Managing Checking And Savings Accounts Best College Essay Help

No longer is it necessary for spouses to share a savings account. Private financial institutions operate savings accounts, which are solely used for investing. This is because one partner's unpaid debts may damage the relationship as a whole. By establishing a separate personal account, a person feels free to spend his or her money without having to account for each and every dollar. Before depositing or withdrawing funds from a shared account, both account holders must tell the other.

Before couples combine their savings accounts into a single account, it is essential that they tackle the underlying issues to avoid future complications. This is because withdrawing funds from savings accounts is costly due to high service fees. Common accounts necessitate a very high level of discipline in maintaining records of all financial activities. This can be accomplished by monitoring all ATM withdrawals and deposits (Vohwinkle, 2010).

Another viable option for managing savings accounts is to open a joint account that will be used to hold all of the couple's contributions while maintaining individual accounts. To create parity, the spouses that maintain this account must contribute an equal amount. This strategy is advantageous since each couple preserves their independence and sovereignty, hence preventing power clashes.

The couples must then create a budget that clearly outlines how monthly expenses are split and how much money is to be paid into the shared account. If the couple's incomes are identical, they should contribute the same amount to the joint account. In contrast, if their incomes differ, donations should be determined by a specified percentage.

For example, husband x earns $25,000 per year while spouse z earns $5,000 per year. When their combined earnings are totaled, the sum is $75,000. In order to determine the percentage that each couple should give, the earnings of couple x are divided by the total earnings of both spouses ($75,000), which equals 33%. This percentage should be multiplied by the estimated monthly deposit amount, thus 33% multiplied by $4,000 equals $1,320. This result should then be subtracted from the monthly deposit amount; hence, $4000 minus $1320 is $2680, which is the suitable donation for spouse z.

The subsequent step entails establishing a joint account where spouses can contribute funds to cover shared expenses. The existence of a joint savings account does not imply that a couple should quit paying off their pre-merger debts. However, the pair must continue repaying their past personal loans and debts.

Vohwhinkle (2010) says that a documented budget is essential since it helps to command how money will be utilized and so avoid overspending, which can jeopardize future objectives. This is vital because if one spends more than he has, he will always be in debt, thus I urge that a couple's expenses and income be in harmony. For the couple's budget to be effective, they must be keenly aware of anything that can be eliminated to save money. For instance, a couple with two cars should keep one and sell the other to reduce their gasoline costs.

There is financial management, and bad and good debts exist. Bad debts should be avoided at all costs because they can impede a couple's ability to achieve their future goals. A excellent illustration of bad debt is when someone makes impulsive purchases without considering their income. A good illustration of debt is when a couple takes out a mortgage loan with a low interest rate. This is a favorable debt because the value of this asset cannot ever decline. To achieve financial stability, a couple must eliminate their debts.

The simplest way to pay off an outstanding loan is to make contributions in excess of the monthly payment amount, which ensures that the debt is paid off as quickly as feasible. This decreases the interest rate, as the longer it takes to repay a loan, the greater the rate of interest.

According to Garman and Forgue (2007), it is crucial for a couple to save for retirement because they will be unemployed in old life. At retirement age, couples rely on the additional funds saved throughout their youth. After paying their monthly obligations, the majority of individuals believe that they do not have sufficient funds to save for retirement. The creation of special tax-advantaged accounts, special retirement accounts, and special personal accounts has further facilitated retirement savings.

It is recommended for a couple to purchase an insurance policy that will protect their future family from sickness and accidents. In today's environment, insurance coverage can be tailored to cover whatever a person want. By anything, I mean everything from animals to gadgets. Additionally, property can be insured against acts of violence.

Health insurance is also vital since it ensures that the marriage will not be badly impacted by costly medical expenses. Due to the unpredictability of sickness and accidents, it is vital to prepare in advance. If one spouse is covered by his or her job, coverage is extended to the other spouse and, if they have children, their children as well. Most employers recognize the significance of insuring their employees, so there is no justification for not carrying health insurance. This policy is also available to persons who are self-employed or whose employer does not provide employee insurance coverage.

Life insurance is another crucial protection. Life insurance is best suited for married or parent individuals. In the event that the wife does not have a job and the husband, who is the sole breadwinner, dies, family life will end because no one will be able to pay the bills. This policy provides coverage for such occurrences. Life insurance has shown to be quite trustworthy because it covers funeral costs and ensures that beneficiaries will be provided for. Some companies offer life insurance to their employees, while others advise their employees to purchase their own at a heavily subsidized rate.

It is crucial to insure a property as it is a very valuable asset. When purchasing a home from mortgage lenders, insurance coverage is required. Most mortgage firms include the cost of homeowner's insurance in the monthly payment. This is done for the buyer's advantage, as the owner can retrieve his property in the event of a fire or other tragedy.

It is illegal to operate a motor vehicle without insurance. The purpose of auto insurance is to ensure that, in the event of an accident, the vehicle may be fixed or replaced without undue difficulty. The primary purpose of purchasing auto insurance is to cover any injuries that may be sustained by the car owner or any other individuals involved in an accident.

A financial crisis may occur from an unexpected job loss or an illness that depletes one's savings to the point of depletion. Identifying the cause of this abrupt loss of funds is the most effective course of action. One should prioritize staying afloat, which may necessitate discarding items that are deemed less important. It is recommended to contact the mortgage company if one is having trouble paying their mortgage, as they will be understanding if payments are not made as agreed. To make it flexible, the mortgage firm might additionally subsidize their interest rates. It is also wise to apply for a loan, but be wary of the high interest rates that may change based on the repayment time (Garman & Forgue, 2007).

True friends and close family can be of great assistance in this situation. If you want to borrow, say, $5,000, you shouldn't expect to receive the entire amount from a single relative. Instead, you should borrow in modest sums so that they don't feel pressured. Because you cannot predict when the next crisis will occur, you must ensure that you pay them back in full.

It is also possible to access retirement funds to assist with the current crisis, although doing so may jeopardize retirement security. If the problem is the result of an unexpected layoff, it is prudent to apply for redundancy benefits. Networking with friends can be quite beneficial for obtaining a new career. If still employed, one can try asking their employer for a soft loan.

Once you have recovered from the financial crisis, you must prevent a recurrence of a similar situation in the future by setting aside funds for emergencies. In order to avert a financial disaster, it is vital to effectively manage savings through budgeting.


Garman, E.T., and R.E. Forgue (2007).

Personal Finance, Ninth Edition. United States: Cengage Learning.

Vohwhinkle, J. (2010). Financial Planning Guide. Web.

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Pros And Cons Of Using Prepaid Credit Cards Best College Essay Help

Even while purchasing a cup of coffee, individuals have refused to pay in cash, as evidenced by the current state of society. In addition, people are hesitant to utilize conventional credit cards due to their limited capabilities. Thus, there is an increasing trend toward the use of prepaid credit cards. Concerning prepaid credit cards, we should determine the benefits and drawbacks of prepaid cards in comparison to traditional credit cards, the most advantageous forms of prepaid cards, and how to use these cards appropriately.

First and foremost, it is vital to define a prepaid credit card. A prepaid credit card is obtained by depositing funds without verification and can be used anywhere. Therefore, it is manageable until funds are loaded into the card. You may charge any amount without incurring additional fees. Prepaid credit cards are primarily used for in-store transactions, although they are also utilized for internet purchases.

There are several brands of prepaid credit cards supplied by a range of financial and banking institutions. Visa, Master Card, American Express, Maestro, Green Dot, Amex, and Discover are the primary brands. Different prepaid credit card brands may be issued by the same bank. The primary distinction between them is the number of ATM and commission fees levied. Research of all UK prepaid credit cards, including as MasterCard, Visa CHIP first, and Maestro Electron Mag, revealed that cardholders can set up a Money Express Card for free and without opening a bank account. Due to the fact that each card type is ideal for a specific occasion, it is difficult to identify the correct one after a cursory examination. Maestro, Visa, and Mastercard are regarded as the most lucrative and reputable prepaid credit cards.

Additionally, prepaid credit cards can be categorized according to their function. A telephone prepaid card enables individuals to make calls from any telephone and reload their account with their own monies. As an example, PTT telecom, mobile phone use both prepaid phone cards and Scopecards. In addition to these cards, the company's prepaid credit cards are used in restaurants (Ajami R. A. 449). A given prepaid card is a sort of card that can be used to save money for certain holidays, such as Christmas or New Year's. Different brands use these cards, and some of them may even provide their holders access to charitable organizations (Harris G. 127).

Taking the aforementioned information into account, it is desirable to understand how to select an appropriate prepaid credit card. Due to the fact that some cards demand additional costs prior to adding funds to an account or completing a financial transaction, you should thoroughly examine the charges issued by the card prior to activating the card. In order to obtain a credit facility, individuals with poor credit typically utilize prepaid credit cards. Before selecting the best prepaid card, inquire about the amount of fees, the amount of money charged when withdrawing money from the account, ATM costs, and whether the card is accepted at a variety of businesses.

The principal advantages of prepaid credit cards are quite astounding. Initially, the most important aspect is that you can pay without cash if you do not have any on hand, since they are accepted similarly to other credit cards. Second, you are not required to provide your credit history, only your name and address. In addition, prepaid credit cards can be used online and over the phone. It means that you can check your account via phone and make purchases online and offline. Consequently, it provides convenience and a high level of accessibility. Additionally, with a credit card, you can easily manage your time and devise a financial strategy (Bucci 75). Another key advantage of prepaid credit cards is that they are extensively utilized for international travel because they can be used regardless of the local currency. Furthermore, it can be paid for in any currency, depending on the location you are visiting (Essvale Corporation Limited 122). You will never incur debt since you spend only your own money. When comparing prepaid credit cards to traditional credit cards, it is important to note that the prepaid cards are more trustworthy and easier to apply for, since you can always be certain that you will not spend more than you have in your account.

Prepaid credit cards have downsides still. Before using a prepaid credit card, you must ensure that there is sufficient credit available. Specifically, it pertains to prepaid phone cards when there is insufficient funds to make a call or, much worse, when the phone battery is dead (Mennen A. 32). Due to unforeseen circumstances, you may not be able to top off your account because you lack cash. In this regard, credit cards are superior.

Prepaid credit cards are mostly marketed to individuals who are afraid to use credit and incur debt. Teenagers should also be considered as possible prepaid credit card holders. It may be advantageous to restrict a teenager's access to money. In addition, it is crucial when parents wish to regulate their children's spending habits. (Bodnar J 220).). When your child plans to travel overseas, a prepaid credit card might be quite helpful. Using the prepaid product, it is simple to determine where he or she spends money. Individuals with a low credit score may also utilize prepaid credit cards.

As can be seen, prepaid credit services do not have many disadvantages, given that the primary concept of this product is the elimination of the need to use credit and, consequently, the absence of debt. This concept enables a credit holder to more properly predict his or her income and plan expenditures. This is significant because the majority of the product's intended consumers are adolescents. Consequently, it has a significant impact on the financial attitudes of future generations. Prepaid credit cards are significant because they are regarded the next phase in the evolution of the credit card system, which adds significantly to the credit history (Burrel J. 103).

Sources Cited

Ajami, Raid A., Cool, Karel, and Fox, Tina. International Business: Theoretical and Practical Considerations 2006. M. E. Sharpe, USA

Bodnar, Janet. Raising Intelligent Children: What They Should Know About Money and How to Teach Them 2005, U.S.: Dearborn Trade Publishing.

Bucci, Steve. Credit Restoration Guide for Dummies 2008: Willey Publishing, Inc.

Burrel, Jamaine. How to Improve Your Credit Score Immediately: Simple Methods You Can Implement Today 2007: Atlantic Publishing Company, United States

Limited Essvale Corporation. The Complete Handbook for IT Professionals: Business Knowledge for IT in Retail Banking, UK Edition, Essvale Corporation Limited, 2007.

The name of Godfrey Harris. What works and what does not in word-of-mouth advertising's hottest concepts? Americas Group, 2004, U.S.

"Choosing a prepaid credit card" 2006 UCLA. Web.

Mennen, Andrew. It's Your Call: A Comprehensive Guide to Mobile Phones with Money-Saving Advice for Users. 2005: Relianz Communications Pty. Ltd., Australia

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A Detailed Human Resources Plan Best College Essay Help

Table of Contents
Introduction Executive Summary of the Organization's Recruitment and Selection Plan, Training and Development Plan, and Compensation Package Legal Issues Performance Evaluation System Citations


Recruitment is an essential aspect of every organization's operations. Indeed, the quality of a recruiter's work determines whether employees will be employed and how effectively they will perform their labor duties. To guarantee harmonious connections between members of a team, HR professionals must also evaluate the psychological traits of prospective employees. To successfully perform recruitment operations, it is crucial to set the candidate's requirements accurately so that the job description is not viewed as discriminatory. In addition, the limits should serve their purpose of selecting candidates with the right expertise, education, and experience for a company. The role of a human resources manager is extremely challenging when he or she is the sole employee in the organization with relevant expertise. The goal of this study is to develop a comprehensive Human Resources plan for the situation described above.

Description of the Business

Typically, small businesses have a single HR department, which is why Choice One Engineering was chosen for this project. According to Forbes' 2019 ranking, this construction company has become one of the top small firms in America (Godwin et al., 2016). Currently, the Ohio-based company has two offices and less than sixty employees (Godwin et al., 2016). In addition, the company's 2018 revenue exceeds $7 million (Godwin et al., 2016). The success of the company is dependent on methods that assure stability and equal opportunity for both full-time and part-time employees.

In fact, these groups of employees are eligible to purchase company stock. Furthermore, it is obvious that Matt Hoing, the business's leader, prioritizes the company's initial objectives and vision over financial success (Godwin et al., 2016). For instance, the CEO withdrew a million-dollar contract in part because it was too large for his staff and he did not wish to expand it significantly (Godwin et al., 2016). Thus, Choice One Engineering sticks firmly to its concepts and objectives and prioritizes the job quality and employee advantages.

Plan for Recruitment and Selection

The recruitment system should operate not on the basis of filling vacancies, but on the basis of each hired specialist providing value. In certain companies, for instance, the division heads may have tasked the human resources department with recruiting new designers and economists (Hammonds, 2005). The workers were chosen and accepted; however, it became apparent after some time that senior management intends to install equipment that will minimize the necessity for the aforementioned specialists. In addition, the procurement of specialized software that would boost the speed and effectiveness of designers' and economists' work is envisaged. Thus, as a result of the advancements, the company will no longer require the employed staff.

To avoid similar situations in the future, it is vital to design a people selection method that takes into account the company's overall goals and responsibilities. A human resources manager should develop the staff structure based on the organization's strategic objectives (Hammonds, 2005). The reason for this is because only a holistic view of the business can effectively forecast the quantity and quality of human resources required. Consequently, people planning should be conducted for a particular term, similar to corporate planning, and altered if the organization's objectives change.

A human resources manager must answer various questions when organizing the search and selection of staff. What knowledge, skills, qualifications, and behavioral traits are required of future employees? Where may appropriately qualified specialists be found? How can we pique their interest in working for the organization? How many applicants are required for a post to be filled? Which processes will be utilized to pick the most qualified candidates? How can a new employee become used to the work routine and begin functioning successfully immediately? When may the employee selection process be considered complete? How effective are the business's recruitment procedures? How and to what extent do senior managers participate in this process? The aforementioned questions may aid the organization's only HR professional in conducting efficient candidate selection. It is particularly crucial for Choice One Engineering, a company that prioritizes job quality and values close relationships among its team members.

The implementation of comprehensive recruiting and selection procedures consists of seven steps, the first of which is the creation of an adequate plan document. It is produced for a specific time period based on the company's strategic goals and objectives and is approved by the organization's leader (Hammonds, 2005). Nonetheless, it must be kept in mind that even a well-written draft is typically subject to revisions (Hammonds, 2005). They could be the result of an unexpected layoff, a rise in personnel turnover, or a drastic shift in the company's plans. Therefore, it is difficult to rule out the occurrence of vacancies outside of the draft created in compliance with all of the essential requirements. In this instance, the identical plan is utilized; however, the consent of the company's leader is required for the selection of individuals.

Creating a position and compiling the relevant paperwork constitutes the second phase of the recruitment process. The requests of internal customers for the selection of new personnel must be formalized. Oral agreements should be excluded; typically, a written application is drafted for the selection of staff (Killingsworth & Grosskopf, 2013). The document contains the essential qualities of the available position, as well as the agreements between the HR department and the internal client and with upper management.

The third section involves identifying the sources of selection and techniques for dealing with them in order to attract candidates for the open position. For a business as successful as Choice One Engineering, it may be necessary to create and conduct a recruitment advertising campaign. In the subsequent phase, mechanisms for evaluating prospective employees and making hiring decisions are implemented (Killingsworth & Grosskopf, 2013). In addition to interviews, profession-specific examinations will be administered as part of the selection process for the firm requiring skilled and experienced engineering specialists. The fifth phase of the specified procedure is the registration of a new employee and the start of their adaption. During the sixth stage, continued efforts are made to assist the new employee in adapting to the company's conditions. They are executed in close conjunction with the novice's immediate supervisor (Killingsworth & Grosskopf, 2013). Selection is the final step in the recruitment process; after a probationary period, the final choice regarding the new employee is made.

The specified components are integrated into a system that rigorously fits the requirements of Choice One Engineering. In addition, it is essential that all parties in the selection process communicate well. This will enable the system to accomplish its primary job, which is to staff the firm with competent and productive employees. It should be noted, however, that even after the probationary period, a new employee should be given additional attention because it typically takes longer to properly acclimatize to the workplace.

Plan for Training and Development

Employers are compelled by the rapid development of technology to ensure the continuous improvement of employee competency through training. Professional employees enhance the profitability and competitiveness of a firm. Likewise, training and development are advantageous for employees since they enable personnel to become more proficient at doing relevant responsibilities, which leads to increased compensation and career promotion. To attain the intended results, a human resource manager must understand the fundamentals of training program organization.

Staff is trained using a variety of approaches; the choice relies on the mode of knowledge acquisition: on-the-job training or study outside the workplace. For the first type of professional growth, there are four primary techniques: copying, job instruction, rotation, and delegating. While copying, a new employee observes and imitates the actions of their supervisor, a more experienced worker. The more precisely the newbie executes this task, the quicker he or she will acquire the required professional skill. As for job training, it is suggested that a supervisor provide general knowledge about impending tasks and assignments, making it easier for a novice to assume a new role. Rotation is the temporary transfer of a person from one employment to another in order for them to gain new skills, information, and experience. This strategy increases motivation, alleviates stress from monotonous labor, and facilitates the formation of new relationships. Delegation is the transfer of decision-making authority over a specific problem or job to another employee. All of these techniques are valuable and pertinent to Choice One Engineering, which is committed to the ongoing skill development of its employees.

The most successful measures for education outside the organization include lectures, conferences and seminars, and business games. A lecture is a method for acquiring theoretical knowledge; lecturers are subject matter experts. Participants are able to find answers to problems through active collective discussion during conferences. At the seminars, the lecture material is reinforced and its mastery is evaluated. Typically, a seminar takes the shape of an active debate of the issue, allowing participants to examine it from various angles. In addition, this type of external training entails resolving complex issues by combining the expert's knowledge with that of the trainees. During business games, a realistic professional setting is simulated as participants attempt to solve the stated challenge. This method permits the acquisition of new knowledge and the mastery of abilities while playing a game. Combining the aforementioned strategies with on-the-job training will allow the people of Choice One Engineering to achieve greater achievements in their professional development.

Compensation Package

The classic definition of a compensation package is a collection of perks obtained by an employee in addition to their salary that enhance their standard of living. The primary function of compensations is to recruit qualified employees to the firm (Chhanwal, 2015). Other reasons of applying the package include employee retention, the promotion of professional accomplishments, and the reduction of people management expenses. Part-time and full-time employees at Choice One Engineering are eligible to own company shares. In addition to this stimulus measure, the organization's remuneration package should include reimbursement for additional travel expenses and official hospitality, overtime pay, extra vacation days, and a payment for education and professional retraining. Additionally, Choice One Engineering should prioritize the wellness of its employees by providing them with prepaid gym certificates. These strategies will aid the organization in attracting skilled professionals and maintaining its market dominance.

Legal Issues

Several legal considerations must be considered by the analyzed organization when employing new personnel, with the Equal Employment Opportunity Commission (EEOC) being the most critical. This federal institution stipulates that the only criterion an employer must consider when selecting candidates is their professionalism. A firm should not consider the gender, race, sexual orientation, appearance, or other qualities of potential employees. Some firms do not hire individuals whose appearance is deemed undesirable or does not meet certain requirements by the HR department. Sexual orientation may also be a basis for rejecting an applicant; despite the fact that such activities are prohibited, they cannot be traced, and punishments for rejects are frequently attributed to other grounds. As for Choice One Engineering, it adheres to this idea because it prioritizes work quality.

Performance Evaluation Method

The performance evaluation system is a vital component of performance management. This is a system that evaluates the accomplishment of goals by employees and their level of competency growth. In its traditional form, this system involves the evaluation of employee performance and skills in accordance with the company's current needs, as well as an assessment interview. Performance evaluation is a tool that evaluates each of the stated elements of the performance management system (Chhanwal, 2015). When evaluating the achievement of goals, the correlation between expected and actual outcomes should be considered. At the same time, this approach should not be turned into the "done-not-done" notion. Each task must be evaluated based on specified criteria known as performance requirements.

An evaluation of the level of competency development investigates the relationship between the description of the required behavior models (knowledge) and an employee's actual behavior.

Competence is defined as the quantity of professional knowledge and abilities, as well as personal attributes and attitudes, required to accomplish direct job obligations. A competence model is a list of essential skills that employees need to meet the organization's strategic objectives (Bagley et al., 2013). An appraisal interview is a conversation between an employee and a management during which the person's performance and level of competency development are discussed. The interview also enables for the co-creation of the employee's development plan and a list of upcoming assignments. Thus, the performance evaluation system provides managers with the ability to analyze not just the outcomes of an employee's work, but also the means through which goals are achieved. All of the aforementioned techniques are applicable to Choice One Engineering and should be used concurrently to ensure a high-quality and efficient selection of the most qualified specialists.


Bagley, P., Dalton, D., & Ortegren, M. (2013, May). Targeted recruitment and employee retention. 83(5) The CPA Journal: 63-65.

Chhanwal, S. (2015). Placing the "person" in personnel (Links to an external site.). LinkedIn. Web.

Godwin, A., Potvin, G., Hazari, Z., & Lock, R. (2016). Identity, critical agency, and engineering: An affective model for predicting the career choice of engineering 105(2) Journal of Engineering Education (312-340).

Hammonds, K. H. (2005). Why we dislike HR (Links to an external site.). Fast Business. Web.

Killingsworth, J., and K. R. Grosskopf (2013). A case study on the curriculum development for the workforce The Journal of Adult Learning, 24(3), 95-103.

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Recruitment Process In The Human Resource Management Best College Essay Help

Executive Synopsis

Human Resource Management is a component of the routine operation and maintenance of organizations in terms of recruitment, the creation of benefit packages, compensation, and training. A sufficient proportion of employees are opposed to the obviously visible cost-cutting tendencies in 21st-century company.

