A Facility’s Relocation Project And Quality Plan College Application Essay Help Online

Project Strategy and Objectives

For the migration of ABCD to be successful, all relevant parties must be involved. Included among the stakeholders are shareholders, employees, customers, the project manager, and the project team. Through interviews, surveys, observation, and background research, the needs of these stakeholders will be identified. This project's objective is to relocate and consolidate ABCD's offices; as a result, the company's earnings and clientele will increase. To achieve these objectives, the project management and project team must implement the optimal relocation approach.

Quality Program

A high-quality plan provides options and routes for enhancing and evaluating the quality of branch relocation and consolidation with the headquarters.


The duration of the project is around fourteen months. In addition, the project manager and project team will be expected to work nearly 12 hours every day in order to complete the project on time. The project manager will be asked to provide guidance for the execution of each assignment (Haughey, 2010). Each member of the project team will be assigned a distinct responsibility based on his or her area of expertise. This will prevent any conflicts of interest or duty over the duration of the project. The project managers will be responsible for supervising and directing every aspect of the project. If a problem arises during the development phase, the project managers must immediately tell the sponsor. When time becomes an issue, these challenges may include reducing the project's scope, engaging additional resources, or renegotiating the deadline.

Renovations and refurbishment testing

Office restructuring and renovation should use four months of the total project duration. In consideration of a variety of aspects, there are a number of floor design requirements for management offices. After the completion of all improvements, an expert will check and vouch for the construction's quality, safety, cost-effectiveness, and compliance with office facility specifications. All stakeholders should be involved in this process to guarantee that each stakeholder's needs are met by the system. If a stakeholder is dissatisfied with the project, enhancements to the system's functionality should be made at this point before it is introduced and put into use. This is a continuing process, as the system will require regular maintenance and updates. This implies that everyone involved in the system's creation must be prepared to address any issues that may arise after the system has been issued and installed.

Corrective actions

There should be a successful contractor to oversee the upkeep of existing systems. The original contractor should specify the preventative maintenance covered as well as whether or not it will be able to fulfill the reactive or corrective maintenance needs. This provides a strategy for identifying project deviations from expectations so that corrective actions can be taken to control the deviation. Monitoring is performed throughout the duration of a project's execution, whereas control is typically implemented when the project's progress has significantly departed from expectations.

In project management, project control is essential since it provides relevant data for progress monitoring, prediction, and rescheduling. Control is therefore a crucial aspect of project management. To ensure the successful execution, management, and completion of a project, its plan must include essential components such as a timeline, budget, and objectives.

Human resource strategy

ABCD will fund and manage the project under the guidance of the managers. Management will be responsible for selecting project managers and hiring the project team manager (Haughey, 2010). The number of project managers should not exceed ten, and they must be certified engineers, electricians, and supervisors. Similarly, project teams should not exceed fifty members. This group will be responsible for all manual labor, including wiring and renovations.

Communication strategy

Since the corporation is sponsoring this initiative, the management should be kept often informed of its development. The project managers will be required to notify senior management weekly on the project's progress. Similarly, team members should keep the project managers informed of the project's progress. On a daily basis, this information can be conveyed to them formally or in writing. This will provide the essential stakeholder with unambiguous access to the project's status (Lock, 2007).

Risk management plan

Numerous projects fail because project stakeholders frequently miss the actual and prospective hazards involved (Kerzner, 2009, p134). After evaluating potential risks for this project, all parties involved will be prepared for any potential accidents. They include unplanned budget cuts, unclear tasks and roles, a shift in the requirements of stakeholders, and underestimation of time and cost entities. Therefore, project managers must record these risks in a simple logbook whenever they emerge or occur. This will allow project managers to know what to do in the event that these risks materialize.

List of citations

Haughey, David in 2010. A step-by-step method for project planning Web.

Project Management: A Systems Approach to Planning, Scheduling, and Controlling was published by H. Kerzner in 2009. Wiley, Hoboken, NJ, p134-135.

Lock, D 2007, Project Management. Gower Publishing Ltd., Chicago.

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Implementation Of MRP Systems In The UAE College Application Essay Help Online


Outsourcing is a word used to indicate an organization's decision to subcontract work to a third party for cost-cutting or labor flexibility purposes. An organization's strategic management decisions result in outsourcing endeavors (Al- bulushi, 2009). IT outsourcing is the delegation of an organization's IT tasks to a third party with the goal of minimizing IT expenses.

Contributing Factors to Outsourcing

When a business is thinking to reduce labor expenses, outsourcing can be explored. With an outsourced IT department, no one is responsible for payroll taxes, sick leave, or vacation compensation, not to mention IT employee training (Root, 2010). IT outsourcing might also be considered so that a corporation can concentrate on its main business. Keeping up with technology, repairs, and upgrades are not fundamental business factors. The outsourcing of such tasks enables the company to concentrate on its available resources and maximize earnings.

Expansion of the organization or enterprise is another another incentive to consider outsourcing. When a company concentrates on business expansion, it becomes difficult to manage such growth.

In certain cases, it may be necessary for a company to gain hands-on expertise with a cutting-edge IT technology that might otherwise take years to master. In such situations, the firm would seek the services of an IT outsourcing service provider who is continually updating himself with the most recent technology, which the organization in question may not have easy access to.

Threats Involved with Outsourcing the IT Function

According to Slater (2004), miscommunication is one of the key hazards connected with IT outsourcing that leads to cost overruns. An organization's IT outsourcing may occasionally be performed by intelligent foreign IT specialists who miss out on crucial conversational subtleties. In a prepared interaction, a language barrier may prevent such a professional from identifying the most crucial information (Lister 2010).

As a result of this issue, the organization is likely to experience significant deterrents. Even while it is simple to outsource IT work, responsibility is not always included. Organizations covet personnel who are devoted to the firm and take initiative to ensure its success (Lister, 2010). In most instances, an outsourced employee will not feel "connected" to the firm and its product. He will consequently lack the responsibility to provide superior service.

A company that outsources its IT runs the risk of incurring unanticipated costs as a result of IT solutions that deviate from the organization's specifications. Lister (2010) notes that this is because an organization's software code is conceptualized differently than how it is developed by the outsource service provider.

Advantages of Outsourcing

A company that outsources its IT has a significant probability of slashing its expenses by nearly half in some instances (Slater, 2004). Additionally, there is the benefit of expanding the company network. In addition, outsourcing IT will provide the peace and time required to execute other management and core business responsibilities, which will eventually result in the expansion of the organization. If a small company aspires to expand, these advantages will eventually cause it to become more competitive on a worldwide scale.

Costs in a Contract for Outsourcing and Dollar Effects

Charges within a contract for outsourcing stem from three fundamental levels: primary activities, secondary activities, and incremental costs (Lockridge, 21010). Costs are primarily based on hands-on services, such as the creation of software for the firm. Costs associated with secondary jobs, such as billing, permanent staff training, and the like, are dependent on services in addition to the primary responsibilities. Lastly, incremental costs result from unanticipated but essential extra operations that arose throughout the outsourced services.

The Dollar has a significant influence on outsourcing. Due to the declining value of the U.S. dollar on the worldwide market, Villegas (2008) asserts that many Philippine outsourcing companies choose to find clients in Europe. The inference here is that the dollar has a significant effect on the flow of outsourcing business, as corporations opt to outsource to the United States only when the dollar's value is high on the global market.

Implications for the Organizational Structure and Personnel Concerns of the Business

In situations when outsourcing an IT department results in losses, the organizational structure will suffer. Before contracting a third-party IT department, a company's organizational structure should anticipate and implement positive measures. In circumstances of communication challenges, for instance, a multilingual employee can be hired (Slatter, 2004). Alternatively, potential personnel challenges may include difficulty in the transmission of information and skills due to egocentric emotions. Due to a sense of superiority derived from being a member of the organization, employees may view the idea of receiving training from outsourced staff with skepticism.


Outsourcing IT can be quite useful for a business. However, if a number of risk factors and their repercussions are not carefully evaluated, such gains will be modest and losses will be incurred.


Al-bulushi, Y. (2009). Web outsourcing.

Lister, J. (2010). The primary dangers of outsourcing IT. Web.

Lockridge, D. (2010). Where Do Costs Originate in a Contract for Outsourcing? Web.

Root, N. G. (2010). Justifications for outsourcing IT Web.

Slater, F. W. (2009). Web-based IT outsourcing offshore.

Villegas, B. J. (2008). The effect of the US Dollar's decline on outsourcing. Web.

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Sales Practices Of Ross Stores College Application Essay Help Online

Corporate Social Responsibility is a vast and controversial subject that focuses on the operations of corporations. The primary argument of its proponents is that firms must act in a way that helps both their bottom line and the community. The specifics vary from instance to case, and it is difficult to define the precise effects of implementing socially responsible corporate policy. Corporate Social Responsibility is becoming a lucrative marketing tool for some companies and a reason to boycott others. This is the only certainty.

The Cambridge Analytica case may be one of the most serious recent online data privacy disasters. The corporation based in the United Kingdom was accused of obtaining the Facebook data of tens of millions of users and modifying their Facebook experience to promote particular political conduct. The case has far-reaching repercussions for the sanctity of people's internet privacy and their fundamental freedom of choice with regard to politics or anything else. Cambridge Analytica collected Facebook user data that was associated with their likes and dislikes, reactions to specific concepts, and personality factors. The firm assessed these characteristics and sent customized messages to users, especially around the 2016 presidential election. According to Confessore (2018), the corporation intended to promote pro-Trump messaging to increase his popularity in the United States and to bolster pro-Brexit stances in the United Kingdom. According to the evidence of the Cambridge Analytica whistleblower, this was the company's business strategy (Tillett, 2018). Instead than being a malicious political plan, as one might imagine, it was a paid user manipulation program.

It appears that anyone might influence digital advertisements shown to users by utilizing data obtained by Facebook and neighboring analytical firms. The incident has terrible consequences for the whole digital advertising sector. It is plausible that brands may utilize the abundance of user data to precisely target specific messages to specific audiences through specific media. Collecting information such as personality traits, detailed demographics, and preferences without the user's agreement is unethical. Even more unethical is using it to manipulate opinions and frame specific products or political candidates in a manipulative manner. It is reasonable to infer that "not spying on people against their will" falls within the scope of the majority of Corporate Social Responsibility definitions.

Several parties in the Cambridge Analytica case stood to benefit from the ethics violation. As that looked to be their business model, Cambridge Analytica and SCL Group, of which Cambridge Analytica was a part, stood to earn the most from using the data. Second, the Republican party in the United States, Donald Trump, and pro-Brexit politicians in the United Kingdom were using the company's services. Millions of Facebook users, whose data was acquired by Cambridge Analytica, were a significant shareholder because their entire personalities were molded as a commercial product and, potentially, an asset in a so-called culture war. Facebook itself has a stake in the controversy because it acquired all of the data for its own purposes. While Cambridge Analytica is definitely culpable, it pales in comparison to Facebook, which exploited its vast user base for questionable research and social experiments.

It may be challenging to define internet data privacy as Corporate Social Responsibility. Most individuals believe that Corporate Social Responsibility entails adopting positive business practices that are extraneous to the business model. Examples include charitable projects, community development initiatives, and employee benefit enhancements. Ensuring data security and online privacy during website use may be compared to making phones that do not explode in the hands of the user or cough medicine that does not cause cancer. However, Carroll's CSR Pyramid depicts multiple tiers of social responsibility, including legal accountability and ethical responsibility (Dudovskiy, 2012). Legally, users have the right to freedom of expression and privacy, which Facebook's non-consensual data collection and selective suppression and amplification of political statements may breach. Due to the issue's novelty, the legal aspect may be questionable, but it is unethical and detrimental, which fits neatly inside the ethical responsibility section of the CSR Pyramid.

A cynical viewpoint holds that corporations do not engage in Corporate Social Responsibility out of altruism. Oftentimes, the PR crisis and the falling stock price are the impetus for adopting these strategies (Corporate social responsibility, 2009). It appears to be the case with Facebook, as the firm is infamous for doing unethical research on the public without their knowledge. In this instance, the crisis was not the illicit acquisition of detailed personal information on tens of millions of living, breathing people by rogue actors. The difficulty was that they were discovered doing it, and Cambridge Analytica lost clients as a result of public outcry. Adopting an ethically responsible privacy policy would be nothing more than damage control for them.

Adopting a policy that prohibits the collection of excessive quantities of data should be a simple choice for every organization with a digital presence. The data-driven digital advertising market is worth hundreds of billions of dollars, so it should be, but it is not (Enberg, 2019). For wise business management, everything from consumer demographics to social media engagement analytics are essential assets. According to Orlitzky (2013), there is no definite answer to the question of whether Corporate Social Responsibility is advantageous, has no effect, or might even be detrimental to a corporation. Whether or not to draw a line on gathering specific user data, whether or not to spend ever-increasing sums of money on cybersecurity, and whether or not to address ethical issues at all are unsolvable challenges. Facebook has been maligned by the media and even by its users, but it remains an enormously profitable corporation that is the second-largest player in the digital advertising market (Enberg, 2019). However, a loss of public trust might ruin a smaller business, as was the case with Cambridge Analytica.

After being accused of an ethical violation, we had a lengthy conversation about our priorities. We realized that we are not Facebook, and that the real individuals who work for our company are uncomfortable with treating the user base as a commodity. We learned that we are not Cambridge Analytica, and we will not base our business model on immoral and illegal manipulation. We are revising our security processes and attempting to acquire as little data as our minimal economic requirements will permit. There are privacy difficulties caused by bad actors and there are privacy issues that are designed into a business. We will safeguard anything that can be abused as a result of the former, and we will eliminate everything that can serve as an illustration of the latter. Because it is our ethical obligation to do so, we shall do everything possible to make our clients feel protected and secure.


Confessore, N. (2018). Cambridge Analytica and Facebook: the crisis and the repercussions Web.

The social responsibility of businesses (2009). Web.

Dudovskiy, J. (2012). The applications of Carroll's CSR Pyramid to small and medium-sized organizations. Web.

Enberg, J. (2019). Global Digital Ad Spending 2019. Web.

Orlitzky, M. (2013). Corporate social responsibility, noise, and the volatility of the stock market. 27(3) Academy of Management Perspectives: 238-254

Tillett, E. (2018). Christopher Wylie asserts that Bannon sought "weapons" to conduct a "culture war" at Cambridge Analytica. Web.

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Sam Walton: Biography College Application Essay Help Online

There are not many entrepreneurs who have been able to influence the evolution of entire sectors, and such persons typically garner the interest of economists and journalists. Sam Walton is one of these individuals since he influenced the work of retail companies in the United States and several other nations. This paper will explore the significant turning points in his life and career. Overall, he emphasized the significance of inventory management for organizations' sustainable growth and development. His business tactics are being imitated by a multitude of corporations, particularly retailers. This is among his most important contributions.

Sam Walton was born in 1918 to a family of farmers (Krieg 96). They resided in Oklahoma's Kingfisher, a small town. This individual was accustomed to supporting his family since childhood. For instance, he frequently supported his mother in her milk business. His family was severely impacted by the Great Depression, which rendered countless farmers unemployed and homeless. In response, Sam's family was forced to leave Kingfisher because his father was compelled to seek new employment. Ultimately, they landed in Missouri, where his father had a small mortgage business (Krieg 96). Sam Walton was able to attend the University of Missouri from 1936 to 1940 despite economic hardships (Pile 112). It should be noted that he majored in business administration, and he found this expertise to be really useful. Due to his cardiac condition, he was not permitted to serve in a combat post after joining the army in 1942. One year later, he wed Helen Robson, who played a significant part in his entrepreneurial success. She frequently served as one of his business advisors (Pile 119). Thus, it is important to remember that Sam Walton relied on the support of others.

In 1945, Walton began managing his store. To begin this endeavor, he had to borrow money from his father-in-law and spend the savings he had accumulated during his time in the military. At the time he purchased a store in Arkansas, it was merely a link in the supply chain. Utilizing tactics that insured effective inventory utilization, he was able to improve the store's earnings. For instance, he placed great significance on the arrangement of merchandise on the shelves. However, he also encountered his first business challenge. Specifically, he was refused the option to renew the building's lease (Pile 115). Sam's failure did not prevent him from becoming a prosperous business. Specifically, he began operating a franchise store business in Bentonville and Kansas City. Each store he acquired or developed eventually grew in profitability (Pile 115). Sam Walton gained the ability to distribute authority to others through his participation in these activities. In many instances, their contribution was crucial to the success of Walton's endeavors. This is one of the most important factors to consider.

The opening of Wal-first Mart's store in 1962 was the most significant event in Walton's life and career (Thompson 440). It was situated in Rogers, Arkansas, a small suburb. This event marked the beginning of Walton's global empire in a significant way. One should remember that the rise of Wal-Mart can be attributed to Sam Walton's ingenious supply chain management. For instance, he emphasized the importance of constructing warehouses for the prompt delivery of commodities. Moreover, he formed alliances with other American manufacturers who could deliver the merchandise at a low cost. It should be taken into consideration that he purchased things directly from manufacturers without employing intermediaries. This tactic helped the corporation win the price competition to some extent. The following year, the Wall-Mart business opened operations in many Arkansas communities. He operated more than 30 Wal-Mart locations in the United States at the end of 1970. (Thompson 440). One may claim that such expansion was unprecedented in the retail sector.

It should be noted that Walton's accomplishments were acknowledged by others. For instance, he earned the Presidential Medal of Freedom in 1992. (Krieg 99). His company became the largest retailer in the United States at that time. He died at the age of 74 and was revered as one of the world's most important businessmen. One may say that he became a model for many individuals who desired to launch their own firms.

Sam Walton exemplified how business administrators and managers may accomplish significant company growth with the use of good supply management procedures. Other retailing enterprises operating in different regions of the world have since adopted his ideas and methods. Thus, he influenced the running of this industry to some extent. His contribution should thus not be neglected.

Sources Cited

Krieg, Katherine. Sam Walton is the founder of Walmart. 2013 printing by ABDO Publishing Company in New York.

Top Entrepreneurs and Their Businesses, by Robert Pile. Boston, Oliver Press, 1993.

John Thompson is his name. Strategic Management: Awareness and Change. New York: Cengage Learning EMEA, 2005. Print.

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McDelivery Management College Application Essay Help Online

Table of Contents
Introduction McDelivery Project Project Management Strategy for McDelivery Project PM Methodology Benefits Anticipated Challenges Conclusion and Suggestion References


The contemporary corporate world is distinguished by its increased diversity and rapid development. In tandem with the rapid growth of society, technological advancement imposes new requirements on businesses and industries. To ensure the growth of enterprises and their ability to thrive in the current highly competitive climate, these conditions must be addressed. As a result, management strategies and tools are prioritized as the most effective means to develop a competitive advantage and meet the needs of existing customers.

Companies must also be adaptable to new circumstances and possess a high degree of flexibility due to the variety of requirements and the complexity of the working environment. Under these circumstances, project management approaches and methodologies are commonly employed by specialists to resolve tasks and attain predetermined objectives. The selection of a suitable PM paradigm is particularly crucial for the McDelivery project because it preconditions its outcomes and its capacity to evolve.

McDelivery Initiative

Several aspects of the discussed project should be examined while establishing a suitable management strategy. McDonald's is a globally recognized brand renowned for its chain of fast-food outlets ("McDonald's McDelivery Expands"). The corporation is one of the market leaders with solid revenues and substantial resources that can be allocated to new brand evolution vectors. McDelivery now operates in about 47 countries and generates additional revenue for the corporation. It satisfies people's needs for convenience, comfort, and time savings by allowing them to engage in other activities while they wait for their food.

Due to the strong demand for these types of services, new projects that influence numerous domains are frequently initiated (Wright). A management must recognize that the successful operation of McDelivery is contingent upon effective coordination between multiple parties, cooperation with clients, and timely delivery of ordered products. In light of this, the selection of the PM strategy should be impacted by the aforementioned success elements.

Approach to Project Management for the McDelivery Project

Regarding the aforementioned criteria, the PM methodology must be able to account for the need for adaptability, flexibility, and continual improvement. Under these conditions, Scrum, one of Agile's offshoots, can be considered a competent approach for completing the work and achieving the specified objectives (Sliger). It emphasizes on the alignment of the efficient operation of project teams, precise sprints that guarantee short-term accomplishment, and daily meetings to communicate current data and offer beneficial outcomes (Sliger).

According to this concept, the collective must be self-organizing and self-managing in order to work efficiently and contribute to the progress of the project. Scrum gives McDelivery, with its traditional emphasis on group work, a set of advantages and benefits that can lay the groundwork for rapid development in a new area and enhanced collaboration with clients, both of which are essential to the achievement of specified objectives.

Advantages of the PM Methodology

The primary benefit of Scrum PM approach for McDelivery is that it promotes greater teamwork. Due to the extensive explanations and daily discussions, every member of the group has a crystal-clear view of the enterprise (Sliger). Due to the participation of third parties and the necessity to consider client needs when organizing delivery, greater cooperation between all employees is essential for achieving high customer satisfaction and establishing strong customer relationships. In addition, regular meetings contribute to improved problem-solving and discussion of topics that must be modified to prevent a severe decline in results.

Scrum's fast-paced nature is an additional essential feature that makes it an advantageous alternative to McDelivery. Given that the project is projected to be completed in two months, time becomes a crucial resource. Unique to this PM approach are 30-day improvement periods structured according to end-goals and necessary tasks (Sliger). Every team member is informed of his or her responsibilities and acts in accordance with the current road map. The presented paradigm aids in avoiding misconceptions and focusing all available resources on the accomplishment of the current objective, which is one of the project's most crucial duties.

Scrum can be considered a valuable method for enhancing client relationships and ensuring their high satisfaction. The fact is that frequent meetings and improved collaboration contribute to a gradual improvement in service employees' understanding of clients' wants and expectations. Sharing information about difficulties or successful practices fosters a fluid and adaptable atmosphere, which is essential for establishing an effective customer management strategy (Sliger). Consequently, the chosen PM methodology might have a favorable effect on client relations.

Thus, the supplied list of advantages justifies the selection of Scrum as a potential method for organizing the work of a new McDelivery unit and enhancing its outcomes. Additionally, it fits the corporation's criteria for employee cooperation and continuous improvement. The high level of flexibility and adaptability also ensures that employees will be able to respond to fluctuating client demands and meet their needs for ease and comfort.

Anticipated Challenges

In spite of the numerous benefits connected with the usage of Scrum to assist the evolution of McDelivery, it is important to avoid certain pitfalls. First, the outcome is highly dependent on the performance and adaptability of teams. Due to the fact that these departments are regarded the foundation of a company's operations, a lack of discipline or desire can degrade outcomes and set the stage for the achievement of disappointing results (Sliger).

In addition, the above-described attempts to save time and engage in sprints may have contributed to a lack of awareness of fundamental duties and limited knowledge of the project's scope and objectives. In order to avoid these errors, it is essential to implement an effective evaluation practice to analyze both client and employee data and maintain awareness of the firm's impact on current problematic situations.

Conclusion and Suggestion

Overall, due to the nature of McDelivery and its emphasis on providing clients with high-quality services, Scrim can be regarded as an adequate PM approach supporting positive results. The emphasis on teams and their enhanced performance will enhance their capacity to collaborate with clients and address their demands. Likewise, all associated risks can be avoided during daily meetings by presenting information on the project's current status and topics that should be reconsidered to reach positive outcomes. In addition, the rapid speed and sprinting practices justify the favorable nature of Scrum and its capacity to assist McDelivery evolve.


