Employee Motivation Strategy At Disney College Essay Help

Introduction

Disney Corporation has secured its position as the largest media and/or entertainment giant with over one hundred and fifty workers and around $8.5 billion in revenue in 2010. This company's status as the premier animation studio is further evidence of its exceptional products and services. Although a variety of tactics, including diversification, well managed acquisitions, continuous innovation, and devotion to the community, have contributed to the success of this business, one cannot overlook the work of the employees. The administration of the company has also acknowledged these efforts and implemented a number of internal and extrinsic motivators to increase staff productivity. Nonetheless, it is the staff's unwavering passion and dedication that makes the brand a household name. In other words, intrinsic motivation has been the driving force behind Disney's corporate success since it satisfies employees' natural psychological demands (Reeve, 2009).

History of the industry

A concise history of the company

In 1923, Walt Disney, the founder of the Disney corporation, contracted the distribution of a cartoon picture he had developed in New York. Within three years, the company had expanded to the point that it owned its own studio. This very fast growth rate can be explained by White's theory of dynamic action, which states that people will be motivated by the urge to demonstrate their efficacy in the world. This is the reason for skill growth and exploration. In the instance of the fledgling Disney Corporation, Walt Disney began with his cartoons and transitioned to studio ownership as a result of his desire to become proficient in this field. The true change, however, occurred in 1928 when Walt invented Mickey Mouse. In an era when Hollywood was moving from silent to sound films, Mickey Mouse was welcomed with open arms. Throughout the 1930s, a number of accolades were given to Disney-based characters. (Gabler, 2007) In the late 1920s, the firm permitted the installation of Mickey Mouse on pencils as a strategic revenue source. This was the beginning of Mickey Mouse books, radios, and other merchandise. Beginning in 1940, animated feature films became the first of many successes. The 1950s saw the debut of prime-time Disney-owned television series that would continue for three decades. This decade also saw the creation of the Mickey Mouse Club and the opening of Disneyland in 1955, the latter of which has since become an iconic attraction. The creator of the company passed away in 1966, but his works were completed by his sibling, including "Love-bug" and "The Jungle Book" in 1969 and 1967, respectively. In 1982, the Disneyland concept was expanded to incorporate a variety of destination resorts, including hotels, a golf course, retail centers, and campgrounds, which gave the company a solid reputation in the leisure business. Notably, the motivational theory of goal setting also had a role in this situation. The company realized it needed to expand in regard to its fundamental objective since it desired to grow. In addition, it allocated the physical and mental resources necessary to attain the goals' contents, resulting in increased motivation and enhanced performance (Locke & Latham, 2002) The 1980s were a turbulent decade for Disney, as its audience shrank and a competitor's acquisition loomed. In 1984, business presidents Wells and Eisner prevented this from happening. From 1988 to 1991, they expanded into cable networking and constructed beach resorts in an effort to improve the business. In Bolles's (1975) Drive theory of motivation, it is commonly considered that creatures or entities will only respond to their environments to a limited amount due to their response biases. In other words, the natural state of things has a substantial impact on learning. If there is a mismatch between the stimulus or situation at hand and the organism's expectations, there will be little motivation. The 1980s were a tough decade for Walt Disney, as the company's audience began to narrow and other companies attempted to acquire the company. Nonetheless, this organization was predisposed to adapt to such challenges. It had endured severe and challenging moments since its birth, and this allowed it to rapidly adapt to negative changes in its environment. In response to these new stimuli, the company altered its administration and introduced new product packaging quickly. In other words, if members of the organization were not accustomed to such difficult circumstances, they would have been demotivated by the numerous obstacles that arose during this turbulent decade and consequently collapsed.

This organization's later opening of Disney stores contributed to its tremendous success. In 1994, Disney released The Lion King and numerous more profitable animated pictures. It produced Hollywood songs and music for new audiences and even published books. In the 2000s, the corporation capitalized on the advantages of acquisitions, such as with the Pixar animations merger in 2006. (Gabler, 2007). In 2001, others included the Fox family. In 2002, it was Saban entertainment, in 2007 it was New Horizon, and in 2009 it was Marvel entertainment. It should be emphasized that these are all complete acquisitions, however partial acquisitions have also occurred in accordance with the company's strategic objectives. Muppets and Henson productions, which remain partially owned by Sony Pictures and Sesame Workshop, respectively, serve as examples here (Gabler, 2007).

Provided goods and services

As indicated previously, one of this company's greatest strengths is its diversification. Products and services are not chosen at random, as each new invention is tied to the organization's core mission and strategic objectives. As a result, the majority of business units center around the family concept and are related to entertainment/media. The earliest and arguably most notable is the Walt Disney motion pictures film studio. This company also operates a number of cable television networks, including ESPN, ABC Family, and Disney channel. The cable networks were also the product of motivational factors. According to Harter's (1981) Effectance motivation theory, a person has a great deal of delight upon acquiring a given talent, and this is intrinsic motivation. However, failure to achieve success leads to the utilization of extrinsic motivations. The latter company decided to continue its film studio operations through cable television networks due to the popularity of its film studio projects. In addition, the theater and recording parts of the business fall under this division. Its merchandising sector has also been a significant source of revenue due to the usage of its characters in the promotion of a variety of products, including tableware, clothing, and others. The corporation produces various children's books and has a formidable publishing branch. Eleven of its theme parks are either owned or franchised by the company's theme park division. In this region, the corporation operates a cruise line and provides other travel-related services. Its Media networks division is responsible for a vast array of internet-related activities (Walt Disney corporation, 2010)

Financial statements over the previous five years

The price per share of Disney's stock was $29 in 2005, dipped to $25 in 2006, and increased to $35 in 2007. From 2008 through 2010, the stock prices were, in order, $30, $24, and $35. Therefore, the most significant decline came in 2009, when its share price fell to 17 dollars. This was caused by external circumstances, specifically the recession. Nonetheless, the corporation looks to have regained its footing, and 2010 appears to have been a year of retaliation, as stock prices have increased considerably. The company's revenue streams from 2005 to 2010 were summarized as follows: $5,137,000,000, $6,491,000,000,000, $7,827,000,000, $8,445,000,000,000, $9,867,000,000, and $8,580,000,000,000, respectively. In the past five years, the company's revenue streams have steadily expanded, with the exception of the period between 2009 and 2010. As a result of the country's external conditions, the company's sales decreased by 16 million dollars. However, the company responded swiftly to these changes in 2010 by attempting to cut its nonrecurring expenses in order to maintain stable net incomes. (2010) Walt Disney Corporation. This company's financial resilience is best explained by the self-efficacy motivation theory. In the latter approach, Bandura (1997) claims that individuals are frequently motivated when they persist in the face of self-threat. Also, if this tenacity is coupled with safe practices, self-efficacy is enhanced and mastery emerges. Due to their employees' optimistic self-efficacy expectations, Disney Corporation was able to recover from difficult economic circumstances.

The Disney media network generates the most revenue relative to the performance of each segment. It has produced over $5 billion in revenue over the past three years, and this amount has increased steadily over time. The Walt Disney resorts and parks division is the second most profitable for this business. This department contributed between 1.17 and 2.50 billion dollars in revenue between 2005 and 2010. The Disney studio entertainment division is the organization's third-highest revenue-generating segment. The revenue of subsequent operations increased from 205 million dollars in 2005 to 1,4 billion dollars in 2010. In five years, Disney items have generated an average of $700 million for the firm. However, the sector with the worst performance was the interactive and internet group, which was established in 1996. Since its inception, negative revenue streams have been reported, and considerable work remains to turn it into a profitable enterprise. Flow motivational theory is the most suitable framework for describing the disparities in performance amongst the various Disney businesses. Csikszentmihalyi (1988) asserts that individuals will like and be fully involved in their work when the challenges of the job and the abilities required to meet those challenges are compatible. Indifference results when a job's abilities and challenges are inadequate. In the instance of the division with the lowest performance, these conditions contributed to their persistently poor results. Overall, the company is doing well financially and has played a significant role in the entertainment industry as a result of its growing inventions and its ability to adapt to a constantly changing environment.

References

Walt Disney enterprise (2010). Corporate documentation. Gabler, N. (2007). Walt Disney is a triumph of American creativity. New York: Random house Reeve, J. (2009). Understanding emotions and motivations (5th ed.). Wiley, New York Harter, S. (1981). Motivational and informational components of a new self-report scale measuring intrinsic versus extrinsic orientation in the classroom. 300-312 in Developmental Psychology. Csikszentmihalyi, M. (1988). Optimal Experience . Cambridge University Press in New York Latham, G., and E. A. Locke (2002). Developing an Implementable Theory of Goal Setting and Task Motivation 707–9 The American Psychologist Bandura, A. (1997). Self-efficacy is the ability to exert control. Freeman, New York White, Robert W. (1959). Reconsidering motivation: the concept of competence 66(21) Psychological Review: 297-333. Bolles, R. (1975). Theory of motivation. NY: Harper and Row

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Leadership Styles And Performace In Multinationals College Essay Help

Introduction

It is difficult to understate the significance of leadership to the organization's performance and productivity. Leadership serves multiple functions within an organization, and numerous success-critical aspects depend on leaders. First, exceptional leadership may assist individuals, groups, and the organization as a whole in adapting to numerous new circumstances and conditions. Changes offer enormous obstacles for businesses because the current business climate is so unstable in virtually every industry.

Therefore, it is essential that they have competent leaders who can ensure that their employees can adapt to new job requirements. Additionally, businesses have a chance of surviving in a complex and highly competitive business climate due to the fact that inventive and highly knowledgeable executives enable them to compete with rivals (Maxwell 2007). Effective leadership is also capable of mitigating risks for the organization by distributing resources efficiently in order to attain the desired outcomes.

Creating a group of devoted employees who are committed to the organization's objectives is one of the most important success factors (Bernard 2003). In order for people to feel appreciated and content with their jobs, leadership should rely on the workers' knowledge and expertise. According to Keller (2006), good leadership is being inclusive and allowing employees to participate in the organization's decision-making process.

In addition to establishing firm standards and goals that must be followed by all employees, leaders are responsible for evaluating the performance of their followers and rewarding them based on their efforts (Kolenda 2001; Sipe & Frick 2009). Employees should also receive ongoing training so that they can contribute to the organization's innovation and keep pace with its evolution (Malik, Danish & Munir 2012). According to Rothfelder, Ottenbacher, and Harrington (2012), leadership techniques play a vital effect on job satisfaction, which has a significant impact on the organization's success.

Apple Inc. is one of the world's largest and most successful corporations. The corporation has dominated the technology market for the past many years and continues to hold the top spot in terms of both service quality and quantity. Steve Jobs is the founder and CEO of the company. Jobs was a renowned figure who is still regarded as one of the most well-known and skilled visionaries and transformational leaders.

His leadership strategy is typically associated with the success of the organization. Steve Jobs was a creative and visionary individual, which is why innovation remains one of the company's basic pillars. As a leader, he was able to influence and inspire those around him. Jobs was able to assemble a team of exceptionally experienced and brilliant individuals that believed in the organization's mission and were dedicated to its aims, thereby propelling the company to the forefront of its industry. He was a source of motivation and a model for his employees (Jobs &Thomas 2011). Tim Cook, his successor, has also displayed great leadership and management skills, which have contributed to the company's success. Tim is able to manage the organization even better, making it more people-oriented, as a result of Steve's failures.

Apple Inc. and two of its most notable executives are thus a fascinating and instructive example. Both Steve Jobs and Tim Cook can be described as visionary and transformative leaders of the highest caliber. The Apple Company has become one of the most well-known and prosperous corporations in the world. In light of this, a number of questions arise. Was it Steve Jobs and Tim Cook's leadership style that boosted the productivity of Apple's employees and contributed to the company's success? Was this style of leadership adequate for the Apple Company? If so, which specific policies, acts, or judgments had the most impact?

These are the issues that a future study should investigate. The answers to these questions will provide executives and policymakers at all levels with an invaluable opportunity. They will expose participants to many aspects of leadership and change management. The Apple case study and the knowledge of how Steve Jobs' and Tim Cook's leadership styles affected the company will play a crucial role in ensuring that managers understand leadership styles that can increase the productivity of their employees and, as a result, implement strategic plans to gain a competitive advantage.

The impact of leadership styles on the success of an organization have been the subject of a number of previous studies. For example, research has revealed inconsistencies between transformational and transactional leadership. Some research reveal a significant association between transformational leadership style and not transactional leadership style (Allen & Wilburn 2002). Nonetheless, the conclusions are not conclusive, as the collected data indicate that despite the leadership style, certain organizations nonetheless achieve a notable level of performance. Therefore, the planned research for this project will make a substantial contribution to the existing body of knowledge regarding the value of effective leadership styles.

Questions and Objectives in Research

The purpose of this study is to investigate leadership styles, with a particular emphasis on the profiles of Steve Jobs and Tim Cook at Apple Inc. The research issue is whether the leadership style advocated by Jobs and Cook can boost staff productivity and create a competitive edge. Thus, the precise aims of the study are as follows:

To analyze critically the relationship between leadership style and employee motivation in an organization. Evaluate critically the relationship between visionary and transformational leadership and the impact on the organisation's ability to create a competitive advantage. Using a case study of Apple Inc. under the leadership of Steve Jobs and Tim Cook, analyze critically the relationship between visionary leadership and the productivity of an organization.

Literature Review

Leadership is a vast idea that is revered, practiced, and studied everywhere. Numerous historical studies have examined leadership styles and ideas, their implementations inside organizations, and their effects. Even while scholars have diverse perspectives on every facet of leadership, they all agree that the phenomena is too tough and complex to be precisely defined or characterized (Gratton & Jones 2004). Still, most definitions of leadership emphasize the creation of a vision and the methods necessary to attain the established objectives, as well as the capacity to motivate followers (Northouse 2001).

The roots and history of leadership can be traced back to the 'Great Man' thesis, which asserts that leadership is founded on genetic elements, i.e., leaders are born with their abilities and cannot be transferred to others (Northouse 2001). With the passage of time, individuals began to recognize the theory's flaws (while it is still used as a foundation for understanding leadership styles, it does not explain how things operate in reality) (Chardan & Devi 2014). Instead, scholars began to examine leadership from a behavioral standpoint. This is when the situational theory of leadership came into prominence; it argued that leaders should always assess the given scenario and pick an appropriate leadership style (Chardan & Devi 2014).

Chardan and Devi (2014) defined a leadership style as a collection of organizational patterns. These are interaction patterns between leaders and their followers, according to Kolenda (2001). Transformational and transactional styles of leadership are the most prevalent, and hence serve as the basis for numerous studies. Obviously, these two styles of leadership share similarities with others. For instance, visionary leadership might be compared to transformative leadership.

Leadership and Business Performance

Numerous experts have emphasized that leadership is a crucial idea for any organization. There is no doubt that it has a substantial impact on the company culture and behavior. However, academics are uncertain on organizational performance.

According to Rafferty and Griffin (2004), there is a direct correlation between leadership and performance. According to numerous additional research, strong leadership has a positive effect on organizational performance. Abbas & Asghar (2010), for instance, asserted that competent executives assist businesses in addressing new difficulties, which enables the organization to evolve and run more effectively.

A company's success can be understood in terms of maximizing profits, creating high-quality products and services, employing effective marketing techniques, and generating excellent financial returns. According to Polelle (2008), all of these are determined by the leadership quality of the organization. However, performance is also dependent on the amount of worker productivity, which is in turn intimately linked to employee pleasure. In order to flourish and get a competitive edge, a business must increase employee satisfaction (Johnson 2007).

Leadership transformation and organizational performance

Transformational leaders are characterized by their ability to convince, inspire, and motivate others by leveraging their own beliefs and values. In this instance, followers do not work for the leader; rather, they collaborate and complement one another (Kline 2010). This, in turn, inspires subordinates' trust in their boss and leads to their allegiance. As a result of motivation and inspiration, employees prioritize the organization's objectives over their own, hence enhancing productivity and the growth of the business (Kouzes & Posner 2003).

According to Kouzes and Posner (2012), transformational leaders are charismatic, motivators, intelligent, and concerned. Moreover, transformational leaders are intelligent, intelligent, and concerned. Being charismatic enables a leader to have a clear vision and plan for the organization, as well as to inspire followers and instill confidence in their leader and the organization's goals.

Consequently, being charismatic typically goes hand in hand with being a motivator. Leaders can also set ambitious but attainable objectives for their team, thereby fostering the self-development of followers. It boosts employee loyalty and enhances their understanding of organizational objectives (Matha & Boehm 2008). As a result of his third attribute, a transformational leader generates novel concepts. Lastly, transformative leaders care about the well-being of their followers. They recognize the importance of empowering people through training and mentoring initiatives. They also treat them with respect and dignity, guide them, and assist them in reaching a specific degree of maturity, so enhancing their organizational productivity.

According to Harold and Fedor (2008), transformational leadership takes into account the possibilities of leaders providing incentives to employees as a means to motivate them, which should increase employee happiness. However, Harold and Fedor's (2008) findings do not establish a foundation upon which transformative leadership transcends to result in organizational success.

Leadership transitions and organizational performance

Transactional leadership comprises a scenario in which the leader pays followers compensation proportional to the value added to the organization. The leader directs and supervises the completion of tasks in the organization by the followers to ensure that the organization's goals are realized (Miller 2012). The explicit framing and clarification of organizational goals, coupled with the availability of appropriate incentives to recognize success, inspires followers to exceed expectations (Northouse 2010). In addition, followers are aware of the consequences of poor performance, which motivates them to strive for excellence (Northouse 2010).

Johnson (2007) emphasized the significance of transactional leadership based on a compensation system when discussing this leadership style. However, Johnson (2007) did not discuss the positive or negative impact of the reward system on work satisfaction and organizational success.

Steve Jobs as a Leader of Vision

Visionary leadership is required in the present business environment for firms to adapt to change, remain competitive, recruit and retain talent, etc. An good leader should be able to adapt to workplace issues and explain the organization's objectives. Therefore, leaders must be able to comprehend emotions and apply this knowledge to improve teamwork and productivity (Kafetsios et al. 2009). All of these were abilities possessed by Steve Jobs.

Steve's mentality as a winner, along with his enthusiasm and determination, allowed him to develop a large firm and recruit personnel. He was a source of motivation and a model for his followers (Jobs & Thomas 2011). The entire company culture was based on his personal ideals and philosophies. He urged people to work diligently, elevating the organization well above its competitors. As an advocate of face-to-face communication, Steve was able to receive feedback and comprehend people's needs and feelings (Polelle 2008). Tim Cook, upon succeeding Steve, demonstrated in many ways that he, too, was a brilliant leader.

Existing research gaps

The literature suggests that leadership style has a significant impact on the functioning of an organization. For instance, as indicated previously, employees’ contentment is a significant aspect in the organization’s performance. Therefore, in order to prosper and obtain a competitive advantage, businesses must enhance it. However, academics hold widely divergent views regarding whether or not leadership affects employee happiness.

For example, Kippenberger (2002) established the relationship between these two variables, although Sakiru et al. (2013) hold the opposite view. Similarly, there are individuals who believe that strong leadership has a favorable effect on organizational performance and those who assert that there is no correlation between the two. Divergent perspectives have resulted from the existence of a knowledge gap, which is a result of the fact that the arguments are derived from various research that have studied various leadership principles. Therefore, additional investigation is required. A respected leader (Steve Jobs) and a reputable company (Apple Company) have been selected for further research.

Methods

In order to answer the research question and accomplish the study's stated objectives, the research must examine the phenomenon of leadership styles and their impact on organizational performance and change (with the primary focus on leadership of Steve Job and Tim Cook and its impact on the Apple Company). Applying a quantitative strategy is the most effective method for achieving this objective. Quantitative research is appropriate since it can offer a full understanding of leadership styles and their impact on performance. The study will only utilize secondary data acquired from respectable and trustworthy sources. After collecting the data, it will be analyzed rigorously with statistical methods to verify that the conclusions produced reflect a unified view of leadership.

Research Plan

I would recommend employing the cross-sectional research strategy for this project, in which empirical data on high-profit returns are collected and analyzed. The design is appropriate for the research since repeated cross-sectional studies provide a pseudo-longitudinal study (Vogt, Gardner and Haeffele, 2012). Thus, it makes it possible for researchers to acquire empirical data for the analysis process. The cross-sectional analysis will

Steve Jobs’s V Tim Cook’s Leadership In Apple Inc. College Essay Help

Introduction

It is difficult to understate the significance of leadership to the organization's performance and productivity. Leadership serves multiple functions within an organization, and numerous success-critical aspects depend on leaders. First, exceptional leadership may assist individuals, groups, and the organization as a whole in adapting to numerous new circumstances and conditions. Changes offer enormous obstacles for businesses because the current business climate is so unstable in virtually every industry.

Therefore, it is essential that they have competent leaders who can ensure that their employees can adapt to new job requirements. Additionally, businesses have a chance of surviving in a complex and highly competitive business climate due to the fact that inventive and highly knowledgeable executives enable them to compete with rivals (Maxwell 2007). Effective leadership is also capable of mitigating risks for the organization by distributing resources efficiently in order to attain the desired outcomes.

Creating a group of devoted employees who are committed to the organization's objectives is one of the most important success factors (Bernard 2003). In order for people to feel appreciated and content with their jobs, leadership should rely on the workers' knowledge and expertise. According to Keller (2006), good leadership is being inclusive and allowing employees to participate in the organization's decision-making process.

In addition to establishing firm standards and goals that must be followed by all employees, leaders are responsible for evaluating the performance of their followers and rewarding them based on their efforts (Kolenda 2001; Sipe & Frick 2009). Employees should also receive ongoing training so that they can contribute to the organization's innovation and keep pace with its evolution (Malik, Danish & Munir 2012). According to Rothfelder, Ottenbacher, and Harrington (2012), leadership techniques play a vital effect on job satisfaction, which has a significant impact on the organization's success.

Apple Inc. is one of the world's largest and most successful corporations. The corporation has dominated the technology market for the past many years and continues to hold the top spot in terms of both service quality and quantity. Steve Jobs is the founder and CEO of the company. Jobs was a renowned figure who is still regarded as one of the most well-known and skilled visionaries and transformational leaders.

His leadership strategy is typically associated with the success of the organization. Steve Jobs was a creative and visionary individual, which is why innovation remains one of the company's basic pillars. As a leader, he was able to influence and inspire those around him. Jobs was able to assemble a team of exceptionally experienced and brilliant individuals that believed in the organization's mission and were dedicated to its aims, thereby propelling the company to the forefront of its industry. He was a source of motivation and a model for his employees (Jobs &Thomas 2011). Tim Cook, his successor, has also displayed great leadership and management skills, which have contributed to the company's success. Tim is able to manage the organization even better, making it more people-oriented, as a result of Steve's failures.

Apple Inc. and two of its most notable executives are thus a fascinating and instructive example. Both Steve Jobs and Tim Cook can be described as visionary and transformative leaders of the highest caliber. The Apple Company has become one of the most well-known and prosperous corporations in the world. In light of this, a number of questions arise. Was it Steve Jobs and Tim Cook's leadership style that boosted the productivity of Apple's employees and contributed to the company's success? Was this style of leadership adequate for the Apple Company? If so, which specific policies, acts, or judgments had the most impact?

These are the issues that a future study should investigate. The answers to these questions will provide executives and policymakers at all levels with an invaluable opportunity. They will expose participants to many aspects of leadership and change management. The Apple case study and the knowledge of how Steve Jobs' and Tim Cook's leadership styles affected the company will play a crucial role in ensuring that managers understand leadership styles that can increase the productivity of their employees and, as a result, implement strategic plans to gain a competitive advantage.

The impact of leadership styles on the success of an organization have been the subject of a number of previous studies. For example, research has revealed inconsistencies between transformational and transactional leadership. Some research reveal a significant association between transformational leadership style and not transactional leadership style (Allen & Wilburn 2002). Nonetheless, the conclusions are not conclusive, as the collected data indicate that despite the leadership style, certain organizations nonetheless achieve a notable level of performance. Therefore, the planned research for this project will make a substantial contribution to the existing body of knowledge regarding the value of effective leadership styles.

Questions and Objectives in Research

The purpose of this study is to investigate leadership styles, with a particular emphasis on the profiles of Steve Jobs and Tim Cook at Apple Inc. The research issue is whether the leadership style advocated by Jobs and Cook can boost staff productivity and create a competitive edge. Thus, the precise aims of the study are as follows:

To analyze critically the relationship between leadership style and employee motivation in an organization. Evaluate critically the relationship between visionary and transformational leadership and the impact on the organisation's ability to create a competitive advantage. Using a case study of Apple Inc. under the leadership of Steve Jobs and Tim Cook, analyze critically the relationship between visionary leadership and the productivity of an organization.

Literature Review

Leadership is a vast idea that is revered, practiced, and studied everywhere. Numerous historical studies have examined leadership styles and ideas, their implementations inside organizations, and their effects. Even while scholars have diverse perspectives on every facet of leadership, they all agree that the phenomena is too tough and complex to be precisely defined or characterized (Gratton & Jones 2004). Still, most definitions of leadership emphasize the creation of a vision and the methods necessary to attain the established objectives, as well as the capacity to motivate followers (Northouse 2001).

The roots and history of leadership can be traced back to the 'Great Man' thesis, which asserts that leadership is founded on genetic elements, i.e., leaders are born with their abilities and cannot be transferred to others (Northouse 2001). With the passage of time, individuals began to recognize the theory's flaws (while it is still used as a foundation for understanding leadership styles, it does not explain how things operate in reality) (Chardan & Devi 2014). Instead, scholars began to examine leadership from a behavioral standpoint. This is when the situational theory of leadership came into prominence; it argued that leaders should always assess the given scenario and pick an appropriate leadership style (Chardan & Devi 2014).

Chardan and Devi (2014) defined a leadership style as a collection of organizational patterns. These are interaction patterns between leaders and their followers, according to Kolenda (2001). Transformational and transactional styles of leadership are the most prevalent, and hence serve as the basis for numerous studies. Obviously, these two styles of leadership share similarities with others. For instance, visionary leadership might be compared to transformative leadership.

Leadership and Business Performance

Numerous experts have emphasized that leadership is a crucial idea for any organization. There is no doubt that it has a substantial impact on the company culture and behavior. However, academics are uncertain on organizational performance.

According to Rafferty and Griffin (2004), there is a direct correlation between leadership and performance. According to numerous additional research, strong leadership has a positive effect on organizational performance. Abbas & Asghar (2010), for instance, asserted that competent executives assist businesses in addressing new difficulties, which enables the organization to evolve and run more effectively.

A company's success can be understood in terms of maximizing profits, creating high-quality products and services, employing effective marketing techniques, and generating excellent financial returns. According to Polelle (2008), all of these are determined by the leadership quality of the organization. However, performance is also dependent on the amount of worker productivity, which is in turn intimately linked to employee pleasure. In order to flourish and get a competitive edge, a business must increase employee satisfaction (Johnson 2007).

Leadership transformation and organizational performance

Transformational leaders are characterized by their ability to convince, inspire, and motivate others by leveraging their own beliefs and values. In this instance, followers do not work for the leader; rather, they collaborate and complement one another (Kline 2010). This, in turn, inspires subordinates' trust in their boss and leads to their allegiance. As a result of motivation and inspiration, employees prioritize the organization's objectives over their own, hence enhancing productivity and the growth of the business (Kouzes & Posner 2003).

According to Kouzes and Posner (2012), transformational leaders are charismatic, motivators, intelligent, and concerned. Moreover, transformational leaders are intelligent, intelligent, and concerned. Being charismatic enables a leader to have a clear vision and plan for the organization, as well as to inspire followers and instill confidence in their leader and the organization's goals.

Consequently, being charismatic typically goes hand in hand with being a motivator. Leaders can also set ambitious but attainable objectives for their team, thereby fostering the self-development of followers. It boosts employee loyalty and enhances their understanding of organizational objectives (Matha & Boehm 2008). As a result of his third attribute, a transformational leader generates novel concepts. Lastly, transformative leaders care about the well-being of their followers. They recognize the importance of empowering people through training and mentoring initiatives. They also treat them with respect and dignity, guide them, and assist them in reaching a specific degree of maturity, so enhancing their organizational productivity.

According to Harold and Fedor (2008), transformational leadership takes into account the possibilities of leaders providing incentives to employees as a means to motivate them, which should increase employee happiness. However, Harold and Fedor's (2008) findings do not establish a foundation upon which transformative leadership transcends to result in organizational success.

Leadership transitions and organizational performance

Transactional leadership comprises a scenario in which the leader pays followers compensation proportional to the value added to the organization. The leader directs and supervises the completion of tasks in the organization by the followers to ensure that the organization's goals are realized (Miller 2012). The explicit framing and clarification of organizational goals, coupled with the availability of appropriate incentives to recognize success, inspires followers to exceed expectations (Northouse 2010). In addition, followers are aware of the consequences of poor performance, which motivates them to strive for excellence (Northouse 2010).

Johnson (2007) emphasized the significance of transactional leadership based on a compensation system when discussing this leadership style. However, Johnson (2007) did not discuss the positive or negative impact of the reward system on work satisfaction and organizational success.

Steve Jobs as a Leader of Vision

Visionary leadership is required in the present business environment for firms to adapt to change, remain competitive, recruit and retain talent, etc. An good leader should be able to adapt to workplace issues and explain the organization's objectives. Therefore, leaders must be able to comprehend emotions and apply this knowledge to improve teamwork and productivity (Kafetsios et al. 2009). All of these were abilities possessed by Steve Jobs.

Steve's mentality as a winner, along with his enthusiasm and determination, allowed him to develop a large firm and recruit personnel. He was a source of motivation and a model for his followers (Jobs & Thomas 2011). The entire company culture was based on his personal ideals and philosophies. He urged people to work diligently, elevating the organization well above its competitors. As an advocate of face-to-face communication, Steve was able to receive feedback and comprehend people's needs and feelings (Polelle 2008). Tim Cook, upon succeeding Steve, demonstrated in many ways that he, too, was a brilliant leader.

Existing research gaps

The literature suggests that leadership style has a significant impact on the functioning of an organization. For instance, as mentioned earlier, employees’ satisfaction is a critical factor in the organization’s performance. Therefore, in order to prosper and obtain a competitive advantage, businesses must enhance it. However, academics hold widely divergent views regarding whether or not leadership affects employee happiness.

For example, Kippenberger (2002) established the relationship between these two variables, although Sakiru et al. (2013) hold the opposite view. Similarly, there are individuals who believe that strong leadership has a favorable effect on organizational performance and those who assert that there is no correlation between the two. Divergent perspectives have resulted from the existence of a knowledge gap, which is a result of the fact that the arguments are derived from various research that have studied various leadership principles. Therefore, additional investigation is required. A respected leader (Steve Jobs) and a reputable company (Apple Company) have been selected for further research.

Methods

In order to answer the research question and accomplish the study's stated objectives, the research must examine the phenomenon of leadership styles and their impact on organizational performance and change (with the primary focus on leadership of Steve Job and Tim Cook and its impact on the Apple Company). Applying a quantitative strategy is the most effective method for achieving this objective. Quantitative research is appropriate since it can offer a full understanding of leadership styles and their impact on performance. The study will only utilize secondary data acquired from respectable and trustworthy sources. After collecting the data, it will be analyzed rigorously with statistical methods to verify that the conclusions produced reflect a unified view of leadership.

Research Plan

I would recommend employing the cross-sectional research strategy for this project, in which empirical data on high-profit returns are collected and analyzed. The design is appropriate for the research since repeated cross-sectional studies provide a pseudo-longitudinal study (Vogt, Gardner and Haeffele, 2012). Thus, it makes it possible for researchers to acquire empirical data for the analysis process. The cross-sectional analysis will

ABC Company: HRM System Analysis, Implementation And Design College Essay Help

Techniques for Requirements, Feasibility, and System Analysis Information Gathering

The to-be-implemented system is an HR system that combines the business operations of an HR function by automating those activities and making the function more efficient, effective, and productive.

Before the HR system can be created, the requirements analysis must be performed by gathering the system's requirements from the project sponsor and end-users and determining the most effective manner to incorporate the requirements into the system. “ For the development or acquisition of the appropriate software, a robust requirements collecting procedure is crucial. Ultimately, software performance is measured by the degree to which it meets end-user requirements. Gathering requirements is the process through which development or purchasing teams determine what the business and end-users need from a new program.

Poorly obtained requirements frequently result in software that does not fulfill end-user needs and corporate objectives, which can lead to costly rework, cost overruns, and missed deadlines (Requirements Gathering: What Every IT Manager Needs to Know). Consequently, extensive information must be obtained during the requirements phase. To acquire information from the project sponsor, formal interviews and in-depth meetings can be scheduled to discuss what the project sponsor, who is typically the organization's top management, needs from the system. The project sponsor's precise goals and desires, as well as the functionality expected from the system, must be outlined.

Similarly, it is essential to collect knowledge on the system's end-users' requirements. This is crucial because the end-users are the ones who must use the system in the end, and their requirements can provide insight into what they believe is required and make the HR function more effective and efficient if automated by the HR system. To collect information from the end-users, brainstorming sessions, focus group-based interviews with the staff, and survey-based questionnaires can be used to establish which features of the system the staff regards as requirements and which it considers an additional service.

Important Considerations for Successful Requirements Collection

The critical aspect that can impact the success of the requirements gathering activity and initiatives is indicated in the table below.

The commitment of management to the project is the most important component for the success of requirements gathering for an information system like the HR system. The management must be fully invested in and supportive of the development of the information system, and they must contribute insight by directly participating in the requirements phase. Their devotion to the HR system project might motivate the organization's members to improve their performance and better comprehend/support the HR system.

The engagement and communication between Human Resource Management & Information System professionals and the system's end users is the second crucial success factor. This is significant because enhanced and effective communication between these parties can facilitate the realization of problems, challenges, and user requirements that would not be achievable without the support of two-way communication.

In their article, Douglas Havelka and Sooun Lee state that "goal congruence, defined as the agreement between management, user groups, and the IS department regarding the purpose of the project and the deliverables to be produced, was ranked as the third most important factor for successful IS requirements gathering. This aspect is directly impacted by the existence and quality of a feasibility analysis and business strategy (Havelka & Lee, 2007)

The fourth critical success aspect is the HRM system personnel's grasp of the desired application. IT and HRM system professionals must understand the tasks, outputs, and business processes that the HRM system is intended to support.

Planning is the sixth critical success aspect that is essential for efficient and effective requirements collecting. The phase of requirements gathering is the cornerstone of the HRM system development; as a result, proper and effective planning that incorporates exhaustive research is required.

Objectives and Feasibility HRM Operations

The following operations must be automated and incorporated into the HRM system for the ABC company's HRM function.

Recruitment: The process of screening, interviewing, and evaluating prospective recruits in order to pick the most qualified candidates for a position inside an organization.

The process by which individuals are matched with jobs within an organization based on their knowledge, expertise, skill set, and experience.

Performance Appraisal: The performance review of the organization's employees to track their performance development and identify areas requiring further improvement.

Compensation: Rewards and remuneration given to employees in exchange for their services rendered to the organization.

Development of Personnel: the improvement of an organization's workers via training, workshops, seminars, and career counseling.

Objectives and Objectives

The goals and objectives of the HRM system project are to design a system for the human resource manage function at the ABC company that will assist in automating the HRM business operations and making them more effective, efficient, and productive. The objective of the project is to design and construct a system that

enables efficient utilization of Human Resources Creates and develops organizational structure relationships that permit the growth of human resources and give the most appropriate rewards. Manages employee motivation while ensuring that the person's goals are compatible with those of the organization.

Scope and Information Systems

The HRM system, which is an IS application, would integrate all HRM procedures within the organization. The system would be module-based, with specialized modules covering the recruitment, placement, performance evaluation, remuneration, and people development procedures.

Risks

The project for the design, development, and implementation of the HRM system carries with it some hazards. These dangers are related to

The possible rejection presented by the end user once the system has been installed. The system's lack of integration with the company's HRM norms and procedures. Inadequate integration of the legacy system Numerous maintenance difficulties upon deployment The system is too sophisticated for the company's management and end users.

System Design

Design of Application Architecture

The HRM application design is based on modules that address the Human Resource Management functions of the ABC Corporation. Managers and HRM department employees are included among the system's users. The system architecture allows the user to access the system via the private VLAN network of the enterprise. The user interface is designed as a graphical user interface because it provides an environment that is user-friendly and simple to use. The GUI user interface is accessible over the VLAN network and connects directly to the HRM system's components. These modules include recruitment, placement, performance management, payroll, and human resource development. Each of these modules is additionally connected to the database's structure and server. The database/data warehouse contains both current and historical records.

The graphic below illustrates the system architecture at a high level.

Design of Application Process

The detailed description and DFD for two of the modules/ processes are shown below. The performance management module demonstrates how employee records are acquired from the database and how both the employee and the employee's supervisor input appraisal-based data into the system. The performance management system then generates an evaluation for the current period and compares it to evaluation findings from prior periods, which are also obtained from the database. The preparation of reports that describe the evaluation's analysis and results. These reports are accessible to the employee's supervisor.

DFD Performance Management

The payroll module specifies how employee records are retrieved from the database, while the accounts department's time sheet is also input into the payroll system. The payroll system then prepared the pay cheques, a copy of which together with the time sheet is stored in the database's payroll file. The payroll information is retrieved for report creation, which results in the generation of tax reports that are submitted to government agencies. The employee receives the pay check, while the bank receives the bank statement.

Payroll DFD

System Installation

Coding-Related System Implementation Activities

The coding task entails composing the code in an object-oriented.net programming language for the process flow and the module designs. The code will need to be written according to the specific needs of the users, based on the capabilities they demand from each module. In addition, code will be built to facilitate querying and report production from the modules and the HR system as a whole.

Testing

The testing activity would comprise testing the functionality of the modules with sample data to determine their effective and efficient operation. Errors and variations would be uncovered through testing. In addition, an overall prototype would be created to evaluate the GUI user interface's compliance with the HRM system and to determine the user's compatibility as well as the overall cohesion of the system based on its design.

Installation

Installation would entail launching the system for usage within the organization, with HRM personnel and management given access to the system for use in their regular and routine business operations. Using the staggered installation/implementation strategy, employees would use the new HRM system for two months and the legacy system for the following two months. This will aid in identifying potential bottlenecks, challenges, and problems with the new system.

Documentation

Documentation is a crucial component of implementation because it is one of the primary resources available to system users and administrators in the future. The documentation would require creating and compiling extensive documentation for the information system's procedures and flow, as well as compiling separate documentation for the system's users and administrator. The user documentation will be in the form of a user handbook and will assist current employees and any new employees who join the organization in the future in learning how to operate the HRM system.

Training

As a new system is built, it is also crucial to ensure that employees and HRM system end users can utilize the system to its maximum efficiency and effectiveness. For this, both staff and management will require instruction and training on how to use the system. Pilot-based training would be implemented so that users may have hands-on experience with the system. Aside from this, classes can be planned before to the introduction of the HRM to instruct the ABC Company's personnel on how to utilize the system.

Support/ Maintenance

Even after the system has been implemented, ongoing support and maintenance is necessary, as the subsequent months can disclose difficulties and problems that were not anticipated or avoided during the system's construction. "Experience indicates that the majority of system management challenges are functional rather than technological. This implies that functional staff – HR and Payroll – should be system guardians – HR system staff. I/T specialists can and should be a part of the team, but they should not report to HR full-time. (2005's 'After Implementation: Maintenance of Your New HR System') As a result, a team consisting of IT technicians and HRM managers such as the recruiting & placement manager, payroll manager, and other leaders of the HRM function would be granted access to maintain the system. Technicians can provide IT support, whereas functional management can offer concept-based assistance.

Implementation Advantages of Replicated Processes

By defining the activities and procedures of the implantation phase and allowing them to be repeated, the system can become more successful and adaptable. This is because, during the implementation phase, the system project manager and team may need to switch between coding and other activities to make the necessary changes and adjustments for the system to operate effectively and efficiently. By keeping procedures and activities repetitive, this objective may be easily attained, and the implemented system's integrity can be considerably improved.

References

After Implementation: Maintenance of Your New Human Resources System Canadian Human Resources Reporter (2005). Web.

Havelka, D., & Lee, S. (2007). Critical success criteria for acquiring information requirements. Auerbach Analysis.

Requirements Gathering: What Every IT Manager Needs to Know, Research and Markets. Web.

System development Life Cycle and prototyping. Web.

[supanova question]

ABC Company: HRM System Analysis, Implementation And Design College Essay Help

Techniques for Requirements, Feasibility, and System Analysis Information Gathering

The to-be-implemented system is an HR system that combines the business operations of an HR function by automating those activities and making the function more efficient, effective, and productive.

Before the HR system can be created, the requirements analysis must be performed by gathering the system's requirements from the project sponsor and end-users and determining the most effective manner to incorporate the requirements into the system. “ For the development or acquisition of the appropriate software, a robust requirements collecting procedure is crucial. Ultimately, software performance is measured by the degree to which it meets end-user requirements. Gathering requirements is the process through which development or purchasing teams determine what the business and end-users need from a new program.

Poorly obtained requirements frequently result in software that does not fulfill end-user needs and corporate objectives, which can lead to costly rework, cost overruns, and missed deadlines (Requirements Gathering: What Every IT Manager Needs to Know). Consequently, extensive information must be obtained during the requirements phase. To acquire information from the project sponsor, formal interviews and in-depth meetings can be scheduled to discuss what the project sponsor, who is typically the organization's top management, needs from the system. The project sponsor's precise goals and desires, as well as the functionality expected from the system, must be outlined.

Similarly, it is essential to collect knowledge on the system's end-users' requirements. This is crucial because the end-users are the ones who must use the system in the end, and their requirements can provide insight into what they believe is required and make the HR function more effective and efficient if automated by the HR system. To collect information from the end-users, brainstorming sessions, focus group-based interviews with the staff, and survey-based questionnaires can be used to establish which features of the system the staff regards as requirements and which it considers an additional service.

Important Considerations for Successful Requirements Collection

The critical aspect that can impact the success of the requirements gathering activity and initiatives is indicated in the table below.

The commitment of management to the project is the most important component for the success of requirements gathering for an information system like the HR system. The management must be fully invested in and supportive of the development of the information system, and they must contribute insight by directly participating in the requirements phase. Their devotion to the HR system project might motivate the organization's members to improve their performance and better comprehend/support the HR system.

The engagement and communication between Human Resource Management & Information System professionals and the system's end users is the second crucial success factor. This is significant because enhanced and effective communication between these parties can facilitate the realization of problems, challenges, and user requirements that would not be achievable without the support of two-way communication.

In their article, Douglas Havelka and Sooun Lee state that "goal congruence, defined as the agreement between management, user groups, and the IS department regarding the purpose of the project and the deliverables to be produced, was ranked as the third most important factor for successful IS requirements gathering. This aspect is directly impacted by the existence and quality of a feasibility analysis and business strategy (Havelka & Lee, 2007)

The fourth critical success aspect is the HRM system personnel's grasp of the desired application. IT and HRM system professionals must understand the tasks, outputs, and business processes that the HRM system is intended to support.

Planning is the sixth critical success aspect that is essential for efficient and effective requirements collecting. The phase of requirements gathering is the cornerstone of the HRM system development; as a result, proper and effective planning that incorporates exhaustive research is required.

Objectives and Feasibility HRM Operations

The following operations must be automated and incorporated into the HRM system for the ABC company's HRM function.

Recruitment: The process of screening, interviewing, and evaluating prospective recruits in order to pick the most qualified candidates for a position inside an organization.

The process by which individuals are matched with jobs within an organization based on their knowledge, expertise, skill set, and experience.

Performance Appraisal: The performance review of the organization's employees to track their performance development and identify areas requiring further improvement.

Compensation: Rewards and remuneration given to employees in exchange for their services rendered to the organization.

Development of Personnel: the improvement of an organization's workers via training, workshops, seminars, and career counseling.

Objectives and Objectives

The goals and objectives of the HRM system project are to design a system for the human resource manage function at the ABC company that will assist in automating the HRM business operations and making them more effective, efficient, and productive. The objective of the project is to design and construct a system that

enables efficient utilization of Human Resources Creates and develops organizational structure relationships that permit the growth of human resources and give the most appropriate rewards. Manages employee motivation while ensuring that the person's goals are compatible with those of the organization.

Scope and Information Systems

The HRM system, which is an IS application, would integrate all HRM procedures within the organization. The system would be module-based, with specialized modules covering the recruitment, placement, performance evaluation, remuneration, and people development procedures.

Risks

The project for the design, development, and implementation of the HRM system carries with it some hazards. These dangers are related to

The possible rejection presented by the end user once the system has been installed. The system's lack of integration with the company's HRM norms and procedures. Inadequate integration of the legacy system Numerous maintenance difficulties upon deployment The system is too sophisticated for the company's management and end users.

System Design

Design of Application Architecture

The HRM application design is based on modules that address the Human Resource Management functions of the ABC Corporation. Managers and HRM department employees are included among the system's users. The system architecture allows the user to access the system via the private VLAN network of the enterprise. The user interface is designed as a graphical user interface because it provides an environment that is user-friendly and simple to use. The GUI user interface is accessible over the VLAN network and connects directly to the HRM system's components. These modules include recruitment, placement, performance management, payroll, and human resource development. Each of these modules is additionally connected to the database's structure and server. The database/data warehouse contains both current and historical records.

The graphic below illustrates the system architecture at a high level.

Design of Application Process

The detailed description and DFD for two of the modules/ processes are shown below. The performance management module demonstrates how employee records are acquired from the database and how both the employee and the employee's supervisor input appraisal-based data into the system. The performance management system then generates an evaluation for the current period and compares it to evaluation findings from prior periods, which are also obtained from the database. The preparation of reports that describe the evaluation's analysis and results. These reports are accessible to the employee's supervisor.

DFD Performance Management

The payroll module specifies how employee records are retrieved from the database, while the accounts department's time sheet is also input into the payroll system. The payroll system then prepared the pay cheques, a copy of which together with the time sheet is stored in the database's payroll file. The payroll information is retrieved for report creation, which results in the generation of tax reports that are submitted to government agencies. The employee receives the pay check, while the bank receives the bank statement.

Payroll DFD

System Installation

Coding-Related System Implementation Activities

The coding task entails composing the code in an object-oriented.net programming language for the process flow and the module designs. The code will need to be written according to the specific needs of the users, based on the capabilities they demand from each module. In addition, code will be built to facilitate querying and report production from the modules and the HR system as a whole.

Testing

The testing activity would comprise testing the functionality of the modules with sample data to determine their effective and efficient operation. Errors and variations would be uncovered through testing. In addition, an overall prototype would be created to evaluate the GUI user interface's compliance with the HRM system and to determine the user's compatibility as well as the overall cohesion of the system based on its design.

Installation

Installation would entail launching the system for usage within the organization, with HRM personnel and management given access to the system for use in their regular and routine business operations. Using the staggered installation/implementation strategy, employees would use the new HRM system for two months and the legacy system for the following two months. This will aid in identifying potential bottlenecks, challenges, and problems with the new system.

Documentation

Documentation is a crucial component of implementation because it is one of the primary resources available to system users and administrators in the future. The documentation would require creating and compiling extensive documentation for the information system's procedures and flow, as well as compiling separate documentation for the system's users and administrator. The user documentation will be in the form of a user handbook and will assist current employees and any new employees who join the organization in the future in learning how to operate the HRM system.

Training

As a new system is built, it is also crucial to ensure that employees and HRM system end users can utilize the system to its maximum efficiency and effectiveness. For this, both staff and management will require instruction and training on how to use the system. Pilot-based training would be implemented so that users may have hands-on experience with the system. Aside from this, classes can be planned before to the introduction of the HRM to instruct the ABC Company's personnel on how to utilize the system.

Support/ Maintenance

Even after the system has been implemented, ongoing support and maintenance is necessary, as the subsequent months can disclose difficulties and problems that were not anticipated or avoided during the system's construction. "Experience indicates that the majority of system management challenges are functional rather than technological. This implies that functional staff – HR and Payroll – should be system guardians – HR system staff. I/T specialists can and should be a part of the team, but they should not report to HR full-time. (2005's 'After Implementation: Maintenance of Your New HR System') As a result, a team consisting of IT technicians and HRM managers such as the recruiting & placement manager, payroll manager, and other leaders of the HRM function would be granted access to maintain the system. Technicians can provide IT support, whereas functional management can offer concept-based assistance.