The history of management reveals the needs of firms when evaluating financial and strategic requirements, the number of employees, and the effectiveness of companies' operations; nevertheless, addressing these demands does not necessarily result in the effective operation of the entire organization. Key tasks of the department of human resources include employment, promotion, benefits, and remuneration in relation to the company's financial and strategic aims. Thus, human resource management focuses on the interactions between the organization and its personnel.


Human resource management is "the design of management systems to guarantee that human talent is utilized effectively and efficiently to achieve organizational objectives."

1 Typically, firms hire human resource managers to manage their human resources, which includes a variety of functions such as hiring, promoting, and determining appropriate benefit and compensation packages. The human resource management department plans the vacancy to be filled and employs a candidate who fulfills the company's needs and expectations when new strategies necessitate increased labor force.

The manager of human resources should establish appropriate benefit packages based on employee needs, performance effectiveness, and the possibility for developing competencies. Thus, the present concept of human resource management differs significantly from personnel management in the twentieth century and from the nineteenth-century function that required welfare employees to construct provision programs. Figure 12 highlights the primary functions and objectives of contemporary human resource management.

Human Resource Administration

Changing function of human resource administration

Human resource management has evolved over the past many decades due to changes in business operations and human aspirations in order to meet the financial and strategic needs of various business kinds.

3. As the business, business techniques, objectives, and expectations were in a constant state of change, so too was the management of specific tasks. Human resource management may be traced back to the late eighteenth century, when it was referred to as welfare staff and dealt with "the provision of schemes…, unemployment, sick pay, and subsidized housing for employees." 4 Thus, the corporate changes were accommodated and human resources began to play a part in human activities.

After the World Wars, there was a great need for labor, which led to an increase in the employment rate and the growth of fields dealing with personnel.

5 The post-war period altered the notion, which became more personnel-focused and encompassed recruitment, discipline, training, and other issues connected more to the contemporary understanding of human resource management than schemes. Each decade has prospective needs that ought to have been satisfied. Thus, the 1960s and 1970s were characterized by "large staffs, heavyweight bureaucracy, and stagnant businesses" 6

Due to new regulations, trade unions lacked the authority to resolve issues throughout the 1980s; as a result, conflicts, mutual dependency, and interrelationships between enterprises and employees fell under the purview of human resource management.

7 As the twentieth century witnessed wars and depressions in the economy and business, the rate of change in business requirements was proportional to the frequency of these events.

The enterprises of the twentieth century were molded by the philosophy of grandeur, in which larger corporations hired more personnel regardless of their suitability and performance effectiveness. As enterprises and the field of human resources encountered change, so did the twentieth century, resulting in greater transformation than ever before.

The late 20th century saw a shift from large staffs to a smaller number of employees who were able to perform the same functions as their numerous counterparts, along with improved benefit packages, escaping the 'the more the better'8 model that was deemed most suitable for businesses in the middle of the 20th century. Therefore, the enterprises did not hire employees solely because they were huge and profitable, as all prerequisites must have been completed for the employees to contribute to the achievement of the shared goal. Employees may now demonstrate their effective performance and personal skills and competences as members of the fantastic team.

The twenty-first century is characterized by a decline in the number of employees required for the daily operation and maintenance of organizations. Despite the fact that some businesses can accomplish their duties with a minimal number of qualified personnel, others are severely impacted by the cost-cutting trend. Since a result, Human Resource Management has become one of the most significant aspects of a business, as it focuses on cost reduction, which should be applied to the recruitment of a sufficient number of talented employees without compromising the trend of cost reduction.

Key functions of the department of human resources

As competent human resources are currently regarded as one of the fundamental factors of a company's effective performance and profitability, alongside technological advancements and strategic planning, human resource management is one of the most important functions for all types of enterprises. "Traditionally, the function of personnel was to adapt personnel to pre-existing structures – the work organization – that were conceived independently of personnel dimensions." 9

Therefore, changes in the knowledge and application of human resource management affected the department's overall idea, objectives, roles, and responsibilities.

Figure 210 depicts the major operations and functions of human resource management in a clear manner. Human resource management entails a number of responsibilities that are normally done by the human resources department. Traditional human resource department responsibilities include administrative, operational, employee advocate, and strategic. 11 Historically, the administrative role has been seen as the most essential, although the development of strategic plans has become a function of human resource management in the twenty-first century.

Human resource management departments have been established as a result of the recognition of the significance of people as a source of labor and the consequent advancement of the business management's responsibilities. As the training and development of skilled employees can be regarded a basic part of human resource management,12 it is essential to establish close ties between management and labor forces. According to the Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory, the primary HR functions are as follows:

Hiring, promotions, reassignments, position classification and grading, salary determination, performance appraisal review and processing, awards review and processing, personnel data entry and records maintenance, consultation and advisory services to management and employees, conduct problems, performance problems, policy development, technical policy interpretation, work permitting immigration visa program, benefits (health care insurance, life insurance, disability insurance), and work permit immigration visa program.


Consequently, the human resource management department is responsible for completing all of these duties, as they are all essential for the proper functioning and maintenance of human resource-based businesses. The members of the human resource management department should begin by analyzing the present state of the company's human resources and developing an acceptable plan for the specific organization. Not all companies are focused on hiring talented employees (those who are obviously talented) or recruiting them from other companies. Rather, some businesses try to develop the potential in their employees and achieve company growth by encouraging the development of leadership competencies and unique skills.

As the economy evolves, many aspects of corporate activities, including human resource management, undergo change. Global business necessitates worldwide human resource management; this implies that the international economy and its particular characteristics must be taken into account when establishing human resource strategies for international operations. 14 The primary tasks of the department of human resource management include the creation of benefit packages and other financial-related issues. As a result, the departments become closely interconnected, as they are all involved in the operation of human resources and have diverse demands and expectations.

The phases of the hiring procedure

Recruitment is one of the responsibilities done by the department of human resource management. This phase focuses on locating and employing the competent personnel necessary by the organization for the development of new or existing strategies. New personnel are employed to do tasks that demand specific talents that should be fostered in the existing workforce. It is required to discover, select, hire, and train new personnel while the current workforce is engaged in doing duties different than those specified by the new company's strategies.

Planning precedes the recruiting process, as the recruiter must be informed of the organization's goals, tactics, and application requirements. In this regard, the available supply is the primary indicator of the required quality and number of employees. 15 As planning appears to be an essential element of every aspect of business, it is also necessary when hiring. In addition, it is impossible and inappropriate to hire new personnel without taking into account the company's strategy, plans, and expectations.

The stages of the recruitment process include the requisition for a new employee (the company must need an employee in order to hire him/her because the staff members must be effective in terms of achieving a certain goal in the company), the selection of the most appropriate recruit out of several applicants for this position in order to choose the best candidate who meets the requirements of the company, induction to the current situation in the company, and admission into the organization.

The steps of the recruiting process can be managed by the company's human resource management department or outsourced to specialized recruiters that recruit qualified individuals based on the organization's needs.

As a general rule, the first thing that should be done when hiring new personnel is to outline the most important needs. Then, the applicants should become aware of the new employees required by a particular company; this can be accomplished by posting a notice about the required employees or by searching through databases containing resumes accessible to businesses. Organizational databases, job advertising, promotions and transfers, current-employee recommendations, and re-recruitment of former employees and candidates are the most typical internal recruiting tactics. 17 Thus, the first stage implies that the applicant is aware of the position's availability and applies for it.

The second part of the recruitment procedure consists of interviews, whereas some preparatory screening can be accomplished through phone calls, resume examination, and résumé review. When candidates appear for the interview, the selection is made (the most appropriate competencies and skills are selected out of several applicants). Due to the impossibility of conducting in-depth interviews with hundreds of applicants (if the organization is enormous), testing and additional evaluation are used to determine the most qualified candidate; in this scenario, tests appear to be sufficient to determine the best applicant.

Consequently, the candidate is trained, evaluated, and inducted upon selection. The most crucial aspect of the recruitment procedure is selecting the most relevant technique for selecting qualified candidates.


Business is a complex topic with specific objectives and methods for reaching those objectives. As departments present components of a broader mechanism, it is vital to evaluate the significance of human resources and the department that oversees the administration of labor force in various organizations.

As the shifting role of human resource management has significantly altered the understanding of the significance of human resource management and the duties performed by the human resource management department, it is evident that every organization employs human resource-related personnel. In small enterprises with less than three employees, the director performs the duties of the human resource management. In larger organizations, departments are responsible for recruitment, hiring, and the creation of benefit packages.

Recruitment is one of the duties conducted by the human resource management department, however larger firms may outsource recruitment people in order to attract skilled or developmentally-capable employees. Due to the fact that the primary phases of recruitment are application, selection, and evaluation, it is required to complete specific duties in order to hire the most qualified candidate.

The initial phase of the hiring procedure is the submission of an application, which presupposes that the organization requires new personnel for specific roles. The second stage focuses on the pre-screening of applicants; websites are considered one of the sources that can be used to find talented candidates. Finally, the selection of multiple qualified candidates leads to the examination of their abilities and competencies and the employment of one individual. The new employee may require training in order to become aware of the duties that should be completed.


HR: functions, Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory, 2010. Web.

Torrington, D., L. Hall, and S. Taylor (2005) published the sixth edition of Human resource management. Pearson Education, located in Harlow, Essex

McKenna, E. & Beech, N., 2008. 2nd ed. Management of human resources: a simple analysis Pearson Education, located in Harlow, Essex

2001. Bratton, J., and Gold, J. Management of human resources: theory and practice. Routledge is headquartered in Mahwah, New Jersey.

Mathis, R. L., & Jackson, J. H., "Human Resource Management," Cengage Learning, Mason, OH, 2007, p.

M. Armstrong, 2006 A practical guide to human resource management. Kogan Page Publishers, London.

Pieper, R., 1990. Management of human resources: a worldwide comparison. Berlin: Walter de Gruyter.

Human resources management for public and nonprofit enterprises, 2nd edition, J. Pynes, 2004. John Wiley & Sons, San Francisco, CA.

Briscoe, D. R. & Schuler, R. S., 2004. 2nd ed. Management of international human resources: policy and practice for the global enterprise. Routledge is headquartered in Mahwah, New Jersey.

Cheese, P., R. J. Thomas, and E. Craig, 2007. The talent-driven organization: globalization, talent management, and high performance strategies Kogan Page Publishers, London.


Figure 1 demonstrates the functions and objectives of human resource management. Figure 2: Human resource management activities


Mathis, R. L., and J. H. Jackson, 2007. Human resource management. Torrington, D., L. Hall, and S. Taylor (2005) published Human resource management. Torrington, Hall & Taylor, page 4. Harlow, Pearson Education, page 9. Human resource management: a simple examination, by E. McKenna and N. Beech, 2008. p. 2 in Harlow, Pearson Education. Human resource management: theory and practice, edited by J. Bratton and J. Gold, published in 2001. Mahwah, Routledge, page 7; Torrington, Hall & Taylor, page 4; McKenna & Beech, page 3; Torrington, Hall & Taylor, page 4; McKenna & Beech, page 3 Human resource management: an international comparison, by R. Pieper, 1990. Berlin, Walter de Gruyter, p. 27. A Handbook of Human Resource Management Practice, M. Armstrong, 2006. Mathis & Jackson, p. 10. London, Kogan Page Publishers, p. Human Resources Management for Public and Nonprofit Organizations, by J. Pynes, 2004 John Wiley and Sons, 149 pages, San Francisco. In 2010, Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory Human Resources: functions. International human resource management: policy and practice for the global enterprise, by D. R. Briscoe and R. S. Schuler. Mahwah, Routledge, 20-21 pages. 5. McKenna & Beech, p. Kogan Page Publishers, London, page 108. Mathis & Jackson, p. 205.

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The Glass Ceiling Women In The Workplace Best College Essay Help

For decades, gender equality in the workplace has been a topic of heated controversy. In the 1960s, it was widely believed that, despite the growing importance of women in the business world, men still dominated the most prestigious positions (Zyl & Roodt, 2003). Feminist groups are adamant that women are still oppressed, that the gender gap and stereotyping are widening, and that their salary disparity and promotion gap are growing. Recent academic research reveals, however, that there are wage and position differences between men and women on the job market, but that these discrepancies cannot be linked to gender stereotypes. Due of the looming contradiction between two concepts in the glass ceiling argument, the validity of the ceiling is always in dispute. In this essay, we assess the glass ceiling in its contemporary setting to determine if it still exists.

Describe a glass ceiling. This is one of the most persuasive metaphors for illustrating the gender gap in the workplace. The term "glass ceiling" refers to the unseen artificial hurdles that prevent women from obtaining senior executive positions. This word refers to the dynamics that maintain women at the base of the economic hierarchy. The fictitious promotion ceiling is an unseen barrier that discriminates on the basis of gender. This means that women are only promoted to a specific level and no higher due to their gender (Baxter & Wright, 2000). Clearly, the glass ceiling creates an impenetrable barrier for women's upward mobility. The ceiling is not present in every position. Women are easily integrated into middle-level roles, and research indicates that there are many women at this level of the hierarchy, but there are very few women in positions with decision-making authority. In addition, gender stereotypes indicate that women are paid less than men. But is this the appropriate image? Are women utterly disregarded and not permitted to advance by their male counterparts? This is the next topic of discussion.

According to a survey by the International Labor Organization (ILO), prejudice is greatest where the most power is wielded (Wirth, 2002). The wider the gender difference, the higher a woman's position inside the pyramid. The survey indicates that barely 1 to 3 percent of top executive positions in the world's leading firms are held by women. In 2002, only 8 nations had a female head of state, whereas 21 nations have a deputy leader. Although the global participation rate of women in trade unions is approximately 40 percent, barely 1 percent hold union leadership positions. This implies that even when women's labor force participation is not low, the percentage decreases once the question of accepting positions of authority arises. Thus, despite the fact that women have the credentials and work experience to assume the most senior positions, this is not the case. However, the slow pace of establishing a critical mass of women in positions of power is a challenge. The obvious question is why this discrimination exists. Why is there so prejudice?

Many would assert that a glass ceiling prohibits women from entering leadership positions, yet many would disagree. They feel that the low number of women in the workforce is related to their sociocultural structures, which make females prioritize home life above their professional life (USA Today, 2000). Obstacles are frequently attributable to the organization of work and the substantial obstacles women and men confront while attempting to balance work and family responsibilities. As a result, there is ongoing occupational segregation — men's occupations and women's jobs. Even in nations with a long history of advocating gender equality, occupational segregation is still prevalent. Furthermore, so-called women's jobs are sometimes accorded a lower market value. This suggests that women are more keen to enter the teaching profession than their male counterparts. Consequently, compared to a position in investment banking, the former pays significantly less. This suggests that women, despite being similarly qualified, chose careers that historically pay less. The management job gap and the pay gap are two apparent examples of the various ways males and females spend time on work and family matters, which may also contribute to the wage discrepancy (Lynch & Post, 1996). In nearly every country, women work greater hours than men on average, according to studies. Women continue to conduct the majority of unpaid labor.

On the contrary, recent research indicates that the number of women in management roles has increased steadily (Lynch & Post, 1996; Wirth, 2002). They indicate that there are more women in executive roles than males, and that women who reach the top are younger than men (Lynch & Post, 1996). Even if the pay gap and gender discrimination are reducing, their existence cannot be disputed (USA Today, 2000; Meyerson & Fletcher, 2000). Consequently, if the discrimination is not the result of gender bias, then what? What holds the glass ceiling in place?

Lynch and Post (1996) contend that it is not the case that women's labor is undervalued compared to men's, but rather that women have historically gravitated toward specific sectors, which have been viewed as lower-paying fields. For example, an investment banker will command a higher salary than a teacher. In addition, “family remains at the center of women's priorities, whether they work within or outside the home” (Lynch & Post, p. 2). Therefore, the authors think that rational self-interest, and not discrimination, is responsible for this apparent gender prejudice against women.

Some behavioral experts argue that women themselves have created the glass ceiling (USA Today, 2000). First, women struggle with self-promotion at work, which is essential to climbing the organizational ladder. In addition, they have demonstrated an inability to participate in social networks. In positions in upper management, networking is essential, and the ability to enter the executive's informal social circle is crucial for advancement. Even while women did not build the glass ceiling, according to behavioral scientist Shannon L. Goodson, “they help sustain it.” (USA Today). So, according to this line of reasoning, the poor performance of women in the workplace is a result of their failure to regulate their visibility.

According to others, gender bias is the outcome of men's engrained views and culture (Meyerson & Fletcher, 2000). It is necessary to find methods for dismantling this prejudice, which may have emerged for men or for women themselves. A possible explanation for this bias is the dearth of women in business schools. When males see women from their social level entering the workforce, they perceive them as equals rather than subordinates (Lynch & Post, 1996). This is a method for eradicating discrimination against women. A second method is to publicize "small wins" to promote larger successes (Meyerson & Fletcher). How can this be possible? For example, if the work schedule is made more flexible, it becomes simpler for women to contribute an equal amount of time to the workplace, and their performance consequently improves. Further little victories pave the way for larger triumphs. Therefore, one must see that today it is not gender bias that is preventing women from reaching the pinnacle, but rather the system itself. This must be altered, and this approach is slow and steady.

The glass ceiling is a fact of life. Even if the magnitude and type of the ceiling have drastically changed since the 1960s, the obstacles still present. The factors described thus far in the essay are not singular or identifiable as male-led gender bias. These impediments are rather proponents of the society and organizational frameworks, culture, and manifestation. Therefore, this ceiling cannot be eliminated through legislation alone; rather, a full shift in structure, attitudes, and culture is required to effect this change.

Sources Cited

Baxter, J., and E. O. Wright (2000). A comparative analysis of the United States, Sweden, and Australia with respect to the glass ceiling hypothesis. 14(2) Gender and Society, 275-294.

Lynch, M., & Post, K. (1996). What glass ceiling?

Meyerson, D. E., & Fletcher, J. K. (2000). A Modest Manifesto to Break the Female Ceiling. 127-138 in Harvard Business Review.

USA Today (2000). Are Females to Blame for the Glass Ceiling? USA Today Magazine Vol. 128 Issue 2659 , p. 5.

Wirth, Louis (2002). Equal pay for Men and Women: Myth or Reality? Initial International Meeting (pp. 1-8). International Labour Office of Luxembourg.

Zyl, B. V., & Roodt, G. (2003). FEMALE PERCEPTIONS ON EMPLOYMENT EQUITY: IS THE GLASS CEILING CRACKING? Journal of Human Resource Management, volume 1, number 2, pages 13 to 20.

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New Employee Orientation At Department Of Veterans Affairs Best College Essay Help

Table of Contents
New Employee Orientation Importance of the new employee orientation program Criteria for determining success Recommendations Conclusion Bibliography

Creating a training program for new staff necessitates the formulation of pertinent objectives and a practical budget. The program should be given by an expert using a suitable delivery method. In addition, the training program should be periodic and ongoing in order to maximize employee productivity. In particular, a successful new employee orientation program influences an organization's productivity in addition to the level of customer happiness. This analysis seeks to evaluate the performance of the Department of Veterans Affairs' new employee orientation program. In addition, the treatise provides detailed suggestions for enhancing new employee orientation sessions.

Employee Orientation for New Hires

The Department of Veterans Affairs's new employee orientation program emphasizes the transfer of teamwork, time management, and customer service skills. In addition, the training addresses dispute resolution, the escalation of complaints, and personal communication skills. The training program's primary objective is to restore employee confidence, personal adjustment within the organization's culture, and intra- and inter-personal interactions with other employees and customers.

Importance of the program for new employee orientation

During training, reflective self-evaluation abilities on the level of individual concentration comprise both actual and anticipated outcomes. Concentration evaluation of employees at the Department of Veterans Affairs has remained active in developing dependency of interest attached to an activity, creating proactive relationships, and monitoring their interaction with physical aspects of team evaluation through the design of a relevant program training model. Eventually, this has paid off, as new employees have effectively learned to value the essential of learning and the necessity to remain active (Andreadis, 2009).

The Department of Veterans Affairs facilitates the learning process for new employees through orientation and continuing organization behavior change. Changes in management and operations in this company are contingent upon a significant amount of learning. The program highlights four major categories of intervention techniques in organizational development: strategies based on human processes, structural orientation, techno-social orientation, and organizational change. In general, for a company to be successful in cultivating suitable organs, departments, and channels for addressing and fostering productive behavior, an objective working connection with the employees is required (Sinclair, 2010).

Improving new employees' generalization to real-world circumstances at the Department of Veterans Affairs requires extensive behavioral rehearsal. In practice, particularly during the assessment period, the organizational culture of the Department of Veterans Affairs seeks to apply coping mechanisms to solve these deficiencies. Conforming to the aspect of synthesis and evaluation measures to prevent relapse after the implementation of the new employee orientation program, this statement is appropriate (Noe, 2013).

In addition, as suggested by the new employee orientation program, the Department of Veterans Affairs' organizational development effectively implements a problem-solving therapy within the group. In circumstances where the organization is unable of dealing with unproductive employees due to low morale, this strategy is required. Taking into account the social and personal repercussions of an inability to meet the challenges, the training program development should conduct an evaluation that provides the most effective response and a permanent solution to employee concerns, development, and welfare in accordance with the Bloom taxonomy's ideals (Sinclair, 2010).

The management training module of an organization recognizes a variety of scenarios in the organization's social environment and generates many alternative solutions to these challenges. It lays down the necessary steps to obtain the intended results. According to the Department of Veteran Affairs's new employee orientation program, it is essential to foster a healthy work environment and personal growth perspectives that apply to all situations in order to increase productive behavior, given that interpersonal issues that each individual faces ultimately affect the group (Noe, 2013).

By conducting an in-depth investigation into each employee's personal life, the employee training agent is supposed to find the most appropriate therapy for each participant. Thus, through appropriately structured training methods, talent development and motivation for productive conduct are fostered in the individual who has the most viable alternatives for resolving role-related challenges. Consequently, the organization's training program will operate on the peripheral of its proactive and inclusive response mechanisms (DeCenzo and Robbins, 2007).

Human process-based intervention initiatives, such as the new employee orientation program at the Department of Veterans Affairs, are portrayed as primarily geared at enhancing the general state of relationships between the targeted individuals and within groups. To achieve this, sensitivity training is administered to ensure that both management and employee teams remain adaptable to the fundamental requirements of their counterparts. After introducing a program to assess the emotional stance of employees toward one another, a counseling session is organized to ensure that employees care about the social needs of their coworkers. The underlying thesis of these techniques is that a good state of relations, information transfer, and collaboration are crucial for building conditions conducive to an organization's success (Noe, 2013).

Success evaluation criterion

The success evaluation criteria for the new employee orientation program are based on employee input following each step of training. Motivation, autonomy, and training are the primary positive aspects of effective organizational behavior. Consequently, these aspects are incorporated into the Department of Veterans Affairs' training program in order to promote a proactive attitude among the personnel and toward the consumers. Incentives, promotions, awards, and recognition are among the motivation-enhancing measurement procedures. The efficiency of these components is contingent upon their vertical and horizontal alignments (Andreadis, 2009). Consequently, the feedback system management system may affect employees' favorable or negative perceptions. This is summarized in the following table.

Training Module Necessary

Resources Leadership accountability Measures taken Limitations on Performance Indicators

Increasing employee participation in organization processes by granting them more autonomy. Outsourced specialist.

Instructional materials Group leaders who execute.

Managerial training evaluation. Periodic exercise.

Interactive message boards Educational levels.

Authority and accountability Analyzing consumer response feedback.