"With UberEATS, McDonald's McDelivery Expands to 4,200 Restaurants in 13 Countries." Intrado. 2017. Web.

Sliger, Michele. Agile Project Management with Scrum. 2011 Project Management Institute website.

"Canterbury: McDonald's Launches Delivery Service for Customers in a Hurry," by Joe Wright. Kent Online, 2018. Web.

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Competitive Position Of Mac In The UK Market College Application Essay Help Online


The purpose of this portfolio is to evaluate the competitive position of a business on the market for certain items or services by combining three distinct responsibilities. Apple Inc. is selected as the company to examine its competitive standing with the Mac product on the UK market. In 1976, with the invention of Apple-1, Steven Jobs and Steven Wozniak envisioned Apple Computer as personal computers. Apple was founded by venture capitalists in 1977, and since its inception, the company has prioritized innovation as part of its mission to maintain its market image. Apple's purpose was to implement widespread computer and system modifications. With six years of business and $1 billion in revenue in 1983, the company has demonstrated its success. Apple initially offered two product lines, Apple II and Macintosh. The Mac line was launched to the market as development of Apple's compatibility and its products were incompatible with IBM machines; consequently, Mac computers were discovered to move technologically in the market to create a new competitive environment (Freedman & Vohr, 1998). This study analyzes the competitive UK market for Apple Inc. based on the following three tasks:

Task A

In the first task of the portfolio, there are several significant requirements that must be met, each of which is discussed from a different angle below:

Apple Inc. Concentration Measurement Calculations

A concentration ratio is a typical instrument used by competition economists and authorities to quantify market concentration using classic structural metrics based on market shares in a competitive setting. In this portfolio, 5-firm and 10-firm concentration ratios are necessary, and then the Herfindahl-Hirschman Index (HHI) must be calculated based on Apple's and its competitors' UK market shares.

UK Market Share

Prior to calculating the concentration ratio, it is essential to understand Apple's and other comparable competitors' market shares in the UK. In 2009, Apple's market share in the United Kingdom was 5%, ranking it fifth among competitors (Yahoo Finance, 2010). (Mindinversion, 2010). The following table displays the market share of Apple's top 10 competitors in the United Kingdom.

Table: Market Share of Apple's Competitors in the United Kingdom

The name of the institution 2009 2008 2004 2000

Acer 24.2% 22.6% 21.4% 20.3%

Dell 18.3 17.4 16.62 15.32

HP 17.5 21.3 18.9 19.2

Toshiba 6.5 5.4 7.29 5.5

Apple 5 5 14 6

1.04 2.1 1.09 1.7 Hewlett-Packard Company

4.28 4.13 8.5 8.6

Computers Personal 2.88 2.98 3.0 4.2

2.54 2.67 4.3 4.7 IBM (International Business Machines Corporation)

2.15 2.73 2.4 2.01 Cisco Systems, Inc.

Others 15,71 41,29 2.

Total 100% 100% 100% 100%

5-Firm Ratio of Concentration

The 5 firm concentration ratio is calculated by aggregating the market shares of the industry's five largest companies (Financial Education, 2010). According to the table above, the five largest companies in UK markets are Acer, Dell, HP, Toshiba, and Apple itself. Consequently, the 5-firm concentration ratios over four years are as follows:

The name of the institution 2009 2008 2004 2000

Acer 24.2% 22.6% 21.4% 20.3%

Dell 18.3 17.4 16.62 15.32

HP 17.5 21.3 18.9 19.2

Toshiba 6.5 5.4 7.29 5.5

Apple 5 5 14 6

Total 71.5% 71.7% 78.21% 66.32%

10 – Ratio of Firm Concentration

Similar to the 5-firm concentration ratio, the 10-firm concentration ratio is calculated by adding the 10 largest companies in the K market, which are listed below.

The name of the institution 2009 2008 2004 2000

Acer 24.2% 22.6% 21.4% 20.3%

Dell 18.3 17.4 16.62 15.32

HP 17.5 21.3 18.9 19.2

Toshiba 6.5 5.4 7.29 5.5

Apple 5 5 14 6

1.04 2.1 1.09 1.7 Hewlett-Packard Company

4.28 4.13 8.5 8.6

Computers Personal 2.88 2.98 3.0 4.2

2.54 2.67 4.3 4.7 IBM (International Business Machines Corporation)

2.15 2.73 2.4 2.01 Cisco Systems, Inc.

1.02 0.99 1.5 1.78 The Xerox Corporation

Total 85.41% 87.3% 99.1% 89.31%

The 10-firm concentration ratio is the intuitive statistic that reveals the market share of major rivals in a competitive market to be oligopolistic.

Herfindahl-Hirschman Index (HHI)

The 5-firm and 10-firm concentration ratios do not provide a higher level of selectivity than the HHI, which yields more reliable results. This score indicates that the concentration of many competitors is low, but the concentration of few competitors is high. Apple has primarily five big competitors, hence HHI is determined by the total of each company's squared market share in the industry. So, HHI calculates as follows:

The name of the institution 2009 2008 2004 2000

Acer 0.057 0.051 0.046 0.041

Dell 0.034 0.030 0.028 0.024

HP 0.031 0.045 0.036 0.037

Toshiba 0.0042 0.0029 0.0053 0.0030

Apple 0.0025 0.0025 0.019 0.0036

0.00011 0.00044 0.00012 0.00029 HPQ (Hewlett-Packard Company).

Total 0.12881 0.13184 0.13442 0.10889

Overall = 0.50396

HHI is above 0.18, indicating that the UK market is highly concentrated. Compared to concentration ratio, HHI offers better differentiation based on enterprises' weight in the software and hardware industry on the UK market. Consequently, it does not measure intuitive measures.

Expression of 'Market Structure' Apple's Market Structure Diagram

As Apple's competitors in the hardware and software business in the UK's competitive market exceed ten of the largest companies, Apple's market structure is classified as a "Oligopoly." Oligopoly market structure is determined when a handful of the largest enterprises control more than 40 percent of the industry's market share. From 2000 to the present, the UK market share table reveals that Acer, Dell, HP, Toshiba, and Apple have captured more than 70% of the market (Mintel, 2007). Consequently, the market structure in the United Kingdom is a perfect oligopoly. Graphic representations of the following additional market structure metrics for Apple are included:

Discussion of market concentration shifts over the selected time frame.

According to 5 and 10 firm market concentration, there are primarily six major hardware and software companies in the United Kingdom: Acer, Dell, HP, Toshiba, Apple, and Microsoft Corporation. These companies have captured over 70% of the market share since the year 2000. During these intervals, the concentration has varied, although not identically. As these companies control the majority of market share in the United Kingdom, the outcomes of 10-firm concentration and 5-firm concentration are not significantly different.

From HHI, it can also be determined that the total HHI is 0.50396, indicating that the software and hardware industries in the United Kingdom are highly competitive. For this reason, Apple can be classified as an Oligopoly on the British market.

Task B

In the second task of the portfolio, it is essential to examine Apple's competitive conduct on the UK market. The competitive behavior should be contrasted to that of other significant competitors, who have been highlighted in prior jobs. After comparison, the market structure should be positioned based on projected results in accordance with applicable theories or rules throughout a specified time period and its impact on market concentration.

explication of the competitive strategies utilized

In the case of competition, Apple employs a variety of techniques from the outset. However, it alters its strategy frequently in response to alterations in the environment and customer demand. Therefore, Apple's approach to competition is a customer-centric one. In this regard, Mac's product design appeals to all target clients. Apple has utilized competing strategies in response to market demand, as will be briefly discussed below.

Innovation of MP3 Players: According to Calacanis (2010), Apple is developing a new software for MP3 players called iTunes. It is distinct since it does not allow other players to participate. It is designed only for its own brand. Practices in Telecoms: Since the 1980s, Apple's iPhone has dominated the market for telecommunications users (Boykin, Fiorini, Tanaka, & Webb, 2008). It differs from AT&T in terms of technological distinctions. Apple Store Policies: According to Slivka (2010), Apple offers a platform for huge applications for hardware and software products, and consumers are increasingly utilizing Apple's applications. Apple has debuted "Safari" as a browser, and after doing so, the company is prohibiting more sophisticated browsers, such as Opera. Blocking Google Voice-Application: Apple is blocking Google Voice successfully, as the browser is blocking. Also forbidden is the use of Mozilla Firefox or Google Chrome on any personal computer.

These competitive behaviors are functioning in the industry as anti-competitive behaviors. In every oligopoly industry, competitors depend on one another, yet Apple is intentionally restricting the very advanced and customer-friendly Google Voice Applications and Opera Internet Browser. Customers may abandon Apple due to their inability to use products, which is the company's primary cause of failure in the industry. According to Apple Store Policy, the language restriction in hardware and software applications prevents its use on international markets. Apple has too many issues with its competitive behavior, which can be a significant advantage for Microsoft, Google, and other key competitors in the UK market. Therefore, it must investigate the competitive behavior in relation to client demand and the nature of competition on the British market.

Contrast with the conduct of other organizations

In the marketplace, software and hardware compete on the basis of innovation and technology. Mac, as a product in this market niche, exhibits behavior that is distinct from the products of other companies. An organization such as Microsoft is aggressive in its pursuit of market share and profit. Thus, Microsoft itself is accused of anticompetitive behavior, which will provide it with market advantages. Microsoft's anticompetitive behavior is demonstrated by the availability of Internet Explorer as an integral component of the Windows operating system. The phrase anticompetitive emphasizes that Microsoft gives no room for competitors to compete because its products are readily accessible to rivals (Anon, 2010).

According to competition law, pricing discrimination is one of the most significant disparities that will have an impact on the competitive environment of the marketplace. Price discrimination refers to the disparity between the cost and price of a product when the price of the product is disproportionately higher than its cost. Again, the firm may offer discounts or rebates to clients, but new entrants or other firms may not take advantage of these low prices. In addition, this statute makes the abuse of a dominant position an unlawful offense (Phillips, 2010).

Abuse of a dominating position indicates that the company with market dominance is attempting to abuse its position by erecting hurdles for new entrants or existing competitors.

On the markets for software and hardware, both of these illicit activities can be observed. Regarding Mac products, the company might be charged of price discrimination. Without a doubt, these products are distinguished based on quality, and more quality costs more money, but there are no tradeoffs between cost and pricing for Mac products. The second objection is valid for Microsoft's products. Microsoft is without a doubt the global market leader for these types of products. It is evident that Microsoft will attempt to maintain its market dominance. Nonetheless, it must adhere to the law. Microsoft is exploiting its market dominance by decreasing product prices or combining many goods into a single offering (Entrepreneurs Media, 2010).

For competitors like as HP and IBM, the competitive conduct is comparable. In a market where the demand exceeds the supply, all of these businesses are vying for a substantial market share. Consumers require more technical progress and desire the greatest technology at the lowest possible price. Consequently, all of these businesses must prioritize customer happiness as an organizational behavior.

Comparative analysis of anticipated and observed competitive behavior

The projected behavior was that the firm would comply with the law pertaining to competition, but the majority of firms do not regard the restrictions as their competitiveness in the marketplace becomes increasingly complex. Companies must leave room for new entrants or established competitors and must not use unfair methods, however these companies are aggressively developing their businesses and tailoring their products to attract target clients and grab a substantial market share. They are violating the copyright statute by replicating the product types and designs of their competitors.

Task C

Illustration illustrating the significance of the selected performance measurement

As a pillar of a successful organization, performance measurement is crucial to the total quality management of a business. It is essential to quantify qualitative achievements so that they can be easily compared with those of competitors. Without measurement, it is also difficult to manage. Performance assessment is a crucial topic in business since it enables organizations to identify and track their actual improvement relative to the firm's objectives. In addition, improvement possibilities can be readily discovered together with external and internal standards. When a company wishes to work strategically, its "Plan-Do-Check-Act" action cycle depends heavily on performance measurement. There are numerous techniques to measuring performance. For this paper, three methodologies are chosen. These include:

Approach to cost of quality measurement A straightforward performance measurement structure Balanced scorecard methodology

Approach to cost of quality measurement

In the market to which Mac of Apple belonged, the company's ability to produce the highest quality products at the lowest possible price was crucial. This market's consumers are particularly "quality sensitive," making quality assurance crucial. Using this method, a company can evaluate:

The performance of quality management, Can identify problem areas, possibilities, cost reductions, and action objectives Can serve as a crucial communication tool

According to the software industry, selecting this method is crucial because:

In this industry, consumers are interested in the numerical representation of quality. Consumers require or prefer the most effective communication from the company. Consumers wish to evaluate the cost-effectiveness of their purchasing decision.

This method evaluates three costs to determine the actual cost picture. These include:

Prevention cost: Costs connected with the system's design, implementation, and maintenance are referred to as prevention costs. It consists of product/service specifications, quality planning, quality assurance, and training. Costs associated with assessing the supplier and customer's assessment, process of acquired resources, procedure, and product/services, which will lead to an assurance of conformity specification, are referred to as evaluation costs. It consists of verification, quality audits, and vendor evaluation. Failure costs: Failure of any operation external or internal has some costs. This section will include these expenses. Internal failure expenses may include waste, scrap, rework, or replacement.

Dell Company’s Financial Analysis College Application Essay Help Online

Company Specifics

Dell, Inc. is an information technology firm that designs, manufactures, markets, and distributes desktop computers, personal computers, servers, networking goods, laptops, notebooks, storage capacity items, and other accessories. In 1984, the company was incorporated by a university student. Initially, he sold computers directly to clients; he then transitioned to developing and manufacturing. They manufacture, develop the market for, and create personal computers and computer peripherals such as software and digital music players, as well as provide networking services to major institutions.

The company's headquarters are located in Round Rock, Texas, with service centers and subsidiaries operating globally. It is one of the businesses that has embraced globalization through collaboration. This has benefited them in expanding their international market share. The corporation has subsidiaries in nearly every continent, including North and South America, Africa, Europe, and Asia.

Analysis of Financial and Accounting Data

The following company ratios are available from finance Yahoo:

Ratio Formula 2007 2008

Liquidity ratios

Present ratio

liquid assets

Current liabilities 19,937


1.12:1 19880



Rapid ratio

Current assets – inventory

Current liabilities 19,937-2829


0.96:1 19880-3035



Cash to assets

currency plus tradable securities

current liabilities 9546+752


0.58:1 7764+208



Dell's short-term liquidity position has been evaluated previously. During the past two years, several ratios were calculated for analytical purposes. As the current ratio is lower than the industry average, the company is not financially solid. This ratio was 1.12:1 in 2007 and 1.07:1 in 2008, but a 2:1 ratio is recommended for a steady ratio. This suggests that the corporation has $1 of current assets for every $1 of current obligations, when the optimal ratio is $2 of current assets for every $1 of current liabilities. Short-term borrowings may or may not be included in current obligations. Creditors view current assets as a cushion against current liabilities, thus they want a larger ratio. Nonetheless, the ratio is increasing. This is attributable to a rise in debt securities investments and a decrease in accrued expenses.

The company's acid test ratio illustrates the same image. As seen by the acid ratio, short-term liquidity declined significantly in 2008 compared to 2007, from 0.96:1 to 0.91:1. This ratio demonstrates a company's ability to satisfy its financial obligations with its most liquid assets. It demonstrates the firm's excellent liquidity. Should there be a Technical Default, the company will not be liquidated because it has sufficient liquid assets. The suggested ratio is one to one. The Quick Ratio indicates that the firm's liquidity has deteriorated in terms of its capacity to satisfy short-term obligations. For 2007 and 2008, the ratio of current assets to current liabilities is 0.58:1 and 0.43:1, respectively. The majority of the company's current assets consist of cash. These are so high in this year due to the company's minimal expenditure on debt security, which it slowly raises in subsequent years. Working capital quantity is pretty adequate which increase steadily for the last two years. It demonstrates the company's ability to meet its short-term financial obligations.

Activity quotients

Inventory rotation


Inventory average of 57,420


87 times 61135


66.5 times

Inventory day-to-day sales


Inventory turnover in 365 days is 4.2 days

87 365= 5.5 days


Acceptance turnover


Average debtors 57,420


37.53 Times 61,135


37.48 times

Daily revenue in Receivables


Inventory turnover per year equals 10 days

37.53 365 = 10 days


Assets turn over.


Average assets 57,420


=2.24 times 61,135


=2.3 times

The company's inventory turnover in 2007 is 87, which is greater than in 2008, when it was 66.5, indicating that the average inventory was flipped 66.5 times in 2008. This number, when translated to days, indicates a conversion period of 4.2 days for 2007 and 5.5 days for 2008. It indicates that the company's performance in turning its inventory into sales declined in 2007, resulting in a higher sales figure. In 2008, the overall conversion period decreased and stood at 5.5 days. The management should seek to sustain the current rate, which is faster than the average for the industry.

In 2007, the company's debtors/receivable conversion rate was 37.53, which was lower than the 2008 rate of 37.48. As indicated by the turnover of accounts receivable, the debtors' payment frequency was 37.53 times in 2007 and 37.53 times in 2008. It indicates that the firm's utilization of its debtors to create cash is efficient and declined in 2008. It had its highest sales volume in 2008, resulting in only 5.5 days of sales in receivables.

2007's asset turnover rate of 2.24 is lower than 2008's rate of 2.30. It assesses the potential of most businesses' assets to generate significant returns and develop substantial assets per dollar. It evaluates the return on a dollar invested in assets. In this instance, for every dollar invested, the corporation receives $2.24 in 2007 and $2.30 in 2008, respectively. Over the past two years, sales to accounts receivable have increased, indicating that the company is rapidly converting its receivables into cash. The same holds true for inventory. In these years, the company is swiftly converting its inventory into sales, resulting in increased sales. In the previous two years, both sales to fixed assets and sales to other assets have increased. The sales-to-total-assets ratio demonstrates that the company has utilized its assets pretty effectively. This has been accomplished by keeping the net income within the organization. It indicates that the organization is efficiently transforming its goods into receivables and receivables into cash.

Long-term ratios of debt and solvency

Debt to capital ratio

Total debt

Total assets 21196x 100


=82.68% 23732x 100



ratio of long term debt to equity

Long term debt

Equity 569 plus 647 multiplied by 100


= 28.1% 362+2070×100



Capital structure reveals what proportion of a company's assets are financed by debt and what proportion by equity. The preceding graph demonstrates that the company's reliance on creditor finance increased from 82.68% in 2007 to 86.66% in 2008. Similarly, firm equity financing has dropped during the past two years. This decline in equity financing was primarily due to the company's stock repurchase program. The corporation did not distribute dividends to its external stockholders. Instead of relying on external financing, the company has decided to reinvest its annual profit in the company. The debt ratio indicates the proportion of an organization's assets that have been financed with borrowed capital. It indicates that the company may be financing its assets using external sources. It measures the amount of accessible debt for financing debt capital.

Performance ratios

profit margin

Profit before taxes

sales 3345×100


5.83% 3827×100



gross margin

Gross revenue

sales 9,516×100


= 16.57% 11,671×100


= 19.09%

Return on assets

net income before taxes

Total assets 3,345×100


=13.05% 3,827×100



Return on investment

Profit net accessible to shareholders

Value 2583 x 100


=59.68% 2947×100



Equity multiplier

Assets x 100

Equity 25,635,000.00


=592.31% 27,561×100



During the past few years, the gross profit margin has increased dramatically, indicating that there has been a significant shift in sales and costs. In addition, the 2008 operating margin was exceptionally high at 19.09% compared to 2007. And because of this increased operating margin, the ROE for that year increased significantly to 78.90%. However, the profitability position changes when compared to other variables. In this case, it is evident that the corporation is sacrificing more than its sales revenue by adopting a massive debt load.

Return on Assets is employed for the same goal of gauging an organization's total performance. However, for the ROA calculation to be useful, it must be corrected for implicit interest, which is difficult to estimate and hence makes the procedure needlessly complex. The numbers indicate that performance was lower in 2007 than in 2008, with a ratio of 13.05 percent in 2007 and 13.89 percent in 2008. It is tough to assert that the company's performance has improved.

To have a fuller view, one must compare its position to that of the market and its competitors. The rate of return on equity, or ROE, can be used to quantify the firm's success from the perspective of its shareholders. However, it does not measure the company's entire success. The better this ratio, the higher it is. If the return on equity (ROE) is less than the cost of equity, the company is considered to be destroying value. It appears from the numbers above that shareholders have a worse opinion of the firm's performance relative to the industry.

In a DuPont analysis, the expression for ROE is composed of three components: profit margin, asset turnover, and equity multiplier. The profit margin reflects the operating efficiency of the analyzed company, the asset turnover measures the asset usage efficiency, and the equity multiplier sheds light on the company's financial leverage. This identity allows one to comprehend the source of a higher or inferior return.


Consequently, the operating efficiency is low and deteriorating, which influences the ROE value. In order for a business to compete with its rivals, technological enhancements and innovations are needed.

[supanova question]

Thailand’s And The Pacific Rim Economic Policies College Application Essay Help Online

Early in July 1997, the world awoke to heightened apprehensions of a global economic collapse, as a result of the IMF crisis. The genesis of this financial epidemic, which threatened to wipe out the whole Asian economy, was Thailand. A decade later, it has been questioned if the recovery of the Asian economies, and Thailand in particular, can be linked to the economic reforms that followed the IMF crisis. This article will study Thailand's economic policies as a member of the Pacific Rim's larger economic bloc.

The Pacific Rim is a collection of 41 economies around the Pacific Ocean's coastline. It has its headquarters in Honolulu, Hawaii, United States of America. Manpower, capital, agriculture, technology, natural resources, and culture are all diverse throughout the rim. The United States, China, Japan, and Russia are notable members. (Nemetz, 1990). The Globe Bank predicts that the Pacific Rim will be the fastest-growing economic region over the next decade, with a 4.3% growth rate compared to 3.5% for the rest of the world. In 2002, the overall GDP of the rim was $22,510 billion. The United States alone had a real GDP of $10 trillion, accounting for 44.4% of the region's total output (Phonqpaichit, 2002).

With a GDP of $627 billion, Thailand is the second-largest economy in South East Asia after Indonesia due to its reliance on exports. Human capital in Thailand is anchored in agriculture, with the majority of exports going to Cambodia, Laos, and Myanmar. Over the years, Thailand has been referred to as a tiger economy, with a 9.4% average growth rate between 1986 and 1996. Thailand's economy is based on a system of free business and is rich in human and natural resources. It has an open international economic policy and a conservative fiscal and monetary stance. Numerous state-owned enterprises have been transferred to the private sector as a result of the government's decades-long privatization efforts (Phonqpaichit, 2002).

Agriculture and forestry contributed 11.4% of the gross domestic product in 2007. The extraction of lead, tungsten, gypsum, lignite, and natural gas, in addition to tin, has catapulted Thailand to global domination. The country is currently the second largest exporter of gypsum, behind Canada. The manufacturing sector, which accounted for 34.5% of the gross domestic product in 2004, is likewise prospering, with a concentration on the automobile and electronics industries. Today, Toyota and Ford corporations manufacture automobiles in Thailand for the entire ASEAN market. In 2004, the proportion of energy consumption was 0.7% of the global total, or 3,4 quadrillion British thermal units. The tourism, banking, and financial services industry accounts for almost 6 percent of Thailand's overall GDP, making it the largest contribution to the country's economy in comparison to other Asian nations. Through the Financial Sector Reform Master Plan, adopted in 2004 to provide tax incentives to financial firms that support mergers and acquisitions (IMF/World Bank, 2007), the government has consistently worked to strengthen the financial market.

