerial yang lebih tinggi.

2. Organisasi Divisi

Dalam organisasi ini, semua manajer harus bertanggung jawab terhadap hamper keseluruhan fungsi dalam proses produksi serta distribusi lini pada organisasi tersebut. Orientasi organisasi divisi lebih terbuka yang berarti lebih menekankan bahwa para manajer harus peka terhadap pengaruh ‘ pengaruh yang dating dari luar yang mungkin dapat mempengaruhi kinerja organisasi.

3. Organisasi Matriks

Ada dua struktur organisasi dalam organisasi matriks, yaitu ditata berdasarkan fungsi dan ditata berdasarkan program. Pada organisasi matriks, para manajer bertanggung jawab penuh atas profitabilitas dari lini produk organisasi tersebut dimana proses produksi dilakukan oleh unit ‘ unit organisasi fungsional.

Teori Kemungkinan (Contingency Theory)

Untuk mengendalikan suatu manajemen menggunakan tiga macam pendekatan, antara lain :

1. Pendekatan tradisional

Pendekatan ini menekankan pada perencanaan, pendekatan dan pengendalian.

2. Pendekatan system

Pendekatan ini menekankan padapenggunaan sumber daya manusia sebagai pertimbangan dalam pengambilan keputusan.

3. Pendekatan perilaku

Pendekatan ini menekankan pada pengendalian manusia termasuk di dalamnya motivasi dan prediksi.

PERILAKU MANAJEMEN

Organisasi dan sistemnya yang rumit akan mempengaruhi perilaku manusia menjadi rumit pula.

Konsep Fundamental

Agar suatu organisasi ‘terkendali’ maka para anggota organisasi harus mengetahui dengan baik apa sebenarnya yang diinginkan oleh manajemen. Untuk merealisasikan hal tersebut, dapat menggunakan banyak informasi yang telah disediakan oleh manajemen organisasi seperti anggaran hingga kebijakan organisasi. Tujuan organisasi dibuat oleh para manajer senior dan dilaksanakan oleh manajer operasional untuk selanjutnya para manajer senior menerapkan system pengendalian manajemen untuk mengontrol organisasi tersebut.

Persepsi Tujuan

Para manajer operasional harus benar ‘ benar mengetahui apa tujuan organisasi. Para manajer operasional tersebut dapat secara mudah mendapatkan informasi ‘ informasi yang mereka butuhkan dari berbagai sumber baik dari dokumen maupun percakapan informal saja. System pengendalian manajemen yang efektif dapat menguatkan kepastian suatu perusahaan.

Organisasi Informal

Adanya organisasi informal di dalam organisasi formal sering menyebabkan adanya salah persepsi mengenai tindakan yang diharapkan. Hubungan pada organisasi informal tidak tercantum di dalam bagan organisasi, padahal hal tersebut cukup penting untuk pemahaman system pengendalian organisasi tersebut.

Motivasi

Reaksi pada pelaku organisasi terutama manajemen terhadap organisasi dapat berbeda tergantung pada motivasinya. Motivasi dapat bermacam ‘ macam, misalnya kenaikan gaji, promosi, pujian dan lain ‘ lain. Motivasi timbul dari dalam pribadi masing ‘ masing, tetapi motivasi dapat dipengaruhi oleh rangsangan dari lingkungan sekitarnya.

Keselarasan Tujuan (Goal Congruence)

Setiap manusia memiliki tujuan pribadi, begitu juga dengan organisasi yang juga memiliki tujuan bersama. Salah satu tugas penting system pengendalian adalah menyelaraskan kedua tujuan tersebut serta mencapainya demi mendapatkan kepuasan bersama. Semakin kuat hubungan antara tujuan pribadi dan tujuan organisasi, maka ssistem pengendalian organisasi tersebut akan semakin kuat juga.

Kerjasama dan Konflik

Suatu organisasi tidak akan berjalan dengan baik apabila para anggotanya tidak bekerjasama dengan baik secara terkoordinasi, untuk itu di dalam organisasi sangat dibutuhkan kerjasama yang terkoordinir dan selaras. Selain itu, organisasi juga harus menjaga koordinasi dan keselarasan tersebut agar tidak terjadi konflik yang dapat mengganggu kinerja organisasi. Konflik tersebut dapat terjadi karena berbagai alasan, salah satunya adalah dengan adanya persaingan didalam organisasi tersebut.

Iklim Organisasi (Organizational Climate)

Secara singkat, iklim organisasi dapat diartikan sebagai hasil kombinasi dari struktur formal dan struktur informal pada suatu organisasi. Dan menurut pemahaman saya iklim organisasi merupakan suasana di dalam organisasi dimana tiap pelaku organisasi di dalam organisasi saling membantu, saling menilai, dan memahami antara satu dengan yang lain. Iklim organisasi ikut mengambil bagian penting dalam organisasi. Keduanya saling mempengaruhi satu sama lain.

Tipe Pengendalian

Pelaku pengendalian Sumber arah pengendalian Macam ‘ macam Pengendalian

Ukuran prestasi dan tingkah laku Isyarat untuk tindak koreksi Imbalan untuk prestasi Hukuman untuk kegagalan

Organisasi formal Rencana organisasi, strategi, tanggapan atas persaingan Anggaran, biaya standar, target penjualan penyimpangan Penghargaan manajemen, insentif uang, promosi Minta penjelasan

Kelompok informal Keterikatan bersama cita’cita kelompok Norma-norma kelompok penyimpangan Pengakuan rekan, keanggotaan, kepemimpinan Ejekan, pengasingan, permusuhan

Perorangan Tujuan pribadi, aspirasi Harapan pribadi, target antara Dugaan akan kegagalan di masa yang akan dating, target tak tercapai Kepuasan karena ‘terkendali’ kegembiraan Merasa gagal

Sumber : Disarikan dari Gene W. Dalton dan Paul R. Lawrence, Motivation and Control in Organizations (Homewood, III. : Richard D. Irwin, 1971). Hak Cipta 1971 oleh Richard D. Irwin Inc.

Variasi dalam Pengendalian

Hakekat system pengendalian manajemen dibedakan menurut sifat pekerjaan, macam organisasi, lingkungan daan peran manajer. Berikut adalah tiga dimensi yang perlu diperhatikan dalam penggunaan dan pengembangan system pengendalian manajemen :

1. Besar keleluasaan manajemen

2. Besar interdependensi

3. Rentang waktu pelaksanaan

FUNGSI KONTROLER

Kontroler dapat diartikan sebagai petinggi atau pejabat yang bertanggung jawab atas apa yang telah direncanakan oleh organisasi dan bagaimana pengoperasiannya. Tanggung jawab para kontroler berbeda ‘ beda di tiap organisasi bahkan di tiap divisinya. Tanggung jawab kontroler didasarkan pada posisinya masing ‘ masing. Tanggung jawab tersebut dilaksanakan secara langsung. Selain tanggung jawab dalam perencanaan dan pengoperasian tersebut, berikut ini adalah fungsi lain dari kontroler :

a. Menyiapkan laporan kepada pihak pemerintah serta pihak ‘ pihak luar lainnya.

b. Mempersiapkan pengembalian pajak.

c. Mempersiapkan dan melakukan analisa terhadap laporan prestasi keuangan.

d. Membantu para manajer dengan cara melakukan analisa sertab menafsirkan laporan ‘ laporan tersebut.

e. Menggunakan prosedur pemeriksaan intern dan pengendalian akuntansi, memastikan validitas informasi, menetapkan usaha perlindungan yangcukup terhadap berbagai penyimpangan serta melakukan pemeriksaan operasional.

f. Melakukan pengembangan kepada orang ‘ orang yang ia pimpin serta berperan langsung dalam penambahan pengetahuan mengenai fungsi kontroler

g. Mengadakan manajemen kas, asuransi serta kegiatan ‘ kegiatan lainnya demi pengamanan kekayaan perusahaan.

Hubungan dengan Organisasi Lini

Kontroler juga memiliki hak untuk membuat kebijakan ‘ kebijakan dalam organisasi. Namun keputusan ‘ keputusan tersebut merupakan realisasi pelaksanaan kebijakan ‘ kebijakan yang telah dibuat oleh manajer lini. Dengan kata lain, terdapat keselarasan antara kedua belah pihak. Hal tersebut tentunya sangat baik untuk menjaga kelancaran jalannya organisasi tersebut.

Kontroler Divisi

Kebanyakan perusahaan atau organisasi membagi organisasinya tersebut menjadi beberapa divisi yang dikepalai oleh seorang manajer. Manajer divisi tentu juga memiliki kontroler divisi. Dalam hal ini, kontroler divisi harus patuh kepada manajer divisi dan juga kontroler perusahaan yang terkadang beda kepentingannya. Penilaian prestasi terhadap kontroler divisi dapat dilakukan dengan menilai beberapa poin, antara lain :

– Laporan akuntansi dan keuangan

– Pengetahuan mengenai operasi divisi

– Sasaran dan pelaksanaan kepatuhan terhadap kebijakan

– Kontribusi manajemen

– Pengetahuan terhadap akuntansi

– Kejujuran dan profesionalisme

– Kemauan bekerjasama

– Organisasi dan staf

– Inisiatif dan semangat

HUBUNGAN LINI-STAF

Seorang manajer divisi dapat dikatakan tidak memiliki staf maupun asisten pribadi. Manajer tersebut mendapatkan bantuan dari :

1. Tenaga yang ditugaskan untuk membantunya dari staf umum, insinyur serta petugas pembelian

2. Staf pusat yang dapat dimintai bantuan kapan saja sebanyak mungkin.

HUBUNGAN MANAJER DIVISI ‘ KONTROLER

Untuk mencapai kesuksesan organisasi dalam hubungannya dengan manajer divisi, maka organisasi perlu membina kerjasama yang baik dan solid di tiap ‘ tiap manajemen. Berikut merupakan beberapa factor yang dapat mempengaruhi hubungan baik adalah :

1. System akuntansi yang seragam dan terpusat

2. Sasaran ‘ saasaran keuangan yang telah ditetapkan sebelumnya untuk tiap ‘ tiap divisi.

(Pertumbuhan penjualan serta besar laba penjualan)

3. Pembagian laba antara kontroler dan manajer

SISTEM AKUNTANSI

Selain memiliki tanggung jawab dalam perencanaan dan pengoperasian organisasi, divisi kontroler juga memiliki kewenangan atas system akuntansi yang akan digunakan oleh organisasi tersebut termasuk di dalamnya menetapkan cara dan jenis pos ‘ pos yang harus mereka awasi. Sistem akuntansi dijadikan dasar dalam penyusunan laporan keuangan beserta analisisnya.

SASARAN ‘ SASARAN DIVISI

Seperti yang telah disebutkan pada bagian sebelumnya, perusahaan atau organisasi memiliki sasaran keuangan, yaitu pertumbuhan penjualan dan tingkat laba. Tingkat laba dalam organisasi atau perusahaan ditetapkan sebaga persentase penjualan. Berikut ini adalah beberapa factor penentu target laba penjualan :

1. Kemungkinan pematenan produk

2. Besar laba atas investasi yang diinginkan

3. Besar laba industry bersangkutan

4. Besar laba investasi bersangkutan

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Business notes: Creative problem solving my assignment essay help london

1 Unit 1 – Creative problem solving

1.1 Introduction

A business leader is expected to identify problems, implement solutions and find business opportunities. To do so, they must learn to plan, analyse situations, identify and solve problems (or potential problems), make decisions, and set realistic and attainable goals for the business/unit. These are the fundamental thinking/creative requirements for leadership, and these set direction to a successful future. Without this critical competence, you will have to rely on others to do your thinking for you, or you will simply have to learn to nurture your creative thinking skills which will help you on your journey towards successful business.

Creative thinking forms part of this continuous problem solving process, and is the fundamental basis for facilitating in the development of solutions, new initiatives, products or services. In an entrepreneurial context, the end result of this process should be directly linked to a feasible opportunity in the market environment.

Quote – What lies behind us and what lies before us, are tiny matters, compared to what lies within us. – William Morrow

The creative problem solving process consists of the following four steps:

‘ Problem analysis

‘ Solution analysis

‘ Decision analysis

‘ Solution implementation

1.2 The process

The creative problem solving process consists of an important core process, namely the idea generation process see figure 1. This is an important step, especially if you need to come up with creative ideas for products, services, and processes, to solve a consumer problem. The idea generation process consists of the following four steps:

‘ Step 1 – Generating ideas

‘ Step 2 – Developing ideas into a concept

‘ Step 3 – Converting a concept into a tangible or intangible product

‘ Step 4 – Finally protecting the tangible or intangible product

Figure 1 – The process of creative thinking (idea generation)

Initially you need to understand the problem and find the root cause of the problem. Many techniques are available to find the causes of problems, you can use the 5 Why technique in this case, if you are familiar with it. The more advanced courses will describe how to use the major problem identification techniques, but this course will focus on the idea generation process.

1.3 Where to start

In the entrepreneurial phase, the best way to start the idea generation process is when you are required to come up with a new product or service, to identify a potential consumer problem. Initially, focus on identifying problems in the area of your expertise (your knowledge base).

If you have no knowledge of the problem, the product development stage could be a challenge for you.

You will learn in the next section that not all problems are opportunities, and entrepreneurs should be careful as to how they approach this stage, when generating ideas in trying to identify a new product or service.

1.4 Problem versus opportunity

In most cases, the idea-generation phase in the creative problem solving process is neglected. Individuals normally identify a problem or an opportunity (which may seem like an opportunity, but is actually just an idea), and then develop a new product in line with the new assumed idea or opportunity. It is therefore important to distinguish between an idea and an opportunity. Resources may be wasted if a mere idea is incorrectly perceived as an opportunity.

Any opportunity is initially problem based (e.g. a coffee shop in a destination where there is a lack thereof, this creates several problem situations and potentially feasible opportunities for the entrepreneur). The creative thinking (idea generation process) involved, is the means to solving these problems, and bring forth solutions to the market problems, which create further opportunities.

1.4.1 Difference between problem and opportunity

There is, however, a critical difference between a problem and opportunity. Consider the following:

‘ Is it an idea or an opportunity to develop a high speed train between two major cities which are not far from each other? Some may say it is a great idea, but when you need to pay R200 a day to make use of it, it is simply not an opportunity. Only a few people would make use of the service, resulting in a negative impact on the market.

‘ If it is possible to transport people between the two cities for a lower cost, say R10, it would possibly be a more feasible opportunity.

Here is a good example of an opportunity – Around the turn of the twentieth century, a shoe manufacturer sent a representative to Africa, to open up a market in the undeveloped area in that continent. After exploring the culture for a month, the rep sent a telegram to the home office shouting,

‘Disaster! Disaster! These people do not wear shoes. Bring me home immediately!’

A short time later, another shoe company sent their agent to Africa for the same purpose. A month later his home office also received a telegram:

‘Opportunity! Opportunity! These people do not wear shoes! Triple production immediately!’

Quote – Every situation contains the potential for disastrous problems or unprecedented success. The event is what we perceive it to be. Unknown

Now the question arises: How do I distinguish between an idea and an opportunity? Looking at above examples, every problem is not an opportunity, and it really depends at how you are looking at the problem. If you see a viable opportunity in a problem then you are looking at the problem with a different perception than most people (the glass is half full or half empty). From a business perspective all opportunities are not necessarily a viable opportunity, the market determines the available opportunities. Without the knowledge to interpret the market conditions, you could miss it totally in terms of your opportunity analysis.

Table 1 shows the different industries in South Africa, the level of entrepreneurial activity, and how the same opportunity differs in each of these market areas.

1.4.2 The global entrepreneurship monitor

The Global Entrepreneurship Monitor ‘ specifically identified the entrepreneurial activity in the various industries of South Africa. It can be generalized to state that an industry with a high level of entrepreneurial activity, gives away more business opportunities (e.g. manufacturing, retail, hotel, restaurant and business services), while one with a lower level will indicate far less opportunities (e.g. agriculture, forestry, hunting, fishing, finance, insurance, real estate and health, education and social services).

If we analyse just one ‘high-opportunity’ industry, for instance manufacturing, it may be an opportunity today to manufacture a final product, and export it to an international market. A ‘low-opportunity’ industry, for instance insurance (especially in the market entry phase), may be negative as having an extremely high crime rate and insurance companies have to pay out claims at an alarming rate. It is also evident that low-opportunity industries may create feasible opportunities.

An entrepreneur should therefore be wary of following a fad, (latest trend) and exploiting assumed opportunities in a ‘popular’ industry.

Percentage of Entrepreneurs

ISIC Category Start-ups New Firms Total

Agriculture, forestry, hunting, fishing 1,3 2,6 1,6

Mining, construction 9,7 5,0 4,1

Manufacturing 14,3 19,1 13,8

Transport, communications, utilities 9,8 0,7 8,0

Wholesale, motor vehicle sales, repairs 6,0 6,5 6,3

Retail, hotel, restaurant 40,8 47,7 43,5

Finance, insurance, real estate 0,3 5,2 1,4

Business services 10,1 7,9 9,4

Health, education, social services 2,6 0,7 2,3

Consumer services 11,0 3,5 9,7

Source: Driver. Wood, Segal & Herrington, 2001

Table 1 – The percentage of entrepreneurs in the different industries in South-Africa

1.4.3 What is an opportunity?

What exactly is an opportunity and how does an entrepreneur exploit a feasible opportunity? According to Hesrich & Peters (2002), an opportunity is the process whereby the entrepreneur assesses whether a certain product, service or process, will yield the necessary earnings based on the resource inputs that are required to manufacture and market it.

The nature of opportunities needs to be assessed – thus, what leads to the existence of an opportunity? The following factors may result in an opportunity:

‘ General and specific problems faced by consumers

‘ Market shifts

‘ Government regulations

‘ Competition

There are two equally important criteria in the assessment of an opportunity. Firstly, the size of the market – will the number of customers reward the input and energy required, to create and deliver the product?

Secondly, the length in terms of the frame of the opportunity (window of opportunity). For example, is the demand for this product only a short fashionable phenomenon or is it based on sustainable business, or how long will it take before someone else (a competitor), to grab the opportunity?

These two aspects should also link directly to the personal skills and competence of the entrepreneur. For example, entrepreneurs with no skills or interest in information technology will not necessarily achieve their personal goals. They should rather venture into an opportunity which suits their experience and personality.

1.4.4 Transform opportunity into a business

Table 2 shows how the development of a business plan links to the identification and evaluation of opportunities, the determination of the resources required and the eventual management of the enterprise. All of these factors play a significant role in the correct assessment of the business opportunity.

This means that the business plan must explain in sufficient detail how the business will exploit the situation, to transform the opportunity, into solving a problem for the consumer, which generates extraordinary profits for the people involved.

Identify and evaluate the opportunity Develop the business plan Determine the resources needed Manage the enterprise

Creation and length of opportunity

Real and perceived value of opportunity

Risk and returns of opportunity

Opportunity versus skills and goals

Competitive situation Title page

Table of contents

Executive summary

Description of business

Description of industry

Marketing plan

Financial plan

Production plan

Organisational plan

Operational plan

Summary

Appendices Existing resources of the entrepreneur

Resource gap and available supplies

Access to needed resources Management style

Key variables for success

Identification of problems and potential problems

Implementation of control systems

Source: Hisrich, R.D. & Peters, M.P. 2002: 40. Entrepreneurship. Boston: Irwin/McGraw-Hill.

Table 2 – Link between Opportunity and business plan

1.5 Instruction

Exit and resume to your current page.

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The importance of employee engagement in an organization cheap mba definition essay help

1.4 Literature Review

Mark Kilsby and Stephen Beyer (1996) ‘ Engagement and Interaction : A comparison between supported employment and acts’. This research study was conducted with the help of interaction and commitment patterns of 13 supported employees and 38 regular adult training center attainders of the organization. Direct observation was used as method of data collection, within the 13 employment sites and a representative sample of ATC organized activities. Because of the higher level of task specific dialogue between individuals and the service of the organization it is found that there is more of social interaction in ACT. Interaction of employees with public within office hours was the cause for this as per the study conducted.

Douglas R. May, Richard L, Gilson and Lynn M . Harter (2004) ‘The Psychological Conditions Of Meaningfulness ,Safety And Availability And The Engagement Of The Human Spirit At Work’. This shows the study about a U.S western company which explored the determinants and mediated the effects of tree psychological conditions they are meaningful, safe and available. The above studies shoes that all the three factors (meaningfulness, safety and availability) have a positive relation with the engagement of an employee in the organization. In other words they are completely associated with the psychological safety where as loyalty to co worker norms and self- consciousness are negatively related.

Despoina Xanthopaolou, Arnold B, Bakker, Evangelia Demerouti and Wilmar B.Schaufeli (2009) ‘Work Engagement And Financial Returns : A Diary Study On The Role Of The Job And Personal Resources’. The above study shows that how daily fluctuations in job can affect the level of personal resource , financial returns and work engagement. Different level of analysis revealed that day level job resources had an effect on work engagement through the day level personal resources. When there was a control for the general level of personal resources and organizational engagement Day level work engagement showed a positive way towards day level training, which in turn showed the financial returns.

Dan-Shang Wang and Chia ‘Chun Hsieh (2013) ‘The Effect Of Authentic Leadership On Employee Trust And Employee Engagement’ they have examined the genuine leadership on employee engagement through employee trust. They have collected data from 386 employees from top 1000 manufacturing companies and top 500 service companies in Taiwan. Hierarchical multiple regression was used to test the hypothesis on the employees. Later on the results shows that the consistency between the supervisors , words and actions as well as their moral perceptions are optimistically related to employee engagement , when only supervisors are consist between the words and actions in positively related employment trust. The study shows how employee engagement had a positive trust on employee. Employee trust has a partial link between authentic leadership and employee engagement.

Benjamin J.C, Yuan and Michael B.H. Lin (2012) ‘Transforming Employee Engagement Into Long-Term Customer Relationships: Evidence From Information Technology Salespeople In Taiwan’. This article shows that when information sales people in Taiwan have perceived more transformational leadership and they were more expected to show increased development in work engagement. Over a period of time it was found that increased development in work engagement influenced the increased customer relationship. It showed how employee engagement is indirectly co related with customer relationship.

Xander M.Bezuijen, Karen Van Dam, Peter T . Van Den Berg and Henk Thierry (2010) ‘How Leaders Stimulate Employee Learning : A Leader ‘ Member Exchange Approach’. This study investigated how the three factors as such as leader member exchange, goal setting, and feedback are related to employee engagement in the learning activities. Here, two different mechanisms were proposed , first one a mediating mechanism telling that leader member exchange shows specific leader behavior. The second one is it as a moderating mechanism , holding that leader member exchange will strengthen the effect of leader behavior from 7 organizations a sample of 1112 employees was taken , to measure the leader member exchange approach. 233 of the direct leaders answered that they find difficulty in rating employee engagement in learning activities.

Maureen F.Dollard and Arnold B. Bakker (2010) ‘Psychosocial Safety Climate As A Precursor To Conducive Work Environment , Psychological Health Problems , And Employee Engagement’. This article shows the gap between work psychology and psychosocial working condition. Where we construct a psychosocial working condition PSC. It explains how PSC influences the senior management in psychological working conditions and in psychological health and engagement. They use the job demand and resources as a frame work and uses a multi level thinking into their explanation

James R.Jones (2009) ‘Comparative Effects On Race/Ethnicity And Employee Engagement On Withdrawal Behavior’. This study have added knowledge on the basis of effects on employee attachment. In addition to that it provides more evidence on looking at all types of employees as a single entity which can lead to false results.

Shane Crabb ( 2011) ‘The Use Of Coaching Principles To Foster Employee Engagement’. The above article focuses on the human condition that leads to the happiness of fulfillment and flourishing of employee engagement. Where positive psychology results in so many questions from traditional psychological approaches .Which have mean to focus on a different model of human functioning with healing people fail. In another way positive psychology takes additional holistic approach to human life. Seeing the positive and negative aspects of context when establishing what is right , working and good of people.

Roberta A . Neault and Deidre A .Pickerel (2011) ‘Career Engagement : Bridging Career Counseling And Employee engagement’ . this article is showing that employee counselors helps individuals in maximizing their career engagement at any career stage of an individual. When you facilitate career engagement it contributes to employee engagement which employee are looking for. They even encourages others to use the career engagement and employee engagement models as vehicles to combine the employers to interest in engagement counselors to create interest in supporting the development of employee an motivate them to work.

2.1 Title: A Cross Sectional Study Of Employee Engagement In Apollo Hospitals.

2.2 Objectives:

1. To determine the level of Employee Engagement in Apollo Hospitals.

2. To identify the factors of Employee Engagement.

3. To analyze and suggest strategies for improvement.

2.3 Research Methodology:

I had adopted descriptive research design for the purpose of this

Survey on employee engagement. The primary data was collected from the 100 employees conveniently selected from Apollo Hospitals Bangalore, through structured questionnaire.

2.4 Limitations:

1) The survey was carried out for a sample sized of 100 working staff only.

2) Findings and suggestion of this research are applicable only to Apollo Hospitals.

3) As an fact finding study advanced statistical tools or analysis are not used.

Table 1.1 Weighted Average on Opportunities for growth

X 1 2 3 4 5

I have adequate opportunities for professional growth in this organization. (X1) 10 20 32 19 19

I receive the training I need to do my job well.(X2) 2 52 22 16 08

My manager is actively interested in my professional development and advancement.(X3) 32 21 12 18 17

My manager encourages and supports my development (X4) 08 10 40 18 24

I am encouraged to learn from my mistakes (X5) 52 23 16 04 05

My work is challenging, stimulating, and rewarding(X6) 28 14 33 16 09

X1 ?? XI X2 ?? X2 X3 ?? X3 X4 ?? X4 X5 ?? X5 X6 ?? X6

10 50 2 10 32 160 08 40 52 260 28 140

20 80 52 208 21 84 10 40 23 92 14 56

32 96 22 66 12 36 40 120 16 48 33 99

19 38 16 32 18 36 18 36 04 08 16 32

19 19 08 08 17 17 24 24 05 05 09 09

TOTAL 283 TOTAL 324 TOTAL 333 TOTAL 260 TOTAL 413 TOTAL 336

Table 1.2 Calculation Of Weighted Average on Opportunities for growth

283/100 2.83 324/100 3.24 333/100 3.33 260/100 2.60 413/100 4.13 336/100 3.36

RANKED 6 RANKED 4 RANKED 3 RANKED 5 RANKED 1 RANKED 2

Table 1.3 Showing The Rank Of Each Component of Opportunities for growth

INFERENCE

The above table shows that the employees are encouraged to learn from their mistakes that is 4.15 out of 5.the work is stimulating rewarding and challenging is ranked 2nd.the manager is actively interested in employees professional growth is

ranked 3rd.the level of opportunity for professional growth shows the least ranking.

Table 1.4: Showing Adequate Opportunities/ Professional growth

STRONGLY AGREED AGREED NEUTRAL DISAGREE STRONGLY DISAGREE TOTAL

10 20 32 19 19 100

Chart 1.1: Showing Adequate Opportunities/ Professional growth

Interpretation:

32% of the employees from the given population says that they have a neutral opportunity to grow where as 10 % stands in the outstanding category and 20% of them in good category. An equal no of employees disagree to the fact in the other hand that is 19% of the given population.

STRONGLY AGREED AGREED NEUTRAL DISAGREE STRONGLY DISAGREE TOTAL

2 52 22 16 8 100

Table 1.5: Showing Training

Chart 1.2: Showing Training

Interpretation:

In the given sample 52% of the employees agrees to the fact that they receive good training in order to do their job efficiently and 2% strongly agrees. where 22 % is neutral to the situation given.16 % of them do not get proper training they required to do their jobs and 8 % strongly disagree to it. It is clear that the organization is giving a proper training to employees to make their work effective.

Table 1.6: Showing Professional Development And Advancement

STRONGLY AGREED AGREED NEUTRAL DISAGREE STRONGLY DISAGREE TOTAL

32 21 12 18 17 100

Chart 1.3: Showing Professional Development And Advancement

Interpretation:

Most of the employees agree that their manager takes attention in their professional development steps. 32 % to 25 of the employees from the given sample have strongly agreed and agreed to it respectively. whereas 12 % is neutral to it . but 18% to 17% disagrees and says that they are not taken care in respective of their advancement in profession.