Developing more inspiring programs involving teamwork Team sports.

Entire team participation. Team captains.

Team leaders.

Overall commander Developing training objectives. Divergent objectives in team-building exercises Testing the spirit and insight of employees.

(DeCenzo and Robbins, 2007 Source)


The planning part of a new employee orientation program is crucial for demystifying poor performance. Given that the quantity of success is contingent on social interaction abilities, the proper utilization of a competency review system is proportionate to employee performance. Consequently, organizational effectiveness should serve as the foundation for demonstrating acceptable behavior between management and staff. Therefore, the approved policies should be matched with the fundamental building blocks of performance within the Department of Veterans Affairs. These regulations should incorporate a model of the employee-employer relationship, performance evaluation, and company culture. Organizational development has been characterized as the process of supporting development inside organization structures through the adoption of a cycle of well-planned intervention strategies intended at simultaneously improving the positions of the majority of the organization's members. Thus, organizational development focuses more on interactions between people and their surrounding settings for the organization's benefit (Sinclair, 2010).

The enhancements to the new employee orientation program ought to include a people-subsystem. When an individual's given objectives and tasks correspond appropriately, the people subsystem may be effective. Consequently, there will be optimal performance within acceptable organizational conduct, which will enable employees to be receptive to teamwork and learning activities (Andreadis, 2009). In a learning organization context, such as the Department of Veterans Affairs, the people-subsystem may be deemed functional when all of the aforementioned factors are in equilibrium. This is depicted in the diagram below.

(Source: own production)

The Department of Veterans Affairs' new employee orientation training might incorporate ethics. Fundamentally, ethics refers to sets of laws or moral systems that provide a framework for determining whether an activity is appropriate or inappropriate. Ethical components of the training program will specify anticipated conduct, procedural patterns, and responses to any deviations. Thus, ethics should be aligned within the four organizational training module models of the Department of Veterans Affairs. These models provide the impetus for acquisition, affiliation, comprehension, and defense. When the system operates within acceptable bounds, employees will eventually develop the self-awareness to provide quality services and protect the firm as a member of a family (Andreadis, 2009). This is summarized in the following table.

Curriculum module Goal setting Feedback Channel Exception Criteria Evaluation Criteria

Instilling confidence in the employee's communication and dispute resolution abilities. Setting realistic, moderately difficult assignments and allowing the employee to freely respond to each assignment. Establishing a Developing an interactive training session for the new hire. Limiting the scope of operations to training that is pertinent. Periodically assess performance following each stage of training.

Using questionnaires to conduct a random yet inclusive sample using probability.

Developing more inspiring programs that emphasize teamwork and communication skills. Incorporating the training schedule into the annual calendar. Increasing physical endurance.

Comparison of performance after each stage of training. Defining the scope and incorporating these tasks into performance accountability.

defining training limitations for responsiveness Assessing the employee's spirit and intellect.

(DeCenzo and Robbins, 2007 Source)


To comprehend the effects of an employee orientation program on performance and productivity, it is vital to determine the scope and characteristics of each training module type. It manifests itself through professionalism, organization, respect, peak performance, and discipline. Therefore, the new employee orientation program emphasizes the necessity for active cooperation between the employee's particular abilities, the given duties, and the goals for the assigned roles. A relevant and objective training program is required for an organization to calculate relevant organs, departments, and channels for addressing and promoting productive behavior. In a new employee, this may take the shape of psychological tests, experience, values and beliefs, attitudes, and shared group interests.


N. Andreadis (2009). Performance Improvement, 48 (1), pp. 5-11, Learning and organizational effectiveness: a systems viewpoint.

DeCenzo, D., & Robbins, S. (2007). Management of human resource fundamentals (9th ed.). Hoboken, New Jersey: John Wiley and Sons.

Noe, A. (2013). Employee development and training (6th ed.). Boston, United States: McGraw Hill

M. Sinclair (2010). Fear and self-loathing in the city: A guide to keeping sane in the square mile. London, UK: Karnac Books.

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Reserve Bank Of Australia Analysis Best College Essay Help

Table of Contents
Introduction Analysis problem Organizational architecture and structure Teams and teamwork Leadership and administration strategy Organization culture Recommendations Upon Concluding References


Management is the practice of achieving objectives through other people in an effective and efficient manner (Agarwal 2008, p.302). These activities consist of planning, organizing, leading, and controlling, and are generally referred to as the four functions of management.

Planning is the process by which an organization determines its future actions (Hill and Jones 2009, p.381). In conjunction with the planning function, the organizing function guarantees that the firm's available resources are maximized and distributed strategically. Lastly, controlling is viewed as monitoring the progress in accordance with the initial plan and enforcing adjustments when necessary if feedback indicates that things are not aligned with the plan (Mullins 2010, p.34).

Therefore, organization management is the act of building a relationship between people and resources in order to achieve particular objectives and business goals (Agarwal 2008, p.303). Management of an organization is founded on five principles: procedure, scope of control, unity of command, homogeneous assignment, delegation of authority, and adaptability.

Organization management is a five-step process, the first of which entails identifying the tasks involved, taking into account the nature of the job, the credentials required for the job, and the time required to complete the assignment (Mullins 2010, p.35). The second phase is to subdivide big jobs into individual activities; the numerous possible tasks will be portioned as stand-alone projects that may be carried out independently by different departments (Triplet 2007, p.3).

The third step involves allocating specific activities to individuals; at this stage, the organization must determine the capabilities of each employee before assigning available assignments. The tasks are matched to the individual and assigned to the person most capable of completing them efficiently. The fourth step is to give the available resources to help individuals in successfully completing their assigned jobs (Moyles 2006, p.176). The organization allocates resources based on the nature and complexity of the allocated work. The final step involves building an organizational structure to decide the strategy that will merge the numerous allocated tasks into one once they are accomplished and how the various organizational structures can collaborate (Picot et al., 2008, p.12).

Managers in an organization should recognize the significance of organization and management, the process through which people, diverse jobs, and technology are blended and coordinated to achieve organizational goals (Triplet 2007, p.4). Bob and Lloyd must see the importance of linking the people, tasks, and resources in the fast-food company process. Bob and Lloyd must make optimal use of the organization's resources to complete all tasks and implement their fast food company concepts (Triplet 2007, p.5). Organization and management should be based on determining the policies, missions, and structures of the fast food firm (McNichol et al 2007, p.13).

Analysis problem

Bob and Lloyd's choice to launch a fast food restaurant in Cambridge will be a wise investment if they properly evaluate the organization and administration of the business. In Cambridge's fast food market, their success rate will be determined by how they establish structure, assemble their team, exercise leadership, and address organizational culture. Bob and Lloyd must carefully analyze the following four factors before making strategic judgments regarding their new venture (Chen 2004, p.5).

Organizational architecture and structure

An organizational structure is a network of interconnected jobs, job groups, and ultimately authority (Burstein 1991, p.327). A structure of an organization specifies how individuals are placed into departments and departments are grouped to form the organization. It comprises the creation of mechanisms to ensure effective departmental communication, integration, and coordination of efforts. Typically, an organizational chart depicts the formal relationships within an organization, including the number of levels in the hierarchy and the scope of control of managers and supervisors (Schriber and Gutek 2010, p.642). Bob and Lloyd must choose an organizational structure that corresponds to the span of control (Alder and Jelinek 2006, p.74). Each individual's function and responsibilities must be specified within the organizational structure of the fast food establishment.

The objective of an organization structure is to give a common reference that demonstrates the general relationship between upper management, middle management, and lower level management (Murphy and Willmot 2010, p.268). Traditional organization models always placed the CEO on top, with everyone else grouped in layers according to department, however today there are numerous decentralized and flexible organization systems. Bob and Lloyd should establish a structure that improves horizontal coordination and communication, despite the absence of a traditional organizational structure, in order to promote change adoption (Burstein 1991, p.327). In a fast food industry, a horizontal organizational structure will decentralize decision-making. The first diagram below depicts a contemporary organizational structure with three management levels. (Burstein 1991, p.327).

Three managerial levels.

One of the four factors that help a corporation develop its organizational structure is job specification, which entails outlining the departments' responsibilities (Barry 2000, p.33). The second is departmentalization, in which positions are grouped and responsibilities are assigned in accordance with the company's objectives. The third aspect is span of control, in which the management examines the tasks at hand and the number of units and, as a result, merges the two factors in an advantageous manner (Chen 2004, p.6). The final aspect is delegation of authority, which introduces managers in charge of units and gives the head of each unit the capacity to make decisions on behalf of the organization. Bob and Lloyd ought to distribute control to the managers of the fast food company so that they may make decisions with ease. Each unit department's managers should make choices on behalf of the organization.

Teams and group effort

In order to turn around an organization, management must support a team-based approach. Consistently, management gurus have asserted that a team exceeds an individual in terms of passion, focus, and overcoming formidable obstacles. (Mullins 2010, p.46)

A team is a small group of individuals with complementary skills and a shared purpose for which they all feel accountable (Katzenbach and Smith 1993, p.68). Bob and Lloyd must adhere to the five team standards in order to establish a formidable team for the fast-food hamburger enterprise.

The team for one must be modest, ideally between two to twenty-five members, because it is easier to collaborate with a small group (Hill and Jones 2009, p.385). The second concept is that team members must possess complementary abilities (Leitner 2004, p.35). The third principle states that members should share a common purpose and objective, which means that the team's objective and mission must coincide (Hill and Jones 2009, p.384). The fourth principle is that the team must build a shared working style in which the team pays attention to administrative and work-related aspects and each team member identifies their position in the team's work (Picot et al 2008, p.84). The final principle emphasizes that all members must be accountable to themselves and to others in order to ensure the commitment and trust of other members (Katzenbach and Smith 1993, p.68). The diagram below depicts a paradigm change in a team system, often known as a team structure (Picot et al 2008, p.84).

Team structure.

For the sake of strategic team building, Bob and Lloyd should carefully pick and staff their employees so that they have a motivated, vital workforce. The fast food sector necessitates qualified, quick, and efficient employees; else, the business could fail (McNichol et al 2007, p.2007). Staffing corresponds to human resource planning; here, the organization should evaluate the number of personnel required, their backgrounds, their credentials, and the cost of recruiting each one in order to achieve its objectives. Consideration must also be given to how to get the necessary personnel, with recruitment considerations including education, experience, human relations, communication skills, and motivation (Northouse 2009, p.165).

When undertaking employee selection, management should devise an elimination-based method for selecting the most qualified individuals. Having a set of criteria and a score sheet for each candidate guarantees that the organization will have a high rate of successful hires (Baligh 2006, p.126). The organization must define each interview, develop a strategy, communicate with the interviewee during the interview, and establish a conclusion for the interview. Bob and Lloyd should perform an in-person interview to determine whether or not each employee have strong interpersonal skills (Chen 2004, p.7).

Motivation is a crucial part of every firm; if the employees are not motivated, they will inevitably produce less (Sekhar 2010, p.16). Increases in working conditions, interpersonal relationships, income, job security, company regulations, supervision, and administration are examples of motivating factors (Sekhar 2010, p.17). Bob and Lloyd should motivate their fast food staff by providing them with favorable working conditions and bonuses.

Leadership and administration strategy

A leader is a person who directs a group of people, an organization, or a nation (Leitner 2004, p.87). To the followers, a leadership model according to Mitchell, Margaret and Casey, John, professors of leadership management at the University of Illinois (2007) emphasizes a collective strategy that involves all members and includes elements such as improving the overall performance, focusing specifically on strategy, and creating an environment of change (p.53).

Second, employing a collaborative approach begins to foster excellent community connections because everyone is represented, so laying the groundwork for collaborations within the institution, which benefits the entire community (p.58). A skilled leader will most effectively unite all members in a strategic manner to work together; he or she must also be intelligent and inspiring (McNichol et al 2007, p.104). In addition, a leader should propose innovative tactics that are effective and will provide positive performance outcomes; this will serve as motivation for all members.

Manpower planning would be the optimal strategy for implementing "imposed-incremental change" in an organization (Cooper 2005, p.231).

Cooper Crown (2005), a professional management guru and consultant in management issues, defines manpower planning as the process of forecasting and planning the human resource organization in every institution in order to plan for the future in accordance with the institution's goals and organizational structure (p.232).

The competency is intended to be useful when an organization has limited funds to spend yet must carry out its activities (Northouse 2009, p.168).

Well, the best approach to strengthen one's leadership characteristics is to develop skills in manpower planning, which will allow for the regulation of projects and the establishment of a structured workforce to complete the duties.

In order to achieve strong leadership, a leadership mission entails deciding on long-term and short-term objectives and allocating priority to methods (Moyles 2006, p.178; Bass and Avolio 1993, p1). A competent leader should have a strategy formula that focuses on effective resource allocation, making judgments on diversifications, and entering overseas marketplaces to combine and participate in an organization's initiative. A leader's strategy commits the organization to a defined vision, mission, and objective over a prolonged period of time in order to achieve it (Northouse 2009, p.169; Moyles 2006, p.179).

The success of policy implementation depends on the capacity of the leadership function to motivate others to assist in strategy redesign (Moyles 2006, p.179) Redesigning an organization's process enhances it and helps it adapt to external environmental restrictions over which the leader has no control (Murphy and William 2010, p. 268). Bob and Lloyd should construct a strategy-support culture at the fast food industry and establish an effective and functional structure in order to ensure policy implementation (Moyles 2006, p.522). Bob and Lloyd must encourage the managers of each unit and the staff to discover methods to contribute to the implementation process (Normore 2010). Implementation involves personal discipline, commitment and sacrifice. This is due to the fact that at this time is seen as unstable and requires everyone to embrace new systems (Picot et al 2008, p.86).

Organization culture

The word organization culture refers to a set of characteristics that are unique to a given organization and can be derived from the manner in which an organization develops and identifies the characteristics of cultures that promote learning and those that impede the learning organization process (Adler and Jelinek 2006, p.74).

Organizational culture encourages the learning process. Today's organizations are under a great deal of pressure to perform, which requires them to learn, adapt, and take ethically sound actions in order to meet the demands of the industry and the shareholders (Schriber and Gutek 2010, p.645).

According to McNichol et al. (2007), there are a variety of corporate learning culture approaches. The three most prevalent categories are (p.104):

A supportive organization learning culture is one in which team members or the management of an organization provide assistance for learning. Concretizing organizational learning culture: when the learning culture is founded on concrete procedures and practices, such as billing, logistics, and product development (Mullins 2010, p.35). Leadership organizational learning culture: a technique that employs leadership to reinforce learning inside an organization. This indicates that the leader in the organization must study the organization's constraints, acknowledge them, and explore alternatives to improve the organization's performance in order to steer the learning process (Sekhar 2010, p.17).

Organizational learning is under pressure to keep up with the shifting patterns of the times. In the past, people were not required to make quick decisions, but today they must do so in uncertain circumstances. A learning organization is an entity in which employees successfully transfer knowledge (Leitner 2004, p.89).

By attempting to develop an effective learning organization, the fast food corporation will demonstrate its efforts to rethink the organization culture process. There are two strategies to improve an organization's learning strategy. The first is a single-loop learning process that involves modifying the environment without altering the organization's structures (Chen 2004, p.8). The second consists of a double loop in which new systems are implemented and the learning process is redefined and tested (Murphy and Willmot 2010, p.270). Bob and Lloyd should come up with innovative ideas for the development of the fast food company and the establishment of a competitive edge in Cambridge. Chen (2004) specifies, if it is a single-loop, the condition.

Limited Flow Of Information Best College Essay Help

Contents Listing
Introduction Considering issue Design and structure of the organization Leadership and management strategy for teams and teamwork Organization culture Conclusion Recommendations References


Management is the process of completing tasks via the efforts of others in an effective and efficient manner (Agarwal 2008, p.302). These activities include planning, organizing, leading, and controlling; they are generally referred to as the four functions of management and are defined as follows:

Planning is the method by which a company determines its future actions (Hill and Jones 2009, p.381). In conjunction with the planning function, the organizing function guarantees that a company's available resources are utilized to the fullest extent and strategically distributed. Lastly, controlling is viewed as monitoring the progress in accordance with the initial plan and modifying where necessary if feedback indicates that things are not aligned with the plan (Mullins 2010, p.34).

Therefore, organization management is the act of building a relationship between people and resources in order to achieve particular aims and business objectives (Agarwal 2008, p.303). The five guiding principles of organization management are procedure, span of control, unity of command, homogeneous assignment, delegation of authority, and adaptability.

Organization management is a five-part process, with the first phase being the determination of the tasks involved. In this step, the nature of the job, the credentials necessary for the job, and the time required to complete the task are considered (Mullins 2010, p.35). The second phase is to subdivide big jobs into individual activities; the many possible tasks will be portioned as independent projects that may be carried out separately by different departments (Triplet 2007, p.3).

The third step involves assigning specific activities to individuals; at this point, the company must assess the capabilities of each worker before delegating available jobs. The tasks are matched to the individual and assigned to the individual who is best capable of efficiently completing the duties. The fourth element of the procedure is to give the available resources to assist individuals in completing assigned jobs successfully (Moyles 2006, p.176). Depending on the nature and difficulty of the allocated task, the organization offers the necessary resources. The last method entails building an organizational structure to define the strategy that will merge the many allocated tasks into one once they are completed and how the various organizational structures can collaborate (Picot et al., 2008, p.12).

Managers in an organization should recognize the significance of organization and management, which is the process by which people, diverse tasks, and technology are merged and coordinated to achieve organizational objectives (Triplet 2007, p.4). Bob and Lloyd must acknowledge that integrating the people, tasks, and resources in the fast-food business process is essential. Bob and Lloyd must achieve optimal utilization of the organization's resources in order to carry out all activities and implement their fast food company concepts (Triplet 2007, p.5). Establishing the policies and missions of the fast food industry and determining its structures should be the focus of organization and management (McNichol et al 2007, p.13).

Considering issue

If Bob and Lloyd thoroughly evaluate the organization and administration of their fast food business, their choice to open a fast food restaurant in Cambridge will be a profitable venture. In Cambridge's fast food business, their rate of success will be determined by the manner in which they establish their organizational structure, assemble their workforce, exercise leadership, and address organizational culture. To make strategic decisions for their new venture, Bob and Lloyd must carefully evaluate the following four factors (Chen 2004, p.5).

Design and structure of the organization

An organization structure is a system of interrelated jobs, job groups, and authority (Burstein 1991, p.327). An organization structure describes how personnel within an organization are classified into departments and how departments are grouped into an organization. It entails the creation of systems to provide effective communication, integration, and collaboration among departments. A typical organizational chart depicts formal relationships, such as the number of levels in a hierarchy and the span of control of managers and supervisors, as well as the structure of an organization (Schriber and Gutek 2010, p.642). Bob and Lloyd will need to choose an organization structure that reflects the range of control (Alder and Jelinek 2006, p.74). Each individual's function and responsibilities should be outlined in the fast food organization's structure.

The objective of an organization structure is to give a common reference that demonstrates the overall relationship between upper management, middle management, and lower level management (Murphy and Willmot 2010, p.268). Traditional organization structures always placed the CEO at the top, with everyone else grouped in layers according to department, but there are numerous current organization models that foster decentralization and adaptability. Even though there is no conventional organizational structure, Bob and Lloyd should adopt a structure that improves horizontal coordination and communication in order to promote change adoption (Burstein 1991, p.327). The horizontal organizational structure of the fast food company will decentralize decision-making. The organizational structure of an organization with three levels of management is depicted in the first diagram below. (Burstein 1991, p.327).

Three managerial levels.

One of the four factors that help a business build its organizational structure is job specification, which entails specifying the departments and their responsibilities (Barry 2000, p.33). The second strategy is departmentalization, in which positions are grouped and responsibilities are assigned in accordance with the company's objectives. The third aspect is span of control, in which the management takes into account the tasks at hand and the number of units and, as a result, combines the two factors in an advantageous manner (Chen 2004, p.6). The final component is delegation of authority, which introduces managers in charge of units and grants the authority to make decisions on behalf of the organization to the head of each unit. Bob and Lloyd should give decision-making authority to the fast food company's managers so that they may readily make decisions. Managers in each departmental unit should make decisions on behalf of the organization.

Collaboration and teamwork

For any management to be successful in reversing the organization's fortunes, they must promote a team-based strategy. Consistently, management gurus have asserted that a team outperforms an individual in terms of generating enthusiasm, maintaining concentration, and overcoming formidable obstacles. (Mullins 2010, p.46)

A team is a small group of people with complementary skills and a shared commitment to a goal for which they all feel responsible (Katzenbach and Smith 1993, p.68). Bob and Lloyd must ensure they adhere to the five team principles in order to establish a superior team for the hamburger fast food company.

The team for one must be small, two to twenty-five is an optimal quantity, because it is easier to work with a small number of individuals (Hill and Jones 2009, p.385). The second tenet is that the team members should possess complementary skills (Leitner 2004, p.35). The third principle stipulates that team members must share a common purpose and objective, which means that the team's objective and mission must be congruent (Hill and Jones 2009, p.384). The fourth principle is that the team must build a shared working approach in which the team pays attention to administrative and work-related details and each team member identifies their position in the team's work (Picot et al 2008, p.84). The final principle is that all members must be accountable to themselves and others in order to secure commitment and trust from other members (Katzenbach and Smith 1993, p.68). The second graph below illustrates a paradigm shift within a team system, often known as a team structure (Picot et al 2008, p.84).

Team structure.

For the sake of strategic team building, Bob and Lloyd should employ a committed, energized workforce by employing and selecting personnel with care. The fast food sector necessitates qualified, quick, and effective employees; anything less could result in the demise of the company (McNichol et al 2007, p.2007). Staffing corresponds to human resource planning; here, the organization should examine how many personnel are required, their backgrounds, credentials, and the cost of recruiting each one in order to carry out its objectives. Consideration must also be given to how to get the appropriate personnel, with recruitment considerations including education, experience, human relations, communication skills, and motivation among others (Northouse 2009, p.165).

The management should devise an elimination-based system for selecting the best applicants when undertaking personnel selection. Having a list of criteria and a score sheet for each candidate ensures that the organization's hiring rate is high (Baligh 2006, p.126). The company must define each interview, develop a plan, communicate with the interviewee during the interview, and establish a conclusion for each interview. Bob and Lloyd must perform a face-to-face interview to determine whether or not each employee have strong interpersonal skills (Chen 2004, p.7).

Motivation is a crucial part of any firm; if employees are not motivated, they are likely to decrease their output (Sekhar 2010, p.16). Examples of motivational elements include improved working environment, interpersonal interactions, compensation, job security, company policies, supervision, and management (Sekhar 2010, p.17). Bob and Lloyd should motivate their employees at the fast food restaurant by providing them with favorable working circumstances and by offering bonuses.

Leadership and management methodology

A leader is a person who guides a group of individuals, an organization, or a country (Leitner 2004, p.87). To the followers, a leadership model according to Mitchell, Margaret and Casey, John, professors of leadership management at the University of Illinois (2007) emphasizes a collective strategy that involves all members, such as improving the overall performance, focusing on strategy, and creating an environment for change (p.53).

Second, employing a collective approach begins to establish a positive relationship with the community since everyone is represented. As a result, the institution develops the foundation for collaborations, which is beneficial to the entire community (p.58). A good leader will, in the most significant way, combine all members in a strategic approach to work collaboratively; the leader should also be intelligent and inspiring (McNichol et al 2007, p.104). Moreover, a leader should propose new techniques that are effective and will provide positive performance outcomes; this will serve as an inspiration for all members.

