The Imperfect Fight For Women’s Equality

For centuries, women have fought tremendously for equal rights and treatment as men. However, even today, after having various legal documents in place, women continue to struggle living their lives as their counterparts. Furthermore, women face extreme hatred from some men on virtue of their gender. To support these arguments, this essay will first provide background history on women’s rights in Canada by discussing the three waves of feminism and the Persons case. Second, this paper will explain the international treaty of Convention on the Elimination of all Forms of Discrimination Against Women (CEDAW), which was seen as a huge victory for women around the world. Third, this paper will examine the crucial concepts of masculinity and misogyny which can be interpreted as fuel for the hatred certain men may have towards women. Fourth, this essay will look at the cases of the École Polytechnique massacre (“Montreal Massacre”) and the Toronto van attack by relating it to anti-feminist views. Lastly, I will explore the actions being taken by the White Ribbon Campaign to bring an end to violence against women on a global scale. Therefore, it will be my intention to demonstrate the failure of these well-meaning Human Rights initiatives for women in Canada.

If one is asked, “When were women not granted some, if not all, human rights?”, one would be inclined to answer by referring to historical time periods, most likely hundreds and thousands of years ago. The unfortunate truth is that even less than a century ago, in developed countries like Canada, women were not recognized as humans altogether. This led to the initiation of the three waves of feminism. The first wave refers to the movement of the 19th and early 20th centuries, which mainly centered around women’s suffrage – the rights to vote, safe working conditions and education (Krolokke, 2005). A prominent case from this era is the Persons case. In 1928, the Supreme Court of Canada ruled that since the definition of the word, “persons,” under the British North America Act (BNA Act) did not include women, they were not eligible to be admitted into Canadian senate (“Persons Case,” 2019). This exclusion of women from the BNA Act is a clear example of the uncertainty of who the “human” is in legalities concerning Human Rights. In 1929, five women from the province of Alberta named Emily Murphy, Irene Marryat Parlby, Nellie Mooney McClung, Louise Crummy, and Henrietta Muir Edwards (collectively known as the “Famous Five”) brought forward a petition to challenge this definition’s constitutionality (“Persons Case,” 2019). The Famous Five ultimately appealed the case to the highest court in Canada at the time, the British Judicial Committee of the Privy Council in the United Kingdom. This case was monumental because it expanded beyond the issue of the Canadian Senate, becoming a landmark precedent for almost all cases that would arise in the future regarding the rights of women. The Court ruled in favour of the Famous Five and overturned the previous decision made by the Supreme Court of Canada in Ottawa. The second wave in the late 1960s to the early 1980s focused on the inequality of laws, inequality of cultures and the role of women in society (Krolokke, 2005). Lastly, the third wave, from the 1990s to present time, is informed by a post-colonial contemporary mindset and addresses embracing individualism and diversity. Altogether, these waves of feminism emphasize the imperfectness that existed in established Human Rights acts and contributed to inequalities directed towards women.

The Convention on the Elimination of all Forms of Discrimination Against Women (CEDAW) came into effect on September 3rd, 1981 as a United Nations international treaty (Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination against Women, 1981). The participating member states agreed to take all measures in order to respect, protect and fulfill a list of women’s rights. Due to this, the CEDAW is often referred to as the “women’s bill of rights.” To date, 187 countries from the United Nations have signed and ratified the treaty. Unfortunately, the CEDAW proved to be unsuccessful in preventing unprovoked attacks against females by male perpetrators in the later years. A key case exemplifying this is the École Polytechnique massacre that occurred in Montreal, Quebec on December 6th, 1989 (Mackenzie, 2013). Marc Lepine stormed into the Engineering University, affiliated with the Universite de Montreal, and murdered 14 young women before committing suicide. Officials and authorities would later make gruesome discoveries behind Lepine’s actions. Witnesses revealed that when Lepine entered the classroom, he ordered all men to go to one side of the room and women to the other. Lepine’s isolation of women was an integral part of his horrific plan. In addition, at Lepine’s residence, a list was found which he had prepared of other women’s names, many well-known in the province of Quebec, whom he had also planned to kill. Lepine’s hate crime left behind a profound and painful human tragedy and sent shockwaves throughout the nation. Therefore, the CEDAW treaty, which outlines that “state parties shall take all appropriate measures to eliminate discrimination against women in order to ensure to them equal rights to men in the field of education and in particular to ensure” has not been upheld in its perfect sense as demonstrated by the Montreal massacre (Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination against Women, 1981).

The Toronto van attack in April 2018 is another recent case of the failure to eliminate discrimination towards women, as anticipated the CEDAW treaty (Dalton, 2018). Alek Minassian drove on the sidewalk of Yonge Street with a rental van killing 10 innocent pedestrians and injuring 14. On closer inspection, it was later revealed that the majority of the victims of the incident were women. In their investigation, authorities also found that Minassian was an active user on an online blog that widely and openly promoted an anti-feminist culture. As a result, despite the establishment of the CEDAW, women in the current times are still the subject of extreme violence and sexism by male perpetrators. Therefore, the goal for which the CEDAW was drafted, has yet to be achieved 38 years after its establishment.

From the moment one is born, one is socialized according to their assigned gender (“Boys Don’t Cry”, 2019). Subconsciously, humans are in pursuit of what they believe to be the “correct” journey of their gender. For example, men are rewarded for showcasing their physical strength, dominance, athleticism and for their sexual prowess. Women, on the other hand, are encouraged to be obedient, express vulnerability, seek help when needed and be guarded about their sexuality. A recent study conducted in the United States revealed that 47% of boys, aged 14 to 19 years, heard a male family member make sexual jokes or comments towards women at home (“The State of Gender Equality for U.S. Adolescents,” 2018). Interestingly, these boys were also more likely to feel pressured to embrace these sexist remarks themselves. It was concluded that these stereotypical gender norms encouraging children to act in certain ways can themselves lead to a self-propagating viscous cycle promoting further gender inequality. It can be argued that this cycle promotes misogyny, which is the “dislike of, contempt for, or ingrained prejudice against women” (Chapman, 2014). Therefore, gender expectations beginning in early childhood can result in misogyny, which may be a contributing factor for violence against women by men who naturally believe they are acting in their assigned biological roles.

The Global Civil Society (GCS) promotes healthy practices of human rights where violations are occurring in hopes of bringing an end to human rights violations (Goodhart, 2016). GCS actors can be ordinary civilians protesting human rights violations or larger-scale organizations and movements with the same purpose of preventing these infarctions from occurring in their societies. GCS actors try to lessen the disparities between rights agreed upon in treaties and real-life practices by creating awareness of the violations through protests and petitions. It is this awareness that ultimately changes people’s mindsets and their actions towards the violations in question. Similar to the GCS, the White Ribbon Campaign (WRC) was founded in London, Ontario in response to the mentioned École Polytechnique massacre (Antoniak, 1991). The WRC is the world’s largest movement spearheaded by males working to end violence against women, promoting gender equality, healthy relationships and a new vision of masculinity. Consequently, there is great hope that the relatively newer initiatives such as GCS and WRC will close the gaps created by previous well-intended human rights initiatives to better serve women in Canada.

In today’ society, women not only have to still fight for equal rights and equal treatment to men, but also be scared for their safety. Overall, this paper examined the history of rights of women in Canada as a foundation to the CEDAW. It was then argued that although the principles behind the CEDAW treaty were ideal in theory, it is still not successful in its true form. Cases of the Montreal massacre and the Toronto van attack were discussed to support this argument. Going forward, there remains sincere hope by way of the efforts of newer initiatives, including the GCS and the WRC, will soon represent and support women in a more perfect sense.

2019-3-30-1553905934

Where is our society heading?

A newborn only knows of two things, his/her mother and what they need to survive which is breastmilk. During this time, the infant is not aware of other humans, therefore, having an egoistic mind of only thinking for themselves and not others. Eventually, the baby does come to realization that he/she has a dad and siblings who the see often, making them realize that they are not alone in this world.

As time progresses, the societal environment we live in changes in countless ways that leads to hopeful progression in social conflicts that humans face every day. Understanding self, culture and society would involve focusing on both material conditions and ideological conditions from the past, present and the future. Material conditions focuses on the “production, exchange and the organization of society” or the environment that we are currently living in, while ideological conditions focuses on “ideas and thoughts that are prevalent in society” or the social values of groups and individuals who are living in society. Both of these conditions show a different perspective of society that contributes to understanding it as a whole. In order to understand our social situation, analyzing material conditions in society through the eyes of Rifkin and Hooks and analyzing ideological conditions through the eyes of Roszak and Anderson will provide a clear passage to where our society is headed towards.

Jeremy Rifkin discusses the change that technology has made in production and the organization of society in his articles. He explains our current material condition in depth and informs the reader about the changes that have happened in society from the past to present. He starts off by saying that “Global unemployment has now reached its highest level since the great depression of the 1930s”, which directly gives the reader of our current situation compared to the past (Rifkin, 1995, p.217). It is clear that employment is at a stack in society as of today which leads the reader to become curious as to why this might be. He goes on to talk about “intelligent machines” who are replacing beings in the workplace, leaving humans to be unemployed (Rifkin, pg. 220). Technology plays a huge factor in unemployment as more and more machines are being developed which are more efficient, cost effective compared to the work of a human being. One example that Rifkin provides us with is the Union Carbide company, where they “re-engineered its production, administration and distribution systems to trim excess fat and save $575 million in costs by 1995” (Rifkin, pg. 221). Rifkin means by this is it shows that companies are moving quickly to make changes to their systems, in order save money, ultimately giving them a higher profit margin, which is what all companies in a capitalistic market aim for. It is quite easy to replace human workers when their “work has been measured by the market value of their labour”, resulting in more technological machines replacing humans (Rifkin, pg. 219). Another reason technology is becoming a fast-growing investment in the labour market is so companies can keep their competitive advantage in the global market by ensuring speed of delivery and quality control in third world countries (Rifkin, pg. 229). Rifkin brings a different view to the unemployment crisis that is currently a major issue in our society by mentioning that unemployment can be a great social change. It is clear he believes that the change in the global markets and a workerless economy can either be a positive change or a negative changed which is all based on how civilians react to this change. Civilians can either dwell on not having a job or prepare to find an alternative to formal work in the market (Rifkin, pg. 238). Focusing on the social economy rather than the market economy is what will great a greater good for the human spirit, which is ultimately what Rifkin believes in.

Bell Hooks discusses material feminism in her article, giving the definition for feminism as “feminism is a movement to end sexism, sexist exploitation, and oppression” (Hooks, 2000, pg. 279). Hooks continues to talk about the misunderstanding of feminism in the modern media, where society thinks that white and privileged women are committed to gender equality, which Hooks believes is not feminism at all. She brings a new perspective into the discussion on modern feminism where mass media sees gender equality as the main feminism focus rather than abortion, rape laws and domestic violence, which is ultimately the main goal of the movement. She goes onto talk about the “Christian” culture of domestic household work primarily belonging to women, where they are expected to watch over the children, clean and cook for their husband, which still has not changed, though many women are in the workforce, challenging the glass ceiling every day (Hooks, pg. 280). Hooks stated that females could be sexist and without the power of women bonding together, the feminist focus on society would not be reached. Women’s liberation was not wanting what men had but bringing an end to patriarchy and sexism in our society. Hooks strongly believes that women need to change fundamental laws and beliefs in society in order to properly advocate for feminism. An example given in her text about the issue of abortion explains that a woman cannot be anti-abortion and claim to be a feminist. She states a strong point that power gained through the exploitation and oppression of other women is in fact not power or feminism at all. This includes women who buy products from famous brands, where these brands pay women in developing countries less than a cent to make their products. The alternative that she suggests is to restart the whole movement of feminism and start with the main goals of this issue that will impact the women living in the present and future. She says that “We can share the simple yet powerful message that feminism is a movement to end sexist oppression” (Hooks, pg. 282). This applies to all women in all countries where sexist oppression is stopping women from reaching their full potential. Women need to come together, focusing on materialistic feminism, rather than gender equality, in order to achieve the revolutionary goals that first started the feminism movement, which is what Hooks strongly believes would change our present-day society for the better.

Theodore Roszak discusses the alienation that many feel in our society following the post industrialist and political change. Roszak begins by talking about the major movements in society involve major energies exchanges between citizens, which make a bold statement in politics. He then goes onto define the difference between “culture” and “reality” saying that “Culture is the embodiment of a people’s shared reality, as expressed in word, image, myth, music, philosophy, science, moral style. Reality marks out the boundaries of what might be called the collective mindscape, the limits of sane experience” (Roszak, pg. xxiv). What he means by this is that culture is a societal connection where humans are in touch with their spiritual and subjective experiences, but reality changes this and makes humans become alienated from this special connection. This connection opens us to different ideas and thoughts which can help a human out of a depressive state which are effects of feeling alone or alienated. Roszak connects the bridge between the thought of organic food from the environment directly to the organic and pure thoughts that we have within our minds. He says that “Intolerance for the organic begins with the body, but it spreads from there to the environment at large. The body is nature’s nearest home; it is us as we take part in the self-regulating process of form and growth that sustain the universe” (Roszak, pg.98). What Roszak is trying to say here is that by taking care of our self in the most pure and natural way possible, you can find meaning in myths rather than on political platforms and the industrial revolution. He creates an argument asking the reader why only objective truths are seen as the truth, and not subjective truths. By subjective truth he means political platforms, laws and what society as a whole believes the system should be like. The truths and beliefs that come with the feeling of the “soul”, free will and the feeling of emotion is just as important as the scientific based facts and evidence given to society when it comes to important social problems such as racism and global warming. This is ultimately what Roszak wants the reader to do, start questioning the objective based facts and start being in touch with the subjective truths, which is a clear ideological condition in our society.

Karen Anderson discusses the sociological imagination and perspective in-depth in her reading. She talks about the social construction of reality stating that reality is shaped through the society we live in, therefore reality will always be changing and challenged. The concept “construction of reality” applies to all social human beings, while the “social imagination” is set to only an individual and how he/she interacts with the in the environment they are in (Anderson, 2012, pg. 6). She also talks about objective and subjective reality, where objective reality is unlimited to the amount of people who understand it, while subjective reality is limited to an individual, like previously mentioned with Roszak. Anderson provides the reader with an example of individualism in the Western world, stating that it is not natural and desirable in human affairs. The independence that comes with having an individualistic mindset changes the way beliefs are seen and evaluated as mentioned in the text (Anderson, pg. 11). This is a common ideological condition that is very prevalent in our society which results in different beliefs in every individual rather than a collective belief. This also adds to neuroticism within an individual, resulting in more jealousy, anger, loneliness and stress preventing them from living a healthy and happy life. What constitutes reality is not just based on the environment we are in, but also the experience we face on the daily with other individuals and social structures. Anderson explains to the reader why this happens, and she uses two different propositions, society is a human product and habitualization is the groundwork for institutionalization. She talks about how social institutions have channeled and controlled certain behaviours in humans and she gives the example of a school institution. The school environment is a complex system where lectures are seen as a person of authority who have the right to kick students out if they are being disruptive.

2019-4-10-1554940430

Renault advertisement – ‘status redefined’: custom essay help

The focus of this essay is to analyze and scrutinize the Renault advertisement termed ‘status redefined‘. The rationale behind the choice of the media is to examine and investigate the perception of the public about the concept of status and gender inequality, from the design and content development of the Renault advertisement. The idea of gender objectification has over the years misrepresented and induced an unconscious and perhaps conscious bias against women and ladies, which has been harmful to their identity, particularly in advertising. It is significant to note that the increase in the argument about the concept of gender identification has widened, and more importantly, gained more acceptance in the United States. The Renault advertisement vividly presents the significance of status and the corresponding male domination in society.

The young man that eventually went away with the Renault 2011 model exemplified the society’s choice for affluence and status. The definition of real masculinity is predicated upon power, identity, and state, which can only be expressed through the selection of cars a man ride and other elements of affluence. The advertisement also gives credence to the fact that the female identity in the advert content aligns with traditional philosophical concepts. The issue of feminism amongst other theoretical concepts finds expression in the advert. To further expose and analyse the content of the advert in line with the idea of gender and status, three theories will be utilised to explain the advertisement. The first theory is the gender identification theory, followed by hegemonic masculinity, and lastly gender essentialism.

The theories, which include gender identification, hegemonic masculinity, and gender essentialism, reinforce the establishment of man’s dominance and the element of power and status, which is expressed in the media advertisement. The advertisement reinforces an already entrenched belief in the consciousness of men that validates the concept of hegemonic masculinity and further enhances the idea of gender essentialism in respect to the issue of feminism that has experienced a massive debate in recent time.

Theory Section

It is essential to establish the distinction between gender and sex, to explicitly explain the concept of gender identification, hegemonic masculinity, and gender essentialism. The idea of sex refers to differences between a male and a female as a result of their biological and physiological differences. Gender, on the other hand, can be described as a socially learned perception between a male and a female. These two terms place a contention between the roles and expectations required of the male and female in society. The concept of gender identity can be described as the socially imposed perception internalised by an individual as relating to gender (Saperstein, 2018). This perception is usually subjective, based on the predominant culture and social orientation of the individual.

Hegemonic masculinity refers to the superiority of the male over other female and perhaps other males (Morettini, 2016). This concept validates the existence of dominant masculinity. This idea is more culturally and socially constructed, particularly in marriage, in which the male must exercise some level of aggression and violent behaviour to exercise the internalised perception of domination over the female. This also places a burden on the male from a historical context to display strength and toughness as the case may be, and more importantly success to establish his domination. The concept of gender essentialism revolves around the fact that there is a fundamental difference between the male and female, due to the intrinsic or significant differences each sex possesses (Dzubinski, & Diehl, 2018). One of the concepts used to counter gender-based biases in society is gender essentialism. This negates the idea of equality that is propagated and promoted in society. The approach also supports the normative perspective of the two genders, which are male and female. The antagonists of this theory don’t argue about the differences between the male and female entity as a result of their biological and physiological differences, but instead, say that the differences in sexes should not be the basis to deny any of the sexes opportunities.

Application Section

The Renault advertisement showcases a young man and a lady that came for an auction. This auction attracted several individuals based on the class and status of the owner of the building where the sale is taking place. The auctioneer who was making the young man and the lady around to check what the vendor has to offer, showed several models of cars as they moved around the house. They were shown several cars by the auctioneer, from models made in the 50s, 70s and the 80s. The auctioneer later took the young man and woman to the back of the house, where car models made in the 50s and the 60s were shown to these individuals to canvass them in buying those old model cars.

Suddenly, the auctioneer saw a brand new Renault that was brought by the young and the lady! The young man and lady were then shown sitting in their car, telling him, this is Renault Fluence 2011. The main essence of the advert was to establish the fact that the new model Renault car redefines status. Despite the attitude of the auctioneer to showcase the cars he had in his house, the new Renault car, was able to dazzle his imagination, which is shown in his expression. It is imperative to further state that the commercial was designed for the Indian market and based on the historical antecedent and cultural perception of Indians, old model cars are held in high esteem and are used in expressing status, power, influence, and affluence.

The concept of gender inequality has been dramatically expressed, and likewise, the issue of status and power has been given expression in the advert content. The content of the advert greatly reinforced the philosophical theories established in the previous paragraphs. These theories, which are described and explained in the earlier sections, are vivid from the first scene of the commercial to the last scene. In the commercial, the principal figures were men, and this reinforces the concept of hegemonic masculinity, which establishes the male as a superior figure over the female counterpart. This hegemonic tendency is also expressed among men. The domination and superiority are not only to the female gender but also in some instances to the male gender too. The auctioneer, who was showcasing the cars in his house, was showing his status from the model of the car until he saw the Renault the young man and the lady brought (Morettini, 2016).

It is evident that all through the commercial, there was no prominent and pronounced role given to any of the females that were featured in the ad. This reinforces the concept of gender inequality as these theories explain. It is also significant to state that throughout the commercial, the lady with the young man who was the principal focus of the advertisement, never contributed to the discussion, even though, she has her own opinion.

This further reinforces the application of the concept of gender essentialism. In the Indian context, in which the commercial is designed for, the female gender is considered inferior to the male counterpart. This idealised and culturally constructed view further reinforces the concept of gender identification, which made the lady in the commercial not to contribute to the discussion. It is strategic to note that after the young man and the lady entered the Renault car, the man sat in the driver’s seat, which connotes leadership. The position of the driver demonstrates the role of giving direction, taking responsibility for actions on behalf of other people in the car, and lastly, submission by other people in the car to the leadership of the driver.

This further reinforces the concept of hegemonic masculinity, which makes the man assume the leadership position in some culture with in-depth patriarchal settings and the woman to assume the subordinate position according to the research conducted by Jewkes et al., 2015. The study also establishes the fact that the theoretical foundation upon which the concept of hegemonic masculinity is built is predicated upon mutual consent from both the male and female, which gives the man a superiority mindset over the woman. This superiority is not enforced through coercion nor violence. This is critically significant to reinforce the concept of gender inequality.

The position a woman assumes in consonance with the Renault commercial, according to Pushpeganday, 2010, is a function of their biological, psychological, and social orientation. The notion of the reproductive functions which is characterised under biological, cognitive and emotional capacities, which is described as irrational, and their mothering functions portrayed as social are the elements that have reduced the female to its maternal perception. These are significant themes that validate the concept of gender essentialism and make a woman accept her position as not equal to a man.

The core theme of the commercial is to redefine status. The first scene of the commercial begins with the gathering of prominent individuals in society. This establishes the fact that the auctioneering process was designed for a class of people in the community. The vendor, who owns the house in which the auction took place is also a prominent individual and as a consequence, attracted the people of his class. However, he was wowed by the car one of his guest brought, which amazed him and exceeded the models he was having in multiple proportions. This validates the fact that possession also determines the status of individuals in society. The quality of the cars, house and property an individual owns, will ultimately determine his/her condition and the level of power of influence the individual can exhibit.

Conclusion

The focus of this essay is to examine and analyse a piece of media and use philosophical theories to explain the content of the press about status and gender inequality. The three approaches that were used are gender identification, hegemonic masculinity, and gender essentialism. It is essential to establish the fact that though these theories have been critically debated in recent time, however, their application is evident in the media content. The media content is the Renault fluence commercials with the themed status redefined. The essay has been able to explain the concept of gender inequality about gender identification, hegemonic masculinity, and gender essentialism.

Similarly, the Renault commercial has also be used to explain status, about the theories above. Conclusively, the essay has been able to adequately argued that gender inequality is reinforced through the media content, by using the philosophical approaches. The future concerns are essential, the possibility of having a gender equality awareness that will be acceptable in the historical and patriarchal setting. This concern stems from the fact that there is a proliferation of the equality movement in most of the world in recent time.

References

Boskey E., 2018. The Gender Essentialism Theory. Retrieved 2nd April 2019, Available at https://www.verywellhealth.com/what-is-gender-essentialism-3132613
Dzubinski L.M., & Diehl A.B., 2018. The problem of Gender Essentialism and its Implications for Women in Leadership. Journal of Leadership Studies, Vol12, Issue1, pp 56 – 61, Available at https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/full/10.1002/jls.21565
Greene L., Di Nonno M., & Chambers S., 2018. Gender Bias in Advertising. Retrieved 4th March 2019, Available at https://seejane.org/research-informs-empowers/gender-bias-advertising/
Jewkes R., Morrell R., Hearn J., Lundqvist E., Blackbeard P., Lindegger G., Quayle M., Sikweyiya Y., & Gotten L., 2015. Hegemonic masculinity: combining theory and practice in gender interventions. US National Library of Medicine National Institute of Health, Available at https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4706037/
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=O7GI3OXiZ5A
Kalogeropoulos A. & Nielsen R.K., 2018. Social Inequalities in News Consumption. The University of Oxford, Available at https://reutersinstitute.politics.ox.ac.uk/sites/default/files/2018-10/KalogeropolousSocialInequalityinNewsFINAL.pdf
Morettini F.M., 2016. Hegemonic Masculinity: How the dominant man subjugates other men, women and society. Retrieved 2nd April 2019, Available at https://www.globalpolicyjournal.com/blog/27/10/2016/hegemonic-masculinity-how-dominant-man-subjugates-other-men-women-and-society
Pushpeganday M.D., 2010. Gender essentialism: a conceptual and empirical exploration of notions of maternal essence as a framework for explaining gender difference. Research Space, Available at https://researchspace.ukzn.ac.za/xmlui/handle/10413/7524
Saperstein A., 2018. Gender Identification. State of the Union, Available at https://inequality.stanford.edu/sites/default/files/Pathways_SOTU_2018_gender-ID.pdf

2019-4-11-1555022016

Activism in relation to modern art (draft)

Intro: 100 words

In this essay, the subject of the relationship between art throughout time and political activism will be explored along with the tactical potential of political art with regards to the spreading of political movements and ideas. The dichotomy between the idea that all art acts as some form of activism and the concept of art of existing purely as an aesthetic entity, or in some way independent of the artist’s original intentions, will be an interesting topic to address also, specifically relating to the well-known artist Banksy and his impact on activism in current art.

Origination of activism; Propaganda: 500 words

To find out more about activism, we go back to its roots in propaganda. Propaganda originated in the Christian religion, it was first documented in 1622 when the pope introduced it as a way to propagate the religion their beliefs. (Congregatie voor de Evangelisatie van de Volkeren, 2016) This was done because critics have challenged the Christian beliefs, teachings and actions. In the early years of Christianity (250-300) a philosopher named Porphyry criticises the believe with his book Against the Christians. Voluminous writings like those of Porphyry led to the Christian believe having to use the first forms of propaganda. (Britannica, 2017)

In the 20th century the notion of propaganda received a more negative aspect. This came to be because of the unilateral, incomplete and concealing of false information or false information from the political system to affect political views. (Zeepfabriek, 2014)

A lot of the first propaganda used by the Germans was advanced in newspapers, this way the message would reach a large sum of people. Relating back to the negative aspect of propaganda that could be used to deceit the nation, through a usually reliable source of the press. Newspapers used to employ a few artists and draftsmen, they tried to depict the war situation in a cynical way. The way these were portrayed were dependant on the political preference of the newspaper.

Figure 1: De Notenkraker, 8th of April 1933 by Albert Hahn.

Figure 2: Menschheid en Ras 8th of April 1933 by R.B.

These pieces of propaganda were printed as a cover and inside of a Dutch newspaper, these images were there to portray the Germans in a negative light. The use of expression, the swastika, dark colours and comparison between humanists and Hitler make these images lobby against the Germans and their diluted vision towards racism, Jews and violence.

Propaganda was also used in other countries like the Soviet Union, North-Korea and Iraq. In these instances, you could also describe the propaganda as indoctrination; a form of manipulation to systematic and one-sided teaching of disputable beliefs or beliefs, with the intention that they be accepted without any form of criticism. (Indoctrinatie,2016)

After the war propaganda was used to change political views and stand up against political regimes. For example, propaganda created by civilians incited demonstrations in countries like Latvia. In January of 1991 people gathered in Riga to one of the first permitted demonstrations, with demonstrators carrying posters with propaganda on them. (Art as activism, 1987)

Figure 3: Curator Marta Sylvestrová and artist Gunárs Lusis marched in this demonstration for Latvian independence. Riga, 25th of January, 1991. Photo by Uldis Briedis.

As the people’s revolution swept across Europe, an open political fight began. The use of propaganda played an unforgettable role in this. (Art as activism, 1987) Not only professional artists but also anonymous amateurs used propaganda in the form of posters to express their feelings and catch people their attention for change.

Activism in the 21st century: 500 words

Before diving straight into activism in the 21st century, it is important to know what activism itself is. Activism is a broad term for creative works that are produced by artists, activists and social movements. There are also more contemporary and historical works, like propaganda that can be characterized like activism. These artists produce works like signs, banners, posters, videos and other materials that are used to convey their message. Very often this kind of art is used in demonstrations by civilians and as civil disobedience.

A few of the characteristics of activism art are that they are usually short-term and are often not signed or owned by a person, they often include peace symbols, such as the commonly used raised fist. (Global activism: Art and conflict in the 21st century, 2013-2014)

Activism can also be in the form of performance art, location-specific installations, graffiti and street art. Although some activism is associated with professional artists, knowledge of art is not required to participate or create activism art. It is also not confined to a certain region or country, but is used all over the world.

You could also class politically charged works of art, such as Picasso’s Guernica, which can be counted as activism. “ Every act of creation is first of all an act of destruction.” -Pablo Picasso (Pablo Picasso and his paintings, 2009)

Figure 4: Guernica, 1937 by Pablo Picasso.

Activism is used for a wider audience now compared to when it started out in the early 1600’s. Popular subjects for activism right now are for example; against the use of drugs, feminism, animal cruelty and voting. Each targeting a different demographic and social “problem”. (Global activism: Art and conflict in the 21st century, 2013-2014)

However, there is still necessity for subjects like war, because unfortunately in particular parts of the world, for example Israel there is still an active war. Which means there are still two sides, and both sides would like to influence the public to act. For example, Figure 5, showing an Israeli helicopter detonating a bomb on a young child holding a teddy bear. The philosophy behind such image, is to shock, invigilate the need of change, to awaken a sense of necessity inside us.

Figure 5: Israeli Apartheid week, Latuff 2009.

Figure 6: Slut walk NYC, Dave Bledsoe, 21 October 2011.

Another example of the activism that is relevant in the 21st century is cultivated around feminism and sexism. (Amira, D., & Sergeyev, K. ,2011) In recent years, feminism has helped reached more equality between woman and men, this has been achieved by using activism; marches, posters, social media movements and the use of art is involved with all of these methods. Art makes spreading the word and philosophy of a movement easier and more accessible to everyone.

Comparison to propaganda from the war and activism in the 21st century: 500 words

All art acts as a sort of activism: 500 words

Artists that have put activism on the map: 500 words

Conclusion: 500 words

Bibliography

Amira, D., & Sergeyev, K. (2011, October 03). Not Asking for It: Scenes From SlutWalk NYC – Slideshow – Daily Intel. Retrieved from http://nymag.com/intelligencer/2011/10/not_asking_for_it_scenes_from.html

Art as activism. (1987). Cambridge, MA: Woman of Power.

Banksy: The Bristol legacy. Bristol: Redcliffe.Greer, B. (2014).

Bernays, E. L. (2005). Propaganda. Brooklyn, NY: Ig Publ.

Boie. (2009). BAVO, too active to act. Polemisch pamflet over kunst en maatschappij. Amsterdam: Valiz.

Boler, M. (2008). Digital Media and Democracy: Tactics in hard times. Cambridge (MA): MIT Press.Gough, P. (2012).

Britannica, T. E. (2017, January 19). Porphyry. Retrieved from https://www.britannica.com/biography/Porphyry-Syrian-philosopher#ref142562

Congregatie voor de Evangelisatie van de Volkeren. (2016, January 09). Retrieved from https://nl.wikipedia.org/wiki/Congregatie_voor_de_Evangelisatie_van_de_Volkeren

Craftivism: The craft of craft and activism. Vancouver: Arsenal Pulp Press.Lekakis, E. (2018, April 30).

Fabrique – Merken. (2016). Propaganda & Beeldvorming. Retrieved from http://www.eerstewereldoorlog.nu/tijdlijn/propaganda-en-beeldvorming/

Geheugen van Nederland. (2019). Retrieved from https://www.geheugenvannederland.nl/nl/geheugen/results?facets[collectionStringNL][]=Propagandadrukwerk en voorlichtingsmateriaal uit WO2&page=4&maxperpage=36&coll=ngvn

Library of published newspapers during the war.

Global activism: Art and conflict in the 21st century. (December 14, 2013 – March 30, 2014) Karlsruhe: ZKM, Center for Art and Media.

Indoctrinatie. (2016, September 27). Retrieved

from https://nl.wikipedia.org/wiki/Indoctrinatie

Pablo Picasso and his paintings. (2009) Retrieved from https://www.pablopicasso.org/

Philosophy of Activism. (n.d.). Retrieved from https://sites.psu.edu/comeonup/philosophy-of-activism/

Re-framing art activism? (New) research approaches to art and politics. Retrieved from http://reframe.sussex.ac.uk/activistme- dia/2018/04/re-framing-art-activism-new-research-approaches-to- art-and-politics/

Turner, M. (1996). The noble art of politics political cartoons, 1994-96. Belfast: Blackstaff Press in association with Irish Times Books.Weibel, P., Chomsky, N., Negri, A., Sloterdijk, P., & Žižek, S. (2015).

Zeepfabriek: Britse propaganda in de Eerste Wereldoorlog. (2014, July). Retrieved from https

://www.historischnieuwsblad.nl/eerstewereldoorlog/artikelen/zeepfabriek-britse-propaganda.html

Images

Figure 1: De Notenkraker, 8th of April 1933 by Albert Hahn.

Source: De Notenkraker weekblad.

Figure 2: Menschheid en Ras 8th of April 1933 by R.B.

Source: De notenkraker weekblad.

Figure 3: Curator Marta Sylvestrová and artist Gunárs Lusis marched in this demonstration for Latvian independence. Riga, 25th of January, 1991. Photo by Uldis Briedis.

Source: Art as activism.

Figure 4: Guernica, 1937 by Pablo Picasso.

Source: https://www.pablopicasso.org/guernica.jsp

Figure 5: Israeli Apartheid week, Latuff 2009.

Source: https://imgur.com/rEeck

Figure 6: Slut walk NYC, Dave Bledsoe, 21 October 2011.

Source: https://www.flickr.com/photos/ennuipoet/6200738561/in/photostream/

2019-4-18-1555582776

Social work internship – reflection: college essay help

An interest in the social work profession is more than likely to be interpreted as an interest in a helping profession. When people go into social work, often it is because they have some sort of innate desire to assist other humans on their journey through this thing called life. While I cannot speak for everyone, it is most certainly why I chose this field. Currently, I am an undergrad student pursuing a Bachelors of Social Work (BSW) while simultaneously gaining further experience in the “field” of social work through an internship. At its core, the “field” of social work for a student, is a paideia intended to acclimate the student to the actuality of what it is like to perform human services while also probing a student’s mind in a way that both enhances, prepares, and propels students in their future social work related endeavors under a generalist social work practice model. In order to assist students in these newfound experiences, a thorough understanding of a generalist practice is needed, albeit defining what a generalist practice is is difficult due to the nature of the work. To that effect, a theoretical approach is an assumed premise by which many social workers and social work educators endeavor to promote social change. (Ashton & Hull, 2015)

As it stands, I am an intern for a grant-funded program called GCSTOP (Guilford County’s Solution to the Opioid Problem). GCSTOP seeks to reduce the stigma and harm those in active drug addiction might endure by providing resources, in an attempt to decrease opioid related deaths in Guilford County. Beyond the sphere of academia, I have acquired knowledge in the field from my previous experiences working in different diverse communities, recovery houses, and with individuals with intellectual and developmental differences (IDD/DD) or physical and developmental disabilities.

With the understanding that one of the basic functions of social work practice is to consider the relationship of the person and their environment, the culmination of my involvements has indeed informed and shaped my views and perspectives a social worker. It is no surprise that generalist practice skills are integrally linked and build upon each other with respect to and incorporation of core values and practice informed work.

Theoretical Frameworks/Practice Models

As aforementioned, a theoretical approach is assumed in generalist practice when working with all types of entities such as: individuals, families, groups, organizations, and communities. Social Systems Theory, stems from the desire to explain the interrelated factors of the moving parts in a system that create, maintain, and or impact its whole. (Ashton & Hull, 2015) Systems theory is perceived as an open theory that treats people not as isolated individuals but as parts of a broader network such as populations, society’s, institutions, communities, or otherwise “system”. Within this context, a possible limitation to the theory itself might be that it has a tendency to overemphasize the “bigger picture” and underemphasize specific details. Theorists trust that social systems are open systems that provide multiple targets of intervention when attempting to facilitate changes within a system. In that, the belief is that if the system is open, the system is receptive to and influenced by outside stimulus. Consideration of external factors can help to support change within those systems. Systems may be informal, like family or friends, formal, such as clubs and support groups, or public, which might include structures like schools and hospitals. While systems are complex and can exaggerate the bigger picture one cannot understand the individual without looking at the bigger picture. Difficulties may arise if there is an imbalance between the person and the systems they operate within. Systems, then, can be employed to support the service user to achieve change. (Teeter & Kondrat 2010) Systems of social change theories interest me because systems are inextricably linked to the overarching idea of supporting the person-in-environment and is demonstrative of how large structural forces can be barriers as well as social supports when seeking change.

GCSTOP, where I am currently placed for field, functions as a system within other larger systems. To that effect, there is a tendency for networks to overlap. For example, GCSTOP’s mission both corresponds with and supports a population of people; those who suffer from opioid related addiction and substance abuse disorder. Because GCSTOP, provides service to participants primarily in Guilford County, GCSTOP impacts a certain demographic of people who are a part of a larger community. The health care services provided to individuals in this program could be indicative of an even larger international public health crisis.

Psychosocial Development Theory is a theory created by Erik Erikson that is a derivative of Freud’s earlier, and apparently, more “controversial,” psychosexual theory. Erikson’s theory highlights 8 specific stages of the human development cycle. Each stage explores a corresponding conflicting idea that can help to interpret human internal conflict caused by the interaction of compounding internal and external one factors. For example, in the infantile stage (birth until around one to two years of age), humans naturally seek to trust the interaction that they have with their caregivers but often struggle to do so. (Trust vs. Mistrust) According to Erikson, this stage quite literally gives birth to a hopeful mindset. During the early childhood years (at around two or three years of age) humans develop a sense of self and autonomy. American culture recognizes this stage as particularly difficult, and terms like “Terrible twos” are widely used to speak to its effect. Psychosocial theory maintains that human development occurs in qualitatively different stages that are sequential and may be universal.

Psychosocial analysis is helpful for understanding individual growth across the life cycle because it is a general assessment of developmental functioning that can be compared with chronological age of the client. This type of theory can be helpful when seeking to understand clients of certain demographics. Because GCSTOP is grant funded, it is also incredibly data driven. In order to prove there is a reduction in any harm, or to demonstrate different elements of change, social scientist rely on evidence. In fact, it is one of the challenges I occasionally face while at GCSTOP. I’ve come to understand that I would much prefer to go out on RRT visits or work with syringe exchange initiatives doing outreach in communities to provide resources than to sit in the office and record the data of the population receiving the services. (L. David, 2014)

I naturally align with the idea that human internal and external conflicts play a significant role in human maturation. The questions that linger in my mind are: What do humans collectively value in general, how do they identify, what do they believe, what are their routines? Are we willing to face ourselves when we don’t mirror the images we project? How do we approach self-care? How does experience inform our future self? Can we look at inadequacies as areas of growth and not try to run the other way when we have disturbing feelings arise?

Feminist theory seeks to explain the differences between men and women, particularly as they progress throughout the lifespan. Feminist practice seeks to implement approaches that are tailored to address these differences. The majority of social workers are women and are often are the ones who receive support or are otherwise the ones who are most intricately connected to the support of social services. (Teeter & Kondrat, 2014) With feminism there are certain tenets that align with NASW code of ethics such as respecting the human dignity and worth of a person, integrity, competence and social justice at the mezzo level but in the next section I would like to explicate how those things affect me personally.

I am a young, black, gender-maneuvering, artist and activist who believes in the power of art and culture to empower through radical community based knowledge sharing. Art is who and what I am. It is how I navigate the realm of social justice and movement work. I am passionate about people and creative expression for social change. Art is the vehicle that keeps the movement moving. Yet and still, there is a lot of erasure when it comes to artist of color in regards to activism and identity. My job, often times looks like highlighting people of color in the city/community. Replacing missing narratives in this history of the city, as a multicultural, working-class, hustling community. My goal as an artist is not simply to profit from my own creations, but to make space for marginalized voices. Activism looks different for everybody. Queers of color and other intersectional approaches are often missing from dominant accounts of the city yet they are essential in understanding who pays for and who benefits from urban development. Which is to say another large role of my artistry is to enlighten community about issues of equity and anti-oppression through artivism. We have to take institutional power and bring it back to the community by re-resourcing or allocating funds without tokenizing the people and getting them paid. Throughout history people have tried to divide arts from politics but often times you have to win the arts of the mind of the people to get them to move, and you do that with art. My organizing experience is mostly that of a lived experience as a “disabled” Black Queer Feminist Artist. Through this lens I approach/see everything. I have for many years, worked toward disability and mental health awareness as a student and person who has endured the ramifications of human struggle. It caused me to find alternative methods to navigate systems of oppression. Through art, I began to really understand the value of community. Having it allows me to define who my community is what the needs of that community are. I have learned how to be absolutely intentional around prioritizing space for people who cannot for instance call the police. It is an artform to create a culture of community. I have dedicated my life to finding a way to create funds to create lasting space for marginalized artist.

Professional Use of Self

According to an article produced by The New Social Worker, a professional use of self in social work practice is the “combining of knowledge, values, and skills gained in social work education with aspects of one’s personal self, including personality traits, belief systems, life experiences, and cultural heritage.” (Walters, 2014)

The knowledge that I have gained from social work has aided immensely in my practice in ways known and unknown. I am filled with gratitude for the opportunity to become and to continue learning. Daily, I am becoming more of my best self and more aware of the ways in which who I am as a person, impacts myself and others. CBT causes me to look at myself critically and do things like rearrange negative self-talk into more empowering, enabling statements This acute consciousness is focused around my personality, patterns and behaviors in relationships, belief systems, personal association with anxiety and use of self-disclosure.

2019-4-18-1555602666

Is Atwood’s ‘The Handmaid’s Tale’ purely a feminist novel?: essay help site:edu

Imagine a society where the only use of women is to repopulate society, where a woman’s worth is essentially determined by her ovaries. This frightening scenario is a reality in Margaret Atwood’s novel, The Handmaid’s Tale. Atwood wrote The Handmaid’s Tale in response to the hostile political climate of the 1980s. The book portrays women being forced to conform with traditional ideas about themselves which leads to their mentality being heavily constrained by gender roles. The constraints that women encounter are utilized by the bourgeoisie for their benefit. These ideas are portrayed in the novel through the means of women being given limited freedom of expression, the credibility of these women depending on their fertility and appearance, and finally, the women’s role as the proletariat. Standing in stark contrast to the ideas of feminism, The Handmaid’s Tale is one of Margaret Atwood’s most successful work.

At first glance, The Handmaid’s Tale appears to be a call for feminine unity. However, among closer analyzation, it becomes evident that Margaret Atwood’s aim was not to conform with feminist ideologies but to hint at how society has dramatically failed to protect its women. This point becomes evident when light is shed upon the amount of scrutiny that the handmaids in the novel are subjected to. Society, more specifically men, under the label of ‘protection’ have forbidden women from many tasks that the men themselves can openly occupy themselves with. A prime example of how freedom of expression is limited can be examined through a passage that is narrated by Offred. She claims, “There are other women with baskets, some in red, some in the dull green of the Marathas, some in the striped dresses, red and blue and green and cheap and skimp, that mark the women of the poorer men” (24). This passage by Offred outlines the fact that women are recognized by the colour of their dress. Essentially, society in Gilead has mandated that women of different classes must succumb to wearing the colours that are associated with who they belong to. Those who are handmaids must wear the colour red, and those who belong to poor men must associate themselves with dresses that are red, blue, green, cheap and skimp. This goes on to highlight that women in The Handmaid’s Tale are restricted from practicing something as common as choosing their own clothes and to conform with societal norms, the clothing that women wear must affiliate them with their class. It is also important to note that the clothing restrictions are not imposed upon the men of society. Instead, it is the women of the men who must wear the specified types of clothes. Additionally, it falls within the ideologies of the Republic of Gilead that women must keep to themselves unless it is necessary for them to interact with society. This concept is demonstrated by a quote that is stated by Aunt Lydia, Offred’s mentor. Aunt Lydia warns Offred that she must protect herself from society by stating, “Modesty is invisibility. To be seen – is to be – her voice trembled – penetrated” (28). This quote by Aunt Lydia signifies the lack of freedom presented to women. This exists to the point where women must protect themselves from being seen in society without reason because if caught, they will be punished. This outlines the fact that women must comply with societal expectations. Otherwise, they may have to deal with difficult consequences. Subsequently, although unapparent, the name given to the handmaids also stands for something. The handmaids, who are only used to bear children, have no name and are only identifiable by being ‘of’ the commander. As the names suggest, Offred and Ofglen are prime examples of this concept as both their names start with an ‘of’. Overall, it is safe to infer that the conditions women experience in the novel conform with the traditional ideas laid out for women.

Subsequently, women in The Handmaid’s Tale are oppressed in a variety of ways, most notably through the confiscation of their reproductive rights. These women are judged based upon their fertility and how appealing they seem to society. As mentioned earlier, the whole point of the handmaids in Gilead is to repopulate society. For this to work, it is imperative that the handmaids must be fertile, otherwise, they are of no use. Offred validates this claim by stating, “As we wait in our double line, the door opens, and two more women come in. Both in the red dresses and white wings of the Handmaids. One of them is vastly pregnant; her belly, under her loose garment, swells triumphantly. There is shifting in the room, a murmur, as escape of breath; despite ourselves, we turn our heads, blatantly, to see better; our fingers itch to touch her. She’s a magical presence to us, an object of envy and desire, we covet her” (26). In this quote, Offred refers to the pregnant handmaid as a magical presence who lights up the room as soon as she walks in. This goes on to show that a pregnant handmaid is the best handmaid since this implies that she has fulfilled her purpose in society, which is to reproduce. Offred, and all other handmaids present in the room almost envy her presence which implies that fertility is what determines the worth of women in society. Additionally, The Handmaid’s Tale lends itself to the idea that women are under extreme oppression and the standards that women are expected to meet puts them in self-doubt. Offred claims, “My nakedness is strange to me already. Did I really wear bathing suits, at the beach? I did, without thought, among men, without caring that my legs, my arms, my thighs and back were on display, could be seen. Shameful, immodest. I avoid looking down at my body, not so much because it’s shameful or immodest but because I don’t want to see it. I don’t want to look at something that determines me so completely” (63). This passage highlights that women in the Republic of Gilead are extremely unhappy with their body as society has enforced that women must be modest and appear a certain way. Offred also claims that she does not want to look at her body since her appearance is essentially what determines her. This outlines the need for women to appear a regulated way in order to be accepted by society. Comprehensively, one can infer that the societal expectations set out for women in the Handmaid’s Tale stand for everything that is against the commandments of feminism and essentially, conform with traditional ideas about them.

Additionally, when analyzing The Handmaid’s Tale, it is common to focus on the feminist ideas that Atwood has based this novel upon. However, subtly enough, she has also embedded aspects that conform with Karl Marx’s communist manifesto. It is evident that the Republic of Gilead functions upon the class distinctions that are prevalent within society. Those who associate with the higher class have the luxury of enjoying unlimited freedom whereas those who belong to the lower class pursue a very limited life. Through this, one can infer that the handmaids symbolize the proletariat who are utilized by the bourgeoisie as they are harshly indoctrinated by being denied their basic freedoms. Additionally, in the novel, the classes are divided along gender lines. The men act as the commanders who possess total control over society. Their wives, although women, are given special privileges due to their relationship with the commanders. The rest of the women make up the subordinate class. The relationship between men and lower-class women conforms with Marxist ideas as pregnancy is controlled by the ‘commander’ who, in the novel, represent the bourgeoisie. The women will cease to survive and essentially have no purpose if they fail to reproduce. This resembles Marxism in the sense that the commanders ‘control the means of production’ and can exploit any handmaid at choice by claiming that it is to repopulate society. The women must let the commander ‘use’ them as they need the commander to survive. To validate the class distinctions even further, Offred states, “There is the commander’s [umbrella], which is black, his wife’s, which is blue, and mine, which is red” (13). Although this comment may seem insignificant, it highlights the idea that there exist class distinctions as they are outlined by a physical and tangible object such as the umbrella. The color black, of the commander’s umbrella represents dominance whereas Offred’s umbrella is a red which is an emotionally intense color used to increase her sexual worth. Furthermore, it is evident that class distinctions exist within the novel as the commander uses Offred as a footrest which symbolizes the complete degradation of Offred and every other handmaid’s status. In essence, one can conclude that the society in The Handmaid’s Tale operates on the exploitation of the proletariat.

Though many would claim that The Handmaid’s Tale is purely a feminist novel affirming traditional ideas about women, it also incorporates within itself some ideas of Marxism. The novel showcases how the handmaids serve the role of the proletariat as their exploitation is sanctioned by society. This is demonstrated by the ideas that women are restricted freedom, ranked based on their fertility, and exploited through class systems. Through The Handmaid’s Tale, Margaret Atwood aims to warn society about the negative consequences that may arise if traditional ideas about women are taken to their logical conclusions.

2019-4-24-1556076137

‘One Day at a Time’ (Netflix show) and the American Dream

In the popular imagination, the American Dream is the concept that if someone works hard enough, he or she can “make it” in the United States and achieve social mobility. Everyone has a different conception of success and the American Dream; teenagers might want to succeed by conforming to their friends’ expectations, and success for immigrants might be moving to the United States and having a better life there. One Day at a Time is a Netflix original show that is a remake of one of the same name from the 1970s, which is about a white single mother and her two children. This series is set in the present day and is about an intergenerational Hispanic family made up of a single mother named Penelope Alvarez, her two teenage children (Alex and Elena), and her mother (Lydia), as well as her white best friend (Schneider). In One Day at a Time, the major characters’ opinions about topics like work, the American identity, money, and education reflect that there are different conceptions of the American Dream. The characters cannot understand each other’s ambitions and insist on forcing their versions of the Dream on others, because their perspectives on how to achieve success come from their own personal histories, class struggles, and values.

Penelope’s judgment of Schneider’s career choices and his inability to help her study show that the contrast between them relates to their different social classes and lifestyles; they therefore choose to force their values on each other, showing that her pragmatism contrasts with his idealism. Penelope has a job in a hospital at the start of the series and studies to become a nurse practitioner. She is middle-class and her parents immigrated from Cuba; she represents the trope of the hardworking first-generation American. Schneider is the owner and manager of the apartment the Alvarez family lives in, and he inherited his wealth from his rich parents. He represents white privilege, the idea that white people have certain societal advantages that people of color do not. He says to her after announcing that he has attempted to fix the Alvarezes’ apartment’s lights, “See, I realized why I wasn’t happy at work. [Penelope:] Because you never push yourself and you have the soft, white hands of a geisha?… [Schneider:] But it’s really that I’m more of a manager than a ‘worker,’ per se. So I hired an assistant to handle all the basics around the building while I focus on the big-picture stuff” (“Work Hard, Play Hard”). Schneider believes that he is unhappy because his job does not reflect his true dreams. He does not want to be part of the proletariat and he instead wants to tell other people what to do. He does not work much as the owner of the building anyway, and by hiring an “assistant” as his handyman (who is Elena, which promotes the stereotype that Hispanic people do manual labor), he can work even less. Because he has more class-based advantages than she does, she believes that he is entitled to not have a job; Penelope does not comprehend that he does not want to do hard labor because she has had to work all her life for her education and career. She thinks that he is unhappy because he uses his white privilege to avoid pushing himself. His hands are described as “soft” and delicate like a “geisha”, a Japanese woman who entertains and serves men (dictionary.com); this description decreases his masculinity, and implies that he is not a real man because he does not have a job. She understands that a middle-class single parent like her, who needs to provide for her children, does not have the luxury to be unemployed, while he does not have children to support. Schneider’s methods of helping Penelope succeed in passing a test for medical school also fail: “Spinning! Stay with me. I have found that it actually helps me retain information a lot better. [Penelope:] No disrespect, but I don’t need to take advice from you” (“Schooled”). She says that she does not need to take advice from him because he is not exactly the most hardworking person and assumes that he knows nothing about educational success. He imposes his methods of studying on her, which involve spinning vigorously on a stationary bicycle while reciting facts about biology. She gets a mediocre test grade, showing that his preferred method of studying is not necessarily hers (“Schooled”). In general, these two conversations show that Penelope’s pragmatism conflicts with Schneider’s idealism. While she believes in hard work and actively tries to strive for excellence, he is more laid-back and treats the studying somewhat like a joke. These conversations show that there are both idealistic and pragmatic approaches to the American Dream, and further prove that there is no single conception of it.

Alex’s obsession with sneakers shows the contrast between his desire to conform and Penelope’s desire to not spend as much money; they are in conflict because they use different parts of the Freudian subconscious mind, showing that each conception of the American Dream has a psychological reason behind it. To justify buying five pairs of expensive sneakers to Penelope, Alex says, “Mom, I’m serious. I’m in middle school now. How I look kinda matters. [Penelope:] Okay, so you can buy one pair for under $40… That’ll get you perfectly good sneakers to last the whole year” (“This Is It”). Alex realizes that his appearance is important, and wearing fashionable shoes is the key to being cool. The sneakers have a high sign value, even though they have the same purpose as any other pair of shoes, which is to protect one’s feet. His superego controls his dreams of acting in a socially acceptable way, while his id drives him to impulsively buy the sneakers. A cause-and-effect relationship is established between those two parts of the subconscious mind; his superego causes him to use his id and impulsively buy the tools he needs to achieve the socially constructed moral superiority. He does not use his ego because he cannot find a balance between his id and superego. He is class-conscious because he has a vision of how to achieve social mobility, and he chooses to achieve his goal through conspicuous consumption (spending in ways similar to the upper class). Penelope only uses her ego in this conversation because spending money on many pairs of sneakers is not wise. She tries to find a balance between his instant gratification and his goal to belong in a community, but she only uses one part of her subconscious and does not empathize with him. She imposes her version of the American Dream on him, which is based on practicality and spending money on items with utilitarian value. Her promotion of her Dream comes from the low social class she was raised in; her parents did not have the money to spend on designer sneakers, so she does not think it is appropriate for him to spend money on something she was never able to afford.

Elena’s and Lydia’s contrasting attitudes toward voting and protesting express their conceptions of the American identity, showing that their imposition of their Dreams on each other relate to the values they and the surrounding society consider the most important. Elena is a second-generation American, while Lydia fled Cuba when Fidel Castro took over in the revolution in 1959. Lydia’s belief is that the United States is perfect as is because it is many times freer than the Castro regime, while Elena thinks that there is more to change about the country. These two characters’ personal values allow them to force each other to either live by their conceptions of the Dream or judge each other’s Dreams. Lydia justifies her choice of not voting by saying, “Vote, don’t vote, it doesn’t matter. We always end up with the same comebolas [the Spanish word for suckers]. [Elena:] But you’re always talking about how this country saved you from a communist dictatorship and how democracy is a gift” (“Roots”). The real reason Lydia does not vote is that she cannot, because she is not a citizen. Her justification is that the election winners are all ineffective, so there is no point in voting at all. Voting is one of the most important duties Americans have because it allows them to choose the leaders they want. According to Elena, Lydia should vote because she lives in a democratic country that has real elections, and women and people of color like her have the right to vote after centuries of fighting for it. Elena imposes her version of the Dream on Lydia because she expects that everyone can; she has the privileges of being a native-born citizen and being automatically registered to vote in this country. Besides voting, Lydia also has a negative impression of the protests that have come into existence after Donald Trump’s election in 2016. When Elena asks to march with a fictional environmentalist group called Lesbians Against Fracking, Lydia says, “This is march madness! You know, I did like the Women’s March. I looked very nice in that pink pussycat hat. [Elena:] That’s right. And we really showed the patriarchy that men can no longer strut around with zero self-awareness, and shove their masculinity in our faces” (“Schooled”). Lydia opposes most protests because there are so many of them and niche groups, like lesbians against fracking, often lead them. Because of this, the activist movements during the Trump presidency are “march madness” (the name of the NCAA basketball tournament, which is equally as overexposed as the marches); her comment implies that the insanity that the mass protests created has bored her. Her favorite part of the Women’s March was that she looked attractive in the pussycat hats it popularized, not that the march was based on feminism and other liberal ideas. Lydia does not impose her own Dream on Elena, but she judges her granddaughter’s ways of achieving a better United States. Throughout Lydia’s lifetime, there have been protests for racial and sexual minorities and women. Because these groups got their basic civil rights, she thinks that there needs to be an end as to how many rights they should earn.

These two characters’ different opinions about the United States’ future are also reflected through Lydia’s judgment of Elena’s Dream to create a better life for LGBT students, as well as her imposition of the idea that gay rights have already been achieved. When Elena, an out lesbian, says she wants to form a gay-straight alliance at her school, Lydia says, “I don’t understand why do you need a gay club. We get it. You’re here, you’re queer, we’re used to it. Move on! [Elena:] Abuelita, what if someone told you not to talk about being Cuban?” (“Schooled”). The main purpose of a gay-straight alliance is to provide a place for LGBT (lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender) students to express themselves safely. Lydia says that if the family accepts Elena’s sexual orientation, these affinity groups are irrelevant because everyone else in society should accept it and stop making it an issue. Calling the gay-straight alliance a “gay club” trivializes its purpose because she implies that it only relates to homosexuality. She imposes her ideals on Elena (but not her conception of the Dream), because she assumes that everyone accepts LGBT Americans and they already have equal rights to cisgender, heterosexual people. Sadly, these optimistic statements are not true to this day, which is why Elena needs to start this club. She says that her sexuality is as important as Lydia’s Hispanic identity is; both characters are part of marginalized groups that have not received much acceptance throughout history, and they need to find some type of public forum to express themselves. Lydia can safely express her heritage around her Cuban-American family because they all share her cultural background, but Elena wants to create a safe space for those who have her sexuality in common.

2019-4-25-1556227144

Does hip hop reproduce hegemonic masculinities?: essay help online free

To what extent does hip hop reproduce hegemonic masculinities? Discuss in relation to at least TWO specific examples.

Hip Hop is a collective of many different art forms that has transformed an entire society socially and culturally. As this cultural movement developed it has seen momentous shifts in the last 20 years, especially in regard to sexuality and gender. Hegemonic Masculinity is a concept developed by Connell, citing this concept in ‘Gender and Power’ (1987) on ‘hegemonic masculinity and emphasised femininity’. This principle seeks to articulate and legitimize male domination over women in a patriarchal society. Terry Kupers would go as far to say that in the modern US and UK the ‘ruthless competition’ between men has sought to depreciate women, stifle any emotion that is not anger, an ‘unwillingness’ to admit any weakness and to eradicate any feminine traits in women. Also under the umbrella of Hegemonic masculinity is homophobia. Much of Hip Hop does reproduce hegemonic masculinity but some artists have been able to break out of this cycle, such as Beyoncé. The Beyoncé effect has had a huge effect on empowering women as she has become an ‘Intersectional Icon’ . As well as other female artists who have combated against the Gramscian concept of hegemony that implies men are actively ‘strugg[ling] for dominance’.

Hyper masculinity is one of the main driving forces that reinforces the notion of hegemonic masculinity. These are very stereotypical things that males in society strive to achieve to become a ‘real man’. An example of this can be seen through dress ware, dances and posturing. As Kupers mentioned that men suppress or do not show any emotion that is not anger, we see clear rivalry in Hip Hop, especially in the 1990s. One very famous conflict was between East coast and West coast of the US, which ultimately led to the death of the Notorious BIG and Tupac. The notion of hyper masculinity in Hip Hop is in some ways, unescapable. The parameters of what is and is not acceptable are clear, and have merged from both ‘religious and political discourses’ as well as ghetto street culture . The one-million-man march planned by Farrakhan in 1995 was specifically dedicated to males who adhered to this notion of Hip Hop Nationalism, members of the LGBT community were not welcome, as were women of black descent. This time period served to perpetuate shared identities rather than individual ones. DMX’s music video of ‘Ruff Ryders’ Anthem’ showcases everything hyper masculinity embodies in Hip Hop, men riding bikes precariously, topless men weightlifting in a prison yard and clips of destructive Pitbulls barking. There is a complete dismissal of anything remotely feminine in this video. DMX uses lyrics like ‘I resort to violence’ or ‘Now it’s time for bed, two more to the head, got the floor red, yeah, that nigga’s dead’. The constant agenda that artists like DMX are portraying legitimizes male dominated behaviour through a testosterone fuelled whirlwind of hyper masculine exercises that neglects feminine ideology to push their own agenda is only likely to be reproduced by other artists and believed by their audiences. Media like these songs and videos that are positively received and widely viewed by a wide audience, not just African-American males, showcases that this train of thought is deeply embedded in society. Believing or not believing in this is a matter of becoming accepted in in the community or not.

Hip Hop has also reproduced hegemonic masculinity through sexual violence against women in hip hop. Kool G Rap’s ‘Hey Mister Mister’ (1995) shows some graphic details of what happens to the women who has been caught being promiscuous with other men, ‘I punched her in the ribcage and kicked her in the stomach/Take off all my motherfuckin’ jewellery, bitch run it/I stomped her and I kicked her and I punched her in the face’. The male perpetrators behind the violence of women show no ramifications behind their actions, which misleads and legitimises the injustices against women in society. Laura Mulvey coined the the term ‘the male gaze’ which emphasises the relationship between the woman on the screen with the male protagonist, as well as the male audience member. An example of the objectification of women in a music video setting is Nelly’s ‘Tip Drill’. In this video we see women being treated as nothing more than a financial transaction, wearing little or no clothing and there are many sexual and phallic symbols in this. In this we truly see the difference in norms of men and women. Men in this video are seen purely dominant, with everything happening around them. Men are the ‘bearer of the look’ and the woman is the ‘image’ or an accessory to the man.

Hegemonic Masculinity at its core rejects all notions of femininity in males as well as homosexuality. Many black nationalists sought to achieve a mono-racial hetero-patriarchy. Such a theme was an essential part of Hip Hop Nationalism, smearing homosexuality was as important as fighting white supremacists which rap nationalists used to engage the black mass. A hyperbolic example of blatant homophobia in the hip hop community is Thug Slaughter Forces’s ‘Tight Clothes?!’ [2008] which argues that whilst men should wear loose fitted clothes to obscure the form, women should wear clothes more moulded to their body to reveal objects of sexual desire. Men wearing these tight fitted clothes are subjected to violence whilst women in tight fitted clothes enjoy glamorous close-ups in a sexual manner. This already established dress code showcases the inescapable reality that masculine dominance ‘dictates men conceal while women reveal’. To Hip Hop and rap nationalist’s homosexuality threatens to tear apart the entire patriarchal system as a homosexual lack characteristics necessary to join the culture of hegemonic masculinity. In some ways violence is a use to eradicate the impurities in the concept of a real man, but in other ways it is used to discipline. Public humiliation in this community reinforces the concrete and ‘hard masculine image within hip hop culture’. A trait commonly associated with hegemonic masculinity is Toxic Masculinity as it concisely shows the socially destructive aspects, such as ‘misogyny, homophobia, greed, and violent domination’ which have been validated and respected in wider society.

However, especially from a feminist standpoint, hegemonic masculinity has decreased in recent years and other artists have risen to challenge the patriarchy to give women and members of the LGBT community a platform. Perhaps one of the most iconic feminist female artists of the 21st Century is Beyoncé even having a so called ‘Beyoncé Effect’. She has challenged gender norms and given feminism such positive voice in US Hip Hop communities. She has also tackled many social issues in her music and philanthropy such as sexuality, mental health and male dominance which has empowered women globally. Most notably her song ‘Single Ladies’ won three Grammys and song of the year which is all about a woman taking control of her own life rather than being dictated what to do by a man. The fact that Beyoncé has many songs and albums with these recurrent themes with so much success shows the relatability that it has with the audience and how it resonates within peoples lives. However Beyoncé, along with other female Hip Hop artists have been subject to criticism. Bell Hooks described Beyoncé as an ‘Anti-feminist’ due to her being a ‘slave’ to the patriarchal structures. One must question the legitimacy of these claims as she is a ‘new face of feminism’ giving a more female driven narrative on women’s own bodies and sexuality. However, whilst many of the lyrics have been praised for their feminist overtones, her fashion and video production have come under scrutiny. Critics pose that whilst it can be empowering from one view-point, she is merely reproducing the oppressive content that she is supposedly trying to oppose. Beyoncé is said to be levelling equality between men and women, but by parading her sex life, using suggestive or provocative clothing and making largely viewed videos including nudity and sexual antics, she is much more part of the problem that she sought to correct. Many of her videos or live performances reference the very same kind of dancing that her male predecessors and rivals used. Moreover, we must question to legitimacy of her actual views, are they that of the label, her audience, her songwriter or herself? Capitalism is the driving force behind most cultural and societal shifts, and greatly affects ‘gender as it intersects with other underlying factors of hip-hop like race, social-political agency and class’. It seems that no matter how far artists, male or female, try and to demolish masculine structures, the possibilities for actual change are governed by patriarchal structures.

One relevant example of an artist going against hegemonic masculinity is Lil Nas X. In June 2019 the Hip Hop rapper came out as homosexual, risking his reputation, respect from fellow rappers as well as his family and friends from Georgia which is a very conservative state. He garnered thousands of homophobic messages across his social media platforms as well as the hip hop community itself. This act highlighted the homophobia in the community and showed hip hops toxic masculinity, some rejecting the multi-billion streamed artist with his hit ‘Old Town Road’. However whilst this tried to combat hegemonic masculinity, it was accepted by the majority of the population showing that there could be a change in the trend of homophobia in the genre. Sexual identities over the past 20 years have become more fluid in an open mesh of possibilities as queer theory states.

Overall Hip Hop does reproduce hegemonic masculinity in a large scale, but in recent years with the rise of female artists and more representation from the LGBT community the patriarchal structures have been challenged and the misogyny in hip hop will only decrease. Queer styled Hip hop from artists such as Zebra Katz and Young Thug will have an impression on their impressive sized audiences who will have their own sub cultures and societies challenged by these thoughts and themes the artists put out there. Such huge artists like Beyoncé have tremendous responsibility to continue to challenge the culture of masculinity and the damage it does to society and find a way to embrace feminine sexuality without promoting masculine agenda.

2019-11-4-1572880472

Women’s rights in Australia – 19th & early 20th Century

Before the beginning of the women’s rights movement in Australia, Australian settler women were oppressed within their households and communities and had significantly less rights to autonomy and political power than their husbands and male acquaintances. Early women were deprived of many rights, and they gradually claimed these rights through a series of movements. Married women had even less rights than the average single woman, as married women were forced to forfeit what little rights they had to their husbands. Several organizations started to gain support at the beginning of this movement, including suffrage societies, unions, women’s clubs and even solo advocates for women’s rights made a large impact. The purpose of this paper is to explore the treatment of non-Aboriginal women in the nineteenth and early twentieth centuries, early feminist movements in Australia and the issues that anti-suffragists posed to settler women fighting for their rights.

Australian women were treated poorly and given unequal rights within their own marriages, and were forced into political and sexual subordination. An article published by the National Museum of Australia explains how once married, women in Australia were forced to give all of their property rights and job earnings to their husbands. Women were unable to file for divorce until the 1880s, and wives were often abandoned and forced to earn their own living. It was difficult for abandoned women to support themselves, as women would be paid two thirds of what a man would be paid for the same job. Many men protested having women in the workforce at all, as they believed it would compromise men’s pay rates. The National Museum of Australia publications also outlines the poor conditions working women had to face: women who went to work to support themselves had to resort to working in unsafe and unregulated conditions because of the limited support for working women. Early Australian women were deprived of many basic human rights and were treated poorly even in their own households.

The first significant policy changes that benefited women were granting women the right to vote, attend school and work and changing the age of sexual consent for girls. These were accomplished because of activists who fought for basic human rights for women. A document published by SA Memory describes the impact of one influential woman in particular, Mary Lee, helped form the Society for the Promotion of Social Purity, which played a large role in the girls’ Age of Consent change from twelve to sixteen in 1885. This society helped form the Women’s Suffrage Society in South Australia. This suffrage society promoted higher education for women, and women were able to learn trades such as cooking and needlework in primary school and were given the right to enroll in secondary school programs to study a number of disciplines. Lee also influenced the formation of the Working Women’s Trades Union (WWTU). This formed as a response to the poor conditions women were forced to work in in sweatshops. Additionally, women were granted the right to vote in New South Wales in 1902, Tasmania in 1903 and Queensland in 1905. The remaining states did not allow women to vote until many years later due to the large population of conservatives who challenged women’s right to vote.

Much of the Australian population opposed these movements, so it took several years to institute change for women’s rights. Many believed that putting women in positions of political power would compromise the positions men upheld. John Warren MLC quotes historian Goldwin Smith’s essay: “it shocks our prejudice, at first to see her taking part in a faction fight, mounting the pulpit, or thundering from a platform, as well as to see her in half-male attire, or riding in man’s fashion.” People were not ready to watch women “hold a man’s job” and believed women were unfit for these positions because of their nature. Australian Academic Patricia Grinshaw explains that property-owning white men fought against changes for women’s rights because they believed it would threaten white men’s political and economical advantages. The parliament at the time that these movements tried to institute change was biased because of the large number of conservative men who held positions. This was an obstacle for women’s suffrage activists, and it delayed many bills from being passed. Grimshaw also maintains that many anti-suffragists also argued that granted women more rights might distract from their “domestically oriented nature.” Men maintained power by asserting their biases regarding women’s role as caregivers and homemakers and men’s role as providers. They argued that these intrinsic qualities of women make them unfit to hold any power to vote or hold government positions. From their perspective, any woman who tried to fulfill any role outside of their domestic duties were mentally ill. These men would belittle women as a tactic to stay in power and ensure that conservative white men maintained the advantages that they had.

Before the formation of these societies and beginning of these movements, women were not entitled to many basic human rights. They had poor working conditions, little autonomy over their own bodies because of the young age of consent and laws regarding women’s marital rights and little say in political change. The gradual support that the activists behind these movements gained helped better the lives of Australian settler women. These movements progressed slowly because of the large number of conservatives who challenged the idea of granting women rights because they viewed women as a potential threat to their power and as nothing more than wives and mothers. Eventually, the persistence of the activists and supporters allowed women to escape extreme oppression and to claim the rights and autonomies that modern Australian women have freedom to today.

While many historians have written about the anti-suffragists’ strong opposition during the time of the women’s rights movements, there are significant gaps in the literature regarding analysis of women’s perspective during the time of these movements. Historically, those reporting on these events were men, as women did not have access to the press to report their side of the story. Writings from women during these movements have been recently discovered but lack appropriate analysis to form a full picture of what life was like for female activists during the women’s rights movements.

Katie Spearritt, CEO and founder of Diversity Partners, discusses how the stories of women’s activists have faded into the background in her piece “New Dawns: First Wave Feminism 1880-1914;” Spearritt comments on a quote from Mary Lee before her death, where Lee states that her efforts for change ultimately left her lonely and impoverished despite the great impact she had for the rights of Australian women. Revisionist writer Susan Margarey offers her own alternative account on early feminism in Australia in her article “History, cultural studies, and another look at first-wave feminism in Australia.” Margarey theorizes that there is a lost perspective of the women during the nineteenth century and their motivation to institute change for women’s rights: she believes that women pursued these freedoms for the opportunity to have sexual freedom. Women suffocated within the confines of their marriages and wanted to break free from “enforced maternity,” and Margarey sheds light on this as a motivation for the women’s movements. This is a perspective previously unanalyzed, and comes to light now that there have been developments in findings and cultural studies.

Author Lynne Spender published a collection of women’s writings from the nineteenth century in her book Her Selection: Writings by Nineteenth Century Australian Women. She introduces these writings by indicating that it is “a rare pleasure” to share the pieces produced by women from this time, as “in the past, collections of women’s writings have been put together on the basis of accepted literary traditions rather than on women’s interests and concerns with the results that women’s experience has been marginalized…” The author explains how women’s voices were heard only in the context that historians chose to include them in, rather than analyzed based on the women’s intentions. Most history from the nineteenth is documented by the dominant voices of the men, and women’s true voices are seldom understood. Historical events are more accurately represented when all people present are given the opportunity to share their side of the story, but this was not the case for nineteenth century Australian women.

Perhaps further analysis should be done on nineteenth century Australian women’s true perspectives when assessing the women’s suffrage and quality of treatment during this time period, rather than examining history through dominant male points of view. Gathering all points of view will allow a more accurate representation of these events to be created, and perhaps the women’s movement will be able to be viewed through a new lens and previously unanalysed perspectives will come to light.

The Trove archives contains a collection of historical newspaper snippets that reflect the events early on in the Australian women’s rights movement. One article from February 1889 shows the backlash that women’s suffrage activists faced when fighting for women’s rights. The author starts by stating how he used to be opposed to all movements fighting for women’s rights, but he now feels that women have more of a purpose than just being wives and mothers. The author of this newspaper article compares the commencement of the Women’s Suffrage Society in Brisbane with other countries where women have been given more rights and put in positions of power. In these countries, women have raised the standards and have made fair and pure laws. The author continues by arguing that these other countries are “put on their metal,” or proving their worth. He believes that these countries are progressive. The author also explains how most people who challenge the formation of organizations like the Women’s Suffrage Society merely do not understand what these women are fighting for: he feels that most critics believe women are trying to take over all government power, but in reality women are fighting merely to have a voice in electing lawmakers.

Another Trove newspaper article by Ferio Tego provides evidence for the criticism that the women’s suffrage movement received in the nineteenth century. It indicates that men closed off the opportunities for women to work a “man’s job” because men doubted women’s abilities. The author of this telegraph asserts that even if women were to be granted the right to vote, they should also have to fight in wars, become police officers or ministers, and hold many other positions that the offer does not believe women are capable of handling. Tego concludes by stating, “[o]ur advice to [women] is that as you cannot change your sex, confine yourselves to your sex’s legitimate sphere; there is plenty for you to do if you only turn your energies in the right direction, and all right minded men will only be glad to assist you in every way possible.” The writer generalizes that all men would be willing to support women in their role as mothers and wives but that the pursuit of anything more would be challenged. The author of this newspaper article was among many other men who felt that granting women any rights would be futile as they would struggle to correctly uphold duties beyond housekeeping and motherhood.

Both of these newspaper articles provide evidence for the harsh opposition that women and their advocates faced when fighting for women’s rights. Women in the nineteenth and early twentieth centuries were told that they would never be able to fulfill the work of a man and that they should remain satisfied with their domestic duties. These newspaper articles also confirm that most historical perspectives during the women’s rights movements were that of men, as women’s opinions during the time were seldom published.

2019-11-26-1574738123

Conflict between the quest for gender equality and the desire for sexual liberation

“Feminism is notoriously difficult as it was never a uniform set of ideas: the aims and character of feminist struggles were hotly contested from the outset” (Hollows, 2000: 3)

The conflict between the quest for gender equality and the desire for sexual liberation has long been a challenge for feminism. Feminists have found themselves on opposite sites in regards to their neo-liberal values. For a number of writer’s post feminism represents an epistemological shift from second wave feminists.

This thesis will discuss and analyse the dynamic and conflicting relationship between the idea of power dressing through wearing lingerie and concepts of feminism. Utilizing key concepts such as; the gaze, representation, feminity and feminism will form the theoretical framework explored in this thesis in order to contextualise the key questions and form an understanding of whether dressing in an alluring and sexually liberated way demonstrates empowerment/symbolic resistance through feminist discourse or whether it represents acquiescence to the male gaze. Furthermore, critically analysing issues surrounding misogyny, empowerment and objectification.

This paper will make a contribution to debates regarding the representations of women, female empowerment; using a lingerie campaign from LFW for Bluebella which featured 19 ‘models’ including myself, as a case study. In doing so I hope to understand whether the women presented in popular media (the point of view of the subject i.e. model) and whether it demonstrates true sexual liberation/female empowerment or old oppressions in disguise?

Through an insider’s vantage point, I have chronicled and traced the experiences of my own journey using the qualitative methodology of auto ethnography. This genre of qualitative research brings the reader closer to the topic highlighted, studied through the experiences of the author also drawing on accounts from fellow participants.

Applying my research in conjunction with a conceptual combination of work by Michel Foucault (1975), Stuart Hall (1977), Laura Mulvey (1989) and selected feminists such as Rosalind Gill (2003) and Naomi Wolf (1993) to name a few. Alongside theories of the Panoptican originally developed by Jeremy Bentham but here understood via Foucault and the Male Gaze as defined by Mulvey.

Methodology

To analyse the questions raised in this essay, two methods will be used in this report. Experiential methods such as Auto Ethnography and Interviews; qualitative techniques and approaches that can produce in-depth and nuanced information. Auto Ethnography was used to gain a first-hand insight into how models are represented and what is was like being part of a spectacle. Interviews were used in order to elicit authentic emotions, thoughts and views of fellow models used in the campaign. Combining and comparing; my own experience as well as fellow models as a lens to observe ideas such as misogyny, empowerment and sexism.

Auto ethnography is a “critical approach that challenges the privilege of researchers to study everybody’s social and cultural construction but their own” (Alcoff, 1991: 21). It is a process of conducting and producing an auto ethnographic study through the “understanding of self, other and culture” (Chang, 2008). Auto ethnography opens up a space to engage the dynamic between the individual (auto-) and the collective (-ethno) where the writing (-graphy) that is the whole and part of these three areas (Lionnet, 1990: 391).

Through taking part in lingerie brand; Bluebella’s ‘Dare to Bare’ campaign during LFW. Which required 19 women including myself to pose in lingerie at the centre of Oxford Circus. This will allow me to use auto ethnography as my main source of primary research, to give a first-hand account of how I felt taking part regarding issues surrounding misogyny, sexism and how taking part has changed my perspective of my body, how this experience has impacted me.

This research represents a highly personalized account of the complexities, interpretations, and reflections on the essay question.

Alongside auto ethnography, interviews will be implemented to compare and combine experiences and views amongst myself and the fellow participants. As Rapley (2011:16) states “Interviews are, by their nature, social encounters where speakers collaborate in producing retrospective (and prospective) accounts or versions of their past (or future) actions, experiences, feelings and thoughts.”. Intertwining auto-ethnography and interviews will allow me to position myself along with fellow models as the subject of my research. This enables me to give an accurate account and raise the value of primary research and gain an understanding of underlying reasons, opinions, and motivations behind actively choosing to present ourselves as ‘sexual agents’.

Femininity | Feminism

There have been ambivalent thoughts and feelings towards the idea of women dressing in a “seductive” way and whether it does indicate empowerment or merely old oppressions in disguise; within feminist discourse. In one perspective it could be viewed as an oppression as women are displayed as passive object/subject of visual pleasure to the male spectator a complete paradox to female empowerment and active resistance against patriarchal ideologies.

On the contrary third wavers and post feminists could argue that wearing lingerie and dressing seductively forms a part of sexual consumer culture that positions itself broadly within the discourse of postfeminist ideologies. as Feminist writer Rosalind Gill articulates in her book Gender and the Media (2007) that this demonstrates the resexualisation of women in modern popular culture and media from sexual objectification to sexual subjectification. Rather than “mute objects” of an “assumed male gaze” (Gill, 2007). However more so a shift towards “notions of choice” of “being oneself and pleasing oneself” therefore entails a “resignification of the sexual terrain from being a sign of sexual exploitation” (ibid). These views echo that of Feminist writer Naomi Wolf in regard to post feminism as she encourages “Power Feminism” that is “unapologetically sexual” meaning women can be sexually liberated and empowered at the same time (Wolf, 1993).

The discussion of feminist discourse analysed so far in this thesis illuminate two things; one being post feminism constructs an “articulation or suture between feminist and anti-feminist ideas” (Wood, 2014). Secondly, that this is effected entirely through a “grammar of individualism that fits perfectly with neo-liberalism” (ibid). Indeed, second wave feminists would argue that “a woman who appeals to obviously to a male desire is in bad taste; but one who seems to reject it is no more commendable” (Negrin, 2008: 36).

However, drawing on the experiential methods used in my research; Discussion of the Bluebella campaign with my interview participants commonly evoked positive comments although seemingly nervous, understandably, in regards to memories of their experience with participants stating:

“the experience was actually amazing, as I was heading to the place, I was terrified about it. But, once we all got changed in the underwear because we were all together. It didn’t then seem quite as scary because we sort of had each other to look after one another.” Rachel (see appendix 1)

“I was nervous at first and just being exceptionally nervous, I was going to fall on my face or do something embarrassing. But being surrounded by other people that were all so different and lovely and then after it was just like disbelief that I actually had the confidence to do it.” Josie (see appendix 2)

However, Contrary to the positive comments from the models, the campaign did have negative responses from the public/media. With majority of the comments from The Daily Mail article “Move over Victoria’s Secret! Women volunteer to strut through a busy London junction in skimpy lingerie to promote body confidence” (2017) reading:

“Confidence? I call BS. Just an excuse for attention” cited in (Daily Mail, 2017)

“Another pointless narcissistic exercise supposedly to empower women…. Pathetic! Would have been more “empowering” if they tried this little stunt in Bradford” (ibid)

On the other hand, to these negative claims one could argue that; taking part in this campaign was a positively opposite experience for me and seemingly the other models that took part as well. As Wolf (1993) states that empowerment comes from the “power of choice” and Hollows (2000) contends for women’s right to “define their own sexuality.” (4). All of the “models” were able to choose whether they wanted to take part by applying through social media platforms.

Although, I did not personally apply as I was merely working as an intern in the office at Bluebella. Likewise, I alike, also had the “power of choice” (ibid) to decide whether I wanted to take part. Rachel spoke in more detail about her reasons for taking part stating “It was more of a test to myself, I think really sort of the best way to describe it is. If I had the confidence to walk across oxford circus in my underwear, it does make you feel I could do anything else; I suppose in a way it definitely boosted my confidence.” (see appendix 1) Jodie also claims “It was nice to be authentically celebrated for who I was as a person, I’m a massive feminist too and to be in a company run by women. Designed by women. And diverse women taking part it, was empowering.” (see appendix 2)

(Wood, 2014) argues that critics have “Identified post feminism as a movement from ‘passive’ to ‘active’ representation of femininity in mainstream media and culture”. She contends referring to (Gill, 2007) that women are “shown as being empowered, to ‘choose’ to present themselves as ‘sexually autonomous individuals” (ibid). I feel a certain kinship with Gill and her writing. Indeed, ‘choosing’ presenting myself as ‘active’ sexual agent, through taking part in something that is bold and equally could be deemed as taboo was an exhilarating feeling, actively rebelling against ideological standards that society expect me to conform to; especially coming from a conservative Asian family, any public acts that presented women in a provocative manner is strictly frowned upon and would deem you as a ‘sex worker’ (see Fig 1). However, it was a constant battle as being born in a different era to a different culture studying fashion specializing in Lingerie, my views are very different.

Asian sociology majors analysed how “The sexuality of males and females is considered to be fundamentally different by both Thai men and women.” (Knodel et al., 1996) claiming “Men are widely perceived as having a natural and driving need for sex that requires frequent outlet. In contrast, women are viewed as being in control of their sexual feelings” (88).

As a young women visiting Thailand it was difficult, as although dressed modestly one would be propositioned for sex at any moment regardless, by older men; “How much?”. I recall being asked from as young as the age of 15. Although, I only really understood the context behind the question as I got older, on reflection I consider the whole situation offensive, demeaning and objectifying; I felt like an object that could be merely ‘bought’ and used at male disposal. So therefore, I can understand and relate to why Asian cultures can be reserved when it comes to sexuality as fear of unwanted advances may arise.

However, one could relate me taking part in the campaign and my views as a form of challenging the conservative nature of my upbringing which essentially requires women to supress our own sexuality with fear of appealing to men in an inappropriate manner and pre judgements from other conservative Asians. One could also argue that this is a form of feminism through forms of resistance, paradoxically through very acts that seemingly conform to prevailing norms; for example, ‘reclaiming’ my sexuality through displaying myself as an ‘active’ sexual agent. Resisting not only patriarchal ideologies but also cultural ideologies as well.

2020-1-28-1580252616

Lee Maracle’s Bobbi Lee Indian Rebel: essay help

Introduction

Lee Maracle’s Bobbi Lee Indian Rebel reveals the untold narrative of Indigenous women in Canada. The book is styled in as an autobiography and follows the life a young Indigenous woman plagued with challenges of poverty, addiction and oppression. Taking place mainly in Toronto Lee Maracle describes the up rise of activism on issues of race and gender. Lee’s experiences are used to manifest and reflect ongoing issues existing within Indigenous communities today. Lee’s autobiography proves the power of testimony. By linking generational resistance Lee transforms her present by recovering her past. Lee’s testimony provides an analysis of female Indigenous narratives in Canada. This will be contrasted with recent indigenous social movements in Canada and reflect the contribution of Lee’s narrative to social movements today.

I. Summary of Content

The book follows the life of Bobbi from early childhood into adulthood. Bobbi was born in Vancouver, she was the daughter of a metis woman, and had seven siblings. Her childhood was filled with difficulties and struggles of poverty. She was kicked out at sixteen years old, and moved to the United States with friend named Toni (Maracle, 2017, p. 27). This didn’t last long, Bobbi eventually had to go back to Vancouver to help her family. However, nothing was ever permanent to Bobbi. Soon after moving back to Vancouver she left to Toronto, to help her brother (Maracle, 2017, p.47). Her brother had been pushing drugs and found himself addicted. Shortly after Bobbi became addicted as well. However, Toronto brought her to the fore front of anti-racist demonstrations (Maracle, 2017, p. 59). This had been her first experience in politics, though marginal her experience transformed her outlook. At eighteen Bobbi was back living in Porterville with Toni. She had gotten off of drugs and was working towards a better life. She had been introduced to the Native Alliance for Red Power, she became an active member in the group (Maracle, 2017, p.87). NARP became Bobbi’s driving force, she had noted issues and the effect of oppression on the Indigenous community and was focused on changing it.

The autobiography follows the life of Bobbi Lee and proves that hardships and the oppression of others does not limit ones’ ability to rise above. Lee’s life had been plagued with hardship. Her family and friends faced issues of addiction, harassment, rape and violence. These themes are presented through an autobiographic form. However, they provide the reader with an analytical tool on how to asses issues affecting Indigenous communities. Her story brings forth the stereotypes of Indigenous communities, and life on reserves and challenges their cause with government neglect and outside oppression.

II. Critical Assessment

Contribution to the Field of Social Movement Studies:

Lee Maracle’s Bobbi Lee Indian Rebel frames the ongoing issues existing within Indigenous communities. By allowing the reader to inspect the most personal aspects of Lee’s life, we are able to follow the struggle and the necessary need for change. Social movements are founded by grievances felt by a community whether they regard economics, governance, or based on issues of identity (CITE). The Indigenous communities in Canada offer a unique grievance, Indigenous communities have been stripped of their lands and rights and have become dependent on an institutionalized system.

Maracle’s autobiography defines pivotal moments in her life that help describe social grievances of Indigenous communities regarding economics, governance and identity. We see economic grievances through her families living situations in Vancouver, as well as her brother Ed’s in Toronto. Issues of cyclical poverty continue as a prominent theme throughout the book with issues of addiction and dependency. In regard to governance we see through Lee’s life the neglect she faces as an Indigenous woman. Her younger sister had been a victim of rape, due to lack of governance and availability of resources nothing was done (Maracle, 2017, p.41). Another incident involved Lee, while hitchhiking a group of men attempted to take advantage of her (Maracle, 2017, p.79). Similarly, she feared her grievances would not be heard, or even that she would not survive the incident. She had known that had anything happened to her it would be unlikely that justice would ever be served. Her community had been stricken by poverty and addiction was subject to neglect by government officials. Maracle’s book opens a window into the life of Indigenous people living in Canada, her contribution to the field of social movement studies aids the mobilization of Indigenous narratives.

III. Historical, Political, and Social Themes

Indigenous communities in Canada have been historically neglected and ostracised by the Canadian government. Maracle’s autobiography follows her life through the 1970’s, this is the beginning of second wave feminist movements and civil rights movements (Thompson, 2002, p.338). The political climate of the time was centered on the ideals of change. In the United States reformations were being made in government allowing the full protection of African Americans from discrimination. Political tensions regarding race were rising (Thompson, 2002, p.338). This meant discourse across most western countries was directed by notions of injustice.

In Bobbi Lee’s experience as a child, politics seemed out of reach. It is important to note when focusing on issues of injustice regarding the Indigenous community that they are entrenched institutionally. Bobbi Lee’s mother was a metis woman, meaning both of her were not indigenous. In many cases metis people are revoked from Indigenous rights claims. Metis rights are particularly discriminatory towards women. Metis women, who’s fathers are non-indigenous will not have permission to the same rights as other Indigenous people (Dubois & Saunders, 2013, p.190). This is significant in the progression of movements regarding Indigenous rights.