Table 1.7: Showing Encouragement And Support

STRONGLY AGREED AGREED NEUTRAL DISAGREE STRONGLY DISAGREE TOTAL

8 10 40 18 24 100

Chart 1.4: Showing Encouragement And Support

Interpretation:

From the above graph its clear that 40% of the employees neither agree or disagree that management encourage them or support them. 8% to 10% agrees that they have been supported by the management . but 18 % to 24 % disagree to the fact that management supports them .

Table 1.8: Showing Challenges, Stimulation And Reward

STRONGLY AGREED AGREED NEUTRAL DISAGREE STRONGLY DISAGREE TOTAL

52 23 16 4 5 100

Chart 1.5: Showing Challenges, Stimulation And Reward

Interpretation:

More than half , 52% of the employees states that they have a challenging stimulating and rewarding work. A very few of them disagree to it 4 % to 5% . and 23 % of them agrees t it there is a majority of people agreeing to it.

Table 1.9: Showing Encouragement

STRONGLY AGREED AGREED NEUTRAL DISAGREE STRONGLY DISAGREE TOTAL

28 14 33 16 9 100

Chart 1.6: Showing Encouragement

Interpretation:

There is a 28% of people agreeing to it. And 16 % to 9 % disagreeing to the fact that they are not encouraged to learn from their mistakes .

Table 1.10: Showing Weighted Average on Work/Life Balance; Stress and Work Pace

X 1 2 3 4 5

My manager understands the benefits of maintaining a balance between work and personal life. (X1) 02 13 08 48 29

My job does not cause unreasonable amounts of stress in my life. (X2) 30 13 08 48 29

The amount of work I am asked to do is reasonable. (X3) 40 20 12 14 14

I am able to satisfy both my job and family/personal responsibilities. (X4) 27 12 08 09 44

X1 ?? X1 X2 ?? X2 X3 ?? X3 X4 ?? X4

02 10 30 150 40 200 27 135

13 52 13 52 20 80 12 48

08 24 08 24 12 48 08 24

48 96 48 96 14 28 09 18

29 29 29 29 14 14 44 44

TOTAL 211 TOTAL 351 TOTAL 370 TOTAL 269

Table 1.11: Showing Calculation Of Weighted Average on Work/Life Balance; Stress and Work Pace

Table 1.12: Showing The Rank Of Each Component of Work/Life Balance; Stress And Work Pace

211/100 2.11 351/100 3.51 370/100 3.7 269/100 2.69

RANKED 4 RANKED 1 RANKED 2 RANKED 3

INFERRENCE

By analysing the given data using weighted average method that the level of stress reduced in the employees is 3.51 out of 4 , and the amount of work the employee is asked to do is 3.7. the employee is able to balance between family and personal responsibility is 2.69 . the managers understanding in the benefits and maintaining balance between work and personal life should be taken care because it is got only 2.11 which have least rank

STRONGLY AGREED AGREED NEUTRAL DISAGREE STRONGLY DISAGREE TOTAL

2 13 8 48 29 100

Table 1.13: Showing Work/Life Balance; Stress And Work Pace Balance Between Work And Personal Life

Chart 1.7: Showing Work/Life Balance; Stress And Work Pace Balance Between Work And Personal Life

Interpretation:

Only 2% of the employees says that there is a balance between work life and personal life. 13% of them agrees to it and 8% is neutral to it.but 48% of the sample disagrees and 29 % of them strongly disagrees to it.

Table 1.14: Showing Stress Level In Employees Life

STRONGLY AGREED AGREED NEUTRAL DISAGREE STRONGLY DISAGREE TOTAL

30 13 8 48 29 100

Chart 1.8: Showing Stress Level In Employees Life

Interpretation:

30% of the employees strongly agrees that the job doesn’t cause much stress where 13% of them agrees and 8% is neutral to it. But 48%of them disagree nd 29% strongly disagrees and states that job causes stress in their life.

Table 1.15: Showing Amount Of Work Asked To Do

STRONGLY AGREED AGREED NEUTRAL DISAGREE STRONGLY DISAGREE TOTAL

40 20 12 14 14 100

Chart 1.9: Showing Amount Of Work Asked To Do

Interpretation:

40% of them strongly agrees that they have sufficient amount of work and they do not feel any stress where 20 % of them agrees. 12% of the sample is neutral.14% of them disagrees they don’t have suffient amount of work or they are overloaded with the work given.

Table 1.16: Showing Satisfying Family / Personal Responsibilities

STRONGLY AGREED AGREED NEUTRAL DISAGREE STRONGLY DISAGREE TOTAL

40 20 12 14 14 100

Chart 1.10: Showing Satisfying Family / Personal Responsibilities

Interpretation:

44% of them strongly disagree that they are not able to complete their job, family and personal responsibilities. 27 % to 12 % agrees to it and 8% is neutral to that. It shows that employees are not satisfied with the amount of work given to them.

Table 1.17: Showing Weighted Average on Personal Expression / Diversity

X 1 2 3 4 5

My ideas and opinions count at work. (X1) 03 18 19 32 28

I am comfortable sharing my opinions at work. (X2) 10 08 28 42 12

We work to attract, develop, and retain people with diverse backgrounds. (X3) 10 13 09 56 12

Senior management is genuinely interested in employee opinions and ideas. (X4) 24 23 36 07 10

People with different ideas are valued in this organization. (X5) 20 18 40 13 09

Table 1.18: Calculation Of Weighted Average on Personal Expression / Diversity

X1 ?? X1 X2 ?? X2 X3 ?? X3 X4 ?? X4 X5 ?? X5

3 15 10 50 10 50 24 120 20 100

18 72 08 32 13 52 23 92 18 72

19 57 28 84 09 27 36 108 40 120

32 64 42 84 56 112 07 14 13 26

28 26 12 12 12 12 10 10 09 09

TOTAL 234 TOTAL 262 TOTAL 253 TOTAL 344 TOTAL 327

234/100 2.34 262/100 2.62 253/100 2.53 344/100 3.44 327/100 3.27

RANKED 5 RANKED 3 RANKED 4 RANKED 1 RANKED 2

Table 1.19: Showing The Rank Of Each Component of Personal Expression / Diversity

INFERRENCE

By analysing the above table it shows that senior management is interested in personal opinions which shows the rank 1. And people with different ideas are valued in the organisation are considered 3.27 out of 5. Employees are free to share their ideas 2.62. the employees work in such a manner to attract and retain others 2.53 ,which has got the 4th rank. Ideas counted at work has got the least rank where they have to work on that part.

Table 1.20: Showing Idea And Opinion Count

STRONGLY AGREED AGREED NEUTRAL DISAGREE STRONGLY DISAGREE TOTAL

3 18 19 32 28 100

Chart 1.11: : Showing Idea And Opinion Count

Interpretation:

Only 3% of the employees agree that the management listens to their ideas and opinions. 18% of them agree to it as well. 19 % is neutral to the situation. Whereas there is a huge no of the sample size that is32% to 28% who is disagreeing to it. Their opinions and ideas are not taken seriously by the management.

Table 1.21: Showing Level Comfort in Sharing Opinions

STRONGLY AGREED AGREED NEUTRAL DISAGREE STRONGLY DISAGREE TOTAL

10 8 28 42 12 100

Chart 1.12 : Showing Level Comfort in Sharing Opinions

Interpretation:

The conducted shows that onl10% to 8% employees are comfortable in sharing their problems with the upper management. Rest of the sample that is 42% is disagreeing that they are not comfortable in sharing their ideas or problems.12% of them strongly disagrees.

Table 1.22: Showing The Work They Do Is To Attract , Develop And Retain

STRONGLY AGREED AGREED NEUTRAL DISAGREE STRONGLY DISAGREE TOTAL

10 13 9 56 12 100

Chart 1.13: Showing The Work They Do Is To Attract , Develop And Retain

Interpretation:

56% of the employees disagrees that they don’t work to attract ,develop or retain customers. Where 10% to 13% agrees to the statement . a little sample size of 12% strongly disagrees to the statement .

Table 1.23: Showing Senior Management Interest In Employee Opinion And Ideas

STRONGLY AGREED AGREED NEUTRAL DISAGREE STRONGLY DISAGREE TOTAL

24 23 26 7 10 100

Chart 1.14: Showing Senior Management Interest In Employee Opinion And Ideas

Interpretation

The management shows interest in taking employees ideas and opinions.24% of them agrees and 23% of the strongly agrees to the statement. A huge sample ,36% id neutral to the statement. But a little sample, 7% to 10% disagrees to the statement.

Table 1.24: Showing People With Different Ideas Are Valued

STRONGLY AGREED AGREED NEUTRAL DISAGREE STRONGLY DISAGREE TOTAL

20 18 40 13 9 100

Chart 1.15: Showing People With Different Ideas Are Valued

Interpretation:

20% to 18% of the employees agree that people with different ideas are well accepted in the organization. 40% to the employees are neutral to the statement. 13 % to 9% of the sample disagrees to the statement on the other hand.

Table 1.25: Showing Weighted Average On Compensation

X 1 2 3 4 5

I am paid fairly for the work I do. (X1) 19 42 12 25 2

My salary is competitive with similar jobs I might find elsewhere.(X2) 32 12 28 23 5

My benefits are comparable to those offered by other organizations.(X3) 8 29 28 32 3

I understand my benefit plan. (X4) 42 15 19 9 15

I am satisfied with my benefit package. (X5) 58 12 11 6 13

Table 1.26: Calculation Of Weighted Average On Compensation

X1 vX1 X2 ?? X2 X3 ?? X3 X4 ?? X4 X5 ?? X5

19 95 32 160 08 40 42 210 58 290

42 168 12 48 29 116 15 60 12 48

12 36 28 84 28 84 19 57 11 33

25 50 23 46 32 64 09 18 06 12

02 02 05 05 03 03 15 15 13 13

TOTAL 351 TOTAL 343 TOTAL 307 TOTAL 360 TOTAL 396

Table 1.27: Showing The Rank Of Each Component Of Compensation

351/100 3.51 343/100 3.43 307/100 3.07 360/100 3.60 396/100 3.96

RANKED 3 RANKED 4 RANKED 5 RANKED 2 RANKED 1

INFERENCES

The above table shows that the employees are satisfied with the benefit package they are given 3.96 out of 5.the employees understand their plan is 3.60. the fair pay is ranked 3rd.the employees salary is competitive with others is ranked 4th. The salary is not comparable with salary with others which has been ranked the least, rank 5.

Table 1.28: showing Fair Pay

STRONGLY AGREED AGREED NEUTRAL DISAGREE STRONGLY DISAGREE TOTAL

19 42 12 25 2 100

Chart 1.16: Showing Fair Pay

Interpretation:

19% to 42% of the Employees agree that they are paid fairly according to the amount of work they do. But 25% to 2% of the sample size disagrees to the statement. And 12% is neutral to it.

Table 1.29: Showing Salary Competitiveness

STRONGLY AGREED AGREED NEUTRAL DISAGREE STRONGLY DISAGREE TOTAL

32 12 28 23 5 100

Chart 1.17: Showing Salary Competitiveness

Interpretation:

32% of the employees agrees that they get a competitive salary when compared to other organizations with same designation. 12% of them strongly agrees to it .28% of them are neutral to the statement. 23% to 5% is disagrees to the statement in the other hand.

Table 1.30: Showing Comparability Of Benefits

STRONGLY AGREED AGREED NEUTRAL DISAGREE STRONGLY DISAGREE TOTAL

8 29 28 32 3 100

Chart 1.18: Showing Comparability Of Benefits

Interpretation:

There is balance, 29% of the employees agrees and 32 % of them strongly disagrees that they have a comparable benefits.28% of them are neutral in the other hand.

Table 1.31: Showing Understanding Of Benefit Plan

STRONGLY AGREED AGREED NEUTRAL DISAGREE STRONGLY DISAGREE TOTAL

42 15 19 9 15 100

Chart 1.19: Showing Understanding Of Benefit Plan

Interpretation:

42% of the employees agrees that they understand their benefit plan. 15% strongly agrees ,where 19% is neutral.9% to 15% disagrees to the fact and says they don’t understand the benefit plans they are given.

Table 1.32: Showing Satisfaction With Benefit Package

STRONGLY AGREED AGREED NEUTRAL DISAGREE STRONGLY DISAGREE TOTAL

58 12 11 6 13 100

Chart 1.20: Showing Satisfaction With Benefit Package

Interpretation:

58% of them are satisfied with their benefit package. 12% strongly agrees. Whereas little sample of 6% to 13% disagrees to the statement. Or they are not happy with their benefit package.11% is neutral to it.

Summary of Findings

‘ Most of the employee’s ability state the opinion firmly and positively is better than acceptable standards.

‘ Majority of the employee’s ability in exercising the professional duties without assistance is better than acceptable standard.

‘ The Emotional Stamina of the majority of the employees is better than acceptable standard.

‘ Majority of the Employee’s Ability to work co-operatively and collaboratively to achieve common goal is better than acceptable.

‘ Majority of the employees Ability to effectively guide a group through an appropriate process to help to achieve their desired outcomes is better than acceptable standard.

‘ Majority of the employee’s ability to clarify and establish with a group roles and responsibilities, common goal and plan to achieve them and group behavioural is outstanding.

‘ Majority of the employees Ability to deal with multiple issues and details, alertness and learning capacity is better than acceptable standard.

‘ Majority of the employee’s ability to see and think beyond the obvious and formulate original solution is better than acceptable standards.

‘ Majority of the employee’s ability to present ideas, concept, plan and procedure clearly to the target group is better than acceptable standard.

‘ Concern for excellence of the majority of the employee’s is better than acceptable standard.

‘ Majority of the employee’s Aware of what is going on in the workplace and responds in a suitable manner to situations as they is better than acceptable.

‘ The understanding between the top level and employees are in good terms.

‘ Employees do understand their benefits and opportunities given by the organisation.

‘ The employees are paid fairly according to the work done.

‘ Freedom of sharing new ideas and opinions are welcomed in the organisation.

‘ The employees are able to make a balance between personnel and work life. which reduces the amount of stress in them.

‘ The organisation encourages the employee to learn from their mistakes.

‘ Recommendations

‘ In this organization employee engagement study must be regularly done in order to check the level of employee effectiveness.

‘ Since many of the employees are performing different jobs to what they were doing at the time of their joining they need training to perform the new work allotted them.

‘ Different sources of employee engagement tactics must be encouraged in employees.

‘ The top management should support the lower level employees since it is considered a major hurdle in effective employee engagement and the employees must also be made aware of importance of engagement at work system

‘ The employees should be then and there motivated for work.

‘ The understanding between management and employees should be increased.

‘ Level of stress in work should be reduced.

‘ Better benefit package should be given to the employees.

Conclusion

In the report we have discussed the importance of employee engagement in an organization and how it affects the efficiency of work and productivity. Employment counselors should help individuals to maximize their career engagement at any stage of their career. Basically employee engagement should be a buzz word for the employee engagement and a positive attitude held by the employees towards the organization. Employee engagement is gaining its importance and popularity in work places and its impact in many ways. It emphasis on the importance of employee engagement in a organization, an organization should thus give more importance for its employees than any other variable as they are the powerful contributors to a company’s competitiveness. Thus it shows that employee engagement should be a continues process for learning, improvement, measurement and action of an employee.

[supanova_question]

The limitations of the Chit Acts essay help service

1.1 BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY

The financial system assumes strategically a very important role in channelling the funds from surplus units to deficit units. The financial system here refers to the group of institutions, markets and instruments which helps in formation of capital and thus accelerates to the pace of economic development.

The base of this study stems from the fact that there exists a gap between gross capital formation and gross domestic savings in India. So, there exists the need to augment the growth rate of voluntary domestic savings. This goal can be realized by widening and strengthening the working of different financial intermediaries which will result in mobilizing savings from various income level categories. .It is in this context that the role of the Non-Banking Financial Intermediaries like Chit Finance should be appreciated in supplementing the functions of the Banking Institutions.

Chit funds are Chit funds are the Indian equivalent of the Rotating Savings and Credit Associations (ROSCA). ROSCAs are famous in many parts of the world and is seen as an instrument to ‘save and borrow’ simultaneously. ROSCAs basically started as a way to help in fulfilling the needs of the low-income households as it enables the people to convert their small savings into lump sums. The concept of chit funds originated more than 1000 years ago. Initially it was in the form of an informal association of traders and households within communities, wherein the members contributed some money in return for an accumulated sum at the end of the tenure. Participation in Chit funds was mainly for the purpose of purchasing some property or, in other words, for ‘consumption’ purposes. However, in recent times, there have been tremendous alterations in the constitution and functioning of Chit funds. A significant difference between Chit Funds and ROSCAs are that in most places ROSCAs are user-owned and organized informally, but chit funds have been formally institutionalized in India. (Chit Funds-An innovative access to finance for low income households, 2009)

1.1.1 WHAT DO WE MEAN BY CHIT FUNDS?

Chit fund is a savings-cum-borrowing instrument. The basic aim of this instrument is to pool small amount of savings by all the members which is then managed by a foreman. The foreman has the responsibility to act as a trustee-cum-supervisors for the process of collection and allotment of the pooled amount.

Chit funds represent a traditional form of saving-cum-credit institution evolved before the bank system was introduced in rural India. There are many who avail themselves of this avenue for saving for a reasonable return.

1.1 NEED AND RATIONALE OF THE STUDY

Despite the growth of a wide range of savings avenues and the widespread network of banks and other financial institutions, it has been found that Chit scheme still forms an important part in the asset portfolio of many households and firms in India and especially in South India including Karnataka. Also, the review of literature shows that there are only a few studies on Chit Finance. Therefore, the need to conduct the study stems from the requirement to understand Chit Funds in Bangalore.

1.2 NEED TO CONDUCT THE STUDY

The research titled ‘A Study on Chit Funds in Bangalore to understand the behaviour and financial needs of the chit fund members as well as to identify the important predictors of regular participation in chit funds’ The study estimates the net returns and interest rate on Chit funds. This study tries to point out the limitations of the Chit Acts and suggests feasible recommendations for improving the working of such institutions.

.3.2 STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM

‘A Study on Chit Funds in Bangalore to understand the behaviour and financial needs of the chit fund members as well as to identify the important predictors of regular participation in chit funds’.

VARIABLES UNDER INVESTIGATION

1. Age

2. Occupation

3. Monthly income

4. Gender

5. Bank loan

6. Regular participation in chit fund

7. Membership in multiple chit schemes

8. Cause for participating in multiple schemes

9. Preferred avenue of saving

10. Preferred source of finance

11. Safety

12. Better service

13. Flexibility

14. Timely Payment

15. Low commission

16. Personal contact

17. Unregistered chit funds membership

18. Cause for participating in unregistered chit funds

19. Cause for not participating in unregistered chit fund

3.5 OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDY

3.5.1 OBJECTIVE(PRIMARY)

1. To understand the behaviour and financial needs of the chit fund members.

2. To identify the important predictors behind chit fund participation

3.5.2 OHER OBJECTIVES OF RESEARCH

1. To estimate interest rates in registered chit funds.

2. To compare the relative ratings of Chit subscribers towards registered and unregistered chit funds on

3. To estimate the return on Chit Funds.

3.6 HYPOTHESIS

There are two types of statistical hypotheses.

1. Null hypothesis

2. Alternative hypothesis.

Hypothesis 1:

H0: There is no significant relation between gender and cause for participation in chit fund.

H1: There is significant relation between gender and cause for participation in chit fund.

Hypothesis 2:

H0: There is no significant relation between occupation and cause for participation in chit fund.

H1: There is significant relation between occupation and cause for participation in chit fund.

Hypothesis 3:

H0: There is no significant relation between age and causes for participation in chit fund

H1: There is significant relation between age and cause for participation in chit fund

Hypothesis 4:

H0: There is no significant relation between monthly income and cause for participation in chit fund

H1: There is significant relation between monthly income and cause for participation in chit fund

Hypothesis 5:

H0: There is no significant relation between gender and causes for bidding in chit fund

H1: There is significant relation between gender and cause for bidding in chit fund

Hypothesis 6:

H0: There is no significant relation between occupation and cause for bidding in chit fund

H1: There is significant relation between occupation and cause for bidding in chit fund

Hypothesis 7:

H0: There is no significant relation between age and cause for bidding in chit fund

H1: There is significant relation between age and cause for bidding in chit fund

Hypothesis 8:

H0: There is no significant relation between monthly income and cause for bidding in chit fund

H1: There is significant relation between monthly income and cause for bidding in chit fund

Hypothesis 9:

H0: There is no significant relation between gender and cause for saving in chit fund

H1: There is significant relation between gender and cause for saving in chit fund

Hypothesis 10:

H0: There is no significant relation between occupation and cause for saving in chit fund.

H1: There is significant relation between occupation and cause for saving in chit fund.

Hypothesis 11:

H0: There is no significant relation between age and cause for saving in chit fund

H1: There is significant relation between age and cause for saving in chit fund

Hypothesis 12:

H0: There is no significant relation between having bank loan and membership in multiple chit schemes.

H1: There is significant relation between having bank loan and membership in multiple chit schemes.

Hypothesis 13:

H0: There is no significant relation between monthly income and participation in unregistered chit funds

H1: There is significant relation between monthly income and participation in unregistered chit funds

Hypothesis 14 :

H0: There is no significant relation between causes to prefer chit fund over bank and having bank loan.

H1: There is significant relation between causes to prefer chit fund over bank and having bank loan.

Hypothesis 15:

H0: Presence of safety, flexibility, timely payment, low commission, better service, personal contact, having a bank loan are no significant predictors of regular participation in chit fund.

H1: Presence of safety, flexibility, timely payment, low commission, better service, personal contact ,having a bank loan,are significant predictors of regular participation in chit fund.

.

3.8 SAMPLING METHOD

Members of four registered chit fund companies in Bangalore. The four registered chit fund companies were selected due to the large size of their subscriber base.

3.8.3 SIZE OF SAMPLE

150 respondents

3.9 MECHANISM OF STUDY

3.9.1 PRIMARY RESEARCH

Questions relating to behaviour and financial pattern will be found out through questionnares

3.9.2 SECONDARY RESEARCH

‘ Reports on chit fund industry

OVERVIEW OF INDIAN CHIT FUND INDUSTRY

4.1.1 NUMBER OF REGISTERED CHIT FUND COMPANIES:

According to the Ministry of Corporate Affairs, as on 31st December, 2013:

Volume of registered chit companies: 5412

Volume of chit companies in Karnataka: 703

Number of chit fund companies in Bangalore: 315

UNREGISTERED CHIT FUND INDUSTRY

Although unregistered chits are an informal source of finance but still they are a significant part of the chit fund industry. Though they are more easily accessible as compared to registered chit funds.

4.3 PURPOSE OF THE STUDY

The study titled ‘A Study on Chit Funds in Bangalore to understand the behaviour and financial needs of the chit fund members as well as to identify the important predictors of regular participation in chit funds’ attempt in The study estimates the net returns and interest rate on Chit funds. This study also examines the limitations of the Chit Acts and suggests suitable recommendations for improving the functioning of such institutions.

4.4 LIMITATION OF STUDY

‘ Unwillingness of the members to share their income and financial details made the task of data collection somewhat difficult.

‘ Collecting data became difficult since I don’t know the regional languages.

5.2 ANALYSIS OF DATA

The analysis is done on the primary data collected from 150 chit funds members in Bangalore

TESTING OF HYPOTHESES

5.4.1 Hypothesis 1:

H0: There is no significant relation between gender and cause for participation in chit fund.

H1: There is significant relation between gender and cause for participation in chit fund.

Chi-Square Tests

Value df Asymp. Sig. (2-sided)

Pearson Chi-Square 31.070a 16 .013

Likelihood Ratio 35.945 16 .003

Linear-by-Linear Association 8.809 1 .003

N of Valid Cases 150

a. 1 cells (10.0%) have expected count less than 5. The minimum expected count is .30.

Symmetric Measures

Value Approx. Sig.

Nominal by Nominal Phi .455 .013

Cramer’s V .228 .013

N of Valid Cases 150

a. Not assuming the null hypothesis.

b. Using the asymptotic standard error assuming the null hypothesis.

INTERPRETATION:

The value of chi-square=31.070 was p=.013, less than 0.05.

We can see that the strength of association between the variables is moderate (Phi and Cramer’s V -0.455).

Therefore, the research hypothesis that differences in ’cause to participate in chit funds’ are related to differences in ‘age” is supported by this analysis. This means that different age groups of the chit fund members have different reasons of participating in chit funds. As can be seen from the table above that those who belong to ’36-45 years’ have saving as the predominant reason to participate whereas members of other age groups do not have any dominant reason to participate.

5.4.2 Hypothesis 2:

Hypothesis 2:

H0: There is no significant relation between occupation and cause for participation in chit fund.

H1: There is significant relation between occupation and cause for participation in chit fund.

Hypothesis 3:

. Hypothesis 3:

H0: There is no significant relation between age and causes for participation in chit fund

H1: There is significant relation between age and cause for participation in chit fund

Chi-Square Tests

Value df Asymp. Sig. (2-sided)

Pearson Chi-Square 10.018a 4 .040

Likelihood Ratio 10.478 4 .033

Linear-by-Linear Association 6.876 1 .009

N of Valid Cases 150

Symmetric Measures

Value Approx. Sig.

Nominal by Nominal Phi .258 .040

Cramer’s V .258 .040

N of Valid Cases 150

a. Not assuming the null hypothesis.

a. Using the asymptotic standard error assuming the null hypothesis.

INTERPRETATION:

The value of chi-square=10.018 was p=.040, less than 0.05.

.We can see that the strength of association between the variables is weak (0.258)

Therefore, the research hypothesis that differences in ’cause to participate in chit funds’ are related to differences in ‘gender” is supported by this analysis. This means that males and females have different reasons of participating in chit funds. As it can be seen that males participate in chit funds for business and personal consumption purposes apart from saving whereas women predominantly participate to save.

5.4

Hypothesis 4:

H0: There is no significant relation between monthly income and cause for participation in chit fund

H1: There is significant relation between monthly income and cause for participation in chit fund

Chi-Square Tests

Value df Asymp. Sig. (2-sided)

Pearson Chi-Square 82.176a 12 .000

Likelihood Ratio 97.665 12 .000

Linear-by-Linear Association 15.696 1 .000

N of Valid Cases 150

Symmetric Measures

Value Approx. Sig.

Nominal by Nominal Phi .740 .000

Cramer’s V .427 .000

N of Valid Cases 150

INTERPRETATION:

We can see that the strength of association between the variables is strong (0.740)

Therefore, the research hypothesis that differences in ‘reason to participate in chit funds’ are related to differences in ‘occupation” is supported by this analysis. It can be seen that the self-employed members mainly participate to avail for business reasons whereas salaried employee participate mainly for personal consumption purposes.

Hypothesis 5:

Hypothesis 5:

H0: There is no significant relation between gender and causes for bidding in chit fund

H1: There is significant relation between gender and cause for bidding in chit fund

Chi-Square Tests

Value df Asymp. Sig. (2-sided)

Pearson Chi-Square 66.691a 20 .000

Likelihood Ratio 43.579 20 .002

Linear-by-Linear Association 4.804 1 .028

N of Valid Cases 150

a. 1 cell (10.0%) has expected count less than 5. The minimum expected count is .07.

Symmetric Measures

Value Approx. Sig.

Nominal by Nominal Phi .667 .000

Cramer’s V .333 .000

N of Valid Cases 150

a. Not assuming the null hypothesis.

b. Using the asymptotic standard error assuming the null hypothesis.

INTERPRETATION:

The (chi-square=66.691) was p=.000, less than 0.05.

We can see that the strength of association between the variables is moderately strong (0.667)

Therefore, the research hypothesis that differences in ’cause to bid in chit funds’ are related to differences in ‘age” is supported by this analysis. It can be seen that the members of age group’36-45 years’ are more interested in bidding for business related purposes where members of other age groups bid mainly for emergency needs.