Manpower planning is the most effective method for implementing "imposed-incremental change" within a corporation (Cooper 2005, p.231).

Cooper Crown (2005), a professional management guru and consultant in management issues, defines manpower planning as the process of forecasting and planning an institution's human resource organization in order to plan for the future in accordance with the institution's objectives and organizational structure (p.232).

The ability is intended to be useful when an organization has limited funds to spend, yet its tasks must still be carried out (Northouse 2009, p.168).

Well, the most effective method for enhancing one's leadership characteristics is to acquire skills in manpower planning, which will enable the regulation of projects and the establishment of a staffing structure to complete the duties.

A leadership mission entails determining long-term and short-term goals and assigning priorities to methods in order to attain successful leadership (Moyles 2006, p.178; Bass and Avolio 1993, p1). A strong leader should have a formula for strategy that focuses on the efficient allocation of resources, making judgments about diversifications, and accessing international marketplaces to combine and participate in an organization's initiative. A leader's strategy commits it to a defined vision, mission, and objective over an extended period of time, through which it is attained (Northouse 2009, p.169; Moyles 2006, p.179).

The success of implementing the policies is contingent on the capacity of the leadership function to persuade others to aid in the reworking of the plan (Moyles 2006, p.179) Redesigning enhances an organization's process and facilitates the leader's adaptation to uncontrollable external environmental limitations (Murphy and William 2010, p. 268). Bob and Lloyd should construct a strategy-supporting culture and a functional organizational structure in the fast food industry in order to achieve policy implementation (Moyles 2006, p.522). Bob and Lloyd must encourage the managers of each unit and the staff to discover ways to contribute to the implementation procedure (Normore 2010). Implementation involves personal discipline, commitment and sacrifice. This is due to the fact that the current state is regarded as unstable and involves the adoption of new systems by all parties (Picot et al 2008, p.86).

Organization culture

The word organization culture refers to a set of features that are unique to a given organization and can be derived from the manner in which an organization fosters and identifies the characteristics of cultures that promote learning and those that impede the learning organization process (Adler and Jelinek 2006, p.74).

Organizational culture encourages the learning process. Today's organizations are under a great deal of performance pressure, which compels them to learn, change, adopt, and take ethically sound activities in order to meet the demands of the industry's competition and the diverse shareholders (Schriber and Gutek 2010, p.645).

According to McNichol et al. (2007), organizational learning culture can be approached in numerous ways. These are the three most prevalent varieties (p.104):

This refers to a culture of learning inside an organization that is supported by either the team members or the leadership. Concretizing organizational learning culture: This occurs when the learning culture is grounded in actual processes and procedures, such as billing, logistics, and product creation (Mullins 2010, p.35). Leadership organizational learning culture: a technique that use leadership to foster learning inside an organization. This implies that the leader in the organization must study the organization's constraints, acknowledge them, and explore alternatives to improve the organization's performance in order to drive the learning process (Sekhar 2010, p.17).

There is pressure to keep up with evolving organizational learning processes as the world around us evolves. In the past, individuals were not required to make quick decisions, however today they are required to do so in unclear scenarios. A learning organization is defined as an institution in which employees successfully transmit knowledge (Leitner 2004, p.89).

By attempting to develop an effective learning organization, the fast food industry will demonstrate its efforts to change its organization's culture. There are two ways to improve an organization's learning strategy. The first is a single-loop learning process that entails modifying the environment without altering the organization's structures (Chen 2004, p.8). The second comprises a twofold loop wherein new systems are implemented and the learning process is redefined and challenged (Murphy and Willmot 2010, p.270). Bob and Lloyd should come up with innovative concepts that will advance the fast food company and provide it a competitive edge in Cambridge. If it is a single loop, Chen (2004) states it.

Employee Involvement In Hospitality Industry Best College Essay Help


Employee relations is a somewhat well-known field that examines the relationship between employer and employee (Taylor, 2002). In light of the fact that human resource is progressively becoming the center of the business world, employee interactions have a great deal of weight. Therefore, employee interactions are vital to an organization's success. In actuality, the competitive advantage of a certain firm is determined by the interaction between employees and employers. Therefore, more emphasis is being placed on the discipline of employee interactions. The participation and involvement of employees in the organization's activities originated from this context (Taylor, 2002). More and more businesses are allowing their staff to participate in business operations. Modern corporations no longer restrict their employees to their primary tasks of servitude. This study focuses on the engagement and extent of involvement of employees in the hotel business. Through analysis, interpretation, and assessment, this paper intends to investigate the extent to which employees in the hospitality business participate in corporate affairs.


The purpose of this study is to examine the engagement of employees in the hospitality industry via the use of practical experiences and analysis to overcome organizational impediments. Using case studies and analytical modules, the objective is to determine the precise environmental status of the hotel industry. The influence of employee participation will also be carefully considered. Whether or not their participation contributes to the organization's competitive advantage will be thoroughly investigated. The function of employees in contemporary company will also be elucidated and thoroughly studied.

Participation of Employees in the Hospitality Industry

As opposed to other sectors, the hotel industry is characterized by a higher degree of operational complexity (Judge & Gennard, 2005). This is mostly due to the fact that their field of product and service offerings offers distinctive parameters. Under typical conditions, the hospitality industry provides services that are unique to conventional product packaging. This sector's services are unique, which further complicates the business climate. In response to these issues, it is crucial that organizations within this business develop complementary strategies. Therefore, the deployment of distinctive tactics and technology is crucial to the success of each participant in this industry (Woolven & Bain, 1979).

Industrial relations as a field has its roots in a variety of other factors that influence the idea. Poterba (2002) states, "The aspects include politics, social sciences, history, psychology, and philosophy, and the concepts have a significant bearing on the reality and application of the field."

Unions and Their Impact

Collaboration between employees and their trade unions contributes to employee relations and eventual participation in managerial and decision-making processes inside an enterprise. This effort has been particularly successful in recent years, with trade unions pressing for increased employee participation in organization activities (Pearce & Gerald, 2005). Even though the extent of employee involvement in the business's affairs is still a point of controversy, it is now the norm for employees to participate in the organization's affairs. With an emphasis on the hospitality business, firms have prioritized championing to enable employees to assume significant responsibilities.

A union (labor union) is an organization founded by workers banding together to achieve common goals in crucial areas such as the working conditions (Silverman & Yanowitch, 1999). A labor union's responsibility is to negotiate with the employer on behalf of the union members. Unions are legally recognized as worker representation in a variety of industries and companies. In most situations, unions are found in the public sector for teachers and other public sector employees (Silverman & Yanowitch, 1999). The activities of labor unions are primarily focused on collective bargaining over the working conditions, pay, and other fringe benefits that an employee should enjoy while working, as well as supporting their members whenever management attempts to violate the contract terms of the employment (Rosenbloom, 2005). Labor unions exert the majority of their influence through the provision of benefits to its members, such as insurance against illness, old age, unemployment, and funeral costs. Most labor unions provide legal counsel and collective bargaining representation for its members (Mason & Hyman, 1995).

Collective bargaining is when trade unions and businesses negotiate the wages and working conditions of their employees.

In this instance, labor unions engage in political activities to support legislation that is most favorable to employee interests (Pearce & Gerald, 2005). This may even motivate people to run political campaigns, engage in lobbying, or support particular candidates for political office.

Industrial action – sometimes labor unions are compelled to organize strikes or even resist lockouts in order to achieve their objectives. The majority of the strikes they organize occur when the employer fails to satisfy the collectively negotiated terms (Randon and Long, 2001).

Relationship between Management and Labor

There are organizations dealing with the operations of labor nation, such as the United States agency whose job it is to hold elections for the representation of labor unions (Gudert, 2006). It is also focused with investigating and correcting unfair labor practices. Therefore, if a company does not comply with the agreement between the employer and the labor union, the union may call for strikes and work slowdowns by the company's employees (Stephanie et al, 2002). The union is responsible for ensuring that workers are treated fairly in the workplace and that their working conditions are met. In addition to participating in collective bargaining, trade unions also engage in bargaining strategies and distributive bargaining, as stated by Hondle & Howitt (2006): "This can be termed win-or-lose bargaining; it is a competitive form of negotiation strategy used to determine how to distribute a fixed resource, such as mine." In this situation, the parties assume that there is not enough for everyone, thus the more one side receives, the less the other side will receive (Honadle & Howitt, 2006). Therefore, trade unions participate in distributive bargaining for the pay and working conditions of its members, with money being the primary resource distributed.

Collaboration between labor and management is required. Management and labor unions share responsibility for attaining the established goals and objectives. Cooperation between labor and management increases productivity and effectiveness by minimizing employment-related issues. It also contributes to the enhancement of working circumstances, hence enhancing the total contribution to performance and subsequent outcomes. Therefore, it is essential for management and union leaders to get together, be open and honest with one another, and respect their respective interests in order to be able to build upon them.

The achievement of a management system's objectives is contingent on the acceptance of that system by both the management and the employees. Therefore, the employees and their union representatives must be actively involved in every aspect of the development and operation of management systems.

Case study and dialogue

The Corporation

Hyatt is a multinational hospitality firm headquartered in Washington from whence it manages its hotel business. In its global activities, the organization has more than 500 employees dispersed across the globe (Carby-Hall, 1997). It is extremely well-known and has various brands that are distributed globally. The organization has a clear objective, which is to provide the best hospitality services in the entire world.

Employee Involvement

In practically every part of the company, personnel have been allowed complete freedom to fulfill their duties in order to foster success. The success of the organization can be ascribed to its policy of encouraging employee participation (Stuart & Lucio, 2002).

Even though just 1% of an organization's employees are on expatriate assignments abroad, they are the second most expensive employees behind the CEOs. These expatriates, who are sent to other nations to complete tasks, do experience stressful working conditions and are exposed to a new culture. As a result, they have a tendency to provide bad results, as many of them do not complete the offered assignments (Chiplin, 1977).

Given the amount spent on the individual's trip abroad, this failure to accomplish responsibilities is quite costly to the organization. Due to the fact that expats take many risks in their careers and personal lives, they place a significant portion of an organization's investment at risk (Aly, 1999.). Therefore, it is necessary to provide these international assignees with support to ensure their success (Bennett, 1997). It requires training to guarantee that they are both psychologically and physically prepared. This will enable them to accept and appreciate the culture of others when they travel overseas, allowing them to complete the mission for which they have traveled. This training is extremely advantageous for both the individual and the organization. This is evident from the figure below;

A Training of personnel for expatriate assignments enables them to orient quickly and adjust well to their new environment in the foreign culture, allowing them to focus intently on the strategic business objectives and exploit the business practices that exist across cultures (Kelly, Michael & Gunnigle, 2002). According to Saunders et al. (2003), "This increases managers' confidence as they become immersed in confusing and ambiguous work in a foreign environment, and the training enables expatriate managers on either long-term or short-term assignments to achieve the business's objectives."

As a result of the increase in training expenses for employees, many companies may continue to utilize non-compete clauses in employment contracts, but they have also adopted a more severe approach to protecting their interests, mostly to safeguard their investments in training (Bower, 2009.). This is due to the fact that employers continue to find themselves in the unenviable position of incurring considerable resources on employee recruiting, training, and development, only to have the employee quit shortly thereafter, sometimes to join a rival.

Randon and Long (2001) state, "One of the major bottlenecks has been the fact that historically, courts have disfavored covenants designed solely to protect an employer's investment in training, and the study conducted involving 105 unresolved cases revealed that the individuals did not even consider the employer's investment in training significant enough to warrant a hearing." In fact, there is a consensus among researchers that, despite the fact that some courts have on rare occasions held that such investments should be protected in cases where the costs are substantial, this has fallen far below the 'protectable rights' accorded to other elements such as trade secrets and customer lists (Randon and Long, 2001). As a result, many businesses continue to incur high fees for training that provides no benefit. By including repayment terms in pre-employment agreements, several organizations have attempted to collect these costs from employees who quit shortly after receiving training in an effort to rectify these unfair practices (Lewin, 1992).

According to Lee (1999), "these training costs are considered to be a loan to the employee that must be repaid if the employee leaves employment within a specified time after the course or training concludes." To ensure that the validity of the separate loan agreement is not in any way compromised by the employee's intentional or accidental breach of the employment contract, such agreements have been included into a distinct form of agreement to the employment contract (Dicker, 2004)


Relationships with employees are a crucial factor in modern company. Every business pays more attention to its employee relationships. Additionally, the concept of employee participation has grown in significance (Herrick, 1990). Accelerating participation of employees in the entire management and operations of the firm (Siegel & Weinberg, 2002). In response to the increased influence of labor unions, the majority of businesses have conceded to calls for more employee participation.

Therefore, employees play a crucial part in the contemporary activities of organizations. Our case study illustrates how the organization in question has implemented employee participation at a high level. As a result, HYATT Company's business initiatives have yielded enormous benefits. The rising significance of employee participation has also been exemplified by the implementation of numerous models that have aided in the analysis (Cooke, 1990).

This paper convincingly explains the value of employee engagement by providing examples of its practical implementations. The discipline of employee relations will hereafter be incomplete without the proper participation of employees in managerial and decision-making responsibilities. This is the defining characteristic of competitive advantage. Therefore, the essence of employee participation defies comprehension. However, the end of the matter is the prudent participation of employees in all organization-wide duties.


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[supanova question]

The Coca-Cola Company’s Cross-Cultural Management Best College Essay Help


Creating and sustaining a supportive work environment are managerial responsibilities that should be carried out through the use of appropriate methods. One of the modern concepts pushed by both small and large firms is the cross-cultural management system, which is especially significant in multicultural teams. Bird and Mendenhall (2016) characterize this leadership principle as a form of control that fosters the evaluation and observance of the various cultural characteristics of people involved in the work process. In other words, the practice of cross-cultural management is founded on respect for the unique background of each employee, which makes this notion effective for maintaining a high level of communication between superiors and subordinates. Bird and Mendenhall (2016) emphasize that the significance of this managerial technique originates from good ramifications from the perspectives of inter-professional connection and performance stimulation, and hence the achievement of high production results. As an illustration, the worldwide renowned Coca-Cola corporation will be analyzed, and a plan will be developed to increase the business potential of the organization in accordance with the principles of cross-cultural management.

Due to the distinctive characteristics of cross-cultural management, significant gains can be realized. Specifically, Rahiman and Kodikal (2017) suggest that fostering relationships between employees, honoring the personal dignity of workers, and facilitating negotiation are beneficial outcomes. Nonetheless, in terms of flaws, the authors note the difficulties of conflict management, the underestimate of individual accomplishment, and the difficulty of communicating within a varied team (Rahiman & Kodikal, 2017). In order to offer a plan for establishing and enhancing the cross-cultural management environment at Coca-Cola, particular features of this leadership practice will be evaluated within the context of the organization's activities. These are unique staff training principles, the promotion of workplace diversity, and the introduction of special incentive instruments. Additionally, obstacles to productive work in this area will be evaluated. The structural and cultural aspects of Coca-Cola will be examined in order to provide relevant optimization techniques. Cross-cultural management is not only a concept that constitutes the system of global leadership, but also a method that enables the transition from outmoded ways of employee control to more modern and ethically preferable interaction mechanisms.

Coca-Structure Cola's and Culture

Coca-Cola is among the most enduring and well-known global brands. Baah and Bohaker (2015) discuss the company's history and reveal that it was started in 1886. According to the writers, the company has actively expanded since then, and its products can be found in more than 200 countries (Baah & Bohaker, 2015, p. 3). In addition to global awareness, Coca-Cola has demonstrated great profit margins: in 2013, the company's market share in non-alcoholic beverages was 42.2%, a high metric that demonstrates the success of brand promotion. This result is founded not only on sound marketing tactics, but also on sound leadership ideas. Personnel management is a crucial component of the organization's operations, and the necessity to maintain the operation of a large number of subsidiaries in other countries underlines the need of implementing current and sustainable control techniques.

Coca-Structure Cola's

Coca-management Cola's pushes specific corporate governance standards in order to maintain a successful worldwide corporation. According to Baah and Bohaker (2015), organizational leaders adhere to a divisional structure involving control over several divisions and departments in order to simplify the style of governance. In addition, the authors highlight that Coca-Cola promotes a geographic structural approach that provides regional management of affiliates due to its global activities (Baah & Bohaker, 2015). In respect to the notion of cross-cultural management under consideration, this technique is a practical method for regulating commercial activities. Dietz et al. (2017) suggest that due to divisional separation, senior leadership can handle important issues and challenges at various levels to suit the needs of stakeholders, such as consumers and employees. A sophisticated management system is meant to monitor departmental activity and analyze information on particular problems or performance outcomes. As a result, Coca-organizational Cola's structure enables the company to retain consistent management over all of its divisions and evaluate the performance of its affiliates in various world locations.

Coca-Culture Cola's

One of the tenets of Coca-corporate Cola's culture is employee-centered management. As part of the practice of cross-cultural management, Baah and Bohaker (2015) observe that leaders' attitudes toward subordinates are centered on ensuring workplace equality. In addition to the legal rights guaranteed to employees, Coca-board Cola's of directors promotes career prospects for employees that are consistent with the contemporary, free, and progressive labor market. In particular, the promotion of diversity is one of the required components of the HR program, partly as a result of the corporation's global activities and the necessity to sustain interaction among employees from many cultural backgrounds. However, in addition to diversity, other aspects of the notion of cross-cultural leadership are also essential for sustaining a highly productive work environment.

Coca-Cola must maintain a high level of communication across all of its divisions to prevent regional losses. In this regard, the formulation and implementation of a program to promote cross-cultural management in the organization comprise three essential strategies: training, fostering diversity, and employing the most effective motivational tactics. The project that incorporates these interventions can help develop the corporate norms of communication between leaders and subordinates and address the cross-cultural governance policy concerns.

Cross-Cultural Education

Coca-cross-cultural Cola's management program should begin with training that conveys to all stakeholders the significance of adhering to particular workplace norms. Hou et al. (2018) examine the manifestations of this intervention in a multicultural workplace and remark that delivering applicable norms and principles should occur at all corporate levels for the most effective results. In this regard, both leaders and subordinates must be aware of the significance of handling cultural difficulties in a varied context and take interprofessional communication into account. Language problems, conflict situations, and other obstacles can frequently impede the implementation of a particular training program. To prevent the intervention from yielding unsatisfactory outcomes, all stakeholders should be aware of the training process and the measures that can be taken to reduce potential barriers.

Global Perspective on Education

Due to the vast number of branches in various regions, the Coca-Cola corporation, which operates in more than 200 countries, must conform to the global training framework. In addition, based on the geographical structure management principle, the content of training programs should be distinct. Employees from different regions of the world have diverse perspectives on contact with coworkers, cross-cultural communication, dispute resolution, and other facets of collaborative activities. In this sense, accountable individuals might check compliance with interaction norms in specific places. To this goal, training programs must take into account the religious, gender, and other aspects of a certain work environment. According to Hou et al. (2018), such demographic data are crucial components that enable the development of optimum training programs based on the cultural features of particular employee groups. Everyone concerned should be aware of Coca-global Cola's activities and accept the unique backgrounds of their coworkers. In this instance, the implementation and upkeep of the cross-cultural management policy will be as efficient as possible.

Training Distribution

For the training program to be effective and satisfy the requirements of cross-cultural management, it is necessary to promote correct delivery. In addition to the assignment of controllers, the communication intervention principles must be tailored to individual work settings. The date of this delivery is the most important factor to consider initially. Hou et al. (2018) discuss the cross-cultural absorptive capacity theory, which assesses the ability of the target audience to assimilate certain information in a given time frame. This academic idea can be used to analyze optimal intervention times. Second, the training program's substance is an important factor. Different employees may interpret the suggested learning environment differently, as Hou et al. (2018) note. In this regard, the particulars of the work should assume acceptable demographic and cultural conditions, which is the foundation of the cross-cultural management program and, at the same time, enables the efficient completion of the required tasks. The proposed intricacies of training activities are significant components of Coca-proposed Cola's project's effective advertising.

Increasing Diversity

Promoting diversity is the next step in a program designed to promote cross-cultural management at Coca-Cola. This is one of the fundamental aspects of this leadership approach, and it is exploited by the company in question. However, the possibility to extend the competence of individual branches and communicate the importance of diversity to employees are valuable ramifications. Mateescu (2017) defines encouraging diversity as a series of actions meant to solve "society-wide demographic, social, and cultural differences" (p. 23). Due to the continual connection between employees, these traits are vital in the workplace, and it is the responsibility of a competent leader to coordinate this communication through the encouragement of individuality rather than by equalization. Coca-Cola, a multinational firm with operations in the majority of the world's regions, must promote cultural diversity to avoid conflict and sustain high production. As part of the intervention program being considered, initiatives such as employing a diverse workforce and encouraging open communication among employees would be implemented and maintained.

Employing a Diverse Staff

Due to the company's global activities, Coca-leadership Cola's cannot avoid employing a diverse staff. In this regard, in order to make the hiring process as objective and fruitful as possible, competent HR professionals must be conversant with the provisions of cross-cultural management and deploy applicable communication concepts with employees. Mateescu (2017) says that this strategy is typically manifested through selecting representatives from diverse gender, age, racial, and other categories. There are hundreds of positions at Coca-Cola, and neither the size of individual divisions nor the level of responsibility should influence the selection of people. HR professionals must encourage objective and impartial recruiting initiatives and use the same strategy to all applicants. Moreover, increasing diversity should be a component of this plan, since a unique cultural background can be a catalyst for expanding the company's intellectual base and fostering innovation. Consequently, targeted recruitment projects are a practical and possibly beneficial means of increasing cross-cultural management.

Guidelines for Managing Diversification

As a guideline for Coca-executives Cola's to encourage diversity and remove bias, certain prohibited actions should be noted. Mateescu (2017) presents instances of individual exclusion tactics that have a detrimental impact on cross-cultural management, such as the denial of career chances and involvement in the decision-making process, as well as other inappropriate constraints. Open communication among employees should be fostered as an inherent component of a productive environment in order to avoid cultural disputes and disagreement. Employee relationships are an integral element of the workflow, and team incentives, joint projects, workshops, and other activities designed to bring team members closer together can help maintain positive interactions. These ideas are typical for the majority of businesses, and Coca-big Cola's marketing role makes creative interventions preferable. Consequently, structuring teams of employees according to their different interests can help bring the group together and have a favorable effect on productivity.

Motivating Instruments

The final element in Coca-effort Cola's to develop cross-cultural management is the adoption of motivational tactics. In addition to influencing the professionalism of subordinates, leaders can implement incentive-based techniques to improve staff performance. Odukah (2016) examines the experience of Kenyan Coca-Cola bottlers as an example of a tool used for this aim. This will serve as an illustration of the instruments used for this purpose. Using individual incentives, the researcher examines the performance of a large sample and compares productivity indices and employee satisfaction with present working conditions (Odukah, 2016). This study's approach can be extended to all Coca-Cola locations to determine which incentive methods are the most effective. Nonetheless, the common methods of influencing the performance of subordinates are universal, and the correct design and implementation of an employee engagement program can help increase productivity and, therefore, demonstrate the relevance of these incentives in the context of a project to strengthen cross-cultural management within the corporation.