Implementation Advantages of Replicated Processes

By defining the activities and procedures of the implantation phase and allowing them to be repeated, the system can become more successful and adaptable. This is because, during the implementation phase, the system project manager and team may need to switch between coding and other activities to make the necessary changes and adjustments for the system to operate effectively and efficiently. By keeping procedures and activities repetitive, this objective may be easily attained, and the implemented system's integrity can be considerably improved.

References

After Implementation: Maintenance of Your New Human Resources System Canadian Human Resources Reporter (2005). Web.

Havelka, D., & Lee, S. (2007). Critical success criteria for acquiring information requirements. Auerbach Analysis.

Requirements Gathering: What Every IT Manager Needs to Know, Research and Markets. Web.

System development Life Cycle and prototyping. Web.

[supanova question]

Multi-Cultural Environment In Organizations College Essay Help

In most firms, the workforce consists of individuals of many racial and national backgrounds. The professionals, on the other hand, should not exploit their variety as an excuse for bad performance. There is a need for diversity in the workplace because the commercial environment in which firms operate today is continually changing. This study focuses on the techniques that can be implemented to ensure that cultural differences do not clash.

Professionals are expected to produce good outcomes regardless of their location. Professionals should be aware that their organization's objective must be accomplished despite of their individual differences. Guilherme and Glaser (2010) demonstrate that multicultural staff have a number of advantages. First, everyone has his or her unique area of expertise, and as a result, their differences might contribute novel ideas to the business. This means that there will be so many possibilities while making judgments.

For example, prominent media outlets like Cable News Network have correspondents in nearly every nation. When they are sent to the field, they are dispatched to regions where they can establish rapport with their subjects. Suppose an American journalist is sent to Iraq and tasked with reporting on the events occurring there. Arabs tend to be antagonistic towards Americans, thus it would be prudent to send someone of Arabic descent, since he or she will be able to freely interact with Arabs without worry.

According to Brett (2007), respecting the traditions and values of others is the key to success in a multicultural environment. When an engineer or other professional disregards the cultural norms of his or her coworkers, they are likely to avoid his or her company and may acquire a negative attitude toward him or her over time. When a professional is transferred to a new environment where the people do not speak his language or are of a different religion, the best method to engage with them is to learn their language so that he or she can better comprehend them.

A professional who relocates to a new multicultural environment must face a number of challenges, though. In some societies, women are not permitted to hold organizational leadership roles; therefore, if a female professional is deployed to such a region, she should carry out her tasks without fear, as the days when men were considered intelligent are long gone. In general, the professional should be ready for both the worst and the finest outcomes.

In some cultures, senior employees cannot be criticized by their juniors; therefore, if you are new to an organization with such a culture, you should convey your opinions in a manner that does not imply you are criticizing your seniors. If, on the other hand, you are the overall supervisor at a new office and your former coworkers did not protest to your decisions, you should not be surprised if nearly all of your suggestions are rejected. Occasionally, this could be the result of sabotage by the prior predecessors, who are attempting to convince the government that they are the only ones who can get things done (Adler & Gundersen, 2008).

According to Daft and Lane (2009), the management of a multicultural organization should make it clear to their employees that they were not selected for their positions because they share the same ethnicity or religion as some members of the management, but because their qualifications met the organization's needs. This is due to the fact that certain people are hired based on their ethnicity; therefore, if the most senior member of the organization is of their tribe, they believe they can dominate the other employees because they are well-connected with management.

When a professional is transferred to a new multicultural environment, he or she should study how things are performed and inquire as to why. Remember that there are numerous ways to obtain the intended results, thus it does not matter how one does something as long as the desired results are achieved. Some people are extremely conservative because they feel there is just one correct way to do something, which is erroneous. Professionals should be aware that diversity is acceptable (Hogan, 2007).

In a multicultural context, where organizational teams may be organized along tribal lines, the language might be the greatest barrier within an organization. Although these groups may have a good impact on the organization due to the fact that some individuals perform better under the authority of leaders who have the same culture as them, they may also result in unfair rivalry between teams. This is due to the fact that the employee's performance will be evaluated based on cultural factors such as religion, ethnicity, and race. Therefore, teams should consist of individuals from various cultures. It may be challenging initially, but the staff will adapt to their peculiarities.

Respect for the cultures of others is therefore essential in a multicultural setting. This respect extends not only to their cultures, but also to their occupations. It is essential that all professions contribute equally to the success of the organization. Employees should be permitted to express their cultures so long as it does not negatively impact their performance. For instance, if a Muslim engineer is transferred to a Christian environment, he/she should be permitted to continue practicing his/her culture alongside the project task allocated to him/her; hence, management should be tolerant when he/she leaves the office for prayers. On the other side, the individual in question should make up for her/his absence.

Bibliography

2008 publication of International Dimensions of Organizational Behavior by J. Adler and A. Gundersen. Cengage Learning is headquartered in Belmont, Massachusetts.

Brett, J., 2007. How to Negotiate Agreements, Resolve Conflicts, and Make Decisions Across Cultural Boundaries. John Wiley & Sons, San Francisco, CA

Daft, R., and P. Lane. 2009. Management. Cengage Learning, Mason, OH.

Guilherme, M. & Glaser, E., 2010. The Intercultural Dynamics of Multicultural Working is published by Multilingual Matters in New York.

Facilitating Multicultural Groups: A Practical Guide was published by Kogan Page in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania in 2007.

[supanova question]

British Airways CSR (Corporate Social Responsibility) Analysis College Essay Help

Table of Contents
Introduction CSR Principles British Airways British Airways CSR Evaluation Recommendations for British Airways CSR References
Introduction

Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR) has taken on a significant role in management theory and practice. The integration of CSR efforts into a company's business plans and practices has become of paramount importance (Carroll 1999). Failure to include CSR into business processes has negative effects on a company's performance and relationships with its stakeholders (Mitchell, Agle & Wood 1997).

It is acknowledged that industrial waste has a significant influence on society and the environment. Consequently, firms are accountable for limiting the quantity of environmental damage they do and for demonstrating social responsibility (Schwartz & Carroll 2003). The tourist business has been scrutinized as one of the sectors because, despite its huge societal benefits, it has extremely detrimental social and environmental impacts. With the expansion of the tourism sector, it has become essential to investigate the social activities that corporations engage in to mitigate their negative effects on society. Further disclosure of the company's CSR actions is also essential for demonstrating transparency. The CSR models are discussed in this study. The models are used to comprehend CSR as a strategy chosen by a British business. The selected company is British Airways.

The Theory of Corporate Social Responsibility

CSR is the evaluation of the effect a company's actions have on society and the environment. Society's expectations of businesses are growing as more companies are established (Carroll 1999). CSR is vital for businesses because “it is in the self-interest of enterprises to have a healthy environment” (Castka et al. 2004). CSR is frequently referred to as a philosophy or practice of company management. CSR is analyzed along two dimensions: economic and moral philosophy. The ethical concern with CSR is founded on the conduct ethics of the company's actions. CSR centers on the interdependence of business, society, and the environment. With this knowledge, the following section will discuss the business theory of CSR.

Peter Drucker is the pioneering thinker and creator of CSR theory for business. According to his idea, firms have three key responsibilities: to boost the company's financial performance, to improve staff productivity, and to handle social and environmental responsibilities (Drucker 1954). The core tenet of Drucker's thesis is that businesses are institutions, and that institutions do not exist in isolation. The institutions are a component of the society in which they function. The institutions operating in a given society must share responsibility for that society. "concern for the quality of life, that is, for the physical, human, and social environment of the modern man and modern community" (Drucker 2001, p. 17).

The philosophy of morality and ethics is the foundation of corporate social responsibility: "A corporation can and should have a conscience," and "the language of ethics has a place in the vocabulary of an organization" (Goodpaster & Matthews 1982, p. 134). Therefore, a company's ethical and morally upright behavior can be viewed as socially responsible behavior (Garriga & Melé, 2004). On the other hand, the accounting part of CSR is viewed as a technique that increases production and efficiency. The following section of the article examines the history of British Airways and its CSR initiatives.

British Airways Summary

British Airways is one of the most prominent premium airline firms based in the United Kingdom. The corporation faces financial difficulties due to the impending global financial crisis, especially in the Eurozone, despite being one of the largest players in the industry and having a vast international footprint. Climate change and international agreement on a sustainable environment safety law pose a challenge for the firm. In addition, the low-cost carriers are detrimental to the company's income due to their strong pricing competition. In addition, the decline in capacity at London's Heathrow airport and the increase in aviation traffic in European airspace present challenges for British Airways.

British Airways CSR Subassemblies

British Airways' primary CSR components include corporate governance, stakeholder management, and risk management. Corporate governance enables British Airways to build a system for the distribution of individual rights. British Airways's strategic purpose to ameliorate its internal and external environment is referred to as stakeholder management. British Airways' risk management helps to prioritize and mitigate the organization's risks.

Corporate Organisational Governance

British Airways determines the areas upon which their CSR initiatives must be centered based on the aforementioned problems. The first is the economic sector in which they believe they must concentrate in order to sustain their financial performance. The fact that the corporation made a deficit in 2012 is cause for alarm. Their operational profit decreased 47.1% (British Airways 2012).

Environmental Morality

The corporation must also focus on its operating efficiency, which is diminishing as a result of congested airways, rising fuel costs, and more competition that has led to a decrease in customers. Environmental concerns that the corporation plans to investigate include reducing its emissions, which has a multiplier effect on climate change and the environment. The airways must regulate other forms of air pollution, such as noise and air quality impact (British Airways 2012). Additional waste and recycling are essential components of the company's environmental concern.

Administration of organization's stakeholders

British Airways' CSR is inextricably linked to stakeholder management. The corporation wants to participate in a variety of community and social activities, including philanthropy and partnerships with community organizations and NGOs to invest in community development. Employee relations, employee engagement, and employee assistance are responsibilities of the organization. By branding and operating British Airways as a socially responsible brand, the corporation can achieve competitive benefit. Managing the client experience is equally essential to the development of the British Airways brand. An airline prioritizes passenger and employee safety above everything else. Engaging diversity and cultivating an inclusive culture is a responsibility that has gained relevance for all international corporations. In addition, the company's purchase activities must be conducted in a responsible manner.

Given this, the paper describes a selection of the company's 2012 CSR initiatives as detailed in its CSR report.

The company's success was due to its participation in the London Olympics and Paralympics.

The business has demonstrated increased accountability by enhancing its care and support system for disabled consumers. This is a component of the organization's Disability Assistance Program. With the help of their consumers, the company has launched a low-carbon project to support the construction of a community swimming pool in the United Kingdom. They have actively contributed to the development of EU Emissions Trading Systems. Due to geopolitical factors, however, the procedure has been delayed. The system will establish a procedure for the creation of a remedy for global climate change. They have chosen fuel suppliers who are committed to developing an alternate, more environmentally friendly form of jet fuel. Additionally, the corporation has built a CSR website. Additionally, as the company's hub is at Heathrow, it has bought British Midland International. Its association with Comic Relief UK was instrumental in raising £4.5 million between 2010 and 2012. The corporation has upgraded its fleet from Boeing 776 to 777, which promises to improve the consumer experience, in consideration of their concern for customer satisfaction.

Obstacles to the Implementation of CSR Policies

Creating a foundation of trust within the organization is one of the obstacles associated with implementing CSR. In addition, without an effective reporting system, it is difficult to identify corporate governance-related issues. Establishing rights for all and a system of justice within the organization is a further concern.

Internal and External Corporate Social Responsibility Initiatives

Figure 1 depicts the broad split of British Airways' CSR initiatives. Internal CSR drives include flying start and the CR senior sponsors group. Economic drivers that determine the organization's performance are internal drivers. Environmental compliance, climate and ETS strategy, and fuel efficiency groups are the external drivers.

British Airways CSR governing body structure as outlined in their CSR Report (British Airways 2012).

British Airways CSR Assessment

Strategic Evaluation

British Airways' CSR strategy is evaluated using Caroll's CSR pyramid (Carroll 1991). This technique aids in recognizing the corporation's larger set of obligations and emphasizes the importance of ethics relative to other responsibilities (the CSR hierarchy is presented in figure 2). The figure indicates that the application of CSR responsibility assists in comprehending the relationship between the company's sustainable duties and in ranking the responsibilities according to their hierarchy. This hierarchical structure is used to analyze the company's CSR efforts as stated in its 2012 CSR report, and is then subdivided depending on the CSR activities presented by Caroll (1991).

Figure 2 demonstrates the evaluation of British Airline's CSR approach using Caroll's CSR pyramid.

Economic Responsibility

Any company's first and greatest economic responsibility is to examine its financial performance. This again relates to taking care of the individuals who keep the organization running, i.e. the employees. In this regard, establishing a fair wage system, a culture of inclusion, and diversity is of the utmost importance. In this instance, the compensation structure in place for employees is a crucial component for understanding the fulfillment of economic responsibilities (Cowper-Smith & Grosbois 2011).

In this regard, the significance of the airline's economic activities to its employees is significant, as the airline industry is a service sector in which employees are the primary points of contact between consumers and the corporation (Phillips 2006). British Airways has established a rewards program for its employees that recognizes and rewards those who have achieved exceptional outcomes. Another award system implemented by the organization in 2012 is the Lean continuous improvement award (British Airways 2012, p. 14). Other monetary prizes are provided to the workers that are deemed to be directly related to the company's key performance indicators and environmental and social responsibility.

The organization must also devote considerable effort to ensuring its economic viability in order to operate effectively. According to British Airways' CSR report, aviation is an integral aspect of the business because it "provides employment, trade links, tourism, and economic development support through air travel." British Airways (2012), page sixteen British Airways's mission is to consistently try to increase the company's growth and financial performance through the generation of revenue, operating profit, and cost-cutting strategies. Additionally, the organization seeks out alliances that may assist in bolstering their financial situation. Additionally, the organization places a premium on improving its operating performance (see figure 3).

Figure 3 compares British Airways' economic performance to that of other multinational airlines.

2011-2012 Operating Profit (millions of pounds) British Airways518274Revenue Total (millions of pounds) more International Airline Groups

Legal Responsibilities

The company's environmental obligations include addressing climate change, minimizing noise pollution, improving air quality, and managing trash and recycling. The corporation aims to reduce carbon dioxide emissions by 50 percent by the year 2020. (British Airways 2012). This endeavor will be extremely beneficial in preventing the impending climate change, which could cause significant harm to human society. The business endeavors to lessen its carbon footprint. In addition, they attempt to minimize noise pollution in the atmosphere while the vessel is in operation, enhance air quality, reduce waste, and recycle whenever possible. Additionally, the corporation has modified its fleets to improve consumer and staff safety.

Charitable Responsibilities

The corporation has participated in numerous community service projects and local community development endeavors. For example:

The expansion of the parkland's landscaped field, first opened to the public in 2011, continues to flourish. The addition is near to the Great Barn in Harmondsworth, which is a vestige of West Middlesex's heritage landscape and, as of 2012, is currently owned by English Heritage, emphasising its significance. British Airways (2012), page forty

The corporation is committed to the improvement of society; it has participated in several disability initiatives and collaborated with non-governmental organizations to benefit underprivileged groups in society.

Conclusion and Suggestion

Using Carroll's CSR hierarchy to analyze British Airways' CSR endeavor, it is evident that the corporation gives a clear picture of its CSR-related operations. The corporation is present in the majority of the broad categories outlined by Carroll, with the exception of the category of ethical responsibility. The corporation makes no mention of any actions it has taken in the past year that it may have categorized as an ethical endeavor.

However, many of the company's tasks are morally proper, but they cannot be categorized purely as ethical or moral responsibilities. The company's actions are part of a larger strategy to portray it as a socially responsible firm, but little is done to demonstrate its moral obligation. Even if not categorized as CSR, all of the company's actions are part of economic or legal measures that had to be undertaken (Matten & Moon 2008). However, few projects can be distinguished as exclusively moral company obligations. This study suggests that British Airways would be more successful if it took more ethical and moral efforts.

References

British Airways, Corporate Social Responsibility, website, 2012.

AB Carroll, "Corporate social responsibility evolution of a definitional construct," Business & Society, vol. 38, no. 3, 1999, pp. 268-295.

 Web.

AB Carroll, "The pyramid of corporate social responsibility: Toward the Moral Management of Organizational Stakeholders," Business Horizons, vol. 34, no. 4, pp. 39-48, 1991.

 Web.

Castka, P, Bamber, CJ, Bamber, DJ, and Sharp, JM. The TQM Magazine, vol 16, no. 3, pp. 216-224.  Web.

The adoption of corporate social responsibility policies in the airline industry, Cowper-Smith, A., and Grosbois, D.D., Journal of Sustainable Tourism, vol. 19, no. 1, pp. 59–77, 2011.

 Web.

Drucker, PF 2001, The fundamental Drucker: The top sixty years of Peter Drucker's important management publications, Harper, New York.

Drucker, P.F. (1954). The practice of management. New York: Harper Business. Web.

Garriga, E., and D. Melé, "Corporate social responsibility theories: mapping the terrain," Journal of Business Ethics, vol. 53, no. 1/2, pp. 51-71, 2004.

 Web.

Goodpaster, K.E., and J.B. Matthews, "Can a Corporation Have a Conscience?," 1982.

’, Harvard Business Review, vol 60, no. 1, pp. 132-141.

 Web.

Matten, D., and Moon, J. (2008). "Implicit" and "explicit" CSR: A conceptual framework for a comparative analysis of corporate social responsibility.

 Web.

Mitchell, R.K., B.R. Agle, and D.J. Wood. "Toward a theory of stakeholder identification and salience: Defining the principle of who and what really matters." Academy of Management Review, vol. 22, no. 4, 1997, pp.

 Web.

ED Phillips, "Corporate Social Responsibility in Aviation," Journal of Air Transportation, vol. 11, no. 1, pp. 66-87, 2006.

 Web.

Schwartz, M.S., and A.B. Carroll, "Corporate social responsibility: a three-domain approach," 2003.

Pages 503-530 in Business Ethics Quarterly.

 Web.

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Organizational Goals Concept College Essay Help

Introduction

Implementing organizational goals assists organizations in achieving their objectives. The organization's objectives are separated into three groups: corporate, departmental, and individual. Regardless of the groups, the ultimate purpose of defining organization goals is to provide the organization with the guidance necessary to achieve its objectives. Organizational objectives differ. Consequently, might either be temporary or long-lasting. Regardless of the reasons, they all attempt to improve quality, reduce risks, and establish strong relationships within the firm, as well as increase customer happiness.

The essay is divided into two sections. The first section addresses the qualities of effective goal setting. The second section examines organizational objectives in relation to Barclays Bank, UK.

The qualities of well-written objectives

Setting organizational objectives is not an easy task. This is due to the fact that firms may not fully comprehend what they should cover or can accommodate new objectives for the purpose of covering all bases. In addition, goals can proliferate within an organization as new ones are formed while the old ones are maintained. Thus, effective goal planning necessitates stability in the number and type of goals; a large number of goals is paralyzing and a small number of goals is puzzling. Gerloff (1985) emphasizes that for an organization to reach maximum productivity, it must have clear principles that enhance its performance. Davis echoes Gerloff by saying that a good organization's objectives should be precise, measurable or quantifiable, and time- limited (1996).

Specificity

Goals must align with the organization's strategic and business objectives. This facilitates departmental integration and the alignment of individual aspirations to accomplish desired outcomes. Similarly, the specificity of goals guarantees that all employees in their various departments collaborate to fulfill the organization's goals, whether they are short-term or long-term in nature. Gerloff notes that the specificity of goals assists in matching individual goals with the organization's strategy and objectives (1985). This contributes to the legitimacy, motivation, and positive public perception of the organization. In companies, these intents outline the particular actions to be taken in order to attain a goal. These frequently align with the contextual objectives of the various working organs of the bigger organization.

Time- Limited

Successful objectives should contain beginning, finishing, and stable points. A goal comprising these characteristics commits an organization to achieving them. Similarly, commitment to active deadlines enables an organization to focus its efforts on achieving the goal before the deadline. A goal that lacks a specific time period or completion plan runs the risk of being overtaken by a crisis that may regularly arise within an organization.

Quantifiability or Measurability

To determine if the organization's plan must be attained, goals should include an objective of verification. In a same manner, measuring goals provides accurate judgment by analyzing progress. Therefore, measuring target progress should be quantifiable; this guarantees that results are identified and corrective actions are performed as necessary.

Organizational Objectives

Organizational Summary and Objectives

Barclays is one of the world's leading financial institutions. It provides a variety of financial services, including credit cards, retail banking, wealth management, corporate and investment banking, among others (Varley, 2011). It has a significant presence in Asia, Africa, the United States, and Europe. With more than 300 years of banking experience and more than 145,000 people in 50 countries, Barclay's expertise spans the globe (Varley, 2011). In addition, Barclays lends, invests, and transfers money worldwide for its clients. Barclays has several objectives, including total shareholder return, benefit and risk management, and cost reductions.

Obtaining the Targets

Relative shareholder total return

Barclays' primary responsibility is to generate maximum quartile shareholder profit or return (TSR) compared to their competitors in the financial sector. TSR refers to the sum of the share price increase and dividends (Varley, 2011). To do this, Barclays annually evaluates the strategies of its competitors. For example, in 2001, Barclays analyzed the strategies of Citi group, AMRO, and the Royal Bank of Scotland (Varley, 2011).

Dividends and Risks Management

The Barclays bank intends to maintain a progressive dividend strategy with adequate dividend coverage. Barclays has established techniques for controlling risks, managing the business carefully, conserving reliable resource value, and supervising the efficient use of capital in order to reach this objective (Varley, 2011).

Conclusion

Effective goal setting improves the business strategy and performance of any corporation. Familiarity with goal characteristics such as specificity, timeliness, and quantifiability aids an organization in achieving its short- and long-term objectives. However, this requires dedication, organizational support, and the participation of key stakeholders such as customers.

As a complete provider of financial services, Barclays has adapted its objectives to fit the requirements of its clients. Consequently, its goals, including relative overall shareholder profit or returns, dividends, and risk management, have included the ethics inherent in goal development. These objectives have allowed the bank to evaluate the strengths and weaknesses of its competitors and develop winning strategies. Therefore, dividend and risk management have helped the bank to prepare for risk reduction measures, which has provided the business with both short- and long-term benefits.

Bibliography

(1996) Managing and Achieving Organizational Objectives. American Management Association, Chicago.

Gerloff, Joseph (1985). Organizational Theory and Design as a strategic management approach. University of Michigan, Michigan.

Varley, J. (2011). Financial Performance, Group Finance Director, Barclays. Web.

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Moma Monaz Tapas Lounge Business Description College Essay Help

Executive Synopsis

This report contains the company's background information, as well as its former operations in their previous location. Here, the article will analyze the drawbacks of the prior place of business and the deficiencies that accompanied the location. The document will assess the company's operations at the prior base and attempt to compare them to the activities they would likely engage in at the new base. This will be accomplished by analyzing the disparities between the two operational bases and determining ways to harmonize them. It will focus on the potential repercussions that the company may suffer as a result of their shift of base. The company will have the same advantages.

These will be examined in stages, beginning with the financial issues that are likely to be impacted by the company's migration or base change. Will the change result in positive or negative impacts, and if the effects are unfavorable, how can they be reversed or lessened to guarantee a smooth transition if the company's base is affected? This will be considered with other considerations, such as economic implications, technological, operational, and timetable, among others that are likely to have an effect on the organization.

The article will then present an overview of the many recommendations that should be considered when changing the base, as well as the aspects that must be implemented to ensure a successful transition. Regarding the change of basis, a conclusion expressing the project manager's opinion on the transfer will be discussed. How to ensure they retain existing clients and acquire new ones, and how the organization may successfully adapt to the new climate.

Background Material

The company specializes in the installation of chemical control systems for water quality. These materials are utilized for the sale and installation of amperometric and redox chemical controllers. The controllers are vital equipment for the management of swimming pools in the United Kingdom, Europe, and the United States. Local governments, who demand services for public pools, schools, commercial clubs, vacation parks, and houses, are the company's most important clients in its old base. The company employs 1 manager, 3 assistant managers, 2 administrative officers, 2 designers, and 8 sales personnel. The structure implies a small team, which facilitates the relocation of the base because a smaller team is typically less cumbersome and more mobile, allowing for easy transportation. The workforce and operations of the company will be transferred together with the company itself. This should be a smooth transition, and any potential obstacles should be mitigated by reason and the discovery of new methods of operation.

The area to which the company is relocating appears vast enough to easily and comfortably accommodate this population. These will alleviate any congestion caused by the move from earlier locations. The corporation intends to hire a new employee to maintain the laboratory, so boosting its workforce by one. However, it should be emphasized that the majority of the purchased area of 1,500 square meters will be used by the company to keep the equipment that staff would need for operations (vaus 2001).

Activities for project management

For a proper understanding of the activities that the company should engage in, they will be explored in segments:

Technological and system verification

The technology component of the transfer is crucial. The company should verify that the company's actions are recorded, as well as the technology employed by the company at the former base, including the software and hardware engaged in their processes at the former site, and determine if it wishes to update the systems. It would be prudent to attempt to maintain the system to avoid upsetting the staff too much. Due to the fact that they will be transferring the personnel from their former site rather than hiring new ones, they will need to keep a substantial amount of their existing operational style. This is done to facilitate a smooth transfer for personnel into the new workplace. The organization of units and operating style should remain largely unchanged from their previous mode of operation. Given that the company will have relocated, it will be difficult for employees who are accustomed to using specific software to do a specific work to adapt to new software that performs the same functions. Therefore, the phase of technical transition should be conducted on a departmental level. One department should be transferred at a time to ensure a fully functional unit before going on to the next, resolving any difficulties that arise during the transfer process as they arise (Creswell 2003)

Legal activities

It is possible for the operations of one region to be legal in that region but illegal in another. Therefore, it would be prudent for the company to conduct a legal audit of the new field of operations and verify the legality of the methods. Before operations commence, the tax systems and any other variables that will keep the business on the right side of the law should be reviewed and implemented. Partnering with the appropriate local authorities for the legal procedures involved in establishing the business at that time and the governing ordinances should be fully ensured (Mark L. Mitchell 2009)

Plan your activities

Schedule refers to the time it will take to complete the project. When a project takes too long to finish, employees may lose interest, which can have severe effects on the business. The personnel should be enthusiastic about the project, and a delay could be detrimental to the organization. The estimated duration of the project can be established using payback calculations and other methods. The duration should be reasonable and not excessive.

Operational endeavors

Here, the project is evaluated to determine if it will achieve its intended purpose. The corporation may have suggested the change of base for a variety of reasons. The causes may include legal or social issues at the prior site, technical issues such as electricity or water issues, or perhaps the clients stopped purchasing the items, or there was greater competition in the former location and they stood to enjoy monopoly in the other (Creswell 2003)

The explanation could be the size of the facility in their prior location, which was likely smaller than the facility they desired to transfer to.

Market

This is a critical aspect of the project as it helps determine the significance of the firm in the new base. The new location's market is vital, because without an active market, the business is unlikely to prosper and the project would likely fail. In order to determine the position of the company and its services in the region, the project evaluates the market potential of the new location. The market must be viable enough for the company's products and services to be consumed; only then will the company be able to generate revenue and profits ( Vaus 2001).

The project also considers the market's dominance as an important issue. Before any competitors in the same industry enter the market, the company should have a small number of competitors in its new base in order to strengthen its monopoly and earn the consumers' loyalty and confidence. This is intended to give them an advantage in promoting their products at the new base. Thus, a potential market is a significant component that must be considered during the project's implementation.

Resources

This section focuses on the quantity of resources required for the project's execution. By examining the resources necessary for the effective completion of the project, it is simple to determine whether the acquisition or securing of these resources would affect or impede the company's routine business operations at their former base.

If securing funding for the project disrupts the normal flow of activity at the parent company, the project is deemed dangerous because it could affect the company's production and earnings. Therefore, the resources required to complete the project should be accessible without disrupting or diverting the normal flow of operations at the older base. The dependence of the new base on the older base should be kept to a minimal to prevent output losses or decreases on the older base. The initiative should aim to make the new base operationally independent (Creswell 2003).

Culture

The cultural side of the project focuses on how the project's implementation is expected to alter the enterprise culture of the organization, particularly in light of the environmental change. If the project interferes with the company's culture rather than preserving it, implementing the project is fraught with risk. This is necessary because, as a result of the cultural shift, the staff sent to the new base may have to acclimate to new ways of doing things, which may take some time.

This phase of adjustment poses a significant threat to the organization, since the personnel who are transferred from the older base are likely to be less productive as they focus the majority of their energy and time on adapting to the new culture of the new base. It is critical, then, that the cultural characteristics of the organization are maintained even in the new site, so that the staffs, who are a vital resource, are not compromised and their output levels are maintained even in the new location.

Finance

The financial viability of the project is crucial to the project's success. This is the case since practically every aspect or component of the project relies on financing in some way. Therefore, the financial part of the project should be considered from a variety of perspectives, sectors, or facets. Following is a brief evaluation of the many criteria used to determine the project's financial viability:

Total anticipated project expenses

The anticipated cost of the entire project should be accurate, or a representation of the real amount required to properly complete the entire project. Therefore, the project's budget should be sufficiently adaptable to account for any crises that may arise during its execution. If the project is to be carried out so as to avoid abandonment along the road, the budgeted funds must be sufficient to cover all phases of the project.

Profits projected

The quantity of money allocated to the project should be proportional to the anticipated revenues from its implementation. It is illogical for a corporation to execute a project if the expected earnings do not justify the amount of capital allocated to it, as doing so would result in enormous losses.

Recommendation

Numerous elements influence the execution of the project; therefore, a thorough evaluation must be conducted to ensure that the execution of the project remains sensible. The project must adhere to its budget, and the budget must be adaptable enough to accommodate changes that are expected to occur throughout its execution.

To guarantee that the performance of the personnel is not harmed by the move to the new location, the company must also consider keeping its culture in the new location. This will ensure that the company's output rate remains constant and is not affected by variables such as staff adaptability or morale.

The availability of potential markets in the new base should also be considered, as they are the backbone of the firm without which it cannot succeed. Thus, the initiative should increase the company's market share in the new location (Mark L, Mitchell 2009).

Conclusion

It is obvious from the preceding that, notwithstanding the project's feasibility, a number of other variables must be considered prior to its execution. The project is likely to fail or wreak havoc on the company's productivity and earnings if the aforementioned elements are not evaluated and analyzed with great care. Consequently, objectivity and a critical evaluation of the project's viability are necessary.

However, if the proper precautions are taken, the project has the potential to be a resounding success, as the company can use its knowledge of the operations at the other base to modify the operations at the new base, thereby ensuring that any mistakes made during the establishment of the former base are rectified.

I would then encourage the organization to take the initiative and execute the move, but it must adhere to the correct procedure to ensure a seamless resettlement.

References

Creswell, J. W. 2003. Design methodologies include qualitative, quantitative, and hybrid methods. Sage was established in Chicago.

2009, Mark L. Mitchell and J. M. Mitchell discuss research design. New York City: Cengage

Vaus, D. D. 2001. Social research involves research design. Sage was established in Chicago.

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The Impact Of Transportation On The Economy College Essay Help

The transportation and economic systems are interdependent. Due to the fact that transmission networks connect businesses, resources, and people worldwide, their expansion has a tremendous impact on the economy. However, the relationship between transportation investment and economic growth is far deeper than could be expected. There is an obvious need for additional research that can help determine why transportation is such an integral aspect of a market economy. In addition, there are other ways in which this sector might influence the financial activity of enterprises that must also be investigated. With this understanding, economists and policymakers are able to execute various measures that contribute to the maintenance of stable economic growth. The purpose of this article is to determine whether the impact of transportation infrastructure on the economy is substantial enough to warrant positive reforms. This research will continue to investigate a number of issues, such as whether changes in this part can assure economic growth. To address this worry, a detailed literature review will be done on this topic. The data will be taken from secondary sources, such as scholarly publications and journals.

Despite the fact that it may seem simple, it is essential to recognize the primary role that transportation networks play in the economy. After all, their primary purpose is to transport people and products from one location to another. However, their significance extends beyond this, as transportation gives access to many regions not only for persons traveling but also for businesses expanding their operations. In addition, Litman (2017) believes that “transportation upgrades are frequently promoted for economic development, and there is frequent discussion over whether transport policies best assist economic objectives” (p. 5). Therefore, transportation is crucial, as one of its fundamental functions is to provide access to desired services and resources.

As the economy has become increasingly worldwide, the challenges around infrastructure use have grown in importance. Even though international trade has existed since ancient times, globalization has enhanced economic opportunities in the present day. People and goods are more mobile now, and transportation has also advanced. There has been an enormous increase in international trade in recent years, and it does not appear that this trend will ever reverse. Increases in international trade have placed significant strain on the transportation industry.

Nonetheless, Rodrigue and Notteboom (n.d.) deem these systems efficient because “they give economic and social possibilities and advantages that lead to positive multiplier effects, such as improved access to markets, employment, and more investments.” (para 43). Businesses can trade in different cities and nations with the aid of transportation, boosting not only their benefits but also their competitive pressure. In addition, clients will have access to a wider selection of products. In other words, as transportation systems boost accessibility, corporate productivity also increases. This means that when such networks are ineffective or unreliable, it results in negative outcomes such as diminished or missed market possibilities and a decline in life quality.

There is evidence that boosting the efficiency of transportation systems increases the economic productivity of businesses. If a company has an annual return on investment of 8% and transportation accounts for 16% of its costs, a 5% reduction in transportation costs raises earnings by 10%, according to Litman (2017). (p. 7). In addition, he notes that infrastructures help minimize shipping costs, hence lowering retail prices. Additionally, service quality can be enhanced as a result of increased delivery frequency, which satisfies clients. Thus, transport changes will give a number of incentives for enterprises to reorganize their manufacturing and distribution processes in order to obtain cost savings that would not be possible otherwise.

The New Zealand Ministry of Transport elaborates on the economic significance of transportation. The government assesses the infrastructure in its summer report titled "Contribution of transport to economic development" (New Zealand Ministry of Transport, 2016). According to their findings, transport operations contribute for around 5% of New Zealand's gross domestic product (New Zealand Ministry of Transport, 2016, p. 3). Additionally, it creates benefits not only for New Zealand but also for other nations. For instance, a 5 percent reduction in travel time for all business travel on the road network in the United Kingdom could provide around £2.5 billion in cost savings, or 0.2% of GDP (New Zealand Ministry of Transport, 2016, p. 14). Consequently, it is apparent that this sector is vital to the nation's economy.

However, it should be underlined that future investment in this business is unlikely to stimulate economic growth in New Zealand or the United Kingdom. This is due to the fact that in industrialized countries, a well-connected and efficient infrastructure already exists. In addition, this country has a comparatively small territory, making it easy to construct roads and trains. In spite of this, developing countries where it is difficult to travel from one town to the next might benefit economically from a well-designed transportation system. In order to ensure the productivity of infrastructure, however, numerous elements must be considered throughout its planning.

Several researchers have investigated the factors that contribute to transportation planning. For instance, Litman (2017) identifies the number of potential influencing elements. First, an input to the economic operation, such as transportation and shipping, should be considered. This is because such operations have a direct impact on production and distribution costs. In addition, he adds that the infrastructure influences the "productivity, employment, and profits of transportation-related industries" (Litman, 2017, p. 5). Moreover, he emphasizes the significance of people's access to schools, workplaces, and stores via transportation. Ultimately, these facilities enable children to engage in economic activities, such as purchasing goods or working in a business. Additionally, cost burdens and “impacts on location and land use development patterns” should be considered (Litman, 2017, p. 5). Therefore, the researcher discovered numerous aspects that influence transportation planning decisions, which policymakers and people who construct and evaluate infrastructures should recognize.

Other scholars examine the impact of transportation on the economic health of certain nations. For instance, Ghani (2015) claims that this industry plays a vital role in India due to the fact that the government controls all land and owns all property and building rights. It implies that enterprises must rent land from the government, which impacts the distribution of businesses and factories around the nation. According to Ghani (2015), “given India’s skewed land markets, the increased connectivity brought about by the transportation upgrades was especially crucial for the efficient sorting of industry across spatial locations.” (para 5). This fact also demonstrates the aforementioned point. Since it gives access to goods even in difficult-to-reach places, an efficient transportation system can undoubtedly improve the economy of industrialized nations.

Donaldson (2018) also investigated whether railroad networks generate beneficial outcomes and boost income or wellbeing, suggesting that transportation issues are essential to the Indian economy. When the train network was expanded to the average district, the real agricultural revenue in that district increased by around 16 percent, according to him (Donaldson, 2018, p. 931). However, he also observes that this discovery does not provide any insight regarding the underlying mechanisms at play. In addition, the expansion of railroads improved income by decreasing the cost of trade, but it did not resolve the country's other economic issues. In addition to offering more transportation options, additional study is required to find solutions to improve India's economic well-being.

Although there is a definite correlation between economic growth and investment in the development of transport infrastructure, there is no proof that one is the cause of the other. Mohmand, Wang, and Saeed (2017), who explore the influence of transportation infrastructure in Pakistan, address this topic in their research. According to them, at the national level, “GDP is the cause of the growth of transportation infrastructure,” which indicates that GDP is a key cause of the development of Pakistan's transportation infrastructure (p. 68). Despite the fact that an enhancement of the system can have good effects, advancements in the transportation infrastructure alone are unlikely to drastically transform Pakistan's poor regions. Therefore, it is evident that in addition to these reforms, more efforts should be made in other economic sectors. This result implies that although transportation can be an effective strategy for improving the economy, it is not the sole one.

The second intriguing study by Hinners, Nelson, and Buchert (2018) examines employment trends in relation to urban streetcars. After all, the emergence of ample employment prospects indicates that the economy is likely in good shape. To accomplish this, the researchers analyzed employment rates three years before and three years after the building of three streetcar station regions. They performed research in several places and considered the economic performance of the regions under consideration. According to the data, both the economic system of Portland and that of New Orleans have showed consistent growth. However, the consequences in Salt Lake City and Seattle were distinct, as automobile production did not contribute to economic growth. These results imply the same notion that Mohmad, Wang, and Saeed previously expressed (2017).

In conclusion, it appears that investment in the transportation industry, while it may contribute to economic development, cannot serve as the primary driver of economic development. Nonetheless, the connection between two essential aspects of human existence should not be minimized, since transportation infrastructure is one of the primary reasons that facilitates commerce advancements. In nations where an efficient system already exists, it would be more efficient to seek for alternative improvement strategies. However, transportation infrastructure should be improved in regions where people lack access to jobs and goods.

References

Donaldson, D. (2018). Railways of the Raj: Assessing the influence of transportation infrastructure. 899-934. American Economic Review, 108(4-5). Ghani, E. (2015) Understanding the Economic Impact of Transportation Networks. Web. Hinners, S. J., Nelson, A. C., & Buchert, M. (2018). Streetcars and Economic Growth: Do Streetcars Promote Job Growth? Transportation Research Record, volume 2672, number eight, pages 339-350. Litman, T. (2017). Evaluating the Effects of Transportation on Economic Development [PDF document] Web. Y. T. Mohmand, A. Wang, and A. Saeed (2017). Evidence from Pakistan on the Impact of Transportation Infrastructure on Economic Growth. Transportation Letters, 9(2), 63-69. New Zealand Transport Ministry (2016). Transportation's contribution to economic development. The New Zealand Government, 1 through 19. Rodrigue, J. P., Notteboom, T. (n.d.) Transportation and Economic Development. Web.

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Emaar Properties: Company Analysis College Essay Help

Table of Contents
Introduction Emaar Properties The rivalry within the industry The Competitive Advantage of Emaar Properties Supplier Power Buyer Power The Dangers posed by Substitutions and New Entrants References

Introduction

Mohamed Alabbar started Emaar Properties in the United Arab Emirates (UAE) in 1997. Emaar Properties is a real estate development company. In the United Arab Emirates, the firm is responsible for a number of truly outstanding buildings and architectural features. These initiatives and many others have resulted in a revenue of about 6 billion dollars and drove the company to the top of the list of the world's most prestigious businesses in 2019. (Murphy, 2019, para. 3). The objective of this research is to assess Emaar Properties' competitive standing within the real estate development market.

Emaar Properties

Except for a few organizations, the majority of the world's and UAE's largest real estate development companies were created in the late 20th and early 21st centuries. This includes Emaar Properties, which was founded in 1997 and completed its first project three years later – the construction of an artificial marina – with the neighborhood's first residents moving in in 2007. With its residential towers, hotels, contemporary restaurants, and beach promenade, the Dubai Marina has remained a popular destination for both locals and visitors.

Emaar Properties' subsequent projects were the Burj Khalifa and the Dubai Mall. With these buildings, the business pursued a goal consistent with Mohamed Alabbar’s personal aspiration to “build the largest and tallest architectural structures” (Eytan, 2014, para. 6). The Burj Khalifa was meant to be the tallest structure in the world, whereas the Dubai Mall was built to be the largest retail mall in the world. Both initiatives achieved the anticipated results and continue to hold the records in their respective categories. Emaar Properties also constructed the neighborhood Arabian Ranches, the Dubai Fountain, and the Dubai Opera House in the United Arab Emirates.

Numerous notable real estate development firms begin operations in the United States at some point. Despite his passion for the United States, Mohamed Alabbar has declared that he has no interest in designing buildings there at the moment (Eytan, 2014, para. 5). However, while his organization concentrates mostly on domestic initiatives, it has also undertaken projects in foreign nations, notably in the Middle East and Africa. The most noteworthy architectural structures abroad are the Bibliotheca Alexandria in the city of the same name in Egypt and the HITEC City in the city of Hyderabad, India. The former is a structure commemorating the long-lost Library of Alexandria, and the later is an urban area with a commercial center.

The rivalry within the industry

When considering Emaar Properties' competitors in the real estate development sector, it is necessary to include both UAE and international firms. As previously stated, the majority of the largest companies in this industry were started around the same time as Mohammad Alabbar's company. This means that the majority of firms had the same amount of time to propose and execute architectural projects, as well as establish their reputations.

In spite of the fact that the majority of UAE-based companies do not flourish internationally, they are highly valued in the UAE and the Middle East in general. Emaar Properties' largest competitors in the country include Nakheel Properties, the First Group, Deyaar Properties, Damac Properties, and Azizi projects. When addressing the global leaders in the real estate development sector, it is likely that North American companies will be included. In fact, six of the top ten firms in 2019 were created in the United States, with Brookfield Asset Management, headquartered in Canada, leading the list (Sharf, 2019, para. 6). The majority of these companies construct diverse architectural constructions across the globe.

Competitive advantage of Emaar Properties

Porter's forces is a technique for measuring the competitiveness of an industry, which aids in the formulation of a company's environmental business plan. This theory has five components: competitive rivalry, supplier power, buyer power, the threat of substitutes, and the threat of new entrants (Porter, 1979, p. 137). All of these constituents are interrelated, with the latter four significantly impacting and even defining the first. Supplier power is described as "the bargaining capacity suppliers have by increasing prices or decreasing the quality of purchased goods or services" (Porter, 1979, p. 140). Customers have power and can persuade businesses to reduce their pricing. The threat of substitution comprises the possible risk of consumers discovering a substitute for the items, whereas the risk of new entrants describes the likelihood of new enterprises entering the industry and stealing valuable customers. These four factors collectively determine the competitive rivalry within the field.

Supplier Power

When discussing suppliers in this industry, one often refers to those that sell resources such as clay and stone. The cost of the materials necessary to complete architectural projects is often the greatest expense for businesses in the real estate development sector (Goodfellow, 2017, p. 798). Therefore, organizations make every effort to save money throughout the supplier selection process. This is typically accomplished by purchasing low-priced components from developing nations, which can actually pose additional complications throughout the construction process and cost more money. Recent attention in the issue of global warming has, however, introduced the concept of environmental sustainability to other industries, including the real estate development industry (The World Built Environment Forum, 2019, para. 5). Typically, eco-friendly materials are more expensive, and due to the issue gathering momentum in recent years, providers have increased the pricing of their products. Emaar Properties is focused in developing environmentally sustainable projects and hence does not purchase materials at a discount.

Buyer Power

When commissioning projects from real estate development firms, clients are often interested in cost savings. For them, this can be accomplished by requesting that businesses use less expensive materials. However, because Emaar Properties is well-known for constructing record-breaking in size skyscrapers that need extensive planning and solid materials, the company cannot be influenced by prospective purchasers' pricing requests.

The Dangers of Alternatives and New Entrants

Numerous buildings, particularly residential ones, are interchangeable; as a result, the firms that construct them face the possibility that the buyer will find someone else to complete the project. This danger is heightened by the expanding number of enterprises operating in this industry. Emaar Properties, however, is protected against this typical danger in the real estate development sector by its propensity for completing innovative projects that break records. Notably, some corporations seek advice from this UAE-based company while constructing massive projects, as it has the most success in this field. Emaar Properties is also irreplaceable in this regard.

Conclusion

Due to ongoing demand, the cost of materials, the new trend toward environmental sustainability, and the sheer quantity of existing enterprises, the real estate development sector is a highly competitive industry. Despite the dominance of North American corporations in this industry, the United Arab Emirates-based Emaar Properties has become one of the most esteemed companies in the world due to its innovative designs. As long as the Burj Khalifa is the tallest skyscraper in the world, the firm will maintain its competitive edge in its industry.

References

Eytan, D. (2014). Five things you may not have known about the architect of the world's highest structure. Forbes. Web. Goodfellow, T. (2017). Real estate and late urbanization in Kigali and Addis Ababa, Journal of Urban and Regional Research, 41(5), 786-803. A. Murphy (2019). The world's most prestigious corporations, Forbes. Web. Porter, M.E. (1979). How competitive factors influence strategy, Harvard Business Review, 57(2), pages 137-145 . Sharf and S. (2019). The world's largest real estate firms in 2019 are led by Brookfield. Forbes. Web. Forum for the World Built Environment (2019). Sustainable real estate investing. RICS Forum.

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Samsung Next Business Plan College Essay Help

Executive Synopsis

Samsung Next is an exceptional electronics company that provides people worldwide with a vast selection of entertainment products and services. It seeks to create a world-class digital experience by designing and manufacturing cutting-edge electrical products. The company's business philosophy integrates talent with technology to produce cutting-edge products. The company's media stick is a major digital technology in the home entertainment market today. Samsung Next was pushed by market rivalry to produce a distinctive product that will appeal to a large number of consumers, thereby gaining a competitive advantage over other enterprises.

Goals and Vision/Mission Statement

Samsung Next's objective is to offer a more opulent digital experience with the incorporation of more innovative items. Our objective is to inspire individuals with cutting-edge technologies that enrich their lives by fostering social prosperity.

Goals and Objectives: Samsung Next's modest business strategy aspires to integrate talent and technology to produce great products and services that provide consumers with an exceptional experience.

The key to success resides in the company's efforts to comprehend its clients' requirements. It adopts a consumer-centric strategy that requires substantial study to comprehend the global customer behavior.

Executive Summary

Samsung Next's consumer electronics branch will continuously develop novel goods. David Eun, the company's creator, spearheads the global development of cutting-edge software and services (Kim 34). Since its inception, the development of ultra-fast mobile devices, display panels, and payment services has elevated Samsung Next's standing in the market.

Resources, Facilities, and Equipment: Resources are essential to the success of exclusive industries. Samsung Next mainly relies on assets built for strategy creation and execution.

Utilizing integrated CRM technologies, the organization improves customer service and global marketing. The Samsung Neuron Media Stick not only provides access to a variety of television programs and sports channels, but also permits the use of Android applications.

Structure of Ownership: The company is owned through shares. It consists of 54% international investors, 21% large shareholders and linked parties, 19% domestic institutional stakeholders, and 6% individual stockholders.

Social Responsibility: The corporation employs its capabilities and resources to create social projects that aid disadvantaged children and families around the world.

Merchandise and/or Services

The gadget at issue is the Samsung Neuron Media Stick, which can be plugged into smart televisions. It presupposes a distinctive design and competitive price to achieve a commercial advantage over similar media sticks. Samsung neuron offers content from a variety of media service providers, including Pandora, Netflix, Crackle, Vevo, YouTube, and Google Play (Kim 46). Using a tablet or a smartphone, the user may control the device thanks to a specific feature included into it.

Market Assessment

Analyzing the Market as a Whole

Due to the ongoing advancement of technology items, the electronic sector is characterized by unending competition. However, Samsung Next must address a market void in the entertainment business by offering a tech-savvy device whose exclusivity will appeal to a large number of users.

According to an analysis utilizing Porter's Five Forces model, replacement goods such as Google Chromecast, Nvidia Shield, Amazon Fire TV Cube, and Roku Ultra may have a negative impact on the price elasticity of Samsung's Neuron Media stick.

