COVID-19: Strategic Service Vision Cbest Essay Help

Table of Contents
Introduction A Company Overview Target Market Segments Current and Future Consequences Service Concept Conclusion Bibliography

Introduction

Currently, millions of individuals discuss company potential, effective entrepreneurship, and job issues. In the majority of instances, the coronavirus epidemic and its effects on corporate partnerships and services are brought up. Price fluctuations, unstable supply chains, and isolation limits are current issues that must be addressed by a multitude of businesses (Gerdeman 2020). At the same time, some individuals are interested in the development of new services or the improvement of existing concepts. Citizens of various locations, including Europe, America, Asia, and Australia, require travel for job, recreation, vacation, and family matters. As a result, they are forced to abandon their homes and must find a new tenant. Therefore, promoting house sitting services will always be in style and vital to society. In this strategic service vision study, a house-sitting firm will be examined through the lens of its target market groups, service concept, and repercussions in order to determine ways to enhance service quality. The pandemic has created a situation on a global scale that has never been seen before, and it is crucial to pursue a strategic vision and achieve success in service supply.

A Company Overview

In the current rapidly developing but hard economy, all client services must be assessed and defined thoroughly. This report introduces the company "Safe Housing," which provides house-sitting services. When a person is absent, it is typically necessary to have someone at home to seek for a home, care for pets and plants, and monitor other things that require regular attention (Parode, 2018). Due to the present coronavirus scenario, many pet sitters lose their employment and income as families are forced to stay at home, postpone their travel plans, and rearrange their commercial activities (Bence, 2020).

Employing a range of tactics, including unemployment benefits and fees, they attempt to safeguard their business and employment. However, there are a variety of methods and choices available to combat the pandemic issue and stabilize the economies of nations. People must work hard to make up for losses and social shifts, and house-sitting services will be in high demand as a result.

The purpose of the company under consideration is to give house-sitting assistance to the public. Workload, unforeseen or planned travel, unpredictability of decisions, and family circumstances must be effectively managed. One of the organization's major services is training young staff on how to help clients maintain their homes while they are gone. On the one hand, a team of employees must comprehend the expectations of families and individuals who hire a house-sitter. Training programs and courses therefore play an essential role in this organization. On the other side, prospective house-sitting clients are eager to learn what they receive for their money. In the majority of instances, assistance is feeding and playing with pets, checking on and watering plants, collecting mail, and creating the appearance of an occupied home in order to forecast break-ins. Numerous independent home sitters exist nowadays, but their services are always personal and never professional. "Safe Housing" is a corporation that connects house-sitters with persons who require their services. Cooperation, communication, and confidence are the foundations of this team's strategic service vision.

Target Market Segments

To successfully provide high-quality services, the analyzed organization must comprehend the fundamentals of strategic management and the relevant constructions. According to Prakash (2018), the expansion of service quality is contingent on the application of many methods, such as the service profit chain, interpersonal competence, and the strategic service vision proposed by Heskett at the end of the twentieth century. The framework contains four elements: target market segments, service concept, service operational strategy, and delivery system (Poeppelbuss and Lubarski, 2019). The objective of a target market segment is to identify a set of clients whose characteristics are suitable for a certain service. As soon as this segment has been thoroughly analyzed, the company's leader, in conjunction with the company's managers, will be able to choose who to target with services and if the chosen concept has the potential to be profitable. Because it is possible to identify customers with comparable interests and needs, a target market group is distinctive. Therefore, marketers are expected to provide particular criteria and describe how to reach these individuals. The analysis of demographics, lifestyles, and individual preferences will aid in the achievement of favorable outcomes.

Single employees between the ages of 25 and 35 and families with young children make up the bulk of "Safe Housing's" clientele. Reasons for focusing on single workers differ based on their lifestyles and preferences. Many single people believe it important to have a cat or another pet to avoid feeling lonely when they return home. They enjoy the concept of conversing with a living individual and exchanging ideas. In addition, these individuals are engaged in career advancement and devote a great deal of time to their jobs. In contrast to their married counterparts, they are career-driven and may work irregular hours or pick night shifts (Suk Ha et al., 2018). Therefore, they may require additional assistance to maintain their homes and feed their pets.

Families with young children who are employed may also be a significant clientele for house-sitting services. Some parents continue to work despite the fact that many moms find it vital to spend time caring for their children and maintaining their homes. To emphasize the significance of family values, however, it is common for people to arrange holidays and travel with their children, so encouraging happiness and relaxation (Chang, 2019). Families need assistance so they can concentrate on their vacation, and house-sitting services are an alternative. Parents should be aware that a trustworthy individual is searching for a home, adhering to all confidentiality requirements.

Current and Future Consequences

Promotion of human services is not a simple undertaking, as numerous recommendations and criteria must be followed. In addition, there are other challenges that could impact the organization's activities in the present and the future. Today, the coronavirus epidemic is a significant obstacle for many businesses since its rise and consequences are difficult to foresee. One healthcare issue, the lack of pandemic management strategies, must be noted as a recent aspect influencing the company's advancement. A virus that originated in China has altered the quality of life in numerous European nations and the United States, resulting in around 70,000 deaths and 1.2 million confirmed cases (Renda and Castro, 2020). Therefore, modern house-sitting services are reformed to focus on providing families with remote assistance.

The second concern is to human resources and the need to provide individuals with guarantees. Students must continue their studies remotely, ignoring the fundamentals of authentic communication and teamwork. Independence and self-education emerge as two essential elements of skill growth and enhancement. In other words, individuals grow less reliant on institutions and consistent wages. "Safe Housing" must help prospective employees and explain how to work with people who are unable to leave their homes yet must walk their pets or purchase pesticides for their plants. The organization must examine the current needs of the population and its future implementations, such as the promotion of high-quality services and the development of professional abilities. The importance of interested stakeholders cannot be overstated, as the expansion of house-sitting services is contingent on the number of people who want to join and work for a company.

Lastly, the future implications of strategic service visions must rely on expert online support. Today, millions of individuals prefer online services and communication over visiting the nearest store or business. Therefore, well-developed software platforms and a team of experts responsible for online connectivity are necessary. Recommendation: pay attention to recent information technology developments (not to miss such an opportunity as drones to walk with dogs). The COVID-19 situation may present an excellent opportunity for businesses that provide routine house-sitting services to the general public to reevaluate their priorities and develop new methods of future collaboration.

Service Philosophy

A service idea is another component of strategic service vision, with the purpose of describing how a corporation is able to anticipate its services and distribute them among customers and the working team. American and European clients are familiar with house-sitting services. Numerous working parents, single employees, and others may require additional (professional) assistance. The development of service concepts enables the most efficient identification and fulfillment of customer requirements (Poeppelbuss and Lubarski, 2019). In the current circumstance, house-sitting services may not be viable in terms of assisting families whose members must vacate their homes. Therefore, it is time for the corporation to implement a new style of customer service. The primary parts of the work are long-distance communication, internet assistance, tips on how to secure the home, and services that can be provided to families.

Today, many parents must leave their children unattended while they go to work. Numerous babysitting agencies provide care, education, and entertainment for children. The "Safe Housing" service idea emphasizes caring for residences and their contents (pets, plants, children, and subjects). This organization is not a home security firm that employs cutting-edge technology to safeguard property. It is not a babysitting service that focuses on kid care, feeding, and supervision. It is a mix of services that allows a person to remain peaceful about their residence. The corporation provides assurances regarding the quality of its work, creates professional relationships, and demonstrates that business can be a personal matter by taking a distinctive approach to customer care. "Safe Housing" selects the most qualified individuals for this position, based on the principles of target market segments and service concepts, when there is an urgent need to locate someone and place momentary trust in a home.

Conclusion

Establishing commercial ties and analyzing services influence the selection of customers and the objectives of operational procedures. There are numerous frameworks that businesses might use to make judgments and comprehend the concept of cooperation. This paper investigates the service idea and target market groups for the company "Safe Housing," which wants to provide house-sitting services during the coronavirus outbreak. These components comprise the strategic service vision applicable to the organization under review. In addition, there are two other elements, current and future implications, that may have an impact on the firm in the future. Decision-making in business is never simple, but this paper demonstrates how to select customers and define the main service concept.

Bibliography

Business Insider, 2020, S. Bence, "I'm a pet sitter whose business has been decimated by COVID-19 – here's what I'm doing to protect myself and stay financially afloat." Chang, E. (2019). How to maintain composure and continue traveling with your adult children. The Washington Post. Web. Gerdeman, D. (2020) How the coronavirus is already reshaping business's future. Should you engage the services of a home sitter? Poeppelbuss, J., and Lubarski, A. (2019). "Modularity canvas – a framework for visualizing service modularity's potentials," 14th International Conference on Wirtschaftsinformatics. Association for Information System, Siegen, Germany, February 24-27, 2010, AIS eLibrary, pages 706-720. Renda, A., and Castro, R., "Towards stronger EU governance of health threats following the COVID-19 pandemic," European Journal of Risk Regulation, vol. 9, no. 1, pp. 1-10, 2020. doi: 10.1017/err.2020.34 Suk Ha, G. C., et al. (2018). "Does the work–family balance of single and married women differ? 7 Journal of Tourism & Hospitality, "Case study of Macau's frontline employees" (356). doi: 10.4172/2167-0269.1000356

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Corporate Social Responsibility: Cambridge Analytica Cbest Essay Help

Corporate Social Responsibility is a vast and controversial subject that focuses on the operations of corporations. The primary argument of its proponents is that firms must act in a way that helps both their bottom line and the community. The specifics vary from instance to case, and it is difficult to define the precise effects of implementing socially responsible corporate policy. Corporate Social Responsibility is becoming a lucrative marketing tool for some companies and a reason to boycott others. This is the only certainty.

The Cambridge Analytica case may be one of the most serious recent online data privacy disasters. The corporation based in the United Kingdom was accused of obtaining the Facebook data of tens of millions of users and modifying their Facebook experience to promote particular political conduct. The case has far-reaching repercussions for the sanctity of people's internet privacy and their fundamental freedom of choice with regard to politics or anything else. Cambridge Analytica collected Facebook user data that was associated with their likes and dislikes, reactions to specific concepts, and personality factors. The firm assessed these characteristics and sent customized messages to users, especially around the 2016 presidential election. According to Confessore (2018), the corporation intended to promote pro-Trump messaging to increase his popularity in the United States and to bolster pro-Brexit stances in the United Kingdom. According to the evidence of the Cambridge Analytica whistleblower, this was the company's business strategy (Tillett, 2018). Instead than being a malicious political plan, as one might imagine, it was a paid user manipulation program.

It appears that anyone might influence digital advertisements shown to users by utilizing data obtained by Facebook and neighboring analytical firms. The incident has terrible consequences for the whole digital advertising sector. It is plausible that brands may utilize the abundance of user data to precisely target specific messages to specific audiences through specific media. Collecting information such as personality traits, detailed demographics, and preferences without the user's agreement is unethical. Even more unethical is using it to manipulate opinions and frame specific products or political candidates in a manipulative manner. It is reasonable to infer that "not spying on people against their will" falls within the scope of the majority of Corporate Social Responsibility definitions.

Several parties in the Cambridge Analytica case stood to benefit from the ethics violation. As that looked to be their business model, Cambridge Analytica and SCL Group, of which Cambridge Analytica was a part, stood to earn the most from using the data. Second, the Republican party in the United States, Donald Trump, and pro-Brexit politicians in the United Kingdom were using the company's services. Millions of Facebook users, whose data was acquired by Cambridge Analytica, were a significant shareholder because their entire personalities were molded as a commercial product and, potentially, an asset in a so-called culture war. Facebook itself has a stake in the controversy because it acquired all of the data for its own purposes. While Cambridge Analytica is definitely culpable, it pales in comparison to Facebook, which exploited its vast user base for questionable research and social experiments.

It may be challenging to define internet data privacy as Corporate Social Responsibility. Most individuals believe that Corporate Social Responsibility entails adopting positive business practices that are extraneous to the business model. Examples include charitable projects, community development initiatives, and employee benefit enhancements. Ensuring data security and online privacy during website use may be compared to making phones that do not explode in the hands of the user or cough medicine that does not cause cancer. However, Carroll's CSR Pyramid depicts multiple tiers of social responsibility, including legal accountability and ethical responsibility (Dudovskiy, 2012). Legally, users have the right to freedom of expression and privacy, which Facebook's non-consensual data collection and selective suppression and amplification of political statements may breach. Due to the issue's novelty, the legal aspect may be questionable, but it is unethical and detrimental, which fits neatly inside the ethical responsibility section of the CSR Pyramid.

A cynical viewpoint holds that corporations do not engage in Corporate Social Responsibility out of altruism. Oftentimes, the PR crisis and the falling stock price are the impetus for adopting these strategies (Corporate social responsibility, 2009). It appears to be the case with Facebook, as the firm is infamous for doing unethical research on the public without their knowledge. In this instance, the crisis was not the illicit acquisition of detailed personal information on tens of millions of living, breathing people by rogue actors. The difficulty was that they were discovered doing it, and Cambridge Analytica lost clients as a result of public outcry. Adopting an ethically responsible privacy policy would be nothing more than damage control for them.

Adopting a policy that prohibits the collection of excessive quantities of data should be a simple choice for every organization with a digital presence. The data-driven digital advertising market is worth hundreds of billions of dollars, so it should be, but it is not (Enberg, 2019). For wise business management, everything from consumer demographics to social media engagement analytics are essential assets. According to Orlitzky (2013), there is no definite answer to the question of whether Corporate Social Responsibility is advantageous, has no effect, or might even be detrimental to a corporation. Whether or not to draw a line on gathering specific user data, whether or not to spend ever-increasing sums of money on cybersecurity, and whether or not to address ethical issues at all are unsolvable challenges. Facebook has been maligned by the media and even by its users, but it remains an enormously profitable corporation that is the second-largest player in the digital advertising market (Enberg, 2019). However, a loss of public trust might ruin a smaller business, as was the case with Cambridge Analytica.

After being accused of an ethical violation, we had a lengthy conversation about our priorities. We realized that we are not Facebook, and that the real individuals who work for our company are uncomfortable with treating the user base as a commodity. We learned that we are not Cambridge Analytica, and we will not base our business model on immoral and illegal manipulation. We are revising our security processes and attempting to acquire as little data as our minimal economic requirements will permit. There are privacy difficulties caused by bad actors and there are privacy issues that are designed into a business. We will safeguard anything that can be abused as a result of the former, and we will eliminate everything that can serve as an illustration of the latter. Because it is our ethical obligation to do so, we shall do everything possible to make our clients feel protected and secure.

References

Confessore, N. (2018). Cambridge Analytica and Facebook: the crisis and the repercussions Web.

The social responsibility of businesses (2009). Web.

Dudovskiy, J. (2012). The applications of Carroll's CSR Pyramid to small and medium-sized organizations. Web.

Enberg, J. (2019). Global Digital Ad Spending 2019. Web.

Orlitzky, M. (2013). Corporate social responsibility, noise, and the volatility of the stock market. 27(3) Academy of Management Perspectives: 238-254

Tillett, E. (2018). Christopher Wylie asserts that Bannon sought "weapons" to conduct a "culture war" at Cambridge Analytica. Web.

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McDonald’s Organization: Operation Management Cbest Essay Help

Introduction

McDonald’s is currently the largest and most successful restaurant business in the world, serving around fifty-eight million customers daily. This is evidenced by the company's share price, which has remained consistent at roughly $50 per share and average daily trading volume of nearly 10 million shares on the New York Stock Exchange. Comparable competitors include Burger King, whose share price trades at approximately $ 21 and whose average daily volume on the same stock exchange is approximately 1.5 million shares (Blake, 2009). It operates through the sale of French fries, cheeseburgers, hamburgers, hotdogs, chicken and chicken products, salads, fruits, wraps, desserts, milkshakes, and soft drinks, among other items. This outstanding culinary selection is accompanied by playgrounds, advertising, luxury lounges, and fireplaces (in some locations) in their extensive restaurant chain.

Since its founding in 1940, this restaurant chain has achieved unprecedented growth in foreign markets, becoming a key emblem of commercial globalization. Some McDonald's restaurant locations are operated by the firm directly, while others are franchised or operated by affiliates. According to statistics on McDonald's Corporation's website, around 75% of McDonald's locations are franchised, while the remainder are company-owned. Their primary source of revenue is franchising, which pays their rent and shares a portion of their profits. These collections contribute to the revenue generated through the sale of their delicious products.

This company was created on the Speedy Service (Speedee Service) model, which provided the foundation for contemporary fast-food eateries. Currently, McDonald's operates more than 31,000 locations across the globe, which accounts for approximately 1.5 million jobs. Diversification has resulted in the acquisition of additional brands, including Pret (formerly Pret a Manger) and Piles Café. (Lisa, 2007)

This paper will attempt to analyze McDonald's Operations in order to identify the operations management techniques utilized by this multinational organization. This paper will focus mostly on the following operations management concepts:

Human Resource Management and Job Design Supply chain administration JIT procedures with Inventory control Quality administration Maintenance Location Capacity Management and Planning

McDonald's has a highly competent operating system, kitchen, and management in terms of operation management in order to serve a large volume of consumers. As time passes and market needs broaden, consumers have gotten more mobile and discerning; as a result, people's schedules have shifted, and they can now eat at any time. They desire a greater variety of eating options. Since their inception, speed has been one of these businesses' primary goals. An article in Fortune magazine (Fortune, 2002) included a document accusing McDonald's franchisees of an alarmingly high percentage of bad service performance. This included lack of professionalism, inadequate customer service, and delayed service. When approached for comments, one of the CEOs, Jack Greenberg, admitted that there were issues with service delivery quality and customer satisfaction. This fact served as a wake-up call for McDonald's, which devised a plan to continuously examine its operations management standards, which have been revised in 2003, 2005, and 2006, respectively.

Since the publication of the 2004 report on obesity by the House of Commons, there have been a number of adjustments to the typical food contents of fast-food restaurants and other junk food products. As a result of the escalation of obesity, McDonald’s has increased the quantity of nutrition in their products sold in Europe and the United States. This is the result of health-related rules imposed by certain local governments and governing organizations. This is intended to prevent uninformed populations from being unaware of the calorie content of the food they consume (Neumark et al, 2008).

Human Resource Management and Job Design

A company's reputation is made or broken by the quality of the things it manufactures. According to Blake (2009), all of McDonald’s beef is USDA-inspected and has no fillers, additives, or extenders. McDonald’s introduction of fresh tossed salads in 1987, the use of white chicken in the preparation of chicken MCnuggets in 2003, and the much-publicized food nutrition information, which is also required in the UK and US branches due to government regulations and healthy eating concerns are outlined in this review. These foods are sourced from vendors who are routinely inspected and audited and who are authorized to produce these basic materials. These vendors include, among others, Nestlé, Newman's Own, and Golden State Foods.

According to McDonald's CRS report from 2008, the company is collaborating with stakeholders and partners on ethical environmental and social projects. With this, it initiated a push to provide its clients with responsible meals. This entails the ethical distribution of safe foods to all of their locations worldwide. In addition, they use this to improve their services by adopting new regulations when they are enacted by the nations in which they operate.

To make and distribute high-quality goods, however, requires workers of equal caliber. Each McDonald's restaurant is organized as a separate enterprise, with restaurant management responsible for bookkeeping, operations, inventory control, community relations, training, and human resources (Shafer, 1990). Therefore, if a company wants to maintain a positive reputation over the long run, it must hire and retain a high-quality team. The ability to recruit, train, and retain a high-quality workforce is therefore of the utmost importance for a company like McDonald's that offers a wide variety of personal services.

McDonald&amp Typically, a McDonald's restaurant has up to sixty staff (Peter, 2009). The majority of these workers referred to as "crew members" are compensated on an hourly basis. They are primarily responsible for preparing the cuisine, serving the guests, and performing activities to ensure the restaurants' smooth operation. The exceptional restaurant employees are those whose names appear on the pay stub. It is their absolute responsibility to ensure quality management of the restaurant's business, operations, and staff performance.

Effective personnel are the key to success at McDonald's since client happiness is contingent on their skills, obligations, and methods. Therefore, the professionalism of the personnel is the most important asset of the organization. As a result of this understanding, the company endeavors to provide world-class services to its clients and to recruit, train, and retain world-class personnel. To attain this purpose, the organization has determined the fundamental talents and behaviors that applicants must possess. For each accessible position, there is a detailed explanation of the duties that outlines the responsibilities of each employee according to his or her competency and talents.

McDonald's advertises the restaurant's vacant hourly-paying positions in order to recruit new employees. Additionally, the company utilizes local employment centers, career fairs, and other local resources. The bulk of salaried management jobs are filled by elevating hourly employees, while the remainder are filled by recent college graduates (Lisa, 2007) A worker hiring activity is typically characterized by numerous applications for positions other than those already available. The manager will choose the most qualified candidates for an interview. It is crucial that effective employment materials convey a clear message to the appropriate applicant pool.

McDonald's produces an interview guide to assist its interviewing staff in predicting how an applicant's behavioral pattern would affect his or her future performance. It employs a decision-making procedure that is fact-based. The questions are based on actual events and situations, as opposed to those that permit candidates to submit hypothetical responses. The panel of interviewers looks for behavioural evidence that can be gleaned from the applicant's life history, as well as attributes that align well with the job's needs. The panel evaluates prospective employees based on their responses, and then offers employment to the most promising prospects with the highest ratings.

After selecting qualified candidates who pass the interview, they undergo training. Shift Management, Systems Management, Restaurant Leadership, and Business Leadership are the four pillars of a curriculum designed by the administration (Lisa, 2007). McDonald's recruitment and staff retention strategy is predicated on the premise that the company's success rests in the hands of people to whom they have delegated the different responsibilities outlined in their mission statement. The objective of this rigorous recruitment process is to hire the most qualified candidates on the job market, work hard to keep them by providing position-specific ongoing training, and promote them when they are ready. The company's employee hiring procedures, practices, and policies are tailored to its pursuit of its objectives.

Supply Chain Administration

The supply chain consists of all the facilities, functions, and operations involved in the production processes and the shipment of finished goods or services from suppliers (and those who supply them) to customers (and those they sell to). It also comprises the planning and management of supply, demand, the acquisition of raw materials, production activities, and the scheduling and rescheduling of the product or service, as well as warehousing, inventory control and management, distribution to customers, delivery, and customer support. In supply management, the greatest obstacle is learning to deal with uncertainty. The objective of supply chain management is to reduce uncertainty while coordinating supply activities. (Joseph 2001)

McDonald's is one of the organizations whose supply chain management is exemplary. McDonald's has effectively established a network of suppliers in locations that are unreachable to the majority of businesses. In order to accomplish this, McDonald's has set extremely precise requirements for its food products and requires that all final goods retain a very high level of uniformity, such that a hamburger in Eastern-Europe tastes identical to one in North America. In addition, they have a strategy of purchasing materials from nearby groups. It took McDonald's nine years to establish a network of suppliers in Russia, but the Moscow restaurant is now one of the most successful in the country. The following statistics from McDonald's news release demonstrate the company's international business success. According to a press release, McDonald's January comparable sales increased by segment as follows:

U.S. up 5.4% Europe up 7.1% Asia/Pacific, Middle East, and Africa increased by 10.2%.

The research revealed that the company's global comparable sales increased by 7.1% in January. This information was provided to the media and posted to their website on February 9, 2009, by Jim Skinner, the company's chief executive officer.

Moreover, McDonald's suppliers play a crucial role in their performance by delivering excellent products at competitive costs. Typically, Ray Kroc's thinking is represented by a three-legged figure. The first leg represents McDonald's, the second leg represents their franchisee partners, and the final leg represents their suppliers and partners (Beatrice, 2001). The stool's stability on its three legs demonstrates the importance McDonald's places on its suppliers, who are treated as members of their team.

Just-in-time methods and inventory control

JIT is a theory employed in operations management, particularly by the manufacturing sector, to eliminate material wastes and help them increase the overall efficiency and effectiveness of their output. It is intended to reduce waste materials from any production process that may increase costs without diminishing output quality. These operations may involve the transportation of raw materials, the storage of undesired inventory, and the use of inefficient production equipment and practices that result in excessive costs. This attitude is sometimes referred to as lean production (which typically expedites a production process while decreasing losses and maximizing facility utilization) or stockless production (ordering stocks only when you need them hence no stocks are held). (Beatrice, 2001)

The combination of these two strategies should increase profit margins and investment return by reducing inventory. In the meantime, raising a company's inventory turnover rate, thereby lowering unpredictability, enhancing product quality, and shortening production cycle periods and dispatch lead times in order to reduce other costs associated with maintenance and stock holdings. In addition, JIT employs a hedging approach that ensures surplus capacity is utilized rather than stockpiling for the future, which could cause problems in the future. (Beatrice, 2001)

JIT pertains to repetitive procedures, such as a production cycle or process, in which the same products and components are utilized repeatedly. McDonald's has demonstrated outstanding performance in implementing JIT. McDonald's JIT system is designed in such a way that they do not begin cooking, reheating, or assembling food prior to a consumer placing an order (Atkinson, 2005). McDonald’s used to cook hamburgers prior to receiving orders and store them under heat retainers for an extended period of time, leading to the final disposal of unsold product.