In 1982 the Canadian Constitution underwent reformations and created new provisions regarding the protection of aboriginal treaty rights (Nikolakis, 2019, p.59). Such rights include the right to self-govern, this was unclearly defined and took up until 1995 to clarify and amend (Nikolakis, 2019, p.58). The right to self-government allowed for Indigenous communities to govern internal issues regarding their own communities (Nikolakis, 2019, p.59). The aim of this was to further nation-building and economic independence. However, these outcomes have not yet been realized. There are continuous debates over land rights and Indigenous identity and freedom. In modern politics, Maracle’s book legitimizes the concerns and grievances her community faces. By creating a normalized discourse of Indigenous truths, grievances are more likely to be heard and aided.

IV. Contribution to Feminist, Indigenous and Anti-Racist Movements

Maracle’s work contributes to modern day feminism as it emphasizes intersectionality. Up until recently feminist discourse has neglected the unique experience of minority women. Second wave feminism began in the 1970’s and initiated discussions of multiracial feminism (Thompson, 2002, p.338). Maracle’s book follows Bobbi Lee’s experience as a young woman in the 1970’s and discusses her first encounters with politics, and feminist discussions. Lee like many at the time was excluded from discussions or feelings about feminism, because of the injustice felt by her and her community.

Injustice is not always easily defined or framed, and for many injustices has been a constant in their reality. Maracle discusses issues of addiction and violence faced within the indigenous communities. Without explicitly saying “this is unfair” she paints a picture of injustice in its many colors. The story of Bobbi Lee opens a discussion of Indigenous and feminist movements in the 1970’s. The contribution of the autobiography to feminist and Indigenous movements is its honest recollection of pain. The 1970’s followed the Civil Rights movement, and anti-racist movement primarily taking place in the United States (Thompson, 2002, p.340). Lee became involved in rallies and demonstrations while living in Toronto (Maracle, 2017, p.59). She had felt marginalized at the time and was unaware of the impact of her presence. She had learned a lot from Doug, the man she had been living with. Still however in those discussions there is a focus on a anti-racist male narrative (Maracle, 2017, p. 62). This however later inspired Bobbi Lee to pursue such action in her own life. Her involvement in anti-racist demonstrations gave her a taste of activism, this allowed her to reflect on the ongoing issues in her own community.

Lee became involved with the Native Alliance for Red Power at the age of 18 (Maracle, 2017, p.87). This group became a driving force in her life, it allowed her to discuss issues of violence, addiction and injustice in her community. Institutionalism controls the lives of many Indigenous people living in Canada (Arthur, Derrikson & Klein, 2017, p.68). A perception has been created by the government that has controlled the narratives of indigenous people. The goal has been to assimilate the Indigenous communities. In order to have control over these communities their land has been seized by the government, they were then forced on to reserves, and their economic interactions became controlled (Arthur, Derrikson & Klein, 2017, p.68). Her focus and involvement with the Native Alliance for Red Power was to empower Indigenous communities across Canada and put an end to negative stigmas.

V. What Frames her Experience

Neoliberal theorist would define the indigenous experience as one constructed by political elites, government and economic institutions. Neoliberal policies are rooted in colonial sentiment, and their outcome has not only dismantled Indigenous communities, they have also blamed them for their conditions of life (Altamirano-Jimenez, 2018, p.45). The Canadian state has privatized Indigenous lands and has created a precarious indigenous citizenship different than a Canadian citizenship (Arthur, Derrikson & Klein, 2017, p.68). The dispossession and privatization of land by the Canadian government has created a form of dependency and again has made the federal government the donor of rights to these communities (Arthur, Derrikson & Klein, 2017, p.69). This frames all Indigenous experience. Indigenous communities across Canada are exposed to poverty, issues of addiction and mental illness often ending in suicide. The experience of these communities is dominated by federal policy limiting their ability to find the necessary and proper resources.

Beyond issues of land rights and cyclical poverty, Indigenous women are exposed to a certain form of violence. Across Canada indigenous women have been murdered and have gone missing (Altamirano-Jimenez, 2018, p.44). These cases have never been solved and are likely to sit on the shelves of police stations across the country. This relates back to second wave feminist movements and discourse regarding the unheard voices of minority women (Thompson, 2002, p.338).

VI. Conclusion

Lee Maracle’s Bobbi Lee Indian Rebel is an autobiography following the life of empowerment. The book follows themes of injustice and tells a narrative of an indigenous woman taking control of her life. The difficulties faced by the lead character Bobbi Lee surround issues of addiction, violence and poverty.

As a Canadian citizen, indigenous rights have always been a topic I have advocated for. However, I can be an advocate and an ally, but I can never fully understand the life of an indigenous person living in Canada. Maracle’s book gave me the opportunity to learn more about the issues plaguing the community and the growth and empowerment women like Maracle have had. Indigenous rights and indigenous women’s rights are still subject to controversy in Canada. As a citizen of the country it should be each individual’s duty to know the history and issues surrounding us. Indigenous communities in Canada have been historically neglected and abused. My suggestion to future readers is while reading to remember this is not the story of just one woman, this is the story of many. Change cannot happen without the full support of the nation. It is this generations responsibility to help right the wrongs of the Canadian government, and aid the indigenous communities gain their independence and identity.

2020-4-12-1586726981

How consumer perceptions and purchasing evolved over time during the Covid-19 pandemic

The repercussions of the coronavirus epidemic are still being felt throughout the world more than two years later. Many governments ordered partial shutdown of non-essential businesses, bars, other sites at the pandemic’s peak, restricted massive public gatherings, and urged individuals to work from home if feasible. With more vaccination and a decrease in incidence, this gradually weakens. In the fast-moving consumer goods industry, there have been significant changes: in the hardest-hit nations, demand for processed products (CPG) has surged dramatically, as has household spending. Consumers sought to reduce their risks of contracting the virus by slowing down the rate with which they went to the grocery. Emergency supplies have been utilized by certain customers to store them. Some people also utilized e-commerce to purchase items that they would ordinarily purchase in a store.

The goal of this research is to see how consumer perceptions and purchasing evolved over time at Co-vid. Furthermore, to examine how Nestle Maggi noodles vary after the variances are taken into account. This research also looked at how Nestle Maggi noodles performed in terms of market share and development after and before the epidemic. It also covers charitable endeavors undertaken and then during covid.

During in the coronavirus crisis, Maggi, Country’s most popular instant noodle brand, had a significant increase in sales. When compared to the corresponding levels, Maggi sales surged by 25%, as customers under shutdown loaded up on the instant noodle brand. Managing Director Suresh Narayanan of Nestle India said the company increased output at all five Maggi facilities during the lockout.

As a result, we picked this issue to investigate how revenues changed and what consumers’ interests were before to and during covid. To have a greater comprehension of this, we created a questionnaire and asked individuals to fill it out. We received 43 respondents, all of which claimed that they eat Maggie. We can evidently see that sales increased during Covid, but when we asked if their consumption of Maggie increased during Covid, most people said no, but when we asked for consumption numbers before and after Covid, it clearly showed that revenue increased, so we can say that this is due to a lack of awareness that they filled in incorrect answers, and I would also say that Maggie’s ales actually increased. The quantitative research is included in this paper. A systematic questionnaire was created for the project. This questionnaire’s data was then evaluated utilizing univariate methodologies, such as the influence of COVID 19. Screener, habitual, frequency, and demographic items make up the questionnaire. There are both open ended and closed ended questions in the survey. Respondents who did not respond all of the screen questions were removed from the survey.

Data Seticle:

This report primarily contains secondary data. These statistics are extremely valuable in understanding the industry’s trends, developments, and history. Secondary data is collected through a variety of papers, articles, and websites. All of them are included in the references below.

It’s also vital for the acquisition of primary data, because primary data is particularly relevant to this research topic and the problem it addresses. The information gathered is really trustworthy. The information gathered may lead to more information that will help the study. The core data is gathered here by distributing the questionnaire.

The funnel approach was utilized to prepare the questionnaire, which provided us a general notion at the start and hinted at customers ’ preferences and awareness of the brand of Maggi noodles at the conclusion. A pilot research was also conducted. During in the coronavirus epidemic, Maggi, India’s most popular instant noodle brand, had a significant surge in demand. When compared to pre-COVID levels, Maggi sales surged by 25%, as customers under lockdown better stock up on the instant noodle brand. Managing Director Suresh Narayanan of Nestle India said the company increased output at its five Maggi facilities during the lockout.

As smaller packs of Maggi noodle cakes became limited, some supermarkets began carrying the 1.68 kg boxes containing 24 Maggi noodle cakes, according to the article. Maggi demand jumped by 20-25 percent during the pre-lockdown period.

The director of the Rs 12,000-crore India business said during Lockdown 1.0 that manufacturing had been increased up across eight facilities, including the five Maggi plants. Hundreds of vendors, wheat flour millers, packaging suppliers, and service providers had to be resurrected.

Orders of Nestle’s Maggi instant noodles have increased as a result of the lockdown, signaling that the company is in negotiations with law enforcement agencies to guarantee minimal disruption to business. Regardless of the fact that demand for packaged meals and essentials has expanded as a result of individuals working from home and education institutions being closed while the country involves dealing with the Covid-19 epidemic, food and beverage companies have been unable to produce or deliver goods to last-mile retail outlets at full capacity.

Deliveries of both raw materials and completed goods are frequently delayed in situations like these; nonetheless, this is a public health emergency, and our goal is to keep supplies flowing under challenging circumstances.

Nestle, which also manufactures Nescafe coffee and KitKat chocolate, has temporarily reduced down or ceased production at certain of its factories, with the exception of key items. The firm has implemented the required social distancing measures and processes at its industrial plants.

Organizations are dealing with a combination of lockdown enforcement and a significant labor shortage as a result of migration and fears of the Covid-19. Despite the fact that the consumer affairs ministry has recommended that all states issue e-passes to businesses that sell necessities like food, household goods, and care products, many commercial enterprises say they are still starting to experience state-level interruptions ranging from producing to workforce significant reduction to logistical challenges.

Narayanan, who pulled Maggi back from the edge five years ago after the brand was prohibited by the health regulator and then found not guilty, said the company’s first aim was to make food and beverage products available to consumers across the country.

Consumer staples and food firms like Nestle, according to analysts, are safe havens since their operations are less harmed by the prolonged closure.Nestle’s summer internships will begin using a virtual model, according to Narayanan, and the company has launched a number of virtual engagement and training programs for employees, as well as Covid-19 insurance protection for front-line salespeople.

Philanthropic activities done by Nestle India

Nestle healthy Kids Programme(INDIA):

The program’s goal is to target malnutrition in children, teens, pregnant women, and nursing moms. Nestle partnered with MAMTA Health Institute for this endeavor.

This initiative raises awareness through classroom sessions in collaboration with six colleges. They’ve also teamed up with the Magic Bus Foundation.

Project serve Safe Food:

Nestle started an initiative called ‘Serve Safe Food’ in collaboration with NASVI and national and municipal food authorities, with the goal of educating local street sellers on cleanliness, sustainable food procedures, trash disposal, and entrepreneurship.

Vendors are taught basic hygiene practices, such as washing hands regularly, using hand gloves and head hats while making food or performing any manufacturing operation, and washing fresh fruits and vegetables frequently before utilizing them, as part of this effort. They are given a hygiene pack and a certificate for completing the program with the Nestle stamp on it once the session is completed. Approximately 20,000 suppliers in 17 states have benefited so far.

Water Conservation programmes:

Nestle is a firm believer in conserving water. By using alternative manufacturing processes and assuming entire responsibility for this endeavor, they were able to cut water waste by 49 percent. They’ve cut their water consumption by 53% per tonne of their output.

2022-1-15-1642242821

Beyonce’s Lemonade: college essay help

Who runs the world? According to Beyonce Giselle Knowles-Carter, its us, women. Often referred to as ‘Queen B,’ over the years Beyonce has most certainly and successfully made a place for herself in the music industry and in the hearts of many. The title ‘Queen B’ itself screams of authority, power and respect. Beyonce’s songs and lyrics have long emphasized the importance of independence and confidence in each individual’s life, especially the lives of females. For the purpose of this essay, I have chosen to focus on Beyonce’s newest album titled ‘Lemonade’. After extensive research and detailed study of her work, I have gathered that Beyonce Giselle Knowles-Carter stands tall as a role model for women all over the globe as well as a confident feminist. Through the course of the paper, I will explore different ideas and perspectives that support my claim. I have decided to focus on the question: “How and to what extent does pop icon, Beyonce Knowles stand as a symbol of female empowerment and a source of inspiration through her lyrics, videos and images” and how ‘Lemonade’ is associated with secondary readings from our class involving race, gender, and intersectionality.

Many critics say Lemonade solely focuses on “the state of her marriage rather than the state of the world.” However, I believe that the album is Beyonce’s way of expressing her political stance in society through the story of her marriage. Lemonade is also seen as a celebration of women, feminists, and people of colour. The album has been increasingly popular amongst black women, as Beyonce elevates and inspires them through her status of ‘Queen B.” Throughout the album, we see her beliefs in ‘black girl magic’ as she dances amongst globally known celebrities, activists and inspiring black women. By doing so, she is seen as part of them, and them of her, so by standing together, with choreographed moves and ‘in formation’ they radiate extremely powerful messages.

The album portrays Beyonce’s long-term association with black southern regionalism. It brought back black women to their brutal, historic and regional pasts by making them the ancestors and rightful successors of the southern gothic tradition. Lemonade suggests that black women are ‘alchemists’ and ‘metaphysicians’ who are at once of the past, present and future, changing and healing the physical, chemical and spiritual world around them. The short film begins with Beyonce’s soothing voice reciting a recipe given by Jay Z’s grandmother Hattie. While she recites, it seems like she is sharing and giving us the secret recipe to make Lemonade because her “grandmother, the alchemist” helped her and she wants to help us. *when life gives u lemon make lemonade

Lemonade is a portrayal of Beyonce moving from isolation to strength through amalgamating black women together by leading them, guiding them and teaching them. The implication behind making lemonade could be a message to black women to work, survive and thrive and to learn to make something out of nothing – lemonade. Throughout the harsh pasts black women have come across, they have triumphed, paved paths and made lemonade out of lemons.

She is seen as a religious figure as she leads and gathers a group of famously known women known for their daring actions and beliefs who have been victimized by the media. This gathering of women happens several times throughout the short film, in “formation” the black women assemble together in a living room in what looks like a rich Victorian house hold. The women are dressed in white Victorian gowns whilst fanning themselves; this portrays them as wealthy and of upper class. The scene goes against black history as it puts these black women in roles of rich white families who owned slaves. Another scene, to further explain my point is in the song “All Night,” which stars “Zendaya, Amandla Stenberg, Ouvenzhane Wallis, and Chloe and Halle.”

All these women have been subjected to harsh criticism solely focused on their skin color. One scene looks like a utopian feminist cult, where the women are sitting on porches, wearing long flowing colorful clothes. The houses resemble plantation homes and their attendant slave quarters. The scene after includes the cameo appearances of the same women, but wearing different white clothes. These scenes are very dream-like as it conveys the fantasy of an all-black, utopian bliss where women dress up, take photographs and perform shows, not for their ‘masters’ but for themselves. It goes to show that all these women, each influential in their own way, have made lemonade out of lemons that were thrown at them and became stronger out of that. They were strong as individuals and they are strong together. By having these empowering women stand together, they inspire women all over to fight for themselves.

It is interesting to note that while on the face value, the black women in Lemonade portray themselves as confident and evoke a strong sense of pride, stature and freedom of expression. On the other hand, the audience can simultaneously observe and sense their internal feelings of vulnerability, hurt and pain. Lemonade celebrates juxtaposing powerful emotions such as blackness, heartache, love, pride, pain, sexism, racism, feminism, black feminism, and black history in the south and therefore contributes to the mixed feelings of confidence and vulnerability. These contrasting emotions project black people’s beauty, resilience, and strength, yet still display their battle with marginalization of being black and their oppressed past with racism. Nonetheless, they still look proud and strong as they have overcome every obstacle and managed to make lemonade.

The album captures several iconic black images as Beyonce pays a tribute to the Black Lives Matter movement in “Freedom.” We see a heartbreaking scene where the mothers of Trayvon Martin, Eric Garner and Michael Brown are holding photographs of their sons who were victims of police brutality. The blank stares on the women’s faces speak volumes as it could represent years of being forced to remain quiet in spite of abuse and mortification. The images of the mothers are painful and heartbreaking making the viewers feel grievous and saddened, as we are not able to help these mothers with their heartache that has already been inflicted on them. By including these moms in the video, Beyonce sent a haunting and evocative reminder of the injustices these moms went through, and will be going through for the rest of their lives. Not only she gave them a powerful platform to let their stories be heard, but also to raise awareness to viewers that police brutality is still happening right now.

Not only Beyonce is a strong advocate for black empowerment, but she also takes a very strong feminist stance and looks to empower women all over the world. She is very articulate with her opinions on gender inequalities as she encourages women to have ambition and confidence. She is a woman who has been hurt, angry, in denial, and everything between but she wants the world to know she’s still here, still strong and still a powerful force who is just as influential as any man will ever be. In the music videos, she’s not always at the front leading the dances, but they are all synchronized in ‘Formation’ as each member of the group has their own individual importance. This implies how not only Beyonce should be seen as powerful but every woman is too, but we are stronger and more dominant together.

In the song “Don’t Hurt Yourself”, she displays female empowerment through three words; “love God herself.” By giving female attributes to God, she is breaking through the predefined notions of society and religion by giving God a female gender. In the same song she emphasizes on the fact that if women do not fit the stereotype of importance and beauty, they are forgotten. The sentence “Who the fuck do you think I is? I am the dragon breathing fire,” inspires women to stand up for themselves, as we should never be forgotten for who or how we are. “I am not broken, I’m not crying” teaches us that these injustices are not worth our tears.

In “All Night” the gathering of the women has a very witch-like atmosphere, which could be related to Yoruba Societies, where men claimed most positions in politics and in households. However, women claimed the power of ‘witch craftery’ where they ‘used that power against the institutions of society” and “militate against male dominance.” Since witch craftery was the only way for women to feel powerful back then, Beyonce made her whole album very witch-like to subtly connote how females are still being degraded, but we are in fact, powerful.

In an interview with the Guardian, she says “humanity requires both men and women and we are equally important and need one another. So why are we viewed as less equal.” Beyonce looks at how the world needs freedom of oppression and equality for both men and women; yet, throughout the album she contradicts herself as she is solely establishing her power over men and not making them equal. Beyonce’s overly sexualized image in her performances, videos, and in Lemonade has been criticizes by a number of feminists for contradicting her public declarations as a feminist. She has been accused of performing for the male gaze and objectifying herself in the exact way feminists have fought against for decades, while presenting it as an empowering choice.

In the song “6 Inch” Beyoncé narrates the life of a stripper. The stigma that surrounds strippers generally depicts the image of a woman who usually dresses risqué. Beyoncé saying “she’s worth every dollar” does not convey the message of empowering women, but the latter; this message directly degrades these women and their profession by attaching a monetary value to themselves based on the way they look. Beyonce sings about this girl to depict an image for the listener, of a woman being degraded to the essentially a ‘money making machine.’ In turn, this song can be interpreted as the direct opposite of female empowerment and associated with the objectifying of women, especially those in prostitution.

Furthermore, for Beyonce to be a role model, she must maintain a consistent image of herself and her beliefs, yet Lemonade is the only album where she is constantly representing feminism and empowering women. Her previous hit video “Run the World (girls,) includes a several amount of female degradation as implies that through her body and sex appeal she can convince the men around her to fulfill her wants. Other subtle connotations of female degradation are when the men surrounding her confront her, and she goes on her knees in between one man’s legs. Also the short cameo appearances where women were presented through sexual animal-like imagery made women looked domesticated by men.

Lastly, the album itself only stars black women and men, and stands up and protects their rights, however, all over the world, there are women and men who are experiencing the same problems, yet she doesn’t speak for them. By having only black people in her album, it could be understood that she is only appealing to one type of audience – black people. She is trying to inspire people globally, and advocate change for these injustices, however she should be advocating for change for people of all races.

On the other hand, one could interpret these criticisms under a positive light where in “6 Inch” Beyonce could be emphasizing women’s power and acceptance for whatever profession they choose. She uses metonymy by using heels to symbolize a woman as a whole. “By describing her wardrobe, we get a sense of feminine empowerment as high heels elevate a persons physical appearance as well as emotional stability.” Moreover, Beyonce’s “Run the World” could suggest that she is encouraging women to embrace their bodies, be sexually liberated and force the world to be more accepting of each individuals sexuality. Lastly, Beyonce’s advocacy for black people could not be seen negatively as black women, are the biggest victims in America. As Malcolm X said at the beginning of the album “the most disrespected woman is America is the black woman. The most unprotected person in America is the black woman. The most neglected person in America is the black woman.”

Overall, coupled with intense images and stimulating lyrics, Beyonce produced a masterpiece that enabled viewers to look at the faces of ultimate pain: to understand and listen to everyone’s stories, and to respect all people regardless of the stereotypes. By creating this album she effectively empowered women all over to be strong, and raised awareness to the experiences black women all face from racially motivated violence. Her last few words were “Look. Listen. Their voices matter. Their emotions matter. Their lives matter.” Every woman in this visual album flaunts their intersectional identity by standing proud amongst Beyonce, as she might be one of the most prosperous black women in the world to defy marginalization.

2016-12-14-1481723307

What should the USA do about illegal immigrants?: essay help online free

The United States of America built its foundation through immigrants. We have formed a country where opportunities are possible. Illegal immigrants should be given an opportunity to become legal citizens of the United States of America because they provide an opportunity to create jobs for other people, most immigrants have higher motivation to excel in a land of opportunities, and the United States was built on immigrants. Everyone should be given the benefit of the doubt in order to have a new life in the land of opportunities.

To continue, illegal immigrants should be given an opportunity to create jobs for other people. “Immigration fuels the economy. When immigrants enter the labor force, they increase the productive capacity of the economy and raise GDP. Their incomes rise, but so do those of natives.” (Orrenius 2). Where there is a need of workers at an industry, immigrants tend to flow in that direction. This then results in the continuation of the labor market. Illegal immigrants are usually looked down upon due to the absence of their citizenship in this country. Our history shows us that we this country originated from immigrants. A group of people arrived on the Mayflower in order to escape from the suffocation of their oppressor. There are varying factors of why an individual would immigrate to another country. Contributing factors that may affect this cause of migration to another country such as an oppressive government, low economic stability, education, and maybe free of religion and speech.

Most immigrants have an increased amount of motivation in order to succeed in a land of opportunities. Those who are less fortunate than others tend to work twice as hard rather than the ones who are financially stable and fortunate. “Immigrants are about 16 percent of the labor force, yet represent 49 percent of the labor force without a high school diploma, 25 percent of all doctorates, and 35 percent of doctorates in science, math, computer science, and engineering.” (Furchtgott-Roth 4). Overtime, the rise of immigration is greatly linked to innovative actions due to the major interest in the STEM occupations. Immigrants who arrive with a college degree move towards jobs that are more technical and scientific that does not require a huge amount of communication. Frank Sharry, the executive director of America’s Voice, a liberal advocacy group stated:

Immigration is integral to the nation’s economic growth. The inflow of labor supply has helped the United States avoid the problems facing other economies that have stagnated as a result of unfavorable demographics, particularly the effects of an aging workforce and reduced consumption by older residents. In addition, the infusion of human capital by high-skilled immigrants has boosted the nation’s capacity for innovation,entrepreneurship, and technological change (Edsall 1).

Although immigrants increase the economy by causing to be more efficient and productive, there also downsides to immigration. It is discovered that the wages of competitive workers decrease in amount. The new labor inflow disrupts the initial transition period as the economy is adjusting to these changes; which disrupts the wages of competitive workers. Due to the low prices of the goods immigration produce, consumers benefit from these services. Some might even acknowledge that immigrants will overcrowd the United States because it is possible if they flow in the country at an increased rate. For the newly-arrived immigrants, they all had one attribute in common; they may not have a strong communication with others. English is commonly used as the basic communication in the United States, however, these immigrants may not know how to speak. In turn, they may be employed in jobs where communications are not required, such as labor in agricultural fields or construction.

Several historical time periods have shown positive results in the United States. For instance, the Industrial Revolution called for immigrants to work in factories and farms. This era was the birth of mega-cities; which would then create more jobs for people in need of one.

Without immigration there would be no innovation. When Congress established the national origin quotas with the law passed as he Immigration Act of 1924 that year, it gave immigrants “immigration visas to just 2 percent of the total number of people of each nationality in the United States as of the 1890 national census. It excluded all immigrants from Asia. People were anxious because of World War I and heartily supported limits on immigration. By 1970, immigration had fallen to a low of 4.7 percent of the population” (Amadeo 1). However, the immigration policy was then altered in 1965 where quotas were were no longer about nationality. Alternatively, it was preferred for the ones who have special skills and those who had families in the United States. There was an increase percentage of immigration from Latin America and Asia.

Furthermore, the recent of events that took place when the DACA Program (Deferred Action for Childhood Arrivals) was revoked received an outrage across the nation. There are approximately 780,000 dreamers waiting for their fate from Congress. A part of these people are children who have lived in the United States most of their lives. Some may even recognize the United States as their home. There are those who grew up in American soil their whole lives.

They have made innumerable friends, family, and even coworkers. There could also be those who have started their own career already. If their deportation does happen to occur, it is possible that a dreamer may even feel abandonment from a country where one has been most comfortable in. The dreamers who arrived at the United States as children are those who did not make the choice. It may have been their parents who yearned for a better life for their children’s future.

Why are immigrant children being threatened to be deported for an action that they had no control over.

Also, several contributing factors could have prevented illegal immigrants from becoming legal. There are numerous guidelines to follow when becoming a legal citizen in the United States. The applicant should be at least 18 years of age during the application process. He should have been continually residing for five years in an establishment and also present within the United States. The location and where one resides affects the application for citizenship.

Depending on the individual’s current circumstance, the time range could be from a year to several years. Illegal immigrants who arrived at the United States with a work visa will eventually end in the upcoming months, rendering them to be vulnerable to deportation. Some circumstances, such as a death in the family could alter the time frame of an individual becoming legal.

In addition, countries have a higher percentage of becoming a citizen. For instance, in Canada eighty five percent of immigrants were eligible to become citizens. Canada incorporates its immigrants to their advantage for innovative resources. Community organizations are used in order to help aid the community of immigrants. “In 2010-11, the Canadian federal government spent about $1600 on each newcomer – a big contrast to the paltry $2.23 spent by the U.S.

Department of Homeland Security” (Bloemraad 2). When one becomes a full citizen, their benefits increase greatly. From income supports to protections for the disabled. It is unfortunate that the United States provides relief to refugees from oppressive countries and political persecution. However, there is a limit when allowing these refugees to enter the United States.

Comparing both refugees and illegal immigrants, these refugees would eventually be granted for citizenship. Their children will benefit from this because it would be easier for them to be integrated in schools and society. The United States emphasize its efforts on border control.

Time and effort is spent on restricting undocumented people:

To continue, immigrants are less likely to cause problems in American soil.

“There are 1.9 million immigrants convicted of a crime. Less than half (820,000) are in the country illegally. Of those, 300,000 have felony convictions” (Amadeo 2).

This indicated that most immigrants arrived to another country for the purpose of a new life, a new beginning. They did not arrive to add more conflicts in their lives. Their journey to United States could have been a rough or an easy one. What makes today’s immigrants any less different than the immigrants from the late nineteenth century. The only difference between these two time periods were the different nationalities. During the nineteenth century, many people arrived from Europe such as Italy, Germany, and even Canada. They mainly became tailors, shopkeepers, and stonemasons where they were needed by the United States at that time. Today’s immigrants are mostly Hispanic or Middle Eastern.

2019-2-6-1549459294

Same-sex marriage (Christian perspective)

The topic of equal rights is one that fits perfectly with the issue of same-sex marriage. Discrimination is still surprisingly common in today’s society and a group that is noticeably being discriminated against are homosexuals. Equal rights go straight back to the Constitution and the human rights that every person should be entitled to. The Fourteenth Amendment guarantees the right to marry and it was determined that it was unconstitutional to deny that right. After this decision by the Supreme Court in 2015, same-sex marriage became legal in all 50 United States. In the book, Same-Sex Marriage and the Constitution by Evan Gerstmann, the author utilizes facts from the Constitution that prove homosexuals should have the same human rights as everyone else. Gerstmann points out that a fear of allowing same-sex marriage would be opening the door to also allowing polygamy. This fear has been proven as an underlying issue in allowing same-sex marriage as a law. He states that although these concerns are valid, “Multiple marriages raise several legitimate state concerns that same-sex marriages do not. First and foremost, legalizing polygamy, unlike legalizing same-sex marriage, would profoundly alter the legal structure of every couple’s marriage” (Gerstmann, 2017, p.110). Gerstmann voids all linkage to polygamy and same-sex marriage removing the idea that same-sex marriage would lead to other consequences. When remembering Christian ethics and the emphasis of utilitarianism, everyone should count equally. In the book, Exploring Christian Ethics by Kyle Fedler, Fedler elaborates on utilitarianism through a Christian perspective. “Everyone counts- and everyone counts equally…All stress the importance of treating the poor and powerless as equal to the rich and influential. Utilitarianism says that we do not place our own well-being over that of our neighbor or even our enemy” (Fedler, 2006, p.31). In our society today, homosexuals are treated as the powerless and are looking for guidance through the legal system to rise above discrimination. Equal rights should be enough to end the debate about whether or not same-sex marriage should be allowed, but it does not. Same-sex marriage continues to divide society and especially Christian churches over this controversy, even though as Christians, every single person should be treated the same no matter what.

It is pronounced that Christian ethics should be implemented in politics. Without an ethical guide to governing issues, human rights are usually overlooked. This pertains to various subjects like immigration and the war. This also can pertain directly to homosexuals and same-sex marriage. Politics and societal issues need to be based on virtuous behavior. It is a key to Christian ethics and Fedler notes that “To be a truly good person, it is not enough that one simply do the right things; one must also feel the right way and do the right things with the right motives and intentions” (Fedler, 2006, p.33). The character that Fedler touches on is a character that should be visible when handling every issue in society, whether it is large or small. In the book, Same-Sex Marriage and Religious Liberty by Anthony R. Picarello, Picarello connects marriage to its relationship with religion, law, and the state. “In a pluralistic constitutional democracy, citizens owe each other the duties of civility and mutual respect concerning the forms of argument they make” (Picarello, 2008, p.185). There should not be dividing issues in Christianity. It is okay to note that some people have different stances on same-sex marriage, however, by practicing being a truly good person, differences should be accepted. Picarello continues to explain this issue by comparing the two sides of the issue, “When the competing claims are to religious liberty and sexual liberty, people feel even more free to protect only the liberty they rely on for themselves” (Picarello, 2008, p.190). A viewpoint on a subject should not determine how one should or should not be treated. Displaying the right intentions and motives means not claiming someone does not deserve the same liberty as oneself just because they do not share the same view.

People claim that God had certain purposes for marriage and it was not to have same-sex marriage be an option. The idea of same-sex marriage is still an obscure subject people lack versatility when regarding the other side of the argument. People need to be open about changing their stance on same-sex marriages. In the Book, The Bible’s Yes to Same-Sex Marriage and an Evangelical’s Change of Heart by Mark Achtemeier, Achtemeier starts off by explaining how he once was a conservative church activist who worked hard to trying to conserve the traditional way of life. He went as far as publishing an article to keep homosexuals from serving in positions in the church. Through years of guidance through the Bible, Achtemeier has come to the bearing of wishing entirely that every couple gets to experience God’s blessings through marriage. Achtemeier makes the point that historical texts often translate differently on our modern society. “Once we take into account the assumptions of the ancient, male-dominated culture in which the passage was written, we can see how it confirms God’s intentions for marriage to help us grow into the divine image of God’s love for us” (Achtemeier, 2014, p.51). God’s wish for us with marriage is that it connects people together in a way that grows into connecting them to Him and the church. Often when Scripture is speaking of marriage, it is for acknowledging the potential for acting as a creation of God because love is a center for Him in teachings. Achtemeier continues speaking of this idea throughout his book, “God’s desire for our sexuality is that it becomes joyous, comforting, satisfying physical expression of all the love, passion, and mutual desire that connects partners who are learning to give themselves completely to each other in the image of Christ” (Achtemeier, 2014, p.121). If a couple wants to live through Christ with their relationship, He would not reject them and their love. This is a valuable interpretation to bear in mind when questioning whether or not we as people should accept this concept. He would accept all forms of love, so we should as well.

Same-sex marriage is a constant battle for some people. When discrimination is present, violence and fear often follow. In the book, Same-Sex Marriage, Context, and Lesbian Identity: Wedded but Not Always a Wife by Julie Whitlow and Patricia Ould, two authors write about the sad truths that many homosexuals face when in a same-sex marriage. “Daily life for most gays and lesbians still includes the constant weighing of if and when to disclose one’s sexual orientation and martial status to others. The consequences include possible rejection or reproach from others who are intolerant and potentially violent” (Ould & Whitlow, 2015, p.28). This constant battle creates a violent trend that should not be present. Scripture often claims that violence is never the answer, “The Lord tests the righteous and the wicked, And the one who loves violence His soul hates” (Psalm 11:5 New American Standard Bible). If a claim is that God does not approve of same-sex marriage, then violence would never be the answer since He is very clear that violence is not acceptable. However, same-sex marriage does not defy what makes someone a good Christian with purely good character.

The topic of same-sex marriage has become exceedingly popular in today’s society. With various parades and marches occurring all over the world, people who want to participate in same-sex marriage are tired of being rejected. In the book, The Battle Over Marriage: Gay Rights Activism Through the Media by Leigh Moscowitz, Moscowitz addresses the trends that have occurred in history with gay activism that has been captured through media. A view she touches on is the idea of hierarchies with this disputed topic. Social hierarchies are considered to be a destruction to our society. “Confronting this shifting social landscape where categories of sexual identity were repeatedly scrutinized and traditional moral hierarchies regulating sexuality were challenged” (Moscowitz, 2013, p.19-20). In Christian ethics, the principle of equality is a key criterion. Liberation theology can be a guide when dealing with the oppression of men and women. In Christianity, there should be no individualist concepts. This idea can translate over to same-sex marriage. The notion of heterosexuals only being the individuals allowed to have the privilege of marriage is an individualist concept. It is clear to see this type of thinking does not work with any situation in today’s society and it is frowned

It is often rewarding to look directly towards Scripture when reasoning with controversial topics. We read Scripture with the presumption that the Bible says same-sex marriage should not occur and that creates judgment in peoples’ mind that it is unlawful. Reading Scripture should occur without bias and this is a concept driven from Christian ethics. Fedler mentions that, “Many Christians contend that it is more important to find the principle behind the command or law, rather than apply the commandment directly” (Fedler, 2006, p.57). When the removal of biased thinking and the act of continually applying Scripture literally, a broader outlook on various issues can be obtained. Christians who say no to same-sex marriage should be questioned on their reading of Scripture faithfully. Reading Scripture gives guidance on how to treat other humans’ beings. Whether someone wants to be in a same-sex marriage, that is their choice and discrimination is not justified. A popular Scripture comes from Romans “Owe nothing to anyone except to love one another; for he who loves his neighbor has fulfilled the law” (Romans 13:8 New American Standard Bible). This Scripture asserts that no matter the other laws that are present, if one loves their neighbor, then they are following God’s commands. This is important to remember when it seems for some people that same-sex marriage is breaking what they believe is correct, one should still love them endlessly.

Considering that same-sex marriage is an immense controversial topic, there are various criticisms against the matter. Making it legal in the United States and pushing it to be accepted among religion has created an uproar. In the book, What’s Wrong with Same-Sex Marriage by D. James Kennedy and Jerry Newcombe, the threats of same-sex marriage are explained and the top twelve reasons of why we should be opposed of same-sex marriage are outlined. One of the major points the authors make is that people who speak out for homosexuals are Scripture twisting. “It’s disheartening to witness the rising of this so called “Christian” gay movement. It isn’t enough for them to choose their unnatural lifestyle, they want to retain the blessings of the church. So they fool themselves into thinking that somehow God accepts them just as they are – in their unpleasant sin” (Kennedy & Newcombe, 2004, p.75). However, this thinking does not follow how God wants us to live as His children and serve Him. An insight to the opinion Kennedy and Newcombe obtains can come from the book, Christians at the Border, by Daniel Carroll. Carroll wrote this book about how God wants us to accept those with different cultural identities into our homes and hearts. He uses Hispanic immigrants, but homosexuals fall under the category of individuals that are outside of the normal cultural identity as well. “He reaches out to the poor, the sick, women, sinners of all kinds, gentiles, and Samaritans. In light of this truth, a fundamental question must be asked. Does what Jesus did and said have any relevance for Christians today?… Or in addition to our personal salvation, is his life a model for all time of how to live a life that pleases God and reflects his character on earth” (Carroll, 2008, p.115-116)? When recalling how Christian ethics emphasize loving your neighbor and displaying virtuous character, it seems unjust to break down a group of people who are just trying to find their own power in this world. Denying a group of people happiness would not reflect God’s character on earth.

2019-3-2-1551490609

Political change in Britain: online essay help

One very unique thing about the United Kingdom is its reliance on tradition, and it’s ability to remain stable through it all. Though this tradition is a monarchy, limitation of the power of the king began early to avoid one individual gaining absolute power. Today, democracy is accepted as a basic and vital part of their government. Not including the Catholic and Protestant conflicts in Northern Ireland, citizens accept a separation of church and state relationship where the church does not interfere with the authority of the government. Ironically, the country that influenced the development of constitutional democracies, has no constitution. Instead the law of the land is a collection of documents, statutes, and political practices that have evolved over time. There are two important documents that are central to the British “constitution”. The first is the Magna Carta, a document sign by King John agreeing to consult nobles before he made important political decisions, especially those regarding taxes. The Magna Carta forms the basis of limited government that places restrictions on the power of monarchs. The second important document is the Bill of Rights. This document is not like the to American Bill of Rights, because it lists rights retained by Parliament, not by individual citizens. Other characteristics of the political culture include noblesse oblige and social class. Although the influence of social class on political attitudes is not as strong as it has been in the past, a very important tradition in British politics is noblesse oblige, the duty of the upper classes to take responsibility for the welfare of the lower classes. The custom dates to feudal times when lords protected their serfs and their land in return for labor. Today, noblesse oblige is reflected in the general willingness of the British to accept a welfare state.

During the 1980s, Margaret Thatcher’s government brought this willingness into question by cutting social services significantly. However, some of these services have been restored in recent years. Political and Economic Change in Britain has always been characterized by its gradual nature. Gradualism in turn established strong traditions. This process helps to explain the transition in policy-making power from the king to Parliament. There was a gradual acceptance of a “House of Lords,” and as commercialism created towns and a new middle class, eventually the establishment of a “House of Commons.” Both were created through evolution, not revolution. Of course, there are important “marker events” that demonstrate the growing power of Parliament the signing of the Magna Carta, the English Civil War, and the Glorious Revolution but the process was gradual and set strong traditions as it developed.

Despite the overall pattern of gradualism, Britain’s political system has had to adjust to internal economic changes, as well as international crises. Some sources of change have been the Industrial Revolution, imperialistic aspirations, the two world wars of the 20th century, and the economic crisis of the 1970s. These events have had significant consequences for Britain’s political system.

Margaret Thatcher blamed the weakened economy on the socialist policies set in place by the government after World War II. Her policies were further influenced by a distinct movement left by the Labour Party that gave a great deal of power to labor unions. In response, she privatized business and industry, cut back on social welfare programs, strengthened national defense, got tough with the labor unions, and returned to market force controls on the economy. She was a controversial prime minister for eleven years. Her supporters believed her to be the capable and firm “Iron Lady”, but her critics felt that her policies made economic problems worse and that her personality further divided the country. Thatcher resigned office in 1990 when other Conservative Party leaders challenged her leadership.

After the jolts of the economic crisis of the 1970s and Margaret Thatcher’s firm redirection of the political system to the right, moderation again became characteristic of political change in Britain. Thatcher’s hand-picked successor, John Major, at first followed her policies, but later moderating them by abolishing Thatcher’s poll tax, reconciling with the European Union, and slowing social cutbacks and privatization. The Conservative Party retained the majority in the 1993 parliamentary elections, but only by a very slim margin. Then, in 1997, Labour’s gradual return in the center was rewarded with the election of Tony Blair, who promised to create a “New Labour” Party and rule in a “third way” a centrist alternative to the old Labour Party on the left and the Conservative Party on the right. In many ways, Britain is a homogeneous culture. English is spoken by virtually all British citizens, and only about 5% of Britain’s population of 60 million are ethnic minorities. The major social cleavages that shape the way the political system works are based on multi-national identities, social class distinctions, and the Protestant/Catholic split in Northern Ireland. In recent years some critics believe that new tensions are developing regarding Muslim minorities. The “United Kingdom” evolved from four different nations: England, Wales, Scotland, and part of Ireland. England consists of the southern 2/3 of the island, and until the 16th century, did not rule any of the other lands. By the 18th century, England ruled the entire island, and became known as “Great Britain.” In the early 20th century, Northern Ireland was added, creating the “United Kingdom.” These old kingdoms still have strong national identities that greatly impact the British political system.

Distinctions between rich and poor have always been important in Britain, with the most important distinction today being between working and middle class people. The two classes are not easily divided by income, but psychologically and subjectively, the gulf between them is still wide. German sociologist Ralf Dahrendorf explains the divide in terms of solidarity, particularly among the working class. The sense is that keeping the old job and living in the old neighborhood the sense of family and friends is more important than individual success.

More evidence in the division of class can be seen in the education system. Public schools were originally intended to train boys for “public life” in the military, civil service, or politics. They are expensive, and they have educated young people to continue after their parents as members of the ruling elite. A large number of Britain’s elite have gone to “public” boarding. Middle classes commonly attend private grammar schools, where students wear uniforms but do not live in. The most important portal to the elite classes is through Oxford and Cambridge Universities, or Oxbridge. Since World War II, more scholarships have been available to Oxbridge, so that more working and middle class youths may attend the elite schools. Also, the number of other universities has grown, so that higher education is more widespread than before. Still, university attendance in Britain is much lower than in other industrialized democracies.

Because of tight immigration restrictions in the past, most ethnic minorities are young, with about half of the population under the age of 25. The growth in percentages of minorities has grown despite the restrictions that were placed on further immigration during the Thatcher administration of the 1980s. Immigration restrictions are currently under debate, but the Labour government has allowed the restrictions to remain in place. Britain has often been accused of adjusting poorly to their new ethnic population. Reports abound of unequal treatment by the police and physical and verbal harassment by citizens. Today there is some evidence that whites are leaving London to settle in surrounding suburban areas, resulting in a higher percentage of minority population living in London. Despite this segregation, the mixed race population appears to be increasing, with the census of 2001 offering for the first time in British history a category for mixed race people.

Not surprisingly, British newspapers reflect social class divisions. They are sharply divided between quality news and comment that appeals to the middle and upper class, and mass circulation tabloids that carry sensational news. Radio and television came to life during the collective consensus era, so originally they were monopolized by the British Broadcasting Corporation (BBC). The BBC sought to educate citizens, and it was usually respectful of government officials. Commercial television was introduced in the 1950s, and now there are five stations that compete, as well as cable. A variety of radio stations also exist. Despite the competition from private companies, the government strictly regulates the BBC and the commercial stations. For example, no advertisements may be sold to politicians, parties, or political causes.

2019-2-25-1551128184

America’s role in climate change through meat production

Background:

To fully address the concern of America’s role in attributing to climate change through producing meat there must be a clear understanding of how America got to this point by looking at a brief history of the process. After the Civil War there was a jump in population and immigration rates and the growth of urban cities like, New York. New jobs in the city that were not farming caused a need for a solution to feeding the growing population fast. The railroad was invented and this allowed for quicker transportation and the old times of cowboys herding cattle in the West soon came to a close (History of the Animal Science Industry). There was no need to raise cattle where it was to be consumed and so there came to be concentrated farming areas. This sets the stage for the big businesses of mass meat production to develop and flourish. The transport of meat over large distances became a feasible task that American people came to rely on. Furthermore, the new technology of refrigeration only added to the convenience. “Refrigeration in box cars allowed shipping of carcasses to population centers.” (History of the Animal Science Industry) Refrigeration is another way that helped the meat industry grow to what it is today. It allowed mass transportation of meat over long distances without the worry of it going bad. Through a long line of these inventions and innovations came a whole world of trouble concerning the environment that no one predicted. Big businesses left the small local farms in the shadows. The government has a large role in supporting the big meat industry businesses and so it feels that “so many acts are intended to get rid of small farms.”(Edible) Small farmers are struggling in today’s mass production age. The uncontrollable expansion of the big meat industry is proven by small farms struggling immensely everyday. The big businesses only add to the mass production of meat in the least effective and most destructive ways in regards to the environment like contributing the the Greenhouse Gas emissions, major deforestation, and the water supply becoming lower and polluting. This directly impacts the creation of big factories that contribute to climate change.

Greenhouse Gas Emissions:

The meat industry’s impact on Greenhouse Gas Emissions is by far the most detrimental aspect to climate change. GHG emissions are most widely associated with livestock farming for meat production as the main contributor to the worsening state of our climate. “The global increase in methane and nitrous oxide in the atmosphere is caused primarily by agriculture. Of global anthropogenic emissions in 2005, agriculture accounted for ≈60% of nitrous oxide and ≈50% of methane.” (The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition) Cows are the main producers of methane because of their unique bodily functions. They digest foods differently causing methane to be released in their feces and when they flatulate. When cattle is concentrated and the feces is not disposed of properly the toxic gases go into our atmosphere in increasing amounts. Therefore, raising cattle for the meat industry is a problem that is changing our natural environment in a fatalistic way. “Livestock, especially ruminants such as cattle, produce methane (CH4) as part of their normal digestive processes. This process is called enteric fermentation, and it represents almost one third of the emissions from the Agriculture economic sector.” (EPA) The EPA specifies the process of of cows contributing to these gases. With America being one of the lead countries in producing beef this leads to the conclusion that the path of the meat industry today is only going to add to the issue of climate change today. Soon the Greenhouse Gas Emissions will be irreversible and so it is important to recognize this issue as urgent. N2O is one of the gases that contribute to the greenhouse gases as well. “Agricultural soils are the largest anthropogenic source of N2O emissions in the United States, accounting for approximately 73.9 percent of N2O emissions in 2017 and 4.1 percent of total emissions in the United States in 2017.” (EPA) This puts into perspective that even the soil that is needed to raise agriculture is largely contributing to climate change and changing the atmosphere. Carbon is stored in the soil and eventually, when it reacts from the agricultural handling of it like plowing, it causes the carbon to rise to the atmosphere. There are so many ways and pieces of evidence that make it patent that raising livestock is one of the biggest problems that need to be dealt with to manage global warming and climate changing.

Water Pollution/Shortage:

The meat industry contributing to climate change directly causes glacier and ice sheets warming shown by the increase of water levels in direct cause of ice sheets melting because of global warming and polluting the bodies of water. One way that raising of livestock impacts the water supply in America is the ineffective ways of disposing of the manure of the animals. “Manure is a valuable resource for promoting soil fertility, but the volume of waste generated by IFAP operations often overwhelms the capacity of nearby cropland to absorb it, leaving the excess to contaminate drinking water and waterways.” (Johns Hopkins) Manure can be used in effective ways which, is important to remember if we want to make an effort to raise livestock in effective ways but, the ways it is being used now is just mostly harmful. Concentrated manure, as mentioned above, causes a release in toxic gases into the atmosphere which goes into the natural bodies of water. Water is an essential part of earth and human life and now it is contaminated and affecting natural water sources and the occupying living organisms. Concentrated manure is byproduct of big meat industries that hold large amounts of livestock together in one place. This makes it difficult to find ways to deal with and dispose of the manure in ways that will not harm the environment. Water is essential to the production of meat and in large quantities. “By some estimates, between 1,600 and 2,500 gallons of water are needed to produce one pound of feedlot beef. Globally, an estimated 27 percent of the water “footprint” of humanity is attributable to meat and dairy production.” (Johns Hopkins) This statistic exhibits a small portion of how much water is being used to keep the meat industry alive. With the decreasing of water supplies this is simply speeding up the process of the impending droughts and water shortages. Water is not a renewable resource and the inefficiency of conserving water has impacted climate change with global warming already causing water supplies to drop. The warming of the climate which, Greenhouse Emissions contributes to, is causing fresh water sources to deplete. It all connects and leads to the same conclusion of the meat industry only adding to worsening state of the climate. The increase in the temperatures causes the need for water to rise for both animals and humans to survive and along with the demand growing, water is evaporating faster with changes in precipitation (NEEF). Livestock raising will begin to need more water to keep it going and it is predicted that the decrease in fresh water supplies due to climate change will cause a competition of obtaining water-the most essential part of living. Climate change caused by the meat industry is impacting water in so many ways that will only increase the demand of water which, will cause even more detrimental problems that could pave the way to extinction of living organisms.

Deforestation:

Deforestation is the clearing of forests and plants usually for the reason of using the land in different ways. More cleared land means more room for livestock to be raised and fed and as a result, the big businesses thrive. Deforestation is key to raising livestock since there is room to house so many animals while watching over them. So much land is needed to support the meat industry and the lack of forests directly causes more carbon dioxide to stay in the atmosphere. “The single biggest direct cause of tropical deforestation is conversion to cropland and pasture, mostly for subsistence, which is growing crops or raising livestock to meet daily needs.” (NASA) Meeting daily needs of meat consumption has caused the U.S. to not strategize correctly in how these lands are being used. The carbon dioxide increasing in the atmosphere is changing the climate in the worst ways. The lack of plants and trees make it difficult for CO2 to properly be taken in by plants thus causing issues with our atmosphere like global warming and pollution.

Deforestation, mainly caused by raising livestock, proves how the meat industry has gone overboard and has to be restricted as soon as possible to try reversing climate change. The land being converted to cropland is usually to feed the livestock as well. The waste of natural resources is uncanny. Carbon dioxide warming the climate directly impacts the water levels and the change weather patterns that we see today. Unpredicted weather is becoming normal and deforestation is a cause to it increasing. Americans have come to a point where convenience when it comes to food is essential. The increase of American fast food chains that specialize in meat like Burger King are direct contributors to the deforestation epidemic. The Rainforest Action Network started to boycott the mass cattle raising in rainforests because of how these natural habitats were being mindlessly cleared all to make cheap meat available to the public and they began by boycotting Burger King, an American fast food chain.(Deforestation, Cattle, and Fast Food). Our population today has grown accustomed to the fast life that demands food to be quick and a big staple of the American diet is meat. With this trend we can only expect more negative consequences in relation to climate change. Deforestation directly changes ecosystems which changes the the climate.

What about the growing of plants?:

One can argue that we should not focus completely on the meat industry causing climate change because the farming of vegetable and fruit crops also contributes to climate change. Although this could be true to a certain extent, if we look at the ways these crops would be farmed, there is more than sufficient evidence to back up the fact the increase in farming of plants can actually decrease or even reverse climate change and global warming. It is also extremely more effective and efficient. Based on The Humane Party, plant-based agriculture produces approximately “1.5 trillion more pounds of product than animal-based agriculture.” The farming of plants use a lot less land as well, “plant-based agriculture utilizes 115 million acres less than animal-based agriculture.” (The Humane Party) This shows how much more effective plant-based agriculture is in conserving natural resources. It decreases the amount of deforestation needed, it does not produce manure, and the plants take in CO2 from the atmosphere which reverses the climate change.

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Resistance of integration in America

Despite some Americans’ accepting and welcoming attitude, many Americans had a difficult time accommodating to the idea of integration. Due to the countless years of discrimination and dehumanization against minority races, Caucasian citizens of the states struggled to remain cordial and friendly towards their new equals. The two class system American society created caused the Caucasians to believe they were superior to the minority races due to their lighter skin tone. This ultimately caused Caucasians to relentlessly fight for their title of superior, even though integration was inevitable. Although the tensions between the races spread all throughout America, the issue of resistance was clearly more evident in communities in the South compared to the North. As displayed in the Civil War, the Southern states had continuously opposed any government actions to permit rights to African Americans, even after slavery had been abolished for decades. When integration began spreading, Southerners desperately tried to resist the transition and refused to respect or tolerate the members of the Black race considering they deemed themselves superior. During The Civil Rights Movement, many southern Americans struggled to acclimate to integration as a result of the normalization of discriminating African Americans that had transpired for several decades prior to the 1960s. This struggle resulted in both positive and negative effects on society that have continued to affect African Americans for many years after the movement has come to an end. The toxic societal norms of this era ultimately led to the resistance that some Americans portrayed when segregation began spreading around the states, especially in the South. Even to this day African Americans continue to find adversity being accepted by individuals of the white race as a result of the tremendous societal corruption between races dating back for centuries.

Prior to the Civil Rights movement, segregation had been a dilemma America had been facing for several years, and had become the country’s overall normal standards. It had taken white American citizens centuries to realize the equality of all races, which was especially disregarded during the early times of slavery. Most early settlers were depicted to believe the Africans were beneath them, “British settlers regarded Africans as ‘black’—a term symbolizing darkness and evil, and themselves as ‘white’—which symbolized purity or divinity. Cultural chauvinism also placed Africans at a disadvantage: The British regarded themselves as Christian and ‘civilized,’ while Africans were ‘heathen’ and ‘barbarian.’ Moreover, as Africans assumed increasing responsibility for menial labor in the colonies, British settlers came to associate such work with Africans.” (Crowther 802). The depicted words and phrases white settlers would use against the Africans and other minorities first began the shift in status between the different races. Since the majority of civilized people in America were from Central Europe, they were primarily caucasian, and therefore started to degrade any non-whites, such as Africans and the Native Americans that originally lived in North America. This harsh attitude was only the beginning of a tedious journey of discrimination for American minorities. Although the early settlers were capturing Africans as slaves to work for them, the behavior had changed only slightly approaching the 20th century. White people were still considered superior, but the status of the discriminated minorities had only improved by barely a sliver over all this time. Even though slavery was abolished by the 1890s, new laws were introduced to discriminate African-Americans, “The 1890’s were especially harsh for African Americans, as repressive new Jim Crow Laws were passed. These laws resulted in the segregation of every societal institution in the South. The U.S. Supreme Court endorsed legal segregation with Plessy v. Ferguson in 1896. In this decision the Court upheld the constitutionality of permitting public carriers, in this case the railroads, to remand African Americans to a separate section of the train or separate cars, away from white passengers.” (Jewell 27). During this time period, African Americans that had been set free from slavery now were faced with even more discriminations in their everyday life. Passing the Jim Crow Laws was another way to secure white supremacy in America now that slavery had been abolished and deemed illegal. Even though these laws were mostly endorsed in the Southern states, African Americans in the Northern states were not completely accepted into society and were still heavily discriminated. The harsh societal conditions revolving around segregation had punished American minorities for centuries, which ultimately resulted in the Civil Rights Movement fighting for equal rights for every race.

The Civil Rights Movement was sparked by many African Americans and those who supported equal rights, and had caused controversy all throughout America during this era. During the integration of schools, Americans were forced to integrate their society as a whole, “As construed by the Supreme Court, the equal protection clause required not simply that further efforts at official segregation cease, but that local school districts actively undertake the difficult task of transforming segregated schools into integrated ones. Federal district courts, the lowest level of courts in the federal judicial system, were charged with initial attempts to accomplish desegregation. In pursuit of this goal, the Supreme Court found that federal courts need not remain color-blind in fashioning remedies for segregated school districts.” (Hall 303). Americans soon realized they would have to adapt to new societal circumstances than they had to in the past. For several centuries, white citizens held a self-given title of superiority and believed any other races were beneath them and were not near equal to them. It was not until these minorities started realizing their power, that they demanded to obtain equal rights to the white caucasians who had done them harm for all their lives. Since white Americans were acclimated to the normal status of being superior, they resisted this societal change due to the support of the African Americans for equal rights. Even though the Northern states were already more accepting than the Southern states, African Americans in the North still received negative and discriminatory attitudes from Caucasians. The South had attempted endless schemes to try to derail or avoid integration, “In early 1959 Governor J. Lindsey Almond, Jr., stated that all efforts to maintain segregation had been “exhausted” and some integration would soon be “inevitable.” The state repealed its compulsory-attendance laws, arguing it could not force students to attend integrated schools, and funds for tuition grants to private schools were increased. Efforts to resist the integration of Virginia’s student population continued at the beginning of the 1959-1960 school year. However, black students slowly worked their way into the public schools and the program of ‘massive resistance’ gradually broke down.” (‘Desegregating Education’ 127) The resistance of many Southern states resulted in inevitable integration, even though they tried to ignore and avoid it. The white Southerners had to now acclimate to a new society where everyone was equal, rather than the past where they were the superior race. Even though the majority of America wanted to resist the integration, some of the Caucasian citizens were very accepting and understanding of African Americans, after seeing first hand their harsh discrimination. The resistance of desegregation not only existed in the South, but some of these resisting tactics were used in several Northern states as well. The South was primarily more racist and prejudice towards the African Americans and minorities surrounding them, and refused to think of them as equal to themselves. The overall resistance of integration spread throughout America during the Civil Rights movement due to the bigotry and discriminatory attitude many citizens had towards African Americans.

Overall, the resistance America showed towards integration during the Civil Rights Movement clearly has had long-term effects on society that have been demonstrated throughout history. The contributions made by African Americans in their struggle for civil rights have served as a catalyst for other groups also attempting to overturn discrimination. Other disenfranchised groups who have challenged social inequities include American Indians, women, people with disabilities, and the elderly. Throughout the decades of the 1970’s, 1980’s, and 1990’s many of the gains that African Americans registered during the 1950’s and 1960’s have been challenged as unconstitutional, and labeled by some as reverse discrimination.” (Jewell 28). It is evident that the events of integration made an enormous impact on society, as well as inspired other minorities to fight for their own rights. The resistance America showed towards integration was only one obstacle African Americans had to surpass to reach their freedom and be seen as equal. This demonstrates how other groups can realize that whatever is stopping them is only an obstacle, and they can fight for what they believe is right. The Civil Rights Movement was dedicated on providing equality for all races, but there was several bumps in the road that these individuals had to experience before they reached their goal. This impacted society positively and provided a beacon of hope to those who were still being oppressed. There was so much hope and excitement spreading from the integration laws, that some people forget about the negative effects that came out of this experience. “Affirmative action, according to the official government definition, involved action to overcome past or present barriers to equal opportunity. Establishing quotas of minority members or women to be hired or admitted to educational programs, or creating “set-asides,” positions reserved for minority members or women, were two of the most obvious ways of overcoming such barriers, but these met with challenges by white males, who charged that they were suffering from reverse discrimination” (Bankston 219). After integration spread, there were some negative effects despite it being a step forward for society. For example, reverse discrimination is likely a similarity to the resistance shown by Caucasians during the spread of desegregation. When white Americans resisted desegregation, they were fighting to remain as the superior race which was an advantage, similar to when white people have used reverse discrimination, they are most likely trying to use it to their advantage. Reverse racism has been used by some white people to try to blame minorities for discriminating them, as if they are too good to receive the same hate and negative behavior that they give to the minorities. The desegregation of America heavily impacted society in the long run, both positively and negatively after the Civil Rights Movement.

To conclude, the American society went through intense and drastic changes during the Civil Rights Movement, which most Caucasian Americans resisted due to their past ideals and beliefs. Even though it is hard to acclimate to a society far different than what you’re used to, the resistance of integration in America was extremely damaging to the accepting and welcoming society that African Americans hoped to be an equal part of. America has come very far since the Civil Rights Movement, and thankfully have become much more accepting of minorities and have successfully integrated them into our society. Unfortunately, even in 2019 there are still many forms of racism and discrimination in America towards the minorities we have been equal to for over fifty years. This discrimination is portrayed today in police brutality, immigration controversy, stereotypes, and other more general aspects. This resistance is not nearly as strong as how it was during desegregation in the 1960s, but still remains a huge problem in today’s society. My grandmother sadly is not here with us today, but I know if she was she would be extremely disappointed in America and our society to see all of this hate and racism still causing a problem. It is very disheartening to know that many people who fought for their rights to be equal are still partially fighting to be accepted by all after these many years. I may not have witnessed the same prejudice that my grandma did during the Civil Rights Movement, but there is still so much hate in front of me on the news, social media, and in real life that all prove that the resistance against integration is still evident in today’s society.

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Impact of tobacco crop on America and its economy: writing essay help

There’s nothing that boosted America economically in its beginnings more than tobacco. It was the driving factor of immigration to the New World, as its riches promised financial security or, to many, land and freedom. It turned a profit in the new world through direct sales of the crop itself, and also demand for more labor and land. Without the introduction of the cash crop, it is unlikely that America would have had the rapid growth it did, giving them the strength to become its own nation and eventually a global power.

The New World was advertised as a paradise in England. They did their bests to paint the land across the water as a place of new beginnings, financial opportunities, and gold. Unfortunately, in the beginning, Virginia did not have those to offer, namely the last one. Colonizers searched for ways to make money in the rough, new environment. They tried various industries, including ones such as glassblowing, vineyard cultivation, and silkworm farming. The many failures lead to the Virginia Company of London beginning in 1618 to encourage different attempts at new industries in the colony, but soon they found their match. Tobacco, an addictive product made of the leaves of a tobacco plant, was introduced to the British when they stole it off of Spanish merchant ships. Back then, although many people didn’t care for the smoke, tobacco was a popular substance for snuff and there were still many people who believed it was beneficial. In 1571, a Spanish doctor claimed that tobacco was a cure for 36 different health problems. Once it began being grown in the colony, it didn’t take off right away. This tobacco was taken from the native Indians, who had already grown their own form of it in America. Those who bought it from England claimed that it hit too harshly, and they much preferred the tobacco being grown in the West Indies. John Rolfe, an early English settler, fixed this issue by importing tobacco seeds directly from the West Indies. These new seeds were a huge success and by 1630, tobacco became the leading cash crop of Virginia and over a million and a half pounds of it was being exported from Jamestown every year.

The economic impact that the cash crop had on America was massive. Not only was it being shipped out in tons for cash, but it also helped the economy in other ways. Tobacco is a plant that is rough on its environment. It takes away large amounts of nutrients from the soil and because of this, it can’t be planted on the same spot of land repeatedly without a drastic decrease in quality or inability to grow at all. In order to prevent this overproduction, the General Assembly began limiting settlers to only 1,500 plants at a time. Farmers were forced into a system of planting it for three seasons in a row, and then letting the land regrow naturally for another three years before planting it again. This process meant that farmers now needed double the amount of land in order to maintain steady yields. Virginians began seeking approval from the General Assembly to reach further into America to take more farm land and by 1648, tobacco land had spread all the way out to above the York River. Another problem that arose from tobacco was that fact that it was very labor intensive and required a lot of people to farm it. The settlers solved this problem by introducing indentured servants. These were often people who were very poor or in jail in England and were brought to the New World. Their boat fares were paid for in exchange for usually 4-7 years of work on a tobacco plantation. This relatively cheap labor allowed Virginia to rapidly increase the rate at which they were exporting tobacco, overall growing the economy even more. The plant’s growth continued to spread out as the American colonies expanded, but in the 1680s, prices dropped. Before this, tobacco exports were often sold directly to English merchants, allowing planters to turn a profit right away, but now this was no longer an option due to the low demand. They now had to turn to commission agents, who would keep the tobacco until it sold and then would pay the farmer then, while also taking a chunk of the profit.

While tobacco’s impact on colonial America had obvious positive effects, today the plant serves as a menace. Tobacco use is the single largest preventable cause of death and disease in the United States, killing more than 480,000 Americans every year. It’s impact as a driver of the United States economy decreased throughout the years as new science and technologies discovered the dangers behind it, such as in 1826 when the highly addictive substance nicotine was discovered and 1836 when Samuel Green discovered that smoking too much of it can have fatal consequences. The CDC estimates that tobacco smoking costs the United States more than $300 billion dollars a year, $170 billion of that involving direct medical care and $156 billion of it in loss of productivity from the drastic loss of health in those who smoke it.

Despite the dramatic change of pace and public opinion of tobacco, it still had a massive impact on America’s economy. Both positive and negative effects have come from its presence in the United States, particularly in colonial times. Without it, America would probably not be where it is today.

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How did immigration to Portugal affect the Portuguese economy? (draft)

In recent years in Portugal, the economy has fluctuated greatly and this is due to the increase in immigration. Since portugal introduced the golden visa program in 2012, there has been a great increase in immigration as foreigners especially from Brazil and China. This research question better extends the idea of people being attracted to the EU citizenship which they can obtain after 6 years with golden visa program.

Portugal has always been a country that has welcomed all types of immigrants from all over the globe. The first recent mass immigration was in 1974 after the 1974 revolution that overthrew the portuguese dictator, António Salazar, and his government. The retornados was the name the was given to all the immigrants that fled to Portugal from old Portuguese colonies such as Angola, Mozambique, and São Tomé e Principe. This was a great way for Portugal to welcome the new government as in the years leading up to April of 1974 there was a significant decrease in population in Portugal due to the mass migration of Portuguese people to countries such as France and Germany. The second most recent mass immigration increase in Portugal was when the Golden Visa program was introduced in 2012. This is a program which allows immigrants from all over the globe to obtain a residence visa in Portugal by buying property over 500,000 euros or over 350,000 if the property is older than 30 years old. After 6 years, one can obtain citizenship from portugal which allows them visa free entry to 174 countries.

Answering this question is important because the immigration in Portugal, especially in Lisbon, is affecting the portuguese people. The housing market has increased massively and portuguese people are having to move out from major cities in order to find cheaper property. The city is also transforming with a much more international culture and this is affecting the Portuguese culture. It is important to understand this massive immigration really helps the economy or not.

This question is a great way to understand not only how the portuguese economy is affected by immigration, but also how any other international economy is affected by immigration, because in a sense all economies work the same way. Through this question one will be able to conclude that the immigration has a great effect on the economy. Immigrants bring money and they bring new ideas which all affect the economy. Once an immigrant trades in a country, they become automatically part of that countries economy. Since the economy is affected by everyone, hence the reason that the economy is greatly affected by the immigration.

The recent growth in immigration in Portugal has had both positive and negative effects on the economy due to the Golden Visa program and the increase in labour force.

In 1974, Retornados was the first mass immigration of portugal that had a major increase in the labour force and a huge effect on the economy.

JSTOR- The Impact of 1970s Repatriates from Africa on the Portuguese Labor Market

“The Portuguese government set up a generous resettlement program for the retornados.”

“Portugal’s population grew by 5% in both 1974 and 1975 and by another 2% in 1976.”

The Labour force in Portugal grew roughly 10% over the period of 3 years.

Over the period of 1974-1977 the labour force had a massive increase, and this directly influenced the economy. Portugal was at a time of depression and the economy was at it lowest since it was recovering from a dictatorship regime. The mass immigration of returning long time emigrants was a b oost to the economy as they were willing to do the jobs that the portuguese people didn’t want to do.

These conclusions help support how does the immigration support the economy and influence it. The 1974 Retornados was the first example of mass immigration in Portugal in recent years. This helps understand the research question because although, the most effective change in the economy due to immigration was in recent years, the retornados has also affected the economy since 1974 and it is still impacting the Portuguese labour force today.

ARGUMENT 2

NOTE: This does not have to be one paragraph but may, instead, be a series of smaller paragraphs.

TOPIC SENTENCE

What is the first argument I will make to support my thesis?

The biggest reason why Portugal had to start implementing economic strategies in order to attract external wealth and economic growth was dues to the huge economic recession in 2007, that resulted in the worst Portuguese crisis in recent years. When the golden visa program was implemented in 2012, the economy saw a drastic growth overall.

RESOURCES

Which resources will support me in making this argument? List the titles of the resources you are using.

Gale: A New Sickman of Europe; The Portuguese Economy.

Book: Sustainability and the City

QUOTES

Which specific quotes will I use from these resources?

“LOOK at any table of European economic data and Portugal stands out. GDP growth last year, at 1.3%, was the lowest not just in the European Union but in all of Europe.”

“Portugal was the first country threatened with sanctions by the European Commission for breaching the euro zone’s stability and growth pact, which sets ceilings for euro members’ budget deficits.”

CONCLUSIONS

What conclusions and inferences can I make from these resources?

In 2007 the government of Portugal was really struggling to bring the GDP down below the EU established and set ceiling of 3%.

This was a direct impact of the Portuguese socialiste prime minister, José Socrates who was thought to be stealing from the government and in a sense his ideas was what really recessed the economy.

During his time as the prime minister, Socrates raised the VAT in the country from 19% to 21% and also raised the minimum retirement age from 60 to 65. This caused chaos among the labour force which decreased and also took the streets in protest especially those in the public sector.

Researchers say that the difference between Portugal and Its neighbor Spain in 2007 was that Spain’s economy has been extremely boosted by the rise in immigration which only started coming into Portugal in 2012-2015

In portugal the housing prices increased 22.3% between 2012 and 2015. I n lisbon the prices of the housing market upscaled a massive 105.9% between 2012 and 2015.

In lisbon, in the year of 2015 there was a total of 2,199 sales registered that in total, it was worth over 709 million euros.

The golden visa program is a program that encourages non-european citizens to invest at least 500 thousand euros in Portugal, generally in real estate property. This allows then to obtain the residence permit which they can change to citizenship after 5 years.

According to one of the most trustworthy consulting firms, Cushman and Wakefield the average price per square meter in Lisbon was 3000 euros at the end of 2015.

Meanwhile the supply of houses for the permanent portuguese resident in Lisbon’s historic center dropped in order to make way for the new incoming foreigners and tourist apartments.

APPLICATION

How do these conclusions specifically develop an answer to my research question?

With this argument we can clearly see how the economy was in 2007 until 2012, and how it was due to the portuguese prime minister at the time. With the argument we can also conclude that there was a drastic change in the economy in terms of growth and especially with the housing market as it was hugely affected by the golden visa program in 2012.

ARGUMENT 3

NOTE: This does not have to be one paragraph but may, instead, be a series of smaller paragraphs.

TOPIC SENTENCE

What is the first argument I will make to support my thesis?

Although there was a lot of immigration in Portugal in recent years that affected the economy and the housing market, the chinese immigration was what had the biggest impact. Since the golden visa program was implemented, the chinese have seen it as a opportunity to invest. The chinese people are attracted to foreign housing in portugal for a number of reasons.

RESOURCES

Which resources will support me in making this argument? List the titles of the resources you are using.

“Third Countries Migration and the Immigrant Investor Programs in the EU – the Case of the Chinese Immigrants in Portugal.

QUOTES

Which specific quotes will I use from these resources?

“The Golden residence permit program is valid for one year with the possibility to renew the„Golden visa“ for two more periods of two years. After five years of temporary residence, one is eligible to apply for a permanent residence permit.”

“Non-Habitual residence regime provides a flat income tax rate of 20% for qualifying employment and self-employment income, and a tax exemption for different foreign-source income. To be considered as a tax resident, applicants must remain in Portugal for more than 183 days during the relevant fiscal year or have a dwelling in Portugal on December 31 of that year, with the intention of holding it as a habitual residence.”

CONCLUSIONS

What conclusions and inferences can I make from these resources?

The golden visa program is a program that encourages non-european citizens to invest at least 500 thousand euros in Portugal, generally in real estate property. This allows then to obtain the residence permit which they can change to citizenship after 5 years.

The main reason why these immigrants apply for the golden visa program is because they can get a residence visa which allows them to roam free through europe.

The residents with the golden visa only have to be physically in portugal for a period of 7 days per year.

One of the main reasons why the chinese want to apply with the golden visa is because the chinese passports are only eligible to travel to 25 countries visa free, while on the other hand the portuguese passport can travel to 170 countries visa free.

The second reason why the chinese are so keen in buying property in Portugal is because since China is such an unstable country politically, the top 1% want to have a back up plan in case of chaos in China and will have somewhere to go live.

The third reason is that in portugal, there is a regime which is the Non-Habitual residence regime which is when one has property in Portugal but resides outside of the country for a period longer than 183 days per year. This regime is eligible for the investor to only pay 20% of the flat bases taxes over the property.

There is also the reason of the clean air. China is a country known to have great pollution in the major cities. This is a huge opportunities to have somewhere to go where they can get fresh air and enjoy the nature which is something that doesn’t exist in China.

APPLICATION

How do these conclusions specifically develop an answer to my research question?

This is a direct impact on the research question as the point supports with evidence exactly how the economy has been impacted by the chinese immigration. It is no secret that the biggest immigration in Portugal was dies to the chinese. To this day they are still buying and selling property and this has caused the portuguese economy to grow massively.

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The Weimar Republic: college application essay help

The Weimar Republic (1918–1933) of Germany was established as the new liberal constitutional monarchy after World War I (1914–1918) to replace the German Empire (1871–1918), and it fulfilled the wishes and demands of multiple groups—including the German people, the Allied Powers, and the German military class. However, this system of democracy was not the success it was expected to be, mainly because the republic’s development required a stable international context, which wasn’t available due to the fluctuating world economy and paradigm shifts in European and world politics that arose with the aftermath of the war. Robert Roswell Palmer—in A History Of The Modern World—says that the Weimar Republic “arose because the victorious enemy demanded it, because the German people craved peace, because they wished to avoid forcible revolution, and because the old German military class, to save its face and its future strength, wished at least temporarily to be excused” (Palmer, 680). These demands—which had broader goals and visions for the new settlement—were brought together into one consolidated vision.

The fall of the Weimar Republic was proof that the state’s political instability and the conflicts that resulted from it also endangered and negatively affected the stability of the settlement itself. The republic was a sudden change for Germany and a stark contrast from the system of government that presided over the nation before World War I. The German Empire—the imperial state that existed from the time of Germany’s unification in 1871 to the abdication of Kaiser Wilhelm II (1859–1941) in 1918—was a federal monarchy, whereas the Weimar Republic was a representative democracy. Although the German Empire was “the strongest and most obvious of the new structures which armed power had reared” (Palmer, 657), it eventually collapsed due to the events and turnout of World War I as well as the decline in authority as demonstrated by the incompetent leadership of Chancellor Theobald von Bethmann Hollweg (1856–1921).

Because of the conflicts between the various political groups—the Communists and Social Democrats on the left; the Democratic party, the Catholic Center Party, and the People’s Party in the center; and the German Nationalist Party and the National Socialist Party (the group that would later form the Nazis) on the right—after the war, different parties at the time had different goals and visions for what the new settlement would look like, and the Weimar Republic emerged as the most convenient compromise that allowed the war to end and a new German state to emerge. Liberals, democrats, and socialists had been demanding peace and democratization for the German Empire towards the end of the war, and General Erich Ludendorff (1865–1937) realized that “the German cause was hopeless” and he hoped that “a new government be formed in Berlin, reflecting the majority in the Reichstag, on democratic parliamentary principles” (Palmer, 680). This epiphany led to the calling for immediate peace negotiations, which Ludendorff and his associates hoped would provide them with more time to regroup and launch another offensive on the Allies (Palmer, 680). Later, Prince Maximilian of Baden (1867–1929) led a cabinet that ended the Bismarckian alliance system and eventually got Kaiser Wilhelm II to abdicate the throne. Palmer, in discussing the founding of the republic that followed his abdication, wrote, “The fall of the empire in Germany, with the consequent adoption of the republic, did not arise from any basic discontent, deep revolutionary action, or change of sentiment in the German people. It was an episode of the war” (Palmer, 680).

Returning to Palmer’s explanation of the republic’s founding, we can see that it was actually a compromise between the people, the Allied Powers, the military, and both the old and new systems of government. With all these groups and political views involved, there was no easy solution that could cater to everyone’s wants and needs. The Weimar Republic obviously did not end up how it was intended to be and resulted in a collapse, but it was a huge step for Germany since a new type of government was established for the first time. However, as much of a step Germany’s democratization, the Weimar Republic ultimately failed—which was representative of the tenuousness that many post-war democracies possessed because of the instability created after the war.

The Treaty of Versailles presented at the Paris Peace Conference in 1919 prescribed agreements that Germany would have to fulfill as the aggressor (and loser) in the war. These agreements included accepting the war guilt clause and paying for all of the losses and damages sustained by other nations involved in World War I. However, if Germany were to pay off these debts adding to 132 billion marks, the international economy and its balance would be thrown off; the failure of the Allies to recognize that the international market could become unstable suggests that the victorious parties only cared about getting their money and was either negligent of this possibility or didn’t care about international stability (Palmer, 690). Germany, trying to make reparations, offered to send their people to make repairs and rebuild nations, but the Allied Powers insisted on receiving monetary payments because they wanted to keep jobs in their country for their citizens (Palmer, 690). “The Treaty of Versailles was designed to put an end to the German menace,” Palmer writes. “It was not a successful treaty.” (Palmer, 693) From what Palmer wrote about the terms and drafting of the treaty, it can be inferred that no nation intended to follow the terms set forth, and no one really expected Germany to fully live up to the consequences (Palmer, 693). This shows the redundancy and uselessness of the treaty; it was simply an agreement to end the war, and the terms and conditions it set forth for Germany were just meant to weaken them—which the French especially wanted.

Although Germany did not pay off their debts completely, they still ended up in an economic crisis that directly led to the fall of the Weimar Republic. Between 1921 and 1923, a hyperinflation of the German Papiermark (the currency of the Weimar Republic) created significant economic and political instability throughout the nation. This phenomenon started mainly because of Germany’s failure to fulfill one of their payments, which resulted in the occupation of the Ruhr industrial area by France and Belgium in 1923 and created a “disabling effect” on the German economy. The United States, an Allied Power that had little interest in collecting reparations from Germany, decided that they would help Germany with their financial struggles so that they could secure a payment of over $10 billion from the Allies, which they had loaned to the European forces over the course of World War I. The Dawes Plan was proposed in 1923 by the Reparation Commission of the United States. Led by Charles G. Dawes, the team offered the plan as a solution to Germany’s economic hardships. Over the next few years, American banks made significant efforts to loan the Germans money so that they could pay off their debts to the Allies, and in return, America would get their repayment.

The Great Depression of 1929, one of the most important events of American history, had an unimaginable impact on Germany’s economy. The nation, reliant on loans from the United States, was suddenly cut short of the money they needed to pay off their debts. To make matters even worse, the United States pressed Britain and France to pay off their own debts, who then pressured Germany into paying off their debts to them. This chain of events ultimately caused an economic depression that affected the international market. According to The Holocaust Encyclopedia provided by the United States Holocaust Memorial Museum, “[t]he German government faced the classic dilemma: cut government spending in an attempt to balance the budget or increase it in an attempt to jumpstart the economy.” Chancellor of the Weimar Republic at the time, Heinrich Brüning (1885–1970) decided to go with the first option, which was “the deeply unpopular option.” This decision marked one of the many turning points in the quick collapse of the Weimar Empire.

Only fifteen years after its founding, the Weimar Republic fell due to its many economic hardships and political struggles. Was this collapse inevitable, or was it merely a result of the conditions that emerged after the war? From the perspective of someone from the 21st-century, it seems as though the Nazi events and Holocaust that followed the collapse of the Weimar Republic could not have been avoided. It seems that the National Socialist German Workers’ Party would have gained traction at some point in time whether or not the Weimar Republic existed. With the republic in place, it made it easier for the party to take advantage of the failures and struggles of the settlement; however, without the republic, the German economy was still bound to lose stability after a while because of the reparations they were forced to pay. It can be concluded, therefore, that the Weimar Republic was a catalyst for the process of transitioning from a strong pre-war empire to a modernized post-war nation.

Less than two decades after World War I and the founding of Germany’s new Weimar Republic, Adolf Hitler (1889–1945) seized power in the German government as the new chancellor by taking advantage of the economic and political confusion that resulted from the Great Depression and international economic depression. It could be argued that if the German settlement had not been such a failure, Hitler’s regime would not have been able to gain as much popularity as it did; the Nazis were so popular because they were able to appeal to all groups and appeared to have solutions for all of Germany’s problems (“Nazi Rise to Power”). According to an article on BBC about the rise of the Nazis, the party appealed to each of the groups by proposing different solutions: (a) the Socialists were promised that farmers would be given their land, pensions would improve, and public industries would be owned by the states; (b) the Nationalists were assured that all German-speaking people would be unified under one state, the Treaty of Versailles would be abandoned, and there would be new, special laws for foreigners; (c) racists were guaranteed that immigration would be discontinued and Jews would not be granted German citizenship; (d) fascists were told that a strong central government would hold power and newspapers would be controlled; (e) the middle class was promised remilitarization and business contracts as well as protection from communists; and (f) the lower class and unemployed were assured that more jobs would become available and wages would be increased. Hitler, an experienced speaker, knew exactly how to act and what to say to the Germans to persuade them that the Nazis could solve their problems. With Hitler’s appointment to the position in 1933, the events of World War II were set in motion, and the world would change forever.

As we can see in this case study of the Weimar Republic and its economics and political systems, democracy was not as successful as it should have been, in part because the Weimar Republic lacked international and domestic stability. For a nation to implement a completely new system of government, they need to grow and develop in an environment where they aren’t paying off debts and suddenly being forced to democratize. World War I, having enormous impacts on the economies and politics of multiple nations, created an unstable setting that would lead to devastating events like the Great Depression, and this instability was one of the main factors in the collapse of the Weimar Republic. Although Germany’s democratization and implementation of the federal monarchy contributed greatly to democracy as a whole, there were too many negative impacts and events that reversed its successes and set back the progress that had been made.

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Philip Larkin’s The Less Deceived (1955): writing essay help

Although Britain had emerged from World War Two as victorious, the cost of this victory became increasingly apparent in the years that followed. Labour’s success in the 1945 General Election resulted in a series of social and political reforms which tapped into a national desire for change, with the establishment of the National Health Service in 1948 and widespread nationalisation of industry. However, these changes were not sufficient to combat the devastating economic and ideological effects of World War Two. As Mark Jackson summarises,

When the Second World War ended in 1945, British people, like those of many other nations, were struggling to reconcile themselves to the appalling consequences of war: over 450,000 British soldiers and civilians had been killed and many more severely wounded; families and communities had been destroyed; cities and homes had been reduced to rubble; and welfare services were struggling to cope with the burden of physical and psychological illness, not only amongst members of the armed forces but also amongst civilian populations.

As Jackson suggests, in these immediate post-war years, the national outlook of England was dominated by a profound sense of disillusionment and despair.

Philip Larkin’s The Less Deceived (1955) is fundamentally concerned with these conditions of post-war society. For example, the title, a subversion of Ophelia’s declaration in Hamlet that ‘I was the more deceived’ (III. i. 120) immediately suggests a determination to resist illusion in this difficult post-war period; ‘an attitude of wary suspiciousness and worldly scepticism’, as Andrew Swarbrick notes. An important aspect of this ‘worldly scepticism’ and Larkin’s suspicious approach to post-war society is the poet’s continued engagement with Romanticism. Throughout these poems, Larkin uses Romantic imagery as a vehicle to press against the social and political conditions of post-war England, subverting these often idealistic concepts of transformation and transcendence to explore a cultural condition of disillusionment and despair.

Michael O’Neill has evidenced the way in which the Romantic metaphor of air enables ‘twentieth century poets to enter into sustaining dialogue with the great Romantic poets’ especially regarding the issues of transformation and transcendence. Instead of an affirmative vision of these tropes, the Romantic metaphor of air in Larkin’s ‘Triple Time’ (1954) becomes a symbol of ‘worldly scepticism’ as the speaker bemoans

This empty street, this sky to blandness scoured,

This air, a little indistinct with autumn

Like a reflection, constitute the present —

A time traditionally soured,

A time unrecommended by event. (1-5).

Though Larkin’s engagement with the metaphor of air is shadowed by Percy B. Shelley’s ‘Ode to the West Wind’ (1820), each of these poets use this symbol in very different ways. Whereas Shelley’s idealistic ‘wild West Wind, thou breath of Autumn’s being’ (1) is an agent of transformative process and change, Larkin’s ‘air, a little indistinct with autumn’ subverts this metaphor to become a symbol of his speaker’s own disenchantment with post-war England. This change from the driving rhythms of Shelley’s alliterative line to Larkin’s limp syntax of indifference especially enacts this deflation of Romantic ideals and the resulting sense of ‘worldly scepticism’. The jarring repetition of ‘time’ and Larkin’s selection of ‘bells’, which ironically fails to chime with the corresponding rhyme of ‘else’ (6), also articulates this disillusionment regarding a ‘time traditionally soured, | A time unrecommended by event’.

‘Wires’ (1953) is also primarily concerned with this national outlook and has been repeatedly labelled as an allegory for the social and political conditions of post-war society. Larkin’s speaker describes how

The widest prairies have electric fences,

For though old cattle know they must not stray

Young steers are always scenting purer water

Not here but anywhere. Beyond the wires

Leads them to blunder up against the wires

Whose muscle-shredding violence gives no quarter.

Young steers become old cattle from that day,

Electric limits to their widest senses. (1-8).

The continued rationing and economic restrictions which dominated the late 1940s and early 1950s are easy to locate within the form and imagery of the poem. Larkin’s ABCD DCBA rhyme scheme is particularly suggestive of enclosure and the enjambment between the first and second stanza, which offers the hope of finding purer waters ‘Beyond the wires’, only ‘Leads them to blunder up against the wires’ once more. Although ‘Wires’ is not itself engaged with the themes and tropes of Romanticism, this sense of relentless frustration at a lack of freedom and restriction prefigures the distinctly Romantic desire to transcend these social conditions in ‘Here’ (1961), from The Whitsun Weddings (1964).

Though published almost a decade later, The Whitsun Weddings is also concerned with these challenging conditions of post-war society, as England struggled to come to terms with the full-ranging political and social effects of World War Two. Since the publication of The Less Deceived, the restrictions and rationing explored in ‘Wires’ had been lifted and the country’s economy had shown significant signs of recovery. However, despite this newfound relative “affluence” for some, a different set of problems began to emerge during this period. For example, with an unprecedented rise in immigration, urbanisation and growing concerns over the topic of political consensus, the issues of cultural cohesion, integration and social inequality were widespread in post-war society, as evidenced throughout The Whitsun Weddings. This issue of class tensions and a sense of what Jason Harding refers to as the ‘social alienation’ of the period, is also reflected in the wider literature of this era such as in the works of “The Angry Young Men”, a group of writers with which Larkin has literary and personal links.

Philip Larkin’s ‘Here’ is clearly situated within the post-war context of this collection, as the poem opens with a journey through this landscape

Swerving east, from rich industrial shadows

And traffic all night north; swerving through fields

Too thin and thistled to be called meadows,

And now and then a harsh-named halt, that shields

Workmen at dawn; swerving to solitude. (1-5).

Following this opening verbal participle, the first sections of ‘Here’ are dominated by its restless syntax, the repeated conjunctions and a resulting sense of overwhelming enumeration. Larkin repeats these techniques throughout the poem in order to consolidate this effect. For example, the syndetic listing of the numerous aspects of post-war society is complemented by the breathless enjambment in the poem’s third stanza, which describes

A cut-price crowd, urban yet simple, dwelling

Where only salesmen and relations come

Within a terminate and fishy-smelling

Pastoral of ships up streets, the slave museum,

Tattoo-shops, consulates, grim head-scarfed wives. (17-21).

Michael O’Neill has argued that the concept of ‘difference’ and the poet’s ‘troubled recognition of this’ is central to Larkin’s poetic method in The Whitsun Weddings. In ‘Here’, this ‘troubled recognition’ of ‘difference’ is evident in the speaker’s exhausting attempts to summarise and reconcile the disparate nature of post-war society with its ‘cut-price crowd’, ‘meadows’ and ‘industrial shadows’. In doing so, Larkin gives expression to the growing concerns over these issues of cultural cohesion and social inequality.

These concerns are shadowed by Larkin’s reference to ‘the slave museum’ which subtly raises issues of freedom and prosperity, linking back to the themes of The Less Deceived and ‘Wires’, in particular. This issue is particularly pertinent to the ‘residents from raw estates’ (12) and that ‘cut-price crowd’, the presumably working-class individuals of the poem. At the linguistic level, Larkin’s use of consonance creates a sense of uniformity and repetition associated with these individuals, which perhaps gestures towards the monotonous realities of working-class life and this issue of restrictive freedoms. Equally, this jarring repetition of sound may also represent a dismissive view of this class, suggesting their exclusion and resulting sense of ‘social alienation’, as voiced in the literature of “The Angry Young Men”. Either way, as the collection’s opening poem, ‘Here’ offers a troubling snapshot of the progression of post-war society, even into the 1950s and 60s, and gestures towards the difficulty of Larkin’s task in gathering and reconciling these differences in The Whitsun Weddings. Moreover, these issues of freedom, suggested by the reference to ‘the slave museum’, create an alarming parallel with a poem such as ‘Wires’ and raises further questions surrounding ideas of progression, development and disillusionment in post-war society.