Customer Research

In recent years, increased purchasing power has led to a boom in the consumer electronics industry. Therefore, the demand for entertainment equipment has increased, particularly in the age of digital technology.

Industry Research

With the highest market share globally, the United States dominates the consumer electronics industry. As a result, numerous companies are developing revolutionary goods, and the industry is anticipated to experience exponential growth in the future years.

Strategic Administration

Production

It is necessary to apply a fresh product planning approach in order to meet consumer expectations in the most effective manner. Foxconn Technology Group, a Taiwanese multinational electronics corporation that specializes in intelligent manufacturing, will design and manufacture the Samsung Neuron Media stick. Samsung Next seeks to create value that will enhance ordinary home entertainment (Kim 45). Due to its user-friendliness, affordability, basic material, high exposure, and granular parental controls, the gadget has a competitive advantage over competing offerings. Lean production will be crucial to ensure that the product provides consumers with value. In two to three years, the various growth alternatives will include market penetration, expansion, product development, and strategic alliance.

Resource Requirements

Computer science, artificial intelligence, machine language, communication, teamwork, and problem-solving abilities are among the several human skills required to assure the success of the business. The organization will purchase human resources in two to three years after determining its needs. The financial resources will consist of liquid assets, cash on hand, grants, private investment, and credit lines. Multiple geographical locations will require physical resources such as workstations, telephone connections, and information systems.

Purchasing and Sourcing Strategy

Numerous aspects, including quality, cost, and suitability, will be considered when procuring essential goods from local wholesalers or manufacturers.

Marketing Strategy

The marketing strategy for Samsung Next will include the establishment of annual sales targets of at least 450 thousand media sticks. The sales team will be better able to position the product on the market with the aid of a comprehensive consumer analysis. Using a prospect list, several of the preceding tactics will be implemented. Paid advertising, publicity, sales promotions, loyalty point rewards, and price matching will also play an important part in increasing sales.

Performance Expectations

Multiple performance standards will be utilized to regulate the firm. To guarantee optimal customer satisfaction, the proportion of sales originating from repeat customers, complaints, returned items, order fulfillment duration, and response time will be monitored. Staff will receive extensive training to encourage them to keep a focus on customer service and provide recommendations based on consumer needs.

The company's goal is to manufacture 120 gadgets each hour with an efficiency of 0.042%.

Financial Plan

Financial Forecasts

The estimated budget for this endeavor is $1 million. Samsung Next, we will acquire a portion of these cash through credit facilities. The remaining funds will come from stock offers, venture capital investors, and strategic partner advances. Lenders and investors favor enterprises with lower debt-to-equity ratios due to the inherent riskiness of such liabilities. Stockholders and bondholders will provide the company's capital deficit funds. Management of financial risks will necessitate the adoption of a sound strategy, quality control tests, loan avoidance, maintaining low account receivables, income diversification, insurance coverage, and accurate documentation, among other measures. Cashflow budgets and spending restrictions will be established to ensure sufficient funds for debt repayment.

Contingency Strategy

If the first strategy fails, the organization will do a risk assessment in an effort to find viable options for essential business operations. A quarterly evaluation of an emergency preparedness checklist will be conducted to ensure readiness for disasters, technological failure, and security alerts, among other possibilities. If something happens to one of the critical members of the management team, the company will consider filling the position with an existing member or hire an employee with skills and commitment to the organization’s mission.

Notes cited

Kim, Chunhyo. Samsung, Media Empire, and Family: A Power Web. Routledge, 2016.

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UAE Aviation Human Resource Optimization During Recession College Essay Help

Abstract

In a context characterized by intense competition, a dwindling customer base, declining revenue, and the negative consequences of the global economic slump, the HR department plays a crucial role in establishing the policies to adopt and the strategic direction to pursue. Best practices for optimizing HR services within the aviation industry and other international aviation organizations were policy changes, which reflect the strategic direction and policy changes implemented in 2008 to combat the recession.

To overcome the recession, the best HR practices described in the HR roles for performance improvement of aviation firms based on the directory of best practices were implemented. The performance of an aviation organization could be improved by revising the organizational structures, defining new approaches to implementing the recruitment and selection processes, and identifying the appropriately qualified employees, among other measures, in addition to ensuring the use of best practices. Nevertheless, adopting the adjustments may necessitate clear policy directives.

Context and Objectives

Recession is an economic monster with far-reaching financial and human resource management ramifications, which has necessitated HR policy reforms in the UAE aviation industry. The aviation industry, for example, went to the HR department for a variety of strategies to combat the effects of the economic recession, such as decreasing staff by instituting new hiring, firing, and recruitment practices.

Akbar, Németh, and Niemeier (2014) note that economic uncertainties affected the financial performance of the aviation industry, necessitating the critical intervention of the human resource management to adopt new changes in planning to accurately predict the required workforce, in addition to redesigning the work systems by implementing measures such as employee training and development, and instituting employee layoffs, among other functions. Despite the opposition to change and fear of job loss encountered with human resources, new practices for optimizing HR services for improved organizational planning have arisen (Low & Lee 2014).

A paradigm shift in the reorganization of human resource practices that defines greater employee skills to deal with the variety of changes brought about by the recession. According to Bryman and Bell (2015), the scenario prompted the organization to adopt new strategic approaches to ensure labor stability and employee happiness in such a risky and demanding environment.

Desai, Siddique, and Yaseen (2014) suggest the general paradigm in policy changes that defines the operations of the organization for optimal performance, including establishing the practices that HR managers perform, such as hiring the right people and creating the right methods for laying off employees to avoid a redundant workforce, in an effort to establish the right strategy and path to follow.

Desai, Siddique, and Yaseen (2014) do not base their analysis on a particular organization, but instead use data from a variety of sources to bolster their scholarly findings. Desai, Siddique, and Yaseen (2014) conclude the study based on empirical facts such as the need for competency-based practices that include employee selection, performance management, recruitment, and determination of the employability of the prospective applicant that underpin particular contributions to the organization's performance. Here, the study had a specific set of objectives to address the issues that have policy ramifications for the methods utilized to optimize HR services for better organizational performance.

Objectives

Identifying HR practices inside aviation companies To explain HR modifications implemented during the 2008 recession. To investigate the impact of the recession on airline HR departments. To emphasize the significance of human resources in enhancing organizational performance in the aviation industry. To compile a list of HR best practices to combat the recession.

Research questions

What HR practices do aviation firms employ? What modifications were implemented during the 2008 recession? What implications does the recession have on human resources in aviation organizations? What responsibilities do HR play in enhancing organizational performance in the aviation industry? What are the components of the directory of HR best practices to combat the economic downturn?

Literature Review

Introduction

A summary of the literature review provides a detailed discussion of the sources used in the study, as well as the key terms employed, such as Desai, Siddique, and Yaseen (2014), who provide a detailed review of HR practices during recession, such as performance appraisal, and Low and Lee (2014), who argue on the policies to adopt during such changes. Bryman and Bell (2015) are the most current authors cited in the study in addition to Rabasso, Briars, and Rabasso (2015) who demonstrate strategic directions followed in the recruiting processes and the foundation for building the job description for high-performing personnel.

Chang, Park, Jeong, and Lee (2014) discuss the policy changes and consequences on various parts of HR services and practices during a recession, without addressing the problems that arise when such changes occur. Desai, Siddique, and Yaseen (2014), Randeree (2009), Schlumberger (2009), Stephens Balakrishnan (2011), Chang, Park, Jeong, and Lee (2014), Gittell, von Nordenflycht, Kochan, McKersie, and Bamber (2009), and Iles, Almhedie, and Baruch (2012) provide additional and very strong arguments for policy changes, despite failing to address a variety of issues due to the weaknesses in

However, Parakandi and Behery (2016) present a full explanation of actions and counter-actions that could be taken during a recession, as well as the steps to take when reverting to the previous HR practices or preserving the HR practices implemented during the recession. Human resource practices, economic downturn, recruitment, selection, job description, evaluation, and aviation employees are some of the important terms utilized in the literature search.

Human resource approaches in aviation organizations

A discussion of HR practices in the aviation business reveals the importance and relevance of resolving human resource challenges that arose in the United Arab Emirates' aviation industry, which operates in an environment characterized by high economic uncertainty owing to the recession. A detailed study by Desai, Siddique, and Yaseen (2014), despite some serious weaknesses in the methodology used to complete the conclusions, reveals that the optimal utilizations of the aviation industry's HR management services with policy changes at all levels of the organization underpin the performance benefits of the organization.

According to the evidence, the adoption of new policies was the outcome of organizational efficiencies designed to enhance performance for higher service quality and fewer customer recommendations. According to Desai, Siddique, and Yaseen (2014), the underlying driver of the best HR management practices in the aviation industry is consistent with strategic HR management.

Employee Wellbeing

Safety, occupational health, and counseling services underpin the tactics implemented by Emirates airline's human resource management departments to increase employee engagement. According to Parakandi and Behery (2016), the incorporation of employee well-being within the company ensures emotional, psychological, and physical health promotion as outcomes of the well-being program. Employees generally embrace such programs because they are tailored to meet their specific requirements.

Improving overall performance

Typical HR services include stimulating superior performance by revealing what employees require and what is considered superior, calculating compensation modifications, promoting counseling and coaching, and establishing and assessing performance objectives. In practice, according to Iles, Almhedie, and Baruch (2012), such services include designing training and development programs to enhance the overall organizational performance, establishing a framework for hiring decisions, and identifying organizational development and training needs. Randeree (2009) proposes a policy acceptance of the integration of aggregate elements into the HR management system that identifies the features of the performance evaluation system that make it an effective tool for driving up performance.

Learning and Growth

Randeree (2009) identifies the learning and planning function as crucial in the Emirates HR management services that Emirates HR managers perform in order to determine the risks and align them with the organizational human resource requirements in order to propel the organization towards its predetermined goals and objectives. According to Parakandi and Behery (2016), HR learning and development can be implemented using the planning function, which defines the outcomes that the aviation industry has experienced in terms of improved productivity, employee skill development, decreased employee supervision, and increased job satisfaction. The strategy has policy consequences while operating in recession and when not operating in recession.

Coaching

Employees typically embrace the use of coaching as a tool for HR service providers in the aviation industry to establish the appropriate ways to achieve optimal human resource performance. Low and Lee (2014) view coaching as a tool that can be utilized via an effective communication platform that enables the leadership to comprehend task requirements and the required training and development needs, ensuring a policy review on what should be adopted in the event of rapid changes in the business environment and human resource needs.

Performance appraisal

Performance evaluation as a prerequisite tool for identifying high quality performing personnel is an aspect that gives the strategic direction that defines the practice chosen by the HR services in the aviation industry in the UAE. Desai, Siddique, and Yaseen (2014) suggest that performance appraisal is valid during and after a recession, but emphasize its significance due to the difficulties caused by the recession.

However, the negative emotions evoked by the introduction of performance appraisal during the recession led to the perception that it was intended to victimize employees and lay off some of them. However, the interventional measure has proven to have good effects on employee performance as a result of the HR managers' explanation of the function of performance evaluation. Desai, Siddique, and Yaseen (2014) propose that HR managers motivate employees through identifying areas of motivation through the use of appropriate reward schemes.

Figure 1: Performance evaluation.

Low and Lee (2014) characterize policy changes as positive responses to the dynamism of innovation, financial soundness, long-term investment, quality management, global competitiveness, and improved service quality.

Performance evaluation system

According to Parakandi and Behery (2016), the aviation sector focused on the HR department's design and implementation of performance appraisal systems in order to align employees with organizational performance targets. Although employees were sluggish to adopt the system, it was the HR managers' responsibility to convince employees to accept the performance evaluation system (Low & Lee 2014).

In addition to other elements that define the employee's abilities, such as the ability to plan and organize work, the capacity to analyze job-related problems, work initiation skills, and in-depth job knowledge, the performance objectives are supported by the job behaviours that reveal how well employees are conversant with the job. However, according to Bryman and Bell (2015), the method is intended to allow line managers to evaluate employees.

HR practices are defined by the roles of the HR manager, which include planning in which managers jointly set goals to be attained by aviation industry employees, designing performance reviews that reflect organizational objectives, developing performance review schedules, and suggesting job description updates in response to company goals and business objectives.

The most often used performance evaluation technique is the 360-degree method, which focuses on feedback on individual performance and conformity with corporate objectives. Evaluation is an ongoing process that occurs at multiple levels, including peers, line managers, and others within the system, to address a variety of human resource concerns (Parakandi & Behery 2016). In addition to reviewing employee performance, the organization uses the evaluation method to identify areas of weakness and determine how best to construct individual training and development needs, as well as to address business planning needs, reorganize staff, and define career development needs (Parakandi & Behery 2016).

Evidence demonstrates that the business employs the performance assessment system as a prerequisite for comparing individual performance with organizational objectives, career planning, job analysis, job description, performance reviews, and future employee development plans. Consistent with the needs of the evaluation system, significant progress has been made in developing better employee motivation, behavior, and attitude development, effective communication, and the building of constructive staff connections.

Employee motivation

Employee motivation is among the best practices and services that fall under the jurisdiction of the HR management function for optimization during economic recession. Low and Lee (2014) suggest that in aviation organizations, motivation corresponds highly with performance as a critical function. In practice, Low and Lee (2014) highlight that the aviation business offers a variety of motivating tactics, including a minimum of 30 calendar days of yearly leave in addition to 10 public holidays. Other ways used to incentivize employees include end-of-service gratuities that comply with labor rules and are calculated as 21 days of basic salary for a period of 5 years, in addition to providing 30 days of income for the following 5 years.

Theoretically, motivation requires a redesign of workplace design concerns that have good effects on employee performance. In this instance, the HR manager's authority is manifest in the job design, which addresses the proper contents, techniques, and relationships to achieve the organization's goals. The HR manager's proficiency is an indicator that motivates the organization to enhance organizational performance in pursuit of business objectives. Bryman and Bell (2015) provide an explanation of the theories of work design that link employee motivation, job commitment and satisfaction, turnover, and absenteeism to job design.

The HR managers' motivational tactics serve as the foundation for a multitude of activities that convert into organizational performance outcomes, including customer happiness, revenue generation, and quality services. It is essential to recognize that the outcomes of motivation reflect not only the successful achievement of the business objectives of the aviation organization, but also the best optimisation practices on constrained resources, the results of which have been the effects of the recession on the financial performance of aviation organizations.

This is consistent with the classical motivational theories of Maslow and others, which categorize individual needs into physiological and safety needs as the paradigm for the lower levels of human needs (Low & Lee 2014). Here, the human resource services align well with the desired level of customer satisfaction and the available service quality. Based on the above analysis, the Emirates present a compelling illustration of the HRM motivational tactics employed to employees.

Employee engagement

The results of employee engagement are reflected in the key performance indicators that revolve on employee happiness, reduced absenteeism, increased output and profitability, and the completion of work-related tasks. Despite the classical character of the techniques, the policy change was in keeping with the new policies created to response to changes in the business environment.

Nonetheless, the adaptation was based on new models that permitted effective employee involvement, which was considered as an HR practice incorporated in the actions inherent in sustaining and simplifying job functions while guaranteeing enough staffing.

Conflict In The North East Sales Division College Essay Help

Table of Contents
Executive Synopsis Introduction Conclusion: Structural Discord and Lack of Collaboration Individual Behaviors Improving the Situation References

Executive Synopsis

Conflicts inside an organization can be unproductive if not managed effectively. Research aimed to determine the most effective methods for resolving workplace conflicts and concluded that it all begins with conflict management leadership. Aspects such as work design, job interdependencies, status inequalities, and differences in company-wide goals and orientations are manifestations of structural reasons. Resolving such disagreements may necessitate structural solutions, such as the implementation of a more effective framework for problem management. In addition, negotiation facilitated by neutral parties can enable disputing parties to express themselves and find acceptable solutions. There may also be a need for a change in behavior, either among individuals or by altering the organizational culture as a whole. Regardless of the technique chosen, the issues must be resolved to avoid negative consequences such as declining performance.

Introduction

Scholars of industrial relations have spent decades examining methods for resolving grievances in work interactions between employees and employers. In addition, significant progress has been made in the research of the origins of workplace conflicts and their resolution (Lewin, 2016). According to Howatt, conflicts can be expensive if not resolved (2015). It is the responsibility of an organization's human resources department to manage these issues. Dispute responses are frequently influenced by organizational elements like as culture and personal characteristics such as emotion regulation, among others (Oore, Leiter, & LeBlanc, 2015; Gunkel, Schlaegel, & Taras, 2016). This paper explores the team friction in the Northeast Sales Division, where employees have placed blame for a variety of problems on one another (Anderson, 2018). The focus will be on the structural roots of the dispute and the lack of collaboration in the organization, as well as the individual contributions to the escalation of the crisis. Finally, a suggestion for improving the problem will be provided.

Structural Discord and Absence of Cooperation

Organizational structures can be one of the primary sources of workplace conflict. There is sufficient evidence indicating that the design tasks and authority connections, which are among the most important defining characteristics of organizational structure, can fuel disputes among the employees (O'Sullivan, 2017; Longe, 2015). Work interdependence, disparities in unit goals and orientation, variances in the reward system and performance criteria, status, and mutual dependency on restricted resources are among the structural causes of workplace conflict (Osabiya, 2015; Dolan & Lingham, 2020). Additionally, variables such as leadership might be considered structural, especially when organizational hierarchy is included. Leadership is a facet of authority interactions and one of the most important predictors of staff integration (Stamarski & Hing, 2015). With this foundation on structural causes, it is possible to outline the disputes in the Northeast Sales Division.

At the head of the North East (NE) division's organizational structure is the vice president, followed by sales directors. The only classification of the directors is based on the states they serve, and they are all at the same level. In other words, there is only one level between the directors and the vice president. Renee is responsible for New York and Pennsylvania, Peres for Massachusetts, Tracey for Rhode Island and Connecticut, and Gray for New Hampshire, Vermont, and Maine (Anderson, 2018). Melissa's position in operations and pay requires her to oversee and direct the duties of all other directors. Despite her position being on the same organizational level as sales directors, this is the case. According to Osabiya (2015), work interdependence, disparities in unit goals and orientation, and different statuses within a company are significant causes of workplace conflicts. All three of these characteristics are evident in the NE division.

In terms of work dependencies, the four sales directors are dependent on Melissa, who oversees the operations and compensation director position. Neil, the vice president of the division, selected Melissa because she follows the rules and is best suited to promote discipline in the division. Melissa approves and rewards the work of the sales directors, whose checks and controls have been perceived as impeding the sales directors' growth (Anderson, 2018). Being on the same organizational level allows the sales directors to directly criticise Melissa for her restrictions, as there is no authority hierarchy between them. Melissa has contributed to the resolution of the legal issues caused by reckless sales representatives. In addition, the introduced compliance systems have prevented losses from commissions paid to salesmen who are now paid only when they make a sale. Neil is in favor of Melissa, and he also approves of the regulations. However, the organizational structure makes Melissa an easier target than the vice president because the implications of these attacks are minimal.

The disparities in unit objectives and orientation are another structural factor contributing to workplace conflict in the Northeast division. As previously explained, operations and compensation aim to establish discipline within the division. On the other hand, all sales divisions concentrate on boosting their sales success because doing so increases their compensation (Anderson, 2018). The vice president's focus has been on instituting discipline, a goal pursued through operations and remuneration. Melissa has been required to reject orders and demand that salespeople resubmit others. The rejected orders result in no sales and no commission. Despite the fact that the standards are intended to safeguard the corporation, the sales directors believe the regulations are designed to punish them. Consequently, this structural feature is combined with behavioral aspects that will be described in a later section.

Another structural factor causing disagreements in the Northeast division is status. According to Osabiya (2015), disparities in status within a business may inspire envy in some employees. In the NE division, however, personnel who are in conflict are on equal footing. Renee feels superior to others due to her sales performance and only perceives her standing to be higher than theirs (Anderson, 2018). Even though they feel similarly about Melissa, the other directors do not share her perception of her position. Melissa, on the other hand, is perceived to work directly with Neil, elevating her over the other sales director. Her resistance to be controlled by the directors, the same reason Savanna resigned her position, is a crucial factor in the current state of the Northeast division.

Leadership is also viewed as a structural issue characterized by conflicting authority relationships. According to Stamarski and Hing (2015), leaders establish the company's culture, policies, and strategies. Neil is responsible for the disagreement due to his new concerns regarding discipline and his decision to grant Melissa complete power. Neil prefers to avoid controversy, which is why he allows Melissa to approve orders with the sales directors (Anderson, 2018). Neil establishes and/or approves the regulations, while Melissa implements them. However, there is no information regarding how directors are informed of new regulations. This is the primary cause for the directors' discontent with Melissa and Neil. However, certain directors, including Leo, have no issues with Melissa because they are familiar with organizational dynamics. Leo encouraged a member of Melissa's team to explain the guidelines to his team, which has subsequently learned to adhere to them. Consequently, leadership failures are associated by behavioral variables.

The lack of collaboration within the NE division can be attributed to the division's competing objectives and orientations. Today's organizations tend to seek enhanced workplace collaboration, requiring managers to implement organizational improvements (Bernstein & Turban, 2018). Literature demonstrates that collaboration increases team and organization-wide effectiveness (Assbeihat, 2016; Sanyal & Hisam, 2018). Collaboration at the NE division is impacted by the fact that each division is competing for sales and other objectives. The sales divisions demand more transactions and commission, whereas the operations and compensation departments seek discipline. In addition, the leadership has failed to reduce the tension and establish a collaborative culture. While the division should be operating as a team, lack of coordination has resulted in each member setting their own goals and objectives individually. Rules and policies should be created jointly so that they can accommodate all interests. However, one group dictates the rules that serve its own interests at the expense of the others' performance. This precludes the possibility of superior team performance throughout the division.

Individual Conduct

Studies of conflict behavior have revealed those activities that do not aid in the resolution of conflicts. These actions are damaging because they prevent a resolution. According to Yasmin (2017), some workplace conflicts are caused by "half-listening," in which one party disregards what the other is saying. This practice is counterproductive because such situations are handled more successfully when all parties involved are on the same page. Renee is the most resistant to listening to Melissa and the newly enforced rules at the NE division. Melissa has taken a different strategy than her predecessor, who resigned due to excessive pressure from the sales directors. She brings a new personality and power, but the board is not impressed. However, the approval of orders has always been the responsibility of the operations and compensation department. The directors criticize Melissa without admitting their commitment to discipline rather than listening to the guidelines. Renee stated that her department submitted an incorrect order that was rejected rather than simply being corrected and approved by Melissa's team.

As indicated above, half-listening has resulted in the division creating a method for resolving disputes. These actions are detrimental and tend to exacerbate the situation. In addition to half-listening, the division's conflict includes negative actions such as resentment and antagonism towards other employees. Omisore and Abiodun (2015) and Gigol and Sypniewska (2019) classify these acts as relationship conflicts in which interpersonal mismatches result in hostility, irritation, resentment, and negative feelings. Although nothing is known about Melissa's predecessor, it may be deduced that the directors did not have the same issues with her because she did not rigorously enforce the legislation. Renee displays more hostility towards Melissa than any other director. Other directors concur that, despite having issues with Melissa, Renee's actions and behaviors towards her are unacceptable. If there is any inappropriate behavior in the division, Renee is the one who cannot be tolerated.

Renee's animosity against Melissa is not necessarily due to Melissa's disproportionate exposure to the laws. However, Renee is thought to be envious of Melissa's connection with Neil. She believes Neil is always on her side whenever she desires to introduce a new regulation. Renee believes that Neil is unwilling to address the matter since he has delegated his responsibilities to Melissa (Anderson, 2018). As previously said regarding the status disparities, the act of resentment does not assist the problem. Indeed, the best course of action for Renee is to attempt to comprehend Neil's and Melissa's motivations and to assist the application of sales discipline. Leo’s efforts to execute the guidelines with his and Melissa’s teams serve as the best illustration of how resentment can be replaced by rationality. His squad therefore has the fewest issues with Melissa's team.

Neil has used the phrase "toxic" to describe Renee's actions towards Melissa. This paper argues that toxic behavior is counterproductive since it exacerbates conflicts rather than resolving them. It has been demonstrated in the literature that toxic workplace habits impede performance (Anjum, Ming, Siddiqi, & Rasool, 2018). According to previous studies, there are two sorts of workplaces: collaborative and toxic (Günüşen, Wilson, and Aksoy, 2017; Anjum, et al., 2018). A toxic work environment is characterized by aggressive personnel who do not filter what they say or how they say it (Williams, et al., 2019). Perez, for instance, has no qualms about stating that Melissa's team treats them like toddlers. After 10 years of working with Neil, he claims he can expect nothing from him because Neil prefers to avoid controversy (Anderson, 2018). These sentiments are indicative of a hostile work environment and abrasive conduct.

Toxic habits harm conflict resolution because they impede negotiation. When Melissa overhears Renee and Renee discussing Melissa, their approach to the difficulties is incorrect. Renee does not seek explanations for the new regulations; instead, she prefers to draw the conclusion that they are intended for her squad. On the other hand, Melissa has no interest in explaining the regulations and how they serve the company's best interests. Due to the toxic climate, animosity and resentment prevent the two sides from reaching an agreement.

Improving the Circumstance

The answer to the issue of how the situation at the NE division can be improved can be found in the literature on dispute resolution in the workplace. It has been stated that negotiation is a primary method for resolving problems (Kleef & Cote, 2018; Groves, Feyerherm, & Gu, 2015). However, the success of discussions will depend on various elements, the most essential of which is the parties' commitment to resolve the problem amicably. Toxic behaviors are seen as the biggest obstacle to resolution. Therefore, the first step in addressing the situation at the NE division is to get all the directors on the same page with regards to the issues that require consensus. Neil's decision to connect with the human resource manager, whose intervention would be crucial, demonstrates an initiative toward achieving this goal. As the leader, Neil may be viewed as the individual most responsible for the conflict. In light of the fact that he has a stake in the disagreement and his conclusions may be biased towards certain interests, it may be prudent to involve a neutral HR representative.

However, conducting discussions will fail without Neil's input and assistance. This is due to the fact that he is the leader and must set the example. As stated previously, leaders are accountable for the organization's rules and policies (Stamarski & Hing, 2015). Melissa is given the authority to create some of the regulations, but Neil must approve their execution. Neil has failed as a leader due to the fact that he has failed to convey his new purpose to instill discipline inside the division. Any attempts by Melissa to make the division more responsible is, therefore, seen as an effort to undermine the sales directors. After obtaining agreement from all parties to resolve the difficulties, Neil should proceed to explain the rules and their utility. Additionally, he and Melissa should explain how each rule affects the sales operations and how the directors and

International Financial Reporting Standards College Essay Help

Introduction

The international financial reporting standards, generally known as IFRS, are accounting rules established by the International Accounting Standards Board (IASB) that outline specific principles for how financial reporting should be conducted globally. In truth, the international financial reporting standards are meant to ensure that companies with activities in different parts of the world present their financial statements using a standardized format (Lin, 2012).

The objective of establishing the International Reporting Standards was also to ensure that accountants maintain understandable, comparable, and uniform accounting records. The International Financial Reporting Standards were established to replace the Universal Accounting Principles. However, the objective of the International Reporting Standard is to harmonise the reporting of financial standards globally and ensure that international comparisons are possible (Ahmed and Wang, 2013).

Significance of the research

The study of IFRSs promotes financial reporting transparency. In addition to producing high-quality financial statements, this methodology is of enormous relevance to the owners and financiers of firms around the globe. Additionally, the study of IFRSs guarantees that emerging markets are taken into account, resulting in complete reporting. Lastly, the study of IFRSs is vital because it is simple to evaluate the success of a company that uses IFRSs to produce its financial accounts, and this facilitates rational decision-making.

Literature review

Does mandated IFRS adoption enhance the environment of information?

The purpose of Horton and Serafeim's article is to identify the IFRS characteristics that can improve the data setting of businesses. The approach employed in this work is based on past research conducted by other scholars to see if the increase in prediction precision can be attributed to higher-quality data and greater similarity resulting from IFRS acceptance. It also assesses if IFRS affords executives more opportunities to alter their compensations and, as a result, meets forecasters' expectations. Horton et al. discovered that, upon mandatory IFRS implementation, the prediction precision and various methods of the data setting increase significantly more for mandatory adopters than for non-adopters and deliberate adopters (Horton and Serafeim, 2013).

The effect of corporate characteristics on trading volume response to the IFRS to U.S. GAAP earnings reconciliation.

In this essay, Steve Lin wants to contribute to the IFRS literature by presenting early findings on the extent to which reporting incentives play a significant role in IFRS compliance and the economic value of IFRS compliance in a developing country with lax enforcement. The author explores multiple papers through qualitative analysis of constrained data from a single poor nation, Kenya; hence, the reader should approach Lin's findings with caution. Lin's findings suggest that the mandated adoption of IFRS can give economic benefits to enterprises in low-enforcement nations, so long as the firms have economic incentives to achieve a greater degree of IFRS compliance. The conclusion is supported by the fact that Kenya's capital economy is open (Lin, 2012).

Does mandatory IFRS implementation promote bookkeeping proficiency?

Ahmed and Wang (2013) want to examine the effects of mandatory IFRS implementation on three sets of bookkeeping excellence metrics in their article. These include revenue leveling, documenting desire, and compensations control to meet or exceed a goal. The authors employ a benchmark sample and a difference-in-differences design in their technique. Understanding the implications of required adoption on the features of accounting numbers may be of interest to standard-setters and securities regulators in countries that are considering IFRS adoption as well as countries that have already implemented IFRS, according to the findings of the authors (Ahmed and Wang, 2013).

Credit risk and IFRS: The case of credit avoidance transactions

The purpose of this essay is to examine the evaluation of credit risk data transmitted by accounting figures in light of IFRS versus native GAAP. The authors employ a 'difference-in-differences' methodology. They discovered that compensation, asset value, and, to a lesser extent, controls are significant loan risk assessment criteria both before and after IFRS implementation. The application of IFRS does not modify the loan risk information reproduced in CDSs from the bookkeeping features. Results reveal that pre- and post-IFRS, earnings, book value, and, to a lesser extent, leverage are key pricing determinants of credit risk. However, the adoption of IFRS did not alter the overall informativeness of these three accounting criteria for credit risk (Bhat and Sega, 2013).

The effect of corporate characteristics on trading volume response to the IFRS to U.S. GAAP earnings reconciliation.

Chen and Sami (2013) sought to demonstrate that investors in U.S. companies conduct business on the compensations settlement from IAS to the U.S. They sought to determine whether the response is dependant on first-time IFRS managers and firms implementing IFRS in accordance with IASB directives. In addition to developing their own hypotheses, the writers draw from earlier research. The data indicate that only a subset of businesses, particularly those with first-time IFRS managers and limited official ownership, have business volume responses to the compensation settlement.

A summary of accounting standards number 6

Exploration for and appraisal of mineral assets

References

Does forced adoption of IFRS increase accounting quality?, Ahmed, Anwer, and Dechun Wang, 2013, Preliminary proof, Research on contemporary accounting techniques. Web.

Credit risk and IFRS: The case of credit default swaps. (2013). Journal of Accounting, Auditing, and Finance.

Chen, Lucy and Sami, Heibatollah, “2013”, The impact of firm characteristics on trading volume reaction to the earnings reconciliation from IFRS to U.S. GAAP, Contemporary Accounting Research. Web.

Does mandated IFRS adoption enhance the information environment?, Horton, Joanne, and Loanna Serafeim, 2013. Web-based Contemporary Accounting Research.

Lin, Steve. The Determinants and Consequences of Heterogeneous IFRS Compliance Levels Following Mandatory IFRS Adoption: Evidence from a Developing Country.

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Saudi Arabian Oil Production And Market Share College Essay Help

Table of Contents
Abstract Presentation The Body Conclusion Citations

Abstract

This paper is a rigorous investigation into the justification for Saudi Arabia's effort to preserve stability amid fluctuating oil prices and a diminishing market size. The fundamental principles of demand and supply in macroeconomics fail to justify how cutting production quotas may boost prices and revenue in the absence of other noisy variables.

Empirical evidence demonstrates that the price of oil has constantly fluctuated as a result of various market conditions, such as demand resulting from an improvement in the global economy, the influence of political factors such as an economic embargo on oil, a reduction in production as a result of the implementation of OPEC's production quotas, political unrest in Iraq and Iran, or simply low quantities.

Reducing the quantity does not justify a rise in price due to evidence of a large loss of Saudi Arabia's traditional consumers, such as South Korea, resulting in market contraction. Due to the unpredictability of the impacts of other variables than a drop in quantities on the price of oil, Saudi Arabia must prioritize retaining its market dominance, which is difficult to develop and implement with a market-driven pricing structure.

Introduction

The bleak economic prognosis due to low oil prices has resulted in a $146bn shortfall in Saudi Arabia's budget, compared to $313bn in expected expenditures (Alzomaia & Al-Khadhiri, 2013). According to Barnes, and Jaffe (2006), the dilemma is to raise the price of oil, which could compromise the market size, due to the compelling need depicted in the 2012 and 2014 survey, in which Saudi Arabia demanded a 10.4% increase in expenditure to address the region's political instability and domestic spending, which has placed the country in a dilemma over whether to reduce production quantities or maintain market share (Becken & Lennox, 2012).

The oil price has fallen from US$145 per barrel in July 2008 to US$30 per barrel on February 3, 2016, necessitating the adoption of a viable strategy (Mănescu & Nuo, 2015). A decline in production levels has direct effects on the price of crude oil (MacKenzie, 1996). For example, the price of oil increased from $14 in 1978 to $35 in 1981 as a result of a 2 to 2.5 million barrels per day decrease in supply between November 1978 and June 1979.

To increase the price of oil, however, solid macroeconomic principles of demand and supply cannot justify reducing the supply side's quantities to achieve the required equilibrium with the demand side (Magdoff, 2013) The 1973, 1979, 1990, and 2008 trends were deceptive due to the subsequent recession, decline in demand, and final decline in the size of Saudi Arabia's market (Malik & Awadallah, 2013). Naturally, the debate arises as to whether Saudi Arabia should reduce oil output to increase prices or concentrate on maintaining its market position.

Main Body

According to Lippi and Nobili (2012), the gloomy economic forecasts for Saudi Arabia's fiscal deficits raise the question of whether the world's largest oil producer should reduce the amount of oil it pumps into the global market in order to increase oil prices and address its fiscal deficits, which could scare away customers who may seek alternative sources of oil or concentrate on maintaining its market share.

The largest oil producer, Saudi Arabia, has the key to stabilizing oil prices by lowering the amount of oil it pours onto the market (Lipietz, 2013). Saudi Arabia cannot control the price of oil on its own, thus it must preserve its market dominance and let other market forces to determine oil prices. Reducing the quantity of oil might lead to a decrease in the supply of oil on the market and, theoretically, an increase in oil prices, which could force the market to contract.

Lahn and Preston (2013) demonstrate in a review that the significant increases in oil prices between 1973 and 2008 in response to the macroeconomic principle of demand and supply do not support evidence of stable market price levels due to the subsequent drops in demand. Saudi Arabia's refusal to cut the quantity of oil put into the market has allowed the country to preserve its market share without the advantage of an increase in the price of oil, which has remained stagnant at $30 per barrel in 2016. According to Kjarstad and Johnsson (2007), lowering the quantity of oil Saudi Arabia exports to the global market causes a temporary increase in the price of oil, but ultimately leads to a decline in market share as consumers seek other cheaper oil sources.

The process for reducing the amount of oil given to the market is rooted in conventional economics, but fails to account for other forces (Kilian, 2008). Increasing numbers of oil-producing nations entering the oil market, improved oil extraction technologies, cheaper oil shale extraction techniques, and political reasoning could mitigate the effects of quantity vs demand and its association with oil prices (Keohane & Victor, 2013). As evidenced by price increases between 1979 and 1980 and optimistic demand projections, the fundamental premise of cutting production in the short term may be favorable for Saudi Arabia (Gholz & Press, 2010).

However, a thorough examination reveals that demand was partially fueled by the rapid expansion of the world economy, especially China's, which is currently in recession (Harstad, 2012). Political unrest such as the Korean War in 1951-1953 led to a rise from $17 to $20. (Colgan, 2014). This is in addition to the Arab oil embargo of 1973, the Iranian Revolution of 1979, and the insulating period that led oil prices to peak at $103.76 per barrel in April 1980. (Finley, 2012). Despite the claim that the price of oil depends on demand and supply, this is the case.

The rise in oil prices and accompanying increase in demand do not reflect the full nature of the impacts of quantity on demand and supply (Esper, Ellinger, Stank, Flint, & Moon, 2010). Examples include the oil glut in the 1980s, which statistically explains the decline in price from US$35 per barrel ($101 per barrel presently) to US$10 per barrel ($58 to $22 today, adjusted for inflation) (Smith, 2009). This is despite the low output levels and weaker demand caused by the slowed economic growth of industrialized nations such as Japan (13% decreases) and the global economic recession (Finon & Locatelli, 2008).

The temporary surge in price that steadied at roughly $18 per barrel from 1987 and 1989 was the result of a robust US economy, thriving Asian markets, and a 3 million barrels per day cut in OPEC's output quotas (Nuruzzaman, 2013). Between 2010 and 2012, an increase in colder conditions in the Northern Hemisphere contributed to an increase in oil prices (Painter, 2012). The cycle that determines the behavior of commodity prices occurs every 29 years, excluding Saudi Arabia from the assumption of a link between quantity and price.

Unjustifiable is an interpretation of the discourse on the issues that prevent Saudi Arabia from focusing on reducing oil production to raise prices (Tverberg, 2012). As the oil cycle peaks and drops in accordance with a 29-year cycle, focusing on retaining market share instead justifies the latter against the former (Tabrizi & Santini, 2012). Between 1950 and 1960, the price of oil was very stable between $1.71 and $2.00. (Suganthi & Samuel, 2012).

After the formation of OPEC, prices were governed by production quotas, which grew steadily in accordance with the laws of demand and supply. Sharper production cuts were unproductive, resulting in a decrease of demand and the global economic slowdown that led to the 1973–1977 oil crisis (Hirsch, Bezdek, & Wendling, 2010). Other factors such as the Iran-Iraq conflict led to an increase in oil prices despite the oil shock that led to low oil prices from 1983 to 1995. Clearly, OPEC's low output quotas led to a variety of outcomes (Stern, 2007). A subsequent economic crisis precipitated a decline in oil prices, prompting a revision of Saudi Arabia's policy of retaining its market share.

GreenwoodNimmo, Nguyen, and Shin (2012) demonstrated that the elasticity of demand and supply cannot be regulated by reducing Saudi Arabia's output quotas without allowing competitors to penetrate its market. It is necessary to research a countermeasure that could preserve the nation's market position (Al-Saleh, 2009). The volatile variations of oil prices caused by external variables of economic growth and decline combined with regulated production quotas are a significant symptom of false hope and dependence on quantity controlled prices (Barnes & Jaffe, 2006).

Temporary increases, such as those that occurred in the early 1950s, do not reflect the rule of demand and supply (Bielecki, 2002). When a result, it rejects the reliance of pricing on production quotas, which were adopted by OPEC as prices tended to decline, resulting in the oil shock of 1978 to 1982 (Brémond, Hache, and Mignon, 2012). Before successive spikes and dips, the price of oil fluctuated between $11.58 and $14.02 per barrel, fluctuating by approximately $25 in August 2003 and $130 in mid-2008 before falling in later years (Bremmer, 2009). The market's behavior was determined not just by the quantity of oil but also by political conditions.

Maintaining market share is one of the methods advised by researchers to protect Saudi Arabia from volatile oil prices (Morse & Richard, 2002). This is owing to rivalry from oil-producing nations such as Russia and Iran, as well as the United States' oil shale output (Verbruggen & Van de Graaf, 2013). The motivation for focusing on maintaining its market share is supported by the fact that numerous nations, such as South Africa, have lowered their oil purchases from Saudi Arabia from over 53% to 22%. (Knox-Hayes, Brown, Sovacool, & Wang, 2013).

In addition to the drop in imports by the United States, which fell from 17 percent to nearly 14 percent (Tang & Xiong, 2012), what is the local output of oil from oil shale? Several western European nations, including South Korea, Thailand, and Taiwan, are among the additional markets Saudi Arabia has lost (Robertson, Al-Angari, & Al-Alsheikh, 2012). The worrying contraction of the country's global oil market and the decline in oil prices have compelled the government to continue preserving its market rather than cutting output, resulting in a major fall in revenue.

In addition, revenue from the sale of oil has decreased substantially due to the coupling impact of the decline in oil price and market size (Abbaszadeh, Maleki, Alipour, & Maman, 2013). According to Basher, Haug, and Sadorsky (2012), the problem with the price of oil is not as pervasive as the problem with the market's shrinking size. The rationale is that, as stated previously, prices might increase due to market and economic events such as wars, economic sanctions, and the effects of demand and supply (Cairns & Calfucura, 2012).

Strong indications that oil prices can always recover are a result of demand and supply factors (Colgan, Keohane & Van de Graaf, 2012). This resulted in the variations between 1950 and 2016 (McNally & Levi, 2011). It is apparent that oil prices rose over the course of many years, as seen by the 1973 oil shock (Gabbasa, Sopian, Yaakob, Zonooz, Fudholi, & Asim, 2013). Despite the succeeding years of energy efficiency, the post-1973 price hikes led to an increase in the price of oil, followed by a global recession and a reduction in the price of oil.

Conclusion

Empirical evidence strongly supports the necessity for Saudi Arabia to focus on retaining its market share while maintaining stable oil production limits due to the unpredictability of the global oil market, despite declining revenues due to dynamic market conditions. The economic concepts of demand and supply do not fully justify reducing production quotas in order to promote demand and raise the price of oil. Despite the continual level of variations and oil shocks, research indicates that there is no steady state that may be justified by a decrease in production levels.

In addition to market share, price hikes, and improved projections, the market size is a significant determinant and indicative of the amount of income earned. This is consistent with the observed trend since 1973. Post-1973 pricing, the consequences of OPEC actions that recommended production quotas, the low oil prices of 1986 to around 2002, the recovery in oil prices in 2002 and onwards, and a decrease in oil demand all contributed to the current oil market. This left Saudi Arabia pondering why conventional markets are considering alternate oil suppliers.

References

Abbaszadeh, P., Maleki, A., Alipour, M., & Maman, Y. K. (2013). The oil development scenarios for Iran by 2025. Energy Policy, 56, 612-622.

Al-Saleh, Y. (2009). Renewable energy prospects for major oil-producing nations: Saudi Arabia as one example. Futures, 41(9), 650-662.

Alzomaia, T. S., & Al-Khadhiri, A. (2013). Evidence from Saudi Arabia for Determination of Dividend Policy The fourth issue of the International Journal of Business and Social Science (1).

Barnes, J., and A. M. Jaffe (2006). survival, 48(1), pp. 143-162; The Persian Gulf and the geopolitics of oil.

Basher, S. A., A. A. Haug, and P. Sadorsky (2012). Oil prices, exchange rates, and emerging stock markets are all factors to consider. Energy Economics, volume 34, number 1, pages 227-240.

Becken, S., & Lennox, J. (2012). Tourism implications of a sustained increase in oil prices. Tourism Management, 33(1), 133-142

Bielecki, J. (2002). Is there a threat to our energy security? The quarterly review of economics and finance, volume 42, number 2, pages 235-250.

Bremmer, I. (2009). The maturation of state capitalism. Foreign Affairs, 88(3), 40-55.

Brémond, V., Hache, E., & Mignon, V. (2012). Does OPEC still exist as a cartel? A scientific research. 125-131. Energy Economics, 34(1).

Cairns, R. D., & Calfucura, E. (2012). Energy Policy, 50(1), 570-580. OPEC: Market failure or power failure?

Colgan, J. D. (2014). The emperor is naked: OPEC's limitations in the global oil market. International Organization, 68(03), 599-632.

Colgan, J. D., Keohane, R. O., & Van de Graaf, T. (2012). Complex energy regimes exhibit punctuated equilibrium. The international organizations review, 7(2), 117-143.

Esper, T. L., Ellinger, A. E., Stank, T. P., Flint, D. J., & Moon, M. (2010). Integration of demand and supply: a conceptual framework for the production of value through knowledge management. Journal of the Academy of marketing Science, 38(1), 5-18.

Fang, S., Jaffe, A. M., & Temzelides, T. (2012).

Financial Accounting And Standards Board’s Effects On Public Corporations College Essay Help

This study examines the effect of the Financial Accounting Standards Board (FASB) on publicly traded companies. The research has multiple goals, one of which is to provide an overview of FASB's history. Other objectives include the identification of FASB's requirements for public corporations, the evaluation of FASB's influence on the investment community, and the identification of the investment community's needs that are met by the board.

The research utilizes secondary data gathered from sources including books and accounting journals. The research reveals that FASB alone cannot guarantee the efficiency of the capital market; thus, other parties, such as auditors, regulators, and reporting organizations, must play their respective responsibilities in the public's best interest. These parties must fulfill their responsibilities in accordance with FASB's guidelines.

The research also revealed that an efficient and robust economic system will be established if a financial reporting system with high-quality standards is in place. This is supported by the fact that widely accepted accounting principles helped form the reporting practices of public firms in the United States, as indicated by the research.

With cooperation from auditors, regulators, and other authorities, the report suggests that the FASB continue its role in establishing accounting standards. In order to regain the public's trust, public firms need also adhere to FASB financial reporting standards.

Introduction

Following the Great Depression, which began with the 1929 stock market crash, numerous measures were attempted to avert future economic downturns. The formation of financial regulations and financial regulatory agencies, such as the Generally Accepted Accounting Principles (GAAP) and the Securities and Exchange Commission (SEC), represents one of these steps' directions. The link between the aforementioned regulations and regulatory agencies is exemplified by the SEC's primary mission of enforcing GAAP. Financial Accounting Standards Board, also known as FASB, is a significant regulatory organization that was established. FASB is an independent board of accounting experts charged with defining and disseminating financial accounting standards throughout the United States. The board is responsible for ensuring that public firms adhere to the fundamental standards of financial reporting. FASB also sets guidelines for the preparation of financial reports, establishing uniformity among firms' financial statements.

FASB's history extends back to 1973, when it was established to replace previous accounting bodies that existed at the time. FASB stakeholders consist of investors, the general public, staff, board members, and private companies, among others. There are numerous stakeholder interests involved, many of which may serve various purposes. For instance, the government might be concerned about taxes difficulties. On the other side, investors may be concerned about the veracity of the financial information presented by various organizations, a crucial factor when selecting whether to invest in a particular organization or not.

FASB is not responsible for the enforcement of accounting standards in this regard. Corporate directors, auditors, the SEC, and CEOs are tasked with ensuring that financial statements comply with accounting standards.

FASB's rules are essential to the improvement of financial accounting standards. Users of a company's financial accounts are likewise concerned with the accuracy and conformity of accounting reports. To foster an atmosphere for an effective and robust economic system, it is necessary to ensure that financial reporting is of the highest standard. FASB comprises five full-time members appointed by the Foundations Board of Trustees. Members of the FASB are presumed to serve for a maximum of ten years. Therefore, board members can only serve for a maximum of two terms, each of which is five years.

The number of staff employees supporting the board should not exceed sixty. In addition to board members, staff members are concerned for the general public, investors, and other users of financial data, such as businesses and government agencies. Staff and board members are expected to have experience and knowledge in accounting, investments, finance, and business research in order to carry out their duties effectively and efficiently. Since the formation of FASB, several personal activities, such as entrepreneurship, have been included in an effort to increase the autonomy of the employees and the board. The latter led to the improvement of the functioning of public enterprises by eliminating conflicts of interest. In addition, it should be noted that the FASB has a conceptual framework that functions as a constitution in providing investors with rules for their financial operations.

Research Findings

Stakeholders and Financial Accounting and Reporting Principles' Characteristics

The analysis indicated that FASB's efforts alone are insufficient to sustain the quality of financial reporting in publicly traded companies. Therefore, additional stakeholders must be involved in the reporting process. Included on the list of stakeholders may be auditors and regulators. The duty of such parties should be to provide high-quality financial reporting and/or to ensure that such reporting adheres to established standards. The reporting entities intend to investigate financial markets for financing. The primary objective of financial reporting is to provide investors with the information they need to decide whether or not to invest in a particular firm.

Auditors' primary responsibility, on the other hand, is to analyze the application of FASB standards to see whether they were applied appropriately. In this way, auditors serve as a conduit through which the public analyzes the information underpinning an entity's operations. Regulators also play a significant role. Regulators such as the SEC are tasked with protecting investors by ensuring that auditors are truly independent and that generated reports adhere to the established auditing standards (Zeff, 1995).