McDonald's has invested in burger-cooking ovens with a high-tech bun toaster as a result of technical improvement. With this technology, they are able to cook and reheat food in record time, allowing them to handle customer orders while they wait. The goal behind this is to expedite the delivery of a client's order while minimizing the finished product's time in inventory.

McDonald's is now able to provide customers superior cuisine at a significantly lesser price. Costs are decreased as a result of lower food deterioration rates, reducing the overall cost of ordering and maintaining inventories in the stores while maintaining a suitable level of safety stock. McDonald&amp (Lisa, 2007). Eventually, this, paired with the ability to reduce safety stock margins, is where JIT becomes effective, along with the ability to reduce safety stock margins.

This is obvious from the testing of the new menu at around 600 locations in California. Angus deluxe, Swiss and Angus bacon, Angus mushroom, and Angus cheese were among the new goods. Two years previously, competitors such as Burger King had developed practically identical products. The three-dollar-ninety-ninety-ninety-ninety-ninety-ninety-ninety-ninety-ninety-ninety ninety However, this did not mean they abandoned their conventional offerings (Bird, 2006). The safety stock hence exists because of these fluctuations. JIT aims to reduce both lead times and lead time variations in order to enable the smallest possible safety stock.

Ethics And Governance. Corporate Social Responsibility Cbest Essay Help

There is just one social obligation of business, and that is to employ its resources and engage in profit-maximizing activities.

The integrated idea of 'profit' making relates to the fact that our economy is viewed as a component of the social system, and when it is integrated into society, it includes the economy as one of its components. Only then is it considered that such an economic agent is a complex social actor, and profit-seeking is a multiplex social action with varied objectives and reasons that are both rational and irrational (Zafirovski, 1999).

When we discuss the social responsibility of a corporation, we are referring to the aspect of economics dealing with the creation and distribution of goods and services for market exchange, thereby enhancing the profit motive and contributing to social improvement.

Using corporate resources (money or labor) for other objectives reduces the amount of resources available for the business's economic mission and is therefore an act of social irresponsibility. The ethical and discretionary categories embody the resistance to discretionary social obligation on the right, but are joined by opponents on the left who make the same argument for different reasons.

For instance, Friedman (1971) believed that the growth in the level of living standards in the West can be attributed to the relative flexibility given to entrepreneurs to pursue profit maximization. Numerous other economists and theorists argue that businesspeople best serve the common good by concentrating on the financial return on capital investment. In other words, the sole responsibility of a business towards a society is to maximize profit margin by utilizing the society's resources. They fail to fulfill their core responsibility to society only when they redirect company resources, including their time and experience, into non-business, discretionary social responsibility areas.

The concept of "doing good by doing well" or progressing from "doing good to doing better" in the realm of social responsibility simply means that social responsibility is and should be treated as a corporate investment that will result in a long-term profit for the corporation, rather than an expense. The majority of firms would likely desire to attain this objective, but for many, it may be easier said than done.

Before the concept of "doing good to do better" to be implemented, it must have the full blessing and support of the organization's upper management and be inculcated and supported at every level. According to studies, this may take several years to complete because it is a lengthy educational process. If everyone in the organization does not accept the idea, it is doomed to fail at any stage. If external stakeholders are not properly informed and do not comprehend the concept and processes involved, or if they are not in agreement with it, then the entire program may fail.

The company's principal worries and highest priority also include maintaining its operations in order to maintain employment and creating a suitable return for its owners. Substantial organizations with large planning, policy, and strategy departments may be in a better position to implement the principle of "doing good to do better." On the other hand, smaller and medium-sized businesses with low resources may have significant difficulty applying this concept of social responsibility due to their restricted resources.

Today, it is widely accepted that corporations have social duties that go well beyond what was formerly known as the 'business economic role' (Angelidis & Ibrahim, 1993). However, in the past, managers were typically mainly concerned with the economic consequences of their decisions. In the sake of social responsibility, managers must now analyze and weigh the legal, ethical, moral, and social consequences and implications of each of their decisions (Anderson, 1989, p. 15). Most organizations do not view this area of social responsibility as a major or distinct functional area because it is commonly believed that firms' actions in this area are confined to a single individual or a small workforce.

When examining these competing demands and their impact on the company's revenue and profitability, management must maintain a certain degree of objectivity. Professional decisions must be devoid of hypocrisy and self-deception to a significant degree. This is a difficult assignment since a company believes it engages in philanthropy because others need money, as if it were a wealthy uncle who should share his wealth with the family. In most cases, corporations give because it looks to serve their own interests.

Formulating and implementing socially responsible actions and initiatives is not an easy task for most businesses. However, all businesses must become concerned with and involved in this field, in which everyone must understand and contribute to social responsibility. A business must always comply with international, federal, state, and local laws in order to function without serious disruptions. It must design, adopt, execute, and enforce an ethical and moral conduct code for all organization members (Maignan & Ralston, 2002).

In the area of philanthropic activity, where there is significantly more operational flexibility in how, when, where, and even if the company or division wants to contribute money or other resources to "worthy causes," the company must deliberate and resolve numerous questions before establishing fair and effective guidelines. In contrast to the past, which was governed by "public be damned" attitudes, customers and the broader public nowadays are more aware; consequently, such an attitude is irrelevant.

With a more engaged government and citizenry, corporate social responsibility has grown in importance and concern over the past few decades. In all future management decisions and activities, social responsibility will continue to receive greater time, money, consideration, and care (Anderson, 1989, p. 16). In all of these facets of social responsibility, a variety of management abilities ranging from simple to highly sophisticated are necessary.

The genuine social responsibility of a firm lies with those business managers who, in addition to their social irresponsibility, neglect their obligation to the business owners. In fact, managers who devote commercial resources to social causes do so without the approval of business owners, or, to put it more crudely, they steal from business owners. Therefore, managers are contractually committed to utilize firm resources solely for profit maximization. In addition to their economic responsibilities, managers must abide by the law and the laws of the free market system, such as free competition and fair pricing (Besser, 2002, p. 36).

On a national scale, economic incentives for voluntary social responsibility are favorable treatment by social investors. People who identify as social investors base their investment decisions on the social responsibility of corporations, so partially offsetting the impact of short-term investors whose sole focus in making investment decisions is quarterly earnings statements (Besser, 2002, p. 36).

In other instances, however, it may be costly to engage in subsequent-stage profit-enhancing actions. For instance, economies of scale may discourage the duplication of retail locations and production facilities. Another factor to consider is that established businesses may enjoy favorable relationships with their clients or suppliers. The mere redistribution of profit from adjacent stages cannot be the reason for integration in this instance, as the incumbent firms' monopolistic earnings will be capitalized in their acquisition price. The motivation is that bluffing not only redistributes profit, but also distorts production coordination.

When each party is dishonestly reporting unfavourable conditions, for instance, the production may be set below the level that would maximize the combined earnings of all parties. With integration into a single business, prices no longer redistribute profits, and bluffing no longer provides a strategic advantage. No longer must information be encoded in offer prices; it can be sent directly as factual information to the company's headquarters (Casson, 2001, p. 18).

Social responsibility is also based on ethical principles. If the sole purpose of the corporation is to maximize the owner's wealth, however, it is difficult to see why they should adhere to it on an ethical level. Individual self-interest is likely to be inhibited, however, if profit maximization is presented as a means to an end that is ethically superior. Specifically, material self-interest holds far less weight when self-interest is interpreted more broadly in terms of the gratification of assisting to accomplish this higher aim.

As they influence both the absolute level of performance and the relative performance of different sectors, social institutions have huge policy implications for social responsibility. Since these organizations are not profit-driven, the moral conviction of its founders is perhaps more vital to the national economy than their conventional business acumen.

A society must foster social leadership in order to construct and maintain social institutions that foster trust. Therefore, a society that prioritizes the pursuit of profit to the exclusion of all other goals is likely to lose in the long run, as it will weaken these institutions and be unable to take advantage of contractual arrangements that demand high levels of trust (Casson, 2001, p. 145). Profitable business therefore does not require an exclusive emphasis on the pursuit of profit, but rather a balanced moral system in which profit considerations guide the selection of efficient means by its firms and business networks, but which is ultimately driven by the non-profit ends of its social institutions.

Considering business in terms of simple cause-and-effect, this would appear to be a straightforward issue, as social responsibility entails minimizing resource use and maximizing value creation. Maximal productivity should be the objective in every circumstance, but it's not quite that straightforward. Quantity and quality are not always synonymous, whether it's sugar in your coffee, drugs to treat illness, or company profits (Hansen & Christensen, 1995, p. 51).

With corporate social responsibility comes a defining characteristic of economic globalization: the emergence of new international firms with greater managerial control and coordination mechanisms.

According to the concept of economic globalisation, multinational companies (MNCs) are composed of global citizens who do not identify with any nation. Hirst and Thompson (1999) examine the annual reports of the world's major firms to determine if they are actually free of economic bias favoring their home country. The researchers stress the difficulty of cross-cultural comparisons due to the fact that corporations report the same operations differently within the same country, and legal reporting methods might vary substantially between nations.

Despite all the conjecture about globalization, examinations of the location of assets, sales, and profit production indicate that multinational firms still rely on their home base as the center of their economic activity. In other words, even if these organizations operate in international markets, they continue to prioritize their home country in terms of sales, assets, innovation, and leadership.

It makes perfect sense for a corporation to consider variable capital as the source of surplus value. To generate a profit, the employer has the authority to command the worker at the point of production, ensuring that commodities are utilised efficiently. Often, while acquiring an intermediate item, a corporation intends to assist an employer in extracting surplus value from the labor engaged at the project site. However, the intermediate good does not provide surplus value (Perelman, 2000, p. 66).

Due to management's concentration on profit enhancement, competition among internal managers for the same money designated for social responsibility investment will increase. Maintaining both internal company priorities and a sense of social duty requires a delicate balancing act. In the upper right quadrant of the social responsiveness matrix, both social concern and economic and profit concern are maximized.

References

New York: Quorum Books, 1989. Anderson, W. Jerry. Corporate Social Responsibility: Guidelines for Top Management.

Social Demand and Corporate Supply: A Model for Corporate Social Responsibility, by Angelidis P. John and Ibrahim A. Nabil, 1993. In: Review of Business, Vol. 15, No. 1.

The Conscience of Capitalism: Business Social Responsibility to Communities, Westport, Connecticut: Praeger, 2002.

Information and Organization: A New Perspective on the Theory of the Firm. Oxford, England: Oxford University Press, 2001.

Hansen Jon Lund and Per A. Christensen, Invisible Patterns: Ecology and Wisdom in Business and Profit, Quorum Books, Westport, Connecticut, 1995.

"Corporate Social Responsibility in Europe and the U.S.: Insights from Businesses' Self-Presentations," by Isabelle Maignan and David A. Ralston, 2002. In: Journal of International Business Studies, 33(3).

The Invention of Capitalism: Classical Political Economy and the Secret History of Primitive Accumulation. Durham, North Carolina: Duke University Press, 2000.

Zafirovski "Profit-Making as Social Action: An Alternative Social-Economic Perspective," by Milan (1999). In: Review of Social Economy, vol. 57, no. 1,

[supanova question]

Organizational Change And Its Causes Cbest Essay Help

Abstract

Over time, organizational change has become a fundamental aspect of the business. Economic crises, greater rivalry, enhanced production methods, and the rapid growth of developing nations necessitate the development of new attributes for firms that wish to thrive in the contemporary business environment. Change can and should be managed, and the process of implementing changes in businesses and organizations is becoming a new management strategy. When implementing changes in a company, new strategies and comprehensive systems are implemented. By evaluating external trends, role models, and contemporary requirements, managers devise alterations intended to increase the organizations' adaptability. They also gain the ability to adjust to the external environment's demands and capitalize on possibilities. Particularly important are the processes of change in the enterprise's complete working system and organizational structure, including operations, people, and consumers, as well as the models and methodologies employed for their practical execution.

Introduction

Under the market management system, a commercial organization, which is a socially oriented self-organizing system, performs in the severe conditions of a competitive environment with complete economic independence. In this condition, the company's wide efforts are geared toward acquiring and retaining a dominant market share and achieving dominance over rivals. Consequently, the management control of a commercial organization is primarily focused on maintaining the most important performance indicators under modern conditions: the organization's steady market position relative to its competitors, its recognition by market entities, and its public standing. Critically important is the timely adaptation of the organization's production and management processes to a constantly shifting external environment and market conditions. In market conditions marked by high levels of unpredictability and instability of the external environment, successful management of the company necessitates a considerably broader array of strategies. There is significantly more planning and, as a result, more supervised work than in a planned economy.

The major objective of the project is to identify key variables impacting organizational changes and to devise effective solutions for addressing them. In addition, as a result of the deepening of competitive relationships on the global and local markets, rapid technological progress and change, the increasing diversification of company, and the complexity of business initiatives are present. In addition, a commercial organization's administration is extremely complex, which contributes to the complexity of its control systems. Consequently, in contemporary conditions, internal control in numerous organizations resembles a foundation existent at all levels of government. In a larger sense, in a competitive market context, effective managerial control guarantees the organization's success, all else being equal.

Executive Synopsis

The presented study will, in brief, explore and discuss the underlying factors of organizational change. Individuals in corporations have realized that the traditional approach, which entails familiar jobs, work, procedures, and structures, is no longer acceptable. However, managers always view change with skepticism since it introduces uncertainty and destabilizes their lives. A recent study of 210 North American business managers revealed that only a quarter of them viewed their experience implementing organizational change as successful (Smollan & Morrison, 2019). Everyday life provides several examples of how an individual can adapt to virtually any circumstance. However, employees frequently lack an appreciation for the significance and necessity of change for the organization's survival in the modern world, making it difficult for them to adjust to new circumstances. When changes are imposed, this frequently results in the formation of stressful conditions, anxiety, and a sense of future instability.

Principal Issues

A manager must be able to sense what needs to be altered and how to do it most effectively. The topic of the given work is especially pertinent in the current era, when the rapid pace of company development has made resources such as time, their effective utilization, and work efficiency crucial to the sustained success of the firm. Change is one of the few truly permanent aspects of reality in the world. Because everything in the universe is interrelated, a change in one object necessitates a change in another.

Natural disasters, such as earthquakes, tsunamis, and volcanic eruptions, are another example. The origin, or epicenter, of many natural disasters is a single location, although their effects typically span wide territory. As demonstrated by the example, it is impossible to act on a component without impacting the total. What do individuals perceive as a result of these influences? These are examples of resistance and adaptation to change: the ball is attempting to return to its previous shape, earthquakes produce lithospheric plate movements, tsunamis strike the coast, and a volcano spews lava. The entire object is attempting to resist change, and resistance is proportional to counteraction's force; therefore, like in physics, one must prepare to lessen resistance. Change is unavoidable, as evidenced by the aforementioned elements of modifications. Therefore, individuals in business must possess the flexibility to adapt.

Discussion

Similar processes can be found throughout the organization. First, a reason or impetus creates new conditions, then the organization responds to changes or change processes (Suddaby & Foster, 2017). This stage is analogous to when the ball strives to regain its original shape. During this phase, the organization's personnel frequently reflect on how good things were before the modifications were implemented. In addition, the level of resistance is proportionate to the organizational changes that have been implemented. In the end, by adapting to changing conditions, employees of a corporation accept changes and adopt innovations. The model of organizational change can be depicted as a diagram. The order is defined by four factors: the influence of internal and external forces that determine the changes, managers' knowledge of the need for changes, the beginning of changes, and the implementation of changes. Change agents in a company may originate from both the external and internal environments.

There are significant communication hurdles within the organization that impede any effective change. Communication barriers refer to the multiple elements that cause or contribute to conflict. Indeed, communication partners frequently have diverse, and frequently conflicting, goals, aspirations, attitudes, personalities, communication styles, and health problems. There are various forms of communication obstacles, including those that are personal, cultural, organizational, physical, linguistic, and semantic (Watson, Manias, Geddes, Della, & Jones, 2015). Communication barriers are hurdles and interferences that impede the transmission of information and diminish its efficacy. There are a large number of phenomena that negatively affect communication. Personal barriers are processes and phenomena resulting from the unique features of the information transmitter and receiver. Psychological incompatibility of individuals due to differences in temperament, character, level of education, interests, as well as gender, age, professional and life experience; inability to listen to and/or oppose the interlocutor; negative mental state of both or one of the interlocutors are the most common barriers of this type. Organizational obstacles are situations that reveal defects and mistakes in the company's management, as well as the detrimental impact of environmental conditions.

Cultural barriers are factors of a broader context that are historically formed and associated with national identity, traditions, and norms of behavior in individual nations and regions; their ignorance or ignoring can complicate communication and, in some instances, lead to the severing of business relations. Physical barriers are obstructions posed by individuals, objects, or natural phenomena. Language barriers are lexical and grammatical impediments such as poor vocabulary, inadequate speech style, abbreviations, and speech faults (Watson et al., 2015). Semantic barriers are interruptions in communication produced by misinterpretation or misunderstanding of the meaning of information due to the usage of specialized terminology, phraseological units, jargon, idiomatic expressions, and adages. Many lexical and semantic issues can be avoided by adhering to the ideal of simplicity and brevity. Only a speech that is comprehensive and rich in professional jargon can guarantee success. Other sorts of communication impediments include personnel information overload, information concealment by officials, and refusal to tell subordinates.

Solutions

Change implementation is a highly complex and difficult procedure. Employees may "resist" the performance of any new tasks, depending on the initiator of the change, or management may be dubious of innovations and refuse to authorize them. To counter this mentality, managers must attempt to comprehend the root causes of opposition. Employees may believe that the planned changes to labor technology or structure would have a detrimental impact on their status or compensation. Personal loss apprehension is one of the most potent demotivators and foes of innovation (Smollan & Morrison, 2019). It is far preferable to have a course of action than to wander aimlessly.

In the absence of information about future events, uncertainty and anxiety of the unknown result. If an employee is uncertain about the beneficial outcomes of the changes and is unaware of the benefits he or she will obtain as a consequence of the implementation of innovations, he or she will not be encouraged to accept these changes. Managers have the ability to appraise the issue differently than other employees, who may present compelling arguments against the planned improvements. Thus, the different objectives of the organization's departments can lead to disagreements in the execution of changes (Nery et al., 2019). The management is permitted to pursue specific objectives, and the proposed adjustments may impede the achievement of the aims and objectives of another department. In addition, the most appropriate and feasible remedy for the miscommunication in the organization is the coordination of three phases of planned change: unfreeze, change, and refreeze. The specified activity can be taken by employing the force-field analysis paradigm, which identifies major forces that limit and drive organizational change (Watson et al., 2015). Therefore, it is essential to comprehend the major causes of a company's absence of good modifications.

Recommendations

The aforementioned resistances are among the most prevalent. In such circumstances, management should not disregard resistance, but rather recruit change opponents to their side. Analysis of the force field and adaptation-based solutions for overcoming resistance are the most frequently proposed strategies for overcoming resistance. For instance, Kurt Levine invented the notion of force field analysis (Woodman, 2014). This notion is based on the principle of mutual exclusion, which describes encounters between forces that both excite and restrict resistance. The field of impacts analysis illustrates why organizational reforms do not occur. In order to effect a change, managers must examine the ratio of these forces, as the elimination of resistance-inhibiting factors boosts resistance-overcoming forces. Change is driven by the manager's desire to make changes in the organization, the market condition, and technological advancement (Cameron & McNaughtan, 2014).

The forces that prevent change are employees' narrowly vested interests, misunderstanding, lack of trust, and divergent situational assessments. As long as the forces leading to change and the forces preventing change are in balance, the system is in equilibrium. To disrupt the system's equilibrium and effect changes, managers must either raise pressure or reduce resistance (Smollan & Morrison, 2019). During times of crisis and rapid transition, the increased demand might be advantageous. Over extended time periods, a method that weakens resistance is favored.

Recommendation and Result Trails

Strategies, technologies, products, management structure, and business culture may be affected by organizational change. Typically, changes in one area result in modifications to other organizational systems. For instance, the decision to develop a new product will necessitate a technological transition, and the usage of current production technologies will necessitate the retraining of staff (Woodman, 2014). Changes in technology are intimately linked to the industrial process. The objective of technical advancement is to enhance the quality of the organization's products and services. 'Bottom-up' innovation is the norm for technological advancements within a business (Nery et al., 2019). This means that employees suggest improvements to existing technologies in order to develop superior products. Such improvements are not implemented from the top down since upper management is not usually familiar with production and typically lacks expertise in technology development.

Changes in products are alterations to the organization's manufactured items and services. A new product's release to the market signifies the introduction of new technology and client delight. The only distinction is that a new product necessitates the involvement of multiple company departments. Obviously, there are numerous instances in which a new product failed to gain traction on the market, resulting in enormous losses for the corporation. The primary cause of the failure is the ineffective communication between organizational functions (Suddaby & Foster, 2017). A paradigm of horizontal connections was created to tackle this issue. The core concept is that it coordinates the efforts of the research, marketing, and manufacturing departments to create a new product.

The following change type is structural change. These modifications pertain to the organization's management, authority, structural characteristics, and management methods. As managers possess the required abilities and expertise, a top-down strategy is utilized here. This sort of change is initiated by internal forces, such as employee discontentment with the management structure (Woodman, 2014). Through staff training, employee participation in the execution of changes, and agreements, innovations can be accepted. When change “descends from above,” lower-level employees have the right to discuss and participate in the execution of planned innovations.

Review and Evaluation of Outcomes

Changes in culture and people include alterations to employees' values, conventions, beliefs, and conduct, as well as alterations to interpersonal connections. They can be grouped together; the worldview is altered. These modifications are intended to enhance any particular employee abilities, such as teamwork, leadership, responsibility, and social engagement (Suddaby & Foster, 2017). Organizational development is the application of the findings of behavioral science research to create a more positive atmosphere within a team, enhance change adaptation skills, strengthen interpersonal relationships, and solve pressing organizational issues. By monitoring the aforementioned criteria and conducting a thorough analysis of trial results, managers will be able to determine the overall success of the taken actions.

Conclusion

In conclusion, change is essential and unavoidable, and it is ever-present. Occasionally they go unnoticed, and sometimes they become so clear that people begin to fear and resist vehemently. However, people frequently find it challenging to adapt to changes in their everyday lives, whether they are attempting to execute the change themselves or are the unlucky recipients of decisions made by others. They may find change unsettling, threatening, and terrifyingly unexpected. People resist change, and for managers who are already overburdened with current affairs management, change can double their workload. Change management is one of the most essential facets of a modern manager's job.

In order to become a specialist in this industry, managers must have extensive knowledge and experience. The manager must be able to perceive the trends in the growth of the world around him or her, be aware of the significance of changes for his or her organization, and be able to devise a plan for effective change management that takes into consideration every detail. This procedure is not always so gloomy, however. Ideally, implementing changes can provide an opportunity for truly creative activity, particularly if managers participate in the formulation of the change and do not simply adopt the ideas of others. Managers can learn a great deal during the implementation of change.

References

Cameron, K., and J. McNaughtan (2014). Organizational improvement. 50(4), pages 445-462, Journal of Applied Behavioral Science.

Nery, V. de F., Franco, K. S., & Neiva, E. R. (2019). A longitudinal study of the attributes of organizational transformation and its influence on attitudes about organizational change and well-being at work. Applied Behavioral Science: A Journal.

R. K. Smollan and R. L. Morrison (2019). assisting others during a challenging organizational transition. 55(3) Journal of Applied Behavioral Science, pages 327 to 351.

R. Suddaby and W. M. Foster (2017). The past and organizational evolution. Management Journal, 43(1), 19-38.

Watson, Brian M., E. Manias, F. Geddes, P. Della, and D. Jones (2015). An examination of clinical handover miscommunication from a linguistic and social psychology perspective. 34(6) Language and Social Psychology Journal: 687-701

Woodman, Robert W. (2014). The study and practice of organizational transformation. The Journal of Applied Behavioral Science, fifty-fourth edition, pages 463-477.

[supanova question]

Organizational Change And Its Causes Cbest Essay Help

Abstract

Over time, organizational change has become a fundamental aspect of the business. Economic crises, greater rivalry, enhanced production methods, and the rapid growth of developing nations necessitate the development of new attributes for firms that wish to thrive in the contemporary business environment. Change can and should be managed, and the process of implementing changes in businesses and organizations is becoming a new management strategy. When implementing changes in a company, new strategies and comprehensive systems are implemented. By evaluating external trends, role models, and contemporary requirements, managers devise alterations intended to increase the organizations' adaptability. They also gain the ability to adjust to the external environment's demands and capitalize on possibilities. Particularly important are the processes of change in the enterprise's complete working system and organizational structure, including operations, people, and consumers, as well as the models and methodologies employed for their practical execution.