According to Phonqpaichit (2002), the 1997 Asian economic crisis was precipitated by massive investments, dependence on capital inflows from developing nations, and high interest rates. Thailand's and other Asian tigers' 8 to 12 percent annual growth rates, which were supported by enormous cash inflows and asset values, were heralded as a miracle. The crisis centered on the lack of foreign exchange that caused the collapse of the forex and stock markets in Indonesia, Thailand, and other Asian nations, arbitrary capital allocation in the inadequately developed financial sectors of the then-collapsing economies, and the role and replenishment of IMF funds and their impact on the U.S. and global economies. The economic disaster in Asia began with two waves of currency depreciation. The Thai baht, Malaysian ringgit, Philippine peso, and Indonesian rupiah all experienced a precipitous decline in value prior to the crisis. As a result of the settlement of these currency movements, all other Asian currencies joined the second phase's downward spiral. It is widely believed that China's emergence as a formidable economic power caused the decline. Contrary to this, economists believe that unclear lender-borrower liaison incentives led to the financial crisis. With the increase of asset prices to uncontrollable levels, individuals began to default on their debt, resulting in the withdrawal of credit from the affected economies once asset prices began to fall because the rise was unsustainable over time. The subsequent panic among financial institutions resulted in a contraction of credit, sometimes known as a credit crunch, caused by lenders unwilling to take risks. The consequence was a massive collapse of the whole financial system, beginning with the money markets and progressing to interest rates and capital markets.

In reaction to the debilitating effects of the crisis, the baht of Thailand was devalued under uncertain economic conditions. In response to these and several other internal and external crises, Thailand has developed a prosperous economic road map over the years. (1998, Phonqpaichit) During the administration of Thaksin Shinawatra, thaksinomics was widely regarded as the template for economic recovery. Thaksinomics is a populist economic plan designed to address the majority of the country's underprivileged population. It was employed by the Thai Rak Thai party under Thaksin in an effort to revive the post-Asian financial crisis economy. Thaksinomics involved a four-year debt suspension for farmers and a directive to state-owned banks to provide loans to farmers and small and medium-sized enterprises at low interest rates. It was also intended to subsidize vehicle fuel prices in order to protect consumers from oil price shocks. A 30 baht universal healthcare initiative intended to provide universal coverage at 30 bahts in state hospitals ultimately failed. The OTOP policy (one tambon, one product) was developed to encourage rural small and medium-sized businesses. Privatization of state-owned companies was another initiative of thaksinomics, in addition to investments in public infrastructure.

Proponents of this economic policy claim that the financial reforms implemented in the wake of the Asian economic crisis have established a demand-driven economy, as opposed to the export-dependent economy that was previously vulnerable to external shocks. In addition, Thailand has returned all of its commitments to the IMF accrued during the financial crisis four years ahead of schedule. Opponents, however, criticize these practices on the grounds that consumer debt has skyrocketed over this time period. The economic policy consist solely of classic Keynesian fiscal stimulation measures (Lee, 2004).

Fiscal, monetary, commercial, and international economic policies constitute the contemporary Thai economic structure. Fiscal policies are a set of government policies designed to influence aggregate demand or the level of economic activity through changes in government expenditures or tax rates. This section describes the budget's effects on economic activity. The fiscal economy of Thailand strives to handle the following issues: accelerating the economic stimulus, halting the economic collapse, and increasing the country’s income levels. These proposals ask for the continuation of the current fiscal policy on deficits, with an emphasis on establishing clear parameters for a given time frame during which a stable budgetary policy will be prepared and executed after the economy has recovered. The Thai government is eager to prepare a precise budget based on the country's needs and growth aspirations in order to prevent potential disasters. Through a comprehensive and transparent budgeting method, the accountability in payment and allocation of vote heads will be monitored to ensure that the overheads adhere to the necessary accounting procedures from allocation to evaluation within the allotted timeframe. In order to balance the economy, resource reallocation based on the budgetary proposal will be implemented by pumping funds into potentially successful initiatives with an enormously favorable impact on the economy while restricting financing to investments of least significance. These are intended to stimulate aggregate demand, create new employment possibilities, and serve as a budget evaluation tool. The government's priority in assuring the success of development programs has been to improve the tax system. Supporting the economic sector through increasing output in accordance with longer-term macroeconomic objectives is crucial. Any growth-oriented economy must prioritize fiscal restraint and the promotion of savings and investments through the backing of new businesses. The Thai economic recovery program prioritizes a complete revision of the tax regimes and possible harmonization to reduce collection costs and promote accountability to combat corruption. The Thai government intends to maintain a prudent, closely regulated fiscal policy aimed at promoting a sustainable development plan commensurate with the nation's overall economic objectives. It is prepared to implement responsive, dependable, and streamlined procedures for the administration of government debt and assets. This is to restrict government debt and channel spending into socioeconomic initiatives designed to produce new income and stimulate private sector investment (Phonqpaichit, 2002).

Emerging Trends in the global economy indicate that Thailand’s GDP is likely to expand by 4.1% to 4.6%, which is lower than the previously forecast range of 4.5% to 5.0%. This is due to the fluctuations in global oil prices. Despite the state of the economy, a 3.3% growth rate is sufficient to increase industrial and agricultural production. Export marketing and tourist industry investments have borne reward. However, global oil prices continue to pose a significant threat to the stability of the current account, threatening to plunge it to a deficit of 2.2-2.8% given the expected inflation rate of 4.5%. This should skew the budget balance and counterbalance the 1.25 trillion baht government spending. The majority of revenue is derived from taxes. Thailand employs expansionary fiscal policy to prevent the global economic downturn from affecting its economy. In reaction to export shocks, the government deploys fiscal stimulus using a 58 million baht contingency reserve. In addition to populist policies aimed at improving the country's poor, the government has established a revolving fund system known as the village fund and a debt moratorium for farmers whose interest is included in the annual budget (Greenwood, 1987).

In May of 2002, the ratio of public debt to gross domestic product was 54.8%, forcing the government to proclaim its financial goals for the succeeding years. It stipulated that public debt obligations cannot exceed the 65% threshold. Budgetary debt servicing and related appropriations would not increase by more than 16%. These measures would result in a balanced budget for the subsequent fiscal years. Significant fiscal reform measures recommended the sale of public assets to the private sector and a comprehensive fiscal decentralization that included an expansion of the tax base and import tariff. Other proposed law revisions aim to address budgetary procedures and the management of public financial obligations. Implementation of fiscal policy measures including taxes, budget, foreign debts, and credit rating assessments has been successful (Lee, 2004).

Thailand's monetary policies are focused on the expansion and sustainability of the economy. Slowly, efforts to develop capital markets by eliminating speculators and unfair trade practices are having a favorable effect on investors. Historically, Thailand has maintained a passive monetary policy due to its reliance on credit control for growth support and balance of payments analysis. The open economy permitted the influx of foreign currency, which altered the exchange and interest rates, so increasing product demand and causing a decline in savings. The Thai government intends to implement currency rate policies that promote economic prudence and revenue production. These measures would bolster the subsistence economy and enable domestic industries compete favorably on global markets (Phonqpaichit, 2002).

The long-term purpose of the government's monetary policy is to promote economic recovery and development by containing the potential monetary repercussions of restoring profitability to state financial institutions. Several monetary adjustments are made as a result of the development of the money and capital markets into a thriving channel for the expansion of investments and savings. The taxes on investment capital gains will be revised to facilitate the mobilization of cash. Companies who have met the Securities and Exchange Commission's requirements for a bourse listing can now take use of the country's burgeoning capital market's unrestricted access to cash. The government places a high premium on the development of alternate sources of finance as it strives to reduce commercial transaction costs. Without diminishing the critical roles played by other sources of financial capital in economic development, a thorough examination of the debt market offers vast opportunities for wider access to funding. When executed in lockstep, this would stimulate the growth of the general business sector by encouraging investors to save and maintain a balanced portfolio (Nemetz, 1990).

Commercial and international economic strategies have altered Thailand's economy from one focused on exports to one that is completely self-sufficient. Thailand may today boast unfettered access to the global economy as a result of the creation of a universal marketing network system able to translate and satisfy consumer demands. Thailand endeavors to strategize how to respond to worldwide trade rivalry in order to enhance its economy. Enhance global competitiveness through the inclusion of new marketing tactics and the creation of information systems to analyse market input and to ensure that product and service networks are interconnected and operate efficiently. Thailand has reinvented itself as a regional economic hub focusing in agricultural and industrial products to get unlimited access to the global market. Internet's introduction has bolstered e-commerce and created countless prospects for employment and economic expansion. This effort aiming at marketing exports and disseminating data to address international trade deficiencies has helped tourism.

Unfair trade practices, such as intellectual property infringement, have impeded the spread of commerce. In addition to fostering value addition through diversification, the Thai government advocates the development of a fund to encourage inventions and the enjoyment of full intellectual rights. In consideration of its national aims and its support for domestic firms, Thailand has actively advocated for free trade. In addition, it has supported the ASEAN free trade area agreement and the expansion of cooperation with neighboring nations so that all parties might profit from this trade arrangement. The business sector has been bolstered and encouraged to participate in decision-making and provide insight into issues relating to international commerce and financing (Fruin, 1999).

In the wider South East Asian region, Thailand has modestly distinguished itself as a force to be reckoned with in compared to the Pacific Rim nations. Numerous obstacles beset the rim states, including economic tensions caused by trade imbalances between the deficit-oriented United States and surplus-oriented East Asian countries. Free Trade Agreements and Regional Trade Agreements contribute to divisions between the west pacific and east pacific states.

Nortel Networks Corporation’s Supply Chain College Application Essay Help Online

Table of Contents
The Worldwide Supply Chain The Market Entry Technique Comparison of Global Strategies pertaining to Global Supply Chain Management Conclusion Bibliography

The Worldwide Supply Chain

In order to build a plan for international operations, Nortel Corporation must consider shipping costs, delivery time, and potential dangers. Physical distribution and distribution routes are the two fundamental elements of the global supply chain. Both are concerned with physical and legal flows. Channels are a set of interconnected marketing entities that allow titles and products to reach consumers (Baudin 2005).

Typically, sales, communications, and contractual concerns influence the selection of these global channels or routes for reaching consumers. The global supply chain focuses on the actual movement of goods to markets. It regards the institutions composing channels as assembly and distribution hubs for products. Consequently, it encompasses the transit, movement, loading, stacking, handling, and warehousing activities of the entire channel. Today, Nortel's production strategy is product-centric, with global centers devoted to a single product. Each “systems house owns a supply chain for a certain set of products (Nortel Corporation 2008, p. 123).

It is crucial to consider the location of other supply chain centers, the cost of materials, and the cost of manufacturing in a foreign country when establishing a plant abroad. In addition, Nortel should consider packaging and order-processing actions that do not alter the physical look of the products but can damage or degrade them. For several industries, enhancements in the performance of physical distribution activities have enhanced marketing effectiveness and decreased expenses (Christopher, 2005). Not all business segments are affected equally. Nortel Corporation must focus on the following:

The extensive distribution of large goods. Filial warehouses Competitive locations for customer service. Significant freight charges. Substantial intracompany transactions. Significant investments in warehouse space and completed items. Seasonal demand or seasonal production.

The proposed strategies will be affected by a country's economic and political climate. In a fledgling nation, the primary economic indicators are high inflation rates and economic instability. Thus, enhancements to the global supply chain will cut certain costs and allow for the expansion of markets. Perspective is a distinctive contribution of physical distribution. It takes a systems approach to plant siting, transportation, storage, inventory, and movement and handling activities. These operations are planned as a coordinated system and are integrated with the other components of the global supply chain (Cohen and Roussel, 2004).

The Market Entry Technique

Nortel Corporation followed two primary entry tactics in its global expansion: a mergers and acquisitions approach and a market and product pioneer strategy. Both of these tactics enable Nortel Corporation to attain a leading position and compete with small and medium-sized businesses. Nortel Corporation acquired Bay Networks in recent years, allowing it to join the data processing market. To ensure profitable expansion, Nortel Corporation introduces new products that correspond to distinct periods of market growth. When some products are losing market share, others should be growing.

Sometimes this is accomplished through a merger; other times it is accomplished internally. Regardless, a company's position is determined by the complete product line in relation to its target markets. Opportunity evaluation must therefore span a period of time and continuously add growth opportunities to a company's current product portfolio (Drejer 2002).

Through ensure efficient logistics, Nortel Corporation builds its “own supply chain, which enables the management of all activities from initial customs interests to customer satisfaction.” (Nortel Corporation 2008, p. 123).

Major decisions, such as altering product lines or automating production, include risks and should not be made until the market opportunity has been evaluated. Thus, the selection of essential policies and tactics, and consequently the company's survival and expansion, are contingent on the circumstances. Due to limited firm resources, only certain prospects can be efficiently pursued. External factors include technological advancements and shifting market situations, while internal factors include research and development and revisions to products, packages, marketing channels, and advertising campaigns. Opportunity evaluation must consider both (Bennet 1996).

This procedure includes the rationalization of global operations and the improvement of overall quality. For Nortel Corporation, neither population expansion nor price reductions guarantee market entry. Opportunities are affected by market cultivation operations such as product creation, credit, advertising, and personal selling. The Nortel Corporation recognizes that the challenge and importance of identifying marketing prospects are heightened by the rapid evolution of technology.

Changes in technology produce not only new items but also entirely new industries. These advancements speed advances in sectors such as electronics, miniaturization, energy sources, high-temperature materials, rocket engines, and controllers, all of which will have a substantial economic impact. Some may even lead to the formation of entirely new industries. The space frontier will increase businessmen's risk-taking and long-term commitments in global and interplanetary space, as well as broaden their risk-taking and creative thinking.

Similarly, environmental contamination will result in the expansion of “the ecological industries” — industries dedicated to the preservation and improvement of the environment's quality. Of existence. The need to dispose of trash and sewage, minimize automobile and aircraft emissions, manage food contamination, and purify air and water creates unexplored business prospects. In this decade, billions of dollars will be spent on products and services intended to satisfy our ecological requirements (Baudin 2005).

For a comprehensive view of the market, a company and its products must be viewed from their broadest angle. In order for Nortel Corporation to comprehend that a corporation is not in the television business, but rather in communications, a broader perspective is essential. Likewise, a corporation markets domestic settings as opposed to household furniture. When evaluating market prospects, executives face a spectrum of conditions ranging from the comparatively simple to the most challenging to evaluate.

At one end of the spectrum are stable, nonperishable commodities with a consistent demand pattern. On the opposite end of the spectrum are products that are essentially new, or those with high style and high obsolescence factors. A good method for detecting market needs gives ideas, data, projections, and the evaluation of their potential. Salesmen can sometimes provide crucial insights (Chase and Jacobs 2003).

A "systems house" and supply chain integration are viewed as operations that facilitate Nortel Corporation's entry into a new market and establishment of a leading position. The management of change for Nortel Corporation entails the constant management of new market situations and the resolution of new difficulties. However, change is frequently perceived as a danger to established profitable businesses and goods. In actuality, the reverse is true (Stroh 2006).

By identifying profitable possibilities in a state of constant change, businesses are able to overcome threats and achieve growth. To effectively manage change, businesses must anticipate developments, anticipate logical repercussions, transform them into prospective possibilities, and devise strategies for capitalizing on profitable options. Create an environment where market change is foreseen, anticipated, and sought. To thrive, corporate systems must adapt to environmental changes and be adaptable enough to deal with their repercussions. New products and services must be programmed and planned for development. The potential inherent in change must become the executives' primary emphasis (Slack et al 2002).

This strategy may appear to reduce economic efficiency, yet it preserves consumer choice and has led to the best quality of life in human history. In a market-based economy, however, there is a trade-off between more efficient industrial processes and customer autonomy.

Management of the Global Supply Chain

Control over the supply chain is exercised by means of a process-based team and "value-managed relationships." In both instances, supply chain activities are carried out as a collection of separate functions rather than as a system. For the purposes of planning, directing, and coordinating physical distribution activities, it is preferable to house them all in one department. This is often achieved by the operations department in retailing and wholesaling.

In contrast, manufacturing typically lacks such cooperation. The physical movement of commodities is viewed by Nortel Corporation as a series of related actions carried out by a number of enterprises at various levels and interconnected to build a comprehensive distribution system. The design of a company's movement and storage system is determined by a cost-market need study of potential solutions. Transfer costs, operating costs, and marketing elements must be balanced. Transportation is the link between factories, warehouses, and markets. Physical distribution operations are influenced by the qualities of the product.

If product markets are extremely competitive, there is a significant need for physical distribution due to product substitution, the need for appropriate supplies and rapid delivery, and competitive pricing (Simchi-Levi et al 2008).

The primary function of the supply chain control system is to make products available to support the company's demand-creation efforts. Exemplary customer service can be described in various ways:

the percentage of customers whose orders are fulfilled within a specific number of days; the limitation of backorders to a specified level; delivery to any client in a specified territory within x days.

In addition to product availability, delivery dependability and frequency, order cycle time, and stock-out percentages, customer service comprises the following elements: Customers and rivals are considered while determining the quality of the customer service provided (Pfeffer and Salancik 1979). The services provided by significant rivals set the benchmark for the industry. However, while evaluating alternate physical distribution systems, management must also evaluate the impact of service differences on consumer response and profitability.

As is the case with breweries, a manufacturer may decentralize processing operations to put them closer to customers for low-cost and low-priced commodities with relatively high handling and transit costs. But if clients are willing to accept longer delivery times without switching to a rival, then centralized processing facilities may be utilized more efficiently and less efficient ones could be shuttered (Perreault et al 2003).

The Nortel Corporation's control systems are intended to maximize customer service while minimizing distribution expenses. The first objectives suggest numerous distribution facilities, extensive stockpiles, and swift transportation, while the latter objectives suggest the opposite. The realistic perspective entails a balanced strategy for developing a workable system that satisfies customers and consumers within cost, time, and competitive constraints. Marketing decisions are precipitated by physical distribution choices. They influence customers, retailers, and wholesalers, as well as the marketing strategies of manufacturers and vice versa.

Closing or relocating warehouses, for instance, has ripple effects across the system (Paley, 2006). The primary responsibility of marketing is to deliver and maintain the highest possible standard of living, to ensure that the products and services offered for sale are those consumers want, and to distribute them in the most efficient manner possible from the perspective of both consumers and businesses. Consequently, the identification of viable market groups becomes crucial for each company.

Global Comparative Strategies

The chosen company for comparison is British Telecom. This is one of the leading providers of broadband and communications services in the United Kingdom. In contrast to Nortel Cop rotation, BT adopts the strategy of the adopter. BT expands internationally through global alliances like as those with AT & T and MCI. This method enables Bt to penetrate new markets, but it restricts the company's autonomy and strategic options.

Similar to Nortel Corporation, BT concentrates on a complete process, despite the fact that legal control may be in the hands of multiple parties; that is, it is frequently concerned with the interconnection of various distinct businesses. Companies must view their independent distributors as a part of their distribution chain (Murphy and Wood, 2005).

Additionally, the value features of products must be examined. Low-value products, such as lumber and coal, absorb these expenses more easily for Nortel Corporation than high-value items, such as diamonds. Variations in product lines and characteristics such as packaging, color, size, and style create a significant strain on the distribution system. Now, a greater number of products must be handled with a smaller volume per item and higher storage, inventory, and handling costs.

Transport and handling expenses, remote locations, and time are obstacles to the growth of markets. Through physical distribution, expenses are decreased and geographical and temporal restrictions are overcome, allowing businesses to grow additional profitable markets. In actuality, logistical expenses have compelled businesses to withdraw from formerly supplied markets (McDonald and Christopher 2003).

Unlike BT, Nortel's supply chain activities are dynamic in response to market movements and competitive forces. Its strategies are adaptable and often revised in order to strike a balance between the objectives of serving the markets and minimizing distribution costs. Marketing managers must achieve a balance between physical-distribution components in order to improve the flow of goods to customers and consumers. Logistics decisions made by BT that are not coordinated result in comparatively high expenses.

Modern analytic tools, new technology (particularly data processing), and handling and moving equipment enhance services and save expenses. Examples of vehicle integration include the design of two-level and three-level railroad cars to transport automobiles, the development of containerization and special loading and unloading terminals, the use of highway transport for local pickup and delivery, and the elimination of warehouses through the use of air transportation.

In addition, physical distribution is the area of marketing where quantitative methodologies have been most effectively utilized. Using linear programming, simulations, and waiting-line theory, problems have been solved. For instance, linear programming has been utilized to cut shipping costs and find warehouses. Simulations have been used to answer challenges with the quantity and variety of warehouses. In contrast to other marketing circumstances, the employment of mathematical models may be justified by the concreteness of the components, the availability of data, and the approximate linearity of the correlations (Lansdowne 2007).

Nortel Corporation has a strategy of diversification. This expansion of product ranges is sometimes accomplished via merging. Diversification strategies that are meticulously designed can result in more fast growth, a more efficient use of resources, greater capitalization on the results of research and development, and enhanced achievement of business objectives. The diversification of a product may be horizontal, vertical, or heterogeneous.

Horizontal refers to diversification with new items in the same industry; vertical refers to movement backward or forward, such as in the manufacture or extraction of previously purchased products; and heterogeneous refers to diversification with new products and industries. Programs for product diversification must align with marketing objectives. The maintenance of profitability and sales positions necessitates alterations to the product-and-service mix, often substantial alterations.

Even over a five- or ten-year period, a company's product portfolio is consequently anything but stable. Changes are dictated by a product's life cycle, and products in developing phases must have adequate market capacity to compensate for the loss of those in decline. Multiproduct businesses must have a product mix with increasing total potential and profits. Between these two extremes, they may want to be reimbursed for their initial expenditures while still retaining ownership.

Systems Consideration In Human Resource Information System College Application Essay Help Online

Research and assess two (2) commercial Human Resources (HR) database systems for your firm using the Internet. Evaluate the benefits and drawbacks of each system and, based on your expertise of human resources and database systems, choose one (1) package that would meet your organization's requirements. Provide three (3) explicit justifications for recommending this system over the other.

A human resource (HR) database system is simply an application that collects/assembles and then processes data for the purpose of human resource management (Gueutal & Stone, 2005). HR databases contain characteristics that aid in the administration of personnel. Most are meant to manage various management functions, such as hiring, training, and payroll, among others. The purpose of an HRIS database system is to store and/or process system-relevant data. After evaluating numerous HR database systems, I decide to evaluate Oracle and Payroll as commercial HR database solutions.

After deliberation, I conclude that Payroll is the most suggested database for data administration. It is selected due to its streamlined HR solution with superior recruitment management capabilities, including recruiting and termination. Payroll oversees employment, training, performance evaluation, time and attendance monitoring, and benefits administration. The database is well-designed with thorough final user instructions and is simple to implement. It is less expensive than Oracle, making it more affordable.

Oracle may include certain additional functionality that Payroll lacks, such as Business Intelligence (BIS). Payroll facilitates information exchange and paperless offices. Payroll is a superior business database management solution because it is less expensive, more efficient, and more effective (Hendrickson, 2003).

Provide three (3) efficiencies that a business would gain by utilizing Software as a Service (SAAS) for its Human Resources Information System (HRIS) requirements, as well as three (3) inefficiencies associated with operating an MS Access-based database application.