With its central concerns of liberty and transformation, it is unsurprising that the final movements of ‘Here’ turn to Romanticism and this notion of transcendence. In these closing lines, Larkin’s speaker asserts that

[…] Here silence stands

Like heat. Here leaves unnoticed thicken,

Hidden weeds flower, neglected waters quicken,

Luminously-peopled air ascends;

And past the poppies bluish neutral distance

Ends the land suddenly beyond a beach

Of shapes and shingle. Here is unfenced existence:

Facing the sun, untalkative, out of reach. (25-32).

The ‘Luminously-peopled air’ and ‘bluish neutral distance’ of sea and sky, subtly registers these notions of transcendence, linking to Michael O’Neill’s Romantic metaphor of air. Larkin’s acceleration of language and syntax in these closing lines therefore lifts readers ‘beyond’ these troubling conditions of post-war society and momentarily into the exhilarating realm of transcendence. However, unlike Wordsworth’s and Shelley’s view of individual transcendence, the language and syntax of Larkin’s closing lines in ‘Here’ are of integration and community. For example, O’Neill explains how ‘cutting across all these differences’ explored throughout the poem is the repeated use of ‘here’, a word which has an odd, slightly disconcerting effect in the poem; it implies that everywhere is ‘here’ for somebody, a recognition that blurs any clear-cut sense of distinctions between localities.

Larkin’s repetition of the emphatic ‘Here’ in this realm of transcendence therefore carries with it, these disparate communities and individuals of post-war England into this glorious ‘unfenced existence’. Andrew Swarbrick’s notion of the ‘accumulative syntax’ explored throughout the poem can also be considered in relation to this ‘accumulative’ transcendental vision. This ‘existence’, which so explicitly recalls the ‘electric fences’ and hopeless attempts to move ‘Beyond’ the ‘Wires’, articulates the speaker’s communal desire for a society in which such restrictions, inequalities and differences are no longer present. Larkin therefore engages with, and extends, this Romantic legacy, in his communal vision of transcendence ‘beyond’ the restrictive conditions of post-war society.

Unfortunately, this ongoing sense of ‘worldly scepticism’ means that, despite the pause created by the colon of ‘unfenced existence:’, this vision of transcendence cannot be truthfully sustained. As such, the broken syntax of this final line ‘Facing the sun, untalkative, out of reach’ painfully enacts the speaker’s failing grip on this transcendental, communal vision and the inevitable return to reality. Stephen Regan explains how

Given that there can be no final or permanent sense of release, the ultimate direction of the poem is not forward (since it can only gesture towards transcendence) but back, with renewed awareness of the extremes of isolation, into the communities it left behind.

This failure of transcendence not only heightens this longing but, as Regan suggests, it also illuminates the pathos of this return to a desperate society struggling with issues of cultural cohesion and faltering progression. In ‘Here’ therefore, Larkin presses against the themes and tropes of Romanticism in order to deepen the understanding of, and sense of sympathy for, this post-war society of disillusionment and despair.

The 1960s and early 70s, the period with which High Windows is concerned, is often characterised by a return to ‘idealism’ and hope. Technological advances, newfound sexual liberation and the emergence of the first generation free from conscription has led to an array of idealising, cultural narratives concerning the 1960s, in particular. For instance, depictions of the “Swinging Sixties” are often marked by the radiance of music, fashion and youthful exuberance.

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Modern liberal countries and immigration

The rise of modern liberalism in the 21st century became a catalyst for the amplification of globalism. The mass influx of migrants throughout western Europe has made immigration a major issue in European politics. Yet, because each country adheres to a distinct set of ideologies and policies in regards to how they interact with migrants, having an international solution is impossible. For example, the United Kingdom follows a multiculturalist approach, while France vouches for assimilation. Additionally, there are countries such as Germany that fall somewhere in between the two. Both systems are systematically different which leads to vastly different consequences. For example, the definition of freedom in education is interpreted in a very different manner between such countries. However, they do share one major similarity; both multiculturalism and assimilation fail to develop a common identity which leads to violence and seclusion.

National identity has always been a key point in European policy-making. Choosing between multiculturalism and assimilation is primarily an effort to protect such an aspect of society. For example, although nationalism is encouraged in Britain, migrants are not expected to give up their culture, religion or language. That is because “liberal states have multiculturalism, because they have given up on the idea of assimilating their members beyond basic procedural commitments” (Joppke 449). In stark contrast, the French identity is protected and immigrants must assimilate into their culture, secularity, and language. Although assimilation has changed over time, the “final goal was still absorption into the dominant culture” (Castles 268). Lastly, Germany is one of the only European countries that embrace aspects of both systems. For example, after World War II, Germany enabled the migration of “guest-workers” into their country. Such migrants were “to be temporarily incorporated into certain aspects of society (above all the labor market) but denied access to others (especially citizenship and political participation)” (Castle 266). The German identity was now directly correlated to one’s citizenship and political participation regardless of one’s time, experiences, and family in such a country.

Modern liberal countries still use antiquated principles to define a country’s identity. The belief of Jus sanguinis (right of blood) and Jus soli (right of the soil) are still the most influential ideas regarding citizenship. For that reason, both multiculturalism and assimilation fail at developing a national identity. In fact, since multiculturalism divides the population into cultural “boxes” instead of uniting the population, it only emphasizes their differences. Additionally, politicians “tend to assume minorities’ true loyalty is to their faith or ethnic communities” (Malik 16). The purely political relationship created between the state and minority communities creates a sense of hostility and distrust between them. Furthermore, many minority groups in England fear reaching out to the government, as multicultural policies have made other minority groups their opponents and therefore enemies. For example, in the late 1970s, Ugandan Asians were allocated public-sector housing which led to “racial hostility […] at a time where 10,000 people on the city’s housing waiting list […] fear of physical attacks also deterred many from seeking council accommodation” (Marett 7). Germany, on the other hand, uses their multicultural policies to avoid calling immigrants their equals. This was especially clear with the introduction of the Gastarbeiter system (guest-workers) as migrants were allowed access to the labor system, but not granted citizenship. Consequently, the emergence of parallel communities arose in Germany. The Turkish community was especially ignored even though many of them consider Germany their true home. The national identity that Germany has constructed forces Turkish individuals to feel like outsiders. In fact, “out of the three million people of Turkish origin in Germany today, only some 800,000 have managed to acquire citizenship” (Malik 22). Lastly, assimilation in France not only leads to seclusion for minorities, but it also causes violent revolts. Such struggle dates back to the colonial and post-colonial relationship between “secular” France and “Muslim” Algeria. The French state has not allowed proper sociopolitical integration to occur due to the historical tendency of labeling north African communities as Muslims instead of “true” French citizens. Such mislabeling has led to a series of revolts in France. For example, in October of 2005, “a series of riots broke out in the suburbs of Paris […] sparked by the death of two young men being chased by the police [they] had become increasingly angry at the police presence in their neighborhoods and frustrated by the lack of opportunity and stifling conditions [caused by the] “xenophobic rhetoric of conservative politicians” (Fellag 5). As such, although multiculturalism and assimilation are entirely different political systems, the negative consequences that arise from them are quite similar. The state’s inability to create a uniting national identity forces an individual to revolt against the government.

The importance of education in liberal democracies is crucial in the development of children and teenagers. Yet, in an increasingly globalized world, the importance and purpose of education can be unclear; especially, in determining what freedom is in the classroom. The United Kingdom emphasizes the importance of a multicultural society by allowing citizens and immigrants to preserve their cultural identity. Yet, in their public-school system, many disregard such policies and teach only what they believe fits with their national identity. For example, Maureen Stone is a school teacher in Leicester who said that “supplementary education should be devoted to basic skills and not to education in different cultures” (Rex 8). The undermining of globalization in her statement suggests that learning and appreciating different cultures is irrelevant for children in the United Kingdom. Therefore, the extent to which they can exercise their cultural identities in the classroom is highly questioned. Students are allowed to exercise freedom of religion in the classroom yet, many of them are unable to study different cultures, ideologies, and mindsets that may go against traditional British values. However, they are not the only European country that struggles with the concept of freedom. In Germany, their multicultural policies allow freedom of religion to occur. Yet, all public schools in Germany have “compulsory religious education […] which has to be paid for by the state” (Muehlhoff 439). The separation of Church and state in Germany is not as drastic as other European countries and therefore, Christianity is still part of the curriculum. Although students can opt out of taking such class, a public school in Cologne last year, punished a child named Paul for doing homework during this class even though the law allows children to have “free time” if they wish to not partake in such course. This case is not uncommon either, in fact, there’s “10, 12 cases [like Paul’s] each year, different cases, some which stretch over years […] it begins in primary schools and continues into the secondary level” (Isenson 13). Therefore, although the law explicitly allows freedom of religion to take place in school, students are still being punished by their professors. France however, has a very distinct set of laws against religion in public schools. The definition of freedom of religion doesn’t fit well with their secular state. For example, “in October 1989 three teenage girls, two of Moroccan and one of Tunisian descent, were suspended from school because they refused to take off their head scarves” (Lucassen 171). Their inability to freely wear such clothing goes against any multicultural policy in both Germany and the UK. As such, these countries have major ideological differences in regards to how they deal with freedom in education. The United Kingdom allows students to practice their religion freely at schools but they refuse to study all globalization has to offer. Germany has compulsory Christianity classes in every public school which can lead to segregation for individuals who don’t wish to comply. Lastly, France doesn’t allow freedom of religion to take place in their secular state as religious practices such as the hijab are banned in public schools.

The inclination to justify the political system in every state has led to the development of obstructive conservative ideals. Globalization is now an essential and natural aspect of every society in the world. Therefore, systems such as multiculturalism and assimilation need to be reevaluated and improved. Their inability to produce a national identity will create more violence and parallel communities in European countries. Additionally, although their ideologies regarding freedom are undeniably different, the United Kingdom, France, and Germany have not created a positive, accepting environment for minorities in their communities. Embracing, learning and encouraging diversity in a modern liberal state is the foundation for a united group of citizens.

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Leisure and the Industrial Revolution: custom essay help

In a country that values production and is future-oriented, the hectic life of a citizen of the United States is seen as normal and is actually valued by family, employers, friends, and everyday people. However, in other cultures, such as Mediterranean and Arab countries, importance is placed on self-reflection and regulation. Not every waking moment of the day is filled to the brim with work and chores. In fact, life in other cultures is typically oriented around the family; work and monetary success are not indicators of one’s fortune, value, and happiness. During the early days of colonial America, the family was also the center of life, although hard work and grit were still valued. Success equaled survival, and it was necessary for Americans to work for their basic needs. As America progressed and began to industrialize, the components of family life and values changed. While survival still meant hard work, the components of that work were different. Although daily work schedules changed according to the times, with the rise of the middle class through the 19th century, there was a natural increase in leisure time and corresponding activities. In the early half of the 19th century, leisure time remained consistent of that before the beginning of the Industrial Revolution, and in the latter half of the 19th century leisure time greatly increased as the Industrial Revolution came to its height.

The Industrial Revolution, which occurred from the eighteenth to nineteenth centuries, was a period amid which dominatingly agrarian, provincial social orders in Europe and America become modernized and moved towards urban lifestyles. Preceding the Industrial Revolution, which started in Britain in the late 1700s, and production of tools, textiles, and necessary household items was regularly done in individuals’ homes, utilizing hand instruments or fundamental machines. Industrialization denoted a move to a fueled economy, predominantly driven by the use of specialized machines, manufacturing plants and large scale production. The iron and material ventures, alongside the advancement of the steam motor, assumed focal jobs in the Industrial Revolution, which likewise observed improved frameworks of transportation, correspondence, and banking. While industrialization achieved an expanded volume and assortment of made merchandise and an improved way of life for a few, it additionally brought about regularly horrid business and living conditions for poor people and common laborers. Prior to the coming of the Industrial Revolution, the vast majority lived in little, provincial networks where their day was developed around cultivating. Life for the normal individual was troublesome, as livelihoods were pitiful, and malnourishment and sickness were normal. Citizens, mainly farmers, manufactured most of their own supplies and food, dress, furnishings, and instruments.

The first phase of the Industrial Revolution is signified as the advancement from an agricultural economy to an industrial economy. This change, or rather phase, of the revolution, took place in the United States between the 1790s and 1830s. The first industrial mill in the United States was opened by Samuel Slater, and according to most, signified the start of the Industrial Revolution in America. Samuel Slater’s mill was similar to those used in Great Britain, just as much of the revolution was modeled from Britain and England. Slater’s technology was considerably more efficient than the old methods in which cotton thread could be spun into yarn. While he introduced a vital new technology to the United States, the economic takeoff of the Industrial Revolution required several other elements before it would transform American life. Another key to the rapidly changing economy of the early Industrial Revolution were new organizational strategies to increase productivity. This had begun with the “outwork system” whereby small parts of a larger production process were carried out in numerous individual homes. This organizational reform was especially important for shoe and boot making. However, the chief organizational breakthrough of the Industrial Revolution was the “factory system”, where work was performed on a large scale in a single centralized location. The rise of wage labor at the heart of the Industrial Revolution also exploited working people in new ways. The first strike among textile workers protesting wage and factory conditions occurred in 1824 and even the model mills of Lowell faced large strikes in the 1830s.

The first phase of the Industrial Revolution changed leisure time and activities in many ways. Since the Industrial Revolution was so new at the end of the 18th century, there were initially no laws to regulate new industries. For example, no laws prevented businesses from hiring seven-year-old children to work full time in coal mines or factories. No laws regulated what factories could do with their biohazard waste. Free-market capitalism meant that the government had no role in regulating the new industries or planning services for new towns. And those who controlled the government liked it that way—only a small minority of people, the wealthiest, could actively participate in politics and economic ventures. So during the first phase of the Industrial Revolution, between 1790 and 1850, American society became an example of what happens in a country when free-market capitalism has no constraints. The working class—who made up 80% of society—had little or no bargaining power with their new employers. Since the population was increasing in Great Britain at the same time that landowners were enclosing common village lands, people from the countryside flocked to the towns and the new factories to get work. This resulted in a very high unemployment rate for workers in the first phases of the Industrial Revolution. As a result, the new factory owners could set the terms of work because there were far more unskilled laborers and those who had few skills and would take any job. Desperate for work, the migrants to the new industrial towns had no bargaining power to demand higher wages, fairer work hours, or better working conditions. Worse still, since only wealthy people in Great Britain were eligible to vote, workers could not use the democratic political system to fight for rights and reforms. In 1799 and 1800, the British Parliament passed the Combination Acts, which made it illegal for workers to unionize, or combine, as a group to ask for better working conditions. For the first generation of workers—from the 1790s to the 1840s—working conditions were very tough, and sometimes tragic. Most laborers worked 10 to 14 hours a day, six days a week, with no paid vacation or holidays. Life in the factory was most challenging for the first generation of industrial workers who still remembered the slower and more flexible pace of country life. Factory employers demanded a complete change of pace and discipline from farm life. Workers could no longer easily communicate with their peers and friends, as they would have done while working in the country. They could not return to the village during harvest time to help their families unless they wanted to lose their jobs. Instead, they were no longer their own bosses; foremen and overseers supervised a new working culture to ensure that workers’ actions were focused and efficient. In the first sixty years or so of the Industrial Revolution, working-class people had little time or opportunity for recreation. Workers spent all the light of day at work and came home with little energy, space, or light to play sports or games. The new industrial pace and factory system were at odds with the old traditional festivals which dotted the village holiday calendar. Plus, local governments actively sought to ban traditional festivals in the cities. In the new working-class neighborhoods, people did not share the same traditional sense of a village community. The first phase of the industrial revolution clearly lacked proper leadership and regulation, which severely limited men and women of all ages, making leisurely activities impossible but for the rich.

The second Industrial Revolution, also known as the American Industrial Revolution, brought about significant change in the lives of the working class. After the 1850s, however, recreation improved along with the rise of an emerging the middle class. Music halls sprouted up in big cities. Sports such as rugby and cricket became popular. Football became a professional sport in 1885. By the end of the 19th century, cities had become the places with opportunities for sport and entertainment that they are today. Soon massive immigration from England, Britain, and other countries took place. This process of urbanization stimulated the booming new industries by concentrating on workers and factories together. New industrial cities became sources of wealth for the nation. Aristocrats born into their lives of wealth and privilege, and low-income commoners born in the working classes. n this new middle class, families became a sanctuary from stressful industrial life. The home remained separate from work and took on the role of emotional support, where women of the house created a moral and spiritual safe harbor away from the rough-and-tumble industrial world outside. Most middle-class adult women were discouraged from working outside the home. They could afford to send their children to school. As children became more of an economic burden, and better health care decreased infant mortality, middle-class women gave birth to fewer children. This new lifestyle was promoted by the massive immigration into urban cities of the United States. With more workers, there began to be reform movements which made industrial life much safer, and soon weekends became established. actions began to be regularly offered to workers, although they were usually unpaid ones. The monotony of specialized industrial work and the crowding of urban expansion also created a desire in the worker to have leisure time away from his or her job and away from the bustle of the city. The Progressive movement was another factor which contributed to the increased value of leisure time for workers, as their health and well-being received more attention. Within cities, people attended vaudeville shows, which would feature a multitude of acts. Motion pictures also served as entertainment during leisure time for urban audiences. After the Civil War, the popularity of sports as leisure activities grew as people began to see the importance of exercise to health. While initially only the wealthy could partake of most sporting events, the opening of publicly available gymnasiums, courts, and fields allowed the working and middle classes to participate also. Athletic clubs such as the New York Athletic Club were organized and the YMCAs began to institute sports programs. These programs mostly focused on track and field events, instituted by communities of Scottish and English descent, and gymnastics, heavily influenced by German athletics. Gymnasiums, which featured exercises using Indian clubs, wooden rings, and dumbbells, were opened in many Eastern Cities. By the end of the second phase of the Industrial Revolution, there were many activities that were extremely popular among all citizens. These activities included biking, basketball, swimming, baseball, fairs, expositions, and many other affairs. The second phase of the Industrial Revolution clearly impacted the leisure of many citizens, a much bigger increase compared to the first phase of the Industrial Revolution

Societal values have changed drastically through global and American history. Today, hard-work and determination are required in order to be successful in the United States, however, the circumstances in which that success is achieved has changed for the better. Leisure of American citizens before and after the Industrial Revolution greatly increased as a result of reformation movements and family values.

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Write an argument in favour of the border wall (US/Mexico)

Many criminals, possibly unknown to the U.S. Government, are able to freely come into this country through the U.S.- Mexican border, bringing in drugs as well as participating in others crimes such as human trafficking, etc. For a great deal of this chaos to end, the Mexican border wall should be built. It should also be built because of the good it will do for the American economy, lowering of the U.S. crime rates, and for the American people in general. The wall will improve the economy by providing more job opportunities for the American people already in the U.S. living here lawfully. The wall will also combat drug smugglers and criminals that enter through the border every day through unguarded areas. Building a wall can counter these criminals from entering our country. Lastly, the wall will help the American people not only feel safer, but actually be safer. People coming across our border who are not registered are illegal aliens and we do not know who they are. The best way to secure the American people from these criminals is to build a wall. The wall is a necessity for it is the Government’s duty to protect those who cannot protect themselves against criminals who could enter this country through the areas of the border that are unprotected.

The wall is completely misunderstood to the average American. People sometimes believe that it will be some massive stone wall, complete with guns at the top, denying entry to anyone who may want to immigrate to this country. Although, at times it may sound and feel that the border wall would look like that, it most definitely will not. The wall is really just a figure of speech for what the American people really want, which is better security, fewer drugs and the crime associated with them, and a better way to defend against the illegal entry of some of these criminals. The wall also needs to be built in order to help stop the opioid crisis, minimize the impact of Mexican drug cartels, and the unlawful money flowing out of our country and into cartel members pockets. The wall needs to be built there is simply no way around it.

Opponents of the wall say that it simply will not work. Yuma, Arizona as well as Naco, Arizona are prime examples that walls do work as well as being very effective. “In Naco, Arizona for 10 years. We didn’t have physical barriers in Naco, and illegal immigration and drug smuggling was absolutely out of control” (Remarks on). Naco was besieged by illegal immigrants as well as an influx in drugs in the area. Officials built a wall and the flood of crime in both Naco and Yuma dropped significantly. Brandon Judd, President of the National Border Patrol Council, says, “We built those walls… and illegal immigration dropped exponentially. Anywhere that you look, where we have built walls, they have worked. They have been an absolute necessity for Border Patrol agents in securing the border” (Remarks on). The wall can improve people’s lives as well as give them new business ventures, all while protecting them at the same time. Yuma, Arizona and Naco, Arizona “serves as a prime example of home investments in personnel, technology, and a wall can turn a tide against a flood of illegal immigration” (Elaine).

Some opposed to a border wall might think that the wall is a complete waste of resources as well as representative of a discriminatory monument for all of the world to see. They view Donald Trump is extremely discriminatory and racist as he has insulted the Mexican people with phrases like “Bad Hombres” and referring them as “Illegals”. They believe he is trying to deport millions of innocent people so he can make his middle and upper class voters feel more secure and content which could result in more votes for himself in the upcoming 2020 election. They cite that the wall should not be built because “building walls has rarely has achieved its intended effect, and may result in wasted resources and lost opportunities for the United States” (Phil’s Why). Trump and the Republican party think that many illegal immigrants are a cartel or gang member here to commit crimes and or deal drugs drugs on the streets. Trump promotes the idea that every illegal alien has crossed some territory over the border that is completely unguarded even though that is not the case at all. “As many as half of unauthorized immigrants in the United States are people who overstay their visas, not border crossers” (Phil’s Why). Thus, they believe that the border wall will not achieve its intended goal, resulting in millions of dollars being wasted as well as endangering the U.S. economy.

This argument is completely false, because the wall, if imposed correctly, can be a huge economic booster for the United States. A wall can provide many initial jobs to build it and then additional jobs to help maintain it. As stated, the wall can be “a bold ambitious, forward-looking plan to massively increase jogs, wages, incomes, and opportunities for the people of our country’’ (Kolhatkar).

One of the greatest threats to the American people at the moment is unfortunately the opioid crisis. People sometimes say that much of the opioids coming into this country are arriving through seaports and airports, but in reality “90% of heroin in the US comes through its southern border’’ (Remarks After). These drugs are being sneaked through tunnels, unguarded areas, and high population areas, making it nearly impossible to track down and catch the drug dealers. “Ignoring this crisis diminishes the Americans and migrants who have fallen victim to the crimes committed by illegal aliens, or are harmed because of illegal drugs flowing across the border” (Border Tour). American people can be easily harmed and exploited by drug traffickers as these people enable and make deadly drugs readily available to people with serious addictions. “Criminal organizations operate sophisticated drug and human trafficking networks and smuggling operation on both sides of the southern border, contributing to a significant increase in violent crime and US deaths from dangerous drug” (Border Security). By just being in the U.S., illegal aliens can endanger the country and its citizens. Thus, the U.S. can be very limited in what it can do when an illegal alien commits murder or manslaughter as they may have no jurisdiction over the person. This is a problem that has to be stopped and only a wall can fix that.

“Ranchers shared stories about the day to day reality of illegal aliens using their land as drug and human trafficking routes” (Border Tour). These people are using hard working taxpayers property to make millions of dollars while using land that is not even theirs. Human trafficking is a crime that is an unfortunate reality that can occur on the U.S. – Mexican border. Human trafficking is the buying and selling of people, mainly women and young children, to be used as slaves or even raped or tortured for entertainment. These criminals are kidnapping mainly women from all ages, and boys or girls to be sold around the world for profit. These cartels are so dangerous that “Bystanders, people who refused to join cartels, migrants, journalists and government officials have all been killed” (Phil’s This).

The amount of people in this country illegally is astounding. “ every day, nearly 2,000 people are apprehended or stopped to come into our country… Last year alone, 17,000 individuals with previous criminal records were apprehended attempting to come across our southern border” (Remarks After). These 17,000 were just the people who were actually caught, and for all the government knows, there could be twice or three times as many people in the country who haven’t been caught. These people are sometimes thought to be refugees although they are the opposite, as refugees are people fleeing a country because of discrimination or war, of which there is neither in Mexico. Although these aliens may be extremely poor and are trying to have a better life in America, they are going about it the wrong way. The people that are here illegally do not pay taxes because the government does not know of their existence. They also can take jobs from American citizens and Legal Aliens who have earned the right to have the jobs over illegals. “In 2017, 3700 known or suspected terrorists tried to enter into the country through the Southern border”(Remarks). Even though not all people crossing the border illegally are dangerous, many of them are here for illegal activities and not just looking for jobs.

Right now there is “about 650 miles of the 1,900 mile-long border are already fenced” (Border Wall). These people just walk right over the border without any documentation. A common opposing question regarding the border wall is, “Since the Canada-America border is just as open if not more open than the Mexico-America border, why not build a wall there?” This question can be easily deflected because the standard of living between Canada and the US is much more comparable, and there are many less occurences of drug and human trafficking on this border. Right now more than 50% of the border is unguarded and literally just inviting criminals to invade our country.

The border wall must be built to provide safety to our legal residents, to protect our way of life, to help control the flood of drugs and associated crimes and to protect the many law enforcement professionals working in that region of the U.S. The wall is a necessity for America that should have been constructed many years ago as many Presidents and past administrations, both Democratic and Republican, have failed to do what is right for this country and its citizens.

2019-3-11-1552311094

The American Dream, today

It’s no exaggeration to say that just about every American has at least heard of the term – the American Dream since this concept has always been a popular and dominant theme in United States society. It is the center of the national culture and reflects people’s optimism about equality between individuals. In this report, I will analyze the ideology of the American Dream and its meaning in society presently.

As Sally Edelstein (2013) stated in her article that the seed of the American Dream was planted during the dark days of the Great Depression when a nation that had once been viewed as the land of opportunity was now mired, and germinated at the New York World’s Fair of 1939. The seed was nurtured and cultivated during the sacrifices and deprivations of World War II. By 1945 when the war ended, it was ready to be harvested and it would blossom into full bloom in the Post War years and beyond. It is difficult to define exactly the American Dream because it can be subjective and may mean different things to different people. Generally, the American Dream is usually understood as the perspective that all people are created equally with the right to life, liberty, and the pursuit of happiness. It is a set of principles basing on the notion that each person has the right to seek for prosperity and happiness, regardless of where or into what circumstances they were born, meaning that anyone can become financially successful and socially upwardly mobile through sacrifice, risk-taking, and hard work, rather than by chances. This concept has long become the driving force for many U.S. citizens, motivating them to work hard toward creating a better life for their families and themselves.

The person often receives credit for first popularizing this term was the historian James Truslow Adams (Patrick J. Kiger, 2011). According to Adams, he explained the American Dream in his best-selling book in 1931 “The Epic of America” as it is not a dream of motorcars and high wages merely, but a dream of an equal society in which each man or woman could be able to reach their achievement and be recognized by others for what they are, regardless of their circumstances of birth or position. However, the root of the American Dream could be much deeper. The tenets of this term were stated, even though not directly in the Declaration of Independence,

“We hold these truths to be self-evident, that all men are created equal, that they are endowed by their Creator with certain unalienable Rights, that among these are Life, Liberty, and the pursuit of Happiness.”

In the past, the American Dream was only for white people and used to have some basic ideas such as owning a home, a safe and secure neighborhood, or having a business that makes a profit and contributes to the national economy. When someone seems to have it all, including a well-paying job they love, a loving family they can provide for, a home they are proud of and can afford, and extra money to enjoy vacations and the other events that make life enjoyable, even if they aren’t wealthy, they are said to be living the American dream. However, nowadays, there are many different opinions in people’s perspectives when they have to talk about the American Dream as the meaning of the term has been changing over the past many years throughout history, depending on the context. On the one hand, some people believe that the American Dream means land of opportunity where anyone can become rich, successful, and respected if he or she works hard. For example, many immigrants migrate to the United States because the place has many big firms and multinational companies which can provide a variety of jobs and more chances of success in comparison with that in their home country. Another memorable event was on November 4, 2008, Senator Barack Obama of Illinois defeated Senator John McCain of Arizona to become the 44th U.S. president as well as the first African American in history to be elected to the White House. On the other hand, many see the American Dream as freedom and equal rights since they can do whatever they are passionate about without being judged. For instance, in general, the United States has very relaxed federal gun control laws in comparison with other developed nations such as Canada, Switzerland, and Japan — a mix of wealthy countries with similar and varying cultural backgrounds.

In this day and age, many citizens are now of the view that there is a need for a new definition of this dream which should also take into consideration the modern needs of the citizens as well as the core beliefs on which the US was founded. The American Dream which was more accessible to attain back in the days, however, had transformed, especially in the 21st century as economic inequality has increased over the years. Although it is still possible for people to live a happy and lucrative lifestyle through their perseverance, the lives of many average middle-class Americans and immigrants still have countless difficulties due to the lack of improvement in social mobility in society, making the American Dream seemed less attainable. The federal treasury is in danger, and the government, as well as policymakers, do not show any commensurate solution to the problems. This results in some people no longer believing in the American Dream and it is just an expectation.

Nowadays, with changing governments and overhauling global conditions, new virtues have been included in the American Dream as well as the meaning of this ideal has changed to aim different things to different generations. However, the concept of the American dream is still the very soul of the American nation, which is the ultimate idea that any citizen could have the right to pursue their notion of happiness, to follow their dreams, and achieve upward mobility or success if they put in the hard work. This ultimate idea is undoubtedly part of the American ethos, and likely always will be. As the world is changing every day, the American Dream will continue to evolve in response to the alteration and influence of the national economy with entrepreneurship and individual ambition, infusing a motivated perception to anyone trying to be successful in the United States.

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Closing of Indian Embassy at Kabul – Is it Really Questionable?: online essay help

The Government has decided to pull out its entire staff from the Indian Embassy in Kabul, Afghanistan. This act of India has raised several questions from the experts and the analysts. It has been discussed that all the major powers, including Russia, China, and Iran, are present there and are maintaining their task; why not we? It should be better to have stayed there and help our citizens instead of leaving them in distress. India has also been advised to keep a consular of CE at its airport, similar to America. In the news, it has also been in the news that the Taliban has requested India to remain and also assured its safety. These are some of the significant factors that influenced India to leave its embassy in Kabul.

Position of India in Afghanistan:

Firstly, India is not one of the superpowers, especially when it comes to Afghanistan. India has never followed any national-based or any independent policy towards this particular Country. It is also true with any previous government of India. In short, India is not a significant player related to this Country like the USA. All we have done is to support what the Government of Kabul(whether Hamid Karzai or Ashraf Ghani) and America to what they have to do in the Country. It is entirely wrong to put all the eggs in Ghani’s basket; it means he can be considered suitable for sustaining the authority to maintain any developing country. But he cannot be perfectly said to be a good administrator. India has successfully invested nearly $3 billion worth of small and medium projects in the Country. It has also earned the goodwill of the citizens of Afghanistan through this. Still, it never got any prominent role and right to consult in the political matters of Afghanistan neither any negations from the stakeholders.

In short, India never got any significant role in matters related to this Country. Indian Government has been criticized for not establishing contacts with the Taliban. But as per media reports, they were engaged with the Taliban, but it was too late, and talk was little. It was essential to talk at the greater level with the Taliban as other superpowers such as Russia and China did. Even Iran, which is a Shia-majority country, was engaged with the Taliban. America, too, started to talk with the Taliban without any hesitation, ignoring that it’s a terrorist group that has killed over 2,500 American soldiers since 2001.

India did not want to upset Ashraf Ghani and could not talk to the Taliban as they refused to talk with the Indian Government. However, engaging does not mean endorsing, which Vivek Katiju said as an Ambassador. He further said that it is a severe lapse as we have to talk to people we consider distasteful, whether they are Pakistan, China or the Taliban. It is also the fact that nearly everyone is afraid of the gun-toting fighters of the Taliban, and it is pretty risky to talk or deal with them. The Government has even cancelled all the issued visas, which indicates rendering of consular assistance.

Even if the Taliban approaches the Indian Government and asks not to shut the Indian embassy in Kabul, what will be their reliability and proof will be that they will stay on their words? Also, India does not have any means to force or control them. If it was the USA in such a case, they could easily cause massive harm to their troops.

What About Other Groups:

Taliban is not the only reason why India has quit its Embassy in Kabul. The presence of other groups such as Lashkar-e-Taiba, the Jaish-e-state in Khorasan (ISIS k, or ISK) is also threatening. In reports, these groups have given thousands of fighters to the Taliban in their Jihad to fight with the foreign powers. So they can be an equal and potential threat to India like the Taliban. But, on the other hand, the Taliban has also demonstrated its suicide bombing activities on 26 August that has killed nearly 13 military persons of the USA and a more significant number of Afghans. If such a scenario happens with a single Indian, there would have been a severe outcry.

The Approach of Foreign Policy:

One can easily criticize the Indian Government for some foreign policies, such as aligning closely with the US. This has made Russia unhappy, and due to which it started maintaining its relationship with one of our major enemy China. Giving importance to Quad(a group containing India, Japan, Australia, and the US) is also one of the questionable decisions to ask for. The formation of the Quad is the American manoeuvre so that it can contain China. It is clearly an anti-china arrangement in which India’s involvement was not much crucial.

Finally, it can be said that the closing of the Indian embassy in Kabul is not at all a questionable decision as all the above parameters indicate that the Indian Government would not have survived happily at this place.

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Racism in America (speech)

Have you ever been considered less than human or regarded as a possession or object based off of something you have no control over? Unfortunately, many people in America can honestly say that they have, which is entirely unacceptable in today’s world. Hello! I’m Sophia. I’ve been researching the topic of racism in America for the past few weeks and I’m excited to share what I’ve learned. Ever since America was founded, racism has been heavily present in our society, and that is something that needs to change as soon as possible. I’m going to be going over topics like civil rights, influential figures in black history, and the impact that modern anti-racist organizations have had in today’s world.

There has always been a fight for racial equality in America. Ever since the first Americans settled on the East Coast and kicked Native Americans off the land they’d had for centuries, there was a fight. And even now, hundreds of years later, we still see that fight in action – through our actions, through our words, and through amazing people. From the Emancipation Proclamation to the Civil Rights Acts of 1964 and 1968 to the Black Lives Matter movement in 2020, people have not stopped fighting for their God-given rights to life.

Now, there are several important figures I’d like to mention who were catalysts for racial equality movements. First, and probably the most well-known, Martin Luther King, Jr. He was a civil rights activist who certainly changed our world for the better. He was assassinated on his own hotel room balcony, April 4, 1968. Next, George Floyd. He was one of the main reasons for the resurgence of the Black Lives Matter movement in mid-2020. He was suffocated to death under the knee of a police officer, May 25, 2020. Lastly, Tamir Rice. He was a twelve-year-old boy from Cleveland, Ohio carrying a toy gun. He was shot on sight by a police officer who felt “threatened”, November 22, 2014. Do any of these deaths seem justified to you? They shouldn’t, because they aren’t. And these are far from the only examples of people whose lives were needlessly taken from them because of their race.

Fortunately, there is a positive side to this story. The Black Lives Matter movement is an organization founded in 2013 shortly after the shooting of seventeen-year-old Trayvon Martin. The group is committed to fighting to end racially charged police brutality and trying to make the world a safer place for black youth. Their message particularly took off in mid-2020 after the murder of George Floyd, and they used that momentum to bring light to other police brutality killings and emanding justice for these needless deaths: names such as Breonna Taylor, Ahmaud Arbery, and Elijah McClain to list a few. Their impact extends far beyond just the 2020 resurgence, though. Today, nearly a year after the death of George Floyd, that message is still being taught, learned, and shared all over the US and the rest of the world.

I hope you enjoyed my speech. I also hope you come away from it with some more knowledge about racism and injustice in America, the people who helped shape our modern views on civil rights, and what we are doing to raise awareness for these things. Remember: racism hasn’t gone away, and it likely won’t for a long time, unless we as a country do something to make it better. Thank you!

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The Effectiveness of Civil Disobedience in the Modern World: college application essay help

Law is the fundamental pillar of government, and it is a social construct that defines the boundaries of society. Although it protects the rights of the people, like all things created by humans, the law is not always perfect. Clarence Darrow, a famous American lawyer in the 1900s, once said, “As long as the world shall last there will be wrongs, and if no man objected and no man rebelled, those wrongs would last forever.” For centuries, civil disobedience has been a way for people to resist injustice and inspire change. Inequality, discrimination, and prejudice have been sources of protest because of the unjust laws that preyed upon minorities. As the world continues to evolve, humanity must adjust its laws based on the ever-changing demands of society. In the modern world, civil disobedience remains an effective way for people to voice their opinions on problems such as; data privacy, climate change and gun-control, along with economic disparity to ensure that the law remains fair and moral as the world changes.

Data privacy is a concern for people all over the world because of the amount of information that is collected through government surveillance. Edward Snowden, a former contractor in the National Security Agency (NSA), became known as a whistle-blower when he leaked thousands of documents proving how government agencies are abusing their authority by collecting personal information (“Edward Snowden, Whistle-Blower”). In 2013, he proved that phone calls, emails, and most online activity were actively being monitored by the NSA without the consent of millions of people. In violation of the Espionage Act, Snowden faced multiple criminal charges in the United States but sojourned in Moscow, Russia to avoid punishment for his actions. Furthermore, at an interview in Hong Kong with Glenn Greenwald, Snowden remarked,

“I do not want to live in a world where everything I do and say is recorded. That is not something I am willing to support or live under… I would rather be without a state than without a voice” (qtd. in Francis).

Snowden’s efforts have brought the insidious and unconstitutional actions of organizations like the NSA to the public eye. As a result, ongoing debates on how to ensure the protection of personal information are an important source of contention for new legislation. For example, when companies like Facebook or Google became involved in data privacy scandals, Snowden’s actions brought attention to new legislation such as the General Data Protection Regulation. Many of Snowden’s supporters praise him for trying to bring justice. However, others deem him as a traitor because of his ignorance of national security. Nevertheless, his acts of civil disobedience have brought positive change to society by alerting the world about the dangers of data theft. Although Snowden’s actions broke federal laws, not all forms of civil disobedience have to go to such extreme lengths.

Young activists are taking a stand against world issues like climate change and gun control. For instance, Greta Thunberg, an 18-year-old Swedish activist, has provided a voice for many recent generations, and was the youngest person to be named Time magazine’s Person of the Year in 2019. Her fight against climate change began with a simple act of civil disobedience in the summer of 2018. She “sat alone each Friday outside the Swedish parliament, quietly protesting with a handmade sign that read: Skolstrejk for Klimatet. School strike for climate” (Dennis). Thunberg has garnered the attention of millions of people by leading marches and giving speeches in over 123 countries around the world. In addition, she has established an immense social media following, engaged in debates with former President Trump and Russian President Vladimir Putin, and received a nomination for the Nobel Peace Prize. World leaders cannot ignore the impacts of carbon emissions, fossil fuels, and pollution on the Earth. Likewise, there are several other young leaders taking initiative for the betterment of society.

One example is Emma González, a 21-year-old student activist, who led an anti-gun rally in Fort Lauderdale three days after a school shooting at Marjory Stoneman Douglas High. Many students, parents, and teachers continue to suffer from the lasting effects of these traumatic experiences. She believes that people cannot afford to let these mass shootings become another forgotten tragedy, but they must be prevented altogether. At the anti-gun rally, González took a stance on the gun control debate:

Politicians who sit in their gilded House and Senate seats funded by the NRA telling us nothing could have been done to prevent this, we call BS. They say tougher gun laws do not decrease gun violence. We call BS. They say a good guy with a gun stops a bad guy with a gun. We call BS. They say guns are just tools like knives and are as dangerous as cars. We call BS. They say no laws could have prevented the hundreds of senseless tragedies that have occurred. We call BS. That us kids don’t know what we’re talking about, that we’re too young to understand how the government works. We call BS. (qtd. in Pires)

González and other gun-control activists achieved success when many state legislators enacted 50 laws throughout many states to restrict the access of guns. Ergo, nonviolent rallies have demonstrated that they have the power to inspire others, establish legitimate change, and shift opinions on ethical issues. On the other hand, once violence is introduced, protests can get out of hand resulting in people getting injured or even killed.

Additionally, around late 2018, a movement called the yellow vests swept across France. The supporters of the movement mostly consist of middle-to-low class citizens who barely were able to cover food, rent, utilities, and clothing expenses. When the French government raised the gas tax, these protestors turned their anger towards the government and called for taking French President Emmanuel Macron out of office. The main controversy around these protests include the use of violence by the government in response to these demonstrations. In fact, according to the French Ministry of Interior, by the end of 2019, 11 people had died while 1,900 peaceful protestors and 1,200 law enforcement officers were injured (McAuley).

In December 2019, Jean-Marc Michaud participated in a demonstration near the Place du Parlement to protest economic inequality, but he was seriously injured when a rubber ball fired by the police damaged his right eye. Michaud responded by saying, “The government claims that we are looters and violent protesters, but so many of us are just peaceful civilians… The government isn’t listening to us, and now they are trying to silence us with repression in the streets” (qtd. in Peltier). As French police officers resorted to violence to quell these demonstrations, a nationwide outcry fueled the yellow vest movement even further.

Despite the movement slowing down in 2020 due to the pandemic, many French supporters are far from giving up, and they believe that they still have the power to cause change. Already a group of yellow vests are planning to have a few candidates participate in the European Parliament elections. A French polling and market research firm estimated that 7.5 percent of the population would be willing to vote for yellow vest political candidates, and 40 percent sympathize with the movement in some way (McAuley). Therefore, dissatisfied French citizens are continuing to fight against the government to achieve justice for citizens facing economic hardship.

For years to come, civil disobedience is a potent method for people to fight against injustices such as data theft, environmental destruction, policies on gun-control, and economic inequality.

2021-4-25-1619388385

The Fight for Equality in “Battle Royal”: writing essay help

“Battle Royal” challenges equality throughout the narrator’s speech. People need to be shown equality because in this short story, the blacks were seriously injured when the whites made them go to boxing matches and they were tased/electrocuted when they took the money the whites left for them. The author Ralph Ellison shows in “Battle Royal” that there is an issue between race and the people need equality and social responsibility, so both races can be equal with one another.

The thesis shows the way that people need equality, so the blacks and whites can respect one another. The whites state, “We mean to do right by you, but you’ve got to know your place at times” (Ellison 11). This explains the way the whites are showing equality towards the narrator and soon it might happen to all of the blacks.

The short story shows symbolism with the dancing blonde woman, boxing match, blindfolds, the coins, and the speech. The “speech” symbolizes social responsibility between the white and black races. For example, the narrator of this story is wanting to read the speech about the way that people need to treat one another, but the whites did not listen to the speech until the end. The boxing match, the coins, and the blindfolds symbolize the suffering of the blacks. The boxing match symbolizes the way the blacks were in pain and suffering, while the whites were being comfortable and enjoyed watching the suffering of the blacks. The blindfold symbolizes the way the blacks suffered by getting knocked out in the boxing match.The narrator says, “Blindfolded, I could not control my motions” (Ellison 5). This discusses the fact that the narrator is blindfolded and he cannot control his mind and his display of knowledge for the speech. The coins symbolize greed by the whites. The whites gave the coins to the blacks, who are in need of money. But once they held a hand on the coins, they will be electrocuted. The dancing blonde woman symbolizes that the blacks cannot marry a white woman because there was a law that prevented interracial marriage, which is known as the “Loving vs Virginia” law case that prevented marriage from blacks and whites, according to the story’s historical content. The blonde woman has an American flag tattooed on her belly which symbolizes the way blacks were prevented from intermarriage between races in America. The narrator states “and yet to stroke where below the small American flag tattooed upon her belly her thighs formed a capital V”(Ellison 3). This explains where the American flag tattoo is located on her body and it relates to how the dancing blonde woman can be symbolized and the way she is a way to be used as the American dream.

The race experience explains that the whites treat all the blacks as animals by putting them in boxing matches and the whites were being forceful and brutal to the blacks by yelling to them and forcing them to punch one another. It shows how violent the boxing match really is, “In one comer I glimpsed a boy violently punching the air and heard him scream in pain as he smashed his hand against a ring post” (Ellison 6). Another race experience in this short story is that this story discusses mostly about the dancing blonde woman. The reason that this shows race experience is that this woman is trying to make all the white men be in love with her and they feared looking, were not disgusted so the narrator wants to read the speech and it is not about how people should treat one another. The short story discusses the way that blacks cannot be in an interracial marriage because it is a law for them not to break according to the culture that they are living in.

The background of this short short story discusses the historical content between the Reconstruction era to Jim Crow law era. The reason that the story occurred during the Reconstruction era is that the grandfather is discussing to his grandson about the way he was being in a relationship with the whites during the Reconstruction era and he was treated horribly by the whites being brutal to him. The prologue of this story discusses grandpa about his experience with the whites during the Reconstruction era: “I never told you, but our life is a war and I have been a traitor all my born days, a spy in the enemy’s country ever since I give up my gun in the Reconstruction” (Ellison 1). Afterwards, it continued around the Jim Crow law, when the whites were in contempt with the blacks, who are in suffering at boxing matches, shootings, fist fighting, or anything that the whites find that is considered violence. This quote explains how the blacks suffered in the boxing match as the whites were being soothed in this short story: “The harder we fought the more threatening the men became” (Ellison 6). This explains as the blacks are fighting one another they are suffering by being abused brutally. Another part of the quote, “the more threatening the men became” explains the men as the whites were making the blacks threatening one another as a form their race’s entertainment (Ellison 6).

In the short story, the narrator’s experience is calm in the beginning of the short story, then his experience was abhorrent, atrocious, gruesome, and cruel in the plot of the story, and his experience was then calm again. This promise the grandfather tells to the narrator of the story: “On his deathbed he called my father to him and said, “Son, after I’m gone I want you to keep up the good fight”” (Ellison 1). This shows an explanation about the narrator’s grandfather giving him a promise that he discussed that he had a lot of trouble with his lifetime despite the fact of his race experience between the whites and blacks and he does not want it to happen to anyone, especially his grandson. Throughout the events of the narrator’s experience is that he is in a bad experience because he is in a boxing match and he may be afraid to go in the boxing match. During the boxing match, the narrator is fearful in this short story, when he is set in a boxing match: “I stumbled like a baby or a drunken man” (Ellison 5). So, the narrator decided to make a speech similar to what Martin Luther King Junior did with his “I Have a Dream” speech.

The narrator creates the speech, so the whites to listen about the way they are needing to get along with the blacks, because the speech can make them understand equality. They did not listen until the end. Then, the experience of the narrator seems to be exciting because he seems excited when he is reading the speech and the whites are listening to every word of this essay. Once he was done with his speech, the whites had given him a scholarship to college, congratulating him for his way to be helpful to the people that were living in all of America. This quote explains one of the things that was used in this speech: “When ever I uttered a word of three or more syllables a group of voices yelled at me to repeat it” (Ellison 10). This quote says when the narrator is reading the essay, the whites were yelling at him to repeat because they want to listen to what he is saying for this essay so they want to know what he is talking about and they might end their conflict with the whites and blacks once he finishes his speech.

In “Battle Royal”, equality is discussed for the whites and the blacks and why they are in an opposite relationship with each other. The analysis says that the blacks and whites need to be in a fair relationship. Equality should matter because this short story explains why the blacks and whites should be equal with one another and the blacks are wanting to stop being threatened by the whites.

2019-2-15-1550252529

Issues faced by society – gun violence, racism and religion

When our reality becomes so unsightly, we tend to deny the outcomes because we are ashamed to see the mess we have made. Reality has become too hard to accept because the issues in our nation have brought us to not be able to agree to disagree with our opinions. In today’s society, we find ourselves never being able to talk about issues that affect us negatively, but rather starting something chaotic because we get so caught up in our own points of view—but in our communities, we should come together and address these problems, such as gun violence, racism, and religion, as best as we could, so they can get fixed and not continue to grow. But our biggest question right now, is how? How do we get everyone to understand and listen to one another?

As we get into our most sensitive topics of today’s issues, one of our biggest problems is not taking into consideration what others have already been through. The word racism has been flourishing in the media for what we can consider, too long. African Americans have been dealing with racial profiling, attacks, teasing, and death because of their skin color. In an article shared from CNN, explains that “a white student at Yale called police because a black student was napping in a dorm building.” (Yan) When a small issue like this happens to someone, it is hard to believe that there is room for the slightest change. Aside from someone you catch on the street saying something disrespectful, our president, Trump “appears to be unifying America — unifying Americans in their denial. The more racist Mr. Trump sounds, the more Trump country denies his racism, and the more his opponents look away from their own racism to brand Trump country as racist. (Kendi) Making it more difficult for us to see our faults as a nation. Rachel Godsil, a researcher apart of an organization who helps reduce discrimination explains, “There are enormous health consequences to those experiencing these everyday harms… because of the constancy of this stress.” For those who have never experienced such a thing cannot relate to what these people go through. Racism is a never-ending cycle that has to be addressed before we have more people suffering this pain that brings us this rage that no one can understand.

People do not seem to realize how closely each of these issues relate to one another. We reached the era where nearly 40,000 people have died from guns in the United States. In an article it states, “this is the highest than any other since at least 1968, according to new data from the Center for Disease Control and Prevention.” (Mervosh) Which I believe will dramatically continue to grow. “Pro-gun advocates see guns as our best defense against armed criminals. Anti-gun advocates see the wide availability of guns as a greater threat than criminal violence. The issue seems to come down to what you fear more: criminals or guns.” (Gutting) Coming into the problem of, who is right, and who is wrong? People believe that the ones who should be allowed to carry a gun be certified, but even the ones who are supposed to be “protecting” us from the criminals, are the ones shooting us for no reason. So, when we come down to think of where we can come together and think of a solution, that is where most of us fail to agree to disagree.

As case numbers go up from unjustified police shootings, to mass killings, it brings us to a difficult decision whether guns should be allowed at all or not. After the school shooting in Parkland, Florida, “House of Representatives held its first hearing on gun violence in eight years.” (Collins) Where it was thought to make it harder for people to purchase guns without well done background checks. “Senator Murphy believes the endless rejection of any gun legislation looks like a kind of “moral green light” to potential killers: “I truly believe these young men who have something very dark happening in their minds watch our silence and interpret it as an endorsement.” Meaning, if we keep these guns that is a way of lessening our crime rate for the next following years. People feel safe with guns but when will it be okay to own one without abusing your right to own one? We have heard these stories of people using their gun way too often it’s no surprise anymore.

Religion is an issue that ties to many problems emotionally. Not so long ago, our president, Donald Trump has brought attention to whether the government will continue to fund planned parenthood. Aside from planned parenthood being one of the top places specifically where young women go to have an abortion, they allow you to get a screening for any STI, plan B pills, birth control pills, and most importantly, where they get access to health care services. The biggest problem with why they do not want to keep funding is because of the abortion service. There has been discussion on “Pro-life or pro-choice.” Watson, author of Scarlet A: The Ethics, Law, and Politics of Ordinary Abortion states, “We should be able to acknowledge the complexity of private decision making, without threatening the right of private decision making.” Meaning, us as a community should find ways in which we can accept what is going on without having to do things like, defund because we are not happy with a decision. For example, in an article published in 1989, Lucy Killea, who was running for California State Senate, put in her campaign that she supports the right to abortion. Bishop Leo T. Maher later wrote her saying she could no longer receive communion. Looking at this example from years ago, and now seeing that Trump is defunding Planned Parenthood shows that throughout the years, nothing exactly changes. The people who agree with Trump, who in a study from Mary Rezac, showed that 47% of Catholics are pro-life, will continue to support his ideas but what about the other half? Where do they fall in this discussion? Abortion is up to the women, her body, her choice and if we cannot find a way to talk about how these issues are affecting us, the government will not fund what is helping these girls who get pregnant.

Another growing issue within religion is the number count of r**es within the Vatican. People see the church as a sacred place to go for a time of help or to praise our savior, Jesus Christ, but recently they have found the priests, the ones we should trust, have been r**ing the altar servers. Pope Francis took the issue into his own hands, and people were not satisfied with the outcome of his speech. Before he can even finish what was being said, the ones who were victims of such abuse were expressing their anger and failure to address the problem. This brings out attention to the issue that we in reality, need. Without people expressing how they feel, how will anyone know it needs to be done? Victims need to come together and express what happened to them so justice can be done. Anna Barrett Doyle states, “As the world’s Catholics cry out for concrete change, the pope instead provides tepid promises, all of which we’ve heard before.” This becomes an issue when trying to solve problems because as soon as we get the idea that something will happen and it doesn’t, that starts even bigger problems like riots and controversial articles. As a community we fail at trying to express our feelings towards an issue. When one encounters someone with the opposing view, we tend to find ourselves loss of words when they don’t agree with what we believe. If we do not get to the root of the problem, the problem will never be able to go away. Pope Francis believes he is making a change, but he is only making it more difficult for Roman Catholics to believe what is really going on within the church.

In result, we have found that one of our biggest issues as a nation is coming together and seeing our most troublesome issues embellish when we least expect. If we do not try to come together and resolve these problems, we will never see the end of racism, gun violence, or our biggest issues in religion. We are always going to be so caught up in our own point of view that no matter how we try to end the controversy, it will continue to grow right in front of our eyes. We need to be willing to agree to disagree to even begin to address these problems. Most of these issues correlate with one another, so if we begin to eliminate as time progresses, these issues shouldn’t be as big as a problem as they are today. We are in a time of need for help. We need to keep working together.

2019-2-25-1551077395

Historical design development and impacts of new and emerging technologies: college essay help online

The origins of 3D printing trace back further than you might expect. In 1860 the photo-sculpture method was explored by Francois Wilhelm when he captured an object in 3 dimensions using cameras surrounding the subject and in 1892 Blanther proposed a layering method of producing topographical maps. Fast forward to 1972 Mastubara of Mitsubishi motors proposed photo-hardened materials (photopolymers) to be used to produce layered parts.

The 3D printer came about in the 1980’s. In the early 1980’s, Dr. Hideo Kodama, a Japanese researcher first invented the innovative layer approach to stereolithography through using a single-beam ultraviolet light laser to set photosensitive polymers. This was used as a means for rapid prototyping. Unfortunately, Dr. Kodama didn’t fulfil the application for a full patent due to a funding issue. In 1984, a group of French researchers, Jean-Claude André, Alain le Méhauté and Olivier de Witte came together to file a patent for the stereolithography process. Witte realisation was that when 2 lasers cross each other, a monomer liquid can become a solid polymer, the basic principle of the 3D printer. However, the application for their patent was abandoned by their French technology company due to a lack of proper funding.

Later in 1984, Charles (Chuck) Hull filed his patent for the process. He patented it as a method of consecutive thinly printed layers using UV light which pointed at a vat filled with a liquid photopolymer. This method bonded one polymer to the next with the help of CAM/CAD software to guide the path until a desired 3D object was produced. Stereolithography was such revolutionary innovation as it allowed designers to create ideas using digital data programs that could be uploaded to the printer to produce a tangible object. Hull’s patent was granted in 1986. Following this success, Hull co-founded the world’s first 3D printing company, called 3D Systems, to further commercialise it. This process of stereolithography established the basis of all 3D printing we know today. In 1987, they released their first commercial product the SLA-1 and is now classified as a transformative impact in engineering and manufacturing. Fused deposition modelling (FDM) process, another type of 3D printing processes, was developed by Scott Crump in 1989. Crump then founded the company Stratasys also in 1989, which is a global leader in 3D printers and 3D printer systems. In 2009, the company’s FDM printing patent expired, which offered the market FDM 3D printers, usually referred to as fused filament fabrication (FFF) for companies other than Stratasys 3D printers and open to public domain. Another key development was the RepRap Project (Replicating Rapid Prototyper) established in 2004 by UK Adrian Bowyer who established an open source project aimed to build a 3D printer that can print most of its own components and then could share with people all around the world.

The new millennium saw several success stories using the 3D printer in exciting medical innovations such as the first working kidney in 2000, the first prosthetic limb in 2008, the first prosthetic jaw in 2012 and in 2014 it was used to help reconstruct the face of a motorcyclist after a serious road injury. Testing of bio materials for regenerative medicine using a patient’s cell allowing 3D printing of small body parts (like ears and noses) have also increased media attention.

In recent years 3D printing has been able to assist with disaster relief. US not for profit ‘Field Ready’, were able to print spare parts such as pipe fittings to help repair broken pipelines after the severe earthquake in Nepal in 2015. A Japanese 3D printed drone was designed for search and rescue missions for disaster hit areas. 3D printed houses have similarly been used in disaster relief situations and now also a possible option for low income housing. In 2014 in China, a giant cement 3D printer was used to print 10 houses in just one day.

In the field of fashion 3D printing has opened the possibilities to expand beyond the traditional boundaries of design, allowing fashion designer to turn challenging design concepts into reality. From traditional production methods designers are now able to 3D print their own garments as one such young textile designer Danit Peleg with the first fashion collection 3D printed at home in 2014.

While there have been many positive developments as cited above, the first 3D printed gun in 2013 by Cody Wilson and the uploading of the blueprint for same has posed many questions as to where this might end.

Factors affecting success

Despite the 3D printer having been in existence since the early 1980’s its commercial viability and success has really only gained momentum over the past decade or so. This can be attributed mostly to timing, IP, pricing and market demand. In 2013 Obama’s State of the Union address claimed that the 3D printer had “the potential to revolutionize the way we make almost everything”. Faced with the rise of China’s dominance in manufacturing, there has been increased pressure for countries to produce products more efficiently and cost effectively. Manufacturers have been forced to explore the possibilities offered by new technologies to try to maintain their competitive edge. For example, the U.S Government’s investment in NAMII (National Additive Manufacturing Innovation Institute) as an incubator for 3D printing technology and the commitment of companies such as General Electric, United Technologies Corporation, Hewlett-Packard, 3M, Boeing, Stratasys, MIT and 3D Systems in investing in innovations using 3D printing helped promote this success. A window of opportunity was also created with the lapsing of certain patents around 2009 and subsequently there was a decline in litigation cases coupled with licensing activity showing steady growth. Pricing was also a key factor. At first 3D printers were not only expensive to produce but were also expensive to purchase and run. 3D printer prices have dropped (about 90% since 2009), from over $10,000 to less than $1,000 and this has also created a larger reach in the market for a more consumer friendly 3D printer that was a cost- effective option. So not only did larger companies have access to this technology, but basis this new affordability, more entrepreneurs and people with an appetite for experimentation have had a chance to explore new applications of 3D printing across different platforms and given the market’s increased demand for customisation these factors have all worked to give the 3D printer the status it enjoys today.

Role of agencies

There have been many agencies which have played a significant role in the innovation of the 3D printer particularly given the potentially huge benefits 3D printing has on manufacturing. NASA (National American Space Agency) has developed The Zero G 3D printer which manufactured the first 3D printed object in space and was active in lodging patents since 2009. The US Government recognised the upside of this phenomenon and funded the establishment of National Additive Manufacturing Innovation Institute in 2012 (also referred to America Makes) which is an initiative to try and promote the application of 3D printer across different disciplines. Big industrials such as GE (General Electrics) with its new ‘Multi Modal” facility in India and its fuel nozzle and BAE (British Aerospace) utilising 3D printed metal parts in its fighter jets both are pushing the boundaries. Other smaller yet still significant players are Bureau Services such as Shapeways and iMaterialise which have offered companies access to a wider customer by being able to harness a central service with printers located around the world and within a few days able to receive their 3D printed part in the post. With regards to IP, one of the main legislative challenges about 3D printing is that its users are able to copy almost any object, with or without the authorization of those who hold rights to that object. This makes it hard to regulate and govern the legal rights and ownership to the copyrights or patents. 3D printing is challenging the government and patent agencies to transform the way in which they monitor and control issues of surrounding ownership as well as IP infringements.

Entrepreneurial activity

We need entrepreneurs in the world as it is their creative, innovative, daring and out of the box thinking that has been so vital to evolution of ideas. Entrepreneurial activity has been significant to 3D printer design taking it beyond the realm of its initial purpose for rapid prototyping. Entrepreneurial activity has assisted with the acceleration and dissemination of ideas and in this respect, there have been some truly unique and ground-breaking applications on both a local and an international scale having enormous impacts socially, economically and environmentally. Initially the 3D printer used plastic, but this has now expanded to include finished items made from ceramic, metal, resin, concrete, silver, gold, stainless steel, food and bio material. The breadth of ideas range from prosthetics, dental implants, internal organs, customisation of jewellery, cake decorations to being able to 3D print cars, houses and spare parts. For example, Adidas and Parley for the Oceans, an organisation dedicated to reducing plastic wastage in the ocean, have collaborated to create a 3D printed sneaker made from plastic recycled from the ocean. Without entrepreneurs pushing the boundaries, 3D printing would not have had the transformative impact on our world today.

2019-2-26-1551177198

Mass shootings – changes needed to gun regulation

On April 20, 1999 a massacre took place at Columbine High School in Jefferson County Colorado. The two teen shooters Dylan Klebold and Eric Harris killed 13 people and wounded over 20 others. After, the two perpetrators turned the guns on themselves ending their own lives. At the time this was the worst high school shooting in US history. This event induced a governmental on school safety and gun control.

Following the shootings, a large amount of schools decreed zero tolerance policies. For those cases which regarded threatening behavior and violence on school grounds. This tragedy brought light to the importance of identifying risk factors for youth violence, as well as the need for the development and enactment of programs based on the early detection of these risk factors and prevention of school violence.

Researchers from the University of Northern Colorado have been examining the changes that schools have made since 1999 to prevent future incidents like Columbine. Surveys were sent out asking schools about mental health services and violence prevention programs before and after the event. The surveys showed the help after the shooting had increased by a large amount. A 20% increase in schools with crisis plans. 10% increase in group counseling. 9% of more schools had a crisis plan. 7% more schools offered social skills training. A larger number of schools not only increased their counseling but also school security. About 63% of schools had more advanced mechanism. 40% instilled stricter discipline. 17% started doing locker searches. 13% increased mental health providers.

Though this will make a big difference it’s not enough. Regardless of these changes many mental health professionals needed to be available in schools. Mainly to put together conflict resolution programs with students and parents. Sadly lack of funds were a major issue and the availability of people to help out. Thankfully many changes have been made in public high schools all over the US since the tragedy. Less is known about individual high schools across the states but as a whole safety has increased. Furthermore preventing youth violence is not only a responsibility of the school but also parents and students.

A large number of risk factors for the violence has been identified as history of aggression, history or mental illness, substance use, abusive childhood, bullying, depression, bad parenting, and violence in the media. Many places have been exposed to risk factors and early warning signs from the APA which expands on reasoning for the violence.

Not only have schools changed their ways of responding to situations like these but law enforcement as well. “Before the Columbine schooling no one knew what the term active shooter mean” (James Gagliano FBI) “Within 13 minutes of the first 911 call, Klebold and Harris fatally shot 12 students and a teacher and wounded 23 other people before killing themselves with gunshot wounds to the head. SWAT teams entered the school 47 minutes after the gunfire erupted. An exhaustive FBI review of the police response at Columbine led to more rapid response strategy during active shooter situations.” After this the responding officers learned they would have to set up a secure perimeter around the crime scene before moving on the suspect. “The tactic, known in law enforcement circles as rapid deployment involving the first officer at the scene, began in earnest after the Columbine shooting.” (CNN)

A fine training program has helped the enforcements lower the threat. “The lessons learned from Columbine led the US Justice Department and other federal agencies to partially fund an active shooter program known as Advanced Law Enforcement Rapid Response Training, or ALERRT, Schweit wrote.

The training, which was developed by the San Marcos, Texas, Police Department and the Hays County, Texas, Sheriff’s Department and adopted by Texas State University in San Marcos, includes a 16-hour course that “prepares first responders to isolate, distract and end the threat when an active shooter is engaged,” ( Schweit)

“Another key lesson of Columbine: We need to prepare students and teachers better for an emergency. The Columbine shooters caught their high school unprepared. We’re less naïve now. Most kids and their teachers are now drilled on lockdowns and evacuations. Police departments have up-to-date floor plans and alarm codes.”

“No one can say for sure why Klebold and Harris committed such a horrific crime. Many people have come up with theories including being picked on in school, violent video games , violent movies, music, racism , Goth, problematic parents, depression, and more.

It is hard to pinpoint one trigger that started these two boys on a murderous rampage. They worked hard to fool all those around them for over a year. Surprisingly, about a month before the event, the Klebold family took a four-day road trip to the University of Arizona, where Dylan had been accepted for the following year. During the trip, the Klebold’s didn’t notice anything strange or unusual about Dylan. Counselors and others also didn’t notice anything unusual.

Looking back, there were telltale hints and clues that something was seriously wrong. Videotapes, journals, guns, and bombs in their rooms would have been easily found if the parents had looked. Harris had made a website with hateful epithets that could have been followed up on.

The Columbine Massacre changed the way society looked at children and at schools. Violence was no longer just an after-school, inner-city occurrence. It could happen anywhere”.

Even though this tragic event struck the community in such an extensive way there is still no end to these tragedies. There have been more than a dozen more shootings and we still haven’t learned our lesson till this day we still have no gun control and no sense of urgency toward this matter examples such as

2007 Virginia Tech University, Blacksburg, Va. — 33 deaths
2012 Sandy Hook Elementary School, Newtown, Conn. — 27 deaths
2018 Marjory Stoneman Douglas High School, Parkland, Fla. — 17 deaths
2015 Umpqua Community College, Roseburg, Ore. — 10 deaths
2018 Santa Fe High School, Santa Fe, Tex. — 10 deaths
2005 Red Lake Senior High School, Red Lake, Minn. — 7 deaths
2012 Oikos University, Oakland, Calif. — 7 deaths
2006 West Nickel Mines School, Bart Township, Penn. — 6 deaths
2008 Northern Illinois University, Dekalb, Ill. — 6 deaths
2014 Marysville Pilchuck High School, Marysville, Wa. — 5 deaths

After columbine you would imagine that things couldn’t get worse. In the 19 years since Columbine rocked America to its core, the country has seen so many more mass shootings that the attack isn’t even among the 10 deadliest mass shootings in modern US history.

“Three of the five deadliest shootings have occurred in just the last year and a half. Let alone school shootings the lack of gun control has brought upon us”

The Harvest Music Festival: 58 killed
Pulse nightclub: 49 killed
First Baptist Church in Sutherland Springs: 26 killed
Luby’s Cafeteria: 23 killed

This list can go on and on. This is where I have issue with both the NRA and our Federal, State and Local Governments. The NRA has made too many concessions and given away too many freedoms in order to effect a compromise. They continue to do this. I feel there needs to be a Criminal Background Check, and a Medical History Background Check to confirm whether someone that is a danger to society or mentally ill or unstable are not able to purchase firearms. Meaning they have not been diagnosed with Paranoid Schizophrenia, or any other mental illness that requires drugs to maintain their “normal”. The problem seen in the states is first and foremost the culture around guns and gun ownership. What could be of some use to start to change that is tighter gun restrictions on who can own a gun and who can buy ammo etc. Some say that it’s easy to get a gun illegally which is true BUT most mass shootings seem to happen when a unstable person has easy access to guns. That is the major problem. I am not in support of banning guns necessarily but there is something to be said for countries that have. The statistics show where there are tighter restrictions on guns such as Canada and the UK there are less shootings and gun crimes in general. So my conclusion in not to ban all guns, or to make harsher punishments for people that commit gun crimes in order to deter future criminals; My point is mainly to say the government and other agencies need to help change the culture around guns and make it harder for people to get guns, especially automatic rifles and pistols. If everyone has guns there will be more gun violence not the other way. The logic behind the saying “the only thing that will stop a bad man with a gun is a good man with a gun” is simply not correct. This could be argued all day but I want to end on that note. The culture needs to change. Change has to be made in order to make progress we have to do better with who we let bear these weapons.

2019-2-26-1551198753

Gun Control – The Unforeseen Dangers of Unchecked Firearms

To say that guns are dangerous and need to be controlled is putting our situation mildly. Every year, 36,000 Americans die from guns, that is nearly 100 people killed every day (America’s Background Check 2019). The American situation is dire, with the need for reform on gun control increasing everyday. School shootings, gun related homicides, and gun related suicides can all be reduced or avoided with the help of more complex legislation. The second amendment needs to be amended as militias are not relevant anymore, and therefore, making it constitutional to pass advanced legislation to have more comprehensive background checks and restrict the American public from buying assault rifles.

Gun control has been an incredibly controversial topic for years, with many affected from gun violence every year and the need to be protected in one’s own home, many have clashing opinions. These opposing viewpoints have created many organizations that are for and against gun control. These organizations include the Brady Campaign which fights for more comprehensive background and checks and the National Rifle Association which want to keep the second amendment the way it is. These values have spawned many arguments about the pros and cons of guns, and if they need to be taken away from the hands of civilians. As stated earlier, many people are affected by gun violence, with mass shootings becoming one of the ultimate causes of fear. On December 14th, 2012, A shooter opened fire inside Sandy Hook elementary school. Adam Lanza, the shooter, fatally shot 20 children and adults. The police investigated what could have caused this to happen, as it turned out, Lanza had several mental health issues (Sandy Hook Elementary 2012). He also had access to these deadly weapons and mixed with his mental health, he become disturbed enough to become a shooter. Gun control activists say that this is why we need to restrict the sales of guns, meanwhile, pro gun activists say that this is why we need more guns to protect people from shooters.

The second amendment is a vastly outdated part of our constitution, as it merely states, “A well regulated Militia, being necessary to the security of a free State…”. In 1791, when this amendment became part of the Bill of Rights, there was no guaranteed safety by federal officials. People were forced to protect themselves from foreign and local threats. Yet, we now have organized police forces and a very powerful military, ensuring our safety from many perils. However, most militias do provide a sense of security for some local neighborhoods and families. Many patrol the Mexico-America border, stopping illegal immigrants from crossing (Bauer 2016). Yet, since militias are made up of private citizens, the government does not sanction their actions or beliefs. In fact, many of these groups are anti-government. A powerful and influential militia organization the Three Percenters warned, “all politics in this country now is just dress rehearsal for civil war” (Nuckols 2013). Such a rhetoric has been embraced by many other Militias, with many calling for training against government threats. These militias are afraid that the American government will/have been invaded by foreigners and will force them to give away all of their firearms. It is argued that the second amendment was created to keep the government from becoming tyrannical and dangerous. Although such an argument is very hard to make, considering the United States military is much more advanced and better equipped. Some of these militias have more discreet goals, such as instilling fear in the hearts and minds of immigrants. For example, three Kansas militia men were convicted of plotting to bomb a mosque and the homes of Somali immigrants. Luckily, they were thwarted by another member of their group who ended up telling authorities about the planned attack (Kansas militia men 2019). These groups do keep some people feeling safe and protected, yet, they instill fear in those who do, in fact, believe that these groups are legitimate in their goals and claims.

Complex legislature and revision to the second amendment would prove to keep Americans much safer than they already are. Among these emendations would be more complex and universal background checks. As stated by the Brady Campaign, “97% of Americans support an expanded background check system” (America’s Background Check 2019). A major error in our background check system is the private sale gap loophole. Private sellers do not need to use background checks, in fact, 1 in 5 guns are sold by private sellers, avoiding background checks completely (America’s Background Check 2019). Such a loophole can put american in serious danger, and closing this loophole would be welcomed by the majority of America. Currently, the Brady Campaign is fighting to keep Americans safe, but is met with resistance from groups such as the National Rifle Association (NRA).

Assault rifles in the hands of untrained, unprepared civilians is a fatal mistake for America. Assault rifles are fun to shoot for some, yet, many of the same guns are used by the United States military (Cook, Goss 2014). Such powerful weapons must be kept away from the untrained hands of the American public. Assault rifles, used by the military, are created to inflict the most amount of casualties the fastest. While many are not automatic and only fire one bullet every time the trigger is pulled, they are still incredibly dangerous (The Gun Control Debate 2019). Compared to various pistols and handguns, these assault rifles have much more power and many have additions, such as silencers, that can be added onto them. Such weapons include the AR15, a deadly variation of the military’s M16. The M16 is a common gun used by the United States government, meanwhile the AR15 is the civilian version. This gun is a semi-automatic weapon, however, it is legal to add a “bump stock”, effectively turning a semi-automatic weapon into an automatic assault rifle. In fact, in 1994 president Bill Clinton signed an assault rifle ban, which prohibited guns such as the AR15. In the following years, the amount of mass shootings did drop, however, they did not end (Myre 2018). Unfortunately, the ban expired in 2004, allowing the American public to buy these weapons of mass destruction again.

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The ‘International’, the ‘Global’ and the ‘Planetary’: essay help free

What are the key differences between the ‘International’, the ‘Global’ and the ‘Planetary’? Why are these important?

Introduction

The “International”, the “Global”, and the “Planetary” represent the stages of evolution of the discipline of International Relations, which was shaped by theories diverging on “the relationship between agency, process, and social structure” (Wendt, 1992, p422). This essay will attempt to identify, critique and reflect upon the most fundamental differences between the three. I identified their key differences to be: the conceptualisations of the international arena, types of politics, driving motivation behind their politics, types of actors, quality of dynamics, identities and interests, and security. In the subsequent sections, I will critically expose each of these concepts in the framework of the “International”, the “Global”, and the “Planetary”, and speculate on their relevance.

The International Paradigm

The discipline of International Relations, also known as IR, has always been divided by many theories on how to theorise the world, and whether or not elements such as history, philosophy, morals and politics played a significant role in it. The many theories which scatter across IR give to the aforementioned elements different grounds of importance, or no importance at all. In the realm of the discipline of IR, Realism is the Queen theory. The other approaches mostly had the merit of adding elements which the discipline acquired and assimilated through its evolution over the centuries. Nonetheless, the school of thought of Realism is the theory which provided the discipline with its foundation, structure and precise conceptualisation of the actors who rule the discipline of International Relations.

Realism states that the ground stage on which the international actors interact is within a timeless sphere of anarchy, in which States base their relations on Realpolitik, power politics. As a result, the quality of the elapsing exchanges is permeated by overbearingness and selfishness, prevarication of interests of the “stronger” State upon the “weaker” State, distrust, disloyalty, and so on. IR, according to Realism, conceptualises the international arena within Realpolitik, which means applying the original concept of Realpolitik to the international system. Realpolitik is a concept which was coined in Germany in the Nineteenth Century to indicate the pursuit of pragmatic politics, without taking much into account morals and ethics when making a policy decision. Applying the concept of Realpolitik to the international arena meant conceptualising an international system of relations which is more concerned with the pursuit of pragmatic objectives, of selfish politics which would benefit the single State who is pursuing it, rather than the international system. Therefore, the quality of the exchanges happening between States, in turn, did not offer fertile soil for the establishment of international cooperation between States or leagues of States.

It is an international system founded on, and functioning through, power politics. Because of the assumption that Anarchy governs the international system, the only possible actor who is strong enough to survive and interact with the system to pursue and defend its interests, is the State. Therefore, there is only space for State-based politics and the conception of the “International” is an inter-State system exclusively. This is the State-based paradigm of International Relations, and, as the only actors in the international system, they are depicted as rational and autonomous, acting in a static, and consequences-less anarchy. States come into the international arena already equipped with an identity and a set of interests. Therefore, a conception of pre-made identities and interests characterises the international arena, and the only objective of their interactions is power, to gain more and to protect what amount of power one has.

The Origins of The Discipline

To genuinely comprehend the discipline of IR and its mission, one must dive into its origins and subsequent evolution. Different philosophical beliefs and paradigms oppositely approached international relations through conceptualisations of study, politics, dynamics and instruments. IR finds its roots in historical, theoretical, philosophical, political frameworks which, once combined, coined the discipline, whose development culminated with its sudden fall after the end of the Cold War.

To further explain the historical, theoretical, philosophical, political origins of my previous statement I will refer to the work of International Relations scholar, Martin Wight, who was a professor at the London School of Economics.

Wight started studying International Relations when the discipline was gaining momentum and celebrity status in the United States in the 1950s, under the denomination of “A Theory of International Relations”. The scientific or behaviourist movement of the United States developed the belief that if you were to study behaviours attentively enough, one could explain the events that have intersected the faiths of countries in the past, present, and even predict future political intersections between States. This belief gave birth to Modern International Relations, as a rejection of “old” Realist views on the matters of International Politics. Therefore, this wave of Neo-Realism tried to move past the “obsolete methodology of existing general works about International Relations, especially those of Realist writers such as E. H. Carr, George F. Kennan and Hans Morgenthau, which formed the staple academic diet of the time” (Bull, 1976, p 103).

It is imperative to take in mind the element of history if one wants to genuinely understand why the theory of Neo-Realism, which undoubtedly represents an oversimplified framework of the exchanges between States, gained such relevance. This view on International Relations was developed right after the end of World War II, in a post-war world that had lost many things to a conflict which many, if not most, deemed useless, and, above all, evitable. Even the mere idea of a discipline which could avoid the repeating of such events, through the detailed analysis of everyday political events and politicians national and international behaviours, was sufficient justification or motivation for a world that had starved many years for hope.

Wight argued that “it is no accident that international relations have never been the subject of any great theoretical work, that there is “a kind of disharmony between international theory and diplomatic practice, a kind of recalcitrance of international politics to being theorised about” (Bull, 1976, p 114). Therefore, in an effort to alleviate this disharmony, he developed his vision to contribute to the debate, and he based it on the commingling of history, philosophy, morals, and politics. Wight “saw the Theory of International Relations […] as a study in political philosophy or political speculation pursued by way of an examination of the main traditions of thought about International Relations in the past” (Bull, 1976, p 103).

He initially decided to divide it into three main categories, each one representing a great thinker of the past. Later on, he identified a possible fourth category, the Inverted Revolutionists, based on a pacifist current inspired by Christianism, Leo Tolstoy and Mahatma Gandhi.

The three main categories are the Machiavellians, from Niccolò Machiavelli’s ideals; Grotians, from Hugo Grotius’s; and the Kantians’, from the work of Immanuel Kant. Each one of them ideated their interpretations on the conception of human nature, the critical units of analysis of the international system, its dynamics and instruments, and the definition of political space and its characteristics.

Machiavelli theorised that the human nature is only driven by self-interest and permeated with greediness. He identified that the critical unit of analysis for understanding the international arena is the recognition of its state of anarchy, which is dominated by dynamics of warfare, power, security and gathering of resources. The political space, exactly like the human nature, is filled only with self-interest and no morality. Machiavelli provided the base on which Realist theories laid their foundations.

Grotius, unlike Machiavelli and the subsequent most fervent Realists, considers the human a rational being who operates within the State, which subsequently engages in international relations in an international system which, like men, runs on rationality. Everything about Grotius’s theory is permeated with rationality, and the quality of the dynamics of the international arena is a reflection of such. Indeed, he believed that the dynamics of the international arena are ruled by diplomacy, negotiations, institutions and norms because the political space is dominated by institutions and by order. Grotius represents moderation and the voice of reason for the successful establishment of an international system based on rationality and cooperation, not on violence and distrust like the system painted by Machiavelli in his most famous works, The Prince and Discourses in the First Decade of Titus Livy. Grotius speculates on the doctrine of an international system based on a society of states working together towards common goals, he dreams of an international society, in direct opposition with the sharp, realist concept of national societies above all. It is “the idea […] that international politics is not just a matter of relations between states, but also a matter of so-called “transnational” relations among the individuals and groups that states compose” (Bull, 1976, p112).

Kant theories that the human nature is good, peaceful, a supporter of solidarity and cooperation. He believed in a global community and in an ideal man who would contribute to its flourishment. The dynamics revolve around policies for cooperation, international trade and exchange, and they would eventually enable the development of a political space represented by a cosmopolitan society. In one of his works, “Perpetual Peace: A Philosophical Sketch”, he goes as far as developing a plan for governments of the world to follow to establish peace for the world, because peace has to come above all. He dreams of a political space which is characterised by the emancipation from State and by an international confederation and the disruption of geographical boundaries.

Moreover, Wight believed that “the truth about international politics had to be sought not in any one of these patterns of thought but in the debate among them” (Bull, 1976, p 110). Machiavelli’s theory is also most notoriously known as Realism. Grotius represents Rationalism, and Kant is Revolutionism, and each one is a founding brick of the discipline of International Relations. Each theory went through transformative changes over the decades. For example, Machiavelli’s Realism turned into Neo-Realism in the 1970s and 1980s and turned into Modernist or Positivist in the 1990s. Grotius’s Rationalism found a new key of interpretation in the English School, between the 1940s and 1960s. Kant’s Revolutionism went from Idealism in the 1920s – 1930s to Neo-Liberalism and Neo-Institutionalism in 1970s and 1980s .

The State-Based Approach to Security

I end this excursus on the origins of the discipline of international relations here, and I catch this occasion to list another key aspect which sets the International paradigm apart from the global and the planetary. And it is its State-based approach to security, which meant that only the State was in charge of taking the necessary measurements aimed at safety, preservation and survival of a country. This implied a severe limit at the protection of one’s nation because “weak” nations did not possess a force of power tantamount to the one of a “strong” country. Therefore, a “weak” state was in the thrall of the anarchic international system, and if a nation wanted to exercise its power to gain more resources, it could attack it, without an international community which would defend it or even dissuade a predator country from invading it.

Methodological Nationalism

The theory of Methodological Nationalism offered a base to understand and organise the life and cycles of IR. It provided the discipline with a source of legitimacy. “Methodological Nationalism […] equates societies with nation-state societies, and sees states and their governments as the cornerstones of social-scientific analysis. It assumes that humanity is naturally divided into a limited number of nations, which internally organise themselves as nation-states and externally set boundaries to distinguish themselves from other nation-states” (Beck, 2003, p 453). It’s the perfect theory to justify the Realist approach to IR. It combined realist accents with the belief that there is only one-world World, everything else merely points at other ways to look at the same one-world world. Methodological nationalism is founded on six core beliefs: a plurality of Societies; Societies are subordinated to the Nation-State; States run on territorial “State-constructed” boundaries (Beck, 2003, p454); State and Society both determinate themselves through a circular belief: the nation is creator and protector of Society’s plethora of rights, and the individuals of the Society organize themselves in movements to influence the actions of the Nation-State, which, in turn, also legitimises the State again; “both States and Societies are located within the dichotomy of national and international” (Beck, 2003, p454); the state is the provider of social order and provides the scholars of multiple disciplines with the data about the country necessary to them. (Beck, 2003). Moreover, the core elements of this theory engage in constant activities which result in continuous determination and further legitimisation of one and the other, without leaving any room for the introduction of new elements.

The Decline of legitimacy of the Discipline

The international paradigm of the discipline experienced a major setback after the end of the Cold War, which left everyone baffled. Also, it left everyone unprepared for the events which followed it. The discipline of IR lost credibility as a predictor of events because all of the academics and IR contemporary theorists indeed failed at predicting one of the most history-shaping events of last century. Moreover, even the assumptions of State-based politics faltered, especially after the terrorist attack on the Twin Towers of September 11th, 2001. The discipline was built upon the framework of conceiving the world from the point of view of a State, indeed a State-based approach, preferably a white, Western one.

The end of the Cold War put into question the sounding of the reasoning behind the discipline, and the terrorist attack struck the final hit. It forced scholars, and politicians alike, to recognise the existence of worlds beyond the “Western World”. I am not here to speculate on whether or not the terrorist attack would have happened if the united states had not imposed their ways in the Middle East for years on end. But I am here to point out that the terrorist attack lifted the veil and it made it impossible for the discipline to ever go back to its original frameworks.

I believe that, at this Realist stage, the discipline used to run on such limited territorial lines that its failure had always been around the corner. Proof of this is that it only took a major event such as the abrupt end of the Cold War for it to crumble and for the scholars to put its frameworks into question altogether. Nonetheless, I do believe that the ultimate cause for the failure of the discipline has to be found on the terrorist attack, which slashed the core beliefs of many, terrorised an entire world, and scarred a whole generation forever. The fear that came afterwards paralysed the world for a moment. Somehow, the introduction of an undefinable enemy turned the discipline of IR on its head. State-based politics, as flawed as they were, were easily graspable and easily manageable: they played alongside the rules of an accepted framework. But 9/11? What was that? Under what category would it fall in the limited structures “allowed” by the discipline? A terrorist attack from an undefinable actor was inconceivable; it did not fit even in the corner of the discipline. The discipline was lacking something. The discipline was wrong.

A Critique of IR, and The Rise of the Global

Eventually, what were the core beliefs of the discipline of International Relations, turned out to be their very own self-limiting beliefs which did not allow the discipline to evolve with time into a comprehensive and complete discipline which provides an adequate understanding of the world and the exchanges which elapse within it.

“The fact that worlds of power politics are socially constructed […] does not guarantee they are malleable”, which is one of the flaws which contributed to the fall of IR, and “through practice agents are continuously producing and reproducing (the same) identities and interests. (Wendt, 1992, p411).

It’s a discipline based on seeing, experiences and conceptualising the world from a State-based only perspective, which results into the provision of a partial and meagre framework of understanding of the exchanges occurring in the world. It is a very limited perspective which lent a voice only to the white, Western Elite.

At the break of the new century, people started looking for other outlooks to replace entirely the failure that the “International” represented. In this time of international (relations) crisis, talks about what will come to be known as the ‘Global’ sprung everywhere. They will bring into the conversation a mixture of concepts which classical IR theories did not cover: Constructivism, gender issues, the need for Morals, Critical Discourses, Post-colonialism, and subsequently, the rise of the Anthropocene.

The Main Paradigms of the “Global”: Social Constructivism and Critical Thinking

“The cosmopolitan perspective dismisses the either-or principle of realism: either the State exists, albeit only as an essential core, or it does not exist at all; either there is national sovereignty – a zero-sum game between national and international competence – or there is no sovereignty at all. From a cosmopolitan perspective, “Realism” is a kind of political irrealism because it neglects the possibility and reality of a second “Great Transformation” of the global power game” (Beck, 2003, p457).

These words from Ulrich Beck, one of the most significant theorists of the Global, summarise the stark contraposition between the “International” and the “Global”. In the 1990s, debates about the Global came in to dismantle the limiting beliefs at the core of the discipline, which flawed for its lack of inclusiveness and overbearingness. The arrival of the global represented the fall of the exclusive domain of binary Left and Right politics as well.

The opening of the discipline of IR to a Global Era brings a new opportunity to engage with the world from a non-State-based position, through the development of many, pluriversal approaches: Constructivist, Critical and Cosmopolitan approaches. The Global Era represents a commingling of these new approaches, and the final result portrays how “the cosmopolitan perspective opens up negotiation spaces and strategies which the national viewpoint precludes. […] The negotiation space the cosmopolitan viewpoint opens up contradicts the absence of alternatives.” (Beck,2003, p466).

They introduce new ways of seeing and thinking about politics, global interests, and global concerns. The Global aims at creating a universal vision to build a liberal and global community, in which the States are not the centre of IR speculation anymore. The international arena is also positively shaken up by the appearance of new international actors which are not states: it’s the rise of the global civil society and Non-Governmental Agencies (Kaldor, 2003). Moreover, through the development of new international dynamics, Nation-States become the product, not the subjects, of the international arena (Jackson, 1990; Krasner, 1999).

Two paradigms of thought especially shaped this evolutionary period of IR: the social constructive/liberal and the critical/deconstructive.

The maintenance of the inter-State system, alongside the rise in popularity of theories of Global sovereignty, characterise the new international order. The emergence of the Global requires a new understanding of the mechanisms of the international arena because “It is the collective meanings that constitute the structures which organise our actions” (Wendt, 1992, p397). Therefore, with the evolutionary passage towards a new stage of the discipline of IR, scholars and citizens alike require a new framework of concepts. Social Constructivism achieves just that by providing a sociological understanding of interactions which challenge previous IR thinking. Alexander Wendt, a leading Constructivist theorist, explains how Constructivists believe that the international system and its frameworks are socials constructs, not beliefs that should be taken as “a given” (Wendt, 1992). Therefore, the significance of everything regarding IR comes “out of interaction” (Wendt, 1992, p403). According to Realism, States come into the international arena already equipped with an identity and a set of interests. Alexander Wendt, in direct opposition to Realism, speculates on “how knowledgeable practices constitute subjects”, and how Constructivism can contribute to “identity and interest formation” (Wendt, 1992, p394). They elaborate on the idea that the creation of an identity and set of interests happen through the elapsing exchanges between States in the international arena. “Actors acquire identities by participating in such collective meanings” (Wendt, 1992, p397). Therefore, actors do not enter the international arena with pre-formed identities, but they create one during their contacts with other states. And the same goes for their interests, which are formed while experiences these exchanges. Different exchanges will show how countries can have a variegated set of interests, depending on the circumstances (Wendt, 1992). Therefore, identities and interests are not a given, and their establishment happens during the socialisation process.