5.4.6 Hypothesis 6:

. Hypothesis 6:

H0: There is no significant relation between occupation and cause for bidding in chit fund

H1: There is significant relation between occupation and cause for bidding in chit fund

Chi-Square Tests

Value df Asymp. Sig. (2-sided)

Pearson Chi-Square 7.167a 5 .209

Likelihood Ratio 7.885 5 .163

Linear-by-Linear Association 1.120 1 .290

N of Valid Cases 150

a. 5 cells (41.7%) have expected count less than 5. The minimum expected count is .81.

Symmetric Measures

Value Approx. Sig.

Nominal by Nominal Phi .219 .209

Cramer’s V .219 .209

N of Valid Cases 150

a. Not assuming the null hypothesis.

b. Using the asymptotic standard error assuming the null hypothesis.

INTERPRETATION:

The probability of the chi-square test statistic (chi-square=7.167) was p=.209, more than the alpha level of significance of 0.05.

Therefore, the research hypothesis that differences in ‘reason to bid in chit funds’ are related to differences in ‘gender” is not supported by this analysis.

5.4.7 Hypothesis 7:

Hypothesis 7:

H0: There is no significant relation between age and cause for bidding in chit fund

H1: There is significant relation between age and cause for bidding in chit fund

Chi-Square Tests

Value df Asymp. Sig. (2-sided)

Pearson Chi-Square 180.915a 15 .000

Likelihood Ratio 160.460 15 .000

Linear-by-Linear Association 28.379 1 .000

N of Valid Cases 150

a. 1 cell (10.0%) has expected count less than 5. The minimum expected count is .13.

Symmetric Measures

Value Approx. Sig.

Nominal by Nominal Phi 1.098 .000

Cramer’s V .634 .000

N of Valid Cases 150

INTERPRETATION:

The (chi-square=180.915) was p=.000, less than 0.05.

We can see that the strength of association between the variables is extremely strong (1.098)

Therefore, the research hypothesis that differences in’ are related to differences in ‘occupation” is supported by this analysis. It can be clearly seen that self-employed people bid in chit scheme mostly for business purposes, salaried people for emergency needs and housewives for household purposes.

5.4.8 Hypothesis 8:

Hypothesis 8:

H0: There is no significant relation between monthly income and cause for bidding in chit fund

H1: There is significant relation between monthly income and cause for bidding in chit fund

Chi-Square Tests

Value df Asymp. Sig. (2-sided)

Pearson Chi-Square 123.331a 35 .000

Likelihood Ratio 106.298 35 .000

Linear-by-Linear Association 4.957 1 .026

N of Valid Cases 150

INTERPRETATION:

The probability of the chi-square test statistic (chi-square=123.331) was p=.000, less than the alpha level of significance of 0.05.

We can see that the strength of association between the variables is extremely strong (.907)

Therefore, the research hypothesis that differences in ‘reason to bid in chit funds’ are related to differences in ‘income” is supported by this analysis. It can be clearly seen that low income members bid mostly for consumption reasons whereas higher income members bid for business related and emergency purposes.

SUMMARY:

Reason to bid in chit fund has the strongest association with the occupation of the chit fund members as the probability of the chi-square test statistic (chi-square=180.915) was p=.000 and the strength of association between the variables is extremely strong (1.098).

5.4.

Hypothesis 9:

H0: There is no significant relation between gender and cause for saving in chit fund

H1: There is significant relation between gender and cause for saving in chit fund

Chi-Square Tests

Value df Asymp. Sig. (2-sided)

Pearson Chi-Square 21.702a 16 .153

Likelihood Ratio 23.775 16 .095

Linear-by-Linear Association 2.397 1 .122

N of Valid Cases 150

INTERPRETATION:

The chi-square=123.331) was p=.153, more than 0.05. Therefore, the research hypothesis that differences in ’cause to save in chit funds’ are related to differences in ‘age” is not supported by this analysis.

5.4.10 Hypothesis 10:

H0: There is no significant relation between occupation and cause for saving in chit fund.

H1: There is significant relation between occupation and cause for saving in chit fund.

Chi-Square Tests

Value df Asymp. Sig. (2-sided)

Pearson Chi-Square 20.510a 4 .000

Likelihood Ratio 29.038 4 .000

Linear-by-Linear Association 7.062 1 .008

N of Valid Cases 150

a. 1 cell (10.0%) has expected count less than 5. The minimum expected count is .81.

Symmetric Measures

Value Approx. Sig.

Nominal by Nominal Phi .370 .000

Cramer’s V .370 .000

N of Valid Cases 150

a. Not assuming the null hypothesis.

b. Using the asymptotic standard error assuming the null hypothesis.

INTERPRETATION:

The chi-square=20.510) was p=.000, less than 0.05.

We can see that the strength of association between the variables is weak (.370).Therefore, the research hypothesis that differences in ’cause to save in chit funds’ are related to differences in ‘gender” is supported by this analysis.

5.4.11 Hypothesis 11:

Hypothesis 11:

H0: There is no significant relation between age and cause for saving in chit fund

H1: There is significant relation between age and cause for saving in chit fund

Chi-Square Tests

Value df Asymp. Sig. (2-sided)

Pearson Chi-Square 67.261a 12 .000

Likelihood Ratio 60.380 12 .000

Linear-by-Linear Association 9.507 1 .002

N of Valid Cases 150

a. 1 cell (10.0%) has expected count less than 5. The minimum expected count is .13.

Symmetric Measures

Value Approx. Sig.

Nominal by Nominal Phi .670 .000

Cramer’s V .387 .000

N of Valid Cases 150

INTERPRETATION:

The chi-square=67.261 was p=.000, less than 0.05.

We can see that the strength of association between the variables is moderately strong(.670).Therefore, the research hypothesis that differences in ‘reason to cause in chit funds’ are related to differences in ‘occupation” is supported by this analysis. Salaried people save their money in chit fund with no particular purpose. But self-employed people are equally interested in saving for house purchase as well as for general purpose.

SUMMARY:

chit fund is most closely associated with occupation of the chit fund members as it has the highest value of chi-square statistic and Phi coefficient.

5.4.12 Hypothesis 12:

Hypothesis 12:

H0: There is no significant relation between having bank loan and membership in multiple chit schemes.

H1: There is significant relation between having bank loan and membership in multiple chit schemes.

Chi-Square Tests

Value df Asymp. Sig. (2-sided)

Pearson Chi-Square 56.697a 3 .000

Likelihood Ratio 67.900 3 .000

Linear-by-Linear Association 36.400 1 .000

N of Valid Cases 150

INTERPRETATION:

The probability of the chi-square test statistic (chi-square=56.697) was p=.000, less than the alpha level of significance of 0.05.

We can see that the strength of association between the variables is strong (.615).

Therefore, the research hypothesis that differences in ‘membership in multiple chit schemes are related to differences in ‘having currently bank loan” is supported by this analysis. It is clearly evident that those members currently having bank loan have invested in only one chit scheme whereas those members who do not have availed bank loan have invested in more than one chit schemes.

5.4.13 Hypothesis 13:

Hypothesis 13:

H0: There is no significant relation between monthly income and participation in unregistered chit funds

H1: There is significant relation between monthly income and participation in unregistered chit funds

.

Chi-Square Tests

Value df Asymp. Sig. (2-sided)

Pearson Chi-Square 96.660a 7 .000

Likelihood Ratio 85.378 7 .000

Linear-by-Linear Association 59.577 1 .000

N of Valid Cases 150

a. 1 cell(10.0%) has expected count less than 5. The minimum expected count is 1.08.

INTERPRETATION:

The chi-square=96.660 was p=.000, less than 0.05.

We can see that the strength of association between the variables is extremely strong (.803).

Therefore, the research hypothesis that differences in ‘participation in unregistered chit funds’ are related to differences in ‘income” is supported by this analysis. It is clearly evident that mostly low- income members have participated in unregistered funds. This is because the registered funds have become expensive due to the increase in their operational cost as a result of stringent regulations.

5.2.14 Hypothesis 14 :

H0: There is no significant relation between causes to prefer chit fund over bank and having bank loan.

H1: There is significant relation between causes to prefer chit fund over bank and having bank loan

Chi-Square Tests

Value df Asymp. Sig. (2-sided)

Pearson Chi-Square 28.049a 5 .000

Likelihood Ratio 31.806 5 .000

Linear-by-Linear Association 2.967 1 .085

N of Valid Cases 150

a. 2 cells (15.0%) have expected count less than 5. The minimum expected count is 1.79.

Symmetric Measures

Value Approx. Sig.

Nominal by Nominal Phi .432 .000

Cramer’s V .432 .000

N of Valid Cases 150

INTERPRETATION:

The probability of the chi-square test statistic (chi-square=28.049) was p=.000, less than the alpha level of significance of 0.05.

We can see that the strength of association between the variables is moderate (.432).

Therefore, the research hypothesis that differences in ’cause to prefer chit fund over bank’ are related to differences in ‘having bank loan” is supported by this analysis. It is clearly evident that members who have bank loan have preferred chit fund over bank mainly due to better dividends. But those who do not have bank loan prefer chit fund over bank mainly due to better service in terms of more personalized service.)

5.2..15 Hypothesis 15: To identify significant predictors of regular participation in chit funds using Binary Logistic Regression

Hypothesis 15:

H0: Presence of safety, flexibility, timely payment, low commission, better service, personal contact, having a bank loan are no significant predictors of regular participation in chit fund.

H1: Presence of safety, flexibility, timely payment, low commission, better service, personal contact ,having a bank loan,are significant predictors of regular participation in chit fund.

Variables in the Equation

B S.E. Wald df Sig. Exp(B)

Step 0 Constant -1.046 .186 31.574 1 .000 .351

Model Summary

Step -2 Log likelihood Cox & Snell R Square Nagelkerke R Square

1 37.170a .533 .576

a. Estimation terminated at iteration number 6 because parameter estimates changed by less than .001.

Variables in the Equation

B S.E. Wald df Sig. Exp(B)

Step 1a bank_loan(1) 1.068 1.265 14.715 1 .000 11.720

reason_2 2.286 4 .683

reason_2(1) 1.336 1.077 1.540 1 .215 3.805

reason_2(2) .134 2.239 .004 1 .952 1.143

reason_2(3) -.559 1.896 .087 1 .768 .572

reason_2(4) .731 1.347 .294 1 .588 2.076

reason_3 4.874 5 .431

reason_3(1) 1.188 .924 1.652 1 .199 3.279

reason_3(2) 1.661 2.048 .658 1 .417 5.263

reason_3(3) -1.654 1.228 1.813 1 .178 .191

reason_3(4) .404 1.192 .115 1 .735 1.497

reason_3(5) -17.379 20.722 .000 1 .700 .000

reason_4 .355 4 .986

reason_4(1) -1.047 1.850 .320 1 .571 .351

reason_4(2) -.839 1.979 .180 1 .672 .432

reason_4(3) -.932 1.637 .324 1 .569 .394

reason_4(4) 3.519 4.199 .000 1 .600 3.746

reason_5 8.553 5 .128

reason_5(1) -.254 1.768 .021 1 .886 .776

reason_5(2) -19.245 9.890 .000 1 .999 .000

reason_5(3) 1.420 1.338 1.126 1 .289 4.136

reason_5(4) -.747 1.306 .327 1 .567 .474

reason_5(5) .561 1.342 .174 1 .676 1.752

B S.E. Wald df Sig. Exp(B)

Step 1a Safety -.075 .320 4.377 1 .011 0.928

Flexi -.178 .426 3.337 1 .021 0.837

commision -.185 .188 1.868 1 .026 0.831

payment -.267 .178 1.657 1 .097 0.766

service -.859 .412 1.348 1 .083 0.424

personal -1.122 .163 .996 1 .079 0.329

Constant 3.058 2.440 1.571 1 .010 21.291

a. Variable(s) entered on step 1: : bank_loan, reason_2, reason_3, reason_4, reason_5.imp1, imp2, imp3, imp4, imp5, imp6.

INTERPRETATION:

‘ -2 Log Likelihood statistic is 37.170. This statistic how poorly the model predicts the decisions — the smaller the statistic the better the model. Since, 37.170 is a relatively small number therefore, this model is able to predict the decisions in a better way.

‘ Here Cox & Snell R Square statistic indicates that 53.3% of the variation in the regular participation in chit funds is explained by the logistic model.

‘ In our case Nagelkerke R Square is 0.576, indicating a moderate relationship of 57.6 % between the predictors and the prediction.

‘ If it is less than .05 then, we will reject the null hypothesis and accept the alternative hypothesis.

‘ In this case, we can see that bank loan, safety, flexibility and low commission have contributed signi’cantly to the prediction of regular participation in chit funds but other variables are not significant predictors of regular participation in chit funds.

‘ Since only bank loan has p=.000, therefore we can say that bank loan is the most significant predictor

among other significant predictors. This is followed by safety (p=.011), flexibility (p=.021) and low commission (p=.026).

‘ Here, the EXP (B) bank loan is 11.727. Hence when bank loan is availed by one unit (one person) the odds ratio is 11 times as large and therefore people are 11 more times likely not to regularly participate in chit funds.

‘ Here, the EXP (B) with safety is .928. Hence when safety is increased by one percent the odds ratio is .928 times as large and therefore people are .928 more times likely to regularly participate in chit funds.

‘ Here, the EXP (B) flexibility is 837. Hence when flexibility is increased by one percent the odds ratio is .928 times as large and therefore people are .837 more times likely to regularly participate in chit funds.

‘ Here, the EXP (B) low commission is .831. Hence when flexibility is increased by one percent the odds ratio is .928 times as large and therefore people are .831 more times likely to regularly participate in chit funds.

SUMMARY

Bank loan is the most significant predictor of regular participation in chit funds. This is followed by safety, flexibility and low commission.

Instalment no No of months remaining Monthly subscription Prize amount PV of monthly subscription(PV of outlow at 10%) PV of Prize amount(PV of inflow at 10%) Net Present Value(PV of inflow – PV of outflow)

1 24 2000 50000 2000 50000 10444.9

2 23 1500 35000 1488.1 34723.1 -4832.0

3 22 1500 35000 1476.4 34448.4 -5106.7

4 21 1500 35000 1464.7 34175.9 -5379.2

5 20 1500 35000 1453.1 33905.5 -5649.6

6 19 1500 35000 1441.6 33637.3 -5917.8

7 18 1500 35000 1430.2 33371.2 -6183.9

8 17 1500 35000 1418.9 33107.2 -6447.9

9 16 1620 38000 1520.3 35660.6 -3894.5

10 15 1620 38000 1508.2 35378.5 -4176.6

11 14 1700 40000 1570.2 36945.9 -2609.2

12 13 1700 40000 1557.8 36653.6 -2901.5

13 12 1780 42000 1618.2 38181.8 -1373.3

14 11 1780 42000 1605.4 37879.8 -1675.3

15 10 1780 42000 1592.7 37580.1 -1975.0

16 9 1860 44000 1651.1 39058.2 -496.9

17 8 1860 44000 1638.0 38749.2 -805.9

18 7 1860 44000 1625.1 38442.6 -1112.5

19 6 1940 46000 1681.6 39872.1 317.0

20 5 1940 46000 1668.3 39556.6 1.5

21 4 1940 46000 1655.1 39243.7 -311.4

22 3 1940 46000 1642.0 38933.2 -621.8

23 2 1940 46000 1629.0 38625.2 -929.8

24 1 1940 46000 1616.1 38319.7 -1235.4

25 0 1940 46000 1603.3 38016.5 -1538.6

39555.1 934465.9 -54411.4

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Merit goods common app essay help

Merit goods are goods which will be under-provided by the market, therefore they will be under-consumed. They are thought by the governments to be good for the populations and so the governments want them to be consumed to a great extent. They increase the private and social benefits and cause the social benefit be higher than the private one. The best examples of them, apart from all the public goods, can be the education, health care, sports facilities and the opera.

Although the majority of the merit goods is provided by the private sectors, not all the people can afford buying them, therefore they will be under-consumed. That is why the government is needed to destroy the market failure increasing the supply and consequently raising the consumption.

To explain the reasons for government to provide the merit goods, I need to apply some examples of them. The first one can be the education. It is significant for the governments to provide it so that the society would be well-educated. Governments determine the period of education required for people (the compulsory education) to maintain the proper level of education of the society. The governments find education an important aspect that should be available for everyone as it cause the whole country to have better both economic growth and economic development.

Considering another example such as health care, the situation is quite similar. The governments want to provide the population with it because they care about the high states of health of society in their country. To gain these, the countries need to have high quality of health care. Governments often offer people unpaid programs consisting of preventative medical examination which contribute to maintain the high number of healthy people. This is also connected with the problems of the labour market. The healthier people are, the more efficient their work is, the greater revenue firms have and countries are more developed because of taxations.

Other examples like sport facilities or the opera are meant for people to become physically and culturally developed but their availability is not as important as in the case of the previous examples. That is why they are not as much provided by the governments as the rest of the merit goods.

Although most of the merit goods provided by the governments are free, the fact is that they are paid through the taxes that the societies pay. The number of the merit goods of particular types that the governments provide or subsidize depends on the necessity of them. If they are provided, the societies’ benefits get higher and so is the public treasury of the countries.

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Research proposal: The effect of pregnancy on the adolescent pregnant teen & father easy essay help

Abstract: The purpose for this research paper is to address the adolescent pregnant teen & father and the effects a pregnancy has on both of their lives during and after her pregnancy. How the teens need the support of the family, community, church, and the school system. I will also address the teen father mostly disregarded in any aspect of the teen’s pregnancy and how this affects him, and how both teens need support in our society. How we can address the social problem of teen pregnancy from all avenues.

‘Three issues that have an impact on the pregnant adolescent are discussed education, identity development, and maternal support’ (Turnage & Pharris, 2013). My research focuses on adolescent pregnant teen women 19 years old and younger. It will also reflect the problems of the teen pregnant adolescents journeying thru the process of becoming a teen mother, finishing high school, developing her own identity and the maternal support she gets from her mother during her transition from pregnant teen to motherhood.

‘Several issues that differently influence the pregnant teen is individually based on the female’s chronological age’ (Turnage & Pharris, 2013). ‘For the pregnant adolescent, her pregnancy supersedes high school graduation as the benchmark for her being viewed as an adult’ (Turnage & Pharris, 2013). ‘Failure to graduate high school is associated with poor social and educational outcomes for teen mothers and their children’ (Turnage & Pharris, 2013).

‘While the pregnant adolescent is defining who she is as a person she experiences a transition to the new identity of mother’ (Turnage & Pharris, 2013). ‘During her pregnancy the adolescent’s mother is seen as the primary source of support that contributes to a positive self-image and can assist her in the adapting to the role of parent’ (Turnage & Pharris, 2013).

My research paper will also show how important it is to support the teen during and after pregnancy. It addresses the need for the teen mothers to finish high school, and find her identity. How important it is to have the support system of her mother and family to achieve all of these things. Without these support systems, the pregnant adolescent could end up in poverty, no social skills, homeless and a host of other social problems for her and her baby.

Addressed and examined is teen motherhood and its long-term mental and physical health of the teen mother’ (Patel & Sen, 2012). They used a (PCS) health survey known as SF-12 NLSY79 a study that compared two major comparisons groups of which only teens who experienced teen pregnancy and girls who did not experience teen pregnancy. On average the survey for teen mothers was on average 50.89.

The study to access the health outcome of ‘two major comparison groups, which consisted of women who were only experienced teen pregnancy & women who were having unprotected sexual relation as a teen but did not become pregnant ‘ (Patel & Sen, 2012). Estimated is that teen mothers are more likely to have poor health later in life in the study of all the comparison groups.

Along with support, they desperately need help taking care of an infant as a teen; they need a support system to take notice of how they are managing their health & well-being so that they can be a successful teen parent. In addition, being a teen parent can affect the mother’s mentally as the pressure of being new teen mom can be stressful.

The teen mothers who marry after they give birth to their children statistics state that 30 % of them will not remain in their marriages into their 40’s. This result comes from teen adolescents in a single parent home raising their child. This can put a strain on the teen adolescent because she will financially have to seek support from her family or enter into the welfare system and suffer mental health issues.

‘Adolescent teen mothers identify social support with, parenting and emotional support primary emanating from family members, particularly their own mothers, as well as from the father of the baby (Savio Beers & Lee, 2009)’. ‘Older sisters may play an important role in the support network for adolescent mothers, the supportive sister relationships decrease depressive and anxiety-related symptoms in adolescent mothers (Savio Beers & Lee, 2009).

‘For some adolescent parents, participation in a religious community programs may provide the significant social support and serve as a protective factor’ (Savio Beers & Lee, 2009). This directly stresses the point that without the support of family, community, and church with the support of the father the adolescent teen mother can suffer mental issues, poverty issues, and marriage problems.

We addressed the many issues that teen mothers have to face, so now I would like to address the teen father in our society. What are their concerns on becoming a teen father, and how do they view their role as father where their masculinity is concerned? While most of the research done on teen pregnancy and parenting mainly focusing on the mother, the father is invisible.

Interviewed were 26 young teen fathers in the mid-western American towns. The in depth survey of three themes of gender discord focused on teen father narratives, which took on responsibility, sex, being a man, this is the direct viewpoint of the invisible teen father. What they feel about getting a teen girl pregnant and what responsibility they take in the pregnancy if any. How they relate to getting a teen pregnant and how that affects his identity as a man and their masculinity.

‘Gendered assumptions regarding pregnancy and contraception’specifically that women are in charge of preventing pregnancy and they have the belief that male sexuality is uncontrollable; and that use of love and intimacy talk (Weber, J. B., 2013). The teen fathers that took the questionnaire did not blame themselves for getting the teen girl pregnant. They see the teen’s pregnancy as her problem.

Studies suggest that teen fathers are more likely to be of a minority race. He has a mother who had a baby as a teen; his parents have a minimal education. His parents do not have high expectations of him finishing school; all of these factors result in the likelihood that makes him a candidate to becoming a teenage father. ‘The research states that the teen fathers go to school fewer years less than non-teenage fathers (Fletcher & Wolfe, 2011).

‘Evidence shows that men who have children before marriage leave school earlier and have worse labor markets outcomes’ (Fletcher & Wolfe, 2011). ‘Data was used only on young men who reported a pregnancy as an adolescent’ (Fletcher & Wolfe, 2011). It affects his completion of high school.

It also affects his ability to take care of the teen mother & baby, which causes him to drop out of school early. Statistically, ‘teen fathers work more hours and earn more money following the birth of a child then his non-parent counterparts’ (Fletcher & Wolfe, 2011). Teen fatherhood results in the teen father getting married early or co-habitation with the teen mother.

In conclusion, teen pregnancy is a social problem in the United States both teens will have to suffer in their education, grow up before their time, take on adult responsibilities, and suffer financial problems to take care of the child. Which ultimately falls on the parents of the teens, society or the welfare system in which the teen mother becomes a social statistic or shall I say a number.

Teen pregnancy as of 2014 have been on the decline in the United States and increased in other states, however a positive support system for both teens is minimal at best. Socially as communities, churches and government we have to take an active role in education of abstaining from sex, talking to the teens about sex, and protecting themselves against pregnancy.

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Reconnaissance attacks in IPv6 networks compare and contrast essay help

2.1.1 Reconnaissance attacks in IPv6 networks

The 1st larger attack in IPv6 is usually a reconnaissance attack. An attacker try reconnaissance attacks to get some confidential information about the victim network that can be misused by the attacker in further attacks. For this he uses active methods, such as scanning techniques or data mining strategies. To start, an intruder begins to ping the victim network to determine the IP addresses currently used in the victim network. After getting some of the accessible system, he starts to scan the port to find out any open port in the desired system. The size of subnet is bigger than that of the in IPv4 networks. To perform a scan for the whole subnet an attacker should make 264 probes and that???s impossible. With this fact, IPv6 networks are much more resistant to reconnaissance attacks than IPv4 networks. Unfortunately, there are some addresses which are multicast address in IPv6 networks that help an intruder to identify and attack some resources in the target network.

2.1.2 Security threats related to IPv6 routing headers

As per IPv6 protocol specification, all of the IPv6 nodes must be able to process routing headers. In fact, routing headers can be used to avoid access controls based on destination addresses. Such action can cause security effects. It may be happen that an attacker sends a packet to a publicly accessible address with a routing header containing a ???forbidden??? address on the victim network. In such matter the publicly accessible host will forward the packet to the destination address stated in the routing header even though that destination is already filtered before as a forbidden address. By spoofing packet source addresses an intruder can easily perform denial of service attack with use of any publicly accessible host for redirecting attack packets.

2.1.3 Fragmentation related security threats

As per IPv6 protocol specification, packet fragmentation by the intermediate nodes is not permitted. Since in IPv6 network based on ICMPv6 messages, the usage of the path MTU discovery method is a duty, packet fragmentation is only allowed at the source node.1280 octets is the minimal size of the MTU for IPv6 network. The packets with size less than 1280 octets to be discarded unless it???s the last packet in the flow as per security reasons. With use of fragmentation, an attacker can get that port numbers not found in the first fragment and thus they bypass security monitoring devices expecting to find transport layer protocol data in the very first fragment. An attacker will send a huge amount of small fragments and create an overload of reconstruction buffers on the victim system which resulted to the system crash. To prevent system from such attacks it???s necessary to bound the total number of fragments and their permissible arrival rate.

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WMBA 6000-13 Topic: Course Evaluation essay help

WMBA 6000-13

Topic: Course Evaluation

Date: March 2, 2014

Based on the assigned readings for this course (Dynamic Leadership), I have read an enormous amount of information about the different categories of leaders and leadership styles. Today’s leaders are different from the leaders of twenty to fifty years ago. In the past leaders gave commands and they controlled the actions of others. Today leaders are willing to involve others in their decision making and they are more open to new possibilities.

A good leader has a vision for their organization and they know how to align and engage employees in order to promote collaboration. The successful leader knows how to lead by using superior values, principles and goals that fit the organization’s values, principles and goals. Also these leaders know that leadership is not made from authority, it’s made from trust and followership. Coleman, J., Gulati, & Segovia, W.O. (2012)

I am impressed most by the characteristics of the authentic leader because they know how to develop themselves; they use formal and informal support networks to get honest feedback in order to drive long-term results. Authentic leaders build support teams to help them stay on course and counsel them in times of uncertainty. George, B., Sims, P., Mclean, A.N. & Mayer D. (2007)

In addition, I found the Leadership Code to be important because it provides structure and guidance and helps one to be a better leader by not emphasizing one element of leadership over another. Some focus on the importance of vision for the future; others on executing in the present; others on personal charisma and character; others on engaging people’; and others on building long-term organization. The code represents about 60 to 70 percent of what makes an effective leader. Ulrich, D., Smallwood, N., Sweetman, K. (2008)

The information that I acquired from this course will help me to pursue the goal of owning a beauty supply business. Another goal that I can add to my action plan is to include not only wigs and welted hair, but I will add hair, skin and nail products to my inventory. A future goal will be to add handbags and accessories as well.

After completing my short-term goal of finishing my MBA, I can take the knowledge from this course along with my values, ethics and principles to help me to manage employees and operate a successful business. Annie Smith (March 2, 20

Coleman, J. G. (2012). Educating young leaders. Passion and Purpose , 197-202.

George, B. S. (2007). Discovering your authentic leadership. Harvard Business Review , 129-138.

Lyons, R. (2012). Dean of Haas of School of Business University of California, Berkely. It’s made from followership. (J. G. Cole, Interviewer) Coleman, J., Gulati, D., & Segovia, W.O.

Ulrich, D. S. (2008). Five rules of leadership. In The leadership code five rules to lead by. Defining Leadership Code , 1-24.

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Family presence during CPR (cardiopulmonary resuscitation) rice supplement essay help

In a pre-hospital setting, there are few moments that are as intense as the events that take place when trying to save a life. Family presence during these resuscitation efforts has become an important and controversial issue in health care settings. Family presence during cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) is a relatively new issue in healthcare. Before the advent of modern medicine, family members were often present at the deathbed of their loved ones. A dying person’s last moments were most often controlled by his or her family in the home rather than by medical personnel (Trueman, History of Medicine). Today, families are demanding permission to witness resuscitation events. Members of the emergency medical services are split on this issue, noting benefits but also potentially negative consequences to family presence during resuscitation efforts.