Software as a Service (SAAS) was initially adopted in reaction to inadequate in-house applications that required full on-premise system deployments. When utilized as an HR database management system, SAAS offers numerous benefits. The primary benefit is that it is more cost-effective than traditional on-premise deployments. In terms of both implementation and maintenance, they are far less expensive than standard software for personal computers. In addition, they are supplied rapidly, allowing customers to access the Human Resource Information Service's online database. Essentially, the vendor gives remote access to the SAAS and the capacity to maintain and improve it. All of these occur for nominal costs (Hendrickson, 2003).

Unlike typical PC software, a SAAS operation offers the added benefit of allowing the user to outsource the risk responsibility to third-party providers or vendors. This avoids the possibility of blame-shifting and antagonism during IT failures. SAAS does not involve additional hardware purchases, difficult customizations, or the hiring of costly IT specialists for support purposes (Walker, 1993).

In the following ways, MS-Access-based database system maintenance is shown to be wasteful. It is challenging to manage a database system that lacks Internet integration capabilities. MS Access is a file-based system that lacks server functionalities, such as those found in Oracle and Structured Query Language Server (SQL). For efficient management and operation, databases require web database management; access databases with fewer users require web-based solutions (Walker, 1993).

The MS Access database is incapable of handling sensitive data, such as medical, financial, or Social Security Numbers (SSNs), among others. Lastly, the MS Access database cannot support vast volumes of data and can actually slow down when large amounts of data flow through it. Access is an inefficient discussion mechanism due of these factors.

Assess the top three (3) hazards associated with merging products from various vendors into a single (1) HRIS.

Best of breed (BOB) is the mix of products from several vendors and requires a technical infrastructure. There are three dangers associated with the combination of items from different providers. One such danger is that the remedy may not be viewed as necessary. Whenever a person purchases a thing for speculative motives without first identifying the real issue, the commodity becomes useless. For instance, purchasing CDs and DVDs for use with a VCR player will render the DVD unplayable, as VCR players primarily support Compact Discs.

The second imminent concern is that it may not support international interoperability standards. In order for applications to be acknowledged, they must adhere to international guidelines. This is present at the syntactic and semantic levels in order to provide better interface descriptions. Syntactic refers to interface-description fundamentals. Here, data must be transferred for two programs to communicate. It is possible to share databases, XML files, and text files like MS Excel. For instance, XML contains a structured syntax that specifies the data items present in the Human Resource Information System. There is a possibility that these technical needs are not understood, thus combining them is not recommended.

Therefore, it is preferable to use strong systems that provide several functions irrespective of vendor (Kavanagh, Thite & Johnson, 2012).

There is also the chance that programs from different suppliers may have dissimilar data semantics. For instance, if a timekeeping system lacks a payroll application, there may be discrepancies when publishing employee information. If the system contains a variety of information types, there are dangers associated with each. An efficient HRIS should contain similar data and information, such as names, addresses, dates of birth, phone numbers, and locations, among others (Kavanagh, Thite & Johnson, 2012).

Predict three (3) unforeseen effects of improper HR database management and explain how you would sidestep (avoid) these circumstances.

Poor management of the HR database may result in unforeseen effects, such as the unnecessary disclosure of individuals' private information. Such locations and institutions like the military and hospitals require database systems to be protected to a high quality. Therefore, the information contained in such systems must be strictly protected and only made available upon approved request. Depending on the circumstances, any other provision of data through improper management would constitute espionage or leakage. Interested parties that gain access to such HR database information will automatically misuse it and put the information of database owners at risk (Hendrickson, 2003).

Inadequate database administration may result in a violation of confidentiality, causing secondary societal issues. For instance, widespread data breaches in the medical industry have resulted in the unauthorized transfer of personal health information containing patient records to pharmaceutical companies for self-serving, insensitive marketing efforts. In the past, political careers have been destroyed due to the fact that competitive political opponents constantly exploit critical information if they have it. This is a scenario in which confidentiality is violated as a result of inadequate database management. Similarly, in the majority of instances, information, particularly on HIV/AIDS, has been abused, causing harm to patients.

Lastly, improper database management will inevitably result in inaccurate information. This is always a major problem and issue. Sensitive and vital data/information must be completely safeguarded so that it cannot be altered in any way. The most effective strategy to prevent any of the aforementioned scenarios from occurring is to use the most effective administrative and information management practices. In addition, it is advisable to give staff and system administrators with the necessary information management training. Finally, there should be a disciplinary process for those who purposefully or inadvertently mismanage databases.


Gueutal H., & Stone, D. (2005). Human resource management in the digital age comprises the brave new world of eHR. Jossey-Bass, San Francisco, California.

Hendrickson, Robert A. (2003). Human resource information systems are the backbone of modern human resource technology. 24(3) Journal of Labor Research: 381–394.

Kavanagh, M. J., M. Thite, and R. D. Johnson (2012). Human Resource Information Technology (2nd ed.). Thousand Oaks, California: Sage Publications.

Walker, A. (1993). Handbook of Human Resource Information Systems: Technology's Impact on the Human Resource Function. McGraw-Hill is headquartered in New York.

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Change Management: Theory And Practice College Application Essay Help Online

Table of Contents
Introduction Human Variables Communication Organization Culture Dialogue and Concluding Remarks References


This document provides a summary of six publications by Ezzamel, Willmott, and Worthington (2001), Fleming and Spicer (2003), Orton (2000), Morrison and Milliken (2000), Piderit (2000), and Vince and Broussine (2000). (1996). The researchers investigated organizational transformation challenges by examining the elements that hinder (or facilitate) the process. This paper reviews critically their arguments and hypotheses utilizing a three-pronged framework that describes their findings as organizational culture concerns, communication issues, and human factors (which affect organizational change). By closing the gap between theory and reality, this study identifies novel insights for change management.

Human Variables

According to Vince and Broussine (1996), the organizational emphasis in change management should shift from problem-solving and planning-based approaches to human emotions and interpersonal relationships. Particularly, they emphasize the necessity to comprehend how human insecurity and defensiveness influence organizational change. According to Vince and Broussine (1996), human factors influence change management (through influencing people's acceptance of the change process).

Several factors must be considered in this analysis. For instance, change resistance is an attitude problem that the majority of firms might resolve by appealing to human needs. Those who do so have a high likelihood of receiving staff support for change management. Faucheux (2013), for instance, tells the story of an American church (Jeff's Church) that planned to create a new sanctuary for its congregants but received complaints from some of its members about their exclusion from the project.

The church dealt with this issue by creating a steering committee that solicited the opinions and participation of all church members. Ultimately, the majority of members supported the project since they felt a part of the transformation (Faucheux, 2013). This analysis demonstrates that, as Vince and Broussine (1996) emphasize, concentrating on people's emotions and interpersonal relationships is essential to the success of organizational change.

Piderit (2000) supports the emphasis on human attitudes as a precondition for organizational change by recommending a new method for handling employee opposition. According to him, people's attitudes influence their resistance (or support) to change. In this context, Piderit (2000) asserts that achieving a balance between organizational and individual requirements would promote ambiguous attitudes toward change. To do this, he argued a need to comprehend the evolution of employee resistance to change. Similarly, he underlined the importance to comprehend how personnel react to proposed changes (using a bottom-up approach). This argument was used to describe the egalitarian transition process (Piderit, 2000).


According to Morrison and Milliken (2000), the primary impediment to organizational transformation is the failure of businesses to articulate the challenges that impact company and employee performance. According to them, it is "irrational" for such organizations to discourage stakeholders from discussing organizational issues. This phenomenon is referred to as "organizational silence" (Morrison & Milliken, 2000).

To encourage organizational change, the researchers examined the contextual elements that led to organizational change and proposed that removing these variables would promote change. This perspective parallels Faucheux's (2013) comments when he emphasized the need for managers to explain organizational change concerns to all stakeholders. Additionally, he stated that the executive team should convince all stakeholders to support the change management process (Faucheux, 2013; Morrison & Milliken, 2000). In this manner, employees would comprehend the importance of welcoming change. This method has been successful.

For instance, in 1981 British Airways hired a new manager who wished to restructure the company because he recognized that it was wasting resources (Faucheux, 2013). The airline's personnel was reduced as part of a number of reorganization initiatives he initiated. However, before he did so, he informed all stakeholders of the necessity to restructure the firm. This method prepped staff for the upcoming transition. Eventually, his efforts bore fruit by preventing the near bankruptcy of the London-based airline (Faucheux, 2013).

Organization Culture

According to Fleming and Spicer (2003), subjectivity and power relations are significant determinants of organizational transformation. The majority of these variables are incorporated in organizational culture. In this regard, Fleming and Spicer (2003) state that the majority of employees who comprehend an organization's culture are likely to support organizational change, but those who do not comprehend it are likely to impede the process. This is because the latter group feels isolated.

In addition, cynicism becomes a prevalent trait of their professional performance. To describe this occurrence, Fleming and Spicer (2003) state, "We call this the ideology interpretation because power is reproduced inadvertently when one disidentifies with it" (p. 157). According to Fleming and Spicer (2003), cultural power has a significant impact on an organization's capacity to embrace change. Similarly, they assert that subjectivity influences an organization's adaptability (subjectivity might not necessarily come from within the organization). This fact also demonstrates that many people's perceptions of change as frustrating may not necessarily be accurate.

Orton (2000) utilized the aforementioned philosophy to explain how internal communications influence organizational design processes in the US intelligence community. Based on Weick's theory of organization development, he investigated how three design assumptions affected the design process of an organization. In his study, he discovered that the organizational design process was constrained by the three organization design assumptions of dominant variables, causal laws, and executive mandates (Orton, 2000). Overall, Orton (2000) emphasized the necessity for businesses to transition from simple to dependable designs.

Ezzamel et al. (2001) questioned the validity for adopting new waves of management (as mentioned above) as the only criteria for re-engineering organizational processes. After analyzing the experiences of dissatisfied managers who attempted to re-engineer organizational processes, the researchers discovered that the vast majority of employees could easily deploy personal and collective forms of resistance to promote (or oppose) organizational change (Ezzamel et al., 2001). Although the authors accept the impact that external organizational factors, such as market shifts, have on organizational transformation, they assert that associating with historical working methods has a stronger impact. Therefore, the writers recognize the need of emphasizing the impact of employee work experiences on organizational development.

Conclusion and Discussion

The six articles highlighted in this paper reveal that organizational change is a dynamic and multidimensional topic. The process is primarily affected by human factors, communication, and organizational transformation. As Ezzamel et al. (2001) note, although many types of literature acknowledge the need for adopting modern change management paradigms, such as lean management, it is equally essential to recognize the role that an employee's experience plays in determining his resistance (or support) to the change management process.

Therefore, change management should prioritize the "human aspect" before addressing other crucial concerns, such as communication and organizational culture. Overall, this research emphasizes the need for a multifaceted approach to change management. In addition, it emphasizes the necessity of combining past and present organizational needs while designing future organizational processes.


M. Ezzamel, H. Willmott, and F. Worthington (2001). In The Factory That Time Forgot, power, control, and resistance are explored. 38(8) Journal of Management Studies: 1053-1079

Faucheux, M. (2013). Examples of Effective Change Management Plans Web.

Fleming, P., and A. Spicer (2003). Working at a Cynical Distance: Power, Subjectivity, and Resistance Implications Organization, 10(1), 157-179.

Morrison, E. W., & Milliken, F. J. (2000). In a pluralistic world, organizational silence is a barrier to change and development. 25(4), pages 706-725 in Academy of Management Review

Orton, J. D. (2000). Enactment, Sensemaking, and Decision Making: Redesign Processes in the 1976 US Intelligence Reorganization 37(2) Journal of Management Studies: 213-234.

Piderit, S. K. (2000). Reconsidering Resistance and Recognizing Ambivalence: A Multidimensional View of Organizational Change Attitudes The Academy of Management Review, Volume 25, Issue 4, pages 783-794.

Vince, R., and M. Broussine (1996). Accessing and Working with the Emotions and Relationships Underlying Organizational Change: Paradox, Defense, and Attachment 17(1) Organization Studies, 1-21.

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Organization’s Culture And Strategic Management College Application Essay Help Online

Table of Contents
Introduction JC Penney's organisational culture and experience Leadership's influence on organizational culture Conclusion References


Current research aims to assess the value of organizational culture and leadership in contemporary strategic management. The case study of JC Penney will be used to analyze the best practices and procedures necessary for the successful implementation of strategic management, with a particular focus on the business practices of contemporary corporations. We hope that the current research will be useful to anybody interested in strategic management, leadership, and organizational culture.

Business executives and savviness are becoming increasingly aware of the significance of organisation culture as a component of strategic management growth; yet, they do not comprehend or have uniform knowledge of the theory itself. In contrast, they have practical knowledge of other concrete areas of organization administration, such as the design of a trade strategy and the organization's structure.

The process of culture formation and maintenance gives a foundation for comprehending the cultural management of numerous organizations. It also offers insight into the approach for analyzing the organization's culture. By integrating culture to business strategy, the emphasis is on culture as a practical concept and there is a shift in the analysis of the idea from a generic to a practical context. Therefore, the notion is investigated to provide insight into the elements that influence the establishment and maintenance of organizational culture and those that determine its substance. There is a contrast between the dominant culture of the organization and the subcultures that develop inside it.

Particular focus is placed on the role of the organization's founder in the culture formation process of evolutionary management. Various techniques for interpreting organization culture have been developed. In order to provide insight into the process for decoding organization culture, a quick summary of these methods is provided. Emphasis is focused on the importance of the cultural audit and the management of culture as a component of the strategic management process. Examining the difficulties experienced in comprehending organization culture in order to acquire a better understanding of the duties involved. In some instances, organisation culture can be classified in terms of identifiable cultural characteristics, yet Thomas and Whittington’s typology of culture is analyzed in order to gain an understanding of the cultural categories and to determine their relevance within the context of strategic management (ICFAI, 2002, p. 13). (ICFAI, 2002, p. 13).

Finally, the process of culture perpetuation is used to highlight the methods for effecting cultural change within organizations. This is especially important from a strategic management standpoint.

JC Penney's organisational culture and experience

The definition of culture is "historically transmitted patterns of meaning embodied in symbols, a system of inherited conceptions expressed in symbolic forms through which men and women communicate, perpetuate, and develop their knowledge and attitudes about life" (Chakravarthy and White, 2002). Despite the fact that organization culture has been defined at the societal level, it influences the behavior of individuals, which impacts the performance of businesses (Robbins, 2004).

Culture of an organization defines how things are conducted within the organization. Depending on the organization's strength, it is a source of stability or a barrier to change. The organization’s culture has numerous qualities among them innovation and risk taking people orientation, outcome orientation, aggressiveness stability and team orientation. Organization culture deals with ways in which employees perceive the organization features including leadership, delegation, communication channels and management of change (Robbins, 2004, p. 78). (Robbins, 2004, p. 78).

Information system, organizational structure, reward system, processes, people, and leadership are cultural variables that have received significant study from the perspective of strategic management (Drummond, 2000, p. 14). Formal and hierarchical organizational structure, it is asserted, impedes the implementation of effective strategic management efforts.

Among the frequently cited organizational structures that make strategic management more permeable are learning organizations and communities of practice. Reward system is a cultural component that involves performance and pay system. Strong and dedicated leadership that walk the speak is considered as a must-have cultural component. In addition, it is the responsibility of the leadership to establish the organization's vision, goal, objectives, and code of ethics.

Myron E. Ulmman, chairman and chief executive officer of JC Penney Corporation, correctly asserts, "The business is no longer just about store managers; it's more complicated than it used to be, and I must motivate employees from the entry level to the officers." If I could honor the past and lose or go forward and win, I would choose to win (ICFAI, 2007, p. 2). This postulates the idea that the role of organizational culture as acknowledged as crucial part of strategic management. As suggested by the case study, JC Penney's business performance was improved by strengthening its organizational structure to make it into a "place to work in." The primary focus was on fostering a customer-centric culture throughout the organization. There is no denying the significance of the fact that this strategy is consistent with the ideas of theorists such as Tannenbaum, who asserts, "Reaching a common understanding about the inherent beliefs in the organization provides a platform for further explorations of the behavioral norms that help define the organization's culture." (Tannenbaum, 2003, p.19).

Long ago, JC Penney's organizational culture was characterized by rigidity and strictness, which intimidated new employees and hindered the development of human capital, which, according to Carpenter et al.(2001), "is a crucial component of business development under globalization" (ICFAI, 2007, p. 34).

Transformations in communication and symbols were implemented as part of the organizational culture modifications. This mostly refers to the "Call me Mike" program, which aimed to break down communication barriers between regular staff and managers.

In addition, JC Penney's management introduced development programs and trainings such as 'Winning together' in order to foster a democratic culture within the corporate organization. These modifications were intended to foster the development of human capital and a positive work environment at JC Penney, in accordance with current best HR practices and procedures. According to Mcgoldrick et al. (2002), the main prerequisites for developing a successful organizational culture are: 1. a shared understanding of the organization's goals by all employees; and 2. the organization's integration into its environment, which fosters positive relationships with all relevant parties. Perfect social interaction between units and between employees, healthy work environment Creating activity patterns that can be implemented on a daily basis without assistance or special attention. 5. Stress training is an essential technique for ensuring the health and well-being of employees (Mcgoldrick J., Stewart J., Watson, S., 2002). The benefits of these strategies proved beneficial in drawing new talent from colleges and institutions, as news of the positive corporate culture spread rapidly among job seekers. In addition, it should be highlighted that the implemented policies were beneficial in terms of boosting the company's economic performance, which is a strong indication of the relationship between organizational culture and business success.

According to Pfeffer (1998, p. xvi), "the returns from managing people in a manner that fosters high commitment, involvement, learning, and organizational competence are typically in the 30 to 50 percent range, which is substantial by any standard." And later he adds (Pfeffer, 1998, p. 32): “substantial gains, on the order of 40 percent or so in most of the studies reviewed, can be obtained by implementing high performance management practices.” (ICFAI, 2007, p.33).

In conclusion, the actions made by JC Penney's leadership were effective in terms of fostering a new democratic organizational culture that improved employees' commitment to the company's interests and facilitated the implementation of sound strategic management decisions.

Leadership's influence on organizational culture

In his work, Johnson et al. (2005, p. 78) highlighted the important responsibilities of leadership in the establishment and management of organizational culture throughout the growth of an organization. Leaders or founding members of an organization are the first leaders and have the most influence on how the organization will be managed during its formation. At this point, a definition is made. This is due to the fact that founders or leaders are typically entrepreneurs with a great degree of self-confidence and resolve; they typically impose strong preconceptions on newly created businesses (Drummond, 2000). Their assumptions are thriving in the firm; they will be viewed as accurate and will eventually be incorporated into the organizational culture. A founder member will to choose associates who share the same ideals, similar assumptions, and so reinforcing the foundation of the company culture per se. Keyton proposed two sorts of techniques that powerful members of an organization employ to incorporate their assumptions into the organizational culture, thereby influencing strategic decision making (2004, p. 56-59). (Table below)

Secondary mechanisms are the organizational environment, and they are a reflection and manifestation of cultural assumptions received from the leaders, particularly during the establishment of organizations. These secondary mechanisms can constitute a potent reinforcement of the leaders' primary mechanisms (Brass B., Riggio, R., 2006). The secondary mechanisms must be congruent with the core mechanisms, and leaders must set the appropriate example.

Principal Implantation Mechanisms Mechanisms for Secondary Articulation and Reinforcement

What leaders regularly pay attention to, measure, and control

The responses of leaders to crucial situations and organizational crises.

observable criterion leaders use to allocate scarce resources

Intentional modeling, teaching, and mentoring

observable criteria leaders use to give prizes and status

Observed criteria by which organizational leaders recruit, select, promote, retire, and expel individuals. Organizational design and structure

Organizational systems and procedures

Institutional rites and ceremonies.

Design of physical space, building facades, and structures

Legends, myths, and folklore concerning persons and events

Official declarations of an organization's ideology, principles, and credo.

In terms of the effect of leaders, the dynamics of organizations in their midlife, maturity, and decline are substantially distinct from those of organizations in their formative years. For example, in the midlife firms, the culture defines the leadership as founders have been replaced by newer generations of CEOs. The next generation of leaders must comprehend the organizational culture and determine which cultural assumptions must be altered (Clegg et al., 2005, p. 45). In short, they become agents of cultural transformation. They can promote change through the systematic promotion of desired subcultures, the implementation of planned organizational development projects, the creation of parallel learning structures, or the defrosting and induction of change by technology seduction. When organizations enter the maturity and decline phase, which may suggest that the current organizational culture has become obsolete, the leaders must initiate a more extensive reform process. At this time, executives with a transformative leadership style are frequently sought after (Politis, 2001; Carpenter et al., 2001).

The case study of JC Penney indicates that leadership development was one of the most important criteria for building an effective organizational culture and strategic management within the company. Through the mechanisms of training and motivation, the management tried to nurture the development of leadership qualities in a variety of employee categories, beginning with low-level managers, group leaders, and upper management. The emphasis was placed mostly on fostering a "emotional connection" between personnel and clients. According to the case study, JCP hosted a leadership seminar for store managers in January 2006. This conference's primary objective was to foster leadership, autonomy in decision-making, and creativity. During the conference, the plan titled 'Long Range Plan' was formulated with the participation of all employees. According to the company's chief executive officer, "We have invested extensively in executive education and leadership training for our managers, as well as strategic skills for our top employees… We're devoted to being a fantastic place to work, and we believe that lowering our turnover rate to the lowest in the industry would be the first benefit of altering (p. 10). According to the case study, new leadership strategies were effective in boosting JCP's economic success and consumer confidence. The formation of customer-tailored solutions-designing teams was one of the primary outcomes of employee leadership development.

All business and management professionals applauded JC Penney's management's move to overhaul the company's organizational culture. One of the most significant obstacles to quick expansion and great performance in the retail industry is the skill gap. Prior to the business's reformation, JC Penney's rigorous culture had a negative impact on strategic management and corporate performance, which cannot be denied. Job satisfaction depends not only on monetary pay but also on the working environment and organizational culture that unites all employees and management in achieving the strategic goals of their company. As smart managers say, ‘Happy employees generate happy customers’.

The strategy to developing organizational culture in JC Penneys’ company was elaborated not voluntarily but through broad and rigorous consultations with representatives from other organizations, employees, theoreticians and practitioners. Before making any decisions, sensible and effective management is exemplified by the development of a thorough action plan, according to the analysts who evaluated the company's recent transformation. In addition, one of the most important lessons that can be learnt from JC Penney's case study is the significance of the involvement of top management in the execution of reforms. JC Penney's management was in constant communication with low-level employees who participated in trainings, seminars, and other gatherings. This pertains specifically to the Retail Academy education for which they invested countless hours.

There is no denying the significance of the fact that organizational culture is not only about management involvement in the lives and work of their workers, but that it is only effective if implemented in a consistent manner. It indicates that for organizational culture to be cost-effective and dynamic, the conditions necessary for its systematic replication must be maintained. Therefore, a system of norms, self-control, and checks and balances must be in place to regulate the effectiveness of corporate culture on an ongoing basis.