The paradigm of the Critical thinking supported the rise of the global because it opened the door for the emancipation of security from the state-based approach. (Booth, 1991). Critical theorists, alongside Constructivists, discuss the treatment of human security and how the obstacles to human security are constructed. The particular interests of States are a barrier to a universalist liberal approach to global rights and justice. Instead, supporters of Foucauldian critics see the rise of the global as a negative shift. The pursuit of global liberal “governmentality” and “biopolitics” are a negative aspiration for the security of States, which will end up having to rely on the international community. “The undermining of the politics of state-based representation and the globalisation of regulatory power has become the starting assumption for the postructuralist “scaling up” of Foucault in critiques of global governmentality” (Chandler, 2009, p536). Lemke (2001) shows how Foucault used concepts regarding governmentality in a way closer to realism than constructivism, which indicates a critique of the doctrine and its “obsession” with subjectification.

Another fundamental difference of the Global, in opposition with the International, is highlighted attention on Morals and Ethics, which have to have a more profound impact on the decisions of the Nation-State. Indeed, the rise of humanitarian aid actions and acts of global cooperation are proof of that. The global perspective introduces a new critical theory of social inequalities which shines a light on the need to provide aid to nations, minorities or whoever is in considerable need (Beck, 2003). Beck (2003) critics how the original IR used methodological nationalism to remove from its agenda the tackling of global inequalities. “Thus, the bigger blind spots – and sources of error- of methodological nationalism linked to research on inequality will only be recognisable by means of a systemic switch from the national to the cosmopolitan perspective. It is only within the framework of such a new critical theory of social inequality that the fundamental asymmetry of inequality perception […] can be unravelled” (Beck, 2003, p459). Nonetheless, he highlights also how the shift to a global perspective is still not enough to put a real fight against inequalities. Until “there is no global jurisdiction and reporting institution to survey global inequalities, these will remain disintegrated into a motley pattern of national-state inequalities” (Beck, 2003, p461).

International cooperation also brings a Decentring of State-based approaches to security, which in turn, produces more equilibrium and guarantees more safety to “weak” nations. The global brings about the creation of a “cooperative security system, in which states identify positively with one another so that the security of each is perceived as the responsibility of all” (Wendt, 1992, p400).

A Critique of Methodological Nationalism

Globalisation theorists deeply criticise Methodological Nationalism, a stream of thought which profoundly shaped the direction of the original discipline of IR, through the definition of its narrow frameworks. Ulrich Beck, one of the most famous theorists of the cosmopolitan approach, offers a brilliant critique of it. Methodological nationalism only manages to produce a continuous cycle of self-limiting beliefs which do not allow room for adaptation to new contemporary challenges. It is tiring and continuous contraposition between them or us, north or south, weak or strong. Its concepts are not appropriate anymore in the rise of the global age. He calls for a “paradigmatic reconstruction and redefinition of social science from a national to a cosmopolitan perspective [which] can be understood as […] a broadening of horizons for social science research” (Beck, 2003, p456). “Social science must be re-established as a transnational science of the reality of denationalisation, transnationalisation, and “re-ethnification” in a global age – and this is on the levels of concepts. Theories, and methodologies as well as organizationally. This entails a re-examination of the fundamental concepts of “modern society” (Beck, 2003, p458).

The cosmopolitan age requires a redefinition of the understanding of sovereignty in both the national and international context (Beck, 2003). Therefore, he states that “traditional conceptualisations of terms and the construction of borders between the “national” and the “international”, domestic and foreign politics, or Society and the State are less and less appropriate to tackling the challenges linked to the global age” (Beck, 2003, p456). Therefore, the main focus on the debate of globalisation has to be “on gaining a new cosmopolitan perspective on the global power field, pushing new actors and actors’ networks, power potentials, strategies. And forms of organisation of debonded politics into the field of vision” (Beck, 2003, p 467). Nonetheless, Beck (2003), stresses the importance of not mistaking the critique of this theory for the end of the nation-state theory: nation-state will always exist or will evolve into a new concept close to a possible transnational states theory.

The new Era of Planetary Politics of the Anthropocene

From the 2010s, discussions about a new concept called Anthropocene replaced the Global, which had declined in popularity because the translation of the global theories into reality did not appear to focus on achieving global forms of liberal governments anymore, nor did its original aim seemed to carry a positive connotation anymore. Furthermore, “the lack of strategic engagement […] (was) fundamental to the appeal of the Global Ideology” (Chandler, 2009, p540). Therefore, the rise of depreciative theories of the global made the world of scholars look for another direction. The crisis of the global did not produce a return to the past of IR, but rather a perspective of the problematics of IR.

The rise of the Anthropocene is strictly connected with the development of theories on pluriversalism, multiple universes. Blaney and Tickner (2017) discuss how an ontological turn of IR could exorcise “singular world logics introduced by colonial modernity” and allow the discipline to interact with the conception of pluriversalism. By studying on various sources, they develop “the potentials of a politics of ontology for unmaking the colonial universe, cultivating the pluriverse, and crafting a de-colonial science.” (Blaney and Tickner, 2017, p293). They suggest the presence of alternative world realities, which could produce “multiple and hybrid “reals”” (Blaney and Tickner, 2017, p295).

Both Global and Planetary do not see the world in terms of State-based theories of strategy and interests. Therefore, there is no intern-national theory. The predominant discussions of these two theories are about the how we understand and see the world beyond the strict assumptions of the discipline of IR.

Bruno Latour (1993) goes as far as to say that the modern society is stuck in “great divides”, mainly in the frameworks of nature/culture, human/non-human, facts/values, mind/body. These separations allow Western society “to claim to represent a singular reality in a unified science untainted by political interest, power or culture. […] Nature and culture are not discrete categories but intertwined in a multiplicity of hybrid assemblages […] modernity’s particular mode of representing reality is not universally shared. […] many communities do not sharply distinguish humans and other entities, so that animals, plants, and spirits are as much “people” (with consciousness, culture and language) as “we” are” (Blaney and Ticker, 2017, p296). The western societies start paying attention the profoundly original ways of seeing the world, which come from cultures that they had ignored. From them they take new eyes to look at the world: they discern how human activities never separated themselves from the earth’s ecosystem. It is the explosion of a real global conscience with the birth a planetary community, who is aware of the environment and the consequences of humanity’s actions on the planet. This also brought the awareness of agencies that had always been ignored by western society in the international arena: the equal presence of Human and non-human actors; nature declined in many agencies: water, air, etc., and cosmos.

The Planetary is aware that humankind with its actions has changed the planet we live in: the ecosystem, flora and fauna. And the planetary politics have started addressing these problems and, thanks to the rise of a planetary sense of community, governments of many countries have started doing something about it.

The era of the Anthropocene in IR is still relatively new; therefore, there is not as much debate about is as there has been for the International and the Global, but it is visible how planetary seems to have taken away the biggest concern of original IR, which is the gain of power. The race for power which has theorised the first conception of the discipline has come very close to destroying our world and the most recent “update” on IR now works on how to “fix” the unfixable. Planetary politics can be regarded as the least optimistic era of our history, and the only stream of thought which has offered a possible way to save our planet comes from the cultures the western society had tried to crash and integrate within it for centuries.

Conclusion

I will conclude by stating that identifying the key differences between the international, global and planetary is crucial because they show the development of the frameworks within which humankind moved and evolved, over the centuries, the conflicts and the scientific developments. Therefore, these differences provide the world with a reflection of the changing times and the world’s rejection of a one-world World, hegemony and lack of representation of multiple identities, interests, and beliefs. We have only recently entered the phase of planetary politics, although 8 years in IR provide a discreet amount of material; therefore, it is too soon to speculate on whether or not the attempts operated by the Anthropocene of preserving our planet will be fruitful, but it is definitely an improvement from the “International” paradigm of IR.

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2018-4-12-1523522615

Organisational Behaviour: An Analysis Of A Team-Based Approach To Working In The Case Of Phil Jones

Abstract

The aim of this essay is to discuss at length and critically evaluate group and team development and behavioural theories in practice, with reference to the case study concerning Phil Jones and his Gulf Project Team, within Engineering Co, evaluating if a team based approach to work is effective within organisations. It firstly establishes to what extent Phil Jones’ analysis of his group’s current situation is accurate, referring Tuckman and Jensen’s stages of group development in evaluating this. Then it discusses the possible interventions that could be made by Phil to allow his team to get back on track, and reach the performing stage of team development. It is then noted that a possible intervention that could assist the team in reaching this stage is to become a virtual team. The potential issues facing virtual teams are then evaluated, and are contrasted with the issues faced by Phil Jones’ team, with possible solutions offered to issues facing such virtual teams and virtual team leaders, allowing them to reach the performing stage. Finally this essay critically analyses the strengths and weaknesses of a team-based approach to work as a whole, drawing from Phils Jones’ case, a range of literature, and anecdotal experience to conclude that the use of a team-based approach to work can be an effective way of working, through the use of strong e-leadership skills and technology to manage teams virtually.

Introduction

In contemporary society a team-based approach to working is becoming evermore common (Callanhan, 2004), and has become prominent among project teams in the engineering industry (Schaffer et al, 2012). Hence it is unsurprising that a project team; a group of individuals whom come together for an individual task, disbanding after its conclusion (Poel, Stoker and Van der Zee, 2014), is used in Phil Jones’ case for the Gulf Project within Engineering Co. Despite the high popularity of a team-based approach to project work, it is debatable if such approaches are the most efficient way of working, due to the myriad of issues which can arise amongst a team due to poor leadership, leading to them struggling to perform. However when teams succeed the benefits of a team-based approach to project work are reaped (Terry, 1999). Hence through an analysis of group and team development, discussion of interventions made to aid team development, and an evaluation of the strengths and weaknesses of a team-based approach, with reference to Phil Jones’ case, it can be established if a team-based approach to project work is effective within organisations in modern society.

Tuckman and Jensen’s Stages of Group Development in the Case of Phil Jones

Initially Phil Jones lacked the training to deal with people issues amongst the group and lead his team. Initially it must be noted that teams and groups are defined differently. A group consists of a number of individuals all of whom accomplish their tasks independently, which have a similar purpose (Gilley and Kerno Jr, 2010). Smith (1967) also gives the description of a group saying that it is two or more individuals who collaborate, share common objectives and norms and have a communal identity. Although different researchers, both give a similar description of a group in that individuals still have common goals. The definition of a team is very similar to a group, however; a group may not be a team but a team may be a group. Hence these terms cannot be used interchangeably. Baldwin et al (2008) defined a team as a group of individuals who have a great amount intercommunication and interdependence, sharing equal responsibility in their appointed objective. The clear difference between a group and a team is therefore the higher level of interdependence and equal responsibility a team has in achieving their objective.

To remedy his teams’ issues, to make them stop working as a group and start working as a team, Phil read about the stages of group development (Tuckman 1965). Tuckman and Jensen (1977), defined five group development stages, the initial two of which are; forming (Tuckman 1965); when team members get to know each other; unlikely to disagree with their teammates to avoid conflict at an early stage, and storming; defined by Bonebright (2009), as involving disagreements; with frictions in the group as the individual roles and tasks of team members can be unclear, leading to work moving slower than anticipated and team tensions. Phil concluded his group was stuck at the storming stage, and struggled to see how to resolve conflict and reach stages three, four and five defined by Tuckman and Jensen (1977) as; norming; where group members understand their roles and goals, feeling belonging among the team; storming; where the group works effectively as one, building on each others strengths and weaknesses, and finally adjourning; where the group completes their project, evaluates and disbands.

Using Tuckman and Jensen’s 1977 stages of group development conclusively Phil’s diagnosis of the situation is correct, as there are similarities between the storming stage of group development and Phil’s teams position. The case study exemplifies the transition of the team from the forming stage to the storming stage. Phil generated competition within the team, as in his opinion a team needs disagreements to achieve creative innovative ideas. Phil’s point of view is that teams need some debate, as this is what happens among teams in the storming stage, in order to reach the norming stage. Instead of this, the team ended up with more issues than accomplishments, getting stuck in the storming stage, resulting in Phil having to deal with more disputes between team members than project developments. This is common; according to Gersick (1988) many teams end up being stuck in the storming stage, never moving onto the performing stage due to poor management of disputes by leaders like Phil. Hence the project is falling behind due to the lack of clarity of instruction regarding team members roles from Phil as a leader, leading to multiple members completing the same work, resulting in a waste of capital and time. Fapohunda (2013) claims clarity is one of the main elements that concerns team members at storming stage, stating it is often the cause of all disputes regarding roles within in the team. This suggests that due to poor leadership from Phil through misguided attempts to bring the group together through conflict, to gain a sense of belonging as found in the norming stage, interventions are needed to overcome mistakes made by Phil to get out of the storming stage.

Hackman’s Team Leadership Mistakes In the Case Of Phil Jones

Hackman’s work (1998) is used to show the common mistakes made with teams, all of which are a common feature in the Gulf Project Team at Engineering Co. One of the obvious mistakes defined by Hackman (1998) and displayed by Phil Jones is attempting to build a team by managing them as individuals, encouraging members to lack communication with each other, hampering the norming stages characteristic of team spirit. In Phil’s team this is difficult to avoid, as the physical distance of the members placed in different locations hampers any attempt from Phil to motivate members not only communicate with him; the only member to have physically met everyone, but to communicate with each other to gain a sense of team belonging. This leads to another mistake featured in Hackman’s 1998 work, exemplified by The Gulf Project Team; a lack of agreement regarding roles, authority, and boundaries for all team members. This issue is also difficult to avoid within Phil’s team, as it is harder for the team to agree on limitations, delegation and boundaries if they can’t physically meet and work things out, suggesting that distance has again hampered the teams communication and sense of belonging. This exemplifies a further mistake made on Phil’s part featured in Hackman’s 1998 work; a clear lack of planning and execution of tasks. To resolve this Phil must show organisational skill, delegating work effectively, to stop time being wasted through duplicated work, fracturing the teams’ sense of belonging further.

The final mistake shown by Phil Jones featured in Hackman’s 1998 work, is assuming all the members of the ‘team’ have the necessary skills to work together, despite being a diverse group from multiple cultural backgrounds, who are unknown to each other. Phil shows poor leadership regarding his cultural awareness surrounding his authority and responsibility in decision-making, and is naïve, being “sure everything would somehow have fallen into place as at first people appeared to be committed to the project and the team”. The forming stage is crucial to team development. By distancing himself from this stage, encouraging team conflict over team belonging despite members’ diversity in the teams’ early stages, he has created a fractured team. He must rectify this; as workplace diversity is becoming increasingly important in society (Parham and Muller, 2008). Phil must not see this as an issue to progress, and accept today’s workforce is diversified. Instead of taking a Laissez-Faire approach, he must look to use this as an advantage, working to integrate cultures to produce the end result.

Phil is correct that his team is still in the storming stage of Tuckman’s stages development; hence he must address such mistakes. Phil must show leadership in the initial stages of getting the team back on track ensuring that until the team is norming it does not control itself, accepting delegation and clarity of roles and working practice. Once the team has a better understanding of each other he can allow them more freedom, as Matsudaira (2016) states “being a good leader means allowing the people around you to be experts in their domains”. Hence through understanding his team members and delegating efficiently Phil can get the best out of everyone, by drawing on motivation theories using social identity to get the best out of the team, giving each member a task suited to their skills they can be proud of. Lewis (2011) states social identity “refers to the desire of individuals to strive to maintain some perceived distinctiveness”. Hence if through interventions all dispersed group members can be motivated to take pride in the work through motivational leadership and a feeling of belonging through their role in the team, there will be no duplication of work and less conflict. Hence a key intervention Phil Jones could use to remedy all such issues and allow team to perform, and hence work as a team efficiently is the use of a virtual team.

The Use Of Virtual Project Teams To Reach The Performing Group Development Stage

A virtual team is defined as “a group of people who interact through interdependent tasks guided by common purpose and work across space, time, and organizational boundaries with links strengthened by information, communication, and transport technologies” (Gassman and Von Zedtwitz, 2003 p.244). Hence though leading a team in person is difficult (Lilian 2014), virtual project team leaders face greater issues. Kayworth and Leidner (2002) found virtual project teams face similar issues to traditional teams, more strongly in virtual settings, coupled with challenges linked to dispersion of members, high reliance on technology and strong communication. Consequently specific leadership strategies are needed. The strategy utilized by managers of virtual teams is e-leadership, defined as “a social influence process, mediated by advanced information technologies, to produce a change in attitudes, feelings, thinking, behaviour and/or performance with individuals, groups or organisations” (Avolio, Kahai and Dodge, 2001 p.617). Hence e-leaders utilize technology to resolve virtual team issues by influencing team behaviour, as the goals of leadership; motivation, vision, determination and innovation (Spicker, 2012) are unchanged, however the mediums implemented to resolve issues are vastly different in virtual project teams.

The initial issue e-leaders face when managing a virtual project team is distance. Distance in a virtual team is established by geography, time zone, and familiarity among team members. In Phil’s case, geography and time zone impeded the team’s success, as though cultural differences were the reason why Phil was the key communicator in the team, to some extent the issue of coordinating an appropriate time for group communication due to differing time zones hampered simultaneous work, proving detrimental in motivating the team to communicate with each other individually. Studies show this assumption. Cummings (2011) found differing work hours caused by time zones burdens team members and leaders. Such levels of dispersion of team members as in Phil’s case can hinder team members familiarity with each other, as he is the only person on the team to have communicated with all team members, reducing social familiarity, which is important to how teams operate (Zaccaro and Bader, 2002). To remedy this e-leaders can address distance by responding quickly to distance specific issues regarding deadlines, then finding a good time to use virtual meeting software, enhancing feelings of closeness through diverse technologies, achieving team performance and greater organisational values. Hence in Phil’s case making the team virtual would be positive in this aspect, as the use of technology would aid the team’s success as schedules and deadlines could easily be accessed by all. Furthermore greater feeling of closeness among team members through the use of virtual meetings could be made, allowing team members to contact each other directly, rather than through Phil.

Though physical distance can be remedied through this, cultural diversity regarding national culture, and values caused by dispersion requires other strategies to be taken. Diversity can be problematic as like in Phil’s case cultural expectations regarding work ethic, work execution and job roles can vary regionally (Burnelle, 2012), causing friction, misunderstandings and fractured communication in the team, with further difficulties when there is a language barrier. E-leaders can solve issues related to cultural diversity by designing team-building sessions through technological mediums to ensure team members understand each other’s cultural differences. They can also address ambiguous online communications, ensuring no misunderstandings. Furthermore promoting a sense of belonging in a virtual team keeps members engaged and stops feelings of isolation from the rest of the team, reducing in and out groups (Leonard, 2011). Therefore through accommodating diversity through teambuilding and technology Phil would be best making his project team virtual as it reduces cultural frictions, and improves members sense of belonging.

Though diversity can cause communication errors within a virtual team, such errors can also be caused by technological breakdowns and, as in Phil’s case; a lack of clarity given by leaders regarding the roles and behavioural expectations of team members, leading to work being completed incorrectly. Hence if the qualities of effective communication; “quantity, frequency and accuracy of information exchange” (Gallenkamp et al 2011, p.8) are unfulfilled, communication breakdowns occur, causing frictions and hampering the team’s success as in Phil’s team. Communication is difficult in a virtual team, as face-to-face communication is omitted from most communicative mediums, potentially deterring emphasis on certain points. The lack of face-to-face contact may cause interactions to lose social or contextual information (Purvanova and Bono, 2009), such as a member’s higher professional status, or higher level of expertise on a subject. Hence to resolve such issues, e-leaders must ensure it becomes habit to team members to maintain continuous contact with each other, and analysing communications to ensure clarity is given regarding roles and expectations. Video-chat technologies can mediate this issue. Hence by making his team virtual Phil could resolve his teams and his own communicative issues.

Hence by improving communication e-leaders create social belonging within a virtual team, eventually creating trust. Trust is important within virtual teams as it motivates individual members to fulfil their role, building dependability (Uber Grosse, 2002). If trust is not achieved conflicts and low group satisfaction occur, deterring the team’s chance of success, as in Phil’s case. E-leaders can create trust through video-chats and electronic meeting systems, promoting communication, joint-efforts and a shared understanding of team issues. Hence through motivating his team to communicate effectively and hence building trust through technological mediums, over-coming distance and diversity, Phil could bring his team to performing stage as a virtual team, by becoming an e-leader. Therefore the use of project teams can be effective within modern society, should a virtual team be used due to recent technological innovations.

Strengths and Weaknesses Of A Team Based Approach to Work

However even when using a virtual team there are strengths and weaknesses of a team based approach to work, within a group of individuals. Some may say a team-based approach to work is far more effective than accomplishing a complex task individually. This is because several people can divide the work up, decreasing individual workload and providing many different ideas to cope with the complexity of a task. Wageman (1997) stated several viewpoints are more suitable when the task is complicated. This is also supported by Klein (2005) stating multiple people are required to carry out a task if the workload is extravagant. Working in a team on a complex task also increases levels of creativity when completing a task. Amabile, et al. (1996) states teamwork increases creativity, as members all have different and diverse backgrounds, combined with the fact that members’ ideas are challenged by others within the team to reach common goals. Furthermore Moreland (2006) explains that working in a team will increase the ability of members’ to specifically remember and recall important project information to reach common goals. This is because members of a group are aware of each other and remember different pieces of information better than other members would. If a member forgets a piece of information another may remember and be able to recall it due to goal interdependence. The degree of goal interdependence will have a significant impact on all members of a team. If there is a high level of objective interdependence, this will enhance team members’ execution of current tasks (Emans, et al., 2001). The authors believe that a high degree of goal interdependence promotes cooperation amongst group members, hence improving performance when carrying out projects. Furthermore Emans, et al. (2001) states that this greater execution of interdependent tasks is positively correlated to group members job satisfaction.

However using a team is not always the most efficient method to complete a task, as each member of the team has a different perspective. Therefore, in team discussions, each team member will have different perceptions, which makes decision time-consuming. Hinsz, et al. (2003) noted how teams are very contemplative in operation; hence their time to make a decision is very slow; whereas an individual’s decision-making process is much faster. Cognitive thinking is also impeded due to the way people communicate in teams (Cooke, et al., 2013). Diehl and Stroebe (1987) elaborated saying that communication of ideas and knowledge interrupts cognitive thinking by preventing other team members from creating ideas. This is so as one person in a team talks at a time, hence planting their idea first and mitigating others thoughts. Members also suffer from being able to challenge a group decision once it is already being carried out. Hence even if the decision is working out poorly, group individuals will generally fail at proposing alternative strategies. Hinsz (2015) stated that teams cause members to lose their own self-awareness and even if a member has knowledge that a team decision is incorrect, or working ineffectively they will not query it.

One of the most substantial disadvantages of working in a team is social loafing. Usually one member of a large team tends to exert much less effort than the rest of the team. This not only causes frustration in other members, but also reduces the quality of the project. Harkins, et al. (1979) found that in larger groups the average performance of each person decreased, with the explanation that some individuals felt like they could slack whilst remaining undetected using the group. However now more than ever it is difficult for individuals not to be called out on ‘social loafing’ in a group, if a project team is managed effectively through technology. With the innovation of cloud based constantly editable software such as Google Docs, e-leaders such as Phil Jones can continuously check on the pace of work uploaded by his team members, ensuring work is completed accurately, creativley and at an appropriate pace to ensure deadlines are met, and furthermore giving such leaders the ability to know which individual team members are doing the majority of the work, allowing social loafers to be pulled up through virtual devices.

Conclusions

Conclusively a team-based approach to work though popular, can be inefficient if team leaders fail to assert their authority and leadership skills in early group formation ad storming stages, hindering their team from reaching the performing group development stage as defined by Tuckman and Jensen’s stages of group development. However should interventions be put in place such as a virtual team, teams can overcome the variety of social and communicative challenges that can face a failing dispersed team as defined by Hackman’s work, and as exemplified in The Gulf Project Team. Hence virtual teams can allow teams to perform effectively, with a review of literature concluding the use of a team-based approach to project work is effective within organisations in modern society, due to recent technological advances.

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2017-3-2-1488475252

Construction of identity and images of the communion in post-colonial Indonesia: college essay help online

Coexist with colonist; Construction of identity and images of the communion in post-colonial Indonesia.

Subject area, aims and objectives

Subject Area

Britain, Dutch and Japan are the three empires which politically colonised Indonesia for more than 100 years. After gaining their independence in 1945, Indonesia began constructing their identity to state their power and gain recognition from other countries. However, during the transition period, there are possibilities that the formation of identity may produce by doing assimilation with former colonist country by adjusting and adapting the existing colonist identity legacy. The relationship during colonial period between the individual and socio-cultural space is as follows shaped in a dual hybrid position, a hybrid that represents the identity of Indonesian communion.

This research would like to examine the visual representation of Indonesian communion. The visual identity used by the state such as the national emblem, currency design, military crest, and maps–which the latest considered as Western imperial’s science and technology gifts– is a construction of the national identity through the symbolism which represents Indonesia’s in international circumstance.

Aims

Examining the identity formation and transition in pre and post-colonial Indonesia (a decade between 1940– 1950), which may generate some insight about how the hybrid of two visual identities–Indonesia’s and Colonist–coexist and later build the images of the communion in Indonesian minds.
Utilizing graphic design studies to excavate the complexity of identity construction during the postcolonial period which cannot be understood by conventional history narrative.

Objectives

Examine and exploring the founded sources idea, and learn the method of combining the visual identification such as in symbols, colour or visual style which considered share universal visual language and mutual value for both sides.
Deconstruct how the product such as technology and science perceived and accepted by the natives and later adapted it as their identity. (Such as Map)
Experimenting and do iterative process with deconstruction method.
Examine the tools used by the government to certifies the identity and nationality during decades of transition. (contemporary: Passport)
Identify how national identity intertwined and influence with personal details (such as ID Card, Passport) which developed the image as a part of the community.

Historical context

Postcolonial History

The research begins with the studies and history of postcolonialism, which commonly understand as an aftermath of Western colonialism or various form of imperialism, both represented in the historical period or state of affair. However, some argue that, etymologically, postcolonialism frequently misunderstood as a temporal concept; the time after colonialism has ceased, or the time following the politically determined Independence Day on which a country breaks away from its governance by another state. Gilbert and Tompkins (1996) suggested that a theory of post-colonialism must, then, respond to more than the merely chronological construction of post-independence, and to more than just the discursive experience of imperialism. The postcolonial theory thus establishes intellectual spaces for subaltern peoples to speak for themselves, in their voices, and thus produce cultural discourses of philosophy, language, society and economy, balancing the imbalanced us-and-them binary power-relationship between the colonist and the colonial subjects.

The Postcolonialism studies indicate a possible future of overcoming colonialism, anticipating the potential new forms of the global empire and new forms of domination and subordination (Encyclopædia Britannica, 2018).

Postcolonial Theory

Postcolonialism aimed at destabilising these theories (intellectual and linguistic, social and economic) employing which colonialists “perceive”, “understand”, and “know” the world. The postcolonial theory thus establishes intellectual spaces for subaltern peoples to speak for themselves, in their voices, and thus produce cultural discourses of philosophy, language, society and economy, balancing the imbalanced us-and-them binary power-relationship between the colonist and the colonial subjects.

Postcolonial Identity

Decolonized people develop a postcolonial identity that based on interactions between different identities (cultural, national, and ethnic as well as gender and class-based) which are committed varying degrees of social power by the colonial society. In postcolonial literature, the anti-conquest narrative analyses the identity politics that are the social and cultural perspectives of the subaltern colonial subjects—their creative resistance to the culture of the coloniser. How such cultural resistance complicated the establishment of a colonial society; how the colonisers developed their postcolonial identity; and how neocolonialism actively employs the Us-and-Them binary social relation to view the non-Western world as inhabited by The Other.

However, postcolonial theory is somehow problematic. John Lye (1997) argues that while the theory deals with the reading and writing of literature written in previously or currently colonised countries, or literature written in colonising countries which deals with colonisation or colonised peoples. The post-colonial theory focuses particularly on;

The way in which literature by the colonising culture distorts the experience and realities, and inscribes the inferiority, of the colonised people
literature by colonised peoples which attempts to articulate their identity and reclaim their past in the face of that past’s certain otherness.

It can also deal with the way in which literature in colonising countries appropriates the language, images, scenes, traditions and so forth of colonised countries.

Marxist Scholar Vivek Chibber (2013) express that postcolonial theory will remember for its revival of cultural essentialism and its acting as an endorsement of orientalism, rather than being an antidote to it. It is essentialized cultures, painting them as fixed and static categories and presents the difference between East and West as unbridgeable. On his book Postcolonial Theory and the Specter of Capital, Chibber focusing mainly on the strain of postcolonial theory known as subaltern studies. He makes a strong case for why we can — and must — conceptualise the non-Western world through the same analytical lens that we use to understand developments in the West.

Contemporary Context

Nina Katchadourian

Hand-held Subway, Geographic Pathologies, Finland’s Longest Road, Finland’s Unnamed Islands, Head of Spain. 1996-2008.

Various work from Nina Katchadourian which exploring the cartographic works. She deconstruct an existing maps and atlas of New York subway system, Finland’s highway, Spanish paper road map to create a new possibility of creating meaning and generates a new ways of seeing things.

Meta Haven Sealand Identity Project

Meta Haven collaborate on the Sealand Identity Project, which was to conceive a national identity for the Principality of Sealand, which is a self-proclaimed nation on a former war platform near the coast of the UK.

Sealand Identity Project was really a combination of this idea of sovereignty, self-proclaimed nationhood, in combination with this flawed entrepreneurial dream of starting an offshore business onboard Sealand.

Theoretical Context

Critical Theory

History of Politics and Identity

Jonathan Friedman (1994) points out there were two aspects of the relation between social identification and the making of history. The first concerned the relationship between the social conditions of identity formation and the production of culturally viable past. The second introduced so-called scientific constructions of other people’s past into the same frame argument.

On the Journal of the Society for Cultural Anthropology, Friedman (1992, p.41) acknowledges that history and discourse about the making of history are positional, that is, it is dependent upon where one located in social reality, within society, and within the global process. The idea is even applicable to the present discourse, which in no way represents an attempt to stand in some objective truth-sphere above or outside of the goings-on of the world. Objective history, just as any other history, is produced in a definitive context and is a particular kind of project.

Besides, he suggested that the discourse of history as well as of myth is simultaneously a discourse of identity; it consists of attributing a meaningful past to a structural present. Objective history produced in the context of a particular kind of selfhood, one that based on a radical separation of the subject from any particular identity, and which objectifies and textualises reality.

Imagined Community

A country which merely liberated from their former colonist would be struggling in defining their own political identity and build their image of communion. As they build the identity on the top of the ruins of existing colonist structure, it would be unavoidable to eradicate their former identity. Even the previous one is arguably an already hybrid of different cultures. However, it was understood that images of the communion were built not only taking the references from the community itself, but also construct by external influence. Benedict Anderson’s theory regarding the identity of a community would be very fit to depict the condition of emerging, newly independent nation.

Anderson (1983, p.6) defines the nation as, “an imagined political community – and imagined as both inherently limited and sovereign…It is imagined because the members of even the smallest nation will never know most of their fellow-members, meet them, or even hear of them, yet in the minds of each lives the image of their communion”. Anderson sees the nation as a social construct, an “imagined community” in which members feel a commonality with others, feel a “horizontal” comradeship with each other even though they may not know them. It could be said that the lasting appeal and political resilience of nationalism of newly independence nation affirm the strength of patriotic feeling and the enormous sacrifices people have made on behalf of their nation.

In the chapter “The Origins of National Consciousness”, where he argues that the convergence of capitalism, printing, and the diversity of vernacular languages led to the birth of national consciousness. Popular nationalism threatened to exclude the European monarchies from the new imagined communities, as the dynasties had dubious and often conflicting national credentials. They responded with what Anderson terms “official nationalism,” a Machiavellian appropriation of nationalist ideas to secure dynastic legitimacy and suppress ethnolinguistic subject groups within their realms. In the European colonial empires, official nationalism served as a tool of the imperial administration.

Census, Map, Museum.

In the more specific topic, Anderson introduces three institutions of powers– Census, Map, Museum–that profoundly shaped the way in which the colonial state imagined its dominion and the legitimacy of its ancestry. As the research emphasises on more pragmatic visual based identity, the writer considered it would be more fruitful on profoundly examining the Map topic. However, the assumption made after thoughtfully deal with the capacity of the author, which couldn’t afford further research on Census and Museum.

It could be said that the Mercatorian map, which brought in by the European colonisers via print, was beginning to shape the imagination of Southeast Asians, including Indonesia (Anderson, 1983, p. 247) Regarding most communication theories anti-common sense, a map is a scientific abstraction of reality. A map merely represents something which already exists objectively “there”. Anderson (1983) points out, “In the history, I have described, this relationship was reversed. A map anticipated spatial reality, not vice versa. In other words, a map was a model for, rather than a model of, what it purported to represent… It had become a real instrument to concretise projections on the earth’s surface… The discourse of mapping was the paradigm which both administrative and military operations worked within and served”

Map as a Logo

As an administrative and military tool, maps acknowledge the ability as the second avatar of one nation or empire, the map-as-logo. Its origins were reasonably innocent— the practice of the imperial states of colouring their colonies on maps with an imperial dye. British colonies were usually pink-red. French purple-blue, Dutch yellow-brown, and so on. (Anderson, 1983, p. 250) The map becomes a pure sign, no longer compass to the world. As the map then entered an infinite reproducible series, available for transfer to posters, official seals, letterheads, magazine which made them instantly recognisable and visible–the logo-map penetrated deep into the popular imagination, forming a powerful emblem for the anticolonial nationalism.

One of the most known examples of this process is what happened on the island of New Guinea. Dutch Empire settlement in Indonesia was made on the island of New Guinea and succeed to incorporate it into Netherland Indies in 1901 and made it in time for Dutch logoization. Dutch colonial logo-maps sped across in the colony, showing a West New Guinea with nothing to its East, unconsciously reinforced the developing imagined ties among Indonesian nationalist. Even Indonesian nationalist was struggling and made as a national sacred site in the national imagining, they never actually saw New Guinea with their own eyes until the 1960s.

Anderson (1983, p. 251) then relates that “the prestige of the colonial state was accordingly, now intimately, linked to that of its homeland superior.” As more and, more Europeans were being born in Southeast Asia, and being tempted to make it their home. The old sacred sites were to be incorporated into the map of the colony, and their ancient prestige (which, if this had disappeared, as it often had, the state would attempt to revive) draped around the mappers.

The “warp” of this thinking was a totalizing classificatory grid, which could be applied with unlimited flexibility to anything under the state’s real or contemplated control: peoples, regions, religions, languages, products, monuments, and so forth. The effect of the grid was always to be able to say of anything that it was this, not that; it belonged here, not there.

Parallel Theory

Cartography

To provide a profound understanding of Map and its influence on the construction of national identity, the writers realised that the study of cartography is one of the best ways to explain it. While map in the previous point bears the capacity to become a witness of powers, the map also can produce their language. Polish-American philosopher Alfred Korzybski’s theory of general semantics states that; human knowledge is limited by our physical being as well as the structure of language. Though the human experience of reality is limited, yet increasingly see the world through more maps, bigger maps of more data, and more maps of bigger data.

Huffman and Matthews (2014) endorse that, “Cartographers have always been storytellers. This metaphor works well for thematic maps, but topographic or reference maps also tell stories: of the landscape, of the settlement, and of the shape of the natural and human-modified world that surrounds us… Cartographers take data and wrestle it before applying some graphical treatment that provides the narrative. They codify the story in a visual language that they hope speaks to people.”

While cartography has the ability to promoted scientific objectivity over artistic representation and vice versa, the scientific objectivity did not always go the actual representation, a metaphor involved in this work, such map does not always mean the territory. Like any other tools that generate knowledge, maps are informative, but they also can be deceptive, even threatening. At one time or another, it probably safe to say that all of us have been misled by a map designed to hide something the mapmaker did not want us to know, or drawn in such a way that we jump to false conclusions from it.

H. J. de Blij (1996, p. xi-xii) points out that Map crosses the line between information and advocacy. In which later he added that in the world of changing political and strategic relationships and devolving nation-sites, maps become propaganda tools. Some national government even go so far as to commit cartographic aggression, mapping parts of neighbouring countries as their own. Turkish Cypriots, Sri Lankan Tamils, Crimean Russians publish maps that proclaim their political aspirations, fuelling nationalism that spell disaster for the state system.

When the research go further in finding the capability and possibility of a map in manipulating or altering the fact, the research leads to an exciting book written by Dr Mark Monmonier, How to Lie with Maps. In this book, Monmonier (1996, p.2) acknowledges that in showing how to lie with maps, he want to make readers aware that maps–like speeches and paintings–are authored collections of information and also are subject to distortions arising from ignorance, greed, ideological blindness, or malice. The idea seems uncomfortable and uneasy to accepted as it lot of sense of offensiveness. However, he provides a stunning yet straightforward analogy. He offers the idea of the relationship of Map and Scale and its capability on defining the truth.

He took the example as follows; the square inch on the large-scale map could show inch on the ground in far greater detail than the square inch on the small-scale map. Both maps would have to suppress some details, but the designer of the 1:10,000,000-scale map must be far more selective than the cartographer producing the 1:10,000-scale map. In the sense that all maps tell white lies about the planet, the small-scale map has a smaller capacity for truth than large-scale maps.

That is the softball of how maps tell lies, then what about the other possible one? Such as Maps for political propaganda. A good propagandist knows how to shape opinion by manipulating maps. Political persuasion often concerns territorial claims, nationalities, national pride, borders, strategic position, conquests, attacks, troop movements, defences, spheres of influence, regional inequality, and other geographic phenomena conveniently portrayed cartographically. (Monmonier, 1996, p. 87).

People trust maps, and intriguing maps attract the eye as well as connote authority. The map is a perfect symbol of the state and an intellectual weapon–in disputes over territory. Naïve citizens willingly accept as a truth map based on a biased and sometimes crooked selection of facts.

Maps as Symbols of Power and Nationhood

The string of newly independent states formed after World War II, such as Indonesia, revived the national atlas as a symbol of nationhood. In the service of the state, maps and atlases play dual roles. Monmonier (1996, p.89) research confirmed that although a few countries in western Europe and North America had state-sponsored national atlases in the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries, these served mainly as reference works and symbols of scientific achievement. However, between 1940 and 1980 the number of national atlases increased from fewer than twenty to more than eighty, as former colonies turned to cartography as a tool of both economic development and political identity.

Even tiny maps on postages stamps can broadcast political propaganda. Postage stamps bearing maps are useful propaganda tools for developing nations and ambitious revolutionary movements. In mail interest, it is useful to keep aspirations alive domestically and to suggest national unity and determination internationally. Postage stamps maps afford a small but numerous means for asserting territorial claims (Monmonier, 1996, p. 91). The war claims between India, Pakistan and China offer us an excellent example of this. Official government tourist maps show Kashmir as a part of India, on the other hand as a part of Pakistan. In reality, India controls the southern part of the state of Kashmir, Pakistan controls the northwestern part, and China controls three sections along the eastern margin. The other example is the Ligitan and Sipadan dispute. It was a territorial dispute between Indonesia and Malaysia over two islands in the Celebes Sea, namely Ligitan and Sipadan. The dispute began in 1969 as Malaysia put them on their official passport and tourism map. Thus it was mostly resolved by the International Court of Justice (ICJ) in 2002, which opined that both of the islands belonged to Malaysia as British Empire, their former colonist, has already settled administrative work since 1930 on both islands.

The latest example given probably slightly capture how the state intervenes-wars, colonialism and national planning intertwined on mapping activities. However, these activities of the major powers not confined to their colonial territories, the very existence of which had left them with global rather than local strategic preoccupations. On Maps and Air Photographs, Dickinson (1979, p. 48) states that; stimulated by various motives, among which the discovery of potentially exploitable areas and resources and the complete delineation of boundaries against possible counter-claimants are two obvious ones, most European nations with colonial possessions carried out various surveys in them often very actively. At first, both the maps themselves and the bodies that produced them were slightly varied.

Methodology

The initial stage of the research would emphasize on experimental design, as this approach is a careful balancing of several features including “power”, generalizability, various forms of “validity”, practicality and cost. A thoughtful balancing of these features in advance will result in an experiment with the best chance of providing useful evidence to modify the current state of knowledge in a particular design field. The goal is to actively design an experiment that has the best chance to produce meaningful, defensible evidence, rather than hoping that proper statistical analysis may be able to correct for defects after the fact.

In the realm of experimenting, the deconstructive method would be the fittest one to tackle the question and inquiry of this research. It is a strategy of critical form-making which performed across a range of artefacts and practices, both historical and contemporary. Deconstruction was born to uncover the meaning of a literary work by studying the way its form and content communicate essential humanistic messages.

Lupton and Miller (1994) argue that deconstruction offer the mode of questioning through and about the technologies, formal devices, social institutions, and founding metaphors of representation. That deconstruction belongs to both history and theory. In Derrida’s theory, deconstruction asks how representation inhabits reality. How does the external image of things get inside their inner essence? How does the surface get under the skin?

While examining the construction of the identity of the communion, it is important to trace its source, find the authenticity and telling of a story viewed as a passive record of events. The research foresees to gain a vast amount of result and new insight by studying the meaning of a sign and its relationship to other signs in a system. This principle is the basis of structuralism, an approach to language which focuses on the patterns or structures that generate meaning rather than on the “content” of a given code or custom (Lupton, E. and Miller, J. A., 1994)

How does the theory relate to the practical experimentation?

By experimenting with deconstruction would benefit the research in doing widespread disruption, founded on a challenged and remodelled idea of what existing idea/design can do and bring.

What is the theory for?

As a platform on the iterative process. The fundamental principle of deconstruction and how deconstructive method work help to maintain the system while doing experiment and records thought for future transmissions.

What process of experimentation will be used?

Experimenting by deconstructing existing visual material and try a different approach to generate the possible outcome and utilise the basis of structuralism, an approach to language which focuses on the patterns or structures that generate meaning rather than on the “content” of a given code or custom.

How the project recorded and keep track of what have been done.

Documentation by photograph, video, scanned artefact and scheduled digital/printed publication.

Visual evidence

1st Iteration on deconstruction method: Deconstruction of Indonesia’s National Emblem.
2nd Iteration on deconstruction method: The study of Colonized and Colonist Map.

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Niccolo Machiavelli’s The Prince – leadership and power: essay help site:edu

Niccolo Machiavelli’s, The Prince, is one of the most controversial books of its time. Because of its contents, Machiavelli is seen by many as symbol for evil and vice. The book was thought to be so abhorrent that it was banned by the Catholic church, and harshly critiqued by many of Machiavelli’s contemporaries. The Sixteenth Century treatise was meant as an advice book for princes on how to gain power and maintain it, but the methods he proposed for achieving these aims were unsavory to many. In the years following its publication, The Prince, horrified and shocked the general populace due to its challenging of the current view that a leader had to be virtuous and moral, asserting that it was better for a leader to be feared than loved, challenging the idea that a ruler gained his power from divine right alone, and its proposition that a ruler might employ unethical actions to secure his position and better his country.

One of the first of things that Machiavelli tried to do in his treatise is to separate ethics from princes. While, many of his contemporaries believed that a successful prince would be one filled with the usual virtues, like honor, purity, and integrity, Machiavelli threw this idea out a window. He did not believe that being simply having the “right” value system would grant a leader power and security. In fact, he argued that often, being tied down by such morals would be counterproductive to one maintaining their position. Moreover, “if a ruler wishes to reach his highest goals he will not always find it rational to be morale” (Skinner 42).

So, what characteristics did Machiavelli think would actually make a strong leader? His ideal prince is one who is cunning and ruthless. Machiavelli believed that, “a ruler who wishes to maintain his power must be prepared to act immorally when this becomes necessary” (26). A ruler should also not be worried about being miserly, for overall this will help rather than hurt his control (Mansfield). If a prince is too generous his people will also become accustomed to such generosity and be angered when it is not forthcoming, and in the long run he will have to tax his people to make up for what he has given away. Such ideas went directly against the Christian and humanist ideas about morality in Machiavelli’s time.

Another major point of interest that Machiavelli discussed throughout The Prince was the concept of fortune and its role in a princes rule. He believed that it was of the utmost importance that a prince try to win fortune to his side as best he can. Here again, Machiavelli differentiates from his predecessors. Many past philosophers believed that fortune would smile upon a ruler who was just and virtuous. Machiavelli disagreed with such notions. Morales had nothing to do with pleasing fortune. Instead, it was the more violent and ambitious ruler, who would seize the moment, that would have a better chance of winning fortune (Spencer). Machiavelli went so far as to compare fortune to a woman and stated that, “If you want to control her, it is necessary to treat her roughly” (87).

While Machiavelli did not think it was in a prince’s best interest to always be kind and good, he did note the importance of his subjects thinking him to be so. It is very hard to hold control a region, in which the people believe their ruler to be completely immoral. However, they may put up with questionable actions of a ruler if once in a while he does something that appears to be in their best interest. The crueler a ruler is the more crucial it is to appear to the public as being the opposite. Once the people are convinced of a ruler being virtuous, he will be able to get away with the most unscrupulous behavior.

Most people would consider it essential for a ruler to keep his promises and appear trustworthy, maintaining a good relationship with his subjects, not Machiavelli. Sometimes it is not realistic for a ruler to be able to make good on every promise. It may even be better for the people in the long run if he does not. A prince should not have qualms about breaking his word, “plausible reasons can always be found for such failure to keep promises” (Machiavelli 62). Moreover, if a prince prides himself on always keeping his word the people will always expect this. When unfortunate circumstances force him to deviate from what he swore to do, the people will be outraged, whereas if they expect promises to be broken it will not garner as much anger.

Another stable argument of Machiavelli’s book is the power of fear. Machiavelli believes fear is one of the best way to keep subjects in line. Fear is strongest of all the emotions and will give a ruler the most control. Striving for the people’s love is not as fruitful, due to mankind’s fickle nature. Andrew Curry of the Washington Post notes that for Machiavelli, “ Man’s weak nature was a constant as unchanging as the bright sun that rose above his beloved Tuscan hills.” A leader who relies on love to gain loyalty from his subjects, will find his people nowhere to be found when hard times come. Men tend to what they think is best for them, and due to this they will changes sides quickly. They will adopt a new prince quickly and shed their old one if they believe it will be prosperous for them. However, if the subjects greatly fear their leader they are more likely to obey him. If they believe their ruler to be lax they will think they can get away with some disobedience, but if a prince has made it clear that the consequences will be great they will hesitate (Machiavelli .

One of the main ways Machiavelli demonstrates the power of fear, is through generals and their handling of the troops under them. He praises the Carthaginian general, Hannibal, for his ability to lead such a large army of various peoples with little discord or trouble among his troops. Despite going through many lands unknown to his soldiers, and enduring times of trial, Hannibal was able to keep his soldiers in order because of their respect and fear of him (Machiavelli 60). How did Hannibal make his troops fear him? Through great cruelty, which made him the perfect Machiavellian leader. It was this cruelty that was key of his success according to Machiavelli. He argued that, “if he had not been so cruel, his other qualities would not have been sufficient to achieve that affect” (60).

Scipio was another general of the same period as Hannibal. Like Hannibal he was a brilliant military mind, and one of the greatest leaders of the era. Unlike Hannibal however, he did not exercise brutality with his troops to keep them in check. Whereas Hannibal’s troops would have never dreamed of revolting, for fear of the consequences, Scipio did lose control over his soldiers at fort Sucro, in Spain. Machiavelli harshly critiqued Scipio for this mutiny and no one else. It was Scipio’s easiness with his soldiers that had caused them to grow rebellious. Had he have been more severe in his command they would have been better disciplined (Machiavelli 60). Machiavelli praises Hannibal’s cruelty, while condemning Scipio’s friendliness with his soldiers.

Another aspect of the power of fear, which Machiavelli touched on was with the capturing of new regions. Under most circumstances successfully maintaining control over a newly vanquished city, and keeping its citizens in check can be quite difficult. However, in cases where subduing a city takes great force and bloodshed it will actually be much easier to keep. Most would think the opposite to be true, but Machiavelli argues that those who have been defeated will be to imitated to revolt, due to knowing what the conquerors are capable of (Mansfield). Machiavelli has complete faith in the power of fear. Essentially he believes that a prince should not be concerned about being excessively brutal when trying to defeat the defenders of a town, because in the long run it may actually help him keep dominances over said town. With advice like this, advising one to be cruel, it is no surprise that Machiavelli’s contemporaries were so shocked by his treatise (Spenser).

All of Machiavelli’s pondering about fear begs the question how far should a ruler go to be feared by his people? Machiavelli does acknowledge that there is a lined that can be crossed. A prince must strive to be feared without being completely hated by his subjects (Machiavelli 59) . It is fine for a leader to exercise extreme ruthlessness for the greater good as long as he is able to redeem himself in the eyes of the people. At a certain point, if pushed too far, a prince’s subject’s fear of their ruler will turn to anger and they will grow unruly. Therefore it is important for a prince to be calculated with his cruelty, and not just unnecessarily brutal.

A major issue during Machiavelli’s time was that of Divine right to rule. Essentially, king’s could justify their rule by it supposedly being God’s will, and they had to answer only to him. Only those chosen by God could rule. Machiavelli did not fully agree with this doctrine. He thought that almost anyone should have the right to rule as long as they were cunning enough to do so. Machiavelli cares most about leaders being competent. The foxes and lions should rise above the lambs. That is the best way for country to be assured of gaining strong leaders. With divine right there is no guarantee that a prince will be capable of ruling, and do what is best for his people. In his own region of Florence Machiavelli wanted a ruler who was effective, not one that was supposedly endowed by the creator. All of the advice given in the book is a challenge against divine right, as it shows how someone may gain power by his own actions and not divine right.

Machiavelli’s key argument against any sort of right to rule is that it is power alone that guarantees a prince his control. “a Machiavellian perspective directly attacks the notion of any grounding for authority independent of the sheer possession of power. For Machiavelli, people are compelled to obey purely in deference to the superior power of the state” (Nederman). Simply having the right virtues, divine right, or any other quantifiers of rule do not matter if one does not have true power. A prince’s subjects will stay in line if they know he has great power over them, but not always so if he his relying on their respect of his “divine right” alone.

One of the main themes running throughout all of Machiavelli’s advice seems to be that the ends always justify the means. Now even though Machiavelli never directly states this, he comes very close, and despite his advice being a bit more nuance than that simple phrase, it is not out of line to say that it represents his key ideas on princeship. Machiavelli was one of the first pessimistic realists of his time, and he based his advice on the negative side of humanity. He argued that a prince’s subjects will not always do the moral thing and so a prince should not either. Instead, he should take what actions he believes to be best for securing his rule and his province. Sacrificing a few is a necessary evil if it guarantees the safety of many (Machiavelli 58).

Machiavelli base much of his advice on the topic on real life rulers of his time. History.com points this out saying, “Machiavelli’s guide to power was revolutionary in that it described how powerful people succeeded—as he saw it—rather than as one imagined a leader should operate.” While his contemporaries where dreaming up the qualities of an ideal leader, Machiavelli believed he was giving a guide based on those he had seen be successful. Almost all of the leaders Machiavelli studied, he found to have exercised cruelty and brutality. Mansfield says thus of Machiavelli’s points on necessary evil, “The amoral interpretation fastens on Machiavelli’s frequent resort to “necessity” in order to excuse actions that might otherwise be condemned as immoral.”

One of the main ruler’s who Machiavelli based much of his advice on was Cesare Borgia. Borgia was the perfect Machiavellian leader. He was, “a crude, brutal and cunning prince of the Papal States” (History.com Editors). He lived in a chaotic time, and the entirety of his rule was face with challenges and uncertainty. Machiavelli admired his ability to handle the problems of his times with such decisive ferocity. He embodied all the traits the Machiavelli was advising the readers of his book to adopt.

Cesare was a man with many enemies and part of his genius lay in his ability to get rid of them. Where others would hesitate to move against powerful men, Borgia did not. He would kill remorselessly if he thought it would help him maintain his land. One of the main examples Machiavelli used to point out Borgia’s cunning, was his luring of the Orsini leaders to the town of Senigallia. He lured them with lavish gifts and lulled them into a false sense of security, promising treaties of peace, but once they had delivered themselves into his hands he killed them (Machiavelli 25). Machiavelli praised this exploit thinking it an exceptionally clever deception.

Borgia also proved his competence as a leader to Machiavelli in his handling of the land he inherited from his father, Pope Alexander VI. The people dwelling there were disorderly and defiant. They had not been well disciplined by their previous ruler, and were not used to really having to obey a leader. Borgia set out to right this wrong. He put an utterly ruthless man, Remirro de Orco, in charge of the area (Machiavelli 26). Many rulers would have told Orco to use caution when dealing with the subjects of the region. He should slowly begin to discipline them so that they would grow use to it over time. However, Borgia did the exact opposite. He gave his new governor complete control to be as severe and merciless as he saw necessary. He new that the cruelty the people would endure under de Orco would be for the better down the road as there would be more order and less lawbreakers.

Even the he knew that it was necessary to use brutality when dealing with his newly acquired land, Borgia did not plan on taking the blame for that cruelty. de Orco’s harsh regime had served to bring discipline to the region, but Cesare Borgia was not blind to the growing anger in those who were suffering under it. Here, in Machiavelli’s mind, Borgia showed his true genius and heartlessness. He killed de Orco and displayed his body in a town, successfully wining the favor of his subjects and getting rid of a possible rival. It Borgia who had put de Orco in charge in the first place, knowing fully well that he was a cruel man, and told him to be a harsh ruler, but the people seemed to forget this and saw Borgia as a hero for killing their oppressor. Those subjects who still had a dislike for Borgia, where too terrified by the execution to cause any discord (Machiavelli 26). So Borgia was able to make his people both love and fear, Machiavelli’s ideal situation. It is clear that much of Machiavelli’s arguments for doing immoral things comes from him having observed Borgia and his callous methods.

Borgia may have been brilliant in the handling of his lands and his enemies, but it was not his own cleverness that gained him his territory in the Romagna. Instead it was the cunning of his father, Pope Alexander IV. Alexander wanted to give his son a state in Italy to help him grow more powerful and, hopefully, eventually make him into a great ruler. However, he knew that he would not be able to do this through peaceful negations, as there were too many other factions who would have been opposed to it. Instead, the Pope would have to use force to size a state. First he sought out to make the states of Italy unstable, by aiding a French invasion of Milan. Doing this helped cause chaos, and the French gave the Pope troops to conquer the Romagna with. The Pope was able his transfer the newly captured states to his son (Machiavelli 24). These actions by the Pope where highly immoral; he helped sow ruin in his own country of Italy to gain a province for Cesare to rule, and he misused the power given to him by his position as Pope to do so. However, Machiavelli praises his ability to take actions that are deemed unethical by society to attain success.

In one chapter of his treatise, Machiavelli addresses those who gained the power from evil deeds. The first example he gives is of Agathocles, of Syracuse. Agathocles is the epitome of doing whatever it takes to get what you want. He was a mere ordinary man, but by his own actions he was able to rise to a position of power in the city of Syracuse. Wanting to become the king of Syracuse he began scheming how this could be accomplished. Eventually he was able to execute a successful coup, and have all his soldiers kill any opposers. He was dishonorable, a murderer, and a traitor, but he did achieve what he set out to do. Machiavelli does point out that these methods wont exactly win someone glory and fame, or at least not the positive kind, but he did commend Agathocles ability to gain power. He also mentions that Agathocles used evil “well” since he had to use it at all (Machiavelli 30-33). Statements like this, that a murdering traitor used evil admirably, are what make Machiavelli’s writing so controversial.

Machiavelli did not stop with Agathocles, he also gave an example more current with the time of a similar situation. Oliverotto of Fermo. Oliverotto had the same cunning and ambition as Agathocles. He too wanted to become the ruler of his hometown Fermo. So, with his mentor he conspired to overthrow the current ruler, his own uncle, Giovanni Fogliani. Oliverotto used his relation to Fogliani to lure him into a trap where he assassinated him, as well as the other leaders of Fermo. With no one else in his way he took control of the region. His immoral actions would have been condemned by most, but Machiavelli’s main issue seems to be that he was not able to keep the power that he gained, as he was killed himself later on. Oliverotto did not use evil well as Agathocles did (Machiavelli 32-32).

Few books have the ability to stir up as much controversy as The Prince. With it Machiavelli tried to set a new example how a prince should act and think, but one that would be found troubling by many in the decades that followed its publication. Its readers would shun it, ban it, mock it, and even go so far as to say that it was satire, because surely there was no way that Machiavelli had actually meant what he wrote. The main cause of all animosity towards the book, came from Machiavelli’s attempt to separate ethics from politics. In the treatise he argued that princes need not be virtuous, and that fear was a great tool to be used to control one’s subjects, better even than love. Furthermore, the book challenged divine right, which put at odds with the churches of the time, and lastly, it promoted the idea of using scrupulous methods to gain power. It is the combination of these four arguments, that were so against the current ideologies of the sixteenth century, that caused many to look at the book with disgust, and the reason why Machiavelli became known as an embodiment of evil.

2019-2-12-1549980013

Organizational change – responding to internal drivers

Organizational change in any business organisation is predominantly influenced by two forces called internal drivers and external drivers. Both can cause favourable as well as unfavourable impacts on organisational change. However, this essay will argue that it is more beneficial for the organisations to introduce changes based on its internal drivers because they are within the organisation and control of the management in bringing the change. Where as the external drivers are beyond the control of the organisation.

In this intensely competitive and globalised world ( Mdletye, Coetzee and Ukpere 2014) of business and management organisational change is very critical and indispensable for numerous competitive advantages. Therefore, companies of all kinds must either initiate change or if not face the natural death (Kotter and Cohen 2008). Hence, although change is task fraught with complexity and challenge (Graetz et al. 2011, p.2) it has become the inevitable phenomena for the successful survival of organization in this modern world.

Organisational change is the continuous process of renewing the firm direction, structure, capabilities, operations, systems and processes to meet the ever-changing needs of external and internal customers (Soosay and Sloan 2005 p.10). It is the movement of an organization away from its present state of status quo (Smith 2005) toward some desired future state to increase its effectiveness (Lunenburg 2010). Nevertheless, as most researchers have found out that, in reality, adopting new changes in the organisation is very difficult and doubtful of success (Robbins 2003 and Raftery 2009 as cited in Beshtawi and Jaaron,2014; p.129) and often land up with failure (Olaghere,n.d p.1; Gilaninia, Ganjinia and Mahdikhanmahaleh 2013). Therefore, in this increasingly uncertain and risky environment (Zhou, Tse and Li, 2006, p.248) it is very crucial to know how to adapt and change according to the environment and to change successfully has become a critical and timeless challenge for any organization ( Feldman, 2004; Pettigrew et al., 2001; Piderit, 2000) for continuous survival and success.

Organisational Change in an organisation is influenced dominantly by two factors called internal factors or internal drivers and external factors or external drivers (Esparcia and Argente (n.d) and Olaghere n.d, p.1).These factors are responsible for triggering the change in the system, policies, product, structures, services, management, performance among many other areas in the organisation (Senior 2002) (as cited in McGuire and Hutchings 2006). Ivancevich and Matteson (2002) consider technology, economic forces and socio-political and legal factors as important external drivers that cause organisational change. However, they argue that these external drivers of change are beyond management’s control and cause a significant impact compelling the organisation to adjust internal processes and systems (McGuire and Hutchings 2006). Conversely, internal drivers are those forces existed within the organisation that influence changes. They are system, structure, management style, leadership, resources, processes, products of the organisation (Esparcia and Argente, n.d).

However, internal factors are more critical to driving organisational change. Ivancevich and Matteson (2002) maintain that human resource issues and process considerations are the most common forces for change within the organisation. They argue that internal factors are generally within the control of management, although sometimes be more difficult to recognise and diagnose than external factors (McGuire and Hutchings 2006).

The external factors are more diversified and intractable compare to internal drivers (Yu and Zhang, 2010, p.3). The internal divers of change are easily influenced by external environments like politics, economy, technology, legal and society.

The external factors helps to determine the opportunities and threats that the company would face, but the internal factors help the company to identify its strengths and weaknesses (Ibrahim and Primiana, 2015, p.285) . Marcus (2005) (as cited in Ibrahim and Primiana, 2015, p.285) noted that organisations should be aware of its strengths and weaknesses and analyzed the extent to which companies can accommodate the opportunities and threats existed in its the external environment.

Anderson and Anderson (n.d) asserted that the most common reason for the failure of managing change with the organizations is the inadequate attention to the less tangible, yet very important, internal drivers such as culture, leader and employee behaviour and their mindset. So, it is very much evident the benefits of concentrating of internal drivers rather than external drivers. This is supported by Kotter and Cohen (2008; p.61) that managers must instigate change by creating the sense of urgency by touching the emotions of employees instead of reasons based on facts and figures. This is possible only through change in internal factors of business enterprise.

Many scholars have consented that internal factors are the key determinants of an organization’s performance (Kinyua-Njuguna, Munyok and Kibera 2014, p. 289) as they provide enabling environment to achieve its goals and objectives. Internal environmental forces provide strengths and weaknesses to the business (Tolbert & Hall, 2009) (cited in (Kinyua-Njuguna, Munyok and Kiber 2014, p.) Fr example, from their study on the effect of internal drivers on community-based HIV and AIDS organizations in Nairobi County, Kenya, Kinyua-Njuguna, Munyok and Kiber (2014) found out that the internal drivers such as organisational structure, strategy, skills, staff, shared values as well as systems helping the organisation to achieve their objective. As a result enhanced the employee performance.

The Resource-based view (RBV) theory, propounded by Penrose (1959) ( as cited in Kute & Upadhyay, 2014,p.68) supported that organizations can gain competitive advantage by concentrating on their internal factors such as abilities, skills, knowledge, capabilities and competencies with reference to technological changes. This is because of strengths and weakness in these areas can be managed and thus the need of enhancing these qualities within the employees can be determined and can be enhanced through continuous organizational learning culture. Furthermore, the following factors such as mission and goals, leadership quality, organisational structure, human resources, technology capacity, organisation culture, employees behaviours and attitude, and organisational performance has to be considered while introducing change in the organisation.

Organisation Vison, Mision, Goals and objectives

Every business organisation is being guided by its mission, goals and objectives pertaining to development philosophy and direction, planning, prioritizing programs, policies, management, organisational structures and everyday responsibilities (Emeka and Eyuche 2014). In nutshell the performance of the company depends on the mission, goals and objectives. Therefore, change in these domains would compel the firm to undertake organisational change to achieve their mission and objectives.

Leadership

Leadership is one of the very important internal factors in an organisation change (Lunenburg 2010). The leaders have the important role in maintaining the measure of control over the environment of the organisation (McGuire and Hutchings 2006, p.197). The sixteenth century political scientist, Niccolo Machiavelli, stressed that the leader’s vision and future plans are critical in determining the shape and structure of the organisation (McGuire and Hutchings 2006, p.198). According to the organisational change models Cummings and Worley (1993) further recognizes that any change can be implemented successfully only by strong leadership who can garner commitment and readiness to change within the employees through shared vision and strategies to achieve the proposed new change and outcome. The way the managers or leaders establish the internal working structure and systems has influence on the performance of the organisation (Kinyua-Njuguna, Munyok and Kiber 2014, p.285).It means the structures and systems should be very favourable for the employees to work collaboratively everyday towards the shared goals of the organisation. Conversely, poor leadership and management would result in the failure of enterprise in the implementation of change processes and risking the orgainsation to disastrous consequences (Shiamwama, Ombayo and Mukolwe 2014, p.148). Effective leaders help organisations to surpass any internal obstacles and bring changes through envisioning the desired goals and objectives, energizing the employees, and enabling the resources and conditions (Zhou, Tse and Li 2006, p.253) which are paramount to overcome any external inhibitors of change and improve performance.

For instance, Steve Jobs, the founder of APPLE Computers, was eased out of the business because of poor management. He later went back into the business and was absorbed as a mere employee just to tap his original idea (Cole, 2004). in (Shiamwama, Ombayo and Mukolwe (2014)

Organisation Structure

Change in organizational structure involves redefining and regulating the organizational roles and relations by expanding or reducing audition, determining the decision making authority, selecting decentralised or central management type, regulating communication channels within the organisation ( İkinci, S.S.2014,p.123).It is another internal factor that act as driver of change. It is the way how jobs are allocated, coordinated and supervised through the system that facilitates communication and efficient work processes among the employees in the organisation (Elsaid, Okasha and Abdelghaly, 2013, p.1). In fact the successful execution and implementation of any plans and programs depends on it. The flat bureaucratic structure with decentralised decision-making system and horizontal reporting system among the teams and various managers are more preferred by the employees (Ohlson, 2007).This fosters faster and effective decision and action thus enhancing the efficiency and productivity of the employees and organisation as whole. The tall hierarchical system of organisation characterised by long bureaucratic steps to follow in execution and communication is rather a hindrance to the effectiveness of the performance (p.23). Decentralised administrative structures and processes thus enable a firm to better meet the new environmental conditions and effectively handle environmental turbulence (Damanpour and Evan, 1984)

Human resources

Human resource in the organisation consists of the knowledge, skills, competencies, attitude and behaviours the workers possess ( İkinci, S.S.2014, p.123). Nurturing theses aspect of human resources will lead to personal growth and development which can alter an individual’s perceptions of organisational change, reducing the level of resistance (Bovey and Hede, 2001, p.546). It is the very critical asset that helps organisation to gain competitive advantage (Husso and Nybakk, nd, p.9).This is because they have the capacity to operate all the activities and in turn help to achieve the aims and objective (Mdletye, Coetzee, and Ukpere (2014) which otherwise would not be able to function at all. The researchers emphasized that human resource is the most important aspect, indeed the backbone of every organization and it is also the main source of resource for the effective function of the organization ( Wanza and Nkuraru,2016; p.192) and main strategic resource to gain sustainable competitive advantage in this age of globalization(Kute & Upadhyay, 2014). For example, the management’s emphasis on the human resource management such as employing highly skilled and educated people, providing professional training and encouraging learning from advanced technologies and skills made the employees more competent to achieve Huawei’s internationalization process more successful ( Yu and Zhang, 2010, p.23) .

Organisational culture

Organisational culture is defined as the values, beliefs, norms, customs and behaviours that guide the employees towards the common goals (Awadh & Saad, 2013,) and that set the rule of decision making processes, structure and power (Wambugu, 2014, p. 80). Wambugu (2014) further noted that organisational culture empower the employees to do thing which deemed right and rewarding both at personal and organisational level. According to Wanza and Nkuraru ( 2016, p.195) and Awadh & Saad, (2013, p.168 ) organisational culture has strong bearing on the performance of the employees which is considered as the backbone of development of the organisation. The culture established as system in the organisation enhances employees’ commitment thus improves their input eventually achieving the desired productivity and profitability (Wanza and Nkuraru, 2016, p.193). They concluded from their research that a strong organizational culture acts as the source of synergy and momentum for teamwork and uplift employee performance (p.197).Thus it is worthy of developing organizational culture for sustainable future. For example, one of the internal factor that drive Huawei Technologies Company, a very small local IT company of China, to very successful internationalisation was the corporate culture, such as team work, adaptation, learning and customer-oriented service, being embedded in the behaviours of the Huawei’s employees ( Yu and Zhang, 2010, p.23)

Innovation culture

Innovation is the main strategy to adapt to change, overcome organisational weaknesses, and add value to organization’s products and services in the ever-changing business environment (Sund 2008, p. 2). Being entrepreneurial with creativity and innovation helps organisation to gain competitive advantage (Ireland et al. 2003). Abdelgawad et al. (2013) proposed that entrepreneurial capability is instrumental for realizing a firm’s game-changing strategies for sustainable success in future. For example, Google, Amazon and Apple companies were once just start-ups grown to attract global market through their innovation (EBRD, 2014; p.1). Internal organizational drivers such as resources, experimentation, collaboration, administrative support play a significant role during this innovation process (Agolla and Van-Lill, 2013). So, establishing innovative culture in an organisation will drive the organisation towards favorable and successful change.

Attitude and Commitment

Most of the researches have shown that employees need to develop their attitude and behaviours for successful organizational performance (Bernerth, 2004). Therefore, it is indispensable for the organizational managers to develop and nurture employees’ commitment towards embracing change by bringing positive change in their attitude and behaviour. However, Anderson and Anderson (n.d) stressed that employees’ mindset, which is the root cause of one’s feelings, decisions and actions, has to be changed to bring organizational change. When introducing change people aspect is more critical than just about changes in systems and processes. Rather it is about people believing in change and wanting it to happen (Soosay and Sloan (2005 p.4). Since organisational change requires the participation of people, those involved must first undergo personal change for the success of organisational change (Evans, 1994).

Organisation Performance as drivers

Both the present and past performance are also drivers of organisational change. Some earlier researchers have pointed out that poor performance, that creates the gap between managerial aspirations and achievements, is an extra impetus for the firms to improve further (Greve, 1998; Tushman and Romanelli, 1985). On the other hand some researchers argue that successful companies continuously draw motivation from their success to improve and perform better for sustainable future, especially they face an uncertain environments ( Feldman, 2004; Tsoukas and Chia, 2002).in (Zhou, Tse and Li, 2006). The better a firm performs, the more likely it will invest in new product development and technology advancement to achieve a sustainable competitive advantage (Zhou, Tse and Li, 2006; p.251). As Brown and Eisenhardt (1997) observe, many successful firms, such as Intel, 3M, Hewlett-Packard, and Gillette, have undertaken constant, rapid changes, particularly in their new product development. For example companies like Apple, Microsoft and Samsung companies have undergone continuous rapid changes in development of new product.

Conclusion

The main purpose of this essay was to prove the advantages of responding to internal drivers than to external drivers while introducing change in the organisation. From this study it was found out that internal drivers are within the organisation that has direct impact on its everyday performance. Therefore, they are within the control and management capacity of the organization. If the internal performance, system, culture and resources of an organisation are excellent it is certain that any obstacles posed from the external environments can be nullified leading to very successful organizational change. Whereas external drivers are existed in the external environment of the firm and those are beyond the control and reach of the organisation. Yet, they can affect the internal functions of the organisation causing instability. Hence the external drivers are not to be undermined rather internal drivers must be activated towards meeting change in line with external drivers.

2016-11-25-1480063659

The Classical World: essay help online

The Classical Era, which flourished from the 8th century BC to the 5th century AD, saw the birth and spread of Greco-Roman ideas. These ideas became the basis for western civilization and laid a foundation of culture that has remained as relevant now as it was in ancient times. Ancient Greece, and later Ancient Rome, cemented their own ideals in the universal consciousness as the cultural standard to which all later societies were held to, and continue to shape contemporary perspective on art, architecture, and government, and other facets of modern society. Despite the core differences of modern and classical times and the centuries that have passed since, the knowledge and perspectives passed down by the Ancient Greeks and Romans remain an essential part of contemporary society and culture, while inspiring western civilization’s greatest accomplishments.

The cultural impact of Ancient Greece and Rome begins most tangibly with the Renaissance, a movement beginning in Florence and spanning through the 14th and 17th centuries. This period is seen as a revival of classical antiquity, with Renaissance scholars, artists, philosophers, and writers attempting to emulate what they considered to be a “golden age,” taking inspiration directly from their Greco-Roman forefathers, with their presence increasingly regarded as an intellectual heritage to be mined for contemporary use. The Florentine author Niccolò Machiavelli, for example, described his nightly retreats into his library in these memorable words:

“At the door I take off my muddy everyday clothes. I dress myself as though I were about to appear before a royal court as a Florentine envoy. Then decently attired I enter the antique courts of the great men of antiquity. They receive me with friendship; from them I derive the nourishment which alone is mine and for which I was born. Without false shame I talk with them and ask them the causes of the actions; and their humanity is so great they answer me. For four long and happy hours I lose myself in them. I forget all my troubles; I am not afraid of poverty or death. I transform myself entirely in their likeness.”

Francesco Petrarca, commonly anglicized as Petrarch, was a scholar who rediscovered the letters of Cicero, a Roman statesman, orator, lawyer and philosopher and one of Rome’s greatest orators and prose stylists. This rediscovery is considered to have initiated the Renaissance, as scholars became interested in learning how the ancients developed their human faculties, powers, and culture, and in turn attempted to apply their findings to their contemporary societies. Through this discovery, Petrarch became the “Father of Renaissance humanism,” humanism being a Renaissance cultural movement that turned away from medieval scholasticism and revived interest in ancient Greek and Roman thought. Petrarch firmly believed that classical writings were not just relevant to his own age but saw in them moral guidance that could reform humanity, a key principle of Renaissance Humanism. The humanists of the Renaissance believed that their mission was to revive the high Roman style of writing pure and eloquent Latin. When that flourished, they believed, art would as well.

The republican elites of Florence and Venice and the ruling families of Milan, Ferrara, and Urbino hired humanists to teach their children classical morality and to write elegant, classical letters, histories, and propaganda. Eventually, the humanism inspired by the study of the Greco-Roman world would bleed into the Catholic Church, a formidable and almost omnipotent deity of the Middle Ages. In the course of the fifteenth century, the humanists convinced most of the popes that the papacy needed their skills. Sophisticated classical scholars were hired to write official correspondence and propaganda to create an image of the popes as powerful, enlightened, modern rulers of the Church and to apply their scholarly tools to the church’s needs, including writing a more classical form of the Mass. Scholars wrote Latin letters and histories on behalf of the popes, and they even tinkered with the church’s traditional liturgy, trying to make prayers and hymns attractively classical. Humanist secretaries and popes wrote dazzling Latin. Though humanism, and therefore classical thinking, never truly permeated the Catholic Church fully, there was an influence of Ancient Greece and Rome on the Church and its leaders.

An easier and far more blatant appreciation of classical antiquity was seen clearly in the art and architecture of the Renaissance. Contrapposto, a sculptural scheme which was revived during the Renaissance, was originated by the Ancient Greeks. It is used when the standing human figure is poised in such a way that the weight rests on one leg (called the engaged leg), freeing the other leg, which is bent at the knee. With the weight shift, the hips, shoulders, and head tilt, suggesting relaxation with the subtle internal organic movement that denotes life. The Greeks invented this formula in the early 5th century BC as an alternative to the stiffly static pose—in which the weight is distributed equally on both legs—that had dominated Greek figure sculpture in earlier periods. Italian Renaissance artists such as Donatello and Andrea del Verrocchio revived the classical formula, giving it the name contrapposto, which suggests the action and reaction of the various parts of the figure, and enriching the conception by scientific anatomical study.

Donatello borrowed from the ancients with his bronze sculpture of David, the biblical hero known for defeating Goliath. Donatello’s David was the first freestanding bronze cast statue of the Renaissance era as well as the first nude sculpture of a male since the classical sculptures of ancient Greece. In Middle Ages, nudity was not used in art except in certain moral contexts, such as the depiction of Adam and Eve, or the sending of souls off to hell.  In the classical world, nudity was often used in a different, majestic context, such as with figures who were gods, heroes, or athletes.  Here, Donatello seems to be calling to mind the type of heroic nudity of antiquity, since David is depicted at a triumphal point in the biblical narrative of his victory over Goliath. In any case, Donatello’s David is a classic work of Renaissance sculpture, given its Judaeo-Christian subject matter modeled on a classical sculptural type.

Another artwork inspired heavily by ancient antiquity would be Botticelli’s painting titled, Birth of Venus. The theme of the Birth of Venus was taken from the writings of the ancient poet, Homer.  According to the traditional account, after Venus was born, she rode on a seashell and sea foam to the island of Cythera.  In the painting, Venus is prominently depicted in the center, born out of the foam as she rides to shore.  On the left, the figure of Zephyrus carries the nymph Chloris (alternatively identified as “Aura”) as he blows the wind to guide Venus. On shore, a figure who has been identified as Pomona, or as the goddess of Spring, waits for Venus with mantle in hand.  The mantle billows in the wind from Zephyrus’ mouth.The story of the Birth of Venus is well described below by a Homeric hymn but its relevance to the painting is disputed as the poem was only published, by the Greek refugee Demetrios Chalcondyles, in Florence in 1488 (five years after the painting was completed as a wedding gift for Lorenzo di Pierfrancesco de’ Medici in 1483).

Of august gold-wreathed and beautiful

Aphrodite I shall sing to whose domain

belong the battlements of all sea-loved

Cyprus where, blown by the moist breath

of  Zephyros, she was carried over the waves

of the resounding sea on soft foam.

The gold-filleted Horae happily welcomed her

and clothed her with heavenly raiment.

The model for Venus in this painting has traditionally been associated with Simonetta Vespucci – who had been a muse for Botticelli,  and was seen as the model for female beauty throughout Florence – especially for the Medici family for whom this painting had been created. There is added credence to this suggestion from the fact that she was born in the Ligurian fishing village of  PortoVenere – called Port of Venus because there was a little Temple to Venus there from 1st Century BC.

The other model for the pose of Venus in the painting was possibly the Medici Venus, a first century BC statue depicting Aphrodite in a Venus pudica pose. It is actually a marble copy of an original bronze Greek sculpture that Botticelli would have had an opportunity to study whilst visiting the sculpture school or the Platonic Academy which flourished at the family home of the Medici in Florence.

The demand for this type of scene, of course, was humanism, which was alive and well in the court of Lorenzo d’Medici in the 1480s.  Here, Renaissance humanism was open not only to the use of a pagan sculpture as a model, but also a pagan narrative for the subject matter, and although the Birth of Venus is not a work which employed Renaissance perspectival innovations, the elegance of the classical subject matter was something that would have intrigued wealthy Florentines who patronized this type of work.

The discovery of particular texts had enormous implications on Renaissance architecture. For example, with the discovery of the works of Vitruvius, an architect at the time of Augustus, there was an explosion of interest in ancient building. Vitruvius wrote an extremely important volume, De architectura libri decem (Ten books on architecture), where he introduced three principles to architecture: Firmatis  (durability), Utilitas (utility), and Venustatis (beauty). Vitruvius talked about ancient buildings in a very significant way, not only in terms of practicality, but in an abstract way which emphasized what the buildings represented in both art and society. Similarly to how ancient texts could be applied to the values and aesthetics of contemporary Italians in the 15th century, so could ancient buildings be reduced to an essence, or a set of principles and ideals, that could be applied to the needs of 15th-century Italians, despite their differences from 1st-century Romans.

In particular, we can see in the career of Leon Battista Alberti, who was born in 1404 and died in 1472, how these ideas could be distilled into a set of principles that could apply to the conditions of the Italian world. Alberti wrote De re aedificatoria, or On Building. His work can be considered highly derivative, but Alberti’s purpose was quite different: to take an ancient text and apply it to the needs of his own time. Not only did he write a theoretical treatise on architecture, but he then went out and built buildings. In particular, in Florence, he designed the facade of the Palazzo Rucellai from 1452 to 1470, in which, again, the Vitruvian orders appear and in which the ideas of ancient building are made useful to a Florentine palace for a wealthy merchant.

In the more modern world, there is a wealth of Greco-Roman influence over the inception of the United States of America and its government. For example, the men who inspired the American Revolution and wrote the American Constitution were heavily influenced by the classical Greek and Roman world. The American founding fathers were well educated individuals, and they all had significant experience with ancient Greek and Roman authors since childhood. Historian Bernard Bailyn states, “knowledge of classical authors was universal among colonists with any degree of education.” Thomas Jefferson, writer of the Declaration of Independence, was taught Greek and Latin from the age of nine, and Benjamin Franklin received instruction in Latin at grammar school and became proficient in both Latin and Greek later in life. In Franklin’s Autobiography, frequent references are made to classical western figures, such as Cicero and Cato. James Madison learned Greek and Latin as a child, and “immersed himself in the histories of Greece and Rome.”

With classical schooling such an integral part of the founding fathers’ education, America’s first political leaders studied the works of the great Greek Philosophers, including Plato and Aristotle. Polybius, a less celebrated but still influential thinker, also left his mark upon the American framers of the Constitution. Through Polybius, the founding fathers were introduced to the Roman Republic as the “mixed government” described by Plato and Aristotle. They used Greek philosophy and the model of Roman Republican government in order to form a new nation based on ancient principles.

Philosophers from classical Greece proposed the separation of powers in government, an idea that the American founders adopted for their new nation. In addition, The Roman Republic  (509-27 BC) served as a direct model of government for the writers of the constitution.  Greek and Roman political thought was critical in shaping the government of the United States of America.

Plato writes that that a strong state should contain elements of both democracy and tyranny, so that the state has a mixed government. His political philosophy, particularly his idea of a “mixed” constitution, would have far reaching effects among later philosophers. His mixed government would ultimately be brought to life in the American Constitution.

Aristotle believed that a mixed government, like the one described by Plato, would halt the decline of government into anarchy. In Aristotle’s mixed constitution, defined in his work The Politics, there were to be three branches of government: “All constitutions have three elements, concerning which the good lawgiver has to regard what is expedient for each constitution…There is one element which deliberates about public affairs [“legislative” branch]; secondly, that concerned with the magistrates [“executive” branch]…and thirdly that which has judicial power.”

This three-tiered mixed government of Aristotle would ultimately find its way into the Constitution. Aristotle also established the principle that the rulers of a state should be subject to the same laws as the rest of the populace; to Aristotle, the rule of law is better than the authority of “even the best man.” This concept of a “ruling official subject to the law” is an integral idea to modern government, where all political figures are supposed to be subject to the same legal code as the average citizen.

In addition to the foundation of government inspired by the ancient world, the influence of classical antiquity can be seen in some of America’s most iconic architecture. Prevalent between about 1780 and 1830, Federal style drew inspiration from the Greco-Romans. The influence of Ancient Greek architecture is apparent in the use of columns and colonnades. Thomas Jefferson was an architect during the Federal period, and he designed not only his own home, Monticello, but the campus of the University of Virginia in Charlottesville in this style.

Greek Revival architecture also became widespread in the U.S., and in the middle of the 19th century it became known as the national style, as it was used extensively in houses and smaller public buildings of that time. This style generally featured the Doric Order in larger buildings, and simpler Doric columns topped with a small pediment (without a frieze) in houses. The first major public building built in this style was the Second Bank of the United States, built in Philadelphia between 1819 and 1824, though most famous is the Lincoln Memorial, its exterior echoing that of the Parthenon.

The heritage of the classical world has been one which later societies have taken and made relevant to their own contemporary aesthetics, visions, and ambitions. From the Renaissance to the formation of the United States, Greco-Roman ideals have paved the way and inspired art, architecture, and civic duty, all the while remaining the standard for which culture strains to meet. Despite its antiquity, the classical world has remained both relevant, adaptable, and innovative, inspiring some of western civilization’s greatest feats.

2018-12-4-1543886056

Power dynamics in psychotherapy – reflective literature review

Choice of topic

On receiving the assessment paperwork for my client, I felt overwhelmed and challenged by her status, and that she had previously worked with my placement director. My first reaction, was that I would not be good enough for her as a trainee.

When discussing my responses with my supervisor, she helped me to identify where this had come from, and the skills and knowledge that I had would be beneficial to this client.

To build up a working alliance, Finlay (2016), p.15, with this client, who I will refer to as Kirsty, (not her real name), the progress was slow, and I became very aware of my own counter- transferential feelings. There were areas of her narrative which I felt really in contact with.

Conducting the search

An on-line search Google scholar, using terms like, ‘The Dance of Power’ which returned results of 51, 200,000. Further searches were conducted which brought back similar figures

I then altered the search criteria to ‘The Dance of the Counter-transferential Phenomena’ which brought back 34 Items and this search was done via Wiley on-line Library. This appeared more manageable, and a further search via the same library with a different search term, ‘Undoing Trauma’ brought back just one result. This still was not what I was looking for, so I chose to remain with the search criteria of power within the therapeutic relationship.

So, within the literature, Webster’s dictionary defines power as; ‘the ability to act’ and ‘the capacity to produce and effect’ and ‘the possession of control, authority or influence over others’

Proctor (2017) states how she defines power as being related to how society is formed, and groups of people, who differ from the ‘norm’ have less access to power. These groups could be women, disabled, Black minority ethnic (BME) or working-class people, gay or lesbians. Male or females, young or old.

She suggests that these groups could be oppressed members of society who may have experienced violence or intimidation and who have little experience of power within the relationship.

The history of power within the therapeutic relationship dates to Machiavelli in the 16th century and Hobbes in the 17th century as cited by Proctor, (2017). These two theorists had different views when talking about power. It was not until the twentieth century that Hobbes view of a modernist theory was favoured. Clegg (1989) Hobbes theory of power influenced the basis of thinking around power from a modernist and structural viewpoint.

The modernists view.

This was a new form of expression that was developed in the nineteenth and twentieth centuries. This was the era when counselling and psychotherapy developed. McLeod (2009) p. 37

The Structural Theories.

These theories lie within the context of modernism and take a single point of view, that is concrete and belongs to a person. It is assumed that power is an experience that can be found in the form of economic, social, physical, or psychological capacity. For instance, Day (2010) cites Robert Dahl (1957) as, “A has the power over B to the extent that he can get B to do something that B would not otherwise do”.

These theories have emphasised the controlling, oppressive and negative angle of power. These structural theories have been critiqued as it assumes that the power is always ‘power over’ another.

Lukes, (1974) argued that it is the ability of one person, to get another, to do something that (s)he might not otherwise do. He argues that this power is a result of conflict between actors to determine who wins and who loses.

However, Arendt, (1963) saw power as being related to people joining together and making unbreakable promises. Arendt observed a difference between ‘power’ within relationships and ‘authority’ that is given to an individual because of their role. Hindess, (1996) suggests that this moves power towards a relational process and relying on the consent of others.

Post-Modern Theories

Elias, (1978) suggests that power is not something a person owns, but it is a trait of human relationships. This view is supported by Lukes, (1974). Elias further suggests that power relations are formed in relationship and that it is a result of living together and interdependence. This phenomenon is like a game of tug of war; a trial of strength between two sides pulling against each other. Oxford English Reference Dictionary (1996), p. 1548

Foucault

Foucault suggested that power follows the concepts of Nietzsche in that knowledge and thought, theories and discourses are penetrated by values, Daudi, 1986 as cited by Proctor 2017. This approach formed the basis of Foucault’s work. He sees this power relationship as not responding to others, but on their actions. Thus, it is an action upon an action. Day, (2010).

This view of power suggests that power is inherent in all relationships so it both enables and limits actions, thereby helping individuals to broaden their boundaries, Hayward, (1998)

From this perspective, “Power is everywhere…because it comes from everywhere”. Foucault (1980). Power is involved in all social interactions, because ideas operate behind all language and action. Lukes (1974).

Foucault focused on how power was used in society, such as sexuality, (1976), madness, (1967) or criminality, (1977). He looked at the aims of those involved and the tactics they used to achieve those aims and the counter actions of others to achieve the same objective. In his deconstruction of the power within these institutions, he defines ‘disciplinary power’. He defines this as “comprising a whole set of instruments, techniques, procedures, levels of application, targets”. Foucault, (1977), p.215. He emphasised the ‘struggle’ that occurs between individuals and groups in society as the discord is taken up in response to the behaviours of others. Day, (2010) suggests power operates systematically within a society not from above.

Perspectives of Power in the Psychotherapy Relationship

Whilst searching the literature, I struggled to find any published research. Where references have been uncovered, these have been philosophical or theoretical perspectives on the subject; or individual accounts of personal and professional experience. Sanders, c (2017), Totton,(2009), Amitay, (2017), Lazarus, (2015).

Positions of Power

From the literature, there appears to be four philosophical positions:

Power as a destructive and oppressive force in the psychotherapy relationship;
The psychotherapy Relationship as a process of liberation and empowerment of the client.
Power as a relational, inter-subjective process in the psychotherapy relationship; and
The denial of the existence of power in the psychotherapy relationship.