A new study has found that family members who observed resuscitation efforts were significantly less likely to experience symptoms of post-traumatic stress, anxiety and depression than family members that did not. The results, published in an online article in The New England Journal of Medicine, entitled ‘Family Presence during Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation,’ were the same regardless of the survival of the patient. The study involved 570 people in France whose family members were treated by emergency medical personnel at home. These EMS teams were unique in that they were comprised of a physician, a nurse trained in emergency medicine, and two emergency medical technicians. The study found that the presence of relatives did not affect the results of CPR, nor did it increase the stress levels of the emergency medical teams. Having family present also did not result in any legal claims after the incidents occured. While the unique limitations of the study warrant consideration, the results show a definite benefit in having families stay during CPR (Jabre Family Presence).

Historically, although parents of children have been allowed to be present for various reasons, relatives of adult patients have not. As medical practices change to increasingly involve family in the care of patients, growing numbers of emergency medical practitioners say that giving relatives the option of watching CPR can be a good idea. Several national organizations, including The American Heart Association, have revised their policies to call for giving family members the option of being present during CPR (AHA Guidelines for CPR). Witnessing CPR, say some emergency medical experts and family members, can take the mystery out of what could be a potentially terrifying experience. It can provide reassurance to family members that everything is being done to save their loved ones. It also can offer closure for relatives wanting to be with their family members until the last minute (Kirkland Lasting Benefit). Another benefit is that it shows people why reviving someone in cardiac arrest is much less likely than people assume from watching it being done on television (Ledermann Family Presence During). Family members who can truly understand what it means to ‘do everything possible’ can go on to make more informed decisions about end-of-life care for themselves or their families.

There are three perspectives on this issue- that of the emergency medical personnel providing care, the family, and the patients. The resistance on the part of the medical community to family presence during CPR stems from several different concerns. The most common concern among these is that family members, when faced with overwhelming fear, stress and grief, could disrupt or delay active CPR. Another concern raised by emergency medical personnel is that the realities of CPR may simply be too traumatic for loved ones, causing them to suffer more than they potentially would have if they had never witnessed the event. Some families share this view, citing the potential for extreme distress as a main reason for not wanting to witness resuscitation (Grice Study examining attitudes). Many emergency medical personnel also fear an increased risk of liability and litigation with family members present in the room (Fullbrook the Presence of Family). The worry is that errors can occur, inappropriate comments may be made, and the actions of the personnel involved may be misinterpreted. In an already tense situation, the awareness of the family could increase the anxiety of the personnel and create a greater potential for mistakes.

Another complication that arises from having families present during resuscitation attempts is that of patient confidentiality. The patient’s right to privacy should not be circumvented with implied consent. There is always the possibility that medical information previously unknown to the family may be revealed in the chaos of resuscitation. In addition, patient dignity, whether physical or otherwise, may become compromised (Fullbrook the Presence of Family). Beyond moral considerations, legal concerns regarding revealing patient information are real. This could become an even larger issue if there is no one available to screen witnesses, which could result in unrelated people gaining access to personal information. Eventually, a breach in confidentiality can lead to a breach in the confidence that the public has gained in pre-hospital emergency care.

Family presence during CPR in a pre-hospital setting remains a highly debatable topic. This could be largely due to the fact that the needs of the emergency medical providers and the rights of the patients can be at odds with the wishes of the family members. Although there are several possible reasons why family presence is not being welcomed into daily practice, one of the major reasons could be the lack of formal written policies that define the roles of families and providers placed into this situation. Bringing family members into a situation where CPR is being performed on a loved one should not happen haphazardly. It should happen with careful concern and support for everyone involved. Policies and protocols, defined by experienced personnel, can provide legal and emotional support. They can also potentially help ease anxiety by defining expectations and placing responsibility in the hands of people who are experienced enough to know how to handle the situation appropriately. The policies and protocols should address the basic needs of all people involved. Five basic needs should be addressed:

1. The number of people allowed to be present

2. Which relatives should be allowed to be present (age, relationship, etc.)

3. The role of the family members present and what is expected of them.

4. The place where the family should remain during the duration of CPR.

5. The formal wishes of the patient- written as a directive like a living will.

An important component of this is available, trained staff that can prepare the family members for what they will witness, support them through the event, and then direct them after the event’s conclusion.

The American Heart Association states that the goals of cardiopulmonary resuscitation are, ‘to preserve life, restore health, relieve suffering, limit disability, and respect the individual’s decisions rights and privacy’ (AHA Guidelines for CPR). The practice of offering family members the opportunity to be present during CPR is a controversial ethical issue in emergency medical services. While the results of the study published on this topic in The New England Journal of Medicine clearly show no negative side effects from having families present during resuscitation attempts, the limitations of the study lend to the need for more research before it could be universally accepted.

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Respondeat Superior persuasive essay help

Legal claims that derive from a situation where there are claims of negligence can sometimes involve an entity other than the neglectful parties. In certain circumstances employers are fully responsible for their employees, and the tasks they perform during working hours. During the course of this paper, the doctrine of respondeat superior will be defined and explained. Two case studies in which the doctrine was applied will also be analyzed to determine if it was applied correctly.

Respondeat superior is a legal theory that holds employers responsible for any negligent or harmful act performed by an employee during the commission of their employment duties (Thornton, 2010). The Maryland Supreme Court in 1951 was the first court to utilize respondeat superior in a court case involving a question of employer liability (Burns, 2011). This doctrine is important as it holds employers liable in court cases where one of its employees does harm to an individual. Vicarious liability and indirect liability are two base concepts that make-up respondeat superior (Thornton, 2010). Respondeat superior shows that the employer did not have to be responsible for the employee???s negligent behavior, in the form of improper training or instruction to perform harmful acts, in order for the employer to be held legally responsible.

In the case of Valle v. City of Houston, the police force was sued for excessive force and an illegal search in an attempt to remove an individual from his parent???s home (Nicholl & Kelly, 2012). The situation stemmed from a man, Omar Esparza, barricading himself in his parent???s home and refusing to come out (p. 285). After a long police standoff, the SWAT team was ordered to forcefully enter the home and remove Mr. Esparza (p. 285). The SWAT team utilized taser gun and bean bag ammunition in an attempt to subdue Mr. Esparza after they felt he posed a physical threat by wielding a hammer, but as those attempts failed the suspect was fatally wounded when an officer fired his weapon (p. 286). Shortly after the incident the mother was allowed into the home, and she reported no visible evidence that her son was possession of a hammer (p. 286). The court found that the city was not liable for damages under the theory of respondeat superior, because the order to remove the individual from the home was not made by an individual deemed as a decision-maker by the city (p. 286).

From the outside, this case seems to fit the theory of respondeat superior. As the employer, the city should be held responsible for the actions of its employees. The police, serving as the city???s employees acted in a manner that was unnecessary for the situation and in conflict of their training (p. 286). However, the court sided with the City of Houston because the chain of command was not followed in regards to the use of force (p. 286). The end result is a case where an individual made a decision that was not his to make; that ultimately cost a man his life.

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Introduction To Finance Assignment Help Sydney

INTRODUCTION TO FINANCE: Finance is the integral part of business. The economic development of any country, depends upon the ‘existence of a well- organized financial system. It is the financial system, which supplies the necessary financial input for the production of goods and services, which in turn promotes the well-being, and standard of people of the country. Finance, and function of finance are the part of the economic activity. Finance is the essential, need for all type of organization viz., small, medium, large-scale industries, and agriculture and service sector. Over the 60 years of independence, the availability of finance, has been made easy through functioning of commercial banks, development banks and primary markets. But all these services and instruments are associated, with different types of costs. Hence, it had become a necessity to make use of such sources not only to recover the cost but also to increase, the wealth of investors. Contrary to this, the new economic reforms created a challenging, environment in the economy. This calls for effective utilization of funds, to yield the pre-determined returns of a firm’s success and its survival, depends upon how efficiently it is able to generate funds, as and when needed. Finance, holds the key to all activities. The Sanskrit says, ‘Arthasachivah’ which means, ‘Finance’ reigns supreme’, speaks volume for the significance of the function, of finance in any organization. According to Paul G. Hassings..,

‘Finance is the management of the monetary, affairs of a company. It includes determining what has to be paid for the money of the best terms available, and devoting the available funds to the best uses’.

‘Finance’ guides and regulates, investment decisions and expenditures. The expenditure decision may pertain, to recurring expenditure or they may be about capital budgeting. To get the best out of the available funds, is major task of finance. The finance manager, has to perform this task most efficiently if he is to be successful. The finance function, does not draw any distinction between the private sector and the public sector. It is important, even indispensable to the both sectors, even the government treats finance as a, signpost to control a measure what it has achieved or propose to achieve. It may be rightly, considered as the sinew of any business activity, and that is how its importance is recognized in any branch of science. Every business activity requires financial support, because financial viability, is the center theme of any business preposition. This point of view is well brought out by Mr. A.L. KINGSHOTT, who states.

‘Finance is the common denominator for a vast range of corporate objectives, and the major part ,of any corporate plan must be expressed in financial terms’.

Financial decision, must be viewed in the light of financial viability of its financial outcomes. It is difficult to conceive a policy decision, which does not have financial implications. Moreover, business activities are not mutually exclusive; there dependence on each other, and can be measured only in terms of finance. Any economic transaction, consists of buying and selling, which implies money transactions, but it may not involve immediate payment of money, as there may be credit terms involved. In any transaction therefore, whether it is buying or selling, the payment of money, at present or in future, is involved.

FINANCIAL STATEMENTS

An organization communicates, its financial information to the users through financial statements and reports. Financial statement contains summarized information of the organizations – financial affairs, organized in a systematic form. These statements comprises of the income statements or profit and loss account and the position statements or the balance sheet.

To give a full view of the financial affairs, of the undertaking it is also necessary to include statement of retained earnings, a statement of changes , in the financial position and a few schedules such as schedules of fixed assets, and schedule of debtors.

Income Statement: The profit and loss account set out income as well as expenses of the same period and after matching the two, the difference that is net profit or net loss, is shown as the difference between the two sides of the account. Thus, the earning capacity and the potential of the organizations are reflected by its profit and loss account.

Balance Sheet: Also known as the position statement, displays all the total resources of a business and the owners, creditors equity in these resources. It indicates the statement of affairs of the business at a particular moment of time and thus, its nature.

Profit and Loss Appropriation account: Also known as statement of retained earnings, is generally a part of the profit and loss account. It shows, how the profit of the business for the accounting period is appropriated, towards reserve and dividend and how much of the same is carried forward, as retained earnings

Fund Flow Statement: Also known as the statement of changes in financial position, summarizes the changes in the assets, liabilities and owners’ equity between two balance sheet dates. Thus, it is a statement of flows, i.e. it means the changes have been taken in the financial position of the firm of two balance sheet dates. It summarizes the sources, and uses of the funds obtained.

FINANCIAL ANALYSIS

Financial analysis, is the process of identifying the financial strength and weakness of the firm by properly establishing, relationships between the items of the balance sheet and profit and loss account. The purpose of financial analysis is, to disclose the information available in the financial statements so as to judge the profitability, and financial health of the organization.

The first task of the financial analyst is to select the information relevant to the decisions under consideration from the total information available in the financial statement. Secondly, to arrange the information in a way that would highlight the significant relationships.

Finally, to interpret and draw inferences, and conclusions. In brief, financial analysis, is the process if selection, relation and evaluation of profitability and financial soundness and health of the organization.

TECHNIQUES OF FINANCIAL STATEMENT

A financial analyst, analyses the financial statement by selecting the appropriate techniques according to purpose of the analysis. Financial statements may be analyzed by means of any of the following techniques:

‘ Comparative Statement analysis.

‘ Common Size Statement analysis.

‘ Trend analysis.

‘ Ratio analysis.

‘ Fund Flow Statement.

‘ Cash Flow Statement.

‘ Cost Volume Profit analysis.

COMPARATIVE ANALYSIS

Comparative Analysis means, comparison of two or more comparable alternatives, processes, products, qualifications, sets of data’s, systems, etc. In accounting, for example, changes in a financial statement’s items over, several accounting periods could be presented together to detect the emerging trends in the, firm’s operations and results.

Comparative Analysis is performed by professionals, who prepare reports using financial tools and techniques that make use of information taken from financial statements and the other reports. These reports are usually, presented to top management as one of their base in making business decision.

These decisions include the following:-

‘ Continue or discontinue in its main operation or part of its business;

‘ Make or purchase certain materials, in the manufacture of its product;

‘ Acquire or rent/lease certain, machineries and equipment in the production of its goods;

‘ Issue stocks or negotiate for a bank loan, to increase its working capital;

‘ Make decisions regarding investing and lending capital;

‘ Other decisions that allow management to make an, informed selection on various alternatives in the conduct of its business.

Comparative analysis often assesses the firm’s:-

1. Profitability ‘ Firm’s ability, to earn income and sustain growth in both short-term and long-term. A company’s degree of profitability, is usually based on the income statement, which reports on the company’s results of operations

2. Solvency ‘ Firm’s ability to pay of its obligation to creditors and third parties in the long term.

3. Liquidity – its ability to maintain a positive cash flow, while satisfying immediate obligations.

4. Stability- the firm’s ability is to remain in business in the long run, without having to sustain significant losses, in the conduct of its business. Assessing a company’s stability requires the use of the income statements and the balance sheet, as well as other, financial and non-financial indicators.

Methods of Comparative Analysis

Comparative analysts often compare on the basis of following things:

‘ Past Performance – Across historical time periods, for the same firm (the last 5 years for example),

‘ Future Performance – Using historical figures and certain, mathematical and statistical techniques, including present and future values, This extrapolation method is the main source, of errors in financial analysis as past statistics can be the poor predictors of future prospects.

‘ Comparative Performance – Comparison between the similar firms.

Comparing financial ratios is merely one way of conducting, financial analysis. Financial ratios face several theoretical challenges:

‘ They say little about the firm’s prospects, in an absolute sense. Their insights about, relative performance, require a reference point from other time periods or any similar firms.

‘ One ratio, holds little meaning. As indicators, ratios can be logically interpreted in at least two ways. One can be partially overcome this problem by combining several related ratios, to paint a more comprehensive and exact picture of the firm’s performance.

‘ Seasonal factors, may prevent year-end values from being representative. A ratio’s values may be distorted as the account balances will change from the beginning to the end of an , accounting period. Use average values, for such accounts, whenever it is possible.

‘ Financial ratios, are no more objective than the accounting methods employed. Changes in accounting policies, or choices can yield drastically different ratio values.

Financial analysts, can also use percentage analysis which involves reducing a series of the figures as a percentage of some base amounts. For example, a group of items can be expressed, as a percentage of net income. When proportionate changes in the same figure, over a given time period expressed as a percentage is known as horizontal analysis. Vertical or common-size analysis, reduces all items on a statement to a ‘common size’ as a percentage of some base value, which assists in the comparability with other companies of different sizes. As a result, all Income Statement items are divided by Sales, and all the other Balance Sheet items are divided by Total Assets.

Another method is, comparative analysis. This provides a better way to determine trends. Comparative analysis, presents the same information for two or more time periods and is, presented side-by-side to allow for easy analysis.

BALANCE SHEET BASICS

In financial accounting, the balance sheet or statement of financial position is a summary of the financial balances, of a sole proprietorship, a business partnership or a company. Assets, liabilities and ownership equity, are listed as of a specific date, such as to the end of its financial year. A balance sheet is often described as a “snapshot of a company’s financial condition”. The balance sheet is the only statement which applies to a single point at time of a business’ calendar year. Understanding balance sheet, is very important because it gives an idea of the financial strength of a company at any given point of time.

The various components of balance sheet are as follows:-

‘ Assets: – Anything tangible or intangible that is capable, of being owned or controlled to produce value and that is, held to have positive economic value is considered as an asset.

‘ Gross block: – The total value of all the assets that a company own’s and value is determined by the amount ,it cost to acquire these assets. It is inclusive of depreciation, that is to be charged on each asset.

‘ Net block: – If the gross block is less accumulated depreciation on assets. Net block is actually what; the asset is worth to the company.

‘ Capital Work-In-Progress: – sometimes, at the end of the financial year, there is some construction or installation going-on in the company. Which is not complete, such installation is recorded in the books as: capital work in progress because it is asset for the business.

‘ Investments: – If the company has made some, investments out of its free cash, it is recorded, under the head investments.

‘ Inventory: -The raw materials, work-in-process goods and completely finished goods that are considered to be the portion of a business assets which are ready or will be ready for sale.

‘ Receivables: – include the debtor’s of the company, i.e., it includes all those accounts which are to give money back to the company.

‘ Other Current Assets: – include all the assets, which can be converted into cash, within a very short period of time like cash in bank etc.

‘ Liabilities:- In financial accounting, a liability is defined as an obligation of an entity, arising from past transactions or events, the settlement of which may result in the transfer or use of assets, provision of services, or other yielding of economic benefits in the future.

‘ Share Capital: – Share capital or issued capital refers to as the portion of a company’s equity that has been obtained by trading stock, to a shareholder for cash or an equivalent item of capital value. Share capital usually comprises the nominal values of all shares issued, and less those repurchased by the company. It includes both ordinary shares and preference shares. If the market value of shares is greater than their nominal value (value at par), the shares are said to be at a premium, which is also called as share premium.

‘ Reserves and surpluses: – Amount appropriated out of earned surplus, retained earnings for future plan or unforeseen expenditure. It includes, the free reserves of the company which are built out of the genuine profits of the company. Together they are known as net worth of the company.

‘ Total debt: – It includes the long term and short debt of the company. Long term is for a longer duration, usually for a period more than 3 years like debentures. Short term debt, is for a lesser duration, usually for less than a year like bank finance for the working capital.

‘ Creditors: – They are those entities to which the company owes’s money.

‘ Other Liabilities and Provisions: – It includes, all the liabilities that do not fall under any of the above head and various provisions made.

PROFIT AND LOSS STATEMENT

Profit and Loss Statement which is also known as the Income Statement is a company’s financial statement that indicates how the revenue, which is money received from the sale of products and services, before expenses are taken out, also known as the “top line” is transformed into the net income, which is the result after all revenues and expenses have been accounted for, also known as the “bottom line”. It displays, the revenues recognized for a specific period, and the cost and expenses charged against all these revenues, including write-offs (e.g., depreciation and the amortization of various assets) and taxes. The purpose of the income statement is to show manager’s and investors whether the company made or lost money, during the period being reported.

Items in Profit & Loss Statement

Operating Expenses

‘ Revenue: -Cash inflows, or other enhancements of assets of an entity during a period from delivering, or producing goods, rendering services, or other activities that constitute the entity’s ongoing, major operations. It is usually presented as the sales minus sales discounts, returns, and allowances.

‘ Expenses: – Cash outflows, or other using-up of assets or incurrence of liabilities during a period, from delivering or producing goods, rendering services, or carrying out other activities that constitute, the entity’s ongoing major operations.

‘ General and Administrative Expenses: -Represent expenses, to manage the business; which includes salaries of officers/executives, legal and professional fees, utilities, insurance, depreciation of office building and the equipment, office rents, office supplies, etc.).

‘ Selling Expenses: -It represents, expenses needed to sell products which include salaries of sales people, commissions, and travel expenses, advertising, freight, shipping, depreciation of sales store buildings and equipment, etc.

‘ R & D Expenses: -Investigative activities, that a business chooses to conduct with intention of making a discovery that can either lead to the development of a new products or procedures, or in the improvement of existing products or procedures.

‘ Depreciation/Amortization: -It is the charge, with respect to fixed assets / intangible assets that have been capitalized, on the balance sheet for a specific accounting period. It is a systematic and rational allocation of cost, rather than the recognition of market value decrement.

Non-operating Expenses

‘ Other Revenues or Gains: -They are, revenues and gains from other than primary business activities (e.g. rent, income from patents). It also includes unusual gains, that are either unusual or infrequent, but not both (e.g. gain from sale of securities or gain from disposal of fixed assets).

‘ Other expenses or losses: – Expenses or losses which are not related to primary business operations, (e.g. foreign exchange loss).

‘ Finance costs ‘ It is the cost of borrowing from various creditors (e.g. interest expenses, bank charges).

‘ Income tax expense: – It is the sum of the amount payable to tax authorities for the current reporting period (current tax liabilities/ tax payable) and the amount of deferred tax liabilities (or assets).

Irregular Items

They are reported separately, because this way the user can better predict future cash flows. Irregular items most likely may not appear in next year. These are reported as net of taxes.

‘ Extraordinary items: -They are both, unusual (abnormal) and infrequent, for example, unexpected natural disaster, expropriation, prohibitions, under new regulations. [Note: natural disaster, might not qualify depending on location (e.g. frost damage would not qualify in Canada, but would in the tropics).

‘ Changes in accounting principles: -For example, deciding to depreciate, an investment property that has previously not been depreciated. However, changes in the estimates (e.g. estimated useful life of fixed assets) do not qualify.

‘ Discontinued operations: -These are the most common type of irregular items. Shifting business location, stopping production temporarily, or changes due to technological improvement, do not qualify as discontinued operations.

1.2 SPECIFIC INTRODUCTION

RETAIL BACKGROUND OF INDUSTRY

The Indian retail industry, is divided into organized and unorganized sectors. Organized retailing, refers to trading activities undertaken by licensed retailers, that is, those who are registered for sales tax, income tax, etc. These include the corporate-backed, hypermarkets and retail chains, and also the privately owned large retail businesses. Unorganized retailing, on the other hand, refers to the traditional formats of the low-cost retailing, for example, the local kirana shops, owner manned general stores, paan/beedi shops, convenience stores, hand-cart and pavement vendors, etc. India’s retail sector is wearing new clothes and with a three-year compounded annual growth rate of 46.64 per cent, retail is the fastest growing sector, in the Indian economy. Traditional markets, are making way for new formats such as departmental stores, hypermarkets, supermarkets and specialist stores. Western-style malls, have begun appearing in metros and second-rung cities alike, introducing the Indian consumer, to annul paralleled shopping experience. The Indian retail sector, is highly fragmented with 97 per cent of its business being run by the unorganized retailers, like the traditional family run stores and corner stores. The organized retail however is at a very nascent stage, though attempts are being made to increase its proportion to 9-10 per cent by the year 2015 bringing in huge opportunities for prospective new players. This sector is the largest source of employment after agriculture, and has deep penetration, into rural India generating more than 10 percent of India’s GDP.

The last few years witnessed immense growth by this sector, the key drivers being

the Changing consumer profile and demographics, increase in the number of international brands, available in the Indian market, economic implications of the Government increasing urbanization, credit availability, improvement in the infrastructure, increasing investments in technology, and real estate building a world class shopping environment for the consumers. In order to keep pace with the increasing demand, there has been, a hectic activity in terms of entry of international labels, expansion plans, and focus on technology, operations and processes .This has led, to more complex relationships involving suppliers, third party distributors and retailers, which can be dealt, with the help of an efficient supply chain. A proper supply chain will help to meet the competition head-on, manage stock availability; supplier relations, new value-added services, cost cutting and most importantly reduce the wastage levels in fresh produce.

Large Indian players: like Reliance Ambani’s, K.Rahejas, Bharti AirTel, ITC and many others are making significant investments, in this sector leading to emergence of big retailers who can bargain with suppliers to reap, economies of scale. Hence, discounting is becoming, an accepted practice. Proper infrastructure is a pre-requisite in retailing, which would help to modernize India and facilitate rapid economic growth. This would ,help in efficient delivery of goods and value-added services to the consumer making a higher, contribution to the GDP. International retailers see India as the last retailing, frontier left as the China’s retail sector is, becoming saturated. However, the Indian Government restrictions on the FDI are creating, ripples among the international players like Walmart, Tesco and many other, retail giants struggling to enter Indian markets. As of now the Government has, allowed only 51 per cent FDI in the sector to ‘one-brand’ shops like Nike, Reebok, etc. However, other international players are taking alternative routes to enter ,the Indian retail market indirectly via strategic licensing agreement, franchisee, agreement and cash and carry wholesale trading (since 100 per cent FDI is allowed, in wholesale trading).

RETAIL INDUSTRY

India has one of the largest numbers, of retail outlets in the world of the 12 million retail outlets present in the, country, nearly 5 million sell food and related products. Though the market has, been dominated by unorganized players, the entry of domestic and international, organized players is set to change the scenario.

Organized retail segment has been ,growing at a blistering pace, exceeding all previous estimates. According to a, study by Deloitte Haskins and Sells, organized retail has increased its share, from 8 percent of total retail sales in 20012 to 10 percent in 2013. The, fastest growing segments have been the wholesale cash and carry stores, (150 percent) followed by supermarkets (100 percent) and hyper markets, (75-80 percent). Further, it estimates the organized segment to account for 25 per cent of the total sales by 2014.

India retail industry is the, largest industry in India, with an employment of around 8% and contributing, to over 10% of the country’s GDP. Retail industry in India is expected to rise, 25% yearly being driven by strong income growth, changing lifestyles, and, favorable demographic patterns.

It is expected that by, 2016 modern retail industry in India will be worth US$ 200-225 billion. India, retail industry is one of the fastest growing industries with revenue expected, in 2014 to amount US$350 billion and is increasing at a rate of 5% yearly. A ,further increase of 7-8% is expected in the industry of retail in India by growth in ,consumerism in urban areas, rising incomes, and a steep rise in rural consumption. It has further been predicted that the retailing industry in India will, amount to US$ 21.5 billion by 2015 from the current size of US$ 7.5 billion.

Shopping, in India has witnessed a revolution with the change in the consumer buying, behavior and the whole format of shopping also altering.

Industry, of retail in India which has become modern can be seen from the fact that there, are multi-stored malls, huge shopping centers, and sprawling complexes ,which offer food, shopping, and entertainment al under the same roof.

India retail, industry is expanding itself most aggressively; as a result a great demand for, real estate is being created. Indian retailers preferred means of expansion is ,to expand to other regions and to increase the number of their outlets in a city,. India retail industry is progressing well and for this to continue retailers as well, as the Indian government will have to make a combined effort.

Retail sector, one, of India’s largest industries, has presently emerged as one of the most dynamic, and fast paced industries of our times with several players entering the market.

India is being, seen as a potential goldmine for retail investors from over the world. India, gets 2nd position according to AT Kearney’s annual Global Retail Development, Index (GRDI). India earned $511 billion in the year of 2012 and drawing both, local as well as global players. Organized retail accounts still less than 5% of the, market is expected to grow at CAGR of 40%, from $20 billion in 2007 to $107, billion by 2013 and to $1.3 trillion by 2018, at a CAGR of 10%. India has one, of the largest numbers of retail outlets in the world. One of the 12 million retail, outlets, present in the country, nearly 5 million sell food and related products. Though, the market has been dominated by unorganized player, the entry of domestic, and international organized players is set to change the scenario.

As the contemporary, retail sector in India is reflected in sprawling shopping centers, multiplex- malls, and huge complexes offer shopping, entertainment and food all under one roof, the concept of shopping has altered in terms of format and consumer buying behavior, ushering in a revolution in shopping in India. This has also contributed to large, scale investments in real estate sector with major national and global players, investing in developing the infrastructure and construction of the retailing, business.

The retailing configuration, in India is fast developing as shopping malls are increasingly becoming familiar, in large cities. When it comes to development of retail space specially the malls, the Tier, II cities are no longer behind in the race. If development plans till 2007 is studied, it shows the projection of 220 shopping malls, with 139 malls in metros and the, remaining 81 in the Tier II cities. The government of states like Delhi and, National Capital Region (NCR) are very upbeat about permitting the use of, land for commercial development thus increasing the availability of land for, retail space; thus making NCR render to 50% of the malls in India.

Wal-Mart, the world’s largest retail, chain, recently joined Bharti to operate within India. Some MNC giants already, serving from the past couple of years like SPAR group, Carrefour, Marks &, Spencer, Metro. Local retailers such as Future group, RGP group and Reliance, have all taken an early lead due to their aggressive expansion plans.