Introduction

Under the market management system, a commercial organization, which is a socially oriented self-organizing system, performs in the severe conditions of a competitive environment with complete economic independence. In this condition, the company's wide efforts are geared toward acquiring and retaining a dominant market share and achieving dominance over rivals. Consequently, the management control of a commercial organization is primarily focused on maintaining the most important performance indicators under modern conditions: the organization's steady market position relative to its competitors, its recognition by market entities, and its public standing. Critically important is the timely adaptation of the organization's production and management processes to a constantly shifting external environment and market conditions. In market conditions marked by high levels of unpredictability and instability of the external environment, successful management of the company necessitates a considerably broader array of strategies. There is significantly more planning and, as a result, more supervised work than in a planned economy.

The major objective of the project is to identify key variables impacting organizational changes and to devise effective solutions for addressing them. In addition, as a result of the deepening of competitive relationships on the global and local markets, rapid technological progress and change, the increasing diversification of company, and the complexity of business initiatives are present. In addition, a commercial organization's administration is extremely complex, which contributes to the complexity of its control systems. Consequently, in contemporary conditions, internal control in numerous organizations resembles a foundation existent at all levels of government. In a larger sense, in a competitive market context, effective managerial control guarantees the organization's success, all else being equal.

Executive Synopsis

The presented study will, in brief, explore and discuss the underlying factors of organizational change. Individuals in corporations have realized that the traditional approach, which entails familiar jobs, work, procedures, and structures, is no longer acceptable. However, managers always view change with skepticism since it introduces uncertainty and destabilizes their lives. A recent study of 210 North American business managers revealed that only a quarter of them viewed their experience implementing organizational change as successful (Smollan & Morrison, 2019). Everyday life provides several examples of how an individual can adapt to virtually any circumstance. However, employees frequently lack an appreciation for the significance and necessity of change for the organization's survival in the modern world, making it difficult for them to adjust to new circumstances. When changes are imposed, this frequently results in the formation of stressful conditions, anxiety, and a sense of future instability.

Principal Issues

A manager must be able to sense what needs to be altered and how to do it most effectively. The topic of the given work is especially pertinent in the current era, when the rapid pace of company development has made resources such as time, their effective utilization, and work efficiency crucial to the sustained success of the firm. Change is one of the few truly permanent aspects of reality in the world. Because everything in the universe is interrelated, a change in one object necessitates a change in another.

Natural disasters, such as earthquakes, tsunamis, and volcanic eruptions, are another example. The origin, or epicenter, of many natural disasters is a single location, although their effects typically span wide territory. As demonstrated by the example, it is impossible to act on a component without impacting the total. What do individuals perceive as a result of these influences? These are examples of resistance and adaptation to change: the ball is attempting to return to its previous shape, earthquakes produce lithospheric plate movements, tsunamis strike the coast, and a volcano spews lava. The entire object is attempting to resist change, and resistance is proportional to counteraction's force; therefore, like in physics, one must prepare to lessen resistance. Change is unavoidable, as evidenced by the aforementioned elements of modifications. Therefore, individuals in business must possess the flexibility to adapt.

Discussion

Similar processes can be found throughout the organization. First, a reason or impetus creates new conditions, then the organization responds to changes or change processes (Suddaby & Foster, 2017). This stage is analogous to when the ball strives to regain its original shape. During this phase, the organization's personnel frequently reflect on how good things were before the modifications were implemented. In addition, the level of resistance is proportionate to the organizational changes that have been implemented. In the end, by adapting to changing conditions, employees of a corporation accept changes and adopt innovations. The model of organizational change can be depicted as a diagram. The order is defined by four factors: the influence of internal and external forces that determine the changes, managers' knowledge of the need for changes, the beginning of changes, and the implementation of changes. Change agents in a company may originate from both the external and internal environments.

There are significant communication hurdles within the organization that impede any effective change. Communication barriers refer to the multiple elements that cause or contribute to conflict. Indeed, communication partners frequently have diverse, and frequently conflicting, goals, aspirations, attitudes, personalities, communication styles, and health problems. There are various forms of communication obstacles, including those that are personal, cultural, organizational, physical, linguistic, and semantic (Watson, Manias, Geddes, Della, & Jones, 2015). Communication barriers are hurdles and interferences that impede the transmission of information and diminish its efficacy. There are a large number of phenomena that negatively affect communication. Personal barriers are processes and phenomena resulting from the unique features of the information transmitter and receiver. Psychological incompatibility of individuals due to differences in temperament, character, level of education, interests, as well as gender, age, professional and life experience; inability to listen to and/or oppose the interlocutor; negative mental state of both or one of the interlocutors are the most common barriers of this type. Organizational obstacles are situations that reveal defects and mistakes in the company's management, as well as the detrimental impact of environmental conditions.

Cultural barriers are factors of a broader context that are historically formed and associated with national identity, traditions, and norms of behavior in individual nations and regions; their ignorance or ignoring can complicate communication and, in some instances, lead to the severing of business relations. Physical barriers are obstructions posed by individuals, objects, or natural phenomena. Language barriers are lexical and grammatical impediments such as poor vocabulary, inadequate speech style, abbreviations, and speech faults (Watson et al., 2015). Semantic barriers are interruptions in communication produced by misinterpretation or misunderstanding of the meaning of information due to the usage of specialized terminology, phraseological units, jargon, idiomatic expressions, and adages. Many lexical and semantic issues can be avoided by adhering to the ideal of simplicity and brevity. Only a speech that is comprehensive and rich in professional jargon can guarantee success. Other sorts of communication impediments include personnel information overload, information concealment by officials, and refusal to tell subordinates.

Solutions

Change implementation is a highly complex and difficult procedure. Employees may "resist" the performance of any new tasks, depending on the initiator of the change, or management may be dubious of innovations and refuse to authorize them. To counter this mentality, managers must attempt to comprehend the root causes of opposition. Employees may believe that the planned changes to labor technology or structure would have a detrimental impact on their status or compensation. Personal loss apprehension is one of the most potent demotivators and foes of innovation (Smollan & Morrison, 2019). It is far preferable to have a course of action than to wander aimlessly.

In the absence of information about future events, uncertainty and anxiety of the unknown result. If an employee is uncertain about the beneficial outcomes of the changes and is unaware of the benefits he or she will obtain as a consequence of the implementation of innovations, he or she will not be encouraged to accept these changes. Managers have the ability to appraise the issue differently than other employees, who may present compelling arguments against the planned improvements. Thus, the different objectives of the organization's departments can lead to disagreements in the execution of changes (Nery et al., 2019). The management is permitted to pursue specific objectives, and the proposed adjustments may impede the achievement of the aims and objectives of another department. In addition, the most appropriate and feasible remedy for the miscommunication in the organization is the coordination of three phases of planned change: unfreeze, change, and refreeze. The specified activity can be taken by employing the force-field analysis paradigm, which identifies major forces that limit and drive organizational change (Watson et al., 2015). Therefore, it is essential to comprehend the major causes of a company's absence of good modifications.

Recommendations

The aforementioned resistances are among the most prevalent. In such circumstances, management should not disregard resistance, but rather recruit change opponents to their side. Analysis of the force field and adaptation-based solutions for overcoming resistance are the most frequently proposed strategies for overcoming resistance. For instance, Kurt Levine invented the notion of force field analysis (Woodman, 2014). This notion is based on the principle of mutual exclusion, which describes encounters between forces that both excite and restrict resistance. The field of impacts analysis illustrates why organizational reforms do not occur. In order to effect a change, managers must examine the ratio of these forces, as the elimination of resistance-inhibiting factors boosts resistance-overcoming forces. Change is driven by the manager's desire to make changes in the organization, the market condition, and technological advancement (Cameron & McNaughtan, 2014).

The forces that prevent change are employees' narrowly vested interests, misunderstanding, lack of trust, and divergent situational assessments. As long as the forces leading to change and the forces preventing change are in balance, the system is in equilibrium. To disrupt the system's equilibrium and effect changes, managers must either raise pressure or reduce resistance (Smollan & Morrison, 2019). During times of crisis and rapid transition, the increased demand might be advantageous. Over extended time periods, a method that weakens resistance is favored.

Recommendation and Result Trails

Strategies, technologies, products, management structure, and business culture may be affected by organizational change. Typically, changes in one area result in modifications to other organizational systems. For instance, the decision to develop a new product will necessitate a technological transition, and the usage of current production technologies will necessitate the retraining of staff (Woodman, 2014). Changes in technology are intimately linked to the industrial process. The objective of technical advancement is to enhance the quality of the organization's products and services. 'Bottom-up' innovation is the norm for technological advancements within a business (Nery et al., 2019). This means that employees suggest improvements to existing technologies in order to develop superior products. Such improvements are not implemented from the top down since upper management is not usually familiar with production and typically lacks expertise in technology development.

Changes in products are alterations to the organization's manufactured items and services. A new product's release to the market signifies the introduction of new technology and client delight. The only distinction is that a new product necessitates the involvement of multiple company departments. Obviously, there are numerous instances in which a new product failed to gain traction on the market, resulting in enormous losses for the corporation. The primary cause of the failure is the ineffective communication between organizational functions (Suddaby & Foster, 2017). A paradigm of horizontal connections was created to tackle this issue. The core concept is that it coordinates the efforts of the research, marketing, and manufacturing departments to create a new product.

The following change type is structural change. These modifications pertain to the organization's management, authority, structural characteristics, and management methods. As managers possess the required abilities and expertise, a top-down strategy is utilized here. This sort of change is initiated by internal forces, such as employee discontentment with the management structure (Woodman, 2014). Through staff training, employee participation in the execution of changes, and agreements, innovations can be accepted. When change “descends from above,” lower-level employees have the right to discuss and participate in the execution of planned innovations.

Review and Evaluation of Outcomes

Changes in culture and people include alterations to employees' values, conventions, beliefs, and conduct, as well as alterations to interpersonal connections. They can be grouped together; the worldview is altered. These modifications are intended to enhance any particular employee abilities, such as teamwork, leadership, responsibility, and social engagement (Suddaby & Foster, 2017). Organizational development is the application of the findings of behavioral science research to create a more positive atmosphere within a team, enhance change adaptation skills, strengthen interpersonal relationships, and solve pressing organizational issues. By monitoring the aforementioned criteria and conducting a thorough analysis of trial results, managers will be able to determine the overall success of the taken actions.

Conclusion

In conclusion, change is essential and unavoidable, and it is ever-present. Occasionally they go unnoticed, and sometimes they become so clear that people begin to fear and resist vehemently. However, people frequently find it challenging to adapt to changes in their everyday lives, whether they are attempting to execute the change themselves or are the unlucky recipients of decisions made by others. They may find change unsettling, threatening, and terrifyingly unexpected. People resist change, and for managers who are already overburdened with current affairs management, change can double their workload. Change management is one of the most essential facets of a modern manager's job.

In order to become a specialist in this industry, managers must have extensive knowledge and experience. The manager must be able to perceive the trends in the growth of the world around him or her, be aware of the significance of changes for his or her organization, and be able to devise a plan for effective change management that takes into consideration every detail. This procedure is not always so gloomy, however. Ideally, implementing changes can provide an opportunity for truly creative activity, particularly if managers participate in the formulation of the change and do not simply adopt the ideas of others. Managers can learn a great deal during the implementation of change.

References

Cameron, K., and J. McNaughtan (2014). Organizational improvement. 50(4), pages 445-462, Journal of Applied Behavioral Science.

Nery, V. de F., Franco, K. S., & Neiva, E. R. (2019). A longitudinal study of the attributes of organizational transformation and its influence on attitudes about organizational change and well-being at work. Applied Behavioral Science: A Journal.

R. K. Smollan and R. L. Morrison (2019). assisting others during a challenging organizational transition. 55(3) Journal of Applied Behavioral Science, pages 327 to 351.

R. Suddaby and W. M. Foster (2017). The past and organizational evolution. Management Journal, 43(1), 19-38.

Watson, Brian M., E. Manias, F. Geddes, P. Della, and D. Jones (2015). An examination of clinical handover miscommunication from a linguistic and social psychology perspective. 34(6) Language and Social Psychology Journal: 687-701

Woodman, Robert W. (2014). The study and practice of organizational transformation. The Journal of Applied Behavioral Science, fifty-fourth edition, pages 463-477.

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Organizational Change And Its Causes Cbest Essay Help

Abstract

Over time, organizational change has become a fundamental aspect of the business. Economic crises, greater rivalry, enhanced production methods, and the rapid growth of developing nations necessitate the development of new attributes for firms that wish to thrive in the contemporary business environment. Change can and should be managed, and the process of implementing changes in businesses and organizations is becoming a new management strategy. When implementing changes in a company, new strategies and comprehensive systems are implemented. By evaluating external trends, role models, and contemporary requirements, managers devise alterations intended to increase the organizations' adaptability. They also gain the ability to adjust to the external environment's demands and capitalize on possibilities. Particularly important are the processes of change in the enterprise's complete working system and organizational structure, including operations, people, and consumers, as well as the models and methodologies employed for their practical execution.

Introduction

Under the market management system, a commercial organization, which is a socially oriented self-organizing system, performs in the severe conditions of a competitive environment with complete economic independence. In this condition, the company's wide efforts are geared toward acquiring and retaining a dominant market share and achieving dominance over rivals. Consequently, the management control of a commercial organization is primarily focused on maintaining the most important performance indicators under modern conditions: the organization's steady market position relative to its competitors, its recognition by market entities, and its public standing. Critically important is the timely adaptation of the organization's production and management processes to a constantly shifting external environment and market conditions. In market conditions marked by high levels of unpredictability and instability of the external environment, successful management of the company necessitates a considerably broader array of strategies. There is significantly more planning and, as a result, more supervised work than in a planned economy.

The major objective of the project is to identify key variables impacting organizational changes and to devise effective solutions for addressing them. In addition, as a result of the deepening of competitive relationships on the global and local markets, rapid technological progress and change, the increasing diversification of company, and the complexity of business initiatives are present. In addition, a commercial organization's administration is extremely complex, which contributes to the complexity of its control systems. Consequently, in contemporary conditions, internal control in numerous organizations resembles a foundation existent at all levels of government. In a larger sense, in a competitive market context, effective managerial control guarantees the organization's success, all else being equal.

Executive Synopsis

The presented study will, in brief, explore and discuss the underlying factors of organizational change. Individuals in corporations have realized that the traditional approach, which entails familiar jobs, work, procedures, and structures, is no longer acceptable. However, managers always view change with skepticism since it introduces uncertainty and destabilizes their lives. A recent study of 210 North American business managers revealed that only a quarter of them viewed their experience implementing organizational change as successful (Smollan & Morrison, 2019). Everyday life provides several examples of how an individual can adapt to virtually any circumstance. However, employees frequently lack an appreciation for the significance and necessity of change for the organization's survival in the modern world, making it difficult for them to adjust to new circumstances. When changes are imposed, this frequently results in the formation of stressful conditions, anxiety, and a sense of future instability.

Principal Issues

A manager must be able to sense what needs to be altered and how to do it most effectively. The topic of the given work is especially pertinent in the current era, when the rapid pace of company development has made resources such as time, their effective utilization, and work efficiency crucial to the sustained success of the firm. Change is one of the few truly permanent aspects of reality in the world. Because everything in the universe is interrelated, a change in one object necessitates a change in another.

Natural disasters, such as earthquakes, tsunamis, and volcanic eruptions, are another example. The origin, or epicenter, of many natural disasters is a single location, although their effects typically span wide territory. As demonstrated by the example, it is impossible to act on a component without impacting the total. What do individuals perceive as a result of these influences? These are examples of resistance and adaptation to change: the ball is attempting to return to its previous shape, earthquakes produce lithospheric plate movements, tsunamis strike the coast, and a volcano spews lava. The entire object is attempting to resist change, and resistance is proportional to counteraction's force; therefore, like in physics, one must prepare to lessen resistance. Change is unavoidable, as evidenced by the aforementioned elements of modifications. Therefore, individuals in business must possess the flexibility to adapt.

Discussion

Similar processes can be found throughout the organization. First, a reason or impetus creates new conditions, then the organization responds to changes or change processes (Suddaby & Foster, 2017). This stage is analogous to when the ball strives to regain its original shape. During this phase, the organization's personnel frequently reflect on how good things were before the modifications were implemented. In addition, the level of resistance is proportionate to the organizational changes that have been implemented. In the end, by adapting to changing conditions, employees of a corporation accept changes and adopt innovations. The model of organizational change can be depicted as a diagram. The order is defined by four factors: the influence of internal and external forces that determine the changes, managers' knowledge of the need for changes, the beginning of changes, and the implementation of changes. Change agents in a company may originate from both the external and internal environments.

There are significant communication hurdles within the organization that impede any effective change. Communication barriers refer to the multiple elements that cause or contribute to conflict. Indeed, communication partners frequently have diverse, and frequently conflicting, goals, aspirations, attitudes, personalities, communication styles, and health problems. There are various forms of communication obstacles, including those that are personal, cultural, organizational, physical, linguistic, and semantic (Watson, Manias, Geddes, Della, & Jones, 2015). Communication barriers are hurdles and interferences that impede the transmission of information and diminish its efficacy. There are a large number of phenomena that negatively affect communication. Personal barriers are processes and phenomena resulting from the unique features of the information transmitter and receiver. Psychological incompatibility of individuals due to differences in temperament, character, level of education, interests, as well as gender, age, professional and life experience; inability to listen to and/or oppose the interlocutor; negative mental state of both or one of the interlocutors are the most common barriers of this type. Organizational obstacles are situations that reveal defects and mistakes in the company's management, as well as the detrimental impact of environmental conditions.

Cultural barriers are factors of a broader context that are historically formed and associated with national identity, traditions, and norms of behavior in individual nations and regions; their ignorance or ignoring can complicate communication and, in some instances, lead to the severing of business relations. Physical barriers are obstructions posed by individuals, objects, or natural phenomena. Language barriers are lexical and grammatical impediments such as poor vocabulary, inadequate speech style, abbreviations, and speech faults (Watson et al., 2015). Semantic barriers are interruptions in communication produced by misinterpretation or misunderstanding of the meaning of information due to the usage of specialized terminology, phraseological units, jargon, idiomatic expressions, and adages. Many lexical and semantic issues can be avoided by adhering to the ideal of simplicity and brevity. Only a speech that is comprehensive and rich in professional jargon can guarantee success. Other sorts of communication impediments include personnel information overload, information concealment by officials, and refusal to tell subordinates.

Solutions

Change implementation is a highly complex and difficult procedure. Employees may "resist" the performance of any new tasks, depending on the initiator of the change, or management may be dubious of innovations and refuse to authorize them. To counter this mentality, managers must attempt to comprehend the root causes of opposition. Employees may believe that the planned changes to labor technology or structure would have a detrimental impact on their status or compensation. Personal loss apprehension is one of the most potent demotivators and foes of innovation (Smollan & Morrison, 2019). It is far preferable to have a course of action than to wander aimlessly.

In the absence of information about future events, uncertainty and anxiety of the unknown result. If an employee is uncertain about the beneficial outcomes of the changes and is unaware of the benefits he or she will obtain as a consequence of the implementation of innovations, he or she will not be encouraged to accept these changes. Managers have the ability to appraise the issue differently than other employees, who may present compelling arguments against the planned improvements. Thus, the different objectives of the organization's departments can lead to disagreements in the execution of changes (Nery et al., 2019). The management is permitted to pursue specific objectives, and the proposed adjustments may impede the achievement of the aims and objectives of another department. In addition, the most appropriate and feasible remedy for the miscommunication in the organization is the coordination of three phases of planned change: unfreeze, change, and refreeze. The specified activity can be taken by employing the force-field analysis paradigm, which identifies major forces that limit and drive organizational change (Watson et al., 2015). Therefore, it is essential to comprehend the major causes of a company's absence of good modifications.

Recommendations

The aforementioned resistances are among the most prevalent. In such circumstances, management should not disregard resistance, but rather recruit change opponents to their side. Analysis of the force field and adaptation-based solutions for overcoming resistance are the most frequently proposed strategies for overcoming resistance. For instance, Kurt Levine invented the notion of force field analysis (Woodman, 2014). This notion is based on the principle of mutual exclusion, which describes encounters between forces that both excite and restrict resistance. The field of impacts analysis illustrates why organizational reforms do not occur. In order to effect a change, managers must examine the ratio of these forces, as the elimination of resistance-inhibiting factors boosts resistance-overcoming forces. Change is driven by the manager's desire to make changes in the organization, the market condition, and technological advancement (Cameron & McNaughtan, 2014).

The forces that prevent change are employees' narrowly vested interests, misunderstanding, lack of trust, and divergent situational assessments. As long as the forces leading to change and the forces preventing change are in balance, the system is in equilibrium. To disrupt the system's equilibrium and effect changes, managers must either raise pressure or reduce resistance (Smollan & Morrison, 2019). During times of crisis and rapid transition, the increased demand might be advantageous. Over extended time periods, a method that weakens resistance is favored.

Recommendation and Result Trails

Strategies, technologies, products, management structure, and business culture may be affected by organizational change. Typically, changes in one area result in modifications to other organizational systems. For instance, the decision to develop a new product will necessitate a technological transition, and the usage of current production technologies will necessitate the retraining of staff (Woodman, 2014). Changes in technology are intimately linked to the industrial process. The objective of technical advancement is to enhance the quality of the organization's products and services. 'Bottom-up' innovation is the norm for technological advancements within a business (Nery et al., 2019). This means that employees suggest improvements to existing technologies in order to develop superior products. Such improvements are not implemented from the top down since upper management is not usually familiar with production and typically lacks expertise in technology development.

Changes in products are alterations to the organization's manufactured items and services. A new product's release to the market signifies the introduction of new technology and client delight. The only distinction is that a new product necessitates the involvement of multiple company departments. Obviously, there are numerous instances in which a new product failed to gain traction on the market, resulting in enormous losses for the corporation. The primary cause of the failure is the ineffective communication between organizational functions (Suddaby & Foster, 2017). A paradigm of horizontal connections was created to tackle this issue. The core concept is that it coordinates the efforts of the research, marketing, and manufacturing departments to create a new product.

The following change type is structural change. These modifications pertain to the organization's management, authority, structural characteristics, and management methods. As managers possess the required abilities and expertise, a top-down strategy is utilized here. This sort of change is initiated by internal forces, such as employee discontentment with the management structure (Woodman, 2014). Through staff training, employee participation in the execution of changes, and agreements, innovations can be accepted. When change “descends from above,” lower-level employees have the right to discuss and participate in the execution of planned innovations.

Review and Evaluation of Outcomes

Changes in culture and people include alterations to employees' values, conventions, beliefs, and conduct, as well as alterations to interpersonal connections. They can be grouped together; the worldview is altered. These modifications are intended to enhance any particular employee abilities, such as teamwork, leadership, responsibility, and social engagement (Suddaby & Foster, 2017). Organizational development is the application of the findings of behavioral science research to create a more positive atmosphere within a team, enhance change adaptation skills, strengthen interpersonal relationships, and solve pressing organizational issues. By monitoring the aforementioned criteria and conducting a thorough analysis of trial results, managers will be able to determine the overall success of the taken actions.

Conclusion

In conclusion, change is essential and unavoidable, and it is ever-present. Occasionally they go unnoticed, and sometimes they become so clear that people begin to fear and resist vehemently. However, people frequently find it challenging to adapt to changes in their everyday lives, whether they are attempting to execute the change themselves or are the unlucky recipients of decisions made by others. They may find change unsettling, threatening, and terrifyingly unexpected. People resist change, and for managers who are already overburdened with current affairs management, change can double their workload. Change management is one of the most essential facets of a modern manager's job.

In order to become a specialist in this industry, managers must have extensive knowledge and experience. The manager must be able to perceive the trends in the growth of the world around him or her, be aware of the significance of changes for his or her organization, and be able to devise a plan for effective change management that takes into consideration every detail. This procedure is not always so gloomy, however. Ideally, implementing changes can provide an opportunity for truly creative activity, particularly if managers participate in the formulation of the change and do not simply adopt the ideas of others. Managers can learn a great deal during the implementation of change.

References

Cameron, K., and J. McNaughtan (2014). Organizational improvement. 50(4), pages 445-462, Journal of Applied Behavioral Science.

Nery, V. de F., Franco, K. S., & Neiva, E. R. (2019). A longitudinal study of the attributes of organizational transformation and its influence on attitudes about organizational change and well-being at work. Applied Behavioral Science: A Journal.

R. K. Smollan and R. L. Morrison (2019). assisting others during a challenging organizational transition. 55(3) Journal of Applied Behavioral Science, pages 327 to 351.