Programs for Motivation

One of the motivational activities that drives the strengthening of cross-cultural management at Coca-Cola is the acknowledgement of performance. This practice, according to Odukah (2016), is a critical leadership strategy that can not only engage people in a productive workflow but also foster effective and transparent communication. If the company's management pays attention to the work of each subordinate, this will foster an environment conducive to the achievement of professional potential and favorably influence initiative. Another component of the proposed project is the creation of a functional work environment. According to Odukah (2016), if employees with diverse cultural backgrounds do not feel the need to optimize the environment, this increases their loyalty and unites the team via the confidence of subordinates in the competency of their leaders. Lastly, an accessible education program is an effective motivator. According to Odukah (2016), many personnel with civil restrictions, such as immigrants and expatriates, perform well when given the same training chances as their coworkers. Providing opportunities for skill enhancement increases interactions between leaders and employees and serves as a vital driver for enhancing cross-cultural management.

Additional Creative Techniques

As additional motivational tools to encourage the growth of cross-cultural management at Coca-Cola as part of the suggested intervention program, networking among select worldwide affiliates is an innovative approach. The sharing of experiences and the opportunity to better understand the professional and cultural qualities of coworkers serves as a team-building tool and improves the company's intellectual growth potential. According to Odukah (2016), this method is one technique to lessen workplace stress. Therefore, as a potentially effective leadership method, it is advantageous to keep in touch with staff from other departments.

An other inventive idea is to organize combined casual meetings with team members outside of the office. If coworkers are well-acquainted, this boosts their mutual understanding and, in turn, aids in avoiding conflict situations caused by demographic or cultural differences. Therefore, department heads can encourage subordinates to participate in events aimed at fostering a sense of community and fostering friendships. The participation of managers in these events adds value to the work and serves as a catalyst for building cross-cultural understanding within the team.

Overcoming Obstacles

Despite potentially beneficial approaches to increase cross-cultural management at Coca-Cola, certain obstacles can hamper effective work, and this is not solely related to the corporation's size. As one of the barriers to communication, Jenifer and Raman (2015) identify the language barrier. As one of the aforementioned motivational motivations, employees with diverse cultural origins can be given the option to learn certain languages in order to overcome it. Regarding the knowledge-sharing component, specialists with a lower level of education may lack adequate qualifications compared to those with a higher degree of education.

The Sporty One Store’s Marketing Job Qualifications Best College Essay Help


The Sporty One is a branch of CARDWARE, Inc. consisting of ten stores that sell sportswear. CARDWARE desires that the salespeople at The Sporty One outlets represent its brand appropriately. Therefore, the organization sought an enthusiastic, athletic, and young employee, preferably with marketing or retail sales experience. Petunia Rotunda, a slightly overweight middle-aged woman with five years of retail experience, and Noah Dahl, a skinny racquetball player with customer service expertise and a marketing degree, applied for the role. Petunia was displeased with the company's choice to recruit Noah, saying that she was the victim of age discrimination. As soon as Noah began working, Petunia arrived at the business and began insulting him. Noah grabbed her arm and pushed her towards the door. Petunia collided with Hetty Whitestone, a 92-year-old pedestrian, who had a concussion and died as a result. Now, CARDWARE must consider its liability and available defenses in the event of any litigation.

Did CARDWARE's advertisement contain authentic BFOQs (Bona Fide Occupational Job Qualifications)?

BFOQs are observable qualities that are necessary for a candidate to do a specific job successfully. BFOQs are permitted to contain gender, religion, and national origin, but never race (Miller, 2015). The advertisement for CARDWARE did not contain true BFOQs because it did not exclude candidates for the position based on their religion, country origin, or gender. In addition, the advertisement emphasized that The Sporty One was an equal opportunity employer. In addition, the company's motto, "You don't have to be an athlete to look and feel like one," implies that no particular characteristics are required for a person to appear athletic. Perhaps the tagline of the company led Petunia to feel she was qualified for a sales position in a sportswear store.

Petunia believed that her rejection was due to her age, but this was not the case. As a general rule, a person who believes he or she was rejected by an employer due to age must demonstrate that, but for the employer's bias, he or she would have been qualified for the employment (Nagele-Piazza, 2020). In the stated scenario, the corporation sought an athletic candidate "capable of'sporting' The Sporty One's clothing lines with style." Therefore, Noah, a young man who participated in sports and had a marketing education, was a better suitable applicant than Petunia, whose only relevant qualification was retail experience. Therefore, Petunia lacked legal evidence that the employer rejected her due to her age.

If Petunia sues CARDWARE and The Sporty One for negligence, would CARDWARE be held accountable for Noah's behavior? If so, according to what theory?

If Petunia files such a case, CARDWARE and The Sporty One may be held liable for Noah's actions under the respondeat superior concept. Under this idea, a principle is responsible for the wrongdoings of agents operating within the area of their authority (Miller, 2015). In this instance, CARDWARE is the primary, and after being employed, Noah became its agent. To assess CARDWARE's culpability, however, it must be determined if Noah behaved within the limits of his job (Miller, 2015). Noah behaved in the company's best interest by expelling Petunia from the store in an effort to retain customers. His acts, on the other hand, were neither typical of employees nor allowed by the company.

What possible defenses may CARDWARE assert?

To defend itself, CARDWARE may argue that Noah's actions were not the result of negligence, but rather an assault. As defined by the phrase "intentional harmful or offensive contact," what Noah did to Petunia qualifies as a battery (Miller, 2015, p. 125). A battery is an intentional tort, and normally a principal is not accountable for the deliberate torts and crimes of an agent (Justia, 2018). Therefore, it appears that CARDWARE is not responsible for Noah's conduct toward Petunia.

Will the estate of Hetty Whitestone assert that CARDWARE is responsible for Hetty's death if it does so?

If the estate of Hetty Whitestone asserts that CARDWARE is liable for Hetty's death, the corporation will not be held liable. In the aforementioned scenario, Noah, an employee of CARDWARE, committed the intentional tort of shoving Petunia. In addition, Petunia stumbled, ran into one of the clothing racks, and then knocked Hetty to the ground. Thus, Petunia was responsible for Hetty's concussion, which ultimately led to his death. CARDWARE has power over Noah as its agent, but none over its consumers, including Petunia. Therefore, CARDWARE cannot be held accountable for Hetty's passing.

What defenses might CARDWARE utilize?

As previously indicated, CARDWARE is not liable for Hetty's death because Petunia, who was beyond CARDWARE's control, was the cause. However, CARDWARE may defend itself by demonstrating that Hetty's accident occurred off of its premises. According to their duty, landowners must protect those who enter their property from danger (Miller, 2015). CARDWARE may argue that it has created a safe workplace for staff and customers in its store. In addition, CARDWARE will not be liable for Hetty's death if it can be shown that Petunia encountered Hetty outside the company's store.


In conclusion, CARDWARE's advertisement did not contain BFOQs because it did not exclude candidates on the basis of their gender, country origin, or religion. In addition, Petunia lacks legal evidence that she was rejected due to her age. In Petunia's negligence-based case and Hetty Whitestone's estate action, CARDWARE may be held accountable under the respondeat superior concept. However, Noah's acts were not the result of negligence, but rather a purposeful wrong for which CARDWARE is not accountable. Also, CARDWARE will not be held accountable for Hetty's death, as it was not directly caused by Noah, but rather by Petunia, over whom CARDWARE had no authority. Nonetheless, CARDWARE may defend itself by demonstrating that the accident occurred off-site and that the company met its obligation to create a safe shop environment.

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Target Market Of Opening Ceremony Best College Essay Help

Table of Contents
Target Market of Opening Ceremony Population and Ethnicity Works Cited: demographics Location environment

Market for Opening Ceremonies

Opening Ceremony, founded in 2002 and headquartered in New York, has become a key participant in the fashion business. The brand carries both established and up-and-coming domestic designers, thereby promoting fashion talent (Opening Ceremony). In addition to pursuing a unique business approach in the fashion sector, the company's rapid growth can also be due to its relationships with the world's best brands. In connection to the Opening Ceremony, geographic location, demographics (age, gender, race), psychographics (personality, lifestyle, and values), and socioeconomics (occupation, income, education) influence consumer behavior (Belch & Belch, 2003). Additionally, types of outlets, usage, anticipated benefits, and product familiarity (awareness) influence the buying conditions (Nielsen Segmentation par. 4).

Population and Ethnicity

In business, a demography is a collection of statistical data used to determine the characteristics of a specific group. Statistics are mostly utilized to identify variances in individual consumer and corporate client characteristics. The demographics of Opening Ceremony reflect the composition of the company's current and prospective future customers. It can alternatively be defined as a collection of clients who share a set of market-relevant traits. According to the United States Census Bureau, as of 2013 there were roughly 35,288 people residing in the area where Opening Ceremony is located in West Hollywood (U.S. Census Bureau par 4). According to the 2008-2012 American Community Survey, 56% of the population of 34,572 is male and 44% is female. In 2012, 29.2% of the city's entire population was between the ages of 25 and 34. Also, the second-highest estimate is for 17,7% of participants between the ages of 35 and 44. 54.3% of the overall population falls within the broad age bracket of 15-44 years (U.S. Census Bureau par 8).

As mentioned previously, demographic data for the Opening Ceremony includes the age, income, and ethnicity of the target market. These statistics are utilized by Opening Ceremony to identify their important clients (Opening Ceremony par. 7). In addition, it leverages this information to determine the most important worldwide buying groups. This information allows the organization to refine its expansion tactics. Opening Ceremony attracts customers that are 18 years or older. Nevertheless, the majority of its customers are comprised of young adults. In this instance, the 18-to-40-year-old client demographic includes the youths (U.S. Census Bureau par. 12). Opening Ceremony has designated this demographic as its primary target market since they are fashion-conscious and have the financial means to purchase the company's products.

Opening Ceremony targets both men and women within the specified age range (18-40). However, women constitute the bulk of this group. This discrepancy may be linked to the fact that women are typically more concerned and involved in fashion issues than men. The corporation targets consumers of all racial and cultural backgrounds. It does not discriminate against its customers based on ethnicity, but rather on their capacity and willingness to purchase its products. In fact, this is clear due to the fact that its stores are already established in several countries with diverse cultures and social settings. The majority of the target market are high-income earners. This category consists of both business professionals and laborers. Opening Ceremony exhibits designer and branded goods as well as the work of local and international designers. The majority of the products from the firms with whom Opening Ceremony has associated are more expensive and primarily marketed to those with higher incomes. Consequently, it makes sense for the company's target market to target the same type of clients.


Psychographics refers to "the study of values, personality, attitudes, opinions, and lifestyles" (Nielsen Segmentation par. 6). Purchasing tendencies continue to advance proportionally to changing psychographics. Numerous elements, including wealth propensity, behavioral inclinations, globalization, cultural discernment, and improved knowledge, progressively impact consumer behavior. This has increased the acceptance of branding and individual store brands as consumers recognize their worth. They are more likely to adapt their lifestyles to try retail brands alongside national ones (Nielsen Segmentation par. 13).

Psychographics, in the context of Opening Ceremony, refers to the lifestyle information that is used to create client profiles. This information is crucial for the organization, particularly in terms of market segmentation (Opening Ceremony par. 8). Opening Ceremony has utilized this information specifically for market segmentation based on lifestyles, social class, and personality traits. Psychographic segmentation is "based on the premise that the types of products and brands a person purchases will reflect his or her characteristics and lifestyle" (Nielsen Segmentation par. 12). In addition, the psychographic data assists the business in developing the most effective marketing strategy.

Location environment

Consequently, the fashion industry is highly sensitive, and a strategic physical business environment can facilitate effective market penetration. The benefit of the Opening Ceremony is that there are no geographical restrictions. The site in Los Angeles provides Opening Ceremony with the much-needed ease of access to the market, as the company's primary items, fashion apparel, will target high-income Los Angeles consumers. In addition, the company's position in Los Angeles provides it with a strategic market reach, as the majority of its targeted clients reside in the area. Consequently, the distribution pattern will be short- and long-term efficient and sustainable (Nielsen Segmentation par. 6).

West Hollywood and its environs are populated by prominent business professionals and celebrities. Significant proportions of the region's population are comprised of celebrities from many industries, including the entertainment industry and sports. Shopping is an integral element of life for the majority of West Hollywood residents. Taking into consideration their high income, the majority of West Hollywood residents have relatively high expenditures (Metro par. 7).

West Hollywood is home to numerous celebrity-founded foundations, and the area hosts numerous events throughout the year (U.S. Census Bureau par. 16). Such events as the Elton John AIDS Foundation Academy Awards Party occur frequently in the region. Likewise, the West Hollywood Book Fair has been held annually since 2001. The West Hollywood Halloween Carnival is yet another notable event held in this area. There are numerous large enterprises in the region, including Ticketmaster, Mondrian Hotel, Target, House of Blues, Best Western Sunset Plaza, and Sunset Tower (U.S. Census Bureau par. 12).

Sources Cited

Opening Ceremony concept stores are storming the fashion industry. 2012. Web.

Nielsen Segmentation. My Best Segments. 2014. Web.

The Opening Ceremonies About Us. Web. 2014.

2013 U.S. Census Bureau: Community Facts.

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Iberia Company’s Human Resources Management Best College Essay Help


Iberia, the Spanish flag airline, was founded in 1927 and maintains a network of international flights from its hubs at Barcelona El Prat Airport and Madrid-Barajas Airport. As a member of the Iberia Group, the air transport service provider focuses on passenger and cargo transportation in addition to other businesses such as airline maintenance, airport handling, in-flight food, and information technology (IT).

The airline player maintains a network of 109 destinations in at least 39 countries, and serves an additional 90 destinations through code-sharing arrangements with other industry participants.

Iberia has created an extraordinary relationship with its clients over the years of its business thanks to its effective human resource management. For instance, the company's corporate culture pushes its employees to assure customer pleasure in order to preserve its industry competitiveness. In addition, the integration of effective information technology into the company's operations has allowed it to increase productivity, as seen by the continuous happiness of its consumers. This report explores Iberia's information technology and human resource management systems.

Human Resource Management at Iberia

The human resources management (HRM) portion of an airline's operations plays a crucial role in boosting its productivity and, consequently, its competitiveness in a specific industry. Iberia's corporate culture has profoundly impacted its consumers' impressions of the company's reputation. For instance, the airline has not focused much on cultivating deep customer relationships, so hurting its competitiveness and allowing Ryanair and EasyJet to gain ground.

In addition, the hierarchical aspect of its organizational structure is somewhat complex, but the management has implemented a number of measures to make it more flexible in order to increase the effectiveness of decision-making processes. Additionally, Iberia's compensation structure influences the motivation of its human resources. In addition, the management's implementation of a code of ethics ensures that personnel execute their duties in accordance with the suggested ethical standards. Therefore, evaluating the many characteristics of Iberia's people resources is necessary for gaining a comprehensive understanding of the Spanish flag carrier.

The Iberia Management Systems

Iberia's management systems take into account the needs of each of its more than 21,293 employees in order to assist the development of their productivity. In order to provide simplified management processes in the various divisions, the leading airline in the Spanish and Europe-Latin America markets has prioritized the establishment of operational guidelines for its workforce. Therefore, the airline competitor has implemented a "Constitutional" management structure to govern its operations (Fageda and Perdiguero 94).

The constitutional management systems employed by Iberia suggest that the corporation views its personnel as fundamental production factors who are required to abide by specified regulations and norms. Moreover, the systems assume the subordination part of HRM; hence, the management expects all employees to bear complete responsibility for their decisions and actions. Notably, in an effort to enable the establishment of a forum where employees may debate issues affecting them, Iberia has acknowledged the necessity of unions to address the concerns and interests of its employees.

However, Iberia's integrated management systems demonstrate variation throughout sectors and workforce types. Notably, while pilots and flight attendants adhere to the constitution, other personnel are influenced by the individualized management style. Moreover, management interferes with the operations of employee unions, diminishing the effectiveness of such organizations (Fageda and Perdiguero 90). Inconsistent use of the constitutional management system at Iberia has a negative impact on the airline's corporate governance due to the lack of uniformity.

Formal Work Organization and Compensation Policies

Iberia divides the formal organization of its personnel and the roles of its employees by deployment country, gender, kind of contract, labor category, and business function. Therefore, the job descriptions of Iberia's various experts take into account not only their area of expertise, but also the elements that affect their productivity. Iberia established two boards, namely the Flight Committee and the Ground Staff Inter-Workplace Committee, to streamline the formal organization of work.

Notably, the committees engage with the unions to protect the rights of employees in the course of their employment. Consequently, Iberia pays attention to the various personnel types by utilizing committees to oversee their formal roles and obligations.

Surprisingly, Iberia managers rarely participate in the formulation and execution of HR policy. Instead, HR managers serve as interventionist "regulators" who rarely address essential HRM concerns including as compensation. Iberia lacks a flexible compensation structure for this reason, yet it allows trade unions to determine employee compensation through collective bargaining.

In light of this, despite the effectiveness of trade unions in promoting the interests of employees, including fair compensation, HR managers fail to engage their employees in order to gain an understanding of their unique needs and expectations and subsequently implement the required reward systems. Consequently, Iberia's employee evaluation system is simple, indicating its lack of depth in handling the compensation and benefits aspects of HRM. In this sense, its inability to build comprehensive remuneration policies, in addition to the incorporation of a staff recognition system within its HRM to recognize excellent personnel, affects its efficiency.

Iberia's Current Code of Ethics

Iberia maintains a Code of Ethics that attempts to implement Global Compact in its entirety and promote ethical conduct in its global operations. The present Code of Ethics implemented by the major player in the aviation industry assures that its personnel make judgments and act morally and responsibly when executing their jobs. As a result, the HR managers enable the execution of the Global Compact principles by promoting ethical behavior inside Iberia's organizational environment. Notably, in addition to teaching its employees of the need of adhering to the Global Compact's requirements, Iberia also ensures that its employees in different nations comply to its ideal code of conduct, which supports other necessary ethical standards.

In addition, Iberia has launched a number of initiatives to promote ethical conduct in its various operations. The company's “IN-OUT” campaign focuses on the image of its staff, namely their uniform, as it influences the perceptions of its customers. Furthermore, the “Why don't you inform them? ” campaign seeks to maintain the ethical conduct of its employees on board the aircraft, where in-flight messages notify passengers that they have chosen the most qualified specialists.

Iberia recently launched the "INFORMATION SECURITY is also YOUR business" program in an effort to strengthen the confidentiality and privacy aspects of ethics. As a result, as part of its HRM strategy, Iberia has taken extraordinary measures through a variety of campaigns, in addition to encouraging the implementation of the Global Compact, to encourage the ethical conduct of its personnel.

Employment Conditions

As a means of sustaining profitability since the merger with British Airways, Iberia has undergone a considerable pace of employment layoffs. According to projections, the 2011 merger will result in 4,500 job losses by 2015, highlighting the human resource strains that existed. As a result, Iberia employees participated in demonstrations and strikes in February 2013 (Fageda and Perdiguero 90). Therefore, the considerable termination of employment contracts revealed that the airline failed to implement strategic HRM plans that would promote the long-term viability of the workforce.

In this sense, the 2012 reorganization program had an influence on the company's employment climate, as seen by the large job losses. Notably, the steps intended to restore the airline player's profitability, given that the staff enabled an average daily loss of €1.7 million (Belobaba, Odoni, and Barnhart 80). Therefore, the engagement of the unions and the International Airlines Group (IAG) suggests that the corporation faced a human resource management (HRM) crisis. As a result of recent financial gains, the company has announced a number of employment possibilities.

Cultural Orientation

In a society defined by cultural variety, it is vital to adopt an organizational culture that takes into account the diverse backgrounds of employees and customers. For this reason, Iberia ensures that its employees and customers are treated without regard to their race, ethnicity, gender, age, or religion, among other factors. Despite the rigidity of Iberia's compensation system, it is committed to compensating its employees equitably by taking into account factors like as rank, seniority, and position.

Iberia also implemented Equality Plans with the intention of adopting Organic Law 3/2007 in order to foster an organizational culture that respects the rights of every individual. Thus, Iberia's HRM team has demonstrated its attempts to instill a cultural attitude that welcomes the variety of contemporary society. Thus, the player has been able to service clientele from a variety of cultural backgrounds who employ the Europe-Latin America route. As a result, the established cultural orientation has enabled Iberia to maintain its competitiveness on the route (Ustaomer, Durmaz, and Lei 437).

Information Systems and Information Technology in Iberia

Integration of Information Technology within the aviation sector is vital for the pursuit of seamless customer experiences as well as for operational efficiency. In this sense, Iberia has integrated a number of information technologies designed to increase the company's efficiency. Previously, the merger with British Airways presented a difficulty necessitating the merging of the two companies' IT systems into a unified system that would permit the fusing of their technological elements (Fageda and Perdiguero 93).

Therefore, the airline has incorporated the Agora platform, a software-based information technology system with a variety of features that increase the effectiveness of its operations in a highly competitive business. It has deployed the Agora platform, which is a multi-service, multi-app, cross-platform, and integrated hardware system, at the many airports it operates (Ustaomer, Durmaz, and Lei 433). Notably, the Agora technology extends beyond the electronic check-in terminals controlled by virtual representatives to improve the airline's on-board processes in addition to the incorporation of expanded consumer touchpoints (Cunningham and Froschl 113). Therefore, the IT system supports the development of efficiency in customer and employee-facing procedures.

The customer touch-point terminals that are integrated into airports, such as the ones in Terminal 4 of the Barajas airport, provide clients with access to pertinent information. Iberia also implemented eVoucher systems, which enable travelers to download electronic vouchers for restaurants and hotels onto their own mobile devices. In addition, the Agora platform offers a "smart scale" system that enables consumers to check in and print their luggage tags from home. Iberia has made substantial progress in this respect by integrating information technology that enhance the self-service operations.

In addition, Iberia intends to automate its services further by collaborating with Samsung to implement a near field communication (NFC) system designed to improve the boarding experience for its consumers. The solution is compatible with Samsung devices, allowing consumers to retrieve their boarding pass even while their phones are off (Belobaba, Odoni, and Barnhart 56). Therefore, Iberia has placed a significant emphasis on the development of its IT systems in order to improve client experiences and enhance the productivity of its staff in meeting the specific needs of its customers.


Iberia's HRM systems exhibit numerous strengths and problems. The airliner is distinguished by its "constitutional" management method, Code of Ethics, and significant cultural focus. However, inconsistent compensation policies and layoffs have badly impacted the airline's human resources department. Iberia has also improved the effectiveness of its IT systems through the integration of the Agora platform, as seen by the enhancement of its self-service operations.

Sources Cited

Peter, Amedeo, and Cynthia Barnhart Belobaba. 2015 edition of The Global Airline Industry, published by John Wiley & Sons, Hoboken. Print.

Cunningham, Peter, and Friedrich Froschl. The 21st Century Electronic Business Revolution: Opportunities and Challenges Berlin: Springer Science & Business Media, 2013. Print.

Fageda, Xavier, and Jordi Perdiguero. A quantitative examination of a merger between network and low-cost airlines. Journal of Transport Economics and Policy Volume 48, Issue 1 (2014): 81-96.

Ustaomer, Caner, Vildan Durmaz, and Zheng Lei. The Impact of Joint Ventures on Airline Competition: A Case Study of American Airlines, British Airways, and Iberia. (2015): 430-439. Procedia-Social and Behavioral Sciences 210.11: 430-439. Print.