The outlook for private consumption, has become more negative and customers are becoming more cautious. The retail, sector is concentrated. Indian retail chains are meeting the stiff competition, through increased efficiency, centralizing purchases, forming international, alliances and expanding operations.

INDIAN RETAIL INDUSTRY- ITS GROWTH, CHALLENGES AND OPPURTUNITIES.

As the contemporary retail, sector in India is reflected in sprawling shopping centers, multiplex- malls, and huge complexes offer shopping, entertainment and food all under one roof, the concept, of shopping has altered in terms of format and consumer buying behavior, ushering, in a revolution in shopping in India. This has also contributed to large- scale, investment in real estate sector with major national and global players investing, in developing the infrastructure and construction of relating business.

The trends that are driving the growth of retail sector in India are:

‘ Low share of organized ,retailing

‘ Falling real estate, prices

‘ Increase in disposal, income and customer aspiration

‘ Increase in expenditure, for luxury items

Another credible factor in the, prospects of retail sector in India is the increase in the young working, population. In India, hefty pay packets, nuclear families in urban areas, along, with increasing working- women and emerging opportunities in the service sector. These key factors have been the growth drivers of the organized retail, sector in India which now boast of retailing almost all the preferences of, life- Apparel & Accessories, Appliances, Electronics, Cosmetics and Toiletries, Home & Office Products. With this the retail sector in India is witnessing, rejuvenation as traditional markets make way for new formats such as departmental, stores , hypermarkets, supermarkets and specially stores.

The retailing, configuration in India is fast developing as shopping malls are increasingly, becoming familiar in large cities. When it comes to development of retail space, specially the malls, the Tier II cities are no longer behind in the race. If development, plans till 2007 is studied it shows the projection of 220 shopping malls, with 139, malls in metros and the remaining 81 in the Tier II cities. The government of, states like Delhi and national capital region (NCR) are very upbeat about, permitting the use of land for commercial development, thus increasing, the availability of land for retail space; thus making NCR render to 50% of the, malls in India.

The Indian Retail Scene

India, is the country having the most unorganized retail market. Traditionally it is a, family’s livelihood, with their shop in the front and house at the back, while they, run the retail business. More than 99% retailers, function in less than 500 square feet of shopping space. Global retail consultants, KSA Techno park have estimated that organized retailing in India is expected to ,touch Rs 35,000 crore in the year 2013-14. The Indian retail sector is estimated at ,around Rs 90,000 crore, of which the organized sector accounts for a mere, 2 percent indicating a huge potential market opportunities that is lying in the ,waiting for the customer savvy organized retailer.

Purchasing power of Indian urban consumer is ,growing and branded merchandise in categories like Apparels, cosmetics, Shoes, Watches, are slowly ,becoming lifestyle products that are widely accepted by the urban Indian. consumer. Indian retailers need to advantage of this growth and aiming to grow, diversify and introduced new formats have to pay more attention to the brand, building process. The emphasis here is on retail as a brand rather than retailers, selling brands. The focus should be on branding the retail business itself. In their, preparation to face fierce competitive pressure, Indian retailers must come to, recognize the value of building their own stores as brands to reinforce their, marketing positioning, to communicate quality as well as value for money. The Indian, retail scene has witnessed too many players in a short time, crowding several, categories without looking at their core competencies, or having as well, thought out branding strategy.

Strategies, Trends and Opportunities

Retailing in India is gradually inching its way toward, becoming the next boom industry. The whole concept of shopping has altered, in terms of format and consumer buying behavior, ushering in a revolution in, shopping in India. Modern retail has entered India as seen in sprawling shopping, ce

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Research design my assignment essay help london

2.7 RESEARCH DESIGN USED :

The conception of research design plan is the critical step in the research process. The design ,of the study constitutes the blue print for the collection, measurement and analysis of data. In other words the research design is a conceptual structure with in which,h research is conducted.

2.8 DATA COLLECTION METHODS :

Primary Data: – Primary data are those data which are collected for the first time, and thus hap,pen to be original in character. It is extracted with the help of discussions co,nducted with senior managers with respect to factors affecting the performance.,

Secondary Data: – Secondary data are those data which are already collected by someone else ,and which have already passed through the statistical process. These data are g,athered by Books, Lectures, Notes, and Official Websites etc.

The study make,s extensive use of secondary data. ‘Secondary data are those which have already,y been passed through the statistical process’. The data which is pre-essential for ,this study relating to comparative analysis of Balance Sheet and PROFIT AND L,OSS A/c was based on secondary source of data. This data will be collected fro,m materials provided by Rakshitas Pvt. Ltd., discussions conducted with store m,anagers and some essential

Financial Accounts books.

2.9 LIMITATIONS :,

‘ Data provided is very limited due to the subjectivity of it being highly confidential.,

‘ The data taken for interpretation is for a limited period.

‘ Assumptions, are to be taken into consideration while doing analysis and interpretation, of data.

‘ Due to limited, information, depth analysis could not be made.

2.10 RESEARCH MEASURE TOOLS :

Various financial techniques and statistical tools are used to measure the data used in the study. Column graphs, pie chart etc. is used to highlight the statistical inference,s. The study cannot be completed without balance sheet and profit and loss a/c. ,Therefore three years balance sheet and profit & loss a/c has been taken out for ma,king proper research.

2.11 ANALYSIS OF DATA :

The data collected is secondary, and it’s compiled, classified, tabulated and then analyzed u,sing financial techniques and statistical tools. Graphs and charts are used to hig,hlight the statistics. Based on this data and analysis, inferences are drawn accor,dingly.

2.12 OVER VIEW OF THE CHAPTER :

The Project I,s Presented in the following chapter :-

CHAPTER 1 : INTRODUCTION

This chapter includes introduction to finance, theorectical back ground for the study of the ,various performance, introduction to finance, definition of retail industry and di,fferent type of industry.

CHAPTER 2 : DESIGN OF THE STUDY

This chapter I,ncludes the projects introduction of the subject background, statement of the, problem, objectives of the study, scope of the study, need and purpose of study,, research methodology, research design, data collection method primary and seco,ndary data, limitations, research measure tools and analysis of data.,

CHA,PTER 3 : PROFILE OF THE COMPANY

This c,hapter contains the profile of the company, its origin and background, board of directors, number of branches and organization structure.

CHAP,TER 4 : DATA ANALYSIS AND INTERPRETATION

This ch,apter consists of Table, Graphs, Analysis and Interpretation based on the question,nairies.

CHAPT,ER 5 : SUMMARY OF FINDINGS, CONCULSIONS AND RECOM,MENDATIONS

This chap,ter includes findings based on objectives of the study, conclusion drawn from the f,indings and recommendations given from the analysis.

Chapter:-3

PROFILE OF THE ORGANIZATION

COMPANY PROFILE

RAKSHITAS PVT.LTD.

Rakshitas business con,cept is to offer a broad and varied range of apparels that allows customers to fin,d their own personal style to choose from more than 150 remiums national and int,ernational brands.

Rakshitas is aimed at everyone in the family with an interest in modern basics, fashion, quality and affo,rdable pricing. Customers should always be able to find clothes and accessories ,at Rakshitas for every occasion. The collections are extensive and new arrivals, being launched week after week in each of the 4 floors spread across 20,000 s,q. ft. for Men, Women, Kids and Teen’s casual wear, formal wear, denim wea,r, ethnic and Kancheevaram silks etc. The range and collections are supplemen,ted by matching costume jewellery, premium international watches, perfumes, ,lingerie’s.

Mission

Our mission is to achieve excelle,nce in the products and services we offer, in the methods we employ and in the res,ult we produce.

Products

Menswear: menswear,r means clothing for men. Rakshitas provide various brands for menswear which ,includes formal shirts, casual shirts, trousers, jeans etc. of several variety of int,ernational as well as national brands, for example: -levis, pepe jeans, killer, lee, w,rangler etc.

Women’s wear: Women’s wear means ,clothing for women. Rakshitas provides the best options for women’s apparel rang,ing from skirts to ethnic, casuals as well as formals.

Kids wear: Kids wear are meant only for kids or children ranging below age of 12 years. Rakshitas provides awesome collection for kids which include children formal wear, kurtas, shirt,s etc.

Party wear: Party wear dresses are meant for wearing in parties, functions, special occasions etc. Rakshitas provides variety ranges of party wear which includes lehngas, wedding dresses, traditional indian dress etc.

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Control and organisational behaviour (pengendalian dan perilaku organisasi) research essay help

PENGENDALIAN DAN PERILAKU ORGANISASI

PERILAKU ORGANISASI

Untuk membuat dasar yang nantinya dapat digunakan manajemen dalam menyusun system pengendalian manajemen, maka kita perlu mengetahui lebih dalam mengenai perilaku organisasi. Berikut ini adalah beberapa penjelasan mengenai teori akuntansi sebagai bentuk pemahaman terhadap organisasi.

Definisi Organisasi

Secara umum, organisasi diartikan sebagai sekumpulan orang yang melakukan kerjasama demi mencapai tujuan ‘ tujuan yang telah ditentukan bersama. Organisasi tercipta ketika orang ‘ orang bergabung dan melakukan sesuatu untuk berbagai tujuan dan organisasi dapat mencakup segala aspek dalam kehidupan. Organisasi dapat bersifat formal dan informal. Pekerjaan di dalam suatu organisasi dapat dibagi ‘ bagi dan dikoordinasi sesuai dengan kebutuhan dan keahlian tiap ‘tiap anggota organisasinya untuk mencapai tujuan organisasi tersebut. Suatu organisasi haruslah going concern, dalam arti organisasi tersebut diasumsikan akan hidup selamanya.

Teori Perilaku Organisasi (Theory of Organization Behaviour)

Ada beberapa teori yang menjelaskan mengenai mengapa dan bagaimana orang ‘ orang berperilaku dalam organisasi. Berikut ada dua penjelasan mengenai teori tersebut :

1. Teori jenjang kebutuhan

Teori ini menjelaskan bahwa setiap manusia memiliki kebutuhan yang banyak dan harus dipenuhi dan kebutuhan serta keinginan tersebut tersusun secara rapih, sehingga apabila ada satu kebutuhan terpenuhi maka setelah itu ia akan berusaha memenuhi kebutuhannnya yang lebih tinggi. Dalam teori ini tersirat bahwa system pengendalian manajemen juga didasarkan pada kebutuhan manusia yang terkoordinasi dan dilakukan sesuai dengan tujuan organisasi.

2. Teori motivasi pencapaian

Teori ini lebih mengacu pada perilaku atasan atau manajer dalam perannya saat berorganisasi. Untuk mencapai keberhasilan dan mendapat sebuah kekuasaan, maka manajer tersebut juga perlu memiliki keinginan yang kuat agar dapat menghasilkan prestasi dalam organisasi.

TEORI ORGANISASI

Pengetahuan yang dalam mengenai organisasi sangatlah diperlukan oleh para pelaku organisasi dalam pelaksanaan system pengendalian manajemen organisasi tersebut. Para pelaku organisasi harus benar ‘ benar mengetahui semua poin dalam organisasi termasuk sejarah organisasi, tujuan organisasi, bagaimana perilaku para pelakunya hingga reaksi organisasi tersebut terhadap lingkungan.

Tak berbeda dengan teori perilaku akuntansi, dalam teori organisasi juga terdapat banyak teori yang membahas mengenai organisasi. Dan disini akan dibahas mengenai dua teori juga tentang organisasi, yaitu :

1. Teori Organisasi yang Berorientasi ke Dalam

Banyak organisasi dianggap indepen dan tidak terlalu memperhatikan lingkungan luar oleh beberapa teori. Teori organisasi yang berorientasi ke dalam ini banyak dijadikan dasar oleh sebagian besar system pengendalian manajemen dalam suatu organisasi hal tersebut didasarkan karena dalam teori ini mencakup tanggung jawab dalam pengambilan keputusan yang berlaku menurut proyek ‘ proyek, program ‘ program serta komponen ‘ komponen fungsionalnya.

2. Teori Organisasi yang Berorientasi ke Luar

Teori ini adalah teori kebalikan dari teori sebelumnya yaitu teori organisasi yang berorientasi ke dalam. Teori ini beranggapan bahwa suatu organisasi selalu berhubungan dengan lingkungan di sekitarnya. Ada dua jenis organisasi yang menganut teori organisasi yang berorientasi keluar ini, yaitu :

– Organisasi system umum terbuka

– Organisasi system manajemen

TIPE ORGANISASI

Ada tiga jenis atau tipe organisasi, yaitu :

1. Organisasi Fungsional

Dalam tipe organisasi ini, penekanan lebih ditujukan kepada manajer yang sangat harus bertanggung jawab terhadap suatu fungsi tertentu, seperti fungsi produksi, fungsi pemasaran dan fungsi lainnya yang diterapkan dalam organisasi tersebut. Fungsi ‘ fungsi tersebut dapat dihimpun oleh fungsi yang lebih tinggi dalam organisasi itu juga. Organisasi ini berpotensi membuat efisiensi perusahaan yang lebih baik karena menggunakan masukan ‘ masukan dari manajerial yang lebih tinggi.

2. Organisasi Divisi

Dalam organisasi ini, semua manajer harus bertanggung jawab terhadap hamper keseluruhan fungsi dalam proses produksi serta distribusi lini pada organisasi tersebut. Orientasi organisasi divisi lebih terbuka yang berarti lebih menekankan bahwa para manajer harus peka terhadap pengaruh ‘ pengaruh yang dating dari luar yang mungkin dapat mempengaruhi kinerja organisasi.

3. Organisasi Matriks

Ada dua struktur organisasi dalam organisasi matriks, yaitu ditata berdasarkan fungsi dan ditata berdasarkan program. Pada organisasi matriks, para manajer bertanggung jawab penuh atas profitabilitas dari lini produk organisasi tersebut dimana proses produksi dilakukan oleh unit ‘ unit organisasi fungsional.

Teori Kemungkinan (Contingency Theory)

Untuk mengendalikan suatu manajemen menggunakan tiga macam pendekatan, antara lain :

1. Pendekatan tradisional

Pendekatan ini menekankan pada perencanaan, pendekatan dan pengendalian.

2. Pendekatan system

Pendekatan ini menekankan padapenggunaan sumber daya manusia sebagai pertimbangan dalam pengambilan keputusan.

3. Pendekatan perilaku

Pendekatan ini menekankan pada pengendalian manusia termasuk di dalamnya motivasi dan prediksi.

PERILAKU MANAJEMEN

Organisasi dan sistemnya yang rumit akan mempengaruhi perilaku manusia menjadi rumit pula.

Konsep Fundamental

Agar suatu organisasi ‘terkendali’ maka para anggota organisasi harus mengetahui dengan baik apa sebenarnya yang diinginkan oleh manajemen. Untuk merealisasikan hal tersebut, dapat menggunakan banyak informasi yang telah disediakan oleh manajemen organisasi seperti anggaran hingga kebijakan organisasi. Tujuan organisasi dibuat oleh para manajer senior dan dilaksanakan oleh manajer operasional untuk selanjutnya para manajer senior menerapkan system pengendalian manajemen untuk mengontrol organisasi tersebut.

Persepsi Tujuan

Para manajer operasional harus benar ‘ benar mengetahui apa tujuan organisasi. Para manajer operasional tersebut dapat secara mudah mendapatkan informasi ‘ informasi yang mereka butuhkan dari berbagai sumber baik dari dokumen maupun percakapan informal saja. System pengendalian manajemen yang efektif dapat menguatkan kepastian suatu perusahaan.

Organisasi Informal

Adanya organisasi informal di dalam organisasi formal sering menyebabkan adanya salah persepsi mengenai tindakan yang diharapkan. Hubungan pada organisasi informal tidak tercantum di dalam bagan organisasi, padahal hal tersebut cukup penting untuk pemahaman system pengendalian organisasi tersebut.

Motivasi

Reaksi pada pelaku organisasi terutama manajemen terhadap organisasi dapat berbeda tergantung pada motivasinya. Motivasi dapat bermacam ‘ macam, misalnya kenaikan gaji, promosi, pujian dan lain ‘ lain. Motivasi timbul dari dalam pribadi masing ‘ masing, tetapi motivasi dapat dipengaruhi oleh rangsangan dari lingkungan sekitarnya.

Keselarasan Tujuan (Goal Congruence)

Setiap manusia memiliki tujuan pribadi, begitu juga dengan organisasi yang juga memiliki tujuan bersama. Salah satu tugas penting system pengendalian adalah menyelaraskan kedua tujuan tersebut serta mencapainya demi mendapatkan kepuasan bersama. Semakin kuat hubungan antara tujuan pribadi dan tujuan organisasi, maka ssistem pengendalian organisasi tersebut akan semakin kuat juga.

Kerjasama dan Konflik

Suatu organisasi tidak akan berjalan dengan baik apabila para anggotanya tidak bekerjasama dengan baik secara terkoordinasi, untuk itu di dalam organisasi sangat dibutuhkan kerjasama yang terkoordinir dan selaras. Selain itu, organisasi juga harus menjaga koordinasi dan keselarasan tersebut agar tidak terjadi konflik yang dapat mengganggu kinerja organisasi. Konflik tersebut dapat terjadi karena berbagai alasan, salah satunya adalah dengan adanya persaingan didalam organisasi tersebut.

Iklim Organisasi (Organizational Climate)

Secara singkat, iklim organisasi dapat diartikan sebagai hasil kombinasi dari struktur formal dan struktur informal pada suatu organisasi. Dan menurut pemahaman saya iklim organisasi merupakan suasana di dalam organisasi dimana tiap pelaku organisasi di dalam organisasi saling membantu, saling menilai, dan memahami antara satu dengan yang lain. Iklim organisasi ikut mengambil bagian penting dalam organisasi. Keduanya saling mempengaruhi satu sama lain.

Tipe Pengendalian

Pelaku pengendalian Sumber arah pengendalian Macam ‘ macam Pengendalian

Ukuran prestasi dan tingkah laku Isyarat untuk tindak koreksi Imbalan untuk prestasi Hukuman untuk kegagalan

Organisasi formal Rencana organisasi, strategi, tanggapan atas persaingan Anggaran, biaya standar, target penjualan penyimpangan Penghargaan manajemen, insentif uang, promosi Minta penjelasan

Kelompok informal Keterikatan bersama cita’cita kelompok Norma-norma kelompok penyimpangan Pengakuan rekan, keanggotaan, kepemimpinan Ejekan, pengasingan, permusuhan

Perorangan Tujuan pribadi, aspirasi Harapan pribadi, target antara Dugaan akan kegagalan di masa yang akan dating, target tak tercapai Kepuasan karena ‘terkendali’ kegembiraan Merasa gagal

Sumber : Disarikan dari Gene W. Dalton dan Paul R. Lawrence, Motivation and Control in Organizations (Homewood, III. : Richard D. Irwin, 1971). Hak Cipta 1971 oleh Richard D. Irwin Inc.

Variasi dalam Pengendalian

Hakekat system pengendalian manajemen dibedakan menurut sifat pekerjaan, macam organisasi, lingkungan daan peran manajer. Berikut adalah tiga dimensi yang perlu diperhatikan dalam penggunaan dan pengembangan system pengendalian manajemen :

1. Besar keleluasaan manajemen

2. Besar interdependensi

3. Rentang waktu pelaksanaan

FUNGSI KONTROLER

Kontroler dapat diartikan sebagai petinggi atau pejabat yang bertanggung jawab atas apa yang telah direncanakan oleh organisasi dan bagaimana pengoperasiannya. Tanggung jawab para kontroler berbeda ‘ beda di tiap organisasi bahkan di tiap divisinya. Tanggung jawab kontroler didasarkan pada posisinya masing ‘ masing. Tanggung jawab tersebut dilaksanakan secara langsung. Selain tanggung jawab dalam perencanaan dan pengoperasian tersebut, berikut ini adalah fungsi lain dari kontroler :

a. Menyiapkan laporan kepada pihak pemerintah serta pihak ‘ pihak luar lainnya.

b. Mempersiapkan pengembalian pajak.

c. Mempersiapkan dan melakukan analisa terhadap laporan prestasi keuangan.

d. Membantu para manajer dengan cara melakukan analisa sertab menafsirkan laporan ‘ laporan tersebut.

e. Menggunakan prosedur pemeriksaan intern dan pengendalian akuntansi, memastikan validitas informasi, menetapkan usaha perlindungan yangcukup terhadap berbagai penyimpangan serta melakukan pemeriksaan operasional.

f. Melakukan pengembangan kepada orang ‘ orang yang ia pimpin serta berperan langsung dalam penambahan pengetahuan mengenai fungsi kontroler

g. Mengadakan manajemen kas, asuransi serta kegiatan ‘ kegiatan lainnya demi pengamanan kekayaan perusahaan.

Hubungan dengan Organisasi Lini

Kontroler juga memiliki hak untuk membuat kebijakan ‘ kebijakan dalam organisasi. Namun keputusan ‘ keputusan tersebut merupakan realisasi pelaksanaan kebijakan ‘ kebijakan yang telah dibuat oleh manajer lini. Dengan kata lain, terdapat keselarasan antara kedua belah pihak. Hal tersebut tentunya sangat baik untuk menjaga kelancaran jalannya organisasi tersebut.

Kontroler Divisi

Kebanyakan perusahaan atau organisasi membagi organisasinya tersebut menjadi beberapa divisi yang dikepalai oleh seorang manajer. Manajer divisi tentu juga memiliki kontroler divisi. Dalam hal ini, kontroler divisi harus patuh kepada manajer divisi dan juga kontroler perusahaan yang terkadang beda kepentingannya. Penilaian prestasi terhadap kontroler divisi dapat dilakukan dengan menilai beberapa poin, antara lain :

– Laporan akuntansi dan keuangan

– Pengetahuan mengenai operasi divisi

– Sasaran dan pelaksanaan kepatuhan terhadap kebijakan

– Kontribusi manajemen

– Pengetahuan terhadap akuntansi

– Kejujuran dan profesionalisme

– Kemauan bekerjasama

– Organisasi dan staf

– Inisiatif dan semangat

HUBUNGAN LINI-STAF

Seorang manajer divisi dapat dikatakan tidak memiliki staf maupun asisten pribadi. Manajer tersebut mendapatkan bantuan dari :

1. Tenaga yang ditugaskan untuk membantunya dari staf umum, insinyur serta petugas pembelian

2. Staf pusat yang dapat dimintai bantuan kapan saja sebanyak mungkin.

HUBUNGAN MANAJER DIVISI ‘ KONTROLER

Untuk mencapai kesuksesan organisasi dalam hubungannya dengan manajer divisi, maka organisasi perlu membina kerjasama yang baik dan solid di tiap ‘ tiap manajemen. Berikut merupakan beberapa factor yang dapat mempengaruhi hubungan baik adalah :

1. System akuntansi yang seragam dan terpusat

2. Sasaran ‘ saasaran keuangan yang telah ditetapkan sebelumnya untuk tiap ‘ tiap divisi.

(Pertumbuhan penjualan serta besar laba penjualan)

3. Pembagian laba antara kontroler dan manajer

SISTEM AKUNTANSI

Selain memiliki tanggung jawab dalam perencanaan dan pengoperasian organisasi, divisi kontroler juga memiliki kewenangan atas system akuntansi yang akan digunakan oleh organisasi tersebut termasuk di dalamnya menetapkan cara dan jenis pos ‘ pos yang harus mereka awasi. Sistem akuntansi dijadikan dasar dalam penyusunan laporan keuangan beserta analisisnya.

SASARAN ‘ SASARAN DIVISI

Seperti yang telah disebutkan pada bagian sebelumnya, perusahaan atau organisasi memiliki sasaran keuangan, yaitu pertumbuhan penjualan dan tingkat laba. Tingkat laba dalam organisasi atau perusahaan ditetapkan sebaga persentase penjualan. Berikut ini adalah beberapa factor penentu target laba penjualan :

1. Kemungkinan pematenan produk

2. Besar laba atas investasi yang diinginkan

3. Besar laba industry bersangkutan

4. Besar laba investasi bersangkutan

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Business notes: Creative problem solving buy essay help

1 Unit 1 – Creative problem solving

1.1 Introduction

A business leader is expected to identify problems, implement solutions and find business opportunities. To do so, they must learn to plan, analyse situations, identify and solve problems (or potential problems), make decisions, and set realistic and attainable goals for the business/unit. These are the fundamental thinking/creative requirements for leadership, and these set direction to a successful future. Without this critical competence, you will have to rely on others to do your thinking for you, or you will simply have to learn to nurture your creative thinking skills which will help you on your journey towards successful business.

Creative thinking forms part of this continuous problem solving process, and is the fundamental basis for facilitating in the development of solutions, new initiatives, products or services. In an entrepreneurial context, the end result of this process should be directly linked to a feasible opportunity in the market environment.

Quote – What lies behind us and what lies before us, are tiny matters, compared to what lies within us. – William Morrow

The creative problem solving process consists of the following four steps:

‘ Problem analysis

‘ Solution analysis

‘ Decision analysis

‘ Solution implementation

1.2 The process

The creative problem solving process consists of an important core process, namely the idea generation process see figure 1. This is an important step, especially if you need to come up with creative ideas for products, services, and processes, to solve a consumer problem. The idea generation process consists of the following four steps:

‘ Step 1 – Generating ideas

‘ Step 2 – Developing ideas into a concept

‘ Step 3 – Converting a concept into a tangible or intangible product

‘ Step 4 – Finally protecting the tangible or intangible product

Figure 1 – The process of creative thinking (idea generation)

Initially you need to understand the problem and find the root cause of the problem. Many techniques are available to find the causes of problems, you can use the 5 Why technique in this case, if you are familiar with it. The more advanced courses will describe how to use the major problem identification techniques, but this course will focus on the idea generation process.

1.3 Where to start

In the entrepreneurial phase, the best way to start the idea generation process is when you are required to come up with a new product or service, to identify a potential consumer problem. Initially, focus on identifying problems in the area of your expertise (your knowledge base).

If you have no knowledge of the problem, the product development stage could be a challenge for you.

You will learn in the next section that not all problems are opportunities, and entrepreneurs should be careful as to how they approach this stage, when generating ideas in trying to identify a new product or service.

1.4 Problem versus opportunity

In most cases, the idea-generation phase in the creative problem solving process is neglected. Individuals normally identify a problem or an opportunity (which may seem like an opportunity, but is actually just an idea), and then develop a new product in line with the new assumed idea or opportunity. It is therefore important to distinguish between an idea and an opportunity. Resources may be wasted if a mere idea is incorrectly perceived as an opportunity.

Any opportunity is initially problem based (e.g. a coffee shop in a destination where there is a lack thereof, this creates several problem situations and potentially feasible opportunities for the entrepreneur). The creative thinking (idea generation process) involved, is the means to solving these problems, and bring forth solutions to the market problems, which create further opportunities.

1.4.1 Difference between problem and opportunity

There is, however, a critical difference between a problem and opportunity. Consider the following:

‘ Is it an idea or an opportunity to develop a high speed train between two major cities which are not far from each other? Some may say it is a great idea, but when you need to pay R200 a day to make use of it, it is simply not an opportunity. Only a few people would make use of the service, resulting in a negative impact on the market.

‘ If it is possible to transport people between the two cities for a lower cost, say R10, it would possibly be a more feasible opportunity.

Here is a good example of an opportunity – Around the turn of the twentieth century, a shoe manufacturer sent a representative to Africa, to open up a market in the undeveloped area in that continent. After exploring the culture for a month, the rep sent a telegram to the home office shouting,

‘Disaster! Disaster! These people do not wear shoes. Bring me home immediately!’

A short time later, another shoe company sent their agent to Africa for the same purpose. A month later his home office also received a telegram:

‘Opportunity! Opportunity! These people do not wear shoes! Triple production immediately!’