At the end of the 1980’s, the central thoughts about how the imbalances between the therapist and client can result in oppressive and destructive outcomes for clients. The following debates concentrated on the abuse of sexual boundaries and forms of discrimination and prejudice against minority groups. Bates, (2006); Lago, (2006); Masson, (1989); Smail, 1995. The way the psychotherapeutic relationship exists between the client and therapist means that there is a potential for abusive relationships in the dialogue between the client and therapist. Spinelli, (1994). This reflects a structural position on power, Day, (2010), Proctor, (2017). So, the therapist in these circumstances, has ‘power over’ the client which renders them ‘powerless’ and vulnerable.

Within the literature, Masson (1989), describes power in the therapy room as having destructive elements and that the therapy could be a form of abuse. Another form of destructive power, could be therapist abusing the client by disrespecting the sexual boundaries, Chesler, (1972), Sonne and Pope, (1991) and Gabbard, (1996).

It is suggested that these destructive ways can operate at an unconscious level thus leaving the client vulnerable to past, negative experiences. Herman, (1992) believes that it is important for the therapist to avoid using their ‘power over’ Proctor, (2017), p. 13 the client for their own needs or to direct the client’s life decisions. Day, (2010).

The British Association for Counselling and Psychotherapy, (BACP) state that under their Ethical Framework, the counsellor has a commitment to avoid harm towards the client, (2015).

It is assumed from this point of view that power is dangerous and destructive to those who are powerless. Often power is viewed from an ethical or moral basis, looking at what is right or wrong. In simple terms, power is either ‘good’ or ‘bad’. Furggeri, (1992). This view assumes that is a possession, that is in limited supply and this then forms a structural perspective of power. The client is seen as powerless and the therapist powerful. It could be argued that this is an extreme form of domination and repression. Thus, power is viewed as monolithic, unitary and unidirectional. Procter, (2002)

Psychotherapy as Empowerment for the Client.

An alternative perspective of power is seen as positive with the therapist power being good. Psychotherapy is an empowering process for the client and thus enables the client’s autonomy. This line of argument is seen in humanistic literature, feminist literature. Brown, (1994). The British Psychological Society’s (BPS), 2009 division of counselling psychology, states explicitly that it works to ‘empower the client’.

Carl Rogers was one of the first proponents of this. Rogers suggested that the therapist’s role was to avoid power over the client and also refrain from making decisions for them. Rogers supported the client’s autonomy and how they achieved this. So, the decisions are made by the client for themselves. Rogers, (1978)

Bozarth, (1998) argues that the crux of this theory is that the therapist does not intervene. Natiello, (1990), states, “…. Offers a morality of power as well as a methodology for arriving at that morality”. (p 268). She maintains that the person-centred approach offers the client the opportunity to claim his or her own personal power rather than being reliant on the power of others.

Similarly, Freud theories of psychoanalysis argue for the analysist to use their power of rational authority to free the mind of the client.

Fromm, (1956) argues that over the duration of therapy, the client frees and cures themselves from an attachment to irrational authority. Benjamin,(1995) challenged Freud’s position states “ Already idealised for his knowledge and power – his power to know her – the analyst is now internalised in the relationship of knowledge as power over self, a practice in the domination of self whose meaning Foucault (1980) has made unforgettably problematic” p. 154

Frosh, (1987) states that object relations, like psychoanalysis, sets itself up in the feeing of a person’s psyche. He argues that its objectives are to free the client from fixations created by ‘bad’ experiences and to promote internalisation of the more nurturing possibilities experienced in the relationship with the therapist.

This assumes the client is powerless and vulnerable and the therapist has the power to empower the client. Client’s therefore are viewed as powerless. This could be seen as a structural position where power is either ‘good’ or ‘bad’ and one either has it or not. A moral argument could be where one form of power is ‘right’ and others are ‘wrong’.

A Relationship of Mutuality

The psychotherapeutic relationship is viewed as one of mutuality. Aron, (1996) views this as involving mutual generation of data, mutual regulation of the relationship, mutual recognition of the others autonomy and openness on the part of the therapist as to their client’s impact upon them. Aron argues that power is dynamic that is constantly struggled with in therapy and therefore needs ‘to be continually examined, articulated and worked through’, p151. He suggests that therapists need to question their decisions with regards to ethics as well as questioning their authority and domination in the relationship, referenced in Proctor, (2002) p 133.

Frosh, (1987) believes that the objectives for therapy is to allow the client to explore the power in therapy as it copies and reminds the client of internalised introjects from their formative years. He suggests that an approach which is politicised and recognises the reality of social structures. He argues that part of the difficulties relating to change is that people need to identify, re-experience and re-frame these introjects to help to give them a new meaning in their life. Totton, (2000) argues that it is the therapist’s role to help the client find another genuine and authentic psycho- political position. The relational position, therefore sees the power dynamics as being central in the therapeutic relationship. It is suggested that power is aligned to knowledge and neither the client or the therapist can ‘know’. Thus, it is thought that it is present in all relationships rather than being a possession of the client or therapist. It is therefore unavoidable and potentially both positive and negative. Proctor, (2002) it could be argued that this view, might undermine the role of structural differences in power in society reducing it to an intersubjective process.

Concluding thoughts of the literature

Relational perspectives in psychotherapy have started to think about ‘power’ as dynamic and inevitable. Proctor, (2017). However, despite this recognition of power, the discourse on the power dynamics in psychotherapy has remained at a philosophical level. Much of the literature can be seen as a critique of other psychological therapy or it attempts to show how therapists can misuse the power differential with their clients. The question to be explored and researched further would be how psychotherapists experience the phenomenon of power with their client’s and how it can be worked with in a clinical setting.

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The Practical Implications Of Social Capital

The transfer, accumulation, and profit from social capital is unarguably one of the most important drivers influencing power structure, social stratification, and global society as a whole. Robert Putnam and Pierre Bourdieu have two very different and contrasting ideas about the theory of social capital and the problems or societal benefits that arise from its accumulation. Each philosopher’s definitions of the term “social capital” are vastly different. While both theories are extensively developed and thorough, Putnam’s is shallower and pays lacks recognition of the importance of social capital and its impacts on class stratification and inequality. Bourdieu, however, paints a more extensive and informed view about the effects of social capital on driving the class society we live in.

Putnam’s idea of social capital focuses on social networks and their effects on civic engagement and community outcomes. Whether consciously enforced (like social clubs, community organizations, or religious groups), or more organically occuring (like familial relations or “informal leisure activities”), the interactions people have in and around these organizations result in “norms of reciprocity,” the unspoken expectations of giving and receiving and trustworthiness that come along with membership in these groups. Putnam argues that an overall increase in social capital fosters more collective action, demonstrated through channels like voting, participating in formal clubs and teams, or “altruistic activities” like philanthropy and volunteering. He also discusses declines in relationship-based measures, like marriage rates or general trust of other people. Putnam has found these declines in overall American social capital and socialization have led to an immense decrease in all forms of community participation, a “privatization of leisure time”, and, ultimately, a less productive and flourishing society.

Putnam examines variances in what he calls “social capital”, on both a local community and state level, and the outcomes these differences had on American public school education. His analysis is based mainly on statistics such as test scores, dropout rates, and overall “educational performance.” Controlling for major demographic factors like race, poverty, income, inequality, and family structure, Putnam claims that “community-based social capital is still by far the single strongest influence on educational outcomes” (Putnam 72). He also posits that and that SAT scores, dropout rates, parental support, and student misbehavior are only indirectly correlated to important demographic factors like race or income, via their impact on social capital and civic engagement.

Putnam does acknowledge the nuances and complications behind his analysis. Most of his studies show that the states with the highest level of social capital and educational performance include North Dakota, South Dakota, Minnesota, Nebraska, and Vermont, states that also happen to have much lower rates of urbanization, immigration, crime, or economic activity. He tries to trace the complicated history of social capital, analyzing, for example, the fact that many states in the South may suffer from lower social capital and educational performance due to history of slavery and racial discrimination and injustice. He also brings up the point that many of the states with higher indicators of social capital are already more “congenial” and desirable places to live based on other factors too, like health, child welfare, or local/state governments (Putnam 81). It’s interesting to consider the implications or euphemisms for what Putnam means when he says these places are “congenial”, since they are mostly demographically homogeneous: rural and white.

Putnam establishes two types of social capital: “bonding” social capital, where people gravitate towards their own kind, is more common and easy to create than “bridging” social capital which brings together people of different types (class, race, etc). Though it is difficult, Putnam argues we need to work to create more forms of bridging social capital; avoiding expanding diversity by passing off homogeneity and uniformity as “civic and community engagement” can dangerously act as an excuse for simply stratifying already existing class differences. He even acknowledges that, “in terms of social capital, like financial capital, the rich usually get richer”, and that equalizing and more evenly dividing existing social capital is an uncomfortable shift for a society that naturally gravitates towards those who are similar to us (Putnam 85).

Bourdieu sees social capital as interconnected with economic and cultural capital. These three types of “accumulated labor” can be transformed and converted to leverage power and control of societal structure. He imagines an individual’s social capital to be “the aggregate of the actual or potential resources [from a] possession of a durable network of…relationships of mutual acquaintance and recognition”. All the benefits earned from membership in these groups entitles one to “credit”, to a sort of quantified status, a measurable prestige, that can be exchanged or used for power and control. Therefore, Bourdieu argues, the volume of an individual’s social capital is directly tied to the networks they are a part of. Both the quantity and quality of these connections is important. Having an abundance of friends and family to form a “support network” is of course beneficial for success and prosperity, but being a “member” in a group of elite or powerful people, and knowing how to effectively mobilize and use these connections, is just as important, if not more.

Bourdieu emphasizes the cyclical nature of social capital, both its transfer between “owners” and its conversion to other forms of capital. The possession of social capital works in a feedback loop as the profits created from membership in a group work to strengthen the group’s internal bonds and external prestige even more, exerting a “multiplier effect”. Even if efforts to profit off membership in a group aren’t conscious, Bourdieu argues that all relationships are “the product of investment strategies, individual or collective, consciously or unconsciously aimed at establishing or reproducing social relationships that are directly usable” However, these connections will not be beneficial to accruing social capital unless one possesses the “specific competence” and volition to manipulate and cultivate relationships into social capital.

Other forms of capital, especially economic, can never be completely separated from social capital. Economic capital is at the root of all other forms, and therefore apparent social capital can be reduced to being simply a disguised, transformed form of economic capital. Attempts to disguise these economic roots can increase the risk of loss or exposure of capital. Because of this, holders of large sums of social capital have a great interest in trying to maintain better-disguised conversion, so transactions are often hidden or unacknowledged.

Bourdieu views social capital as a commodity that an individual possesses (although its value is grounded in the existence of a group), while Putnam analyzes social capital as a community-based, collectively-held property. Although the phenomenon Putnam is describing may hold true in many situations, his choice to use the term “social capital” is questionable, since the concept of civic engagement he describes isn’t a spendable, exploitable resource (though it is sometimes quantifiable and, as he points out, profitable).

Putnam’s idea of social capital, though well-developed, only skims the surface of the practical applications social capital has on people’s lives in the real world. His analyses of the impact of social capital on educational outcomes are well-developed, but his discussion about the roots of the inequalities of social capital is lacking nuance and development. By focusing on the complicated processes surrounding the accumulation, transfer, and conversion of social capital, Bourdieu is able to situate social capital in a realistic landscape, and his analysis and theories help to explain reasons behind inequality, inequity, and larger, broader global issues and trends.

Bourdieu’s theory of social capital and its exchange and power in the world makes a good lense for looking at a wide variety of practical situations. Social capital is often more important and influential than cultural or even economic capital, especially in systems controlled by the “elite”, or that favor status and prestige, like celebrity culture or corporate entrepreneurship. Even systems claiming to be pure meritocracies, like universities or the government system, are clearly swayed and influenced quite frequently by forces that reflect social capital.

The American university system and academia as a whole both favor and perpetuate social capital in their power structures. Though it is rarely acknowledged, having a network of the proper connections is a primary way people rise to power in these structures, something I’ve (perhaps unfairly) experienced in my own life through my schooling, internships, and other opportunities. Bourdieu’s theory emphasizes the importance of the “quality”, not just the “quantity” of connections when it comes to leveraging social capital to one’s advantage. It is important to distinguish between just having connections–friends, family, loved ones–and having powerful connections. Friends are great, but friends in high places are better; “better” from an objective standpoint of advancing one’s position in life; Bourdieu mostly avoids commentary about the moral or ethical value of using social capital for one’s advantage.

Putnam’s research on civic engagement is optimistic and fitting for the time and specific focus on education, but it lacks deeper commentary on the social and economic issues that make social “capital” (an ill-fitting term for his concepts) profitable and influential in the real world. Bourdieu’s ideas of social capital as an exchangeable, transferable resource comparable to economic capital make much more sense in practical application, both at the time of his writing and now. We only need look at examples of biased university admissions, nepotism in politics, or unfair and prejudiced court rulings, to realize the benefit of a collection of meaningful yet powerful connections in our Western society.

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Philip Larkin’s The Less Deceived (1955): writing essay help

Although Britain had emerged from World War Two as victorious, the cost of this victory became increasingly apparent in the years that followed. Labour’s success in the 1945 General Election resulted in a series of social and political reforms which tapped into a national desire for change, with the establishment of the National Health Service in 1948 and widespread nationalisation of industry. However, these changes were not sufficient to combat the devastating economic and ideological effects of World War Two. As Mark Jackson summarises,

When the Second World War ended in 1945, British people, like those of many other nations, were struggling to reconcile themselves to the appalling consequences of war: over 450,000 British soldiers and civilians had been killed and many more severely wounded; families and communities had been destroyed; cities and homes had been reduced to rubble; and welfare services were struggling to cope with the burden of physical and psychological illness, not only amongst members of the armed forces but also amongst civilian populations.

As Jackson suggests, in these immediate post-war years, the national outlook of England was dominated by a profound sense of disillusionment and despair.

Philip Larkin’s The Less Deceived (1955) is fundamentally concerned with these conditions of post-war society. For example, the title, a subversion of Ophelia’s declaration in Hamlet that ‘I was the more deceived’ (III. i. 120) immediately suggests a determination to resist illusion in this difficult post-war period; ‘an attitude of wary suspiciousness and worldly scepticism’, as Andrew Swarbrick notes. An important aspect of this ‘worldly scepticism’ and Larkin’s suspicious approach to post-war society is the poet’s continued engagement with Romanticism. Throughout these poems, Larkin uses Romantic imagery as a vehicle to press against the social and political conditions of post-war England, subverting these often idealistic concepts of transformation and transcendence to explore a cultural condition of disillusionment and despair.

Michael O’Neill has evidenced the way in which the Romantic metaphor of air enables ‘twentieth century poets to enter into sustaining dialogue with the great Romantic poets’ especially regarding the issues of transformation and transcendence. Instead of an affirmative vision of these tropes, the Romantic metaphor of air in Larkin’s ‘Triple Time’ (1954) becomes a symbol of ‘worldly scepticism’ as the speaker bemoans

This empty street, this sky to blandness scoured,

This air, a little indistinct with autumn

Like a reflection, constitute the present —

A time traditionally soured,

A time unrecommended by event. (1-5).

Though Larkin’s engagement with the metaphor of air is shadowed by Percy B. Shelley’s ‘Ode to the West Wind’ (1820), each of these poets use this symbol in very different ways. Whereas Shelley’s idealistic ‘wild West Wind, thou breath of Autumn’s being’ (1) is an agent of transformative process and change, Larkin’s ‘air, a little indistinct with autumn’ subverts this metaphor to become a symbol of his speaker’s own disenchantment with post-war England. This change from the driving rhythms of Shelley’s alliterative line to Larkin’s limp syntax of indifference especially enacts this deflation of Romantic ideals and the resulting sense of ‘worldly scepticism’. The jarring repetition of ‘time’ and Larkin’s selection of ‘bells’, which ironically fails to chime with the corresponding rhyme of ‘else’ (6), also articulates this disillusionment regarding a ‘time traditionally soured, | A time unrecommended by event’.

‘Wires’ (1953) is also primarily concerned with this national outlook and has been repeatedly labelled as an allegory for the social and political conditions of post-war society. Larkin’s speaker describes how

The widest prairies have electric fences,

For though old cattle know they must not stray

Young steers are always scenting purer water

Not here but anywhere. Beyond the wires

Leads them to blunder up against the wires

Whose muscle-shredding violence gives no quarter.

Young steers become old cattle from that day,

Electric limits to their widest senses. (1-8).

The continued rationing and economic restrictions which dominated the late 1940s and early 1950s are easy to locate within the form and imagery of the poem. Larkin’s ABCD DCBA rhyme scheme is particularly suggestive of enclosure and the enjambment between the first and second stanza, which offers the hope of finding purer waters ‘Beyond the wires’, only ‘Leads them to blunder up against the wires’ once more. Although ‘Wires’ is not itself engaged with the themes and tropes of Romanticism, this sense of relentless frustration at a lack of freedom and restriction prefigures the distinctly Romantic desire to transcend these social conditions in ‘Here’ (1961), from The Whitsun Weddings (1964).

Though published almost a decade later, The Whitsun Weddings is also concerned with these challenging conditions of post-war society, as England struggled to come to terms with the full-ranging political and social effects of World War Two. Since the publication of The Less Deceived, the restrictions and rationing explored in ‘Wires’ had been lifted and the country’s economy had shown significant signs of recovery. However, despite this newfound relative “affluence” for some, a different set of problems began to emerge during this period. For example, with an unprecedented rise in immigration, urbanisation and growing concerns over the topic of political consensus, the issues of cultural cohesion, integration and social inequality were widespread in post-war society, as evidenced throughout The Whitsun Weddings. This issue of class tensions and a sense of what Jason Harding refers to as the ‘social alienation’ of the period, is also reflected in the wider literature of this era such as in the works of “The Angry Young Men”, a group of writers with which Larkin has literary and personal links.

Philip Larkin’s ‘Here’ is clearly situated within the post-war context of this collection, as the poem opens with a journey through this landscape

Swerving east, from rich industrial shadows

And traffic all night north; swerving through fields

Too thin and thistled to be called meadows,

And now and then a harsh-named halt, that shields

Workmen at dawn; swerving to solitude. (1-5).

Following this opening verbal participle, the first sections of ‘Here’ are dominated by its restless syntax, the repeated conjunctions and a resulting sense of overwhelming enumeration. Larkin repeats these techniques throughout the poem in order to consolidate this effect. For example, the syndetic listing of the numerous aspects of post-war society is complemented by the breathless enjambment in the poem’s third stanza, which describes

A cut-price crowd, urban yet simple, dwelling

Where only salesmen and relations come

Within a terminate and fishy-smelling

Pastoral of ships up streets, the slave museum,

Tattoo-shops, consulates, grim head-scarfed wives. (17-21).

Michael O’Neill has argued that the concept of ‘difference’ and the poet’s ‘troubled recognition of this’ is central to Larkin’s poetic method in The Whitsun Weddings. In ‘Here’, this ‘troubled recognition’ of ‘difference’ is evident in the speaker’s exhausting attempts to summarise and reconcile the disparate nature of post-war society with its ‘cut-price crowd’, ‘meadows’ and ‘industrial shadows’. In doing so, Larkin gives expression to the growing concerns over these issues of cultural cohesion and social inequality.

These concerns are shadowed by Larkin’s reference to ‘the slave museum’ which subtly raises issues of freedom and prosperity, linking back to the themes of The Less Deceived and ‘Wires’, in particular. This issue is particularly pertinent to the ‘residents from raw estates’ (12) and that ‘cut-price crowd’, the presumably working-class individuals of the poem. At the linguistic level, Larkin’s use of consonance creates a sense of uniformity and repetition associated with these individuals, which perhaps gestures towards the monotonous realities of working-class life and this issue of restrictive freedoms. Equally, this jarring repetition of sound may also represent a dismissive view of this class, suggesting their exclusion and resulting sense of ‘social alienation’, as voiced in the literature of “The Angry Young Men”. Either way, as the collection’s opening poem, ‘Here’ offers a troubling snapshot of the progression of post-war society, even into the 1950s and 60s, and gestures towards the difficulty of Larkin’s task in gathering and reconciling these differences in The Whitsun Weddings. Moreover, these issues of freedom, suggested by the reference to ‘the slave museum’, create an alarming parallel with a poem such as ‘Wires’ and raises further questions surrounding ideas of progression, development and disillusionment in post-war society.

With its central concerns of liberty and transformation, it is unsurprising that the final movements of ‘Here’ turn to Romanticism and this notion of transcendence. In these closing lines, Larkin’s speaker asserts that

[…] Here silence stands

Like heat. Here leaves unnoticed thicken,

Hidden weeds flower, neglected waters quicken,

Luminously-peopled air ascends;

And past the poppies bluish neutral distance

Ends the land suddenly beyond a beach

Of shapes and shingle. Here is unfenced existence:

Facing the sun, untalkative, out of reach. (25-32).

The ‘Luminously-peopled air’ and ‘bluish neutral distance’ of sea and sky, subtly registers these notions of transcendence, linking to Michael O’Neill’s Romantic metaphor of air. Larkin’s acceleration of language and syntax in these closing lines therefore lifts readers ‘beyond’ these troubling conditions of post-war society and momentarily into the exhilarating realm of transcendence. However, unlike Wordsworth’s and Shelley’s view of individual transcendence, the language and syntax of Larkin’s closing lines in ‘Here’ are of integration and community. For example, O’Neill explains how ‘cutting across all these differences’ explored throughout the poem is the repeated use of ‘here’, a word which has an odd, slightly disconcerting effect in the poem; it implies that everywhere is ‘here’ for somebody, a recognition that blurs any clear-cut sense of distinctions between localities.

Larkin’s repetition of the emphatic ‘Here’ in this realm of transcendence therefore carries with it, these disparate communities and individuals of post-war England into this glorious ‘unfenced existence’. Andrew Swarbrick’s notion of the ‘accumulative syntax’ explored throughout the poem can also be considered in relation to this ‘accumulative’ transcendental vision. This ‘existence’, which so explicitly recalls the ‘electric fences’ and hopeless attempts to move ‘Beyond’ the ‘Wires’, articulates the speaker’s communal desire for a society in which such restrictions, inequalities and differences are no longer present. Larkin therefore engages with, and extends, this Romantic legacy, in his communal vision of transcendence ‘beyond’ the restrictive conditions of post-war society.

Unfortunately, this ongoing sense of ‘worldly scepticism’ means that, despite the pause created by the colon of ‘unfenced existence:’, this vision of transcendence cannot be truthfully sustained. As such, the broken syntax of this final line ‘Facing the sun, untalkative, out of reach’ painfully enacts the speaker’s failing grip on this transcendental, communal vision and the inevitable return to reality. Stephen Regan explains how

Given that there can be no final or permanent sense of release, the ultimate direction of the poem is not forward (since it can only gesture towards transcendence) but back, with renewed awareness of the extremes of isolation, into the communities it left behind.

This failure of transcendence not only heightens this longing but, as Regan suggests, it also illuminates the pathos of this return to a desperate society struggling with issues of cultural cohesion and faltering progression. In ‘Here’ therefore, Larkin presses against the themes and tropes of Romanticism in order to deepen the understanding of, and sense of sympathy for, this post-war society of disillusionment and despair.

The 1960s and early 70s, the period with which High Windows is concerned, is often characterised by a return to ‘idealism’ and hope. Technological advances, newfound sexual liberation and the emergence of the first generation free from conscription has led to an array of idealising, cultural narratives concerning the 1960s, in particular. For instance, depictions of the “Swinging Sixties” are often marked by the radiance of music, fashion and youthful exuberance.

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Modern liberal countries and immigration

The rise of modern liberalism in the 21st century became a catalyst for the amplification of globalism. The mass influx of migrants throughout western Europe has made immigration a major issue in European politics. Yet, because each country adheres to a distinct set of ideologies and policies in regards to how they interact with migrants, having an international solution is impossible. For example, the United Kingdom follows a multiculturalist approach, while France vouches for assimilation. Additionally, there are countries such as Germany that fall somewhere in between the two. Both systems are systematically different which leads to vastly different consequences. For example, the definition of freedom in education is interpreted in a very different manner between such countries. However, they do share one major similarity; both multiculturalism and assimilation fail to develop a common identity which leads to violence and seclusion.

National identity has always been a key point in European policy-making. Choosing between multiculturalism and assimilation is primarily an effort to protect such an aspect of society. For example, although nationalism is encouraged in Britain, migrants are not expected to give up their culture, religion or language. That is because “liberal states have multiculturalism, because they have given up on the idea of assimilating their members beyond basic procedural commitments” (Joppke 449). In stark contrast, the French identity is protected and immigrants must assimilate into their culture, secularity, and language. Although assimilation has changed over time, the “final goal was still absorption into the dominant culture” (Castles 268). Lastly, Germany is one of the only European countries that embrace aspects of both systems. For example, after World War II, Germany enabled the migration of “guest-workers” into their country. Such migrants were “to be temporarily incorporated into certain aspects of society (above all the labor market) but denied access to others (especially citizenship and political participation)” (Castle 266). The German identity was now directly correlated to one’s citizenship and political participation regardless of one’s time, experiences, and family in such a country.

Modern liberal countries still use antiquated principles to define a country’s identity. The belief of Jus sanguinis (right of blood) and Jus soli (right of the soil) are still the most influential ideas regarding citizenship. For that reason, both multiculturalism and assimilation fail at developing a national identity. In fact, since multiculturalism divides the population into cultural “boxes” instead of uniting the population, it only emphasizes their differences. Additionally, politicians “tend to assume minorities’ true loyalty is to their faith or ethnic communities” (Malik 16). The purely political relationship created between the state and minority communities creates a sense of hostility and distrust between them. Furthermore, many minority groups in England fear reaching out to the government, as multicultural policies have made other minority groups their opponents and therefore enemies. For example, in the late 1970s, Ugandan Asians were allocated public-sector housing which led to “racial hostility […] at a time where 10,000 people on the city’s housing waiting list […] fear of physical attacks also deterred many from seeking council accommodation” (Marett 7). Germany, on the other hand, uses their multicultural policies to avoid calling immigrants their equals. This was especially clear with the introduction of the Gastarbeiter system (guest-workers) as migrants were allowed access to the labor system, but not granted citizenship. Consequently, the emergence of parallel communities arose in Germany. The Turkish community was especially ignored even though many of them consider Germany their true home. The national identity that Germany has constructed forces Turkish individuals to feel like outsiders. In fact, “out of the three million people of Turkish origin in Germany today, only some 800,000 have managed to acquire citizenship” (Malik 22). Lastly, assimilation in France not only leads to seclusion for minorities, but it also causes violent revolts. Such struggle dates back to the colonial and post-colonial relationship between “secular” France and “Muslim” Algeria. The French state has not allowed proper sociopolitical integration to occur due to the historical tendency of labeling north African communities as Muslims instead of “true” French citizens. Such mislabeling has led to a series of revolts in France. For example, in October of 2005, “a series of riots broke out in the suburbs of Paris […] sparked by the death of two young men being chased by the police [they] had become increasingly angry at the police presence in their neighborhoods and frustrated by the lack of opportunity and stifling conditions [caused by the] “xenophobic rhetoric of conservative politicians” (Fellag 5). As such, although multiculturalism and assimilation are entirely different political systems, the negative consequences that arise from them are quite similar. The state’s inability to create a uniting national identity forces an individual to revolt against the government.

The importance of education in liberal democracies is crucial in the development of children and teenagers. Yet, in an increasingly globalized world, the importance and purpose of education can be unclear; especially, in determining what freedom is in the classroom. The United Kingdom emphasizes the importance of a multicultural society by allowing citizens and immigrants to preserve their cultural identity. Yet, in their public-school system, many disregard such policies and teach only what they believe fits with their national identity. For example, Maureen Stone is a school teacher in Leicester who said that “supplementary education should be devoted to basic skills and not to education in different cultures” (Rex 8). The undermining of globalization in her statement suggests that learning and appreciating different cultures is irrelevant for children in the United Kingdom. Therefore, the extent to which they can exercise their cultural identities in the classroom is highly questioned. Students are allowed to exercise freedom of religion in the classroom yet, many of them are unable to study different cultures, ideologies, and mindsets that may go against traditional British values. However, they are not the only European country that struggles with the concept of freedom. In Germany, their multicultural policies allow freedom of religion to occur. Yet, all public schools in Germany have “compulsory religious education […] which has to be paid for by the state” (Muehlhoff 439). The separation of Church and state in Germany is not as drastic as other European countries and therefore, Christianity is still part of the curriculum. Although students can opt out of taking such class, a public school in Cologne last year, punished a child named Paul for doing homework during this class even though the law allows children to have “free time” if they wish to not partake in such course. This case is not uncommon either, in fact, there’s “10, 12 cases [like Paul’s] each year, different cases, some which stretch over years […] it begins in primary schools and continues into the secondary level” (Isenson 13). Therefore, although the law explicitly allows freedom of religion to take place in school, students are still being punished by their professors. France however, has a very distinct set of laws against religion in public schools. The definition of freedom of religion doesn’t fit well with their secular state. For example, “in October 1989 three teenage girls, two of Moroccan and one of Tunisian descent, were suspended from school because they refused to take off their head scarves” (Lucassen 171). Their inability to freely wear such clothing goes against any multicultural policy in both Germany and the UK. As such, these countries have major ideological differences in regards to how they deal with freedom in education. The United Kingdom allows students to practice their religion freely at schools but they refuse to study all globalization has to offer. Germany has compulsory Christianity classes in every public school which can lead to segregation for individuals who don’t wish to comply. Lastly, France doesn’t allow freedom of religion to take place in their secular state as religious practices such as the hijab are banned in public schools.

The inclination to justify the political system in every state has led to the development of obstructive conservative ideals. Globalization is now an essential and natural aspect of every society in the world. Therefore, systems such as multiculturalism and assimilation need to be reevaluated and improved. Their inability to produce a national identity will create more violence and parallel communities in European countries. Additionally, although their ideologies regarding freedom are undeniably different, the United Kingdom, France, and Germany have not created a positive, accepting environment for minorities in their communities. Embracing, learning and encouraging diversity in a modern liberal state is the foundation for a united group of citizens.

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Leisure and the Industrial Revolution: custom essay help

In a country that values production and is future-oriented, the hectic life of a citizen of the United States is seen as normal and is actually valued by family, employers, friends, and everyday people. However, in other cultures, such as Mediterranean and Arab countries, importance is placed on self-reflection and regulation. Not every waking moment of the day is filled to the brim with work and chores. In fact, life in other cultures is typically oriented around the family; work and monetary success are not indicators of one’s fortune, value, and happiness. During the early days of colonial America, the family was also the center of life, although hard work and grit were still valued. Success equaled survival, and it was necessary for Americans to work for their basic needs. As America progressed and began to industrialize, the components of family life and values changed. While survival still meant hard work, the components of that work were different. Although daily work schedules changed according to the times, with the rise of the middle class through the 19th century, there was a natural increase in leisure time and corresponding activities. In the early half of the 19th century, leisure time remained consistent of that before the beginning of the Industrial Revolution, and in the latter half of the 19th century leisure time greatly increased as the Industrial Revolution came to its height.

The Industrial Revolution, which occurred from the eighteenth to nineteenth centuries, was a period amid which dominatingly agrarian, provincial social orders in Europe and America become modernized and moved towards urban lifestyles. Preceding the Industrial Revolution, which started in Britain in the late 1700s, and production of tools, textiles, and necessary household items was regularly done in individuals’ homes, utilizing hand instruments or fundamental machines. Industrialization denoted a move to a fueled economy, predominantly driven by the use of specialized machines, manufacturing plants and large scale production. The iron and material ventures, alongside the advancement of the steam motor, assumed focal jobs in the Industrial Revolution, which likewise observed improved frameworks of transportation, correspondence, and banking. While industrialization achieved an expanded volume and assortment of made merchandise and an improved way of life for a few, it additionally brought about regularly horrid business and living conditions for poor people and common laborers. Prior to the coming of the Industrial Revolution, the vast majority lived in little, provincial networks where their day was developed around cultivating. Life for the normal individual was troublesome, as livelihoods were pitiful, and malnourishment and sickness were normal. Citizens, mainly farmers, manufactured most of their own supplies and food, dress, furnishings, and instruments.

The first phase of the Industrial Revolution is signified as the advancement from an agricultural economy to an industrial economy. This change, or rather phase, of the revolution, took place in the United States between the 1790s and 1830s. The first industrial mill in the United States was opened by Samuel Slater, and according to most, signified the start of the Industrial Revolution in America. Samuel Slater’s mill was similar to those used in Great Britain, just as much of the revolution was modeled from Britain and England. Slater’s technology was considerably more efficient than the old methods in which cotton thread could be spun into yarn. While he introduced a vital new technology to the United States, the economic takeoff of the Industrial Revolution required several other elements before it would transform American life. Another key to the rapidly changing economy of the early Industrial Revolution were new organizational strategies to increase productivity. This had begun with the “outwork system” whereby small parts of a larger production process were carried out in numerous individual homes. This organizational reform was especially important for shoe and boot making. However, the chief organizational breakthrough of the Industrial Revolution was the “factory system”, where work was performed on a large scale in a single centralized location. The rise of wage labor at the heart of the Industrial Revolution also exploited working people in new ways. The first strike among textile workers protesting wage and factory conditions occurred in 1824 and even the model mills of Lowell faced large strikes in the 1830s.

The first phase of the Industrial Revolution changed leisure time and activities in many ways. Since the Industrial Revolution was so new at the end of the 18th century, there were initially no laws to regulate new industries. For example, no laws prevented businesses from hiring seven-year-old children to work full time in coal mines or factories. No laws regulated what factories could do with their biohazard waste. Free-market capitalism meant that the government had no role in regulating the new industries or planning services for new towns. And those who controlled the government liked it that way—only a small minority of people, the wealthiest, could actively participate in politics and economic ventures. So during the first phase of the Industrial Revolution, between 1790 and 1850, American society became an example of what happens in a country when free-market capitalism has no constraints. The working class—who made up 80% of society—had little or no bargaining power with their new employers. Since the population was increasing in Great Britain at the same time that landowners were enclosing common village lands, people from the countryside flocked to the towns and the new factories to get work. This resulted in a very high unemployment rate for workers in the first phases of the Industrial Revolution. As a result, the new factory owners could set the terms of work because there were far more unskilled laborers and those who had few skills and would take any job. Desperate for work, the migrants to the new industrial towns had no bargaining power to demand higher wages, fairer work hours, or better working conditions. Worse still, since only wealthy people in Great Britain were eligible to vote, workers could not use the democratic political system to fight for rights and reforms. In 1799 and 1800, the British Parliament passed the Combination Acts, which made it illegal for workers to unionize, or combine, as a group to ask for better working conditions. For the first generation of workers—from the 1790s to the 1840s—working conditions were very tough, and sometimes tragic. Most laborers worked 10 to 14 hours a day, six days a week, with no paid vacation or holidays. Life in the factory was most challenging for the first generation of industrial workers who still remembered the slower and more flexible pace of country life. Factory employers demanded a complete change of pace and discipline from farm life. Workers could no longer easily communicate with their peers and friends, as they would have done while working in the country. They could not return to the village during harvest time to help their families unless they wanted to lose their jobs. Instead, they were no longer their own bosses; foremen and overseers supervised a new working culture to ensure that workers’ actions were focused and efficient. In the first sixty years or so of the Industrial Revolution, working-class people had little time or opportunity for recreation. Workers spent all the light of day at work and came home with little energy, space, or light to play sports or games. The new industrial pace and factory system were at odds with the old traditional festivals which dotted the village holiday calendar. Plus, local governments actively sought to ban traditional festivals in the cities. In the new working-class neighborhoods, people did not share the same traditional sense of a village community. The first phase of the industrial revolution clearly lacked proper leadership and regulation, which severely limited men and women of all ages, making leisurely activities impossible but for the rich.

The second Industrial Revolution, also known as the American Industrial Revolution, brought about significant change in the lives of the working class. After the 1850s, however, recreation improved along with the rise of an emerging the middle class. Music halls sprouted up in big cities. Sports such as rugby and cricket became popular. Football became a professional sport in 1885. By the end of the 19th century, cities had become the places with opportunities for sport and entertainment that they are today. Soon massive immigration from England, Britain, and other countries took place. This process of urbanization stimulated the booming new industries by concentrating on workers and factories together. New industrial cities became sources of wealth for the nation. Aristocrats born into their lives of wealth and privilege, and low-income commoners born in the working classes. n this new middle class, families became a sanctuary from stressful industrial life. The home remained separate from work and took on the role of emotional support, where women of the house created a moral and spiritual safe harbor away from the rough-and-tumble industrial world outside. Most middle-class adult women were discouraged from working outside the home. They could afford to send their children to school. As children became more of an economic burden, and better health care decreased infant mortality, middle-class women gave birth to fewer children. This new lifestyle was promoted by the massive immigration into urban cities of the United States. With more workers, there began to be reform movements which made industrial life much safer, and soon weekends became established. actions began to be regularly offered to workers, although they were usually unpaid ones. The monotony of specialized industrial work and the crowding of urban expansion also created a desire in the worker to have leisure time away from his or her job and away from the bustle of the city. The Progressive movement was another factor which contributed to the increased value of leisure time for workers, as their health and well-being received more attention. Within cities, people attended vaudeville shows, which would feature a multitude of acts. Motion pictures also served as entertainment during leisure time for urban audiences. After the Civil War, the popularity of sports as leisure activities grew as people began to see the importance of exercise to health. While initially only the wealthy could partake of most sporting events, the opening of publicly available gymnasiums, courts, and fields allowed the working and middle classes to participate also. Athletic clubs such as the New York Athletic Club were organized and the YMCAs began to institute sports programs. These programs mostly focused on track and field events, instituted by communities of Scottish and English descent, and gymnastics, heavily influenced by German athletics. Gymnasiums, which featured exercises using Indian clubs, wooden rings, and dumbbells, were opened in many Eastern Cities. By the end of the second phase of the Industrial Revolution, there were many activities that were extremely popular among all citizens. These activities included biking, basketball, swimming, baseball, fairs, expositions, and many other affairs. The second phase of the Industrial Revolution clearly impacted the leisure of many citizens, a much bigger increase compared to the first phase of the Industrial Revolution

Societal values have changed drastically through global and American history. Today, hard-work and determination are required in order to be successful in the United States, however, the circumstances in which that success is achieved has changed for the better. Leisure of American citizens before and after the Industrial Revolution greatly increased as a result of reformation movements and family values.

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Write an argument in favour of the border wall (US/Mexico)

Many criminals, possibly unknown to the U.S. Government, are able to freely come into this country through the U.S.- Mexican border, bringing in drugs as well as participating in others crimes such as human trafficking, etc. For a great deal of this chaos to end, the Mexican border wall should be built. It should also be built because of the good it will do for the American economy, lowering of the U.S. crime rates, and for the American people in general. The wall will improve the economy by providing more job opportunities for the American people already in the U.S. living here lawfully. The wall will also combat drug smugglers and criminals that enter through the border every day through unguarded areas. Building a wall can counter these criminals from entering our country. Lastly, the wall will help the American people not only feel safer, but actually be safer. People coming across our border who are not registered are illegal aliens and we do not know who they are. The best way to secure the American people from these criminals is to build a wall. The wall is a necessity for it is the Government’s duty to protect those who cannot protect themselves against criminals who could enter this country through the areas of the border that are unprotected.

The wall is completely misunderstood to the average American. People sometimes believe that it will be some massive stone wall, complete with guns at the top, denying entry to anyone who may want to immigrate to this country. Although, at times it may sound and feel that the border wall would look like that, it most definitely will not. The wall is really just a figure of speech for what the American people really want, which is better security, fewer drugs and the crime associated with them, and a better way to defend against the illegal entry of some of these criminals. The wall also needs to be built in order to help stop the opioid crisis, minimize the impact of Mexican drug cartels, and the unlawful money flowing out of our country and into cartel members pockets. The wall needs to be built there is simply no way around it.

Opponents of the wall say that it simply will not work. Yuma, Arizona as well as Naco, Arizona are prime examples that walls do work as well as being very effective. “In Naco, Arizona for 10 years. We didn’t have physical barriers in Naco, and illegal immigration and drug smuggling was absolutely out of control” (Remarks on). Naco was besieged by illegal immigrants as well as an influx in drugs in the area. Officials built a wall and the flood of crime in both Naco and Yuma dropped significantly. Brandon Judd, President of the National Border Patrol Council, says, “We built those walls… and illegal immigration dropped exponentially. Anywhere that you look, where we have built walls, they have worked. They have been an absolute necessity for Border Patrol agents in securing the border” (Remarks on). The wall can improve people’s lives as well as give them new business ventures, all while protecting them at the same time. Yuma, Arizona and Naco, Arizona “serves as a prime example of home investments in personnel, technology, and a wall can turn a tide against a flood of illegal immigration” (Elaine).

Some opposed to a border wall might think that the wall is a complete waste of resources as well as representative of a discriminatory monument for all of the world to see. They view Donald Trump is extremely discriminatory and racist as he has insulted the Mexican people with phrases like “Bad Hombres” and referring them as “Illegals”. They believe he is trying to deport millions of innocent people so he can make his middle and upper class voters feel more secure and content which could result in more votes for himself in the upcoming 2020 election. They cite that the wall should not be built because “building walls has rarely has achieved its intended effect, and may result in wasted resources and lost opportunities for the United States” (Phil’s Why). Trump and the Republican party think that many illegal immigrants are a cartel or gang member here to commit crimes and or deal drugs drugs on the streets. Trump promotes the idea that every illegal alien has crossed some territory over the border that is completely unguarded even though that is not the case at all. “As many as half of unauthorized immigrants in the United States are people who overstay their visas, not border crossers” (Phil’s Why). Thus, they believe that the border wall will not achieve its intended goal, resulting in millions of dollars being wasted as well as endangering the U.S. economy.

This argument is completely false, because the wall, if imposed correctly, can be a huge economic booster for the United States. A wall can provide many initial jobs to build it and then additional jobs to help maintain it. As stated, the wall can be “a bold ambitious, forward-looking plan to massively increase jogs, wages, incomes, and opportunities for the people of our country’’ (Kolhatkar).

One of the greatest threats to the American people at the moment is unfortunately the opioid crisis. People sometimes say that much of the opioids coming into this country are arriving through seaports and airports, but in reality “90% of heroin in the US comes through its southern border’’ (Remarks After). These drugs are being sneaked through tunnels, unguarded areas, and high population areas, making it nearly impossible to track down and catch the drug dealers. “Ignoring this crisis diminishes the Americans and migrants who have fallen victim to the crimes committed by illegal aliens, or are harmed because of illegal drugs flowing across the border” (Border Tour). American people can be easily harmed and exploited by drug traffickers as these people enable and make deadly drugs readily available to people with serious addictions. “Criminal organizations operate sophisticated drug and human trafficking networks and smuggling operation on both sides of the southern border, contributing to a significant increase in violent crime and US deaths from dangerous drug” (Border Security). By just being in the U.S., illegal aliens can endanger the country and its citizens. Thus, the U.S. can be very limited in what it can do when an illegal alien commits murder or manslaughter as they may have no jurisdiction over the person. This is a problem that has to be stopped and only a wall can fix that.

“Ranchers shared stories about the day to day reality of illegal aliens using their land as drug and human trafficking routes” (Border Tour). These people are using hard working taxpayers property to make millions of dollars while using land that is not even theirs. Human trafficking is a crime that is an unfortunate reality that can occur on the U.S. – Mexican border. Human trafficking is the buying and selling of people, mainly women and young children, to be used as slaves or even raped or tortured for entertainment. These criminals are kidnapping mainly women from all ages, and boys or girls to be sold around the world for profit. These cartels are so dangerous that “Bystanders, people who refused to join cartels, migrants, journalists and government officials have all been killed” (Phil’s This).

The amount of people in this country illegally is astounding. “ every day, nearly 2,000 people are apprehended or stopped to come into our country… Last year alone, 17,000 individuals with previous criminal records were apprehended attempting to come across our southern border” (Remarks After). These 17,000 were just the people who were actually caught, and for all the government knows, there could be twice or three times as many people in the country who haven’t been caught. These people are sometimes thought to be refugees although they are the opposite, as refugees are people fleeing a country because of discrimination or war, of which there is neither in Mexico. Although these aliens may be extremely poor and are trying to have a better life in America, they are going about it the wrong way. The people that are here illegally do not pay taxes because the government does not know of their existence. They also can take jobs from American citizens and Legal Aliens who have earned the right to have the jobs over illegals. “In 2017, 3700 known or suspected terrorists tried to enter into the country through the Southern border”(Remarks). Even though not all people crossing the border illegally are dangerous, many of them are here for illegal activities and not just looking for jobs.

Right now there is “about 650 miles of the 1,900 mile-long border are already fenced” (Border Wall). These people just walk right over the border without any documentation. A common opposing question regarding the border wall is, “Since the Canada-America border is just as open if not more open than the Mexico-America border, why not build a wall there?” This question can be easily deflected because the standard of living between Canada and the US is much more comparable, and there are many less occurences of drug and human trafficking on this border. Right now more than 50% of the border is unguarded and literally just inviting criminals to invade our country.

The border wall must be built to provide safety to our legal residents, to protect our way of life, to help control the flood of drugs and associated crimes and to protect the many law enforcement professionals working in that region of the U.S. The wall is a necessity for America that should have been constructed many years ago as many Presidents and past administrations, both Democratic and Republican, have failed to do what is right for this country and its citizens.

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The American Dream, today

It’s no exaggeration to say that just about every American has at least heard of the term – the American Dream since this concept has always been a popular and dominant theme in United States society. It is the center of the national culture and reflects people’s optimism about equality between individuals. In this report, I will analyze the ideology of the American Dream and its meaning in society presently.

As Sally Edelstein (2013) stated in her article that the seed of the American Dream was planted during the dark days of the Great Depression when a nation that had once been viewed as the land of opportunity was now mired, and germinated at the New York World’s Fair of 1939. The seed was nurtured and cultivated during the sacrifices and deprivations of World War II. By 1945 when the war ended, it was ready to be harvested and it would blossom into full bloom in the Post War years and beyond. It is difficult to define exactly the American Dream because it can be subjective and may mean different things to different people. Generally, the American Dream is usually understood as the perspective that all people are created equally with the right to life, liberty, and the pursuit of happiness. It is a set of principles basing on the notion that each person has the right to seek for prosperity and happiness, regardless of where or into what circumstances they were born, meaning that anyone can become financially successful and socially upwardly mobile through sacrifice, risk-taking, and hard work, rather than by chances. This concept has long become the driving force for many U.S. citizens, motivating them to work hard toward creating a better life for their families and themselves.

The person often receives credit for first popularizing this term was the historian James Truslow Adams (Patrick J. Kiger, 2011). According to Adams, he explained the American Dream in his best-selling book in 1931 “The Epic of America” as it is not a dream of motorcars and high wages merely, but a dream of an equal society in which each man or woman could be able to reach their achievement and be recognized by others for what they are, regardless of their circumstances of birth or position. However, the root of the American Dream could be much deeper. The tenets of this term were stated, even though not directly in the Declaration of Independence,

“We hold these truths to be self-evident, that all men are created equal, that they are endowed by their Creator with certain unalienable Rights, that among these are Life, Liberty, and the pursuit of Happiness.”

In the past, the American Dream was only for white people and used to have some basic ideas such as owning a home, a safe and secure neighborhood, or having a business that makes a profit and contributes to the national economy. When someone seems to have it all, including a well-paying job they love, a loving family they can provide for, a home they are proud of and can afford, and extra money to enjoy vacations and the other events that make life enjoyable, even if they aren’t wealthy, they are said to be living the American dream. However, nowadays, there are many different opinions in people’s perspectives when they have to talk about the American Dream as the meaning of the term has been changing over the past many years throughout history, depending on the context. On the one hand, some people believe that the American Dream means land of opportunity where anyone can become rich, successful, and respected if he or she works hard. For example, many immigrants migrate to the United States because the place has many big firms and multinational companies which can provide a variety of jobs and more chances of success in comparison with that in their home country. Another memorable event was on November 4, 2008, Senator Barack Obama of Illinois defeated Senator John McCain of Arizona to become the 44th U.S. president as well as the first African American in history to be elected to the White House. On the other hand, many see the American Dream as freedom and equal rights since they can do whatever they are passionate about without being judged. For instance, in general, the United States has very relaxed federal gun control laws in comparison with other developed nations such as Canada, Switzerland, and Japan — a mix of wealthy countries with similar and varying cultural backgrounds.

In this day and age, many citizens are now of the view that there is a need for a new definition of this dream which should also take into consideration the modern needs of the citizens as well as the core beliefs on which the US was founded. The American Dream which was more accessible to attain back in the days, however, had transformed, especially in the 21st century as economic inequality has increased over the years. Although it is still possible for people to live a happy and lucrative lifestyle through their perseverance, the lives of many average middle-class Americans and immigrants still have countless difficulties due to the lack of improvement in social mobility in society, making the American Dream seemed less attainable. The federal treasury is in danger, and the government, as well as policymakers, do not show any commensurate solution to the problems. This results in some people no longer believing in the American Dream and it is just an expectation.

Nowadays, with changing governments and overhauling global conditions, new virtues have been included in the American Dream as well as the meaning of this ideal has changed to aim different things to different generations. However, the concept of the American dream is still the very soul of the American nation, which is the ultimate idea that any citizen could have the right to pursue their notion of happiness, to follow their dreams, and achieve upward mobility or success if they put in the hard work. This ultimate idea is undoubtedly part of the American ethos, and likely always will be. As the world is changing every day, the American Dream will continue to evolve in response to the alteration and influence of the national economy with entrepreneurship and individual ambition, infusing a motivated perception to anyone trying to be successful in the United States.

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Closing of Indian Embassy at Kabul – Is it Really Questionable?: online essay help

The Government has decided to pull out its entire staff from the Indian Embassy in Kabul, Afghanistan. This act of India has raised several questions from the experts and the analysts. It has been discussed that all the major powers, including Russia, China, and Iran, are present there and are maintaining their task; why not we? It should be better to have stayed there and help our citizens instead of leaving them in distress. India has also been advised to keep a consular of CE at its airport, similar to America. In the news, it has also been in the news that the Taliban has requested India to remain and also assured its safety. These are some of the significant factors that influenced India to leave its embassy in Kabul.

Position of India in Afghanistan:

Firstly, India is not one of the superpowers, especially when it comes to Afghanistan. India has never followed any national-based or any independent policy towards this particular Country. It is also true with any previous government of India. In short, India is not a significant player related to this Country like the USA. All we have done is to support what the Government of Kabul(whether Hamid Karzai or Ashraf Ghani) and America to what they have to do in the Country. It is entirely wrong to put all the eggs in Ghani’s basket; it means he can be considered suitable for sustaining the authority to maintain any developing country. But he cannot be perfectly said to be a good administrator. India has successfully invested nearly $3 billion worth of small and medium projects in the Country. It has also earned the goodwill of the citizens of Afghanistan through this. Still, it never got any prominent role and right to consult in the political matters of Afghanistan neither any negations from the stakeholders.

In short, India never got any significant role in matters related to this Country. Indian Government has been criticized for not establishing contacts with the Taliban. But as per media reports, they were engaged with the Taliban, but it was too late, and talk was little. It was essential to talk at the greater level with the Taliban as other superpowers such as Russia and China did. Even Iran, which is a Shia-majority country, was engaged with the Taliban. America, too, started to talk with the Taliban without any hesitation, ignoring that it’s a terrorist group that has killed over 2,500 American soldiers since 2001.

India did not want to upset Ashraf Ghani and could not talk to the Taliban as they refused to talk with the Indian Government. However, engaging does not mean endorsing, which Vivek Katiju said as an Ambassador. He further said that it is a severe lapse as we have to talk to people we consider distasteful, whether they are Pakistan, China or the Taliban. It is also the fact that nearly everyone is afraid of the gun-toting fighters of the Taliban, and it is pretty risky to talk or deal with them. The Government has even cancelled all the issued visas, which indicates rendering of consular assistance.

Even if the Taliban approaches the Indian Government and asks not to shut the Indian embassy in Kabul, what will be their reliability and proof will be that they will stay on their words? Also, India does not have any means to force or control them. If it was the USA in such a case, they could easily cause massive harm to their troops.

What About Other Groups:

Taliban is not the only reason why India has quit its Embassy in Kabul. The presence of other groups such as Lashkar-e-Taiba, the Jaish-e-state in Khorasan (ISIS k, or ISK) is also threatening. In reports, these groups have given thousands of fighters to the Taliban in their Jihad to fight with the foreign powers. So they can be an equal and potential threat to India like the Taliban. But, on the other hand, the Taliban has also demonstrated its suicide bombing activities on 26 August that has killed nearly 13 military persons of the USA and a more significant number of Afghans. If such a scenario happens with a single Indian, there would have been a severe outcry.

The Approach of Foreign Policy:

One can easily criticize the Indian Government for some foreign policies, such as aligning closely with the US. This has made Russia unhappy, and due to which it started maintaining its relationship with one of our major enemy China. Giving importance to Quad(a group containing India, Japan, Australia, and the US) is also one of the questionable decisions to ask for. The formation of the Quad is the American manoeuvre so that it can contain China. It is clearly an anti-china arrangement in which India’s involvement was not much crucial.

Finally, it can be said that the closing of the Indian embassy in Kabul is not at all a questionable decision as all the above parameters indicate that the Indian Government would not have survived happily at this place.

2021-8-31-1630412536

Racism in America (speech)

Have you ever been considered less than human or regarded as a possession or object based off of something you have no control over? Unfortunately, many people in America can honestly say that they have, which is entirely unacceptable in today’s world. Hello! I’m Sophia. I’ve been researching the topic of racism in America for the past few weeks and I’m excited to share what I’ve learned. Ever since America was founded, racism has been heavily present in our society, and that is something that needs to change as soon as possible. I’m going to be going over topics like civil rights, influential figures in black history, and the impact that modern anti-racist organizations have had in today’s world.

There has always been a fight for racial equality in America. Ever since the first Americans settled on the East Coast and kicked Native Americans off the land they’d had for centuries, there was a fight. And even now, hundreds of years later, we still see that fight in action – through our actions, through our words, and through amazing people. From the Emancipation Proclamation to the Civil Rights Acts of 1964 and 1968 to the Black Lives Matter movement in 2020, people have not stopped fighting for their God-given rights to life.

Now, there are several important figures I’d like to mention who were catalysts for racial equality movements. First, and probably the most well-known, Martin Luther King, Jr. He was a civil rights activist who certainly changed our world for the better. He was assassinated on his own hotel room balcony, April 4, 1968. Next, George Floyd. He was one of the main reasons for the resurgence of the Black Lives Matter movement in mid-2020. He was suffocated to death under the knee of a police officer, May 25, 2020. Lastly, Tamir Rice. He was a twelve-year-old boy from Cleveland, Ohio carrying a toy gun. He was shot on sight by a police officer who felt “threatened”, November 22, 2014. Do any of these deaths seem justified to you? They shouldn’t, because they aren’t. And these are far from the only examples of people whose lives were needlessly taken from them because of their race.

Fortunately, there is a positive side to this story. The Black Lives Matter movement is an organization founded in 2013 shortly after the shooting of seventeen-year-old Trayvon Martin. The group is committed to fighting to end racially charged police brutality and trying to make the world a safer place for black youth. Their message particularly took off in mid-2020 after the murder of George Floyd, and they used that momentum to bring light to other police brutality killings and emanding justice for these needless deaths: names such as Breonna Taylor, Ahmaud Arbery, and Elijah McClain to list a few. Their impact extends far beyond just the 2020 resurgence, though. Today, nearly a year after the death of George Floyd, that message is still being taught, learned, and shared all over the US and the rest of the world.

I hope you enjoyed my speech. I also hope you come away from it with some more knowledge about racism and injustice in America, the people who helped shape our modern views on civil rights, and what we are doing to raise awareness for these things. Remember: racism hasn’t gone away, and it likely won’t for a long time, unless we as a country do something to make it better. Thank you!

2021-3-23-1616509511

The Effectiveness of Civil Disobedience in the Modern World: college application essay help

Law is the fundamental pillar of government, and it is a social construct that defines the boundaries of society. Although it protects the rights of the people, like all things created by humans, the law is not always perfect. Clarence Darrow, a famous American lawyer in the 1900s, once said, “As long as the world shall last there will be wrongs, and if no man objected and no man rebelled, those wrongs would last forever.” For centuries, civil disobedience has been a way for people to resist injustice and inspire change. Inequality, discrimination, and prejudice have been sources of protest because of the unjust laws that preyed upon minorities. As the world continues to evolve, humanity must adjust its laws based on the ever-changing demands of society. In the modern world, civil disobedience remains an effective way for people to voice their opinions on problems such as; data privacy, climate change and gun-control, along with economic disparity to ensure that the law remains fair and moral as the world changes.

Data privacy is a concern for people all over the world because of the amount of information that is collected through government surveillance. Edward Snowden, a former contractor in the National Security Agency (NSA), became known as a whistle-blower when he leaked thousands of documents proving how government agencies are abusing their authority by collecting personal information (“Edward Snowden, Whistle-Blower”). In 2013, he proved that phone calls, emails, and most online activity were actively being monitored by the NSA without the consent of millions of people. In violation of the Espionage Act, Snowden faced multiple criminal charges in the United States but sojourned in Moscow, Russia to avoid punishment for his actions. Furthermore, at an interview in Hong Kong with Glenn Greenwald, Snowden remarked,

“I do not want to live in a world where everything I do and say is recorded. That is not something I am willing to support or live under… I would rather be without a state than without a voice” (qtd. in Francis).

Snowden’s efforts have brought the insidious and unconstitutional actions of organizations like the NSA to the public eye. As a result, ongoing debates on how to ensure the protection of personal information are an important source of contention for new legislation. For example, when companies like Facebook or Google became involved in data privacy scandals, Snowden’s actions brought attention to new legislation such as the General Data Protection Regulation. Many of Snowden’s supporters praise him for trying to bring justice. However, others deem him as a traitor because of his ignorance of national security. Nevertheless, his acts of civil disobedience have brought positive change to society by alerting the world about the dangers of data theft. Although Snowden’s actions broke federal laws, not all forms of civil disobedience have to go to such extreme lengths.

Young activists are taking a stand against world issues like climate change and gun control. For instance, Greta Thunberg, an 18-year-old Swedish activist, has provided a voice for many recent generations, and was the youngest person to be named Time magazine’s Person of the Year in 2019. Her fight against climate change began with a simple act of civil disobedience in the summer of 2018. She “sat alone each Friday outside the Swedish parliament, quietly protesting with a handmade sign that read: Skolstrejk for Klimatet. School strike for climate” (Dennis). Thunberg has garnered the attention of millions of people by leading marches and giving speeches in over 123 countries around the world. In addition, she has established an immense social media following, engaged in debates with former President Trump and Russian President Vladimir Putin, and received a nomination for the Nobel Peace Prize. World leaders cannot ignore the impacts of carbon emissions, fossil fuels, and pollution on the Earth. Likewise, there are several other young leaders taking initiative for the betterment of society.

One example is Emma González, a 21-year-old student activist, who led an anti-gun rally in Fort Lauderdale three days after a school shooting at Marjory Stoneman Douglas High. Many students, parents, and teachers continue to suffer from the lasting effects of these traumatic experiences. She believes that people cannot afford to let these mass shootings become another forgotten tragedy, but they must be prevented altogether. At the anti-gun rally, González took a stance on the gun control debate:

Politicians who sit in their gilded House and Senate seats funded by the NRA telling us nothing could have been done to prevent this, we call BS. They say tougher gun laws do not decrease gun violence. We call BS. They say a good guy with a gun stops a bad guy with a gun. We call BS. They say guns are just tools like knives and are as dangerous as cars. We call BS. They say no laws could have prevented the hundreds of senseless tragedies that have occurred. We call BS. That us kids don’t know what we’re talking about, that we’re too young to understand how the government works. We call BS. (qtd. in Pires)

González and other gun-control activists achieved success when many state legislators enacted 50 laws throughout many states to restrict the access of guns. Ergo, nonviolent rallies have demonstrated that they have the power to inspire others, establish legitimate change, and shift opinions on ethical issues. On the other hand, once violence is introduced, protests can get out of hand resulting in people getting injured or even killed.

Additionally, around late 2018, a movement called the yellow vests swept across France. The supporters of the movement mostly consist of middle-to-low class citizens who barely were able to cover food, rent, utilities, and clothing expenses. When the French government raised the gas tax, these protestors turned their anger towards the government and called for taking French President Emmanuel Macron out of office. The main controversy around these protests include the use of violence by the government in response to these demonstrations. In fact, according to the French Ministry of Interior, by the end of 2019, 11 people had died while 1,900 peaceful protestors and 1,200 law enforcement officers were injured (McAuley).

In December 2019, Jean-Marc Michaud participated in a demonstration near the Place du Parlement to protest economic inequality, but he was seriously injured when a rubber ball fired by the police damaged his right eye. Michaud responded by saying, “The government claims that we are looters and violent protesters, but so many of us are just peaceful civilians… The government isn’t listening to us, and now they are trying to silence us with repression in the streets” (qtd. in Peltier). As French police officers resorted to violence to quell these demonstrations, a nationwide outcry fueled the yellow vest movement even further.

Despite the movement slowing down in 2020 due to the pandemic, many French supporters are far from giving up, and they believe that they still have the power to cause change. Already a group of yellow vests are planning to have a few candidates participate in the European Parliament elections. A French polling and market research firm estimated that 7.5 percent of the population would be willing to vote for yellow vest political candidates, and 40 percent sympathize with the movement in some way (McAuley). Therefore, dissatisfied French citizens are continuing to fight against the government to achieve justice for citizens facing economic hardship.

For years to come, civil disobedience is a potent method for people to fight against injustices such as data theft, environmental destruction, policies on gun-control, and economic inequality.

2021-4-25-1619388385

The Fight for Equality in “Battle Royal”: writing essay help

“Battle Royal” challenges equality throughout the narrator’s speech. People need to be shown equality because in this short story, the blacks were seriously injured when the whites made them go to boxing matches and they were tased/electrocuted when they took the money the whites left for them. The author Ralph Ellison shows in “Battle Royal” that there is an issue between race and the people need equality and social responsibility, so both races can be equal with one another.

The thesis shows the way that people need equality, so the blacks and whites can respect one another. The whites state, “We mean to do right by you, but you’ve got to know your place at times” (Ellison 11). This explains the way the whites are showing equality towards the narrator and soon it might happen to all of the blacks.

The short story shows symbolism with the dancing blonde woman, boxing match, blindfolds, the coins, and the speech. The “speech” symbolizes social responsibility between the white and black races. For example, the narrator of this story is wanting to read the speech about the way that people need to treat one another, but the whites did not listen to the speech until the end. The boxing match, the coins, and the blindfolds symbolize the suffering of the blacks. The boxing match symbolizes the way the blacks were in pain and suffering, while the whites were being comfortable and enjoyed watching the suffering of the blacks. The blindfold symbolizes the way the blacks suffered by getting knocked out in the boxing match.The narrator says, “Blindfolded, I could not control my motions” (Ellison 5). This discusses the fact that the narrator is blindfolded and he cannot control his mind and his display of knowledge for the speech. The coins symbolize greed by the whites. The whites gave the coins to the blacks, who are in need of money. But once they held a hand on the coins, they will be electrocuted. The dancing blonde woman symbolizes that the blacks cannot marry a white woman because there was a law that prevented interracial marriage, which is known as the “Loving vs Virginia” law case that prevented marriage from blacks and whites, according to the story’s historical content. The blonde woman has an American flag tattooed on her belly which symbolizes the way blacks were prevented from intermarriage between races in America. The narrator states “and yet to stroke where below the small American flag tattooed upon her belly her thighs formed a capital V”(Ellison 3). This explains where the American flag tattoo is located on her body and it relates to how the dancing blonde woman can be symbolized and the way she is a way to be used as the American dream.

The race experience explains that the whites treat all the blacks as animals by putting them in boxing matches and the whites were being forceful and brutal to the blacks by yelling to them and forcing them to punch one another. It shows how violent the boxing match really is, “In one comer I glimpsed a boy violently punching the air and heard him scream in pain as he smashed his hand against a ring post” (Ellison 6). Another race experience in this short story is that this story discusses mostly about the dancing blonde woman. The reason that this shows race experience is that this woman is trying to make all the white men be in love with her and they feared looking, were not disgusted so the narrator wants to read the speech and it is not about how people should treat one another. The short story discusses the way that blacks cannot be in an interracial marriage because it is a law for them not to break according to the culture that they are living in.

The background of this short short story discusses the historical content between the Reconstruction era to Jim Crow law era. The reason that the story occurred during the Reconstruction era is that the grandfather is discussing to his grandson about the way he was being in a relationship with the whites during the Reconstruction era and he was treated horribly by the whites being brutal to him. The prologue of this story discusses grandpa about his experience with the whites during the Reconstruction era: “I never told you, but our life is a war and I have been a traitor all my born days, a spy in the enemy’s country ever since I give up my gun in the Reconstruction” (Ellison 1). Afterwards, it continued around the Jim Crow law, when the whites were in contempt with the blacks, who are in suffering at boxing matches, shootings, fist fighting, or anything that the whites find that is considered violence. This quote explains how the blacks suffered in the boxing match as the whites were being soothed in this short story: “The harder we fought the more threatening the men became” (Ellison 6). This explains as the blacks are fighting one another they are suffering by being abused brutally. Another part of the quote, “the more threatening the men became” explains the men as the whites were making the blacks threatening one another as a form their race’s entertainment (Ellison 6).

In the short story, the narrator’s experience is calm in the beginning of the short story, then his experience was abhorrent, atrocious, gruesome, and cruel in the plot of the story, and his experience was then calm again. This promise the grandfather tells to the narrator of the story: “On his deathbed he called my father to him and said, “Son, after I’m gone I want you to keep up the good fight”” (Ellison 1). This shows an explanation about the narrator’s grandfather giving him a promise that he discussed that he had a lot of trouble with his lifetime despite the fact of his race experience between the whites and blacks and he does not want it to happen to anyone, especially his grandson. Throughout the events of the narrator’s experience is that he is in a bad experience because he is in a boxing match and he may be afraid to go in the boxing match. During the boxing match, the narrator is fearful in this short story, when he is set in a boxing match: “I stumbled like a baby or a drunken man” (Ellison 5). So, the narrator decided to make a speech similar to what Martin Luther King Junior did with his “I Have a Dream” speech.

The narrator creates the speech, so the whites to listen about the way they are needing to get along with the blacks, because the speech can make them understand equality. They did not listen until the end. Then, the experience of the narrator seems to be exciting because he seems excited when he is reading the speech and the whites are listening to every word of this essay. Once he was done with his speech, the whites had given him a scholarship to college, congratulating him for his way to be helpful to the people that were living in all of America. This quote explains one of the things that was used in this speech: “When ever I uttered a word of three or more syllables a group of voices yelled at me to repeat it” (Ellison 10). This quote says when the narrator is reading the essay, the whites were yelling at him to repeat because they want to listen to what he is saying for this essay so they want to know what he is talking about and they might end their conflict with the whites and blacks once he finishes his speech.

In “Battle Royal”, equality is discussed for the whites and the blacks and why they are in an opposite relationship with each other. The analysis says that the blacks and whites need to be in a fair relationship. Equality should matter because this short story explains why the blacks and whites should be equal with one another and the blacks are wanting to stop being threatened by the whites.

2019-2-15-1550252529

Issues faced by society – gun violence, racism and religion

When our reality becomes so unsightly, we tend to deny the outcomes because we are ashamed to see the mess we have made. Reality has become too hard to accept because the issues in our nation have brought us to not be able to agree to disagree with our opinions. In today’s society, we find ourselves never being able to talk about issues that affect us negatively, but rather starting something chaotic because we get so caught up in our own points of view—but in our communities, we should come together and address these problems, such as gun violence, racism, and religion, as best as we could, so they can get fixed and not continue to grow. But our biggest question right now, is how? How do we get everyone to understand and listen to one another?

As we get into our most sensitive topics of today’s issues, one of our biggest problems is not taking into consideration what others have already been through. The word racism has been flourishing in the media for what we can consider, too long. African Americans have been dealing with racial profiling, attacks, teasing, and death because of their skin color. In an article shared from CNN, explains that “a white student at Yale called police because a black student was napping in a dorm building.” (Yan) When a small issue like this happens to someone, it is hard to believe that there is room for the slightest change. Aside from someone you catch on the street saying something disrespectful, our president, Trump “appears to be unifying America — unifying Americans in their denial. The more racist Mr. Trump sounds, the more Trump country denies his racism, and the more his opponents look away from their own racism to brand Trump country as racist. (Kendi) Making it more difficult for us to see our faults as a nation. Rachel Godsil, a researcher apart of an organization who helps reduce discrimination explains, “There are enormous health consequences to those experiencing these everyday harms… because of the constancy of this stress.” For those who have never experienced such a thing cannot relate to what these people go through. Racism is a never-ending cycle that has to be addressed before we have more people suffering this pain that brings us this rage that no one can understand.

People do not seem to realize how closely each of these issues relate to one another. We reached the era where nearly 40,000 people have died from guns in the United States. In an article it states, “this is the highest than any other since at least 1968, according to new data from the Center for Disease Control and Prevention.” (Mervosh) Which I believe will dramatically continue to grow. “Pro-gun advocates see guns as our best defense against armed criminals. Anti-gun advocates see the wide availability of guns as a greater threat than criminal violence. The issue seems to come down to what you fear more: criminals or guns.” (Gutting) Coming into the problem of, who is right, and who is wrong? People believe that the ones who should be allowed to carry a gun be certified, but even the ones who are supposed to be “protecting” us from the criminals, are the ones shooting us for no reason. So, when we come down to think of where we can come together and think of a solution, that is where most of us fail to agree to disagree.

As case numbers go up from unjustified police shootings, to mass killings, it brings us to a difficult decision whether guns should be allowed at all or not. After the school shooting in Parkland, Florida, “House of Representatives held its first hearing on gun violence in eight years.” (Collins) Where it was thought to make it harder for people to purchase guns without well done background checks. “Senator Murphy believes the endless rejection of any gun legislation looks like a kind of “moral green light” to potential killers: “I truly believe these young men who have something very dark happening in their minds watch our silence and interpret it as an endorsement.” Meaning, if we keep these guns that is a way of lessening our crime rate for the next following years. People feel safe with guns but when will it be okay to own one without abusing your right to own one? We have heard these stories of people using their gun way too often it’s no surprise anymore.

Religion is an issue that ties to many problems emotionally. Not so long ago, our president, Donald Trump has brought attention to whether the government will continue to fund planned parenthood. Aside from planned parenthood being one of the top places specifically where young women go to have an abortion, they allow you to get a screening for any STI, plan B pills, birth control pills, and most importantly, where they get access to health care services. The biggest problem with why they do not want to keep funding is because of the abortion service. There has been discussion on “Pro-life or pro-choice.” Watson, author of Scarlet A: The Ethics, Law, and Politics of Ordinary Abortion states, “We should be able to acknowledge the complexity of private decision making, without threatening the right of private decision making.” Meaning, us as a community should find ways in which we can accept what is going on without having to do things like, defund because we are not happy with a decision. For example, in an article published in 1989, Lucy Killea, who was running for California State Senate, put in her campaign that she supports the right to abortion. Bishop Leo T. Maher later wrote her saying she could no longer receive communion. Looking at this example from years ago, and now seeing that Trump is defunding Planned Parenthood shows that throughout the years, nothing exactly changes. The people who agree with Trump, who in a study from Mary Rezac, showed that 47% of Catholics are pro-life, will continue to support his ideas but what about the other half? Where do they fall in this discussion? Abortion is up to the women, her body, her choice and if we cannot find a way to talk about how these issues are affecting us, the government will not fund what is helping these girls who get pregnant.

Another growing issue within religion is the number count of r**es within the Vatican. People see the church as a sacred place to go for a time of help or to praise our savior, Jesus Christ, but recently they have found the priests, the ones we should trust, have been r**ing the altar servers. Pope Francis took the issue into his own hands, and people were not satisfied with the outcome of his speech. Before he can even finish what was being said, the ones who were victims of such abuse were expressing their anger and failure to address the problem. This brings out attention to the issue that we in reality, need. Without people expressing how they feel, how will anyone know it needs to be done? Victims need to come together and express what happened to them so justice can be done. Anna Barrett Doyle states, “As the world’s Catholics cry out for concrete change, the pope instead provides tepid promises, all of which we’ve heard before.” This becomes an issue when trying to solve problems because as soon as we get the idea that something will happen and it doesn’t, that starts even bigger problems like riots and controversial articles. As a community we fail at trying to express our feelings towards an issue. When one encounters someone with the opposing view, we tend to find ourselves loss of words when they don’t agree with what we believe. If we do not get to the root of the problem, the problem will never be able to go away. Pope Francis believes he is making a change, but he is only making it more difficult for Roman Catholics to believe what is really going on within the church.

In result, we have found that one of our biggest issues as a nation is coming together and seeing our most troublesome issues embellish when we least expect. If we do not try to come together and resolve these problems, we will never see the end of racism, gun violence, or our biggest issues in religion. We are always going to be so caught up in our own point of view that no matter how we try to end the controversy, it will continue to grow right in front of our eyes. We need to be willing to agree to disagree to even begin to address these problems. Most of these issues correlate with one another, so if we begin to eliminate as time progresses, these issues shouldn’t be as big as a problem as they are today. We are in a time of need for help. We need to keep working together.

2019-2-25-1551077395

Historical design development and impacts of new and emerging technologies: college essay help online

The origins of 3D printing trace back further than you might expect. In 1860 the photo-sculpture method was explored by Francois Wilhelm when he captured an object in 3 dimensions using cameras surrounding the subject and in 1892 Blanther proposed a layering method of producing topographical maps. Fast forward to 1972 Mastubara of Mitsubishi motors proposed photo-hardened materials (photopolymers) to be used to produce layered parts.

The 3D printer came about in the 1980’s. In the early 1980’s, Dr. Hideo Kodama, a Japanese researcher first invented the innovative layer approach to stereolithography through using a single-beam ultraviolet light laser to set photosensitive polymers. This was used as a means for rapid prototyping. Unfortunately, Dr. Kodama didn’t fulfil the application for a full patent due to a funding issue. In 1984, a group of French researchers, Jean-Claude André, Alain le Méhauté and Olivier de Witte came together to file a patent for the stereolithography process. Witte realisation was that when 2 lasers cross each other, a monomer liquid can become a solid polymer, the basic principle of the 3D printer. However, the application for their patent was abandoned by their French technology company due to a lack of proper funding.

Later in 1984, Charles (Chuck) Hull filed his patent for the process. He patented it as a method of consecutive thinly printed layers using UV light which pointed at a vat filled with a liquid photopolymer. This method bonded one polymer to the next with the help of CAM/CAD software to guide the path until a desired 3D object was produced. Stereolithography was such revolutionary innovation as it allowed designers to create ideas using digital data programs that could be uploaded to the printer to produce a tangible object. Hull’s patent was granted in 1986. Following this success, Hull co-founded the world’s first 3D printing company, called 3D Systems, to further commercialise it. This process of stereolithography established the basis of all 3D printing we know today. In 1987, they released their first commercial product the SLA-1 and is now classified as a transformative impact in engineering and manufacturing. Fused deposition modelling (FDM) process, another type of 3D printing processes, was developed by Scott Crump in 1989. Crump then founded the company Stratasys also in 1989, which is a global leader in 3D printers and 3D printer systems. In 2009, the company’s FDM printing patent expired, which offered the market FDM 3D printers, usually referred to as fused filament fabrication (FFF) for companies other than Stratasys 3D printers and open to public domain. Another key development was the RepRap Project (Replicating Rapid Prototyper) established in 2004 by UK Adrian Bowyer who established an open source project aimed to build a 3D printer that can print most of its own components and then could share with people all around the world.

The new millennium saw several success stories using the 3D printer in exciting medical innovations such as the first working kidney in 2000, the first prosthetic limb in 2008, the first prosthetic jaw in 2012 and in 2014 it was used to help reconstruct the face of a motorcyclist after a serious road injury. Testing of bio materials for regenerative medicine using a patient’s cell allowing 3D printing of small body parts (like ears and noses) have also increased media attention.

In recent years 3D printing has been able to assist with disaster relief. US not for profit ‘Field Ready’, were able to print spare parts such as pipe fittings to help repair broken pipelines after the severe earthquake in Nepal in 2015. A Japanese 3D printed drone was designed for search and rescue missions for disaster hit areas. 3D printed houses have similarly been used in disaster relief situations and now also a possible option for low income housing. In 2014 in China, a giant cement 3D printer was used to print 10 houses in just one day.

In the field of fashion 3D printing has opened the possibilities to expand beyond the traditional boundaries of design, allowing fashion designer to turn challenging design concepts into reality. From traditional production methods designers are now able to 3D print their own garments as one such young textile designer Danit Peleg with the first fashion collection 3D printed at home in 2014.

While there have been many positive developments as cited above, the first 3D printed gun in 2013 by Cody Wilson and the uploading of the blueprint for same has posed many questions as to where this might end.

Factors affecting success

Despite the 3D printer having been in existence since the early 1980’s its commercial viability and success has really only gained momentum over the past decade or so. This can be attributed mostly to timing, IP, pricing and market demand. In 2013 Obama’s State of the Union address claimed that the 3D printer had “the potential to revolutionize the way we make almost everything”. Faced with the rise of China’s dominance in manufacturing, there has been increased pressure for countries to produce products more efficiently and cost effectively. Manufacturers have been forced to explore the possibilities offered by new technologies to try to maintain their competitive edge. For example, the U.S Government’s investment in NAMII (National Additive Manufacturing Innovation Institute) as an incubator for 3D printing technology and the commitment of companies such as General Electric, United Technologies Corporation, Hewlett-Packard, 3M, Boeing, Stratasys, MIT and 3D Systems in investing in innovations using 3D printing helped promote this success. A window of opportunity was also created with the lapsing of certain patents around 2009 and subsequently there was a decline in litigation cases coupled with licensing activity showing steady growth. Pricing was also a key factor. At first 3D printers were not only expensive to produce but were also expensive to purchase and run. 3D printer prices have dropped (about 90% since 2009), from over $10,000 to less than $1,000 and this has also created a larger reach in the market for a more consumer friendly 3D printer that was a cost- effective option. So not only did larger companies have access to this technology, but basis this new affordability, more entrepreneurs and people with an appetite for experimentation have had a chance to explore new applications of 3D printing across different platforms and given the market’s increased demand for customisation these factors have all worked to give the 3D printer the status it enjoys today.

Role of agencies

There have been many agencies which have played a significant role in the innovation of the 3D printer particularly given the potentially huge benefits 3D printing has on manufacturing. NASA (National American Space Agency) has developed The Zero G 3D printer which manufactured the first 3D printed object in space and was active in lodging patents since 2009. The US Government recognised the upside of this phenomenon and funded the establishment of National Additive Manufacturing Innovation Institute in 2012 (also referred to America Makes) which is an initiative to try and promote the application of 3D printer across different disciplines. Big industrials such as GE (General Electrics) with its new ‘Multi Modal” facility in India and its fuel nozzle and BAE (British Aerospace) utilising 3D printed metal parts in its fighter jets both are pushing the boundaries. Other smaller yet still significant players are Bureau Services such as Shapeways and iMaterialise which have offered companies access to a wider customer by being able to harness a central service with printers located around the world and within a few days able to receive their 3D printed part in the post. With regards to IP, one of the main legislative challenges about 3D printing is that its users are able to copy almost any object, with or without the authorization of those who hold rights to that object. This makes it hard to regulate and govern the legal rights and ownership to the copyrights or patents. 3D printing is challenging the government and patent agencies to transform the way in which they monitor and control issues of surrounding ownership as well as IP infringements.

Entrepreneurial activity

We need entrepreneurs in the world as it is their creative, innovative, daring and out of the box thinking that has been so vital to evolution of ideas. Entrepreneurial activity has been significant to 3D printer design taking it beyond the realm of its initial purpose for rapid prototyping. Entrepreneurial activity has assisted with the acceleration and dissemination of ideas and in this respect, there have been some truly unique and ground-breaking applications on both a local and an international scale having enormous impacts socially, economically and environmentally. Initially the 3D printer used plastic, but this has now expanded to include finished items made from ceramic, metal, resin, concrete, silver, gold, stainless steel, food and bio material. The breadth of ideas range from prosthetics, dental implants, internal organs, customisation of jewellery, cake decorations to being able to 3D print cars, houses and spare parts. For example, Adidas and Parley for the Oceans, an organisation dedicated to reducing plastic wastage in the ocean, have collaborated to create a 3D printed sneaker made from plastic recycled from the ocean. Without entrepreneurs pushing the boundaries, 3D printing would not have had the transformative impact on our world today.

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Mass shootings – changes needed to gun regulation

On April 20, 1999 a massacre took place at Columbine High School in Jefferson County Colorado. The two teen shooters Dylan Klebold and Eric Harris killed 13 people and wounded over 20 others. After, the two perpetrators turned the guns on themselves ending their own lives. At the time this was the worst high school shooting in US history. This event induced a governmental on school safety and gun control.

Following the shootings, a large amount of schools decreed zero tolerance policies. For those cases which regarded threatening behavior and violence on school grounds. This tragedy brought light to the importance of identifying risk factors for youth violence, as well as the need for the development and enactment of programs based on the early detection of these risk factors and prevention of school violence.

Researchers from the University of Northern Colorado have been examining the changes that schools have made since 1999 to prevent future incidents like Columbine. Surveys were sent out asking schools about mental health services and violence prevention programs before and after the event. The surveys showed the help after the shooting had increased by a large amount. A 20% increase in schools with crisis plans. 10% increase in group counseling. 9% of more schools had a crisis plan. 7% more schools offered social skills training. A larger number of schools not only increased their counseling but also school security. About 63% of schools had more advanced mechanism. 40% instilled stricter discipline. 17% started doing locker searches. 13% increased mental health providers.

Though this will make a big difference it’s not enough. Regardless of these changes many mental health professionals needed to be available in schools. Mainly to put together conflict resolution programs with students and parents. Sadly lack of funds were a major issue and the availability of people to help out. Thankfully many changes have been made in public high schools all over the US since the tragedy. Less is known about individual high schools across the states but as a whole safety has increased. Furthermore preventing youth violence is not only a responsibility of the school but also parents and students.

A large number of risk factors for the violence has been identified as history of aggression, history or mental illness, substance use, abusive childhood, bullying, depression, bad parenting, and violence in the media. Many places have been exposed to risk factors and early warning signs from the APA which expands on reasoning for the violence.

Not only have schools changed their ways of responding to situations like these but law enforcement as well. “Before the Columbine schooling no one knew what the term active shooter mean” (James Gagliano FBI) “Within 13 minutes of the first 911 call, Klebold and Harris fatally shot 12 students and a teacher and wounded 23 other people before killing themselves with gunshot wounds to the head. SWAT teams entered the school 47 minutes after the gunfire erupted. An exhaustive FBI review of the police response at Columbine led to more rapid response strategy during active shooter situations.” After this the responding officers learned they would have to set up a secure perimeter around the crime scene before moving on the suspect. “The tactic, known in law enforcement circles as rapid deployment involving the first officer at the scene, began in earnest after the Columbine shooting.” (CNN)

A fine training program has helped the enforcements lower the threat. “The lessons learned from Columbine led the US Justice Department and other federal agencies to partially fund an active shooter program known as Advanced Law Enforcement Rapid Response Training, or ALERRT, Schweit wrote.

The training, which was developed by the San Marcos, Texas, Police Department and the Hays County, Texas, Sheriff’s Department and adopted by Texas State University in San Marcos, includes a 16-hour course that “prepares first responders to isolate, distract and end the threat when an active shooter is engaged,” ( Schweit)

“Another key lesson of Columbine: We need to prepare students and teachers better for an emergency. The Columbine shooters caught their high school unprepared. We’re less naïve now. Most kids and their teachers are now drilled on lockdowns and evacuations. Police departments have up-to-date floor plans and alarm codes.”

“No one can say for sure why Klebold and Harris committed such a horrific crime. Many people have come up with theories including being picked on in school, violent video games , violent movies, music, racism , Goth, problematic parents, depression, and more.

It is hard to pinpoint one trigger that started these two boys on a murderous rampage. They worked hard to fool all those around them for over a year. Surprisingly, about a month before the event, the Klebold family took a four-day road trip to the University of Arizona, where Dylan had been accepted for the following year. During the trip, the Klebold’s didn’t notice anything strange or unusual about Dylan. Counselors and others also didn’t notice anything unusual.

Looking back, there were telltale hints and clues that something was seriously wrong. Videotapes, journals, guns, and bombs in their rooms would have been easily found if the parents had looked. Harris had made a website with hateful epithets that could have been followed up on.

The Columbine Massacre changed the way society looked at children and at schools. Violence was no longer just an after-school, inner-city occurrence. It could happen anywhere”.

Even though this tragic event struck the community in such an extensive way there is still no end to these tragedies. There have been more than a dozen more shootings and we still haven’t learned our lesson till this day we still have no gun control and no sense of urgency toward this matter examples such as

2007 Virginia Tech University, Blacksburg, Va. — 33 deaths
2012 Sandy Hook Elementary School, Newtown, Conn. — 27 deaths
2018 Marjory Stoneman Douglas High School, Parkland, Fla. — 17 deaths
2015 Umpqua Community College, Roseburg, Ore. — 10 deaths
2018 Santa Fe High School, Santa Fe, Tex. — 10 deaths
2005 Red Lake Senior High School, Red Lake, Minn. — 7 deaths
2012 Oikos University, Oakland, Calif. — 7 deaths
2006 West Nickel Mines School, Bart Township, Penn. — 6 deaths
2008 Northern Illinois University, Dekalb, Ill. — 6 deaths
2014 Marysville Pilchuck High School, Marysville, Wa. — 5 deaths

After columbine you would imagine that things couldn’t get worse. In the 19 years since Columbine rocked America to its core, the country has seen so many more mass shootings that the attack isn’t even among the 10 deadliest mass shootings in modern US history.

“Three of the five deadliest shootings have occurred in just the last year and a half. Let alone school shootings the lack of gun control has brought upon us”

The Harvest Music Festival: 58 killed
Pulse nightclub: 49 killed
First Baptist Church in Sutherland Springs: 26 killed
Luby’s Cafeteria: 23 killed

This list can go on and on. This is where I have issue with both the NRA and our Federal, State and Local Governments. The NRA has made too many concessions and given away too many freedoms in order to effect a compromise. They continue to do this. I feel there needs to be a Criminal Background Check, and a Medical History Background Check to confirm whether someone that is a danger to society or mentally ill or unstable are not able to purchase firearms. Meaning they have not been diagnosed with Paranoid Schizophrenia, or any other mental illness that requires drugs to maintain their “normal”. The problem seen in the states is first and foremost the culture around guns and gun ownership. What could be of some use to start to change that is tighter gun restrictions on who can own a gun and who can buy ammo etc. Some say that it’s easy to get a gun illegally which is true BUT most mass shootings seem to happen when a unstable person has easy access to guns. That is the major problem. I am not in support of banning guns necessarily but there is something to be said for countries that have. The statistics show where there are tighter restrictions on guns such as Canada and the UK there are less shootings and gun crimes in general. So my conclusion in not to ban all guns, or to make harsher punishments for people that commit gun crimes in order to deter future criminals; My point is mainly to say the government and other agencies need to help change the culture around guns and make it harder for people to get guns, especially automatic rifles and pistols. If everyone has guns there will be more gun violence not the other way. The logic behind the saying “the only thing that will stop a bad man with a gun is a good man with a gun” is simply not correct. This could be argued all day but I want to end on that note. The culture needs to change. Change has to be made in order to make progress we have to do better with who we let bear these weapons.

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Gun Control – The Unforeseen Dangers of Unchecked Firearms

To say that guns are dangerous and need to be controlled is putting our situation mildly. Every year, 36,000 Americans die from guns, that is nearly 100 people killed every day (America’s Background Check 2019). The American situation is dire, with the need for reform on gun control increasing everyday. School shootings, gun related homicides, and gun related suicides can all be reduced or avoided with the help of more complex legislation. The second amendment needs to be amended as militias are not relevant anymore, and therefore, making it constitutional to pass advanced legislation to have more comprehensive background checks and restrict the American public from buying assault rifles.