Notable is the fact that JC Penney's strategy for enhancing organizational culture was designed to fulfill the company's broader economic objectives, i.e., to succeed in the severe competition with other retailers and department shops. Therefore, JC Penney's strategic management was dependent on a combination of technology, culture, and business procedures. The successful implementation of these strategic features was one of the most important criteria for the company's effective business performance.

According to the case study of JC Penney, changes in organizational culture led to improved customer service, the creation of exclusive design lines (creativity), and other enhancements in the quality of business operations. In conclusion, the impact of a flexible approach to organizational culture and strategic management was clearly apparent in JC Penney's business.


It is evident from the preceding discussion that organizational culture has a significant impact on the implementation and development of strategic decisions. Therefore, the organizational culture must encourage self-confidence in personnel. I emphasized the pervasive influence of leadership on the organizational culture. The organizational culture should reflect the goals of the leadership. This is due to the fact that only leaders can collect organizational resources to achieve desired goals.

I believe that leadership is the most important issue to address before corporate culture. This is especially true because businesses tend to disregard the significance of culture. I will propose that the organization continue to promote a culture of integrity, ethics, and innovation in corporate governance.


2006.Transformational Leadership. London: Routledge. Brass, B., and R. Riggio.

Carpenter, M.A., W.G. Sanders, and H.B. Gregersen. "Bundling human capital with organizational context: The influence of international assignment experience on multinational firm performance and CEO compensation." Academy of Management Journal, 44, pages 493 to 511

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Clegg, S. Kornberger, M. and Pitsis, T. 2005. Managing and Organizations Sage Publications, London.

Drummond, H., and Oxford University Press, 2000, Introduction to Organizational Behavior.

Flood et al, 2000. directing strategy execution Blackwell's publications are available in Oxford.

ICFAI Centre for Management Research, "Remaking JC Penney's Organizational Culture," 2007, retrieved from Academic Search Premier.

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Johnson, G., and K. Scholes, Exploring Public Sector Strategy, Prentice Hall, London, 2001.

Keyton, J. (2004). Communication and Organizational Culture. Sage Publications, London.

Understanding Human Resource Development: A Research-Based Methodology, Mcgoldrick, Stewart, and Watson, 2002. Routledge, London

Strategic Management, by H. Macmillian and M. Tampoe, Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2000.

Mintzberg et al., 1998, Strategic Safari: A Guided Tour of the Wilderness of Strategic Management. Free Press, New York

The Influence Of Leadership On Organizational Culture And Its Effects On Knowledge Management Initiative, by A. Othman and H. Abdullah, 2007. Sage Publications, London.

I. Palmer and C. Hardy, "Thinking about management," London: Sage Pettigrew, 2000.

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Organizational Values and Leadership: The Importance of Aligning Core and Operational Values in the Strategic Planning Process and the Bottom-Line Benefits of Investing in a Performance-Oriented Organizational Culture. Tannenbaum, M. A. 2003. The Public Manager, Volume 32, Number 2, Pages 19-56.

Thomas and Whittington. 2002, Handbook of Strategy and Management London: Sage publications.

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Leadership In The Public Sector College Application Essay Help Online


In the public sector, leadership development has never been a novel concept. Public organizations in various parts of the world are progressively enhancing their leadership capacities in order to maximize service delivery and achieve exceptional returns. Public governance, like every other subject of study, has always been fully dependent on effective leadership. Governance, according to Moti (2013), is defined by the management of a public institution's fundamental principles.

The most important aspect of leadership in the public sector is the skill to solve problems, the ability to drive change, and the aptitude to manage the occasional crises an organization experiences. In this context, leadership is exemplified by the promotion of an organization's envisioned essential strategic principles through constructive advocacy (Moti 2013).

Leadership Diverse Groups

On numerous instances, experts have argued that diverse teams are more likely to produce superior results. The core of leading diverse teams necessitates consequently that leaders seek out individuals with diverse cultural backgrounds. Personality, gender, and educational background are distinguishing factors that can be manipulated to enable individuals to provide their particular skills (Ibarra & Hansen 2011, p. 71).

Leadership is predicated on the ability to mobilize human potential so that individuals perform at their very best. In an effort to develop a successful leadership structure that incorporates diversity standards, academics have identified seven criteria that must be considered. These components include mutual understanding and respect, synergy, optimism, resolve, commitment, and discipline (Ibarra & Hansen 2011, p. 71).

Diversity in the workplace is one of the most demanding areas of management for contemporary executives. Changes in demographic patterns mean that management teams will be required to work with increasingly diverse groups. With rising globalisation, many businesses and business executives have intensified their efforts to include diversity into their management structures (Purykayastha 2007). The vast majority of studies undertaken in this sector concludes that a workforce comprised of more diverse individuals is a strong competitive advantage-guaranteeing resource (Purykayastha 2007).

Additionally, diversity is an incentive for a larger client base. The workforce becomes more productive as teams become more diverse in their management approaches, particularly in their communication with consumer subgroups. In essence, this offers the organization leverage over its rivals. While it is commonly believed that diverse teams produce amazing achievements, there is widespread conjecture that heterogeneous workforces typically provide a wide range of thoughts with strategic solutions.

Given an organization's expansive reach, these strategic solutions are targeted at resolving a number of difficulties that tend to stifle it. Unfortunately, McShane and Travaglione (2007, p. 156) maintain a contrary position, arguing that little empirical investigations have been undertaken in this field. As a result, they argue that it is premature to reach a conclusion that offers diverse teams an advantage (McShane & Travaglione 2007, p. 156).

Utilizing understanding of variety to achieve success.

Shane and Travaglione (2007, p. 156) assert that three crucial criteria must be taken into account if managers are to apply diversity knowledge effectively to achieve better results. A diversified workforce must possess a variety of skills, abilities, strengths, and shortcomings. Consequently, under these assumptions, teams might benefit greatly from complementarities and constructive criticism among its members. As a leader, it is always essential to mitigate these differences in order to bring out the natural strength in these individuals.

Again, it must always be sought that these differences complement one another and are meaningful to an organization's objective. Nonetheless, communication is essential for an organization's growth in size. The management must ensure that team members complete the necessary activities in a manner that facilitates knowledge transfer in order to increase productivity (Ibarra & Hansen 2011, p. 71). Generally, it is essential for leaders to acclimate effectively to the varied groups they manage and to position themselves to entice individual team members to perform at their highest level for their particular organizations.


Given its pool of multiple abilities, the majority of studies concur that leadership based on diversity enables an organization to achieve greater success than leadership based on uniformity. Organizations that accept diverse teams, for instance, tend to be more innovative and productive than those that prioritize a homogeneous workforce. Diverse teams are supposed to produce plentiful results with effective management; nevertheless, this benefit cannot be realized just by assembling a diverse workforce.

Those who are tasked with leading various teams should always strive to lead them effectively and motivate them towards a desired goal. The purpose of varied teams is to achieve maximum productivity. It is anticipated that varied teams will facilitate the incorporation and integration of unique competencies in order to attain the intended goals and objectives with relative ease (McShane & Travaglione 2007, p. 156).

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Leadership strategies

Researchers, academics, and strategists from around the globe have developed a variety of leadership strategies. The type of an organization and the subordinates it employs frequently dictate the leadership style that is always used (Abrahamson 2000, p. 76). There are a variety of conditions that influence the leadership strategy. Individual characteristics and abilities of those at the helm of leadership play a significant role in the selection of leaders. Under these circumstances, it would be prudent to assume that no single leadership strategy has been identified as the optimal strategy. Typically, leadership techniques are influenced by the circumstances that inform such management.

Similarities and distinctions between administration and leadership

In attempting to distinguish between leadership and management, it is essential to keep in mind that both parts are mutually inclusive, such that the existence of one necessitates the existence of the other (Northouse 2009, p. 23). In his study, Northouse (2009, p. 24) explains that leadership and management cannot be separated. Thus, they are comparable in both theory and practice. These two components are comprised of numerous comparable components, rendering them inseparable.

Among other things, they both require influence, cooperation, insight, and professionalism. Researchers and academics have attempted to distinguish between leadership and management, and the majority of researchers agree that the distinction between the two is their resemblance. Moreover, the difference rests in the underlying assumption inside the managerial system, namely that managers are change agents whereas workers are change implementers. While within the context of leadership, it is assumed that both leaders and employees are change agents and agents of change (Northouse 2009, p. 25).

Response to the viewpoint proposed by the CMI

A leader's ability to effectively manage subordinates depends on a variety of factors, including his or her own personality and the demeanor of each subordinate. While the majority of experts agree that authoritative leadership styles produce superior outcomes, cooperative leadership styles have recently demonstrated increased motivation among subordinates. To rule an organization more effectively, Goleman (2000, p. 85) argues that those in leadership positions must always be familiar with the distinct personalities of their subordinates.

In order for leaders to determine what works best for their teams, it would be required to construct bridges that cross-section their teams. It is crucial that leaders are familiar with each member of their team and establish relationships with each of them. Building a strong knowledge base is essential, particularly for creating respect and establishing a rapport based on mutual trust and comprehension (Goleman 2000, p. 88).

As with leading subordinates, leaders must possess innumerable leadership qualities, such as the willingness to listen and the flexibility and adaptability to accommodate others. A leadership style typically influences the rate at which subordinates deliver services within an organization. Management should cultivate a leadership style that produces highly desired results, such as high productivity, inventiveness, and flexibility among subordinates. Leaders, for their part, must position themselves as team players and mentors who encourage change initiatives (Kotter 2007, p 23).


One's personal leadership style may be reflected in the sort of leadership an organization adopts; most persons in positions of leadership choose a leadership style that best suits their situation (Neal 2008, p. 34). According to Goleman (2000, p. 83), management and leadership have switched to command and control, suggesting that current models of leadership have created a great deal of democratic space. Recently, employees as well as their leaders have been permitted to provide constructive feedback to their managers and leaders without fear of reprisal (Goleman 2000, p. 89).

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Change Management

Change management consists of the activities that propel an organization's pursuit of its future ideals. Consistently, research has demonstrated that successful management of organizational transformation requires careful preparation and meticulous implementation (Lorenzi & Riley 2000, p. 5). According to Lorenzi and Riley (2000, p. 3), change management cannot be completed in the absence of consultations with and participation from affected stakeholders. Change management involves assigning individuals to the change and conveying the "desired" change to people.

A component of the change management strategy is imposing change on individuals. For change to be effective, realizable, and practical, there must be a measurable quantity of the desired change. For instance, what must be accomplished, how, and why? Change management is centered on people, and it is always essential that those assigned with change management ensure that the process is comprehensive, seamless, and done with courtesy (Kotter 2007, p 23). Individuals must be encouraged to become the change's agents by being given the ability to perceive its essence (Lorenzi & Riley 2000, p. 2).

The managers' involvement in overcoming change resistance

Scholars and researchers have described change as the unstoppable tsunami whose impact has the potential to affect an organization in numerous ways (Mullins 2010, p. 753). There is always more that managers can do within their capabilities to overcome popular resistance. Normally, the need for change is dictated by external pressures that coincide with organizational housekeeping (Ford and D'amelio 2008, p. 34). Occasionally, these external pressures are hidden, and not everyone can identify them before they physically impact organizational structures (Levasseur, 2001 p. 71).

While certain external forces, such as economic trends and government policy, are readily apparent, others, such as globalization and new technology, may elude the perception of many individuals (Mullins 2010, p. 755). Naturally, resistance to change creates a challenging situation for managers to cope with. Nonetheless, leaders can handle these circumstances peacefully and without inflicting too many wounds. According to Ford and D'amelio (2008, p. 365), handling resistance professionally necessitates that leaders maintain composure, seek better ways to communicate the change initiative, negotiate and consult broadly with various stakeholders that the change drive may affect in some way, and guide the stakeholders through the change process (Neal 2008, p. 33).

Organisational Examples

Managers in the public sector or government organizations may respond to resistance to change by fostering employee comprehension of the desired change. In order to avoid misunderstandings and miscalculations, this can be accomplished by providing employees with the necessary information outlining the organization's goals in advance (Gratton 2010, p. 18). With these factors in place, it would be simple to infiltrate the labor force and shape their consciousness in preparation for the desired change.

The purpose of giving these essentials is to provide a window of opportunity for the relevant induction to take shape. According to Mariana and Violeta (2011, p. 698), managers must be able to cushion the change initiatives so that they do not interfere with the long-cherished conventional behaviors of the workforce. Change initiatives must also be infused into an organization's circulatory system in tiny dosages so that their effects do not have severe effects on personnel (Ford and D'Amelio 2008, p.


Typically, leaders in the public sector confront a number of obstacles while attempting to adapt to change management. Change in the public sector must be purposeful and occur within the permissible constraints governing change institutions (Kotter 2007, p 23). Changes in the public sector may necessitate that organizations restructure their positions while training employees and their leaders to accept new challenges and adopt new techniques that affect their work relationships and behavior (Chen 2013, p. 85).

Change can benefit the general well-being of public employees or civil servants under appropriate management practices by fostering innovation among the workforce. Notably, organizations that moderate change appropriately can reap the benefits of change to an exceptional degree. In addition, public sector executives must play a crucial role in supporting the workforce to adapt effectively and positively respond to the desired change (Gratton 2010, p. 20). Change in an organization need not be extreme, as attempts to impose it on stakeholders may result in their complete rejection.

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Ethical Management

Ethical leadership acknowledges that it is the leaders' exclusive responsibility to guarantee that the organization's governing principles are upheld and followed to the letter. Ethical leadership requires that employees within an organization recognize that the organization's basic principles serve as its standard. Consequently, striving to adhere to the established norms is what drives its common good.

According to Duggan (2003, p. 1), the tenets of ethical leadership require individuals to exemplify the highest level of integrity possible while making commitment their only goal. Ethical leadership ensures that business organizations are guided by relevant modern concepts and offers the platform for expanding individual and corporate social responsibilities. Ethical leadership is influenced by moral concerns that impact the public sector and government institutions to provide quality services in accordance with the law.

According to Duggan (2003, p. 2), ethical leadership involves influencing employees to understand the significance of relationships based on mutual trust and regard. The essence of ethical leadership acknowledges that leaders must uphold high standards of integrity, equity, fairness, and purposefulness. The foundation of ethical leadership is showing compassion in all areas of contact inside the organization while striving for success and longevity.

The various sides of the argument

Various leadership studies continue to address the question of whether there is a single ideal method to ethical leadership. Recent research on ethical leadership assumes that there is no single appropriate method of ethical leadership practice. Rather, the method depends on the prevailing commercial realities of the organization.

Wal-Mart: Limitations To Company’s Growth College Application Essay Help Online

Table of Contents
Introduction Individual Behavior Management: How Managers Can Understand, Predict, and Influence Preferences in Behavior Consequences and Antecedents Conclusion Bibliography


Organizational Behavior is the study and application of information regarding the behavior of individuals in the workplace. Individuals and groups are the center of this study, yet the person is the focal point of any organization. Individuals labor in organizations to satisfy their desires, egos, and experiences, and each has unique physical, psychological, and social demands. To meet these demands, each person employs his or her own characteristics and experiences, which in turn impact organizational behavior (Hatch, 2007). Due to the fact that no two individuals are identical, it is very impossible for a large organization to have consistent behavior because no two individuals can exhibit identical behavioral traits.

Faced with behavioral diversity within the organization, the question arises as to whether managers are able to comprehend, forecast, or even affect the conduct of employees. Multiple internal and external factors influence the conduct of employees in the workplace. These characteristics can be studied and researched to assist managers in modifying and shaping the behavior of the workforce, which in turn will assist the organization in achieving its strategic objectives efficiently and effectively (Miles, 2003). Because human behavior in an organization is impacted in part by the formal and in part by the personal systems that make up that organization, the study of organizational behavior has become a specialized field of study. Organizational behavior is produced by the interaction of formal and human systems. It is simple to generate organizational behavior from formal systems, however personal systems are complicated due to the diversity of individuals inside an organization.

Individual Behavior Administration

Understanding the motivations of the organization's human resources is one of the greatest issues confronting management and leadership systems (Robbins, 2004). If everyone had the same motivations, then it would be easy for organizational management and leadership to understand, predict, and influence the behavior of the people within the organization. However, the individual differences that exist in every organization prevent managers and leaders from understanding why people act the way they do, which in turn hinders their ability to build better relationships in the workplace. This does not imply that it is impossible to comprehend, predict, or influence the conduct of organization members (Kaye, 2005). Individual differences only serve to complicate this process, but if managers are able to rise above them, they will be able to foster better understanding and relationships within the workplace, thereby creating a happy environment that will result in improved individual, team, and overall performance.

How Managers Can Comprehend, Predict, and Impact Behavior

Some models can assist organizational leaders in comprehending and influencing individual behavior. The window on work values is one of the approaches that can assist managers in understanding and influencing individual and organizational behavior (Hatch, 2007). This concept focuses on individual values and organizes them into a system that makes it simpler for managers to comprehend the values of each individual. What are values, to begin with? Individuals utilize their values as guides to define their behavior in the workplace, and their values impact their decisions. They also induce the individual to gather the energy necessary to defend their beliefs. Values transcend ordinary circumstances and play a significant role in molding how individuals see other people, their behaviors, and events. Managers should recognize that misaligned values are the primary source of conflict and discouragement in the workplace.

Even if people are willing to labor in areas they dislike, they may not readily give in when their values are endangered because they will protect their attacked ideals (Hatch, 2007). Values are internal notions, and it is impossible to witness the values of other people since they are frequently buried deeper in the human psyche and cannot be accessed by the conscious mind. When individual values are violated, the conscious mind has a major role, eliciting behavior geared at protecting against the attack on the individual's values. The window on work values model is composed of two elements. These components are the organizational restrictions and freedom values. Motivational in nature, organizational constraint values determine the conduct of individuals within a group. This component produces a set of rules that assist an individual control their desires, thereby preventing them from engaging in activities that may be harmful to others. Leaders can affect organizational behavior by gaining an understanding of organizational constraint value.

The second aspect is organizational freedom, which is significant in nature and possesses several crucial characteristics that define individual freedom of thought and action (Hatch, 2007). This indicates that the individual has the freedom to choose their operational courses notwithstanding organizational constraints. This element can help managers in an organization recognize their limits when they assert control over human resources, because if they fail to respect individual liberties, they are more likely to violate individual values, which can lead to workplace conflict. Therefore, managers can easily forecast individual behavior, given the two sorts of values share the same mental content and are associated with opposing behaviors. Managers can also predict the behavior of individuals if they recognize that an individual's values define their central frameworks and that they are willing to expend significant effort to promote or defend them. Ideally, a large proportion of individuals hold at least three values extremely strongly, and these values are more likely to be skewed toward one sector. This results in significant value patterns that can significantly aid managers and leaders in companies in understanding and predicting the behavior of individuals inside a firm or organization.

The second dimension that can aid managers and leaders in understanding, predicting, and influencing organizational behavior is risk orientation. Knowledge of how people respond to risk is crucial, because behaviors connected with risk orientation are typically located in the center of a person's consciousness. Risk orientation may not be as significant as values because it can be impacted by the dominant workplace environment and the attitude of coworkers. In life, individuals are confronted with chances and obstacles, to which they react in a variety of ways (Scott, 2007). Some people see the opportunity in a project, while others perceive the challenges. Some people view obstacles as opportunities, while others use them to justify their failure. This introduces the risk orientation scale, which managers and leaders in an organization can use to measure and comprehend an individual's approach to risks (Simon, 1997).

At one end of the spectrum are people who focus their strengths and energies on identifying opportunities; these individuals are always optimistic when new ideas are presented and remain optimistic about many situations; at the other end of the spectrum are those who focus their energies on identifying obstacles and using them as excuses (Estelle, 2000). These individuals are continuously on the lookout for potential difficulties, which causes them to misinterpret circumstances, and they always assume the worst. Since no individual is identical to another in terms of behavior, different people occupy different levels on the risk orientation scale. Managers and leaders can predict and influence the behavior of different individuals in an organization by understanding the position each individual occupies on this scale. How can managers and organizational leaders use this scale to quantify individuals?

The most effective technique is the employment of the opportunities-obstacles ratio, which helps managers comprehend the motivated behavior of each individual (Hatch, 2007). Those who gravitate strongly toward the opportunities side of the risk orientation scale are more likely to assist the firm or organization in attaining its strategic goals than those who gravitate toward the obstacles side. People on the opportunities side of the risk orientation scale typically have ambitious objectives and constantly make certain to attain them (Hatch, 2007). In the event of roadblocks, they do not make excuses; rather, they devise other routes around the issue while remaining focused on their predetermined objectives. People who fall on the hurdles side of the risk orientation scale do not construct other routes around the barriers they face; they expend the majority of their energy on the same road and give up when their energy reserves are depleted. Managers and leaders in organizations can use this scale to forecast the behavior of all personnel inside their organizations, which will aid them in organizational procedures such as work assignment, promotion, and compensation.


Preferences are another element that managers can utilize to comprehend, predict, and influence human behavior within an organization. People approach their work differently, communicate in different ways, and may find certain aspects of their work more interesting than others; consequently, individuals prefer to concentrate on the aspects that interest them the most (Jones, 2008). People place a high value on their preferences, but this does not imply that preferences and values are identical. Preferences always steer and shape an individual's behavior, and they operate from the outside, unlike values, which are ingrained. Preferences are transparent and easily discernible in other individuals; thus, they are readily discernible. They are the foundation of initial impressions, although they might vary based on the circumstances that occur in various organizational settings. Using the Magerison-McCann team management wheel, managers and organizational leaders can clearly comprehend individual workplace preferences and behaviors (Hatch, 2007).

This concept highlights the different roles that people adopt when placed in a team, and these roles provide a context for understanding or predicting the behavior of an individual (Haines, 2004). In a group, one of the positions that individuals assume is that of a reporter advisor. Before acting, a reporting advisor prefers to acquire facts that will help them comprehend the problem. The second function is that of a creator-innovator, which is a person who likes and appreciates coming up with fresh ideas and creating new approaches to their work rather than relying on conventional methods to produce results. The third job that a person may prefer in the workplace is that of an explorer-promoter, which is a person who takes ideas generated by others and promotes them to other people without much concern for the specifics. A thruster-organizer is a person who enjoys making things happen and, rather than spending too much time arguing ideas, focuses on achieving results. The concluder-producer is a practical individual who takes pleasure in the specifics of any task and appreciates working with data and figures (Weick, 1979).

These individuals are more thoughtful and reserved. The controller-inspector is someone who enjoys working with plans and sees things to completion utilizing planned tactics rather than specifics. Last but not least is the upholder-maintainer, who enjoys assisting others and ensuring that roles are executed and fulfilled to high standards. There is a possibility that some employees may only fall into two or three of the aforementioned favoured groupings. This implies that managers must grasp the preferences of the workforce based on this management wheel, as it is one of the simplest ways to comprehend the behavior of persons at work (Suzanne, 1993). People may behave in vastly diverse ways, but understanding the behavior of each individual begins with an appreciation of their distinct preferences, as outlined in this management wheel. Leaders can therefore employ potent sets of approaches to manage differences in individual workplace behavior, prevent workplace conflict, inspire individuals and groups, assign responsibilities to individuals and groups, and enhance organizational performance.

Consequences and Antecedents

If managers are able to comprehend and predict individual behavior despite individual variances in the workplace, then they will also be able to affect individual behavior. There are two variables that managers can utilize to impact the working behaviors of employees (Tracy, 2000). One of the variables is the antecedent, or factors that precede the conduct. The other variable consists of antecedent factors or outcomes. The distinction between antecedents and consequences is that antecedents motivate individuals to engage in a particular behavior, but consequences serve to maintain that behavior (Hatch, 2007).