Relevance, dependability, comparability, and consistency are the four distinguishing features of financial accounting and reporting concepts. The relevance principle stipulates that information must be timely, predictive, and have feedback value. Regarding dependability, the information should be devoid of egregious errors so that it is capable of performing the intended purpose. Comparability refers to the ability of a company to be compared to others in its industry. Lastly, the consistency attribute denotes the adoption of the same accounting rules throughout the accounting period (Heck, 1994).

Offering Conceptual Structure and Transparency

The second factor uncovered by the research is the role of FASB in ensuring the high quality of financial reporting embraced by capital markets. Effective financial reporting reduces instances of inconsistency and lack of openness. Such reporting also decreases the risks and expenses associated with capital for investors (Zarowin, 1992). FASB is responsible for updating accounting rules to account for changes in company practices and the economic environment in order to achieve its goals. In this regard, the primary function of FASB is to keep accounting information relevant and credible. Transparency in financial reporting and financial accountability is one method by which FASB can achieve the latter objective. This may necessitate that public companies replace ineffective auditors. In addition to their role in preparing financial information, the FASB improves transparency through altering auditors' behaviors, attitudes, and skills.

Financial statement preparation is governed by the FASB's conceptual framework, which serves as a constitution. This conceptual framework provides rules and concepts to investors. The framework acts as a guide for all inquiries pertaining to financial data. In addition, the conceptual framework is essential because it offers a foundation for dialogue with the Financial Accounting Standards Board. It establishes the required reporting requirements and ensures uniformity in the creation of worldwide standards. Finally, the conceptual framework acknowledges the necessity for worldwide financial reporting consensus (Kieso & Weygandt, 1999)

Companies and Theories

The significance of the FASB-issued standards to public firms is a further key result from the research. Both internal and external users value FASB's developed standards. Management and workers of the company are internal users of the standards, while the government, suppliers, lenders, shareholders, competitors, and the general public are external users (Price Waterhouse, OPEB, 1991). Over the years, the FASB has developed a number of rules aimed at continuously enhancing the information available to investors' transparency and accountability. The FASB mandates that reporting organizations record the liabilities connected with pension benefits. Among the FASB's additional requirements could be the disclosure of a company entity's separate operating segments. This factor is crucial because it enables investors to assess the risks associated with their different operations. In addition, the FASB mandates that hedging transactions and derivative instruments be properly reported in the financial statements if they were not previously reflected. Lastly, the FASB stipulates that acquisition expenditures should be properly accounted for and represented in financial statements during the acquisition of a business entity by another (The University of Virginia, 1979).

In addition, the research found that the FASB's concepts were instrumental in structuring public firms in the United States. Among these notions is the historical cost concept, which mandates that business transactions be reported in financial statements at the amount of cash or cash equivalents paid or the fair value of the consideration provided. Another notion is revenue recognition, which allows investors to select when to recognize revenue for a given accounting period and emphasizes that revenue should be recognized once the earning process is complete. The matching concept is another essential accounting concept that gauges the profitability of a business by comparing its revenue to its associated costs.

The following is an outline of several major concepts that led to the accounting standards of public corporations:

The notion of objectivity stipulates that the value of transactions, including the value of assets and liabilities, must be verifiable. In accordance with the principle of consistency, a corporation is required to handle equivalent items consistently on occasion. Full disclosure is a notion that mandates the disclosure of all transactions that potentially impact the judgment of users of financial statements. The materiality idea entails the relative size and significance of a transaction to the organization. In order to avoid exaggerating the economic value of an entity, the notion of prudence compels businesses to use the smallest values in situations when there are equally acceptable alternatives. The industrial practices notion – a concept that requires corporations in a given industry to utilize the industrial practice used, if that industry employs peculiar accounting practices that differ from those of other industries – is a requirement (Reither, 1998).

The findings concluded that the Financial Accounting Standards Board's statements offer Certified Public Accountants (CPA) with appropriate accounting principles. CPA therefore employs these concepts when communicating the financial position of a company to stockholders, the general public, and the Securities and Exchange Commission (Heck, 1994).

Recommendations

The primary recommendation of the present study is that public firms should continuously update their reporting processes to align with the Financial Accounting and Standards Board's revisions. This factor will ensure that companies will not fall behind in their financial reporting (Charles & Associates, 1992). In order to ensure the openness and consistency of their transactions, it is also essential that investors recognize the forms of reporting they should implement for any specific transaction. Finally, investors should attempt to know the conceptual frameworks supplied by the FASB so that they can realize the FASB's explanation regarding financial concerns (Fetyko & Christensen, 1977).

Conclusion

To maintain transparency and uniformity in their financial reporting, all publicly traded firms should embrace and implement the FASB's standards and guiding principles. This paper evaluated the effects of FASB on public firms and suggested that FASB should not bear sole responsibility for enhancing quality reporting standards. Auditors and regulators should also be included. The results demonstrated that FASB provides a substantial benefit to a variety of users of financial statements. These users include company management for decision making, the government for taxation, competitors for benchmarking, and others. In order to increase openness, public firms should reprimand ineffective and rogue auditors. The FASB can increase the openness of public corporations by modifying the conduct, knowledge, and attitudes of auditors and other parties involved in the creation of financial information.

Bibliography with Notes

Benston, M. (2006). Global Financial Reporting: The Evolution of Accounting Standards and Their Future Oxford: Press of Oxford University

In this editorial, the authors utilized information gleaned from an investigation of worldwide financial reporting and the FASB's thirty-year history. The utilised materials include, but are not limited to, public records and historical research sources on a variety of FASB-related topics. The editorial analyzed FASB's role in defining and disseminating financial accounting rules and financial reporting across the United States. Thus, the editorial provides relevant information regarding the history and function of the FASB.

S. Charles and Associates (1992). Analysis of 1992 Annual Statements Reveals How Corporations Are Responding to FASB. Charles Spenser and Associates in Chicago.

In this study, the author intends to describe how public firms are responding to FASB requirements. The article emphasizes the significance of organizations maintaining current information in order to avoid falling behind in terms of financial reporting standards and practices.

Fetyko, D & Christensen, E. (1977). CPA Exam: issues and solutions. New York: Wadsworth Publishing Company

This book emphasizes the need for investors to learn the sorts of reporting they should employ in order to increase financial transaction transparency and consistency.

Heck, J. (1994). Index of accounting literature. Manhattan: McGraw-Hill

In this editorial, the authors argue that in order for transparency to be achieved in public corporations, there is a need for financial information to have the primary characteristics of relevance and comparability as well as the secondary characteristics of comparability and consistency. The above characteristics are important as they ensure faithful representation of financial information. In addition, these features ensure that the information is objective, verifiable, current, and has predictive and feedback value. According to the writers, the FASB establishes the accounting principles that allow Certified Public Accountants to

Alzheimer's Disease College Essay Help

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Research proposal: The effect of pregnancy on the adolescent pregnant teen & father academic essay help

Abstract: The purpose for this research paper is to address the adolescent pregnant teen & father and the effects a pregnancy has on both of their lives during and after her pregnancy. How the teens need the support of the family, community, church, and the school system. I will also address the teen father mostly disregarded in any aspect of the teen’s pregnancy and how this affects him, and how both teens need support in our society. How we can address the social problem of teen pregnancy from all avenues.

‘Three issues that have an impact on the pregnant adolescent are discussed education, identity development, and maternal support’ (Turnage & Pharris, 2013). My research focuses on adolescent pregnant teen women 19 years old and younger. It will also reflect the problems of the teen pregnant adolescents journeying thru the process of becoming a teen mother, finishing high school, developing her own identity and the maternal support she gets from her mother during her transition from pregnant teen to motherhood.

‘Several issues that differently influence the pregnant teen is individually based on the female’s chronological age’ (Turnage & Pharris, 2013). ‘For the pregnant adolescent, her pregnancy supersedes high school graduation as the benchmark for her being viewed as an adult’ (Turnage & Pharris, 2013). ‘Failure to graduate high school is associated with poor social and educational outcomes for teen mothers and their children’ (Turnage & Pharris, 2013).

‘While the pregnant adolescent is defining who she is as a person she experiences a transition to the new identity of mother’ (Turnage & Pharris, 2013). ‘During her pregnancy the adolescent’s mother is seen as the primary source of support that contributes to a positive self-image and can assist her in the adapting to the role of parent’ (Turnage & Pharris, 2013).

My research paper will also show how important it is to support the teen during and after pregnancy. It addresses the need for the teen mothers to finish high school, and find her identity. How important it is to have the support system of her mother and family to achieve all of these things. Without these support systems, the pregnant adolescent could end up in poverty, no social skills, homeless and a host of other social problems for her and her baby.

Addressed and examined is teen motherhood and its long-term mental and physical health of the teen mother’ (Patel & Sen, 2012). They used a (PCS) health survey known as SF-12 NLSY79 a study that compared two major comparisons groups of which only teens who experienced teen pregnancy and girls who did not experience teen pregnancy. On average the survey for teen mothers was on average 50.89.

The study to access the health outcome of ‘two major comparison groups, which consisted of women who were only experienced teen pregnancy & women who were having unprotected sexual relation as a teen but did not become pregnant ‘ (Patel & Sen, 2012). Estimated is that teen mothers are more likely to have poor health later in life in the study of all the comparison groups.

Along with support, they desperately need help taking care of an infant as a teen; they need a support system to take notice of how they are managing their health & well-being so that they can be a successful teen parent. In addition, being a teen parent can affect the mother’s mentally as the pressure of being new teen mom can be stressful.

The teen mothers who marry after they give birth to their children statistics state that 30 % of them will not remain in their marriages into their 40’s. This result comes from teen adolescents in a single parent home raising their child. This can put a strain on the teen adolescent because she will financially have to seek support from her family or enter into the welfare system and suffer mental health issues.

‘Adolescent teen mothers identify social support with, parenting and emotional support primary emanating from family members, particularly their own mothers, as well as from the father of the baby (Savio Beers & Lee, 2009)’. ‘Older sisters may play an important role in the support network for adolescent mothers, the supportive sister relationships decrease depressive and anxiety-related symptoms in adolescent mothers (Savio Beers & Lee, 2009).

‘For some adolescent parents, participation in a religious community programs may provide the significant social support and serve as a protective factor’ (Savio Beers & Lee, 2009). This directly stresses the point that without the support of family, community, and church with the support of the father the adolescent teen mother can suffer mental issues, poverty issues, and marriage problems.

We addressed the many issues that teen mothers have to face, so now I would like to address the teen father in our society. What are their concerns on becoming a teen father, and how do they view their role as father where their masculinity is concerned? While most of the research done on teen pregnancy and parenting mainly focusing on the mother, the father is invisible.

Interviewed were 26 young teen fathers in the mid-western American towns. The in depth survey of three themes of gender discord focused on teen father narratives, which took on responsibility, sex, being a man, this is the direct viewpoint of the invisible teen father. What they feel about getting a teen girl pregnant and what responsibility they take in the pregnancy if any. How they relate to getting a teen pregnant and how that affects his identity as a man and their masculinity.

‘Gendered assumptions regarding pregnancy and contraception’specifically that women are in charge of preventing pregnancy and they have the belief that male sexuality is uncontrollable; and that use of love and intimacy talk (Weber, J. B., 2013). The teen fathers that took the questionnaire did not blame themselves for getting the teen girl pregnant. They see the teen’s pregnancy as her problem.

Studies suggest that teen fathers are more likely to be of a minority race. He has a mother who had a baby as a teen; his parents have a minimal education. His parents do not have high expectations of him finishing school; all of these factors result in the likelihood that makes him a candidate to becoming a teenage father. ‘The research states that the teen fathers go to school fewer years less than non-teenage fathers (Fletcher & Wolfe, 2011).

‘Evidence shows that men who have children before marriage leave school earlier and have worse labor markets outcomes’ (Fletcher & Wolfe, 2011). ‘Data was used only on young men who reported a pregnancy as an adolescent’ (Fletcher & Wolfe, 2011). It affects his completion of high school.

It also affects his ability to take care of the teen mother & baby, which causes him to drop out of school early. Statistically, ‘teen fathers work more hours and earn more money following the birth of a child then his non-parent counterparts’ (Fletcher & Wolfe, 2011). Teen fatherhood results in the teen father getting married early or co-habitation with the teen mother.

In conclusion, teen pregnancy is a social problem in the United States both teens will have to suffer in their education, grow up before their time, take on adult responsibilities, and suffer financial problems to take care of the child. Which ultimately falls on the parents of the teens, society or the welfare system in which the teen mother becomes a social statistic or shall I say a number.

Teen pregnancy as of 2014 have been on the decline in the United States and increased in other states, however a positive support system for both teens is minimal at best. Socially as communities, churches and government we have to take an active role in education of abstaining from sex, talking to the teens about sex, and protecting themselves against pregnancy.

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Reconnaissance attacks in IPv6 networks gp essay help

2.1.1 Reconnaissance attacks in IPv6 networks

The 1st larger attack in IPv6 is usually a reconnaissance attack. An attacker try reconnaissance attacks to get some confidential information about the victim network that can be misused by the attacker in further attacks. For this he uses active methods, such as scanning techniques or data mining strategies. To start, an intruder begins to ping the victim network to determine the IP addresses currently used in the victim network. After getting some of the accessible system, he starts to scan the port to find out any open port in the desired system. The size of subnet is bigger than that of the in IPv4 networks. To perform a scan for the whole subnet an attacker should make 264 probes and that???s impossible. With this fact, IPv6 networks are much more resistant to reconnaissance attacks than IPv4 networks. Unfortunately, there are some addresses which are multicast address in IPv6 networks that help an intruder to identify and attack some resources in the target network.

2.1.2 Security threats related to IPv6 routing headers

As per IPv6 protocol specification, all of the IPv6 nodes must be able to process routing headers. In fact, routing headers can be used to avoid access controls based on destination addresses. Such action can cause security effects. It may be happen that an attacker sends a packet to a publicly accessible address with a routing header containing a ???forbidden??? address on the victim network. In such matter the publicly accessible host will forward the packet to the destination address stated in the routing header even though that destination is already filtered before as a forbidden address. By spoofing packet source addresses an intruder can easily perform denial of service attack with use of any publicly accessible host for redirecting attack packets.

2.1.3 Fragmentation related security threats

As per IPv6 protocol specification, packet fragmentation by the intermediate nodes is not permitted. Since in IPv6 network based on ICMPv6 messages, the usage of the path MTU discovery method is a duty, packet fragmentation is only allowed at the source node.1280 octets is the minimal size of the MTU for IPv6 network. The packets with size less than 1280 octets to be discarded unless it???s the last packet in the flow as per security reasons. With use of fragmentation, an attacker can get that port numbers not found in the first fragment and thus they bypass security monitoring devices expecting to find transport layer protocol data in the very first fragment. An attacker will send a huge amount of small fragments and create an overload of reconstruction buffers on the victim system which resulted to the system crash. To prevent system from such attacks it???s necessary to bound the total number of fragments and their permissible arrival rate.

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WMBA 6000-13 Topic: Course Evaluation essay help writer

WMBA 6000-13

Topic: Course Evaluation

Date: March 2, 2014

Based on the assigned readings for this course (Dynamic Leadership), I have read an enormous amount of information about the different categories of leaders and leadership styles. Today’s leaders are different from the leaders of twenty to fifty years ago. In the past leaders gave commands and they controlled the actions of others. Today leaders are willing to involve others in their decision making and they are more open to new possibilities.

A good leader has a vision for their organization and they know how to align and engage employees in order to promote collaboration. The successful leader knows how to lead by using superior values, principles and goals that fit the organization’s values, principles and goals. Also these leaders know that leadership is not made from authority, it’s made from trust and followership. Coleman, J., Gulati, & Segovia, W.O. (2012)

I am impressed most by the characteristics of the authentic leader because they know how to develop themselves; they use formal and informal support networks to get honest feedback in order to drive long-term results. Authentic leaders build support teams to help them stay on course and counsel them in times of uncertainty. George, B., Sims, P., Mclean, A.N. & Mayer D. (2007)

In addition, I found the Leadership Code to be important because it provides structure and guidance and helps one to be a better leader by not emphasizing one element of leadership over another. Some focus on the importance of vision for the future; others on executing in the present; others on personal charisma and character; others on engaging people’; and others on building long-term organization. The code represents about 60 to 70 percent of what makes an effective leader. Ulrich, D., Smallwood, N., Sweetman, K. (2008)

The information that I acquired from this course will help me to pursue the goal of owning a beauty supply business. Another goal that I can add to my action plan is to include not only wigs and welted hair, but I will add hair, skin and nail products to my inventory. A future goal will be to add handbags and accessories as well.

After completing my short-term goal of finishing my MBA, I can take the knowledge from this course along with my values, ethics and principles to help me to manage employees and operate a successful business. Annie Smith (March 2, 20

Coleman, J. G. (2012). Educating young leaders. Passion and Purpose , 197-202.

George, B. S. (2007). Discovering your authentic leadership. Harvard Business Review , 129-138.

Lyons, R. (2012). Dean of Haas of School of Business University of California, Berkely. It’s made from followership. (J. G. Cole, Interviewer) Coleman, J., Gulati, D., & Segovia, W.O.

Ulrich, D. S. (2008). Five rules of leadership. In The leadership code five rules to lead by. Defining Leadership Code , 1-24.

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Family presence during CPR (cardiopulmonary resuscitation) popular mba argumentative essay help

In a pre-hospital setting, there are few moments that are as intense as the events that take place when trying to save a life. Family presence during these resuscitation efforts has become an important and controversial issue in health care settings. Family presence during cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) is a relatively new issue in healthcare. Before the advent of modern medicine, family members were often present at the deathbed of their loved ones. A dying person’s last moments were most often controlled by his or her family in the home rather than by medical personnel (Trueman, History of Medicine). Today, families are demanding permission to witness resuscitation events. Members of the emergency medical services are split on this issue, noting benefits but also potentially negative consequences to family presence during resuscitation efforts.

A new study has found that family members who observed resuscitation efforts were significantly less likely to experience symptoms of post-traumatic stress, anxiety and depression than family members that did not. The results, published in an online article in The New England Journal of Medicine, entitled ‘Family Presence during Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation,’ were the same regardless of the survival of the patient. The study involved 570 people in France whose family members were treated by emergency medical personnel at home. These EMS teams were unique in that they were comprised of a physician, a nurse trained in emergency medicine, and two emergency medical technicians. The study found that the presence of relatives did not affect the results of CPR, nor did it increase the stress levels of the emergency medical teams. Having family present also did not result in any legal claims after the incidents occured. While the unique limitations of the study warrant consideration, the results show a definite benefit in having families stay during CPR (Jabre Family Presence).

Historically, although parents of children have been allowed to be present for various reasons, relatives of adult patients have not. As medical practices change to increasingly involve family in the care of patients, growing numbers of emergency medical practitioners say that giving relatives the option of watching CPR can be a good idea. Several national organizations, including The American Heart Association, have revised their policies to call for giving family members the option of being present during CPR (AHA Guidelines for CPR). Witnessing CPR, say some emergency medical experts and family members, can take the mystery out of what could be a potentially terrifying experience. It can provide reassurance to family members that everything is being done to save their loved ones. It also can offer closure for relatives wanting to be with their family members until the last minute (Kirkland Lasting Benefit). Another benefit is that it shows people why reviving someone in cardiac arrest is much less likely than people assume from watching it being done on television (Ledermann Family Presence During). Family members who can truly understand what it means to ‘do everything possible’ can go on to make more informed decisions about end-of-life care for themselves or their families.

There are three perspectives on this issue- that of the emergency medical personnel providing care, the family, and the patients. The resistance on the part of the medical community to family presence during CPR stems from several different concerns. The most common concern among these is that family members, when faced with overwhelming fear, stress and grief, could disrupt or delay active CPR. Another concern raised by emergency medical personnel is that the realities of CPR may simply be too traumatic for loved ones, causing them to suffer more than they potentially would have if they had never witnessed the event. Some families share this view, citing the potential for extreme distress as a main reason for not wanting to witness resuscitation (Grice Study examining attitudes). Many emergency medical personnel also fear an increased risk of liability and litigation with family members present in the room (Fullbrook the Presence of Family). The worry is that errors can occur, inappropriate comments may be made, and the actions of the personnel involved may be misinterpreted. In an already tense situation, the awareness of the family could increase the anxiety of the personnel and create a greater potential for mistakes.

Another complication that arises from having families present during resuscitation attempts is that of patient confidentiality. The patient’s right to privacy should not be circumvented with implied consent. There is always the possibility that medical information previously unknown to the family may be revealed in the chaos of resuscitation. In addition, patient dignity, whether physical or otherwise, may become compromised (Fullbrook the Presence of Family). Beyond moral considerations, legal concerns regarding revealing patient information are real. This could become an even larger issue if there is no one available to screen witnesses, which could result in unrelated people gaining access to personal information. Eventually, a breach in confidentiality can lead to a breach in the confidence that the public has gained in pre-hospital emergency care.

Family presence during CPR in a pre-hospital setting remains a highly debatable topic. This could be largely due to the fact that the needs of the emergency medical providers and the rights of the patients can be at odds with the wishes of the family members. Although there are several possible reasons why family presence is not being welcomed into daily practice, one of the major reasons could be the lack of formal written policies that define the roles of families and providers placed into this situation. Bringing family members into a situation where CPR is being performed on a loved one should not happen haphazardly. It should happen with careful concern and support for everyone involved. Policies and protocols, defined by experienced personnel, can provide legal and emotional support. They can also potentially help ease anxiety by defining expectations and placing responsibility in the hands of people who are experienced enough to know how to handle the situation appropriately. The policies and protocols should address the basic needs of all people involved. Five basic needs should be addressed:

1. The number of people allowed to be present

2. Which relatives should be allowed to be present (age, relationship, etc.)

3. The role of the family members present and what is expected of them.

4. The place where the family should remain during the duration of CPR.

5. The formal wishes of the patient- written as a directive like a living will.

An important component of this is available, trained staff that can prepare the family members for what they will witness, support them through the event, and then direct them after the event’s conclusion.

The American Heart Association states that the goals of cardiopulmonary resuscitation are, ‘to preserve life, restore health, relieve suffering, limit disability, and respect the individual’s decisions rights and privacy’ (AHA Guidelines for CPR). The practice of offering family members the opportunity to be present during CPR is a controversial ethical issue in emergency medical services. While the results of the study published on this topic in The New England Journal of Medicine clearly show no negative side effects from having families present during resuscitation attempts, the limitations of the study lend to the need for more research before it could be universally accepted.

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Respondeat Superior college admission essay help houston tx

Legal claims that derive from a situation where there are claims of negligence can sometimes involve an entity other than the neglectful parties. In certain circumstances employers are fully responsible for their employees, and the tasks they perform during working hours. During the course of this paper, the doctrine of respondeat superior will be defined and explained. Two case studies in which the doctrine was applied will also be analyzed to determine if it was applied correctly.

Respondeat superior is a legal theory that holds employers responsible for any negligent or harmful act performed by an employee during the commission of their employment duties (Thornton, 2010). The Maryland Supreme Court in 1951 was the first court to utilize respondeat superior in a court case involving a question of employer liability (Burns, 2011). This doctrine is important as it holds employers liable in court cases where one of its employees does harm to an individual. Vicarious liability and indirect liability are two base concepts that make-up respondeat superior (Thornton, 2010). Respondeat superior shows that the employer did not have to be responsible for the employee???s negligent behavior, in the form of improper training or instruction to perform harmful acts, in order for the employer to be held legally responsible.

In the case of Valle v. City of Houston, the police force was sued for excessive force and an illegal search in an attempt to remove an individual from his parent???s home (Nicholl & Kelly, 2012). The situation stemmed from a man, Omar Esparza, barricading himself in his parent???s home and refusing to come out (p. 285). After a long police standoff, the SWAT team was ordered to forcefully enter the home and remove Mr. Esparza (p. 285). The SWAT team utilized taser gun and bean bag ammunition in an attempt to subdue Mr. Esparza after they felt he posed a physical threat by wielding a hammer, but as those attempts failed the suspect was fatally wounded when an officer fired his weapon (p. 286). Shortly after the incident the mother was allowed into the home, and she reported no visible evidence that her son was possession of a hammer (p. 286). The court found that the city was not liable for damages under the theory of respondeat superior, because the order to remove the individual from the home was not made by an individual deemed as a decision-maker by the city (p. 286).

From the outside, this case seems to fit the theory of respondeat superior. As the employer, the city should be held responsible for the actions of its employees. The police, serving as the city???s employees acted in a manner that was unnecessary for the situation and in conflict of their training (p. 286). However, the court sided with the City of Houston because the chain of command was not followed in regards to the use of force (p. 286). The end result is a case where an individual made a decision that was not his to make; that ultimately cost a man his life.

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Money Markets College Essay Help

Money market refers to the investment in short term because the assets which are bought and sold with maturities within a year. Normally, they can be converted into cash easily. The examples of money market’s instruments are bank deposits, certificates of deposit, interbank loans, money market mutual funds, commercial paper, treasury bills, and securities lending and repurchase agreements (repos). (Dodd, R., 2012). Interbank loans are loans between banks which are not secured by collateral. Commercial paper is a promissory note as an unsecured debt that issued by highly rated banks and some large non-financial corporations. Some safer investments in the money market are treasury bills and repurchase agreements (repos). T-bills are securities issued by the government with maturities of less than a year as it is covered by securities laws while Repos are usually less than two weeks and often overnight. Besides that, money market mutual fund (MMMFs) is another instrument in money market which are securities offered by companies that invest in other money market instruments. Furthermore, asset-backed commercial paper (ABCP) is another money market instrument which is safer compare to the ordinary commercial papers because it is secured by the underlying assets. During financial crisis, these money market instruments are greatly affected and show a big downturn. They are helped by the country treasury and the federal reserved. These agencies created special lending for them to overcome the crisis. Today, some of the money market like ABCP and REPO has shrunk dramatically. (Dodd, R., 2012).

The interest rates and calendar-time effects do affect both the MMFs and bank deposits cash flow for either the institutional or retail investors. (Kotomin,V., et al., 2014) The research found out that institutional money fund investors appear to take advantage of arbitrage opportunities created by the MMFs using the amortized cost valuation technique. A key test variable is used which call ‘Spread’. It is used to measure the direction and magnitude of changes in short-term interest rates and thus capture potential arbitrage opportunities in the money markets arising due to recent changes in interest rates. When Spread is positive, investors would earn a higher rate of return in the alternative investment but when Spread is negative, investors will earn a higher return in MMFs. This shows Spread and MMF flows have a negative relation. (Kotomin,V., et al., 2014) The research on calendar-time effect found out that calendar time effects make money market investors are willing to forego some return to strategically time their cash flows to meet calendar-based cash obligations. Both retail and institutional MMFs moved cash out of MMFs before calendar break points associated with cash obligations and move back into MMFs following the break points. The cash which taken out from the MMFs tend to flow into bank demand deposits. (Kotomin,V., et al., 2014).

The average maturity of the fund will be shortened in order to increase the yield faster if the interest rates are expected to increase and vice versa. Therefore, managers who possessed this ability to anticipate forthcoming movements in the market are able to address the adverse impact and exploit the opportunities available. (Mansur, I., Odusami, B., & Nasseh, A, 2011) The data being used in this study are weekly 90-day T-bill yields and weekly one-month AA financial CP rates. Besides that, they also obtained the weekly weighted average maturity (WAM) on all taxable MMMFs. The results show that weekly changes in WAM have a negative correlation with changes in CP yields and there is no relationship between changes in WAM and changes in T-bill yields. Then, further investigation is made to find out the relationship between interest rates and WAM by applying Granger causality tests. The results showed that the T-bill market is highly efficient. This is because investors cannot gain any deeper understanding by analyzing the maturity structure of MMMFs for information that is not reflected in the T-bill rates.(Mansur, I., Odusami, B., &Nasseh, A, 2011).

There are two theories for bank run their subject of academic and regulatory which are Diamond and Dybvig and the second theory is run in rationally driven by information. The prime money fund is category to give the explanation about covariates of the money fund run, because this category is by far and is most effective by the money fund crisis. The institutional investor moved their money in the same time or later one day in or out of prime money market, especially in the complex within same fund. Besides that, we also find that investment is sensitive no easy to liquidity the money fund holding; correlated flow less happen money fund with greater level of security mutual period is short ‘term. In the other hand, the money fund runs at ‘deep pocket backing’ ,this is indicate with investor infer the fund is guaranteed by their management company and the institution investor, for the most part, moved their money into the U.S government .

According to Fecht, Gr??ner and Hartmann (2007) banks contribute to inter-regional risk sharing. They recommend that the risk sharing depends on the size of the interbank market through secured and unsecured interbank trading. Using LIBOR for some currencies, Kotomin et al. (2008) mentioned the liquidity preference at the end of the year or trimester is the main factor that drives the interest rates’ behavior on short term. Cerrato et al. (2010) discovered that the Euro zone monetary policy is transmitted into CEE interest rates by the framework of the influence of global monetary shocks. Besides, they discovered the presence of structural breaks at the beginning of financial crisis for almost all rates which present long memory. The long run equilibrium relationship between the overnight rates and the corresponding 1 month and 3 month rate was found. From Gregory-Hansen test, these are valid in the presence of a structural break in integrating relationship between the interbank money markets.

The risk-taking behaviour of money market funds during the financial crisis of 2007-2010 was examined by Kacperczyk, M. and Schnabl, P. (December 2012). Starting at August 2007, money funds experienced an extension in their risk-taking opportunities. The analysis shows that ‘fund flows are extremely responsive to past returned and one-standard-deviation increase in fund returns raises annualized fund assets by 46%.’ which makes money market funds had strong incentives to take on risk. (Kacperczyk, M. and Schnabl, P.) The characteristic that predicts risk taking is if fund sponsors has interests in businesses (business concerns) who will reduce risk and a fund sponsor’s financial strength who found that greater financial strength increases risk taking. Other (unobserved) sponsor characteristics, like quality of risk management, risk aversion, investment style, or access to private information would directly affect risk taking. In September 2008, the government introduced unlimited deposit insurance, which effectively replaced the sponsors’ role in providing support that makes the differences in risk taking become smaller. Money market funds lack safety relative to other safe instruments because when the opportunity increases the incentives to take on risk is high but they are vulnerable to runs once the risk materializes.

The demand deposit contracts in open-end mutual fund are same with the bank which can cause the investor withdraw the money from time to time. The higher return was provided by evidence that pursuit to motivate the investors reacting to bad by withdrawing the money. The fund can outperform from the other fund as long as liquidity in the higher market by investing illiquid asset. When investing less liquid asset, the narrow structure of money market fund and make them weak to run. The study also included the risks which involve in investment in illiquid assets when the open-ended structure is involved. Besides that, it was present the run are possible in the money market. The financial intermediaries were given to reform the regulation of the money market fund in U.S and Europe to archive the target for stability the money market fund. Before financial crisis, there only have limited information about asset composition of German money market fund was able to the public and not standardized. The insurance provide with a fund issuer might play on the important role in the stability of money market fund. Money market also is a set large remain stable in the U.S where an implicit insurance is provided.

The sterling overnight money market is important to implement the monetary policy. The development of sterling overnight markets can be sum up into an increased sensitivity of bank liquidity risk and credit risk, introduction of the ‘floor’ system; reduced volatility in overnight interest rates after introducing floor’ system, a drop and growth in unsecured and secured money market activity respectively, introduction of international prudential liquidity regulations andchanging incentives to arbitrage overnight interest rates.(Jackson, C., &Sim, M, 2013). The Bank has introduced a ‘floor system, whereby all reserves account balances were recompense at Bank Rate. Banks preferred to transact among themselves instead of using the money market to manage liquidity which shows that they are more sensitive to credit and liquidity risk. The unsecured interbank trading has dropped drastically after the introduction of the floor system and increase in reserves. After the reinforcement of prudential liquidity regulation, banks have dramatically reduced their use of wholesale unsecured market. They use a longer-term funding combine and hold reserves at the central bank to manage liquidity needs (Jackson, C., &Sim, M, 2013).

The markets for federal funds and Eurodollars are the two core components of the dollar money market which relate for both financial analysis and the execution of monetary policy. The degree of integration of the federal funds and the Eurodollar markets is also important for the implement and transmission of monetary policy. This paper provides a detailed analysis of the extent of integration of the markets for federal funds and for Eurodollar deposit by using a new set of transactional-level data which gained from one of the largest U.S based dollar markets brokers and detailed empirical modelling of the daily and intra-day behaviour of federal fund and Eurodollar interest spread. Besides that, this paper also significant the liquidity effects of money market. The higher money market trading volume lowers the volatility of spreads which keeping federal funds and Eurodollar yields more close. Furthermore, daily news on money market conditions as captured by results of morning Federal Reserve open market auctions are absorbed quickly within a couple of hours into yield spreads was shown. Close integration of federal funds and Eurodollar trading has two immediate implications which are from the standpoint of financial analysis and the standpoint of policy design and analysis of the transmission of monetary policy.

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Literature review: Defining services high school essay help

LITERATURE REVIEW – Defining services. The services marketing literature contains many definitions of services.

Christian Gr??nroos (2000, p. 46) defines a service as ‘ a process consisting of a series of more or less intangible activities that normally, but not necessarily always, take place in interactions between the customer and the service employees and/or physical resources or goods and/or systems of the service provider, which are provided as solutions to customer problems’.

Philip Kotler (1991) defines services as: ‘any act or performance that one party can offer to another one that is essentially intangible and does not result in the ownership of anything. It’s production may or may not be tied to a physical product.

However, there are some common features in all of these definitions. At first, these commonalities refer to the fact that services deal with something that is intangible. This means that it is difficult to hold or to stock services.

Services are originally intangibles and relatively quickly perishables activities whose buying, which does not lead to material possession, takes place in an interactive process aimed at creating customer satisfaction.

The nature of service

In general, services are intangibles. The intangibility feature is most dominant when defining services. It determines the other characteristics of services; simultaneous production and consumption, heterogeneity and perishability. Given the lack of material possession, the inability to own a service is also considered to be a characteristics of services. Consequently, creating a service usually requires the presence and participation of the customer during the production and consumption of the service. This two-sided human influence on the service often leads to a fluctuating quality of the service. Thus, controlling service quality, motivating employee to deliver service quality and the introduction of technology (especially ICT) are some of the important ways to avoid heterogeneity in service quality.

These characteristics of services are frequently referred to as the five I’s of services. Berkowitz et al. (1986, pp.608-610) discussed the four I’s which are intangibility, inseparability, inconsistency, inventory and the fifth I, the inability to own based on the 2004 Lovelock and Gummesson article. Each of these characteristics are considered to be relative and exist in all services, but some will be more important than others depending on the service.

‘ Intangibility : as a degree of intangibility

‘ Inseperability :as a degree of simultaneous production and consumption

‘ Inconsistency : as a degree of heterogeneity

‘ Inventory : as a degree of perishability; and

‘ Inability : as a degree of the lack of ownership

What is quality

The application of quality to the management of services is very important and the way that it has been achieved is to drawn upon and adapt a number of approaches already in use in other contexts. Before we can investigate service quality specifically, we need to understand the various definitions and approaches to quality that exist in the wider social and business environment. This will allow some understanding of where current issues in the application of quality to services have arisen. We know that quality can be viewed from many different points of view. Garvin (1988) presented five different approaches quality is viewed as well as providing a framework for appreciating some of the problems associated with service quality. These different ways of looking at quality are :

‘ Transcendent-based

‘ Attribute-based

‘ User-based

‘ Manufacturing-based

‘ Value-based

Transcendent-based quality

According to this approach quality cannot always be defined and is partly the result of individual rather than shared experienced. This ability to understand what something is but not be able to describe it is characteristic of something known as an ‘ epiphenomenon ‘. The way we get around this problem is to use either comparators or attributes.

Attribute-based quality

Quality is zero defects ‘ doing it right the first time (Parasuraman, Zeithaml and Berry, 1985).

The attribute-based approach maintains that quality is a direct outcome of the number of features or attributes of a product. The product with more attractive attributes is higher quality. This approach suggests that quality is an objective and absolute terms and therefore measurable. The problem is that is the characteristics of services prevent ‘ side by side ‘ comparison. Similarly, even if you could identify all the attributes of the services you were assessing, your assessment wouldn’t be completed until the service ended, or the service benefit is reveal.

User-based quality

Quality is the fitness for use, the extent to which the product successfully serves the purpose of the user during usage (Juran, 1974).

The problem of course is that this approach to quality is highly subjective because every user has a different view of quality. In reality we are dealing with perceived quality, which is not a totally reliable indicator of actual quality.

Manufacturing-based quality

Quality is conformance to requirements (Crosby, 1983).

Quality following this approach is considered entirely in terms of conformance to a previously set standards.

Value-based quality

Quality is exceeding what customers expect from the service (Zeithaml, Parasuraman and Berry, 1990).

The value based approach sees quality simply as a function of customer benefit relative to price or cost.

DIMENSIONS OF SERVICE QUALITY

Parasuraman, Zeithaml and Berry (1985) identified ten determinants of service that may relate to any service : reliability, responsiveness, competence, access, courtesy, communication, credibility, security, understanding/Knowing the customer, and tangibles.

Later, in 1988 these ten determinants were boiled down to five by the same authors : tangibles, reliability, responsiveness, assurance, and emphathy

Gr??nross (1988) has suggested six criteria, five of which is the same as those previously cited, and whereas the sixth adds an essential dimension which is recovery.

Reliability, responsiveness, assurance and empathy are business values that foster patronage and profitability. Likewise, corporate branding or imaging is increasingly becoming a vital point of success for companies. As such, the company that recognises the value of service quality not only ensures customer loyalty but also stands out in an increasingly competitive business environment.

THE IMPORTANCE AND IMPACT OF SERVICE QUALITY

Customers will always look for quality. Quality is one of the main drives of customer satisfaction. Therefore quality is a natural pursue for any organisation seeking a source of competitive advantage. However when you think about it a bit more, you start to realise that this oversimplifies what is a complex issue. For example, what is quality? Can every customer see it? If so, is it the same for every customer? How does it relate to the price paid or the value extracted from the service? In the case of physical goods which have a degree of standardisation and are able to be compare, these issues are complicated enough. When applied to service, where the product is heterogeneous, intangible, inseparable, perishable, and difficult to own, quality become very difficult to comprehend and even more difficult to implement and manage.

For any organisation, improving the quality of their service costs money and so they need to know where to focus resource to make the best impact. They need to understand the relationship between investment in service quality and the return on that investment, through profitability or loyalty for example. Put simply, most organisations are seeking to deliver the highest quality of service to the largest number of customers over the longest period of time at the lowest unit cost. For the customer, quality is perception and like most perceptions differs in subtle ways from objective reality. Before consumption, it is generally understood that customer perception is a function of their prior experience with the service or similar services, their individual opinion, reaction to other people’s opinions and communications such as advertising. Taken together these combine to generate expectation about the service performance. During consumption, customers react to service delivery events, such as the attitude of sales staff, the environment where the service is delivered, the involvement in service delivery, or the behaviour of other customers. Finally after consumption there is a process of reflection on the outcome, and assessment of the service, such as education or health services, in respect of its enduring value. These are just some of the issues which make the study and implementation of service quality intellectually and managerially challenging.

Given the problems of pursuing quality for a service organisation one might question whether it is worth the effort but service quality is not pursued as an outcome in its own right but because of its association with satisfaction and through this to profitability and customer retention. Current research has expanded the range of potential benefit from a high quality service to include:

‘ Creating competitive advantage by insulating customers from competitors. This is due to customer inertia. If the service delivered is perceived to be of equal or higher quality than that of competitors then there is no motivation for customers to defect regardless of poaching tactics.

‘ Lowering customer recruitment costs occurs due to positive word of mouth from existing customer who provide a free recruitment service for the organisations fortunate enough to have satisfied customers. Equally, by spending less on attracting new customers marketing expenditure can be directed at ensuring existing customers are happy.

‘ Promoting positive word of mouth and reputation occurs as customers talk the service to others. Customers regularly poll other people in their work and social networks about consumption experiences looking for re-assurance that their provider is as good as everyone else’s, looking for status associated with having found a better provider than others and looking for alternative suppliers if current businesses are not providing satisfaction.

‘ Improved financial performance is a natural corollary of increase customer loyalty, reduce customer recruitment spend and positive word of mouth.

‘ Reduced staff turnover although widely canvassed as only limited empirical support. However, the argument goes that as customer are more satisfied and less likely to complaint they also exhibit ‘helping’ behaviour and are more forgiving of service failure, and the extended time available through higher loyalty rates allows for more enduring service relationship.

These benefits represent substantial advantage to an organisation that can provide a service of quality. The problem of course is how to do it.

MODELS FOR UNDERSTANDING AND MEASURING SERVICE QUALITY

Various approaches have been developed for understanding and measuring service quality. Some examples are :

‘ The disconfirmation model (Oliver, 1980)

‘ The perceived quality model (Gr??nroos, 1982a, 1982b)

‘ The SERVQUAL model (Parasuraman, Zeithaml and Berry, 1988)

‘ The SixSigma designed by Motorola

While it would be desirable to review all the approaches to service quality we will focus upon those which have the greatest applicability and widest uses in business and academic circles. The models the researcher has chosen are:

‘ The disconfirmation model (Oliver, 1980)

‘ The SERVQUAL model (Parasuraman, Zeithaml and Berry, 1988)

The disconfirmation model (Oliver, 1980)

It is important to recognise that customers approach events, including purchases, with some expectation of what will occur. For example, if someone invites you to a party, you may not know what will happen precisely, but you will have some expectations of what will happen.

When we actually experience an event or service transaction, we understand it through our perception of what happened and we assess the situation. The service is relative to what we expected. We experience Positive Disconfirmation if what we experienced was better than expected, Confirmation if same as expected and Negative Disconfirmation if worse than expected. Because of the emphasis on differences between expectations and perceptions, this type of model is often referred to as a Disconfirmation Model.

The SERVQUAL model (Parasuraman, Zeithaml and Berry, 1988)

The SERVQUAL approach to service quality engineered the most profound shift in our understanding of both consumer and organisational responses to the problem of managing service quality. A consistent theme in the field of service quality is the problem of identifying what comprises a service in order to determine the dimensions of the service which customers used to assess quality. The SERVQUAL started by trying to develop a more comprehensive understanding of service quality dimensions. The original qualitative interviews produced a set of ten dimensions:

‘ Tangibles ‘ the appearance of physical facilities, equipment, personnel, etc.

‘ Reliability ‘ ability to perform the service dependably and accurately

‘ Responsiveness ‘ willingness to help customers

‘ Competence ‘ possession of the require skill/ knowledge to perform the service

‘ Courtesy ‘ politeness, respect, consideration and friendliness

‘ Credibility ‘ trustworthiness, believability and honesty

‘ Security ‘ freedom from danger

‘ Access ‘ approachability and ease of contact

‘ Communication ‘ keeping customers informed

‘ Understanding ‘ Making an effort to know customers

Later the ten dimensions were collapse into five. They are often referred to as the RATER dimensions :

Reliability ‘ dependability of service provider, accuracy of performance.

Assurance ‘ knowledge & courtesy of employees, ability to inspire trust & confidence.

Tangibles ??- including physical components of the service, e.g, seating, lighting and so on.

Empathy – caring, individualised attention the firm gives to its customers.

Responsiveness – promptness and helpfulness.

The SERVQUAL instrument is made up of 22 items that measure customer’s expectations and a corresponding set that measure customer’s perceptions of a service. It is based on the premise that service quality is the variance that arises by comparing customer’s expectation with what they perceive they got from a specific service provider in that sector (Parasuraman et al. 1988). They developed SERVQUAL with purpose of measuring customer’s perceptions of service quality along the five dimensions.

The Gap model of Service quality

The figure below shows the “GAP” model of service quality from Parasuraman et al. (Zeithaml & Bitner 1996). This model offers an integrated view of the consumer-company relationship. It is based on substantial research amongst a number of service providers. In common with the Gr??nroos model it shows the perception gap (Gap 5) and outlines contributory factors. In this case expected service is a function of word of mouth communication, personal need and past experience, and perceived service is a product of service delivery and external communications to consumers.

‘ Parasuraman et al. GAP model (Zeithaml 1996)

LIMITATION OF THE SERQUAL MODEL

Clearly, the SERVQUAL instrument has been extensively adopted by several academic researchers and practitioners worldwide to measure service quality. The previously mentioned academic research studies are examples of this. However, regardless of its extensive use, numerous theoretical, operational, conceptual, and empirical criticisms of the measurement instrument have been identified and mentioned (Buttle, 1996; Van Dyke et al., 1997, 1999; Ladhari, 2008).

Buttle (1996) identified several theoretical and operational criticisms of SERVQUAL. He argued that theoretically SERVQUAL is founded on the basis of an expectation-disconfirmation model instead of an attitudinal model. Moreover, it is not based on a well-known established economic, statistical, psychological theory or background. In terms of the gap analysis, there are a few supports that customers evaluate service quality on the basis of perception-minus-expectation scores. Furthermore, SERVQUAL stress and emphasise the process of service delivery rather than the endings and the outcomes of the service encounter. From an operational perspective, he stated that consumers evaluate service quality on the basis of standards other than expectations. Also, he argued that it is not possible to capture the changeability of each service quality dimension by four or five items.

Van Dyke et al. (1997, 1999) recognised a number of conceptual and empirical criticisms of SERVQUAL. Conceptually, they criticised using two different instruments for measuring two different concepts (perceptions and expectations) to measure a third concept (perceived service quality). Instead, they argued that direct measurement of perceived service quality is more reliable. Moreover, they argued on the uncertainty of the expectations construct as different definitions and views of the concept resulted from uncertainly defined concept. Empirically, they argued that SERVQUAL has a number of empirical problems including low reliability and unstable dimensionality.

Ladhari (2008) summarised a list of theoretical and empirical criticisms of the model. First, he argued that the use of gap scores is not the right method because of the lack of the support in literature to consumers evaluating service quality in terms of perception-minus-expectation. He stated that it has been recommended that service quality is more precisely and correctly evaluated by measuring only perceptions of quality. On the other hand, he mentioned that the concept expectation is not well defined and can be interpreted from different perspectives; as a result, the operationalisation of SERVQUAL may have different interpretations as well. In addition, he pointed out that previous research suggested using perception-only scores rather than gap scores for the overall assessment of service quality. Last but not least, he emphasised that previous research studies criticise SERVQUAL for its focus on the process of service delivery instead of the result and the outcome of service encounters.

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Performance my essay help uk

Those who ever performed on stage could never forget their first time, as it is memorable for varied and numerous reasons, regardless of its being a successful or an embarrassing experience. However, for me, as a former dancer, the most memorable and powerful moment occurred before the actual performance. It was rather when I first entered the rehearsal room full of girls and boys of my age, evidently sharing the same feeling of excitement and anticipation of something new and compelling. From the very first moment, when our instructor made us sit in a circle on the floor and started to teach us a beautiful song from the hundreds of years old Hungarian village of M??ra to ease the tension and comfort us with his soft and calming voice, I knew that this was the group I belonged to with my whole heart. The steps, the motifs and other elements of movement we started to learn later that night along with the traditional folk music accompaniment made this feeling even deeper, and I knew that this room with the old wooden floor and the mirrors all around would be my second home. From that night on I have always felt that without the knowledge of this ethnic tradition in music and dance and the actual practicing of it, my ‘Hungarianness’ would not be round. Besides our unique language that can hardly be related to any other language in the world, this heritage makes me feel truly Hungarian.

I was drawn to this present project by my personal experience and the interest towards the ways in which the ethnic identity of cultural groups other than mine is articulated and formed through the preservation and recreation of traditional movement patterns. This paper is also inspired by the fascination I feel about dance, let it be ethnic, modern, concert, folk or classic. In addition, dances that combine elements from different genres, thereby representing various human categories, always bring great awe and provide the richest field of research in historic, social and aesthetic sense, and this is another reason why I chose to research into how Black tradition in dance ‘ African and Afro-Caribbean – contributed to the formation of African-American ethnic identity in the 20th century.

The universality of dance has long been recognized by scholars and artists, however for long dance was only considered from a theatrical and entertainment point of view. The comparative analysis of its different forms and its significance historically, sociologically, biologically and psychologically only emerged in the mid 20th century when it became the subject of interest to anthropologists, ethnologists and psychologists. This essay wishes to contribute to the field of dance research within the discipline of cultural studies by pointing to the social and artistic significance of dancer-anthropologist, Katherine Dunham’s Caribbean research.