R. Suddaby and W. M. Foster (2017). The past and organizational evolution. Management Journal, 43(1), 19-38.

Watson, Brian M., E. Manias, F. Geddes, P. Della, and D. Jones (2015). An examination of clinical handover miscommunication from a linguistic and social psychology perspective. 34(6) Language and Social Psychology Journal: 687-701

Woodman, Robert W. (2014). The study and practice of organizational transformation. The Journal of Applied Behavioral Science, fifty-fourth edition, pages 463-477.

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Project Management Megaline Inc Case Cbest Essay Help

Table of Contents
Introduction Background Instruments and Methods Alliance and Collaboration Project Risks Conclusion Bibliography

Introduction

Vision and strategy are crucial components of any project, as they define its consequences. Effective project management is essential for maintaining human relationships and supporting the physical well-being of employees so that they may contribute maximally to productive work. Historically, project success has been described as completing a project on time, within budget, and per the requirements. MEGALINE is a subsidiary of M'Nicholas Construction Company, a commercial real estate specialist. I was a member of this company's team for a year and participated in multiple initiatives. MEGALINE lacked effective safety and security technologies, therefore it designed a project to meet the organization's internal requirements. The project's objective was to build and implement an effective new safety system for all personnel. In this case, MEGALINE employs project management procedures that enable it to prevent unnecessary expenditures and save money.

Background

The objective of the project was to create and implement effective safety technology for subcontractors. The project required the management of new construction equipment and the development of innovative solutions for subcontractors. Similar to other projects, the objective of this one is to attain a set level of performance within a predetermined time frame and budget. The project consists of three major phases: (1) goal declaration, (2) planning, and (3) execution. The relevance of the introduction of modern technologies at MEGALINE for the staff and workers involved in the construction projects cannot be overstated. Not only does it protect the workers' safety and security, but it also reduces the likelihood of accidents. Additionally, MEGAline's safety environment ensures a controlled atmosphere, humanistic ideals, teamwork, involvement, empowerment, and appropriate monitoring and training.

Other workers' drive, passion, excitement, and sense of responsibility are enhanced by the safety technologies. MEGALINE's safety technology is vitally important to deploy since it is a massive and rapidly expanding network in which tens of thousands of new participants join each day. Safety technology is generally seen as an integral component of an organization's organizational structure, which consists of various interdependent organizational behaviors. It will also address the laws that should be brought to the attention of the government as well as those that are already being observed by the government, individuals, and businesses in the United Kingdom who are involved with MEGALINE. Similar to any other organization, MEGALINE's safety technology comprises of risk assessment, organizational structure, information exchange, coordination, training, communication, and control elements (Badiru, 2002).

The proposed project aids MEGALINE in decreasing risks to the safety and lives of its employees, while also increasing safety awareness among all employees through the use of good leadership and strategic planning by the organization's management. Implementing safety precautions and a safer environment is required since it reduces not only the dangers involved, but also the delays and absences of workers who become ill or injured in accidents or on-site while performing work on the project sites (Badiru, 2002). The following characteristics should be adhered to for a construction company's safety technology:

Aids in obtaining the company's long-term business strategy evaluation The new policy development prioritizes the company's safety environment potential. The real and committed safety leadership of senior management determines judiciously the allocation of resources for the improvement and promotion of safety measures. It instills employees with optimism and confidence. Frequent transmission of communication and safety measures to the company's target audience Promotes safety procedures at all management and staff levels for their own benefit. Establish realistic, achievable, and practical objectives alongside performance standards that provide current data for accurate evaluation. Promotes a friendly, democratic, participatory, and civilized type of management thought that aids in achieving a sustainable level of management for all employees involved. Provision of effective safety-integrated training that could aid in the acquisition of superior abilities. Adoption of perception and procedural methods for enhancing employee relations

Tools & Techniques

MEGALINE's primary project management strategies are planning cycle approach and timetable. In order to maintain a safe organizational structure, it is acknowledged that specific safety protocols must be followed. These models are created to assist the company in advancing and expanding with a high ratio of revenue production and improved performance by the working team and specialists concerned (Saaty, 1999).

The Safety Technology Maturity Model is one example of a model that helps a company advance with a high rate of development while taking preventative measures to prevent accidents in the workplace and assuring safe technology for employees and workers. The Safety Technology Maturity Model was developed by Psychologists at the Keil Centre in Edinburgh with the purpose of assisting businesses in developing their current safety technology and identifying the actions that could be taken to improve the safety and security environment, as well as providing a structured safety technology improvement process to the organizational structure's working environment (Badiru, 2002).

The best method for implementing the safety technology maturity model in construction organizations is to divide employees into specific groups and then establish training schedules. In these training sessions, participants should be instructed on how to respond to specific and crucial scenarios when accidents could occur (Blanchard and Johnson 2000). After completing the training sessions, each participant should be handed a card containing information about certain situations. The participants must read the scenario and then respond with the necessary safety precautions for the given situation. Thus, every employee would have the opportunity to express himself and would be able to use his mental powers more effectively than previously (Laudon and Laudon 1999).

Nevertheless, humans continue to commit errors because "to err is human." On occasion, employees may disregard safety procedures while performing their duties, resulting in accidents, illnesses, or even severe injuries; nevertheless, if suitable actions are taken promptly onsite for the employees, the situation can be managed effectively. This is due to the fact that a particular system can only assist a person in learning and evaluating what to do in various scenarios, but cannot fight for the treatment of any form of accident; individuals must take care of it in practice (Blanchard and Johnson 2000). The safety technology maturity model assists businesses in analyzing and evaluating their existing state of maturity, allowing them to identify the performance-enhancing measures that must be implemented. This approach facilitates the company's utilization of the various behavioral tools and safety technologies it has developed. The Safety Technology Maturity Model is not a new technique for the construction industry, and it facilitates the integration of existing tools and programs. It also contributes to an increase in employee productivity and efficiency, which ultimately increases the company's profit level (Badiru, 2002).

Using scheduling approaches, it was determined that MEGALINE is always prepared for accidents and other types of problems. By implementing safety technology in the organization, it could prove to be the best and most necessary investment with the highest output and most encouraging results. The point which should be evaluated by the company's management is not the amount of cost being implemented for safety technology in the organization, but rather the amount of money this cost may save in return (Blanchard and Johnson 2000). In addition, safety technology contributes to the motivation of employees by convincing them that the firm cares about their well-being and that they should perform at their highest productivity and capacity for the benefit of the company's business. Moreover, safety technology helps retain employees' faith in the company's leadership and enables them to perform fearlessly and without restraint (Kornfeld, and Rupp 2002). MEGALINE enjoys the following significant advantages as a result of the construction industry's adoption of safety technology:

The company increases the confidence and trust of its employees. Most employees operate with efficiency and assurance that nothing will go wrong. The construction company retains a positive reputation among its market rivals. Lesser ratio of accidents, illness, and absenteeism Workers would have access to sufficient amenities. The construction company is able to complete its project and assigned tasks by the due date. With effective leadership, communication, and management, the business would know how to operate. Know how to utilize the most recent construction technologies.

The Gantt chart allows MEGALINE to save time and money on alternative solutions and project-related hazards. Over time, revenues are bound inextricably to the satisfaction of consumer wants. Consumers are the economic foundation of company and marketing activity (Blanchard and Johnson 2000).

The project outcomes were impacted by resource scheduling, budgeting, teamwork, dispute resolution, and knowledge management. Changes can be made to the project's activity schedule in order to alleviate the strain on essential resources. This technique is known as resource leveling, and while it allows for more efficient use of resources, it may lengthen the duration of the project if tasks on the critical path must be rescheduled. However, if the activities can be rescheduled to account for float within non-essential tasks, the overall completion date will not be impacted. This method is utilized when there are no time limitations and cost constraints on the project, and teams are attempting to employ the fewest resources in the most efficient manner (Frame 2000). Leadership and effective management assist the project manager in directing and guiding human resources and establishing a healthy organizational culture and morale.

In MEGALINE, contingency planning demands special attention because it affects the project's overall success and the organization's outcomes. In administration circles, the budget can be controversial in terms of whether it is well-conceived and whether it would have enduring and positive impacts. Both parties must evaluate their own contributions to the overall project management effort and consider one another as complementary and supplementary resources. As alternatives, project managers give management with other budgeting possibilities. At this level, the issue is determining how much of the total budget should be allotted to each. The decision regarding the relative amounts to be spent on each is conceptually simple. Economic theory provides the supplementary strategy (Burkun, 2005).

MEGALINE employs leadership and persuasive tactics to mitigate conflict situations. This model's leadership qualities are based on the Black Mountain Managerial Grid's leadership characteristics, such as Perish Leadership, Country Club Safety Leadership, Impoverished Leadership, Middle-of-the-Road Leadership, and Team Leadership. All of these leadership styles enable construction managers to choose and implement the most appropriate style for the given situation. This model enables the managers of a construction company to develop their leadership knowledge and abilities by employing the most effective leadership style and giving workers with what they require and desire in terms of the safety environment for onsite projects. The construction personnel involved in this model are of various natures and classes, including site agent, technician, foreman, and general laborer (Burkun, 2005).

Alliance and Collaboration

Partnership and collaboration are achieved throughout the project with the aid of competent planning and leadership. Special emphasis is placed on supplier relations and on-time delivery. For MEGALINE, contracting is of utmost significance and significance in the construction business. It covers the personnel, the supervisors, the management, and the strategies by which the management and managers exert effective control over their working crew (Senge, 1990). Good cooperation and collaboration in the construction sector not only controls the entire workforce, but also increases the company's production by ensuring the timely completion of projects. Well-managed leadership not only enables the company to execute projects on schedule, but it also improves the company's overall performance, productivity, and makes it competitive with other construction companies in the UK market. Additionally, it enables leaders to comprehend the requirements and desires of their employees while controlling them with a pleasant gesture (Senge, 1990).

The leadership style of a team is characterized by high levels of safety performance and safety initiation. This style is mostly suited at the managerial level, but it might also be applied to Safety Technology Leadership. This strategy is ideal for the Site Agent who believes that both safety initiation and safety performance are of utmost importance and so implements them simultaneously in the workplace. In construction organizations, managers take this method to demonstrate to other employees that they are valuable to the company and that it cares about them. This technique has a moderate degree of safety initiation and a moderate level of safety performance. The workers and leaders first view this medium strategy as ideal and optimal. Later on, however, both the management and the employees face a number of challenges concurrently. This approach is typically associated with a medium degree of performance among employees. On the building site, managers that employ this method strive to strike a balance between worker efficiency and comfort. There are specific safety procedures that businesses must adhere to in order to maintain a safe organizational structure. These models are created to assist the company in advancing and expanding with a high ratio of revenue production and improved performance by the working team and specialists concerned (Burkun, 2005).

The construction business is regarded as unclean, hard-working, dangerous, vulnerable, risky, and unreliable due to the lack of adoption of safety procedures, in addition to all the benefits and positive aspects described in this article. For this reason, safety technology has risen to prominence in the construction sector, as it affects the work methods, productivity, loyalty, quality, commitment, satisfaction, motivation, and absenteeism of both the personnel and the management. Embedded for the security, social, economic, humanitarian, environmental, and technical interests of the employees, safety technology is required in the construction industry to ensure a sense of security among the workforce. It also contributes to the promotion of safety and security within the company (Frame, 2002).

The contingency approach on organizational structure was rejected in MEGALINE.

Magadi Soda Mining Company: Managing Work-Life Balance Cbest Essay Help

Work-life balance is the process of balancing profession and ambition with family responsibilities, spiritual growth, and leisure. The unpredictability of the modern economy and the urge to adhere to social commitments have produced a significant separation between work and life. Consequently, maintaining a balance between family and professional obligations has become a public dilemma for many individuals. (2003) Work-life balance.com

The rising cost of living, exemplified by high inflation rates, the global credit crunch, poverty, and the intrusion of informal settlements into our society, has put a great deal of pressure on individuals to prioritize work duties over family matters. However, there should be a greater emphasis on and importance given to family matters. The objective of this study is to enhance the reader's understanding of the notion of work-life balance by examining the inherent characteristics of the items constituting the critical discussion theses. (Mayo clinic employees, 2008)

The introduction of information technology and the ensuing competitive work environment have resulted in a significant increase in work. As a result, corporations have been driven to exert greater pressure on their employees to produce more through extended hours of labor. The labor force, particularly unskilled laborers, have typically fallen victim to exploitation when attempting to maintain long-term employment relationships with their employers.

This means that the majority of time is spent at work as opposed to at home. Work-life balance has sparked a heated debate, which has drawn a substantial number of professionals and authorities. The majority of managers have now identified and marked it out as a separate topic, and there are various training programs intended exclusively for staff. This document aims to assist in determining how work-life balance can be managed in the workplace. (Mayo clinic employees, 2008)

About Magadi Soda

Magadi Soda Company is a Kenyan-registered, Indian-owned manufacturing company that specializes in the production of sodium carbonate and salt. It was established in 1911. The firm is located in the center of Lake Magadi, one of the few lakes caused by faulting along the Great Rift Valley. Magadi Soda Company's very existence is based on the presence of this salty lake.

The company's mission is to give its consumers with low-cost, high-quality goods and superior service.

The organization's work/life programs

The work-life balance initiative at Magadi Soda has always been harshly criticized. The entire program is distinguished by the following characteristics:

The employees work full days Monday through Friday and half days on Saturday. There is no change. No part-time employment schedules exist. The only way one can have a day off is if they are closely linked to the boss. The employment hours are not flexible for both parents and the elderly.

Purposes of the proposal

To increase individual productivity, responsibility, and commitment so that an organization can accomplish some of its primary goals.

To increase harmony and team spirit through establishing and establishing pathways for teamwork and communication.

To boost worker morale by establishing a foundation on which corporations can acknowledge that employees have personal obligations. (2003) Work-life balance.com

the proposal's advantages for an individual

The individuals' daily lives will have more significance, worth, and equilibrium. There will be a greater appreciation for everyone's individual work life and work-life balance. There will be an increase in output. Individuals will create positive interactions outside of the workplace as well. There will be less stress in one's personal life.

The proposition

As previously mentioned, conditions in a mining firm are likely to be deplorable; organizations should be able to establish an environment that is likely to boost employee morale while also taking care of their personal and family lives. The objective of this project is to ensure that there is no separation between the employee's personal and professional obligations. When a business begins to issue too many job instructions and a strict work schedule, to the point where an employee remains entirely subordinate and has little or no personal time, stress ensues. (2003) Work-life balance.com Following our conversation throughout the brainstorming session, it was determined that:

Magadi Soda should construct a kindergarten on the company's grounds so that parents can continue to focus on their work. This was viewed as a stress-reduction approach for employees who dreamed and thought about their children's school. This prevented the potential that parents might wish to report to work late and depart early owing to their children's obligations. The same viewpoint was expressed throughout the meeting, and the immediate senior assistant operations manager gave his approval. (2001, Whitpeles)

Magadi Soda is a mining company specializing in soda ash extraction. The building and construction sectors, as well as the chemical manufacturing industries, make extensive use of soda ash. During economic downturns, it was suggested that the corporation reduce its working hours. This was done so that employees may devote more time to family matters. This was also discovered to improve the morale of the majority of employees. According to private opinion polls done on Magadi Soda, the majority of respondents agreed with the recommendation, and the company's performance over the first three quarters of this policy's implementation trended upward. Family and Medical Leave Act of 1993, as amended in 2007

Job division

Due to the economic downturn, Magadi Soda laid off numerous staff. This put the remaining employees under strong pressure to assume more responsibilities. The outcome was unimaginable tension. The group determined that it was vital to share responsibilities; this helped reduce stress when individuals worked in groups and teams. The climate established by teams was more productive than when individuals worked independently. (2001, Whitpeles)

Schedules of labor that are moral

There have been numerous objections regarding the worship days that should be kept. The majority of employees adhere to traditional and religious views and practices. The Jewish communities therefore prefer Saturday as the Sabbath. On the other hand, Muslims pray on Fridays while the rest of the world worships on Sundays. This caused numerous controversies. At Magadi Soda, according to the report, employees were required to work seven days a week, including Saturday, which Jews observe as their Sabbath. The sessions reached the conclusion that ethical work schedules are likely to attain a work-life balance. (Varied Maternity Benefits in Europe, 2007)

Employee support programs

The sessions suggested that assistance programs were required to minimize the stress connected with the arduous nature of mining, which typically takes place under the hot sun, among the employees. These issues were designed to investigate the welfare of employees in the glass division in particular. The specific disciplines at issue were psychology and emotional behavior. Since the staff was significantly more prone to stress due to extended work hours. This may have contributed to weariness. The study suggested that a company should employ at least one psychiatrist whose primary responsibility would be to examine psychological behavior, particularly at work. Family and Medical Leave Act of 1993, as amended in 2007

Seminars on stress and time management

An employee may spend more time at work than at home as a result of tight timetables and the need to accomplish work within the required time range. This may result in extended stress and, as a result, boredom. When this occurs, employee productivity will decrease accordingly. It is essential that employees have the opportunity to attend seminars on stress and time management so they may learn how their coworkers in other locations manage their time. In order for people to achieve a balance between work and family life, effective time management was needed. It was determined that this was a positive step toward enhanced production. (Varied Maternity Benefits in Europe, 2007)

A break

It was discussed that time should be set out for family responsibilities. This was stated to occur monthly. The rationale behind this decision was to spend more time with family. This practice is gaining enormous momentum in a number of large and mature enterprises. A prominent example may be found in Germany, where small and medium-sized businesses are realizing that the success of organizational goals has implications outside the company. It demands employees to be motivated not only by extrinsic rewards, but also by their emotional conduct and personal life. Included are family and daycare. Family and Medical Leave Act of 1993, as amended in 2007

Remote work and sabbaticals

Telecommuting offers the most flexibility and independence to employees. Numerous studies indicate that people value freedom and flexibility over compensation. This is predominantly encountered by professionals and academics. The reality is that the skilled labor force does not readily tolerate pressure and strict deadlines. (2001, Whitpeles)

Part-time employment

It is difficult for Magadi Soda to permit part-time employment, but as modern technology advances, it is becoming increasingly prevalent. Tasks can be assigned to individuals. Where individuals work from home, they feel at ease. Despite being a mining corporation, Magadi permits its employees to work from home. The websites can be used to transmit clerical and administrative tasks, and staff work on laptops. This can drastically reduce stress levels. Family and Medical Leave Act of 1993, as amended in 2007

Parents

Working in the mine all day, every day of the week, was particularly difficult on parents. Parents with children less than six must be granted more flexible work hours. In addition, the session advocated establishing a daycare close to the business where young children under school age might be taken. This was viewed as helpful in reuniting parents with their children and assisted in easing home hangovers.

A good work-life balance must be achieved despite the rising expense of living and the demand on enterprises to establish and retain a sustainable competitive edge. Because employees are social beings who are psychologically motivated in addition to being motivated by extrinsic rewards, a balance between work and home life must be achieved. (Varied Maternity Benefits in Europe, 2007)

A significant separation between work and family life is likely to induce stress in employees. Depression and anxiety, which have been identified as the greatest performance deterrents, are likely to result from continued stress. Good managers are those who do regular evaluations to assess whether or not their staff are fulfilling their performance goals. Due to the current economic climate, any underperformance is likely to be detrimental to the organization. From extraction until the point of sale, the mining business is synonymous with heavy industrial labor. Staff morale becomes a crucial aspect; hence, it is necessary to pay close attention to staff matters. (2001, Whitpeles)

authorized leaves

These are leaves granted by the labor laws of a country and enforced by the industrial courts. These leaves include annual family medical leave, maternity leave, the Small Necessities Act, wage and hour rules, annual leave from employment, etc. Additionally, the session mandated that all of these statutory actions be evaluated on a regular basis so that employees can spend more time with their families. Family and Medical Leave Act of 1993, as amended in 2007

Executive Synopsis

This paper provides an overview of the topic and presents the concept of work-life balance to the reader. It is generally accepted that there is a correlation between staff productivity and morale. By closely studying the social elements that affect an employee's performance in the workplace, this article provides a foundation for managers to boost employee performance by identifying the factors necessary to establish a good work-life balance inside an organization. The report concludes with recommendations for corporations regarding work-life balance issues.

Work-life balance should always be a focal point of every organization's structure. Work-related pressures can have a substantial impact on employees' productivity. A well-coordinated work environment should prevent the transformation of employees into machines. However, if employees spend too much time on family matters, the organization can also suffer. Stress is a known performance limiter, but absence is also a hindrance to organizational success. Management should be responsible for continuously evaluating the work environment and recommending any necessary modifications.

Notes cited

Mayo clinic personnel. Work-life balance: Restoring harmony and decreasing stress. 2008. Web.

The 1993 Family and Medical Leave Act. 2007 U.S. Department of Labor website.

2001 Web site: Whaples, Robert, editor. "Hours of work in U.S. History."

Wide Variation in Maternity Benefits across Europe. HRM Guide. 2007. Web.

Work life Balance dot com.

What does work-life balance actually mean? 2003. Web.

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The Relationship Between The Car Retail Price And Car Mileage In Dubai Market Cbest Essay Help

Abstract

On the Dubai market, correlation and regression analysis were conducted to assess the relationship between automobile retail price and car mileage. Random sampling was used to collect research data. A questionnaire was distributed to a random sample of clients in the Dubai automobile market. Excel was utilized for the analysis.

Data Overview

The pricing of automobiles were shown as price ranges. The ranges of prices were encoded as follows: 1 – (less than $3000), 2 – ($3000 to $6000), 3 – ($6001 to $9000), 4 – ($12001 to $15000), 5 – ($12001 to $18000), 6 – ($15001 to $18000), 7 – ($18001 to $21000), 8 – ($21001 to $23000), 9 Observed mileages were 0 miles, 50,000 miles, 100,000 miles, 120,000 miles, 150,000 miles, and 200,000 miles. Car mileage will be represented by the letter Y, while car retail prices will be represented by the symbol X.

Central Tendency and Dispersion Measurements

Mean

If there are n values in a data collection with values Xi where I = 0, 1, 2, 3, 4,…, n, then the mean is calculated as follows:

Or

Median

After sorting the data in ascending order, the mean may be calculated using the following formula:

Median = ½ (n+1) Th figure in a data set. This formula applies to data sets both even and odd.

Mode

The mode is the most frequent value in a data set. A frequency distribution table displaying the number of occurrences of each data set element is used to calculate the mode.

Range

Following is the algorithm for calculating the range:

Range = Maximum value – Minimum Value

The standard deviation quantifies the dispersion of data around the mean. The calculation is as follows:

Where

represents standard deviation n represents the total frequency of data elements. xi represents data values is the mean of the set of data.

Table 1 summarizes measurements of central tendency (mean, median, and mode) and measures of dispersion (standard deviation and range).

Table 1: Summary of Data Statistics

Mileage

Price

Mean 109285.7143 Mean 1.871429

Standard Error 25176.24947 Standard Error 0.285118

Median 125000 Median 1.7

Mode #N/A Mode 1.7

Standard deviation of 66610.09505

Sample Variance 4436904762 Sample Variance 0.569048

Kurtosis -0.032590335 Kurtosis 0.190053

-0.527057121 Skewness Skewness 1.100625

Range 200000 Range 2.1

Minimum 0 Minimum 1.1

Maximum 200000 Maximum 3.2

Sum 765000 Sum 13.1

Count Seven, Seven

As seen in table 1, the mean, median, and most common retail price ranges for cars fall between $0 and $3000. The mean automobile mileage is approximately 109,285.7143 miles, while the median automobile mileage is 125,000 miles. The car's mileage has a standard deviation of 66610.09505 and a range of 200000. It is not intended to establish the standard deviation or range of retail car prices.

Regression and Correlation

The correlation coefficient measures the degree to which the movements of two variables are connected. It ranges from -1 (perfect negative correlation) to 1 (positive perfect correlation). The correlation coefficient is calculated using the formula below.

Where r is the correlation coefficient, n represents the number of observations, and x and y are the variables.

Analysis of correlation yielded various R-values (correlation coefficient) of approximately -0.9756. This indicates that the two variables have a strong negative correlation.

Table 2: Outcome Summary

Regression Calculations

Multiple R 0.975647

R Square 0.951887

R Squared Adjusted = 0.942665

Standard Error 0.181258

7 Observation

The value of 0.951887 for the coefficient of determination (R-square) implies that the regression model was a perfect fit for the data. In other words, the car mileage data accounted for approximately 95.19% of the variances in the retail costs of automobiles. About 5% of the remaining variance is explained by factors not included in the model.

Table 2. Variance Analysis (ANOVA)

Df SS MS F Imperative F

Regression 1 3.250014 3.250014 98.92201 0.000175

Residual 5 0.164272 0.032854

Total 6 3.414286

According to the ANOVA test, the p-value of the F-statistic is less than the significance threshold of 0.05. If the p-value of a statistic is smaller than the significance level, then the statistics in a model are jointly significant, according to a general rule. The F-statistic is a test for the overall importance of a model's regressors.