In the contemporary organizational context, managers and leaders can use goals, objectives, processes, and meetings as antecedents to affect employee behavior. The management uses these factors to convey individual expectations, and the function of an antecedent is to motivate initial or subsequent conduct. These prompts may be useful to managers because they can be used to initiate a behavior, but it is important to note that it is what follows the behavior that sustains and supports performance. This means that the most important method of influencing the behavior and performance of the workforce is through the use of consequences, as consequences create opportunities for the repetition of desirable behaviors. Any individual's behavior in an organization is a result of contingent consequences, as people act based on what occurs to them when they act, meaning that consequences drive desirable behavior to recur and bad behavior to cease.

Consequences include elements such as vocal compliments for good performance, prizes and bonuses for excellence, supervisor comments, and anything else that conveys to individuals that their efforts have been recognized.

Negative repercussions include reprimands for poor performance, demotions for unsatisfactory accomplishments, and even the revocation of incentives and gold stars awarded to exceptional employees who have slacked off (Estelle, 2000). Ignoring behavior is the poorest technique for influencing behavior since a manager cannot comprehend or affect conduct through inaction. Organizational success is contingent on constant performance, which can only be achieved by a substantial investment in consequences. This does not imply that managers should not invest in antecedents; but, an overemphasis on antecedents at the expense of consequences only results in uneven performance. The law of effect, which is one of the most reliable organizational laws, enables managers to affect behavior by means of consequences.

This law posits that any activity reinforced by a good or positive consequence will be repeated more frequently, whereas any behavior followed by a negative consequence will be less likely to repeat itself. The perspective of the recipient determines whether a consequence is unpleasant or positive, thus managers must be willing to examine circumstances from the views of the numerous persons present in their organizations. Individuals are more likely to have distinct viewpoints on various events due to the fact that they are unique and their responses cannot be identical. This implies that managers must be able to put themselves in the position of the employees they supervise and view situations through their eyes. If they fail to comprehend the perspectives of the many individuals inside their organizations, conflicts, misunderstandings, and misinterpretations can result, which can hinder relationships and impede organizational effectiveness.


In conclusion, the literature examined in this paper demonstrates that variances in individual behavior do not hinder managers and leaders from comprehending, predicting, or influencing individual behavior. Multiple models have demonstrated how simple it is for managers to comprehend, anticipate, and affect the behavior of individuals. Value systems are one of the most important behavioral variables that managers may utilize. Preferences are extremely crucial, especially when predicting conduct. The most essential variables that managers can employ to influence the conduct of individuals within their businesses are antecedents and consequences.


Estelle, M. (2000). Oxford: OUP, "Demystifying Competitive Intelligence."

Haines, S. (2004). Willey published ABCs of Organizational management in New York.

Mr. Hatch, M.J. (2006). Contemporary, symbolic, and postmodern perspectives on Organization Theory Oxford: Press of Oxford University

Jones, Isaiah (2008).

The Human Factor: Inside the Dysfunctional Intelligence Culture of the CIA. Encounter Books, New York.

HR Planning for Nonprofit Organizations, by J. Kaye, 2005.

John Wiley and Sons, New York

Miles, R. (2003). Strategy, organizational structure, and process. Stanford: University Press of Stanford

S. Robbins (2004). Organizational Behavior: Theories, Debates, and Applications. NY: Prentice Hall.

Scott, William R. (2007). Perspectives on Organizations and Organizing from Rational, Natural, and Open Systems. New Jersey: Pearson Prentice Hall

Simon, H. (1997). Administrative Behavior: A Study of Administrative Organizations' Decision-Making Processes. The London-based Free Press.

Suzanne, R. (1993). A Guide to Effective Strategic Planning for Nonprofit Agencies and Organizations. Sage Publications, Newbury Park

Tracy, B. (2000). The 100 Indestructible Laws of Business Success. Berrett: Koehler Publishers.

Weick, K. E. (1979). The Social Psychology of Organizing, Second Edition, McGraw Hill, New York.

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Supply Chain Management As A Business Controversy College Application Essay Help Online


Unquestionably, the creation of a sustainable and effective supply chain is a fundamental part of any thriving organization. This assumption appears to be even more essential when considering the phenomena of multinational businesses (MNCs) that must operate in multiple nations. It should be noted that the construction of a sustainable supply chain for such businesses comprises a highly complex combination of risks and influencing factors. Changes in the business environment on several scales, including the local economy of a country and global economic processes, have a significant impact on the supply chain of a multinational corporation. Therefore, it is evident that the effectiveness of the company's supply chain is a crucial factor in both its successes and failures.

Thus, the great importance of establishing an efficient supply chain is established. Starbucks, Amazon, Seven-Eleven, The Coca-Cola, and a number of other organizations can be used as examples to illustrate how well supply chain management tools and procedures are utilized. The purpose of this article is to provide a deeper understanding of contemporary supply chain management difficulties, challenges, and views. This objective will be accomplished through the use of scholarly literature and statistical data. This essay will focus on the following: an explanation of the idea of supply chain management (SCM) and the specific tools used in SCM, a discussion of selected firms and their approaches to implementing SCM, and an analysis of the future of SCM. The fundamental argument of the article is that efficient supply chain management supports beneficial changes in the running of businesses by offering techniques to construct a competitive infrastructure and achieve sustainability.

Overview of the Concept of Supply Chain Management

A Historical Overview of the SCM Concept

First and foremost, it is necessary to offer a historical context for a concept such as supply chain management. According to Prasetyanti and Simatupang (2015), a supply chain is comprised of all actions and facilities conducted to meet consumer demands (p. 146). Therefore, the question of effective methods for managing a supply chain is crucial. According to the study of Touboulic and Walker (2015), numerous scholars have provided numerous definitions of SCM. It is stated that the earliest conceptualizations of SCM date back to scholarly writings published in 1996. (Touboulic & Walker, 2015). However, the authors note that the framework of sustainable supply chain management, which was regarded as a highly integrated concept, was insufficiently explored in works published before to 2000. (Touboulic & Walker, 2015). Touboulic and Walker (2015) contend that the authors of the second half of the 1990s regarded the notion of SCM primarily through the lens of environmental concerns, as opposed to a comprehensive framework.

In addition, the definitions of sustainable supply chain management have become increasingly specific and comprehensive. Particular emphasis was placed on the concept of sustainability, which was developed in the context of a broader spectrum of challenges (Touboulic & Walker, 2015). Therefore, it is feasible to state that sustainable supply chain management is a relatively recent idea that is under the purview of various modern researchers who build a more thorough and perceptive approach to supply chain management.

Perspectives theoretical on the Subject

Even though this field of study is still expanding, it is feasible to establish a general definition of SCM that is well acknowledged and accepted in the current literature on the subject. According to Touboulic and Walker's (2015) definition, sustainable supply chain management is an inherent aspect of internal and external business processes, highlighting the significance of collaboration across supply chain partners. However, there are various theoretical perspectives on the most effective strategy to manage the supply chain.

Wolters (2003) provides one of the most distant definitions of sustainable supply chain management in terms of time: sustainably managed supply chains. SCM "involves issues of sustainable development to the extent that companies can be held accountable for the social and environmental impacts that arise along the supply chain" (Touboulic & Walker, 2015, p. 5). The definition by Carter and Rogers (2008) is one of the best examples of the complex and integrated nature of SCM, which is prevalent in the current literature on the subject: "the strategic, transparent integration and achievement of an organization's social, environmental, and economic goals in the systemic coordination of key inter-organizational business processes" (Touboulic & Walker, 2015, p. 6). Seuring and Muller (2008) defined sustainable SCM as being organized around "three principal dimensions of sustainable development (economic, environmental, and social aspects) in order to manage material, information, and capital flows as well as cooperation between companies along the supply chain" (Touboulic & Walker, 2015, p. 6).

In addition, it is crucial to consider the most recent definitions of supply chain management offered by Touboulic and Walker (2015). Spence and Bourlakis (2009) view SCM as the framework to study topics beyond standard metrics of technical and legal performance of the supply chain, and to build an understanding of how social and environmental benefits may be realized in addition to economic rewards (Touboulic & Walker, 2015, p. 6). The most recent definition cited by Touboulic and Walker (2015) comes from Ellram and Kirchoff (2010), who suggest that sustainable supply chain management results from stakeholder pressure on firms to incorporate "the triple bottom line of social, environmental, and economic responsibility considerations into operations and supply chain management strategies" (p. 6). Consequently, it is evident that there are different theoretical perspectives on this subject, and the concept continues to evolve. However, this study will examine a selection of the most recent scientific works on the subject in order to substantiate its hypotheses with actual evidence.

Different Supply Chain Management Strategies

It is impossible to optimize supply networks without employing scientific techniques and procedures. At various phases of the process of controlling material flows, several models that reflect particular metrics and indicators of supply chains can be adopted. Nonetheless, there is a need for an assessment tool that would permit analyzing the influence of each parameter separately and taking into account the influence of numerous parameters both at different phases of supply chain management and throughout the entire process.

Some components of the supply chain management procedure involve both well-structured and weak decision-making activities, which makes the creation of such models challenging. For instance, according to Yu, Wang, Zhong, and Huang (2016), demand forecasting methodologies and models are utilized in the initial stage (planning). There are two techniques to determining the amount of sales: the calculation of sales volume based on the end usage of their products and the enterprise's market share. According to Yu et al. (2016), sales forecasting strategies can be summarized based on expert evaluations and economic-statistical findings. These methods are utilized in a variety of fields. They comprise examining the opinions of manufacturers and consumers of products, trade and intermediary firms, retail businesses, and consulting firms regarding the potential sales volumes of the venture's products within the intended time period.

Tools, Techniques, and Methodologies for Supply Chain Management

Big Data and Data Science

The practice of big data is crucial to the supply chain management of corporate organizations and the regulation of logistical activities. According to Schoenherr and Speier-Pero (2015), data science is the process through which analysts examine vast quantities of data to detect patterns and other important facts that aid in the discovery of efficient business solutions. Schoenherr and Speier-Pero (2015) contend that utilizing big data at the level of the supply chain enables businesses to better their reaction to fluctuating demand and decrease potential hazards. In addition, big data technology employs a combination of data history, scenario planning, and risk mapping to evaluate potential issues and provides manufacturers with the ability to operate the early warning system. These benefits are significant when discussing supply chain management.

Forecasting Analytics

Modern technologies in the field of predictive analytics enable the monitoring of client behavior and the creation of personalized offers and discounts based on this information. According to Schoenherr and Speier-Pero (2015), this system is not only associated with pricing, but also with other facets of commerce. Numerous stores, in particular, successfully implement demand-predictive algorithms, inventory management, the greatest selection of products, and other benefits afforded by this strategy. With the advent of big data, the parallel processing of vast quantities of information is now feasible. Modern technologies enable the analysis of the full data volume in a reasonable amount of time, resulting in the formation of qualitative predictive models that create new opportunities for the transfer of almost all business elements (Schoenherr & Speier-Pero, 2015). Therefore, predictive analytics is an effective and essential component of supply chain management.

Customer Involvement

Modern marketing techniques permit the participation of customers in the creation of a particular sales model. When purchasers have the chance to purchase their desired products at a reduced price, the supply of shares and discounts is one sort of demand regulation for certain goods. The analysis of such a strategy, according to Sigala (2014), demonstrates that client involvement can be effective if the proper mechanisms are employed, including a sound pricing policy and the ability to affect the volume and quality of items. Customers' curiosity often drives the incorporation of new technologies into the manufacturing process, which has a favorable effect on product quality and sales. If producers consider customer feedback, demand will remain stable and supply chains will be sustainable.

Examples of the Use of SCM by Successfully Operating Companies

Example of Value Chain Model: Starbucks

This section is devoted to discussing examples of organizations who operate their supply chain effectively. The first company under consideration is Starbucks. It is included as the first aspect of this section because the company's SCM incorporates the ideas of a value chain model (Bajpai, 2015). The concept underpinning the value chain can be summed up as follows: a corporation seeks to add value to its product at every stage of production by applying a variety of actions and policies that support the original objective (Bajpai, 2015). Thus, it is reasonable to anticipate that the value chain model might be utilized to eliminate insufficient and wasteful policies in the production process, resulting in a better sustainable supply chain and market position for the organization. In the case of Starbucks, it is crucial to distinguish between the company's major and secondary operations. The first group consists of inbound and outbound logistics, operations, marketing and sales, and customer service, whereas the second category consists of infrastructure, human resource management, technology development, and procurement (Bajpai, 2015). Each of the aforementioned areas of concern is the subject of specific measures taken to raise the value of the product.

Bajpai (2015) investigates traditional business functions (operations, sourcing, distribution, and customer service strategy) as driving factors of the company’s overall success, thereby presenting an additional extremely significant perspective on the performance of Starbucks’ supply chain. As Starbucks operates in 65 countries throughout the world, operational and sourcing concerns are of the utmost importance. Lombardo (2017) thinks that the company's sourcing is one of its key strengths because Starbucks has complete control over the manufacturing process. The reduced number of middlemen in a company's supply chain activities is an additional crucial factor that supply chain managers frequently ignore (Bajpai, 2015).

Example of Amazon.com

Amazon, the online trading network that offers a wide selection of products, is yet another global behemoth that has long and successfully operated on the market. Due to the fact that the firm operates on a global scale, the formation of its supply chain must be meticulously planned so that it does not lose clients and incur large losses. According to Simpson et al. (2015), the development of novel transport methods is one of Amazon's management's most promising techniques. Representatives of the company indicated that they planned to deploy mobile air drones to transport and deliver goods to clients. In addition, Amazon lobbies for authority to transport internationally via unmanned aircraft vehicles (Simpson et al., 2015). This method is novel and has never been utilized before. Perhaps this innovation will increase demand and enhance Amazon's supply chains at the same time.

Home Improvement Retailers: Home Depot and Lowe's

Home Depot and Lowe's are the largest household product merchants in the world. Since they offer same services, they have always been rival businesses. Despite having the same activity direction, their strategic objectives for logistical labor are distinct.

This activity is a top focus for Home Depot's management, who strive diligently to improve its supply chain. According to Yu et al. (2016), over the most of its existence, the company has lagged behind its primary competitor in terms of the effectiveness of this metric. One of the company's guiding concepts was the establishment of a decentralized supply system. It indicates that Home Depot representatives bypassed intermediaries and supplied products directly to their locations. Such a strategy had apparent drawbacks, such as the irrational usage of transportation. However, a new inventive strategy advocated by the company's management necessitates a consolidated supply chain.

Current Lowe's management is less concerned with the need to modernize its supply chain. Instead, the corporation recognized customer service enhancement as one of its primary priorities. According to Yu et al. (2016), client-centered activities, such as enhancing the quality of store displays, ensuring that store stock is available and reflects the local and seasonal preferences of clients, and other methods of beginning customer interaction, are of special concern.


The Swedish IKEA Corporation, which sells household goods and furnishings, is one of the most known companies in the world. Due to the need for a solid system of product distribution, the company's management adheres to the principle of trading through branches, i.e., all products are distributed in different nations via local departments rather than from a central location. According to Gong, Jia, Brown, and Koh (2018), IKEA is characterized by its degree of vertical integration. The fundamental benefit that consumers recognize is the comparatively low cost of goods, which aids the business in maintaining demand. Such a structured supply chain enables the exclusion of potential delivery hazards and enables clients to obtain their purchased products in the shortest time possible. Additionally

Earthwear Clothiers (EWC) Company Auditing Strategy College Application Essay Help Online

Founded in 1972, Walden Farms is a market leader in the manufacture of healthful foods. The target market sector consists of individuals with diabetes, bodybuilders, and dieters. The company's goal is to develop foods that are low in calories, carbohydrates, fats, and gluten. Its objective is to "develop healthy, specialty foods that help people control calories, fat, carbohydrates, gluten, or any type of sugar without sacrificing flavor" ("About Walden Farms," 2020). In other words, the company seeks to dominate the market for healthy, low-calorie foods.

The key determinants of the company's location choice are the health consciousness of the local populace and the availability of healthy food. Portland, Irvine, and San Diego are among the six healthiest cities in the United States, according to a report (Song, 2020). Despite the fact that three other cities had a higher level for the specified criterion, the indicated sites were rated poorly for food and access (Song, 2020). Thus, the causes exhibit themselves in the local population's need for healthy food choices and the lack of availability of the products.

Table 1 displays the Walden Farms case's factor rating methodology. Health consciousness and access to nutritious foods were chosen as the two important criteria. The factor scores of 0.6 for the former and 0.4 for the latter were determined due to the notion that demand is more significant than supply. There is no good reason to create such a firm in a location where there is little demand for the product or service, and its desirability is not enhanced by a lack of availability. However, the sheer number of cities in the United States, coupled with the assumption that people always have some interest in their own well-being, means that access is also important.

Therefore, the resulting rating factors are 0.60 and 0.40, where health-consciousness is slightly more significant than healthy food accessibility. Scoring was based only on the list supplied by the source for the cities with the highest health consciousness (Song, 2020). Because the article contains a list of around one hundred cities, percentile-based grading was utilized. Although the authors awarded the highest scores to the sites with the greatest degree of accessibility, the figures have been inverted since the locations with the least availability are more attractive. Portland was ranked first out of 100 cities, giving it a score of 100, using a similar methodology. The results indicate that Portland is the most likely location for the next business development due to its high health consciousness and lack of healthy food availability.

Table 1: Factor rating technique.

No. Location Factor Rating for Portland and Irvine San Diego

Total Goals Scored Total Goals Scored

1 Concern about health 0.6 100 60 96 57.6 95 57

Access to nutritious food 0.4 95 38 98 39.2 92 36.8

Total 98 Total 96.8 Total 93.8

In terms of Location Cost-Volume (LCV) Analysis, focus will be placed on the crossover chart. It is stated that the given method employs a formula that combines fixed and variable expenses. Cost total = FC plus v(Q) ("Facility location and layout," 2020). It is necessary to estimate annual costs and output volume in order to produce an appropriate graph. In this case, the number of no-calorie ketchup will be represented by volume. Figure 1 illustrates the outcomes of the analysis.

The form of operational analysis presented is a component of cost management. The primary objective is to investigate the relationships between the financial outcomes of an economic institution and the costs and volumes of production and sales of products, goods, and services. This sort of evaluation is most useful for enterprise activity planning and forecasting. Additionally, it is utilized for pricing and choosing the next site. The “cost-volume” method is applied to the LCV analysis. When doing a factor analysis of earnings, the data from the profit-and-loss statement, in which expenses are allocated in accordance with the enterprise's strategic objectives, are utilized. These may consist of costs, commercial, management, operating, non-operating, and emergency expenses.

Figure 1.Analysis of Location Cost and Volume.

The anticipated annual output is 1,500 units, indicating that Portland will have the lowest costs. However, the transition point for the largest earnings can be noticed between 1500 and 2000, or roughly 1750. This can be considered Portland's most lucrative location, but if the volume increases, San Diego will be the most advantageous location. The values were based on expected fixed and variable costs for each location, which were mostly reliant on taxation rates in each city. In addition, the average price of Walden Farms' products is approximately $5, while the manufacturing costs are roughly $3. The provided analysis is one of the most efficient methods for completing the first step, which includes cost measurement and analysis. It is a component of enterprise cost management that studies the effect of the structure of costs and revenues on the profitability of products or divisions. It enables the determination of the optimal relationship between variable and fixed costs, product price, and production volume through modeling.


About Walden Farms (2020). Web.

Situating and arranging a facility (2020). Web.

Song, J. (2020). The American cities that are the most health-conscious. Web.

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Contents Listing

Introduction Concepts' Implementation Program Recommendations Components References


Strategic innovations are implemented by businesses to ensure economic viability on the market. As noted by academics, entrepreneurs play a crucial role in economic growth (Phillips et al., 2015). Innovative activity is a sort of work that involves the creation, implementation, and utilization of a novel method or program. This involves searching for fresh ideas, planning a project, developing a business strategy, launching the project, managing it, and promoting a new product or service. Innovation is also the introduction of new types of company and new financial tools. Because the enterprise's efficiency improves, successful innovation enhances performance and generates greater revenues. For instance, financial expenses may decline while incomes rise. Innovation may also result in a rise in demand as a result of the introduction of new or extra products or services that attract new customers. Additionally, new programs can attract new employees, thereby increasing the number of educated professionals on staff. As a result, it is reasonable to expect that a business that embraces innovation surpasses its rivals and becomes the market leader.

There is no question that not every innovation can yield favorable results. Several researchers concur that introducing new programs is associated with greater risk-taking (Morris, 2015). In this instance, the evaluation of innovation risk and response strategies plays a significant role. This case is obviously important to entrepreneurship, as it outlines in full a new program that assists participants in carrying out their company plans. The fact that the company concentrates on online marketing is also advantageous, as “the rapid increase in the number of Internet users allows enterprises in this industry to generate a profit” (Drobyazko et al., 2019, p. 6). Since its founding, Adobe has developed a variety of innovative business solutions that have allowed it to remain competitive and prosperous.

Concepts' Implementation

Globalization is removing geographical boundaries and barriers between markets that once impeded economic growth. In light of this, the ability of businesses to generate new ideas from their employees, partners, customers, suppliers, and other stakeholders is no longer a fad. In fact, innovations are becoming the primary impetus for business development, enhancing their efficacy and value. In addition to other variables, financial backing is a crucial requirement for the growth of creative endeavors. Some managers view innovation as the key to accelerating company change, allowing them to keep up with the economy and business environment (Lee et al., 2016). Experts in strategy are moving beyond traditional product categories to be the first to propose innovation in business process organization, distribution, value chain, business models, and even specialized management areas.

There are numerous obstacles that can impede the implementation of innovative business concepts. This Kickbox program enables members to seize opportunities to grow their businesses. The concept behind Kickbox is straightforward, innovative, and proactive. People at Adobe can be irritated by bureaucracy that prevents the next product from generating profit. By giving red Kickboxes to its employees, the company provides everyone with an equal opportunity to develop and evaluate a product. Therefore, the program indicates that if employees can demonstrate that their proposal will yield great outcomes, they can expect on major investments from upper management.

These red containers are effective tools for encouraging the creative process. Before adopting it, Mark Randall attempted to determine what prevents people from generating more innovative ideas that may transform the organization. The most frequently cited reasons were a lack of financing, bureaucracy, and the necessity to detail on paper where each dollar was spent. This indicates that there are individuals that require assistance in order to implement their company plans. Support for innovative entrepreneurship ought to assist participants in overcoming the financial and organizational obstacles of the firm. According to the study, participants were instructed to "use the tools within the red box to collect information, refine their plans, and move as quickly as possible to create a mockup or prototype" (Dann, 2015, p. 7). In other words, it can assist them in achieving their most audacious business goals.

Fundraising for a project is a crucial step for any entrepreneur starting a new firm. The study by Davari and Farokhmanesh (2017) indicates that “many small enterprises and entrepreneurs require greater financial and non-financial support in the early stages to prevent insolvency.” (p. 437). This remark is supported by Yadav and Goyal (2015), who note that entrepreneurs “often suffer a resource gap while commercializing their discoveries, and we find that external variables can play a facilitating role in addressing this gap (p. 5). This is a clear advantage of the Kickbox program, since it enables the collection and investment of funds for a new venture.