Both the original recordings of Dunham’s fieldwork and her choreographies demonstrate the ways in which the elements of movement patterns produce cultural differences that contribute to the articulation and construction of Black ‘diaspora’ identity in dance. On the one hand, these dance pieces are a presentation of her fieldwork findings as a trained anthropologist and the preservation of a rich heritage; on the other hand, they are fascinating pieces of visual art by which, along with her own dance technique, she contributed to the Modern Dance idiom in the United States. Besides the fact that Katherine Dunham’s talent as dancer and choreographer was outstanding, her work seems to be the perfect choice to serve as primary source for my research, because between 1937 and 1945 Dunham established a ‘research-to-performance’ method to which her first dance company was exposed. She used this method of scholarly inquiry as a means to recreate the memory of regional dances among her dancers and a variety of audiences in North America and abroad.

As Anthea Kraut asserts Dunham’s work helps to illuminate how dancing bodies participate in historical change. It has widely been accepted that the body is the primary locus for construction of identity, thus dance studies has become a highly valued academic discipline. Placing dance forms and practices center of investigation of changing formulations of racial identity has historicized dance as a cultural practice.

In this thesis I read the Caribbean bodily movements and the choreographic pieces as social text to understand how social identities are signaled, formed and negotiated through dance, as well as to analyze how these social identities are codified in dance styles. My approach is based on Jane Desmond’s theory on movement style as an important mode of distinction between social groups.

In the first chapter I give a brief overview of the history of Dance Studies as a separate arena along with its main approaches and research methodology. I will argue that this palette can be extended to different methods that were established to serve analysis in Cultural Studies. I will indicate to what extent Erwin Panofsky’s three-tiered analysis is appropriate to close read dacne, as it was originally developed to analyze static pieces of art.

Chapter two discusses the problem of African-American dance in the framework of expressing black identity. Based on Desmond’s claim that movement and performance styles are denotative of social/ethnic relations by tracing the history of dance styles and their spread from one group to another, we can uncover ideologies attached to movement patterns.

Chapter three will put the theory in chapter one into practice. I will look at Katherine Dunham’s choreography, L’Ag’Ya to isolate elements of black tradition ‘ African and Afro-Caribbean – and to explore how Black ‘diaspora’ identity is articulated through this choreography based on the Caribbean tradition. I adopt the analytical approach developed by Erwin Panofsky; specifically, his three-tiered method of analysis (iconology), in order to understand how certain movement patterns negotiate and construct African-American ethnic identity in L’Ag’Ya. The first stage is the ‘pre-iconographic’ interpretation , which is the perception of the work’s pure form without any added cultural knowledge. The secondary or ‘iconographical’ interpretation connects artistic motifs or groups of motifs identified generically in the pre-iconographic analysis with traditional themes and concepts. Finally, the tertiary level or ‘iconological’ interpretation considers social and cultural history. Knowing cultural history and background of different social groups and their distinctions is crucial for understanding the dance expression. I look at this piece not as isolated incidents but as evidence of a historical, cultural environment.

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Placement compare and contrast essay help

The Placement I chose was with The Garden Team, Sunbeam House Services (S.H.S), which is based off the Veveay Road, Bray, Co Wicklow .This location is a day service which provides a day centre facility to a number of adults with intellectual disabilities.

The S.H.S ethos and philosophy aim to empower people within their care with the necessary skills to live full and satisfying lives as equal citizens of their local communities. The Garden Team day service focus is on the individual, their growth, development and care. The individual is encouraged and empowered to pursue their goals, dreams and aspirations on an ongoing basis. The Sunbeam organisation, via The Garden Team, in partnership with the individual implement supports to facilitate realisation of their service users goals and aspirations.

A quality system known within the organisation as personal outcomes ensures that the organisation provides service to and for its service users based on the principles of basic assurances, shared values, responsive services and community life. The main role of this system is that the individual???s personal preferences are supported and their personal choices facilitated. S.H.S is also committed to forging links with other organisations in order to ensure their service users goals and aspirations are met.

My Role within this placement was to shadow existing staff, assist them with whatever activities they undertook with the service users attending the day service and interact with the same said service users as and when they attended this day service. This interaction required communication skills such as active listening and non-verbal communication. Social care practice requires me to participate in reinforcing daily social skills such as interpersonal greeting and adherence to social norms. This practice involved daily rituals around breakfast in the day service involving everyone attending the service, such as staff, students and service users greeting each other appropriately, catching up on what each other had done the previous night /weekend .This is an idea opportunity for the staff to touch base with some of the service users who come from troubled backgrounds and also to judge the mood of the service users and through this they can detect when there is an issue that may need to be resolved.

The Garden Team placement ethos is based on the work ethic, social norms and personal outcomes of the individual service user. This is to ensure that the service users both individually and as a group have daily, weekly and long term goals to work towards .The service users have a keyworker within The Garden Team their role is to assist the service user and support them to achieve their personal outcomes.

A long term goal for a service user might be their wish to live independently as they may currently be living in the family home or in a residential service, this long term goal would be broken up into shorter term goals such as budgeting, social skills, personal hygiene and personal shopping this would all take place of a period of time and with each new skill

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Universal healthcare essay help cheap

Universal healthcare it is a primary right or a privilege, It has many flaws in various countries and limited access to outrages expenses in MRI’s, long awaiting periods for surgical procedures. Many people have their care delayed and their medical condition gets much worse and can no longer receive treatment. In Germany healthcare is higher in taxes and have no problems receiving medical care. The French claim their salary is way lower as an employer and are required to pay in order to have national healthcare system and their care needed is always available. The American Journal of Public health confirms that 45,000 people die each year in the United States because of no Health Insurance. Yes, we have a right to healthcare.

Universal healthcare goal is to have people live in better health and protect from over charged care for medical hardships with billing. The uninsured are the main ones, who need Universal healthcare. People who make too, much money from working don’t qualify for Medicaid and end up with financial hardship and aren’t able to get the care needed for their health. The common issue for all universal healthcare programs is they need some form of government connection. The law determines what type of care is available and how the coverage will be paid. Many people choose to support the system known as a single payer health insurance. It’s when the government funds the healthcare and does not supply the care, Just like Medicare and Medicaid.

The poor people can’t afford healthcare and live in much worse environments and have more medical problems. We as Citizens of the United States have rights to Healthcare and our health is jeopardized by not being able to pay for insurance. People who work are struggling to pay for healthcare and have health conditions that need medical attention. Due to lack of work for health issue some people lose their jobs and are forced to file bankruptcy. This is why poor people are struggling in the economy and are forced to live in bad health. The right to healthcare should be a civil right. People should not be categorized by their illness and have financial problems paying for their medical treatments. Americans that are poor have bad health and one doctor visit can diagnose their condition before it leads to death.

Therefore, I am for our rights to have universal healthcare for people who need it and can’t afford insurance. This coverage will not only save peoples life and help us get out of debt with medical bills over charging major countries. It is funded through taxation and every day, we people could use this form of coverage I support the government in helping us as the economy to live healthier and longer with better care from universal healthcare coverage.

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Implementing Swifinet history essay help

ABSTRACT

Use of wireless sensor networks (WSN) has resulted in many revolutionary changes in human life. WSN has gain significant concentration from scientist and end users. ‘SWiFiNet’ is task distributed reusable system architecture. In this architecture complex functionality has been transfer to the second tire devices of the system. Second tire devices are provided with more resources. ‘SWiFiNet’ satisfy the desire architecture of the WSN. This paper aims to analyze various reusable wireless sensor networks and concept related to ‘SWiFiNet’. And it provides the existing architecture of ‘SWiFiNet’ and also the functionality of the component of the reusable network architecture. This paper also provides idea about the proposed ‘SWiFiNet’ which will be developed on IEEE 802.15.4 MAC/PHY layer which will be having more advantages over its counterparts.

Keywords:- WSN, SWiFiNet, Reusable architecture.

I. INTRODUCTION:

Use of wireless network is increasing in every field, day by day. WSN is extensively use where wired network cannot be deployed or is expensive to deploy. WSN opens many ways for research community to further enhance wireless communication efficiency and productivity. Many protocols and algorithms has been developed to addressed many kind of issues related to WSN. But most of these protocols and algorithms concentrate on routing, energy efficiency, reliability and congestion control.

No more research is done on creating some integrated network architecture that will make the implementation of any WSN application easy. It means to make the components of the WSN system reusable. The main focus of WSN is on creating more and more efficient wireless interfaces. The wireless sensor network generally developed for specific work. These work include climate reporting, military applications, fuel level indicator and many more. While creating such system one has to start from the scratch and it becomes burdensome.

So, for all these difficulties, one solution is to create reusable WSN framework. This kind of framework is developed in ‘SWiFiNet’. It is a task distributed System Architecture for WSN.

This paper provides overview of ‘SWiFiNet’ and reusable architecture for WSN. In first section provided introduction about WSN and ‘SWiFiNet’. Second section provides related work regarding task distributed network architecture. Third section provides design goals of reusable architecture. Fourth section provides WSN architecture along with ‘SWiFiNet’ architecture comparison. Fifth and last part concludes the paper.

II. RELATED WORK

There has been attempts to make hierarchical task distributed reusable wireless sensor network architecture. Most of such proposals were developed using 802.11. The different applications related to reusable WSN architecture is as follows:-

ART wise gateway architecture was presented by Leel et al [4]. The architecture is two tire architecture. Tier one uses IEEE 802.15.4 and tire two uses 802.11. Linfeng develop Environmental adaptive Architecture model for wireless sensor network [5]. It was two tire architecture. The second tire was capable of adding number of nodes without affecting two tire architecture. ANGLE [5] architecture was develop for the health care applications. In this application authors claims that it can be reused for any other application.

Open and reconfigurable wireless sensor network has been proposed by Triantafyllidis. It was developed for pervasive health monitoring. Its main emphasis was on easy extension with additional sensor functionality. ZUMA [6] was developed for centralize smart phone platform which will interconnects all kinds of smart phone devices.

The ReWINS [3] research initiative is an attempt to advance such an end-to-end solution with support for incremental arrangement through a transparent lower layer implementation and control architecture and a user-friendly application interface.

Wireless Integrated Network Sensors or the WINS [7] project and NIMS project at University of California, Los Angeles is about ad-hoc wireless sensor network research dealing mainly with constructing micro-electronic mechanical sensors (MEMS) [8], effective circuit design, and design of self-organizing wireless network architecture. Though these projects have been successful in demonstrating a network of self-organized sensor wireless nodes, they seem to have a bias towards environmental and military applications. Also they use proprietary RF communication technology and hence the solutions are limiting for wide scale deployments in industries.

Motes and Smart Dust project [9] at University of California, Berkeley involved creating particularly low-cost micro-sensors, which can be suspended in air, buoyed by currents. Crossbow Inc. has commercialized the conclusion of this project. Here again the solution is limiting, as exclusive communication technologies have been used to achieve inter-device communication. Further, the focus has been on development of sensors and their communication rather than how the sensors will be integrated to form systems. This is generally termed as the ‘bottom-up’ approach, which may not be suitable for building complex systems.

Pico-Radio [10] ‘ A group headed by Jan Rabaey at University of California, Berkeley is trying to build an integrated wireless application interface called Sensor Network Service Platform. An attempt is to develop an interface that will abstract the sensor network and make it transparent to the application layer. A introductory draft describing the application interface has been recently released. They believe in a ‘top down approach’ (from control to sensor nodes) for building sensor networks which is probably more suitable for building complex systems.

Recently, there have been several work initiatives like TinyDB [11], Cornell’s Cougar etc. to develop a declarative SQL-like language to query sensors and define certain standard query services. Here the employment is sensor-interface specific and not a general or abstracted sensor networking platform. These query services can be implemented with ease on top of our (developed) wireless interface and sensor networking platform and can be made generic by extending them for other sensors.

Other research initiatives in this field include MIT’s ??AMPS, Columbia University’s INSIGNIA, Rice University’s Monarch. Though there have been a lot of research efforts in developing ad-hoc wireless networks, the focus has been on developing smart wireless sensor interfaces and not much attention has been paid to the actual application integration. Typical approach has been to develop powerful smart wireless interfaces, which supports the important features/requirements for a particular class of applications (like military, environment sensing or more focused applications like fuel-level control in automobiles). The result is a number of wireless interfaces appropriate for a certain class of application; but almost no interoperability between them. We believe that the deployment of wireless infrastructure in industries will occur in incremental stages and thus interoperability (between different sensor-networks) and extendibility (according to application needs) will form the basic requirements of any prospective solution. A prospective good solution would be an end-to-end solution, which is modular and extendable.

All of the above applications were the forward steps towards the making of reusable network architecture. From the comparison of the above all network architecture, it is clear that user of hierarchical network give advantage over flat network. And three tire architecture is also better for reusable WSN architecture.

EXISTING SYSTEM:-

‘SWiFiNet’ [1] is task distributed and reusable component architecture. The task layer hierarchical model of ‘SWiFiNet’ is as shown in the given figure. It follows hierarchical architecture comprising of Master node, router node and sensor node. The base layer is 802.15.4 MAC/PHY layer.

Table 1. Comparison between different reusable wireless sensor network applications

Sr. No Application/Project Purpose of Application/Project Limitations

1 ART gateway architecture To develop Hierarchical two tire architecture each tire having different base MAC/PHY The system is more complex due to different protocol in each layer.

2 EAWNA To develop tire two in such a way that adding more sensor dose no affect the architecture The focus is given more on second tire of architecture.

3 ANGEL For health care application. Claimed to be reusable Reusable for specific health care application

4 ReWins To develop such an end-to-end solution The main focus is given on industrial scenarios.

5 Wireless Integrated Network Sensor Building efficient circuit design, and design of self-organizing wireless network architecture These project seems to have bias towards environmental and military application

6 Motes and smart dust project Creating low cost micro sensor which can suspended in air The focus is on sensors rather how they will be integrated

7 Pico-Radio To make sensor network transparent to application layer Suitable for building complex systems only

8 TinyDB To develop declarative SQL-like language to query sensor Not a generic or abstracted sensor networking platform

.

The upper layer to this layer is DLL task layer. All the network communication is controlled by this layer. The functionality of different device component of the architecture is as given below:

Sensor node: The task of sensor node is restricted to sensing background and connecting the neighboring nodes or the master node. When the packet is handed over to any parent node, then it is the responsibility of the parent node to transfer the packet to the master node. In this node’s layer architecture, the network layer will have the addresses of the parent devices. It will be stored in the table. Two types of addresses are present in the table. First one is primary parent address and the other is secondary parent address. If primary address parent is not available then secondary parent address will be try by the node.

If network layer don’t contain any table then a ‘Hello’ packet request is broadcast into the network. Then the neighboring device will issue the join request. The join request will be accepted if the device meets LQI threshold criteria.

Router Node: – Router nodes are come in use when sensor nodes are not in the range of Master Node. Clustering is also possible using router node. In ‘SWiFiNet’ distributed architecture the functionality of the router node increased remarkably. The complex implementation of any application or protocol will be deployed on the second tire devices. The router node network layer also maintains the table containing entries of the parent devices to the router node. It can be router node again or router will send the information directly to the master node. Router nodes will generate join request if they receive hello packet request from any sensor node.

Master node: The complete topology information of the network is maintain by the master node. When there is queried transmission model, master node will generate query and send it in the network. Whenever the routing tables are updated in end nodes or router nodes will send the information to the master node.

Sensor node Router Node Master Node

Fig 1. Distributed architecture of ‘SWiFiNet’

III. PROPOSED MODEL:

The ‘SWiFiNet’ model developed [1] is successfully implemented on the hardware as the architecture of the ‘SWiFiNet’ is defined. But ns-2 simulation of ‘SWiFiNet’ is based on 802.11a. As the basic idea of MAC/PHY layer is to have 802.15.4 which will work more efficiently on the ‘SWiFiNet’ architecture. The architectural diagram [1] is as shown below:-

In many of the sensor network architecture the sensor nodes are based on the 802.11a, but in ‘SWiFiNet’ MAC/PHY layer is based on 802.15.4. It is having low bandwidth comparative to the 802.11a. As the ns-2 modulation of the architecture is done using 802.11a, we cannot compare the exact result of hardware simulation and the software simulation.

Dynamic source routing (DSR) has similar characteristics as of ‘SWiFiNet’. After comparing the hardware results [1] with DSR it is found that ‘SWiFiNet’ is having better performance against many parameters. Implementation of ‘SWiFiNet’ using ns-2 on 802.15.4 IEEE is not yet checked against other protocols and hardware results.

The software architecture [2] of the ‘SWiFiNet’ agent is as shown in figure 2. This diagram shows the network component simulation in ns-2. The devices can be identified by the variable passed from TCL script. 1 value represent master node. 2 value represent router node and 3 value represent sensor node.

Fig 2: Component simulation in ns-2

IV. Conclusion:-

The survey paper provides a detailed comparison and description of the well-known projects and applications which are developed from reusable architecture point of view. ‘SWiFiNet’ is basically a task distributed generic reusable architecture for WSN. The functionality of sensor node is reduced and has been transferred to the second tire devices like router node. By doing so sensor nodes are restricted to gather information and connecting to neighboring nodes. As time synchronization overhead is not present the lifetime of the network increase.

This reusable architecture can be used for various range of applications and can be configured accordingly. This paper gives proposed ‘SWiFiNet’ system which will be based on 802.15.4 IEEE standard and will be useful for researchers in many ways.

V. REFERENCES:

[1] A. H. Willig, J. H. Karowski, N. Baldus, H. Huebner, A., “The ANGEL WSN Architecture,” in Electronics, Circuits and Systems, 2007. ICECS 2007. 14th IEEE International Conference on, 2007, pp. 633-636.

[2] A. W. Rohankar, Mrinal K. Naskar, Amitava Mukharjee, ‘SWiFiNet’: Task Distributed System Architecture for WSN’ in IJACSA Special Issue on Selected Papers from International Conference & Workshop On Advance Computing 2013.

[3] A. W. Rohankar, Mrinal K. Naskar, Amitava Mukharjee, ‘A step towards reusable WSN architecture’, International Journal of Research and Reviews in Wireless Sensor Networks (IJRRWSN) vol. Vol. 2, 2012.

[4] B. S. P. Harish Ramamurthy, Rajit Gadh, “Reconfigurable Wireless Interface for Networking Sensors (ReWINS),” in proceeding of the 9th IFIP International Conference on Personal Wireless Communications (PWC 2004), 2004.

[5] J. C. Leal, A. Alves, M. Koubaa, A., “On a IEEE 802.15.4/ZigBee to IEEE 802.11 gateway for the ART-WiSe architecture,” in Emerging Technologies and Factory Automation, 2007. ETFA. IEEE Conference on, 2007, pp. 1388-1391.

[6] L. Linfeng, “Research on Environment-Adaptive Architecture Model of Wireless Sensor Networks,” in Networks Security Wireless Communications and Trusted Computing (NSWCTC), 2010 Second International Conference on, 2010, pp. 130-133.

[7] M. N. K. V. G. Soini, J. Rabaey, J. M. Sydanheimo, L. T., “Beyond Sensor Networks: ZUMA Middleware,” in Wireless Communications and Networking Conference, 2007.WCNC 2007. IEEE, 2007, pp. 4318-4323.

[8] Micro-Adaptive Multi-domain Power-aware Sensors (??AMPS) project at University of California, Berkeley, URL: http://www-mtl.mit.edu/research/icsystems/uamps/

[9] Pico-Radio project at University of California, Berkeley,URL:http://bwrc.eecs.berkeley.edu/Research/Pico_Radio/

[10] Smart Dust and motes project at University of California, Berkeley, URL: http://robotics.eecs.berkeley.edu/~pister/SmartDust/

[11] ] TinyDB project at University of California, Berkeley, URL: http://telegraph.cs.berkeley.edu/tinydb

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The Relationship between Manager Assertiveness and having to tell Employees Exactly What to Do gp essay help

Not only is it important to tell workers exactly what to do by being direct, but it is of an equal importance to be assertive with them. If a manager is too passive with his or her employees, it may lead to a managerial mess, as many workers constantly try to test managers’ boundaries.

One of the main reasons as to why employees end up misbehaving in the workplace is primarily because they are not managed correctly, and those who are in authority allow them to get that way. When it comes to being a manager, you shouldn’t expect employees to respect you on a personal level, but you should expect them to respect your authority on a professional level.

Managers should not only be consistently setting up new boundaries, but they should also be enforcing them. Without enforcing them, if an employee overpasses it and nothing is advised to him or her, they will think it is okay to continue to do so. How will they know that it is wrong unless you tell them? It is of an utmost importance to also advise them that you can’t tolerate it.

As a manager, to do their job they have the innate obligation to do only the things that is right for the company that he or she works for. This includes of setting the appropriate boundaries, and not exercising too much sympathy and empathy as it may cause the manager to get too involved with their personal lives. Otherwise, he or she may promote favoritism thereby causing other employees to be jealous. Although this may be true, there is no need to be overly rude and cold towards employees. Being assertive and setting boundaries doesn’t always mean one has to be disrespectful or even rude to their employees. The difference between an authoritarian manager who respects their employees and for managers who don’t differentiates the results of whether or not employees comply or commit themselves to work. In order to have them commit rather than only comply, it is important to be respectful while being assertive. When employees are willing to commit, they are more than likely to deliver work that exceeds a manager’s expectations. (Alexander Hamilton Institute, 2012)

The Importance for Managers to Be a Leader

When it comes to capabilities to effectively communicate with employees, good managers are able to sustain and encourage self-assurance, enthusiasm, and emotional stability while pursuing their day-to-day activities. The position of being a manager can, at times, be quite stressful and overwhelming, so the ideal manager should not let it get to them.

Why is this important when it comes to effectively advising employees as to what has to be done?

If managers aren’t able to maintain self-control of their emotions, then it is likely that they won’t be able to do well at leading employees. Managers are commonly seen as a workplace role model, so if their employees see them as unable to maintain control, it is likely the employees won’t either, thereby leading to decreased amounts of productivity.

Why Communication Is a Key Aspect for Managers

In order to ensure efficient productivity among employees, it is important for them to be able to effectively communicate with them. Moreover, they must also be able to report to higher managers regarding productivity statistics and the like. Not only will great managers be able to communicate well with employees to advise them what they have to do, but they will also be active listeners. Without being able to listen to an employee when he or she has questions about their job or what they have to do, it is likely that they won’t end up doing what they are supposed to do. Another important trait for managers is being able to get a message across without having to overly emphasize it verbally. They know how to implement non-verbal communication techniques such as body language in order to get an important message across to employees. (Melinda Hill Mendoza, n.d).

Common Traits of a Good Employee’ Where You Don’t Have to Be As Specific

There are various indicators that strongly determine whether or not if you have to be overly specific when trying to get an employee to do something. Here I’ve included some of the top traits when it comes to being an effective listener as an employee.

‘ Action Oriented: When you tell an employee to do something, and if he or she is action-oriented, you will see them do it right away’ no questions asked. Although sometimes their work may not be sufficient, most of the time they will provide great work with high levels of productivity. Also, when it comes to productivity, they usually get things done a lot sooner than employees who are stagnant.

‘ Intelligent: Intelligence is important for an employee to thoroughly understand what you want them to do without you having to be too specific with them. Not only that, but when you tell an intelligent employee what to do, most of the time they will do it perfectly correct. It is very rare for an employee who has high levels of intelligence to ask too many questions for additional specificity.

‘ Ambitious: Having an employee with ambition is important because they are well-known to come up with creative ideas that can bring the productivity of any company to the next level. So rather than spending extra time telling them exactly what they have to do, they will work right away, and by the time they are done they will provide you with a genius idea to do things quicker, and you may want to consider forwarding it to your boss.

‘ Autonomous: Employees with an autonomous trait are known to begin working on a project the second you explain to them what needs to be done. They are extremely independent and they require no ‘hand-holding’ whatsoever. This is an important trait, because as a manager, they have a lot of tasks on hand and they don’t want to be wasting it answering a hundred questions about completing a simple task.

‘ Confidence: It is more likely for an unconfident employee to ask questions about exactly what they need to do than a confident employee. This is primarily due to the fact that employees who are confident will trust there instinct on what they’ve heard from the manager, and they won’t second guess their initial impression. On the other hand, unconfident employees will lack their confidence in trusting their understanding, causing them to ask a lot of unnecessary questions.

‘ Leadership: After confidence comes leadership. When you are explaining a task to an employee with leadership skills, you will be confident that they will over-deliver on your expectations. They have the experience to not only deliver the job promptly without any questions ask, but they can set the bar higher in terms of quality and productivity.

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Learning Theory Behaviorism (Teori Pembelajaran Behaviorisme) essay help writer

2.0 Teori Pembelajaran Behaviorisme

Teori Behaviorisme merupakan satu pendekatan pemikiran yang menekankan peranan pengalaman dalam mengawal tingkah laku. Pengasas teori ini adalah J.B Watson yang popular dengan teori Little Albert. Namun, selain daripada J.B Watson terdapat tokoh lain yang turut mengkaji tentang teori ini. Mereka adalah Skinner, Thondike dan Pavlov. Teori pemerolehan bahasa Behavioris pada zaman sebelum ini lebih menekankan tingkah laku yang dapat dilihat sahaja. Bagi mereka perkara yang berlaku dalam otak manusia tidak dapat dikenalpasti. Mereka membuat analogi otak manusia sama seperti sebuah kotak hitam yang gelap. Oleh itu mereka tidak mementingkan peranan otak dalam pemerolehan bahasa.

Golongan mazhab ini menolak pendapat yang menghubungkan operasi kognitif dengan pemerolehan bahasa. Seseorang dianggap telah belajar sesuatu jika dia dapat menunjukkan perubahan perilakunya. Menurut teori ini dalam belajar yang penting adalah input yang berupa stimulus dan output yang berupa reaksi (respond). Stimulus adalah apa saja yang diberikan guru kepada pelajar, sedangkan respon berupa reaksi atau tanggapan pelajar terhadap stimulus yang diberikan oleh guru tersebut. Proses yang terjadi antara stimulus dan respon tidak penting untuk diperhatikan kerana tidak dapat diamati dan tidak dapat diukur. Yang dapat diamati adalah stimulus dan respon. Oleh sebab itu, apa yang diberikan oleh guru iaitu stimulus dan apa yang diterima oleh pelajar iaitu respon harus dapat diamati dan diukur. Teori ini mengutamakan pengukuran kerana pengukuran merupakan perkara yang penting untuk melihat terjadi atau tidak perubahan tingkah laku tersebut.

2.1 Teori Behaviorisme menurut J.B Watson

J.B Watson (1878-1958), seorang ahli psikologi di Amerika Syarikat, merupakan orang pertama mencipta istilah behaviorisme untuk menghuraikan tingkah laku manusia. Kajian banyak dipengaruhi oleh Teori Pelaziman Klasik Pavlov. Kajian beliau, yang terkenal ialah mengenai emosi kanak-kanak dengan menggunakan Model Pelaziman Klasik. Mengikut Watson, tingkah laku manusia merupakan reflex terlazim iaitu suatu gerak balas yang dipelajari melalui proses pelaziman klasik. Dengan kata lain, semua pembelajaran adalah pelaziman klasik Watson berpendapat gerakan-gerakan refleks yang mudah misalnya berkelip mata, bersin apabila hidung gatal dan sebarang tindakan yang dilakukan secara semulajadi adalah tingkah laku yang diwarisi dan tidak perlu dipelajari. Selain daripada tingkah laku, Watson pula menjalankan kajian tentang pembelajaran emosi semula jadi iaitu takut, marah, dan kasih saying. Emosi manusia atau perubahan dipelajari melalui proses pelaziman.

2.1.1 Implikasi Teori Pembelajaran J.B Watson

Menurut beliau, semua tingkah laku boleh dipelajari melalui proses pelaziman. Tingkah laku positif boleh diajarkan melalui ransangan yang sesuai. Seterusnya, untuk menguasai kemahiran menyelesaikan masalah, pelajar perlu belajar cara perhubungan gerak balas secara sistematik. Selain itu, teori ini memberi implikasi untuk mengukuhkan apa yang telah dipelajari dalam ingatan, latihan- latihan hendaklah dijalankan secara kerap. Dalam proses pengajaran,guru hendaklah menggunakan rasangan yang boleh memotivasikan murid untuk minat belajar dan mengelakkan pengunaan ransangan yang membawa kepada kesan negatif.

2.2 Teori Behaviorisme menurut Thorndike

Menurut Thorndike, belajar adalah proses interaksi antara stimulus dan respon. Stimulus adalah apa yang merangsang terjadinya aktiviti belajar seperti fikiran, perasaan, atau hal-hal lain yang dapat dikesan melalui pancaindera. Manakala, respon adalah reaksi yang muncul apabila peserta dididik ketika belajar, dan yang dapat pula adalah berupa fikiran, perasaan, gerakan atau tindakan. Jadi, perubahan tingkah laku akibat kegiatan belajar dapat dikategorikan sebagai konkrit, iaitu yang dapat diamati, atau tidak konkrit iaitu yang tidak dapat diamati. Meskipun aliran behaviorisme sangat mengutamakan pengukuran, tetapi tidak dapat menjelaskan bagaimana cara mengukur tingkah laku yang tidak dapat diamati. Teori Thorndike ini disebut pula dengan teori koneksionisme. Thorndike berjaya membentuk tiga hokum iaitu Hukum kesediaan, Hukum latihan, Hukum kesan. Hukum kesediaan merupakan keupayaan persiapan seseorang individu di dalam kendirinya untuk memulakan sesuatu aktiviti pembelajaran. Manakala hokum latihan pula menyatakan bahawa semakin byak latihan yang dijalankan semakin bertambah kukuh ikatan gerak balas yang tertentu dengan ransangan yang berkaitan. Hukum kesan menyatakan bahawa ikatan ransangan dengan gerak balas akan bertambah kukuh sekiranya individu memperolehi kesan yang memuaskan selepas gerak balasnya dihasilkan.

2.1.2 Implikasi Teori Pembelajaran Thorndike

Antara implikasi Teori Pembelajaran Thorndike ialah untuk meningkatkan tahap kesediaan belajar, guru harus menggunakan motivasi yang sesuai. Selain itu, ia juga dapat mengukuhkan pertalian antara ransangan dengan gerak balas pelajar dengan memperbanyak aktiviti latihan, ulangkaji, aplikasi serta pengukuhan dalam keadaan yang menyeronokkan. Seterusnya memberikan ganjaran atau peneguhan untuk respon antau gerak balas yang betul daripada pelajar. Memberi peluang kepada pelajar untuk menikmati kejayaan dalam pembelajaran mereka.

2.3 Teori Pembelajaran Behaviorisme Ivan Pavlov

Ivan Pavlov merupakan salah seorang daripada ahli teori Behavioris selain daripada Skinner, Thondike dan Watson. Beliau dilahirkan pada 14 September 1849 di Ryazan, Rusia Tengah. Beliau telah meninggal dunia pada 27 Februari 1936 di Leningrad Rusia ketika berusia 86 tahun. Ivan Pavlov merupakan ahli fisiologi, psikologi dan ahli fizik berbangsa Rusia. Sebagai seorang yang sangat mencintai bidang fisiologi beliau telah meminta seorang pelajar duduk di sebelah katilnya dan merekodkan perihal kematiannya. Beliau terkenal dengan orang pertama yang mendeskripsikan fonomena pelaziman klasik atau pelaziman responden. Teori pelaziman klasik adalah tentang tingkah laku pembelajaran yang telah dipelopori oleh Ivan Pavlov ( 1849-1936). Pada tahun 1980-an. Pavlov mengkaji fungsi pencernaan pada anjing dengan melakukan pemerhatian pada kelenjar air liur. Dengan cara itu, beliau dapat mengumpulkan, menyukat dan menganalisis air liur haiwan itu dan bagaimana ia dapat diberikan makanan pada keadaan yang berbeza. Beliau sedar anjing akan mengeluarkan air liur sebelum makanan sampai ke mulutnya dan mencari hubungan timbal balik antara air liur dengan aktiviti perut. Pavlov hendak melihat rangsangan luar dapat mempengaruhi proses ini. Oleh itu contoh paling awal dan terkenal bagi pelaziman klasik melibatkan pelaziman air liur pada anjing kajian Pavlov.

2.4 Teori Pembelajaran Behaviorisme B.F Skinner

Manakala menerusi B.F Skinner pula, beliau mengutarakan teori behaviorisme adalah teori. Menurut Nana Sudjana, 1990 pendekatan Skinner adalah operant conditioning, yang merupakan penerusan dan perluasan secara tepat dari hokum Thorndike. Ia mengakui adanya fenomena conditioning yang klasik dari Pavlov dalam perilaku manusia dan binatang, tetapi itu tidak dianggap terlalu penting.

2.4.1 Implikasi Teori Pembelajaran B.F Skinner

Sesuatu kemahiran atau teknik yang baru dipelajari hendaklah diberi peneguhan secara berterusan dan diikuti secara berkala supaya kemahiran atau teknik itu dapat dikukuhkan dan dikekalkan. Selain itu, penggunaan peneguhan positif yang membawa keseronokan adalah lebih berkesan daripada peneguhan negative yang membawa kesakitan. Seterusnya, prinsip penghapusan melalui proses pelaziman operan adalah sesuai digunakan untuk memodifikasikan tingkah laku pelajar yangtidak diingini, misalnya menghentikan peneguhan yang diberikan dahulu sama ada peneguhan positif atau negatif

2.5 Kelebihan teori pembelajaran behaviorisme

Kelebihan yang pertama yang kami perolehi melalui teori ini adalah teori ini sangat sesuai untuk melatih atau mendidik kanak-kanak yang masih memerlukan bantuan daripada orang dewasa di sekeliling mereka. Sebagai contoh kanak-kanak tadika memerlukan bimbingan dan perhatian yang khusus daripada orang di persekitarannya terutamanya guru-guru mereka kerana mereka mudah mengikuti apa yang diajar dan disuruh selain suka meniru perlakuan orang di sekelilingnya. Selain itu, mereka juga suka dengan bentuk-bentuk penghargaan yang diberi kepadanya seperti pujian dan melalui bentuk penghargaan tersebut ianya dapat membangkitkan semangat ingin belajar dalam diri mereka.

Kelebihan yang kedua adalah guru tidak perlu mengambil masa yang lama untuk memberi penerangan yang panjang tentang pembelajaran kepada murid-murid. Hal ini kerana murid-murid akan dibiasakan belajar dengan sendiri kecuali sekiranya murid menghadapi sesuatu masalah dan memerlukan penjelasan yang lebih daripada guru. Dalam hal ini guru perlu memberikan penerangan dengan jelas.

Selain daripada itu, teori ini juga menekankan kemahiran lisan berbanding kemahiran membaca dan menulis. Melalui aspek kemahiran lisan yang ditekankan dapat memberikan kelebihan kepada murid kerana aspek lisan iaitu mendengar dan bertutur penting dalam situasi harian murid. Boleh dikatakan bahawa kemahiran ini adalah kemahiran terkerap yang digunakan manusia untuk berkomunikasi antara satu sama lain.

2.6 Kelemahan Teori Behaviorisme

Dari segi kelemahan pula, penerapan teori behavioris yang kurang tepat dalam sesuatu situasi pembelajaran boleh mangakibatkan berlakunya proses pembelajaran yang tidak kondusif bagi murid-murid kerana pembelajaran berlaku dalam keadaan sehala dimana ianya berpusatkan kepada guru sahaja. Guru hanya mengajar dan melatih murid manakala murid hanya menerima apa yang diajar oleh guru mereka tanpa memberi sebarang maklum balas. Malah dalam teori pembelajaran ini murid berperanan sebagai pendengar dan mereka menghafal apa yang didengar dan dipandang sebagai cara belajar yang efektif. Penggunaan hukuman merupakan salah satu cara untuk guru mendisiplinkan murid dan hal ini akan mendatangkan akibat buruk kepada murid.

Kelemahan yang kedua ialah proses pembelajaran dikatakan kurang memberikan gerak balas yang bebas bagi pelajar untuk berinteraksi serta untuk mengembangkan idea. Hal ini kerana sistem pembelajaran tersebut lebih tertumpu kepada rangsangan dan gerak balas yang ditunjukkan. Sekiranya tiada rangsangan maka tindak balas tidak akan berlaku. Sebagai contoh, guru akan memberi rangsangan dalam bentuk hadiah dan daripada situ barulah murid akan memberikan jawapan yang dikehendaki oleh guru. Sekiranya perkara ini berlaku secara berterusan dikhuatiri murid akan terlalu bergantung terhadap rangsangan dari luar sedangkan murid harus memiliki rangsangan dari dalam diri mereka sendiri sebagai satu cara pembelajaran.

Kelemahan yang ketiga menurut teori ini adalah penambahan ilmu pengetahuan lebih tertumpu kepada buku teks. Hal ini kerana mereka belajar mengikut urutan kurikulum yang sangat ketat sehinggakan buku teks merupakan buku wajib dalam pembelajaran mereka malah mereka juga perlu dikehendaki memahami dan mempersembahkan kembali isi pembelajaran di dalam buku teks tersebut dengan baik. Hal ini boleh mendatangkan kesan buruk kepada pelajar kerana ilmu pengetahuan yang mereka peroleh tidak begitu berkembangan dengan hanya tertumpu kepada satu buah buku sahaja.

2.7 Implikasi teori pembelajaran behaviorisme

Yang pertama ialah guru perlu sedar bahawa kaitan antara rangsangan dan gerak balas boleh dilazimkan iaitu dipelajari. Sebagai contoh apabila guru ingin menyuruh murid-murid beratur ketika waktu rehat di kantin sekolah guru boleh mengaitkannya dengan cara untuk berjaya dalam kehidupan. Implikasi yang seterusnya ialah kaitan antara rangsangan dan gerak balasdapat dikukuhkan melalui latihan. Semakin kerap rangsangan itu dikaitkan dengan sesuatu gerak balas, semakin kukuh gerak balas terlazim itu. Sebagai contoh guru ingin murid-murid supaya tidak mengaitkan mata pelajaran matematik dengan kesukaran, dengan memberi mereka latihan- latihan yang mudah dan apabila mereka beransur mahir menyelesaikan masalah yang sukar maka guru bolehlah menukar aras pembelajaran kepada tahap yang sederhana sukar dan seterusnya ke aras pembelajaran yang sukar.

Di samping itu, dalam proses pembelajaran, generalisasi boleh berlaku. Ini bermakna perkara yang dipelajari dalam situasi A boleh dipindahkan ke situasi B. Sebagai contoh guru mata pelajaran sains mengaitkan kejadian pencemaran alam sekitar yang mengakibatkan kemusnahan alam semula jadi dengan kemusnahan alam yang berlaku seperti tsunami yang melanda Bandar Acheh.

faktor motivasi memainkan peranan yang penting bagi menghasilkan gerak balas yang diinginkan. Dalam hal ini pemberian ganjaran perlu diberi perhatian. Sebagai contoh ketika murid menjawab soalan yang diberikan oleh guru dengan betul maka guru boleh memberikan pujian kepadanya atau dengan memberikannya hadiah supaya pada waktu pembelajaran yang seterusnya pelajar tersebut akan lebih menumpukan perhatian di dalam kelas untuk memperoleh pujian yang diingini. Namun sekiranya pelajar tersebut tidak dapat menjawab soalan yang diberi maka guru perlulah membimbing pelajar tersebut supaya mereka tidak berasa terpinggir dan seterusnya dapat bersama-sama memahami tajuk pembelajaran pada ketika itu.

Selain itu juga, dalam proses pembelajaran tingkah laku yang dapat dilihat, diamati, diukur dan dikawal hendaklah diberi perhatian. Hal ini kerana melalui perubahan tingkah laku yang ditunjukkan oleh murid guru boleh mengambil sebarang tindakan sekiranya ianya di kesan lebih awal. Sebagai contoh sekiranya seseorang murid menunjukkan tingkah laku yang negatif seperti tidak faham tentang apa yang diajar oleh guru maka guru boleh membuat pemulihan terhadap dirinya. Dalam pembelajaran, penghapusan boleh berlaku jika peneguhan tidak diberikan. Ini bermakna, sekiranya sesuatu tingkahlaku tidak diperkukuhkan melalui ganjaran, tingkahlaku itu mungkin akan terhapus begitu sahaja. Konsep pemulihan serta-merta juga dapat membantu seseorang guru meningkatkan keberkesanan pembelajaran

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Research design easy essay help

2.7 RESEARCH DESIGN USED :

The conception of research design plan is the critical step in the research process. The design ,of the study constitutes the blue print for the collection, measurement and analysis of data. In other words the research design is a conceptual structure with in which,h research is conducted.

2.8 DATA COLLECTION METHODS :

Primary Data: – Primary data are those data which are collected for the first time, and thus hap,pen to be original in character. It is extracted with the help of discussions co,nducted with senior managers with respect to factors affecting the performance.,

Secondary Data: – Secondary data are those data which are already collected by someone else ,and which have already passed through the statistical process. These data are g,athered by Books, Lectures, Notes, and Official Websites etc.

The study make,s extensive use of secondary data. ‘Secondary data are those which have already,y been passed through the statistical process’. The data which is pre-essential for ,this study relating to comparative analysis of Balance Sheet and PROFIT AND L,OSS A/c was based on secondary source of data. This data will be collected fro,m materials provided by Rakshitas Pvt. Ltd., discussions conducted with store m,anagers and some essential

Financial Accounts books.

2.9 LIMITATIONS :,

‘ Data provided is very limited due to the subjectivity of it being highly confidential.,

‘ The data taken for interpretation is for a limited period.

‘ Assumptions, are to be taken into consideration while doing analysis and interpretation, of data.

‘ Due to limited, information, depth analysis could not be made.

2.10 RESEARCH MEASURE TOOLS :

Various financial techniques and statistical tools are used to measure the data used in the study. Column graphs, pie chart etc. is used to highlight the statistical inference,s. The study cannot be completed without balance sheet and profit and loss a/c. ,Therefore three years balance sheet and profit & loss a/c has been taken out for ma,king proper research.

2.11 ANALYSIS OF DATA :

The data collected is secondary, and it’s compiled, classified, tabulated and then analyzed u,sing financial techniques and statistical tools. Graphs and charts are used to hig,hlight the statistics. Based on this data and analysis, inferences are drawn accor,dingly.

2.12 OVER VIEW OF THE CHAPTER :

The Project I,s Presented in the following chapter :-

CHAPTER 1 : INTRODUCTION

This chapter includes introduction to finance, theorectical back ground for the study of the ,various performance, introduction to finance, definition of retail industry and di,fferent type of industry.

CHAPTER 2 : DESIGN OF THE STUDY

This chapter I,ncludes the projects introduction of the subject background, statement of the, problem, objectives of the study, scope of the study, need and purpose of study,, research methodology, research design, data collection method primary and seco,ndary data, limitations, research measure tools and analysis of data.,

CHA,PTER 3 : PROFILE OF THE COMPANY

This c,hapter contains the profile of the company, its origin and background, board of directors, number of branches and organization structure.

CHAP,TER 4 : DATA ANALYSIS AND INTERPRETATION

This ch,apter consists of Table, Graphs, Analysis and Interpretation based on the question,nairies.

CHAPT,ER 5 : SUMMARY OF FINDINGS, CONCULSIONS AND RECOM,MENDATIONS

This chap,ter includes findings based on objectives of the study, conclusion drawn from the f,indings and recommendations given from the analysis.

Chapter:-3

PROFILE OF THE ORGANIZATION

COMPANY PROFILE

RAKSHITAS PVT.LTD.

Rakshitas business con,cept is to offer a broad and varied range of apparels that allows customers to fin,d their own personal style to choose from more than 150 remiums national and int,ernational brands.

Rakshitas is aimed at everyone in the family with an interest in modern basics, fashion, quality and affo,rdable pricing. Customers should always be able to find clothes and accessories ,at Rakshitas for every occasion. The collections are extensive and new arrivals, being launched week after week in each of the 4 floors spread across 20,000 s,q. ft. for Men, Women, Kids and Teen’s casual wear, formal wear, denim wea,r, ethnic and Kancheevaram silks etc. The range and collections are supplemen,ted by matching costume jewellery, premium international watches, perfumes, ,lingerie’s.

Mission

Our mission is to achieve excelle,nce in the products and services we offer, in the methods we employ and in the res,ult we produce.

Products

Menswear: menswear,r means clothing for men. Rakshitas provide various brands for menswear which ,includes formal shirts, casual shirts, trousers, jeans etc. of several variety of int,ernational as well as national brands, for example: -levis, pepe jeans, killer, lee, w,rangler etc.

Women’s wear: Women’s wear means ,clothing for women. Rakshitas provides the best options for women’s apparel rang,ing from skirts to ethnic, casuals as well as formals.

Kids wear: Kids wear are meant only for kids or children ranging below age of 12 years. Rakshitas provides awesome collection for kids which include children formal wear, kurtas, shirt,s etc.

Party wear: Party wear dresses are meant for wearing in parties, functions, special occasions etc. Rakshitas provides variety ranges of party wear which includes lehngas, wedding dresses, traditional indian dress etc.

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Control and organisational behaviour (pengendalian dan perilaku organisasi) gp essay help

PENGENDALIAN DAN PERILAKU ORGANISASI

PERILAKU ORGANISASI

Untuk membuat dasar yang nantinya dapat digunakan manajemen dalam menyusun system pengendalian manajemen, maka kita perlu mengetahui lebih dalam mengenai perilaku organisasi. Berikut ini adalah beberapa penjelasan mengenai teori akuntansi sebagai bentuk pemahaman terhadap organisasi.

Definisi Organisasi

Secara umum, organisasi diartikan sebagai sekumpulan orang yang melakukan kerjasama demi mencapai tujuan ‘ tujuan yang telah ditentukan bersama. Organisasi tercipta ketika orang ‘ orang bergabung dan melakukan sesuatu untuk berbagai tujuan dan organisasi dapat mencakup segala aspek dalam kehidupan. Organisasi dapat bersifat formal dan informal. Pekerjaan di dalam suatu organisasi dapat dibagi ‘ bagi dan dikoordinasi sesuai dengan kebutuhan dan keahlian tiap ‘tiap anggota organisasinya untuk mencapai tujuan organisasi tersebut. Suatu organisasi haruslah going concern, dalam arti organisasi tersebut diasumsikan akan hidup selamanya.

Teori Perilaku Organisasi (Theory of Organization Behaviour)

Ada beberapa teori yang menjelaskan mengenai mengapa dan bagaimana orang ‘ orang berperilaku dalam organisasi. Berikut ada dua penjelasan mengenai teori tersebut :

1. Teori jenjang kebutuhan

Teori ini menjelaskan bahwa setiap manusia memiliki kebutuhan yang banyak dan harus dipenuhi dan kebutuhan serta keinginan tersebut tersusun secara rapih, sehingga apabila ada satu kebutuhan terpenuhi maka setelah itu ia akan berusaha memenuhi kebutuhannnya yang lebih tinggi. Dalam teori ini tersirat bahwa system pengendalian manajemen juga didasarkan pada kebutuhan manusia yang terkoordinasi dan dilakukan sesuai dengan tujuan organisasi.

2. Teori motivasi pencapaian

Teori ini lebih mengacu pada perilaku atasan atau manajer dalam perannya saat berorganisasi. Untuk mencapai keberhasilan dan mendapat sebuah kekuasaan, maka manajer tersebut juga perlu memiliki keinginan yang kuat agar dapat menghasilkan prestasi dalam organisasi.

TEORI ORGANISASI

Pengetahuan yang dalam mengenai organisasi sangatlah diperlukan oleh para pelaku organisasi dalam pelaksanaan system pengendalian manajemen organisasi tersebut. Para pelaku organisasi harus benar ‘ benar mengetahui semua poin dalam organisasi termasuk sejarah organisasi, tujuan organisasi, bagaimana perilaku para pelakunya hingga reaksi organisasi tersebut terhadap lingkungan.

Tak berbeda dengan teori perilaku akuntansi, dalam teori organisasi juga terdapat banyak teori yang membahas mengenai organisasi. Dan disini akan dibahas mengenai dua teori juga tentang organisasi, yaitu :

1. Teori Organisasi yang Berorientasi ke Dalam

Banyak organisasi dianggap indepen dan tidak terlalu memperhatikan lingkungan luar oleh beberapa teori. Teori organisasi yang berorientasi ke dalam ini banyak dijadikan dasar oleh sebagian besar system pengendalian manajemen dalam suatu organisasi hal tersebut didasarkan karena dalam teori ini mencakup tanggung jawab dalam pengambilan keputusan yang berlaku menurut proyek ‘ proyek, program ‘ program serta komponen ‘ komponen fungsionalnya.