Regression analysis is preferred over correlation analysis because it determines the individual and collective effects of all model variables. Correlation analysis reveals only the relationship between two variables and is incapable of analyzing a model with several regressors. The determined regression model is stated as follows:

Car price Equals a + b Plus mileage. an is the intercept of the regression equation in this instance. It summarizes the consequences of variables excluded from the model. The regression model's slope, b, measures the effects of car mileage on the retail price of cars in Dubai. Using x to represent automobile mileage and y to represent automobile rental cost, the regression equation can be rewritten as follows.

Y = a + b x + µ

The primary objective of regression analysis is to establish the values of the parameters a and b. The ordinary least square (OLS) approach is used to find the parameters' values. Following are the formulas for computing the parameters using the OLS method:

b =

a =

The regression analysis findings are reported in the table below.

Table 3: Coefficients and Intervals of Confidence

Coefficients Standard Error t Stat P-value Lower 95% Upper 95%

Intercept 3.078937 0.139403 22.08663 3.53E-06 2.720591 3.437284

-1.1E-05 1.11E-06 -9.94595 0.000175 -1.4E-05 -8.2E-06 is the mileage.

Based on the outcomes above,

b =  = -1.1E-05 and

a =  = 3.078937

Therefore, the regression equation Y = a + b x can be expressed as follows:

Y = 3.078937 – 1.1E-05 x, where y is the rental car cost and x is the vehicle's mileage.

P 0.001 from the analysis of variance (table 2) indicates that the regression model is statistically significant. The following equation can be used to represent the regression model: car retail price = 3.078937 – 0.000011 car mileage. The model demonstrates that the retail price range for automobiles lowers by 0.000011 each unit of mileage increase. The p-value of the regression model's coefficient is 0.000175, which is less than the significance threshold of 0.05. This indicates that mileage is a significant factor in determining car rental rates.

In conclusion, there is a negative correlation between car retail price and car mileage on the Dubai automobile market. When the mileage is low, the car's retail price would be high, but when the mileage is high, the price would be low. The link is depicted by the regression equation car retail price = 3.078937 – 0.000011 car mileage. The coefficient of determination (R-Squared) was close to 100 percent, indicating that car mileage is a significant factor in determining the price of car rentals.

Network Evaluation

The diagram's dots symbolize the following:

The graph is displayed as follows:

These formulas were utilized to calculate ES, EF, LS, and LF:

ES = ES of preceding activity plus the length of preceding activity

EF = ES for the task plus Task Duration

LS = LF for the task plus Task Duration

LF = LF of the subsequent activity – Length of the subsequent activity.

The following facts made feasible the calculation:

Zero ES and LF are present in the first nod of any path. Path's final node has ES = LF.

Total Float Activity Duration ES EF LS LF

A 20 0 20 -20 0 -20

B 2 0 2 -2 0 -2

C 10 2 12 0 10 -2

D 1 12 13 10 11 -2

E 6 13 19 11 17 -2

F 30 20 50 17 47 -3

G 6 12 18 37 43 25

H 4 18 22 43 47 25

I 16 0 16 31 47 31

J 3 50 53 47 50 -3

K 2 0 2 -2 0 -2

Total Float = LF plus (ES plus Duration).

The earliest time a given activity can begin.

EF: The earliest end time for a certain activity.

Latest Start time for an event

LF: The most recent completion time of an event

All events with negative total float are regarded as critical. These consist of A, B, C, D, E, F, J, and K.

The following is the total float for non-critical activities:

G 25

H 25

I 31

The key pathways are AFJ and BCDEFJ, with respective total times of 53 and 52 weeks. This means that production cannot start in 48 weeks.

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Mubadala Investment: Human Resource Management Cbest Essay Help

Mubadala Investment is an investment company.

Mubadala Investment is a firm that engages in global investment to promote economic growth and the long-term prosperity of Abu Dhabi, for which it is one of the most important strategic investors. Moreover, Mubadala operates in over thirty countries worldwide to provide “enduring wealth for our shareholder, the Abu Dhabi Government” (Mubadala, 2017, para. 1). The organization focuses on the establishment of strong industrial companies in a variety of industries, including mining, renewable energy, aerospace, and financial holdings. However, the company's primary objective is to develop expertise in the oil and gas sector for future investment and the expansion of the UAE's potential for growth.

The HR Department's organizational chart is as follows:

Organizational Chart of the HR Department ("HR Department," n.d.).

The mission of Mubadala is to become "a catalyst that enables Abu Dhabi's ambition to diversify and transform its economy, to develop a new generation of business leaders, and to build a prosperous future for its people" (Mubadala, 2008, p. 2). According to its Annual Report, the company's objective is to "create sustainable financial returns and build businesses, knowledge clusters, and even entirely new industries. We assemble and manage a wide portfolio of prospects, investing for the long term as a proactive and conscientious partner (Mubadala, 2008, p. 2). Mubadala is developing Human Resource-specific vision and mission statements in order to meet the demands of the organization and its employees.

Mubadala's HR department split its tasks into four major areas, including employee retention, employee development, organizational culture, and effective staffing, so that the company could accomplish its purpose. These four sections constitute the HR department's primary responsibilities. The HR goals and objectives of Mubadala are likewise related to the aforementioned factors; they are as follows:

Facilitate an effective corporate culture; Use modern recruiting technologies to prioritize quality over quantity in the hiring process. Contribute to employee development in order to enable them perform at the highest potential level, be able to manage both external and internal changes, be eligible for promotion, and add value to the organization; Ensure employee retention with a performance-based culture; Reward employees for efforts to increase productivity.

The Influence of External Factors on Mubadala's HR Strategy

Under the Six Component Model, external factors such as customers, labor market changes, society, technology, economic conditions, and shareholders can influence a company's Human Resources. Mubadala is an enterprise with a commercial orientation, but it invests in both financial and socioeconomic benefits. Consequently, the stability/instability of the UAE investment market, changes in social needs and desires, and the attitudes of shareholders toward investing in socioeconomic and financial returns are external factors that have a significant impact on the HR Department's operations. If the listed elements exhibit favorable indicators, the company's HR efforts will likely be recognized. The organizational structure, budget, compliance, productivity, and HR professionals' skill level are internal elements that influence the HR strategy decision-making at Mubadala. All of these characteristics are at a high level at Mubadala, indicating that external forces pose greater obstacles than internal ones.

It is also essential to identify the issues that Mubadala's human resources department faces on a regular basis. Among the greatest obstacles are the following:

Growth and development. This issue is a top priority for Middle Eastern enterprises, whose leaders have noted that they lack the necessary tools and strategies to address human capital difficulties. Leadership. In the context of human resource management in organizations like Mubadala, the requirement for effective leadership approaches is on the rise. Leadership is difficult since the organization is unable to determine the appropriate procedures to build effective HR leaders. This also affects employee retention, because without good leadership from HR managers, employees rarely feel appreciated and supported.

Balanced Scorecard for HR

Below is a balanced scorecard that outlines the duties and objectives of the HR Department and Mubadala, as well as measures that may be used to evaluate whether the objectives are met and whether HR managers are fulfilling their responsibilities. It was suggested that roles such as corporate principles and ethical standards, recruitment, engagement, compensation, and professional development be included.

HR Matrices

The absence rate is computed using the following formula: the total number of days of absence in a given period divided by (total number of employees) multiplied by 100. (total number of workdays). For the assignment, the monthly absence rate was calculated as follows: 100/300*22 = 0.15 (15 percent).

The cost per hire is computed as follows: total internal and external recruitment costs divided by the total number of recruits in a given time period. Again, the monthly cost per hire will be determined as follows: ($1000+$500)/3 = $500.

The monthly turnover rate will be determined using the following formula: multiple employees leaving/average number of employees*100%=5/30*100%=16%.

Pre-departure expenditures, vacancy charges, training and orientation costs, supplementary hiring costs, and administrative costs are included in employee turnover costs. The anticipated cost of employee turnover per employee is $2200 ($1000+$300+$200+$500+$200).

HR Strategies

The HR section of the corporation urges its employees to recognize that they serve a unique purpose: in whatever they do, they contribute to the creation of new prospects for Abu Dhabi, its commercial partners, and its inhabitants. Human Resource methods designed to ensure that Mubadala's employees contribute to the company's success are based on the principles of high impact, work environment and culture, a professional team, rewards and benefits, and learning and development. Below is a description of HR strategies that relate to the aforementioned principles. In addition to these principles, methods for staffing, training, and development, compensation, and benefits, and performance management are also included.

The plan has the most impact. Within this strategy, the Human Resources department of Mubadala ensures that employee labor makes an impact. Employee responsibilities may include supplying global manufacturers with UAE-manufactured airplane components or working on a renewable energy initiative. This means that Mubadala positions are ones that give value to communities, and that the HR department is focused on choosing individuals who will serve a specific purpose ("Life at Mubadala," n.d.). The work environment and cultural approach. As Mubadala's workforce consists of members from various cultures, the HR Department tries to communicate the company's principles with the goal of fostering greater collaboration. Human resources collaborates with professional teams to achieve optimal solutions. As a cohesive workforce, the organization fosters a culture of excellence that generates a positive impact (“Life at Mubadala,” n.d.). The approach taken by professional teams. At Mubadala, management attempt to pair up new hires with high-performing, bright personnel. This enables newcomers to access industry best practices and gain first-hand experience. "Life at Mubadala," n.d.; "Life at Mubadala," n.d.). The company demonstrates passion and zeal for their work by bringing together individuals with diverse viewpoints and skill sets. The strategy of advantages and rewards. The Mubadala Human Resources Department believes in rewarding employees whose performance brings the organization closer to its strategic goals. In recognition of their accomplishments, the organization rewards personnel with incentives and benefits based on their position ("Life at Mubadala," n.d.). The learning and development strategy In terms of accomplishing the organization's strategic objectives, the HR department considers this approach to be the most significant. From customized training classes to web-based learning conferences, Mubadala provides its employees with the necessary assistance and resources to help them achieve their professional goals in their present and future positions ("Life at Mubadala," n.d.). The growth opportunities strategy. The Mubadala Human Resources Department believes that their employees have access to benefits and opportunities. As employees create value and contribute to the company’s growth, they are constantly challenged to demonstrate their skills that enhance professional performance (“Life at Mubadala,” n.d.).

Employee Retention Techniques

Traditional employee retention techniques focus on retaining productive employees who contribute value to the firm. Mubadala's involvement with the UAE government and foreign nations necessitates the experience of specialists in this field; therefore, their retention is important to maintaining a competitive advantage. The interview revealed that Mubadala employs the following creative employee retention strategies:

Ensure that the best candidates are selected from the start. Focusing on asking applicants specific questions about their aspirations, accomplishments, shortcomings, and other factors that directly affect employees' contributions to the company's vision, mission, and goals is a key function of human resource professionals. Creating a "conducive" workplace atmosphere. A conducive work environment is one in which management is aware of the company's objectives and strategy. Importantly, in such an environment, work-related stress is efficiently controlled by conveying to employees that they are a part of Mubadara and should collaborate towards the common aim of preserving a competitive advantage. Ensuring managers' compatibility with the staff they oversee. Typically, employees quit their supervisors rather than their jobs. Therefore, the HR department of the company strives to hire managers who not only meet the requirements of the position, but also serve as mentors and leaders for the staff, thereby fostering mutual understanding. Maintaining a balance between work and personal life. The interview revealed that HR professionals frequently struggled to comprehend that their employees should not work nonstop, but should also have a rich personal life that can inspire them in their employment. As a result, Mubadala provides its employees with time off, allows them to leave early when necessary, and acknowledges their desire to relax and clear their minds in order to return to work refreshed and inspired. ensuring employee development and training are ongoing. This employee retention approach is directly related to the growth and opportunity HR strategy. The HR department of Mubadala ensures that employees receive the proper training through coaching sessions, workshops, and other tools that are relevant to their current employment. Cross-functional training, ethics, and cultural competence are crucial aspects of employee education for maximizing their growth potential. Promoting openness in the workplace. Workers should be made aware of why they are paid what they are paid and what goes on 'behind the scenes' in corporate decisionmaking. These factors are significant because employees typically depart because they are underpaid or resent their supervisors for not informing them of how critical choices are made. Mubadala maintains an open-door policy so that staff are free to voice any problems that may hinder their performance. Within such a policy, the company's management ensures that both minor and major issues are addressed and that steps are done to enhance employee performance.

Conclusion: All of the above-mentioned tactics are crucial for retaining qualified individuals at a high level of performance and preventing them from leaving the organization and causing financial problems owing to the shortage of experts in their respective professions. Nonetheless, it is always essential to keep in mind that without innovative solutions and the introduction of new methods of employee retention, the firm will be unable to constantly sustain low retention rates, since work conditions can change and thus rise to new problems that must be resolved. Later in this evaluation, recommendations will be provided on how to enhance Mubadara's HR strategy for achieving competitive advantage and ensuring employee happiness.

Ethical Conduct

Mubadala is committed to upholding strong ethical standards as it grows and expands its presence into new places, bringing with it new communities and people. It was found that the partnership between management and employees contributed to the company's lucrative and sustainable future through ethical business practices. Mubadala defined in its Code of Conduct a number of its guiding principles on how to adhere to ethical standards in the workplace so that employees can achieve their goals and uphold the company's ideals. This indicates that the primary goal of the Code of Conduct is to describe the organization's commitment to conduct in a compliant and ethical manner, hence preventing ethical issues in the workplace. The following are important questions that employees and their managers ask themselves:

Is this action authorized? Does this action sustain the company's reputation as an ethical enterprise? Is this activity in line with Mubadala's principles and its Code of Conduct? What measures of accountability are involved with this action?

Mubadala acknowledges that its employees (including supervisors and CEOs) are held to a high ethical standard when doing their tasks. The Mubadala Board of Directors is responsible for ensuring that all employees adhere to the organization's ethical standards. Compliance officers are employed to assist the organization in maintaining its high ethical standards, but they also have additional tasks, including:

Detecting and preventing unethical or illegal behavior on the job; Assessing current compliance issues and ensuring that the organization's internal structure can address them as necessary; During the communication process, providing employees and their managers with proper compliance training and support (Mubadala, 2010).

Integrity is a vital principle that guides the work of Mubadala personnel with the company's partners, and it must be mentioned when addressing Mubadala's ethical procedures. According to Chief Legal Counsel Samer Halawa, "integrity is the foundation of our business, and we are committed to conducting ourselves in an ethical and compliant manner" (as cited in Mubadala, 2010, p. 26). Employees are expected to treat potential customers, suppliers, partners, and governments with a high level of courtesy and to address all issues that arise during collaboration in a compliant and ethical manner. Specifically, personnel are expected to adhere to the following compliance and ethics rules:

Collecting business-related information from only legitimate and verifiable sources; Guarding against the use or exposure of non-company-owned sensitive information; Avoiding the use of secret information acquired in the previous position; Checking with the representatives of the Legal or Compliance Boards before using competitive information (Mubadala, 2010).

Mubadala pays special attention to whether its personnel adhere to the organization's ethical standards, so that their actions do not compromise the company's reputation. The use of confidential information, avoiding unethical conduct in the workplace, and ensuring that integrity guides every business process of the organization are all important indicators that show whether Mubadala is an ethical company that cares about the way it handles its operations. Apart from specific procedures targeted at ensuring ethicality in the workplace, the company also invests time and finances into giving back to communities, which is another point for discussion when it comes

Zillow Group Inc.: Company Analysis Cbest Essay Help

Introduction

Zillow is a significant online rental and real estate marketplace for individuals who wish to sell, purchase, locate a dependable agent, or shop for mortgages. In the real estate industry, the organization has been eager to provide numerous services to buyers, sellers, and brokers. In this study, the researcher intends to analyze the many success tactics that this firm has employed. The study includes a comprehensive background examination of the company and its goods. The topic then turns to Zillow's pricing approach and how it influences industry-wide market trends (Moretti, 2019). The firm's profitability is analyzed to determine whether its pricing tactics are effective. The researcher also examines the industry's level of competition and its response to it. The key objective is to establish whether the company's adopted strategies are sustainable in the extremely competitive real estate industry.

Background

Zillow is an online real estate marketplace that offers users a variety of items. Rich Barton and Lloyd Frank created this company in 2006 after realizing that the United States real estate industry lacked adequate information for consumers who wished to purchase or sell its products (Loukissas & Bowker, 2019). They created a website and a business model so that different stakeholders in this market would have access to reliable information about the sector, allowing them to make well-informed decisions and maximize the return on their investments. The company, whose headquarters are located in Russell Investments Center Seattle, Washington, in the United States, has expanded its activities into Canada due to the increasing demand for its products.

In its business model, the company's principal offering to its customers was information. Within the real estate market, buyers, sellers, and agents had access to the information required to make pertinent judgments regarding sales or purchases (Maheshwari, 2019). As the number of frequent visitors increased, the company gave its internet platform to advertising firms in exchange for payment to advertise real estate products. It then created the Zillow rental manager service, which let tenants to pay their rental costs by credit or debit card on their internet platforms. The company charges a small fee to tenants who utilize this payment mechanism. It created a new offering in which it collaborates with real estate brokers for referrals anytime their internet visitors inquire about for-sale real estate products. This company earns commissions on referrals.

Zillow developed Zestimate to assist its customers in determining the true value of the things they intend to purchase. They implemented this service to ensure that real estate buyers and sellers have access to reliable information while working with brokers. A buyer will be informed of the estimated market value of the available product. They will also have an accurate estimate of the product's market pricing. The new technology has increased visitors to the company's website, which has resulted in more revenue from advertising and referrals. Zillow confronts intense competition from other businesses delivering comparable offerings. Realtor.com, Trulia, LoopNet, RealtyTrac, Appartments.com, and Rent.com are some of the market's most formidable competitors. These businesses offer comparable products on the same internet platform. It is essential to recognize that other competitors employing the traditional brick-and-mortar model provide direct obstacles to the expansion of this company.

Pricing constitutes the

Pricing is one of the most critical aspects that determine a company's capacity to achieve market growth, particularly in industries where competition is intense. Moretti (2019) states that there are elements that a company's management must take into account when choosing prices for its items. The most important criterion is that the pricing should be within the means of the targeted customers. Aware of the fact that customers sometimes equate the price they pay for a product with its quality, management must take into account this determining element. Constantly, it is assumed that high-priced goods are of higher quality than low-priced goods. Price increases diminish the number of customers wanting and able to purchase a product or service. On the other hand, cutting the price may not necessarily attract more clients if they have worries about the given quality. Companies must strike a fine balance between the two extremes to ensure that their price satisfies diverse market requirements and expectations.

In order to attract and maintain clients in this intensely competitive market, Zillow has been focused on pricing its products appropriately. This company's price plan is designed to ensure that as many customers as possible can afford to pay without questioning the product's quality. The company always evaluates the pricing of its principal competitors, particularly Realtor.com, Appartment.com, and Rent.com, which have remained prominent on the United States local market. Zillow offers a variety of products, and in each case it employs distinct pricing tactics based on the clients targeted and the strategies employed by competitors. It employs several pricing tactics for its advertising platform, commissions for its rental management product, and fees for Zillow flex. It is vital to discuss these case-specific strategies.

Its Advertising Platforms' Pricing

Zillow's primary source of revenue is advertising payments. Buyers, sellers, renters, and agents in the real estate business frequently consult the company's internet platform when searching for various products. Consequently, they are prospective clients willing to make financial obligations (Moretti, 2019). It is an ideal platform for real estate companies seeking to reach potential customers. This platform is used by the company to enable these organizations to market their products on these channels. It provides both premium and standard advertising to these clients. Clients who purchase premium advertising items pay a cost that is greater than the market average, and their products are strategically positioned on the company's website for a longer length of time.

Zillow costs $60 per lead for premium advertisements. The average market price is paid for standard advertising products. These clients pay $20 for each lead produced from the website (Maheshwari, 2019). Additionally, the corporation advertises numerous real estate products in periodicals. It takes a proportion of the overall advertising revenue earned by the newspaper. The price varies frequently based on many criteria. In 2011, Zillow partnered with Yahoo! Real Estate to create North America's largest online real estate advertising network (Erdmann, 2019). As the dominant player, it is simple to define pricing trends in the industry.

Commissions on the Zillow Rental Manager Instrument

The Zillow Rental Manager was designed to assist both tenants and landlords. The program analyzes prospective renters to identify if they have had issues with payment, decency, or any other legal or moral issues at previous rental properties (Maheshwari, 2019). The information assists landlords in determining whether or not to rent to such individuals. Tenants can use their credit and debit cards to pay their rentals on the same sites. Zillow charges a tiny commission to tenants for using these services. The price is determined by a variety of variables based on the agreement between the consumer and the business regarding the additional services to be provided.

Charges for Zillow Flex

The company developed the new tool Zillow Flex to assist real estate brokers. In this instance, brokers are not forced to pay the obligatory $60 for premium advertisement or $20 for standard advertisement for every reference they receive from Zillow. Instead, they are expected to pay a percentage of the profit they realize once the deal closes. It was predicated on the fact that the majority of referrals do not result in sales. Therefore, it would be more reasonable for brokers to pay a fee to the company upon the successful sale of a product resulting from a reference from Zillow.

How These Pricing Strategies Relate to Those Taught in Class

Zillow's pricing methods reflect the knowledge acquired in the course. Throughout the training, it became clear that corporations frequently determine their pricing strategy based on whether clients are savvy or naive. Bateson (2016) explains, "Myopic consumers are those who base their purchase decision on the price they see today, without realizing that their choices today influence the prices they are offered tomorrow" (p. 45). When dealing with these customers, such as individual tenants, the business charges a flat amount depending on their specific needs. When dealing with intelligent clients such as huge entities and savvy brokers, the company is willing to negotiate its prices in a manner that safeguards both its and the clients' interests.

Principal Analysis II: Profit

Profitability is usually a guiding concept when a company sets a price plan for its products. The chosen approach should enable the company to cover all costs associated with delivering a product and generate sufficient revenues to support its operations and promote expansion. The preceding section demonstrates that Zillow uses a variety of pricing schemes based on the type of its consumers and the product. This section requires an analysis of the firm's profitability based on these strategies.

Profitability attributable to the Pricing of its Advertising Platforms.

The company's method for generating revenue from its advertising platform has proven to be highly effective. It is the company's principal source of revenue and has been profitable for more than a decade. Due to the comparatively low cost of the advertising platform, the company generates lucrative revenues. The company's gross profit for the fiscal year that concluded on December 30, 2016 was $ 774,998,000. In the subsequent fiscal year, which concluded on December 30, 2017, the organization's profits rose to $ 991,591,000. The similar trend of rising profitability was observed in the subsequent year, which ended on December 30, 2018 and yielded a total gross profit of $1,179,964,000. Profit for the fiscal year that concluded on December 30, 2019 grew to $1,310,816,000. (Maheshwari, 2019). Consistent growth in the company's profitability indicates that it is employing the appropriate techniques to fulfill its strategic objectives.

The advertising platforms that it provides to its consumers have been the main contributor to its annual income. Understanding the various prospective consumer types is crucial for the firm. For instance, some advertisements are created by individual customers through the company's website. Zillow receives greater income from these direct advertisements. However, when a newspaper or other advertising agency places an advertisement, they must split the revenues. These pricing techniques are intended to give appropriate incentives for clients who run adverts more frequently. The method makes sense since it enables the company to earn relatively modest but consistent revenues from these advertising agencies, thereby fostering a mutually beneficial relationship.

Commissions on Zillow Rental Manager Tool Profitability

This company charges a commission for its Zillow rental management tool, a technique that has also been profitable. In this platform, tenants can conveniently pay their rent to their landlords without visiting their bank's branches. In exchange, they pay Zillow a fee for arranging the transaction. The procedure is convenient for the majority of these clients. Comparing the cost of facilitating such online payments to the company's commission, the cost is much lower. In addition to the technological experts supervising online transactions and operations on the organization's premises, there is no need for extra personnel to visit these rental facilities. The decreased cost of operations boosts the company's market profitability (Ba & Yang, 2016). This platform and strategy have contributed to the company's increased profitability.

Zillow has made it feasible for some of its clients (tenants) to avoid paying the firm's fee by making alternative rent payment arrangements. They can make direct payments to the bank, while still relying on the platform for regular updates on necessary information. The method offers incentives to customers who are frugal with their spending (Moretti, 2019). This method makes sense because it enhances the website's traffic. Due to the growing audience, the corporation can charge higher costs for its advertising items as the number of frequent internet visitors rises.

Profitability from Zillow Flex Fees

Zillow Flex is a significant source of revenue for this company, and the method employed for this product has proven to be extremely profitable. Regardless of whether a referral results in a sale, the corporation would collect $60 for a premium referral or $20 per ordinary referral for all other referrals. However, the company has worked with real estate agents to ensure that they do not incur referral fees. Instead, they get charged for each completed transaction. Although it may take time for these referrals to result in successful sales, the company earns more money in accordance with the agreements. Zillow splits the commission earned by the broker on sales.