Gun control has been an incredibly controversial topic for years, with many affected from gun violence every year and the need to be protected in one’s own home, many have clashing opinions. These opposing viewpoints have created many organizations that are for and against gun control. These organizations include the Brady Campaign which fights for more comprehensive background and checks and the National Rifle Association which want to keep the second amendment the way it is. These values have spawned many arguments about the pros and cons of guns, and if they need to be taken away from the hands of civilians. As stated earlier, many people are affected by gun violence, with mass shootings becoming one of the ultimate causes of fear. On December 14th, 2012, A shooter opened fire inside Sandy Hook elementary school. Adam Lanza, the shooter, fatally shot 20 children and adults. The police investigated what could have caused this to happen, as it turned out, Lanza had several mental health issues (Sandy Hook Elementary 2012). He also had access to these deadly weapons and mixed with his mental health, he become disturbed enough to become a shooter. Gun control activists say that this is why we need to restrict the sales of guns, meanwhile, pro gun activists say that this is why we need more guns to protect people from shooters.

The second amendment is a vastly outdated part of our constitution, as it merely states, “A well regulated Militia, being necessary to the security of a free State…”. In 1791, when this amendment became part of the Bill of Rights, there was no guaranteed safety by federal officials. People were forced to protect themselves from foreign and local threats. Yet, we now have organized police forces and a very powerful military, ensuring our safety from many perils. However, most militias do provide a sense of security for some local neighborhoods and families. Many patrol the Mexico-America border, stopping illegal immigrants from crossing (Bauer 2016). Yet, since militias are made up of private citizens, the government does not sanction their actions or beliefs. In fact, many of these groups are anti-government. A powerful and influential militia organization the Three Percenters warned, “all politics in this country now is just dress rehearsal for civil war” (Nuckols 2013). Such a rhetoric has been embraced by many other Militias, with many calling for training against government threats. These militias are afraid that the American government will/have been invaded by foreigners and will force them to give away all of their firearms. It is argued that the second amendment was created to keep the government from becoming tyrannical and dangerous. Although such an argument is very hard to make, considering the United States military is much more advanced and better equipped. Some of these militias have more discreet goals, such as instilling fear in the hearts and minds of immigrants. For example, three Kansas militia men were convicted of plotting to bomb a mosque and the homes of Somali immigrants. Luckily, they were thwarted by another member of their group who ended up telling authorities about the planned attack (Kansas militia men 2019). These groups do keep some people feeling safe and protected, yet, they instill fear in those who do, in fact, believe that these groups are legitimate in their goals and claims.

Complex legislature and revision to the second amendment would prove to keep Americans much safer than they already are. Among these emendations would be more complex and universal background checks. As stated by the Brady Campaign, “97% of Americans support an expanded background check system” (America’s Background Check 2019). A major error in our background check system is the private sale gap loophole. Private sellers do not need to use background checks, in fact, 1 in 5 guns are sold by private sellers, avoiding background checks completely (America’s Background Check 2019). Such a loophole can put american in serious danger, and closing this loophole would be welcomed by the majority of America. Currently, the Brady Campaign is fighting to keep Americans safe, but is met with resistance from groups such as the National Rifle Association (NRA).

Assault rifles in the hands of untrained, unprepared civilians is a fatal mistake for America. Assault rifles are fun to shoot for some, yet, many of the same guns are used by the United States military (Cook, Goss 2014). Such powerful weapons must be kept away from the untrained hands of the American public. Assault rifles, used by the military, are created to inflict the most amount of casualties the fastest. While many are not automatic and only fire one bullet every time the trigger is pulled, they are still incredibly dangerous (The Gun Control Debate 2019). Compared to various pistols and handguns, these assault rifles have much more power and many have additions, such as silencers, that can be added onto them. Such weapons include the AR15, a deadly variation of the military’s M16. The M16 is a common gun used by the United States government, meanwhile the AR15 is the civilian version. This gun is a semi-automatic weapon, however, it is legal to add a “bump stock”, effectively turning a semi-automatic weapon into an automatic assault rifle. In fact, in 1994 president Bill Clinton signed an assault rifle ban, which prohibited guns such as the AR15. In the following years, the amount of mass shootings did drop, however, they did not end (Myre 2018). Unfortunately, the ban expired in 2004, allowing the American public to buy these weapons of mass destruction again.

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The ‘International’, the ‘Global’ and the ‘Planetary’: essay help free

What are the key differences between the ‘International’, the ‘Global’ and the ‘Planetary’? Why are these important?

Introduction

The “International”, the “Global”, and the “Planetary” represent the stages of evolution of the discipline of International Relations, which was shaped by theories diverging on “the relationship between agency, process, and social structure” (Wendt, 1992, p422). This essay will attempt to identify, critique and reflect upon the most fundamental differences between the three. I identified their key differences to be: the conceptualisations of the international arena, types of politics, driving motivation behind their politics, types of actors, quality of dynamics, identities and interests, and security. In the subsequent sections, I will critically expose each of these concepts in the framework of the “International”, the “Global”, and the “Planetary”, and speculate on their relevance.

The International Paradigm

The discipline of International Relations, also known as IR, has always been divided by many theories on how to theorise the world, and whether or not elements such as history, philosophy, morals and politics played a significant role in it. The many theories which scatter across IR give to the aforementioned elements different grounds of importance, or no importance at all. In the realm of the discipline of IR, Realism is the Queen theory. The other approaches mostly had the merit of adding elements which the discipline acquired and assimilated through its evolution over the centuries. Nonetheless, the school of thought of Realism is the theory which provided the discipline with its foundation, structure and precise conceptualisation of the actors who rule the discipline of International Relations.

Realism states that the ground stage on which the international actors interact is within a timeless sphere of anarchy, in which States base their relations on Realpolitik, power politics. As a result, the quality of the elapsing exchanges is permeated by overbearingness and selfishness, prevarication of interests of the “stronger” State upon the “weaker” State, distrust, disloyalty, and so on. IR, according to Realism, conceptualises the international arena within Realpolitik, which means applying the original concept of Realpolitik to the international system. Realpolitik is a concept which was coined in Germany in the Nineteenth Century to indicate the pursuit of pragmatic politics, without taking much into account morals and ethics when making a policy decision. Applying the concept of Realpolitik to the international arena meant conceptualising an international system of relations which is more concerned with the pursuit of pragmatic objectives, of selfish politics which would benefit the single State who is pursuing it, rather than the international system. Therefore, the quality of the exchanges happening between States, in turn, did not offer fertile soil for the establishment of international cooperation between States or leagues of States.

It is an international system founded on, and functioning through, power politics. Because of the assumption that Anarchy governs the international system, the only possible actor who is strong enough to survive and interact with the system to pursue and defend its interests, is the State. Therefore, there is only space for State-based politics and the conception of the “International” is an inter-State system exclusively. This is the State-based paradigm of International Relations, and, as the only actors in the international system, they are depicted as rational and autonomous, acting in a static, and consequences-less anarchy. States come into the international arena already equipped with an identity and a set of interests. Therefore, a conception of pre-made identities and interests characterises the international arena, and the only objective of their interactions is power, to gain more and to protect what amount of power one has.

The Origins of The Discipline

To genuinely comprehend the discipline of IR and its mission, one must dive into its origins and subsequent evolution. Different philosophical beliefs and paradigms oppositely approached international relations through conceptualisations of study, politics, dynamics and instruments. IR finds its roots in historical, theoretical, philosophical, political frameworks which, once combined, coined the discipline, whose development culminated with its sudden fall after the end of the Cold War.

To further explain the historical, theoretical, philosophical, political origins of my previous statement I will refer to the work of International Relations scholar, Martin Wight, who was a professor at the London School of Economics.

Wight started studying International Relations when the discipline was gaining momentum and celebrity status in the United States in the 1950s, under the denomination of “A Theory of International Relations”. The scientific or behaviourist movement of the United States developed the belief that if you were to study behaviours attentively enough, one could explain the events that have intersected the faiths of countries in the past, present, and even predict future political intersections between States. This belief gave birth to Modern International Relations, as a rejection of “old” Realist views on the matters of International Politics. Therefore, this wave of Neo-Realism tried to move past the “obsolete methodology of existing general works about International Relations, especially those of Realist writers such as E. H. Carr, George F. Kennan and Hans Morgenthau, which formed the staple academic diet of the time” (Bull, 1976, p 103).

It is imperative to take in mind the element of history if one wants to genuinely understand why the theory of Neo-Realism, which undoubtedly represents an oversimplified framework of the exchanges between States, gained such relevance. This view on International Relations was developed right after the end of World War II, in a post-war world that had lost many things to a conflict which many, if not most, deemed useless, and, above all, evitable. Even the mere idea of a discipline which could avoid the repeating of such events, through the detailed analysis of everyday political events and politicians national and international behaviours, was sufficient justification or motivation for a world that had starved many years for hope.

Wight argued that “it is no accident that international relations have never been the subject of any great theoretical work, that there is “a kind of disharmony between international theory and diplomatic practice, a kind of recalcitrance of international politics to being theorised about” (Bull, 1976, p 114). Therefore, in an effort to alleviate this disharmony, he developed his vision to contribute to the debate, and he based it on the commingling of history, philosophy, morals, and politics. Wight “saw the Theory of International Relations […] as a study in political philosophy or political speculation pursued by way of an examination of the main traditions of thought about International Relations in the past” (Bull, 1976, p 103).

He initially decided to divide it into three main categories, each one representing a great thinker of the past. Later on, he identified a possible fourth category, the Inverted Revolutionists, based on a pacifist current inspired by Christianism, Leo Tolstoy and Mahatma Gandhi.

The three main categories are the Machiavellians, from Niccolò Machiavelli’s ideals; Grotians, from Hugo Grotius’s; and the Kantians’, from the work of Immanuel Kant. Each one of them ideated their interpretations on the conception of human nature, the critical units of analysis of the international system, its dynamics and instruments, and the definition of political space and its characteristics.

Machiavelli theorised that the human nature is only driven by self-interest and permeated with greediness. He identified that the critical unit of analysis for understanding the international arena is the recognition of its state of anarchy, which is dominated by dynamics of warfare, power, security and gathering of resources. The political space, exactly like the human nature, is filled only with self-interest and no morality. Machiavelli provided the base on which Realist theories laid their foundations.

Grotius, unlike Machiavelli and the subsequent most fervent Realists, considers the human a rational being who operates within the State, which subsequently engages in international relations in an international system which, like men, runs on rationality. Everything about Grotius’s theory is permeated with rationality, and the quality of the dynamics of the international arena is a reflection of such. Indeed, he believed that the dynamics of the international arena are ruled by diplomacy, negotiations, institutions and norms because the political space is dominated by institutions and by order. Grotius represents moderation and the voice of reason for the successful establishment of an international system based on rationality and cooperation, not on violence and distrust like the system painted by Machiavelli in his most famous works, The Prince and Discourses in the First Decade of Titus Livy. Grotius speculates on the doctrine of an international system based on a society of states working together towards common goals, he dreams of an international society, in direct opposition with the sharp, realist concept of national societies above all. It is “the idea […] that international politics is not just a matter of relations between states, but also a matter of so-called “transnational” relations among the individuals and groups that states compose” (Bull, 1976, p112).

Kant theories that the human nature is good, peaceful, a supporter of solidarity and cooperation. He believed in a global community and in an ideal man who would contribute to its flourishment. The dynamics revolve around policies for cooperation, international trade and exchange, and they would eventually enable the development of a political space represented by a cosmopolitan society. In one of his works, “Perpetual Peace: A Philosophical Sketch”, he goes as far as developing a plan for governments of the world to follow to establish peace for the world, because peace has to come above all. He dreams of a political space which is characterised by the emancipation from State and by an international confederation and the disruption of geographical boundaries.

Moreover, Wight believed that “the truth about international politics had to be sought not in any one of these patterns of thought but in the debate among them” (Bull, 1976, p 110). Machiavelli’s theory is also most notoriously known as Realism. Grotius represents Rationalism, and Kant is Revolutionism, and each one is a founding brick of the discipline of International Relations. Each theory went through transformative changes over the decades. For example, Machiavelli’s Realism turned into Neo-Realism in the 1970s and 1980s and turned into Modernist or Positivist in the 1990s. Grotius’s Rationalism found a new key of interpretation in the English School, between the 1940s and 1960s. Kant’s Revolutionism went from Idealism in the 1920s – 1930s to Neo-Liberalism and Neo-Institutionalism in 1970s and 1980s .

The State-Based Approach to Security

I end this excursus on the origins of the discipline of international relations here, and I catch this occasion to list another key aspect which sets the International paradigm apart from the global and the planetary. And it is its State-based approach to security, which meant that only the State was in charge of taking the necessary measurements aimed at safety, preservation and survival of a country. This implied a severe limit at the protection of one’s nation because “weak” nations did not possess a force of power tantamount to the one of a “strong” country. Therefore, a “weak” state was in the thrall of the anarchic international system, and if a nation wanted to exercise its power to gain more resources, it could attack it, without an international community which would defend it or even dissuade a predator country from invading it.

Methodological Nationalism

The theory of Methodological Nationalism offered a base to understand and organise the life and cycles of IR. It provided the discipline with a source of legitimacy. “Methodological Nationalism […] equates societies with nation-state societies, and sees states and their governments as the cornerstones of social-scientific analysis. It assumes that humanity is naturally divided into a limited number of nations, which internally organise themselves as nation-states and externally set boundaries to distinguish themselves from other nation-states” (Beck, 2003, p 453). It’s the perfect theory to justify the Realist approach to IR. It combined realist accents with the belief that there is only one-world World, everything else merely points at other ways to look at the same one-world world. Methodological nationalism is founded on six core beliefs: a plurality of Societies; Societies are subordinated to the Nation-State; States run on territorial “State-constructed” boundaries (Beck, 2003, p454); State and Society both determinate themselves through a circular belief: the nation is creator and protector of Society’s plethora of rights, and the individuals of the Society organize themselves in movements to influence the actions of the Nation-State, which, in turn, also legitimises the State again; “both States and Societies are located within the dichotomy of national and international” (Beck, 2003, p454); the state is the provider of social order and provides the scholars of multiple disciplines with the data about the country necessary to them. (Beck, 2003). Moreover, the core elements of this theory engage in constant activities which result in continuous determination and further legitimisation of one and the other, without leaving any room for the introduction of new elements.

The Decline of legitimacy of the Discipline

The international paradigm of the discipline experienced a major setback after the end of the Cold War, which left everyone baffled. Also, it left everyone unprepared for the events which followed it. The discipline of IR lost credibility as a predictor of events because all of the academics and IR contemporary theorists indeed failed at predicting one of the most history-shaping events of last century. Moreover, even the assumptions of State-based politics faltered, especially after the terrorist attack on the Twin Towers of September 11th, 2001. The discipline was built upon the framework of conceiving the world from the point of view of a State, indeed a State-based approach, preferably a white, Western one.

The end of the Cold War put into question the sounding of the reasoning behind the discipline, and the terrorist attack struck the final hit. It forced scholars, and politicians alike, to recognise the existence of worlds beyond the “Western World”. I am not here to speculate on whether or not the terrorist attack would have happened if the united states had not imposed their ways in the Middle East for years on end. But I am here to point out that the terrorist attack lifted the veil and it made it impossible for the discipline to ever go back to its original frameworks.

I believe that, at this Realist stage, the discipline used to run on such limited territorial lines that its failure had always been around the corner. Proof of this is that it only took a major event such as the abrupt end of the Cold War for it to crumble and for the scholars to put its frameworks into question altogether. Nonetheless, I do believe that the ultimate cause for the failure of the discipline has to be found on the terrorist attack, which slashed the core beliefs of many, terrorised an entire world, and scarred a whole generation forever. The fear that came afterwards paralysed the world for a moment. Somehow, the introduction of an undefinable enemy turned the discipline of IR on its head. State-based politics, as flawed as they were, were easily graspable and easily manageable: they played alongside the rules of an accepted framework. But 9/11? What was that? Under what category would it fall in the limited structures “allowed” by the discipline? A terrorist attack from an undefinable actor was inconceivable; it did not fit even in the corner of the discipline. The discipline was lacking something. The discipline was wrong.

A Critique of IR, and The Rise of the Global

Eventually, what were the core beliefs of the discipline of International Relations, turned out to be their very own self-limiting beliefs which did not allow the discipline to evolve with time into a comprehensive and complete discipline which provides an adequate understanding of the world and the exchanges which elapse within it.

“The fact that worlds of power politics are socially constructed […] does not guarantee they are malleable”, which is one of the flaws which contributed to the fall of IR, and “through practice agents are continuously producing and reproducing (the same) identities and interests. (Wendt, 1992, p411).

It’s a discipline based on seeing, experiences and conceptualising the world from a State-based only perspective, which results into the provision of a partial and meagre framework of understanding of the exchanges occurring in the world. It is a very limited perspective which lent a voice only to the white, Western Elite.

At the break of the new century, people started looking for other outlooks to replace entirely the failure that the “International” represented. In this time of international (relations) crisis, talks about what will come to be known as the ‘Global’ sprung everywhere. They will bring into the conversation a mixture of concepts which classical IR theories did not cover: Constructivism, gender issues, the need for Morals, Critical Discourses, Post-colonialism, and subsequently, the rise of the Anthropocene.

The Main Paradigms of the “Global”: Social Constructivism and Critical Thinking

“The cosmopolitan perspective dismisses the either-or principle of realism: either the State exists, albeit only as an essential core, or it does not exist at all; either there is national sovereignty – a zero-sum game between national and international competence – or there is no sovereignty at all. From a cosmopolitan perspective, “Realism” is a kind of political irrealism because it neglects the possibility and reality of a second “Great Transformation” of the global power game” (Beck, 2003, p457).

These words from Ulrich Beck, one of the most significant theorists of the Global, summarise the stark contraposition between the “International” and the “Global”. In the 1990s, debates about the Global came in to dismantle the limiting beliefs at the core of the discipline, which flawed for its lack of inclusiveness and overbearingness. The arrival of the global represented the fall of the exclusive domain of binary Left and Right politics as well.

The opening of the discipline of IR to a Global Era brings a new opportunity to engage with the world from a non-State-based position, through the development of many, pluriversal approaches: Constructivist, Critical and Cosmopolitan approaches. The Global Era represents a commingling of these new approaches, and the final result portrays how “the cosmopolitan perspective opens up negotiation spaces and strategies which the national viewpoint precludes. […] The negotiation space the cosmopolitan viewpoint opens up contradicts the absence of alternatives.” (Beck,2003, p466).

They introduce new ways of seeing and thinking about politics, global interests, and global concerns. The Global aims at creating a universal vision to build a liberal and global community, in which the States are not the centre of IR speculation anymore. The international arena is also positively shaken up by the appearance of new international actors which are not states: it’s the rise of the global civil society and Non-Governmental Agencies (Kaldor, 2003). Moreover, through the development of new international dynamics, Nation-States become the product, not the subjects, of the international arena (Jackson, 1990; Krasner, 1999).

Two paradigms of thought especially shaped this evolutionary period of IR: the social constructive/liberal and the critical/deconstructive.

The maintenance of the inter-State system, alongside the rise in popularity of theories of Global sovereignty, characterise the new international order. The emergence of the Global requires a new understanding of the mechanisms of the international arena because “It is the collective meanings that constitute the structures which organise our actions” (Wendt, 1992, p397). Therefore, with the evolutionary passage towards a new stage of the discipline of IR, scholars and citizens alike require a new framework of concepts. Social Constructivism achieves just that by providing a sociological understanding of interactions which challenge previous IR thinking. Alexander Wendt, a leading Constructivist theorist, explains how Constructivists believe that the international system and its frameworks are socials constructs, not beliefs that should be taken as “a given” (Wendt, 1992). Therefore, the significance of everything regarding IR comes “out of interaction” (Wendt, 1992, p403). According to Realism, States come into the international arena already equipped with an identity and a set of interests. Alexander Wendt, in direct opposition to Realism, speculates on “how knowledgeable practices constitute subjects”, and how Constructivism can contribute to “identity and interest formation” (Wendt, 1992, p394). They elaborate on the idea that the creation of an identity and set of interests happen through the elapsing exchanges between States in the international arena. “Actors acquire identities by participating in such collective meanings” (Wendt, 1992, p397). Therefore, actors do not enter the international arena with pre-formed identities, but they create one during their contacts with other states. And the same goes for their interests, which are formed while experiences these exchanges. Different exchanges will show how countries can have a variegated set of interests, depending on the circumstances (Wendt, 1992). Therefore, identities and interests are not a given, and their establishment happens during the socialisation process.

The paradigm of the Critical thinking supported the rise of the global because it opened the door for the emancipation of security from the state-based approach. (Booth, 1991). Critical theorists, alongside Constructivists, discuss the treatment of human security and how the obstacles to human security are constructed. The particular interests of States are a barrier to a universalist liberal approach to global rights and justice. Instead, supporters of Foucauldian critics see the rise of the global as a negative shift. The pursuit of global liberal “governmentality” and “biopolitics” are a negative aspiration for the security of States, which will end up having to rely on the international community. “The undermining of the politics of state-based representation and the globalisation of regulatory power has become the starting assumption for the postructuralist “scaling up” of Foucault in critiques of global governmentality” (Chandler, 2009, p536). Lemke (2001) shows how Foucault used concepts regarding governmentality in a way closer to realism than constructivism, which indicates a critique of the doctrine and its “obsession” with subjectification.

Another fundamental difference of the Global, in opposition with the International, is highlighted attention on Morals and Ethics, which have to have a more profound impact on the decisions of the Nation-State. Indeed, the rise of humanitarian aid actions and acts of global cooperation are proof of that. The global perspective introduces a new critical theory of social inequalities which shines a light on the need to provide aid to nations, minorities or whoever is in considerable need (Beck, 2003). Beck (2003) critics how the original IR used methodological nationalism to remove from its agenda the tackling of global inequalities. “Thus, the bigger blind spots – and sources of error- of methodological nationalism linked to research on inequality will only be recognisable by means of a systemic switch from the national to the cosmopolitan perspective. It is only within the framework of such a new critical theory of social inequality that the fundamental asymmetry of inequality perception […] can be unravelled” (Beck, 2003, p459). Nonetheless, he highlights also how the shift to a global perspective is still not enough to put a real fight against inequalities. Until “there is no global jurisdiction and reporting institution to survey global inequalities, these will remain disintegrated into a motley pattern of national-state inequalities” (Beck, 2003, p461).

International cooperation also brings a Decentring of State-based approaches to security, which in turn, produces more equilibrium and guarantees more safety to “weak” nations. The global brings about the creation of a “cooperative security system, in which states identify positively with one another so that the security of each is perceived as the responsibility of all” (Wendt, 1992, p400).

A Critique of Methodological Nationalism

Globalisation theorists deeply criticise Methodological Nationalism, a stream of thought which profoundly shaped the direction of the original discipline of IR, through the definition of its narrow frameworks. Ulrich Beck, one of the most famous theorists of the cosmopolitan approach, offers a brilliant critique of it. Methodological nationalism only manages to produce a continuous cycle of self-limiting beliefs which do not allow room for adaptation to new contemporary challenges. It is tiring and continuous contraposition between them or us, north or south, weak or strong. Its concepts are not appropriate anymore in the rise of the global age. He calls for a “paradigmatic reconstruction and redefinition of social science from a national to a cosmopolitan perspective [which] can be understood as […] a broadening of horizons for social science research” (Beck, 2003, p456). “Social science must be re-established as a transnational science of the reality of denationalisation, transnationalisation, and “re-ethnification” in a global age – and this is on the levels of concepts. Theories, and methodologies as well as organizationally. This entails a re-examination of the fundamental concepts of “modern society” (Beck, 2003, p458).

The cosmopolitan age requires a redefinition of the understanding of sovereignty in both the national and international context (Beck, 2003). Therefore, he states that “traditional conceptualisations of terms and the construction of borders between the “national” and the “international”, domestic and foreign politics, or Society and the State are less and less appropriate to tackling the challenges linked to the global age” (Beck, 2003, p456). Therefore, the main focus on the debate of globalisation has to be “on gaining a new cosmopolitan perspective on the global power field, pushing new actors and actors’ networks, power potentials, strategies. And forms of organisation of debonded politics into the field of vision” (Beck, 2003, p 467). Nonetheless, Beck (2003), stresses the importance of not mistaking the critique of this theory for the end of the nation-state theory: nation-state will always exist or will evolve into a new concept close to a possible transnational states theory.

The new Era of Planetary Politics of the Anthropocene

From the 2010s, discussions about a new concept called Anthropocene replaced the Global, which had declined in popularity because the translation of the global theories into reality did not appear to focus on achieving global forms of liberal governments anymore, nor did its original aim seemed to carry a positive connotation anymore. Furthermore, “the lack of strategic engagement […] (was) fundamental to the appeal of the Global Ideology” (Chandler, 2009, p540). Therefore, the rise of depreciative theories of the global made the world of scholars look for another direction. The crisis of the global did not produce a return to the past of IR, but rather a perspective of the problematics of IR.

The rise of the Anthropocene is strictly connected with the development of theories on pluriversalism, multiple universes. Blaney and Tickner (2017) discuss how an ontological turn of IR could exorcise “singular world logics introduced by colonial modernity” and allow the discipline to interact with the conception of pluriversalism. By studying on various sources, they develop “the potentials of a politics of ontology for unmaking the colonial universe, cultivating the pluriverse, and crafting a de-colonial science.” (Blaney and Tickner, 2017, p293). They suggest the presence of alternative world realities, which could produce “multiple and hybrid “reals”” (Blaney and Tickner, 2017, p295).

Both Global and Planetary do not see the world in terms of State-based theories of strategy and interests. Therefore, there is no intern-national theory. The predominant discussions of these two theories are about the how we understand and see the world beyond the strict assumptions of the discipline of IR.

Bruno Latour (1993) goes as far as to say that the modern society is stuck in “great divides”, mainly in the frameworks of nature/culture, human/non-human, facts/values, mind/body. These separations allow Western society “to claim to represent a singular reality in a unified science untainted by political interest, power or culture. […] Nature and culture are not discrete categories but intertwined in a multiplicity of hybrid assemblages […] modernity’s particular mode of representing reality is not universally shared. […] many communities do not sharply distinguish humans and other entities, so that animals, plants, and spirits are as much “people” (with consciousness, culture and language) as “we” are” (Blaney and Ticker, 2017, p296). The western societies start paying attention the profoundly original ways of seeing the world, which come from cultures that they had ignored. From them they take new eyes to look at the world: they discern how human activities never separated themselves from the earth’s ecosystem. It is the explosion of a real global conscience with the birth a planetary community, who is aware of the environment and the consequences of humanity’s actions on the planet. This also brought the awareness of agencies that had always been ignored by western society in the international arena: the equal presence of Human and non-human actors; nature declined in many agencies: water, air, etc., and cosmos.

The Planetary is aware that humankind with its actions has changed the planet we live in: the ecosystem, flora and fauna. And the planetary politics have started addressing these problems and, thanks to the rise of a planetary sense of community, governments of many countries have started doing something about it.

The era of the Anthropocene in IR is still relatively new; therefore, there is not as much debate about is as there has been for the International and the Global, but it is visible how planetary seems to have taken away the biggest concern of original IR, which is the gain of power. The race for power which has theorised the first conception of the discipline has come very close to destroying our world and the most recent “update” on IR now works on how to “fix” the unfixable. Planetary politics can be regarded as the least optimistic era of our history, and the only stream of thought which has offered a possible way to save our planet comes from the cultures the western society had tried to crash and integrate within it for centuries.

Conclusion

I will conclude by stating that identifying the key differences between the international, global and planetary is crucial because they show the development of the frameworks within which humankind moved and evolved, over the centuries, the conflicts and the scientific developments. Therefore, these differences provide the world with a reflection of the changing times and the world’s rejection of a one-world World, hegemony and lack of representation of multiple identities, interests, and beliefs. We have only recently entered the phase of planetary politics, although 8 years in IR provide a discreet amount of material; therefore, it is too soon to speculate on whether or not the attempts operated by the Anthropocene of preserving our planet will be fruitful, but it is definitely an improvement from the “International” paradigm of IR.

Bibliography

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2018-4-12-1523522615

Organisational Behaviour: An Analysis Of A Team-Based Approach To Working In The Case Of Phil Jones

Abstract

The aim of this essay is to discuss at length and critically evaluate group and team development and behavioural theories in practice, with reference to the case study concerning Phil Jones and his Gulf Project Team, within Engineering Co, evaluating if a team based approach to work is effective within organisations. It firstly establishes to what extent Phil Jones’ analysis of his group’s current situation is accurate, referring Tuckman and Jensen’s stages of group development in evaluating this. Then it discusses the possible interventions that could be made by Phil to allow his team to get back on track, and reach the performing stage of team development. It is then noted that a possible intervention that could assist the team in reaching this stage is to become a virtual team. The potential issues facing virtual teams are then evaluated, and are contrasted with the issues faced by Phil Jones’ team, with possible solutions offered to issues facing such virtual teams and virtual team leaders, allowing them to reach the performing stage. Finally this essay critically analyses the strengths and weaknesses of a team-based approach to work as a whole, drawing from Phils Jones’ case, a range of literature, and anecdotal experience to conclude that the use of a team-based approach to work can be an effective way of working, through the use of strong e-leadership skills and technology to manage teams virtually.

Introduction

In contemporary society a team-based approach to working is becoming evermore common (Callanhan, 2004), and has become prominent among project teams in the engineering industry (Schaffer et al, 2012). Hence it is unsurprising that a project team; a group of individuals whom come together for an individual task, disbanding after its conclusion (Poel, Stoker and Van der Zee, 2014), is used in Phil Jones’ case for the Gulf Project within Engineering Co. Despite the high popularity of a team-based approach to project work, it is debatable if such approaches are the most efficient way of working, due to the myriad of issues which can arise amongst a team due to poor leadership, leading to them struggling to perform. However when teams succeed the benefits of a team-based approach to project work are reaped (Terry, 1999). Hence through an analysis of group and team development, discussion of interventions made to aid team development, and an evaluation of the strengths and weaknesses of a team-based approach, with reference to Phil Jones’ case, it can be established if a team-based approach to project work is effective within organisations in modern society.

Tuckman and Jensen’s Stages of Group Development in the Case of Phil Jones

Initially Phil Jones lacked the training to deal with people issues amongst the group and lead his team. Initially it must be noted that teams and groups are defined differently. A group consists of a number of individuals all of whom accomplish their tasks independently, which have a similar purpose (Gilley and Kerno Jr, 2010). Smith (1967) also gives the description of a group saying that it is two or more individuals who collaborate, share common objectives and norms and have a communal identity. Although different researchers, both give a similar description of a group in that individuals still have common goals. The definition of a team is very similar to a group, however; a group may not be a team but a team may be a group. Hence these terms cannot be used interchangeably. Baldwin et al (2008) defined a team as a group of individuals who have a great amount intercommunication and interdependence, sharing equal responsibility in their appointed objective. The clear difference between a group and a team is therefore the higher level of interdependence and equal responsibility a team has in achieving their objective.

To remedy his teams’ issues, to make them stop working as a group and start working as a team, Phil read about the stages of group development (Tuckman 1965). Tuckman and Jensen (1977), defined five group development stages, the initial two of which are; forming (Tuckman 1965); when team members get to know each other; unlikely to disagree with their teammates to avoid conflict at an early stage, and storming; defined by Bonebright (2009), as involving disagreements; with frictions in the group as the individual roles and tasks of team members can be unclear, leading to work moving slower than anticipated and team tensions. Phil concluded his group was stuck at the storming stage, and struggled to see how to resolve conflict and reach stages three, four and five defined by Tuckman and Jensen (1977) as; norming; where group members understand their roles and goals, feeling belonging among the team; storming; where the group works effectively as one, building on each others strengths and weaknesses, and finally adjourning; where the group completes their project, evaluates and disbands.

Using Tuckman and Jensen’s 1977 stages of group development conclusively Phil’s diagnosis of the situation is correct, as there are similarities between the storming stage of group development and Phil’s teams position. The case study exemplifies the transition of the team from the forming stage to the storming stage. Phil generated competition within the team, as in his opinion a team needs disagreements to achieve creative innovative ideas. Phil’s point of view is that teams need some debate, as this is what happens among teams in the storming stage, in order to reach the norming stage. Instead of this, the team ended up with more issues than accomplishments, getting stuck in the storming stage, resulting in Phil having to deal with more disputes between team members than project developments. This is common; according to Gersick (1988) many teams end up being stuck in the storming stage, never moving onto the performing stage due to poor management of disputes by leaders like Phil. Hence the project is falling behind due to the lack of clarity of instruction regarding team members roles from Phil as a leader, leading to multiple members completing the same work, resulting in a waste of capital and time. Fapohunda (2013) claims clarity is one of the main elements that concerns team members at storming stage, stating it is often the cause of all disputes regarding roles within in the team. This suggests that due to poor leadership from Phil through misguided attempts to bring the group together through conflict, to gain a sense of belonging as found in the norming stage, interventions are needed to overcome mistakes made by Phil to get out of the storming stage.

Hackman’s Team Leadership Mistakes In the Case Of Phil Jones

Hackman’s work (1998) is used to show the common mistakes made with teams, all of which are a common feature in the Gulf Project Team at Engineering Co. One of the obvious mistakes defined by Hackman (1998) and displayed by Phil Jones is attempting to build a team by managing them as individuals, encouraging members to lack communication with each other, hampering the norming stages characteristic of team spirit. In Phil’s team this is difficult to avoid, as the physical distance of the members placed in different locations hampers any attempt from Phil to motivate members not only communicate with him; the only member to have physically met everyone, but to communicate with each other to gain a sense of team belonging. This leads to another mistake featured in Hackman’s 1998 work, exemplified by The Gulf Project Team; a lack of agreement regarding roles, authority, and boundaries for all team members. This issue is also difficult to avoid within Phil’s team, as it is harder for the team to agree on limitations, delegation and boundaries if they can’t physically meet and work things out, suggesting that distance has again hampered the teams communication and sense of belonging. This exemplifies a further mistake made on Phil’s part featured in Hackman’s 1998 work; a clear lack of planning and execution of tasks. To resolve this Phil must show organisational skill, delegating work effectively, to stop time being wasted through duplicated work, fracturing the teams’ sense of belonging further.

The final mistake shown by Phil Jones featured in Hackman’s 1998 work, is assuming all the members of the ‘team’ have the necessary skills to work together, despite being a diverse group from multiple cultural backgrounds, who are unknown to each other. Phil shows poor leadership regarding his cultural awareness surrounding his authority and responsibility in decision-making, and is naïve, being “sure everything would somehow have fallen into place as at first people appeared to be committed to the project and the team”. The forming stage is crucial to team development. By distancing himself from this stage, encouraging team conflict over team belonging despite members’ diversity in the teams’ early stages, he has created a fractured team. He must rectify this; as workplace diversity is becoming increasingly important in society (Parham and Muller, 2008). Phil must not see this as an issue to progress, and accept today’s workforce is diversified. Instead of taking a Laissez-Faire approach, he must look to use this as an advantage, working to integrate cultures to produce the end result.

Phil is correct that his team is still in the storming stage of Tuckman’s stages development; hence he must address such mistakes. Phil must show leadership in the initial stages of getting the team back on track ensuring that until the team is norming it does not control itself, accepting delegation and clarity of roles and working practice. Once the team has a better understanding of each other he can allow them more freedom, as Matsudaira (2016) states “being a good leader means allowing the people around you to be experts in their domains”. Hence through understanding his team members and delegating efficiently Phil can get the best out of everyone, by drawing on motivation theories using social identity to get the best out of the team, giving each member a task suited to their skills they can be proud of. Lewis (2011) states social identity “refers to the desire of individuals to strive to maintain some perceived distinctiveness”. Hence if through interventions all dispersed group members can be motivated to take pride in the work through motivational leadership and a feeling of belonging through their role in the team, there will be no duplication of work and less conflict. Hence a key intervention Phil Jones could use to remedy all such issues and allow team to perform, and hence work as a team efficiently is the use of a virtual team.

The Use Of Virtual Project Teams To Reach The Performing Group Development Stage

A virtual team is defined as “a group of people who interact through interdependent tasks guided by common purpose and work across space, time, and organizational boundaries with links strengthened by information, communication, and transport technologies” (Gassman and Von Zedtwitz, 2003 p.244). Hence though leading a team in person is difficult (Lilian 2014), virtual project team leaders face greater issues. Kayworth and Leidner (2002) found virtual project teams face similar issues to traditional teams, more strongly in virtual settings, coupled with challenges linked to dispersion of members, high reliance on technology and strong communication. Consequently specific leadership strategies are needed. The strategy utilized by managers of virtual teams is e-leadership, defined as “a social influence process, mediated by advanced information technologies, to produce a change in attitudes, feelings, thinking, behaviour and/or performance with individuals, groups or organisations” (Avolio, Kahai and Dodge, 2001 p.617). Hence e-leaders utilize technology to resolve virtual team issues by influencing team behaviour, as the goals of leadership; motivation, vision, determination and innovation (Spicker, 2012) are unchanged, however the mediums implemented to resolve issues are vastly different in virtual project teams.

The initial issue e-leaders face when managing a virtual project team is distance. Distance in a virtual team is established by geography, time zone, and familiarity among team members. In Phil’s case, geography and time zone impeded the team’s success, as though cultural differences were the reason why Phil was the key communicator in the team, to some extent the issue of coordinating an appropriate time for group communication due to differing time zones hampered simultaneous work, proving detrimental in motivating the team to communicate with each other individually. Studies show this assumption. Cummings (2011) found differing work hours caused by time zones burdens team members and leaders. Such levels of dispersion of team members as in Phil’s case can hinder team members familiarity with each other, as he is the only person on the team to have communicated with all team members, reducing social familiarity, which is important to how teams operate (Zaccaro and Bader, 2002). To remedy this e-leaders can address distance by responding quickly to distance specific issues regarding deadlines, then finding a good time to use virtual meeting software, enhancing feelings of closeness through diverse technologies, achieving team performance and greater organisational values. Hence in Phil’s case making the team virtual would be positive in this aspect, as the use of technology would aid the team’s success as schedules and deadlines could easily be accessed by all. Furthermore greater feeling of closeness among team members through the use of virtual meetings could be made, allowing team members to contact each other directly, rather than through Phil.

Though physical distance can be remedied through this, cultural diversity regarding national culture, and values caused by dispersion requires other strategies to be taken. Diversity can be problematic as like in Phil’s case cultural expectations regarding work ethic, work execution and job roles can vary regionally (Burnelle, 2012), causing friction, misunderstandings and fractured communication in the team, with further difficulties when there is a language barrier. E-leaders can solve issues related to cultural diversity by designing team-building sessions through technological mediums to ensure team members understand each other’s cultural differences. They can also address ambiguous online communications, ensuring no misunderstandings. Furthermore promoting a sense of belonging in a virtual team keeps members engaged and stops feelings of isolation from the rest of the team, reducing in and out groups (Leonard, 2011). Therefore through accommodating diversity through teambuilding and technology Phil would be best making his project team virtual as it reduces cultural frictions, and improves members sense of belonging.

Though diversity can cause communication errors within a virtual team, such errors can also be caused by technological breakdowns and, as in Phil’s case; a lack of clarity given by leaders regarding the roles and behavioural expectations of team members, leading to work being completed incorrectly. Hence if the qualities of effective communication; “quantity, frequency and accuracy of information exchange” (Gallenkamp et al 2011, p.8) are unfulfilled, communication breakdowns occur, causing frictions and hampering the team’s success as in Phil’s team. Communication is difficult in a virtual team, as face-to-face communication is omitted from most communicative mediums, potentially deterring emphasis on certain points. The lack of face-to-face contact may cause interactions to lose social or contextual information (Purvanova and Bono, 2009), such as a member’s higher professional status, or higher level of expertise on a subject. Hence to resolve such issues, e-leaders must ensure it becomes habit to team members to maintain continuous contact with each other, and analysing communications to ensure clarity is given regarding roles and expectations. Video-chat technologies can mediate this issue. Hence by making his team virtual Phil could resolve his teams and his own communicative issues.

Hence by improving communication e-leaders create social belonging within a virtual team, eventually creating trust. Trust is important within virtual teams as it motivates individual members to fulfil their role, building dependability (Uber Grosse, 2002). If trust is not achieved conflicts and low group satisfaction occur, deterring the team’s chance of success, as in Phil’s case. E-leaders can create trust through video-chats and electronic meeting systems, promoting communication, joint-efforts and a shared understanding of team issues. Hence through motivating his team to communicate effectively and hence building trust through technological mediums, over-coming distance and diversity, Phil could bring his team to performing stage as a virtual team, by becoming an e-leader. Therefore the use of project teams can be effective within modern society, should a virtual team be used due to recent technological innovations.

Strengths and Weaknesses Of A Team Based Approach to Work

However even when using a virtual team there are strengths and weaknesses of a team based approach to work, within a group of individuals. Some may say a team-based approach to work is far more effective than accomplishing a complex task individually. This is because several people can divide the work up, decreasing individual workload and providing many different ideas to cope with the complexity of a task. Wageman (1997) stated several viewpoints are more suitable when the task is complicated. This is also supported by Klein (2005) stating multiple people are required to carry out a task if the workload is extravagant. Working in a team on a complex task also increases levels of creativity when completing a task. Amabile, et al. (1996) states teamwork increases creativity, as members all have different and diverse backgrounds, combined with the fact that members’ ideas are challenged by others within the team to reach common goals. Furthermore Moreland (2006) explains that working in a team will increase the ability of members’ to specifically remember and recall important project information to reach common goals. This is because members of a group are aware of each other and remember different pieces of information better than other members would. If a member forgets a piece of information another may remember and be able to recall it due to goal interdependence. The degree of goal interdependence will have a significant impact on all members of a team. If there is a high level of objective interdependence, this will enhance team members’ execution of current tasks (Emans, et al., 2001). The authors believe that a high degree of goal interdependence promotes cooperation amongst group members, hence improving performance when carrying out projects. Furthermore Emans, et al. (2001) states that this greater execution of interdependent tasks is positively correlated to group members job satisfaction.

However using a team is not always the most efficient method to complete a task, as each member of the team has a different perspective. Therefore, in team discussions, each team member will have different perceptions, which makes decision time-consuming. Hinsz, et al. (2003) noted how teams are very contemplative in operation; hence their time to make a decision is very slow; whereas an individual’s decision-making process is much faster. Cognitive thinking is also impeded due to the way people communicate in teams (Cooke, et al., 2013). Diehl and Stroebe (1987) elaborated saying that communication of ideas and knowledge interrupts cognitive thinking by preventing other team members from creating ideas. This is so as one person in a team talks at a time, hence planting their idea first and mitigating others thoughts. Members also suffer from being able to challenge a group decision once it is already being carried out. Hence even if the decision is working out poorly, group individuals will generally fail at proposing alternative strategies. Hinsz (2015) stated that teams cause members to lose their own self-awareness and even if a member has knowledge that a team decision is incorrect, or working ineffectively they will not query it.

One of the most substantial disadvantages of working in a team is social loafing. Usually one member of a large team tends to exert much less effort than the rest of the team. This not only causes frustration in other members, but also reduces the quality of the project. Harkins, et al. (1979) found that in larger groups the average performance of each person decreased, with the explanation that some individuals felt like they could slack whilst remaining undetected using the group. However now more than ever it is difficult for individuals not to be called out on ‘social loafing’ in a group, if a project team is managed effectively through technology. With the innovation of cloud based constantly editable software such as Google Docs, e-leaders such as Phil Jones can continuously check on the pace of work uploaded by his team members, ensuring work is completed accurately, creativley and at an appropriate pace to ensure deadlines are met, and furthermore giving such leaders the ability to know which individual team members are doing the majority of the work, allowing social loafers to be pulled up through virtual devices.

Conclusions

Conclusively a team-based approach to work though popular, can be inefficient if team leaders fail to assert their authority and leadership skills in early group formation ad storming stages, hindering their team from reaching the performing group development stage as defined by Tuckman and Jensen’s stages of group development. However should interventions be put in place such as a virtual team, teams can overcome the variety of social and communicative challenges that can face a failing dispersed team as defined by Hackman’s work, and as exemplified in The Gulf Project Team. Hence virtual teams can allow teams to perform effectively, with a review of literature concluding the use of a team-based approach to project work is effective within organisations in modern society, due to recent technological advances.

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Construction of identity and images of the communion in post-colonial Indonesia: college essay help online

Coexist with colonist; Construction of identity and images of the communion in post-colonial Indonesia.

Subject area, aims and objectives

Subject Area

Britain, Dutch and Japan are the three empires which politically colonised Indonesia for more than 100 years. After gaining their independence in 1945, Indonesia began constructing their identity to state their power and gain recognition from other countries. However, during the transition period, there are possibilities that the formation of identity may produce by doing assimilation with former colonist country by adjusting and adapting the existing colonist identity legacy. The relationship during colonial period between the individual and socio-cultural space is as follows shaped in a dual hybrid position, a hybrid that represents the identity of Indonesian communion.

This research would like to examine the visual representation of Indonesian communion. The visual identity used by the state such as the national emblem, currency design, military crest, and maps–which the latest considered as Western imperial’s science and technology gifts– is a construction of the national identity through the symbolism which represents Indonesia’s in international circumstance.

Aims

Examining the identity formation and transition in pre and post-colonial Indonesia (a decade between 1940– 1950), which may generate some insight about how the hybrid of two visual identities–Indonesia’s and Colonist–coexist and later build the images of the communion in Indonesian minds.
Utilizing graphic design studies to excavate the complexity of identity construction during the postcolonial period which cannot be understood by conventional history narrative.

Objectives

Examine and exploring the founded sources idea, and learn the method of combining the visual identification such as in symbols, colour or visual style which considered share universal visual language and mutual value for both sides.
Deconstruct how the product such as technology and science perceived and accepted by the natives and later adapted it as their identity. (Such as Map)
Experimenting and do iterative process with deconstruction method.
Examine the tools used by the government to certifies the identity and nationality during decades of transition. (contemporary: Passport)
Identify how national identity intertwined and influence with personal details (such as ID Card, Passport) which developed the image as a part of the community.

Historical context

Postcolonial History

The research begins with the studies and history of postcolonialism, which commonly understand as an aftermath of Western colonialism or various form of imperialism, both represented in the historical period or state of affair. However, some argue that, etymologically, postcolonialism frequently misunderstood as a temporal concept; the time after colonialism has ceased, or the time following the politically determined Independence Day on which a country breaks away from its governance by another state. Gilbert and Tompkins (1996) suggested that a theory of post-colonialism must, then, respond to more than the merely chronological construction of post-independence, and to more than just the discursive experience of imperialism. The postcolonial theory thus establishes intellectual spaces for subaltern peoples to speak for themselves, in their voices, and thus produce cultural discourses of philosophy, language, society and economy, balancing the imbalanced us-and-them binary power-relationship between the colonist and the colonial subjects.

The Postcolonialism studies indicate a possible future of overcoming colonialism, anticipating the potential new forms of the global empire and new forms of domination and subordination (Encyclopædia Britannica, 2018).

Postcolonial Theory

Postcolonialism aimed at destabilising these theories (intellectual and linguistic, social and economic) employing which colonialists “perceive”, “understand”, and “know” the world. The postcolonial theory thus establishes intellectual spaces for subaltern peoples to speak for themselves, in their voices, and thus produce cultural discourses of philosophy, language, society and economy, balancing the imbalanced us-and-them binary power-relationship between the colonist and the colonial subjects.

Postcolonial Identity

Decolonized people develop a postcolonial identity that based on interactions between different identities (cultural, national, and ethnic as well as gender and class-based) which are committed varying degrees of social power by the colonial society. In postcolonial literature, the anti-conquest narrative analyses the identity politics that are the social and cultural perspectives of the subaltern colonial subjects—their creative resistance to the culture of the coloniser. How such cultural resistance complicated the establishment of a colonial society; how the colonisers developed their postcolonial identity; and how neocolonialism actively employs the Us-and-Them binary social relation to view the non-Western world as inhabited by The Other.

However, postcolonial theory is somehow problematic. John Lye (1997) argues that while the theory deals with the reading and writing of literature written in previously or currently colonised countries, or literature written in colonising countries which deals with colonisation or colonised peoples. The post-colonial theory focuses particularly on;

The way in which literature by the colonising culture distorts the experience and realities, and inscribes the inferiority, of the colonised people
literature by colonised peoples which attempts to articulate their identity and reclaim their past in the face of that past’s certain otherness.

It can also deal with the way in which literature in colonising countries appropriates the language, images, scenes, traditions and so forth of colonised countries.

Marxist Scholar Vivek Chibber (2013) express that postcolonial theory will remember for its revival of cultural essentialism and its acting as an endorsement of orientalism, rather than being an antidote to it. It is essentialized cultures, painting them as fixed and static categories and presents the difference between East and West as unbridgeable. On his book Postcolonial Theory and the Specter of Capital, Chibber focusing mainly on the strain of postcolonial theory known as subaltern studies. He makes a strong case for why we can — and must — conceptualise the non-Western world through the same analytical lens that we use to understand developments in the West.

Contemporary Context

Nina Katchadourian

Hand-held Subway, Geographic Pathologies, Finland’s Longest Road, Finland’s Unnamed Islands, Head of Spain. 1996-2008.

Various work from Nina Katchadourian which exploring the cartographic works. She deconstruct an existing maps and atlas of New York subway system, Finland’s highway, Spanish paper road map to create a new possibility of creating meaning and generates a new ways of seeing things.

Meta Haven Sealand Identity Project

Meta Haven collaborate on the Sealand Identity Project, which was to conceive a national identity for the Principality of Sealand, which is a self-proclaimed nation on a former war platform near the coast of the UK.

Sealand Identity Project was really a combination of this idea of sovereignty, self-proclaimed nationhood, in combination with this flawed entrepreneurial dream of starting an offshore business onboard Sealand.

Theoretical Context

Critical Theory

History of Politics and Identity

Jonathan Friedman (1994) points out there were two aspects of the relation between social identification and the making of history. The first concerned the relationship between the social conditions of identity formation and the production of culturally viable past. The second introduced so-called scientific constructions of other people’s past into the same frame argument.

On the Journal of the Society for Cultural Anthropology, Friedman (1992, p.41) acknowledges that history and discourse about the making of history are positional, that is, it is dependent upon where one located in social reality, within society, and within the global process. The idea is even applicable to the present discourse, which in no way represents an attempt to stand in some objective truth-sphere above or outside of the goings-on of the world. Objective history, just as any other history, is produced in a definitive context and is a particular kind of project.

Besides, he suggested that the discourse of history as well as of myth is simultaneously a discourse of identity; it consists of attributing a meaningful past to a structural present. Objective history produced in the context of a particular kind of selfhood, one that based on a radical separation of the subject from any particular identity, and which objectifies and textualises reality.

Imagined Community

A country which merely liberated from their former colonist would be struggling in defining their own political identity and build their image of communion. As they build the identity on the top of the ruins of existing colonist structure, it would be unavoidable to eradicate their former identity. Even the previous one is arguably an already hybrid of different cultures. However, it was understood that images of the communion were built not only taking the references from the community itself, but also construct by external influence. Benedict Anderson’s theory regarding the identity of a community would be very fit to depict the condition of emerging, newly independent nation.

Anderson (1983, p.6) defines the nation as, “an imagined political community – and imagined as both inherently limited and sovereign…It is imagined because the members of even the smallest nation will never know most of their fellow-members, meet them, or even hear of them, yet in the minds of each lives the image of their communion”. Anderson sees the nation as a social construct, an “imagined community” in which members feel a commonality with others, feel a “horizontal” comradeship with each other even though they may not know them. It could be said that the lasting appeal and political resilience of nationalism of newly independence nation affirm the strength of patriotic feeling and the enormous sacrifices people have made on behalf of their nation.

In the chapter “The Origins of National Consciousness”, where he argues that the convergence of capitalism, printing, and the diversity of vernacular languages led to the birth of national consciousness. Popular nationalism threatened to exclude the European monarchies from the new imagined communities, as the dynasties had dubious and often conflicting national credentials. They responded with what Anderson terms “official nationalism,” a Machiavellian appropriation of nationalist ideas to secure dynastic legitimacy and suppress ethnolinguistic subject groups within their realms. In the European colonial empires, official nationalism served as a tool of the imperial administration.

Census, Map, Museum.

In the more specific topic, Anderson introduces three institutions of powers– Census, Map, Museum–that profoundly shaped the way in which the colonial state imagined its dominion and the legitimacy of its ancestry. As the research emphasises on more pragmatic visual based identity, the writer considered it would be more fruitful on profoundly examining the Map topic. However, the assumption made after thoughtfully deal with the capacity of the author, which couldn’t afford further research on Census and Museum.

It could be said that the Mercatorian map, which brought in by the European colonisers via print, was beginning to shape the imagination of Southeast Asians, including Indonesia (Anderson, 1983, p. 247) Regarding most communication theories anti-common sense, a map is a scientific abstraction of reality. A map merely represents something which already exists objectively “there”. Anderson (1983) points out, “In the history, I have described, this relationship was reversed. A map anticipated spatial reality, not vice versa. In other words, a map was a model for, rather than a model of, what it purported to represent… It had become a real instrument to concretise projections on the earth’s surface… The discourse of mapping was the paradigm which both administrative and military operations worked within and served”

Map as a Logo

As an administrative and military tool, maps acknowledge the ability as the second avatar of one nation or empire, the map-as-logo. Its origins were reasonably innocent— the practice of the imperial states of colouring their colonies on maps with an imperial dye. British colonies were usually pink-red. French purple-blue, Dutch yellow-brown, and so on. (Anderson, 1983, p. 250) The map becomes a pure sign, no longer compass to the world. As the map then entered an infinite reproducible series, available for transfer to posters, official seals, letterheads, magazine which made them instantly recognisable and visible–the logo-map penetrated deep into the popular imagination, forming a powerful emblem for the anticolonial nationalism.

One of the most known examples of this process is what happened on the island of New Guinea. Dutch Empire settlement in Indonesia was made on the island of New Guinea and succeed to incorporate it into Netherland Indies in 1901 and made it in time for Dutch logoization. Dutch colonial logo-maps sped across in the colony, showing a West New Guinea with nothing to its East, unconsciously reinforced the developing imagined ties among Indonesian nationalist. Even Indonesian nationalist was struggling and made as a national sacred site in the national imagining, they never actually saw New Guinea with their own eyes until the 1960s.

Anderson (1983, p. 251) then relates that “the prestige of the colonial state was accordingly, now intimately, linked to that of its homeland superior.” As more and, more Europeans were being born in Southeast Asia, and being tempted to make it their home. The old sacred sites were to be incorporated into the map of the colony, and their ancient prestige (which, if this had disappeared, as it often had, the state would attempt to revive) draped around the mappers.

The “warp” of this thinking was a totalizing classificatory grid, which could be applied with unlimited flexibility to anything under the state’s real or contemplated control: peoples, regions, religions, languages, products, monuments, and so forth. The effect of the grid was always to be able to say of anything that it was this, not that; it belonged here, not there.

Parallel Theory

Cartography

To provide a profound understanding of Map and its influence on the construction of national identity, the writers realised that the study of cartography is one of the best ways to explain it. While map in the previous point bears the capacity to become a witness of powers, the map also can produce their language. Polish-American philosopher Alfred Korzybski’s theory of general semantics states that; human knowledge is limited by our physical being as well as the structure of language. Though the human experience of reality is limited, yet increasingly see the world through more maps, bigger maps of more data, and more maps of bigger data.

Huffman and Matthews (2014) endorse that, “Cartographers have always been storytellers. This metaphor works well for thematic maps, but topographic or reference maps also tell stories: of the landscape, of the settlement, and of the shape of the natural and human-modified world that surrounds us… Cartographers take data and wrestle it before applying some graphical treatment that provides the narrative. They codify the story in a visual language that they hope speaks to people.”

While cartography has the ability to promoted scientific objectivity over artistic representation and vice versa, the scientific objectivity did not always go the actual representation, a metaphor involved in this work, such map does not always mean the territory. Like any other tools that generate knowledge, maps are informative, but they also can be deceptive, even threatening. At one time or another, it probably safe to say that all of us have been misled by a map designed to hide something the mapmaker did not want us to know, or drawn in such a way that we jump to false conclusions from it.

H. J. de Blij (1996, p. xi-xii) points out that Map crosses the line between information and advocacy. In which later he added that in the world of changing political and strategic relationships and devolving nation-sites, maps become propaganda tools. Some national government even go so far as to commit cartographic aggression, mapping parts of neighbouring countries as their own. Turkish Cypriots, Sri Lankan Tamils, Crimean Russians publish maps that proclaim their political aspirations, fuelling nationalism that spell disaster for the state system.

When the research go further in finding the capability and possibility of a map in manipulating or altering the fact, the research leads to an exciting book written by Dr Mark Monmonier, How to Lie with Maps. In this book, Monmonier (1996, p.2) acknowledges that in showing how to lie with maps, he want to make readers aware that maps–like speeches and paintings–are authored collections of information and also are subject to distortions arising from ignorance, greed, ideological blindness, or malice. The idea seems uncomfortable and uneasy to accepted as it lot of sense of offensiveness. However, he provides a stunning yet straightforward analogy. He offers the idea of the relationship of Map and Scale and its capability on defining the truth.

He took the example as follows; the square inch on the large-scale map could show inch on the ground in far greater detail than the square inch on the small-scale map. Both maps would have to suppress some details, but the designer of the 1:10,000,000-scale map must be far more selective than the cartographer producing the 1:10,000-scale map. In the sense that all maps tell white lies about the planet, the small-scale map has a smaller capacity for truth than large-scale maps.

That is the softball of how maps tell lies, then what about the other possible one? Such as Maps for political propaganda. A good propagandist knows how to shape opinion by manipulating maps. Political persuasion often concerns territorial claims, nationalities, national pride, borders, strategic position, conquests, attacks, troop movements, defences, spheres of influence, regional inequality, and other geographic phenomena conveniently portrayed cartographically. (Monmonier, 1996, p. 87).

People trust maps, and intriguing maps attract the eye as well as connote authority. The map is a perfect symbol of the state and an intellectual weapon–in disputes over territory. Naïve citizens willingly accept as a truth map based on a biased and sometimes crooked selection of facts.

Maps as Symbols of Power and Nationhood

The string of newly independent states formed after World War II, such as Indonesia, revived the national atlas as a symbol of nationhood. In the service of the state, maps and atlases play dual roles. Monmonier (1996, p.89) research confirmed that although a few countries in western Europe and North America had state-sponsored national atlases in the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries, these served mainly as reference works and symbols of scientific achievement. However, between 1940 and 1980 the number of national atlases increased from fewer than twenty to more than eighty, as former colonies turned to cartography as a tool of both economic development and political identity.

Even tiny maps on postages stamps can broadcast political propaganda. Postage stamps bearing maps are useful propaganda tools for developing nations and ambitious revolutionary movements. In mail interest, it is useful to keep aspirations alive domestically and to suggest national unity and determination internationally. Postage stamps maps afford a small but numerous means for asserting territorial claims (Monmonier, 1996, p. 91). The war claims between India, Pakistan and China offer us an excellent example of this. Official government tourist maps show Kashmir as a part of India, on the other hand as a part of Pakistan. In reality, India controls the southern part of the state of Kashmir, Pakistan controls the northwestern part, and China controls three sections along the eastern margin. The other example is the Ligitan and Sipadan dispute. It was a territorial dispute between Indonesia and Malaysia over two islands in the Celebes Sea, namely Ligitan and Sipadan. The dispute began in 1969 as Malaysia put them on their official passport and tourism map. Thus it was mostly resolved by the International Court of Justice (ICJ) in 2002, which opined that both of the islands belonged to Malaysia as British Empire, their former colonist, has already settled administrative work since 1930 on both islands.

The latest example given probably slightly capture how the state intervenes-wars, colonialism and national planning intertwined on mapping activities. However, these activities of the major powers not confined to their colonial territories, the very existence of which had left them with global rather than local strategic preoccupations. On Maps and Air Photographs, Dickinson (1979, p. 48) states that; stimulated by various motives, among which the discovery of potentially exploitable areas and resources and the complete delineation of boundaries against possible counter-claimants are two obvious ones, most European nations with colonial possessions carried out various surveys in them often very actively. At first, both the maps themselves and the bodies that produced them were slightly varied.

Methodology

The initial stage of the research would emphasize on experimental design, as this approach is a careful balancing of several features including “power”, generalizability, various forms of “validity”, practicality and cost. A thoughtful balancing of these features in advance will result in an experiment with the best chance of providing useful evidence to modify the current state of knowledge in a particular design field. The goal is to actively design an experiment that has the best chance to produce meaningful, defensible evidence, rather than hoping that proper statistical analysis may be able to correct for defects after the fact.

In the realm of experimenting, the deconstructive method would be the fittest one to tackle the question and inquiry of this research. It is a strategy of critical form-making which performed across a range of artefacts and practices, both historical and contemporary. Deconstruction was born to uncover the meaning of a literary work by studying the way its form and content communicate essential humanistic messages.

Lupton and Miller (1994) argue that deconstruction offer the mode of questioning through and about the technologies, formal devices, social institutions, and founding metaphors of representation. That deconstruction belongs to both history and theory. In Derrida’s theory, deconstruction asks how representation inhabits reality. How does the external image of things get inside their inner essence? How does the surface get under the skin?

While examining the construction of the identity of the communion, it is important to trace its source, find the authenticity and telling of a story viewed as a passive record of events. The research foresees to gain a vast amount of result and new insight by studying the meaning of a sign and its relationship to other signs in a system. This principle is the basis of structuralism, an approach to language which focuses on the patterns or structures that generate meaning rather than on the “content” of a given code or custom (Lupton, E. and Miller, J. A., 1994)

How does the theory relate to the practical experimentation?

By experimenting with deconstruction would benefit the research in doing widespread disruption, founded on a challenged and remodelled idea of what existing idea/design can do and bring.

What is the theory for?

As a platform on the iterative process. The fundamental principle of deconstruction and how deconstructive method work help to maintain the system while doing experiment and records thought for future transmissions.

What process of experimentation will be used?

Experimenting by deconstructing existing visual material and try a different approach to generate the possible outcome and utilise the basis of structuralism, an approach to language which focuses on the patterns or structures that generate meaning rather than on the “content” of a given code or custom.

How the project recorded and keep track of what have been done.

Documentation by photograph, video, scanned artefact and scheduled digital/printed publication.

Visual evidence

1st Iteration on deconstruction method: Deconstruction of Indonesia’s National Emblem.
2nd Iteration on deconstruction method: The study of Colonized and Colonist Map.

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Niccolo Machiavelli’s The Prince – leadership and power: essay help site:edu

Niccolo Machiavelli’s, The Prince, is one of the most controversial books of its time. Because of its contents, Machiavelli is seen by many as symbol for evil and vice. The book was thought to be so abhorrent that it was banned by the Catholic church, and harshly critiqued by many of Machiavelli’s contemporaries. The Sixteenth Century treatise was meant as an advice book for princes on how to gain power and maintain it, but the methods he proposed for achieving these aims were unsavory to many. In the years following its publication, The Prince, horrified and shocked the general populace due to its challenging of the current view that a leader had to be virtuous and moral, asserting that it was better for a leader to be feared than loved, challenging the idea that a ruler gained his power from divine right alone, and its proposition that a ruler might employ unethical actions to secure his position and better his country.

One of the first of things that Machiavelli tried to do in his treatise is to separate ethics from princes. While, many of his contemporaries believed that a successful prince would be one filled with the usual virtues, like honor, purity, and integrity, Machiavelli threw this idea out a window. He did not believe that being simply having the “right” value system would grant a leader power and security. In fact, he argued that often, being tied down by such morals would be counterproductive to one maintaining their position. Moreover, “if a ruler wishes to reach his highest goals he will not always find it rational to be morale” (Skinner 42).

So, what characteristics did Machiavelli think would actually make a strong leader? His ideal prince is one who is cunning and ruthless. Machiavelli believed that, “a ruler who wishes to maintain his power must be prepared to act immorally when this becomes necessary” (26). A ruler should also not be worried about being miserly, for overall this will help rather than hurt his control (Mansfield). If a prince is too generous his people will also become accustomed to such generosity and be angered when it is not forthcoming, and in the long run he will have to tax his people to make up for what he has given away. Such ideas went directly against the Christian and humanist ideas about morality in Machiavelli’s time.

Another major point of interest that Machiavelli discussed throughout The Prince was the concept of fortune and its role in a princes rule. He believed that it was of the utmost importance that a prince try to win fortune to his side as best he can. Here again, Machiavelli differentiates from his predecessors. Many past philosophers believed that fortune would smile upon a ruler who was just and virtuous. Machiavelli disagreed with such notions. Morales had nothing to do with pleasing fortune. Instead, it was the more violent and ambitious ruler, who would seize the moment, that would have a better chance of winning fortune (Spencer). Machiavelli went so far as to compare fortune to a woman and stated that, “If you want to control her, it is necessary to treat her roughly” (87).

While Machiavelli did not think it was in a prince’s best interest to always be kind and good, he did note the importance of his subjects thinking him to be so. It is very hard to hold control a region, in which the people believe their ruler to be completely immoral. However, they may put up with questionable actions of a ruler if once in a while he does something that appears to be in their best interest. The crueler a ruler is the more crucial it is to appear to the public as being the opposite. Once the people are convinced of a ruler being virtuous, he will be able to get away with the most unscrupulous behavior.

Most people would consider it essential for a ruler to keep his promises and appear trustworthy, maintaining a good relationship with his subjects, not Machiavelli. Sometimes it is not realistic for a ruler to be able to make good on every promise. It may even be better for the people in the long run if he does not. A prince should not have qualms about breaking his word, “plausible reasons can always be found for such failure to keep promises” (Machiavelli 62). Moreover, if a prince prides himself on always keeping his word the people will always expect this. When unfortunate circumstances force him to deviate from what he swore to do, the people will be outraged, whereas if they expect promises to be broken it will not garner as much anger.

Another stable argument of Machiavelli’s book is the power of fear. Machiavelli believes fear is one of the best way to keep subjects in line. Fear is strongest of all the emotions and will give a ruler the most control. Striving for the people’s love is not as fruitful, due to mankind’s fickle nature. Andrew Curry of the Washington Post notes that for Machiavelli, “ Man’s weak nature was a constant as unchanging as the bright sun that rose above his beloved Tuscan hills.” A leader who relies on love to gain loyalty from his subjects, will find his people nowhere to be found when hard times come. Men tend to what they think is best for them, and due to this they will changes sides quickly. They will adopt a new prince quickly and shed their old one if they believe it will be prosperous for them. However, if the subjects greatly fear their leader they are more likely to obey him. If they believe their ruler to be lax they will think they can get away with some disobedience, but if a prince has made it clear that the consequences will be great they will hesitate (Machiavelli .

One of the main ways Machiavelli demonstrates the power of fear, is through generals and their handling of the troops under them. He praises the Carthaginian general, Hannibal, for his ability to lead such a large army of various peoples with little discord or trouble among his troops. Despite going through many lands unknown to his soldiers, and enduring times of trial, Hannibal was able to keep his soldiers in order because of their respect and fear of him (Machiavelli 60). How did Hannibal make his troops fear him? Through great cruelty, which made him the perfect Machiavellian leader. It was this cruelty that was key of his success according to Machiavelli. He argued that, “if he had not been so cruel, his other qualities would not have been sufficient to achieve that affect” (60).

Scipio was another general of the same period as Hannibal. Like Hannibal he was a brilliant military mind, and one of the greatest leaders of the era. Unlike Hannibal however, he did not exercise brutality with his troops to keep them in check. Whereas Hannibal’s troops would have never dreamed of revolting, for fear of the consequences, Scipio did lose control over his soldiers at fort Sucro, in Spain. Machiavelli harshly critiqued Scipio for this mutiny and no one else. It was Scipio’s easiness with his soldiers that had caused them to grow rebellious. Had he have been more severe in his command they would have been better disciplined (Machiavelli 60). Machiavelli praises Hannibal’s cruelty, while condemning Scipio’s friendliness with his soldiers.

Another aspect of the power of fear, which Machiavelli touched on was with the capturing of new regions. Under most circumstances successfully maintaining control over a newly vanquished city, and keeping its citizens in check can be quite difficult. However, in cases where subduing a city takes great force and bloodshed it will actually be much easier to keep. Most would think the opposite to be true, but Machiavelli argues that those who have been defeated will be to imitated to revolt, due to knowing what the conquerors are capable of (Mansfield). Machiavelli has complete faith in the power of fear. Essentially he believes that a prince should not be concerned about being excessively brutal when trying to defeat the defenders of a town, because in the long run it may actually help him keep dominances over said town. With advice like this, advising one to be cruel, it is no surprise that Machiavelli’s contemporaries were so shocked by his treatise (Spenser).

All of Machiavelli’s pondering about fear begs the question how far should a ruler go to be feared by his people? Machiavelli does acknowledge that there is a lined that can be crossed. A prince must strive to be feared without being completely hated by his subjects (Machiavelli 59) . It is fine for a leader to exercise extreme ruthlessness for the greater good as long as he is able to redeem himself in the eyes of the people. At a certain point, if pushed too far, a prince’s subject’s fear of their ruler will turn to anger and they will grow unruly. Therefore it is important for a prince to be calculated with his cruelty, and not just unnecessarily brutal.

A major issue during Machiavelli’s time was that of Divine right to rule. Essentially, king’s could justify their rule by it supposedly being God’s will, and they had to answer only to him. Only those chosen by God could rule. Machiavelli did not fully agree with this doctrine. He thought that almost anyone should have the right to rule as long as they were cunning enough to do so. Machiavelli cares most about leaders being competent. The foxes and lions should rise above the lambs. That is the best way for country to be assured of gaining strong leaders. With divine right there is no guarantee that a prince will be capable of ruling, and do what is best for his people. In his own region of Florence Machiavelli wanted a ruler who was effective, not one that was supposedly endowed by the creator. All of the advice given in the book is a challenge against divine right, as it shows how someone may gain power by his own actions and not divine right.

Machiavelli’s key argument against any sort of right to rule is that it is power alone that guarantees a prince his control. “a Machiavellian perspective directly attacks the notion of any grounding for authority independent of the sheer possession of power. For Machiavelli, people are compelled to obey purely in deference to the superior power of the state” (Nederman). Simply having the right virtues, divine right, or any other quantifiers of rule do not matter if one does not have true power. A prince’s subjects will stay in line if they know he has great power over them, but not always so if he his relying on their respect of his “divine right” alone.

One of the main themes running throughout all of Machiavelli’s advice seems to be that the ends always justify the means. Now even though Machiavelli never directly states this, he comes very close, and despite his advice being a bit more nuance than that simple phrase, it is not out of line to say that it represents his key ideas on princeship. Machiavelli was one of the first pessimistic realists of his time, and he based his advice on the negative side of humanity. He argued that a prince’s subjects will not always do the moral thing and so a prince should not either. Instead, he should take what actions he believes to be best for securing his rule and his province. Sacrificing a few is a necessary evil if it guarantees the safety of many (Machiavelli 58).

Machiavelli base much of his advice on the topic on real life rulers of his time. History.com points this out saying, “Machiavelli’s guide to power was revolutionary in that it described how powerful people succeeded—as he saw it—rather than as one imagined a leader should operate.” While his contemporaries where dreaming up the qualities of an ideal leader, Machiavelli believed he was giving a guide based on those he had seen be successful. Almost all of the leaders Machiavelli studied, he found to have exercised cruelty and brutality. Mansfield says thus of Machiavelli’s points on necessary evil, “The amoral interpretation fastens on Machiavelli’s frequent resort to “necessity” in order to excuse actions that might otherwise be condemned as immoral.”

One of the main ruler’s who Machiavelli based much of his advice on was Cesare Borgia. Borgia was the perfect Machiavellian leader. He was, “a crude, brutal and cunning prince of the Papal States” (History.com Editors). He lived in a chaotic time, and the entirety of his rule was face with challenges and uncertainty. Machiavelli admired his ability to handle the problems of his times with such decisive ferocity. He embodied all the traits the Machiavelli was advising the readers of his book to adopt.

Cesare was a man with many enemies and part of his genius lay in his ability to get rid of them. Where others would hesitate to move against powerful men, Borgia did not. He would kill remorselessly if he thought it would help him maintain his land. One of the main examples Machiavelli used to point out Borgia’s cunning, was his luring of the Orsini leaders to the town of Senigallia. He lured them with lavish gifts and lulled them into a false sense of security, promising treaties of peace, but once they had delivered themselves into his hands he killed them (Machiavelli 25). Machiavelli praised this exploit thinking it an exceptionally clever deception.

Borgia also proved his competence as a leader to Machiavelli in his handling of the land he inherited from his father, Pope Alexander VI. The people dwelling there were disorderly and defiant. They had not been well disciplined by their previous ruler, and were not used to really having to obey a leader. Borgia set out to right this wrong. He put an utterly ruthless man, Remirro de Orco, in charge of the area (Machiavelli 26). Many rulers would have told Orco to use caution when dealing with the subjects of the region. He should slowly begin to discipline them so that they would grow use to it over time. However, Borgia did the exact opposite. He gave his new governor complete control to be as severe and merciless as he saw necessary. He new that the cruelty the people would endure under de Orco would be for the better down the road as there would be more order and less lawbreakers.

Even the he knew that it was necessary to use brutality when dealing with his newly acquired land, Borgia did not plan on taking the blame for that cruelty. de Orco’s harsh regime had served to bring discipline to the region, but Cesare Borgia was not blind to the growing anger in those who were suffering under it. Here, in Machiavelli’s mind, Borgia showed his true genius and heartlessness. He killed de Orco and displayed his body in a town, successfully wining the favor of his subjects and getting rid of a possible rival. It Borgia who had put de Orco in charge in the first place, knowing fully well that he was a cruel man, and told him to be a harsh ruler, but the people seemed to forget this and saw Borgia as a hero for killing their oppressor. Those subjects who still had a dislike for Borgia, where too terrified by the execution to cause any discord (Machiavelli 26). So Borgia was able to make his people both love and fear, Machiavelli’s ideal situation. It is clear that much of Machiavelli’s arguments for doing immoral things comes from him having observed Borgia and his callous methods.

Borgia may have been brilliant in the handling of his lands and his enemies, but it was not his own cleverness that gained him his territory in the Romagna. Instead it was the cunning of his father, Pope Alexander IV. Alexander wanted to give his son a state in Italy to help him grow more powerful and, hopefully, eventually make him into a great ruler. However, he knew that he would not be able to do this through peaceful negations, as there were too many other factions who would have been opposed to it. Instead, the Pope would have to use force to size a state. First he sought out to make the states of Italy unstable, by aiding a French invasion of Milan. Doing this helped cause chaos, and the French gave the Pope troops to conquer the Romagna with. The Pope was able his transfer the newly captured states to his son (Machiavelli 24). These actions by the Pope where highly immoral; he helped sow ruin in his own country of Italy to gain a province for Cesare to rule, and he misused the power given to him by his position as Pope to do so. However, Machiavelli praises his ability to take actions that are deemed unethical by society to attain success.

In one chapter of his treatise, Machiavelli addresses those who gained the power from evil deeds. The first example he gives is of Agathocles, of Syracuse. Agathocles is the epitome of doing whatever it takes to get what you want. He was a mere ordinary man, but by his own actions he was able to rise to a position of power in the city of Syracuse. Wanting to become the king of Syracuse he began scheming how this could be accomplished. Eventually he was able to execute a successful coup, and have all his soldiers kill any opposers. He was dishonorable, a murderer, and a traitor, but he did achieve what he set out to do. Machiavelli does point out that these methods wont exactly win someone glory and fame, or at least not the positive kind, but he did commend Agathocles ability to gain power. He also mentions that Agathocles used evil “well” since he had to use it at all (Machiavelli 30-33). Statements like this, that a murdering traitor used evil admirably, are what make Machiavelli’s writing so controversial.

Machiavelli did not stop with Agathocles, he also gave an example more current with the time of a similar situation. Oliverotto of Fermo. Oliverotto had the same cunning and ambition as Agathocles. He too wanted to become the ruler of his hometown Fermo. So, with his mentor he conspired to overthrow the current ruler, his own uncle, Giovanni Fogliani. Oliverotto used his relation to Fogliani to lure him into a trap where he assassinated him, as well as the other leaders of Fermo. With no one else in his way he took control of the region. His immoral actions would have been condemned by most, but Machiavelli’s main issue seems to be that he was not able to keep the power that he gained, as he was killed himself later on. Oliverotto did not use evil well as Agathocles did (Machiavelli 32-32).

Few books have the ability to stir up as much controversy as The Prince. With it Machiavelli tried to set a new example how a prince should act and think, but one that would be found troubling by many in the decades that followed its publication. Its readers would shun it, ban it, mock it, and even go so far as to say that it was satire, because surely there was no way that Machiavelli had actually meant what he wrote. The main cause of all animosity towards the book, came from Machiavelli’s attempt to separate ethics from politics. In the treatise he argued that princes need not be virtuous, and that fear was a great tool to be used to control one’s subjects, better even than love. Furthermore, the book challenged divine right, which put at odds with the churches of the time, and lastly, it promoted the idea of using scrupulous methods to gain power. It is the combination of these four arguments, that were so against the current ideologies of the sixteenth century, that caused many to look at the book with disgust, and the reason why Machiavelli became known as an embodiment of evil.

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Organizational change – responding to internal drivers

Organizational change in any business organisation is predominantly influenced by two forces called internal drivers and external drivers. Both can cause favourable as well as unfavourable impacts on organisational change. However, this essay will argue that it is more beneficial for the organisations to introduce changes based on its internal drivers because they are within the organisation and control of the management in bringing the change. Where as the external drivers are beyond the control of the organisation.

In this intensely competitive and globalised world ( Mdletye, Coetzee and Ukpere 2014) of business and management organisational change is very critical and indispensable for numerous competitive advantages. Therefore, companies of all kinds must either initiate change or if not face the natural death (Kotter and Cohen 2008). Hence, although change is task fraught with complexity and challenge (Graetz et al. 2011, p.2) it has become the inevitable phenomena for the successful survival of organization in this modern world.

Organisational change is the continuous process of renewing the firm direction, structure, capabilities, operations, systems and processes to meet the ever-changing needs of external and internal customers (Soosay and Sloan 2005 p.10). It is the movement of an organization away from its present state of status quo (Smith 2005) toward some desired future state to increase its effectiveness (Lunenburg 2010). Nevertheless, as most researchers have found out that, in reality, adopting new changes in the organisation is very difficult and doubtful of success (Robbins 2003 and Raftery 2009 as cited in Beshtawi and Jaaron,2014; p.129) and often land up with failure (Olaghere,n.d p.1; Gilaninia, Ganjinia and Mahdikhanmahaleh 2013). Therefore, in this increasingly uncertain and risky environment (Zhou, Tse and Li, 2006, p.248) it is very crucial to know how to adapt and change according to the environment and to change successfully has become a critical and timeless challenge for any organization ( Feldman, 2004; Pettigrew et al., 2001; Piderit, 2000) for continuous survival and success.

Organisational Change in an organisation is influenced dominantly by two factors called internal factors or internal drivers and external factors or external drivers (Esparcia and Argente (n.d) and Olaghere n.d, p.1).These factors are responsible for triggering the change in the system, policies, product, structures, services, management, performance among many other areas in the organisation (Senior 2002) (as cited in McGuire and Hutchings 2006). Ivancevich and Matteson (2002) consider technology, economic forces and socio-political and legal factors as important external drivers that cause organisational change. However, they argue that these external drivers of change are beyond management’s control and cause a significant impact compelling the organisation to adjust internal processes and systems (McGuire and Hutchings 2006). Conversely, internal drivers are those forces existed within the organisation that influence changes. They are system, structure, management style, leadership, resources, processes, products of the organisation (Esparcia and Argente, n.d).

However, internal factors are more critical to driving organisational change. Ivancevich and Matteson (2002) maintain that human resource issues and process considerations are the most common forces for change within the organisation. They argue that internal factors are generally within the control of management, although sometimes be more difficult to recognise and diagnose than external factors (McGuire and Hutchings 2006).

The external factors are more diversified and intractable compare to internal drivers (Yu and Zhang, 2010, p.3). The internal divers of change are easily influenced by external environments like politics, economy, technology, legal and society.

The external factors helps to determine the opportunities and threats that the company would face, but the internal factors help the company to identify its strengths and weaknesses (Ibrahim and Primiana, 2015, p.285) . Marcus (2005) (as cited in Ibrahim and Primiana, 2015, p.285) noted that organisations should be aware of its strengths and weaknesses and analyzed the extent to which companies can accommodate the opportunities and threats existed in its the external environment.

Anderson and Anderson (n.d) asserted that the most common reason for the failure of managing change with the organizations is the inadequate attention to the less tangible, yet very important, internal drivers such as culture, leader and employee behaviour and their mindset. So, it is very much evident the benefits of concentrating of internal drivers rather than external drivers. This is supported by Kotter and Cohen (2008; p.61) that managers must instigate change by creating the sense of urgency by touching the emotions of employees instead of reasons based on facts and figures. This is possible only through change in internal factors of business enterprise.

Many scholars have consented that internal factors are the key determinants of an organization’s performance (Kinyua-Njuguna, Munyok and Kibera 2014, p. 289) as they provide enabling environment to achieve its goals and objectives. Internal environmental forces provide strengths and weaknesses to the business (Tolbert & Hall, 2009) (cited in (Kinyua-Njuguna, Munyok and Kiber 2014, p.) Fr example, from their study on the effect of internal drivers on community-based HIV and AIDS organizations in Nairobi County, Kenya, Kinyua-Njuguna, Munyok and Kiber (2014) found out that the internal drivers such as organisational structure, strategy, skills, staff, shared values as well as systems helping the organisation to achieve their objective. As a result enhanced the employee performance.

The Resource-based view (RBV) theory, propounded by Penrose (1959) ( as cited in Kute & Upadhyay, 2014,p.68) supported that organizations can gain competitive advantage by concentrating on their internal factors such as abilities, skills, knowledge, capabilities and competencies with reference to technological changes. This is because of strengths and weakness in these areas can be managed and thus the need of enhancing these qualities within the employees can be determined and can be enhanced through continuous organizational learning culture. Furthermore, the following factors such as mission and goals, leadership quality, organisational structure, human resources, technology capacity, organisation culture, employees behaviours and attitude, and organisational performance has to be considered while introducing change in the organisation.

Organisation Vison, Mision, Goals and objectives

Every business organisation is being guided by its mission, goals and objectives pertaining to development philosophy and direction, planning, prioritizing programs, policies, management, organisational structures and everyday responsibilities (Emeka and Eyuche 2014). In nutshell the performance of the company depends on the mission, goals and objectives. Therefore, change in these domains would compel the firm to undertake organisational change to achieve their mission and objectives.

Leadership

Leadership is one of the very important internal factors in an organisation change (Lunenburg 2010). The leaders have the important role in maintaining the measure of control over the environment of the organisation (McGuire and Hutchings 2006, p.197). The sixteenth century political scientist, Niccolo Machiavelli, stressed that the leader’s vision and future plans are critical in determining the shape and structure of the organisation (McGuire and Hutchings 2006, p.198). According to the organisational change models Cummings and Worley (1993) further recognizes that any change can be implemented successfully only by strong leadership who can garner commitment and readiness to change within the employees through shared vision and strategies to achieve the proposed new change and outcome. The way the managers or leaders establish the internal working structure and systems has influence on the performance of the organisation (Kinyua-Njuguna, Munyok and Kiber 2014, p.285).It means the structures and systems should be very favourable for the employees to work collaboratively everyday towards the shared goals of the organisation. Conversely, poor leadership and management would result in the failure of enterprise in the implementation of change processes and risking the orgainsation to disastrous consequences (Shiamwama, Ombayo and Mukolwe 2014, p.148). Effective leaders help organisations to surpass any internal obstacles and bring changes through envisioning the desired goals and objectives, energizing the employees, and enabling the resources and conditions (Zhou, Tse and Li 2006, p.253) which are paramount to overcome any external inhibitors of change and improve performance.

For instance, Steve Jobs, the founder of APPLE Computers, was eased out of the business because of poor management. He later went back into the business and was absorbed as a mere employee just to tap his original idea (Cole, 2004). in (Shiamwama, Ombayo and Mukolwe (2014)

Organisation Structure

Change in organizational structure involves redefining and regulating the organizational roles and relations by expanding or reducing audition, determining the decision making authority, selecting decentralised or central management type, regulating communication channels within the organisation ( İkinci, S.S.2014,p.123).It is another internal factor that act as driver of change. It is the way how jobs are allocated, coordinated and supervised through the system that facilitates communication and efficient work processes among the employees in the organisation (Elsaid, Okasha and Abdelghaly, 2013, p.1). In fact the successful execution and implementation of any plans and programs depends on it. The flat bureaucratic structure with decentralised decision-making system and horizontal reporting system among the teams and various managers are more preferred by the employees (Ohlson, 2007).This fosters faster and effective decision and action thus enhancing the efficiency and productivity of the employees and organisation as whole. The tall hierarchical system of organisation characterised by long bureaucratic steps to follow in execution and communication is rather a hindrance to the effectiveness of the performance (p.23). Decentralised administrative structures and processes thus enable a firm to better meet the new environmental conditions and effectively handle environmental turbulence (Damanpour and Evan, 1984)

Human resources

Human resource in the organisation consists of the knowledge, skills, competencies, attitude and behaviours the workers possess ( İkinci, S.S.2014, p.123). Nurturing theses aspect of human resources will lead to personal growth and development which can alter an individual’s perceptions of organisational change, reducing the level of resistance (Bovey and Hede, 2001, p.546). It is the very critical asset that helps organisation to gain competitive advantage (Husso and Nybakk, nd, p.9).This is because they have the capacity to operate all the activities and in turn help to achieve the aims and objective (Mdletye, Coetzee, and Ukpere (2014) which otherwise would not be able to function at all. The researchers emphasized that human resource is the most important aspect, indeed the backbone of every organization and it is also the main source of resource for the effective function of the organization ( Wanza and Nkuraru,2016; p.192) and main strategic resource to gain sustainable competitive advantage in this age of globalization(Kute & Upadhyay, 2014). For example, the management’s emphasis on the human resource management such as employing highly skilled and educated people, providing professional training and encouraging learning from advanced technologies and skills made the employees more competent to achieve Huawei’s internationalization process more successful ( Yu and Zhang, 2010, p.23) .

Organisational culture

Organisational culture is defined as the values, beliefs, norms, customs and behaviours that guide the employees towards the common goals (Awadh & Saad, 2013,) and that set the rule of decision making processes, structure and power (Wambugu, 2014, p. 80). Wambugu (2014) further noted that organisational culture empower the employees to do thing which deemed right and rewarding both at personal and organisational level. According to Wanza and Nkuraru ( 2016, p.195) and Awadh & Saad, (2013, p.168 ) organisational culture has strong bearing on the performance of the employees which is considered as the backbone of development of the organisation. The culture established as system in the organisation enhances employees’ commitment thus improves their input eventually achieving the desired productivity and profitability (Wanza and Nkuraru, 2016, p.193). They concluded from their research that a strong organizational culture acts as the source of synergy and momentum for teamwork and uplift employee performance (p.197).Thus it is worthy of developing organizational culture for sustainable future. For example, one of the internal factor that drive Huawei Technologies Company, a very small local IT company of China, to very successful internationalisation was the corporate culture, such as team work, adaptation, learning and customer-oriented service, being embedded in the behaviours of the Huawei’s employees ( Yu and Zhang, 2010, p.23)

Innovation culture

Innovation is the main strategy to adapt to change, overcome organisational weaknesses, and add value to organization’s products and services in the ever-changing business environment (Sund 2008, p. 2). Being entrepreneurial with creativity and innovation helps organisation to gain competitive advantage (Ireland et al. 2003). Abdelgawad et al. (2013) proposed that entrepreneurial capability is instrumental for realizing a firm’s game-changing strategies for sustainable success in future. For example, Google, Amazon and Apple companies were once just start-ups grown to attract global market through their innovation (EBRD, 2014; p.1). Internal organizational drivers such as resources, experimentation, collaboration, administrative support play a significant role during this innovation process (Agolla and Van-Lill, 2013). So, establishing innovative culture in an organisation will drive the organisation towards favorable and successful change.

Attitude and Commitment

Most of the researches have shown that employees need to develop their attitude and behaviours for successful organizational performance (Bernerth, 2004). Therefore, it is indispensable for the organizational managers to develop and nurture employees’ commitment towards embracing change by bringing positive change in their attitude and behaviour. However, Anderson and Anderson (n.d) stressed that employees’ mindset, which is the root cause of one’s feelings, decisions and actions, has to be changed to bring organizational change. When introducing change people aspect is more critical than just about changes in systems and processes. Rather it is about people believing in change and wanting it to happen (Soosay and Sloan (2005 p.4). Since organisational change requires the participation of people, those involved must first undergo personal change for the success of organisational change (Evans, 1994).