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Sustainability Programs Of Coca-Cola, Kohl’s, And Linde Best College Essay Help

Table of Contents
Introduction References to Kohl's CSR Report and Linde's Sustainable Development Report


The first report under consideration is the 2019 report produced by Coca-Cola Company. The corporation prioritizes its social and environmental responsibilities: the health of the public and climate change. According to the 2019 Coca-Cola Business and Sustainability Report, the company reduced its added sugar content by 4% in 2019. This is an expected priority, as there is a worldwide trend for people to maintain fitness and check their health. In addition, according to the company's 2019 annual report, greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions were reduced by 24% in 2019, with a target reduction of 25% by 2030. Thus, reducing the company's carbon impact is the primary concern.

The company's actions correspond to some categories of the Mt. Sustainability Model. First, the board prioritizes waste reduction and promotes environmentally beneficial policies. They include changing packaging with recyclable materials and offering Freestyle Units, which encourage reusable cups. Secondly, some business operations attempt to improve people's standard of living, such as encouraging smallholder farmers to work with them or training women farmers to promote equality in society. The board then elaborates on the water management program in order to increase the resource's efficiency by enhancing its quality and reusing it.

The essential information in the study relates to the next steps towards sustainable business and the company's growth, with an emphasis on human rights, water availability, combating climate change, and ending world hunger. On the other hand, it does not encompass all aspects of the Mt. Sustainability Model, such as alternative energy sources, transportation management, and logistics. The goals are basic and aspirational; yet, based on the report's statistics, the company has already attained a portion of its goals and intends to promote economic empowerment.

Kohl's Social Responsibility Report

The report focuses mostly on social sustainability, however there includes a part devoted to environmental challenges and potential remedies. First, the corporation is concerned with workplace ethics, health issues, and the general well-being of its personnel. Diversity and inclusion within the organization is one of the tactics used to promote social sustainability. Kohl's collaborates with numerous non-profit organizations, including Black Professionals Business Resource Group (BRG), diverseAbilities Business Resource Group (BRG), and Women's Business Resource Group (BRG). In addition, they focus on climate change, recycling, and sustainable sourcing; hence, the study discusses both social and environmental issues.

Some of the company's aims align with the Mt. Sustainability Model, including the reduction of energy use, the usage of electric cars, and the promotion of human welfare and health. One of these measures is the recycling of plastic: in 2018, approximately seven million pounds of plastic bags and wrap were recycled. According to the 2019 Kohl's CSR report, the company uses LED (Light Emitting Diode) fixtures in numerous locations to conserve electricity. The company promotes electric mobility and owns over 230 charging stations for electric vehicles. Eventually, the profit from Kohl's items is donated to non-profit groups that assist the health of families in their community or organize programs for stress management and self-regulation.

The research reveals that the company's basic principles include concern for individuals, community families, and environmental preservation. The company covers the majority of the Mt. Sustainability Model fronts and offers a variety of development and sustainable business solutions. In addition, the company intends to develop a business model whose primary concept would promote social and environmental sustainability.

Linde Sustainable Development Report

The final report under consideration is from the industrial gases and engineering business Linde. Safety and development of people, energy and climate change, and sustainable production are the company's top priorities. All subjects are anticipated from such a corporation, whose primary objectives include social and environmental sustainability. Specifically, they fund initiatives to encourage diversity and equality, minimize power use, offer clean water to impoverished communities, and promote zero-waste initiatives.

The paper addresses aspects of the Mt. Sustainability Model, such as enhancing people's standard of living. In addition, they implement ethics, compliance, and integrity initiatives for fostering a safe culture and promoting the general well-being of employees (Linde, 2018). Several environmental initiatives are incorporated into the company's policies, including a 6.2% reduction in greenhouse gas emissions in 2018. Additionally, the company offers a sustainable productivity plan that incorporates water supply management and zero waste programs. However, the study makes no mention of any modifications to other Model components, such as renewable energy sources and transportation management.

In conclusion, the paper is educational and outlines goals to engage stakeholders and clients in sustainable management and business practices. The company's core social and environmental responsibilities align with the Sustainability Model's waste reduction and human development objectives. The sustainable growth initiatives that the company's policy intends to execute are successful and produce significant societal and environmental change.


The most interesting aspects of the course include the Linde company's zero waste program, which might have a huge impact on the environment since it promotes aware consumption. This practice is open to both employees and clients, and it will bring about important changes in society that will help the ecology and environmental condition. Regarding the impact on society or human beings, the core of Kohl's business policy is based on integrity and diversity. Involving individuals from diverse social, religious, and national backgrounds will create a secure and safe working atmosphere. Additionally, it relieves tension and stress in communities and assists businesses in expanding their commercial sectors. In conclusion, each report conforms to the majority of the Sustainability Model's criteria and seeks to advance social and environmental stability.


The 2019 Business and sustainability report for The Coca-Cola Company [PDF download]. Web.

Kohl's (2019). Kohl's 2019 CSR report [PDF download]. Web.

Linde. One Linde. Sustainable development report 2018 [PDF document]. Web.


Factors Influencing Exchange Rates Best College Essay Help


The value of currencies is influenced by demand and supply on the market (Mahr, 2008). Otherwise, the dollar's value will decline. This article evaluates the trends in the exchange rates of the British Pound, the U.S. dollar, and the Euro. The investigation will investigate the factors influencing the relative trend of the British pound versus the U.S. dollar and the British pound versus the Euro. The study analyzes potential causes for the mentioned fluctuations in foreign exchange rates. Additionally, the paper explores the association between the selected currencies.

Causes of foreign exchange rate fluctuations

There are a number of plausible explanations for the fluctuating pattern in the exchange rate between the pound and the dollar. In evaluating the trend for 2009, the performance of the U.S. dollar during the first quarter was favorable. This may be explained by the ardent economic recovery plans and government interventions implemented to manage exchange rates by the federal government. The fact that the Federal Reserve was regulated had an effect on the interest rate and the local currency's strength against the foreign currency. Given the low inflation rates in the United Kingdom compared to those in the United States, the growing value of the pound made British goods more competitive against the dollar. U.S. goods may become less competitive, resulting in decreased demand for the U.S. dollar.

The observed appreciation of the U.S. dollar against the British pound during the middle of 2009 may be explained by market speculation of the dollar's future appreciation.

Graph 1 displays the daily exchange rate between the British Pound and the United States Dollar in 2009.

The decline of the British Pound relative to the U.S. dollar from the beginning of 2010 to September can be attributed to the onset of the Euro crisis, which had a more negative impact on the British market. This resulted in higher inflation rates for the United Kingdom relative to the U.S. currency. The shift in demand for the British pound was precipitated by the U.S. dollar's low inflation rate. Although there may be other variables to examine, substantial evidence suggests that the Euro financial crisis had a significant negative impact on the value of the Pound. In comparison to British items, U.S. goods grew more desirable. During this time period, the decline in the pound's competitiveness had a lasting impact on the pound's value relative to the dollar.

Graph 2 displays the 2010 exchange rate between the British Pound and the United States Dollar.

Although the pound attempted to restore its former glory, the long-term impacts of the UK's products' dramatic loss of competitiveness on the U.S. and worldwide markets will remain (Denzel, 2010). Throughout the year, the British Pound lost approximately 20% of its value against the U.S. dollar (Arestis and Sawyer, 2012). Some analyses have attributed the growing deficit of the United Kingdom's current account on the country's increased imports of U.S. goods (Emerging Markets Monitor, 2009). In contrast, the Bank of England's decision to reduce interest rates beginning in 2008 and continuing through 2009 explains the recent decline in the value of the pound relative to the dollar (World Bank, 2010; Peters, 2010). Recent recession in the United Kingdom has continued to impact the dollar's value. The market's assumption of the future low value of the British pound contributed to the development of a downward trend in the pound's value (Laurance, 2008). The Bank of England's decision to undertake quantitative easing through boosting the money supply in the economy has been mentioned as a reason for the pound's depreciation against the U.S. dollar and the euro (Osterholt, 2012). The greater likelihood of significant inflation in the British economy has decreased the desirability of British bonds.

The British Pound to United States Dollar exchange rate for 2010.

Analysis of the British Pound and Euro Exchange Rate

2009 exchange rate for the British Pound to the Euro

During the first three months of 2009, the British Pound advanced versus the Euro. This suggests that the British economy may have seen growth in contrast to the European Union. Early in the second quarter, the Euro appreciated versus the Pound, according to the survey of currency pairs. However, this tendency was disrupted by a higher Pound due to the Euro's GDP downturn. This could be attributed to the overall reduction of vital Euro zone industries to economic growth. In addition, the growing crisis in the Spanish and Italian market economies may account for this development.

During the third quarter of 2009, the Euro had a similar decline, particularly in June, when the Pound reached its greatest level of 1.18 Euros per Pound. During the final quarter of 2009, however, the overall trend altered substantially due to a decline in the value of the British Pound. For example, the British Pound performed poorly against the Euro, particularly between October and November 2009, when it reached a low of 1.08, representing a decline.

The 2009 exchange rate between the pound and the euro is depicted in Graph 4. 2010 exchange rate for the British pound to the euro

Current and historical analyses suggest that the pace of inflation may not decline fast enough to strengthen the Euro against the Pound. The high global oil prices that continue to shake the entire Euro zone have been highlighted as the fundamental cause of the Euro's depreciation against the British Pound. The constant positive association that underlies the declining trend in the first and second quarters of 2010 is indicative of the spillover effect of economic downturns in peripheral nations. For instance, the rates on Spanish and Italian national bonds are rising as the Euro depreciates in value due to poor market demand.

Graph 5 displays the 2010 exchange rate between the British Pound and the Euro. 2011 exchange rate for the British Pound to the Euro

Beginning in 2010, the value of the Euro increased while the value of the Pound decreased. The gradual fall of the Pound's value may not have been caused by the Euro's appreciation, but rather by a change in monetary policy intended to restrain the Euro's value. Due to the raging recession and austerity, the European Central Bank decided to further ease its monetary policies in order to prevent the effects of collapsing economies in peripheral countries. The reduction of interest rates by the Central Bank of Europe shifted investment interests away from the British pound and toward the Euro. Although the British Pound was on its way to a higher level, the market's expectation of its prolonged depreciation contributed to a further decline versus the Euro. This circumstance is illustrated graphically in the following illustration.

Graph 6 displays the 2011 exchange rate between the British Pound and the Euro.

Examination of the relationship between fluctuations in currency rates

The investigation of the graphs of currency rates reveals a unique relationship between the U.S. dollar and the British pound (Michalowski, 2011; Beblav, Cobham, and tor, 2011). In this instance, the study indicates that the pound sterling extends further than the dollar in any direction (Backe and Scardax, 2009). This means that when the value of the Pound increases relative to the U.S. dollar, it increases more. Similarly, when the value of the Pound falls relative to the value of the U.S. dollar, the value of the Pound falls even further. This link demonstrates that when the value of the U.S. dollar rises, the value of the British pound climbs significantly (Lorca-Susino, 2010). The EUR/GBP currency pair demonstrated a positive correlation between the pound and the dollar. While the economic crisis fared poorly, the U.S. dollar depreciated in relation to other currencies (OANDA, 2012). The Pound, however, did not respond in the same manner.

This link is a product of the bad condition of the British economy, not the Euro's strength and value (Orabi and Saymeh, 2012). Amid the escalating consequences of the Eurozone debt crisis, greater investment in British government bonds contributed to the strengthening of the Euro against the Euro (Eiteman, Stonehill and Michael, 2012). During the latter half of 2010 and all of 2011, the British pound managed to appreciate against the Euro (Shapiro, 2010). Concerns over inflation in the United Kingdom prompted the Bank of England to hike interest rates in late 2006 and 2007. (Doran et al., 2009; Bahmani-Oskooee and Tanku, 2007). There is a positive relationship between the two currencies (GBP/USD) due to the rising value of the Pound relative to the Euro. It is noteworthy that the British Pound has continued its upward velocity (Archer, 2010). The strong association between the Pound and the Euro is a result of the close ties between the United Kingdom and the European Union (Arestis and Sawyer, 2012).

My prediction for the future exchange rate between the Pound, the US Dollar, and the Euro

The future of the relative exchange rate between the British Pound and the United States Dollar may resemble the financial market indicators of 2009. As the Euro zone crisis continues to escalate, the British pound will be under extreme pressure as the U.S. dollar appreciates. However, it should be highlighted that although the U.S. is affected by the current financial crisis in the Eurozone, the negative impacts are less severe than those on the Pound. The relationship between the Euro and the Pound will be characterized by a negative correlation, in which an increase in the value of the dollar will result in a corresponding decrease in the value of the Pound, resulting in a downward trend. On the other hand, the relationship between the pound and the dollar will remain positive. Here, an increase in the dollar's value will result in a relative increase in the value of the pound, which will have an effect on the pressure originating from the Euro zone. Reduced competitiveness of British goods in the Eurozone and the United States will lead to a steady decline in demand for the pound, so strengthening the dollar (Arestis and Sawyer, 2012).


Archer, H. (2010). Britain. United Kingdom Country Monitor.

Arestis, P., and Sawyer, M. (2012). The Euro Crisis. London: Palgrave Macmillan.

Backe, P., and F. Scardax. 2009. The Forward Premium Puzzle and Fundamentals of European and Non-European Emerging Market Currencies Focus on the Journal of European Economic Integration, volume 2, pages 56-66.

Economics Letters, M. Bahmani-Oskooee and A. Tanku, "Black Market Exchange Rate versus Official Rate in Testing the PPP: Which Rate Facilitates the Adjustment Process," 2007.

Bahmani-Oskooee, M., and A. Gelan. 2006. "Black Market Exchange Rate and Productivity Bias Hypothesis." Economics Letters.

Bahmani-Oskooee, M., and Kovyryalova, M. (2008). The J-Curve: Evidence from Industry Trade Data between the United States and the United Kingdom.

Beblav M, Cobham D, and dor L. (2011). The Euro Area and the Financial Crisis. Cambridge University Press.

Handbook of World Exchange Rates, 1590-1914, Ashgate Publishing, New York, New York, 2010.

Seasonal Patterns in the Information Content of Implied Volatility, Research Paper, College of Business, Doran et al., 2009.

Eiteman, D.K., Stonehill, A.L., and Michael, H. (2012). Multinational business Finance. New York, NY: Pearson-Addison Wesley.

Analysis and market information on fixed income, FX, and equities in Asia, EMEA, and Latin America, vol.14, no.38, Emerging Markets Monitor 2009.

Interest Rates, Exchange Rates, and Global Monetary Policy, Springer, New York, NY, 2009.

Daily Mail, 2008, Laurance, B., "Pound Hits All-Time Low Against Euro."

The Euro in the 21st Century: Economic Crisis and Financial Turmoil, London: Ashgate Publishing, 2010.

Mahr, J. (2008). Five Years of the Euro: "Euro" or Stable Currency. GRIN Verlag, New York

Michalowski, G. (2011). Attacking Currency Trends: How to Anticipate and Trade Large Market Moves. John Wiley & Sons, New York, NY.

Practical Pattern Recognition for Trends and Corrections, by RC Miner, John Wiley & Sons, New York, NY, 2012.

Historical Exchange Rates, OANDA Website, 2012.

Effect of Interest, Moving Average, and Historical Volatility in Forecasting Exchange Prices of Major International Currencies, International Journal of Economics and Finance, volume 4, number 5, 2012.

Osterholt, K 2012 Is the EU Fiscal Compact sufficient to prevent a new Euro Crisis? GRIN Verlag, New York, NY.

Peters, M New York: DIANE Publishing, 2010. What the 2008/2009 Global Economic Crisis Means for Global Agricultural Trade.

Shapiro, A.C. (2010). Multinational Financial Management. New York, NY: John Willey & Sons.

The World Bank published World Development Indicators 2010 in London in 2010.

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Professional Ethics In Accounting Best College Essay Help


The Institute of Management Accountants (IMA) defines professional ethics in accounting as the strict adherence to a code of conduct in the practice of accounting. In its code of ethics, the IMA requires managerial accountants to uphold professional ethics. Therefore, managerial accountants must demonstrate high levels of honesty, objectivity, confidentiality, and expertise in their practice (IMA 1983).

To combat unethical accounting methods, Fisher and Rosenzweig (1995) harshly criticized academics' restricted concentration on teaching professional code of conduct in accounting practice. He stated that the accounting academic community should mobilize sufficient resources to identify teaching strategies. In line with their theory, they asserted that when students lack ethical academic fundamentals, they are unable to apply critical thinking skills to professional ethical challenges, which is a detriment. Such ethical difficulties can be resolved when accounting programs acknowledge the significance of ethics and provide quality ethics courses (Fisher and Rosenzweig 1995).

Recent accounting scandals have been widely covered. This clarifies that the ethical behaviour of accounting managers falls short of the norms implicit in the preceding quotations. In its article titled "Scandal Scorecard," the Wall Street Journal provides an overview of accounting crimes (12 serious scams) involving publicly owned businesses. A greater proportion of the fraud in this piece involved the chief financial officer, the chief accounting officer, the controller, and numerous additional accountants employed by the enterprise. These scandals, among others, have demonstrated the need for controls. In 2002, the federal Sarbanes-Oxley Act (SOX) was enacted. The Public Company Accounting Oversight Board was established by this statute in an effort to supervise the conduct of public-practice managing accountants and those employed by publicly held businesses. It has been stated that, notwithstanding the aforementioned steps, there is still a need for a much stronger emphasis on simplifying professional ethics in accounting (Schipper 2009, Hamilton 2007, Schneider 1995).

Main Body

Ethical Difficulties Confronting the Profession

Fraud in the form of intentional fraud and false financial reports, deception of users of financial statements through intentional misstatements or omissions of quantities or disclosures in financial statements are among the ethical difficulties facing the accounting profession (Corner 1986). False financial reports may involve manipulation, fabrication, or the alteration of supporting papers or account documents used to create financial statements (Leung and Cooper 1995, Healy and Whalen 1999, Chow et al. 1988). It may also involve manipulation of facts, the intentional exclusion of events or transactions from financial statements, or the improper application of accounting principles with regard to quantity, disclosure, or presentation style (Nouri 1994, Sayre et al. 1998).

Deception typically entails undue pressure or incentives and the perception of an opportunity to commit fraud. For instance, fake financial reporting may emerge if the organization's management is under pressure to meet unachievable profit goals (Sayre et al. 1998, Schneider and Sollenberger 2003). Other instances may involve fabricated documents, such as forgery and hiding errors by creating fictitious invoices. This can be accomplished through collaboration or personal motivation (Fox 1997, Schilt 1997, Hepworth 2009).

Professional Accountancy Bodies and Responses to Challenges and Codes of Ethics Enforcement

The International Federation of Accountants (IFAC), the American Institute of Certified Public Accountants (AICPA), the Institute of Internal Auditors (IIA), and the Institute of Management Accountants (IMA) are some of the most prominent professional accountancy organizations that work to enforce the code of ethics in managerial accounting (Schipper 2009). This section of the paper addresses, from a worldwide perspective, the professional accountancy organisations, activities taken to resolve difficulties, and enforcement of codes of ethics.

The 1919-founded Chartered Institute of Management Accountants (CIMA) is the largest organization for professional management accountants. Core activities include enterprises in sectors such as industry, commerce, nonprofits, and the public sector. CIMA collaborates directly with employers and sponsors high-level research, among other things. While carrying out its mission, the Chartered Institute of Management Accountants engages in constant updates of its qualifications, requirements for professional experience, and sustained professional development, which positions it as an employer of choice when recruiting professionally trained business leaders.

The CIMA is committed to upholding high, ethical, and professional standards in management accountancy and maintaining public confidence in managerial accounting processes. Its activities are geared on assisting its members, including professionals and students, to confront ethical difficulties during their practice (Schneider and Sollenberger 2003).

The Prince's Accounting for Sustainability and International Integrated Reporting Committee (IIRC) is an organization that engages in and focuses on management information as a fundamental prerequisite for the development of better reporting mechanisms in the corporate arena. Its activities are governed by the belief that standard accounting records and reports tend to emphasize a company's short-term performance. Their interest may expand to include the long-term viability of the business model and the social and environmental repercussions of the organization (Horngren etal. 2002). The Accounting for Sustainability (A4S) program is another initiative in which CIMA seeks to establish a model that is interconnected and integrated in terms of reporting characteristics. CIMA (Chartered Institute of Management Accountants) is better positioned in terms of gathering and presentation of critical data, the majority of which is fundamental to information management activities, which is a standard CIMA activity. Consequently, the CIMA code of ethics mandates the objective, responsible, and impartial presentation of accounting information, independently of the intra- or extra-organizational pressures that may seek to falsify accounting facts or information deemed disagreeable to them (Schneider and Sollenberger 2003, Zimmerman 2000).

IIRC was founded with a worldwide network agenda. It is a collaborative effort of accounting institutions, corporate governance experts, and standard-setters that focuses on business sustainability and ethical accounting practices. However, there is no defined global standard for measuring environmental, governance, and social performance. The IIRC attempts to address ethical concerns and ensure the code of ethics is enforced through activities such as responding to concise, clear, comparable, and comprehensive reporting frameworks that are integrated and structured in accordance with the organization's strategic objectives, business model, and governance by managing financial and non-financial material (Schneider and Sollenberger 2003). Initiatives such as the Global Reporting Initiative (GRI), a network-oriented organization recognized with pioneering an internationally utilized sustainability reporting framework, are being employed to solve ethical concerns. Moreover, the GRI's operations are supported by a commitment to continual global application and improvement. GRI framework sustainability reports have been widely utilized in areas requiring a demonstration of organizational commitment to sustainable development, periodic comparison of organizational performance, and areas with applicable codes, standards, or legislation (Schneider and Sollenberger 2003).

Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development Multinational Enterprise Guidelines: These are government recommendations to multinational firms outlining voluntary ethical principles and standards in the areas of the environment, human rights, bribery, consumer interests, information disclosure, competition, taxation, and science and technology. These have proven to be more comprehensive principles, particularly for modern corporate responsibility, which safeguard governments against unethical practices in a multilateral manner (Schneider and Sollenberger 2003).

United Nations Principles for Responsible Investment (PRI): Environmental, Social, and Corporate Governance (ESG) problems have an impact on investment returns, and this is causing the investment profession to be increasingly concerned. To address this issue, the PRI portfolio establishes a framework to assist investors in evaluating the aforementioned variables of significance to them. Although the principles are not prescriptive, they describe measures that can monitor the incorporation of environmental, social, and governance (ESG) concerns into major investment, decision making, and ownership. The use of the aforementioned principles reduces unethical activities since they result in a greater alignment between society goals and those of institutional investors, hence generating long-term financial returns that benefit all stakeholders (Schipper 2009, Dechow 2000).

Ethical Issues Facing Accounting Managers and Behavior Monitoring

Replacement of Existing Assets – Similar to estimation of comparable units, replacement of existing assets requires investment decisions where return on investment is employed as a performance metric. Under these conditions, the volume of an organization's assets is defined in terms of their book value and the return on investment's denominator. A recommendation for a corporation to invest in machinery, for instance, is beneficial in the long run. However, this would diminish the participant's current rate of investment because the acquisition of new machinery is more expensive than the expenditures associated with maintaining existing machinery and technology (Merchant 1990, Rogerson 1992)..