Quote – Every situation contains the potential for disastrous problems or unprecedented success. The event is what we perceive it to be. Unknown

Now the question arises: How do I distinguish between an idea and an opportunity? Looking at above examples, every problem is not an opportunity, and it really depends at how you are looking at the problem. If you see a viable opportunity in a problem then you are looking at the problem with a different perception than most people (the glass is half full or half empty). From a business perspective all opportunities are not necessarily a viable opportunity, the market determines the available opportunities. Without the knowledge to interpret the market conditions, you could miss it totally in terms of your opportunity analysis.

Table 1 shows the different industries in South Africa, the level of entrepreneurial activity, and how the same opportunity differs in each of these market areas.

1.4.2 The global entrepreneurship monitor

The Global Entrepreneurship Monitor ‘ specifically identified the entrepreneurial activity in the various industries of South Africa. It can be generalized to state that an industry with a high level of entrepreneurial activity, gives away more business opportunities (e.g. manufacturing, retail, hotel, restaurant and business services), while one with a lower level will indicate far less opportunities (e.g. agriculture, forestry, hunting, fishing, finance, insurance, real estate and health, education and social services).

If we analyse just one ‘high-opportunity’ industry, for instance manufacturing, it may be an opportunity today to manufacture a final product, and export it to an international market. A ‘low-opportunity’ industry, for instance insurance (especially in the market entry phase), may be negative as having an extremely high crime rate and insurance companies have to pay out claims at an alarming rate. It is also evident that low-opportunity industries may create feasible opportunities.

An entrepreneur should therefore be wary of following a fad, (latest trend) and exploiting assumed opportunities in a ‘popular’ industry.

Percentage of Entrepreneurs

ISIC Category Start-ups New Firms Total

Agriculture, forestry, hunting, fishing 1,3 2,6 1,6

Mining, construction 9,7 5,0 4,1

Manufacturing 14,3 19,1 13,8

Transport, communications, utilities 9,8 0,7 8,0

Wholesale, motor vehicle sales, repairs 6,0 6,5 6,3

Retail, hotel, restaurant 40,8 47,7 43,5

Finance, insurance, real estate 0,3 5,2 1,4

Business services 10,1 7,9 9,4

Health, education, social services 2,6 0,7 2,3

Consumer services 11,0 3,5 9,7

Source: Driver. Wood, Segal & Herrington, 2001

Table 1 – The percentage of entrepreneurs in the different industries in South-Africa

1.4.3 What is an opportunity?

What exactly is an opportunity and how does an entrepreneur exploit a feasible opportunity? According to Hesrich & Peters (2002), an opportunity is the process whereby the entrepreneur assesses whether a certain product, service or process, will yield the necessary earnings based on the resource inputs that are required to manufacture and market it.

The nature of opportunities needs to be assessed – thus, what leads to the existence of an opportunity? The following factors may result in an opportunity:

‘ General and specific problems faced by consumers

‘ Market shifts

‘ Government regulations

‘ Competition

There are two equally important criteria in the assessment of an opportunity. Firstly, the size of the market – will the number of customers reward the input and energy required, to create and deliver the product?

Secondly, the length in terms of the frame of the opportunity (window of opportunity). For example, is the demand for this product only a short fashionable phenomenon or is it based on sustainable business, or how long will it take before someone else (a competitor), to grab the opportunity?

These two aspects should also link directly to the personal skills and competence of the entrepreneur. For example, entrepreneurs with no skills or interest in information technology will not necessarily achieve their personal goals. They should rather venture into an opportunity which suits their experience and personality.

1.4.4 Transform opportunity into a business

Table 2 shows how the development of a business plan links to the identification and evaluation of opportunities, the determination of the resources required and the eventual management of the enterprise. All of these factors play a significant role in the correct assessment of the business opportunity.

This means that the business plan must explain in sufficient detail how the business will exploit the situation, to transform the opportunity, into solving a problem for the consumer, which generates extraordinary profits for the people involved.

Identify and evaluate the opportunity Develop the business plan Determine the resources needed Manage the enterprise

Creation and length of opportunity

Real and perceived value of opportunity

Risk and returns of opportunity

Opportunity versus skills and goals

Competitive situation Title page

Table of contents

Executive summary

Description of business

Description of industry

Marketing plan

Financial plan

Production plan

Organisational plan

Operational plan

Summary

Appendices Existing resources of the entrepreneur

Resource gap and available supplies

Access to needed resources Management style

Key variables for success

Identification of problems and potential problems

Implementation of control systems

Source: Hisrich, R.D. & Peters, M.P. 2002: 40. Entrepreneurship. Boston: Irwin/McGraw-Hill.

Table 2 – Link between Opportunity and business plan

1.5 Instruction

Exit and resume to your current page.

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The importance of employee engagement in an organization assignment help sydney

1.4 Literature Review

Mark Kilsby and Stephen Beyer (1996) ‘ Engagement and Interaction : A comparison between supported employment and acts’. This research study was conducted with the help of interaction and commitment patterns of 13 supported employees and 38 regular adult training center attainders of the organization. Direct observation was used as method of data collection, within the 13 employment sites and a representative sample of ATC organized activities. Because of the higher level of task specific dialogue between individuals and the service of the organization it is found that there is more of social interaction in ACT. Interaction of employees with public within office hours was the cause for this as per the study conducted.

Douglas R. May, Richard L, Gilson and Lynn M . Harter (2004) ‘The Psychological Conditions Of Meaningfulness ,Safety And Availability And The Engagement Of The Human Spirit At Work’. This shows the study about a U.S western company which explored the determinants and mediated the effects of tree psychological conditions they are meaningful, safe and available. The above studies shoes that all the three factors (meaningfulness, safety and availability) have a positive relation with the engagement of an employee in the organization. In other words they are completely associated with the psychological safety where as loyalty to co worker norms and self- consciousness are negatively related.

Despoina Xanthopaolou, Arnold B, Bakker, Evangelia Demerouti and Wilmar B.Schaufeli (2009) ‘Work Engagement And Financial Returns : A Diary Study On The Role Of The Job And Personal Resources’. The above study shows that how daily fluctuations in job can affect the level of personal resource , financial returns and work engagement. Different level of analysis revealed that day level job resources had an effect on work engagement through the day level personal resources. When there was a control for the general level of personal resources and organizational engagement Day level work engagement showed a positive way towards day level training, which in turn showed the financial returns.

Dan-Shang Wang and Chia ‘Chun Hsieh (2013) ‘The Effect Of Authentic Leadership On Employee Trust And Employee Engagement’ they have examined the genuine leadership on employee engagement through employee trust. They have collected data from 386 employees from top 1000 manufacturing companies and top 500 service companies in Taiwan. Hierarchical multiple regression was used to test the hypothesis on the employees. Later on the results shows that the consistency between the supervisors , words and actions as well as their moral perceptions are optimistically related to employee engagement , when only supervisors are consist between the words and actions in positively related employment trust. The study shows how employee engagement had a positive trust on employee. Employee trust has a partial link between authentic leadership and employee engagement.

Benjamin J.C, Yuan and Michael B.H. Lin (2012) ‘Transforming Employee Engagement Into Long-Term Customer Relationships: Evidence From Information Technology Salespeople In Taiwan’. This article shows that when information sales people in Taiwan have perceived more transformational leadership and they were more expected to show increased development in work engagement. Over a period of time it was found that increased development in work engagement influenced the increased customer relationship. It showed how employee engagement is indirectly co related with customer relationship.

Xander M.Bezuijen, Karen Van Dam, Peter T . Van Den Berg and Henk Thierry (2010) ‘How Leaders Stimulate Employee Learning : A Leader ‘ Member Exchange Approach’. This study investigated how the three factors as such as leader member exchange, goal setting, and feedback are related to employee engagement in the learning activities. Here, two different mechanisms were proposed , first one a mediating mechanism telling that leader member exchange shows specific leader behavior. The second one is it as a moderating mechanism , holding that leader member exchange will strengthen the effect of leader behavior from 7 organizations a sample of 1112 employees was taken , to measure the leader member exchange approach. 233 of the direct leaders answered that they find difficulty in rating employee engagement in learning activities.

Maureen F.Dollard and Arnold B. Bakker (2010) ‘Psychosocial Safety Climate As A Precursor To Conducive Work Environment , Psychological Health Problems , And Employee Engagement’. This article shows the gap between work psychology and psychosocial working condition. Where we construct a psychosocial working condition PSC. It explains how PSC influences the senior management in psychological working conditions and in psychological health and engagement. They use the job demand and resources as a frame work and uses a multi level thinking into their explanation

James R.Jones (2009) ‘Comparative Effects On Race/Ethnicity And Employee Engagement On Withdrawal Behavior’. This study have added knowledge on the basis of effects on employee attachment. In addition to that it provides more evidence on looking at all types of employees as a single entity which can lead to false results.

Shane Crabb ( 2011) ‘The Use Of Coaching Principles To Foster Employee Engagement’. The above article focuses on the human condition that leads to the happiness of fulfillment and flourishing of employee engagement. Where positive psychology results in so many questions from traditional psychological approaches .Which have mean to focus on a different model of human functioning with healing people fail. In another way positive psychology takes additional holistic approach to human life. Seeing the positive and negative aspects of context when establishing what is right , working and good of people.

Roberta A . Neault and Deidre A .Pickerel (2011) ‘Career Engagement : Bridging Career Counseling And Employee engagement’ . this article is showing that employee counselors helps individuals in maximizing their career engagement at any career stage of an individual. When you facilitate career engagement it contributes to employee engagement which employee are looking for. They even encourages others to use the career engagement and employee engagement models as vehicles to combine the employers to interest in engagement counselors to create interest in supporting the development of employee an motivate them to work.

2.1 Title: A Cross Sectional Study Of Employee Engagement In Apollo Hospitals.

2.2 Objectives:

1. To determine the level of Employee Engagement in Apollo Hospitals.

2. To identify the factors of Employee Engagement.

3. To analyze and suggest strategies for improvement.

2.3 Research Methodology:

I had adopted descriptive research design for the purpose of this

Survey on employee engagement. The primary data was collected from the 100 employees conveniently selected from Apollo Hospitals Bangalore, through structured questionnaire.

2.4 Limitations:

1) The survey was carried out for a sample sized of 100 working staff only.

2) Findings and suggestion of this research are applicable only to Apollo Hospitals.

3) As an fact finding study advanced statistical tools or analysis are not used.

Table 1.1 Weighted Average on Opportunities for growth

X 1 2 3 4 5

I have adequate opportunities for professional growth in this organization. (X1) 10 20 32 19 19

I receive the training I need to do my job well.(X2) 2 52 22 16 08

My manager is actively interested in my professional development and advancement.(X3) 32 21 12 18 17

My manager encourages and supports my development (X4) 08 10 40 18 24

I am encouraged to learn from my mistakes (X5) 52 23 16 04 05

My work is challenging, stimulating, and rewarding(X6) 28 14 33 16 09

X1 ?? XI X2 ?? X2 X3 ?? X3 X4 ?? X4 X5 ?? X5 X6 ?? X6

10 50 2 10 32 160 08 40 52 260 28 140

20 80 52 208 21 84 10 40 23 92 14 56

32 96 22 66 12 36 40 120 16 48 33 99

19 38 16 32 18 36 18 36 04 08 16 32

19 19 08 08 17 17 24 24 05 05 09 09

TOTAL 283 TOTAL 324 TOTAL 333 TOTAL 260 TOTAL 413 TOTAL 336

Table 1.2 Calculation Of Weighted Average on Opportunities for growth

283/100 2.83 324/100 3.24 333/100 3.33 260/100 2.60 413/100 4.13 336/100 3.36

RANKED 6 RANKED 4 RANKED 3 RANKED 5 RANKED 1 RANKED 2

Table 1.3 Showing The Rank Of Each Component of Opportunities for growth

INFERENCE

The above table shows that the employees are encouraged to learn from their mistakes that is 4.15 out of 5.the work is stimulating rewarding and challenging is ranked 2nd.the manager is actively interested in employees professional growth is

ranked 3rd.the level of opportunity for professional growth shows the least ranking.

Table 1.4: Showing Adequate Opportunities/ Professional growth

STRONGLY AGREED AGREED NEUTRAL DISAGREE STRONGLY DISAGREE TOTAL

10 20 32 19 19 100

Chart 1.1: Showing Adequate Opportunities/ Professional growth

Interpretation:

32% of the employees from the given population says that they have a neutral opportunity to grow where as 10 % stands in the outstanding category and 20% of them in good category. An equal no of employees disagree to the fact in the other hand that is 19% of the given population.

STRONGLY AGREED AGREED NEUTRAL DISAGREE STRONGLY DISAGREE TOTAL

2 52 22 16 8 100

Table 1.5: Showing Training

Chart 1.2: Showing Training

Interpretation:

In the given sample 52% of the employees agrees to the fact that they receive good training in order to do their job efficiently and 2% strongly agrees. where 22 % is neutral to the situation given.16 % of them do not get proper training they required to do their jobs and 8 % strongly disagree to it. It is clear that the organization is giving a proper training to employees to make their work effective.

Table 1.6: Showing Professional Development And Advancement

STRONGLY AGREED AGREED NEUTRAL DISAGREE STRONGLY DISAGREE TOTAL

32 21 12 18 17 100

Chart 1.3: Showing Professional Development And Advancement

Interpretation:

Most of the employees agree that their manager takes attention in their professional development steps. 32 % to 25 of the employees from the given sample have strongly agreed and agreed to it respectively. whereas 12 % is neutral to it . but 18% to 17% disagrees and says that they are not taken care in respective of their advancement in profession.

Table 1.7: Showing Encouragement And Support

STRONGLY AGREED AGREED NEUTRAL DISAGREE STRONGLY DISAGREE TOTAL

8 10 40 18 24 100

Chart 1.4: Showing Encouragement And Support

Interpretation:

From the above graph its clear that 40% of the employees neither agree or disagree that management encourage them or support them. 8% to 10% agrees that they have been supported by the management . but 18 % to 24 % disagree to the fact that management supports them .

Table 1.8: Showing Challenges, Stimulation And Reward

STRONGLY AGREED AGREED NEUTRAL DISAGREE STRONGLY DISAGREE TOTAL

52 23 16 4 5 100

Chart 1.5: Showing Challenges, Stimulation And Reward

Interpretation:

More than half , 52% of the employees states that they have a challenging stimulating and rewarding work. A very few of them disagree to it 4 % to 5% . and 23 % of them agrees t it there is a majority of people agreeing to it.

Table 1.9: Showing Encouragement

STRONGLY AGREED AGREED NEUTRAL DISAGREE STRONGLY DISAGREE TOTAL

28 14 33 16 9 100

Chart 1.6: Showing Encouragement

Interpretation:

There is a 28% of people agreeing to it. And 16 % to 9 % disagreeing to the fact that they are not encouraged to learn from their mistakes .

Table 1.10: Showing Weighted Average on Work/Life Balance; Stress and Work Pace

X 1 2 3 4 5

My manager understands the benefits of maintaining a balance between work and personal life. (X1) 02 13 08 48 29

My job does not cause unreasonable amounts of stress in my life. (X2) 30 13 08 48 29

The amount of work I am asked to do is reasonable. (X3) 40 20 12 14 14

I am able to satisfy both my job and family/personal responsibilities. (X4) 27 12 08 09 44

X1 ?? X1 X2 ?? X2 X3 ?? X3 X4 ?? X4

02 10 30 150 40 200 27 135

13 52 13 52 20 80 12 48

08 24 08 24 12 48 08 24

48 96 48 96 14 28 09 18

29 29 29 29 14 14 44 44

TOTAL 211 TOTAL 351 TOTAL 370 TOTAL 269

Table 1.11: Showing Calculation Of Weighted Average on Work/Life Balance; Stress and Work Pace

Table 1.12: Showing The Rank Of Each Component of Work/Life Balance; Stress And Work Pace

211/100 2.11 351/100 3.51 370/100 3.7 269/100 2.69

RANKED 4 RANKED 1 RANKED 2 RANKED 3

INFERRENCE

By analysing the given data using weighted average method that the level of stress reduced in the employees is 3.51 out of 4 , and the amount of work the employee is asked to do is 3.7. the employee is able to balance between family and personal responsibility is 2.69 . the managers understanding in the benefits and maintaining balance between work and personal life should be taken care because it is got only 2.11 which have least rank

STRONGLY AGREED AGREED NEUTRAL DISAGREE STRONGLY DISAGREE TOTAL

2 13 8 48 29 100

Table 1.13: Showing Work/Life Balance; Stress And Work Pace Balance Between Work And Personal Life

Chart 1.7: Showing Work/Life Balance; Stress And Work Pace Balance Between Work And Personal Life

Interpretation:

Only 2% of the employees says that there is a balance between work life and personal life. 13% of them agrees to it and 8% is neutral to it.but 48% of the sample disagrees and 29 % of them strongly disagrees to it.

Table 1.14: Showing Stress Level In Employees Life

STRONGLY AGREED AGREED NEUTRAL DISAGREE STRONGLY DISAGREE TOTAL

30 13 8 48 29 100

Chart 1.8: Showing Stress Level In Employees Life

Interpretation:

30% of the employees strongly agrees that the job doesn’t cause much stress where 13% of them agrees and 8% is neutral to it. But 48%of them disagree nd 29% strongly disagrees and states that job causes stress in their life.

Table 1.15: Showing Amount Of Work Asked To Do

STRONGLY AGREED AGREED NEUTRAL DISAGREE STRONGLY DISAGREE TOTAL

40 20 12 14 14 100

Chart 1.9: Showing Amount Of Work Asked To Do

Interpretation:

40% of them strongly agrees that they have sufficient amount of work and they do not feel any stress where 20 % of them agrees. 12% of the sample is neutral.14% of them disagrees they don’t have suffient amount of work or they are overloaded with the work given.

Table 1.16: Showing Satisfying Family / Personal Responsibilities

STRONGLY AGREED AGREED NEUTRAL DISAGREE STRONGLY DISAGREE TOTAL

40 20 12 14 14 100

Chart 1.10: Showing Satisfying Family / Personal Responsibilities

Interpretation:

44% of them strongly disagree that they are not able to complete their job, family and personal responsibilities. 27 % to 12 % agrees to it and 8% is neutral to that. It shows that employees are not satisfied with the amount of work given to them.

Table 1.17: Showing Weighted Average on Personal Expression / Diversity

X 1 2 3 4 5

My ideas and opinions count at work. (X1) 03 18 19 32 28

I am comfortable sharing my opinions at work. (X2) 10 08 28 42 12

We work to attract, develop, and retain people with diverse backgrounds. (X3) 10 13 09 56 12

Senior management is genuinely interested in employee opinions and ideas. (X4) 24 23 36 07 10

People with different ideas are valued in this organization. (X5) 20 18 40 13 09

Table 1.18: Calculation Of Weighted Average on Personal Expression / Diversity

X1 ?? X1 X2 ?? X2 X3 ?? X3 X4 ?? X4 X5 ?? X5

3 15 10 50 10 50 24 120 20 100

18 72 08 32 13 52 23 92 18 72

19 57 28 84 09 27 36 108 40 120

32 64 42 84 56 112 07 14 13 26

28 26 12 12 12 12 10 10 09 09

TOTAL 234 TOTAL 262 TOTAL 253 TOTAL 344 TOTAL 327

234/100 2.34 262/100 2.62 253/100 2.53 344/100 3.44 327/100 3.27

RANKED 5 RANKED 3 RANKED 4 RANKED 1 RANKED 2

Table 1.19: Showing The Rank Of Each Component of Personal Expression / Diversity

INFERRENCE

By analysing the above table it shows that senior management is interested in personal opinions which shows the rank 1. And people with different ideas are valued in the organisation are considered 3.27 out of 5. Employees are free to share their ideas 2.62. the employees work in such a manner to attract and retain others 2.53 ,which has got the 4th rank. Ideas counted at work has got the least rank where they have to work on that part.

Table 1.20: Showing Idea And Opinion Count

STRONGLY AGREED AGREED NEUTRAL DISAGREE STRONGLY DISAGREE TOTAL

3 18 19 32 28 100

Chart 1.11: : Showing Idea And Opinion Count

Interpretation:

Only 3% of the employees agree that the management listens to their ideas and opinions. 18% of them agree to it as well. 19 % is neutral to the situation. Whereas there is a huge no of the sample size that is32% to 28% who is disagreeing to it. Their opinions and ideas are not taken seriously by the management.

Table 1.21: Showing Level Comfort in Sharing Opinions

STRONGLY AGREED AGREED NEUTRAL DISAGREE STRONGLY DISAGREE TOTAL

10 8 28 42 12 100

Chart 1.12 : Showing Level Comfort in Sharing Opinions

Interpretation:

The conducted shows that onl10% to 8% employees are comfortable in sharing their problems with the upper management. Rest of the sample that is 42% is disagreeing that they are not comfortable in sharing their ideas or problems.12% of them strongly disagrees.

Table 1.22: Showing The Work They Do Is To Attract , Develop And Retain

STRONGLY AGREED AGREED NEUTRAL DISAGREE STRONGLY DISAGREE TOTAL

10 13 9 56 12 100

Chart 1.13: Showing The Work They Do Is To Attract , Develop And Retain

Interpretation:

56% of the employees disagrees that they don’t work to attract ,develop or retain customers. Where 10% to 13% agrees to the statement . a little sample size of 12% strongly disagrees to the statement .

Table 1.23: Showing Senior Management Interest In Employee Opinion And Ideas

STRONGLY AGREED AGREED NEUTRAL DISAGREE STRONGLY DISAGREE TOTAL

24 23 26 7 10 100

Chart 1.14: Showing Senior Management Interest In Employee Opinion And Ideas

Interpretation

The management shows interest in taking employees ideas and opinions.24% of them agrees and 23% of the strongly agrees to the statement. A huge sample ,36% id neutral to the statement. But a little sample, 7% to 10% disagrees to the statement.

Table 1.24: Showing People With Different Ideas Are Valued

STRONGLY AGREED AGREED NEUTRAL DISAGREE STRONGLY DISAGREE TOTAL

20 18 40 13 9 100

Chart 1.15: Showing People With Different Ideas Are Valued

Interpretation:

20% to 18% of the employees agree that people with different ideas are well accepted in the organization. 40% to the employees are neutral to the statement. 13 % to 9% of the sample disagrees to the statement on the other hand.

Table 1.25: Showing Weighted Average On Compensation

X 1 2 3 4 5

I am paid fairly for the work I do. (X1) 19 42 12 25 2

My salary is competitive with similar jobs I might find elsewhere.(X2) 32 12 28 23 5

My benefits are comparable to those offered by other organizations.(X3) 8 29 28 32 3

I understand my benefit plan. (X4) 42 15 19 9 15

I am satisfied with my benefit package. (X5) 58 12 11 6 13

Table 1.26: Calculation Of Weighted Average On Compensation

X1 vX1 X2 ?? X2 X3 ?? X3 X4 ?? X4 X5 ?? X5

19 95 32 160 08 40 42 210 58 290

42 168 12 48 29 116 15 60 12 48

12 36 28 84 28 84 19 57 11 33

25 50 23 46 32 64 09 18 06 12

02 02 05 05 03 03 15 15 13 13

TOTAL 351 TOTAL 343 TOTAL 307 TOTAL 360 TOTAL 396

Table 1.27: Showing The Rank Of Each Component Of Compensation

351/100 3.51 343/100 3.43 307/100 3.07 360/100 3.60 396/100 3.96

RANKED 3 RANKED 4 RANKED 5 RANKED 2 RANKED 1

INFERENCES

The above table shows that the employees are satisfied with the benefit package they are given 3.96 out of 5.the employees understand their plan is 3.60. the fair pay is ranked 3rd.the employees salary is competitive with others is ranked 4th. The salary is not comparable with salary with others which has been ranked the least, rank 5.

Table 1.28: showing Fair Pay

STRONGLY AGREED AGREED NEUTRAL DISAGREE STRONGLY DISAGREE TOTAL

19 42 12 25 2 100

Chart 1.16: Showing Fair Pay

Interpretation:

19% to 42% of the Employees agree that they are paid fairly according to the amount of work they do. But 25% to 2% of the sample size disagrees to the statement. And 12% is neutral to it.

Table 1.29: Showing Salary Competitiveness

STRONGLY AGREED AGREED NEUTRAL DISAGREE STRONGLY DISAGREE TOTAL

32 12 28 23 5 100

Chart 1.17: Showing Salary Competitiveness

Interpretation:

32% of the employees agrees that they get a competitive salary when compared to other organizations with same designation. 12% of them strongly agrees to it .28% of them are neutral to the statement. 23% to 5% is disagrees to the statement in the other hand.

Table 1.30: Showing Comparability Of Benefits

STRONGLY AGREED AGREED NEUTRAL DISAGREE STRONGLY DISAGREE TOTAL

8 29 28 32 3 100

Chart 1.18: Showing Comparability Of Benefits

Interpretation:

There is balance, 29% of the employees agrees and 32 % of them strongly disagrees that they have a comparable benefits.28% of them are neutral in the other hand.

Table 1.31: Showing Understanding Of Benefit Plan

STRONGLY AGREED AGREED NEUTRAL DISAGREE STRONGLY DISAGREE TOTAL

42 15 19 9 15 100

Chart 1.19: Showing Understanding Of Benefit Plan

Interpretation:

42% of the employees agrees that they understand their benefit plan. 15% strongly agrees ,where 19% is neutral.9% to 15% disagrees to the fact and says they don’t understand the benefit plans they are given.

Table 1.32: Showing Satisfaction With Benefit Package

STRONGLY AGREED AGREED NEUTRAL DISAGREE STRONGLY DISAGREE TOTAL

58 12 11 6 13 100

Chart 1.20: Showing Satisfaction With Benefit Package

Interpretation:

58% of them are satisfied with their benefit package. 12% strongly agrees. Whereas little sample of 6% to 13% disagrees to the statement. Or they are not happy with their benefit package.11% is neutral to it.

Summary of Findings

‘ Most of the employee’s ability state the opinion firmly and positively is better than acceptable standards.

‘ Majority of the employee’s ability in exercising the professional duties without assistance is better than acceptable standard.

‘ The Emotional Stamina of the majority of the employees is better than acceptable standard.

‘ Majority of the Employee’s Ability to work co-operatively and collaboratively to achieve common goal is better than acceptable.

‘ Majority of the employees Ability to effectively guide a group through an appropriate process to help to achieve their desired outcomes is better than acceptable standard.

‘ Majority of the employee’s ability to clarify and establish with a group roles and responsibilities, common goal and plan to achieve them and group behavioural is outstanding.

‘ Majority of the employees Ability to deal with multiple issues and details, alertness and learning capacity is better than acceptable standard.

‘ Majority of the employee’s ability to see and think beyond the obvious and formulate original solution is better than acceptable standards.

‘ Majority of the employee’s ability to present ideas, concept, plan and procedure clearly to the target group is better than acceptable standard.

‘ Concern for excellence of the majority of the employee’s is better than acceptable standard.

‘ Majority of the employee’s Aware of what is going on in the workplace and responds in a suitable manner to situations as they is better than acceptable.

‘ The understanding between the top level and employees are in good terms.

‘ Employees do understand their benefits and opportunities given by the organisation.

‘ The employees are paid fairly according to the work done.

‘ Freedom of sharing new ideas and opinions are welcomed in the organisation.

‘ The employees are able to make a balance between personnel and work life. which reduces the amount of stress in them.

‘ The organisation encourages the employee to learn from their mistakes.

‘ Recommendations

‘ In this organization employee engagement study must be regularly done in order to check the level of employee effectiveness.

‘ Since many of the employees are performing different jobs to what they were doing at the time of their joining they need training to perform the new work allotted them.

‘ Different sources of employee engagement tactics must be encouraged in employees.

‘ The top management should support the lower level employees since it is considered a major hurdle in effective employee engagement and the employees must also be made aware of importance of engagement at work system

‘ The employees should be then and there motivated for work.

‘ The understanding between management and employees should be increased.

‘ Level of stress in work should be reduced.

‘ Better benefit package should be given to the employees.