2. Teori Organisasi yang Berorientasi ke Luar

Teori ini adalah teori kebalikan dari teori sebelumnya yaitu teori organisasi yang berorientasi ke dalam. Teori ini beranggapan bahwa suatu organisasi selalu berhubungan dengan lingkungan di sekitarnya. Ada dua jenis organisasi yang menganut teori organisasi yang berorientasi keluar ini, yaitu :

– Organisasi system umum terbuka

– Organisasi system manajemen

TIPE ORGANISASI

Ada tiga jenis atau tipe organisasi, yaitu :

1. Organisasi Fungsional

Dalam tipe organisasi ini, penekanan lebih ditujukan kepada manajer yang sangat harus bertanggung jawab terhadap suatu fungsi tertentu, seperti fungsi produksi, fungsi pemasaran dan fungsi lainnya yang diterapkan dalam organisasi tersebut. Fungsi ‘ fungsi tersebut dapat dihimpun oleh fungsi yang lebih tinggi dalam organisasi itu juga. Organisasi ini berpotensi membuat efisiensi perusahaan yang lebih baik karena menggunakan masukan ‘ masukan dari manajerial yang lebih tinggi.

2. Organisasi Divisi

Dalam organisasi ini, semua manajer harus bertanggung jawab terhadap hamper keseluruhan fungsi dalam proses produksi serta distribusi lini pada organisasi tersebut. Orientasi organisasi divisi lebih terbuka yang berarti lebih menekankan bahwa para manajer harus peka terhadap pengaruh ‘ pengaruh yang dating dari luar yang mungkin dapat mempengaruhi kinerja organisasi.

3. Organisasi Matriks

Ada dua struktur organisasi dalam organisasi matriks, yaitu ditata berdasarkan fungsi dan ditata berdasarkan program. Pada organisasi matriks, para manajer bertanggung jawab penuh atas profitabilitas dari lini produk organisasi tersebut dimana proses produksi dilakukan oleh unit ‘ unit organisasi fungsional.

Teori Kemungkinan (Contingency Theory)

Untuk mengendalikan suatu manajemen menggunakan tiga macam pendekatan, antara lain :

1. Pendekatan tradisional

Pendekatan ini menekankan pada perencanaan, pendekatan dan pengendalian.

2. Pendekatan system

Pendekatan ini menekankan padapenggunaan sumber daya manusia sebagai pertimbangan dalam pengambilan keputusan.

3. Pendekatan perilaku

Pendekatan ini menekankan pada pengendalian manusia termasuk di dalamnya motivasi dan prediksi.

PERILAKU MANAJEMEN

Organisasi dan sistemnya yang rumit akan mempengaruhi perilaku manusia menjadi rumit pula.

Konsep Fundamental

Agar suatu organisasi ‘terkendali’ maka para anggota organisasi harus mengetahui dengan baik apa sebenarnya yang diinginkan oleh manajemen. Untuk merealisasikan hal tersebut, dapat menggunakan banyak informasi yang telah disediakan oleh manajemen organisasi seperti anggaran hingga kebijakan organisasi. Tujuan organisasi dibuat oleh para manajer senior dan dilaksanakan oleh manajer operasional untuk selanjutnya para manajer senior menerapkan system pengendalian manajemen untuk mengontrol organisasi tersebut.

Persepsi Tujuan

Para manajer operasional harus benar ‘ benar mengetahui apa tujuan organisasi. Para manajer operasional tersebut dapat secara mudah mendapatkan informasi ‘ informasi yang mereka butuhkan dari berbagai sumber baik dari dokumen maupun percakapan informal saja. System pengendalian manajemen yang efektif dapat menguatkan kepastian suatu perusahaan.

Organisasi Informal

Adanya organisasi informal di dalam organisasi formal sering menyebabkan adanya salah persepsi mengenai tindakan yang diharapkan. Hubungan pada organisasi informal tidak tercantum di dalam bagan organisasi, padahal hal tersebut cukup penting untuk pemahaman system pengendalian organisasi tersebut.

Motivasi

Reaksi pada pelaku organisasi terutama manajemen terhadap organisasi dapat berbeda tergantung pada motivasinya. Motivasi dapat bermacam ‘ macam, misalnya kenaikan gaji, promosi, pujian dan lain ‘ lain. Motivasi timbul dari dalam pribadi masing ‘ masing, tetapi motivasi dapat dipengaruhi oleh rangsangan dari lingkungan sekitarnya.

Keselarasan Tujuan (Goal Congruence)

Setiap manusia memiliki tujuan pribadi, begitu juga dengan organisasi yang juga memiliki tujuan bersama. Salah satu tugas penting system pengendalian adalah menyelaraskan kedua tujuan tersebut serta mencapainya demi mendapatkan kepuasan bersama. Semakin kuat hubungan antara tujuan pribadi dan tujuan organisasi, maka ssistem pengendalian organisasi tersebut akan semakin kuat juga.

Kerjasama dan Konflik

Suatu organisasi tidak akan berjalan dengan baik apabila para anggotanya tidak bekerjasama dengan baik secara terkoordinasi, untuk itu di dalam organisasi sangat dibutuhkan kerjasama yang terkoordinir dan selaras. Selain itu, organisasi juga harus menjaga koordinasi dan keselarasan tersebut agar tidak terjadi konflik yang dapat mengganggu kinerja organisasi. Konflik tersebut dapat terjadi karena berbagai alasan, salah satunya adalah dengan adanya persaingan didalam organisasi tersebut.

Iklim Organisasi (Organizational Climate)

Secara singkat, iklim organisasi dapat diartikan sebagai hasil kombinasi dari struktur formal dan struktur informal pada suatu organisasi. Dan menurut pemahaman saya iklim organisasi merupakan suasana di dalam organisasi dimana tiap pelaku organisasi di dalam organisasi saling membantu, saling menilai, dan memahami antara satu dengan yang lain. Iklim organisasi ikut mengambil bagian penting dalam organisasi. Keduanya saling mempengaruhi satu sama lain.

Tipe Pengendalian

Pelaku pengendalian Sumber arah pengendalian Macam ‘ macam Pengendalian

Ukuran prestasi dan tingkah laku Isyarat untuk tindak koreksi Imbalan untuk prestasi Hukuman untuk kegagalan

Organisasi formal Rencana organisasi, strategi, tanggapan atas persaingan Anggaran, biaya standar, target penjualan penyimpangan Penghargaan manajemen, insentif uang, promosi Minta penjelasan

Kelompok informal Keterikatan bersama cita’cita kelompok Norma-norma kelompok penyimpangan Pengakuan rekan, keanggotaan, kepemimpinan Ejekan, pengasingan, permusuhan

Perorangan Tujuan pribadi, aspirasi Harapan pribadi, target antara Dugaan akan kegagalan di masa yang akan dating, target tak tercapai Kepuasan karena ‘terkendali’ kegembiraan Merasa gagal

Sumber : Disarikan dari Gene W. Dalton dan Paul R. Lawrence, Motivation and Control in Organizations (Homewood, III. : Richard D. Irwin, 1971). Hak Cipta 1971 oleh Richard D. Irwin Inc.

Variasi dalam Pengendalian

Hakekat system pengendalian manajemen dibedakan menurut sifat pekerjaan, macam organisasi, lingkungan daan peran manajer. Berikut adalah tiga dimensi yang perlu diperhatikan dalam penggunaan dan pengembangan system pengendalian manajemen :

1. Besar keleluasaan manajemen

2. Besar interdependensi

3. Rentang waktu pelaksanaan

FUNGSI KONTROLER

Kontroler dapat diartikan sebagai petinggi atau pejabat yang bertanggung jawab atas apa yang telah direncanakan oleh organisasi dan bagaimana pengoperasiannya. Tanggung jawab para kontroler berbeda ‘ beda di tiap organisasi bahkan di tiap divisinya. Tanggung jawab kontroler didasarkan pada posisinya masing ‘ masing. Tanggung jawab tersebut dilaksanakan secara langsung. Selain tanggung jawab dalam perencanaan dan pengoperasian tersebut, berikut ini adalah fungsi lain dari kontroler :

a. Menyiapkan laporan kepada pihak pemerintah serta pihak ‘ pihak luar lainnya.

b. Mempersiapkan pengembalian pajak.

c. Mempersiapkan dan melakukan analisa terhadap laporan prestasi keuangan.

d. Membantu para manajer dengan cara melakukan analisa sertab menafsirkan laporan ‘ laporan tersebut.

e. Menggunakan prosedur pemeriksaan intern dan pengendalian akuntansi, memastikan validitas informasi, menetapkan usaha perlindungan yangcukup terhadap berbagai penyimpangan serta melakukan pemeriksaan operasional.

f. Melakukan pengembangan kepada orang ‘ orang yang ia pimpin serta berperan langsung dalam penambahan pengetahuan mengenai fungsi kontroler

g. Mengadakan manajemen kas, asuransi serta kegiatan ‘ kegiatan lainnya demi pengamanan kekayaan perusahaan.

Hubungan dengan Organisasi Lini

Kontroler juga memiliki hak untuk membuat kebijakan ‘ kebijakan dalam organisasi. Namun keputusan ‘ keputusan tersebut merupakan realisasi pelaksanaan kebijakan ‘ kebijakan yang telah dibuat oleh manajer lini. Dengan kata lain, terdapat keselarasan antara kedua belah pihak. Hal tersebut tentunya sangat baik untuk menjaga kelancaran jalannya organisasi tersebut.

Kontroler Divisi

Kebanyakan perusahaan atau organisasi membagi organisasinya tersebut menjadi beberapa divisi yang dikepalai oleh seorang manajer. Manajer divisi tentu juga memiliki kontroler divisi. Dalam hal ini, kontroler divisi harus patuh kepada manajer divisi dan juga kontroler perusahaan yang terkadang beda kepentingannya. Penilaian prestasi terhadap kontroler divisi dapat dilakukan dengan menilai beberapa poin, antara lain :

– Laporan akuntansi dan keuangan

– Pengetahuan mengenai operasi divisi

– Sasaran dan pelaksanaan kepatuhan terhadap kebijakan

– Kontribusi manajemen

– Pengetahuan terhadap akuntansi

– Kejujuran dan profesionalisme

– Kemauan bekerjasama

– Organisasi dan staf

– Inisiatif dan semangat

HUBUNGAN LINI-STAF

Seorang manajer divisi dapat dikatakan tidak memiliki staf maupun asisten pribadi. Manajer tersebut mendapatkan bantuan dari :

1. Tenaga yang ditugaskan untuk membantunya dari staf umum, insinyur serta petugas pembelian

2. Staf pusat yang dapat dimintai bantuan kapan saja sebanyak mungkin.

HUBUNGAN MANAJER DIVISI ‘ KONTROLER

Untuk mencapai kesuksesan organisasi dalam hubungannya dengan manajer divisi, maka organisasi perlu membina kerjasama yang baik dan solid di tiap ‘ tiap manajemen. Berikut merupakan beberapa factor yang dapat mempengaruhi hubungan baik adalah :

1. System akuntansi yang seragam dan terpusat

2. Sasaran ‘ saasaran keuangan yang telah ditetapkan sebelumnya untuk tiap ‘ tiap divisi.

(Pertumbuhan penjualan serta besar laba penjualan)

3. Pembagian laba antara kontroler dan manajer

SISTEM AKUNTANSI

Selain memiliki tanggung jawab dalam perencanaan dan pengoperasian organisasi, divisi kontroler juga memiliki kewenangan atas system akuntansi yang akan digunakan oleh organisasi tersebut termasuk di dalamnya menetapkan cara dan jenis pos ‘ pos yang harus mereka awasi. Sistem akuntansi dijadikan dasar dalam penyusunan laporan keuangan beserta analisisnya.

SASARAN ‘ SASARAN DIVISI

Seperti yang telah disebutkan pada bagian sebelumnya, perusahaan atau organisasi memiliki sasaran keuangan, yaitu pertumbuhan penjualan dan tingkat laba. Tingkat laba dalam organisasi atau perusahaan ditetapkan sebaga persentase penjualan. Berikut ini adalah beberapa factor penentu target laba penjualan :

1. Kemungkinan pematenan produk

2. Besar laba atas investasi yang diinginkan

3. Besar laba industry bersangkutan

4. Besar laba investasi bersangkutan

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Business notes: Creative problem solving medical school essay help

1 Unit 1 – Creative problem solving

1.1 Introduction

A business leader is expected to identify problems, implement solutions and find business opportunities. To do so, they must learn to plan, analyse situations, identify and solve problems (or potential problems), make decisions, and set realistic and attainable goals for the business/unit. These are the fundamental thinking/creative requirements for leadership, and these set direction to a successful future. Without this critical competence, you will have to rely on others to do your thinking for you, or you will simply have to learn to nurture your creative thinking skills which will help you on your journey towards successful business.

Creative thinking forms part of this continuous problem solving process, and is the fundamental basis for facilitating in the development of solutions, new initiatives, products or services. In an entrepreneurial context, the end result of this process should be directly linked to a feasible opportunity in the market environment.

Quote – What lies behind us and what lies before us, are tiny matters, compared to what lies within us. – William Morrow

The creative problem solving process consists of the following four steps:

‘ Problem analysis

‘ Solution analysis

‘ Decision analysis

‘ Solution implementation

1.2 The process

The creative problem solving process consists of an important core process, namely the idea generation process see figure 1. This is an important step, especially if you need to come up with creative ideas for products, services, and processes, to solve a consumer problem. The idea generation process consists of the following four steps:

‘ Step 1 – Generating ideas

‘ Step 2 – Developing ideas into a concept

‘ Step 3 – Converting a concept into a tangible or intangible product

‘ Step 4 – Finally protecting the tangible or intangible product

Figure 1 – The process of creative thinking (idea generation)

Initially you need to understand the problem and find the root cause of the problem. Many techniques are available to find the causes of problems, you can use the 5 Why technique in this case, if you are familiar with it. The more advanced courses will describe how to use the major problem identification techniques, but this course will focus on the idea generation process.

1.3 Where to start

In the entrepreneurial phase, the best way to start the idea generation process is when you are required to come up with a new product or service, to identify a potential consumer problem. Initially, focus on identifying problems in the area of your expertise (your knowledge base).

If you have no knowledge of the problem, the product development stage could be a challenge for you.

You will learn in the next section that not all problems are opportunities, and entrepreneurs should be careful as to how they approach this stage, when generating ideas in trying to identify a new product or service.

1.4 Problem versus opportunity

In most cases, the idea-generation phase in the creative problem solving process is neglected. Individuals normally identify a problem or an opportunity (which may seem like an opportunity, but is actually just an idea), and then develop a new product in line with the new assumed idea or opportunity. It is therefore important to distinguish between an idea and an opportunity. Resources may be wasted if a mere idea is incorrectly perceived as an opportunity.

Any opportunity is initially problem based (e.g. a coffee shop in a destination where there is a lack thereof, this creates several problem situations and potentially feasible opportunities for the entrepreneur). The creative thinking (idea generation process) involved, is the means to solving these problems, and bring forth solutions to the market problems, which create further opportunities.

1.4.1 Difference between problem and opportunity

There is, however, a critical difference between a problem and opportunity. Consider the following:

‘ Is it an idea or an opportunity to develop a high speed train between two major cities which are not far from each other? Some may say it is a great idea, but when you need to pay R200 a day to make use of it, it is simply not an opportunity. Only a few people would make use of the service, resulting in a negative impact on the market.

‘ If it is possible to transport people between the two cities for a lower cost, say R10, it would possibly be a more feasible opportunity.

Here is a good example of an opportunity – Around the turn of the twentieth century, a shoe manufacturer sent a representative to Africa, to open up a market in the undeveloped area in that continent. After exploring the culture for a month, the rep sent a telegram to the home office shouting,

‘Disaster! Disaster! These people do not wear shoes. Bring me home immediately!’

A short time later, another shoe company sent their agent to Africa for the same purpose. A month later his home office also received a telegram:

‘Opportunity! Opportunity! These people do not wear shoes! Triple production immediately!’

Quote – Every situation contains the potential for disastrous problems or unprecedented success. The event is what we perceive it to be. Unknown

Now the question arises: How do I distinguish between an idea and an opportunity? Looking at above examples, every problem is not an opportunity, and it really depends at how you are looking at the problem. If you see a viable opportunity in a problem then you are looking at the problem with a different perception than most people (the glass is half full or half empty). From a business perspective all opportunities are not necessarily a viable opportunity, the market determines the available opportunities. Without the knowledge to interpret the market conditions, you could miss it totally in terms of your opportunity analysis.

Table 1 shows the different industries in South Africa, the level of entrepreneurial activity, and how the same opportunity differs in each of these market areas.

1.4.2 The global entrepreneurship monitor

The Global Entrepreneurship Monitor ‘ specifically identified the entrepreneurial activity in the various industries of South Africa. It can be generalized to state that an industry with a high level of entrepreneurial activity, gives away more business opportunities (e.g. manufacturing, retail, hotel, restaurant and business services), while one with a lower level will indicate far less opportunities (e.g. agriculture, forestry, hunting, fishing, finance, insurance, real estate and health, education and social services).

If we analyse just one ‘high-opportunity’ industry, for instance manufacturing, it may be an opportunity today to manufacture a final product, and export it to an international market. A ‘low-opportunity’ industry, for instance insurance (especially in the market entry phase), may be negative as having an extremely high crime rate and insurance companies have to pay out claims at an alarming rate. It is also evident that low-opportunity industries may create feasible opportunities.

An entrepreneur should therefore be wary of following a fad, (latest trend) and exploiting assumed opportunities in a ‘popular’ industry.

Percentage of Entrepreneurs

ISIC Category Start-ups New Firms Total

Agriculture, forestry, hunting, fishing 1,3 2,6 1,6

Mining, construction 9,7 5,0 4,1

Manufacturing 14,3 19,1 13,8

Transport, communications, utilities 9,8 0,7 8,0

Wholesale, motor vehicle sales, repairs 6,0 6,5 6,3

Retail, hotel, restaurant 40,8 47,7 43,5

Finance, insurance, real estate 0,3 5,2 1,4

Business services 10,1 7,9 9,4

Health, education, social services 2,6 0,7 2,3

Consumer services 11,0 3,5 9,7

Source: Driver. Wood, Segal & Herrington, 2001

Table 1 – The percentage of entrepreneurs in the different industries in South-Africa

1.4.3 What is an opportunity?

What exactly is an opportunity and how does an entrepreneur exploit a feasible opportunity? According to Hesrich & Peters (2002), an opportunity is the process whereby the entrepreneur assesses whether a certain product, service or process, will yield the necessary earnings based on the resource inputs that are required to manufacture and market it.

The nature of opportunities needs to be assessed – thus, what leads to the existence of an opportunity? The following factors may result in an opportunity:

‘ General and specific problems faced by consumers

‘ Market shifts

‘ Government regulations

‘ Competition

There are two equally important criteria in the assessment of an opportunity. Firstly, the size of the market – will the number of customers reward the input and energy required, to create and deliver the product?

Secondly, the length in terms of the frame of the opportunity (window of opportunity). For example, is the demand for this product only a short fashionable phenomenon or is it based on sustainable business, or how long will it take before someone else (a competitor), to grab the opportunity?

These two aspects should also link directly to the personal skills and competence of the entrepreneur. For example, entrepreneurs with no skills or interest in information technology will not necessarily achieve their personal goals. They should rather venture into an opportunity which suits their experience and personality.

1.4.4 Transform opportunity into a business

Table 2 shows how the development of a business plan links to the identification and evaluation of opportunities, the determination of the resources required and the eventual management of the enterprise. All of these factors play a significant role in the correct assessment of the business opportunity.

This means that the business plan must explain in sufficient detail how the business will exploit the situation, to transform the opportunity, into solving a problem for the consumer, which generates extraordinary profits for the people involved.

Identify and evaluate the opportunity Develop the business plan Determine the resources needed Manage the enterprise

Creation and length of opportunity

Real and perceived value of opportunity

Risk and returns of opportunity

Opportunity versus skills and goals

Competitive situation Title page

Table of contents

Executive summary

Description of business

Description of industry

Marketing plan

Financial plan

Production plan

Organisational plan

Operational plan

Summary

Appendices Existing resources of the entrepreneur

Resource gap and available supplies

Access to needed resources Management style

Key variables for success

Identification of problems and potential problems

Implementation of control systems

Source: Hisrich, R.D. & Peters, M.P. 2002: 40. Entrepreneurship. Boston: Irwin/McGraw-Hill.

Table 2 – Link between Opportunity and business plan

1.5 Instruction

Exit and resume to your current page.

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The importance of employee engagement in an organization buy argumentative essay help

1.4 Literature Review

Mark Kilsby and Stephen Beyer (1996) ‘ Engagement and Interaction : A comparison between supported employment and acts’. This research study was conducted with the help of interaction and commitment patterns of 13 supported employees and 38 regular adult training center attainders of the organization. Direct observation was used as method of data collection, within the 13 employment sites and a representative sample of ATC organized activities. Because of the higher level of task specific dialogue between individuals and the service of the organization it is found that there is more of social interaction in ACT. Interaction of employees with public within office hours was the cause for this as per the study conducted.

Douglas R. May, Richard L, Gilson and Lynn M . Harter (2004) ‘The Psychological Conditions Of Meaningfulness ,Safety And Availability And The Engagement Of The Human Spirit At Work’. This shows the study about a U.S western company which explored the determinants and mediated the effects of tree psychological conditions they are meaningful, safe and available. The above studies shoes that all the three factors (meaningfulness, safety and availability) have a positive relation with the engagement of an employee in the organization. In other words they are completely associated with the psychological safety where as loyalty to co worker norms and self- consciousness are negatively related.

Despoina Xanthopaolou, Arnold B, Bakker, Evangelia Demerouti and Wilmar B.Schaufeli (2009) ‘Work Engagement And Financial Returns : A Diary Study On The Role Of The Job And Personal Resources’. The above study shows that how daily fluctuations in job can affect the level of personal resource , financial returns and work engagement. Different level of analysis revealed that day level job resources had an effect on work engagement through the day level personal resources. When there was a control for the general level of personal resources and organizational engagement Day level work engagement showed a positive way towards day level training, which in turn showed the financial returns.

Dan-Shang Wang and Chia ‘Chun Hsieh (2013) ‘The Effect Of Authentic Leadership On Employee Trust And Employee Engagement’ they have examined the genuine leadership on employee engagement through employee trust. They have collected data from 386 employees from top 1000 manufacturing companies and top 500 service companies in Taiwan. Hierarchical multiple regression was used to test the hypothesis on the employees. Later on the results shows that the consistency between the supervisors , words and actions as well as their moral perceptions are optimistically related to employee engagement , when only supervisors are consist between the words and actions in positively related employment trust. The study shows how employee engagement had a positive trust on employee. Employee trust has a partial link between authentic leadership and employee engagement.

Benjamin J.C, Yuan and Michael B.H. Lin (2012) ‘Transforming Employee Engagement Into Long-Term Customer Relationships: Evidence From Information Technology Salespeople In Taiwan’. This article shows that when information sales people in Taiwan have perceived more transformational leadership and they were more expected to show increased development in work engagement. Over a period of time it was found that increased development in work engagement influenced the increased customer relationship. It showed how employee engagement is indirectly co related with customer relationship.

Xander M.Bezuijen, Karen Van Dam, Peter T . Van Den Berg and Henk Thierry (2010) ‘How Leaders Stimulate Employee Learning : A Leader ‘ Member Exchange Approach’. This study investigated how the three factors as such as leader member exchange, goal setting, and feedback are related to employee engagement in the learning activities. Here, two different mechanisms were proposed , first one a mediating mechanism telling that leader member exchange shows specific leader behavior. The second one is it as a moderating mechanism , holding that leader member exchange will strengthen the effect of leader behavior from 7 organizations a sample of 1112 employees was taken , to measure the leader member exchange approach. 233 of the direct leaders answered that they find difficulty in rating employee engagement in learning activities.

Maureen F.Dollard and Arnold B. Bakker (2010) ‘Psychosocial Safety Climate As A Precursor To Conducive Work Environment , Psychological Health Problems , And Employee Engagement’. This article shows the gap between work psychology and psychosocial working condition. Where we construct a psychosocial working condition PSC. It explains how PSC influences the senior management in psychological working conditions and in psychological health and engagement. They use the job demand and resources as a frame work and uses a multi level thinking into their explanation

James R.Jones (2009) ‘Comparative Effects On Race/Ethnicity And Employee Engagement On Withdrawal Behavior’. This study have added knowledge on the basis of effects on employee attachment. In addition to that it provides more evidence on looking at all types of employees as a single entity which can lead to false results.

Shane Crabb ( 2011) ‘The Use Of Coaching Principles To Foster Employee Engagement’. The above article focuses on the human condition that leads to the happiness of fulfillment and flourishing of employee engagement. Where positive psychology results in so many questions from traditional psychological approaches .Which have mean to focus on a different model of human functioning with healing people fail. In another way positive psychology takes additional holistic approach to human life. Seeing the positive and negative aspects of context when establishing what is right , working and good of people.

Roberta A . Neault and Deidre A .Pickerel (2011) ‘Career Engagement : Bridging Career Counseling And Employee engagement’ . this article is showing that employee counselors helps individuals in maximizing their career engagement at any career stage of an individual. When you facilitate career engagement it contributes to employee engagement which employee are looking for. They even encourages others to use the career engagement and employee engagement models as vehicles to combine the employers to interest in engagement counselors to create interest in supporting the development of employee an motivate them to work.

2.1 Title: A Cross Sectional Study Of Employee Engagement In Apollo Hospitals.

2.2 Objectives:

1. To determine the level of Employee Engagement in Apollo Hospitals.

2. To identify the factors of Employee Engagement.

3. To analyze and suggest strategies for improvement.

2.3 Research Methodology:

I had adopted descriptive research design for the purpose of this

Survey on employee engagement. The primary data was collected from the 100 employees conveniently selected from Apollo Hospitals Bangalore, through structured questionnaire.

2.4 Limitations:

1) The survey was carried out for a sample sized of 100 working staff only.

2) Findings and suggestion of this research are applicable only to Apollo Hospitals.

3) As an fact finding study advanced statistical tools or analysis are not used.

Table 1.1 Weighted Average on Opportunities for growth

X 1 2 3 4 5

I have adequate opportunities for professional growth in this organization. (X1) 10 20 32 19 19

I receive the training I need to do my job well.(X2) 2 52 22 16 08

My manager is actively interested in my professional development and advancement.(X3) 32 21 12 18 17

My manager encourages and supports my development (X4) 08 10 40 18 24

I am encouraged to learn from my mistakes (X5) 52 23 16 04 05

My work is challenging, stimulating, and rewarding(X6) 28 14 33 16 09

X1 ?? XI X2 ?? X2 X3 ?? X3 X4 ?? X4 X5 ?? X5 X6 ?? X6

10 50 2 10 32 160 08 40 52 260 28 140

20 80 52 208 21 84 10 40 23 92 14 56

32 96 22 66 12 36 40 120 16 48 33 99

19 38 16 32 18 36 18 36 04 08 16 32

19 19 08 08 17 17 24 24 05 05 09 09

TOTAL 283 TOTAL 324 TOTAL 333 TOTAL 260 TOTAL 413 TOTAL 336

Table 1.2 Calculation Of Weighted Average on Opportunities for growth

283/100 2.83 324/100 3.24 333/100 3.33 260/100 2.60 413/100 4.13 336/100 3.36

RANKED 6 RANKED 4 RANKED 3 RANKED 5 RANKED 1 RANKED 2

Table 1.3 Showing The Rank Of Each Component of Opportunities for growth

INFERENCE

The above table shows that the employees are encouraged to learn from their mistakes that is 4.15 out of 5.the work is stimulating rewarding and challenging is ranked 2nd.the manager is actively interested in employees professional growth is

ranked 3rd.the level of opportunity for professional growth shows the least ranking.

Table 1.4: Showing Adequate Opportunities/ Professional growth

STRONGLY AGREED AGREED NEUTRAL DISAGREE STRONGLY DISAGREE TOTAL

10 20 32 19 19 100

Chart 1.1: Showing Adequate Opportunities/ Professional growth

Interpretation:

32% of the employees from the given population says that they have a neutral opportunity to grow where as 10 % stands in the outstanding category and 20% of them in good category. An equal no of employees disagree to the fact in the other hand that is 19% of the given population.

STRONGLY AGREED AGREED NEUTRAL DISAGREE STRONGLY DISAGREE TOTAL

2 52 22 16 8 100

Table 1.5: Showing Training

Chart 1.2: Showing Training

Interpretation:

In the given sample 52% of the employees agrees to the fact that they receive good training in order to do their job efficiently and 2% strongly agrees. where 22 % is neutral to the situation given.16 % of them do not get proper training they required to do their jobs and 8 % strongly disagree to it. It is clear that the organization is giving a proper training to employees to make their work effective.

Table 1.6: Showing Professional Development And Advancement

STRONGLY AGREED AGREED NEUTRAL DISAGREE STRONGLY DISAGREE TOTAL

32 21 12 18 17 100

Chart 1.3: Showing Professional Development And Advancement

Interpretation:

Most of the employees agree that their manager takes attention in their professional development steps. 32 % to 25 of the employees from the given sample have strongly agreed and agreed to it respectively. whereas 12 % is neutral to it . but 18% to 17% disagrees and says that they are not taken care in respective of their advancement in profession.

Table 1.7: Showing Encouragement And Support

STRONGLY AGREED AGREED NEUTRAL DISAGREE STRONGLY DISAGREE TOTAL

8 10 40 18 24 100

Chart 1.4: Showing Encouragement And Support

Interpretation:

From the above graph its clear that 40% of the employees neither agree or disagree that management encourage them or support them. 8% to 10% agrees that they have been supported by the management . but 18 % to 24 % disagree to the fact that management supports them .

Table 1.8: Showing Challenges, Stimulation And Reward

STRONGLY AGREED AGREED NEUTRAL DISAGREE STRONGLY DISAGREE TOTAL

52 23 16 4 5 100

Chart 1.5: Showing Challenges, Stimulation And Reward

Interpretation:

More than half , 52% of the employees states that they have a challenging stimulating and rewarding work. A very few of them disagree to it 4 % to 5% . and 23 % of them agrees t it there is a majority of people agreeing to it.

Table 1.9: Showing Encouragement

STRONGLY AGREED AGREED NEUTRAL DISAGREE STRONGLY DISAGREE TOTAL

28 14 33 16 9 100

Chart 1.6: Showing Encouragement

Interpretation:

There is a 28% of people agreeing to it. And 16 % to 9 % disagreeing to the fact that they are not encouraged to learn from their mistakes .

Table 1.10: Showing Weighted Average on Work/Life Balance; Stress and Work Pace

X 1 2 3 4 5

My manager understands the benefits of maintaining a balance between work and personal life. (X1) 02 13 08 48 29

My job does not cause unreasonable amounts of stress in my life. (X2) 30 13 08 48 29

The amount of work I am asked to do is reasonable. (X3) 40 20 12 14 14

I am able to satisfy both my job and family/personal responsibilities. (X4) 27 12 08 09 44

X1 ?? X1 X2 ?? X2 X3 ?? X3 X4 ?? X4

02 10 30 150 40 200 27 135

13 52 13 52 20 80 12 48

08 24 08 24 12 48 08 24

48 96 48 96 14 28 09 18

29 29 29 29 14 14 44 44

TOTAL 211 TOTAL 351 TOTAL 370 TOTAL 269

Table 1.11: Showing Calculation Of Weighted Average on Work/Life Balance; Stress and Work Pace

Table 1.12: Showing The Rank Of Each Component of Work/Life Balance; Stress And Work Pace

211/100 2.11 351/100 3.51 370/100 3.7 269/100 2.69

RANKED 4 RANKED 1 RANKED 2 RANKED 3

INFERRENCE

By analysing the given data using weighted average method that the level of stress reduced in the employees is 3.51 out of 4 , and the amount of work the employee is asked to do is 3.7. the employee is able to balance between family and personal responsibility is 2.69 . the managers understanding in the benefits and maintaining balance between work and personal life should be taken care because it is got only 2.11 which have least rank

STRONGLY AGREED AGREED NEUTRAL DISAGREE STRONGLY DISAGREE TOTAL

2 13 8 48 29 100

Table 1.13: Showing Work/Life Balance; Stress And Work Pace Balance Between Work And Personal Life

Chart 1.7: Showing Work/Life Balance; Stress And Work Pace Balance Between Work And Personal Life

Interpretation:

Only 2% of the employees says that there is a balance between work life and personal life. 13% of them agrees to it and 8% is neutral to it.but 48% of the sample disagrees and 29 % of them strongly disagrees to it.

Table 1.14: Showing Stress Level In Employees Life

STRONGLY AGREED AGREED NEUTRAL DISAGREE STRONGLY DISAGREE TOTAL

30 13 8 48 29 100

Chart 1.8: Showing Stress Level In Employees Life

Interpretation:

30% of the employees strongly agrees that the job doesn’t cause much stress where 13% of them agrees and 8% is neutral to it. But 48%of them disagree nd 29% strongly disagrees and states that job causes stress in their life.

Table 1.15: Showing Amount Of Work Asked To Do

STRONGLY AGREED AGREED NEUTRAL DISAGREE STRONGLY DISAGREE TOTAL

40 20 12 14 14 100

Chart 1.9: Showing Amount Of Work Asked To Do

Interpretation:

40% of them strongly agrees that they have sufficient amount of work and they do not feel any stress where 20 % of them agrees. 12% of the sample is neutral.14% of them disagrees they don’t have suffient amount of work or they are overloaded with the work given.

Table 1.16: Showing Satisfying Family / Personal Responsibilities

STRONGLY AGREED AGREED NEUTRAL DISAGREE STRONGLY DISAGREE TOTAL

40 20 12 14 14 100

Chart 1.10: Showing Satisfying Family / Personal Responsibilities

Interpretation:

44% of them strongly disagree that they are not able to complete their job, family and personal responsibilities. 27 % to 12 % agrees to it and 8% is neutral to that. It shows that employees are not satisfied with the amount of work given to them.

Table 1.17: Showing Weighted Average on Personal Expression / Diversity

X 1 2 3 4 5

My ideas and opinions count at work. (X1) 03 18 19 32 28

I am comfortable sharing my opinions at work. (X2) 10 08 28 42 12

We work to attract, develop, and retain people with diverse backgrounds. (X3) 10 13 09 56 12

Senior management is genuinely interested in employee opinions and ideas. (X4) 24 23 36 07 10

People with different ideas are valued in this organization. (X5) 20 18 40 13 09

Table 1.18: Calculation Of Weighted Average on Personal Expression / Diversity

X1 ?? X1 X2 ?? X2 X3 ?? X3 X4 ?? X4 X5 ?? X5

3 15 10 50 10 50 24 120 20 100

18 72 08 32 13 52 23 92 18 72

19 57 28 84 09 27 36 108 40 120

32 64 42 84 56 112 07 14 13 26

28 26 12 12 12 12 10 10 09 09

TOTAL 234 TOTAL 262 TOTAL 253 TOTAL 344 TOTAL 327

234/100 2.34 262/100 2.62 253/100 2.53 344/100 3.44 327/100 3.27

RANKED 5 RANKED 3 RANKED 4 RANKED 1 RANKED 2

Table 1.19: Showing The Rank Of Each Component of Personal Expression / Diversity

INFERRENCE

By analysing the above table it shows that senior management is interested in personal opinions which shows the rank 1. And people with different ideas are valued in the organisation are considered 3.27 out of 5. Employees are free to share their ideas 2.62. the employees work in such a manner to attract and retain others 2.53 ,which has got the 4th rank. Ideas counted at work has got the least rank where they have to work on that part.

Table 1.20: Showing Idea And Opinion Count

STRONGLY AGREED AGREED NEUTRAL DISAGREE STRONGLY DISAGREE TOTAL

3 18 19 32 28 100

Chart 1.11: : Showing Idea And Opinion Count

Interpretation:

Only 3% of the employees agree that the management listens to their ideas and opinions. 18% of them agree to it as well. 19 % is neutral to the situation. Whereas there is a huge no of the sample size that is32% to 28% who is disagreeing to it. Their opinions and ideas are not taken seriously by the management.

Table 1.21: Showing Level Comfort in Sharing Opinions

STRONGLY AGREED AGREED NEUTRAL DISAGREE STRONGLY DISAGREE TOTAL

10 8 28 42 12 100

Chart 1.12 : Showing Level Comfort in Sharing Opinions

Interpretation:

The conducted shows that onl10% to 8% employees are comfortable in sharing their problems with the upper management. Rest of the sample that is 42% is disagreeing that they are not comfortable in sharing their ideas or problems.12% of them strongly disagrees.

Table 1.22: Showing The Work They Do Is To Attract , Develop And Retain

STRONGLY AGREED AGREED NEUTRAL DISAGREE STRONGLY DISAGREE TOTAL

10 13 9 56 12 100

Chart 1.13: Showing The Work They Do Is To Attract , Develop And Retain

Interpretation:

56% of the employees disagrees that they don’t work to attract ,develop or retain customers. Where 10% to 13% agrees to the statement . a little sample size of 12% strongly disagrees to the statement .

Table 1.23: Showing Senior Management Interest In Employee Opinion And Ideas

STRONGLY AGREED AGREED NEUTRAL DISAGREE STRONGLY DISAGREE TOTAL

24 23 26 7 10 100

Chart 1.14: Showing Senior Management Interest In Employee Opinion And Ideas

Interpretation

The management shows interest in taking employees ideas and opinions.24% of them agrees and 23% of the strongly agrees to the statement. A huge sample ,36% id neutral to the statement. But a little sample, 7% to 10% disagrees to the statement.

Table 1.24: Showing People With Different Ideas Are Valued

STRONGLY AGREED AGREED NEUTRAL DISAGREE STRONGLY DISAGREE TOTAL

20 18 40 13 9 100

Chart 1.15: Showing People With Different Ideas Are Valued

Interpretation:

20% to 18% of the employees agree that people with different ideas are well accepted in the organization. 40% to the employees are neutral to the statement. 13 % to 9% of the sample disagrees to the statement on the other hand.

Table 1.25: Showing Weighted Average On Compensation

X 1 2 3 4 5

I am paid fairly for the work I do. (X1) 19 42 12 25 2

My salary is competitive with similar jobs I might find elsewhere.(X2) 32 12 28 23 5

My benefits are comparable to those offered by other organizations.(X3) 8 29 28 32 3

I understand my benefit plan. (X4) 42 15 19 9 15

I am satisfied with my benefit package. (X5) 58 12 11 6 13

Table 1.26: Calculation Of Weighted Average On Compensation

X1 vX1 X2 ?? X2 X3 ?? X3 X4 ?? X4 X5 ?? X5

19 95 32 160 08 40 42 210 58 290

42 168 12 48 29 116 15 60 12 48

12 36 28 84 28 84 19 57 11 33

25 50 23 46 32 64 09 18 06 12

02 02 05 05 03 03 15 15 13 13

TOTAL 351 TOTAL 343 TOTAL 307 TOTAL 360 TOTAL 396

Table 1.27: Showing The Rank Of Each Component Of Compensation

351/100 3.51 343/100 3.43 307/100 3.07 360/100 3.60 396/100 3.96

RANKED 3 RANKED 4 RANKED 5 RANKED 2 RANKED 1

INFERENCES

The above table shows that the employees are satisfied with the benefit package they are given 3.96 out of 5.the employees understand their plan is 3.60. the fair pay is ranked 3rd.the employees salary is competitive with others is ranked 4th. The salary is not comparable with salary with others which has been ranked the least, rank 5.

Table 1.28: showing Fair Pay

STRONGLY AGREED AGREED NEUTRAL DISAGREE STRONGLY DISAGREE TOTAL

19 42 12 25 2 100

Chart 1.16: Showing Fair Pay

Interpretation:

19% to 42% of the Employees agree that they are paid fairly according to the amount of work they do. But 25% to 2% of the sample size disagrees to the statement. And 12% is neutral to it.

Table 1.29: Showing Salary Competitiveness

STRONGLY AGREED AGREED NEUTRAL DISAGREE STRONGLY DISAGREE TOTAL

32 12 28 23 5 100

Chart 1.17: Showing Salary Competitiveness

Interpretation:

32% of the employees agrees that they get a competitive salary when compared to other organizations with same designation. 12% of them strongly agrees to it .28% of them are neutral to the statement. 23% to 5% is disagrees to the statement in the other hand.

Table 1.30: Showing Comparability Of Benefits

STRONGLY AGREED AGREED NEUTRAL DISAGREE STRONGLY DISAGREE TOTAL

8 29 28 32 3 100

Chart 1.18: Showing Comparability Of Benefits

Interpretation:

There is balance, 29% of the employees agrees and 32 % of them strongly disagrees that they have a comparable benefits.28% of them are neutral in the other hand.

Table 1.31: Showing Understanding Of Benefit Plan

STRONGLY AGREED AGREED NEUTRAL DISAGREE STRONGLY DISAGREE TOTAL

42 15 19 9 15 100

Chart 1.19: Showing Understanding Of Benefit Plan

Interpretation:

42% of the employees agrees that they understand their benefit plan. 15% strongly agrees ,where 19% is neutral.9% to 15% disagrees to the fact and says they don’t understand the benefit plans they are given.

Table 1.32: Showing Satisfaction With Benefit Package

STRONGLY AGREED AGREED NEUTRAL DISAGREE STRONGLY DISAGREE TOTAL

58 12 11 6 13 100

Chart 1.20: Showing Satisfaction With Benefit Package

Interpretation:

58% of them are satisfied with their benefit package. 12% strongly agrees. Whereas little sample of 6% to 13% disagrees to the statement. Or they are not happy with their benefit package.11% is neutral to it.

Summary of Findings

‘ Most of the employee’s ability state the opinion firmly and positively is better than acceptable standards.

‘ Majority of the employee’s ability in exercising the professional duties without assistance is better than acceptable standard.

‘ The Emotional Stamina of the majority of the employees is better than acceptable standard.

‘ Majority of the Employee’s Ability to work co-operatively and collaboratively to achieve common goal is better than acceptable.

‘ Majority of the employees Ability to effectively guide a group through an appropriate process to help to achieve their desired outcomes is better than acceptable standard.

‘ Majority of the employee’s ability to clarify and establish with a group roles and responsibilities, common goal and plan to achieve them and group behavioural is outstanding.

‘ Majority of the employees Ability to deal with multiple issues and details, alertness and learning capacity is better than acceptable standard.

‘ Majority of the employee’s ability to see and think beyond the obvious and formulate original solution is better than acceptable standards.

‘ Majority of the employee’s ability to present ideas, concept, plan and procedure clearly to the target group is better than acceptable standard.

‘ Concern for excellence of the majority of the employee’s is better than acceptable standard.

‘ Majority of the employee’s Aware of what is going on in the workplace and responds in a suitable manner to situations as they is better than acceptable.

‘ The understanding between the top level and employees are in good terms.

‘ Employees do understand their benefits and opportunities given by the organisation.

‘ The employees are paid fairly according to the work done.

‘ Freedom of sharing new ideas and opinions are welcomed in the organisation.

‘ The employees are able to make a balance between personnel and work life. which reduces the amount of stress in them.

‘ The organisation encourages the employee to learn from their mistakes.

‘ Recommendations

‘ In this organization employee engagement study must be regularly done in order to check the level of employee effectiveness.

‘ Since many of the employees are performing different jobs to what they were doing at the time of their joining they need training to perform the new work allotted them.

‘ Different sources of employee engagement tactics must be encouraged in employees.

‘ The top management should support the lower level employees since it is considered a major hurdle in effective employee engagement and the employees must also be made aware of importance of engagement at work system

‘ The employees should be then and there motivated for work.

‘ The understanding between management and employees should be increased.

‘ Level of stress in work should be reduced.

‘ Better benefit package should be given to the employees.

Conclusion

In the report we have discussed the importance of employee engagement in an organization and how it affects the efficiency of work and productivity. Employment counselors should help individuals to maximize their career engagement at any stage of their career. Basically employee engagement should be a buzz word for the employee engagement and a positive attitude held by the employees towards the organization. Employee engagement is gaining its importance and popularity in work places and its impact in many ways. It emphasis on the importance of employee engagement in a organization, an organization should thus give more importance for its employees than any other variable as they are the powerful contributors to a company’s competitiveness. Thus it shows that employee engagement should be a continues process for learning, improvement, measurement and action of an employee.

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The limitations of the Chit Acts mba essay help

1.1 BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY

The financial system assumes strategically a very important role in channelling the funds from surplus units to deficit units. The financial system here refers to the group of institutions, markets and instruments which helps in formation of capital and thus accelerates to the pace of economic development.

The base of this study stems from the fact that there exists a gap between gross capital formation and gross domestic savings in India. So, there exists the need to augment the growth rate of voluntary domestic savings. This goal can be realized by widening and strengthening the working of different financial intermediaries which will result in mobilizing savings from various income level categories. .It is in this context that the role of the Non-Banking Financial Intermediaries like Chit Finance should be appreciated in supplementing the functions of the Banking Institutions.

Chit funds are Chit funds are the Indian equivalent of the Rotating Savings and Credit Associations (ROSCA). ROSCAs are famous in many parts of the world and is seen as an instrument to ‘save and borrow’ simultaneously. ROSCAs basically started as a way to help in fulfilling the needs of the low-income households as it enables the people to convert their small savings into lump sums. The concept of chit funds originated more than 1000 years ago. Initially it was in the form of an informal association of traders and households within communities, wherein the members contributed some money in return for an accumulated sum at the end of the tenure. Participation in Chit funds was mainly for the purpose of purchasing some property or, in other words, for ‘consumption’ purposes. However, in recent times, there have been tremendous alterations in the constitution and functioning of Chit funds. A significant difference between Chit Funds and ROSCAs are that in most places ROSCAs are user-owned and organized informally, but chit funds have been formally institutionalized in India. (Chit Funds-An innovative access to finance for low income households, 2009)

1.1.1 WHAT DO WE MEAN BY CHIT FUNDS?

Chit fund is a savings-cum-borrowing instrument. The basic aim of this instrument is to pool small amount of savings by all the members which is then managed by a foreman. The foreman has the responsibility to act as a trustee-cum-supervisors for the process of collection and allotment of the pooled amount.

Chit funds represent a traditional form of saving-cum-credit institution evolved before the bank system was introduced in rural India. There are many who avail themselves of this avenue for saving for a reasonable return.

1.1 NEED AND RATIONALE OF THE STUDY

Despite the growth of a wide range of savings avenues and the widespread network of banks and other financial institutions, it has been found that Chit scheme still forms an important part in the asset portfolio of many households and firms in India and especially in South India including Karnataka. Also, the review of literature shows that there are only a few studies on Chit Finance. Therefore, the need to conduct the study stems from the requirement to understand Chit Funds in Bangalore.

1.2 NEED TO CONDUCT THE STUDY

The research titled ‘A Study on Chit Funds in Bangalore to understand the behaviour and financial needs of the chit fund members as well as to identify the important predictors of regular participation in chit funds’ The study estimates the net returns and interest rate on Chit funds. This study tries to point out the limitations of the Chit Acts and suggests feasible recommendations for improving the working of such institutions.

.3.2 STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM

‘A Study on Chit Funds in Bangalore to understand the behaviour and financial needs of the chit fund members as well as to identify the important predictors of regular participation in chit funds’.

VARIABLES UNDER INVESTIGATION

1. Age

2. Occupation

3. Monthly income

4. Gender

5. Bank loan

6. Regular participation in chit fund

7. Membership in multiple chit schemes

8. Cause for participating in multiple schemes

9. Preferred avenue of saving

10. Preferred source of finance

11. Safety

12. Better service

13. Flexibility

14. Timely Payment

15. Low commission

16. Personal contact

17. Unregistered chit funds membership

18. Cause for participating in unregistered chit funds

19. Cause for not participating in unregistered chit fund

3.5 OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDY

3.5.1 OBJECTIVE(PRIMARY)

1. To understand the behaviour and financial needs of the chit fund members.

2. To identify the important predictors behind chit fund participation

3.5.2 OHER OBJECTIVES OF RESEARCH

1. To estimate interest rates in registered chit funds.

2. To compare the relative ratings of Chit subscribers towards registered and unregistered chit funds on

3. To estimate the return on Chit Funds.

3.6 HYPOTHESIS

There are two types of statistical hypotheses.

1. Null hypothesis

2. Alternative hypothesis.

Hypothesis 1:

H0: There is no significant relation between gender and cause for participation in chit fund.

H1: There is significant relation between gender and cause for participation in chit fund.

Hypothesis 2:

H0: There is no significant relation between occupation and cause for participation in chit fund.