According to Horngren et al. (2002), managers have a tendency to maximize return on investment or residual income since they "desire a low investment base. Managers of companies utilizing net book value tend to hold on to depreciated assets. (Horngren et al. 2002, p. 415-6). In addition, the potential that net book value may initiate an upward trend that is deceptive regarding return on investment has immediate and severe implications for investment-focused managers and their investments (Hilton et al. 2000). The investment centers with fewer assets demonstrate a greater return on investment than those with relatively fresh assets. Consequently, this is likely to deter investment center accounting managers as they are prevented from purchasing new technology (Hilton et al. 2000, p. 844). This is consistent with Kaplan and Atkinson's claim that many accounting managers cannot be expected to manipulate the transparency of their return on investment. However, they can increase their return on investment metrics by continuing operations with virtually or totally depreciated assets and by pursuing new investment possibilities in assets (Kaplan and Atkinson 1998, p. 518).

As shown in the preceding examples, overproduction is prevalent. The urge to affect the company's earnings can influence accounting managers' judgments. Advocates of absorption costing (full costing) have stated that managers are more likely to manipulate net income because unit costs can be cut by expanding production and fixed overhead is a product of the cost of goods sold (Kaplan and Atkinson 1998). In addition, Zimmerman (2000, p. 496) states, "Managers whose compensation is based on total profits calculated using absorption costing can increase reported profits by increasing production" (if sales are held constant). The most significant critique of absorption costing is that it generates incentives for managers to overproduce, hence increasing inventories (Zimmerman 2000, p. 496).

According to Horngren et al. (2002, p. 609), if a business employs the absorption costing method, a manager may be motivated to generate superfluous units to improve reported operational revenue. This is best stated by Kaplan and Atkinson (1998, p. 504), who provide a circumstance in which "the division manager had significantly increased production in the second and third quarters, resulting in an accumulation of excess finished goods inventory." Significantly increased production rates allowed period costs to be absorbed by inventory." Therefore, concerns arising from overproduction may have direct or indirect ethical implications for the company and its accounting managers (Kaplan and Atkinson 1998, p. 504).

In a conflict of interest, persons with self-serving motives utilize their official position to achieve inappropriate benefits. In order to earn greater performance bonuses, a management accountant may participate in unethical actions such as overstating the pretax incomes of the corporation. Similarly, he may engage in insider trading in an effort to minimize losses or purchases or sales of the organization's securities. In the Accounting and Auditing Enforcement Release (AAER) 344 (10 December 1991), for instance, a managerial accountant was denied the ability to practice accountancy in a publicly owned corporation due to alleged insider trading and $73,000 in loss evasion on the sale of the corporation's common stock. In three years, the victim reportedly conspired with senior management of the organization to inflate earnings by more than $38,000,000. (Nouri 1994).

Cost Allocation: According to Rogerson (1992), organizations who engage in contracts with cost-based revenues are likely to engage in unethical activity when allocating overhead costs. Therefore, cost allocation is the practice of adjusting cost allocations arbitrarily in order to increase revenue from cost-plus product sales. According to Schneider and Sollenberger (2003, p. 4-19), cost-basing and market-basing the prices of goods or services urge managers to shift overhead expenditures to those cost-based goods or services. According to Hilton et al. (2000), "cost-plus contracts incentivize the supplier of the goods or services to seek maximum reimbursement and to allocate maximum cost to the product for which reimbursement is possible." (Hilton et al. 2000, p. 375). This is best illustrated by the example of manufacturers who make conventional items for commercial customers on a fixed-price contract basis while manufacturing specialized goods for other customers on a cost-plus basis/under cost-plus contracts, resulting in increased income for such sectors (Horngren et al. 2003, p. 535).

Impact of Ethics on Businesses

In a study on the likelihood of participating in unethical activity, five subsamples of respondents were surveyed by Schneider and Sollenberger (2003, pp. 1–50). Four ethical dilemmas were addressed for each of the five subsamples, with 38% to 51% of respondents reporting the likelihood of participating in unethical action. The estimation of units was the sole ethical issue in our investigation that lacked an obvious conflict of interest. Ethical concerns such as overproduction, the replacement of existing assets and investments, and opposing interests illustrated the chance that accounting managers' judgments will conflict with those of the business. The ethical issue with cost allocation revealed a conflict of interest between the company's interests and those of stakeholders, such as the cost plus contractor. On the other hand, ethical issues involving estimation of equivalent units would result in occurrences such as overestimation, which would likely increase the organization's current earnings without posing serious consequences to its production and investment. A similar scenario would apply to ethical issues involving overproduction, replacement of existing assets and investment, and competing interests (Schneider and Sollenberger 2003, p. 1-50).


In terms of instilling ethical ideals in their careers, accountants' training plays a key role. According to Jennings (2004), accounting students should be required to take ethics courses due to the surge in unethical activities exhibited by accounting professionals, such as recent scandals involving Arthur Andersen, Enron, and WorldCom. In accordance with Schipper's advice, on-the-job training can be incorporated into the answer to the escalating trend of unethical behavior (Schipper 2009).

List of Citations

The Accounting Review, 63(1): 111-122. Chow, C.W., J.C. Cooper, and W.S. Waller, "Participative Budgeting: Effects of a Truth-Inducing Pay Scheme and Information Asymmetry," 1988.

Enhancing public confidence in the accounting profession. Journal of Accountancy, July 1986, p.7683. Conner, I.E.

Dechow, P.M. and Skinner, D.J.

Fischer, M., and Rosenzweig, K. (1995). "Attitudes of accounting students and practitioners regarding the ethical acceptability of creative accounting." Journal of Business Ethics, vol. 14, no. 4, pp. 433-44.

Learn to Play the Earnings Game, by J. Fox, Fortune, pp. 5-8, 1997

Business Week, p.138, J. Hamilton (2007), "Blowing the Whistle without Paying the Piper."

Healy, P.M., "The Effect of Bonus Schemes on Accounting Decisions," Journal of Accounting and Economics, vol. 7, pages 85-107, 1985.

Accounting Horizons, 13(4), 365- 83. Healy, P.M. and Wahlen, J.M. (1999). "A Review of the Creative Accounting Literature and Its Implications for Standard Setting."

Smoothing Periodic Income. The Accounting Review, January 2009, pages 32-39.

Hilton, R.W., M.W. Maher, and F.H. Selto (2000) published Cost Management: Strategies for Business Decisions. McGraw-Hill is the publisher of Irwin's books.

Horngren, C.T., G.L. Sundem, and W.O. Stratton. 2002. Introduction to Management Accounting. Prentice-Hall, Upper Saddle River.

Institute of Management Accountants, Montvale, New Jersey, 1983, Standards of Ethical Conduct for Management Accountants

Issues in Accounting Education, 19(1), 7-26. Jennings, M. (2004). "Incorporating Ethics and Professionalism into Accounting Education and Research: A Discussion of the Void and Advocacy for Training in Seminal Works in Business Ethics."

Kaplan, R.S., and Atkinson, A.A. (1998). Advanced Management Accounting, Prentice-Hall, Upper Saddle River.

Leung, F., and B. Cooper.

The Effects of Financial Controls on Data Manipulation and Management Myopia, Accounting, Organizations and Society, vol. 15, no. 4, 1990, pp. 297-313.

Using Organizational Commitment and Job Involvement to Predict Budgetary Slack: A Research Note. Accounting, Organizations and Society, 19(3), 1994, pp. 89-295.

The Accounting Review, 67(4):671 Rogerson, W.P., "Overhead Allocation and Incentives for Cost Minimization in Defense Procurement," 1992.

Sayre, T.L., F.W. Rankin, and N.L. Fargher.

"Is it Fraud or Just Slick Accounting?" by H.M. Schilt (1997). CEO Magazine.

91-102 in Schipper, K. (2009). "Commentary on Creative Accounting" in Accounting Horizons.

"Incidence of Accounting Irregularities: An Experiment to Compare Audit, Review, and Compilation Services," Journal of Accounting and Public Policy, 14(4): 293-310, 1995, by A. Schneider.

Managerial Accounting: Manufacturing and Service Applications. Tampa: Thomson Publishing Company, 2003. Schneider, A., and Sollenberger, H.

Zimmerman, J.L., "Accounting for Decision Making and Control," Journal of Accounting and Economics, Vol. The company Irwin McGraw-Hill

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Aureola Program At Thomson Reuters Marketing Technology Best College Essay Help


This essay will explain my supervisor, John B. Since 2009, I have worked under John at Thomson Reuters' Markets Technology Operations. John is the Senior Operations Program Manager for the Aureola program within the Markets Technology Operations division of Thomson Reuters. In 2009, Thomson Reuters Markets launched the Aureola Programme to more effectively and efficiently manage the numerous applications it receives. The application will also handle the vast quantity of servers around the company's data centers. In general, the purpose of this paper is to describe John and his occupation. The report will also define the Aureola program and demonstrate how John's talents are applicable to his role. The essay will explore John's description from a managerial standpoint. This essay will allow the reader to appreciate the professional expertise I have gained while working with John. This essay will begin with a background of the manager, then describe his management talents in detail, and conclude by stating the management skill I aim to achieve.

Histories of Operations Program Manager John B

Regarding John B

John is a specialist in Information Technology and Services with a Master's in System Science from Fairleigh Dickinson University. He completed his Master of Science degree between 1987 and 1989. Between 1975 and 1980, he earned a bachelor's degree in electrical engineering at the Polytechnic Institute of New York, making him an electrical engineer. John has worked for two businesses. From June 1994 to January 2004, he was employed for Lucent Technologies. Lucent Technologies is a business in the field of telecommunications. In January 2004, John resigned his role as operation program manager at Lucent Technologies after 9 years and 7 months and began working at Thomson Reuter. Since that time, John has been employed with Thomson Reuters, a provider of information services. Currently, he serves as the company's senior operations program manager. John is an Eta Kappa Nu member. He is also a member of the Alumni Network of Lucent Technologies. John is interested in potential job paths.

About the Business He Works For

John's current employer, Thomson Reuters, is a source of commercial and industrial information. The company helps professionals and corporations. It provides comprehensive information about economics, law, taxation, media markets, health care, and scientific challenges. The company provides electronic subscriptions to its services. The company's operations are predominantly concentrated on the United States (Thomas Reuters, 2010). Even if the company is doing well at the moment, it is expected that market rivalry may drive down the pricing of its services, harming its profitability. The company's products are sold through markets and professional divisions; these are the company's two primary divisions (Datamonitor 2010, p. 4). A recently introduced program, Aureola, falls under the professional division.

Concerning the Aureola Programme

John is the program leader at Aureola. Considered a multi-year endeavor, the program aims to properly and appropriately manage the vast number of applications and servers throughout the company's global data centers. This is accomplished by "standardizing, virtualizing, migrating, and automating" the numerous applications and servers (Aureola program-PPP, p.1). The concept has the potential to make the company's technology infrastructure incredibly convenient by making it "faster, cheaper, better, and with a smaller carbon footprint" (Aureola program, p. 1). The program facilitates the implementation of future technological advancements. Because the program decouples the majority of the application from hardware, this is the case. This is anticipated to be particularly cost-effective due to the fact that it will be simple to take advantage of any new improvements in hardware inputs, hence ensuring little growth in technological costs.

To realize the anticipated program benefits, the operations division will continue to administer the program from two perspectives: utility services and strategic themes. Under the utility services operations division, the application utility will be addressed. Under the application utility, the following will be addressed: web servers, database management systems, messaging, and application servers. The utility services provide a foundation for examining platform services, commodity servers, and operating systems. Storage in which data administration, archiving, recovery, and backup will be addressed, as well as the storage of data. Network and Facility are being addressed in equal measure. Five key themes are anticipated to be regularly monitored over the duration of the program. The topics to be discussed will include how the program would standardize, virtualize, automate, commodityize, and green its clients' services. The Aureola program is fairly difficult, but I am certain that senior operations programmer John B is up to the challenge. The following parts will describe his management abilities, which have allowed the program to progress to this point.

The planning skill of the management

According to Pakhare (2010), planning is the fundamental managerial function. It is the basis for managing any type of project. It is essential to create a plan for any project since it will serve as a guide and reveal any potential issues that are likely to arise throughout its implementation (Pakhare, 2010). From my experience working under John, I believe that strategic planning is essential since it provides a road map for attaining the project's objectives. I've come to understand that preparing a project helps to expose the likely strengths, weaknesses, opportunities, and threats that it will face during implementation.

Prior to the introduction of the Aureola program, John engaged us in intensive planning for the launch of the program. Before we began planning, John had conducted a study in 2008 that revealed the additional costs that businesses were incurring. In 2008, we initiated planning for the Aureola initiative based on the outcomes of the study. The program was intended to remedy the inefficiencies uncovered by the 2008 report. We were able to divide the program into strategic topics and utility services through careful preparation. I discovered that John was an excellent planner, and the planning we carried out was crucial in identifying the program's strengths. We were able to know what to expect from standards, virtualisation, data & data migration, automation, and locations because of planning. This was crucial because it made the following phase of organization possible. Utilizing charts and graphs, the significance of the program's impact was illustrated clearly. Using calculations, we were able to determine that the Aureola program will consume less energy than its predecessor, making it "greener." Planning also allowed for the identification of regions requiring reinforcements.

Working with John, we were able to predict the program's trajectory until 2014. In this plan, contributions made by various components of the program are specified in minute detail. This will be important in the future since it will help to identify areas of deviation for corrective measures. In practice, I have learned to recognize the importance of planning. Working with John on the Aureola project has shown me why planning is considered the cornerstone of any project.

The manager's organizational expertise

After determining how the project will operate and what was anticipated of each programme component, the senior manager began coordinating its execution. In the context of project management, organization is "to organize all resources well in advance in order to implement the course of action that has been planned as the base function" (Pakheri 1). Organization enables an organization to delegate responsibilities and plan for the seamless launch of the program. Organization also implements methods for problem-solving in the event that unanticipated difficulties develop.

John has meticulously organized the Aureola project in order to achieve its objectives. In order to ensure the success of the program, John has divided the staff working on the project into numerous sections. The senior manager will serve as the liaison between clients and the team. He is responsible for articulating what is anticipated of the program and will provide guidance in the event that non-standard items arise. The duties have been divided into multiple groups, and each group has been assigned a portion of the program to debug. For instance, it has been determined that the solution architect would engage with the infrastructure group to ensure that the Engagement Request site captures information as required. The Aureola Utility Service Group (AUSG) has been established to assist with incident resolution. The management has also implemented many troubleshooting processes for each event that is likely to arise.

John has conducted a comprehensive organization of the team operating under him. The organization he has created is primarily intended to ensure that any potential problem is effectively addressed. There are also guidelines that are intended to provide instructions for the efficient operation of the program. Organization has made it feasible to minimize confusion during the Aureola programme's execution. The clients are able to receive clarification on matters they do not comprehend. Once again, I have been able to recognize the need of organization in undertaking a project. Pakhare (2010) suggested that organization helps to harmonise the team working on a project and enables it to achieve its goals more efficiently. This has been observed to function effectively with the Aureola program due to the organization that has been established. It should be highlighted that the organization process is still ongoing while the project is being implemented, but what is being done just supplements the foundation that has already been created.

The ability of the manager to lead (direct) people

Pakhare (2010) recognized direction as an additional crucial feature of project management. A team leader's ability to direct others enables him or her to regulate and supervise the team members' actions. The relevance of controlling the team in project management lies in the fact that the team leader is able to direct the efforts of the team members toward the attainment of the project's objectives. Interpersonal skills are required for leading individuals within a project team. A leader who can effectively communicate with team members is likely to motivate them to exceed expectations. Good directions allow the vision of the project's leaders to be communicated to the other team members (Project Smart, 2010).

John has demonstrated exceptional leadership qualities. He has been able to effectively manage the team working on the Aureole programme. I have observed that John possesses charm that attracts others to him. He has effectively used his charisma to motivate the team members to work tenaciously on the program. He is an effective communicator and has been able to convey messages from the program's inception. I recall that he took the time to explain the project to every member of the project team. He illustrated the project's potential and how the job could be performed. The members of the team were enthused by his comprehensive presentation and the anticipated benefits of the project. It is really intriguing because every individual working on this program has taken pains to assure the success of the project while it is being implemented. John has taken a keen interest in each and every division working on this project. As a result, he has been in continual conversation with the various program members and has made adjustments as needed.

John's directing abilities are demonstrated by the program structure he devised. In this program's structure, he has assigned diverse responsibilities to individuals who operate individually but as a team. In the programme structure, thirteen individuals are responsible for ensuring that the Aureola initiative succeeds and meets its objectives. As the team leader, John is responsible for providing instructions. If a firm encounters a difficulty with the program, John directs them to the individual who can assist with troubleshooting. It should be mentioned that there is a guide intended to provide directions, so that John can be contacted if something is unclear in the guide.

As stated previously, John is an effective communicator. This has served him well on multiple occasions when talking with the various individuals in charge of the Aureola initiative. Due to his ability to convey messages in a courteous and respectful manner, he has been able to effectively deliver directives. The clients are encouraged to contact the Aureola programme members if they have any comments regarding the programme. John is personable, and as a result, numerous program participants have been able to debate with him the directives he issues. Such conversations have always delivered fruitful outcomes that have improved the program as a whole.

Controlling Prowess of the Manager

Control is the process of establishing performance standards. The performance criteria are based on the company's goals. Controlling entails comparing the deviations between actual performance and anticipated performance. Controlling enables corrective steps to be made to guarantee that the programmed or planned objectives are met at the conclusion of a project or programme. The standards that John established for the operation of the Aureola program have thus far been met. I believe that this is due to the fact that John has taken a personal interest in maintaining high standards in his responsibilities, and as a result, the other members also tend to keep good standards in their work. John had also involved the members in the creation of the program standards, and he used this opportunity to stress the need of maintaining high program standards. During the planning period, no significant deviations from the standards specified for the program were identified. Since the initiative is still in its infancy, few deviations are anticipated. John intends to analyze the performance of the software monthly as a precaution.


Working as John's assistant project coordinator on the Aureola initiative at Thomson Reuters Markets Technology Operations has allowed me to observe managerial skills in action. John is a talented manager who is adept at balancing all managerial talents. As he balances them in a way that enables him to adapt to all situations, it is difficult to accurately identify the skill that emerges most clearly. During my time with him, I recognized him as a planner. John is a great believer in planning and never executes a duty without first determining how to do it. His plans are always exhaustive and account for everything, even the unexpected. Thus, he is always prepared, and I have rarely witnessed him caught off guard. I must admit that this is one of the reasons why Aureola has been so successful. The program's thorough blueprint included a vast amount of specifics. This was really helpful in preparing the team and avoiding surprises that could derail the effort. As Pakhare (2010) asserted, planning forms the basis of a project. I observed this with the Aureola program. I am eager to cultivate the quality of planning as I believe it to be the most essential. Without a plan, a project cannot be carried out. If a project is built on an unreliable plan, it is likely to fail. An outstanding project plan might be considered as a project that has already begun. If team members completely follow to the project's plan, then the project's likelihood of success is quite high. This is why I believe project planning to be so essential.


Aureola program PPP (2010). Introduction to the Aureola Project

Datamonitor (2010). The Thomson Reuters Company.

Pakhare, J. (2010). Management Concepts – The Four Management Functions Web.

Project Smart. (2010). Programme Management. Web.

The journalist Thomas Reuters (2010). Thomson Reuters is the world's largest provider of sophisticated business and professional information. Web.

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Factors Influencing Employee Turnover Intentions Best College Essay Help

Table of Contents
Introduction to the Literature Review Technique Results Discussion Conclusion Recommendations References


The goal of this paper is to describe the findings of a narrative review study on the determinants of employee turnover intentions. Turnover is a key issue in modern management since it reduces the efficiency of the workforce and increases human resource costs owing to the requirement to employ and educate new personnel. Environmental, organizational, and human aspects, according to research on employee turnover, could contribute to higher turnover rates (Harhara et al., 2015; Zeffane & Melhem, 2017). Through a narrative review, the present study aimed to synthesize contemporary knowledge on the subject by summarizing the findings of earlier research. In subsequent sections of the study, a literature review, methodology, results, discussion, conclusions, and recommendations for future research will be presented. It is believed that the evaluation will aid managers and academics in getting pertinent information regarding the factors that influence employee turnover, so adding to research and practice.

Literature Review

Regardless of the type of the organization and the industry in which it works, employee turnover is a recurring concern for managers. Research distinguishes between voluntary and involuntary turnover based on whether individuals are fired or opt to leave their firms (Harhara et al., 2015). Researchers and practitioners are particularly interested in voluntary turnover because it causes firms to lose potentially valuable employees. Moreover, both forced and voluntary turnover can be costly because the firm must replace the person who was fired or quit and train the new employee (Harhara et al., 2015). Therefore, scholars from all over the world attempted to analyze employee turnover in greater detail in order to provide firms with tools and strategies to reduce turnover rates, thereby saving money and retaining talent. The word “turnover intentions,” which refers to “the thoughts occupying employees contemplating willingly leaving their companies or abandoning their jobs,” was shaped by research on voluntary turnover (Harhara et al., 2015, p. 494). The importance of turnover intentions to managers lies in the fact that they can be addressed before to an employee's departure. As a result, a great deal of study has concentrated on the correlates of turnover intentions as the factors driving employee turnover in diverse businesses.

Prior study has demonstrated that turnover is influenced by a range of variables. For instance, Zeffane and Melhem (2017) discovered that employees' intentions to leave the organization are related to their assessments of organizational success, job satisfaction, and organizational trust. In turn, Harhara et al. (2015) examined the company, human, and environmental factors that influence turnover intentions. This study found that poor work-life balance, working in remote locations, unfavorable leadership practices, limited advancement chances, continuous operations, age, tenure, marital status, and education were connected with turnover intentions (Harhara et al., 2015). Therefore, there is a need for a synthesis of the information to help practice improvement, given that research papers reflect divergent perspectives regarding turnover intentions.


A narrative review methodology was adopted to combine information from multiple research sources. This research design enabled an assessment of a large number of previous studies on the topic and a synthesis of their important findings that would be beneficial to managers and their organizations. The chosen approach did not involve the acquisition of primary data, hence the validity and reliability of the results are dependent on the researchers who conducted the original study. Using the terms “turnover intentions” and “factors influencing turnover”, academic literature on the subject were located in Google Scholar, Elsevier, and Emerald Insight databases. ” To guarantee that only the most recent and pertinent studies were included, the results were filtered. To guarantee that the results reflect the modern state of research, studies published more than five years ago were omitted from the study. Individual, organizational, and environmental factors impacting employees, such as job satisfaction, career possibilities, and leadership, were among the variables investigated in this study. The primary hypothesis of the study was that employee turnover intentions are significantly related to particular organizational, individual, and environmental characteristics. According to the null hypothesis, there would be no significant association between turnover intentions and other factors based on the research. The findings are reported in detail in the following section.