Conclusion

In the report we have discussed the importance of employee engagement in an organization and how it affects the efficiency of work and productivity. Employment counselors should help individuals to maximize their career engagement at any stage of their career. Basically employee engagement should be a buzz word for the employee engagement and a positive attitude held by the employees towards the organization. Employee engagement is gaining its importance and popularity in work places and its impact in many ways. It emphasis on the importance of employee engagement in a organization, an organization should thus give more importance for its employees than any other variable as they are the powerful contributors to a company’s competitiveness. Thus it shows that employee engagement should be a continues process for learning, improvement, measurement and action of an employee.

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The limitations of the Chit Acts nursing essay help

1.1 BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY

The financial system assumes strategically a very important role in channelling the funds from surplus units to deficit units. The financial system here refers to the group of institutions, markets and instruments which helps in formation of capital and thus accelerates to the pace of economic development.

The base of this study stems from the fact that there exists a gap between gross capital formation and gross domestic savings in India. So, there exists the need to augment the growth rate of voluntary domestic savings. This goal can be realized by widening and strengthening the working of different financial intermediaries which will result in mobilizing savings from various income level categories. .It is in this context that the role of the Non-Banking Financial Intermediaries like Chit Finance should be appreciated in supplementing the functions of the Banking Institutions.

Chit funds are Chit funds are the Indian equivalent of the Rotating Savings and Credit Associations (ROSCA). ROSCAs are famous in many parts of the world and is seen as an instrument to ‘save and borrow’ simultaneously. ROSCAs basically started as a way to help in fulfilling the needs of the low-income households as it enables the people to convert their small savings into lump sums. The concept of chit funds originated more than 1000 years ago. Initially it was in the form of an informal association of traders and households within communities, wherein the members contributed some money in return for an accumulated sum at the end of the tenure. Participation in Chit funds was mainly for the purpose of purchasing some property or, in other words, for ‘consumption’ purposes. However, in recent times, there have been tremendous alterations in the constitution and functioning of Chit funds. A significant difference between Chit Funds and ROSCAs are that in most places ROSCAs are user-owned and organized informally, but chit funds have been formally institutionalized in India. (Chit Funds-An innovative access to finance for low income households, 2009)

1.1.1 WHAT DO WE MEAN BY CHIT FUNDS?

Chit fund is a savings-cum-borrowing instrument. The basic aim of this instrument is to pool small amount of savings by all the members which is then managed by a foreman. The foreman has the responsibility to act as a trustee-cum-supervisors for the process of collection and allotment of the pooled amount.

Chit funds represent a traditional form of saving-cum-credit institution evolved before the bank system was introduced in rural India. There are many who avail themselves of this avenue for saving for a reasonable return.

1.1 NEED AND RATIONALE OF THE STUDY

Despite the growth of a wide range of savings avenues and the widespread network of banks and other financial institutions, it has been found that Chit scheme still forms an important part in the asset portfolio of many households and firms in India and especially in South India including Karnataka. Also, the review of literature shows that there are only a few studies on Chit Finance. Therefore, the need to conduct the study stems from the requirement to understand Chit Funds in Bangalore.

1.2 NEED TO CONDUCT THE STUDY

The research titled ‘A Study on Chit Funds in Bangalore to understand the behaviour and financial needs of the chit fund members as well as to identify the important predictors of regular participation in chit funds’ The study estimates the net returns and interest rate on Chit funds. This study tries to point out the limitations of the Chit Acts and suggests feasible recommendations for improving the working of such institutions.

.3.2 STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM

‘A Study on Chit Funds in Bangalore to understand the behaviour and financial needs of the chit fund members as well as to identify the important predictors of regular participation in chit funds’.

VARIABLES UNDER INVESTIGATION

1. Age

2. Occupation

3. Monthly income

4. Gender

5. Bank loan

6. Regular participation in chit fund

7. Membership in multiple chit schemes

8. Cause for participating in multiple schemes

9. Preferred avenue of saving

10. Preferred source of finance

11. Safety

12. Better service

13. Flexibility

14. Timely Payment

15. Low commission

16. Personal contact

17. Unregistered chit funds membership

18. Cause for participating in unregistered chit funds

19. Cause for not participating in unregistered chit fund

3.5 OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDY

3.5.1 OBJECTIVE(PRIMARY)

1. To understand the behaviour and financial needs of the chit fund members.

2. To identify the important predictors behind chit fund participation

3.5.2 OHER OBJECTIVES OF RESEARCH

1. To estimate interest rates in registered chit funds.

2. To compare the relative ratings of Chit subscribers towards registered and unregistered chit funds on

3. To estimate the return on Chit Funds.

3.6 HYPOTHESIS

There are two types of statistical hypotheses.

1. Null hypothesis

2. Alternative hypothesis.

Hypothesis 1:

H0: There is no significant relation between gender and cause for participation in chit fund.

H1: There is significant relation between gender and cause for participation in chit fund.

Hypothesis 2:

H0: There is no significant relation between occupation and cause for participation in chit fund.

H1: There is significant relation between occupation and cause for participation in chit fund.

Hypothesis 3:

H0: There is no significant relation between age and causes for participation in chit fund

H1: There is significant relation between age and cause for participation in chit fund

Hypothesis 4:

H0: There is no significant relation between monthly income and cause for participation in chit fund

H1: There is significant relation between monthly income and cause for participation in chit fund

Hypothesis 5:

H0: There is no significant relation between gender and causes for bidding in chit fund

H1: There is significant relation between gender and cause for bidding in chit fund

Hypothesis 6:

H0: There is no significant relation between occupation and cause for bidding in chit fund

H1: There is significant relation between occupation and cause for bidding in chit fund

Hypothesis 7:

H0: There is no significant relation between age and cause for bidding in chit fund

H1: There is significant relation between age and cause for bidding in chit fund

Hypothesis 8:

H0: There is no significant relation between monthly income and cause for bidding in chit fund

H1: There is significant relation between monthly income and cause for bidding in chit fund

Hypothesis 9:

H0: There is no significant relation between gender and cause for saving in chit fund

H1: There is significant relation between gender and cause for saving in chit fund

Hypothesis 10:

H0: There is no significant relation between occupation and cause for saving in chit fund.

H1: There is significant relation between occupation and cause for saving in chit fund.

Hypothesis 11:

H0: There is no significant relation between age and cause for saving in chit fund

H1: There is significant relation between age and cause for saving in chit fund

Hypothesis 12:

H0: There is no significant relation between having bank loan and membership in multiple chit schemes.

H1: There is significant relation between having bank loan and membership in multiple chit schemes.

Hypothesis 13:

H0: There is no significant relation between monthly income and participation in unregistered chit funds

H1: There is significant relation between monthly income and participation in unregistered chit funds

Hypothesis 14 :

H0: There is no significant relation between causes to prefer chit fund over bank and having bank loan.

H1: There is significant relation between causes to prefer chit fund over bank and having bank loan.

Hypothesis 15:

H0: Presence of safety, flexibility, timely payment, low commission, better service, personal contact, having a bank loan are no significant predictors of regular participation in chit fund.

H1: Presence of safety, flexibility, timely payment, low commission, better service, personal contact ,having a bank loan,are significant predictors of regular participation in chit fund.

.

3.8 SAMPLING METHOD

Members of four registered chit fund companies in Bangalore. The four registered chit fund companies were selected due to the large size of their subscriber base.

3.8.3 SIZE OF SAMPLE

150 respondents

3.9 MECHANISM OF STUDY

3.9.1 PRIMARY RESEARCH

Questions relating to behaviour and financial pattern will be found out through questionnares

3.9.2 SECONDARY RESEARCH

‘ Reports on chit fund industry

OVERVIEW OF INDIAN CHIT FUND INDUSTRY

4.1.1 NUMBER OF REGISTERED CHIT FUND COMPANIES:

According to the Ministry of Corporate Affairs, as on 31st December, 2013:

Volume of registered chit companies: 5412

Volume of chit companies in Karnataka: 703

Number of chit fund companies in Bangalore: 315

UNREGISTERED CHIT FUND INDUSTRY

Although unregistered chits are an informal source of finance but still they are a significant part of the chit fund industry. Though they are more easily accessible as compared to registered chit funds.

4.3 PURPOSE OF THE STUDY

The study titled ‘A Study on Chit Funds in Bangalore to understand the behaviour and financial needs of the chit fund members as well as to identify the important predictors of regular participation in chit funds’ attempt in The study estimates the net returns and interest rate on Chit funds. This study also examines the limitations of the Chit Acts and suggests suitable recommendations for improving the functioning of such institutions.

4.4 LIMITATION OF STUDY

‘ Unwillingness of the members to share their income and financial details made the task of data collection somewhat difficult.

‘ Collecting data became difficult since I don’t know the regional languages.

5.2 ANALYSIS OF DATA

The analysis is done on the primary data collected from 150 chit funds members in Bangalore

TESTING OF HYPOTHESES

5.4.1 Hypothesis 1:

H0: There is no significant relation between gender and cause for participation in chit fund.

H1: There is significant relation between gender and cause for participation in chit fund.

Chi-Square Tests

Value df Asymp. Sig. (2-sided)

Pearson Chi-Square 31.070a 16 .013

Likelihood Ratio 35.945 16 .003

Linear-by-Linear Association 8.809 1 .003

N of Valid Cases 150

a. 1 cells (10.0%) have expected count less than 5. The minimum expected count is .30.

Symmetric Measures

Value Approx. Sig.

Nominal by Nominal Phi .455 .013

Cramer’s V .228 .013

N of Valid Cases 150

a. Not assuming the null hypothesis.

b. Using the asymptotic standard error assuming the null hypothesis.

INTERPRETATION:

The value of chi-square=31.070 was p=.013, less than 0.05.

We can see that the strength of association between the variables is moderate (Phi and Cramer’s V -0.455).

Therefore, the research hypothesis that differences in ’cause to participate in chit funds’ are related to differences in ‘age” is supported by this analysis. This means that different age groups of the chit fund members have different reasons of participating in chit funds. As can be seen from the table above that those who belong to ’36-45 years’ have saving as the predominant reason to participate whereas members of other age groups do not have any dominant reason to participate.

5.4.2 Hypothesis 2:

Hypothesis 2:

H0: There is no significant relation between occupation and cause for participation in chit fund.

H1: There is significant relation between occupation and cause for participation in chit fund.

Hypothesis 3:

. Hypothesis 3:

H0: There is no significant relation between age and causes for participation in chit fund

H1: There is significant relation between age and cause for participation in chit fund

Chi-Square Tests

Value df Asymp. Sig. (2-sided)

Pearson Chi-Square 10.018a 4 .040

Likelihood Ratio 10.478 4 .033

Linear-by-Linear Association 6.876 1 .009

N of Valid Cases 150

Symmetric Measures

Value Approx. Sig.

Nominal by Nominal Phi .258 .040

Cramer’s V .258 .040

N of Valid Cases 150

a. Not assuming the null hypothesis.

a. Using the asymptotic standard error assuming the null hypothesis.

INTERPRETATION:

The value of chi-square=10.018 was p=.040, less than 0.05.

.We can see that the strength of association between the variables is weak (0.258)

Therefore, the research hypothesis that differences in ’cause to participate in chit funds’ are related to differences in ‘gender” is supported by this analysis. This means that males and females have different reasons of participating in chit funds. As it can be seen that males participate in chit funds for business and personal consumption purposes apart from saving whereas women predominantly participate to save.

5.4

Hypothesis 4:

H0: There is no significant relation between monthly income and cause for participation in chit fund

H1: There is significant relation between monthly income and cause for participation in chit fund

Chi-Square Tests

Value df Asymp. Sig. (2-sided)

Pearson Chi-Square 82.176a 12 .000

Likelihood Ratio 97.665 12 .000

Linear-by-Linear Association 15.696 1 .000

N of Valid Cases 150

Symmetric Measures

Value Approx. Sig.

Nominal by Nominal Phi .740 .000

Cramer’s V .427 .000

N of Valid Cases 150

INTERPRETATION:

We can see that the strength of association between the variables is strong (0.740)

Therefore, the research hypothesis that differences in ‘reason to participate in chit funds’ are related to differences in ‘occupation” is supported by this analysis. It can be seen that the self-employed members mainly participate to avail for business reasons whereas salaried employee participate mainly for personal consumption purposes.

Hypothesis 5:

Hypothesis 5:

H0: There is no significant relation between gender and causes for bidding in chit fund

H1: There is significant relation between gender and cause for bidding in chit fund

Chi-Square Tests

Value df Asymp. Sig. (2-sided)

Pearson Chi-Square 66.691a 20 .000

Likelihood Ratio 43.579 20 .002

Linear-by-Linear Association 4.804 1 .028

N of Valid Cases 150

a. 1 cell (10.0%) has expected count less than 5. The minimum expected count is .07.

Symmetric Measures

Value Approx. Sig.

Nominal by Nominal Phi .667 .000

Cramer’s V .333 .000

N of Valid Cases 150

a. Not assuming the null hypothesis.

b. Using the asymptotic standard error assuming the null hypothesis.

INTERPRETATION:

The (chi-square=66.691) was p=.000, less than 0.05.

We can see that the strength of association between the variables is moderately strong (0.667)

Therefore, the research hypothesis that differences in ’cause to bid in chit funds’ are related to differences in ‘age” is supported by this analysis. It can be seen that the members of age group’36-45 years’ are more interested in bidding for business related purposes where members of other age groups bid mainly for emergency needs.

5.4.6 Hypothesis 6:

. Hypothesis 6:

H0: There is no significant relation between occupation and cause for bidding in chit fund

H1: There is significant relation between occupation and cause for bidding in chit fund

Chi-Square Tests

Value df Asymp. Sig. (2-sided)

Pearson Chi-Square 7.167a 5 .209

Likelihood Ratio 7.885 5 .163

Linear-by-Linear Association 1.120 1 .290

N of Valid Cases 150

a. 5 cells (41.7%) have expected count less than 5. The minimum expected count is .81.

Symmetric Measures

Value Approx. Sig.

Nominal by Nominal Phi .219 .209

Cramer’s V .219 .209

N of Valid Cases 150

a. Not assuming the null hypothesis.

b. Using the asymptotic standard error assuming the null hypothesis.

INTERPRETATION:

The probability of the chi-square test statistic (chi-square=7.167) was p=.209, more than the alpha level of significance of 0.05.

Therefore, the research hypothesis that differences in ‘reason to bid in chit funds’ are related to differences in ‘gender” is not supported by this analysis.

5.4.7 Hypothesis 7:

Hypothesis 7:

H0: There is no significant relation between age and cause for bidding in chit fund

H1: There is significant relation between age and cause for bidding in chit fund

Chi-Square Tests

Value df Asymp. Sig. (2-sided)

Pearson Chi-Square 180.915a 15 .000

Likelihood Ratio 160.460 15 .000

Linear-by-Linear Association 28.379 1 .000

N of Valid Cases 150

a. 1 cell (10.0%) has expected count less than 5. The minimum expected count is .13.

Symmetric Measures

Value Approx. Sig.

Nominal by Nominal Phi 1.098 .000

Cramer’s V .634 .000

N of Valid Cases 150

INTERPRETATION:

The (chi-square=180.915) was p=.000, less than 0.05.

We can see that the strength of association between the variables is extremely strong (1.098)

Therefore, the research hypothesis that differences in’ are related to differences in ‘occupation” is supported by this analysis. It can be clearly seen that self-employed people bid in chit scheme mostly for business purposes, salaried people for emergency needs and housewives for household purposes.

5.4.8 Hypothesis 8:

Hypothesis 8:

H0: There is no significant relation between monthly income and cause for bidding in chit fund

H1: There is significant relation between monthly income and cause for bidding in chit fund

Chi-Square Tests

Value df Asymp. Sig. (2-sided)

Pearson Chi-Square 123.331a 35 .000

Likelihood Ratio 106.298 35 .000

Linear-by-Linear Association 4.957 1 .026

N of Valid Cases 150

INTERPRETATION:

The probability of the chi-square test statistic (chi-square=123.331) was p=.000, less than the alpha level of significance of 0.05.

We can see that the strength of association between the variables is extremely strong (.907)

Therefore, the research hypothesis that differences in ‘reason to bid in chit funds’ are related to differences in ‘income” is supported by this analysis. It can be clearly seen that low income members bid mostly for consumption reasons whereas higher income members bid for business related and emergency purposes.

SUMMARY:

Reason to bid in chit fund has the strongest association with the occupation of the chit fund members as the probability of the chi-square test statistic (chi-square=180.915) was p=.000 and the strength of association between the variables is extremely strong (1.098).

5.4.

Hypothesis 9:

H0: There is no significant relation between gender and cause for saving in chit fund

H1: There is significant relation between gender and cause for saving in chit fund

Chi-Square Tests

Value df Asymp. Sig. (2-sided)

Pearson Chi-Square 21.702a 16 .153

Likelihood Ratio 23.775 16 .095

Linear-by-Linear Association 2.397 1 .122

N of Valid Cases 150

INTERPRETATION:

The chi-square=123.331) was p=.153, more than 0.05. Therefore, the research hypothesis that differences in ’cause to save in chit funds’ are related to differences in ‘age” is not supported by this analysis.

5.4.10 Hypothesis 10:

H0: There is no significant relation between occupation and cause for saving in chit fund.

H1: There is significant relation between occupation and cause for saving in chit fund.

Chi-Square Tests

Value df Asymp. Sig. (2-sided)

Pearson Chi-Square 20.510a 4 .000

Likelihood Ratio 29.038 4 .000

Linear-by-Linear Association 7.062 1 .008

N of Valid Cases 150

a. 1 cell (10.0%) has expected count less than 5. The minimum expected count is .81.

Symmetric Measures

Value Approx. Sig.

Nominal by Nominal Phi .370 .000

Cramer’s V .370 .000

N of Valid Cases 150

a. Not assuming the null hypothesis.

b. Using the asymptotic standard error assuming the null hypothesis.

INTERPRETATION:

The chi-square=20.510) was p=.000, less than 0.05.

We can see that the strength of association between the variables is weak (.370).Therefore, the research hypothesis that differences in ’cause to save in chit funds’ are related to differences in ‘gender” is supported by this analysis.

5.4.11 Hypothesis 11:

Hypothesis 11:

H0: There is no significant relation between age and cause for saving in chit fund

H1: There is significant relation between age and cause for saving in chit fund

Chi-Square Tests

Value df Asymp. Sig. (2-sided)

Pearson Chi-Square 67.261a 12 .000

Likelihood Ratio 60.380 12 .000

Linear-by-Linear Association 9.507 1 .002

N of Valid Cases 150

a. 1 cell (10.0%) has expected count less than 5. The minimum expected count is .13.

Symmetric Measures

Value Approx. Sig.

Nominal by Nominal Phi .670 .000

Cramer’s V .387 .000

N of Valid Cases 150

INTERPRETATION:

The chi-square=67.261 was p=.000, less than 0.05.

We can see that the strength of association between the variables is moderately strong(.670).Therefore, the research hypothesis that differences in ‘reason to cause in chit funds’ are related to differences in ‘occupation” is supported by this analysis. Salaried people save their money in chit fund with no particular purpose. But self-employed people are equally interested in saving for house purchase as well as for general purpose.

SUMMARY:

chit fund is most closely associated with occupation of the chit fund members as it has the highest value of chi-square statistic and Phi coefficient.

5.4.12 Hypothesis 12:

Hypothesis 12:

H0: There is no significant relation between having bank loan and membership in multiple chit schemes.

H1: There is significant relation between having bank loan and membership in multiple chit schemes.

Chi-Square Tests

Value df Asymp. Sig. (2-sided)

Pearson Chi-Square 56.697a 3 .000

Likelihood Ratio 67.900 3 .000

Linear-by-Linear Association 36.400 1 .000

N of Valid Cases 150

INTERPRETATION:

The probability of the chi-square test statistic (chi-square=56.697) was p=.000, less than the alpha level of significance of 0.05.

We can see that the strength of association between the variables is strong (.615).

Therefore, the research hypothesis that differences in ‘membership in multiple chit schemes are related to differences in ‘having currently bank loan” is supported by this analysis. It is clearly evident that those members currently having bank loan have invested in only one chit scheme whereas those members who do not have availed bank loan have invested in more than one chit schemes.

5.4.13 Hypothesis 13:

Hypothesis 13:

H0: There is no significant relation between monthly income and participation in unregistered chit funds

H1: There is significant relation between monthly income and participation in unregistered chit funds

.

Chi-Square Tests

Value df Asymp. Sig. (2-sided)

Pearson Chi-Square 96.660a 7 .000

Likelihood Ratio 85.378 7 .000

Linear-by-Linear Association 59.577 1 .000

N of Valid Cases 150

a. 1 cell(10.0%) has expected count less than 5. The minimum expected count is 1.08.

INTERPRETATION:

The chi-square=96.660 was p=.000, less than 0.05.

We can see that the strength of association between the variables is extremely strong (.803).

Therefore, the research hypothesis that differences in ‘participation in unregistered chit funds’ are related to differences in ‘income” is supported by this analysis. It is clearly evident that mostly low- income members have participated in unregistered funds. This is because the registered funds have become expensive due to the increase in their operational cost as a result of stringent regulations.

5.2.14 Hypothesis 14 :

H0: There is no significant relation between causes to prefer chit fund over bank and having bank loan.

H1: There is significant relation between causes to prefer chit fund over bank and having bank loan

Chi-Square Tests

Value df Asymp. Sig. (2-sided)

Pearson Chi-Square 28.049a 5 .000

Likelihood Ratio 31.806 5 .000

Linear-by-Linear Association 2.967 1 .085

N of Valid Cases 150

a. 2 cells (15.0%) have expected count less than 5. The minimum expected count is 1.79.

Symmetric Measures

Value Approx. Sig.

Nominal by Nominal Phi .432 .000

Cramer’s V .432 .000

N of Valid Cases 150

INTERPRETATION:

The probability of the chi-square test statistic (chi-square=28.049) was p=.000, less than the alpha level of significance of 0.05.

We can see that the strength of association between the variables is moderate (.432).

Therefore, the research hypothesis that differences in ’cause to prefer chit fund over bank’ are related to differences in ‘having bank loan” is supported by this analysis. It is clearly evident that members who have bank loan have preferred chit fund over bank mainly due to better dividends. But those who do not have bank loan prefer chit fund over bank mainly due to better service in terms of more personalized service.)

5.2..15 Hypothesis 15: To identify significant predictors of regular participation in chit funds using Binary Logistic Regression

Hypothesis 15:

H0: Presence of safety, flexibility, timely payment, low commission, better service, personal contact, having a bank loan are no significant predictors of regular participation in chit fund.

H1: Presence of safety, flexibility, timely payment, low commission, better service, personal contact ,having a bank loan,are significant predictors of regular participation in chit fund.

Variables in the Equation

B S.E. Wald df Sig. Exp(B)

Step 0 Constant -1.046 .186 31.574 1 .000 .351

Model Summary

Step -2 Log likelihood Cox & Snell R Square Nagelkerke R Square

1 37.170a .533 .576

a. Estimation terminated at iteration number 6 because parameter estimates changed by less than .001.

Variables in the Equation

B S.E. Wald df Sig. Exp(B)

Step 1a bank_loan(1) 1.068 1.265 14.715 1 .000 11.720

reason_2 2.286 4 .683

reason_2(1) 1.336 1.077 1.540 1 .215 3.805

reason_2(2) .134 2.239 .004 1 .952 1.143

reason_2(3) -.559 1.896 .087 1 .768 .572

reason_2(4) .731 1.347 .294 1 .588 2.076

reason_3 4.874 5 .431

reason_3(1) 1.188 .924 1.652 1 .199 3.279

reason_3(2) 1.661 2.048 .658 1 .417 5.263

reason_3(3) -1.654 1.228 1.813 1 .178 .191

reason_3(4) .404 1.192 .115 1 .735 1.497

reason_3(5) -17.379 20.722 .000 1 .700 .000

reason_4 .355 4 .986

reason_4(1) -1.047 1.850 .320 1 .571 .351

reason_4(2) -.839 1.979 .180 1 .672 .432

reason_4(3) -.932 1.637 .324 1 .569 .394

reason_4(4) 3.519 4.199 .000 1 .600 3.746

reason_5 8.553 5 .128

reason_5(1) -.254 1.768 .021 1 .886 .776

reason_5(2) -19.245 9.890 .000 1 .999 .000

reason_5(3) 1.420 1.338 1.126 1 .289 4.136

reason_5(4) -.747 1.306 .327 1 .567 .474

reason_5(5) .561 1.342 .174 1 .676 1.752

B S.E. Wald df Sig. Exp(B)

Step 1a Safety -.075 .320 4.377 1 .011 0.928

Flexi -.178 .426 3.337 1 .021 0.837

commision -.185 .188 1.868 1 .026 0.831

payment -.267 .178 1.657 1 .097 0.766

service -.859 .412 1.348 1 .083 0.424

personal -1.122 .163 .996 1 .079 0.329

Constant 3.058 2.440 1.571 1 .010 21.291

a. Variable(s) entered on step 1: : bank_loan, reason_2, reason_3, reason_4, reason_5.imp1, imp2, imp3, imp4, imp5, imp6.

INTERPRETATION:

‘ -2 Log Likelihood statistic is 37.170. This statistic how poorly the model predicts the decisions — the smaller the statistic the better the model. Since, 37.170 is a relatively small number therefore, this model is able to predict the decisions in a better way.

‘ Here Cox & Snell R Square statistic indicates that 53.3% of the variation in the regular participation in chit funds is explained by the logistic model.

‘ In our case Nagelkerke R Square is 0.576, indicating a moderate relationship of 57.6 % between the predictors and the prediction.

‘ If it is less than .05 then, we will reject the null hypothesis and accept the alternative hypothesis.

‘ In this case, we can see that bank loan, safety, flexibility and low commission have contributed signi’cantly to the prediction of regular participation in chit funds but other variables are not significant predictors of regular participation in chit funds.

‘ Since only bank loan has p=.000, therefore we can say that bank loan is the most significant predictor

among other significant predictors. This is followed by safety (p=.011), flexibility (p=.021) and low commission (p=.026).

‘ Here, the EXP (B) bank loan is 11.727. Hence when bank loan is availed by one unit (one person) the odds ratio is 11 times as large and therefore people are 11 more times likely not to regularly participate in chit funds.

‘ Here, the EXP (B) with safety is .928. Hence when safety is increased by one percent the odds ratio is .928 times as large and therefore people are .928 more times likely to regularly participate in chit funds.

‘ Here, the EXP (B) flexibility is 837. Hence when flexibility is increased by one percent the odds ratio is .928 times as large and therefore people are .837 more times likely to regularly participate in chit funds.

‘ Here, the EXP (B) low commission is .831. Hence when flexibility is increased by one percent the odds ratio is .928 times as large and therefore people are .831 more times likely to regularly participate in chit funds.

SUMMARY

Bank loan is the most significant predictor of regular participation in chit funds. This is followed by safety, flexibility and low commission.

Instalment no No of months remaining Monthly subscription Prize amount PV of monthly subscription(PV of outlow at 10%) PV of Prize amount(PV of inflow at 10%) Net Present Value(PV of inflow – PV of outflow)

1 24 2000 50000 2000 50000 10444.9

2 23 1500 35000 1488.1 34723.1 -4832.0

3 22 1500 35000 1476.4 34448.4 -5106.7

4 21 1500 35000 1464.7 34175.9 -5379.2

5 20 1500 35000 1453.1 33905.5 -5649.6

6 19 1500 35000 1441.6 33637.3 -5917.8

7 18 1500 35000 1430.2 33371.2 -6183.9

8 17 1500 35000 1418.9 33107.2 -6447.9

9 16 1620 38000 1520.3 35660.6 -3894.5

10 15 1620 38000 1508.2 35378.5 -4176.6

11 14 1700 40000 1570.2 36945.9 -2609.2

12 13 1700 40000 1557.8 36653.6 -2901.5

13 12 1780 42000 1618.2 38181.8 -1373.3

14 11 1780 42000 1605.4 37879.8 -1675.3

15 10 1780 42000 1592.7 37580.1 -1975.0

16 9 1860 44000 1651.1 39058.2 -496.9

17 8 1860 44000 1638.0 38749.2 -805.9

18 7 1860 44000 1625.1 38442.6 -1112.5

19 6 1940 46000 1681.6 39872.1 317.0

20 5 1940 46000 1668.3 39556.6 1.5

21 4 1940 46000 1655.1 39243.7 -311.4

22 3 1940 46000 1642.0 38933.2 -621.8

23 2 1940 46000 1629.0 38625.2 -929.8

24 1 1940 46000 1616.1 38319.7 -1235.4

25 0 1940 46000 1603.3 38016.5 -1538.6

39555.1 934465.9 -54411.4

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Merit goods persuasive essay help

Merit goods are goods which will be under-provided by the market, therefore they will be under-consumed. They are thought by the governments to be good for the populations and so the governments want them to be consumed to a great extent. They increase the private and social benefits and cause the social benefit be higher than the private one. The best examples of them, apart from all the public goods, can be the education, health care, sports facilities and the opera.