Organisation Performance as drivers

Both the present and past performance are also drivers of organisational change. Some earlier researchers have pointed out that poor performance, that creates the gap between managerial aspirations and achievements, is an extra impetus for the firms to improve further (Greve, 1998; Tushman and Romanelli, 1985). On the other hand some researchers argue that successful companies continuously draw motivation from their success to improve and perform better for sustainable future, especially they face an uncertain environments ( Feldman, 2004; Tsoukas and Chia, 2002).in (Zhou, Tse and Li, 2006). The better a firm performs, the more likely it will invest in new product development and technology advancement to achieve a sustainable competitive advantage (Zhou, Tse and Li, 2006; p.251). As Brown and Eisenhardt (1997) observe, many successful firms, such as Intel, 3M, Hewlett-Packard, and Gillette, have undertaken constant, rapid changes, particularly in their new product development. For example companies like Apple, Microsoft and Samsung companies have undergone continuous rapid changes in development of new product.

Conclusion

The main purpose of this essay was to prove the advantages of responding to internal drivers than to external drivers while introducing change in the organisation. From this study it was found out that internal drivers are within the organisation that has direct impact on its everyday performance. Therefore, they are within the control and management capacity of the organization. If the internal performance, system, culture and resources of an organisation are excellent it is certain that any obstacles posed from the external environments can be nullified leading to very successful organizational change. Whereas external drivers are existed in the external environment of the firm and those are beyond the control and reach of the organisation. Yet, they can affect the internal functions of the organisation causing instability. Hence the external drivers are not to be undermined rather internal drivers must be activated towards meeting change in line with external drivers.

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The Classical World: essay help online

The Classical Era, which flourished from the 8th century BC to the 5th century AD, saw the birth and spread of Greco-Roman ideas. These ideas became the basis for western civilization and laid a foundation of culture that has remained as relevant now as it was in ancient times. Ancient Greece, and later Ancient Rome, cemented their own ideals in the universal consciousness as the cultural standard to which all later societies were held to, and continue to shape contemporary perspective on art, architecture, and government, and other facets of modern society. Despite the core differences of modern and classical times and the centuries that have passed since, the knowledge and perspectives passed down by the Ancient Greeks and Romans remain an essential part of contemporary society and culture, while inspiring western civilization’s greatest accomplishments.

The cultural impact of Ancient Greece and Rome begins most tangibly with the Renaissance, a movement beginning in Florence and spanning through the 14th and 17th centuries. This period is seen as a revival of classical antiquity, with Renaissance scholars, artists, philosophers, and writers attempting to emulate what they considered to be a “golden age,” taking inspiration directly from their Greco-Roman forefathers, with their presence increasingly regarded as an intellectual heritage to be mined for contemporary use. The Florentine author Niccolò Machiavelli, for example, described his nightly retreats into his library in these memorable words:

“At the door I take off my muddy everyday clothes. I dress myself as though I were about to appear before a royal court as a Florentine envoy. Then decently attired I enter the antique courts of the great men of antiquity. They receive me with friendship; from them I derive the nourishment which alone is mine and for which I was born. Without false shame I talk with them and ask them the causes of the actions; and their humanity is so great they answer me. For four long and happy hours I lose myself in them. I forget all my troubles; I am not afraid of poverty or death. I transform myself entirely in their likeness.”

Francesco Petrarca, commonly anglicized as Petrarch, was a scholar who rediscovered the letters of Cicero, a Roman statesman, orator, lawyer and philosopher and one of Rome’s greatest orators and prose stylists. This rediscovery is considered to have initiated the Renaissance, as scholars became interested in learning how the ancients developed their human faculties, powers, and culture, and in turn attempted to apply their findings to their contemporary societies. Through this discovery, Petrarch became the “Father of Renaissance humanism,” humanism being a Renaissance cultural movement that turned away from medieval scholasticism and revived interest in ancient Greek and Roman thought. Petrarch firmly believed that classical writings were not just relevant to his own age but saw in them moral guidance that could reform humanity, a key principle of Renaissance Humanism. The humanists of the Renaissance believed that their mission was to revive the high Roman style of writing pure and eloquent Latin. When that flourished, they believed, art would as well.

The republican elites of Florence and Venice and the ruling families of Milan, Ferrara, and Urbino hired humanists to teach their children classical morality and to write elegant, classical letters, histories, and propaganda. Eventually, the humanism inspired by the study of the Greco-Roman world would bleed into the Catholic Church, a formidable and almost omnipotent deity of the Middle Ages. In the course of the fifteenth century, the humanists convinced most of the popes that the papacy needed their skills. Sophisticated classical scholars were hired to write official correspondence and propaganda to create an image of the popes as powerful, enlightened, modern rulers of the Church and to apply their scholarly tools to the church’s needs, including writing a more classical form of the Mass. Scholars wrote Latin letters and histories on behalf of the popes, and they even tinkered with the church’s traditional liturgy, trying to make prayers and hymns attractively classical. Humanist secretaries and popes wrote dazzling Latin. Though humanism, and therefore classical thinking, never truly permeated the Catholic Church fully, there was an influence of Ancient Greece and Rome on the Church and its leaders.

An easier and far more blatant appreciation of classical antiquity was seen clearly in the art and architecture of the Renaissance. Contrapposto, a sculptural scheme which was revived during the Renaissance, was originated by the Ancient Greeks. It is used when the standing human figure is poised in such a way that the weight rests on one leg (called the engaged leg), freeing the other leg, which is bent at the knee. With the weight shift, the hips, shoulders, and head tilt, suggesting relaxation with the subtle internal organic movement that denotes life. The Greeks invented this formula in the early 5th century BC as an alternative to the stiffly static pose—in which the weight is distributed equally on both legs—that had dominated Greek figure sculpture in earlier periods. Italian Renaissance artists such as Donatello and Andrea del Verrocchio revived the classical formula, giving it the name contrapposto, which suggests the action and reaction of the various parts of the figure, and enriching the conception by scientific anatomical study.

Donatello borrowed from the ancients with his bronze sculpture of David, the biblical hero known for defeating Goliath. Donatello’s David was the first freestanding bronze cast statue of the Renaissance era as well as the first nude sculpture of a male since the classical sculptures of ancient Greece. In Middle Ages, nudity was not used in art except in certain moral contexts, such as the depiction of Adam and Eve, or the sending of souls off to hell.  In the classical world, nudity was often used in a different, majestic context, such as with figures who were gods, heroes, or athletes.  Here, Donatello seems to be calling to mind the type of heroic nudity of antiquity, since David is depicted at a triumphal point in the biblical narrative of his victory over Goliath. In any case, Donatello’s David is a classic work of Renaissance sculpture, given its Judaeo-Christian subject matter modeled on a classical sculptural type.

Another artwork inspired heavily by ancient antiquity would be Botticelli’s painting titled, Birth of Venus. The theme of the Birth of Venus was taken from the writings of the ancient poet, Homer.  According to the traditional account, after Venus was born, she rode on a seashell and sea foam to the island of Cythera.  In the painting, Venus is prominently depicted in the center, born out of the foam as she rides to shore.  On the left, the figure of Zephyrus carries the nymph Chloris (alternatively identified as “Aura”) as he blows the wind to guide Venus. On shore, a figure who has been identified as Pomona, or as the goddess of Spring, waits for Venus with mantle in hand.  The mantle billows in the wind from Zephyrus’ mouth.The story of the Birth of Venus is well described below by a Homeric hymn but its relevance to the painting is disputed as the poem was only published, by the Greek refugee Demetrios Chalcondyles, in Florence in 1488 (five years after the painting was completed as a wedding gift for Lorenzo di Pierfrancesco de’ Medici in 1483).

Of august gold-wreathed and beautiful

Aphrodite I shall sing to whose domain

belong the battlements of all sea-loved

Cyprus where, blown by the moist breath

of  Zephyros, she was carried over the waves

of the resounding sea on soft foam.

The gold-filleted Horae happily welcomed her

and clothed her with heavenly raiment.

The model for Venus in this painting has traditionally been associated with Simonetta Vespucci – who had been a muse for Botticelli,  and was seen as the model for female beauty throughout Florence – especially for the Medici family for whom this painting had been created. There is added credence to this suggestion from the fact that she was born in the Ligurian fishing village of  PortoVenere – called Port of Venus because there was a little Temple to Venus there from 1st Century BC.

The other model for the pose of Venus in the painting was possibly the Medici Venus, a first century BC statue depicting Aphrodite in a Venus pudica pose. It is actually a marble copy of an original bronze Greek sculpture that Botticelli would have had an opportunity to study whilst visiting the sculpture school or the Platonic Academy which flourished at the family home of the Medici in Florence.

The demand for this type of scene, of course, was humanism, which was alive and well in the court of Lorenzo d’Medici in the 1480s.  Here, Renaissance humanism was open not only to the use of a pagan sculpture as a model, but also a pagan narrative for the subject matter, and although the Birth of Venus is not a work which employed Renaissance perspectival innovations, the elegance of the classical subject matter was something that would have intrigued wealthy Florentines who patronized this type of work.

The discovery of particular texts had enormous implications on Renaissance architecture. For example, with the discovery of the works of Vitruvius, an architect at the time of Augustus, there was an explosion of interest in ancient building. Vitruvius wrote an extremely important volume, De architectura libri decem (Ten books on architecture), where he introduced three principles to architecture: Firmatis  (durability), Utilitas (utility), and Venustatis (beauty). Vitruvius talked about ancient buildings in a very significant way, not only in terms of practicality, but in an abstract way which emphasized what the buildings represented in both art and society. Similarly to how ancient texts could be applied to the values and aesthetics of contemporary Italians in the 15th century, so could ancient buildings be reduced to an essence, or a set of principles and ideals, that could be applied to the needs of 15th-century Italians, despite their differences from 1st-century Romans.

In particular, we can see in the career of Leon Battista Alberti, who was born in 1404 and died in 1472, how these ideas could be distilled into a set of principles that could apply to the conditions of the Italian world. Alberti wrote De re aedificatoria, or On Building. His work can be considered highly derivative, but Alberti’s purpose was quite different: to take an ancient text and apply it to the needs of his own time. Not only did he write a theoretical treatise on architecture, but he then went out and built buildings. In particular, in Florence, he designed the facade of the Palazzo Rucellai from 1452 to 1470, in which, again, the Vitruvian orders appear and in which the ideas of ancient building are made useful to a Florentine palace for a wealthy merchant.

In the more modern world, there is a wealth of Greco-Roman influence over the inception of the United States of America and its government. For example, the men who inspired the American Revolution and wrote the American Constitution were heavily influenced by the classical Greek and Roman world. The American founding fathers were well educated individuals, and they all had significant experience with ancient Greek and Roman authors since childhood. Historian Bernard Bailyn states, “knowledge of classical authors was universal among colonists with any degree of education.” Thomas Jefferson, writer of the Declaration of Independence, was taught Greek and Latin from the age of nine, and Benjamin Franklin received instruction in Latin at grammar school and became proficient in both Latin and Greek later in life. In Franklin’s Autobiography, frequent references are made to classical western figures, such as Cicero and Cato. James Madison learned Greek and Latin as a child, and “immersed himself in the histories of Greece and Rome.”

With classical schooling such an integral part of the founding fathers’ education, America’s first political leaders studied the works of the great Greek Philosophers, including Plato and Aristotle. Polybius, a less celebrated but still influential thinker, also left his mark upon the American framers of the Constitution. Through Polybius, the founding fathers were introduced to the Roman Republic as the “mixed government” described by Plato and Aristotle. They used Greek philosophy and the model of Roman Republican government in order to form a new nation based on ancient principles.

Philosophers from classical Greece proposed the separation of powers in government, an idea that the American founders adopted for their new nation. In addition, The Roman Republic  (509-27 BC) served as a direct model of government for the writers of the constitution.  Greek and Roman political thought was critical in shaping the government of the United States of America.

Plato writes that that a strong state should contain elements of both democracy and tyranny, so that the state has a mixed government. His political philosophy, particularly his idea of a “mixed” constitution, would have far reaching effects among later philosophers. His mixed government would ultimately be brought to life in the American Constitution.

Aristotle believed that a mixed government, like the one described by Plato, would halt the decline of government into anarchy. In Aristotle’s mixed constitution, defined in his work The Politics, there were to be three branches of government: “All constitutions have three elements, concerning which the good lawgiver has to regard what is expedient for each constitution…There is one element which deliberates about public affairs [“legislative” branch]; secondly, that concerned with the magistrates [“executive” branch]…and thirdly that which has judicial power.”

This three-tiered mixed government of Aristotle would ultimately find its way into the Constitution. Aristotle also established the principle that the rulers of a state should be subject to the same laws as the rest of the populace; to Aristotle, the rule of law is better than the authority of “even the best man.” This concept of a “ruling official subject to the law” is an integral idea to modern government, where all political figures are supposed to be subject to the same legal code as the average citizen.

In addition to the foundation of government inspired by the ancient world, the influence of classical antiquity can be seen in some of America’s most iconic architecture. Prevalent between about 1780 and 1830, Federal style drew inspiration from the Greco-Romans. The influence of Ancient Greek architecture is apparent in the use of columns and colonnades. Thomas Jefferson was an architect during the Federal period, and he designed not only his own home, Monticello, but the campus of the University of Virginia in Charlottesville in this style.

Greek Revival architecture also became widespread in the U.S., and in the middle of the 19th century it became known as the national style, as it was used extensively in houses and smaller public buildings of that time. This style generally featured the Doric Order in larger buildings, and simpler Doric columns topped with a small pediment (without a frieze) in houses. The first major public building built in this style was the Second Bank of the United States, built in Philadelphia between 1819 and 1824, though most famous is the Lincoln Memorial, its exterior echoing that of the Parthenon.

The heritage of the classical world has been one which later societies have taken and made relevant to their own contemporary aesthetics, visions, and ambitions. From the Renaissance to the formation of the United States, Greco-Roman ideals have paved the way and inspired art, architecture, and civic duty, all the while remaining the standard for which culture strains to meet. Despite its antiquity, the classical world has remained both relevant, adaptable, and innovative, inspiring some of western civilization’s greatest feats.

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Power dynamics in psychotherapy – reflective literature review

Choice of topic

On receiving the assessment paperwork for my client, I felt overwhelmed and challenged by her status, and that she had previously worked with my placement director. My first reaction, was that I would not be good enough for her as a trainee.

When discussing my responses with my supervisor, she helped me to identify where this had come from, and the skills and knowledge that I had would be beneficial to this client.

To build up a working alliance, Finlay (2016), p.15, with this client, who I will refer to as Kirsty, (not her real name), the progress was slow, and I became very aware of my own counter- transferential feelings. There were areas of her narrative which I felt really in contact with.

Conducting the search

An on-line search Google scholar, using terms like, ‘The Dance of Power’ which returned results of 51, 200,000. Further searches were conducted which brought back similar figures

I then altered the search criteria to ‘The Dance of the Counter-transferential Phenomena’ which brought back 34 Items and this search was done via Wiley on-line Library. This appeared more manageable, and a further search via the same library with a different search term, ‘Undoing Trauma’ brought back just one result. This still was not what I was looking for, so I chose to remain with the search criteria of power within the therapeutic relationship.

So, within the literature, Webster’s dictionary defines power as; ‘the ability to act’ and ‘the capacity to produce and effect’ and ‘the possession of control, authority or influence over others’

Proctor (2017) states how she defines power as being related to how society is formed, and groups of people, who differ from the ‘norm’ have less access to power. These groups could be women, disabled, Black minority ethnic (BME) or working-class people, gay or lesbians. Male or females, young or old.

She suggests that these groups could be oppressed members of society who may have experienced violence or intimidation and who have little experience of power within the relationship.

The history of power within the therapeutic relationship dates to Machiavelli in the 16th century and Hobbes in the 17th century as cited by Proctor, (2017). These two theorists had different views when talking about power. It was not until the twentieth century that Hobbes view of a modernist theory was favoured. Clegg (1989) Hobbes theory of power influenced the basis of thinking around power from a modernist and structural viewpoint.

The modernists view.

This was a new form of expression that was developed in the nineteenth and twentieth centuries. This was the era when counselling and psychotherapy developed. McLeod (2009) p. 37

The Structural Theories.

These theories lie within the context of modernism and take a single point of view, that is concrete and belongs to a person. It is assumed that power is an experience that can be found in the form of economic, social, physical, or psychological capacity. For instance, Day (2010) cites Robert Dahl (1957) as, “A has the power over B to the extent that he can get B to do something that B would not otherwise do”.

These theories have emphasised the controlling, oppressive and negative angle of power. These structural theories have been critiqued as it assumes that the power is always ‘power over’ another.

Lukes, (1974) argued that it is the ability of one person, to get another, to do something that (s)he might not otherwise do. He argues that this power is a result of conflict between actors to determine who wins and who loses.

However, Arendt, (1963) saw power as being related to people joining together and making unbreakable promises. Arendt observed a difference between ‘power’ within relationships and ‘authority’ that is given to an individual because of their role. Hindess, (1996) suggests that this moves power towards a relational process and relying on the consent of others.

Post-Modern Theories

Elias, (1978) suggests that power is not something a person owns, but it is a trait of human relationships. This view is supported by Lukes, (1974). Elias further suggests that power relations are formed in relationship and that it is a result of living together and interdependence. This phenomenon is like a game of tug of war; a trial of strength between two sides pulling against each other. Oxford English Reference Dictionary (1996), p. 1548

Foucault

Foucault suggested that power follows the concepts of Nietzsche in that knowledge and thought, theories and discourses are penetrated by values, Daudi, 1986 as cited by Proctor 2017. This approach formed the basis of Foucault’s work. He sees this power relationship as not responding to others, but on their actions. Thus, it is an action upon an action. Day, (2010).

This view of power suggests that power is inherent in all relationships so it both enables and limits actions, thereby helping individuals to broaden their boundaries, Hayward, (1998)

From this perspective, “Power is everywhere…because it comes from everywhere”. Foucault (1980). Power is involved in all social interactions, because ideas operate behind all language and action. Lukes (1974).

Foucault focused on how power was used in society, such as sexuality, (1976), madness, (1967) or criminality, (1977). He looked at the aims of those involved and the tactics they used to achieve those aims and the counter actions of others to achieve the same objective. In his deconstruction of the power within these institutions, he defines ‘disciplinary power’. He defines this as “comprising a whole set of instruments, techniques, procedures, levels of application, targets”. Foucault, (1977), p.215. He emphasised the ‘struggle’ that occurs between individuals and groups in society as the discord is taken up in response to the behaviours of others. Day, (2010) suggests power operates systematically within a society not from above.

Perspectives of Power in the Psychotherapy Relationship

Whilst searching the literature, I struggled to find any published research. Where references have been uncovered, these have been philosophical or theoretical perspectives on the subject; or individual accounts of personal and professional experience. Sanders, c (2017), Totton,(2009), Amitay, (2017), Lazarus, (2015).

Positions of Power

From the literature, there appears to be four philosophical positions:

Power as a destructive and oppressive force in the psychotherapy relationship;
The psychotherapy Relationship as a process of liberation and empowerment of the client.
Power as a relational, inter-subjective process in the psychotherapy relationship; and
The denial of the existence of power in the psychotherapy relationship.

At the end of the 1980’s, the central thoughts about how the imbalances between the therapist and client can result in oppressive and destructive outcomes for clients. The following debates concentrated on the abuse of sexual boundaries and forms of discrimination and prejudice against minority groups. Bates, (2006); Lago, (2006); Masson, (1989); Smail, 1995. The way the psychotherapeutic relationship exists between the client and therapist means that there is a potential for abusive relationships in the dialogue between the client and therapist. Spinelli, (1994). This reflects a structural position on power, Day, (2010), Proctor, (2017). So, the therapist in these circumstances, has ‘power over’ the client which renders them ‘powerless’ and vulnerable.

Within the literature, Masson (1989), describes power in the therapy room as having destructive elements and that the therapy could be a form of abuse. Another form of destructive power, could be therapist abusing the client by disrespecting the sexual boundaries, Chesler, (1972), Sonne and Pope, (1991) and Gabbard, (1996).

It is suggested that these destructive ways can operate at an unconscious level thus leaving the client vulnerable to past, negative experiences. Herman, (1992) believes that it is important for the therapist to avoid using their ‘power over’ Proctor, (2017), p. 13 the client for their own needs or to direct the client’s life decisions. Day, (2010).

The British Association for Counselling and Psychotherapy, (BACP) state that under their Ethical Framework, the counsellor has a commitment to avoid harm towards the client, (2015).

It is assumed from this point of view that power is dangerous and destructive to those who are powerless. Often power is viewed from an ethical or moral basis, looking at what is right or wrong. In simple terms, power is either ‘good’ or ‘bad’. Furggeri, (1992). This view assumes that is a possession, that is in limited supply and this then forms a structural perspective of power. The client is seen as powerless and the therapist powerful. It could be argued that this is an extreme form of domination and repression. Thus, power is viewed as monolithic, unitary and unidirectional. Procter, (2002)

Psychotherapy as Empowerment for the Client.

An alternative perspective of power is seen as positive with the therapist power being good. Psychotherapy is an empowering process for the client and thus enables the client’s autonomy. This line of argument is seen in humanistic literature, feminist literature. Brown, (1994). The British Psychological Society’s (BPS), 2009 division of counselling psychology, states explicitly that it works to ‘empower the client’.

Carl Rogers was one of the first proponents of this. Rogers suggested that the therapist’s role was to avoid power over the client and also refrain from making decisions for them. Rogers supported the client’s autonomy and how they achieved this. So, the decisions are made by the client for themselves. Rogers, (1978)

Bozarth, (1998) argues that the crux of this theory is that the therapist does not intervene. Natiello, (1990), states, “…. Offers a morality of power as well as a methodology for arriving at that morality”. (p 268). She maintains that the person-centred approach offers the client the opportunity to claim his or her own personal power rather than being reliant on the power of others.

Similarly, Freud theories of psychoanalysis argue for the analysist to use their power of rational authority to free the mind of the client.

Fromm, (1956) argues that over the duration of therapy, the client frees and cures themselves from an attachment to irrational authority. Benjamin,(1995) challenged Freud’s position states “ Already idealised for his knowledge and power – his power to know her – the analyst is now internalised in the relationship of knowledge as power over self, a practice in the domination of self whose meaning Foucault (1980) has made unforgettably problematic” p. 154

Frosh, (1987) states that object relations, like psychoanalysis, sets itself up in the feeing of a person’s psyche. He argues that its objectives are to free the client from fixations created by ‘bad’ experiences and to promote internalisation of the more nurturing possibilities experienced in the relationship with the therapist.

This assumes the client is powerless and vulnerable and the therapist has the power to empower the client. Client’s therefore are viewed as powerless. This could be seen as a structural position where power is either ‘good’ or ‘bad’ and one either has it or not. A moral argument could be where one form of power is ‘right’ and others are ‘wrong’.

A Relationship of Mutuality

The psychotherapeutic relationship is viewed as one of mutuality. Aron, (1996) views this as involving mutual generation of data, mutual regulation of the relationship, mutual recognition of the others autonomy and openness on the part of the therapist as to their client’s impact upon them. Aron argues that power is dynamic that is constantly struggled with in therapy and therefore needs ‘to be continually examined, articulated and worked through’, p151. He suggests that therapists need to question their decisions with regards to ethics as well as questioning their authority and domination in the relationship, referenced in Proctor, (2002) p 133.

Frosh, (1987) believes that the objectives for therapy is to allow the client to explore the power in therapy as it copies and reminds the client of internalised introjects from their formative years. He suggests that an approach which is politicised and recognises the reality of social structures. He argues that part of the difficulties relating to change is that people need to identify, re-experience and re-frame these introjects to help to give them a new meaning in their life. Totton, (2000) argues that it is the therapist’s role to help the client find another genuine and authentic psycho- political position. The relational position, therefore sees the power dynamics as being central in the therapeutic relationship. It is suggested that power is aligned to knowledge and neither the client or the therapist can ‘know’. Thus, it is thought that it is present in all relationships rather than being a possession of the client or therapist. It is therefore unavoidable and potentially both positive and negative. Proctor, (2002) it could be argued that this view, might undermine the role of structural differences in power in society reducing it to an intersubjective process.

Concluding thoughts of the literature

Relational perspectives in psychotherapy have started to think about ‘power’ as dynamic and inevitable. Proctor, (2017). However, despite this recognition of power, the discourse on the power dynamics in psychotherapy has remained at a philosophical level. Much of the literature can be seen as a critique of other psychological therapy or it attempts to show how therapists can misuse the power differential with their clients. The question to be explored and researched further would be how psychotherapists experience the phenomenon of power with their client’s and how it can be worked with in a clinical setting.

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Annotated Bibliography – Faculty Of Color At Community Colleges

A significant number of students of color in institutions of higher education are taught by faculty at community colleges. In a report published in 2015, the National Center for Educational Statistics found that 38 percent of undergraduate students attended public and private two-year colleges, of all full-time undergraduates, 24 percent attended community colleges and among all students who completed a degree at a four-year college in 2015–16, 49 percent had enrolled at a two-year college in the previous 10 years (NCES, 2015). Moreover, in fall 2014, it was reported that 56 percent of Hispanic undergraduates were enrolled at community colleges, while 44 percent of Black students and 39 percent of White students were at community colleges (Ginder, Kelly-Reid & Mann, 2017).

Institutions of higher education have historically been and remain majority white spaces within teaching positions. At research institutions, over 91% of full professors are white and 75% are male (Minor, 2014). At community colleges, 85% of all regular, full-time public 2-year college faculty members were White (non-Hispanic), 6% were Black or African American (non-Hispanic), 4% were Hispanic, 3% were Asian and=or Pacific Islanders, and only 0.5% were American Indian or Alaska Natives (Hardy & Laanan, 2006).

The majority of publications focused on faculty experiences at community colleges has focused on white faculty (Twombly & Townsend, 2008). In light of the data and research conducted on faculty of color at majority white institutions, it is critical to gain an understanding of the experiences of faculty of color at community colleges, within dimensions of their work life, the impact of institutional factors and structures, their identities as professors and the impact of racism (Twombly & Townsend, 2008). This annotated bibliography will present research that explores these areas in an attempt to gain a better understanding of faculty of color at community colleges.

Job Satisfaction

Bower, B. L. (2002). Campus life for faculty of color: Still strangers after all these years? New Directions for Community Colleges, 2002(118), 79-88. doi:10.1002/cc.66

Using the 2000 Center for the Study of Community Colleges faculty survey and qualitative data gathered by authors this qualitative study of 154 minority faculty in New York, California and Florida Explored the attitudes and experiences of minority faculty at community colleges. They found that in comparison to non-minority counterparts, minority faculty were less likely to indicate that their position contains nonteaching responsibilities, more likely to teach in an interdisciplinary team and see transfer as a primary function of the community college, in contract nonminority faculty see training for a new job-entry skill as the most important function. Additionally, they were more likely to think an administrative position would be attractive and more financially lucrative, and desire to pursue a doctorate. Minority faculty agreed that the college provides professional development opportunities and would chose academic life again in given a choose to do it over, and were more likely to disagree with claims that discriminatory practices against women and minority faculty and admins are exaggerated. This survey tool was not designed to capture more nuanced differences in responses between minority and nonminority faculty and provides only a snapshot of their experiences.

Flowers, L. A. (2005). Job Satisfaction Differentials Among African American Faculty At 2-Year And4-Year Institutions. Community College Journal of Research and Practice, 29(4), 317-328. doi:10.1080/10668920590911896

This article presents the results of a study that explored descriptive data from a national survey of full and part time faculty assessing the extent to which African American faculty at 2-year and 4-year institutions differ in their job satisfaction. Overall, the findings revealed that African American faculty at 2-year institutions are more likely to report being very satisfied with their jobs than African American faculty at 4-year institutions. African American faculty at 2-year institutions are more likely to experience greater levels of contentment with various aspects of their jobs. For each motivating factor African American faculty were more likely to report higher levels of job satisfaction whereas for each hygiene factor faculty at 2-year as well as 4-year institutions were more likely to report greater levels of job dissatisfaction. This finding supported research that found that satisfaction with work is more likely to come from intrinsic or content factors. No analysis was done of gender differences among African American faculty with regards job satisfaction and qualitative data could not capture nuances associated with this field of inquiry.

Levin, J. S., Jackson-Boothby, A., Haberler, Z., & Walker, L. (2015). “Dangerous Work”: Improving Conditions for Faculty of Color in the Community College. Community College Journal of Research and Practice, 39(9), 852-864. doi:10.1080/10668926.2014.917596

This article presents the results of a qualitative investigation of the experiences of faculty of color at community colleges, identifies the current conditions for this population and suggests opportunities for changing the conditions that inhibit their job satisfaction. A sample of 36 fulltime and part-time faculty from four California community colleges shared experiences as both community college faculty and faculty of color. Dangerous work refers to the work of challenging an engrained power structure resistant to change. Findings indicated that faculty perceived necessary institutional change at the deep structural level may be improbable to achieve at the community college. The resulting increase in faculty of color should this change occur would highlight the experiences of faculty of color and lead to a campus that supports both their professional and social identities so as not to have them in opposition. Faculty of color would express confidence in their self-efficacy and agency to effect change at their college, so that their efforts at institutional change is not dangerous work.

Mamiseishvili, K. (2010). Characteristics, Job Satisfaction, and Workplace Perceptions of Foreign-Born Faculty at Public 2-Year Institutions. Community College Review, 39(1), 26-45. doi:10.1177/0091552110394650

This article discusses study uses the data from the 2004 National Study of Postsecondary Faculty to examine the characteristics, job satisfaction, and workplace perceptions of the foreign-born group of the professoriate at public 2-year institutions relative to their U.S.-born peers. International faculty members in community colleges have been mostly overlooked in the literature and can serve as a valuable resource as community colleges grow internationalization efforts. Together with other minority faculty groups, foreign-born faculty members, with their diverse cultural and language backgrounds, can be instrumental in serving increasingly diverse student populations in community colleges nationwide. Foreign-born faculty members are a heterogeneous group of individuals with diverse cultural, language, and national backgrounds and much more racially diverse than their U.S. born peers. They are mostly employed at community colleges located in large or midsize cities and less represented at rural 2-year colleges and reported lower satisfaction and more negative perceptions with all aspects of their jobs than U.S.-born faculty members. The findings of this study may help 2-year institutions more effectively attract and retain foreign-born faculty members and provide them with a rewarding and supportive workplace.

Rosser, V. J., & Townsend, B. K. (2006). Determining public 2-year college faculty’s intent to leave: An empirical model. The Journal of Higher Education, 77(1), 124-147.

This article explores the findings of a study of two year college faculty intent to leave by looking at the influence of demographics, workplace variables and job satisfaction. Worklife variables included administrative support and facilities, professional development and technology support. Job satisfaction measured intrinsic factors such as decision-making authority, student advising, course preparation s and workload. 968 full and part time faculty were surveyed. The study found that overall public community college faculty are well satisfied with their worklife. Being employed at a 4-year prior to 2-year had a significant and negative impact on faculty satisfaction. For faculty of color it being a female or an ethnic minority faculty member had no significant impact on perceptions of worklife, satisfaction and intent to leave. Older faculty and those in their position linger were most satisfied and less likely to leave. Findings also revealed that part-time faculty were more likely to leave for another position either within or outside of the academe, and for fulltime faculty, benefits and security were not seen as a significant contributor to dissatisfaction. Faculty worklife is of critical importance to community college faculty and impact overall levels of satisfaction.

Gendered Dynamics

Singh, K., Robinson, A., & Williams-Green, J. (1995). Differences in Perceptions of African American Women and Men Faculty and Administrators. The Journal of Negro Education, 64(4), 401. doi:10.2307/2967263

This article reports on a study of African American men and women college faculty and administrators in the areas of promotion, tenure, institutional climate and professional life. The 413 survey participants came from the Virginia Black Faculty and Administrators Association and represented research institutions, 4-year traditionally White institutions, 4-year HBCUs and two-year community colleges. The survey found that women were disproportionality concentrated in assistant professorship while men held higher ranks. Both sexes found that leave policies at their institutions were fair, and that promotion and tenure requirements were clearly defined. Differences were found with regards perception of salaries, and overall African American women were less satisfied with the climate and organizational culture. While the survey did not report any differences by institutions, it identified the differences in realities between African American men and women in higher education, and emphasizes the need for more research to identify these more nuances differences.

Dey, E. L., Korn, J. S., & Sax, L. J. (1996). Betrayed by the Academy: The Sexual Harassment of Women College Faculty. The Journal of Higher Education, 67(2), 149. doi:10.2307/2943978

This article discusses a study focused on the incidence and the apparent effects of sexual harassment among faculty women found that there is a tendency for harassment to be higher in public institutions and at universities relative to four-year institutions. Faculty in four-year colleges and universities are no more likely to be harassed than those in two year colleges, though rates of harassment reported at public two-year colleges appeared to be relatively low, and could not be compared to private two-year colleges due to the lack of a representative sample of faculty from private institutions. Women who are married or with a partner being significantly less likely to be harassed. The study did find that harassment fundamentally alters the way a woman faculty member views the institutional climate where harassed women are much more likely to hold negative views of institutional norms toward respect for others, fairness toward women, and manner in which the campus administration operates. Relative to White women, only Native American are statistically more likely to report being harassed, whereas Asian American and African American significantly less likely and Latinas were about the same. Findings did not lend support to the idea that faculty of color are more likely to be harassed.

Hagedorn, L. S., & Laden, B. V. (2002). Exploring the climate for women as community college faculty. New Directions for Community Colleges, 2002(118), 69-78. doi:10.1002/cc.65

This article provides a literature review as well as analyses of a national dataset of responses of community college faculty to examine the climate at the nation’s two-year colleges, as little research has been done to examine the perceived conditions of women faculty in community colleges. The dataset included response from 743 male and 740 female faculty from across the country. The findings revealed statistical evidence of a difference in perceptions of discrimination by gender and race: women were more likely than men to perceive discrimination and women of color were even more likely than men and white women to perceive discrimination. Findings also revealed that women of color perceived a different climate than white women, which may indicate undercurrents of attitudes or events that could not be measure in the questionnaire. Additionally, women faculty do not report higher levels of dissatisfaction or a greater propensity to leave the academe. The authors suggest qualitative research that could add to a more rounded analysis.

Jackson, J. F. (2008). Race Segregation Across the Academic Workforce. American Behavioral Scientist, 51(7), 1004-1029. doi:10.1177/0002764207312003

This article discusses a study that attempts to identify factors that may influence hiring decisions in higher education of African American men who were found to be disadvantaged in the higher education workforce. The data was sourced from a national study of college faculty and instructors. The resulting sample found that the largest percentage of men (African American and White) was employed at 2-year colleges. In terms of income and employment opportunities, previous studies have indicated that African American men fare less well than their White counterparts in the academic workforce, including a recent study by the author that found the hiring practices in higher education had a disparate effect on African American men. This study examined the extent to which human capital and merit-based performance measures are critical criteria for decision making within the overall hiring practices in higher education of African American and White men. The study found that while both measures were good employment predictors for White men, they were not good employment predictors for African American men. Only five variables in the study were statistically significant across all logistic regression models for African American men suggesting that another set of variables may be a better predictor for African American men.

Lester, J. (2009). Not Your Child’s Playground: Workplace Bullying Among Community College Faculty. Community College Journal of Research and Practice, 33(5), 444-462. doi:10.1080/10668920902728394

This article explores a study examining the prevalence of workplace bullying among and between community college faulty to better understand the nature of harassment and the ways in which women define and respond to it. Six fulltime women faculty at urban community colleges were part of this ethnographic study. Community colleges have provided an entree into higher education for many women, yet, women faculty perceive the overall climate of community colleges as ‘‘chilly.’’ Workplace bullying is a form of interpersonal aggression that has implications for how individuals perceive the organizational climate, job productivity, and job satisfaction. Findings from this study indicate that workplace bullying among faculty includes many subtle practices characterized by informal and formal use of power, faculty workplace bullying is affected by several enabling structures specific to the context, and victims typically respond with avoidance. Women faculty are often marginalized as ‘‘catty women’’. Women of color were discriminated against in addition to being bullied in an all-male and primarily White department, as bullying is often aligned with sexism and racism. Organizations that have undergone recent leadership changes, have large bureaucracies, and a history of tolerant cultures have more incidences of bullying as especially susceptible to bullying as the destabilized power environment creates anxiety.

Oakes, J. L. (2008). Tenure and promotion differentials for women faculty and faculty of color at public two year colleges in the United States (Doctoral dissertation, University of Denver)

This dissertation study explores the extent to which race/ethnicity are related to tenure status and academic rank of two-year faculty, given that a lower percentage of faculty of color hold tenure at community colleges. . Data for this study were obtained from the 2004 National Survey of Postsecondary Faculty and revealed no significant gender difference in the attainment of the rank of full professor, though Caucasian faculty maintained an advantage over faculty of color regarding attainment of the rank of full professor, an advantage that was even more pronounced within centralized community college systems, suggesting that centralized community college systems differ in their promotion and tenure decisions from non-centralized colleges. The odds of being tenured were significantly lower for all faculty (regardless of gender or race/ethnicity) employed at institutions in which respondents reported perceptions of fair treatment for faculty of color. Union status, emerged as a significant predictor of tenure.

Opp, R. D., & Gosetti, P. P. (2002). Women full-time faculty of color in 2-year colleges: A trend and predictive analysis. Community College Journal of Research &Practice, 26(7-8), 609-627.

This article discussed the results of a study of the trend and predictive analyses to examine changes in the proportional representation of women full-time faculty by race/ethnicity from 1991 to 1997. Knowledge of the status of women of color within faculty ranks in two year colleges is limited and important in light of successful legal challenges and ballot initiatives against affirmative action policies. The sample included 1,024 matched two-year colleges and revealed that women full-time faculty from all racial/ ethnic groups experienced an increase in their proportional representation, with white women faculty achieving the largest increase. African American women full- time faculty experienced their greatest increase at Hispanic-serving institutions (HSIs). The higher a 2-year college’s percentage of women administrators of color, the more likely it was to experience an increase in its proportional representation of women full-time faculty of color, suggesting that a critical mass of women administrators of color is an essential ingredient in enhancing the number of women full-time faculty of color in 2- year colleges. The larger the 2-year college, the greater was its increase in proportional representation of women full-time faculty.

Patitu, C. L., & Hinton, K. G. (2003). The experiences of African American women faculty and administrators in higher education: Has anything changed? New Directions for Student Services, 2003(104), 79-93. doi:10.1002/ss.109

This article explores the experiences and concerns of African American women faculty and administrators using data from two recent studies comprised of faculty and staff from both 2-year and 4-year institutions. Participants cited racism, sexism, and homophobia as particular concerns and stressed the need for support in hostile environments at predominantly white institutions that were characterized by conflicting information, unwritten rules, lack of direction and mentoring, and nitpicking or triviality. African American administrators felt race was more salient, and being a woman – less threatening – in their efforts to retain their positions and seek promotion. Many learn coping and survival techniques to preserve her sense of personhood and sense of purpose. Community College faculty cited a hassle free promotion and tenure process owing to the absence of a necessary research agenda, thereby making the process uncomplicated. At community colleges tenure is based primarily on involvement in college and professional activities and community service. The studies examined the experiences of only five faculty members and five administrators. The authors recommend the establishment of support systems to alleviate the isolation and loneliness felt by African American women in the academy.

Perna, L. W. (2003). The Status of Women and Minorities among Community College Faculty. Research in Higher Education, 44(2, AIR Forum Issue), 205-240. Retrieved December 05, 2017, from http://www.jstor.org/stable/10.2307/40197300?ref=search-gateway:66a72db8add7f7add2342013af6814d2

This article discusses the examination of the employment outcomes of women and minority faculty employed at public 2- year colleges nationwide. These outcomes include employment status, salary, rank, and tenure status. Asians are as likely, but American Indians and Hispanics to be more likely than whites to be employed at public institutions, while Hispanic faculty continue to be more likely than other faculty to be employed at a public 2-year college. While observed salaries are statistically equivalent among full-time faculty of different racial/ethnic groups, women average lower institutional base salaries than men among full-time public 2-year college faculty. A smaller share of faculty overall appear to hold the rank of associate professor, while a higher share of Hispanics than of faculty overall appear to hold the rank of assistant professor. Being a member of a union, not just working at a unionized institution, is associated with lower likelihood of holding a part-time nontenure-track position and lower likelihood of holding a part-time regular or temporary position.

Institutional Culture and Climate

Levin, J. S., Haberler, Z., Walker, L., & Jackson-Boothby, A. (2013). Community College Culture and Faculty of Color. Community College Review, 42(1), 55-74. doi:10.1177/0091552113512864

This article looks at the ways in which community college faculty of color develop their understandings of institutional culture in light of the oftentimes homogenous image of community colleges depicted in the literature. The authors interviewed 31 fulltime faculty of color at four community colleges in California. This faculty group expresses identity conflicts between their professional roles and their cultural identities and discussed divided professional worlds, wherein they feel subordinated to their white counterparts. Differences were also expressed in the understanding of student-centered between faculty of color and white faculty, which can lead to differences in professional identities. Additionally different personal goals for the campus environments were articulated. Their understandings of their institutions suggest that the culture of the community college is more complex and multi-faceted than that portrayed in the scholarly literature, which often portrays the institution as homogeneous and the faculty body as uniform. The variety amongst of community college is highlighted in this article and stresses the need to address consensual culture within which the needs of faculty of color and other minoritized groups on campus are ignored.

Townsend, B. K. (2006). Community College Organizational Climate for Minorities and Women. Community College Journal of Research and Practice, 30(10), 813-826. doi:10.1080/10668920600901814

This paper explores the elements of a positive organizational climate for women and minorities within community colleges as majority white institutions and ways to achieve such a climate. It describes some traditional aspects of a positive organizational climate for women and minorities – such as the representation of women and minorities proportionate to their percentage in the population served by the institution, equal pay for equal work, equal opportunity for promotion, regardless of race/ethnicity and gender and organizations where the organizational structure, policies, and practices are overtly antiracist and antisexist, and evaluates how well the community college is doing in these areas. It then looks at structural expressions of a negative climate, including negative discourse about minorities and women. The paper concludes by addressing some steps that can be taken to improve the organizational climate including awareness of how our cultural assumptions affect our ability and willingness to change organizational climate, and a perspective that women and minorities are not disadvantaged because they do not fit the norms of White middle-and upper-class males. It urges leaders to look at the unwritten rules that impact hiring practices and determine success at the institution.

Faculty Identity Development

Levin, J. S., Walker, L., Haberler, Z., & Jackson-Boothby, A. (2013). The Divided Self. Community College Review, 41(4), 311-329. doi:10.1177/0091552113504454.

This article presents the results of a qualitative study of the examination of the experiences and professional sense making of 36 faculty of color from various programs at four California community colleges using critical race theory and social identity theory. The study looked at how ‘double consciousness’ is articulated by faculty and found evidence of a divided self among the participants. Minority faculty encounters a complicated process when developing a professional identity, owing to a “double consciousness” as identified by DuBois in 1897. In extreme cases of “double consciousness” faculty experience depersonalization, which takes place when embracing professional roles and identities while submerging racial or ethnic identities that may affect work lives. Minority faculty find themselves having to reconcile how they view themselves and how their institutions and its constituents view them, thus impacting their personal and professional identities. The study found a dissonance between the professional self and social identify among faculty of color leading to a ‘divided self’. The narratives reflected an institutional culture guided by white faculty and administrators in the areas of hiring, administration, leadership. Counter-narratives emerged as a pathway forward embodying hope for change which may never occur.

Levin, J., Walker, L., Jackson-Boothby, A., & Haberler, Z. (2013). Community colleges and their faculty of color: Matching teacher and students. Retrieved from http://c4.ucr.edu/documents/GSP2report_C4finalJuly152013.pdf

This report sought to identify the reasons for the low volume of faculty of color and to explain the experiences of these faculty at community colleges that may impact policies by interviewing 36 fulltime and part time faculty at four community colleges in California. The report found that to faculty of color, student centered practices mean connecting their backgrounds to students whereas the mainstream population sees it as stressing student learning outcomes or focusing on teaching. Other findings included the subordinated view faculty of color has of themselves in relation to the white faculty counterparts and that faculty of color see themselves as critical to the development and education of their students. It is through emphasizing students that faculty have been able to embrace both their social and professional identities. The report recommends a commitment by institutions to achieve a critical mass of faculty of color on community college campuses, acknowledge the impact that faculty of color have on the success and achievement of students of color and find ways to maximize the commitment of faculty of color to the development and success of students of color.

Park, J. J., & Denson, N. (2009). Attitudes and Advocacy: Understanding Faculty Views on Racial/Ethnic Diversity. The Journal of Higher Education, 80(4), 415-438. doi:10.1353/jhe.0.0054

This article discusses a study of Diversity Advocacy and how it varies within subsets of faculty and to identify predictors of faculty attitudes regarding diversity at two- and four-year colleges and universities across the country. Because faculty play such a critical role in the life of the university, it is essential to better understand their attitudes towards diversity, especially in a time period where policies geared towards increasing access to higher education for students of color continue to be challenged. The “Diversity Advocacy” variable is composite variable that taps into a variety of faculty attitudes towards diversity including their commitments to promoting racial understanding and their views on the role of diversity in undergraduate education. Black faculty were likely to score high on Diversity Advocacy. Rates of Diversity Advocacy did not vary widely among two-year institutions versus four-year public institutions and four-year private institutions. Faculty at four-year public institutions were significantly more likely to be diversity advocates, while faculty at institutions with higher percentages of students of color were less likely to score high on Diversity Advocacy. The data only provided a snapshot of the trends across thousands of faculty and lacks the ability to capture the nuances of the Diversity Advocacy concept that qualitative research is better suited to investigate

Thirolf, K. Q. (2012). The Faculty Identities of Community College Adjuncts Teaching in the Humanities: A Discourse Analysis Study. Community College Journal of Research and Practice, 36(4), 269-278. doi:10.1080/10668926.2012.637864

This article present the findings of a study examining the faculty identities of newly-hired community college adjuncts teaching in the humanities using positioning theory and discourse analysis his study uses positioning theory. Critical to becoming an effective teacher a professional identity is essential and little research has been done on the professional identities of adjunct faculty. Citing Reybold (2003), professional identity is defined as ‘‘the formation of an attitude of personal responsibility regarding one’s role in the profession, a commitment to behave ethically and morally, and the development of feelings of pride for the profession’’. Findings suggest that these adjuncts experience positive faculty identity development through their teaching and interactions with students – at the core of their identities was their love of teaching. They encountered negative faculty identity development via their interactions with their faculty peers, diminished interactions with fulltime faculty and a feeling disconnected from them – ultimately impacting their professional faculty identity development. Article recommends colleges identify more opportunities for adjuncts and fulltime faculty to interact. The study is limited by its sample size and narrow focus on humanities faculty.

2017-12-10-1512873934

Gender Differences in Using Language, Dialect Variation And Children Genders in Language Acquisition

I. INTRODUCTION

Does gender difference influence the language? Firstly, the language must be defined in order to answer the question. People do not care how the language works, how it affects our relationships, that is, people do not notice the power of language. It is an indispensable means of communication for people and language is used as a means of mutual communication between people. “Language is defined as an advanced system of voices that allows each community to be transferred to others by the help of common rules shaped by their own characteristics in terms of emotion, thought and desire: sound, form and meaning” (Korkmaz, p. 2). It is sometimes a living thing that shows some improvement in various reasons due to its own internal structure.

In sociolinguistics, gender differences have an important place because men and women are two concepts that are cited together with sociolinguistics. As the male and female languages are different from each other, their language formations will also show differences. The difference in the use of language by men and women can be attributed to the physical structure of their formation. However, some researchers have also found that this information is opposite. “It has been seen that there is no connection between the physical or other characteristics of the person or objects to whom this name refers in a language examination to a name” (Konig, 1992, p. 25). “Lyons ‘species have many bases indicating that gender classification is based on a ‘ natural ‘ meaning, but it is not sexual and Wardhaugh says that “those who discriminate are those who use language, and that there is no such thing as sexuality on the ground” (Konig, 1992, p. 25). The purpose of this study is to question whether gender differences can affect the language used and whether both physical and social factors can change dialect variation.

“Men usually have to undertake more pressure than women in life and the differences in job skills may be explained in great part through differences in the ways by which they are raised” (Xia, 2013, p. 1485).Women are more effective in controlling communication than men in communication with men, and sometimes women can influence communication not only by using language but also by body language. “Within the social sciences, an increasing consensus of findings suggests that men, relative to women, tend to use language more for the instrumental purpose of conveying information; women are more likely to use verbal interaction for social purposes with verbal communication serving as an end in itself” (Newman, Groom, Handelman, & Pennebaker, 2008, p. 212).The importance of this study is to increase awareness language learners’ gender differences in using language, dialect variation and children genders in language acquisition.

II. LITERATURE REVIEW

a. Gender Differences in Using Language

All societies have diversity in language use. It is a fact that most people, both women and men, who use language vary in their opinion. The variability in language use of even a person in daily life and in formal life may reduce the possibility of non-diversity between women and men’s conversations. Socialization patterns, the environments in which people live, and even the difference in political opinion can be affect women’ and men’ speaking styles (Louazani, 2015). In this study, the using language of some men and women will be examined together with some researches.

“At a discourse level , men are more likely to use familiar forms of address even where reel status of speakers suggest that a formal, impersonal tone is more appropriate and the women are more likely to initiative conversations, they succeed less often because males less willing to co-operate . In tag questions, women lead to use tag questions more frequent; men are more likely to use commands when women use them more likely to be interrogatives” (Louazani, 2015, p. 25).

Some stereotypes of male and female speech.

Stereotypes of male speech:

Use deeper voices/ lower in pitch.
Swear and use taboo language.
More assertive in group interaction (interruptions, few tag question).
Topics are « traditional » male topics like business, politics, economics.
Use non-standard speech, even middle class.
Use explicit commands (gimme the pliers).

Stereotypes of female speech:

Minimal responses: mhm, yeah, mmmmm.
Talk more than men.
Use more tag questions.
Use more interrogatives.
Use more hedges (sort of, kind of).
Use more super polite speech: would you please

(Louazani, 2015, p. 26).

Although the roles of women are seen as traditionalized housewives, they are more informed than many areas men and can be considered to have used language more precisely because of their interrogative personality (Newman, Groom, Handelman, & Pennebaker, 2008). It is also stated that as the majority of primary school teachers are women, they play a leading role in standardizing language norms in society. The differences in the daily speech of the people were investigated and the information on the gender differences in language was further clarified. “Mirroring phrase-level findings of tentativeness in female language, women have been found to use more intensive adverbs, more conjunctions such as ‘but’, and more modal auxiliary verbs such as could that place question marks of some kind over a statement unlike women, men have been found to swear more, use longer words, use more articles, and use more references to location” (Newman, Groom, Handelman, & Pennebaker, 2008).

Differences intonation

Intonation can determine people’s communicative goals, intonation can be independent of the speaker to help explain what is desired, and it can be more effective in conveying the message that is desired to be conveyed through toning. “Women often like to speak in a high-pitch voice because of physiological reason, but scientists point out that this also associates with women’s ‘timidity’ and ‘emotional instability’ ” (Xia, 2013, p. 1485). Men, unlike women, may not use more determined and curious tones.

“Example: Husband: When will dinner be ready?

Wife: Around six o’clock..

The wife is the only one who knows the answer, but she answers her husband with a high rise tone, which has the meaning “will that do”. This kind of intonation suggests women’s gentility and docility. The husband will surely feel his wife’s respect.” (Xia, 2013, p. 1485). In table 1, the data of researches are presented to the reader.

Table1. The pitch data of stressed syllable, nuclear pitch accent of female and male samples.” (Jiang, 2011, p. 975).

Sentence

type Stressed

Syllable

(F) Pitch

accent

(F) Stressed

Syllable

(M) Pitch

accent

(M)

1-Decl 7.433 11.147 3.275 2.218

2-dec-q. 9.539 14.509 5.767 6.310

3-yes/

no-q. 10.544 13.224 8.539 4.381

4-wh-q 10.415 13.650 7.025 4.396

5-excl. 9.638 12.718 7.336 4.160

F=Female; M=Male

Some researchers have also pointed out that when the women do not trust what they say, and when they feel more emotional, the tone of voice can fall, and men can also be sure that their tone is lower than they are. Also the difference between men and women at the pitch of the tone of voice is obvious in Table 1.

Differences in Manners

Women are more emotional in their speech, so women use more polite words with other speakers. Because of their kindness in their conversations, words such as ‘please’, ‘sorry’ etc. are used more often by women (Xia, 2013). “Besides this, women also show that they are reserved when they talk and the following table is based on the research of Zimmerman and West on the interruptions men and women made in a conversation” (Xia, 2013, p. 1487). It is stated that men and women talk more than men in the difference of speech.

Table 2. Interruptions during the conversation

Male female Total

interruptions 46 2 48

It is seen that, contrary to expectations in this study, men are more impatient than women because of their desire to speak themselves in the conversation, and that men are more interruptive than women when speaking both men and women. In addition, it is seen that women are not disturb others during the conversation and that women encouraged other speakers to talk.

Differences in Vocabulary

It has been noticed that women use different words in order to show their feelings differently from men’s point of view. “We can notice that men and women tend to choose different words to show their feelings, for example, when a woman is frightened, she usually shouts out, “I am frightened to death”! If you hear a man says this, you’ll think he is a coward and womanish” (Xia, 2013, p. 1486). These differences were examined in the selection of color words, the use of adverbs, adjectives, diminutives and pronouns.

Color Words

“There is special feminine vocabulary in English that men may not, dare not or will not use and women are good at using color words that were borrowed from French to describe things, such as mauve, lavender aquamarine, azure and magenta, etc., but most men do not use them” (Xia, 2013, p. 1486).

Women often use language more elegantly than using their own language and differences in language use are revealed.

Adjectives

“In everyday life, people can notice that women like to use many adjective, such as adorable, charming, lovely, fantastic, heavenly, but men seldom use them. When a woman leaves a restaurant, she will say “It’s a gorgeous meal.” If a man wants to express the same idea, he may only say, “It’s a good meal.” Using more adjectives to describe things and their feelings can show that women are more sensitive to the environment and more likely to express their emotions with words, which makes women’s language more interesting than men’s sometimes” (Xia, 2013, p. 1486).

Men do not tire themselves to explain indirectly, so instead of using elaborate adjectives like women, they use the language more simply, clear and fluently.

Adverbs

“There are also differences in the use of adverbs between men and women. Women tend to use such adverbs like awfully, pretty, terribly, vastly, quite, so; men like to use very, utterly, really and In 1992, Jespersen found that women use more so than men do, such as, “It was so interesting” is often uttered by a woman” (Xia, 2013, p. 1486).

Small details can be exaggerated by using adverbs while describing events in language use by women.

Diminutives

“Women like to use words that have the meaning of ‘small’, such as bookie, hanky. They also like to use words that show affections, such as dearie, sweetie. If a man often uses these words, people will think that he may have psychological problem or he is not manly. Furthermore, women like to use words that show politeness, such as please, thanks, and they use more euphemism, but “slang” is considered to be men’s preference. From the study people can see that men and women have their own vocabulary choices in achieving emphatic effects. Though in the area of vocabulary, many of the studies have focused on English, we cannot deny that sex differences in word choice exist in various other languages. People need to learn to make these distinctions in their childhood” (Xia, 2013, p. 1486).

With the instinctive attitudes of women, women are given the knowledge that men are strict and clear when they use words such as my dear, sweetheart (Xia, 2013).

b. Dialect Variation

“All known societies classify people at birth as “male” or “female” according to the anatomical distinctions indicating their potential reproductive role, but this is in practice a social classification, relating biological sex to a wider set of social practices, norms, and relations” (Dunn, 2013, p. 2).

Even though the actions of talking and dressing are thought to be individual, contrary to this, the society is shaped by the effects on the individual. In addition, even a small group in workplace and the people ,who is living in the same country, are able to direct people’ way of speaking, which is called dialect. “The term ‘dialect’ is used in the variationalist tradition to refer to systematic linguistic variation statistically associated with a sociolinguistic parameter, and as such can be difficult to delimit” (Dunn, 2013, p. 2). It cannot be said that there is a restriction about dialect, because it can be influenced even by people’s socio-cultural considerations.

“It is well known that gender interacts with other social variables that affect phonology, including regional and ethnic dialects and gender-correlated differences in the production of prestige forms and innovative forms of speech have been reported frequently in the sociolinguistics literature” (Clopper, Corney, & Pisoni, 2005).

The use of different languages by women and men can also be seen as the reason for the formation of various kinds of dialects. “It is useful to emphasize the importance of social gender rather than biological sex in the use of different languages and also it is social gender that the vocabulary that both genders can use is intrinsic to female or male speech” (Demir, 2010, p. 102). Twenty years ago, in some villages of Alanya in Turkey, where dialect research was done, women were calling their husbands even their younger brothers to call them “big brother”, and the brides were hesitant to pronounce their father’s name directly.

According to ancient customs and traditions, women regard men as more important than themselves, and respect their inability to say even their name. That is why there are gender differences on the ground. When women come together, they talk differently, and small communities create divergence in the use of language. Men are more relax to use language than women (Demir, 2010).

“The importance of biological sex in communication systems extends beyond humans too, for example, in many bird species the songs of males and females are distinct. Furthermore, it is not uncommon for birdsong to be transmitted through social learning, leading to vocal repertoires which are differentiated by geographical region – referred to as regional dialects” (Dunn, 2013, p. 2).

That is to say, it should not be regarded as simply a difference in language acquisition or language use. Language can be affected by everything.

“In an extensive review, Labov summarized the observed production differences with the three principles shown below.

Women use more prestige forms than men, and, conversely, men use more nonstandard forms than women.

Women favor incoming prestige forms in changes from above, which are defined as involving forms associated with a high level of social consciousness.

Women also tend to lead in changes from below, which involve variation that has not become stereotyped or associated with particular social groups. However, in a minority of cases such as diphthong centralization on Martha’s Vineyard, men can lead in changes from below” (Clopper, Corney, & Pisoni, 2005).

Dialects are more determined by women because the first language formation of children begins when they are with family members. While the family is the first teacher, the first tutorial in the family is none other than the mother. After children start to go to school with their first steps in life, which is the first place of children meet with language communities.

” … boys’ acquisition of the men’s dialect accompanies social and ritual recognition of their entering the men’s world. This probably contributes to the historical instability of gender dialects, as the interruption of traditional social practices may also interrupt men’s dialect acquisition. A number of descriptions of gender dialects explicitly mention that in quoted speech the gender dialect of the person quoted may be used, even where this is otherwise not the gender dialect used by the speaker” (Dunn, 2013, p. 4).

The use of language by men and women can be completely different, depending on what the women and men are in. The actual formation of the dialect can also be affected by gender differences.

Gender dialects can also be lexical changes. In other words, it is possible for men and women to pronounce the same word differently. The meaning of word is unchanged, and this change can only affect the writing of the word. “For example, certain nouns in Awetí which are vowel initial in the women’s dialect are pronounced with initial n- in the men’s dialect. There are also cases where men’s and women’s lexemes have no obvious etymological relationship” (Dunn, 2013, p. 6). In short, the language of men and women reflects different uses, even in dictionary, with different appendices.

In a research conducted that the language is found as the dialect of Yanyuwa and also in Yanyuwa the gender differences are very apparent. Below the data presented about this research.

“The Yanyuwa language (Pama-Nyungan) of northern Australia has a complex and well-described gender dialect distinction. The main difference between the dialects is in syntactic categories and their morphological marking: The female dialect distinguishes two noun classes, ‘male’ and ‘masculine’, where the male dialect only has one. In the female dialect ‘male’ and ‘masculine’ noun classes are indicated by different prefixes see Table 3” (Dunn, 2013, p. 10).

Table3. Noun class prefixes in the female dialect of Yanyuwa

Noun Class nominative Non-nominative

Male Nya- Nyu-

Masculine ∅ ji-

“In the male dialect these correspond to a single noun class, marked by different prefixes in non-nominative cases and by zero in the nominative (see Table 4), like the women’s masculine-class and the women’s dialect also makes more distinctions in third-person pronouns than the men’s dialect. These distinctions are highlighted see Table 5” (Dunn, 2013, p. 10).

Table4. Noun class prefixed in the male dialect of Yanyuwa

Noun class Nominative Non-nominative

male/masculine ∅ ki-

Table5. Third-person pronouns in male and female Yanyuwa dialects

women’s dialect men’s dialect

he yiwa yiwa

she anda anda

it alhi anda

“The Yanyuwa language was no longer being transmitted at the time that the gender dialects were documented, so we only have speakers’ reminiscences of how language acculturation happened rather than direct observations, … all children acquire the women’s dialect first from their caretakers. In Yanyuwa society, boys underwent formal initiation at the age of ten, after which they were expected to speak men’s dialect, and rebuked if they spoke the women’s dialect by mistake and older speakers could use the inappropriate gender dialect for various kinds of humorous or rhetorical effect” (Dunn, 2013, p. 11).

c. Children Genders in Language Acquisition

It is difficult for people to understand when they are newborn babies whether they are girls or boys. In other words, when babies are born, they are introduced to the concept of gender not by themselves but by the consciousness of their parents, and babies are traditionally introduced with blue hats for babies who are girls with this concept and babies who are boys. This means that different objects and ornaments are used in certain cultures to specify the gender of the babies clear. “In addition to the visual, color-coding sign, another early attribution of gender is the linguistic event of naming the baby. Moreover, from early childhood girls and boys are interpreted differently, and interacted with differently and people usually behave more gently with baby-girls and more playfully with baby-boys” (Savickienė & Kalėdaitė, 2007, p. 285). That is, the characteristics given to infants by masculinity and femininity can be made either by name, toys or through clothes.

Girls are more often treated with polite attitudes, such as toy dolls, while boys are more likely to be warned than girls because they can play their own games quietly like cotton, while boys like to play with balls, cars and even toy guns and need to play these toys they are the mobilizations that they can make to consume energy.

“As for linguistic aspects, there is enough evidence to claim that girls are usually more advanced in language development than boys (it is obvious, though, that individual differences exist). Girls begin to talk earlier; they articulate better and acquire a more extensive vocabulary than boys of the same age. Studies of verbal ability have shown that girls and women surpass boys and men in verbal fluency, correct language usage, sentence complexity, grammatical structure, spelling, and articulation” (Savickienė & Kalėdaitė, 2007, p. 286).

The capacity of each child is different like every individual, and the talk times of the children in the same family can be different. Girls can learn to talk faster than boys, but this may be inherited but there isn’t certainty about inherited.

“A language may have two or more such classes or genders. For a noun to belong to a particular declension class often implies that it also belongs to a particular gender. The classification very often corresponds to a real world distinction of sex. Correlations of this sort are, however, never perfect; that is, membership in a particular gender is most often a matter of arbitrary stipulation” (Savickienė & Kalėdaitė, 2007, p. 286).

Meanings of the names can vary according to the gender, but it is a change that depends on the enjoyment of the people to give gender characteristics.

“Research shows that children are capable of distinguishing differences in biological sex at around the age of 2; 62. The category of gender becomes an issue in the process of language acquisition when a child finds out that sex is an inherent property and does not change even if clothes are changed” (Savickienė & Kalėdaitė, 2007, p. 287).

In this period, babies can recognize which gender group they belong to and can make themselves a member of the group they belong to.

“In a study involving Lithuanian children, the researcher suggested that genders of children have little effect on language acquisition. Most researchers claim that during the early stages of language acquisition it is problematic for a child to distinguish between genders because the category of gender is a problematic issue in itself. In data, words which have distinct formal gender markers already appear in early recordings, at 1; 7. The frequency of nouns marked masculine or feminine is displayed in Table 6 and Table 7” (Savickienė & Kalėdaitė, 2007).

Table6.The distribution of masculine and feminine nouns in Rūta’s speech (1; 7–2; 5)” (Savickienė & Kalėdaitė, 2007, p. 288).

1; 7 1; 8 1; 9 1;10 1;11 2; 0 2; 1 2; 2 2; 3 2; 4 2; 5 Total Total

FEM 18 131 426 387 310 396 359 369 337 422 374 3529 40%

MASC 18 167 469 698 454 479 528 622 622 643 487 5187 60%

(“4 Rūta is a first-born and only child of a middle-class family living in Vilnius. Her speech was recorded in natural everyday situations by her mother, a philologist. Recordings were made three or four times per week; they lasted about fifteen minutes each. For the present study we have chosen to analyse Rūta’s speech covering the period from 1; 7 to 2; 6. The corpus consists of 35 hours of recordings. The recorded speech was transcribed by the girl’s mother according to the requirements of CHILDES, or Child Language Data Exchange System

5 Monika is also a first-born and only child of a middle-class family living in Kaunas. The corpus consists of diary remarks and almost 45 hours of recordings (transcribed and only partly coded according to CHILDES; therefore, we were not able to provide the statistical data) (Savickienė & Kalėdaitė, 2007, p. 288)”.

“Table7.The distribution of masculine and feminine nouns in Mother’s speech (1;7 –2; 5)” (Savickienė & Kalėdaitė, 2007, p. 289).

1; 7 1; 8 1; 9 1;10 1;11 2; 0 2; 1 2; 2 2; 3 2; 4 2; 5 Total Total

FEM 68 282 789 707 308 553 408 410 436 387 477 4825 45%

MASC 100 391 827 1096 458 583 430 529 561 500 452 5927 55%

“The data show that masculine and feminine nouns in Rūta’s speech appear in equal numbers only during the 1; 7 period (see Table 6). Starting with 1; 8 and up to the period of 2;6 masculine nouns are more frequent. The same tendency is noticed in Mother’s speech: during the entire period of observation masculine nouns are more common than feminine nouns. The 1; 10 period is exceptional in this respect: masculine nouns are especially dominant, and the same tendency is observed in Rūta’s speech” (Savickienė & Kalėdaitė, 2007, p. 289).

This work can be explained by the language change of Ruta because Ruta has more masculine language features in this study.

“The correct usage of feminine nouns during the early period of language acquisition in Rūta’s case could be explained within the framework of a hypothesis which relates the early and unproblematic acquisition of certain grammatical categories (e.g. of gender or case) to the child’s gender” (Savickienė & Kalėdaitė, 2007, p. 289).

It is important to note that girls are more likely to be in official use than men.

III. CONCLUSION

As a conclusion, the effects of language and gender on each other have been researched when the language and gender issues are both intriguing and open to research. The subject of language and gender, which is a subject of interest in this study, has been researched. Language and gender are the subjects of sociolinguistic. The word meaning of the language is given and it is emphasized that the concept of language is transferred from culture to culture. In the research on the effect of gender difference on language, the idea that gender difference is the influence on the language and the ideas that there is no effect are presented to the readers. It has been stated that the changes in language use are influenced by social factors because women and men use languages in different areas. In other words, it is emphasized that the person who uses the language in the first place has an influence on the usage of the language, even the political thought, regardless of gender.

In a study, some stereotyped examples were given for the physiology and formation of male and female language use. It is presented that women’s voice tone is higher than men’s voice tone because of women’s frankness. It is presented that men’s level of voice tone is of interest to men’s confidence and that low voice tone is a determinant of the height of self-confidence. In a test conducted against the stereotypical beliefs that women are always interrupted in men’s, men have been shown to be more interrupted than women. In the use of color words, adjectives and pronouns, it is stated that women use more ornate language and men prefer to use simple, clear and understandable language.

Moreover, William Labov summarized the explanation of the matter in relation to the accent. It is emphasized that in all the cases studied in this explanation, women have different language uses than men and that gender effect is due to different dialect usage.

In the Yanyuwa language (Pama-Nyungan) of northern Australia, ıt has been shown through research that the difference in the language is more clearly recognizable, and it has been shown that there is a difference in usage in males, where the difference is less in females than in males. The Yanyuwa dialect is not investigable at present and the dialect difference is emphasized by making observations about it (Dunn, 2013).

Additionally, ıt is presented in a research that the influence of the sex of the children in the acquisition of language is very little. In Lithuanian, a single word for children’s language acquisition is asked of girls and boys and it is understood that there is little difference in the learning and even pronunciation of the word.

Finally, research on gender and language concepts has been conducted in this study and it has been determined through researches and observations that the effects of gender discrimination on language use. It has also been reported that even in the use of dialects, the difference in gender causes different words to be produced and that there is dialectal difference in this number. In other researches, it is seen that the concept of gender is not as effective as adults in children who learned a different language from the mother tongue, and the study is concluded by reaching the knowledge that the concept of gender may be effective in younger children.

For further studies it is suggested that the experiments conducted for such studies should be investigated with more current data, and the gender difference in the human brain should be reported in the field of language use. It is advisable to conduct extensive field search so that more information about the language can be found and the effects of the language on the language, not the gender, can be investigated.

IV. REFERENCES

Clopper, C. G., Corney, B., & Pisoni, D. B. (2005). EFFECTS OF TALKER GENDER ON DIALECT CATEGORIZATION. Lang. Soc. Psychol., 24(2), 182-206.
Demir, N. (2010). Türkçede Varyasyon Üzerine. Ankara Üniversitesi Dil ve Tarih-Coğrafya Fakültesi Türkoloji Dergisi, 17(2), 102.
Dunn, M. (2013). Gender determined dialect variation. Max Planck Institute for Psycholinguistics, 1-27.
Jiang, H. (2011). GENDER DIFFERENCE IN ENGLISH INTONATION. (pp. 974-977). China: Sichuan University.
Konig, G. Ç. (1992). DlL VE CİNS: KADIN VE ERKEKLERİN DİL KULLANIMI. Dilbilim Araştırmaları, 25-36.
Korkmaz, Z. (n.d.). TÜRK DİLİNE GÖNÜL VERENLER. Sosyal Bilimler Dergisi, 1-11.
Louazani, K. (2015). Gender Linguistic Behavior. TLEMCEN: Prof. Smail Benmoussat.
Newman, M. L., Groom, C. J., Handelman, L., & Pennebaker, J. W. (2008). Gender Differences in Language Use. 45, 211-236.
Savickienė, I., & Kalėdaitė, V. (2007). The Role of a Child’s Gender in Language Acquisition. EESTI RAKENDUSLINGVISTIKA ÜHINGU AASTARAAMAT, 3, 285-297.
Xia, X. (2013). Gender Differences in Using Language. Theory and Practice in Language Studies, 3(8), 1485-1489.

2018-12-19-1545215217

Emergence of Augmented reality (AR) and Virtual reality (VR): college admission essay help

Abstract

Augmented and virtual reality have been used widely in Science, Technology, Engineering and Mathematics. These technologies promise to change our lives unlike any other. While VR replaces your vision, AR adds reality to it. From learning new skills to being able to meet people virtually but with an immerse experience with the help of 3D graphics. AR/VR has made humans witness what once used to be impossible. AR and VR have numerous uses and huge benefits in the real world. Moreover, due to the onset of these technologies, the exploitation of real world objects in training has reduced by a reasonable percentage. This research paper mentions detailed information about AR/VR systems, requirements to build such systems, and their applications. Then, it presents the tools and software used for recreating realistic environments and a comparison between different types of AR and VR systems. After that, we optimize the road map for selecting an appropriate system according to the field of applications. Moreover, we discuss how AR and VR affect the human brain and produce simulations. Finally, the conclusion incorporates the future and scope of these technologies while covering their increasing usage in the medical industry.

Keywords – Virtual Reality, Augmented Reality, Immersion, Virtual Training, Simulation, AR/VR systems.

I. INTRODUCTION

Until recently, Augmented reality (AR) and Virtual reality (VR) technologies have served primarily as an inspiration for focus writers and special effects teams. After a long drought, in the 1990s these technologies have now become bigger than ever. Computer generated 3D environments allow the users to enter and interact with alternate realities. Virtual Reality (VR) and Augmented reality (AR) is a popular name for an absorbing, interactive experience in which a person perceives a synthetic environment by means of a special human-computer interface. The users are able to immerse themselves to varying degrees in the computer’s artificial world.

AR/ VR have become one of the main technologies to be discussed regarding their applications, usage, and their different types that can achieve huge benefits in the real world. The VR considered as full visualization environment using appropriate computer technologies whereas AR is used to add a more realistic experience to it. In most of the learning environment, VR becomes possible for many learners or trainees to simulate the real world. The benefits of this technology often start with computer graphics and continue for long times.

Nowadays, Augmented and Virtual reality is widely used in the tourism industry in collaboration with the photography and videography industries. This enables users to experience the magical destinations before actually visiting. Such immersion technologies include additional sensations, movements (for example a  roller coaster simulator) and feeling (for example if the user is sprayed with water) and also the sense of smell. Further in this research paper we will discover and discuss in depth, the numerous benefits of AR and VR.

II.EMERGENCE OF VR AND AR

II a. VIRTUAL REALITY

The reign of virtual realities started in the year 1965. Jaron Lanier, the founder of VPL technologies was the one to introduce the term virtual reality with a research paper titled, ‘THE ULTIMATE DISPLAY’. Later it became more acknowledged by the public as a medical toy comprising, a helmet, gloves etc. The emergence of VR can be highlighted by the following:

A. The Sensorama (1975, Morton Heilig)

The Sensorama consisted of multiple sensors, that could make a chromatic film that previously recorded to be augmented by clear sound, smell, wind and other senses. Sensorama made people experience interactive cinema. Fig 1, shows the Sensorama machine.

B. The Ultimate Display (1965, Ivan Sutherland)

The Ultimate display, was an attempt to combine interactive graphics with sound, smell and force feedback to imitate the real world. It suggests using a Head Mounted display as a window for VR. The Ultimate Display, creates an illusion that you are in a room where a computer can control the existence of matter. Fig 2, shows the Ultimate Display.

C. The Sword of Damocles

The Sword of Damocles is neither system nor the early concept of the VR. It considered as the first hardware of VR. The first Head Mounted Display (HMD) constructed by Sutherland. It contains sounds as stereo updated due to the position and navigation of the user. It is the implementation of the ultimate display.

Fig 2, The Ultimate Display

D. GROPE (1971, University of North Carolina)

GROPE is a “prototype of a force-feedback system”. It allows users to feel a simulated computer force. Grope consists of a simple glove with a specific structure to give sensible feedback with “mechanically complex exoskeletal hand masters”. It aimed at combining both haptic and a visual display and was used by chemists for a drug-enzyme docking procedure. Fig 3, shows the GROPE system.

Fig 1. The Sensorama Machine

Fig 3, GROPE Force Feedback Display

E. VIDEOPLACE (1971, Myron Krueger)

It is a virtual or conceptual environment with no real existence. The VIDEOPLACE, controls the relationship of the images of users and the places in a graphics scene. The imagination shadow of users in VIDEOPLACE system is determined by the camera that posted on a screen. Such systems, enable users to interact with other participant objects.

A VIDEOPLACE consists of two adjacent rooms and the camera captures the gestures, each participant can be seen by the other in both the rooms. Fig 4, shows the working of videoplace.

F. VIVED (created in 1984)

VIVED is an abbreviation of “Virtual Visual Environment Display” that was created at NASA Ames. It consists of a stereoscopic monochrome HMD. It was created to enable people to describe their own digital world for other people to see it as a 3D space. Fig 5, shows an example of VIVED.

Fig 4, The VIDEOPLACE

Fig 5, VIVED

G. VPL (Data Glove created in 1985 and the Eyephone HMD created in 1988)

VLP is a company who manufactures and created Data Glove and Eyephone HMD as the first commercially available hardware of VR for the public. The Data Glove was used as an input device. The Eyephone is a head mounted display used to provide a feeling of immersion.

H. BOOM (created in 1989, Fake Space Labs)

Binocular Omni-Orientation Monitor (BOOM) is “a small box containing two CRT monitors that can be viewed through the eye holes.” In the system of BOOM, the user can take the small box with his/her eye movements, move it through virtual environments and keep track of the box by the eye orientation Fig. 6 shows the BOOM machine.

I. Virtual Wind Tunnel (created in 1990)

Virtual Wind Tunnel developed to allow the monitoring and investigation of flow fields included with BOOM and Data Glove. The Virtual Wind Tunnel is developed at NASA Aimes [3]. Fig. 8 shows an example of the Virtual Wind Tunnel. This type of VR helps scientists to utilize a Data Glove to input and manipulate “the streams of virtual smoke in the airflow around a digital model of an airplane or space shuttle. Moving around (using a BOOM display technology) they can watch and analyze the dynamic behavior of air flow and easily find the areas of instability”.

Fig 6, Binocular Omni-Oriented Monitor (BOOM).

J. CAVE ( 1992)

CAVE is a scientific virtualization system. The user wears a LCD shutter based glasses in order to experience the simulation. It consists of three walls and one door as the fourth wall. Projectors are used on all the flat wallas which allows the user to get a better sense of full immersion.

II b. AUGMENTED REALITY

The term Augmented reality was coined by a Boeing researcher named ‘Tom Caudell’ in the late 1990s. He was asked to create a replacement for Boeing’s current system of large plywood boards with wiring instructions for each aircraft being built. Caudell and his co-worker David Mizell proposed a head-mounted display for construction workers that superimposed the position of cables through the eyewear and projected them onto multipurpose, reusable boards. Instead of having to use different boards for each aircraft, the custom wiring instructions could instead be worn by the workers themselves. The emergence of Augmented Reality has been highlighted as follows:

A. Virtual Fixtures (created in 1992, USAF armstrong Labs)

Because 3D graphics were too slow in the early 1990s to present a photorealistic and spatially-registered augmented reality, Virtual Fixtures used two real physical robots, controlled by a full upper-body exoskeleton worn by the user. To create the immersive experience for the user, a unique optics configuration was employed that involved a pair of binocular magnifiers aligned so that the user’s view of the robot arms were brought forward so as to appear registered in the exact location of the user’s real physical arms. Fig 7, shows the virtual fixture.

B. Hybrid Synthetic vision system (created in 1998)

In 1998, NASA created a hybrid vision system of their X-38 spacecraft. The system leveraged AR technology to assist in providing a better navigation during flight training. Fig 8, shows the mock-up of the map data displayed on a pilot’s screen.

Fig 7, Virtual Fixtures

Fig 8, AR component displayed map data on the pilot’s screen.

C. The AR Game (created in 2000)

AR Quake launched – the first AR game. As well as a head-mounted display, players had to wear a backpack containing a computer & gyroscopes.

D. AR Tennis ( created in 2005)

The early 2000s saw the debut of augmented reality apps for smart phones. One of the first was AR Tennis – a two-player AR game developed for Nokia phones. AR Tennis is the first example of a face to face collaborative AR application developed for mobile phones. In this application two players sit across a table from each other with a piece of paper between them with a set of AR Tool Kit markers drawn on it. Computer vision techniques are used to track the phone position relative to the tracking markers. When the player points the phone camera at the markers they see a virtual tennis court overlaid on live video of the real world. Fig 9, shows the AR Tennis Court.

Fig 9, AR Tennis Court

E. Pokemon Go (created in 2016, Nintendo and Niantic)

Niantic and Nintendo launched Pokemon Go – the hugely popular location-based AR game that put AR on the mainstream map. In the case of Pokémon Go, players traverse the physical world following a digital map, searching for cartoon creatures that surface at random. People look through their smartphone cameras to find Pokémon. When an animated creature appears, they toss Pokéballs at it until it is subdued.

Fig 10, Augmented reality in Pokemon go.

2021-12-28-1640704913

Hospitality and Medical Marijuana

Currently there are 28 states and Washington DC that have legal medical marijuana available. This is more than half of the United States. Even with the majority, employment law and the hospitality industry do not have much guidelines to help pave the way in legal terms. With marijuana, illegal federally and legal at the state level it causes a surplus of confusion. Much of the reason is that there are not very many case laws to reference on both the employment and business side of the industry. There are many questions industry professionals have. Here are a few: Are employers legally able to terminate employees based on positive test results? Do employees with disabilities have different protections? How are employees under federal contract governed? What protections do guests and customers have? Does the ADA cover patients as guest?

Whether an employer may legally fire you for failing an employee drug test because you used medical marijuana, depends on whether or not your state has passed a medical marijuana law with employment discrimination protections. In Delaware, like other states that have similar legislation, the Medical Marijuana Act decriminalizes the use of medical marijuana in an attempt “to protect patients with debilitating medical conditions, as well as their physicians and providers, from arrest and prosecution, criminal and other penalties, and property forfeiture if such patients engage in the medical use of marijuana.” Similar to only a few statutes, the Act includes provisions that provide additional protections to employees. The Act prevents employers from discriminating against an employee “in hiring, termination, or any term or condition of employment, or otherwise penalizing a person” for his “status as a cardholder” or because of a “positive drug test for marijuana components or metabolites.” In majority of the states an employer can impose discipline including termination for a positive marijuana drug test.

While the Americans with Disabilities Act of 1990 protects most employees with serious medical conditions from discrimination, it doesn’t protect their use of medical marijuana. Again, depending on your states statutes very few jurisdictions offer explicit protections for patients. The minority provide protections where employers are prohibited from discriminating against an employee who has tested positive for marijuana and is a registered medical marijuana patient, if he or she doesn’t have a “safety sensitive” job, such as heavy-machinery operator or airline pilot.

One of the few cases involving medical marijuana is James v. City of Costa Mesa, the Ninth Circuit held that the ADA does not protect individuals who claim discrimination against them because of medical marijuana use. The court reasoned that the ADA excludes from coverage disabilities based on illegal drug use. Because marijuana is illegal under federal law, medical marijuana use is not covered under the ADA, even if state has legalized the medical use of marijuana. While it is not unlawful to discriminate against an applicant or employee based on their marijuana use, it is still unlawful to discriminate against an applicant or employee for an underlying disability. Employers should use caution in handling these situations to minimize risk that any adverse employment decisions were based on knowledge of illegal marijuana use and not on knowledge of an underlying disability.

Employees under federal government contract such as employees of federal agencies or employees of private business that have federal licenses and regulations. Casinos for one in Nevada the Gaming Control Board issued an industry notice telling gaming license holders — and even prospective license applicants — to stay far away from medical marijuana. Under federal law, distribution, possession and sale of the drug is a crime. The Control Board based its ruling on federal law. For all the aspiring and current spies, diplomats and F.B.I. agents living in states that have liberalized marijuana laws, the federal government has a stern warning: Federal laws outlaw its use — and rules that make it a firing offense for government workers — have remained rigid. Recruiters for federal agencies are arriving on university campuses with a sobering message that marijuana use will not be tolerated.

In addition to employee use of marijuana businesses are also concerned about the use by guest. The simplest approach for innkeepers is to treat marijuana users like tobacco users. If tobacco is prohibited in guest rooms and in public areas so is marijuana. If a guest’s actions, such as smoking marijuana disrupts other guest, the situation should be treated as any other disturbance. Ask the patron to cease the disruptive behavior and if they do not comply contact the authorities and evict them. With new legislation, each business should familiarize them with the statutes of their state. There are no specifics until more case law present itself. In Colorado, it is up to the discretion of the hotel if it allows marijuana smoke to be consumed in their smoking rooms. Denver city laws prohibit marijuana consumption on hotel balconies if visible from any public place.

There is no consensus on how to handle medical marijuana and the ADA at hotels. This is due to there being no know “case law” on this issue. The issue has not presented itself to hoteliers on a wide scale. To avoid any potential law suits, try to place any marijuana users in smoking rooms when available. If you are a completely “nonsmoking” hotel, the marijuana user should be treated as a cigarette smoker. They must leave the building and be accommodated in s designated area. They should be treated no differently than a tobacco user. If they do smoke in the room and you have the proper notification and signage you may charge them the normal hotel smoking fee. When convenient adding medical marijuana to these signage’s is recommended.

State laws currently provide greater protections to marijuana users. Although, those that have considered such issues in court were generally found in favor of an employer’s right to act against an employee who tests positive for marijuana. Majority of employees who work in a state with the world’s most powerful medical marijuana laws will have to choose between using medical marijuana and work. Also, remember every hotel has the right to ask a guest who is smoking marijuana to stop. Unless they have a legitimate prescription from a licensed physician. If the guest cannot provide the paper work you can prevent them from doing so. If they refuse you may get the authorities involved. Hopefully in the near future there will be more case law on medical marijuana and its roll in employment, business and the ADA throughout the hospitality industry.

2016-11-14-1479151657

Human rights in Great Britain: essay help free

The first assessment for Care in Contemporary Society is to carry out research into Human Rights in Great Britain. The research to carry out included; providing a timeline of important progress within the Human Rights Legislation, stating the critical principles in the operation of the Human Rights approach and explaining the usefulness of supporting a Human Rights access to care. Human Rights are the basic rights which everyone is entitled to no matter where they are from, what religion they believe in or who they are. Human Rights apply to all to ensure everyone is treated equally. Human Rights has been a building process for many years as many laws have been put in place to ensure everyone is treated equally however not everyone follows the laws. This had to be changed with fighting for Human Rights which is still a growing process.

A timeline of important process in Human Rights Legislation:

The Representation of the People Act 1918: This was the beginning of the female suffrage in Great Britain. However, this did not give all women the right to vote, meaning only women who owned property who were 30 and older were given the right to vote. Whereas males who are 21 and older were given the right to vote therefore women were still at a disadvantage with their voting rights. 10 years later (1928) all women were given equal rights to vote to men.

Human rights commission – The Universal Declaration of Human Rights 1948: This is the first worldwide Human Rights agreement which includes all legal and cultures backgrounds from all over the world. The Universal Declaration is outlined as “The foremost statement of the rights and freedoms of all human begins” This had been acknowledged through The General Assembly of the United Nations in 1948. This legislation was agreed upon after the horrendous events of world war two to ensure everyone was entitled to the basic Human Rights.

[https://www.equalityhumanrights.com/en/what-are-human-rights/what-universal-declaration-human-rights)]

Human rights act 1998: This act states that

“Human rights are based on important principles like dignity, fairness, respect and equality. They protect you in your everyday life regardless of who you are, where you live and how you chose to live your life.”

[https://www.citizensadvice.org.uk/law-and-rights/civil-rights/human-rights/what-are-human-rights/]

This means that the human rights act is put in place to ensure all humans are treated equally no matter what. Examples of human rights include:

The right to freedom of religion and belief
The right to respect for private and family life
Your right to a fair trial

Equality and human rights commission 2007 – This commission in Scotland is fighting against discrimination. The commission states that everyone should be “treated fairly and with dignity” [https://www.equalityhumanrights.com/en/commission-scotland/about-commission-scotland] However discrimination still manages to take place, although having this commission in place allows those who are being discriminated against to be able to fight for their Human Rights.

Stating the critical principles in the operation of the Human Rights approach:

The Human Rights path is about ensuring people know and declare their rights. Everyone must be aware that a person is held responsible for ensuring the rights of an individual are provided and met. A Human Rights approach states that not only people who use the service should have their rights in place and provided with but the other individuals around e.g. A family coming into a hotel, the family should know and be able to declare their rights however the staff in the hotel have also got their rights.

The panel principles are the critical principles which are required in the operation of the Human Rights approach:

Participation – Everyone is able to cooperate in any changes that could influence their Human Rights.
Accountability – To ensure successful observation and to also ensure that breaking or failing to observe a law agreement will lead to being solved.
Non- discrimination and equality – All forms of discrimination should be abolished.
Empowerment – Everyone should be aware of their rights.
Legality – Everyone should be aware that rights are legally kept in force.

The usefulness of supporting a Human Rights access to care:

The usefulness of supporting a Human Rights access to care is important as it may be harder for people in care to always be up to date and know their rights. For example, People with dementia have the exact same human rights as every other person in this world however due to the illness they face many obstacles to realise every right they are entitled too. A group of Scottish parliament organisations representing the interests of people with dementia are brought together and work towards supporting people with dementia to ensure their rights are recognised and respected. Dementia over time causes the individual’s capacity to make choices in their everyday life’s. For example, someone with Dementia may need someone to support them with their banking. However, for this it has to be someone the individual trusts so that the individual’s rights are not broken. Therefore, it is important to adopt a Human Rights approach to care to ensure the safety and right to personal and private life.

Conclusion:

Overall Human Rights are important for everyone to ensure each and every individual is treated equally and fairly. The fight for Human Rights has been going on for an extremely long time and the fight to destroy the Human Rights which are not being put in place for every individual. Therefore, in years to come everyone should have their Human Rights set in place.