A vast number of scholars and a range of variables have investigated turnover intentions. Individual and organizational variables showed to be the most influential in predicting intentions to leave a company. For example, a study by Lu et al. (2016) revealed that employees' intentions to leave vary dependent on their jobs, with those in supervisory roles having lower inclinations to leave than those in subordinate posts. Additionally, commitment to work was a crucial factor influencing turnover; employees who were committed and had greater levels of engagement were less likely to have thoughts of leaving (Lu et al., 2016). The discovered association between employee roles and plans to leave is likely attributable to the significance of career fulfillment. According to a study by Chan and Mai (2015), a worker's job satisfaction reflects the extent to which they view their current position and future advancement chances favorably. According to research, career satisfaction plays a crucial influence in influencing turnover intentions, with individuals who are dissatisfied with their current job and prospects being more likely to seek employment elsewhere (Chan & Mai, 2015). This is consistent with the findings of Hanhara et al. (2015), who concluded that growth opportunities are a significant predictor of turnover intentions. Age, tenure, and education, demographic factors that moderate turnover intentions, are also essential. According to Hanhara et al. (2015), workers who quit freely are typically younger, more educated, and have a shorter tenure. Researchers hypothesize that this may be due to the fact that these employees have better options for advancement outside of the organization and are hence less dedicated to it (Hanhara et al., 2015).

In addition, study on organizational characteristics was essential in pinpointing the precursors of turnover intentions. For instance, Timms et al. (2015) discovered that a supportive company culture is essential for minimizing turnover intentions. According to academics, a supportive culture leads to less stress, a better work-life balance, and greater organizational engagement, thereby integrating corporate aspects with individual qualities that influence turnover (Timms et al., 2015). According to Nazir et al., support is also a crucial element in preventing employee turnover (2016). The research revealed that supervisor and coworker support positively impacted affective and normative commitment, which decreased turnover intentions (Nazir et al., 2016). In addition to autonomy, training, participative decision-making, compensation systems, and favorable working circumstances, other organizational elements influenced turnover (Arnoux-Nicolas et al., 2016; Nazir et al., 2016). Thus, research validated the idea that turnover intentions are influenced by organizational and individual variables, and offered additional information on how various factors might exacerbate or mitigate turnover intentions.


Relevant to the contemporary context of management because they highlight the need for managers to address employee-related and organizational variables in order to enhance the workforce and prevent talent loss, the results highlight the need for managers to address employee-related and organizational variables in order to enhance the workforce and prevent talent loss Employee turnover intentions are influenced by different elements inside the individual and the organization as a whole, as the research demonstrates. The research therefore validated the idea. The purpose of the study was to identify and explain the factors driving employee turnover using a literature review.


The research analyzed the correlation between employee turnover and numerous human and organizational variables, such as job happiness, career satisfaction, growth possibilities, and organizational support, by combining the findings of other current studies on the subject. Due to the limited number of studies considered and the lack of quantitative data analysis included in the narrative design, the research has certain limitations. There is a need for additional research on the environmental elements that influence employee turnover intentions, as the proof of their influence is currently minimal.


The major guideline for managers in practice is to cultivate a supportive corporate culture and guarantee that personnel at all organizational levels have possibilities for advancement. According to research findings, these steps are likely to reduce employee turnover intentions and increase employee dedication. Additionally, scholars are encouraged to investigate the contextual factors that influence employee turnover intentions, as these may have a substantial impact on employees. In addition, systematic reviews and meta-analyses of findings from a larger number of research and combined data analyses might be useful.


Arnoux-Nicolas, C., Sovet, L., Lhotellier, L., Di Fabio, A., & Bernaud, J. L. (2016). Perceived work circumstances and intention to leave: The mediation effect of job meaning Frontiers in Psychology, vol. 7, pages 704-712 Chan, S. H. J., & Mai, X. (2015). The relationship between career adaptability, job satisfaction, and intention to quit. 89, 130-139. Journal of Vocational Behavior. Harhara, A. S., Singh, S. K., & Hussain, M. (2015). Correlations of employee turnover intentions in the UAE's oil and gas business. 23(3), 493 – 504 in International Journal of Organizational Analysis . Lu, L., Lu, A. C. C., Gursoy, D., & Neale, N. R. (2016). Work involvement, work happiness, and plans to leave a position 28(4), p. 737-761, International Journal of Contemporary Hospitality Management. Nazir, S., Shafi, A., Qun, W., Nazir, N., & Tran, Q. D. (2016). Impact of organizational rewards on organizational commitment and intention to leave an organization. Employee Relations, 38(4), pages 596 to 619. Timms, P. Brough, M. O'Driscoll, T. Kalliath, O. L. Siu, C. Sit, and D. Lo (2015). Workplace flexibility, employee engagement, turnover intentions, and mental health. 53(1), 83-103, Asia Pacific Journal of Human Resources. Zeffane, R., & Melhem, S. J. B. (2017). Trust, work happiness, perceived organizational success, and intention to leave the company Employee Relations, 39(7), 1148-1167.

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New Technologies In Retail Supply Chains Best College Essay Help


Like many industries in the commercial world of the twenty-first century, the retail industry is highly dependent on technology. The primary function of technology is to facilitate work. In order to remain competitive in the business sector, retail chains must employ the aforementioned technologies due to an abundance of issues.

Every retail chain strives to deliver products from suppliers to customers in their original condition while minimizing the costs associated with inventory storage and transportation. To achieve this objective, retailers must provide an adequate supply of inventory so that there is sufficient stock at all times, while keeping inventories low to save carrying costs and to satisfy fluctuating client demand1. The difficulties faced by retail supply chains make it difficult for them to maintain a minimal inventory of goods and services. Purchasing or merchandising, store replenishment, and both purchasing and store replenishment combined present the greatest obstacles.

There is always a lack of clarity between placing a purchase order and receiving the goods or services. In addition, it is difficult to manage inbound purchase order shipments that are smaller than a truckload.

The main objective of storing product in multiple locations is to reduce transit time between the retailer and the customer. Moreover, there is always an inventory imbalance when the same commodities are stocked at separate distribution locations simultaneously. Stock imbalances necessitate store replenishment from several distribution locations, which adds to the confusion. Due to the existence of high and low inventory turnover ratios, it is difficult for store managers to estimate client demand by product. According to a survey conducted by the global consulting firm Accenture, the majority of merchants only have inventory visibility within their internal distribution networks, and just a handful can manage visibility beyond the extended supply chain.

The chart below depicts the inventory visibility of merchants and masters who have enhanced their supply chain management visibility.

Adoption by Accenture.

When purchasing and store replenishment difficulties are compounded, the line-haul carriers that deliver items to various centers incur substantial expenses. In addition, there is a danger of product loss with less-than-truckload shipments2.

The aforementioned difficulties, coupled with uncertain market conditions and the ever-evolving customer mindsets and trends, place merchants in precarious positions with rising issues and delicate supply chain management capacities. Retailers are compelled to utilize the capabilities of their supply chains in order to retain customers and produce income due to the high expectations and changing tastes of consumers.

Technology and Supply Chain administration

Retailers have recognized the significance of technology in supply chain management and, as a result, have progressively incorporated new technologies to combat competition and increase customer retention. In addition, the introduction of technologies has enabled the reduction of costs and the efficient transfer of inventory from suppliers to customers. Additionally, there have been various benefits linked with the implementation of these technologies. Technology has enabled the rise of e-commerce and the collection of wiser customer data. The majority of these companies' expansions have been enabled by technology. In-store technologies have improved inventory management and diminished stocktaking errors. Technology has made it simpler for businesses to check out clients, place orders, and manage stocks. Internet is one of the most neglected enablers of modern technologies. These firms can collect client information via the internet, and customers can use remote applications. Internet communication has developed as a significant source of communication, decreasing the majority of both internal and external communication with suppliers and consumers.

According to research conducted on the influence of technology on the retail industry, suppliers and retailers must synchronize product data to enable effective consumer response3. Since the 1980s, humans have developed numerous technologies that have facilitated and accelerated the exchange of information between suppliers and merchants. The primary objective of these technologies is to ensure that the correct orders are placed between suppliers and retailers and that these orders arrive at the shop as quickly as possible. This ensures that the consumer receives high-quality and quantity goods in a timely manner. Efficient consumer response (ECR) is accomplished through the collaboration of suppliers and retailers.

Technologies Employed In Retail Market

Numerous technologies and technological models have been developed in response to the challenges associated with supply chain management systems in order to reduce the strain on retail managers and improve supply chain management. The technologies consist of:

Enterprise Resource Planning Systems

The ERP technology has automated warehouse and distribution center operations, making it easier for supply chain managers to monitor the system as it performs broader duties more efficiently. System engineers have programmed the hardware and software functions that allow the system to function. It includes both stationary and mobile technology. The stationary equipment, such as cranes and conveyor belts, communicates with mobile devices that relay directions to warehouse operators. Integration software is responsible for overall control, while barcode scanners embedded in the equipment assist with the identification of containers.

Electronic Data Transmission

Electronic Data Interchange is among the retail industry's employed technologies4. This technology permits the transport of data from one computer system to another via a network chain created by the participating firms. The information is provided to the receiver in the form of a prepared message that depicts the financial papers involved. According to analysts, this technology is more effective than email alone. The computer rigorously transports and interprets the data. Human intervention is minimal, only occuring to fix an error, to check that the quality of the information that is being communicated is good, and only a few other circumstances.

EDI is used to govern the flow of information between parties inside an organization or between companies. EDI comprises the entirety of the system used to transmit the message. It regulates the data flow, the formats of the data, and the software used to interpret the data. The technology is quite stringent and guarantees that corporate requirements are met, which has made it a very important supply chain tool. EDI's established standards are extremely flexible and user-friendly. These standards allow the technology's users to define how data will be exchanged between them. Emails and modems may be used to transmit the information. To maintain the security of information while using the Internet, standards have been established to reduce the likelihood of unauthorized parties recovering information during transmission. Due to its advantages over the paper approach, EDIs have become widespread among retail businesses.

RFID stands for Radio Frequency Identification (RFID)

RFID is referred to by some experts as the "next-generation bar code." Non-line-of-sight and unique serialization are characteristics of the supply chain management-revolutionizing technology. In addition to enhancing shop-floor visibility and assuring managers' accountability, the technology, according to experts, is superior to the alternatives and capable of both. Manufacturers, suppliers, and merchants are able to collect, organize, distribute, and store information due to its capabilities. Inventory management, security control, and business processing efficiency have increased5.

RFID is a wireless technology that employs automatic identification and data collection techniques to provide answers to supply chain issues and potential options for retailers. It is comprised of three layers: a chip, a reader, and a computer. Attached to a physical object used to identify a product is a chip. In contrast to bar codes, the reader enables the user to query the chip through the antennas without touching the product. They do not require the user to interact with each product individually. 6 The technology does not require the user to have a direct line of sight to the chip in order to interrogate it. The computer has application software that aids in the management of the equipment and the data gathered from the devices' interactions. There are numerous versions of this technology available on the market, each with a diverse range of features, such as data storage capacities, carrier frequencies, memory sizes, and types, as well as product lifetimes and prices.

Despite the high appraisals of RFID's capacity, several academics argue that its market penetration has been modest. Numerous businesses have been hesitant to invest in the technology for a variety of reasons, including problems with its tracking system deployments. The expense of the technology and its acceptance, differing standards and insufficient technology, security and data sharing problems, and issues with the ethics and privacy of the technology are also highlighted as obstacles.

Different technologies

IBM has produced further retail technology. Included is Enterprise Data Management, a collection of tools with specialized capabilities for aggregating, sharing, synchronizing, and managing product information with enterprises and their partners. Trading Partner Integration also includes a collaborative trading partner portal that provides a single point of entry to a variety of collaborative supply chain services for business partners. Technology is especially advantageous since it eliminates functional boundaries, so enabling a consumer-focused supply chain.

In a sense, retailers' efforts in collaboration with market research scientists have resulted in the creation of a variety of application technologies designed to streamline the supply chain process and mitigate expenses associated with this process. Long is the list of these technologies In addition to Enterprise Resource Planning, Transport Management Systems, Warehouse Management Systems, and Automatic Identification and Data Collection Technologies. The demand for a cost-effective and competitive solution continues to inspire the development of these technologies. 7

The aforementioned technologies have facilitated the creation of supply chain management business models. Collaborative Planning, Forecasting, and Replenishment (CPFR) and Vendor Management Inventory (VMI) are among the most important (VMI).

Collaborative Planning, Projection, and Resupply (CPFR)

In the retail industry, collaborative planning, forecasting, and restocking (CPFR) is a model form of technology. The system is a business model enabled by ERP and other technology. Through this approach, individuals along the supply chain are encouraged to cooperate in the purchase and management of inventory8. Therefore, it is vital for suppliers and retailers to share information in order to achieve consumer happiness within the industry. This structure guarantees that consumers always have access to the things they require. This guarantees that the market is always stocked with the products that consumers require at all times9. The system is highly efficient because it reduces the costs of purchase, inventory, storage, and transportation for all industry trading partners.

1995 marked the beginning of CPFR usage in the retail business. Since its incorporation into the industry, the technology has been extremely successful; consequently, an increasing number of trading companies have adopted and incorporated the concept into their operations. This is because it has increased the efficiency of the market's supply of products while simultaneously decreasing the cost of purchasing and acquiring goods.

CPFR utilizes a model for its operations. This model consists of nine components that must be adhered to for the system's operation to be functional and efficient. This model contains the predetermined protocols that regulate the flow of information, goods, and services. The model consists of three rings. The first ring represents the provider, who in this case is the goods' manufacturer. He is involved with the manufacture, storage, and supply of the goods or services. The second ring consists of customers. In this instance, the consumers are the retailers who purchase the goods from the suppliers before selling them to the customers. The final consumer composes the third ring. End customers are those who generate demand for a product and use it to their pleasure.

Therefore, for the success of the technology, there must be some form of collaborative management among the partners. The partners should also prepare a combined business plan that clearly outlines the aims and objectives to be attained through the relationship. Other factors that must be considered include sales forecasting, analysis of market demand and supply, and fulfillment of customer orders. Consequently, through strategy and planning, demand and supply management, and market analysis, the technology can be highly effective, resulting in a highly efficient market supply of goods and services.

Vendor Management Inventory

Vendor Management Inventory (VIM) is a response to the competitive market forces' push and pull, as well as the necessity to hedge costs. It maintains accurate inventory levels and increases product revenues. It is a notion derived from backward replenishment in which orders are placed by the supplier based on the retailer's and customer's answers and reactions. It allows for sufficient visibility in the supply chain and guarantees that participants engage in effective product planning and maintain just-in-time inventory levels. It is extremely beneficial for the distribution of packaged products at the distribution and shop levels.

Implications for operations management of implementing the technologies

The modern-day tendency in supply management has been to invest in technology that focuses on the conveyance of company information via computers and other electrical devices. Considering the painful, hazardous, and expensive history of hand delivery of this information, this is completely acceptable. Utilization of these technology has brought about repercussions and disadvantages.

Supplier integration

Given how long EDI has been on the market, its claim of widespread adoption is long overdue. This could be attributed to a lack of adequate knowledge regarding the potential users of this technology. Despite the obstacles, EDI adoption is high relative to other technologies. It is one of the most effective and commonly adopted technologies available on the market. 10

In a study undertaken by a German university on the practical implementation of EDI, 84.7% of the enterprises surveyed had connected the technology with their client base.

11. Forty-one percent were able to involve their suppliers, but only after the system's effectiveness with customers had been demonstrated. They were also hesitant to include third parties such as their bankers and government organizations, particularly in the beginning phases. They were not involved until the implementation's later phases.

The 2007-2009 Global Financial Crisis Best College Essay Help


The worldwide financial crisis of 2007-2009 was previously referred to as the credit crisis, and it was first felt in the United States in July 2007 when secured mortgage investors lost trust in financial institutions. This resulted in a liquidity crisis, which prompted the U.S. and British central banks to infuse large cash into the financial stock markets. This signaled a foreseeable credit risk in the entire economy, and by 2008, when the financial stock markets began to collapse, the problem had intensified. Following this, the majority of banks, insurance firms, and other financial organizations collapsed. It became apparent that the global economy was facing a formidable obstacle (Goodman 2008).

According to Mehta (2007), since the onset of the current financial crisis, the globe has had to deal with a decline in economic growth as the major international economies search for solutions. The financial crisis in the United States began in the banking sector and has since expanded to all other sectors of the economy. The crisis can be related to the complex banking problems that have evolved, making it harder for management to maintain financial control over the banking sector. By 2007, the US banking system had difficulty managing the borrowers' confidence; mortgage owners were unable to make their mortgage payments, borrowers and lenders were unable to make sound financial decisions, and people relied mostly on speculation. Money lending has also become a risky endeavor, as financial innovation is impossible without uncertainty. The crisis has also led to inadequate policies among the world's central banks and has had a significant impact on their management.

Therefore, the global financial crisis has had a significant influence on the economy, and all governments are striving to mitigate its effects. With the present study being conducted, it is evident that if the situation is not addressed in a timely manner, it could result in a protracted global economic recession. The crisis has had a significant impact on the management of financial institutions, which have been forced to seek out measures of survival to prevent the collapse of national economies (Heffernan 2005).

The purpose of the study is to determine the effect of the global financial crisis on the world's central banks and other banking sectors. It examines the manner in which various regions of the world have been affected and the steps they are taking to combat this issue.

The primary reason for the crisis

Economists from throughout the world have asserted that the current financial crisis may culminate in a worldwide economic recession, posing future difficulties for all nations. The initial step in resolving the issue would be to determine its root cause. Despite the perception that US mortgage lending firms were the initial source of the crisis, the entire financial sector posed a threat to the country's financial status. As the housing market collapsed, other financial institutions, primarily banks, followed, and the government was tasked with reviving them all (Goodman 2008).

Midway through 2002, the US housing market crashed with a value of $8 trillion. This caused a high inflation rate in the sector, and economists were forced to create new tactics to combat it. As methods for modifying prices for inflation were being introduced, US economists projected an economic crisis that would aggravate inflation, but few corrective measures were made. As a result of the failure of multiple housing institutions, the economy declined and other financial institutions were impacted. Beginning in 2007, the US economy underwent a financial crisis as a result of the failure of the majority of banks, which also harmed the economies of other nations dependent on the US economy. Since it became apparent that the world's financial system was facing a significant difficulty, economists from around the globe have sought a variety of remedies for addressing the crisis (Goodman 2008).

Effects of the financial crisis on various regions of the world

The financial crisis has differentially affected many countries. The more strong nations of the world, such as the United States and Europe, can respond to the issue more quickly than the less powerful nations, which are primarily developing and underdeveloped.

Implications for the financial systems of Africa and other less-developed nations

Goodman (2008) contends that the economies of African nations are largely stable. This is because their financial institutions are not completely formed and their economic growth is rather modest. However, it has been stated that the stability of African economies may not be permanent and that the financial crisis may end up worsening the economic situation. Economists have stated that the world's impoverished countries are more susceptible to the global financial crisis, and since Africa is primarily comprised of poor nations, it is necessary to seek out corrective means of addressing the situation.

According to a report by the World Bank, the global financial crisis may show itself in Africa through:

a decline in cash and investment inflows declining trade and worsening aids programs

Because (Conference 2000):

There would be no or fewer opportunities to get financing from rich nations. The crisis-affected industrialized nations would be incapable of lending money to African banks. Due to the low-interest rates imposed by the governments and central banks of the United States and Europe, the majority of African central banks hold foreign reserves in the form of U.S. dollars and European pounds; as a result, they would earn little during the financial crisis. As a result of the current economic situations in industrialized nations, there is a chance that the African countries' export earnings would decrease. With the collapse in developed country support for the Millennium Development Goals and New Partnership for Africa's Development (NEPAD) accords, the African countries would also lack sufficient commitment to them. The food, fuel, fertilizer, and financial crises would continue to impact African nations, and would further worsen if industrialized nations withdrew their assistance in managing their financial problems. The African government's inadequate response to the global financial crisis is primarily due to a lack of suitable competence and ignorance.

Implications on the financial systems of developed nations

According to Mehta (2007), the global financial crisis has mostly affected the developed economies' financial markets and banking institutions. It has altered resource flows, loan opportunities, and current money transfers. Both borrowers and lenders have lost faith in banking and housing organizations. These results are a result of:

The reduction in the real gross domestic product: output of goods and services in the developed countries has resulted in fewer cash transfers and fewer financial institution investments. As a result of the economic downturn caused by the financial crisis, fewer employment opportunities have arisen, and some individuals are unable to contribute to the country's gross domestic product. Increasing foreclosure rates by mortgage companies: As individuals invest less in housing institutions, it has become necessary to close certain of these organizations in order to prevent their collapse. The mortgage holders have been forced to reduce their interest rates in order to survive the current economic crisis. Reduced interest rates in the banking industry have been utilized as one method to combat the crisis, preventing individuals from depositing funds in banks. Consequently, borrowing funds has become more difficult.

Therefore, it may be argued that the developed countries have been directly harmed by the crisis, with banks bearing the majority of the consequences. Therefore, the financial sector's management would be required to devise adequate methods for overcoming the crisis and preventing a probable economic collapse.

Implications for the administration of banks

MacDonald (2006) argues that the current global financial crisis will certainly result in a significant restructuring of the banking industry. The drop in savings is a result of the decline in interest rates. The management faces the difficulty of enticing more individuals to deposit funds in banks in order to increase liquidity. The management would be expected to collaborate with the central banks to assist them in adjusting the interest rates, thereby encouraging more individuals to put their money with banks.

Another difficulty faced by banks is lending money. The crisis has had a significant impact on banks' ability to grant loans to customers. As a result of the banking industry's sluggish expansion, there have been less cash inflows, and hence not enough capital to hand out in the form of loans. Low interest rates have also prevented banks from receiving adequate returns on loans extended. Due to the low returns, it has been difficult for the management to foster expansion in the area (MacDonald 2006).

According to Mehta (2007), the majority of financial institutions have collapsed as a result of the financial crisis. The management of central banks has been tasked with attempting to save failing financial firms in the world's major economies. As they attempted to enhance their capital lending-to-borrowing ratio, numerous financial institutions in the United States and Europe faced liquidity issues. The management has had to apply new tactics to enhance its banking policies in order to meet the new demands. The central banks must also define the capital adequacy ratios that will be utilized to stabilize the failing financial firms.

Mehta (2007) contends that when the global financial crisis emerged in late 2002, financial stock markets began to decline. Financial regulators devised measures to combat the crisis and save the stock markets, but the majority of these proposals failed because the government believed the policies would have detrimental effects on the economy. In 2007, as the stock markets continued to decline, banking institutions were at risk of losing their capital injections. The drop in the stock markets was heading to the implosion of the global financial system, and the British, European, and American governments determined to inject funds into the financial system in order to restore the financial institutions. Thus, the management of banks would invest in the stock markets to assist stabilize them. To make informed decisions regarding the quantity of cash poured into the stock markets, experts would be required.

Several Eastern European nations have seen a severe economic decline as a result of the global financial crisis. This economic crisis has impacted the banking sector due to the difficulty with which these countries have repaid the debts they received. The significant drop in the value of money in Eastern European nations has made currency transactions between banks in various nations extremely complicated (Fung 2007).

As a result of the global financial crisis, investors attempted to invest mostly in U.S. treasury bonds and gold in response to the decrease in the value of currencies in various nations. They also attempted to convert their currencies to the U.S. dollar in an effort to save their currencies. This had a significant impact on international trade, and as a result, the central bank management dealing with the International Monetary Fund was unable to adequately meet the needs of the various countries.


In conclusion, it is evident that the global financial crisis had a negative impact not only on the economic growth of nations, but also on financial institutions. The world's central banks face the problem of averting the collapse of financial institutions and maintaining the global economy as a result. The world's central banks are primarily concerned with maintaining economic and financial stability as well as assuring the correct operation of payment and settlement procedures in financial institutions, and this is only achievable if the current financial crisis is entirely resolved.


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