The second significant benefit of this technique is that the creative flow can generate novel approaches to the situation. This year emphasized the need for innovative solutions in the midst of the pandemic, which has caused several issues for a variety of industries. However, a crisis can present an opportunity to implement ideas that have been put off for a long time. For instance, a business can initiate the implementation of innovations in sales and customer service, as well as actively experiment with marketing techniques. The Kickbox initiative gives employees the ability to conduct their own business research, test their own ideas, and develop application scenarios for their own innovations.

Nonetheless, there is a significant drawback to this program that must be considered. The quality of entrepreneurs and innovative activity should be commensurate with "the interest of program stakeholders, audiences, and governments" (Maritz & Donovan, 2015, p. 74). Consequently, not every initiative or business idea can receive the same amount of tools and support. An additional disadvantage is that participants must commit a considerable amount of time and effort to investigate their ideas. Randall began to really consider altering the program when he reached this phase. This factor is seldom a drawback, however, because a thorough examination of new ideas and projects enables entrepreneurs to examine them and devise a number of implementation strategies. Moreover, a thorough analysis of the concept might assist businesspeople in reducing the likelihood of future errors.

The Program's Components

Employees can attend a two-day course that will offer them with important new skills linked to customer service and engagement assessment. The recipient is then given a red box containing instructions on when and how to utilize the contents. In addition, it includes a ballpoint pen, two packs of stickers, a timer, an idea journal, a chocolate bar, and a $10 Starbucks gift card. Most crucially, the box contains $1,000 in innovation funds that employees may use without having to report spending to their supervisor. The kit includes everything a new entrepreneur would require. Randall's belief that people can exceed all expectations when provided with assistance and trust is the driving force behind this effort. Therefore, employees are permitted to serve as the general directors of their ideas and monetize them.

Motivational value is an additional significant aspect of Kickbox. In addition to granting autonomy, the freedom to think freely, and financial assistance, it encourages the pursuit of ideas. Despite the fact that the procedure is totally self-controlled, the box also contains check lists. They assist workers in advancing the development of their products. After finishing all stages, the innovator receives an additional incentive, which provides motivational value. It contains a blue box that aids in progressing down the path of developing a new business concept. Consequently, employees are motivated to continue thinking, which enhances the inventive and entrepreneurial culture of the organization.

In addition to being dependent on the skills of the leader, the success of the implementation of any innovation in organizational management is a crucial element. The program's outcome is significantly affected by the ability to coordinate and support the entire process from inception to conclusion. The fact that the Kickbox program eliminated the necessity to declare expenses may have unintended consequences if the employee chose to use the financial support for an other purpose.


While trusting people may seem like a wonderful method to develop rapport between a manager and an employee, it may also be abused. In order to verify that the money is spent on business tasks, it would be advantageous to implement a simple report system. Thus, there would be no dispute that the organizational capabilities of Adobe Systems are sufficient. In addition, it is important to note that, despite the fact that numerous application and product ideas were spawned by the Kickbox initiative, Adobe did not launch any formal projects. The corporation accepted a number of concepts that were unpopular with customers. As anticipated, a number of novel and inventive ideas have not gone viral. One participant remarked, “Finding a sufficient supply of creatives was not too difficult, but it was more difficult to find sufficient demand among consumers.” (Dann, 2020, p. 9). Supporting a creative flow of ideas may appear to be a fantastic concept for the growth of the company, but it would be tough to select one project above others. In addition to obtaining Adobe's approval, it is essential to attract new clients, which can be challenging. The fact that no Kickbox projects gained additional funding and recognition indicates that the program's efficacy has yet to be established. This is due to the amount of money invested by the organization to provide these boxes to entrepreneurs. It is therefore unlikely that the Kickbox experiment was successful.

Numerous business owners recognize the importance of startups to the economy and job market in the present day. Mark Randall feels that trusting others is the key to invention; hence, he designed this program to assist his colleagues in this area. In conclusion, it appears that this program is unquestionably novel. However, it would be difficult to judge its performance until Adobe began to develop commercially successful products based on the ideas of Kickbox participants. This program's creators and administrators are still faced with the difficulties of controlling the cash and selecting the finest initiatives. Adobe's organizational capabilities still require improvement until then. Even though they are delighted with the early results, Randall and Wadhwani are both considering making modifications.

Nonetheless, it is apparent that the founders of the Kickbox initiative were able to provide an excellent opportunity for their staff to experiment with their own concepts. It boosts the innovative entrepreneurial environment within the organization and the flow of ideas, which is crucial for a company that want to remain competitive in the market. Soon, information technologies and artificial intelligence will have a profound impact on the economy and the globe as a whole. Today, it has become apparent that organizations that provide financial investments and help startups are establishing the groundwork for a new economy. The fact that Mark Randall chose to execute this assistance initiative illustrates that the company recognizes the apparent need for new ideas. Despite the fact that the Kickbox project still need refining, it laid a solid foundation for creativity.


Dann, J. B., "Kickboxing," Adobe Systems, 2015. Entrepreneurship studies at the Lloyd Greif Center.

Davari, A., & Farokhmanesh, T. (2017). Opportunity to establish a business is influenced by entrepreneurship policies. Management Science Letters, 7(9), 431-438.

Drobyazko, S., Hryhoruk, I., Pavlova, H., Volchanska, L., & Sergiychuk, S. (2019). Entrepreneurial innovation paradigm for the telecoms sector. Journal of Entrepreneurship Education, 22(2), pages 1 to 6.

Lee, C., Hallak, R., & Sardeshmukh, S. R. (2016). A higher-order structural model of innovation, entrepreneurship, and restaurant performance. Tourism Management, 53, 215-228.

Maritz, A., & Donovan, J. (2015). Education and training in entrepreneurship and innovation

M. H. Morris (2015). Entrepreneurial vigor, Wiley Encyclopedia of Management, pp. 1-5.

Phillips, W.; Lee, H.; Ghobadian, A.; O'Regan, N.; and James, P.; (2015). A rigorous review of social innovation and social enterprise. Group & Organization Management, 40(3), pages 428 to 461

Yadav, V., & Goyal, P. (2015). User innovation and entrepreneurship: rural India case studies. Journal of Innovation and Entrepreneurship, 4(1):5.

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Chocolate Almond Granola Cereal: Evaluating The Product College Application Essay Help Online

Table of Contents
Population-Specific Ingredients Changing Ingredients Frequency of Ingestion Citations

Understanding a product's nutritional content and effect on an individual's health condition is essential for the well-being of the community and the successful promotion of a new brand. Therefore, companies such as Chocolate Almond Granola Cereal will have to reconsider their strategy to maintaining nutritional value and making the product appealing to the target market by reducing the product's emphasis on sugar and drawing parents' attention to a more significant issue (Ichinose & Liu, 2017). By considering the current components of the Chocolate Almond Granola Cereal as one of the most successful and easily recognizable brats, one will simultaneously introduce solutions to the current situation observed in the target company and improve the situation by revisiting the ratio of the products used to produce the oatmeal.

Target Audience

Cereal manufacturers typically see children as their primary target demographic, mostly due to the food's components and the conventional marketing strategy selected to promote it. Due to the fact that the majority of cereals are marketed as a healthy breakfast alternative and contain a sweet coating, such as sugar glaze, cereals are often marketed to youngsters. However, the cereal in question, a chocolate oatmeal granola, will be marketed as an alternative for individuals of all ages. Thus, the company will broaden its possible customer base and showcase the product in a manner that will increase its popularity (Fayet-Moore et al., 2017). In addition, appealing to a greater number of customers will assist the organization in transforming its image into a more universal one, making it easier for the business to foster client loyalty. Once the company's product is no longer perceived as a breakfast for youngsters, adults will be much more likely to buy it.

It should be noted that the product's present brand image appears to be very impartial. It is both an advantage and a disadvantage that the Chocolate Almond Granola Cereal does not contain any age-specific identification markers. On the one hand, the corporation does not arbitrarily restrict the spectrum of people to whom it can advertise the product, which is undeniably advantageous (Clifford, 2020). On the other hand, the product is nearly devoid of personality, which will likely make it more difficult to promote. Therefore, it is recommended to concentrate on building a brand image advertisement with a message that will help target consumers relate to the product better.


The inclusion of almonds as a primary component alongside chocolate is anticipated to distinguish the granola cereal in question from other brands. Almonds are, alongside oatmeal, the most beneficial component of the cereal in question from a nutritional standpoint. Although the product's nutritional content is slightly lowered by the presence of sugar, almonds and oats make up for this deficiency (Dahiya, 2020). In addition, when discussing the sugar content, it is important to note that Chocolate Almond Granola Cereal includes a negligible quantity of sugar. Specifically, the cereal's 15 grams of sugar per two-thirds cup makes it a lesser concern compared to other companies that add sugar liberally to their products.

However, it is important to keep in mind that the aforementioned 15 grams per 2/3 cup represents sugar as one of the ingredients in the cereal's formulation. Less information is supplied regarding the other methods via which sugar is added to this cereal. Given the existence of chocolate in the cereal and the fact that the chocolate in question is not sugar-free, it is reasonable to assume that the indicated ingredient contributes to the product's increased sugar content (Feiring, 2019). Therefore, the nutritional value of Chocolate Almond Granola Cereal may appear more complex than the firm intends to communicate to its target market.

Herein lays Chocolate Almond Granola Cereal's biggest flaw. To effectively target its audience and guarantee that its health needs are satisfied, the company must be completely transparent with its customers. In response, the increase in transparency will necessitate releasing the ingredients of the present recipe to the broader public and being completely forthright about the sugar content of the product. The later piece of informational content contains the details that will disappoint the intended audience. Due to the complexity of the situation, the company's reluctance is therefore quite natural and easy to sympathize with. Nonetheless, the company's emphasis on honesty and openness will enable it to retain existing customers and perhaps draw the interest and curiosity of new ones (Krakovsky, 2010). Thus, the company will be able to assure that the most recent addition to the bran range will meet the eHealth-related needs of the target population, or at the very least, will not negatively impact their metabolism.

Changing Ingredients

Reconsidering the contents present in Chocolate Almond Granola Cereal, the increasing sugar content should be highlighted as one of the brand's fundamental flaws. Granola cereals already have a negative image due to their questionable ingredient selection and emphasis on flavor above nutritious content. Therefore, the open declaration of the inclusion of not only chocolate but also almonds, which are also rather high in fats, is likely to cause purchasers to face health problems, especially weight gain, while consuming the product on a regular basis. Therefore, reducing the amount of sugar in the cereal should be the first step in modernizing and enhancing it.

Given that the entire brand image of the product, beginning with its label, is focused on the promotion of its least healthful ingredient, particularly chocolate, the described change may appear almost unachievable. However, by modifying the marketing strategy to replace the existing chocolate with a much darker variety containing less sugar, the nutritional value of the product can be increased. The transition from one set of ingredients to another will be easy following the implementation of an appropriate marketing strategy with an emphasis on sound nutrition. Regarding the second ingredient, almonds, one should emphasize their great nutritional content and the significance of their inclusion in the cereal. In fact, new study indicates that almonds lessen the danger of acquiring cardiovascular disease; hence, the described product is anticipated to give consumers with additional health enhancement possibilities (Farag et al., 2020). In addition, it has been demonstrated that almonds reduce diabetes and weight gain (Aiken, 2014). Therefore, the indicated cereal component should not be altered.

Repetition of Consumption

Although there is a strong marketing narrative about the necessity of cereal consumption as the foundation for building healthy eating habits, it must be acknowledged that most cereal makers make these claims without any evidence. Cereals should not be viewed as a food worth ingesting regularly, let alone often, due to the excessive addition of sugar and other ingredients that contribute little to no substantial health benefits to customers.

However, the scenario alters slightly when granola-based cereals are introduced. Granola gives a considerable energy boost because to its carbohydrate content, despite its reputation as a harmful product due to its high sugar content. (Barry, 2017). In addition, granola contains healthy and beneficial ingredients such as nuts, fruit, and other additions, thus it should be viewed as a viable dietary alternative.

Regarding the analyzed brand, the inclusion of chocolate makes granola somewhat healthier since it keeps the key nutritional content of dark chocolate. Therefore, once per week is the optimal consumption frequency for the product in issue. Recent studies demonstrate the good impact of chocolate on consumer well-being; therefore, it is recommended that the specified product be incorporated into people's regular diets (Coyle et al., 2020). Due to the inclusion of dark chocolate in the cereal, the bad effects of sugar and the favorable effects of chocolate will be balanced. In addition, the presence of oats will repair the digestive functions of those who consume it.


Aiken, K. (2014). Who actually creates the food sold at Trader Joe's? (Taste test). Huffington Post. Web.

Barry, Robert B. (2017). Business lessons from L. l. bean, Trader Joe's, Costco, and other world-class retailers for competing in difficult times. Financial Times Prentice.

Clifford, C. (2020). From its friendly employees to their $5 wine, Trader Joe's transforms customers into fans. CNBC. Web.

D. H. Coyle, J. H. Wu, G. L. Di Tanna, M. Shahid, F. Taylor, B. Neal, and H. Trevena (2020). Prospective investigation of the impact of a supermarket-based intervention on the nutritional quality of private-label goods. Nutrients, 12(6), p. 1692.

Dahiya, S. (2020). Evaluation of the flavor and nutritional value of chapattis made from composite flours of coarse cereals and tulsi. Journal of Pharmacognosy and Phytochemistry, volume nine, number five, pages 1541-1546.

Farag, M. A., Xiao, J., & Abdallah, H. M. (2020). A detailed study of the nutritional worth of barley cereal and improved potential for its processing as a food with added value. Critical Reviews in Food Science and Nutrition, volume 1, number 1, pages 1-13.

F. Fayet-Moore, A. McConnell, K. Tuck, and P. Fayet-Moore Petocz (2017). The influence of breakfast and breakfast cereal selection on nutritional and sugar intakes and anthropometric measurements in a nationally representative sample of Australian children and adolescents. Nutrients, 9(10), p. 1045.

C. Feiring (2019). Trader Joe's: Keeping things straightforward in the digital era. Digital Marketing. Web.

Ichinose, T., & Liu, K. (2017). Modeling Chinese Domestic Cereal Flow as a Result of Inventory and Economic Gradient. Int’l J. Soc. Sci. Stud., 5, p. 43.

Krakovsky, M. (2010). Where Less Is More: Trader Joe’s PsychologyToday. Web.

[supanova question]

Table of Contents

Population-Specific Ingredients Changing Components Frequency of Ingestion Citations

Understanding a product's nutritional content and effect on an individual's health condition is essential for the well-being of the community and the successful promotion of a new brand. Therefore, companies such as Chocolate Almond Granola Cereal will have to reconsider their strategy to maintaining nutritional value and making the product appealing to the target market by reducing the product's emphasis on sugar and drawing parents' attention to a more significant issue (Ichinose & Liu, 2017). By considering the current components of the Chocolate Almond Granola Cereal as one of the most successful and easily recognizable brats, one will simultaneously introduce solutions to the current situation observed in the target company and improve the situation by revisiting the ratio of the products used to produce the oatmeal.

Target Audience

Cereal manufacturers typically see children as their primary target demographic, mostly due to the food's components and the conventional marketing strategy selected to promote it. Due to the fact that the majority of cereals are marketed as a healthy breakfast alternative and contain a sweet coating, such as sugar glaze, cereals are often marketed to youngsters. However, the cereal in question, a chocolate oatmeal granola, will be marketed as an alternative for individuals of all ages. Thus, the company will broaden its possible customer base and showcase the product in a manner that will increase its popularity (Fayet-Moore et al., 2017). In addition, appealing to a greater number of customers will assist the organization in transforming its image into a more universal one, making it easier for the business to foster client loyalty. Once the company's product is no longer perceived as a breakfast for youngsters, adults will be much more likely to buy it.

It should be noted that the product's present brand image appears to be very impartial. It is both an advantage and a disadvantage that the Chocolate Almond Granola Cereal does not contain any age-specific identification markers. On the one hand, the corporation does not arbitrarily restrict the spectrum of people to whom it can advertise the product, which is undeniably advantageous (Clifford, 2020). On the other hand, the product is nearly devoid of personality, which will likely make it more difficult to promote. Therefore, it is recommended to concentrate on building a brand image advertisement with a message that will help target consumers relate to the product better.


The inclusion of almonds as a primary component alongside chocolate is anticipated to distinguish the granola cereal in question from other brands. Almonds are, alongside oatmeal, the most beneficial component of the cereal in question from a nutritional standpoint. Although the product's nutritional content is slightly lowered by the presence of sugar, almonds and oats make up for this deficiency (Dahiya, 2020). In addition, when discussing the sugar content, it is important to note that Chocolate Almond Granola Cereal includes a negligible quantity of sugar. Specifically, the cereal's 15 grams of sugar per two-thirds cup makes it a lesser concern compared to other companies that add sugar liberally to their products.

However, it is important to keep in mind that the aforementioned 15 grams per 2/3 cup represents sugar as one of the ingredients in the cereal's formulation. Less information is supplied regarding the other methods via which sugar is added to this cereal. Given the existence of chocolate in the cereal and the fact that the chocolate in question is not sugar-free, it is reasonable to assume that the indicated ingredient contributes to the product's increased sugar content (Feiring, 2019). Therefore, the nutritional value of Chocolate Almond Granola Cereal may appear more complex than the firm intends to communicate to its target market.

Herein lays Chocolate Almond Granola Cereal's biggest flaw. To effectively target its audience and guarantee that its health needs are satisfied, the company must be completely transparent with its customers. In response, the increase in transparency will necessitate releasing the ingredients of the present recipe to the broader public and being completely forthright about the sugar content of the product. The later piece of informational content contains the details that will disappoint the intended audience. Due to the complexity of the situation, the company's reluctance is therefore quite natural and easy to sympathize with. Nonetheless, the company's emphasis on honesty and openness will enable it to retain existing customers and perhaps draw the interest and curiosity of new ones (Krakovsky, 2010). Thus, the company will be able to assure that the most recent addition to the bran range will meet the eHealth-related needs of the target population, or at the very least, will not negatively impact their metabolism.

Changing Components

Reconsidering the contents present in Chocolate Almond Granola Cereal, the increasing sugar content should be highlighted as one of the brand's fundamental flaws. Granola cereals already have a negative image due to their questionable ingredient selection and emphasis on flavor above nutritious content. Therefore, the open declaration of the inclusion of not only chocolate but also almonds, which are also rather high in fats, is likely to cause purchasers to face health problems, especially weight gain, while consuming the product on a regular basis. Therefore, reducing the amount of sugar in the cereal should be the first step in modernizing and enhancing it.

Given that the entire brand image of the product, beginning with its label, is focused on the promotion of its least healthful ingredient, particularly chocolate, the described change may appear almost unachievable. However, by modifying the marketing strategy to replace the existing chocolate with a much darker variety containing less sugar, the nutritional value of the product can be increased. The transition from one set of ingredients to another will be easy following the implementation of an appropriate marketing strategy with an emphasis on sound nutrition. Regarding the second ingredient, almonds, one should emphasize their great nutritional content and the significance of their inclusion in the cereal. In fact, new study indicates that almonds lessen the danger of acquiring cardiovascular disease; hence, the described product is anticipated to give consumers with additional health enhancement possibilities (Farag et al., 2020). In addition, it has been demonstrated that almonds reduce diabetes and weight gain (Aiken, 2014). Therefore, the indicated cereal component should not be altered.

Repetition of Consumption

Although there is a strong marketing narrative about the necessity of cereal consumption as the foundation for building healthy eating habits, it must be acknowledged that most cereal makers make these claims without any evidence. Cereals should not be viewed as a food worth ingesting regularly, let alone often, due to the excessive addition of sugar and other ingredients that contribute little to no substantial health benefits to customers.

However, the scenario alters slightly when granola-based cereals are introduced. Granola gives a considerable energy boost because to its carbohydrate content, despite its reputation as a harmful product due to its high sugar content. (Barry, 2017). In addition, granola contains healthy and beneficial ingredients such as nuts, fruit, and other additions, thus it should be viewed as a viable dietary alternative.

Regarding the analyzed brand, the inclusion of chocolate makes granola somewhat healthier since it keeps the key nutritional content of dark chocolate. Therefore, once per week is the optimal consumption frequency for the product in issue. Recent studies demonstrate the good impact of chocolate on consumer well-being; therefore, it is recommended that the specified product be incorporated into people's regular diets (Coyle et al., 2020). Due to the inclusion of dark chocolate in the cereal, the bad effects of sugar and the favorable effects of chocolate will be balanced. In addition, the presence of oats will repair the digestive functions of those who consume it.


Aiken, K. (2014). Who actually creates the food sold at Trader Joe's? (Taste test). Huffington Post. Web.

Barry, Robert B. (2017). Business lessons from L. l. bean, Trader Joe's, Costco, and other world-class retailers for competing in difficult times. Financial Times Prentice.

Clifford, C. (2020). From its friendly employees to their $5 wine, Trader Joe's transforms customers into fans. CNBC. Web.

D. H. Coyle, J. H. Wu, G. L. Di Tanna, M. Shahid, F. Taylor, B. Neal, and H. Trevena (2020). Prospective investigation of the impact of a supermarket-based intervention on the nutritional quality of private-label goods. Nutrients, 12(6), p. 1692.

Dahiya, S. (2020). Evaluation of the flavor and nutritional value of chapattis made from composite flours of coarse cereals and tulsi. Journal of Pharmacognosy and Phytochemistry, volume nine, number five, pages 1541-1546.

Farag, M. A., Xiao, J., & Abdallah, H. M. (2020). A detailed study of the nutritional worth of barley cereal and improved potential for its processing as a food with added value. Critical Reviews in Food Science and Nutrition, volume 1, number 1, pages 1-13.

F. Fayet-Moore, A. McConnell, K. Tuck, and P. Fayet-Moore Petocz (2017). The influence of breakfast and breakfast cereal selection on nutritional and sugar intakes and anthropometric measurements in a nationally representative sample of Australian children and adolescents. Nutrients, 9(10), p. 1045.

C. Feiring (2019). Trader Joe’s: Keeping it simple in the digital age. Digital Marketing. Web.

Ichinose, T., & Liu, K. (2017). Modeling Chinese Domestic Cereal Flow as a Result of Inventory and Economic Gradient. Int’l J. Soc. Sci. Stud., 5, p. 43.

Krakovsky, M. (2010). Where Less Is More: Trader Joe’s PsychologyToday. Web.

[supanova question]

HighChem Company’s Work-Life Balance Policy College Application Essay Help Online

Executive Synopsis

HighChem is a corporation engaged in the production of pharmaceuticals. Although it is headquartered in Texas, its products are distributed globally. The business has witnessed substantial expansion during the past two decades. It has, however, been experiencing a significant migration of its staff to rival companies. The majority of individuals who leave enroll in postsecondary institutions of higher education to advance their careers. Others are just interested in part-time employment. HighChem's work environment is characterized by inconsistent hours, heavy workloads, and lengthy order backlogs, prompting management to return staff from their leaves and time off. It is impossible for the company's employees to improve their careers. This paper advocates, based on the nature of HighChem's work environment, the adoption of WLB policies that allow employees to improve their careers as part of a professional management program, which can also increase their retention rates.


The nature of work at HighChem is unpredictable. Depending on order deadlines, employees are frequently expected to work overtime and may even be called back to the office during their leave or spare time. In certain circumstances, the workload must be raised in order to satisfy order deadlines. From the perspective of human resource management, increasing the workload indicates that employees who remain after their coworkers have left are likely to be disengaged owing to the unfairly increased obligations. This condition may generate imbalances between employees' outside lives, such as time to improve their careers, and the job itself.