H1: There is significant relation between occupation and cause for participation in chit fund.

Hypothesis 3:

H0: There is no significant relation between age and causes for participation in chit fund

H1: There is significant relation between age and cause for participation in chit fund

Hypothesis 4:

H0: There is no significant relation between monthly income and cause for participation in chit fund

H1: There is significant relation between monthly income and cause for participation in chit fund

Hypothesis 5:

H0: There is no significant relation between gender and causes for bidding in chit fund

H1: There is significant relation between gender and cause for bidding in chit fund

Hypothesis 6:

H0: There is no significant relation between occupation and cause for bidding in chit fund

H1: There is significant relation between occupation and cause for bidding in chit fund

Hypothesis 7:

H0: There is no significant relation between age and cause for bidding in chit fund

H1: There is significant relation between age and cause for bidding in chit fund

Hypothesis 8:

H0: There is no significant relation between monthly income and cause for bidding in chit fund

H1: There is significant relation between monthly income and cause for bidding in chit fund

Hypothesis 9:

H0: There is no significant relation between gender and cause for saving in chit fund

H1: There is significant relation between gender and cause for saving in chit fund

Hypothesis 10:

H0: There is no significant relation between occupation and cause for saving in chit fund.

H1: There is significant relation between occupation and cause for saving in chit fund.

Hypothesis 11:

H0: There is no significant relation between age and cause for saving in chit fund

H1: There is significant relation between age and cause for saving in chit fund

Hypothesis 12:

H0: There is no significant relation between having bank loan and membership in multiple chit schemes.

H1: There is significant relation between having bank loan and membership in multiple chit schemes.

Hypothesis 13:

H0: There is no significant relation between monthly income and participation in unregistered chit funds

H1: There is significant relation between monthly income and participation in unregistered chit funds

Hypothesis 14 :

H0: There is no significant relation between causes to prefer chit fund over bank and having bank loan.

H1: There is significant relation between causes to prefer chit fund over bank and having bank loan.

Hypothesis 15:

H0: Presence of safety, flexibility, timely payment, low commission, better service, personal contact, having a bank loan are no significant predictors of regular participation in chit fund.

H1: Presence of safety, flexibility, timely payment, low commission, better service, personal contact ,having a bank loan,are significant predictors of regular participation in chit fund.

.

3.8 SAMPLING METHOD

Members of four registered chit fund companies in Bangalore. The four registered chit fund companies were selected due to the large size of their subscriber base.

3.8.3 SIZE OF SAMPLE

150 respondents

3.9 MECHANISM OF STUDY

3.9.1 PRIMARY RESEARCH

Questions relating to behaviour and financial pattern will be found out through questionnares

3.9.2 SECONDARY RESEARCH

‘ Reports on chit fund industry

OVERVIEW OF INDIAN CHIT FUND INDUSTRY

4.1.1 NUMBER OF REGISTERED CHIT FUND COMPANIES:

According to the Ministry of Corporate Affairs, as on 31st December, 2013:

Volume of registered chit companies: 5412

Volume of chit companies in Karnataka: 703

Number of chit fund companies in Bangalore: 315

UNREGISTERED CHIT FUND INDUSTRY

Although unregistered chits are an informal source of finance but still they are a significant part of the chit fund industry. Though they are more easily accessible as compared to registered chit funds.

4.3 PURPOSE OF THE STUDY

The study titled ‘A Study on Chit Funds in Bangalore to understand the behaviour and financial needs of the chit fund members as well as to identify the important predictors of regular participation in chit funds’ attempt in The study estimates the net returns and interest rate on Chit funds. This study also examines the limitations of the Chit Acts and suggests suitable recommendations for improving the functioning of such institutions.

4.4 LIMITATION OF STUDY

‘ Unwillingness of the members to share their income and financial details made the task of data collection somewhat difficult.

‘ Collecting data became difficult since I don’t know the regional languages.

5.2 ANALYSIS OF DATA

The analysis is done on the primary data collected from 150 chit funds members in Bangalore

TESTING OF HYPOTHESES

5.4.1 Hypothesis 1:

H0: There is no significant relation between gender and cause for participation in chit fund.

H1: There is significant relation between gender and cause for participation in chit fund.

Chi-Square Tests

Value df Asymp. Sig. (2-sided)

Pearson Chi-Square 31.070a 16 .013

Likelihood Ratio 35.945 16 .003

Linear-by-Linear Association 8.809 1 .003

N of Valid Cases 150

a. 1 cells (10.0%) have expected count less than 5. The minimum expected count is .30.

Symmetric Measures

Value Approx. Sig.

Nominal by Nominal Phi .455 .013

Cramer’s V .228 .013

N of Valid Cases 150

a. Not assuming the null hypothesis.

b. Using the asymptotic standard error assuming the null hypothesis.

INTERPRETATION:

The value of chi-square=31.070 was p=.013, less than 0.05.

We can see that the strength of association between the variables is moderate (Phi and Cramer’s V -0.455).

Therefore, the research hypothesis that differences in ’cause to participate in chit funds’ are related to differences in ‘age” is supported by this analysis. This means that different age groups of the chit fund members have different reasons of participating in chit funds. As can be seen from the table above that those who belong to ’36-45 years’ have saving as the predominant reason to participate whereas members of other age groups do not have any dominant reason to participate.

5.4.2 Hypothesis 2:

Hypothesis 2:

H0: There is no significant relation between occupation and cause for participation in chit fund.

H1: There is significant relation between occupation and cause for participation in chit fund.

Hypothesis 3:

. Hypothesis 3:

H0: There is no significant relation between age and causes for participation in chit fund

H1: There is significant relation between age and cause for participation in chit fund

Chi-Square Tests

Value df Asymp. Sig. (2-sided)

Pearson Chi-Square 10.018a 4 .040

Likelihood Ratio 10.478 4 .033

Linear-by-Linear Association 6.876 1 .009

N of Valid Cases 150

Symmetric Measures

Value Approx. Sig.

Nominal by Nominal Phi .258 .040

Cramer’s V .258 .040

N of Valid Cases 150

a. Not assuming the null hypothesis.

a. Using the asymptotic standard error assuming the null hypothesis.

INTERPRETATION:

The value of chi-square=10.018 was p=.040, less than 0.05.

.We can see that the strength of association between the variables is weak (0.258)

Therefore, the research hypothesis that differences in ’cause to participate in chit funds’ are related to differences in ‘gender” is supported by this analysis. This means that males and females have different reasons of participating in chit funds. As it can be seen that males participate in chit funds for business and personal consumption purposes apart from saving whereas women predominantly participate to save.

5.4

Hypothesis 4:

H0: There is no significant relation between monthly income and cause for participation in chit fund

H1: There is significant relation between monthly income and cause for participation in chit fund

Chi-Square Tests

Value df Asymp. Sig. (2-sided)

Pearson Chi-Square 82.176a 12 .000

Likelihood Ratio 97.665 12 .000

Linear-by-Linear Association 15.696 1 .000

N of Valid Cases 150

Symmetric Measures

Value Approx. Sig.

Nominal by Nominal Phi .740 .000

Cramer’s V .427 .000

N of Valid Cases 150

INTERPRETATION:

We can see that the strength of association between the variables is strong (0.740)

Therefore, the research hypothesis that differences in ‘reason to participate in chit funds’ are related to differences in ‘occupation” is supported by this analysis. It can be seen that the self-employed members mainly participate to avail for business reasons whereas salaried employee participate mainly for personal consumption purposes.

Hypothesis 5:

Hypothesis 5:

H0: There is no significant relation between gender and causes for bidding in chit fund

H1: There is significant relation between gender and cause for bidding in chit fund

Chi-Square Tests

Value df Asymp. Sig. (2-sided)

Pearson Chi-Square 66.691a 20 .000

Likelihood Ratio 43.579 20 .002

Linear-by-Linear Association 4.804 1 .028

N of Valid Cases 150

a. 1 cell (10.0%) has expected count less than 5. The minimum expected count is .07.

Symmetric Measures

Value Approx. Sig.

Nominal by Nominal Phi .667 .000

Cramer’s V .333 .000

N of Valid Cases 150

a. Not assuming the null hypothesis.

b. Using the asymptotic standard error assuming the null hypothesis.

INTERPRETATION:

The (chi-square=66.691) was p=.000, less than 0.05.

We can see that the strength of association between the variables is moderately strong (0.667)

Therefore, the research hypothesis that differences in ’cause to bid in chit funds’ are related to differences in ‘age” is supported by this analysis. It can be seen that the members of age group’36-45 years’ are more interested in bidding for business related purposes where members of other age groups bid mainly for emergency needs.

5.4.6 Hypothesis 6:

. Hypothesis 6:

H0: There is no significant relation between occupation and cause for bidding in chit fund

H1: There is significant relation between occupation and cause for bidding in chit fund

Chi-Square Tests

Value df Asymp. Sig. (2-sided)

Pearson Chi-Square 7.167a 5 .209

Likelihood Ratio 7.885 5 .163

Linear-by-Linear Association 1.120 1 .290

N of Valid Cases 150

a. 5 cells (41.7%) have expected count less than 5. The minimum expected count is .81.

Symmetric Measures

Value Approx. Sig.

Nominal by Nominal Phi .219 .209

Cramer’s V .219 .209

N of Valid Cases 150

a. Not assuming the null hypothesis.

b. Using the asymptotic standard error assuming the null hypothesis.

INTERPRETATION:

The probability of the chi-square test statistic (chi-square=7.167) was p=.209, more than the alpha level of significance of 0.05.

Therefore, the research hypothesis that differences in ‘reason to bid in chit funds’ are related to differences in ‘gender” is not supported by this analysis.

5.4.7 Hypothesis 7:

Hypothesis 7:

H0: There is no significant relation between age and cause for bidding in chit fund

H1: There is significant relation between age and cause for bidding in chit fund

Chi-Square Tests

Value df Asymp. Sig. (2-sided)

Pearson Chi-Square 180.915a 15 .000

Likelihood Ratio 160.460 15 .000

Linear-by-Linear Association 28.379 1 .000

N of Valid Cases 150

a. 1 cell (10.0%) has expected count less than 5. The minimum expected count is .13.

Symmetric Measures

Value Approx. Sig.

Nominal by Nominal Phi 1.098 .000

Cramer’s V .634 .000

N of Valid Cases 150

INTERPRETATION:

The (chi-square=180.915) was p=.000, less than 0.05.

We can see that the strength of association between the variables is extremely strong (1.098)

Therefore, the research hypothesis that differences in’ are related to differences in ‘occupation” is supported by this analysis. It can be clearly seen that self-employed people bid in chit scheme mostly for business purposes, salaried people for emergency needs and housewives for household purposes.

5.4.8 Hypothesis 8:

Hypothesis 8:

H0: There is no significant relation between monthly income and cause for bidding in chit fund

H1: There is significant relation between monthly income and cause for bidding in chit fund

Chi-Square Tests

Value df Asymp. Sig. (2-sided)

Pearson Chi-Square 123.331a 35 .000

Likelihood Ratio 106.298 35 .000

Linear-by-Linear Association 4.957 1 .026

N of Valid Cases 150

INTERPRETATION:

The probability of the chi-square test statistic (chi-square=123.331) was p=.000, less than the alpha level of significance of 0.05.

We can see that the strength of association between the variables is extremely strong (.907)

Therefore, the research hypothesis that differences in ‘reason to bid in chit funds’ are related to differences in ‘income” is supported by this analysis. It can be clearly seen that low income members bid mostly for consumption reasons whereas higher income members bid for business related and emergency purposes.

SUMMARY:

Reason to bid in chit fund has the strongest association with the occupation of the chit fund members as the probability of the chi-square test statistic (chi-square=180.915) was p=.000 and the strength of association between the variables is extremely strong (1.098).

5.4.

Hypothesis 9:

H0: There is no significant relation between gender and cause for saving in chit fund

H1: There is significant relation between gender and cause for saving in chit fund

Chi-Square Tests

Value df Asymp. Sig. (2-sided)

Pearson Chi-Square 21.702a 16 .153

Likelihood Ratio 23.775 16 .095

Linear-by-Linear Association 2.397 1 .122

N of Valid Cases 150

INTERPRETATION:

The chi-square=123.331) was p=.153, more than 0.05. Therefore, the research hypothesis that differences in ’cause to save in chit funds’ are related to differences in ‘age” is not supported by this analysis.

5.4.10 Hypothesis 10:

H0: There is no significant relation between occupation and cause for saving in chit fund.

H1: There is significant relation between occupation and cause for saving in chit fund.

Chi-Square Tests

Value df Asymp. Sig. (2-sided)

Pearson Chi-Square 20.510a 4 .000

Likelihood Ratio 29.038 4 .000

Linear-by-Linear Association 7.062 1 .008

N of Valid Cases 150

a. 1 cell (10.0%) has expected count less than 5. The minimum expected count is .81.

Symmetric Measures

Value Approx. Sig.

Nominal by Nominal Phi .370 .000

Cramer’s V .370 .000

N of Valid Cases 150

a. Not assuming the null hypothesis.

b. Using the asymptotic standard error assuming the null hypothesis.

INTERPRETATION:

The chi-square=20.510) was p=.000, less than 0.05.

We can see that the strength of association between the variables is weak (.370).Therefore, the research hypothesis that differences in ’cause to save in chit funds’ are related to differences in ‘gender” is supported by this analysis.

5.4.11 Hypothesis 11:

Hypothesis 11:

H0: There is no significant relation between age and cause for saving in chit fund

H1: There is significant relation between age and cause for saving in chit fund

Chi-Square Tests

Value df Asymp. Sig. (2-sided)

Pearson Chi-Square 67.261a 12 .000

Likelihood Ratio 60.380 12 .000

Linear-by-Linear Association 9.507 1 .002

N of Valid Cases 150

a. 1 cell (10.0%) has expected count less than 5. The minimum expected count is .13.

Symmetric Measures

Value Approx. Sig.

Nominal by Nominal Phi .670 .000

Cramer’s V .387 .000

N of Valid Cases 150

INTERPRETATION:

The chi-square=67.261 was p=.000, less than 0.05.

We can see that the strength of association between the variables is moderately strong(.670).Therefore, the research hypothesis that differences in ‘reason to cause in chit funds’ are related to differences in ‘occupation” is supported by this analysis. Salaried people save their money in chit fund with no particular purpose. But self-employed people are equally interested in saving for house purchase as well as for general purpose.

SUMMARY:

chit fund is most closely associated with occupation of the chit fund members as it has the highest value of chi-square statistic and Phi coefficient.

5.4.12 Hypothesis 12:

Hypothesis 12:

H0: There is no significant relation between having bank loan and membership in multiple chit schemes.

H1: There is significant relation between having bank loan and membership in multiple chit schemes.

Chi-Square Tests

Value df Asymp. Sig. (2-sided)

Pearson Chi-Square 56.697a 3 .000

Likelihood Ratio 67.900 3 .000

Linear-by-Linear Association 36.400 1 .000

N of Valid Cases 150

INTERPRETATION:

The probability of the chi-square test statistic (chi-square=56.697) was p=.000, less than the alpha level of significance of 0.05.

We can see that the strength of association between the variables is strong (.615).

Therefore, the research hypothesis that differences in ‘membership in multiple chit schemes are related to differences in ‘having currently bank loan” is supported by this analysis. It is clearly evident that those members currently having bank loan have invested in only one chit scheme whereas those members who do not have availed bank loan have invested in more than one chit schemes.

5.4.13 Hypothesis 13:

Hypothesis 13:

H0: There is no significant relation between monthly income and participation in unregistered chit funds

H1: There is significant relation between monthly income and participation in unregistered chit funds

.

Chi-Square Tests

Value df Asymp. Sig. (2-sided)

Pearson Chi-Square 96.660a 7 .000

Likelihood Ratio 85.378 7 .000

Linear-by-Linear Association 59.577 1 .000

N of Valid Cases 150

a. 1 cell(10.0%) has expected count less than 5. The minimum expected count is 1.08.

INTERPRETATION:

The chi-square=96.660 was p=.000, less than 0.05.

We can see that the strength of association between the variables is extremely strong (.803).

Therefore, the research hypothesis that differences in ‘participation in unregistered chit funds’ are related to differences in ‘income” is supported by this analysis. It is clearly evident that mostly low- income members have participated in unregistered funds. This is because the registered funds have become expensive due to the increase in their operational cost as a result of stringent regulations.

5.2.14 Hypothesis 14 :

H0: There is no significant relation between causes to prefer chit fund over bank and having bank loan.

H1: There is significant relation between causes to prefer chit fund over bank and having bank loan

Chi-Square Tests

Value df Asymp. Sig. (2-sided)

Pearson Chi-Square 28.049a 5 .000

Likelihood Ratio 31.806 5 .000

Linear-by-Linear Association 2.967 1 .085

N of Valid Cases 150

a. 2 cells (15.0%) have expected count less than 5. The minimum expected count is 1.79.

Symmetric Measures

Value Approx. Sig.

Nominal by Nominal Phi .432 .000

Cramer’s V .432 .000

N of Valid Cases 150

INTERPRETATION:

The probability of the chi-square test statistic (chi-square=28.049) was p=.000, less than the alpha level of significance of 0.05.

We can see that the strength of association between the variables is moderate (.432).

Therefore, the research hypothesis that differences in ’cause to prefer chit fund over bank’ are related to differences in ‘having bank loan” is supported by this analysis. It is clearly evident that members who have bank loan have preferred chit fund over bank mainly due to better dividends. But those who do not have bank loan prefer chit fund over bank mainly due to better service in terms of more personalized service.)

5.2..15 Hypothesis 15: To identify significant predictors of regular participation in chit funds using Binary Logistic Regression

Hypothesis 15:

H0: Presence of safety, flexibility, timely payment, low commission, better service, personal contact, having a bank loan are no significant predictors of regular participation in chit fund.

H1: Presence of safety, flexibility, timely payment, low commission, better service, personal contact ,having a bank loan,are significant predictors of regular participation in chit fund.

Variables in the Equation

B S.E. Wald df Sig. Exp(B)

Step 0 Constant -1.046 .186 31.574 1 .000 .351

Model Summary

Step -2 Log likelihood Cox & Snell R Square Nagelkerke R Square

1 37.170a .533 .576

a. Estimation terminated at iteration number 6 because parameter estimates changed by less than .001.

Variables in the Equation

B S.E. Wald df Sig. Exp(B)

Step 1a bank_loan(1) 1.068 1.265 14.715 1 .000 11.720

reason_2 2.286 4 .683

reason_2(1) 1.336 1.077 1.540 1 .215 3.805

reason_2(2) .134 2.239 .004 1 .952 1.143

reason_2(3) -.559 1.896 .087 1 .768 .572

reason_2(4) .731 1.347 .294 1 .588 2.076

reason_3 4.874 5 .431

reason_3(1) 1.188 .924 1.652 1 .199 3.279

reason_3(2) 1.661 2.048 .658 1 .417 5.263

reason_3(3) -1.654 1.228 1.813 1 .178 .191

reason_3(4) .404 1.192 .115 1 .735 1.497

reason_3(5) -17.379 20.722 .000 1 .700 .000

reason_4 .355 4 .986

reason_4(1) -1.047 1.850 .320 1 .571 .351

reason_4(2) -.839 1.979 .180 1 .672 .432

reason_4(3) -.932 1.637 .324 1 .569 .394

reason_4(4) 3.519 4.199 .000 1 .600 3.746

reason_5 8.553 5 .128

reason_5(1) -.254 1.768 .021 1 .886 .776

reason_5(2) -19.245 9.890 .000 1 .999 .000

reason_5(3) 1.420 1.338 1.126 1 .289 4.136

reason_5(4) -.747 1.306 .327 1 .567 .474

reason_5(5) .561 1.342 .174 1 .676 1.752

B S.E. Wald df Sig. Exp(B)

Step 1a Safety -.075 .320 4.377 1 .011 0.928

Flexi -.178 .426 3.337 1 .021 0.837

commision -.185 .188 1.868 1 .026 0.831

payment -.267 .178 1.657 1 .097 0.766

service -.859 .412 1.348 1 .083 0.424

personal -1.122 .163 .996 1 .079 0.329

Constant 3.058 2.440 1.571 1 .010 21.291

a. Variable(s) entered on step 1: : bank_loan, reason_2, reason_3, reason_4, reason_5.imp1, imp2, imp3, imp4, imp5, imp6.

INTERPRETATION:

‘ -2 Log Likelihood statistic is 37.170. This statistic how poorly the model predicts the decisions — the smaller the statistic the better the model. Since, 37.170 is a relatively small number therefore, this model is able to predict the decisions in a better way.

‘ Here Cox & Snell R Square statistic indicates that 53.3% of the variation in the regular participation in chit funds is explained by the logistic model.

‘ In our case Nagelkerke R Square is 0.576, indicating a moderate relationship of 57.6 % between the predictors and the prediction.

‘ If it is less than .05 then, we will reject the null hypothesis and accept the alternative hypothesis.

‘ In this case, we can see that bank loan, safety, flexibility and low commission have contributed signi’cantly to the prediction of regular participation in chit funds but other variables are not significant predictors of regular participation in chit funds.

‘ Since only bank loan has p=.000, therefore we can say that bank loan is the most significant predictor

among other significant predictors. This is followed by safety (p=.011), flexibility (p=.021) and low commission (p=.026).

‘ Here, the EXP (B) bank loan is 11.727. Hence when bank loan is availed by one unit (one person) the odds ratio is 11 times as large and therefore people are 11 more times likely not to regularly participate in chit funds.

‘ Here, the EXP (B) with safety is .928. Hence when safety is increased by one percent the odds ratio is .928 times as large and therefore people are .928 more times likely to regularly participate in chit funds.

‘ Here, the EXP (B) flexibility is 837. Hence when flexibility is increased by one percent the odds ratio is .928 times as large and therefore people are .837 more times likely to regularly participate in chit funds.

‘ Here, the EXP (B) low commission is .831. Hence when flexibility is increased by one percent the odds ratio is .928 times as large and therefore people are .831 more times likely to regularly participate in chit funds.

SUMMARY

Bank loan is the most significant predictor of regular participation in chit funds. This is followed by safety, flexibility and low commission.

Instalment no No of months remaining Monthly subscription Prize amount PV of monthly subscription(PV of outlow at 10%) PV of Prize amount(PV of inflow at 10%) Net Present Value(PV of inflow – PV of outflow)

1 24 2000 50000 2000 50000 10444.9

2 23 1500 35000 1488.1 34723.1 -4832.0

3 22 1500 35000 1476.4 34448.4 -5106.7

4 21 1500 35000 1464.7 34175.9 -5379.2

5 20 1500 35000 1453.1 33905.5 -5649.6

6 19 1500 35000 1441.6 33637.3 -5917.8

7 18 1500 35000 1430.2 33371.2 -6183.9

8 17 1500 35000 1418.9 33107.2 -6447.9

9 16 1620 38000 1520.3 35660.6 -3894.5

10 15 1620 38000 1508.2 35378.5 -4176.6

11 14 1700 40000 1570.2 36945.9 -2609.2

12 13 1700 40000 1557.8 36653.6 -2901.5

13 12 1780 42000 1618.2 38181.8 -1373.3

14 11 1780 42000 1605.4 37879.8 -1675.3

15 10 1780 42000 1592.7 37580.1 -1975.0

16 9 1860 44000 1651.1 39058.2 -496.9

17 8 1860 44000 1638.0 38749.2 -805.9

18 7 1860 44000 1625.1 38442.6 -1112.5

19 6 1940 46000 1681.6 39872.1 317.0

20 5 1940 46000 1668.3 39556.6 1.5

21 4 1940 46000 1655.1 39243.7 -311.4

22 3 1940 46000 1642.0 38933.2 -621.8

23 2 1940 46000 1629.0 38625.2 -929.8

24 1 1940 46000 1616.1 38319.7 -1235.4

25 0 1940 46000 1603.3 38016.5 -1538.6

39555.1 934465.9 -54411.4

[supanova_question]

Merit goods essay help us

Merit goods are goods which will be under-provided by the market, therefore they will be under-consumed. They are thought by the governments to be good for the populations and so the governments want them to be consumed to a great extent. They increase the private and social benefits and cause the social benefit be higher than the private one. The best examples of them, apart from all the public goods, can be the education, health care, sports facilities and the opera.

Although the majority of the merit goods is provided by the private sectors, not all the people can afford buying them, therefore they will be under-consumed. That is why the government is needed to destroy the market failure increasing the supply and consequently raising the consumption.

To explain the reasons for government to provide the merit goods, I need to apply some examples of them. The first one can be the education. It is significant for the governments to provide it so that the society would be well-educated. Governments determine the period of education required for people (the compulsory education) to maintain the proper level of education of the society. The governments find education an important aspect that should be available for everyone as it cause the whole country to have better both economic growth and economic development.

Considering another example such as health care, the situation is quite similar. The governments want to provide the population with it because they care about the high states of health of society in their country. To gain these, the countries need to have high quality of health care. Governments often offer people unpaid programs consisting of preventative medical examination which contribute to maintain the high number of healthy people. This is also connected with the problems of the labour market. The healthier people are, the more efficient their work is, the greater revenue firms have and countries are more developed because of taxations.

Other examples like sport facilities or the opera are meant for people to become physically and culturally developed but their availability is not as important as in the case of the previous examples. That is why they are not as much provided by the governments as the rest of the merit goods.

Although most of the merit goods provided by the governments are free, the fact is that they are paid through the taxes that the societies pay. The number of the merit goods of particular types that the governments provide or subsidize depends on the necessity of them. If they are provided, the societies’ benefits get higher and so is the public treasury of the countries.

[supanova_question]

Research proposal: The effect of pregnancy on the adolescent pregnant teen & father best college essay help

Abstract: The purpose for this research paper is to address the adolescent pregnant teen & father and the effects a pregnancy has on both of their lives during and after her pregnancy. How the teens need the support of the family, community, church, and the school system. I will also address the teen father mostly disregarded in any aspect of the teen’s pregnancy and how this affects him, and how both teens need support in our society. How we can address the social problem of teen pregnancy from all avenues.

‘Three issues that have an impact on the pregnant adolescent are discussed education, identity development, and maternal support’ (Turnage & Pharris, 2013). My research focuses on adolescent pregnant teen women 19 years old and younger. It will also reflect the problems of the teen pregnant adolescents journeying thru the process of becoming a teen mother, finishing high school, developing her own identity and the maternal support she gets from her mother during her transition from pregnant teen to motherhood.

‘Several issues that differently influence the pregnant teen is individually based on the female’s chronological age’ (Turnage & Pharris, 2013). ‘For the pregnant adolescent, her pregnancy supersedes high school graduation as the benchmark for her being viewed as an adult’ (Turnage & Pharris, 2013). ‘Failure to graduate high school is associated with poor social and educational outcomes for teen mothers and their children’ (Turnage & Pharris, 2013).

‘While the pregnant adolescent is defining who she is as a person she experiences a transition to the new identity of mother’ (Turnage & Pharris, 2013). ‘During her pregnancy the adolescent’s mother is seen as the primary source of support that contributes to a positive self-image and can assist her in the adapting to the role of parent’ (Turnage & Pharris, 2013).

My research paper will also show how important it is to support the teen during and after pregnancy. It addresses the need for the teen mothers to finish high school, and find her identity. How important it is to have the support system of her mother and family to achieve all of these things. Without these support systems, the pregnant adolescent could end up in poverty, no social skills, homeless and a host of other social problems for her and her baby.

Addressed and examined is teen motherhood and its long-term mental and physical health of the teen mother’ (Patel & Sen, 2012). They used a (PCS) health survey known as SF-12 NLSY79 a study that compared two major comparisons groups of which only teens who experienced teen pregnancy and girls who did not experience teen pregnancy. On average the survey for teen mothers was on average 50.89.

The study to access the health outcome of ‘two major comparison groups, which consisted of women who were only experienced teen pregnancy & women who were having unprotected sexual relation as a teen but did not become pregnant ‘ (Patel & Sen, 2012). Estimated is that teen mothers are more likely to have poor health later in life in the study of all the comparison groups.

Along with support, they desperately need help taking care of an infant as a teen; they need a support system to take notice of how they are managing their health & well-being so that they can be a successful teen parent. In addition, being a teen parent can affect the mother’s mentally as the pressure of being new teen mom can be stressful.

The teen mothers who marry after they give birth to their children statistics state that 30 % of them will not remain in their marriages into their 40’s. This result comes from teen adolescents in a single parent home raising their child. This can put a strain on the teen adolescent because she will financially have to seek support from her family or enter into the welfare system and suffer mental health issues.

‘Adolescent teen mothers identify social support with, parenting and emotional support primary emanating from family members, particularly their own mothers, as well as from the father of the baby (Savio Beers & Lee, 2009)’. ‘Older sisters may play an important role in the support network for adolescent mothers, the supportive sister relationships decrease depressive and anxiety-related symptoms in adolescent mothers (Savio Beers & Lee, 2009).

‘For some adolescent parents, participation in a religious community programs may provide the significant social support and serve as a protective factor’ (Savio Beers & Lee, 2009). This directly stresses the point that without the support of family, community, and church with the support of the father the adolescent teen mother can suffer mental issues, poverty issues, and marriage problems.

We addressed the many issues that teen mothers have to face, so now I would like to address the teen father in our society. What are their concerns on becoming a teen father, and how do they view their role as father where their masculinity is concerned? While most of the research done on teen pregnancy and parenting mainly focusing on the mother, the father is invisible.

Interviewed were 26 young teen fathers in the mid-western American towns. The in depth survey of three themes of gender discord focused on teen father narratives, which took on responsibility, sex, being a man, this is the direct viewpoint of the invisible teen father. What they feel about getting a teen girl pregnant and what responsibility they take in the pregnancy if any. How they relate to getting a teen pregnant and how that affects his identity as a man and their masculinity.

‘Gendered assumptions regarding pregnancy and contraception’specifically that women are in charge of preventing pregnancy and they have the belief that male sexuality is uncontrollable; and that use of love and intimacy talk (Weber, J. B., 2013). The teen fathers that took the questionnaire did not blame themselves for getting the teen girl pregnant. They see the teen’s pregnancy as her problem.

Studies suggest that teen fathers are more likely to be of a minority race. He has a mother who had a baby as a teen; his parents have a minimal education. His parents do not have high expectations of him finishing school; all of these factors result in the likelihood that makes him a candidate to becoming a teenage father. ‘The research states that the teen fathers go to school fewer years less than non-teenage fathers (Fletcher & Wolfe, 2011).

‘Evidence shows that men who have children before marriage leave school earlier and have worse labor markets outcomes’ (Fletcher & Wolfe, 2011). ‘Data was used only on young men who reported a pregnancy as an adolescent’ (Fletcher & Wolfe, 2011). It affects his completion of high school.

It also affects his ability to take care of the teen mother & baby, which causes him to drop out of school early. Statistically, ‘teen fathers work more hours and earn more money following the birth of a child then his non-parent counterparts’ (Fletcher & Wolfe, 2011). Teen fatherhood results in the teen father getting married early or co-habitation with the teen mother.

In conclusion, teen pregnancy is a social problem in the United States both teens will have to suffer in their education, grow up before their time, take on adult responsibilities, and suffer financial problems to take care of the child. Which ultimately falls on the parents of the teens, society or the welfare system in which the teen mother becomes a social statistic or shall I say a number.

Teen pregnancy as of 2014 have been on the decline in the United States and increased in other states, however a positive support system for both teens is minimal at best. Socially as communities, churches and government we have to take an active role in education of abstaining from sex, talking to the teens about sex, and protecting themselves against pregnancy.

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Reconnaissance attacks in IPv6 networks argumentative essay help online

2.1.1 Reconnaissance attacks in IPv6 networks

The 1st larger attack in IPv6 is usually a reconnaissance attack. An attacker try reconnaissance attacks to get some confidential information about the victim network that can be misused by the attacker in further attacks. For this he uses active methods, such as scanning techniques or data mining strategies. To start, an intruder begins to ping the victim network to determine the IP addresses currently used in the victim network. After getting some of the accessible system, he starts to scan the port to find out any open port in the desired system. The size of subnet is bigger than that of the in IPv4 networks. To perform a scan for the whole subnet an attacker should make 264 probes and that???s impossible. With this fact, IPv6 networks are much more resistant to reconnaissance attacks than IPv4 networks. Unfortunately, there are some addresses which are multicast address in IPv6 networks that help an intruder to identify and attack some resources in the target network.

2.1.2 Security threats related to IPv6 routing headers

As per IPv6 protocol specification, all of the IPv6 nodes must be able to process routing headers. In fact, routing headers can be used to avoid access controls based on destination addresses. Such action can cause security effects. It may be happen that an attacker sends a packet to a publicly accessible address with a routing header containing a ???forbidden??? address on the victim network. In such matter the publicly accessible host will forward the packet to the destination address stated in the routing header even though that destination is already filtered before as a forbidden address. By spoofing packet source addresses an intruder can easily perform denial of service attack with use of any publicly accessible host for redirecting attack packets.

2.1.3 Fragmentation related security threats

As per IPv6 protocol specification, packet fragmentation by the intermediate nodes is not permitted. Since in IPv6 network based on ICMPv6 messages, the usage of the path MTU discovery method is a duty, packet fragmentation is only allowed at the source node.1280 octets is the minimal size of the MTU for IPv6 network. The packets with size less than 1280 octets to be discarded unless it???s the last packet in the flow as per security reasons. With use of fragmentation, an attacker can get that port numbers not found in the first fragment and thus they bypass security monitoring devices expecting to find transport layer protocol data in the very first fragment. An attacker will send a huge amount of small fragments and create an overload of reconstruction buffers on the victim system which resulted to the system crash. To prevent system from such attacks it???s necessary to bound the total number of fragments and their permissible arrival rate.

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WMBA 6000-13 Topic: Course Evaluation professional essay help

WMBA 6000-13

Topic: Course Evaluation

Date: March 2, 2014

Based on the assigned readings for this course (Dynamic Leadership), I have read an enormous amount of information about the different categories of leaders and leadership styles. Today’s leaders are different from the leaders of twenty to fifty years ago. In the past leaders gave commands and they controlled the actions of others. Today leaders are willing to involve others in their decision making and they are more open to new possibilities.

A good leader has a vision for their organization and they know how to align and engage employees in order to promote collaboration. The successful leader knows how to lead by using superior values, principles and goals that fit the organization’s values, principles and goals. Also these leaders know that leadership is not made from authority, it’s made from trust and followership. Coleman, J., Gulati, & Segovia, W.O. (2012)

I am impressed most by the characteristics of the authentic leader because they know how to develop themselves; they use formal and informal support networks to get honest feedback in order to drive long-term results. Authentic leaders build support teams to help them stay on course and counsel them in times of uncertainty. George, B., Sims, P., Mclean, A.N. & Mayer D. (2007)

In addition, I found the Leadership Code to be important because it provides structure and guidance and helps one to be a better leader by not emphasizing one element of leadership over another. Some focus on the importance of vision for the future; others on executing in the present; others on personal charisma and character; others on engaging people’; and others on building long-term organization. The code represents about 60 to 70 percent of what makes an effective leader. Ulrich, D., Smallwood, N., Sweetman, K. (2008)

The information that I acquired from this course will help me to pursue the goal of owning a beauty supply business. Another goal that I can add to my action plan is to include not only wigs and welted hair, but I will add hair, skin and nail products to my inventory. A future goal will be to add handbags and accessories as well.

After completing my short-term goal of finishing my MBA, I can take the knowledge from this course along with my values, ethics and principles to help me to manage employees and operate a successful business. Annie Smith (March 2, 20

Coleman, J. G. (2012). Educating young leaders. Passion and Purpose , 197-202.

George, B. S. (2007). Discovering your authentic leadership. Harvard Business Review , 129-138.

Lyons, R. (2012). Dean of Haas of School of Business University of California, Berkely. It’s made from followership. (J. G. Cole, Interviewer) Coleman, J., Gulati, D., & Segovia, W.O.

Ulrich, D. S. (2008). Five rules of leadership. In The leadership code five rules to lead by. Defining Leadership Code , 1-24.

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Family presence during CPR (cardiopulmonary resuscitation) essay help site:edu

In a pre-hospital setting, there are few moments that are as intense as the events that take place when trying to save a life. Family presence during these resuscitation efforts has become an important and controversial issue in health care settings. Family presence during cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) is a relatively new issue in healthcare. Before the advent of modern medicine, family members were often present at the deathbed of their loved ones. A dying person’s last moments were most often controlled by his or her family in the home rather than by medical personnel (Trueman, History of Medicine). Today, families are demanding permission to witness resuscitation events. Members of the emergency medical services are split on this issue, noting benefits but also potentially negative consequences to family presence during resuscitation efforts.

A new study has found that family members who observed resuscitation efforts were significantly less likely to experience symptoms of post-traumatic stress, anxiety and depression than family members that did not. The results, published in an online article in The New England Journal of Medicine, entitled ‘Family Presence during Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation,’ were the same regardless of the survival of the patient. The study involved 570 people in France whose family members were treated by emergency medical personnel at home. These EMS teams were unique in that they were comprised of a physician, a nurse trained in emergency medicine, and two emergency medical technicians. The study found that the presence of relatives did not affect the results of CPR, nor did it increase the stress levels of the emergency medical teams. Having family present also did not result in any legal claims after the incidents occured. While the unique limitations of the study warrant consideration, the results show a definite benefit in having families stay during CPR (Jabre Family Presence).

Historically, although parents of children have been allowed to be present for various reasons, relatives of adult patients have not. As medical practices change to increasingly involve family in the care of patients, growing numbers of emergency medical practitioners say that giving relatives the option of watching CPR can be a good idea. Several national organizations, including The American Heart Association, have revised their policies to call for giving family members the option of being present during CPR (AHA Guidelines for CPR). Witnessing CPR, say some emergency medical experts and family members, can take the mystery out of what could be a potentially terrifying experience. It can provide reassurance to family members that everything is being done to save their loved ones. It also can offer closure for relatives wanting to be with their family members until the last minute (Kirkland Lasting Benefit). Another benefit is that it shows people why reviving someone in cardiac arrest is much less likely than people assume from watching it being done on television (Ledermann Family Presence During). Family members who can truly understand what it means to ‘do everything possible’ can go on to make more informed decisions about end-of-life care for themselves or their families.

There are three perspectives on this issue- that of the emergency medical personnel providing care, the family, and the patients. The resistance on the part of the medical community to family presence during CPR stems from several different concerns. The most common concern among these is that family members, when faced with overwhelming fear, stress and grief, could disrupt or delay active CPR. Another concern raised by emergency medical personnel is that the realities of CPR may simply be too traumatic for loved ones, causing them to suffer more than they potentially would have if they had never witnessed the event. Some families share this view, citing the potential for extreme distress as a main reason for not wanting to witness resuscitation (Grice Study examining attitudes). Many emergency medical personnel also fear an increased risk of liability and litigation with family members present in the room (Fullbrook the Presence of Family). The worry is that errors can occur, inappropriate comments may be made, and the actions of the personnel involved may be misinterpreted. In an already tense situation, the awareness of the family could increase the anxiety of the personnel and create a greater potential for mistakes.

Another complication that arises from having families present during resuscitation attempts is that of patient confidentiality. The patient’s right to privacy should not be circumvented with implied consent. There is always the possibility that medical information previously unknown to the family may be revealed in the chaos of resuscitation. In addition, patient dignity, whether physical or otherwise, may become compromised (Fullbrook the Presence of Family). Beyond moral considerations, legal concerns regarding revealing patient information are real. This could become an even larger issue if there is no one available to screen witnesses, which could result in unrelated people gaining access to personal information. Eventually, a breach in confidentiality can lead to a breach in the confidence that the public has gained in pre-hospital emergency care.

Family presence during CPR in a pre-hospital setting remains a highly debatable topic. This could be largely due to the fact that the needs of the emergency medical providers and the rights of the patients can be at odds with the wishes of the family members. Although there are several possible reasons why family presence is not being welcomed into daily practice, one of the major reasons could be the lack of formal written policies that define the roles of families and providers placed into this situation. Bringing family members into a situation where CPR is being performed on a loved one should not happen haphazardly. It should happen with careful concern and support for everyone involved. Policies and protocols, defined by experienced personnel, can provide legal and emotional support. They can also potentially help ease anxiety by defining expectations and placing responsibility in the hands of people who are experienced enough to know how to handle the situation appropriately. The policies and protocols should address the basic needs of all people involved. Five basic needs should be addressed:

1. The number of people allowed to be present

2. Which relatives should be allowed to be present (age, relationship, etc.)

3. The role of the family members present and what is expected of them.

4. The place where the family should remain during the duration of CPR.

5. The formal wishes of the patient- written as a directive like a living will.

An important component of this is available, trained staff that can prepare the family members for what they will witness, support them through the event, and then direct them after the event’s conclusion.

The American Heart Association states that the goals of cardiopulmonary resuscitation are, ‘to preserve life, restore health, relieve suffering, limit disability, and respect the individual’s decisions rights and privacy’ (AHA Guidelines for CPR). The practice of offering family members the opportunity to be present during CPR is a controversial ethical issue in emergency medical services. While the results of the study published on this topic in The New England Journal of Medicine clearly show no negative side effects from having families present during resuscitation attempts, the limitations of the study lend to the need for more research before it could be universally accepted.

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Respondeat Superior college admissions essay help

Legal claims that derive from a situation where there are claims of negligence can sometimes involve an entity other than the neglectful parties. In certain circumstances employers are fully responsible for their employees, and the tasks they perform during working hours. During the course of this paper, the doctrine of respondeat superior will be defined and explained. Two case studies in which the doctrine was applied will also be analyzed to determine if it was applied correctly.

Respondeat superior is a legal theory that holds employers responsible for any negligent or harmful act performed by an employee during the commission of their employment duties (Thornton, 2010). The Maryland Supreme Court in 1951 was the first court to utilize respondeat superior in a court case involving a question of employer liability (Burns, 2011). This doctrine is important as it holds employers liable in court cases where one of its employees does harm to an individual. Vicarious liability and indirect liability are two base concepts that make-up respondeat superior (Thornton, 2010). Respondeat superior shows that the employer did not have to be responsible for the employee???s negligent behavior, in the form of improper training or instruction to perform harmful acts, in order for the employer to be held legally responsible.

In the case of Valle v. City of Houston, the police force was sued for excessive force and an illegal search in an attempt to remove an individual from his parent???s home (Nicholl & Kelly, 2012). The situation stemmed from a man, Omar Esparza, barricading himself in his parent???s home and refusing to come out (p. 285). After a long police standoff, the SWAT team was ordered to forcefully enter the home and remove Mr. Esparza (p. 285). The SWAT team utilized taser gun and bean bag ammunition in an attempt to subdue Mr. Esparza after they felt he posed a physical threat by wielding a hammer, but as those attempts failed the suspect was fatally wounded when an officer fired his weapon (p. 286). Shortly after the incident the mother was allowed into the home, and she reported no visible evidence that her son was possession of a hammer (p. 286). The court found that the city was not liable for damages under the theory of respondeat superior, because the order to remove the individual from the home was not made by an individual deemed as a decision-maker by the city (p. 286).

From the outside, this case seems to fit the theory of respondeat superior. As the employer, the city should be held responsible for the actions of its employees. The police, serving as the city???s employees acted in a manner that was unnecessary for the situation and in conflict of their training (p. 286). However, the court sided with the City of Houston because the chain of command was not followed in regards to the use of force (p. 286). The end result is a case where an individual made a decision that was not his to make; that ultimately cost a man his life.

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Research Proposal: Stress Among Parents Of Adult Children With Intellectual Disabilities College Essay Help

The main concept included in this study are stress, parents, children, and intellectual disabilities which the proposal will clarify at a later stage.

The topic of intellectual disability is a topic known to many people ,when items surrounding this topic are discussed ,the focus tends to be placed on the individual with the intellectual disability (ID). There is little emphases placed on those surrounding individuals with ID.it also tends to focus on the siblings of the individual with the ID; and little emphases is placed on the parents ,this is where the interest has developed for the researcher as it was felt that not enough has been written about the parents and the direct effects their childs disability has on them as individuals ,the researcher also has experience working with individuals with ID and from this experience has noticed through the interaction with parents the stress they encounter looking after a child with an ID .Through working in this area the researcher has gained interest in the effects on the parents and has felt that parents are often neglected . Through research for this proposal the researcher has found that others have also addressed the issue of stress among parents of children with ID.also in this research the researcher has not gained much information on supports services for parents regarding this topic and feels that there is a gap in relation to this . This topic is worth studying to gain an insight into the effects that stress has on the parents and how they may or may not have coped with this .

This research proposal will focus on the research question of ‘stress among parents of adults with intellectual disabilities .

For the purpose of this research the researcher aims to :

To show the effects of stress on parents with children with intellectual disabilities

To gain information through the completion of 40-60 questionnaires

To explore the service precisions in place for parents

To provide evidence of effectiveness of service provisions for parents

To look at different levels of stress

To establish the coping strategies used by parents of children with ID

The following pieces of literature includes journals ,books and internet sources .The literature discussed falls under the main concepts of this research proposal .These are stress ,parental stress, intellectual disabilities, coping strategies and support services.

Applying psychology by Nicola Brace ,Helen Westcott and Andy McBurnie (2008)chapter 1 written by Mary Hanley discusses the term stress which will help the researcher to define the term stress .William Wilkie(1999)titled ‘understanding stress breakdown’ also gives the researcher an understanding of stress and can be used in defining stress and understanding the process that individuals go through ,The’ relaxation and stress reduction workbook’ 5th edition by Davies ,Eshelman and McKay (2000) discusses not only what stress is but also looks at how individuals can manage their stress in a variety of ways

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Placement essay help

The Placement I chose was with The Garden Team, Sunbeam House Services (S.H.S), which is based off the Veveay Road, Bray, Co Wicklow .This location is a day service which provides a day centre facility to a number of adults with intellectual disabilities.

The S.H.S ethos and philosophy aim to empower people within their care with the necessary skills to live full and satisfying lives as equal citizens of their local communities. The Garden Team day service focus is on the individual, their growth, development and care. The individual is encouraged and empowered to pursue their goals, dreams and aspirations on an ongoing basis. The Sunbeam organisation, via The Garden Team, in partnership with the individual implement supports to facilitate realisation of their service users goals and aspirations.

A quality system known within the organisation as personal outcomes ensures that the organisation provides service to and for its service users based on the principles of basic assurances, shared values, responsive services and community life. The main role of this system is that the individual???s personal preferences are supported and their personal choices facilitated. S.H.S is also committed to forging links with other organisations in order to ensure their service users goals and aspirations are met.

My Role within this placement was to shadow existing staff, assist them with whatever activities they undertook with the service users attending the day service and interact with the same said service users as and when they attended this day service. This interaction required communication skills such as active listening and non-verbal communication. Social care practice requires me to participate in reinforcing daily social skills such as interpersonal greeting and adherence to social norms. This practice involved daily rituals around breakfast in the day service involving everyone attending the service, such as staff, students and service users greeting each other appropriately, catching up on what each other had done the previous night /weekend .This is an idea opportunity for the staff to touch base with some of the service users who come from troubled backgrounds and also to judge the mood of the service users and through this they can detect when there is an issue that may need to be resolved.

The Garden Team placement ethos is based on the work ethic, social norms and personal outcomes of the individual service user. This is to ensure that the service users both individually and as a group have daily, weekly and long term goals to work towards .The service users have a keyworker within The Garden Team their role is to assist the service user and support them to achieve their personal outcomes.

A long term goal for a service user might be their wish to live independently as they may currently be living in the family home or in a residential service, this long term goal would be broken up into shorter term goals such as budgeting, social skills, personal hygiene and personal shopping this would all take place of a period of time and with each new skill

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Universal healthcare essay help

Universal healthcare it is a primary right or a privilege, It has many flaws in various countries and limited access to outrages expenses in MRI’s, long awaiting periods for surgical procedures. Many people have their care delayed and their medical condition gets much worse and can no longer receive treatment. In Germany healthcare is higher in taxes and have no problems receiving medical care. The French claim their salary is way lower as an employer and are required to pay in order to have national healthcare system and their care needed is always available. The American Journal of Public health confirms that 45,000 people die each year in the United States because of no Health Insurance. Yes, we have a right to healthcare.

Universal healthcare goal is to have people live in better health and protect from over charged care for medical hardships with billing. The uninsured are the main ones, who need Universal healthcare. People who make too, much money from working don’t qualify for Medicaid and end up with financial hardship and aren’t able to get the care needed for their health. The common issue for all universal healthcare programs is they need some form of government connection. The law determines what type of care is available and how the coverage will be paid. Many people choose to support the system known as a single payer health insurance. It’s when the government funds the healthcare and does not supply the care, Just like Medicare and Medicaid.