Zillow Flex provides an option for clients that are unwilling to split the commission they earn from an advertisement. Customers in this situation must pick between standard and premium services. For standard services, they must pay $20, whereas premium services cost $60. The pricing plan provides the appropriate incentives for clients that are already well-established in the business and merely seek to extend their market presence. They can refuse to share their gains with the corporation. This method is rational since it promotes variety. It aids in attracting a greater number of customers with diverse interests to the market.

Principal Analysis III: Rivalry

Competition is one of the major market dynamics that determine a company's capacity to attain success. Erdmann (2019) says that a corporation should not consider competition as an impediment to obtaining its targeted degree of success. Instead, it should be viewed as a challenge that drives a company to consistently improve the quality of its market-offered products. A company's aim to outsmart its market competitors would motivate it to enhance its operating techniques in order to produce high-quality products at the lowest potential price. In the internet real estate business, Zillow faces fierce competition. Its ability to achieve sustainable growth in the market depends on the ability to meet expectations

Motorola Company’s Human Resources Department Cbest Essay Help

History

In 1928, Motorola was founded as the Galvin Manufacturing Corporation. The term trademark is first used in 1930, while the name Motorola is established in 1947. Paul Galvin and Joseph Galvin, who were initially automotive radio manufacturers, founded Motorola. The product's name, Motorola, is a portmanteau of "motor" and "Victrola." In 1938, Galvin began its first big advertising campaign, which consisted of print advertisements, billboards, and road signs.

Two years later, they produced a walkie-talkie. The corporation founded Motorola Communication and Electronics, Inc. as its sales subsidiary in 1941. Introduced were the first two-way FM radio communication products with enhanced range and quieter operation. In 1943, Galvin completed its initial public offering, the same year that researcher Dan Noble created the first portable two-way FM radio, also known as a "walkie-talkie."

The company had by then acquired Detrola and begun supplying Ford Motor Company with car radios. Chrysler and General Motors are among their other radio clients. In 1948, Motorola expanded into television with the introduction of the Golden View vt71. It quickly grew to become the fourth largest television manufacturer in the United States. The business remained an industry leader in semiconductor technology, notably computer integrated circuits. Motorola began producing mobile phones as well. Motorola is the primary microprocessor supplier for Commodore Amiga, Apple Macintosh, and Power Macintosh personal computers.

Motorola's Human Resources department

Motorola's Human Resources department shares responsibilities with the Toulouse Unit and the Motorola University. HRD assumes a leadership role by designing training plans in accordance with company strategy and overseeing their implementation. The Motorola University representative delivers training in accordance with the HR department's needs. The job of the HR function is to prioritize the training program in accordance with the needs of the organization's strategy and to fulfill a pedagogical role towards the line manager who is accountable for employee development.

Objectives

HRD's primary purpose is to effectively contribute to the corporate strategy. A primary HR policy is to concentrate all training efforts in order to have a comprehensive and clear picture and to exercise greater strategic control over training expenditures. In addition to a reward system, the HR department contributes to employee development through learning, such as teamwork to enhance procedures and work processes, and through encouraging teamwork.

The Motorola Human Resources department is establishing an evaluation strategy based on quarterly interactions between individual employees and their managers and employee evaluations of training. The joint evaluation is a crucial instrument for assessing HRD initiatives. "HRD plays a strategic role by ensuring employee competency to satisfy the organization's current performance requirements. In addition to fulfilling current organizational demands, HRD plays a crucial role in creating strategy and enabling firms to capitalize on emerging business strategies. (Swanson, 1995).

Orientation

The purpose of the orientation program is to familiarize new employees with the company culture and to enhance their team spirit and mutual understanding. At the same time, the organizer can collect information about the qualities and traits of the new employees. In every organization, orientation is required so that new employees can learn about the organization, its goals, and everything else necessary for accomplishing those goals. By receiving orientation, new employees get more adaptability and performance consistency. The orientation will further assist them in comprehending the rules and regulations of the organization, their coworkers, the organization's worth, and the available facilities. This will help foster a stronger sense of teamwork among the personnel.

Motorola offers a three-week orientation session to familiarize new employees with the organization's culture, values, goals, and initiatives. Within three weeks, new employees will understand the company's culture. By understanding the organization's aims and values, employees may work efficiently to attain the corporate objective.

Compensation

Compensation planning is a very difficult and costly enterprise process. It has a profound effect on the company's financial health and staff morale, affecting every member of the business. When selecting the compensation package, it is crucial to base it on the performance and income of the employees, which should be sufficient to cover the cost of living.

Compensation program components at Motorola

Motorola's compensation program include

basic salary. The short-term incentive is predicated on the termination of the Motorola Incentive plan. Long-term incentives include a mid- and long-term incentive scheme, as well as equity. advantages and perquisites.

General Remuneration Theory

"Motorola's general compensation philosophy is to provide world-class reward strategies and programs that attract, retain, and motivate the best talent, thereby generating exceptional business performance and shareholder value." (2006 REPORT OF THE EXECUTIVE COMPENSATION AND LEADERSHIP COMMITTEE) The company offers total pay that is competitive with the norms of the industry in which it operates and offers total compensation that is above average based on individual performance and business results.

Executive Compensation Principal Considerations

There should be a connection between pay and performance at both the company and employee levels. When Motorola's performance improves, the overall compensation target will exceed the current market median. The compensation of top achievers is proportional to their contribution to Motorola's success.

Regulation

Every company must adhere to regulations in order to function effectively, hence it must adhere to these rules and regulations strictly. The company believes that the Indian beer market is expanding due to the modification of government laws regarding foreign investment and the Indian beer industry. Motorola does not violate the law due to supervisor pressure or business conditions, and if there is any doubt about the legality, they will consult with management, department law, or the ethics line. Motorola also complies with the anti-corruption laws and conventions of the nations in which it operates. In addition, Motorola strives to provide increased consumer value with minimal environmental effect. When exporting or importing goods or services, Motorola adheres to all national norms and regulations. Motorola is responsible for knowing the applicable legislation and for also consulting with the import/export compliance manager as necessary.

Training

Motorola places significantly more emphasis on its training initiatives. The corporation invests a substantial amount of money and effort in the training of both executives and staff. Training at Motorola is both initiated and supported by the company's upper management. Every member of the organization participates actively in the training sessions.

To increase interdepartmental communication, they are undertaking management training sessions. Motorola created one of the greatest and most extensive corporate training programs in the United States. The initiative increased the commitment and self-worth of Motorola employees and contributed to the company's overall improvement. The organization enhances the performance of its staff using the following training techniques:

Customized executive training

This program is designed to provide training to the organization's leaders in order to inform them about the company strategy and its implementation. This program also contributes to the improvement of executive and corporate performance.

Customer service initiative

This is intended to identify client needs and desires. Motorola employs tactics like as customer visits, quality audits, next operation as customer, etc., in order to meet the needs of its clientele. Through the customer visit program, the business is able to identify customer problems and take action to resolve them.

The audit of quality

This program is designed to enhance the product's quality. Here, the manager is placed in the customer's position in order to comprehend how the client is treated from the customer's perspective. The purpose of the next operation as customer program is to improve product and service quality via the effective engagement of all organization members and departments. This strategy helps to increase departmental communication and cooperation, as well as client demands comprehension.

Testing applications in Motorola

"Screening is a public health service in which members of a defined population are asked a question or offered a test to identify those individuals who are more likely to be helped than harmed by additional tests or treatment to reduce the risk of a disease or its complications." (What is filtration?).

Motorola runs a variety of wellness initiatives for the health, well-being, and personal development of its employees, their families, and the surrounding community. A wellness shared service team is part of the human resources department at Motorola. The launch of Health Advantage Plan is a very significant endeavor by Motorola in its health initiatives (HAP). This initiative is intended to improve employee health and wellness.

Employees who participate in the program are strongly urged to receive free medical care. In addition, they established an on-site wellness team to promote preventive care initiatives and educate personnel. "Employees must undergo a health screening every two years in order to remain eligible for HAP. This screening measures height, weight, body composition, blood pressure, and blood composition (triglyceride, total cholesterol, HDL, LDL, and ratio)." (Motorola- Global Wellness Initiatives (2002)).

Motorola also offers numerous other health programs, including disease management, flu vaccines, cancer screening, a 24-hour online nursing service, back care, stress management, children's aerobics, and nutrition, among others. The majority of employees are satisfied with the company's screening operations, and all of them actively participate in these programs.

Labor problems

Labor concerns are a significant obstacle for many organizations. Labor troubles are caused by a variety of factors, including an ineffective incentive system, unequal compensation, a tight work schedule, overexploitation of employees, uncomfortable working conditions, etc. The occurrence of labor concerns within an organization affects the organization's overall functionality and productivity. An key issue arose at Motorola Korea when employees began to struggle to organize a trade union, which included demands for a longer vacation and improved benefits. However, the corporation was not prepared to accept the employees' demands.

Motorola's administration asserted that they are the first firm to give free bus service, free meals, and full-time medical assistance. The union members asserted that the violence began when the employer threatened them to abandon their desire to form a labor union. In 1987, Motorola employees submitted a unionization petition to the government. This led to emotional conflicts between pro-union employees and the firm. This led to excessive workplace violence.

References

The name Richard A. Swanson (1995). Strategic human resource development functions. All Business. Web. Human Resource Planning

Executive Compensation and Leadership Committee Report (2006). EDGAR online. Web.

What is filtration? National screening committee in the UK. Ministry of Health. Web.

Motorola- global wellness initiatives (2002): Health Advantage Plan (HAP) program. National C. Everett Koop Health Awards Web.

[supanova question]

Motorola Company’s Human Resources Department Cbest Essay Help

History

In 1928, Motorola was founded as the Galvin Manufacturing Corporation. The term trademark is first used in 1930, while the name Motorola is established in 1947. Paul Galvin and Joseph Galvin, who were initially automotive radio manufacturers, founded Motorola. The product's name, Motorola, is a portmanteau of "motor" and "Victrola." In 1938, Galvin began its first big advertising campaign, which consisted of print advertisements, billboards, and road signs.

Two years later, they produced a walkie-talkie. The corporation founded Motorola Communication and Electronics, Inc. as its sales subsidiary in 1941. Introduced were the first two-way FM radio communication products with enhanced range and quieter operation. In 1943, Galvin completed its initial public offering, the same year that researcher Dan Noble created the first portable two-way FM radio, also known as a "walkie-talkie."

The company had by then acquired Detrola and begun supplying Ford Motor Company with car radios. Chrysler and General Motors are among their other radio clients. In 1948, Motorola expanded into television with the introduction of the Golden View vt71. It quickly grew to become the fourth largest television manufacturer in the United States. The business remained an industry leader in semiconductor technology, notably computer integrated circuits. Motorola began producing mobile phones as well. Motorola is the primary microprocessor supplier for Commodore Amiga, Apple Macintosh, and Power Macintosh personal computers.

Motorola's Human Resources department

Motorola's Human Resources department shares responsibilities with the Toulouse Unit and the Motorola University. HRD assumes a leadership role by designing training plans in accordance with company strategy and overseeing their implementation. The Motorola University representative delivers training in accordance with the HR department's needs. The job of the HR function is to prioritize the training program in accordance with the needs of the organization's strategy and to fulfill a pedagogical role towards the line manager who is accountable for employee development.

Objectives

HRD's primary purpose is to effectively contribute to the corporate strategy. A primary HR policy is to concentrate all training efforts in order to have a comprehensive and clear picture and to exercise greater strategic control over training expenditures. In addition to a reward system, the HR department contributes to employee development through learning, such as teamwork to enhance procedures and work processes, and through encouraging teamwork.

The Motorola Human Resources department is establishing an evaluation strategy based on quarterly interactions between individual employees and their managers and employee evaluations of training. The joint evaluation is a crucial instrument for assessing HRD initiatives. "HRD plays a strategic role by ensuring employee competency to satisfy the organization's current performance requirements. In addition to fulfilling current organizational demands, HRD plays a crucial role in creating strategy and enabling firms to capitalize on emerging business strategies. (Swanson, 1995).

Orientation

The purpose of the orientation program is to familiarize new employees with the company culture and to enhance their team spirit and mutual understanding. At the same time, the organizer can collect information about the qualities and traits of the new employees. In every organization, orientation is required so that new employees can learn about the organization, its goals, and everything else necessary for accomplishing those goals. By receiving orientation, new employees get more adaptability and performance consistency. The orientation will further assist them in comprehending the rules and regulations of the organization, their coworkers, the organization's worth, and the available facilities. This will help foster a stronger sense of teamwork among the personnel.

Motorola offers a three-week orientation session to familiarize new employees with the organization's culture, values, goals, and initiatives. Within three weeks, new employees will understand the company's culture. By understanding the organization's aims and values, employees may work efficiently to attain the corporate objective.

Compensation

Compensation planning is a very difficult and costly enterprise process. It has a profound effect on the company's financial health and staff morale, affecting every member of the business. When selecting the compensation package, it is crucial to base it on the performance and income of the employees, which should be sufficient to cover the cost of living.

Compensation program components at Motorola

Motorola's compensation program include

basic salary. The short-term incentive is predicated on the termination of the Motorola Incentive plan. Long-term incentives include a mid- and long-term incentive scheme, as well as equity. advantages and perquisites.

General Remuneration Theory

"Motorola's general compensation philosophy is to provide world-class reward strategies and programs that attract, retain, and motivate the best talent, thereby generating exceptional business performance and shareholder value." (2006 REPORT OF THE EXECUTIVE COMPENSATION AND LEADERSHIP COMMITTEE) The company offers total pay that is competitive with the norms of the industry in which it operates and offers total compensation that is above average based on individual performance and business results.

Executive Compensation Principal Considerations

There should be a connection between pay and performance at both the company and employee levels. When Motorola's performance improves, the overall compensation target will exceed the current market median. The compensation of top achievers is proportional to their contribution to Motorola's success.

Regulation

Every company must adhere to regulations in order to function effectively, hence it must adhere to these rules and regulations strictly. The company believes that the Indian beer market is expanding due to the modification of government laws regarding foreign investment and the Indian beer industry. Motorola does not violate the law due to supervisor pressure or business conditions, and if there is any doubt about the legality, they will consult with management, department law, or the ethics line. Motorola also complies with the anti-corruption laws and conventions of the nations in which it operates. In addition, Motorola strives to provide increased consumer value with minimal environmental effect. When exporting or importing goods or services, Motorola adheres to all national norms and regulations. Motorola is responsible for knowing the applicable legislation and for also consulting with the import/export compliance manager as necessary.

Training

Motorola places significantly more emphasis on its training initiatives. The corporation invests a substantial amount of money and effort in the training of both executives and staff. Training at Motorola is both initiated and supported by the company's upper management. Every member of the organization participates actively in the training sessions.

To increase interdepartmental communication, they are undertaking management training sessions. Motorola created one of the greatest and most extensive corporate training programs in the United States. The initiative increased the commitment and self-worth of Motorola employees and contributed to the company's overall improvement. The organization enhances the performance of its staff using the following training techniques:

Customized executive training

This program is designed to provide training to the organization's leaders in order to inform them about the company strategy and its implementation. This program also contributes to the improvement of executive and corporate performance.

Customer service initiative

This is intended to identify client needs and desires. Motorola employs tactics like as customer visits, quality audits, next operation as customer, etc., in order to meet the needs of its clientele. Through the customer visit program, the business is able to identify customer problems and take action to resolve them.

The audit of quality

This program is designed to enhance the product's quality. Here, the manager is placed in the customer's position in order to comprehend how the client is treated from the customer's perspective. The purpose of the next operation as customer program is to improve product and service quality via the effective engagement of all organization members and departments. This strategy helps to increase departmental communication and cooperation, as well as client demands comprehension.

Testing applications in Motorola

"Screening is a public health service in which members of a defined population are asked a question or offered a test to identify those individuals who are more likely to be helped than harmed by additional tests or treatment to reduce the risk of a disease or its complications." (What is filtration?).

Motorola runs a variety of wellness initiatives for the health, well-being, and personal development of its employees, their families, and the surrounding community. A wellness shared service team is part of the human resources department at Motorola. The launch of Health Advantage Plan is a very significant endeavor by Motorola in its health initiatives (HAP). This initiative is intended to improve employee health and wellness.

Employees who participate in the program are strongly urged to receive free medical care. In addition, they established an on-site wellness team to promote preventive care initiatives and educate personnel. "Employees must undergo a health screening every two years in order to remain eligible for HAP. This screening measures height, weight, body composition, blood pressure, and blood composition (triglyceride, total cholesterol, HDL, LDL, and ratio)." (Motorola- Global Wellness Initiatives (2002)).

Motorola also offers numerous other health programs, including disease management, flu vaccines, cancer screening, a 24-hour online nursing service, back care, stress management, children's aerobics, and nutrition, among others. The majority of employees are satisfied with the company's screening operations, and all of them actively participate in these programs.

Labor problems

Labor concerns are a significant obstacle for many organizations. Labor troubles are caused by a variety of factors, including an ineffective incentive system, unequal compensation, a tight work schedule, overexploitation of employees, uncomfortable working conditions, etc. The occurrence of labor concerns within an organization affects the organization's overall functionality and productivity. An key issue arose at Motorola Korea when employees began to struggle to organize a trade union, which included demands for a longer vacation and improved benefits. However, the corporation was not prepared to accept the employees' demands.

Motorola's administration asserted that they are the first firm to give free bus service, free meals, and full-time medical assistance. The union members asserted that the violence began when the employer threatened them to abandon their desire to form a labor union. In 1987, Motorola employees submitted a unionization petition to the government. This led to emotional conflicts between pro-union employees and the firm. This led to excessive workplace violence.

References

The name Richard A. Swanson (1995). Strategic human resource development functions. All Business. Web. Human Resource Planning

Executive Compensation and Leadership Committee Report (2006). EDGAR online. Web.

What is filtration? National screening committee in the UK. Ministry of Health. Web.

Motorola- global wellness initiatives (2002): Health Advantage Plan (HAP) program. National C. Everett Koop Health Awards Web.

[supanova question]

The Rondo Company: Evaluation Of Financing Options Cbest Essay Help

Memorandum on Financing Alternatives

This memorandum analyses the various long-term financing alternatives accessible to the company for the new project to manufacture new types of pipes and for the company's future expansion needs.

Typically, the driving factor for determining the debt-to-equity ratio is the maximizing of the firm's stock value. It is the responsibility of the financial management to determine the optimal debt/equity ratio, and this decision is mostly influenced by the firm's funding requirements and the unpredictability of its future profitability. It also depends on the company's access to the capital market. The finance management must also ensure that borrowing at the lowest cost of capital maximizes shareholder value. Thus, the optimal financing mix for a company is "determined by weighing the benefits and costs of selecting debt versus equity" (Business.UUC)

When it comes to financing capital expenditure projects, businesses are always faced with the decision of whether to pay large dividends with the retention of lower profits, resulting in the need for substantial external financing for future investments, or to pay retain higher profits by paying lower dividends, necessitating the use of less expensive external financing for future investments. Thus, the debt-to-equity ratio of a company's capital structure was determined by its dividend policy.

Costs and Characteristics of Various Debt and Equity Instruments

The equity method of financing a company's long-term needs entails the issuance of several types of stocks. The equity form of investing reduces the personal risks of the company's owners. Even if the business collapses, the firm is obligated to repay its debts or rearrange the repayment of its debts under bankruptcy protection. The cost of equity financing is the dividend that the company must pay to its investors. Equity is perceived to be more expensive than debt because equity investors often assume greater risk and, as a result, anticipate a greater return on their investments. Thus, financing with stock is typically substantially more expensive than financing with debt.

The preferred stock is another sort of equity. The dividends due have priority over the payment of dividends on common stock. The amount of dividends paid to preferred stockholders may be expressed as a percentage of par value or as a fixed cash amount (Business Reference)

Bonds and debentures are examples of debt instruments. Unlike equity-based funding, debt instruments do not confer ownership rights on bondholders. The cost of long-term debt is the after-tax cost of bond-based borrowing. The revenues of the bonds are lowered by the costs of issuing and selling the bonds, known as flotation costs. It is essential to report the cost of funding after taxes. This is the case since interest on debt financing is tax deductible.

Alternatives to Short-Term Funding

There are various options for meeting the company's long-term finance requirements. The company may elect to finance its long-term needs with alternate sources, such as equity, bonds, or leasing.

Equity

Equity represents the fundamental units of ownership in a firm. The company may utilize equity in the form of common or preferred stock. The common stocks offer stockholders with ownership. Typically, voting rights are associated with common stock. The option of employing equity as a source of long-term financing enables the company to sell its shares to investors, who supply the required funds to finance the company's long-term capital investment requirements. By using stock as a type of financing, the company can use the funds accumulated through the issuance of shares to expand the business, rather than on interest and loan repayment.

Bonds

A bond is a form of debt security. The issuer of the bond becomes the bondholder's debtor, and the issuer is liable to repay the principal and interest borrowed by the bondholder at a future date. The bond should be regarded as a loan with collateral. The bond issuer is the borrower, while the bond holder is the lender. The firm should be able to finance the long-term investment with capital from external sources by issuing bonds. While both bonds and stocks are considered to be securities, bondholders are lenders to the issuing corporation, whereas shareholders are the firm's owners. Changes in a few of the connected elements will affect the value of the bonds if and when they occur during the bonds' term. Due to the inverse link between a bond's yield and price, changes in market interest rates impact bond prices.

The numerous Rondo financing options are provided in the table below.

Options Financed Amount Number of Years Interest/Dividend Total Cash Outflow Present Value

Common Stock $ 15,00,000 – – – –

Common Stock $ 5,000,000 – – – –

Mortgage Bond $ 8,000,000 10 9.00% $ 11,960,000 $ 7,806,455

Mortgage Bond $ 13,000,000 10 9.00% $ 16,960,000 $ 10,929,539

Convertible Bond $10,000,000 10 8.63% $18,630,000 $9,031,371 $18,630,000

Priority Shares $ 8,000,000 15 9.38% $ 18,155,200 $ 7,554,975

Preference shares $ 13,000,000 15 9.38 percent $ 29,502,200 $ 12,276,835

Bank Loan $ 10,000,000 6 11.5% $ 14,600,000 $ 10,589,425

In the case of common stocks with the issuance of $15,000,000,000,000 in shares, there is a larger level of dilution at 22% and more dividend payments to the new equity holders, since the management is eager to retain the current dividend rate. Consequently, the Company may contemplate issuing a lesser amount of common equity.

In the example of $8,000,000 in mortgage debentures, the cost of debt is just 9%, which is less than the company's Weighted Average Cost of Capital (WACC), which is computed to be 9.62%. For tax purposes, the interest on mortgage debentures may also be deducted from profits. With a greater mortgage bond of $13,000,000 however, the corporation will become more leveraged; therefore, it is advised to maintain a lesser amount of debt.

In the case of convertible bonds, even though the cost of capital is low at 8.63% and the present value is relatively lower, there is a danger that bondholders will exercise their option if market conditions change. Similarly, the issuance of preferred stock is unfavorable from a cost and ownership dilution standpoint.

In light of the difficulties addressed, it is suggested that the corporation issue $ 5,000,000 in common equity and raise $ 1,000,000 in debt capital through the issuance of mortgage bonds.

$8,000,000 is required for the acquisition of Poly Pipe and the financing of expansion plans. This allows the corporation to retain its gearing ratio while still benefiting from the tax advantages of the mortgage bonds' interest payments.

References

Business Citation: "Cost of Capital" Web.

Business UUC "The Financial Policy of the Firm" Web.