Although the majority of the merit goods is provided by the private sectors, not all the people can afford buying them, therefore they will be under-consumed. That is why the government is needed to destroy the market failure increasing the supply and consequently raising the consumption.

To explain the reasons for government to provide the merit goods, I need to apply some examples of them. The first one can be the education. It is significant for the governments to provide it so that the society would be well-educated. Governments determine the period of education required for people (the compulsory education) to maintain the proper level of education of the society. The governments find education an important aspect that should be available for everyone as it cause the whole country to have better both economic growth and economic development.

Considering another example such as health care, the situation is quite similar. The governments want to provide the population with it because they care about the high states of health of society in their country. To gain these, the countries need to have high quality of health care. Governments often offer people unpaid programs consisting of preventative medical examination which contribute to maintain the high number of healthy people. This is also connected with the problems of the labour market. The healthier people are, the more efficient their work is, the greater revenue firms have and countries are more developed because of taxations.

Other examples like sport facilities or the opera are meant for people to become physically and culturally developed but their availability is not as important as in the case of the previous examples. That is why they are not as much provided by the governments as the rest of the merit goods.

Although most of the merit goods provided by the governments are free, the fact is that they are paid through the taxes that the societies pay. The number of the merit goods of particular types that the governments provide or subsidize depends on the necessity of them. If they are provided, the societies’ benefits get higher and so is the public treasury of the countries.

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Research proposal: The effect of pregnancy on the adolescent pregnant teen & father extended essay help biology

Abstract: The purpose for this research paper is to address the adolescent pregnant teen & father and the effects a pregnancy has on both of their lives during and after her pregnancy. How the teens need the support of the family, community, church, and the school system. I will also address the teen father mostly disregarded in any aspect of the teen’s pregnancy and how this affects him, and how both teens need support in our society. How we can address the social problem of teen pregnancy from all avenues.

‘Three issues that have an impact on the pregnant adolescent are discussed education, identity development, and maternal support’ (Turnage & Pharris, 2013). My research focuses on adolescent pregnant teen women 19 years old and younger. It will also reflect the problems of the teen pregnant adolescents journeying thru the process of becoming a teen mother, finishing high school, developing her own identity and the maternal support she gets from her mother during her transition from pregnant teen to motherhood.

‘Several issues that differently influence the pregnant teen is individually based on the female’s chronological age’ (Turnage & Pharris, 2013). ‘For the pregnant adolescent, her pregnancy supersedes high school graduation as the benchmark for her being viewed as an adult’ (Turnage & Pharris, 2013). ‘Failure to graduate high school is associated with poor social and educational outcomes for teen mothers and their children’ (Turnage & Pharris, 2013).

‘While the pregnant adolescent is defining who she is as a person she experiences a transition to the new identity of mother’ (Turnage & Pharris, 2013). ‘During her pregnancy the adolescent’s mother is seen as the primary source of support that contributes to a positive self-image and can assist her in the adapting to the role of parent’ (Turnage & Pharris, 2013).

My research paper will also show how important it is to support the teen during and after pregnancy. It addresses the need for the teen mothers to finish high school, and find her identity. How important it is to have the support system of her mother and family to achieve all of these things. Without these support systems, the pregnant adolescent could end up in poverty, no social skills, homeless and a host of other social problems for her and her baby.

Addressed and examined is teen motherhood and its long-term mental and physical health of the teen mother’ (Patel & Sen, 2012). They used a (PCS) health survey known as SF-12 NLSY79 a study that compared two major comparisons groups of which only teens who experienced teen pregnancy and girls who did not experience teen pregnancy. On average the survey for teen mothers was on average 50.89.

The study to access the health outcome of ‘two major comparison groups, which consisted of women who were only experienced teen pregnancy & women who were having unprotected sexual relation as a teen but did not become pregnant ‘ (Patel & Sen, 2012). Estimated is that teen mothers are more likely to have poor health later in life in the study of all the comparison groups.

Along with support, they desperately need help taking care of an infant as a teen; they need a support system to take notice of how they are managing their health & well-being so that they can be a successful teen parent. In addition, being a teen parent can affect the mother’s mentally as the pressure of being new teen mom can be stressful.

The teen mothers who marry after they give birth to their children statistics state that 30 % of them will not remain in their marriages into their 40’s. This result comes from teen adolescents in a single parent home raising their child. This can put a strain on the teen adolescent because she will financially have to seek support from her family or enter into the welfare system and suffer mental health issues.

‘Adolescent teen mothers identify social support with, parenting and emotional support primary emanating from family members, particularly their own mothers, as well as from the father of the baby (Savio Beers & Lee, 2009)’. ‘Older sisters may play an important role in the support network for adolescent mothers, the supportive sister relationships decrease depressive and anxiety-related symptoms in adolescent mothers (Savio Beers & Lee, 2009).

‘For some adolescent parents, participation in a religious community programs may provide the significant social support and serve as a protective factor’ (Savio Beers & Lee, 2009). This directly stresses the point that without the support of family, community, and church with the support of the father the adolescent teen mother can suffer mental issues, poverty issues, and marriage problems.

We addressed the many issues that teen mothers have to face, so now I would like to address the teen father in our society. What are their concerns on becoming a teen father, and how do they view their role as father where their masculinity is concerned? While most of the research done on teen pregnancy and parenting mainly focusing on the mother, the father is invisible.

Interviewed were 26 young teen fathers in the mid-western American towns. The in depth survey of three themes of gender discord focused on teen father narratives, which took on responsibility, sex, being a man, this is the direct viewpoint of the invisible teen father. What they feel about getting a teen girl pregnant and what responsibility they take in the pregnancy if any. How they relate to getting a teen pregnant and how that affects his identity as a man and their masculinity.

‘Gendered assumptions regarding pregnancy and contraception’specifically that women are in charge of preventing pregnancy and they have the belief that male sexuality is uncontrollable; and that use of love and intimacy talk (Weber, J. B., 2013). The teen fathers that took the questionnaire did not blame themselves for getting the teen girl pregnant. They see the teen’s pregnancy as her problem.

Studies suggest that teen fathers are more likely to be of a minority race. He has a mother who had a baby as a teen; his parents have a minimal education. His parents do not have high expectations of him finishing school; all of these factors result in the likelihood that makes him a candidate to becoming a teenage father. ‘The research states that the teen fathers go to school fewer years less than non-teenage fathers (Fletcher & Wolfe, 2011).

‘Evidence shows that men who have children before marriage leave school earlier and have worse labor markets outcomes’ (Fletcher & Wolfe, 2011). ‘Data was used only on young men who reported a pregnancy as an adolescent’ (Fletcher & Wolfe, 2011). It affects his completion of high school.

It also affects his ability to take care of the teen mother & baby, which causes him to drop out of school early. Statistically, ‘teen fathers work more hours and earn more money following the birth of a child then his non-parent counterparts’ (Fletcher & Wolfe, 2011). Teen fatherhood results in the teen father getting married early or co-habitation with the teen mother.

In conclusion, teen pregnancy is a social problem in the United States both teens will have to suffer in their education, grow up before their time, take on adult responsibilities, and suffer financial problems to take care of the child. Which ultimately falls on the parents of the teens, society or the welfare system in which the teen mother becomes a social statistic or shall I say a number.

Teen pregnancy as of 2014 have been on the decline in the United States and increased in other states, however a positive support system for both teens is minimal at best. Socially as communities, churches and government we have to take an active role in education of abstaining from sex, talking to the teens about sex, and protecting themselves against pregnancy.

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Reconnaissance attacks in IPv6 networks cheap mba definition essay help

2.1.1 Reconnaissance attacks in IPv6 networks

The 1st larger attack in IPv6 is usually a reconnaissance attack. An attacker try reconnaissance attacks to get some confidential information about the victim network that can be misused by the attacker in further attacks. For this he uses active methods, such as scanning techniques or data mining strategies. To start, an intruder begins to ping the victim network to determine the IP addresses currently used in the victim network. After getting some of the accessible system, he starts to scan the port to find out any open port in the desired system. The size of subnet is bigger than that of the in IPv4 networks. To perform a scan for the whole subnet an attacker should make 264 probes and that???s impossible. With this fact, IPv6 networks are much more resistant to reconnaissance attacks than IPv4 networks. Unfortunately, there are some addresses which are multicast address in IPv6 networks that help an intruder to identify and attack some resources in the target network.

2.1.2 Security threats related to IPv6 routing headers

As per IPv6 protocol specification, all of the IPv6 nodes must be able to process routing headers. In fact, routing headers can be used to avoid access controls based on destination addresses. Such action can cause security effects. It may be happen that an attacker sends a packet to a publicly accessible address with a routing header containing a ???forbidden??? address on the victim network. In such matter the publicly accessible host will forward the packet to the destination address stated in the routing header even though that destination is already filtered before as a forbidden address. By spoofing packet source addresses an intruder can easily perform denial of service attack with use of any publicly accessible host for redirecting attack packets.

2.1.3 Fragmentation related security threats

As per IPv6 protocol specification, packet fragmentation by the intermediate nodes is not permitted. Since in IPv6 network based on ICMPv6 messages, the usage of the path MTU discovery method is a duty, packet fragmentation is only allowed at the source node.1280 octets is the minimal size of the MTU for IPv6 network. The packets with size less than 1280 octets to be discarded unless it???s the last packet in the flow as per security reasons. With use of fragmentation, an attacker can get that port numbers not found in the first fragment and thus they bypass security monitoring devices expecting to find transport layer protocol data in the very first fragment. An attacker will send a huge amount of small fragments and create an overload of reconstruction buffers on the victim system which resulted to the system crash. To prevent system from such attacks it???s necessary to bound the total number of fragments and their permissible arrival rate.

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WMBA 6000-13 Topic: Course Evaluation college essay help service

WMBA 6000-13

Topic: Course Evaluation

Date: March 2, 2014

Based on the assigned readings for this course (Dynamic Leadership), I have read an enormous amount of information about the different categories of leaders and leadership styles. Today’s leaders are different from the leaders of twenty to fifty years ago. In the past leaders gave commands and they controlled the actions of others. Today leaders are willing to involve others in their decision making and they are more open to new possibilities.

A good leader has a vision for their organization and they know how to align and engage employees in order to promote collaboration. The successful leader knows how to lead by using superior values, principles and goals that fit the organization’s values, principles and goals. Also these leaders know that leadership is not made from authority, it’s made from trust and followership. Coleman, J., Gulati, & Segovia, W.O. (2012)

I am impressed most by the characteristics of the authentic leader because they know how to develop themselves; they use formal and informal support networks to get honest feedback in order to drive long-term results. Authentic leaders build support teams to help them stay on course and counsel them in times of uncertainty. George, B., Sims, P., Mclean, A.N. & Mayer D. (2007)

In addition, I found the Leadership Code to be important because it provides structure and guidance and helps one to be a better leader by not emphasizing one element of leadership over another. Some focus on the importance of vision for the future; others on executing in the present; others on personal charisma and character; others on engaging people’; and others on building long-term organization. The code represents about 60 to 70 percent of what makes an effective leader. Ulrich, D., Smallwood, N., Sweetman, K. (2008)

The information that I acquired from this course will help me to pursue the goal of owning a beauty supply business. Another goal that I can add to my action plan is to include not only wigs and welted hair, but I will add hair, skin and nail products to my inventory. A future goal will be to add handbags and accessories as well.

After completing my short-term goal of finishing my MBA, I can take the knowledge from this course along with my values, ethics and principles to help me to manage employees and operate a successful business. Annie Smith (March 2, 20

Coleman, J. G. (2012). Educating young leaders. Passion and Purpose , 197-202.

George, B. S. (2007). Discovering your authentic leadership. Harvard Business Review , 129-138.

Lyons, R. (2012). Dean of Haas of School of Business University of California, Berkely. It’s made from followership. (J. G. Cole, Interviewer) Coleman, J., Gulati, D., & Segovia, W.O.

Ulrich, D. S. (2008). Five rules of leadership. In The leadership code five rules to lead by. Defining Leadership Code , 1-24.

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Family presence during CPR (cardiopulmonary resuscitation) “essay help” site:edu

In a pre-hospital setting, there are few moments that are as intense as the events that take place when trying to save a life. Family presence during these resuscitation efforts has become an important and controversial issue in health care settings. Family presence during cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) is a relatively new issue in healthcare. Before the advent of modern medicine, family members were often present at the deathbed of their loved ones. A dying person’s last moments were most often controlled by his or her family in the home rather than by medical personnel (Trueman, History of Medicine). Today, families are demanding permission to witness resuscitation events. Members of the emergency medical services are split on this issue, noting benefits but also potentially negative consequences to family presence during resuscitation efforts.

A new study has found that family members who observed resuscitation efforts were significantly less likely to experience symptoms of post-traumatic stress, anxiety and depression than family members that did not. The results, published in an online article in The New England Journal of Medicine, entitled ‘Family Presence during Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation,’ were the same regardless of the survival of the patient. The study involved 570 people in France whose family members were treated by emergency medical personnel at home. These EMS teams were unique in that they were comprised of a physician, a nurse trained in emergency medicine, and two emergency medical technicians. The study found that the presence of relatives did not affect the results of CPR, nor did it increase the stress levels of the emergency medical teams. Having family present also did not result in any legal claims after the incidents occured. While the unique limitations of the study warrant consideration, the results show a definite benefit in having families stay during CPR (Jabre Family Presence).

Historically, although parents of children have been allowed to be present for various reasons, relatives of adult patients have not. As medical practices change to increasingly involve family in the care of patients, growing numbers of emergency medical practitioners say that giving relatives the option of watching CPR can be a good idea. Several national organizations, including The American Heart Association, have revised their policies to call for giving family members the option of being present during CPR (AHA Guidelines for CPR). Witnessing CPR, say some emergency medical experts and family members, can take the mystery out of what could be a potentially terrifying experience. It can provide reassurance to family members that everything is being done to save their loved ones. It also can offer closure for relatives wanting to be with their family members until the last minute (Kirkland Lasting Benefit). Another benefit is that it shows people why reviving someone in cardiac arrest is much less likely than people assume from watching it being done on television (Ledermann Family Presence During). Family members who can truly understand what it means to ‘do everything possible’ can go on to make more informed decisions about end-of-life care for themselves or their families.

There are three perspectives on this issue- that of the emergency medical personnel providing care, the family, and the patients. The resistance on the part of the medical community to family presence during CPR stems from several different concerns. The most common concern among these is that family members, when faced with overwhelming fear, stress and grief, could disrupt or delay active CPR. Another concern raised by emergency medical personnel is that the realities of CPR may simply be too traumatic for loved ones, causing them to suffer more than they potentially would have if they had never witnessed the event. Some families share this view, citing the potential for extreme distress as a main reason for not wanting to witness resuscitation (Grice Study examining attitudes). Many emergency medical personnel also fear an increased risk of liability and litigation with family members present in the room (Fullbrook the Presence of Family). The worry is that errors can occur, inappropriate comments may be made, and the actions of the personnel involved may be misinterpreted. In an already tense situation, the awareness of the family could increase the anxiety of the personnel and create a greater potential for mistakes.

Another complication that arises from having families present during resuscitation attempts is that of patient confidentiality. The patient’s right to privacy should not be circumvented with implied consent. There is always the possibility that medical information previously unknown to the family may be revealed in the chaos of resuscitation. In addition, patient dignity, whether physical or otherwise, may become compromised (Fullbrook the Presence of Family). Beyond moral considerations, legal concerns regarding revealing patient information are real. This could become an even larger issue if there is no one available to screen witnesses, which could result in unrelated people gaining access to personal information. Eventually, a breach in confidentiality can lead to a breach in the confidence that the public has gained in pre-hospital emergency care.

Family presence during CPR in a pre-hospital setting remains a highly debatable topic. This could be largely due to the fact that the needs of the emergency medical providers and the rights of the patients can be at odds with the wishes of the family members. Although there are several possible reasons why family presence is not being welcomed into daily practice, one of the major reasons could be the lack of formal written policies that define the roles of families and providers placed into this situation. Bringing family members into a situation where CPR is being performed on a loved one should not happen haphazardly. It should happen with careful concern and support for everyone involved. Policies and protocols, defined by experienced personnel, can provide legal and emotional support. They can also potentially help ease anxiety by defining expectations and placing responsibility in the hands of people who are experienced enough to know how to handle the situation appropriately. The policies and protocols should address the basic needs of all people involved. Five basic needs should be addressed:

1. The number of people allowed to be present

2. Which relatives should be allowed to be present (age, relationship, etc.)

3. The role of the family members present and what is expected of them.

4. The place where the family should remain during the duration of CPR.

5. The formal wishes of the patient- written as a directive like a living will.

An important component of this is available, trained staff that can prepare the family members for what they will witness, support them through the event, and then direct them after the event’s conclusion.

The American Heart Association states that the goals of cardiopulmonary resuscitation are, ‘to preserve life, restore health, relieve suffering, limit disability, and respect the individual’s decisions rights and privacy’ (AHA Guidelines for CPR). The practice of offering family members the opportunity to be present during CPR is a controversial ethical issue in emergency medical services. While the results of the study published on this topic in The New England Journal of Medicine clearly show no negative side effects from having families present during resuscitation attempts, the limitations of the study lend to the need for more research before it could be universally accepted.

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Respondeat Superior essay help writing

Legal claims that derive from a situation where there are claims of negligence can sometimes involve an entity other than the neglectful parties. In certain circumstances employers are fully responsible for their employees, and the tasks they perform during working hours. During the course of this paper, the doctrine of respondeat superior will be defined and explained. Two case studies in which the doctrine was applied will also be analyzed to determine if it was applied correctly.

Respondeat superior is a legal theory that holds employers responsible for any negligent or harmful act performed by an employee during the commission of their employment duties (Thornton, 2010). The Maryland Supreme Court in 1951 was the first court to utilize respondeat superior in a court case involving a question of employer liability (Burns, 2011). This doctrine is important as it holds employers liable in court cases where one of its employees does harm to an individual. Vicarious liability and indirect liability are two base concepts that make-up respondeat superior (Thornton, 2010). Respondeat superior shows that the employer did not have to be responsible for the employee???s negligent behavior, in the form of improper training or instruction to perform harmful acts, in order for the employer to be held legally responsible.

In the case of Valle v. City of Houston, the police force was sued for excessive force and an illegal search in an attempt to remove an individual from his parent???s home (Nicholl & Kelly, 2012). The situation stemmed from a man, Omar Esparza, barricading himself in his parent???s home and refusing to come out (p. 285). After a long police standoff, the SWAT team was ordered to forcefully enter the home and remove Mr. Esparza (p. 285). The SWAT team utilized taser gun and bean bag ammunition in an attempt to subdue Mr. Esparza after they felt he posed a physical threat by wielding a hammer, but as those attempts failed the suspect was fatally wounded when an officer fired his weapon (p. 286). Shortly after the incident the mother was allowed into the home, and she reported no visible evidence that her son was possession of a hammer (p. 286). The court found that the city was not liable for damages under the theory of respondeat superior, because the order to remove the individual from the home was not made by an individual deemed as a decision-maker by the city (p. 286).

From the outside, this case seems to fit the theory of respondeat superior. As the employer, the city should be held responsible for the actions of its employees. The police, serving as the city???s employees acted in a manner that was unnecessary for the situation and in conflict of their training (p. 286). However, the court sided with the City of Houston because the chain of command was not followed in regards to the use of force (p. 286). The end result is a case where an individual made a decision that was not his to make; that ultimately cost a man his life.

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Process Essay: Doing Laundry Assignment Help Sydney

Starting college life is something that many people have to do, and then new responsibilities come. In addition, there is something that almost anybody thinks about it, but this is always there, and it is ‘Doing laundry.’ Doing laundry is something that everyone has to do, but no everyone knows how to do. It can be confusing and stressful at first, and most people don’t find it fun, but it has to be done. In fact ‘Follow these basic guidelines and you will have clean clothes to wear tomorrow.’

First of all, learn about doing laundry is really easy. Checking care labels information procedures will be obtained. Labels indicate that clothes should not be washed or need to be washed in a different way. The international clothing symbols tell everything needed to know about how to wash each item.

Second, place the duty clothes into different piles, each of which will be washed separately. For instance, separate dark colors, light colors and white colors. Even, separate heavy clothes from light clothes to obtain a better washed. ‘To reduce link, never wash lint producing fabrics and lint attracting fabrics together!’

Third, select a laundry detergent and read the directions. Detergent bottle tells what amount should be used for each wash load. Select the appropriate water temperature. Colors are washed in cold water, and whites are washed in warm water. Add clothes into washing machine over without charge, or the clothes will not be cleaned well if there is too much laundry in it.

Fourth, after the clothes are washed, shake them out to dry easier. Check lint tray is clean and, place separated clothes by fabric type in the dryer and choose drying level shown on its label.

Finally, take clothes from the drying machine, and fold them. In fact these are some steps to make people’s laundry easier.

In conclusion, doing laundry can be confusing and stressful at first. And it could seem difficult, complex and very complicated, but it is not what it seems. Learn how to do the laundry everyone can extend its clothes’ life. After all, doing laundry is necessary and essential, and almost nobody is exempted to do it.

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Respondeat Superior essay help fairfax

Legal claims that derive from a situation where there are claims of negligence can sometimes involve an entity other than the neglectful parties. In certain circumstances employers are fully responsible for their employees, and the tasks they perform during working hours. During the course of this paper, the doctrine of respondeat superior will be defined and explained. Two case studies in which the doctrine was applied will also be analyzed to determine if it was applied correctly.

Respondeat superior is a legal theory that holds employers responsible for any negligent or harmful act performed by an employee during the commission of their employment duties (Thornton, 2010). The Maryland Supreme Court in 1951 was the first court to utilize respondeat superior in a court case involving a question of employer liability (Burns, 2011). This doctrine is important as it holds employers liable in court cases where one of its employees does harm to an individual. Vicarious liability and indirect liability are two base concepts that make-up respondeat superior (Thornton, 2010). Respondeat superior shows that the employer did not have to be responsible for the employee???s negligent behavior, in the form of improper training or instruction to perform harmful acts, in order for the employer to be held legally responsible.

In the case of Valle v. City of Houston, the police force was sued for excessive force and an illegal search in an attempt to remove an individual from his parent???s home (Nicholl & Kelly, 2012). The situation stemmed from a man, Omar Esparza, barricading himself in his parent???s home and refusing to come out (p. 285). After a long police standoff, the SWAT team was ordered to forcefully enter the home and remove Mr. Esparza (p. 285). The SWAT team utilized taser gun and bean bag ammunition in an attempt to subdue Mr. Esparza after they felt he posed a physical threat by wielding a hammer, but as those attempts failed the suspect was fatally wounded when an officer fired his weapon (p. 286). Shortly after the incident the mother was allowed into the home, and she reported no visible evidence that her son was possession of a hammer (p. 286). The court found that the city was not liable for damages under the theory of respondeat superior, because the order to remove the individual from the home was not made by an individual deemed as a decision-maker by the city (p. 286).

From the outside, this case seems to fit the theory of respondeat superior. As the employer, the city should be held responsible for the actions of its employees. The police, serving as the city???s employees acted in a manner that was unnecessary for the situation and in conflict of their training (p. 286). However, the court sided with the City of Houston because the chain of command was not followed in regards to the use of force (p. 286). The end result is a case where an individual made a decision that was not his to make; that ultimately cost a man his life.

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Process Essay: Doing Laundry Assignment Help Sydney

Starting college life is something that many people have to do, and then new responsibilities come. In addition, there is something that almost anybody thinks about it, but this is always there, and it is ‘Doing laundry.’ Doing laundry is something that everyone has to do, but no everyone knows how to do. It can be confusing and stressful at first, and most people don’t find it fun, but it has to be done. In fact ‘Follow these basic guidelines and you will have clean clothes to wear tomorrow.’

First of all, learn about doing laundry is really easy. Checking care labels information procedures will be obtained. Labels indicate that clothes should not be washed or need to be washed in a different way. The international clothing symbols tell everything needed to know about how to wash each item.

Second, place the duty clothes into different piles, each of which will be washed separately. For instance, separate dark colors, light colors and white colors. Even, separate heavy clothes from light clothes to obtain a better washed. ‘To reduce link, never wash lint producing fabrics and lint attracting fabrics together!’

Third, select a laundry detergent and read the directions. Detergent bottle tells what amount should be used for each wash load. Select the appropriate water temperature. Colors are washed in cold water, and whites are washed in warm water. Add clothes into washing machine over without charge, or the clothes will not be cleaned well if there is too much laundry in it.

Fourth, after the clothes are washed, shake them out to dry easier. Check lint tray is clean and, place separated clothes by fabric type in the dryer and choose drying level shown on its label.

Finally, take clothes from the drying machine, and fold them. In fact these are some steps to make people’s laundry easier.

In conclusion, doing laundry can be confusing and stressful at first. And it could seem difficult, complex and very complicated, but it is not what it seems. Learn how to do the laundry everyone can extend its clothes’ life. After all, doing laundry is necessary and essential, and almost nobody is exempted to do it.

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Respondeat Superior college admission essay help houston tx

Legal claims that derive from a situation where there are claims of negligence can sometimes involve an entity other than the neglectful parties. In certain circumstances employers are fully responsible for their employees, and the tasks they perform during working hours. During the course of this paper, the doctrine of respondeat superior will be defined and explained. Two case studies in which the doctrine was applied will also be analyzed to determine if it was applied correctly.

Respondeat superior is a legal theory that holds employers responsible for any negligent or harmful act performed by an employee during the commission of their employment duties (Thornton, 2010). The Maryland Supreme Court in 1951 was the first court to utilize respondeat superior in a court case involving a question of employer liability (Burns, 2011). This doctrine is important as it holds employers liable in court cases where one of its employees does harm to an individual. Vicarious liability and indirect liability are two base concepts that make-up respondeat superior (Thornton, 2010). Respondeat superior shows that the employer did not have to be responsible for the employee???s negligent behavior, in the form of improper training or instruction to perform harmful acts, in order for the employer to be held legally responsible.

In the case of Valle v. City of Houston, the police force was sued for excessive force and an illegal search in an attempt to remove an individual from his parent???s home (Nicholl & Kelly, 2012). The situation stemmed from a man, Omar Esparza, barricading himself in his parent???s home and refusing to come out (p. 285). After a long police standoff, the SWAT team was ordered to forcefully enter the home and remove Mr. Esparza (p. 285). The SWAT team utilized taser gun and bean bag ammunition in an attempt to subdue Mr. Esparza after they felt he posed a physical threat by wielding a hammer, but as those attempts failed the suspect was fatally wounded when an officer fired his weapon (p. 286). Shortly after the incident the mother was allowed into the home, and she reported no visible evidence that her son was possession of a hammer (p. 286). The court found that the city was not liable for damages under the theory of respondeat superior, because the order to remove the individual from the home was not made by an individual deemed as a decision-maker by the city (p. 286).

From the outside, this case seems to fit the theory of respondeat superior. As the employer, the city should be held responsible for the actions of its employees. The police, serving as the city???s employees acted in a manner that was unnecessary for the situation and in conflict of their training (p. 286). However, the court sided with the City of Houston because the chain of command was not followed in regards to the use of force (p. 286). The end result is a case where an individual made a decision that was not his to make; that ultimately cost a man his life.

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