Reference sheet:

United Nations – Universal Declaration of Human Rights [online] Available at: http://www.un.org/en/universal-declaration-human-rights/ [Accessed on 17th October 2016]
About the commission in Scotland [online] Available at: https://www.equalityhumanrights.com/en/commission-scotland/about-commission-scotland [Accessed on 17th October 2016]
Votes for Victorian Women [online]: Available at: http://www.bbc.co.uk/programmes/b01r9c9r [Accessed on 17th October 2016]
Human Rights [online] Available at: https://www.citizensadvice.org.uk/law-and-rights/civil-rights/human-rights/ [Accessed on 17th October 2016]
Scottish Human Rights Commission [online] Available at: http://www.scottishhumanrights.com/application/resources/documents/SHRC_HRBA_MHS_leaflet.pdf [Accessed on 20th October 2016]
Care about Rights- What is a Human Right Approach? [online] Available at: http://www.scottishhumanrights.com/careaboutrights/whatisahumanrightsbasedapproach [Accessed on 20th October 2016]
Developing the over-arching principles and NCS. What is meant by a “Human Rights Based Approach?” [online] http://www.newcarestandards.scot/wp-content/uploads/2015/10/Human-Rights-Based-Approach.pdf [Accessed on 20th October 2016]
Charter or Rights for people with Dementia and their careers in Scotland [online] Available at: http://www.scottishhumanrights.com/application/resources/documents/FINALCharterofRights.pdf [Accessed on 21st October 2016]

2016-11-16-1479311929

TG/Travel UK organisational structure: online essay help

“The term organizational structure refers to the formal configuration between individuals and groups regarding the allocation of tasks, responsibilities, and authority within the organization” (Galbraith, 1987, Greenberg, 2011).

TG has a divisional organisational structure that is further split into functional structures. This is based on the assumption that Travel UK is an example that represents the remaining parts of TG in terms of structure. Travel UK has divisions (Airline, Commercial and Customer Operations) which have individual functional departments assigned to them. Divisional structures are organised by products or locations rather than functions (sales, finance, etc.). Divisional structures are decentralised, giving authority to the managers of the individual divisions to allow for well informed decisions to be made by the specialised manager overseeing the division (Fouraker and Stopford, 1968). Large organisations face complex issues due to global markets, multiple interdependent business activities and cooperation with other organisations. These factors require for complex decisions to be taken quickly. (Mihm, Loch, Wilkinson, and Huberman, 2010). This, combined with the rules and processes in place at Travel UK to guide managers in making such decisions objectively form a relatively secure foundation for TG’s volatile environments it is operating in. The divisional structure allows quick adjustment to factors impacting the operation. “Many corporations have developed and organisational structure consisting of relatively autonomous business units to achieve clear focus of skills and effort towards different markets, plus clear accountability of managers” (Hewitt, 2003) providing further evidence for the divisional structure being the most appropriate for globally operating TG. Another advantage is that the divisional structure’s autonomous nature tests and trains the division heads’ capabilities which enables the development of General Managers (Fouraker, Stopford, 1968). A disadvantage of this structure is that knowledge can be contained within each unit limiting the sharing of expertise among the organisation (Steiger, Hammou, Galib, 2014). Each operational division having its own sphere of competence make it likely for this to be the case within TG.

Each division within TG/Travel UK has its own business support units divided by function (sales, HR, etc). Functional structures give each local business unit direct access to areas of expertise but this type of structure can foster a ‘silo mentality’ in which all the departments work for themselves and do not communicate with each other (Connor, McFadden and McLean 2012). TG has made the decision to merge some functions where duplication existed. According to Mintzberg, many other organisations have made the decision to accept functional duplication to make the divisions less dependant on one another (Steiger, Hammou, Galib, 2014) which gives greater market robustness compared to the shared services model (merged functional departments).

TG’s structure is also impacted by employee relations (ER) aspects. “ER is the process of managing both the individual and the group in terms of contracts, regulations and collective behaviour…” (Purcell, 2012). This includes the differences in conditions of employment among and within TG’s business units due to mergers with other organisations. One of the main reasons for unsuccessful mergers is poor integration. One of the motivations to harmonise conditions of employment following mergers (vertical integration) is that work of the same value needs to be compensated in a similar way in accordance with the Equality Act 2010. Not harmonising terms of conditions of employment may increase the risk of legal claims under equally pay, discrimination and employment protection laws (Suff, Reilly, 2007). Towers and Perrin (2003) explain that “disparate benefits and compensation policies need to be integrated to align the company’s employees with the senior management teams business objectives”. The delay of aligning terms and conditions of employment may result in increased staff turnover (Suff, Reilly, 2007). Mergers provide an opportunity to revise practices and policies. Not revising such policies and practices can have a negative impact on organisational capability (PWC, 2016). If following a merger, ways of working are different, it can create frustration and anxiety leading to additional turnover (Stafford, Miles, 2013). Further complexity to this issue is added by the the different conditions of employment and working practices exist not only in job descriptions but also in agreements that have been negotiated by the trade unions with TG. Such differences are described as “monumentally difficult problems” as they are covered under the UK’s Transfer of Undertakings (Protection of Employment) Regulations 2006 (TUPE) and “involve some forceful negotiating from any unions” (Levinson, 2014). TUPE is designed to to protect employment rights for workers who are being taken over by a different organisation. Not following the process can incur compensation and legal fees as in the case of the Ministry of Defence which paid £5,000,000 in an out of court settlement to 1,600 Unite (union) members) (Stevens, 2014).

Changing such practices would therefore be complicated due to the seemingly inadequate cooperation between TG and with the trade unions. Whilst the organisation holds monthly joint consultative meetings with the unions, the relationship between them appears to be strained. This is evident in Travel UK’s fear of strikes when making changes to the cabin crew hours and working practices. An example of the impact that a general lack of trust between the unions and organisations can have is the one of British Airways and the union Unite in the years of 2010/2011. In 18 months the cabin crew went on strike four times over issues such as working conditions, redundancies and benefits resulting in revenue loss and customer complaints (BBC, 2011).

TG’s current divisional structure is is only appropriate for the future if TG eliminates all factors that could hinder it from reaching its strategic goals. Some of them are:

Customer satisfaction: The strained relationship with the trade unions can result in reoccurring industrial action which can delay or stop services causing customer complaints.
Profit: The underlying fear of strikes and differences in terms and conditions of employment create an environment in which TG cannot react quickly to changes needed to remain profitable.
Staff engagement: The fractured conditions of employment and working practices among its business units can have a negative impact on engagement levels.
Sustainability: Different work practices among the organisation make it difficult to reach a common goal.

If these barriers are not removed, the structure of TG is not appropriate for the future. This statement is supported by the CIPD’s 18 key points for high performance and high commitment in workplaces. Two of them are outlined as commitment to single status for all employees as well l has holiday harmonisation (Tamkin,2004); both of which are currently not met within TG.

2016-12-27-1482850246

Importance of Human Rights approach to care

The Lunacy Commission was set up following the 1845 Lunacy Act. This Government appointed group of lawyers and doctors oversaw the conditions of the asylums in England and Wales. Appointed commissioners would visit the hospitals twice a year their main objective was to ensure that the hospitals ran safely and efficiently particularly in regards to treatments. The reports raised concerns particularly with Patients being certified insane, suicide prevention and excessive force when restraining/subduing those in the asylum. The report highlighted that a good amount of furniture had been provided for the use of inmates.

The government took over the building of asylums eliminating private enterprise.

The government passed legislation to regulate activities in 1845 and 1853 Hospitals were also registered for the first time. In 1890 the Lunacy act of 1890 was passed in response to public concerns that some patients were being wrongfully detained particularly women who had very little rights, women who were wealthy could fall victim to financial abuse through private arrangements her husband could have his wife certified insane and locked away clearing the way for himself to inherit any financial benefits. Although great strides were made protecting the rights of inmate’s privacy was minimal there was usually 50 inmates to any one ward, privacy was minimal, unit wings were closed to patients with each ward/wing being placed under lock and key.

1961 is considered as the year attitudes towards for institutionalized mental healthcare was changing. Enoch Powell had been appointed health secretary in 1960 and was given the task of reforming the nations crumbling health services, including the Mental Hospitals. During the conservative party conference in March 1961, Powell criticized the asylums.

He spoke of the transition to community based care, the horror that asylums inflicted on patients, Enoch Powell proposed a radical vision towards community health care, not only reducing costs to the state (Powell envisioned 15,000 fewer psychiatrists) and reducing psychiatric beds by 50%. Powell’s next point was regarding those he described as the ‘sub-normal’, and the requirement to assess their needs and develop a more concise understanding of the issues faced in managing and caring for those individuals. Powell also advocated community services and better co-operation between local authorities and medical staff. Powell believed that services should be more flexibility in regards to the services offered and the services should be more person-centered fitting the services to suit the induvial needs and rights.

Under the 1990 National Health Service and Community Care Act any adult aged 18 or over who is eligible for and requires services from their local authority have the right to have their needs assessed and be fully involved in the arrangement of services advocates also can play a vital role in ensuring their opinion is respected, and any plan is implemented to enable individuals to live as independently as possible the community care act of 1990 emphasized the importance enabling and tailoring support and services around the needs of individuals. Assessments are reviewed every year, unless there is change of circumstances or the individual or local authority feel another review would be beneficial.

Importance of Human Rights approach to care

The human rights approach within care allows support workers to “realize the potential” of service users, highlighting the importance holistic care and taking a holistic approach to care it emphasizes the importance of taking someone’s emotional, physical, spiritual needs of an individual. Although a support worker may care for the physical needs of a patient due to any physical disability, such as assisting with washing or preparing meals a human rights approach advocates the importance of taking into consideration dietary requirements such as the individual being a vegetarian or observing religious traditions such as a Muslim or Jewish service user not consuming pork. The service provider would also not discriminate against any service user because of their religion, sexual orientation or any criminal convictions. This allows services to feel comfortable with services available and can raise complaints or seek support without fear of reprisals or intimation, this not only promotes the individual’s dignity but also their human rights.

Underlying principles of Human Rights

The underlying principles of human rights particularly in relation to care can be broken down into the acronym PANEL.

Participation: Service users should as far as possible participate in the review of their care especially when their needs are being assessed and services are being allocated to offer the appropriate support that the individual requires.
Accountability: Services are held accountable by governmental appointed agencies such the care inspectorate in Scotland Set up by Scottish Government, and accountable to ministers, they ensure assure and protect everyone that uses these services. Using the person-centered approach to care and having a holistic view of care allows the service users understand what is expected of them when they receive support and services.
Non-Discrimination: The service provider would also not discriminate against any service user because of their religion, sexual orientation or any criminal convictions.
Empowerment: Services should empower the individual to make their own choices, such as how they dress, plan activities that suit their individual tastes and choices emphasizing individuality and choices.
Legality: Service providers/Employees follow the law and strictly enforce the recommendations ensuring the safety of service users and employees are strictly adhered to reporting any cases of assault, abuse or offences.

My Practice’s Human Rights approach

Enablement: I assist the service user to make and achieve their goals but they don’t do it for them they encourage them to fulfil them themselves with the support needed. It is important that the care worker works in partnership with a range of integrated services, such as occupational therapist, to assist in meeting the service user’s needs. I will try to uphold the service user’s independence and encourage them to achieve their goals. I ensure that I encourage the service user whilst supporting them rather than doing it for them.

Non-Discrimination: Service users have the right to live in an environment free from harassment and discrimination so it is important that the care worker considers all factors so that all their spiritual, cultural and religious needs are met. Service users have the right to complain without being discriminated against if they have not received the care that they are entitled to or if they have been discriminated against. I aim to treat the service user with equality and diversity. I will ensure that I do not discriminate against any of the service users and I will embrace the diversity of the service user’s disabilities, sexual orientation and religious beliefs and focus on their induvial needs rather than their lifestyle.

2016-12-27-1482863432

How did Watergate deepen the mistrust in the office of the President?: essay help

On August 9, 1974, 37th President of the United States of America Richard Nixon resigned from his executive post. Nixon was and still is, the only US President to ever resign. The Watergate Scandal had brought Nixon’s second term to an abrupt end and diminished of retaining some form of respectability and honor among not only Americans, but citizens of the World. Although the questions about Watergate still remain. One in particular is had the Watergate scandal exposed a logical problem requiring structural resolutions, or was it the unfortunate combination of a poor president and his unethical advisors? Essentially, how did Watergate deepen the mistrust established in the office of the President and in what ways did this affect America.

Statistically, Americans are profoundly unhappy with their government. While the majority of Americans feel proud to be American; in the 1990s, never more than 40% of Americans said that they trusted their government most of the time or just about always (McKay, Houghton, & Wroe, 2002, p.20). A evident majority think that politicians do not act in the best interest of the people, and believe that government is controlled by investments from corporation. During the Watergate scandal, Americans had been shocked by the crimes of the Nixon Presidency. Investigations by the press and congress had exposed previously unimaginable levels of corruption and conspiracy in the executive branch. Following Watergate, the publics faith in government had been shaken, since the assassination of President John F. Kennedy, the trust placed in government had been in decline. The assassination had stolen the remainder of President Kennedy’s life and deprived him of a impartial, balanced historical judgement. Watergate had done the same to Nixon, and taken the same opportunity for a fair assessment from him, although Nixon himself had pushed it to happen. In order to fully assess how Watergate damaged the trust placed in President Nixon, his whole Presidency needs to be evaluated; domestic policy, foreign policy, if Watergate was really to blame for this mistrust, or was the mistrust already there and Watergate had just agitated it.

In Monica Crowley’s 1996 book Nixon off the Record, President Nixon brings up some points for consideration which not only challenge Watergate, but question it’s actual Impact of the scandal. ‘As President, until Watergate, my approval polls were never really below 50%. Neither were Eisenhower’s’ (Crowley, 1996, p.115). The significance of this is that Nixon refers himself to Eisenhower, one of the highest regarded Presidents in modern history. Nixon’s Domestic policy involves not only his own policies but the policies of who came before him; President Lyndon B. Johnson’s Great Society was a war on Poverty and both, racial injustice and gender inequality. Some of the policies were carried-on by Johnson, as part of President Kennedy’s New Frontier Legacy. The Civil Rights Bill that JFK promised to sign was passed into law. The Civil Rights Act banned discrimination based on race and gender in employment and ending segregation in all public facilities. Yet, African Americans all over the country were still denied the right to Protection from law enforcement, access to public facilities, and fair financial prospects. Nixon saw this as unjust abuse of the system, calling it both unfair to African American’s and a waste of human resources which would benefit America’s development. Johnson also signed the Economic Opportunity Act of 1964; The law that created the Office of Economic Opportunity aimed at attacking the roots of American poverty. Although this was dismantled under Nixon and Ford, which allocated poverty programs to other government departments. Johnson’s popularity had dropped due to Vietnam; members of his own party were seeking the nomination for President and in March 1968, he announced to the people of the United States that he would not seek a second term. Despite criticism, under LBJ the Great Society did impact many of the poorer Americans the program was aimed at. The total number of Americans living in poverty fell from 26 percent (1967) to 16 percent (2012), Government action is literally the only reason we have less poverty in 2012 than we did in 1967 (Matthews, 2016). The Great Society was however, deemed ahead of its time, combining both the this and the Vietnam war created massive budget deficits and thus, as Howard Zinn neatly puts it, Johnson’s War on Poverty in the 60s became a Victim of the War in Vietnam (Zinn, 2005, p.601). Nixon’s major economical objective was to decrease inflation, by doing so he had to effectively end the Vietnam War. This he did not do, in fact, he expanded it despite announcing on December 8th 1969 that the war was soon to end due to ‘a conclusion as a result of the plan that we have instituted’ (History.com, 2009). While ending the war was not something Nixon could do instantly, the U.S. economy continued to helplessly fluctuate during 1970, this in turn resulted to a very poor performance from the Republican party in the midterm elections – The Democrats held major seats and was heavily in control throughout Nixon’s presidency.

His Presidency was not completely shadowed by Watergate, although it has stained his Legacy, looking beneath the surface of Nixon’s Administration, his domestic policy clearly impacted America’s poorest; Total domestic spending by the federal government rose from 10.3 % of the gross national to 13.7% in the six years he was President. Granted a portion of the increased domestic spending under Nixon was due to the delay in starting Great Society initiatives, but a lot of it was due to Nixon’s own plans. The New Federalism agenda, essentially pointed out that all others before Nixon had failed to impact, let alone solve both social and growing urban problems. His new federalism has been credited as a highlight of his presidency, “Nixon’s New Federalism provided incentives for the poor to work” (Nathan, 1996). Despite his efforts, Nixon could not take away the feeling from the American People that the American Dream was failing following the Assassination of all the Major Civil Rights figures. John F. Kennedy, Martin Luther King, Malcom X, and Robert F. Kennedy all within the space of 5 years. Upon this, the process of desegregation was also taking place in many southern states, which created an immense amount on tension between minority groups and whites. Although Nixon was for desegregation, many traditional Right Wing Republicans in the southern states would have felt very different about this matter and thus, alienated by the Nixon administration.

Some have the opinion that it wasn’t so much Nixon that created or perpetuated this aura of Mistrust in his office, as it was the Government Agencies that served him. It is believed that a number of federal services contributed to this mistrust, The CIA was secretive and faceless in a sense but the FBI took on a more public role, taking credit for their actions and influencing the press, on numerous occasions. FBI Director J. Edgar Hoover morphed the FBI into what Richard Gid Powers called ‘ one of the greatest publicity generating machines the country has ever seen’ (Powers, 1983, p.95). Americans having a favourable opinion of the FBI fell from 84% (1965) to 52% (1973). This fell again to 37% in 1975. On top of this, The FBI’s creditability was also damaged by Watergate. L. Patrick Gray, Nixon’s nominee after Hoover died, destroyed critical Watergate evidence. The Watergate investigation had revealed that all too often Nixon had used the FBI for political purpose. Kathryn S. Olmsted narrates how federal agencies abused their privilege; Watergate did what the Bay of Pigs had not; ‘it had undermined the consensus of trust in Washington which was a truer source of the agency’ s strength than it’s legal charter’ (Olmsted, 1996, p.15) – it showed that ‘national security’ claims could and would cover up activities which were nothing but illegal. In brief, Nixon’s New federalism was not new, throughout his political career he opposed Big Government programmes and had fought to restore more power to state and local level establishments. President Nixon did achieve a number of things, the restoration of power to lower level government and away from federal jurisdiction, is one example. A number of critics argue that although his domestic policy benefited minorities, the poor and women, his new Federalism, failed to surpass his administration as he fought a losing battle to preserve his presidency following Watergate.

Foreign Policy is where Nixon’s Presidency becomes more believable to have caused mistrust in his office. During his time in office, he and certain federal agencies covered up a number of major mistakes created by the government. The Tonkin Incident is essentially where it began for Nixon, on 2 August 1964, United States claimed that North Vietnamese forces had twice attacked American destroyers in the Gulf of Tonkin. Known today as the Gulf of Tonkin Incident, this lead to open war between North Vietnam and the United States. It furthermore foreshadowed the major escalation of the Vietnam War in South Vietnam. This incident brought Congressional support for the Gulf of Tonkin Resolution, passed unanimously in the house, and with only two opposing votes in the senate. This gave Johnson the power to take military action as he saw fit in Southeast Asia. By 1968, There were more than 500,000 American Troops in south Vietnam (Zinn, 2005, p.477). This Resolution was applicable to Nixon when he was sworn into office. Nixon soon introduced U.S. troop withdrawals but also authorized invasions into Laos and Cambodia. Nixon announced the ground invasion to the American public on April 30, 1970. He expanded the Vietnam war in a time that called for its end, this led to widespread protests across America, and his popularity among younger American’s plummeted after this. Not only was there disturbances from this, it was considered a military failure, Congress resolved that Nixon could not, and should not use American troops in extending the war without congressional approval. Historian Harry Howe Ransom states, ‘[Nothing in public hearings] suggests that Congress intended to create, or knew it was creating, an agency for paramilitary operations’ when accepting the Gulf of Tonkin Resolution (Howe Ransom, 1975, p.155-156). Suggesting that it was Nixon’s own doing that created this mistrust when concerning the Vietnam War. Although, Nixon was not to blame for the entry into the Vietnam war, LBJ took adavantage of an compliant Congress quietly to increase American involvement In vietnam, and so without telling the people what he was doing. LBJ’s time in office, then, saw the emergence of ‘Presidential Imperialism’.

Nixon also introduced new trends in diplomatic international relations for America. Nixon argued that the communist world had two rival powers — the Soviet Union and China. Nixon and close advisor Henry Kissinger exploited the relationship between the two to benefit America. During the 1970s, Soviet Premier Leonid Brezhnev agreed to import American wheat into the Soviet Union. Creating trade and improving the economy. Nixon surprised the nation when he announced that he would travel to Communist China in February 1972, and meet with Mao Zedong. Following this visit, the United States dropped its opposition to Chinese entry in the United Nations and groundwork was laid for diplomatic relations. Just as anticipated, this caused concern from the Soviet Union. Nixon hoped to establish a Détente, in May 1972, he made an equally significant visit to Moscow to support a nuclear arms agreement. The United States and the Soviet Union pledged to constraint the number of intercontinental ballistic missiles each would manufacture. It does seem that Nixon and Kissinger were playing with fire, simultaneously establishing relationships with both China and the USSR, but ultimately, it was a tactical move from the duo. From a foreign policy opinion, it was wise to establish foundations for a diplomatic relationship. However, in terms of domestic policy, the American people were mortified, Nixon had built his reputation as an anti-communist supporter, following this it could easily be seen as nothing more than horrible irony; it was believed that Nixon was inspiring Left-wing enthusiasts to form and act on these international relations. Furthermore, President Nixon is responsible for the My Lai Massacre cover up. On March 16th 1968, a squad of Us soldiers mercilessly killed between 200 and 500 unarmed civilians at My Lai, a small village near the north coast of Southern Vietnam. My Lai was successfully covered up by US commanding officials in Vietnam for well over a year. Nixon, even prior to Watergate was the main culprit in yet another crime, in this case a crime of humanity, one that could have led to his impeachment. In hindsight it is now apparent that the President initiated the corruptive actions against the trials of those found guilty at My Lai – so that no US solider would be convicted of War Crimes (History.com, 2010).

Finally, we reach the crown Jewel of Nixon’s presidency; Watergate. Just as Clinton is associated with Lewinsky, Kennedy with Oswald, Lincoln with Slavery, Obama with Bin Laden and Nixon with Watergate. Nixon in his second term became ruthless with his domestic opponents, he withheld grants and funding appropriated by congress, he often sought to withhold information from congress; Nixon was denied an injunction to prevent the publication of the Pentagon Papers and then later during the Watergate crisis, was forced to release tapes of recording from the White House (Mervin, 1992, p.99). On top of this, he allowed secret missions to spy on his political opponents, this included tapping phones and harassing the liberal brookings institution. This is how the Watergate scandal occurred – initiated by a break-in at the democratic party’s headquarters and followed by a presidential cover up. Eventually bringing to resign in 1974, before he could be prosecuted. The severity of Watergate has been played down in the aftermath of it all, Nixon himself justified it in the worse possible way, that no one in government made financial profit from Watergate (Crowley, 1996, p.215), in this case, Nixon compares his behaviour to previous presidents such as JFK and even, Presidents after him like Clinton. He is very critical of both Executives as he feels Kennedy was just as corrupt during the Bay of Pigs affair. Principally, JFK had not been in effect long enough for anything to take place. The Cuban Missile Crisis was corrupted by Kennedy’s Administration, and the released transcripts were sanitized and passages removed – very similar to what Nixon had done with the Watergate tapes. Clinton, was also a sore topic for Nixon as he had been able to get away with Whitewater. In later years, Nixon felt that he was unfair penalised for Watergate as Clinton was able to evade the repercussions of Whitewater. ‘ Watergate was wrong; Whitewater is wrong. I Paid the price; clinton should pay the price. Our people shouldn’t let this issue go down. They shouldn’t let it sink.’ (Crowley, 1996, p. 219). This was a reference to those who wouldn’t let Nixon forget Watergate and what he had caused. Nixons final comment on Clinton were to have whitewater pursued and Clinton held responsible to what extent was necessary – it would be easy to see how Nixon resented Clinton for his indiscretions, many of which he was able to evade the consquences. Watergate had shattered the liberal consensus, Americans had learned of the covert operations and dirty tricks that their secret warriors had carried out at the height of the Cold War. Following this, the American people had learned about the murderous plots, drug testing, and harrassment of dissesedents that had been carried out in their name. They had been taught a very diluted version of the World. The intelligence investigations forced Americans to face difficult questions regarding the competence of their intelligence agencies, the Executive office of Government, and the tensions between secrecy and democracy. The many inquiries asked them to doubt the decency of Americans they believed to be heroes such as J.Edgar Hoover and John F. Kennedy- and whether their nation truly adhered to it’s professed ideals. It can ultimately be determined that the failures of the American political system-true or false, have undermine trust in the American people.

In conclusion, At the beginning of Nixon’s Presidency it is likely that events in every single Presidency would have added to the suspicion of that Office, Watergate would have had an significant impact on American trust in government. Most Americans are more likely to include factors like Vietnam and Watergate when regarding Nixon as both fit well into the decline of trust, and increasingly negative perceptions of American Political leaders. However, it would be an unfair to put too much emphasis on the incompetence and dishonesty of various presidents and members of congress. Many believed that Ford would restore faith in the Office of President, and trust in the government. Ford was everything Nixon wasn’t: Honest and Open and he received an 71% approval rating shortly after he was sworn into office. – However, in his inaugural address, incoming President Gerald R. Ford declared, “Our long national nightmare is over.” A month later, he granted Richard Nixon a full pardon, by doing this Ford damaged the American optimism, and had shown that he had more loyalty to Nixon and his Party than to the American People. This increased the growing trend of cynicism about the office of the President even after Nixon.

2016-12-15-1481771259

Sexual harrassment of women at the workplace

Introduction

Sexual harassment of women at workplace is a type of violence against women on the basis of their gender. It violates a woman’s self esteem, self-respect and dignity and takes away her basic human as well as Constitutional rights. Sexual Harassment is not a new phenomenon and speedily changing workplace equations have brought this hidden reality to the surface. Sexual Harassment at the workplace has become ubiquitous in every part of the world and India is no exception to the same.

Like any other sex based crime Sexual harassment of the women is about power relationships, domination and control. It is not what most people commonly tend to think like verbal comments, inappropriate touch or sexual assault. It has myriad ways and forms. Moreover its new forms or variables are being introduced every other day in this dynamic technological era. It may include derogatory looks, gestures, indecent proposals, writings or display of sexually graphic pictures, sms or mms, comments about ones dressings, body or behavior and any other unwelcome or objectionable remark or inappropriate conduct.

The ultimate aim of the makers of the Constitution of India was to have a welfare state and an egalitarian society projecting the aims and aspirations of the people of India. The Preamble, Article 14, Article 15, Article 16, Article 19, Article 21, Directive Principles of State Policy and many other Articles have secured social justice for the women thus preventing sexual crimes.

Before ‘The Sexual Harassment of Women at Workplace (Prevention, Prohibition and Redressal) Act 2013 came into force, legislation such as Indian penal Code,1860, The Code of Criminal Procedure,1973, The Indian Evidence Act,1872 have provided protection to women. Also various international conventions to which India has been a signatory and has ratified have filled up the gap until 2013.

The recent Sexual Harassment Act has its roots in the ghastly rxxe of a community worker Bhawari Devi in rural Rajasthan. This incident and the humiliation that followed made the apathy of the system evident. Several women’s groups filed a Public Interest Litigation in the Supreme Court based on which the Vishakha Guidelines were formulated to prohibit the sexual harassment of women at the workplace. Various other judicial pronouncements also paved a way for the formulation of legislation of 2013.

Sexual Harassment is often about inferiority of women. The victim is often confused, embarrassed or scared. She may be clueless about with whom to share with the experience and whom to confide in. Sexual harassment at the workplace may have serious consequences on the physical and mental well-being of the women. It may also degenerate to their gravest form that is rxxe.

There should be proper grievance mechanism at the workplaces to deal with this issue. Also the accused shall be punished without having any regard to their status or position in at the workplace. There should be committees comprising especially of women members to make the victims feel comfortable. Reporting of The incidents should be encouraged and those who dare to speak up must be protected from the wrath of the employers. The employed women cannot be at the whim and fancy of their male employer. The incidents of Sexual Harassment at the workplace are a stigma on our Constitution. If it is not prevented, our constitutional ideals of gender equality and social justice will never be realized.

Rationale

Sexual harassment can have a number of serious consequences for both the victim and his or her co-workers. The effects of sexual harassment vary from person to person and are often dependent on the severity and duration of the harassment. For many victims of sexual harassment, the aftermath may be more damaging than the original harassment. Effects can vary from external effects, such as retaliation, backlash, or victim blaming to internal effects, such as depression, anxiety, or feelings of shame and/or betrayal. Depending on the victim’s experience, these effects can vary from mild to severe.

The rationale behind taking this topic for the dissertation is to throw light on the various aspects of the law relating to sexual harassment thereby helping women to achieve their rights better. Also one of the reasons behind choosing this topic for the dissertation is also to make the employer aware of his liability. Lastly our Constitution has granted us certain fundamental rights and it includes gender equality and social justice. There is a strong relationship between these fundamental rights and the prohibition of sexual harassment at the workplace as sexual harassment is a form of power relationship which treats women inferior.

Scope

Sexual harassment at the workplace results from the misuse of power and not from sexual attraction. The legal scholars and jurists have emphasized that the instant conduct is objectionable as it does not only interfere with the personal life of the victim but also throws a pall on the victims’ abilities.

The victims of sexual harassment may be both men as well as women. This study particularly aims at the sexual harassment of women at the workplace.

The scope of this study is to pave way for the prevention of sexual harassment at the workplace and to make women aware of their rights and complaint mechanisms. Many women are ignorant about the laws which protect them from this kind of harassment. Also many employers shrug off their responsibility to help fight sexual harassment at the workplace. This study aims to discuss the constitutional provisions as well as legislation and employers liability in eradicating sexual harassment at the workplace.

Background

The law to check sexual harassment at workplace which prescribes strict punishment, including termination of service, for the the guilty and similar penalties in case of a frivolous complaint has come into effect from Monday.

The women and child development (WCD) ministry had come under attack for delay in implementing the Sexual Harassment of Women at Workplace (Prevention, Prohibition and Redressal) Act, 2013 which was brought in after the outrage over the December 16 gang rxxe case, despite the fact that it had received Presidential assent on April 22, 2013. Before this Act came into force there was no special law for sexual harassment at the workplace. Some legislations like Indian Penal Code, Criminal Procedure Code etc dealt with this problem.

After the horrifying gang rxxe of Bhawari Devi Vishakha guidelines were formulated to fill the gap. In the year 2013 the Act came into force. Thus this study will help to study how the laws have evolved.

Hypothesis

Like all other historical manifestations of violence, Sexual Harassment is embedded in the socio economic and political context of power relations. It is produced within class, caste and social relations in which male power dominates. It is a sex based discrimination which is dangerous to the well being of the woman. It imposes less favourable conditions upon them. This research tries to build a link between “Every incident of sexual harassment of women at workplace results in violation of the fundamental rights of women and it is the employer’s liability to protect these fundamental rights”.

Research Methodology

Research is a systematic attempt to push back the bonds of comprehension and seek beyond the horizons of our knowledge, some truth or reality. Since the scope of the study is to establish a link between the fundamental rights and a right against sexual harassment at the workplace. The research Methodology chosen will be doctrinal and will seek to elaborate all aspects and get deep knowledge.

The study material will be collected through library visits , various books, periodicals, articles published etc. The technology like computer Cds etc will also be used to obtain and maintain information. Reliable Internet resources will also be used to a limited extent.

Survey of existing literature

The researcher would like to analyze and survey on the various books available on sexual harassment at the workplace, Indian Constitution and various books on the rights of women and their protection.

Aims and Objectives

The main Aims and Objectives to undertake this research can be listed as follows-

● To outline the relationship between fundamental rights and the right against sexual harassment at the workplace.

● To make women aware that right against sexual harassment at the workplace.

is their fundamental and constitutional right.

● To make women aware of the laws and the policies for sexual harassment at the workplace.

● To highlight the liability of the employer to keep the sexual harassment at the workplace in check as protection of women against the sexual harassment is a constitutional and fundamental right.

● To search solutions for the persisting problem of sexual harassment at the workplace.

● To understand the evolution of laws against sexual harassment at the workplace.

● To study the legal facets in protection of the rights of the women.

● To study the theme of legislations and laws which are enacted to prevent sexual harassment at the workplace

Scope

Sexual harassment at the workplace is a serious and ever increasing problem in India. India already has one of the lowest ratios of working women in the world. It would be disastrous if companies, unclear about sexual harassment, take the easy way out by simply rejecting women in favour of men.

It is the liability of the employer to make use of the constitutional articles and the new legislation to protect women against the sexual harassment at the workplace. Sexual harassment in the workplace is one of the most complicated areas of employment law. It is also one of the areas that has recently received the most press. Sexual harassment in the workplace often goes hand-in-hand with other illegal acts, like gender discrimination.

CHAPTERISATION

The Research project is divided into the following 10 chapters for better understanding. The chapters are further divided into subpoints so that the material collected and the study done can be compartmentalized into chapters and sub-chapters. This chapterisation will be able to give a better idea and a better insight into the project. The chapters are systematically numbered and placed one after the other.

Chapter – I – Introduction

Though the Constitutional Commitments of the Nation to women were translated through various planning processes, legislations, policies and programs over the last six decades, a situational analysis of social and economic status of women does not reflect satisfactory achievements in any of the important human development indicators. This chapter will highlight the vulnerable group and how the sexual harassment at the workplace speaks to power relationships and victimization than it does to sex itself. Also how sexual harassment is a form of sexual discrimination and subordination.

Chapter – II – Extent and Types of Sexual harassment

This chapter will enumerate the extent of sexual harassment at the workplace specially in India. It will also speak about the types of sexual harassment at the workplace which includes 1) Quid Pro Quo i.e “this for that” which means the employer or the superior at work makes tangible job related consequences such as promises of promotion, higher pay etc. upon obtaining sexual favours from an employee and 2) Hostile Work Environment which means an abusive working environment.

Chapter – III – Analysis of Statistical Data

In this chapter statistical data will be collected from reliable sources. The data will be analyzed and proper conclusions will be arrived at. This chapter will show the numbers and may show the gravity of the problem.

Chapter – IV – Vishakha Guidelines

Till Vishakha guidelines there was no civil or penal laws in India to protect women from sexual harassment at the workplace. The brutal gangrxxe of Bhawari Devi gave rise to Vishakha Guidelines which filled up the vacuum. This chapter will cover up the historical background behind Vishakha guidelines and important features of the same. Vishakha Guidelines began a new era in the legislations for c

Chapter – V – Judicial pronouncements

The issue of sexual harassment at the workplace is such a complex issues that a simple understanding of it is a tedious and tardy process. Therefore the best way to understand it is to see the trends in the history of the precedents of the Courts. The famous cases of Vishakha, Rupan Deol Bajaj, Shehnaz Mudhbalkhal, Medha Kotwal Lele’s Case will be covered in this chapter. Also recent cases of Tarun Tejpal and Justice AK Ganguly will be studied in detail. This chapter will trace the judicial inclination of the decisions.

Chapter – V I – Legal Framework in India-The Constitution

The Constitution of India gives equal protection to men and women. Gender equality is one of the ideals enshrined in our Constitution. The Constitution has even positively discriminated in favor of women. In this chapter various Articles in the Constitution will be discussed which include Art 14, Art 15, Art. 21 and many other Articles which ensure protection to women. The Constitution is the mother of all Laws and hence all other legislations have emanated from this. Thus this chapter will be important as it will cover how Constitutional ideals and Fundamental Rights enshrined in it have given rise to various laws protecting women.

Chapter – VII – Legal framework in India- Criminal, Labour and other laws

The Sexual Harassment of Women at Workplace (Prevention, Prohibition and Redressal) Act, 2013 has come into force in 2013. Before this various other criminal and other laws protected women from sexual harassment at the workplace.

Thus in this chapter all these other laws which have sourced the formation of the Act of 2013 will be discussed in detail. Also how the Constitution and these other laws have aided the formation of the Act of 2013 will be discussed.

Chapter – VIII – The Liability of the Employer

This is one of the important chapters as it will discuss how the Employer must take care to prevent the occurrences of the incidents of sexual harassment at the workplace in his institution. Also it will depict how the Employer can make use of the laws and the Act of 2013 to ensure that the incidents do not occur and if the incidents occur then how does one tackle with it, legally and otherwise.

The Employer should create a healthy environment at the workplace and the accused should be made subject to the laws irrespective of their positions in the institutions.

Chapter – IX – An Analysis of the Act

In this chapter, The Sexual Harassment of the Women at the Workplace (Prevention, Prohibition and Redressal ) Act,2013 will be discussed in detail. Its objectives , Comp;aint procedures, Inquiry, compensation, Punishments etc, such features will be enumerated. The Act is the most important tool for battling sexual harassment at the workplace. Thus this chapter will show how this Act can be best used to the benefit of the women at the workplace.

This Act is a result of lot of struggle and wait. This Act should be used in such a manner that it will prevent as well as eradicate sexual harassment at the workplace.

Chapter – X – sexual harassment at the workplace- International Scenario

India has been a signatory and has ratified many international conventions which give special rights and protection to the women. Its obligatory on India’s part to ensure that women are protected equally. In this chapter various international conventions like CEDAW etc will be discussed in detail.

Also this chapter will discuss how these international enactments have acted as a source for the legislations in India.

Chapter –X I – Sexual Harassment at the Workplace prevention policies

This Chapter will enumerate how the prevention policies must be formulated and how the policies must be best used to prevent sexual harassment at the workplace.

Chapter – XII – Conclusion

This chapter will contain conclusions drawn upon the findings of the research. The conclusion is the most important part of the research as it sums up the hwole of the research and gives a good insight into it.

The protection of the rights of the women in India has always been upheld by the Indian Constitution and Law makers. Women are given a place of dignity in all the legislations. Since in India women were suppressed since the ancient times, Legislators took special care to involve and protect women in the mainstream world.

The conclusion at this stage can be derived that women in India are protected by Constitutional and Fundamental rights. The other legislations have their source from the constitution. Thus it is a Constitutional mandate to protect women from the sexual harassment at the workplace.

It is the duty and responsibility of the employer to uphold the rights of the women in his or her institution. Also the recent Act of 2013 must be implemented properly.

Chapter – XIII – Suggestions

This chapter will contain the suggestions for the victims as well as the employer. It will also contain suggestion for prevention policies and duties of the employer. The suggestions will include how one can strike the balance between constitutional rights and rights of women.

2019-1-5-1546672284

Structure and issues of race within the international system/relations

“The problem of the twentieth century is the problem of the color line.” (Du Bois, n.d.)

Race has been at the epicenter of everything and it propagated throughout centuries in several forms; forms such as economics, geography, education, health and also, socio-politics. This essay discusses and explains the structure and issues of race within the international system/relations; its evolution and development, how it impacts nations and its populations, and nonetheless the elements of race and colonialism in structures of power; followed by the formation of the successful and long-lasting Eurocentric modern capitalism, which is still present in society and acts as a pattern of global hegemon (LeMelle, 1972).

As a definition of a grouping of humans by analyzing their characteristics, either physical or ethnic (En.wikipedia.org, 2018), or a contribution to and a product of stratification (LeMelle, 1972), race has conditioned and influenced many people on the globe, including its governance and leadership. From a socio-constructed conception (En.wikipedia.org, 2018) to a major and predominant constraint in the global order and politics, the ‘race’ denotation itself evolved, building a hierarchy between civilians and nations across the world: White vs Black, Asian and other ethnic groups (BAME). This division led to a different approach of how human beings perceived themselves, strengthening aspects such as levels of development, civilization values, history, religion, culture and traditions, physical features, garments and mainly, color (Jacques, 2003).

Race portrayed and still portrays a significant role in the world order; With its hierarchy status more than solidified – claiming whites as the dominant class and non-whites as the subordinates-, it easily breads racism, discrimination, inequality, and conflict too, perpetuating the ideology of a ‘White Man’s World’ (LeMelle, 1972).

This expression was implemented and widely spread by Europeans with the intent to classify and divide populations according to their ethnicity and backgrounds. With voyages of discovery, colonialism, slavery, and imperialism perceived as great sources of income and prosperity, it became easier for Europeans to strive with their sense of white supremacy and go beyond borders to achieve these hateful and money-driven causes (LeMelle, 1972). Even though, colonialism and slavery are over per se the disparity amongst people, in modern society, is overwhelmingly large (Nkrumah, 1965); race is a structure that conditions and influences the power and actions of actors in the international realm and, in fact, remains beneficial for the Transatlantic couple, the EU and the US. It is then obvious that South American, Asian and African civilizations were reduced solely to their post-colonial and inferior identities and that the conception of a modern and civilized Europe still lingers powerful and wealthy, alienating others from their participation in historical, cultural and financial donations onto the international system (SHILLIAM, 2011).

So how can this term have a credible structure of correlation and such an effect on the international system as we know it? The three antecedents, mentioned priorly, generated a meaningful advantage to the Transatlantic couple in regards to the rest of the globe – Big decision makers with IGOs such as UN, WTO, IMF, NATO or World Bank; leaders of renown institutions such as banks, universities and hospitals; predominant winners of warfare in events like WWI, WII and Cold War; huge influencers in aspects of culture, law, democracy, science, technology, engineering, religion and immigration and responsible for the rise of capitalism and the role on globalization too. The Transatlantic couple is then easily seen as the global hegemon and the face of the international system without any accountability that their strength and mighty development was built on the back and discreditation of the BAME population ().

What also perpetuates widely the state of devaluation that the non-white nations currently find themselves in is the lack of international opportunity and mobility, poverty and debt crisis, uneven development rates with a rapid population growth to a bad wealth distribution, disproportionate citizenship status, high migration flow (LeMelle,1972), neo-colonialism and dependency on Western states, unbalanced of life chances and success by race and by state/region, and a white privileged global society.

2019-1-17-1547693961

Effects the murder of Stephen Lawrence on policing procedures: custom essay help

This essay will analyse the effects the murder of Stephen Lawrence, which lead to the Macpherson report had on changes in police procedures and policy; especially concerning ethnic communities. The report itself includes seventy proposals of recommendation to tackle racism in the police force; with the race relations legislation being an important policy to improving procedures as well as an investigation into the Metropolitan police force for institutional racism and the failures regarding procedure surrounding the Stephen Lawrence case (The Guardian, 1999).

The murder of eighteen-year-old Stephen Lawrence occurred 22nd April 1993 where the young man was stabbed resulting in his death; although, it was not until January 2012 that two individuals were found guilty of his murder (BBC, 2018). The Macpherson report that followed the murder outlined changes in practice this included the “abolishment of the double jeopardy rule”; before this law was abolished an individual could not be tried again for a crime they had previously been found not guilty for, this was a vital change in policy as it led to the conviction of the individuals found guilty of Stephen Lawrence’s murder (The Guardian, 2013). This proposes a positive effect on policing procedures as cases succeeding the Stephen Lawrence case may have not achieved a conviction had the double jeopardy rule not of been abolished. This is evident in the ‘Babes in The Woods’ murder as this change in policy had a positive effect on policing procedures as the police were able to use new forensic evidence thirty-two years later to convict the murderer of the two young victims (BBC, 2018).

Bowling and Phillips (2002, cited in Newburn, 2017, p.854) suggested that the recommendations that were outlined in the Macpherson report led “to the most extensive programme of reform in the history of the relationship between the police and ethnic minority communities.” This suggests a positive effect of the Macpherson report as due to some of the changes in policy and police procedures actioned by the recommendations outlined has meant that the police have begun to regain the trust of ethnic minority communities; which will support police practice in the future.

The 2009 Home Affairs committee report written ten years after the Macpherson publication highlights if and how the seventy improvement proposals outlined in the report had been met at time of publication; the Home Affairs report highlighted that Dwayne Brooks suggested an important area for progression was the “introduction of appropriately trained family liason officers in critical incident” (Parliament, 2009). The report highlights that this key improvement in police procedure surrounding appropriate training for family liason officers to deal with critical incidents has improved family liason officer’s ability to be able to ‘maintain relationships with families’, whilst obtaining necessary evidence and improving confidence in the police within the black community (Parliament, 2009). Thus, suggesting that this change in policing procedure and policy, due to the Macpherson report, has had a positive effect, especially within the ethnic community. The report also highlights that this change in policing procedure and policy has positively affected homicide detection rates which the report indicated at 90%, which is “the highest of any large city in the world” (Parliament,2009).

However, there are still issues surrounding police procedures especially within ethnic minority communities, in which the Macpherson report improvements may not have positively been actioned. This can be seen in the stop and search rates; policing statistics published by the government for the time period of 2016/2017 suggests that the ratio for white individuals stopped and searched was 4:1000 whereas the ratio for black individuals was 29:1000 (Gov, 2018). Thus, suggesting that police are stopping more black individuals that white, which may still suggest an element of institutional racism in the way police conduct this procedure.

The prison reform trust also highlights an over representation of Black minority ethnic groups (BMES) in prisons with the supporting evidence of the Lammy review, the reform trust suggests that there is a clear correlation between the ethnicity of an individual and custodial sentences being issued (Prison reform trust, 2019). Thus, suggesting discrimination in police procedures and the court system. Therefore, this may suggest that the Macpherson reports improvements have not positively been actioned in some elements of the criminal justice system.

In conclusion, where the recommendations have been put into place and are actively being worked upon, the Macpherson report has provided positive effects on police procedures and policy. However, evidence such as the stop and search statistics shows that there are still issues in policing procedures and policy that need to be addressed.

2019-1-17-1547744694

Boohoo marketing and communication (PESTEL, SWOT)

This report will focus on a three-year Marketing Strategy Plan for Boohoo and a one-year Communication Plan to explore what improvement Boohoo can make across their shopping experience, their site and their social media to drive sales in the UK market.

Methodology

Primary research

For my primary research I made a questionnaire on Survey Monkey to find out customer experience with brand Boohoo. The sample of people used in the primary research ranged from the ages of 16 – 25 who are the main consumers Boohoo targets. Secondary research was carried out through websites such as WGSN.

Brand History

Boohoo is a UK online fashion retailer. It was founded in 2006 by Mahmud Kamani and Carol Kane. The brand specifies in its own brand fashion clothing selling over 36,000 products, including accessories, clothing, footwear and health and beauty. Boohoo also run BoohooMAN, NastyGal and PrettyLittleThing and are all targeted at 16-24 year olds.

Mission statement

Here at boohoo we are very proud of our brand and what we have achieved. Day to day we live by four key values that help us to continue to succeed and are at the heart of everything we do. This is our PACT, the values that seal the deal for boohoo..

The key issues boohoo face are that there are many retailers out there are all very similar including Miss Guided and Pretty Little Thing.

Maco/micro trends

Macro Trends

Political factors

Wage legislation – minimum wage and overtime
Work week regulations in retail
Product labelling
Taxation – tax rates and incentives
Mandatory employee benefits

Economic factors

Exchange rates
Labour costs
Economic growth rate
Unemployment rate
Interest rates
Inflation rates
Education level in the economy

Social factors

Class structure/hierarchy
Power structure in the society
Leisure interests
Attitudes (health, environmental consciousness)
Demographics and skill level of the population

Technological factors

Recent technological developments by Boohoo competitors
Impact on cost structure in Retail industry
Rate of technological diffusion
Technology’s impact on product offering

Environmental factors

Climate change
Weather
Recycling
Air and water pollution regulation in Retail Industry
Waste management in consumer services sector

Legal factors

Copyright
Data protection
Employment law
Health and safety law
Discrimination law

SWOT

Strengths

Strong distribution network – Boohoo have built a trustworthy distribution network which is able to reach most of its potential market
New markets – Boohoo has been entering new markets and making success of them such as BoohooMAN and PrettyLittleThing. The development has helped Boohoo build a new revenue.
Good returns on capital expenditure – Boohoo have made good returns on capital expenditure by making new revenue streams.
Reliable suppliers – Boohoo has a strong reliable supplier of raw material therefore enabling the company to overcome any supply chain holdups

Weaknesses

Investments in new technologies – The scale of expansion and geographies that Boohoo are planning to expand into, they will need to put more money into technology as the investment In technologies is not at balance with the vision of the company.
The profitability ratio and net contribution % of Boohoo are below the industry average.
Global competition such as Missguided, Topshop, Asos and H&M
No flagship stores

Opportunities

Opening up of new markets because of government agreement – the approval of new technology standard and government free trade agreement has provided Boohoo an opportunity to enter a new emerging market
Lower inflation rate – the low inflation rate brings more stability in the market and enable credit at lower interest to Boohoo customers
New technology gives Boohoo an opportunity to maintain its loyal customers with great service and lure new customers through other value positioned plans.
Continue using celebrity endorsements
Creating an online chat on their website that allows customers to receive 24-hour help.

Threats

Poor quality products compared to Boohoo competitors
Increased competition within the industry
Technological developments by competitors – new technological developments by competitors pose a threat towards Boohoo as customers attracted to this new technology can be lost to competitors which will decrease Boohoo overall market share.

Competitor analysis

The retail industry face a strong competition as Boohoo have many competitors such as ASOS, Missguided, New Look and H&M. A way that most consumers experiment all different trends with different brands is to choose cheaper retailers which in this case would be Boohoo.

2019-1-18-1547810074

Why do employees leave organisations? / Can a business force an employee to retire?: college essay help

Some of the reasons employees leave organisations are due to poor culture, poor work life balance, need for greater flexibility, poor management vs employee relationship, lack of communication, poor pay, no room for growth and poor working conditions, However, employees will stay with an organisation if there is a good work life balance, a sense of reward, good benefits packages, competitive salaries, fun environment to work, recognition and a financial need.

Peter Cheese, chief executive of the Chartered Institute of Personnel and Development, said: “It definitely takes time to get a new employee up to speed. It depends on the nature of the job; on one end of the spectrum, somewhere like McDonald’s can get new employees up to speed very quickly. On the other hand, there is a business development person in a professional development organisation where you’ve got to spend quite some time understanding the network and building connections to the client base and so forth, then three to six months is probably fairly typical” (Replacing Staff Cost)

It’s important to understand the reasons why employees wish to leave an organisation as there are costs associated with a dysfunctional employee turnover, these costs may not only be financial but can also be Intrinsic and reputational. Intrinsic knowledge loss is difficult to measure, but would be a loss either way, if an employee brought clients to the business or has built fantastic relationship with clients whilst employed, that employee leaving the business would be detrimental. Reputational can cost the business immensely, if an organisation doesn’t treat their employees or ex-employees well and this becomes knowledgeable, it can be hard for the organisation to attract good talent and clients. According to an article in the telegraph (Financial) Financial costs in replacing staff can cost up to £4billion a year, that’s an average of £30k per person.

One method for retaining talent in an organisation is to ensure there is an open and inclusive culture which promotes communication. One way of doing this could be to ensure language used by the senior team inclusive of HR is as Lucy Adams say “human”. (Human) Adams surmises that often when we use jargon the company can end up creating a distance between themselves and the employee; whereas if we converse in a human approach using everyday language, we have the opportunity to create a more cohesive working team, where employees can feel involved in dialogue which could leader to greater engagement but encouraging a more human approach.

Of course, “jargon” has come about due to both a cultural need for some departments such as HR to retain a professional and non-committal distance. For example, if HR as an advisory agent apologised directly for offence caused to an employee, there could be ramifications later through allegations of admittance in sensitive situations.

Therefore, it’s vital that when encouraging engagement though treating employees as humans and not numbers that due consideration is provided to the wider ramifications of a change in language and method of communication should also be considered such as platform, surveys and daily briefings.

Another method employed by businesses is the approach of ensuring employees receive a greater work life balance. This can be done through several mediums:

Flexible Working (statutory and company culture)
Seeing the individual a whole
Introduction of TOIL – for additional hours worked
Implementing training for time management, According to HR Review (Poor TM) its “One of the biggest causes of stress in the workplace is poor time management”
Increased leave benefits (holiday, paternity, maternity) Maternity for example According to Glass door (Women) Accenture pay, 9 months full pay

Such promotions can clearly be open to abuse and this can be a possible downside.

—-

Under the Equality Act 2010 [Equ Act2010], The Advisory, Conciliation and Arbitration Service (Acas) stated that when managing retirement [Retirement], older workers can voluntarily retire at a time they choose and draw any occupational pension they are entitled to. However, employers cannot force employees to retire or set a retirement age unless it can be objectively justified as what the law terms ‘a proportionate means of achieving a legitimate aim – [Please see appendix 8], Acas have said that a direct question such as ‘when are you retiring’ should be avoiding, instead open ended questions such as ‘where they see them selves in a few years and there contribution to the organisation, this could be done during a performance development review. An employee can change their mind at anytime about retiring until they have handed in their formal notice

An employer cannot compulsorily retire an employee, as this would leave the employer open to a complaint of unfair dismissal.When managing a dismissal, ACAS states [Dismissal 2019 ] its always best to try and resolve any issues informally first.

According the Employment Rights Act 1996 [ERA 1996] employees have the right not to be unfairly dismissed, companies need to set out clear rules and procedures and act consistently when handling disciplinary procedures and to ensure employees and managers understand the procedures and rules.

One of the following reasons along with a fair procedure, an employee can be fairly dismissed; capability (including the inability to perform competently) redundancy, conduct or behaviour, breach of a statutory restriction (such as employing someone illegally) or some other substantial reason (such as a restructure that is not a redundancy).

Before holding a disciplinary hearing, an investigation should be carried out and the employee given any evidence in time to prepare for the meeting, the employee should also be given the opportunity to bring a trade union rep or a colleague, although they can’t answer any questions, they can ask them.

The employee should be given opportunity to share their side of the situation and challenge evidence.

If the disciplinary is based on performance, the employee should be given support and training and an opportunity to improve, Companies should not sack employees for a first offence unless its gross misconduct and a penalty should reflect the seriousness of the act, staff can usually appeal against Verbal, written 1st and final warnings.

If an Employee has been with the company less than two years, they do not have unfair dismissal rights, with exceptions around discrimination and equality.

CIPD tells us that [redundancy CIPD] redundancy is a special form of dismissal which happens when an employer needs to reduce the size of its workforce. An employee is dismissed for redundancy if the following conditions are satisfied:

the employer has ceased, or intends to cease, continuing the business, or
the requirements for employees to perform work of a specific type, or to conduct it at the location in which they are employed, has ceased or diminished, or is expected to do so.

If there is a genuine redundancy, employers that follow the correct procedure will be liable for:

a redundancy payment, and
notice period payment.

Employers don’t follow the correct procedure may be liable for unfair dismissal claims or protective awards. Redundancy legislation is complex and is covered by statute and case law, with both determining employers’ obligations and employees’ rights.

2019-1-18-1547854403

Should we fight against tort reform?: essay help site:edu

The controversy around tort reform has turned into a two-sided debate between citizens and corporates. With the examination of various cases in recent years, it is clear that the effects of tort reform have proven to be negative for both sides. This issue continues to exist today, as public relations and legislature show a clear difference in opinion. In the event that tort reform occurs, victims and plaintiffs will be prevented from being fully replenished from the harm and negativity that they suffered, making this process of the civil justice system unfair.

In the justice system, there are two forms of law: criminal law, and civil law. The most well known form of law is probably criminal law. Criminal law is where the government (prosecutor) fights a defendant regarding a crime that may or may not have been committed. Contrary to this, civil law has a plaintiff and a defendant who fight over a tort. As stated in the dictionary, a tort is “a wrongful act or an infringement of a right (other than under contract) leading to civil legal liability”. In hindsence, a tort correlates to that of a crime in a criminal case.

Tort reform refers to the passing legislature or when a court issues a ruling that limits in some way the rights of an injured person to seek compensation from the person who caused the accident (“The Problems…Reform”). Tort reform also includes subtopics such as public relations campaign, caps on damages, judicial elections, and mandatory arbitration. Lawmakers across the United States have been heavily involved with tort reform since the 1950s, and it has only grown in popularity since then. Ex-president George W. Bush urged Congress to make reform in 2005 and brought tort reform to the table like no other president.

The damages that are often referred to in civil lawsuits are economic damages and non-economic damages. An economic damage is any cost that is a result of the defendant’s actions. For example, medical bills or money to repair things. Non-economic damages refer to emotional stress, post-traumatic stress disorder, and other impacts not related to money. A cap on damages “limits the amount of non-economic damage compensation that can be awarded to a plaintiff” (US Legal Inc).

Caps on damages are the most common practice of tort reform. In New Mexico, Susan Seibert says that she was hospitalized for more than nine months because of a doctor messing up during her gynecological procedure. After suing, she was supposed to receive $2.6 million in damages, which was then reduced to $600,000 because of a cap on damages. Seibert still suffers from excessive amounts of debt as a result of not being given the proper amount of money that she deserved. Caps on damages highly impacts the plaintiffs in a case. As priorly mentioned, plaintiffs sue because they need money in order to fully recover from the hardship in which they endured as a result of the defendants actions.

A type of tort reform that is not as well known is specialized medical courts. Currently, all medical malpractice courts have juries that have little to no background regarding medical information. This has been working very well because it means that an unbiased verdict is decided. However, the organization Common Good is trying to pass the creation of special medical courts. In this, the jury and judge will be trained medical professionals who will deeply evaluate the case. Advocates for this court feel that people will be better compensated for what they really deserve. However, the majority of the opinions on this court are against the idea of ths. The most concluded opinion of those who oppose this new system believe that it would put the patients at a disadvantage. It is more likely that the trained medical judges and juries will side with the doctor/surgeon/defendant than siding with the plaintiff. They believe that the most fair and efficient way to judge medical malpractice cases would be to use the existing civil justice system. One of the most famous medical malpractice cases involving Dana Carvey was ended in a settlement, but could have been much worse for Carvery if the judge and jury had been medical professionals. Carvey was receiving a double bypass and had a surgeon that operated on the wrong artery. In the event that this case went to a medical court, it is easily predictable that the verdict would have been that the doctor made a “just” mistake. The jury would have said that this mistake was nothing that was easily preventable, and it was something that could have been assumed as a risk going into the surgery. However, this case did not go to court, rather, it ended in a $7.5 million settlement.

Another form of tort reform is mandatory arbitration. Mandatory arbitration, as said in the article, “Mandatory Arbitration Agreements in Employment Contracts”, is “a contract clause that prevents a conflict from going to a judicial court”. This has affected many employers who have experienced sexual harassment, stealing of wages, racial discrimination, and more. Often times, “employees signed so-called mandatory arbitration agreements that are the new normal in American workplaces” (Campbell). These agreements are found under stacks of thousands of papers that have to be signed throughout the hiring process. The manager will force the new employee to sign these documents. Most of the time, these documents will not be called “Mandatory Arbitration Agreement”, rather, they could be called legalese names like “Alternative Dispute Resolution Agreement” (Campbell). “Between employee and employer, this means that any conflict must be solved through arbitration” (“Mandatory Arbitration Agreements in Employment Contracts”). When a conflict is solved through arbitration, “neutral arbiters” go through the evidence that the company/client present, and those arbiters decide what they think the just outcome should be, whether that is money, loss of a job, and more. This decision is known to be called the arbitration award.

A place where the effects of mandatory arbitration can be seen is the #MeToo movement. With the rise of this moment, more and more women have been coming out about their experiences with sexual harassment in the workplace. These women are then encouraged to fight against their harasser. Ultimately, many of these woman find out that they are not allowed to sue because of the mandatory arbitration agreements that they signed during the process of being hired into the job. In fact, Debra S. Katz wrote an article for The Washington Post called “30 million women can’t sue their employer over harassment”, proving how widespread the issue is. Evidently, this form of tort reform ruins the lives of over 30 million people annually. These woman could be suffering from post traumatic stress disorder, truma, and more from their experiences with sexual harassment. In the event that this form of tort reform is not banished, more and more woman will be suffering from mandatory arbitration.

By limiting the amount of money and reparations that a defendant will have to pay a plaintiff, tort reforms benefit major corporations. However, on the opposite side of this, the plaintiff suffers extremely from these limitations. In many cases, a plaintiff will be suing because they need the money to recover fully from the event that took place. For example, in the documentary “Hot Coffee”, many tort cases were discussed. Throughout the cases, there were occurrences in which the plaintiff suffered from the current regulations regarding caps, mandatory arbitration, and more. Tort reform would further exacerbate the negatives of modern day civil court cases.

Groups such as the American Tort Reform Association (ATRA) and Citizens Against Law Abuse (CALA) have also been active in fighting for tort reform. Along with these suspicions, other issues with tort reform such as the fairness behind caps on damages have exposed inequity in the civil justice system. Supporters of tort reform have been rallying for a common goal: to limit the ability of citizens to take advantage of the litigation process to protect businesses and companies.

Victims and plaintiffs will be prevented from receiving the reparations that they deserve as a result of hardship, negativity, and suffrage from the defendant’s actions in the event that tort reform occurs. Caps on damages, special medical malpractice courts, and mandatory arbitration are just a few of the negative impacts that tort reform will allow. Victims and plaintiffs sue the defendant to be able to receive the full compensation that they deserve. It is hard enough as it is to fight against these major corporations, and tort reform would further exacerbate that. Americans have the right to a fair trial, and the implication of tort reform would take away that constitutionally given right. It is essential that Americans continue to fight against tort reform, as you never know if you may become the next victim.

2019-1-6-1546809813

Chinese suppression of Hong Kong

Would you fight for democracy? Its core principles are the beating heart of our society: providing us with representation, civil rights and freedom — empowering our nation to be just and egalitarian. However, whilst we cherish our flourishing democracy, we have blatantly ignored one of the most portentous democratic crises of our time. The protests in Hong Kong. Sparked by a proposed bill allowing extradition to mainland China, the protests have ignited the city’s desire for freedom, democracy and autonomy; and they have blazed into a broad pro-democracy movement, opposing Beijing’s callous and covert campaign to suppress legal rights in Hong Kong. But the spontaneity fueling these protests is fizzling out, as minor concessions fracture the leaderless movement. Without external assistance, this revolutionary campaign could come to nothing. Now, we, the West, must support protesters to fulfill our legal and moral obligations, and to safeguard other societies from the oppression Hong Kongers are suffering. The Chinese suppression of Hong Kong must be stopped.

Of all China’s crimes, its flagrant disregard for Hong Kong’s constitution is the most alarming. When Hong Kong was returned to China in 1997, the British and Chinese governments signed the Sino-Brititish Joint Declaration, allowing Hong Kong “a high degree of autonomy, except in foreign and defence affairs” until 2047. This is allegedly achieved through the “one country, two systems” model, currently implemented in Hong Kong. Nevertheless, the Chinese government — especially since Xi Jinpin seized power in 2013 — is relentlessly continuing to erode legal rights in our former colony. For instance, in 2016, four pro-democracy lawmakers — despite being democratically elected — were disqualified from office. Amid the controversy surrounding the ruling lurked Beijing, using its invisible hand to crush the opposition posed by the lawmakers. However, it is China’s perversion of Hong Kong’s constitution, the Basic Law, that has the most pronounced and crippling effect upon the city. The Basic Law requires Hong Kong’s leader to be chosen “by universal suffrage upon nomination by a broadly representative nominating committee”; but this is strikingly disparate to reality. Less than seven percent of the electoral register are allowed to vote for representatives in the Election Committee — who actually choose Hong Kong’s leader — and no elections are held for vast swathes of seats, which are thus dominated by pro-Beijing officials. Is this really “universal suffrage”? Or a “broadly representative” committee? This “pseudo-democracy” is unquestionably a blatant violation of our agreement with China. If we continue to ignore the subversion of the fundamental constitution holding Hong Kong together, China’s grasp over a supposedly “autonomous” city will only strengthen. It is our legal duty to hold Beijing to account for these heinous contraventions of both Hong Kong’s constitution and the Joint Declaration — which China purports to uphold. Such despicable and brazen actions, whatever the pretence, cannot be allowed to continue.

The encroachment of their fundamental human rights is yet another travesty. Over the past few years, the Chinese government has been furtively extending its control over Hong Kong. Once, Hong Kongers enjoyed numerous freedoms and rights; now, they silently suffer. Beijing has an increasingly pervasive presence in Hong Kong, and, emboldened by a lack of opposition, it is beginning to repress anti-chinese views. For example, five booksellers, associated with one Hong Kong publishing house, disappeared in late 2015. The reason? The publishing house was printing a book — which is legal in Hong Kong — regarding the love-life of the Chinese president Xi Jinpin. None of the five men were guilty; all five men later appeared in custody in mainland China. One man even confessed on state television, obviously under duress, to an obscure crime he “committed” over a decade ago. This has cast a climate of paranoia over the city, which is already forcing artists to self-censor for fear of Chinese retaliation; if left unchecked, this erosion of free speech and expression will only worsen. Hong Kongers now live with uncertainty as to whether their views are “right” or “wrong”; is this morally acceptable to us? Such obvious infringements of rights to free speech are clear contraventions of the core human rights of people in Hong Kong. Furthermore, this crisis has escalated with the protests, entangling violence in the political confrontations. Police have indiscriminately used force to suppress both peaceful and violent protesters, with Amnesty International reporting “Hongkongers’ human rights situation has violations on almost every front”. The Chinese government is certainly behind the police’s ruthless response to protesters, manipulating its pawns in Hong Kong to quell dissent. This use of force cannot be tolerated; it is a barefaced oppression of a people who simply desire freedom, rights and democracy and it contradicts every principle that our society is founded upon. If we continue abdicating responsibility for holding Beijing to account, who knows how far this crisis will deteriorate? Beijing’s oppression of Hong Kongers’ human rights will not disappear. Britain — as a UN member, former sovereignty of Hong Kong and advocate for human rights — must make a stand with the protesters, who embody the principles of our country in its former colony.

Moreover, if we do not respond to these atrocities, tyrants elsewhere will only be emboldened to further strengthen their regimes. Oligarchs, autocrats and dictators are prevalent in our world today, with millions of people oppressed by totalitarian states. For instance, in India, the Hindu nationalist government, headed by Narendra Modi, unequivocally tyrannize the people of Kashmir: severing connections to the internet, unlawfully detaining thousands of people and reportedly torturing dissidents. The sheer depravity of these atrocities is abhorrent. And the West’s reaction to these barbarities? We have lauded and extolled Modi as, in the words then-president Barack Obama, “India’s reformer in chief”, apathetic to the outrages enacted by his government. This exemplifies our seeming lack of concern for other authoritarian regimes around the world: from our passivity towards the Saudi Arabian royal family’s oppressive oligarchy to our unconcern about the devilish dictatorship of President Erdoğan in Turkey. Our hypocrisy is irrefutable; this needs to change. The struggle in Hong Kong is a critical turning point in our battle against such totalitarian states. If we remain complacent, China will thwart the pro-democracy movement and Beijing will continue to subjugate Hong Kong unabashed. Consequently, tyrants worldwide will be emboldened to tighten their iron fists, furthering the repression of their peoples. But, if we support the protesters, we can institute a true democracy in Hong Kong. Thus, we will set a precedent for future democracies facing such turbulent struggles in totalitarian states, establishing an enduring stance for Western democracies to defend. But to achieve this, we must act decisively and immediately to politically pressure Beijing to make concessions, in order to create a truly autonomous Hong Kong.

Of course, the Chinese government is trying to excuse their actions. They claim to be merely maintaining order in a city of their country, while Western powers fuel protests in Hong Kong. Such fabrications from Chinese spin-doctors are obviously propaganda. There is absolutely no evidence to corroborate their claim of “foreign agents” sparking violence in Hong Kong. And, whilst some protesters are employing aggressive tactics, their actions are justified: peaceful protests in the past, such as the Umbrella Movement of 2014, yielded no meaningful change. Protesters are being forced to violence by Beijing, who are stubborn to propose any meaningful reforms.

Now, we face a decision, one which will have profound and far-reaching repercussions for all of humanity. Do we ignore the egregious crimes of the Chinese government, and in our complacency embolden tyrants worldwide? Or do we fight? Hong Kongers are enduring restricted freedoms, persecution and a perversion of their constitution; we must oppose this oppression resolutely. Is it our duty to support the protesters? Or, is democracy not worth fighting for?

2019-10-11-1570808349

Occurrence and prevalence of zoonoses in urban wildlife: essay help online free

A zoonosis is a disease that can be transmitted from animals to humans. Zoonoses in companion animals are known and described extensively. A lot of research has already been done, Rijks et al (2015) for example lists the 15 diseases of prime public health relevance, economical importance or both (Rijks(1)). Sterneberg-van der Maaten et al (2015) composed a list of the 15 priority zoonotic pathogens, which includes the rabies virus, Echinococcus granulosus, Toxocara canis/cati and Bartonella henselae (Sterneberg-van der Maaten(2)).

Although the research is extensive the knowledge about zoonoses and hygiene instruction of owners, health professionals and other related professions, like pet shop employees, is low. According to Van Dam et al (2016) (3)77% of the pet shop employees does not know what a zoonosis is and just 40% of the pet shops has a protocol for hygiene and disease prevention. 27% of the pet shops and asylums give instruction to their clients about zoonoses. It may therefore be assumed that the majority of the public is unaware of the health risks involving companion animals like cats and dogs. Veterinarians give information about responsible pet ownership and the risks when the pet owner visits the clinic (Van dam(3), Overgaauw (4)). In other words, dissemination obtained from research has not occurred effectively.

However, urban areas are not only populated with domestic animals. There is also a variety of non- domesticated animals living in close vicinity of domesticated animals and the human population, the so-called the urban wildlife. Urban wildlife is defined as any animal that has not been domesticated or tamed and lives or thrives in an urban environment (freedictionary(5)). Just like companion animals, urban wildlife carries pathogen that are zoonotic, for example Echinococcus multilocularis. This is a parasite that can be transmitted from foxes to humans. Another example is the rabies virus, which is transmitted by hedgehogs and bats. Some zoonotic diseases can be transmitted to humans from different animals. Q-fever occurs in mice, foxes, rabbits and sometimes even in companion animals.

There is little knowledge about the risk factors that influence the transmission of zoonoses in urban areas (Mackenstedt(6)). This is mostly due to the lack of active surveillance of carrier animals. This surveillance requires fieldwork, which is expensive and time-consuming. Often there is no immediate result for public-health authorities. This is why surveillance often is initiated during or after an epidemic (Heyman(7)). Meredith et al (2015) mentioned that due to the unavailability of a reliable serological test, for many species it is not yet know what the contribution is to the transmission to human (Meredith(8)).

The general public living in urban areas is largely unaware of the diseases transmitted from the urban wildlife that is present in their living area (Himsworth(9)), (Heyman(7)), (Dobay(10)), (Meredith(8)). Since all these diseases can also be a risk for the public health and the public may need to be informed of these risks.

The aim of this study is to determine the occurrence and prevalence of zoonoses in urban wildlife. To do this, the ecological structure of an European city will be investigated first, to determine wildlife living in the urban areas. Secondly, an overview of the most common and important zoonoses in companion animals will be discussed. Followed by zoonoses in urban wildlife.

2. Literature review

2.1 Ecological structure of the city

Humans and animals live closely together in cities. Both companion animals and urban wildlife share the environment with humans. Companion animals are important to human society. They perform working roles (dogs for hearing of visually impaired people) and they play a role in human health and childhood development (Day(11)).

A distinction can be made between animals that live in the inner city and animals that live in the outskirts of the city. The animals that live in the majority of the European inner cities are: brown rats, house mice, bats, rabbits and different species of birds. Those living outside of the stone inner city are other species of mice, hedgehogs, foxes and moles (Auke Brouwer(12)). In order to create safe passage for this particular group of animals, ecological structures are created. The structure also includes wet passageways for amphibia and snakes and dry passageways like underground tunnels, special bridges and cattle grids (Spier M(13)).

A disadvantage of human and animals living in close vicinity of each other is the possibility of transmitting diseases (Auke Brouwer(12)). Diseases can be transmitted from animals to humans in different ways. A few examples are: through eating infected food, inhalation of aerosols, via vectors or fecal-oral contact (WUR(14)). The most relevant ways of transmission for this review are: indirect physical contact (e.g. contact with contaminated surface), direct physical contact (touching an infected person or animal), through skin lesions, fecal-oral transmission and airborne transmission (aerosols). In the following section an overview of significant zoonoses of companion animals will be described. This information will enable a comparison with urban wildlife zoonoses later in this review.

2.2 Zoonoses of cats and dogs

There are many animals living in European cities. Both companion animals and urban wildlife. 55- 59% of the Dutch households has one or more companion animals (van Dam(3)). This includes approximately 2 million dogs and 3 million cats (RIVM(15)). In all of Europe live approximately 61 million dogs and 66 million cats. Owning a pet has many advantages, but companion animals are also able to transmit diseases to humans (Day(11)). In the following section significant zoonoses for companion animals will be described.

A. Bartonellosis (cat scratch disease)

Bartonellosis is an infection by Bartonella henselae or B. clarridgeiae. Most infections in cats are thought to be subclinical. If disease does occur, the symptoms are mild and self-limiting, characterized by lethargy, fever, gingivitis, uveitis and nonspecific neurological signs (Weese JS(16)). The seroprevalence in cats is 81% (barmettler(17)).

Humans get infected by scratches or bites and sometimes by infected fleas and ticks. In the vast majority of cases, the infection is also mild and self-limiting. The clinical signs in humans include development of a papule at the site of inoculation, followed by regional lymphadenopathy and mild fever, generalized myalgia and malaise. This usually resolves spontaneously over a period of weeks to months (Weese JS(16)).

Few cases of human bartonella occur in The Netherlands. Based on laboratory diagnosis done by the RIVM, the bacteria causes 2 cases per 100.000 humans each year. However, this could be ten times higher, since the disease is mild and self-limiting most of the time, so most people do not visit a health care professional (RIVM(18)).

B. Leptospirosis

This disease is caused by the bacteria Leptospira interrogans. According to Weese et al (2002) leptospirosis is the most widespread zoonotic disease in the world. The bacteria can infect a wide range of animals (Weese(16)).

Leptospirosis is in dogs and cats a relatively small zoonosis. It is not know exactly how many dogs are infected annually subclinically or asymptomatically, but according to Houwers et al (2009), each year around 10 cases occur in The Netherlands (Houwers(19)). RIVM states that each year 0,2 cases per 100.000 humans occur (RIVM(20)).

Infection in dogs is called Weill’s disease. Clinical signs can be peracute, acute, subacute and chronic. A peracute infection usually results in in sudden death with few clinical signs. Dogs with an acute infection are icteric, have diarrhea, vomit and may experience peripheral vascular collapse. The subacute form is generally manifested as fever, vomiting, anorexia, polydipsia, dehydration and in some cases severe renal disease can develop. Symptoms of a chronical infections are: fever of unknown origin, unexplained renal failure, or hepatic disease and anterior uveitis. The majority of infections in dogs are subclinical or chronic. In cats clinical disease is infrequent (Weese(16)).

According to Barmettler et al (2011), the risk of transmission of Leptospira from dogs to humans is just theoretical. All tested humans were exposed to infected dogs, but all were seronegative to the bacteria (Barmettler(17)).

The same bacteria that causes leptospirosis in dogs is responsible for the disease in rats, namely Leptospira interrogans. This bacteria is considered the most widespread zoonotic pathogen in the world and rats are the most common source of human infection, especially in urban areas (Himsworth(21)). According to the author, the bacteria asymptomatically colonizes the rat kidney and the rats shed the bacteria via the urine (Himsworth(9)). Bacteria can survive outside the rats for some time, especially in a warm and humid environment (RIVM(20)).

People become infected through contact with urine, or through contact with contaminated soil or water (Himsworth (21)). The Leptospira-bacteria can enter the body via the mucous or open wounds (Oomen(22)). The symptoms and severity of disease can be highly variable, ranging from asymptomatic to sepsis and death. Common complaints are: headache, nausea, myalgia and vomiting. Moreover, neurologic, cardiac, respiratory, ocular and gastrointestinal manifestations can occur (Weese JS(16)).

The prevalence in rats differs between cities and even between locations in the same city. Himsworth (2013) states that in Vancouver 11% of the tested rats was positive for Leptospira (Himsworth(9)). Another study by Easterbrook (2007) found 65,3% of all tested rats in Baltimore to be positive for the bacteria (Easterbrook(23)). Krojgaard (2009) found a prevalence between 48% and 89% in different location in Copenhagen (Krojgaard(24)).

C. Dermatophytosis (ringworm)

Dermatophytosis is a fungal dermatologic disease, caused by Microsporum spp. or Trichophyton spp. It causes disease in a variety of animals (Weese(16)). According to Kraemer (2012), the dermatophytes that occur in rabbits are Trichophyton mentagrophytes and Microsporum canis. Although the former is more common(Kraemer(25)).

Dermatophytes live in keratin layers of the skin and cause ringworm. They depend on human or animal infection for survival. Infection occurs through direct contact between dermatophyte arthrospores and keratinocytes/hairs. Transmission through indirect contact also occurs, for example through toiletries, furniture or clothes (Donnelly(26), RIVM(18)). Animals (especially cats) can transmit M. canis infection while remaining asymptomatic (Weese JS(16)).

The symptoms in both animals and humans can vary from mild or subclinical to severe lesions similar to pemphigus foliaceus (itching, alopecia and blistering). The skin lesions develop 1-3 weeks after infection(Weese JS). Healthy, intact skin cannot be infected, but only mild damage is required to make the skin susceptible to infection. No living tissue is invaded, only the keratinized stratum corneum is colonized. However, the fungus does induce an allergic and inflammatory eczematous response in the host (Donelly(26), RIVM(18)).

Dermatophytosis is not commonly occurring in humans. RIVM states that each year, 3000 per 100.000 humans get infected. Children between the age of 4 and 7 are the most susceptible to the fungal infection. In cats and dogs, the prevalence of M. canis is much higher: 23,3% according to Seebacher(27). The prevalence in rabbits is 3.3% (d’Ovidio(28)).

D. Echinococcosis

Echinococcus granulosus can be transmitted from dogs to humans. Dogs are the definitive hosts, while herbivores or humans are the intermediate hosts. Dogs can become infected by eating infected organs, for example from sheep, pigs and cattle (RIVM(29)) . The intermediate hosts develop a hydatid cyst with protoscoleces after ingesting eggs produced and excreted by definitive hosts. The protoscoleces evaginate in the small intestine and attach there(MacPherson(30)).

In most parts of Europe, Echinococcus granulosus occurs occasionally. However, in Spain, Italy, Greece, Romania and Bulgaria the bacteria is highly endemic.

Animals, either as definitive or as intermediate hosts, rarely show symptoms.

Humans, on the other hand, can show symptoms, depending on the size and site of the cyst and the growth rate. The disease can become life-threatening if a cyst in lungs or liver bursts. In that case a possible complication is an anaphylactic shock (RIVM(29)).

In the Netherlands, echinoccosis rarely occurs in humans. Between 1978 and 1991, 191 new patients were diagnosed, but it is not known how many of these were new cases. The risk of infection is higher in the case of bad hygiene and living closely together with dogs (RIVM(29)). In a study done by Fotiou et al (2012) the prevalence of Echinococcus granulosus is 1,1% (Fotiou(31)). The prevalence in dogs is much higher: 10,6% according to Barmettler et al (17).

E. Toxocariasis

Toxocariasis is caused by Toxocara canis or Toxocara cati. Toxocara is present in the intestine of 32% of all tested dogs, 39% of tested cats and 16%-26% of tested red foxes (Luty(32), LETKOVÁ(33)). In dogs younger than 6 weeks the prevalence can be up to 80% (Kantere) and in kittens of 4-6 months old it can be 64% (Luty(32)). The host becomes infected by swallowing the parasites embryonated eggs (Kantere(34)).

Dogs and red foxes are the definitive host of T. canis, cats of T. cati (Luty(32)). Humans are paratenic hosts. After ingestion, the larvae hatch in the intestine and migrate all over the body via blood vessels (visceral larva migrans). In young animals the migrations occurs via the lungs and trachea. After swallowing, the larvae mature in the intestinal tract.

In paratenic hosts and adult dogs that have some degree of acquired immunity, the larvae undergo somatic migration. There they remain as somatic larvae in the tissues. If dogs eat a Toxocara-infected paratenic host, larvae will be released and develop to adult worms in the intestinal tract (MacPherson(30)).

Humans can be infected by oral ingestion of infective eggs from contaminated soil, from unwashed hands or consumption of raw vegetables (MacPherson(30)).

The clinical symptoms in animals depend on the age of the animal and number, location and stage of development of worms. After birth, puppies can suffer from pneumonia because of tracheal migration and die in 2-3 days. 2-3 weeks after birth, puppies can show emaciation and digestive disturbance because of mature worms in the intestine and stomach. Clinical signs are: diarrhea, constipation, coughing, nasal discharge and vomiting.

Clinical symptoms in adult dogs are rare(MacPherson(30)).

In most human cases following infection by small numbers of larvae, the disease occurs without symptoms. Mostly children do get infected. VLM is mainly diagnosed in children of 1-7 years old. The symptoms can be general malaise, fever, abdominal complaints, wheezing or coughing. Severe clinical symptoms are mainly found in children of 1-3 years old.

Most of the larvae seem to be distributed to the brain and can cause neurological disease. Larvae do not migrate continuously. They rest periodically, and during such periods they induce an immunologically mediated inflammatory response (MacPherson(30)).

The prevalence in children is much lower than in adults, respectively 7% and 20%. The risk of infection with Toxocara spp. increases with bad hygiene (Overgaauw(36)). In the external environment, the eggs survive for months and consequently toxocariasis represents a significant public health risk (Kantere(34)) . High rates of soil contamination with toxocara eggs are demonstrated in parks, playgrounds, sandpits and other public places. Direct contact with infected dogs is not considered as a potential risk for human infection, because embryonation to the stage of infectivity requires a minimum of 3 weeks (MacPherson(30)).

F. Toxoplasmosis

Toxoplasmosis is caused by the protozoa Toxoplasma gondii. Cats are the definitive hosts and other animals and humans act as intermediate hosts. Infected cats excrete oocysts in the feces. These oocysts end up in the environment, where they are ingested by intermediate hosts (direct or indirect via food or water). In the intermediate hosts the protozoa migrates until it gets stuck. It is then encapsulated and stays at that place. If cats eat infected intermediate hosts they become infected.

Animals rarely show symptoms, although some young cats get diarrhea, encephalitis, hepatitis and pneumonia.

In most humans, infection is asymptomatic. Pregnant women can transmit the protozoa through the placenta and infect the unborn child. The symptoms in the child depend on the stage of pregnancy. An infection in early stages leads to severe deviations and in many cases to abortion. If the infection occurs in a later stage, premature birth is seen and symptoms of an infectious disease (fever, rash, icterus, anemia and an enlarged spleen or liver). Although, in most cases the symptoms start after birth. Most damage is done in the eyes (RIVM(37)).

Based on data of the RIVM and Overgaauw (1996) the disease that is most commonly transmitted to humans is toxoplasmosis. The prevalence was 40,5% in 1996. This number is reduced in the last few decades and Jones (2009) states that in 2009 the prevalence was 24,6% (Jones(38)). The prevalence rises with age, being 17,5% in humans younger than 20 years, and 70% in humans of 65 years and older. There is no increased risk of getting an infection if humans have a cat as a pet (RIVM(37)). Birgisdottir et al (2006) studied the prevalence in cats in Sweden, Estonia and Iceland. They found a prevalence of 54,9% , 23% and 9,8%, respectively in Estonia, Sweden and Iceland (Birgisdottir(39)).

G. Q-fever

The aetiological agent of Q-fever is the bacteria Coxiella burnetti. The bacteria has a very wide host range, including ruminants, birds and mammals such as small rodents, dogs, cats and horses. Accordingly, there is a complex reservoir system (Meredith(8)).

The extracellular form of the bacteria is very resistant, therefore it can be persistent in the environment for several weeks. It can also be spread by the wind, so direct contact with animals is not required for infection. Coxiella burnetti is found in both humans and animals in the blood, lungs, spleen, liver and during pregnancy in large quantities in the placenta and mammary glands. It is shed in urine and feces and during pregnancy in the milk (Meredith(8)).

Humans that live close to animals (like in the city) have a higher risk to get infected, since the mode of transmission is aerogenic or direct contact. The bacteria is excreted through the urine feces, placenta or amnionic fluid. After drying, it is aerogenically spread (RIVM(40)). Acute infection is characterized by atypical pneumonia and hepatitis and in some cases transient bacteraemia. The bacteria then haematogenously spreads, which results in an infection in the liver, spleen, bone marrow, reproductive tract and other organs. This is followed by the formation of granulomatous lesions in the liver and bone marrow and development of an endocarditis involving the aortic and mitral valve (Woldehiwet(41)).

On the other hand, there is little information about the clinical signs of Q fever in animals, but variable degrees of granulomatous hepatitis, pneumonia, or bronchopneumonia have been reported in mice (Woldehiwet(41)). In pregnant animals, abortion or low foetal birth weight can occur (Meredith(8), Woldehiwet(41)).

The prevalence in the overall human population in Europe is not high (2,7 %), but in risk groups like veterinarians, the prevalence can be as high as 83% (RIVM(40)).

Meredith et al, have developed a modified indirect ELISA kit adapted for use in multiple species. They tested the prevalence of C. burnetii in wild rodents (band vole, field vole and wood mouse), red foxes and domestic cats in the United Kingdom. The prevalence in the rodents was overall 17,3%. In cats it was 61.5% and in foxes 41,2% (Meredith(8)). In rabbits, the prevalence was 32,3% (González-Barrio(42)).

H. Pasteurellosis

Pasteurellosis is caused by Pasteurella multocida. This is a coccobacillus found in the oral, nasal and respiratory cavities of many species of animals (dog, cats, rabbits, etc). It is one of the most prevalent commensal and opportunistic pathogens in domestic and wild animals (Wilson(43), Giordano(44)). Human infections are associated with animal exposure, usually after animal bites or scratches (Giordano(44)). Kissing or licking of skin abrasions or mucosal surfaces of animals can also lead to infection. Transmission between animals is through direct contact with nasal secretions. (Wilson(43)).

In both animals and humans Pasteurella multocida causes chronic or acute infections that can lead to significant morbidity with symptoms of pneumonia, atrophic rhinitis, cellulitis, abscesses, dermonecrosis, meningitis and/or hemorrhagic septicaemia. In animals the mortality is significant, but not in human. This is probably due to the immediate prophylactic treatment of animal bite wounds with antibiotics. (Wilson(43))

Disease in animals appears as a chronic infection in nasal cavity, paranasal sinuses, middle ears, lacrimal and thoracic ducts of the lymph system and lungs. Primary infections with respiratory viruses or Mycoplasma species predisposes to a Pasteurella infection (Wilson(43)).

The incidence in humans is 0,19 cases per 100.000 humans (Nseir(45)). The prevalence in dogs and cats is 25-42% (Mohan(46)). The only known prevalence in rabbits is a 29,8% in laboratory animal facilities (Kawamoto(47)).

The majority of the human population lives in cities. As a result of this, in some countries the urban landscape encompasses more than half of the land surface. This leaves little space for the wildlife species living in the country. Some species are nowadays found more in urban areas than in their native environment. They have adapted to the urban ecosystems. This is a positive aspect for biodiversity in the cities. On the other hand, just like companion animals, this urban wildlife can transmit disease to humans (Dearborn(49)). In the following section, significant zoonoses of urban wildlife will be described.

A. Zoonoses of rats

The following zoonoses occur urban rats: Leptospirosis (see 2.2B) and rat bite fever.

Rat bite fever

The rat bite fever is caused by Streptobacillus moniliformis or S. minis(Chafe(50)). These bacteria are part of the normal oropharyncheal flora of the rat and it is thought to be present in rat populations worldwide.

Since the bacteria are part of the normal flora, the rats are not susceptible to the bacteria. In people, on the other hand, the bacteria can cause rat bite fever. The transmission occurs through the bite of an infected rat and through ingestion of contaminated food. The latter causes Haverhill fever.

The clinical symptoms are fever, chills, headache, vomiting, polyarthritis and skin rash. In Haverhill fever pharyngitis and vomiting may be more pronounced. If not treated, S. moniliformis infection can progress to septicemia with a mortality rate of 7-13% (Himsworth(21)).

The prevalence of Streptobacillus spp. in rats is 25% (Gaastra(51)). Accordin