Appendix

REGULAR STOCK

Share Price $62 $62

Flotation costs $9 $9

$53 net per share to equity

Current Outstanding Shares: 1,000,000 1,000,000

Needed Funding $ 15,000,000 $ 5,000,000

Current Outstanding Shares: 1,000,000 1,000,000

Shares Required: 283,019 94,340

Total New Shares 1,283,019 1,094,340

Dilution

22% 9% New Shares/Total Shares

Price of common shares

15% 15% Flotation Cost/ Stock Price

Existing shares as a percentage of total 78% 91%

common stock issued after

new stocks

MORTGAGE BOND

Without Poly Pipe Acquisition

9.00%

9.62%

Cash Value Balance of Principal Interest

Year

Cash Outflow for Debt Repayment

1 2005 8,000,000 800,000 720,000 1,520,000 1,386,608

2 2006 7,200,000 800,000 648,000 1,448,000 1,205,005

3 2007 6,400,000 800,000 576,000 1,376,000 1,044,598

4 2008 5,600,000 800,000 504,000 1,304,000 903,064

5 2009 4,800,000 800,000 432,000 1,232,000 778,326

6 2010 4,000,000 800,000 360,000 1,160,000 668,527

7 2011 3,200,000 800,000 288,000 1,088,000 572,006

8 2012 2,400,000 800,000 216,000 1,016,000 487,276

9 2013 1,600,000 800,000 144,000 944,000 413,013

10 2014 800,000 800,000 72,000 872,000 348,031

2015 0

3,960,000 11,960,000 7,806,455

The stated value/stated interest rate is 9%

9.62% is the researched value of comparable debt (WACC)

10% repayment of principle

With Poly Pipe Acquisition

9.00%

9.62%

Cash Value Balance of Principal Interest

Year

Cash Outflow for Debt Repayment

1 2005 13,000,000 1,300,000 720,000 2,020,000 1,842,729

2 2006 12,200,000 1,300,000 648,000 1,948,000 1,621,098

3 2007 11,400,000 1,300,000 576,000 1,876,000 1,424,175

4 2008 10,600,000 1,300,000 504,000 1,804,000 1,249,330

5 2009 9,800,000 1,300,000 432,000 1,732,000 1,094,206

6 2010 9,000,000 1,300,000 360,000 1,660,000 956,686

7 2011 8,200,000 1,300,000 288,000 1,588,000 834,876

8 2012 7,400,000 1,300,000 216,000 1,516,000 727,078

9 2013 6,600,000 1,300,000 144,000 1,444,000 631,770

10 2014 5,800,000 1,300,000 72,000 1,372,000 547,591

2015 0

13,000,000 3,960,000 16,960,000 10,929,539

The stated value/stated interest rate is 9%

9.62% is the researched value of comparable debt (WACC)

10% repayment of principle

CONVERTIBLE BONDS

Price per Conversion 64

62 is the market price

Conversion Bonus Two

Bonds valued at $10,000,000

Face Value $1,000

Bonds Count: 10,000

$20,000 in Conversion Fees

Interest Rate Calculations

8.63%

9.62%

Cash Value Balance of Principal Interest

Year

Cash Outflow for Debt Repayment

1 2005 10,000,000 – 863,000 863,000 787,265

2 2006 10,000,000 – 863,000 863,000 718,177

3 2007 10,000,000 – 863,000 863,000 655,151

4 2008 10,000,000 – 863,000 863,000 597,656

5 2009 10,000,000 – 863,000 863,000 545,207

6 2010 10,000,000 – 863,000 863,000 497,361

7 2011 10,000,000 – 863,000 863,000 453,714

8 2012 10,000,000 – 863,000 863,000 413,897

9 2013 10,000,000 – 863,000 863,000 377,574

10 2014 10,000,000 – 863,000 863,000 344,439

11 2015 0 10,000,000

10,000,000 3,640,929

Total

8,630,000 18,630,000 9,031,372

PREFERRED STOCK

13 warrants per share of preferred stock

$100 par value of the preferred stock

$77 is the Stock Price of each Warrant

13 Conversion Premium ($ 77 – $ 64)

$ 8,000,000 worth of Preferred Stock (without Poly Pipe).

Face Value $100

Number of Bonds 80,000

Premium for Conversion $1,040,000

Repayment at $ 105 per share equals $8,400,000.

$ 13,000,000 worth of Preferred Stock (without Poly Pipe).

Face Value $100

Number of Bonds 1,300,000

Premium for Conversion $ 1,690,000

Return at $ 105 per share equals $13,650,000

Without Poly Pipe Acquisition

Value of

9.38%

9.62%

Cash Preferred Principal Dividend

Year Stock Payment Cash Outlay for Stock Payment

1 8,000,000 – 750,400 750,400 684,547

2 8,000,000 – 750,400 750,400 624,472

3 8,000,000 – 750,400 750,400 569,670

4 8,000,000 – 750,400 750,400 519,677

5 8,000,000 – 750,400 750,400 474,071

6 8,000,000 – 750,400 750,400 432,468

7 8,000,000 – 750,400 750,400 394,516

8 8,000,000 – 750,400 750,400 359,894

9 8,000,000 – 750,400 750,400 328,310

10 8,000,000 – 750,400 750,400 299,499

11 8,000,000 – 750,400 750,400 273,215

12 8,000,000 – 750,400 750,400 249,239

13 8,000,000 – 750,400 750,400 227,366

14

15

8,400,000

8,400,000 2,118,031

Total

9,755,200 18,155,200 7,554,975

With Poly Pipe Acquisition

Value of

9.38%

9.62%

Cash Preferred Principal Dividend

Year Stock Payment Cash Outlay for Stock Payment

1 13,000,000 – 1,219,400 1,219,400 1,112,388

2 13,000,000 – 1,219,400 1,219,400 1,014,768

3 13,000,000 – 1,219,400 1,219,400 925,714

4 13,000,000 – 1,219,400 1,219,400 844,475

5 13,000,000 – 1,219,400 1,219,400 770,366

6 13,000,000 – 1,219,400 1,219,400 702,761

7 13,000,000 – 1,219,400 1,219,400 641,088

8 13,000,000 – 1,219,400 1,219,400 584,828

9 13,000,000 – 1,219,400 1,219,400 533,504

10 13,000,000 – 1,219,400 1,219,400 486,685

11 13,000,000 – 1,219,400 1,219,400 443,975

12 13,000,000 – 1,219,400 1,219,400 405,013

13 13,000,000 – 1,219,400 1,219,400 369,470

14

– – – 0

15

13,650,000

13,650,000 3,441,800

Total

14,632,800 29,502,200 12,276,835

BANK LOAN

11.50%

9.62%

Cash Value Balance of Principal Interest

Year

Cash Outflow for Debt Repayment

1 2005 10,000,000 – 1,150,000 1,150,000 1049079

2 2006 10,000,000 2,000,000 1,150,000 3,150,000 2621386

3 2007 8,000,000 2,000,000 920,000 2,920,000 2216733

4 2008 6,000,000 2,000,000 690,000 2,690,000 1862915

5 2009 4,000,000 2,000,000 460,000 2,460,000 1554126

6 2010 2,000,000 2,000,000 230,000 2,230,000 1285186

Total

10,000,000 4,600,000 14,600,000 10,589,425

The ratio of stated value to stated interest is 11.50%

9.62% is the researched value of comparable debt (WACC)

Principal Repayment in 5 Years at $2,000,000 per year

WACC CALCULATION

WACC

amount before tax weight amount after tax

Bank Loan 7,500,000.00 6.00% 3.60% 17.26% 0.62%

The retained earnings amount to $21 million Mortgage Bond 5,000,000.00 7.50% 4.50% 11.50% 0.52

Common Stock 9 587 500 000 11 90 % 11 90 % 22 06 % 2 63 %

21,372,500.00 Retained Earnings 11.90% 11.90% 49.18% 5.85%

43,460,000.00

9.62%

MWACC

amount pre-tax after tax weight amount

Bank Loan 5,450,000.00 6.25% 3.75% 8.55% 0.32%

Rondo lacks Swiss loan Mortgage Bond 5,492,832.40 6.32% 3.79% 8.62% 0.33%.

Common Stock of rondo is not bonded 29,330,000.00 11.90% 11.90% 46.02% 5.48%

23,467,100.00 Retained Earnings 11.90% 11.90% 36.82% 4.38

63,739,932.40

10.50%

Notes:

The bank loan is the present value of the final 2006 and 2007 amount. Value from corresponds to the current PV discount rate

The PV of the mortgage bond at the end of 2007 is added. discount rate from the previous week's amount

Calculation of $29.33 per share of common stock. 1 million outstanding shares (previous week)

Week 2 Retained Earnings from 2006

CAPM is identical for both. Based on the prior week's data.

[supanova question]

Budget Planning And Control At A Charter School Cbest Essay Help

Introduction

Managerial accounting provides managers with accounting information so they may perform planning and control duties within the organization. Managerial accountants are accountable for a variety of organizational reports. The reports compare the actual performance of a business unit to its budgeted or anticipated activity and provide frequent and timely updates on important financial metrics. Atkinson, Kaplan and Matsumura (2007).

Managers are accountable for producing analytical reports that aid in the investigation of organizational difficulties such as a drop in profitability. The reports aid in identifying potential opportunities and other business situations. Budgets, which are a quantitative expression of a plan, are a component of managerial information (2006).

Comparing managerial and financial accounting

Management Accounting Financial Accounting

It reports to other parties, including shareholders, lenders, and the government. Reports to the company's managing and planning functions.

The focus is on past events. Affects future decisions.

Information must be accurate. The information must be current.

Prepared at the conclusion of the fiscal year Prepared as required.

The following paper examines the planning and control aspects of a budget using a charter school as a case study. The role of planning entails the determination of program and organizational activities and the evaluation of potential means for achieving them.

Fixed budget

The charter school's budget is a steady amount. This is due to the fact that the budget is established at the beginning of the year and is typically valid for one year, making it a master budget. Because the whole number of students and staff is known, their pay and benefits for the time may be determined at the beginning of the fiscal year. All the assumptions can be made and all the conclusions can be drawn, therefore mid-year budget adjustments are not possible. Both the overall number of school days and the total number of teachers are known, making this a static budget.

Total revenue per student

Total number of pupils: 120 100 66

General revenue (@ $3,546 per student). 425,520 354,600 234,036

Revenue from compensation (at $1,775 per student). 213,000 177,500 117,150

Transportation revenue (@ 170 per student). 20,400 17,000 11,220

TRA Discount (at $(-)42.44 per student). -5,093 -4,244 -2,801

Food Reimbursement (@$246.50 per student). 29,580 24,650 16,269

Federal Title I grants (@ $ 368 per student). 44,160 36,800 24,288

Total Revenue. 727,567 606,306 400,162

Total revenue per student. (727,567)/120=6063 606,306/120=6063 400.162/120=6063

Total costs per student

Total number of pupils: 120 100 66

Total costs 542,157 528,267 504,654

Total costs per student 542,157/120=

4,518 528,267/100=

5,283 504,654/66=

7,646

Need for expenditures

The majority of expenses incurred by charter schools are required. This is because they are required for the schools to function on a daily basis. Purchasing equipment with computer funds diminishes the school's income, hence these expenditures should be reduced. In order to lower these costs, payroll and salaries should be reduced when the number of enrolled students decreases. The school should find an alternative to building leases because it is spending a significant amount of funds. This expense should be covered proportionally, i.e., the total amount should be proportional to the number of students.

viability of the institution

A credible charter school exists. This is because the institution enjoys positive revenue when 120 and 100 students join.

Profitability analysis

Total number of pupils: 120 100 66

Fixed costs 458,817 458,817 458,817

Variable costs 83,340 69,450 45,837

Break even 458,817/83,340=55 458,817/69,450=60 458,817/45,837=10

Despite assumptions about the break

Changes in the number of students have resulted in substantial alterations to the school's expenses and income. Depending on the amount of activity, the overall expenses incurred by the school can be separated into variable and fixed components. Fixed costs include, among others, computer equipment, dues and subscriptions, and general office supplies. Variable costs include printing and copying, meal service, and field trips. The unit cost per student, including variable and fixed expenditures, is assumed to remain constant. The second assumption is that the number of pupils is the only variable that influences other expenditures. Regardless of the degree of activity, the corporation will continue to incur variable expenses, whereas the school will continue to suffer fixed costs (Drury, 2007).

The advantages of creating this budget

It enables the school's administrators to plan the institution's goals and devise strategies for accomplishing them. It will allow managers to examine past performance, evaluate any deficiencies by drafting new action plans to address those flaws, and identify any opportunities for future growth. The budget compares the school's actual performance to its budgeted performance. The budget will make it easier for managers to prepare for the following reporting period, as they will already have the statistics Edmonds, Olds, and Schneider (2006).

Budgetary function oversight

The budget serves as a control mechanism since it requires management to establish plans for accomplishing the school's objectives. It requires the entire department and operating units to establish goals that they must attain, so providing the school with direction and purpose. As a tool of control, the budget outlines the responsibilities of all parties involved. The budget is utilized to address any variances that may occur and to incentivize personnel. The budget enhances resource allocation and distribution. Harris, as well as West (2007).

Variance examination

Variance analysis refers to the examination of performance using variances, whose prompt reporting increases the likelihood of corrective action.

The benefits of variance analysis

Managers use variance analysis to evaluate if a variation is negative or positive when measuring performance. It will be used to evaluate the managers' performance. Accountability accounting enables managers to be held accountable for their actions. Each division and department within an organization is held accountable for all of its actions. The variance analysis is performed by department. This allows managers and division heads to be held accountable for any deviations within their respective areas of responsibility. When there is a considerable deviation from the expected level, management can take corrective action with relative ease.

Negative aspects of variance analysis

The prices reduce due to market factors. There is a propensity to use incorrect standard material costs. It distorts profitability since revenue is calculated by subtracting expenses from revenue. Variance analysis may prioritize the accomplishment of certain objectives over others.

Different performance metrics

Benchmarking is an alternative performance metric. The allocated amounts serve as comparison points for other expenditures. Benchmarking is the ongoing process of comparing services and activities to the highest standard in the industry.

References

Atkinson, A., Kaplan, R., & Matsumura (2007). Accounting for management functions. The New York location of Pearson/Prentice Hall.

Drury, Charles (2007). Management and Accounting for Costs Cengage Learning EMEA in Chicago.

Edmonds, C., Olds, P., & Schneider, N. (2006). Fundamental Manaerial Accounting. The New York-based McGraw-Hill Irwin company.

Harris, E., and C. West (New York). Variance Evaluation. 2007: Institute of Chartered Management Accountants

Horngren, T., Datar, S., & Foster (2006). Cost accounting with an emphasis on management. The New York location of Pearson Prentice Hall.

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Employee Development And Training Plans Cbest Essay Help

Table of Contents
Introduction Instruction and Advancement Employee Engagement Performance Evaluation Bibliography

Introduction

As seen by a description of their performance, the customer service department employs employees with varying backgrounds, learning styles, and objectives. Jerome, Jerry, Sarah, and Carlos are tasked with acquiring the position of team leader, while Frank and Allyson are tasked with attaining that position. However, Jin and Arick have no professional aspirations and want merely calm and interesting employment.

Sarah's key requirement is to train her immediate responsibilities and expand her understanding of the product and the organization, as she lacks sufficient knowledge of its internal operations. Thus, Sarah's objective is to increase customer service by 20% by providing more informed responses and by 50% by increasing her overall company and product knowledge. Because he received bad feedback from a customer, Carlos must also increase his area's expertise and practice his communication and customer service skills. Jerome's primary deficiency is a lack of confidence and communication skills, so he must receive training in this area. Jin's key difficulty is to interact effectively with all customers; hence, she must hone her customer service skills. Jerry needs to strengthen his customer service abilities because he makes errors in his verbal interactions with customers. Therefore, Jerome, Jin, Carlos, and Jerry's mission is to enhance customer service by 30%.

Arick must improve his time management because his primary weakness is inefficient work. Frank has to improve his time management and leadership abilities, as he wastes time speaking with clients but aspires to become a team leader. Therefore, Arick and Frank's objective is to enhance productivity by 20%. Allyson needs training in human resources and leadership to obtain a team leader position, and she has no job gaps. Therefore, Allyson and Frank's purpose is to complete leadership training. All objectives must be met within three months. Similarly to Lucier (2008), staff did not have set standards for the number and duration of calls and other duties, allowing them to waste work time. Therefore, it is necessary to define these standards. In addition, all employees require team-building and interpersonal communication in order to develop mutual trust, share and discuss ideas, and collaborate on their implementation.

However, the majority of employees have diverse learning styles that cannot be accommodated by a single training. For instance, Sarah, Jerry, and Frank may acquire new information independently or in a group with simply supervision, whereas Carlos and Jerome require a personalized approach. Despite the diverse learning styles of adults, Dalto (2017, p. 25) argues that they must be instructed based on common concepts. Some of these include goal- and task-oriented education, respect for trainees, varying degrees of their experience, lifelong applicability of new knowledge, and recognition of the individual requirements of each participant (Dalto, 2017, p.25). In addition, employees have varying perception-based learning styles; for instance, Sarah and Jerry have a visual learning style because they process written information better. However, it is difficult to identify the learning styles of other employees because there is insufficient data available. Therefore, the forms and themes of the staff development program must be diverse.

Instruction and Advancement

Specific needs reveal that employees require a variety of training kinds. First, all staff will receive customer service and situational response training, which is a form of skills training (Portolese, 2015). Jerome and Jerry have verbal communication issues, Carlos received unfavorable feedback from the client, Jin may be impolite, and Frank is too talkative. Sarah and Arick are the only ones who can skip this training because they have no issues in this area. The most effective method for imparting knowledge is a combination of lectures, in which employees recall fundamental communication standards, and role-plays to work through fundamental issues and challenging scenarios (Martin, Kolomitro, and Lam, 2014, p. 17). Understanding or recalling the ground rules should enhance performance.

In addition, staff, especially Arick and Frank, require a brief course in time management in order to minimize issues caused by increased workloads. The most efficient method of instruction may involve lectures, followed by self-study and the use of computer applications. On this basis, staff will be instructed in fundamental time management practices, and a self-monitoring application will aid in their mastery. External training from an experienced specialist is optimal for both purposes, as he or she can consider all elements that influence the time-management skills of each team member and the team as a whole, and can teach employees the necessary skills to service clients. Hiring external professionals incurs additional expenses, but they should not cause a significant budget deficit because they are temporary and one-time.

In addition, Sarah and Carlos should receive a training program from more experienced internal specialists, as they require product knowledge. Therefore, they require quality training from their peers; mentorship is the most effective approach for imparting training (Portolese, 2015; Martin, Kolomitro, and Lam, 2014, p. 17). Allyson, for instance, can provide such support because she does her job well and can exercise her leadership and mentoring talents; nevertheless, she must consider the unique gaps and needs of each employee.

In addition, the external specialist should provide Allyson and Frank with leadership training, or mix them with personnel from other departments who also require this type of growth program. This training should take into account numerous elements, including the size of the team, Allyson and Frank's learning styles, and the anticipated workload. Case studies, role plays, and lectures should be included in the training techniques, as they are the most relevant and will enable employees consider and engage in situations demanding leadership abilities (Martin, Kolomitro, and Lam, 2014, p. 17). In addition, the crew lacks a sense of community; therefore, Jay must conduct team-building or team training for his department because he is aware of the individual characteristics of his employees. In addition, staff should be encouraged to hold informal gatherings during lunch and after work in order to foster team spirit. Training for Allyson and Frank, as well as team-building, require costs; however, if the budget for team-building is contingent on the generosity of the firm, the cost of training is established by an outside expert. Regardless, these expenditures are beneficial and will provide profits in the future.

Employee Engagement

The two-factor hypothesis can explain the employee motivational strategy. According to this theory, hygiene considerations are essential for the work of employees, while motivators inspire them to be highly productive (Bauer et al., 2016). Since hygienic variables such as pay and hours of work appear to satisfy all employees, they remain in their positions. For instance, Jin and Arich have sufficient work, but they lack additional incentives to be more careful. Similarly, other employees are motivated by the need for recognition, achievement, and development, therefore they have motives to grow (Bauer et al., 2016). These aspects should be at the heart of their motivation, with Jin being motivated by exciting work and Arick by wage adjustments or other hygiene factors. At the same time, transactional leadership will be most suitable in this situation. This strategy permits employees to assume responsibility, but rewards and penalties from the leader are a way for them to control and be recognized for their achievements (Hoch et al., 2018, p. 506). Consequently, this leadership and management style is optimal for this team.

Measuring Performance

Monthly reassessment of an employee's qualities and performance is the most effective way for gauging employee advancement. However, the evaluation of persistence should focus on both qualitative and quantitative aspects. For instance, the current text describes Jeremy's reluctance to express his opinions and communicate with clients during a quarrel. Therefore, a second study should demonstrate if Jeremy was able to overcome these obstacles and, for instance, submit an excellent concept to the team. A questionnaire containing open and closed questions will be used to collect employee feedback. On a scale from 0 to 10, for instance, an employee will score the benefits of the training for him or her, as well as comment on his progress and areas for growth. This method is slightly biased because the employee may be more concerned with their own success than with the overall effectiveness of the training. However, quantitative performance indicators indicate development more clearly, which should be communicated to employees along with the objective of the survey.

To determine if the team can handle the increased workload, performance must be measured by certain indicators, such as the number of calls or emails. Multiple favorable comments can be used to evaluate the enhancement of customer service. This feedback might be gathered through automated service rating programs or company website testimonials. These distinct criteria are the most suitable because they are objective and correspond to distinct objectives.

If the development strategy fails to yield results, personnel deficiencies and desires, as well as the motivator system, will be reviewed. For instance, if Arick is not motivated by prizes, sanctions for failure to fulfill assignments or bad customer communication can be substituted. Therefore, measurable criteria and contact with employees will assist in evaluating their growth success and adjusting the strategy as needed.

Bibliography

Bauer, T., et al. (2016). Management principles. FlatWorld, Boston

Dalto, J. (2017). Developing learner-centered safety training. Professional Safety, 62(5), 24–25. Web.

Do ethical, authentic, and servant leadership explain variation in excess of transformative leadership? Journal of Management, 44(2), pages 501–529. doi: 10.1177/0149206316665461

Communication Education, 57(4), pp. 482–489. Lucier, K. (2008). A consultative training program: collateral effects of a needs assessment. doi: 10.1080/03634520802094305

Human Resource Development Review, 13(1), pp. 11–35. Martin, B. O., Kolomitro, K., and Lam, T. C. M. (2014). "Training methods: a review and analysis." doi: 10.1177/1534484313497947

(2015). Human resource management. Boston: FlatWorld. Portolese, L.

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Managing In A Global Environment Cbest Essay Help

Table of Contents
Introduction Managing in a Global Environment: Managerial Abilities and Cultural Considerations Conclusion Bibliography

Introduction

The contemporary global market gives both enormous opportunities and obstacles to any organization that seeks to expand its operations beyond the local level. In this regard, managers should acquire an in-depth grasp of the laws and tendencies that emerge in the global corporate environment, as well as the ability to respond to cultural diversity challenges. This study intends to address the challenges managers encounter while operating a firm in a globalized context and to identify at least three abilities necessary for effective management across numerous national cultures. In addition, the article will address at least two cultural factors specific to each country, such as the United Kingdom, Saudi Arabia, and Japan.

Management and the Global Setting

Due to the rapid expansion of global transportation systems and migration patterns over the past few decades, the general corporate environment has undergone a revolutionary transformation. As a result of demographic shifts in the domestic labor market, management fosters diversity and accommodates employees with diverse opinions and values. According to Dobbin and Kalev (2016), almost all Fortune 500 organizations and nearly half of mid-sized enterprises in the United States have programs designed to improve employee participation. Externally, as the potential to develop and conduct business abroad has risen, enterprises must adapt to the numerous legal regulations and laws accepted by foreign governments. In addition, they must develop policies and strategies that account for differences in cultural requirements, preferences, and norms. Globally, such steps are taken to promote sustainable growth and international trade competitiveness.

On the other hand, the emergence and growth of modern technologies have influenced the tastes and attitudes of the workforce regarding the conventional workflow. Specifically, many employees in industrialized nations conduct their jobs and responsibilities remotely, sometimes from great distances away from their primary workplace, while keeping internet connectivity. In addition, an increasing number of firms conducting business on a global scale are utilizing outsourcing services, whereby a company transfers certain functions of its entrepreneurial activity to another company functioning in the needed field. Over thirty percent of small businesses outsourced their business functions in 2018, and approximately fifty-two percent expected to do so in 2019. (Panko, 2019). In 2018, the global market for outsourcing stood for $85.6 billion (Panko, 2019). In addition, it is important to note that, as a result of the rapid development of technology, there is a greater demand for a highly skilled labor force, which occasionally compels businesses to recruit professionals from abroad.

Abilities Required of a Manager

To ensure the efficient functioning of a company in a global setting, a manager must possess or acquire a diverse set of skills and expertise. Particularly, effective international management involves more sensitivity to country practices and norms. Cultural sensitivity suggests that people of various backgrounds accept, appreciate, and comprehend one another's characteristics, as well as work without cultural limitations. To improve cross-cultural sensitivity, a manager must understand the characteristics of both dominant and varied cultures and increase engagement with diverse groups of individuals ("Practicing Cultural Sensitivity," 2016). In this regard, numerous cooperative research projects, internships, and practicum experiences might be an effective method for enhancing a supervisor's cultural competence.

Integrity is another quality a manager should possess; it suggests honesty, responsibility, consistency, and trust. In this context, honesty encompasses not only objectivity and truthfulness in communication, but also the capacity for self-evaluation, which enables managers to ensure that their leadership style facilitates the everyday workflow of employees. Regarding accountability, it is important to note that managers must be held accountable for all their actions and decisions, particularly those that mislead the team or misdirect team members. In addition, supervisors should encourage employees to take initiative and place their trust in them when completing assigned tasks. The manager should also have extensive knowledge of business procedures, theories, and techniques, as this facilitates decision-making and the resolution of conflicts.