Due to the work-life imbalance of the surviving employees, DiMeglio and Piatek (2010) conclude that a single attrition has the potential to result in many attritions. The only practical solution to this self-replicating problem is to seek employee retention measures. The desire to retain personnel inside a company encourages management researchers to investigate numerous ideas that can serve as a guide for achieving this objective (Revels & Morrism, 2012). Some of these methods include developing motivation, coaching, and even choosing a work-life balance for employees. It is strongly recommended that HighChem seek out measures to improve work-life balance, as doing so may increase work motivation and job satisfaction, hence reducing turnover intentions and/or actual turnover due to a lack of time to participate in career development and progress.

The corporation should invest $1,000,000 in the hiring of more personnel. This amount corresponds to 40 percent of the cost of managing current employees and conducting employee training and development initiatives. This increase will allow current employees to devote more time to other life priorities, such as self-career development. It will also prevent disputes between HighChem and individuals' private life. The objective is to promote work-life balance to encourage individuals to engage in self-career development.

Justification in broad strokes

Small, medium, and big firms place a significant emphasis on attracting and maintaining outstanding people. Retaining personnel determines a company's competitive edge through higher productivity and customer relationship management. Employee turnover raises the expense of recruiting and training new workers to replace the voids left by departing workers. In their study on employee turnover, Cegarra-Leiva, Sanchez-Vidal, and Cegarra-Navaro (2012) argue that firms seeking to leverage cost competitiveness as a success strategy should manage the turnover process proactively. Considering the detrimental effects of excessive staff turnover, many businesses, like HighChem, seek to increase employee retention rates.

Work-life balance is a strategy for boosting employee retention (Hayman, 2009; Lockwood, 2010). The recommendation to change organizational policies to promote work-life balance as a program for ensuring career management at a HighChem is justified by the fact that career management is a self-monitored, lifelong process of planning one's career by establishing and setting specific goals and developing strategies for achieving them. This objective cannot be achieved if HighChem's job conflicts with its workers' personal life to the extent that they are unable to engage in self-career development.

The inference is that individuals do not acquire new skills and information through continued schooling. Due to the unpredictability of the nature of the work at HighChem, employees are compelled to postpone their personal career growth goals and ambitions at the expense of their overburdened workload. Investment in training and development as a means of preparing personnel for promotions to higher positions promotes upward career mobility (Lewis & Heckman, 2006; McCauley & Wakefield, 2006). This strategy will result in high levels of employee engagement and work satisfaction. The result is an increase in retention rate.

Kramar and Syed (2012) investigated Work-Life-Balance (WLB) by conducting interviews with Japanese, South African, and Indian people. The new economy emphasizes the emergence of work intensification as a global trend. Therefore, working long hours is indicative of employee dedication to an organization. For instance, one of the South African participants advised Lewis and Heckman (2006) that working long hours effectively contributed to organizational differentiation. According to the researchers, a management consultant in India stated that working long hours "had become so ingrained, particularly in the new economy where people are required to work hard and literally sacrifice their personal lives" (Kramar & Syed, 2012, p.388). This scenario generates an individual-life conflict comparable to that encountered at HighChem. The conflict limits professional advancement.


Origins of the Problem

In order to comprehend the company's history and current position, this study solicited the opinions of numerous employees who have direct knowledge of the challenges the company has been facing. Since participation was voluntary, however, workers were required to complete a consent form (see Appendix 1). Consequently, this part describes the company based on the responses of all respondents.

HighChem has been manufacturing medicinal goods for more than two decades. The company has expanded from employing 30 people at its inception to employing more than 1000 individuals. This progress has occurred as a result of the company's transition from a Texas-only medium-sized business to a corporation that can accept orders from all over the world. Its operational model is centered on placing orders first and then manufacturing to satisfy order deadlines. Due to the increasing demand for the company's products, there are typically long lines of orders awaiting fulfillment, despite the demands of customers for timely delivery. Increasing the number of employees and/or boosting the company's capacity are two methods for addressing lines expeditiously. During its expansion, HighChem has investigated these two opportunities. However, it acknowledges that all company operations must be profitable. Therefore, it prioritizes minimizing its operational expenses.

HighChem only manufactures a handful of items. Therefore, different work units are repetitious so that personnel do not need to spend time becoming accustomed to new activities. When employees become accustomed to performing repetitive tasks, they no longer need to "think hard" about their actions. However, after one year of working in the same position, the company has observed a decline in output to the extent that some employees seek employment chances with other organizations. Due to the repetitious nature of the work units at HighChem, the company does not invest in training and development unless new technologies are implemented. Individuals that obtain promotions are those with extensive knowledge of the company's operations. This promotion typically affects individuals who have been with the organization for more than eight years and/or who have demonstrated a high level of proficiency with the company's operations.

A recent internal poll reveals that, with the exception of workers in the management sector, the company retains approximately 40% of male employees and 10% of female employees after two years. Approximately 70% of people who leave an organization enroll in postsecondary education before pursuing employment with rival organizations. Nearly 70% of departing female HighChem employees find part-time employment with other companies. This situation has made the company's human resource management curious about whether employees prefer part-time versus full-time employment. Currently, the corporation is getting increasingly concerned about its growing budget for selection and recruitment. It necessitates $500,000 per month.

Symptoms versus Root Causes

The section on the issue's background illustrates the symptoms of a failing organization due to human resource management issues. High personnel turnover, the rising cost of selection and recruitment, customer complaints about delays, and sub-optimal employee performance are indicators of impending operational challenges in the business (By, 2005). This situation requires immediate intervention. Variables have changed, resulting in the onset of the symptoms. There is an increase in the number of employees who quit to pursue more education in order to obtain a higher-paying employment with a competitor. Others enroll in only part-time positions, despite their initial preference for full-time employment at HighChem. The incapacity of personnel to execute a given task in a timely manner is a third crucial variable.

Financial Implications

HighChem will incur expenses as a result of the advice to promote career development based on WLB. The organization's annual pay bill is currently $15 million. Increasing the number of employees by 40% results in a $6 million increase in the wage bill. This rise is similar to the annual recruitment costs to replace departing staff. However, the expenditure is justified by the benefits acquired over time. Given that the budget for Human Resources will increase by $1 million, the total cost associated with the recommendation will be $7 million.

Compared to the current condition, there is a one million dollar cost difference. This price cannot be compared to the annual benefits of higher staff productivity and motivation. Good customer reputation enables the company to charge higher rates for its products, particularly in situations where urgent orders must be fulfilled by highly motivated and knowledgeable personnel who will have time to focus on their career growth.

Legal Implications

The recommendation is consistent with labor relations best practices. Employees are entitled to yearly leave and vacation time (Hausknecht, Hiller, & Vance, 2008). Consequently, the advice strengthens HighChem's compliance with employee rights as stipulated by law. This assertion implies that the adoption of the proposal poses no legal risk.

Implications of Relationships

Employees support the expansion of WLB at HighChem as a means of fostering professional advancement. Due to the increasing workload and inconsistent shift schedules, employees do have disputes with their employers. This circumstance may explain why individuals also choose employment in businesses with more consistent work schedules and flexible work hours, such as part-time positions. Employees, particularly those who are interested in advancing their careers, may favor aligning HighChem's rules with this methodology. The result is higher retention of these employees.

The recommendation emphasizes an organizational transformation. The modification can facilitate worker involvement. This impact of change is supported by Ledez (2008), who states, "Change is important in organizations because it enables employees to acquire new skills, explore new opportunities, and exercise their creativity in ways that ultimately benefit the organization through new ideas and increased commitment" (p.113).

Therefore, change is all about boosting employee performance by implementing procedures that enable them to produce better results. In the instance of HighChem, the proposed recommendation ensures career progression and, thus, high job mobility. The public can respond to the new policy by applying for more jobs at HighChem. The only relational issue arises among those who currently have high-ranking positions, since they may perceive employees who advance in their careers as a danger to others with less education. Supervisors and managers are therefore expected to apply the new policy, practice, and procedures with reluctance.

Other Business Procedures

Other businesses believe that rigid work cultures can raise the likelihood of people leaving a company voluntarily. For instance, Google believes that shifting labor demographics influence people's propensity for particular occupations. According to Moen, Kelly, and Huang (2008), a 2005 poll conducted by Merrill found that around 20% of all baby boomers engage in leisure employment. Nearly 45 percent of all baby boomers favored occupations that allowed them leisure time. This research shows that the workforce of the future prioritizes firms that provide flexible employment so that employees can manage other equally essential elements of their lives, such as career development.

In a 2007 PEW study, fifty percent of all working mothers affirmed their unwavering dedication to domestic duties while still contributing to the family's income (Harzing & Pinnington, 2011). Similar to the situation at HighChem, these women prefer part-time employment. An employee poll done within the business, as described in the firm's history, suggests that employees have a poor opinion of a work environment that does not allow them time to improve their careers and/or complete other personal chores. This conclusion is supported by the huge number of employees who pursue higher education possibilities before returning to the labor market at higher-level positions, in contrast to the scenario at HighChem, where a substantial percentage of female employees seek part-time employment elsewhere.


In either the pre-crisis or post-crisis stage, organizations might confront a situation that necessitates change. Although there has been no crisis at HighChem, one is imminent. Indeed, businesses that can detect the need to modify their policies before the causes that necessitate the change interfere with their operations have a competitive edge over those that implement change in a reactive manner (Waddell, Cummings, & Worley, 2011). After a crisis, the implementation of new policies results in significant organizational expenses and a high possibility of regaining the lost competitive edge (Amagoh, 2008).

The new policy to address the problems plaguing HighChem must be created within the 2015 fiscal year (January 1-December 31). It should be available for implementation between January 1, 2016 and December 31, 2016. The implementation schedule begins with the design of the proposed policy (1 month), followed by evaluation and analysis of the policy (2 months), implementation of the policy (1 month), and evaluation of the implementation process (1 month) (2 weeks). Consequently, by March 2016, the corporation will have implemented a new policy that enhances employee career management using WLB.


The status quo, implementing the recommended strategy that promotes career growth through the formation of WLB structures, and automating the majority of its production processes to eliminate human decision makers are three essential choices. The appropriateness of any of

Amazon Case Study College Application Essay Help Online

Table of Contents
Theory: Organization and Leadership Review and Employee Motivation Context: Evaluation Systems Comparable to OLR A substitute that would profit Amazon Application: Electronic Monitoring of OLR Reference Performance

An effective performance management strategy serves as the blueprint for achieving the organization's goals. The evaluation of an employee's or an entire department's performance varies from company to company, as it is an intrinsic aspect of corporate culture.

The Amazon case study offers the Organization and Leadership Review (OLR) as an evaluation system, which, despite its radical nature and dubious ethics, proves to be one of the internet giant's most important success factors. This paper evaluates Amazon's performance management strategy from the perspective of an HR consultant utilizing the TCUA framework.

Organizational Theory and Leadership Analysis and Employee Motivation

Firstly, it is necessary to apply theoretical knowledge to the issue and examine the influence of OLR on employee motivation. According to Lussier and Hendon (2019), Amazon makes greater money with a fewer workforce, compared to its competitors. OLR is also known as stack ranking, a managerial strategy that allows for grading personnel.

I believe that such a strategy, despite the company's strong performance, lacks empathy and transfers employees' incentive from competing with other companies to competing with coworkers. OLR implies only one-way communication since the outcome depends on the manager’s assessment and not the employee’s evaluation.

Thus, Amazon's evaluation system offers few opportunities for advancement, contributing to a lack of motivation in many individuals and to the high employee turnover. At the same time, the company sticks to its performance management strategy and promotes the best performers since the executives value speed and efficiency over their staff’s loyalty. OLR satisfies Amazon's primary mission, which is to provide the finest customer service and engage the highest-performing staff.

Amazon's performance evaluations are attributed to bias and stereotypes, which diminish the accuracy of OLRs and have a negative effect on employee motivation. During the discussions, management recommend for advancement those employees whom they deem fit. However, the performance of employees is appraised based on personal experience, which opens the door to bias and stereotyping on the part of the rater.

Thus, only the most enthusiastic employees, who put effort into keeping good relations with all supervisors may succeed since any management might block the promotion. This strategy is fundamentally biased because it focuses on a set of characteristics, such as ambition, competitiveness, and lack of empathy.

Similarly, a dedicated individual who is eager to contribute to the company's performance but has weaker communication skills than their colleague may miss out on the opportunity for promotion. Motivation is at stake again, and the turnover rates continue to grow. However, the accuracy of the OLR can be enhanced by employing technologies that monitor and measure objective data rather than relying solely on subjective assessments, hence increasing the likelihood of success for more people.

Concept: Appraisal Systems Similar to OLR

The concept of performance evaluation indicates the process's duration and frequency. Some systems resemble OLR and assess employee performance using similar principles. For instance, a narrative approach or form, which requires the supervisor to compose an assessment statement, relates to verbal comments which managers share during promotion conversations at Amazon. Alternatively, the critical events technique serves the similar aim of documenting and assessing an employee's poor and positive performances.

However, the technique that most closely matches OLR is the ranking method, which analyzes employee performance from worst to best by comparing them to one another, as opposed to a standard. Namely, the forced distribution approach determines the percentage of employees in different performance categories (Lussier & Hendon, 2019). Therefore, the ranking method and its variation, forced-ranking, can be considered similar to OLR used by Amazon as they monitor and promote the best performers.

A Replacement that Would Benefit Amazon

Given the aforementioned performance evaluation systems, I can conclude that the ranking technique would best serve Amazon's aim. It would detect and retain the most productive employees while taking the necessary corrective measures for 10 % at the bottom of the list. Even if I think the strategy controversial and risky for corporate ethics, it is essential to keep Amazon's ultimate objective in mind and work towards it.

The organization is a fast-paced, highly developed workplace that necessitates quick learners and zealous leaders to prosper and fulfill their purpose of providing a great client experience. The ranking system, if handled properly, would allow for effective resource distribution; however, it should be intended to promote personnel without favoritism and provide sufficient motivation to advance within the organization.

To ensure the applicability of performance reviews like the ranking method and OLR, I find it necessary to consider its advantages and disadvantages, compared to management by objective (MBO) (MBO). OLR follows the principle of one-way communication, which does not imply self-evaluation as in the MBO approach.

Therefore, the biggest disadvantage of OLR-like systems is the inability to establish specific plans for each person. Instead, each individual's performance is compared to that of the best employee, regardless of individual circumstances and goals. In turn, MBO evaluates specific scenarios and determines the most effective means of resolving problems. Since employees can redirect their attention to outranking their coworkers, there is a risk that teamwork will be destroyed.

While helpful for the top performer, this outcome undermines the company’s whole efficiency. As to the advantages, I believe that the ranking system is an excellent tool for managers to evaluate performance, if applied correctly and free from prejudice. Rather than depending just on feedback and subjective evaluation, actual facts should be used to reduce limitations and improve the appraisal system's effectiveness.

Electronic Performance Monitoring for OLR Application

Amazon, as a high-technology corporation, can benefit from the use of electronic performance monitoring (EPM). In addition to personal suggestions utilized in the OLR approach, hard data acquired by work time usage, computer content tracking, and other technology-monitored activities would be a good supplement for fair performance evaluation.

The behavior of employees during work hours is crucial to the efficacy of the business, and having an accurate record would allow managers to discuss accomplishments and problems with subordinates. In addition, EPM could reduce the potential of corruption and flattery among those who try to excel and obtain a promotion by any means, as their manager's personal judgment would no longer be decisive. Therefore, EPM may be essential for Amazon, a fast and innovative company, to effectively apply OLRs.

This study concludes by examining Amazon's evaluation system through the lens of performance management. The TCUA framework was utilized to study OLR and its key features. As an HR Consultant, I have utilized the understanding of theory and principles of different appraisal systems and their impact on employee performance.

In addition, my knowledge of Amazon's distinguishing characteristics and ability to assess the benefits and drawbacks of OLR have enabled me to propose an alternate way for monitoring the company's efficiency. The implementation of EPM in the "real world" would augment Amazon's evaluation process.


Lussier, R. N., & Hendon, J. R. Management of human resources: functions, applications, and skill development (3rd ed.) The publisher Sage.

[supanova question]

Adaptable Home Products Company’s Marketing Opportunities College Application Essay Help Online

Background of the Adaptable Home Products Company (AHP)

AHP employs innovative technologies to promote comfort in common household items. As it satisfies the requirements of the contemporary market, this strategy might be classified as modern and significant.

The reputation of the founders among investors acts as the basis for the financing of various enterprises.

After a product has been delivered, regional mechanical engineers install it, if necessary.

The company's high-quality products enable it to pursue expansion into international markets.

Product line 1 consists of the following items: (push-button adjustable height) furniture

In addition to height-adjustable armchairs, couches, entertainment centers, and kitchen tables, there are optional height-adjustable seats.

Product Line 1 Summary

The absence of complication in product line 1's installation and delivery reduces potential problems in this regard. The company offers competitive pricing for Line 1. Line 1 has received the fewest complaints.

Armchairs are a key element of home comfort, so it's not surprising that this product is so popular, given its low price and high quality. The lack of necessity to include technology into sofas may account for the market's seeming lack of interest in these products. Entertainment centers are the line's least popular item. This could be due to the fact that competitors have a stronger brand and greater product variety in this market category. Due to the proliferation of smart-home technology, height-adjustable kitchen tables that can be adjusted with the push of a button have gained popularity; their presence in kitchens noticeably accompanies this trend.

Product 1 is the second most popular item in the collection. Product 2 – unpopular. Product 3 – unpopular. Product 4 is the best-selling item in the collection.

Possibilities for Marketing Product Line 1

Products 1 and 4 are devoid of defects; their sales should be enhanced.

It is essential to comprehend the fundamental issues with Products 2 and 3 from the customers' perspective.

Given the low sales rates, it is essential to promote Products 2 and 3.

Even internationally, there may be untapped markets; devoted investors will back this concept.

Before commencing a marketing campaign, it will be essential to do a market analysis and determine the primary demands and interests of consumers.

Armchairs and sofas can be conveniently offered as a set because they are typically seen in the same room.

Seasonal discounts could be one of the strongest strategies for Product 3 to survive in the face of intense competition.

Increased interest in the included items will result from the availability of software that enables Product line 1 to function as a single unit.

Strategic partnership, such as in the context of Product 3 sales, will facilitate the acquisition of a partner's expertise and the penetration of new market segments.

Customer Experience Evaluation

Almost half of respondents were either undecided or did not intend to purchase additional adaptable furniture or equipment from AHP. Such figures suggest that measures should be done to maintain consumers over the long term.

Customers were most interested in movable side tables, a mixer that vanishes into an adjustable height countertop, and triple monitors that plug into a single port, according to the poll. The addition of the aforementioned components may increase a client's long-term interest in the company's products.

Only four respondents indicated that they obtain information about the majority of companies' new items through social media; therefore, the online presence must be strengthened.

The majority of respondents cite AHP's versatility and quality as their favorite aspects. According to the CEOs, these two factors appear to be essential firm goals.

Only three respondents stated that the price-to-quality ratio is unreasonable.

Respondents stated they had to contact customer support for clarification. In addition, a number of respondents explicitly noted in their optional remarks that the catalog's content must have more information.

The company's main aims of quality and adaptability underpin its high customer satisfaction rates.

The retention of actual consumers and the enhancements to the catalog will help to a boost in performance, as they are now the most important factors.

Possibilities for Marketing to Increase Brand Loyalty

The creation of Instagram, Facebook, and Twitter profiles, as well as the launch of the corresponding targeted campaign, could be outsourced.

Loyalty programs are vital to ensuring that loyal clients feel cared for and that their long-term cooperation with AHP will result in nothing but rewards.

Provision of branded merchandise, such as T-shirts, may increase the company's recognition; social media presence is also indicative of this.

Reasonable price reductions are essential for sustaining demand.

AHP's Brand Personality, According to Aaker

Within the context of the sincerity element, the fact that the company provides products for use in the house to provide maximum comfort validates the family-oriented quality. AHP strives to meet its goals of quality and comfort provided at all levels, which makes it trustworthy in the eyes of its customers.

AHP has a clear emphasis on the technical aspects of its products, and the extensive technical experience of its founders, executives, and personnel makes the brand trustworthy.

Given the global shift toward smart-house technologies and the brand's incorporation of elements not typically seen in standard items, the brand is contemporary and, given the global shift toward smart-house technologies, stylish as well.

AHP aims to appeal to affluent consumers because its products are priced somewhat high but still competitively. It must be acknowledged that consumers who cannot afford abundance at this time are not interested in the technological improvement of their everyday environment. Then, aesthetically pleasing views are an integral component of technologically advanced, everyday household devices.

In terms of sturdiness, it may be argued that AHP follows the Western tradition of giving comfort in every aspect of life. The majority of industrialized Western nations appear to be advancing standard household goods.

In general, AHP has built a strong brand identity based on a particular blend of distinctive characteristics.

Impact on Consumer Purchasing Decision

Reference groups, families, roles, and statuses are significant socio-cultural elements. Personal aspects include the age, occupation, lifestyle, and personality of a consumer. Motive, perception, attitude, and beliefs are psychological elements.

Notably, "by analyzing past purchasing behavior, marketers can predict how consumers will behave in the future when making purchase decisions" (Kotler & Armstrong, 2010, p. 160; as cited in Lautiainen, 2015, p. 6). Consequently, if implemented effectively, marketing can enhance the success of a firm by investigating consumer purchasing behavior. In particular, AHP's marketers may recommend that entertainment centers be removed from the company's offerings and replace them with adjustable side tables. A suggestion of this nature is based on the analysis of sales, which are the manifestation of customer purchasing decisions.

Global Opportunities for Marketing

The EU possesses substantial purchasing power across all market segments, and AHP possesses the resources necessary for expansion.

The predicted yearly growth rate for the European furniture market is 3.7% (Statista, 2020a), which is significantly greater than the 1.5% growth rate for home appliances (Statista, 2020b). Thus, Product Line 1 appears to be gaining popularity.

Europeans strive to diversify their comfort zone, and technologically advanced normal household goods contribute to this, which is a significant competitive advantage.

The EU requires items of the greatest quality, which AHP provides.

Competition on the market is intense, but there is no monopoly (Mordor Intelligence, 2020); therefore, collaboration with a few local small and medium-sized businesses is an additional possibility – valuable experience will be obtained.

Global Opportunities for Marketing (Strategic Aspect)

AHP intends to remain a small business but to penetrate the international market. In Europe, it is crucial to be represented not in megacities but in prosperous small and medium-sized towns.

Due to limited resources and a lack of experience on the EU market, fierce competition should be avoided during the earliest stages of entry.

It will be vital to promote AHP products without incurring excessive costs; social media could be a viable solution.

In order to attract new European clients, initial price reductions may be implemented to pique their interest. They may be retained in the future via loyalty schemes.


Lautiainen, T. (2015). Considerations affecting consumers' coffee brand choosing decisions (Publication No. 38124382) [Bachelor's thesis; University of Applied Sciences Saimaa]. CORE. Mordor Intelligence (2020). Europe's furniture market – expansion, trends, and projections (2020–2025). Web. Statista (2020a). Furniture – Europe. Web. Statista (2020b). Europe household appliances on the web.

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