Culture-Related Factors

Consideration of intrinsic cultural characteristics, customs, and traditions is crucial to the success or failure of business strategy in different countries. To efficiently administer a training program in the United Kingdom, for instance, PG Industries's management must be aware that English society is characterized by individuality and low Uncertainty Avoidance ("Country comparison," n.d.). Children are taught from a young age to think and act freely, to seek their unique purpose and position in life, and that personal achievement is the only way to success. Moreover, with a low Uncertainty Avoidance score, the British populace feels at ease in uncertain and even risky situations, which effects the job planning process. It is important to note that entrepreneurs in the United Kingdom focus on the final goal rather than the specifics of achieving it.

Regarding Saudi Arabia, this state's society is marked by masculinity and a preference for short-term time orientation. In such countries, managers are expected to be diligent, persistent, and decisive, while competition, justice, and strong relationships are prioritized ("Country comparison," n.d.). In addition, they exhibit a profound regard for traditions, the performance of social obligations, an emphasis on achieving intermediate outcomes, and a little propensity to invest for the future.

Lastly, it should be mentioned that Japan is renowned for its collectivism and has one of the highest Uncertainty Avoidance rates in the world. The latter index accounts for 92, per Hofstede Insights ("Country comparison," n.d.). This scenario is a result of ongoing preparedness for unforeseeable, dangerous events and catastrophes, such as earthquakes, typhoons, tsunamis, and volcanic eruptions. Due to the stringent emergency plan and precautions for abrupt natural disasters, the Japanese society is very predictable. For instance, the dress code and Rules of Conduct are defined for all major social events, such as ceremonies, marriages, graduations, and funerals. The Japanese are considered collectivist by Western criteria and individualist by Asian standards ("Country comparison," n.d.). On the one hand, they are recognized for prioritizing group opinion over an individual's suggestion, yet on the other hand, they exhibit the individualistic trait of business devotion.

Conclusion

In conclusion, this article has examined the essential aspects that contribute to the greater participation of managers in international business, such as the rapid growth of migration trends and the emergence and expansion of new technology. In addition, the study describes the necessary abilities for effective management in a global setting. Among the supplied qualities are cultural sensitivity, honesty, accountability, and a comprehensive understanding of business processes and ideas. Two cultural concerns for each country, including the United Kingdom, Saudi Arabia, and Japan, have been examined. Individualism and low Uncertainty Avoidance are more prevalent in the British population, while masculinity and a preference for short-term temporal orientation are dominant in Saudi Arabia, and collectivism and high Uncertainty Avoidance are prevalent in Japan.

References

Web-based country comparison.

Dobbin, F., & Kalev, A. (2016). Why diversity programs fail and what works more effectively The Harvard Business Review, 94(7-8), pages 52 to 60.

Panko, R. Statistics on small business outsourcing in 2019. Web.

Putting Cultural Sensitivity into Practice (2017). Web.

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Developing Contracts In Procurement And Supply Cbest Essay Help

Introduction

Contracts continue to influence all aspects of our life. Whether formal or informal, the majority of human relationships must now be contractual in character, with success as the primary objective. Contracts and commitments that have been met are fundamental elements in the field of procurement. However, the process must take into account the norms that will guide and govern the relationship between the parties. Parties must be able to understand what is expected of them, when they are expected to fulfill their duties, the quality of such performance, and the moment at which such expectations are investigated. These are crucial factors that must frequently follow the development of a contractual connection in any organization's procurement structure. This is accomplished by establishing obligations and commitments that are binding on all parties and ensuring that each party is safeguarded against any risks that may come from unanticipated changes in the contract's execution. Numerous contractors and suppliers are contracted by the United Nations to supply important goods and services. These relationships are governed by current laws and developed through contracts to ensure that these obligations are not violated. Contractual duties and contract creation must now be able to take into account the needs of the parties involved. The contractors have a responsibility to be truthful, helpful, and have the client's best interests at heart. With these contractual and performance obligations in hand, the report argues that the United Nations Organization needs a broader range of terms and conditions to protect it in the face of the need to manage poor quality, increased costs of products and supplies, and unethical practices, all of which have made it difficult to perform obligations and make the incumbent process run smoothly. The most effective strategy for designing contracts in procurement and supply is to provide incentives that boost performance, improve quality, and reduce the risks encountered by the various partners. However, parties' intentions must be taken into account during this process.

The Selection of Purchasing Contract

In spite of the fact that the majority of obligations may be believed to be adequately covered by the contracts, parties must be cognizant of the fact that they reign when it comes to contract construction. The selection of a contract during the formulation of obligations directs the parties as to what is expected of them and contributes to the overall risk reduction. As a result, and using instances from the United Nations as an organization, he argues. In procurement contracts, the capacity to insure oneself and the contractor against all risks remains minimal (Jie, 2014). This necessitates the implementation of multiple measures to ensure that hazards, especially those in the distant future, are properly detected. The selection of the contract used to define these obligations remains crucial to protecting the organization contracting for supply against all forms of foreseen hazards. The evaluation focuses on the current contractual agreements between the organization and its suppliers, as well as the company's ability to maintain believable relationships with its suppliers.

This necessitates prudence on the part of the United Nations with regard to the types of goods and services given by those with whom it contracts. The identification is essential for ensuring the continuity of the organization's operations. Notably, the organization has its own inspection units, which are primarily responsible for inspecting the products and services that are delivered to the organization through its procurement department. However, the body must have a genuine interest in contract formation and the method in which the resulting contracts might minimize risks (Glas & Kleeman, 2016). In terms of procurement and supply, the selection of a procurement contract consequently remains fundamental to the success of any business. The organization's intended direction has been determined.

The United States is a questionable example of a successful incumbent government. The procurement processes of the vast majority of government agencies today comprehend and have learned through the years what is optimal for their operations, owing to the good regulations that have been formed over the years. The approach chosen for the creation of these entities' contracts could be deemed the most suitable for the United Nations Organization. The U.S. Federal Acquisition Regulation has a variety of regulations that could give significant consideration to contracting difficulties. When it comes to the drafting of contracts that will define the parties' relationships, the FARs stipulate certain rules that must be adhered to. In contrast, the Department of Trade and Industry (DTI) in the United Kingdom has several contracting options for contracts valued at more than $10,000. (Glas & Kleeman, 2016). Consequently, there are three main types of contracts from which contractual parties might frequently pick. These include fixed-price, cost-reimbursement, and incentive contracts. In an effort to ensure that the Organization maintains a healthy relationship with its suppliers, the assessment examines and discusses the necessity for future-oriented contract drafting.

Cost Reimbursement Contracts

In such agreements, the buyer or contractual party promises to pay all manufacturing, supply, or construction fees, as well as all supervision-related costs. This type of contract aims to protect the buyer or procuring party from any firms of changes that may have accompanied the complete process of determining the costs of the acquired products and goods. However, such expenses must be supported by proof in order to be reimbursed. This means that the claimed expenses must be included in the documentation that accompanies the invoice to be paid. The contract does not end here. There are various terns that are used when it comes to defining the obligations of the parties and the players, as to what is expected of them. The contracting parties must thus be able to know the number of days that the contract will take, and the nature of operations that are expected in line with the performance of the contract (Pelton & Smith, 2015). The fulfilment of these responsibilities will be the optimal method for developing the best types of relationships in which each party believes that the obligations were satisfactorily met. Several of these contracts are required by the United Nations Organization to determine the rights of each party and what must be done. However, it is important to note the cost inflation-related vulnerabilities to which the organization has been vulnerable.

Unit Price Agreements

These contracts are mostly utilized for the procurement of modest products required by the organization. There are a variety of goods that may be required continuously by the organization. Consequently, bidders are frequently asked to submit their proposals in order to make the contract feasible. They are required to communicate their pricing quotes and the requirements for their submissions. In accordance with the aforementioned strategy, the procuring party will be able to evaluate the required pricing and select the most advantageous option. Academics in this field have continued to oppose this method of contracting since the quality of the products frequently sold would decrease (Brown et al., 2018). However, it is important to note that quality must be a factor in such contracts. As a result of the above understanding, it is possible that some contracts will always be accepted as-is, but the quality of their components will diminish upon delivery.

The United Nations organization has a sound policy governing the development of unit pricing contracts. Despite the fact that it is commonly asserted that the pricing of the items must be clearly specified and included in the policy, there is a developing problem of employees and suppliers colluding and breaching contractual obligations (Keranen, 2017). Therefore, the lowest price is not a guarantee that the organization's objectives will be met. When so constituted, the contract must protect the procuring party's interests and ensure the highest quality is achieved. In accordance with these requirements, companies must now design the terms that will make the achievement of quality objectives a central component of the contract.

Fixed-Price Agreements

This is a contractual obligation in which the contractor gets paid a fixed fee for completing the contract. However, before payment is made, the project must be able to accomplish the contract's stated goals and objectives. The contract's quality requirements must always be specified and established as required. In this industry, and in accordance with the conditions of such contracts, quality is a crucial factor; if it is not met as necessary, the agreed-upon payment is voided (Christensen et al., 2016). The most suitable method for the effective performance of such contracts is the limitation of the time element. It has been apparent that the majority of contractors are eager to exploit the factors of time, either extending the duration of the performances or, worse, performing subpar work.

In recent years, the United Nations has been incapable of enforcing numerous contractual duties, resulting in protracted legal fights in courts and tribunals around the world. This is due to the inability of these contracts to capture all of the risks that the organization may face from time to time, in conjunction with the fulfilment of the contract's duties (Norris-Tirrell & Clay, 2016). As a result, it is important to note that there is an increasing need to integrate these forces in the contract and ensure that parties are obligated to perform the contracts as required. Recent years have witnessed a shift in the evolution of contracts, with parties opting for stage-by-stage procedures (Brown et al., 2018). The contractors are approved at each stage of their performance, which facilitates the development of projects that adhere to the required and specified standards.

Rewarding Contracts

These contracts attempt to strike a balance between expenses, quality, and profits. While the contractor has the authority to claim payment for completed work, this sort of contract is frequently structured to ensure that quality standards and deadlines are fulfilled. The output of the contract and the required supply must not only fulfill expectations, but also possess the necessary traits that will contribute to the accomplishment of the project's objectives (Bertone et al., 2018). Despite the fact that this sort of contractual method is rarely used, there is a growing worry among United Nations Organizations, which previously avoided profit-making ventures (Brown et al., 2018). As a result of the shift in strategy, there is a rising need to construct contracts in this area to safeguard the organization from suppliers who have begun exploiting the already obvious weaknesses.

Risks of Substandard Quality in Procurement and Distribution

At the core of procurement contract formation, it has become obvious that the contract's objectives may not be met on occasion. The parties are dissatisfied and suffer as a result of the partial fulfilment of the duties. They have no choice but to pursue their legal rights through the courts or arbitration tribunals. These lawsuits lead to the identification of risks linked with contract creation and contractual duties (Liinamaa et al., 2016). In light of this, it is now essential that all facts pertaining to the fulfillment of the contract be brought to light, with everyone able to comprehend and comprehend what is expected of them. The failure to have the best delivery is one of the most obvious consequences of the foregoing actions. This results in a capital loss for the acquiring party (Liinamaa et al., 2016). It is important to note that if these breaches occur, it is now obvious that the procuring party is the more vulnerable party; consequently, there is a need to protect parties who may incur losses due to unfulfilled duties.

The organization's principal risks are mitigated by the absence of openness between contracting parties. It has become clear that whenever these contracts are created, the parties obligated to carry them out do not intend to honor them. In actuality, the contractor has been deemed to have breached the agreement from the moment the contract is drafted, as he or she has failed to perform as agreed. This has frequently exposed the buyer or lessee to the danger of a missed delivery date. In terms of the organization's ability to complete its projects and achieve its objectives, the current strategy entails a growing number of hazards. These disadvantages have an effect on the organization's service, performance, and attainment of its stated objectives. Consequently, it has become vital to establish an organization with an inspection team that is committed to achieving the business's goals.

Avoidance of Contract-Related Risks and Substandard Quality

At the contractual stage, the risks that have persisted to plague purchasers and those who engage in contracts have made it crucial for the participants to determine the optimal technique for mitigating risks. Parties must comprehend that they are expected to fulfill the majority of their responsibilities and not simply accept a contract in its current condition. The first option is to form a quality assessment team capable of evaluating the current situation and ensuring compliance standards are met as required. The top quality assessment team will determine the most suitable plan. While the United Nations Organization has a reputation for being able to handle quality assessment difficulties, the performance of these jobs remains lax, putting into question the organization's quality assessment teams.

Adopting contacts that satisfy the customers' primary needs is the optimal strategy. Numerous individuals have observed that in a number of instances, a single contract structure has been utilized to establish the duties of all contracting parties. This

US Multinational Company: Organizational Behavior Cbest Essay Help

Executive Synopsis

Globalization continues to alter the commercial practices of contemporary individuals. Numerous elements of our lives, including communication and purchasing patterns, are undergoing rapid transformations. Global business stands to gain substantially from globalization, which is the most crucial benefit. Due to the prevalence of communication barriers between national, regional, and international cultures, research demonstrates that this notion is largely unfounded.

The discouraging truth is the focal subject of this paper's analysis. Diverse cultures have continued to cross geographical boundaries for a variety of reasons, including employment, medication, tourism, and immigration. In order to facilitate the development of global-scale enterprises, it is necessary to examine the obstacles to effective communication and their consequences on international commerce, with a view to providing various strategies for removing these obstacles. The essay analyzes a case study concerning a U.S. multinational corporation's foray into Russia's growing economy.

Communication across cultures, globalization, multinational company, culture

Problem Statement

Organizational behavior (OB) is crucial to an organization's success. It has been objectively demonstrated that workforce management has a significant impact on the overall success of enterprises. Organizational behavior is defined by Lenartowicz and James as the study of what people do inside an organization and how their actions affect its performance. 3 It focuses mostly on employment-related issues, including jobs, work, absenteeism, employee turnover, productivity, performance, and management. It includes talks, motivation, leadership behavior, power, interpersonal communication, and group structure, among others, as well as attitude formation, perceptions, change processes, conflicts, negotiations, and work design. 3 Communication is not only a vital feature of organizations, but of all facets of human life.

It has been studied in various academic fields, including communication studies, sociology, business and communication, psychology, and anthropology. It has been recognized as the organizational foundation for corporate operations. Lenartowicz and James indicate that firms that fail to address the factors of organizational behavior face considerable hurdles from a variety of constraints. 3

This set of conditions results in a decline in performance. Cross-cultural communication is one of the most essential parts of corporate behavior. Considerable research demonstrates that cultural and multilingual diversity among employees provide a formidable communication barrier for businesses. The scenario accelerates from an international commercial perspective because to the numerous groups that traverse national, regional, and global borders in pursuit of, among other things, employment, education, and medication. Through an empirical review of case studies and various theories of cross-cultural communication, this paper provides a critical examination of the impediments to cross-cultural communication and its impact on international commerce. In an effort to enhance the performance of companies, the article also examines the role of managers in resolving such obstacles.

Theories of Intercultural Communication

There have been numerous attempts to explain the essence of cross-cultural communication inside enterprises. In the context of this research, two cross-cultural communication theories will be examined to give a framework for an in-depth analysis of the hurdles to intercultural encounters. Social identity and cultural context communication theories are included.

Social Identity Hypothesis

In 1979, Tajfel and Turner conceived the social identity theory.

3 The hypothesis was motivated by a desire to examine the numerous psychological variables that led to cultural alienation in individuals. In their study and development, Lenartowicz and James sought to determine the minimal conditions that affected discriminating against out-groups in favor of their own in-group. 3

In their research, the theorists discovered that humans consistently attempt to identify with their local environment. Constant appraisal of oneself based on the qualities of those around them led to social categorization and identification, the researchers concluded. Moreover, social identity serves as an essential component of an individual's self-concept that facilitates conversational connection with strangers from a different culture. It is considered that culture is a closed system of beliefs, values, and attitudes, among other characteristics that characterize separate communities. The concept of culture closure is used by the social identity theory. International managers must therefore be aware of the cultural diversity of their workers. Based on a global and transnational perspective, this theory proposes numerous social identities, such as culture, race, ethnicity, gender roles, personality, socioeconomic class, handicap, and/or age, that exist in diverse contexts.

Theory of Culture Context Communication

This approach views the cultural background as either low or high. Based on the diffusion of information, it is deemed the preference of the populace. It establishes an appropriate connection between management styles and employee behavior in cross-cultural organizational settings. 3 Numerous scholars witness that cultures cannot be divided into high-context (HC) and low-context (LC) categories (LC). On the continuum, however, certain civilizations appear to be more dominant than others. There are more interactions that foster mutualism in such societies. As a result, information of potential significance is widely shared throughout the world. In contrast, Lenartowicz and James assert that a low-context culture portrays individuals as prone to individualism, alienation, and fragmentation. 3

People are viewed as introverts because they rarely interact with one another. In HC communication, individuals exchange information indirectly. In contrast, LC communication involves direct exchange of ideas. Theorists hypothesize that in an LC society, individuals from diverse cultural backgrounds have adapted to this way of life. Low-context individuals are, nevertheless, incapable of simply matching high-context conspiracies. 3

The proponents of this approach believed that high-context communication is significantly economical, swift, effective, and enjoyable. Lenartowicz and James attest, nonetheless, that programming can be time-consuming. 3 Conversely, low-context messaging are considered to be more context-free than high-context communication. With regard to business-related decisions, the personality, history, and values of individuals exert less influence. Nevertheless, explicit communication is essential for the formation of productive teams among varied cultures.

Importance of Intercultural Communication in International Commerce

According to Beckers and Mohammad, communication is one of the most important organizational priorities that significantly contributes to the internal and external success of businesses.

2 As a result of globalization, multinational firms have become an acknowledged aspect of the modern corporate world. There are a variety of cultural backgrounds among the participants in cross-border commerce. However, this occurrence is accompanied by communication obstacles.

Overcoming cross-cultural communication hurdles in firms is a critical managerial role that has become both a short-term and long-term success in achieving worldwide economic success. Real-time systems are deployed by multinational corporations for prompt international distribution of information. There is evidence of a connection between interpersonal communication and culture. 2 Communication is viewed as a medium that promotes the transmission and exchange of societal values and business conventions among numerous parties. Consequently, shared meaning and communication methods generate a sense of coordination and cooperation within an organization.

Beckers and Mohammad assert that communication is a critical duty of organizational leaders who harness the performance of the modern business environment, which is defined by more competitive markets and worldwide stakeholders.

2

Communication across cultures is crucial to the formation of teams that influence the performance of enterprises. Nonetheless, the management of multinational corporations has a tendency to disregard the impact of hidden barriers to cross-cultural communication. There are cultural and behavioral variances in commercial roles such as advertising and reputation management. Therefore, cultural factors are responsible for unseen communication barriers. Although the globe is becoming increasingly globalized, transnational cultural differences remain prevalent. Multiple researchers affirm that national culture is a crucial component that affects economic development, demographic behavior, and business principles worldwide. These claims are judged crucial at the macro level for the creation of trade guiding principles, the protection of intellectual property rights, and the development of valuable national resources.

At the micro-level, these allegations might be unnoticed obstacles for businesses existing in or seeking to enter the borderless business. In recent years, there has been concern for cultural rights advocacy with the purpose of promoting cultural preservation and appreciation. As a result, organizations conducting worldwide commerce are increasingly confronted with additional cultural diversity tests. For businesses to succeed in international markets, they must design ways for addressing cultural differences. Beckers and Mohammad argue that the failure to develop effective communication techniques in the cross-cultural context of the nations where company activities are conducted contributes to a negative image. 2

Under such conditions, poor performance is the inevitable outcome. As globalization continues to intensify, cross-cultural interactions will remain unavoidable. As the world grows increasingly homogeneous, international business disciplines such as marketing and communication become globalized. In contrast, it is important to note that cultural distinctions will continue to intensify among nations, regions, and ethnic groups. In order to succeed in global business, worldwide marketing communications and cross-cultural processes necessitate that managers have an in-depth understanding of national, regional, and ethnic cultural distinctions. There are differences in language, values, conventions, and modes of thought. These disparities impact communication and lead to misunderstandings. According to Ainsworth, the prevalence of contempt and disruptions in the flow of information between cultures leads to organizational disputes that raise the likelihood of failure.

Case Study Analysis of Cross-Cultural Obstacles Encountered by U.S. Multinational Corporations in Russia

Organizational behavior in the Russian emerging economy and the U.S. developed economy is vastly different. Tenzer, Pudelko, and Harzing demonstrate that the past pragmatic and authoritarian traits of the Russian leadership are giving way to a more inclusive democratic leadership. 5

In contemporary Russia in transition, vertical organizational structures and autocratic decisions are seen effective. In addition, businessmen in the country attribute their success to personal connections that are reliant purely on bureaucracy. In other instances, subordinates have no input in crucial organizational choices because management does not involve them in policy formulation. In Russian organizations, a limited emphasis is placed on participation. The predominant characteristics of the organizational culture are the use of force and bureaucracy. On the other hand, the U.S. administration recognizes democracy as an essential component of efficient management. It is difficult for democratic multinational corporations to enter the growing economy due to differences in leadership and leadership beliefs established in Russia's traditional past. 5

Obstacles to Effective Intercultural Communication in Global Business

Due to the tremendous diversity in cultural backgrounds, behaviors, and customs between nations, cross-border business communication faces numerous difficulties. Organizations conducting worldwide commerce must deal with intercultural communication. According to Beckers and Mohammad, barriers arise in the context of variety of thought, comprehension, and communication. 2 In addition, firms facing cross-cultural issues in the international arena must adhere to the highest of standards. Various nations have varying work standards in terms of compensation rates, perks, and practices, among other aspects.

Individuals, businesses, cultures, and countries engage in diverse organizational tasks. Moreover, the implementation of organizational ethical norms within a global cultural framework is both difficult and intricate. Moreover, legal procedures vary greatly between nations. This circumstance causes operational obstacles that inhibit the entry of certain businesses into emerging markets. Moreover, management methods differ based on the size, character, and activities of the company. This variance derives from the organizational systems applied in various nations. In addition, socioeconomic diversity hinders organizational development and management since miscommunication incurs additional expenses. When it comes to addressing the different ways of thinking, the numerous overseas markets' diverse workforces likewise represent a formidable challenge to managers. Culture, according to Beckers and Mohammad, is a collection of superficial assumptions that control the existence of groups of people. 2

For this reason, it is possible to distinguish between national and organizational cultures, which differ in terms of values and practices. The national culture imparts values, which are learnt through socialization mechanisms such as schools, families, and jails, among others. On the other hand, practice is derived mostly from working and organizational experience. Consequently, the practice causes culture disparities at the corporate level. Conflict develops between the domestic and foreign multinational cultures that characterize individuals as a result of the misunderstanding. Multicultural enterprises frequently retain the culture of the parent nation. Due to the effect of foreign regulations, however, the national culture of the parent corporation is frequently challenged by the philosophies of subordinate firms.

National culture imprinted in the people of that country serves as the foundation for employee expectations regarding working conditions, methods of attaining company objectives, and how foreigners should treat them. Employees are frequently frustrated and dissatisfied when the organization's management does not align with their sincerely held ideals. This circumstance has additional negative effects on the organization's performance. Additionally, the organization's effectiveness plummets drastically since the likelihood of employee opposition remains high. As long as there is mismatch between the values of the parent country's employees and those of the foreign firms, friction and disruption of work processes will persist. In addition to the declining performance, this circumstance has a negative impact on the firms' image in the foreign country.

Styles of Administration

Beckers and Mohammad attest that organizational management is highly influenced by culture.

1 The approaches employed by management to resolve organizational conflicts vary by country. For example, U.S. managers adopt the competing style whilst their rivals employ the avoiding method. This variation in management techniques is mostly attributable to cultural differences between countries. According to Ainsworth, management styles augment the success of information transmission and organizational communication greatly. 1 Russian management practices an autocratic and authoritarian style of management. This self-centered leadership is pragmatist. Therefore, employees feel alienated as a result of strict work regulations. Due to divergent leadership philosophies, U.S. multinational corporations that enter the country are unable to hire Russian managers. This cultural incompatibility produces tension between subordinates and upper management, resulting in poor performance.

Organizational Employee Conduct

Employees are the foundation of any organization's operations. Consequently, their levels of motivation and satisfaction have a substantial impact on the effectiveness and performance of businesses. Beckers and Mohammad's study of the perspectives of several employees in a US firm operating in Russia and a Russian subsidiary company revealed that cross-cultural differences had a significant impact on the operations of both organizations. 2

Employees at the U.S. company were pleased with their positions and proud of their contributions. In contrast, the Russian subsidiary's employees let out a sigh of disappointment. As a democratic nation, the US multinational corporation was more concerned with community needs. Those Russians who favor autocratic leadership, however, believe that command and power are essential to the success of their enterprises. The Russian populace holds competition and performance in high regard. Similar disparities exist in the wage rates of the two companies under investigation. Despite the fact that both companies are located in the same geographic region, the US employee was paid much more than the Russian subsidiary. In this sense, due to the conduct of the personnel,