The poor people can’t afford healthcare and live in much worse environments and have more medical problems. We as Citizens of the United States have rights to Healthcare and our health is jeopardized by not being able to pay for insurance. People who work are struggling to pay for healthcare and have health conditions that need medical attention. Due to lack of work for health issue some people lose their jobs and are forced to file bankruptcy. This is why poor people are struggling in the economy and are forced to live in bad health. The right to healthcare should be a civil right. People should not be categorized by their illness and have financial problems paying for their medical treatments. Americans that are poor have bad health and one doctor visit can diagnose their condition before it leads to death.

Therefore, I am for our rights to have universal healthcare for people who need it and can’t afford insurance. This coverage will not only save peoples life and help us get out of debt with medical bills over charging major countries. It is funded through taxation and every day, we people could use this form of coverage I support the government in helping us as the economy to live healthier and longer with better care from universal healthcare coverage.

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Implementing Swifinet online essay help

ABSTRACT

Use of wireless sensor networks (WSN) has resulted in many revolutionary changes in human life. WSN has gain significant concentration from scientist and end users. ‘SWiFiNet’ is task distributed reusable system architecture. In this architecture complex functionality has been transfer to the second tire devices of the system. Second tire devices are provided with more resources. ‘SWiFiNet’ satisfy the desire architecture of the WSN. This paper aims to analyze various reusable wireless sensor networks and concept related to ‘SWiFiNet’. And it provides the existing architecture of ‘SWiFiNet’ and also the functionality of the component of the reusable network architecture. This paper also provides idea about the proposed ‘SWiFiNet’ which will be developed on IEEE 802.15.4 MAC/PHY layer which will be having more advantages over its counterparts.

Keywords:- WSN, SWiFiNet, Reusable architecture.

I. INTRODUCTION:

Use of wireless network is increasing in every field, day by day. WSN is extensively use where wired network cannot be deployed or is expensive to deploy. WSN opens many ways for research community to further enhance wireless communication efficiency and productivity. Many protocols and algorithms has been developed to addressed many kind of issues related to WSN. But most of these protocols and algorithms concentrate on routing, energy efficiency, reliability and congestion control.

No more research is done on creating some integrated network architecture that will make the implementation of any WSN application easy. It means to make the components of the WSN system reusable. The main focus of WSN is on creating more and more efficient wireless interfaces. The wireless sensor network generally developed for specific work. These work include climate reporting, military applications, fuel level indicator and many more. While creating such system one has to start from the scratch and it becomes burdensome.

So, for all these difficulties, one solution is to create reusable WSN framework. This kind of framework is developed in ‘SWiFiNet’. It is a task distributed System Architecture for WSN.

This paper provides overview of ‘SWiFiNet’ and reusable architecture for WSN. In first section provided introduction about WSN and ‘SWiFiNet’. Second section provides related work regarding task distributed network architecture. Third section provides design goals of reusable architecture. Fourth section provides WSN architecture along with ‘SWiFiNet’ architecture comparison. Fifth and last part concludes the paper.

II. RELATED WORK

There has been attempts to make hierarchical task distributed reusable wireless sensor network architecture. Most of such proposals were developed using 802.11. The different applications related to reusable WSN architecture is as follows:-

ART wise gateway architecture was presented by Leel et al [4]. The architecture is two tire architecture. Tier one uses IEEE 802.15.4 and tire two uses 802.11. Linfeng develop Environmental adaptive Architecture model for wireless sensor network [5]. It was two tire architecture. The second tire was capable of adding number of nodes without affecting two tire architecture. ANGLE [5] architecture was develop for the health care applications. In this application authors claims that it can be reused for any other application.

Open and reconfigurable wireless sensor network has been proposed by Triantafyllidis. It was developed for pervasive health monitoring. Its main emphasis was on easy extension with additional sensor functionality. ZUMA [6] was developed for centralize smart phone platform which will interconnects all kinds of smart phone devices.

The ReWINS [3] research initiative is an attempt to advance such an end-to-end solution with support for incremental arrangement through a transparent lower layer implementation and control architecture and a user-friendly application interface.

Wireless Integrated Network Sensors or the WINS [7] project and NIMS project at University of California, Los Angeles is about ad-hoc wireless sensor network research dealing mainly with constructing micro-electronic mechanical sensors (MEMS) [8], effective circuit design, and design of self-organizing wireless network architecture. Though these projects have been successful in demonstrating a network of self-organized sensor wireless nodes, they seem to have a bias towards environmental and military applications. Also they use proprietary RF communication technology and hence the solutions are limiting for wide scale deployments in industries.

Motes and Smart Dust project [9] at University of California, Berkeley involved creating particularly low-cost micro-sensors, which can be suspended in air, buoyed by currents. Crossbow Inc. has commercialized the conclusion of this project. Here again the solution is limiting, as exclusive communication technologies have been used to achieve inter-device communication. Further, the focus has been on development of sensors and their communication rather than how the sensors will be integrated to form systems. This is generally termed as the ‘bottom-up’ approach, which may not be suitable for building complex systems.

Pico-Radio [10] ‘ A group headed by Jan Rabaey at University of California, Berkeley is trying to build an integrated wireless application interface called Sensor Network Service Platform. An attempt is to develop an interface that will abstract the sensor network and make it transparent to the application layer. A introductory draft describing the application interface has been recently released. They believe in a ‘top down approach’ (from control to sensor nodes) for building sensor networks which is probably more suitable for building complex systems.

Recently, there have been several work initiatives like TinyDB [11], Cornell’s Cougar etc. to develop a declarative SQL-like language to query sensors and define certain standard query services. Here the employment is sensor-interface specific and not a general or abstracted sensor networking platform. These query services can be implemented with ease on top of our (developed) wireless interface and sensor networking platform and can be made generic by extending them for other sensors.

Other research initiatives in this field include MIT’s ??AMPS, Columbia University’s INSIGNIA, Rice University’s Monarch. Though there have been a lot of research efforts in developing ad-hoc wireless networks, the focus has been on developing smart wireless sensor interfaces and not much attention has been paid to the actual application integration. Typical approach has been to develop powerful smart wireless interfaces, which supports the important features/requirements for a particular class of applications (like military, environment sensing or more focused applications like fuel-level control in automobiles). The result is a number of wireless interfaces appropriate for a certain class of application; but almost no interoperability between them. We believe that the deployment of wireless infrastructure in industries will occur in incremental stages and thus interoperability (between different sensor-networks) and extendibility (according to application needs) will form the basic requirements of any prospective solution. A prospective good solution would be an end-to-end solution, which is modular and extendable.

All of the above applications were the forward steps towards the making of reusable network architecture. From the comparison of the above all network architecture, it is clear that user of hierarchical network give advantage over flat network. And three tire architecture is also better for reusable WSN architecture.

EXISTING SYSTEM:-

‘SWiFiNet’ [1] is task distributed and reusable component architecture. The task layer hierarchical model of ‘SWiFiNet’ is as shown in the given figure. It follows hierarchical architecture comprising of Master node, router node and sensor node. The base layer is 802.15.4 MAC/PHY layer.

Table 1. Comparison between different reusable wireless sensor network applications

Sr. No Application/Project Purpose of Application/Project Limitations

1 ART gateway architecture To develop Hierarchical two tire architecture each tire having different base MAC/PHY The system is more complex due to different protocol in each layer.

2 EAWNA To develop tire two in such a way that adding more sensor dose no affect the architecture The focus is given more on second tire of architecture.

3 ANGEL For health care application. Claimed to be reusable Reusable for specific health care application

4 ReWins To develop such an end-to-end solution The main focus is given on industrial scenarios.

5 Wireless Integrated Network Sensor Building efficient circuit design, and design of self-organizing wireless network architecture These project seems to have bias towards environmental and military application

6 Motes and smart dust project Creating low cost micro sensor which can suspended in air The focus is on sensors rather how they will be integrated

7 Pico-Radio To make sensor network transparent to application layer Suitable for building complex systems only

8 TinyDB To develop declarative SQL-like language to query sensor Not a generic or abstracted sensor networking platform

.

The upper layer to this layer is DLL task layer. All the network communication is controlled by this layer. The functionality of different device component of the architecture is as given below:

Sensor node: The task of sensor node is restricted to sensing background and connecting the neighboring nodes or the master node. When the packet is handed over to any parent node, then it is the responsibility of the parent node to transfer the packet to the master node. In this node’s layer architecture, the network layer will have the addresses of the parent devices. It will be stored in the table. Two types of addresses are present in the table. First one is primary parent address and the other is secondary parent address. If primary address parent is not available then secondary parent address will be try by the node.

If network layer don’t contain any table then a ‘Hello’ packet request is broadcast into the network. Then the neighboring device will issue the join request. The join request will be accepted if the device meets LQI threshold criteria.

Router Node: – Router nodes are come in use when sensor nodes are not in the range of Master Node. Clustering is also possible using router node. In ‘SWiFiNet’ distributed architecture the functionality of the router node increased remarkably. The complex implementation of any application or protocol will be deployed on the second tire devices. The router node network layer also maintains the table containing entries of the parent devices to the router node. It can be router node again or router will send the information directly to the master node. Router nodes will generate join request if they receive hello packet request from any sensor node.

Master node: The complete topology information of the network is maintain by the master node. When there is queried transmission model, master node will generate query and send it in the network. Whenever the routing tables are updated in end nodes or router nodes will send the information to the master node.

Sensor node Router Node Master Node

Fig 1. Distributed architecture of ‘SWiFiNet’

III. PROPOSED MODEL:

The ‘SWiFiNet’ model developed [1] is successfully implemented on the hardware as the architecture of the ‘SWiFiNet’ is defined. But ns-2 simulation of ‘SWiFiNet’ is based on 802.11a. As the basic idea of MAC/PHY layer is to have 802.15.4 which will work more efficiently on the ‘SWiFiNet’ architecture. The architectural diagram [1] is as shown below:-

In many of the sensor network architecture the sensor nodes are based on the 802.11a, but in ‘SWiFiNet’ MAC/PHY layer is based on 802.15.4. It is having low bandwidth comparative to the 802.11a. As the ns-2 modulation of the architecture is done using 802.11a, we cannot compare the exact result of hardware simulation and the software simulation.

Dynamic source routing (DSR) has similar characteristics as of ‘SWiFiNet’. After comparing the hardware results [1] with DSR it is found that ‘SWiFiNet’ is having better performance against many parameters. Implementation of ‘SWiFiNet’ using ns-2 on 802.15.4 IEEE is not yet checked against other protocols and hardware results.

The software architecture [2] of the ‘SWiFiNet’ agent is as shown in figure 2. This diagram shows the network component simulation in ns-2. The devices can be identified by the variable passed from TCL script. 1 value represent master node. 2 value represent router node and 3 value represent sensor node.

Fig 2: Component simulation in ns-2

IV. Conclusion:-

The survey paper provides a detailed comparison and description of the well-known projects and applications which are developed from reusable architecture point of view. ‘SWiFiNet’ is basically a task distributed generic reusable architecture for WSN. The functionality of sensor node is reduced and has been transferred to the second tire devices like router node. By doing so sensor nodes are restricted to gather information and connecting to neighboring nodes. As time synchronization overhead is not present the lifetime of the network increase.

This reusable architecture can be used for various range of applications and can be configured accordingly. This paper gives proposed ‘SWiFiNet’ system which will be based on 802.15.4 IEEE standard and will be useful for researchers in many ways.

V. REFERENCES:

[1] A. H. Willig, J. H. Karowski, N. Baldus, H. Huebner, A., “The ANGEL WSN Architecture,” in Electronics, Circuits and Systems, 2007. ICECS 2007. 14th IEEE International Conference on, 2007, pp. 633-636.

[2] A. W. Rohankar, Mrinal K. Naskar, Amitava Mukharjee, ‘SWiFiNet’: Task Distributed System Architecture for WSN’ in IJACSA Special Issue on Selected Papers from International Conference & Workshop On Advance Computing 2013.

[3] A. W. Rohankar, Mrinal K. Naskar, Amitava Mukharjee, ‘A step towards reusable WSN architecture’, International Journal of Research and Reviews in Wireless Sensor Networks (IJRRWSN) vol. Vol. 2, 2012.

[4] B. S. P. Harish Ramamurthy, Rajit Gadh, “Reconfigurable Wireless Interface for Networking Sensors (ReWINS),” in proceeding of the 9th IFIP International Conference on Personal Wireless Communications (PWC 2004), 2004.

[5] J. C. Leal, A. Alves, M. Koubaa, A., “On a IEEE 802.15.4/ZigBee to IEEE 802.11 gateway for the ART-WiSe architecture,” in Emerging Technologies and Factory Automation, 2007. ETFA. IEEE Conference on, 2007, pp. 1388-1391.

[6] L. Linfeng, “Research on Environment-Adaptive Architecture Model of Wireless Sensor Networks,” in Networks Security Wireless Communications and Trusted Computing (NSWCTC), 2010 Second International Conference on, 2010, pp. 130-133.

[7] M. N. K. V. G. Soini, J. Rabaey, J. M. Sydanheimo, L. T., “Beyond Sensor Networks: ZUMA Middleware,” in Wireless Communications and Networking Conference, 2007.WCNC 2007. IEEE, 2007, pp. 4318-4323.

[8] Micro-Adaptive Multi-domain Power-aware Sensors (??AMPS) project at University of California, Berkeley, URL: http://www-mtl.mit.edu/research/icsystems/uamps/

[9] Pico-Radio project at University of California, Berkeley,URL:http://bwrc.eecs.berkeley.edu/Research/Pico_Radio/

[10] Smart Dust and motes project at University of California, Berkeley, URL: http://robotics.eecs.berkeley.edu/~pister/SmartDust/

[11] ] TinyDB project at University of California, Berkeley, URL: http://telegraph.cs.berkeley.edu/tinydb

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The Relationship between Manager Assertiveness and having to tell Employees Exactly What to Do essay help online free

Not only is it important to tell workers exactly what to do by being direct, but it is of an equal importance to be assertive with them. If a manager is too passive with his or her employees, it may lead to a managerial mess, as many workers constantly try to test managers’ boundaries.

One of the main reasons as to why employees end up misbehaving in the workplace is primarily because they are not managed correctly, and those who are in authority allow them to get that way. When it comes to being a manager, you shouldn’t expect employees to respect you on a personal level, but you should expect them to respect your authority on a professional level.

Managers should not only be consistently setting up new boundaries, but they should also be enforcing them. Without enforcing them, if an employee overpasses it and nothing is advised to him or her, they will think it is okay to continue to do so. How will they know that it is wrong unless you tell them? It is of an utmost importance to also advise them that you can’t tolerate it.

As a manager, to do their job they have the innate obligation to do only the things that is right for the company that he or she works for. This includes of setting the appropriate boundaries, and not exercising too much sympathy and empathy as it may cause the manager to get too involved with their personal lives. Otherwise, he or she may promote favoritism thereby causing other employees to be jealous. Although this may be true, there is no need to be overly rude and cold towards employees. Being assertive and setting boundaries doesn’t always mean one has to be disrespectful or even rude to their employees. The difference between an authoritarian manager who respects their employees and for managers who don’t differentiates the results of whether or not employees comply or commit themselves to work. In order to have them commit rather than only comply, it is important to be respectful while being assertive. When employees are willing to commit, they are more than likely to deliver work that exceeds a manager’s expectations. (Alexander Hamilton Institute, 2012)

The Importance for Managers to Be a Leader

When it comes to capabilities to effectively communicate with employees, good managers are able to sustain and encourage self-assurance, enthusiasm, and emotional stability while pursuing their day-to-day activities. The position of being a manager can, at times, be quite stressful and overwhelming, so the ideal manager should not let it get to them.

Why is this important when it comes to effectively advising employees as to what has to be done?

If managers aren’t able to maintain self-control of their emotions, then it is likely that they won’t be able to do well at leading employees. Managers are commonly seen as a workplace role model, so if their employees see them as unable to maintain control, it is likely the employees won’t either, thereby leading to decreased amounts of productivity.

Why Communication Is a Key Aspect for Managers

In order to ensure efficient productivity among employees, it is important for them to be able to effectively communicate with them. Moreover, they must also be able to report to higher managers regarding productivity statistics and the like. Not only will great managers be able to communicate well with employees to advise them what they have to do, but they will also be active listeners. Without being able to listen to an employee when he or she has questions about their job or what they have to do, it is likely that they won’t end up doing what they are supposed to do. Another important trait for managers is being able to get a message across without having to overly emphasize it verbally. They know how to implement non-verbal communication techniques such as body language in order to get an important message across to employees. (Melinda Hill Mendoza, n.d).

Common Traits of a Good Employee’ Where You Don’t Have to Be As Specific

There are various indicators that strongly determine whether or not if you have to be overly specific when trying to get an employee to do something. Here I’ve included some of the top traits when it comes to being an effective listener as an employee.

‘ Action Oriented: When you tell an employee to do something, and if he or she is action-oriented, you will see them do it right away’ no questions asked. Although sometimes their work may not be sufficient, most of the time they will provide great work with high levels of productivity. Also, when it comes to productivity, they usually get things done a lot sooner than employees who are stagnant.

‘ Intelligent: Intelligence is important for an employee to thoroughly understand what you want them to do without you having to be too specific with them. Not only that, but when you tell an intelligent employee what to do, most of the time they will do it perfectly correct. It is very rare for an employee who has high levels of intelligence to ask too many questions for additional specificity.

‘ Ambitious: Having an employee with ambition is important because they are well-known to come up with creative ideas that can bring the productivity of any company to the next level. So rather than spending extra time telling them exactly what they have to do, they will work right away, and by the time they are done they will provide you with a genius idea to do things quicker, and you may want to consider forwarding it to your boss.

‘ Autonomous: Employees with an autonomous trait are known to begin working on a project the second you explain to them what needs to be done. They are extremely independent and they require no ‘hand-holding’ whatsoever. This is an important trait, because as a manager, they have a lot of tasks on hand and they don’t want to be wasting it answering a hundred questions about completing a simple task.

‘ Confidence: It is more likely for an unconfident employee to ask questions about exactly what they need to do than a confident employee. This is primarily due to the fact that employees who are confident will trust there instinct on what they’ve heard from the manager, and they won’t second guess their initial impression. On the other hand, unconfident employees will lack their confidence in trusting their understanding, causing them to ask a lot of unnecessary questions.

‘ Leadership: After confidence comes leadership. When you are explaining a task to an employee with leadership skills, you will be confident that they will over-deliver on your expectations. They have the experience to not only deliver the job promptly without any questions ask, but they can set the bar higher in terms of quality and productivity.

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Learning Theory Behaviorism (Teori Pembelajaran Behaviorisme) need essay help

2.0 Teori Pembelajaran Behaviorisme

Teori Behaviorisme merupakan satu pendekatan pemikiran yang menekankan peranan pengalaman dalam mengawal tingkah laku. Pengasas teori ini adalah J.B Watson yang popular dengan teori Little Albert. Namun, selain daripada J.B Watson terdapat tokoh lain yang turut mengkaji tentang teori ini. Mereka adalah Skinner, Thondike dan Pavlov. Teori pemerolehan bahasa Behavioris pada zaman sebelum ini lebih menekankan tingkah laku yang dapat dilihat sahaja. Bagi mereka perkara yang berlaku dalam otak manusia tidak dapat dikenalpasti. Mereka membuat analogi otak manusia sama seperti sebuah kotak hitam yang gelap. Oleh itu mereka tidak mementingkan peranan otak dalam pemerolehan bahasa.

Golongan mazhab ini menolak pendapat yang menghubungkan operasi kognitif dengan pemerolehan bahasa. Seseorang dianggap telah belajar sesuatu jika dia dapat menunjukkan perubahan perilakunya. Menurut teori ini dalam belajar yang penting adalah input yang berupa stimulus dan output yang berupa reaksi (respond). Stimulus adalah apa saja yang diberikan guru kepada pelajar, sedangkan respon berupa reaksi atau tanggapan pelajar terhadap stimulus yang diberikan oleh guru tersebut. Proses yang terjadi antara stimulus dan respon tidak penting untuk diperhatikan kerana tidak dapat diamati dan tidak dapat diukur. Yang dapat diamati adalah stimulus dan respon. Oleh sebab itu, apa yang diberikan oleh guru iaitu stimulus dan apa yang diterima oleh pelajar iaitu respon harus dapat diamati dan diukur. Teori ini mengutamakan pengukuran kerana pengukuran merupakan perkara yang penting untuk melihat terjadi atau tidak perubahan tingkah laku tersebut.

2.1 Teori Behaviorisme menurut J.B Watson

J.B Watson (1878-1958), seorang ahli psikologi di Amerika Syarikat, merupakan orang pertama mencipta istilah behaviorisme untuk menghuraikan tingkah laku manusia. Kajian banyak dipengaruhi oleh Teori Pelaziman Klasik Pavlov. Kajian beliau, yang terkenal ialah mengenai emosi kanak-kanak dengan menggunakan Model Pelaziman Klasik. Mengikut Watson, tingkah laku manusia merupakan reflex terlazim iaitu suatu gerak balas yang dipelajari melalui proses pelaziman klasik. Dengan kata lain, semua pembelajaran adalah pelaziman klasik Watson berpendapat gerakan-gerakan refleks yang mudah misalnya berkelip mata, bersin apabila hidung gatal dan sebarang tindakan yang dilakukan secara semulajadi adalah tingkah laku yang diwarisi dan tidak perlu dipelajari. Selain daripada tingkah laku, Watson pula menjalankan kajian tentang pembelajaran emosi semula jadi iaitu takut, marah, dan kasih saying. Emosi manusia atau perubahan dipelajari melalui proses pelaziman.

2.1.1 Implikasi Teori Pembelajaran J.B Watson

Menurut beliau, semua tingkah laku boleh dipelajari melalui proses pelaziman. Tingkah laku positif boleh diajarkan melalui ransangan yang sesuai. Seterusnya, untuk menguasai kemahiran menyelesaikan masalah, pelajar perlu belajar cara perhubungan gerak balas secara sistematik. Selain itu, teori ini memberi implikasi untuk mengukuhkan apa yang telah dipelajari dalam ingatan, latihan- latihan hendaklah dijalankan secara kerap. Dalam proses pengajaran,guru hendaklah menggunakan rasangan yang boleh memotivasikan murid untuk minat belajar dan mengelakkan pengunaan ransangan yang membawa kepada kesan negatif.

2.2 Teori Behaviorisme menurut Thorndike

Menurut Thorndike, belajar adalah proses interaksi antara stimulus dan respon. Stimulus adalah apa yang merangsang terjadinya aktiviti belajar seperti fikiran, perasaan, atau hal-hal lain yang dapat dikesan melalui pancaindera. Manakala, respon adalah reaksi yang muncul apabila peserta dididik ketika belajar, dan yang dapat pula adalah berupa fikiran, perasaan, gerakan atau tindakan. Jadi, perubahan tingkah laku akibat kegiatan belajar dapat dikategorikan sebagai konkrit, iaitu yang dapat diamati, atau tidak konkrit iaitu yang tidak dapat diamati. Meskipun aliran behaviorisme sangat mengutamakan pengukuran, tetapi tidak dapat menjelaskan bagaimana cara mengukur tingkah laku yang tidak dapat diamati. Teori Thorndike ini disebut pula dengan teori koneksionisme. Thorndike berjaya membentuk tiga hokum iaitu Hukum kesediaan, Hukum latihan, Hukum kesan. Hukum kesediaan merupakan keupayaan persiapan seseorang individu di dalam kendirinya untuk memulakan sesuatu aktiviti pembelajaran. Manakala hokum latihan pula menyatakan bahawa semakin byak latihan yang dijalankan semakin bertambah kukuh ikatan gerak balas yang tertentu dengan ransangan yang berkaitan. Hukum kesan menyatakan bahawa ikatan ransangan dengan gerak balas akan bertambah kukuh sekiranya individu memperolehi kesan yang memuaskan selepas gerak balasnya dihasilkan.

2.1.2 Implikasi Teori Pembelajaran Thorndike

Antara implikasi Teori Pembelajaran Thorndike ialah untuk meningkatkan tahap kesediaan belajar, guru harus menggunakan motivasi yang sesuai. Selain itu, ia juga dapat mengukuhkan pertalian antara ransangan dengan gerak balas pelajar dengan memperbanyak aktiviti latihan, ulangkaji, aplikasi serta pengukuhan dalam keadaan yang menyeronokkan. Seterusnya memberikan ganjaran atau peneguhan untuk respon antau gerak balas yang betul daripada pelajar. Memberi peluang kepada pelajar untuk menikmati kejayaan dalam pembelajaran mereka.

2.3 Teori Pembelajaran Behaviorisme Ivan Pavlov

Ivan Pavlov merupakan salah seorang daripada ahli teori Behavioris selain daripada Skinner, Thondike dan Watson. Beliau dilahirkan pada 14 September 1849 di Ryazan, Rusia Tengah. Beliau telah meninggal dunia pada 27 Februari 1936 di Leningrad Rusia ketika berusia 86 tahun. Ivan Pavlov merupakan ahli fisiologi, psikologi dan ahli fizik berbangsa Rusia. Sebagai seorang yang sangat mencintai bidang fisiologi beliau telah meminta seorang pelajar duduk di sebelah katilnya dan merekodkan perihal kematiannya. Beliau terkenal dengan orang pertama yang mendeskripsikan fonomena pelaziman klasik atau pelaziman responden. Teori pelaziman klasik adalah tentang tingkah laku pembelajaran yang telah dipelopori oleh Ivan Pavlov ( 1849-1936). Pada tahun 1980-an. Pavlov mengkaji fungsi pencernaan pada anjing dengan melakukan pemerhatian pada kelenjar air liur. Dengan cara itu, beliau dapat mengumpulkan, menyukat dan menganalisis air liur haiwan itu dan bagaimana ia dapat diberikan makanan pada keadaan yang berbeza. Beliau sedar anjing akan mengeluarkan air liur sebelum makanan sampai ke mulutnya dan mencari hubungan timbal balik antara air liur dengan aktiviti perut. Pavlov hendak melihat rangsangan luar dapat mempengaruhi proses ini. Oleh itu contoh paling awal dan terkenal bagi pelaziman klasik melibatkan pelaziman air liur pada anjing kajian Pavlov.

2.4 Teori Pembelajaran Behaviorisme B.F Skinner

Manakala menerusi B.F Skinner pula, beliau mengutarakan teori behaviorisme adalah teori. Menurut Nana Sudjana, 1990 pendekatan Skinner adalah operant conditioning, yang merupakan penerusan dan perluasan secara tepat dari hokum Thorndike. Ia mengakui adanya fenomena conditioning yang klasik dari Pavlov dalam perilaku manusia dan binatang, tetapi itu tidak dianggap terlalu penting.

2.4.1 Implikasi Teori Pembelajaran B.F Skinner

Sesuatu kemahiran atau teknik yang baru dipelajari hendaklah diberi peneguhan secara berterusan dan diikuti secara berkala supaya kemahiran atau teknik itu dapat dikukuhkan dan dikekalkan. Selain itu, penggunaan peneguhan positif yang membawa keseronokan adalah lebih berkesan daripada peneguhan negative yang membawa kesakitan. Seterusnya, prinsip penghapusan melalui proses pelaziman operan adalah sesuai digunakan untuk memodifikasikan tingkah laku pelajar yangtidak diingini, misalnya menghentikan peneguhan yang diberikan dahulu sama ada peneguhan positif atau negatif

2.5 Kelebihan teori pembelajaran behaviorisme

Kelebihan yang pertama yang kami perolehi melalui teori ini adalah teori ini sangat sesuai untuk melatih atau mendidik kanak-kanak yang masih memerlukan bantuan daripada orang dewasa di sekeliling mereka. Sebagai contoh kanak-kanak tadika memerlukan bimbingan dan perhatian yang khusus daripada orang di persekitarannya terutamanya guru-guru mereka kerana mereka mudah mengikuti apa yang diajar dan disuruh selain suka meniru perlakuan orang di sekelilingnya. Selain itu, mereka juga suka dengan bentuk-bentuk penghargaan yang diberi kepadanya seperti pujian dan melalui bentuk penghargaan tersebut ianya dapat membangkitkan semangat ingin belajar dalam diri mereka.

Kelebihan yang kedua adalah guru tidak perlu mengambil masa yang lama untuk memberi penerangan yang panjang tentang pembelajaran kepada murid-murid. Hal ini kerana murid-murid akan dibiasakan belajar dengan sendiri kecuali sekiranya murid menghadapi sesuatu masalah dan memerlukan penjelasan yang lebih daripada guru. Dalam hal ini guru perlu memberikan penerangan dengan jelas.

Selain daripada itu, teori ini juga menekankan kemahiran lisan berbanding kemahiran membaca dan menulis. Melalui aspek kemahiran lisan yang ditekankan dapat memberikan kelebihan kepada murid kerana aspek lisan iaitu mendengar dan bertutur penting dalam situasi harian murid. Boleh dikatakan bahawa kemahiran ini adalah kemahiran terkerap yang digunakan manusia untuk berkomunikasi antara satu sama lain.

2.6 Kelemahan Teori Behaviorisme

Dari segi kelemahan pula, penerapan teori behavioris yang kurang tepat dalam sesuatu situasi pembelajaran boleh mangakibatkan berlakunya proses pembelajaran yang tidak kondusif bagi murid-murid kerana pembelajaran berlaku dalam keadaan sehala dimana ianya berpusatkan kepada guru sahaja. Guru hanya mengajar dan melatih murid manakala murid hanya menerima apa yang diajar oleh guru mereka tanpa memberi sebarang maklum balas. Malah dalam teori pembelajaran ini murid berperanan sebagai pendengar dan mereka menghafal apa yang didengar dan dipandang sebagai cara belajar yang efektif. Penggunaan hukuman merupakan salah satu cara untuk guru mendisiplinkan murid dan hal ini akan mendatangkan akibat buruk kepada murid.

Kelemahan yang kedua ialah proses pembelajaran dikatakan kurang memberikan gerak balas yang bebas bagi pelajar untuk berinteraksi serta untuk mengembangkan idea. Hal ini kerana sistem pembelajaran tersebut lebih tertumpu kepada rangsangan dan gerak balas yang ditunjukkan. Sekiranya tiada rangsangan maka tindak balas tidak akan berlaku. Sebagai contoh, guru akan memberi rangsangan dalam bentuk hadiah dan daripada situ barulah murid akan memberikan jawapan yang dikehendaki oleh guru. Sekiranya perkara ini berlaku secara berterusan dikhuatiri murid akan terlalu bergantung terhadap rangsangan dari luar sedangkan murid harus memiliki rangsangan dari dalam diri mereka sendiri sebagai satu cara pembelajaran.

Kelemahan yang ketiga menurut teori ini adalah penambahan ilmu pengetahuan lebih tertumpu kepada buku teks. Hal ini kerana mereka belajar mengikut urutan kurikulum yang sangat ketat sehinggakan buku teks merupakan buku wajib dalam pembelajaran mereka malah mereka juga perlu dikehendaki memahami dan mempersembahkan kembali isi pembelajaran di dalam buku teks tersebut dengan baik. Hal ini boleh mendatangkan kesan buruk kepada pelajar kerana ilmu pengetahuan yang mereka peroleh tidak begitu berkembangan dengan hanya tertumpu kepada satu buah buku sahaja.

2.7 Implikasi teori pembelajaran behaviorisme

Yang pertama ialah guru perlu sedar bahawa kaitan antara rangsangan dan gerak balas boleh dilazimkan iaitu dipelajari. Sebagai contoh apabila guru ingin menyuruh murid-murid beratur ketika waktu rehat di kantin sekolah guru boleh mengaitkannya dengan cara untuk berjaya dalam kehidupan. Implikasi yang seterusnya ialah kaitan antara rangsangan dan gerak balasdapat dikukuhkan melalui latihan. Semakin kerap rangsangan itu dikaitkan dengan sesuatu gerak balas, semakin kukuh gerak balas terlazim itu. Sebagai contoh guru ingin murid-murid supaya tidak mengaitkan mata pelajaran matematik dengan kesukaran, dengan memberi mereka latihan- latihan yang mudah dan apabila mereka beransur mahir menyelesaikan masalah yang sukar maka guru bolehlah menukar aras pembelajaran kepada tahap yang sederhana sukar dan seterusnya ke aras pembelajaran yang sukar.

Di samping itu, dalam proses pembelajaran, generalisasi boleh berlaku. Ini bermakna perkara yang dipelajari dalam situasi A boleh dipindahkan ke situasi B. Sebagai contoh guru mata pelajaran sains mengaitkan kejadian pencemaran alam sekitar yang mengakibatkan kemusnahan alam semula jadi dengan kemusnahan alam yang berlaku seperti tsunami yang melanda Bandar Acheh.

faktor motivasi memainkan peranan yang penting bagi menghasilkan gerak balas yang diinginkan. Dalam hal ini pemberian ganjaran perlu diberi perhatian. Sebagai contoh ketika murid menjawab soalan yang diberikan oleh guru dengan betul maka guru boleh memberikan pujian kepadanya atau dengan memberikannya hadiah supaya pada waktu pembelajaran yang seterusnya pelajar tersebut akan lebih menumpukan perhatian di dalam kelas untuk memperoleh pujian yang diingini. Namun sekiranya pelajar tersebut tidak dapat menjawab soalan yang diberi maka guru perlulah membimbing pelajar tersebut supaya mereka tidak berasa terpinggir dan seterusnya dapat bersama-sama memahami tajuk pembelajaran pada ketika itu.

Selain itu juga, dalam proses pembelajaran tingkah laku yang dapat dilihat, diamati, diukur dan dikawal hendaklah diberi perhatian. Hal ini kerana melalui perubahan tingkah laku yang ditunjukkan oleh murid guru boleh mengambil sebarang tindakan sekiranya ianya di kesan lebih awal. Sebagai contoh sekiranya seseorang murid menunjukkan tingkah laku yang negatif seperti tidak faham tentang apa yang diajar oleh guru maka guru boleh membuat pemulihan terhadap dirinya. Dalam pembelajaran, penghapusan boleh berlaku jika peneguhan tidak diberikan. Ini bermakna, sekiranya sesuatu tingkahlaku tidak diperkukuhkan melalui ganjaran, tingkahlaku itu mungkin akan terhapus begitu sahaja. Konsep pemulihan serta-merta juga dapat membantu seseorang guru meningkatkan keberkesanan pembelajaran

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Research design online essay help

2.7 RESEARCH DESIGN USED :

The conception of research design plan is the critical step in the research process. The design ,of the study constitutes the blue print for the collection, measurement and analysis of data. In other words the research design is a conceptual structure with in which,h research is conducted.

2.8 DATA COLLECTION METHODS :

Primary Data: – Primary data are those data which are collected for the first time, and thus hap,pen to be original in character. It is extracted with the help of discussions co,nducted with senior managers with respect to factors affecting the performance.,

Secondary Data: – Secondary data are those data which are already collected by someone else ,and which have already passed through the statistical process. These data are g,athered by Books, Lectures, Notes, and Official Websites etc.

The study make,s extensive use of secondary data. ‘Secondary data are those which have already,y been passed through the statistical process’. The data which is pre-essential for ,this study relating to comparative analysis of Balance Sheet and PROFIT AND L,OSS A/c was based on secondary source of data. This data will be collected fro,m materials provided by Rakshitas Pvt. Ltd., discussions conducted with store m,anagers and some essential

Financial Accounts books.

2.9 LIMITATIONS :,

‘ Data provided is very limited due to the subjectivity of it being highly confidential.,

‘ The data taken for interpretation is for a limited period.

‘ Assumptions, are to be taken into consideration while doing analysis and interpretation, of data.

‘ Due to limited, information, depth analysis could not be made.

2.10 RESEARCH MEASURE TOOLS :

Various financial techniques and statistical tools are used to measure the data used in the study. Column graphs, pie chart etc. is used to highlight the statistical inference,s. The study cannot be completed without balance sheet and profit and loss a/c. ,Therefore three years balance sheet and profit & loss a/c has been taken out for ma,king proper research.

2.11 ANALYSIS OF DATA :

The data collected is secondary, and it’s compiled, classified, tabulated and then analyzed u,sing financial techniques and statistical tools. Graphs and charts are used to hig,hlight the statistics. Based on this data and analysis, inferences are drawn accor,dingly.

2.12 OVER VIEW OF THE CHAPTER :

The Project I,s Presented in the following chapter :-

CHAPTER 1 : INTRODUCTION

This chapter includes introduction to finance, theorectical back ground for the study of the ,various performance, introduction to finance, definition of retail industry and di,fferent type of industry.

CHAPTER 2 : DESIGN OF THE STUDY

This chapter I,ncludes the projects introduction of the subject background, statement of the, problem, objectives of the study, scope of the study, need and purpose of study,, research methodology, research design, data collection method primary and seco,ndary data, limitations, research measure tools and analysis of data.,

CHA,PTER 3 : PROFILE OF THE COMPANY

This c,hapter contains the profile of the company, its origin and background, board of directors, number of branches and organization structure.

CHAP,TER 4 : DATA ANALYSIS AND INTERPRETATION

This ch,apter consists of Table, Graphs, Analysis and Interpretation based on the question,nairies.

CHAPT,ER 5 : SUMMARY OF FINDINGS, CONCULSIONS AND RECOM,MENDATIONS

This chap,ter includes findings based on objectives of the study, conclusion drawn from the f,indings and recommendations given from the analysis.

Chapter:-3

PROFILE OF THE ORGANIZATION

COMPANY PROFILE

RAKSHITAS PVT.LTD.

Rakshitas business con,cept is to offer a broad and varied range of apparels that allows customers to fin,d their own personal style to choose from more than 150 remiums national and int,ernational brands.

Rakshitas is aimed at everyone in the family with an interest in modern basics, fashion, quality and affo,rdable pricing. Customers should always be able to find clothes and accessories ,at Rakshitas for every occasion. The collections are extensive and new arrivals, being launched week after week in each of the 4 floors spread across 20,000 s,q. ft. for Men, Women, Kids and Teen’s casual wear, formal wear, denim wea,r, ethnic and Kancheevaram silks etc. The range and collections are supplemen,ted by matching costume jewellery, premium international watches, perfumes, ,lingerie’s.

Mission

Our mission is to achieve excelle,nce in the products and services we offer, in the methods we employ and in the res,ult we produce.

Products

Menswear: menswear,r means clothing for men. Rakshitas provide various brands for menswear which ,includes formal shirts, casual shirts, trousers, jeans etc. of several variety of int,ernational as well as national brands, for example: -levis, pepe jeans, killer, lee, w,rangler etc.

Women’s wear: Women’s wear means ,clothing for women. Rakshitas provides the best options for women’s apparel rang,ing from skirts to ethnic, casuals as well as formals.

Kids wear: Kids wear are meant only for kids or children ranging below age of 12 years. Rakshitas provides awesome collection for kids which include children formal wear, kurtas, shirt,s etc.

Party wear: Party wear dresses are meant for wearing in parties, functions, special occasions etc. Rakshitas provides variety ranges of party wear which includes lehngas, wedding dresses, traditional indian dress etc.

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Control and organisational behaviour (pengendalian dan perilaku organisasi) college application essay help

PENGENDALIAN DAN PERILAKU ORGANISASI

PERILAKU ORGANISASI

Untuk membuat dasar yang nantinya dapat digunakan manajemen dalam menyusun system pengendalian manajemen, maka kita perlu mengetahui lebih dalam mengenai perilaku organisasi. Berikut ini adalah beberapa penjelasan mengenai teori akuntansi sebagai bentuk pemahaman terhadap organisasi.

Definisi Organisasi

Secara umum, organisasi diartikan sebagai sekumpulan orang yang melakukan kerjasama demi mencapai tujuan ‘ tujuan yang telah ditentukan bersama. Organisasi tercipta ketika orang ‘ orang bergabung dan melakukan sesuatu untuk berbagai tujuan dan organisasi dapat mencakup segala aspek dalam kehidupan. Organisasi dapat bersifat formal dan informal. Pekerjaan di dalam suatu organisasi dapat dibagi ‘ bagi dan dikoordinasi sesuai dengan kebutuhan dan keahlian tiap ‘tiap anggota organisasinya untuk mencapai tujuan organisasi tersebut. Suatu organisasi haruslah going concern, dalam arti organisasi tersebut diasumsikan akan hidup selamanya.

Teori Perilaku Organisasi (Theory of Organization Behaviour)

Ada beberapa teori yang menjelaskan mengenai mengapa dan bagaimana orang ‘ orang berperilaku dalam organisasi. Berikut ada dua penjelasan mengenai teori tersebut :

1. Teori jenjang kebutuhan

Teori ini menjelaskan bahwa setiap manusia memiliki kebutuhan yang banyak dan harus dipenuhi dan kebutuhan serta keinginan tersebut tersusun secara rapih, sehingga apabila ada satu kebutuhan terpenuhi maka setelah itu ia akan berusaha memenuhi kebutuhannnya yang lebih tinggi. Dalam teori ini tersirat bahwa system pengendalian manajemen juga didasarkan pada kebutuhan manusia yang terkoordinasi dan dilakukan sesuai dengan tujuan organisasi.

2. Teori motivasi pencapaian

Teori ini lebih mengacu pada perilaku atasan atau manajer dalam perannya saat berorganisasi. Untuk mencapai keberhasilan dan mendapat sebuah kekuasaan, maka manajer tersebut juga perlu memiliki keinginan yang kuat agar dapat menghasilkan prestasi dalam organisasi.

TEORI ORGANISASI

Pengetahuan yang dalam mengenai organisasi sangatlah diperlukan oleh para pelaku organisasi dalam pelaksanaan system pengendalian manajemen organisasi tersebut. Para pelaku organisasi harus benar ‘ benar mengetahui semua poin dalam organisasi termasuk sejarah organisasi, tujuan organisasi, bagaimana perilaku para pelakunya hingga reaksi organisasi tersebut terhadap lingkungan.

Tak berbeda dengan teori perilaku akuntansi, dalam teori organisasi juga terdapat banyak teori yang membahas mengenai organisasi. Dan disini akan dibahas mengenai dua teori juga tentang organisasi, yaitu :

1. Teori Organisasi yang Berorientasi ke Dalam

Banyak organisasi dianggap indepen dan tidak terlalu memperhatikan lingkungan luar oleh beberapa teori. Teori organisasi yang berorientasi ke dalam ini banyak dijadikan dasar oleh sebagian besar system pengendalian manajemen dalam suatu organisasi hal tersebut didasarkan karena dalam teori ini mencakup tanggung jawab dalam pengambilan keputusan yang berlaku menurut proyek ‘ proyek, program ‘ program serta komponen ‘ komponen fungsionalnya.

2. Teori Organisasi yang Berorientasi ke Luar

Teori ini adalah teori kebalikan dari teori sebelumnya yaitu teori organisasi yang berorientasi ke dalam. Teori ini beranggapan bahwa suatu organisasi selalu berhubungan dengan lingkungan di sekitarnya. Ada dua jenis organisasi yang menganut teori organisasi yang berorientasi keluar ini, yaitu :

– Organisasi system umum terbuka

– Organisasi system manajemen

TIPE ORGANISASI

Ada tiga jenis atau tipe organisasi, yaitu :

1. Organisasi Fungsional

Dalam tipe organisasi ini, penekanan lebih ditujukan kepada manajer yang sangat harus bertanggung jawab terhadap suatu fungsi tertentu, seperti fungsi produksi, fungsi pemasaran dan fungsi lainnya yang diterapkan dalam organisasi tersebut. Fungsi ‘ fungsi tersebut dapat dihimpun oleh fungsi yang lebih tinggi dalam organisasi itu juga. Organisasi ini berpotensi membuat efisiensi perusahaan yang lebih baik karena menggunakan masukan ‘ masukan dari manajerial yang lebih tinggi.

2. Organisasi Divisi

Dalam organisasi ini, semua manajer harus bertanggung jawab terhadap hamper keseluruhan fungsi dalam proses produksi serta distribusi lini pada organisasi tersebut. Orientasi organisasi divisi lebih terbuka yang berarti lebih menekankan bahwa para manajer harus peka terhadap pengaruh ‘ pengaruh yang dating dari luar yang mungkin dapat mempengaruhi kinerja organisasi.

3. Organisasi Matriks

Ada dua struktur organisasi dalam organisasi matriks, yaitu ditata berdasarkan fungsi dan ditata berdasarkan program. Pada organisasi matriks, para manajer bertanggung jawab penuh atas profitabilitas dari lini produk organisasi tersebut dimana proses produksi dilakukan oleh unit ‘ unit organisasi fungsional.

Teori Kemungkinan (Contingency Theory)

Untuk mengendalikan suatu manajemen menggunakan tiga macam pendekatan, antara lain :

1. Pendekatan tradisional

Pendekatan ini menekankan pada perencanaan, pendekatan dan pengendalian.

2. Pendekatan system

Pendekatan ini menekankan padapenggunaan sumber daya manusia sebagai pertimbangan dalam pengambilan keputusan.

3. Pendekatan perilaku

Pendekatan ini menekankan pada pengendalian manusia termasuk di dalamnya motivasi dan prediksi.

PERILAKU MANAJEMEN

Organisasi dan sistemnya yang rumit akan mempengaruhi perilaku manusia menjadi rumit pula.

Konsep Fundamental

Agar suatu organisasi ‘terkendali’ maka para anggota organisasi harus mengetahui dengan baik apa sebenarnya yang diinginkan oleh manajemen. Untuk merealisasikan hal tersebut, dapat menggunakan banyak informasi yang telah disediakan oleh manajemen organisasi seperti anggaran hingga kebijakan organisasi. Tujuan organisasi dibuat oleh para manajer senior dan dilaksanakan oleh manajer operasional untuk selanjutnya para manajer senior menerapkan system pengendalian manajemen untuk mengontrol organisasi tersebut.

Persepsi Tujuan

Para manajer operasional harus benar ‘ benar mengetahui apa tujuan organisasi. Para manajer operasional tersebut dapat secara mudah mendapatkan informasi ‘ informasi yang mereka butuhkan dari berbagai sumber baik dari dokumen maupun percakapan informal saja. System pengendalian manajemen yang efektif dapat menguatkan kepastian suatu perusahaan.

Organisasi Informal

Adanya organisasi informal di dalam organisasi formal sering menyebabkan adanya salah persepsi mengenai tindakan yang diharapkan. Hubungan pada organisasi informal tidak tercantum di dalam bagan organisasi, padahal hal tersebut cukup penting untuk pemahaman system pengendalian organisasi tersebut.

Motivasi

Reaksi pada pelaku organisasi terutama manajemen terhadap organisasi dapat berbeda tergantung pada motivasinya. Motivasi dapat bermacam ‘ macam, misalnya kenaikan gaji, promosi, pujian dan lain ‘ lain. Motivasi timbul dari dalam pribadi masing ‘ masing, tetapi motivasi dapat dipengaruhi oleh rangsangan dari lingkungan sekitarnya.

Keselarasan Tujuan (Goal Congruence)

Setiap manusia memiliki tujuan pribadi, begitu juga dengan organisasi yang juga memiliki tujuan bersama. Salah satu tugas penting system pengendalian adalah menyelaraskan kedua tujuan tersebut serta mencapainya demi mendapatkan kepuasan bersama. Semakin kuat hubungan antara tujuan pribadi dan tujuan organisasi, maka ssistem pengendalian organisasi tersebut akan semakin kuat juga.

Kerjasama dan Konflik

Suatu organisasi tidak akan berjalan dengan baik apabila para anggotanya tidak bekerjasama dengan baik secara terkoordinasi, untuk itu di dalam organisasi sangat dibutuhkan kerjasama yang terkoordinir dan selaras. Selain itu, organisasi juga harus menjaga koordinasi dan keselarasan tersebut agar tidak terjadi konflik yang dapat mengganggu kinerja organisasi. Konflik tersebut dapat terjadi karena berbagai alasan, salah satunya adalah dengan adanya persaingan didalam organisasi tersebut.

Iklim Organisasi (Organizational Climate)

Secara singkat, iklim organisasi dapat diartikan sebagai hasil kombinasi dari struktur formal dan struktur informal pada suatu organisasi. Dan menurut pemahaman saya iklim organisasi merupakan suasana di dalam organisasi dimana tiap pelaku organisasi di dalam organisasi saling membantu, saling menilai, dan memahami antara satu dengan yang lain. Iklim organisasi ikut mengambil bagian penting dalam organisasi. Keduanya saling mempengaruhi satu sama lain.

Tipe Pengendalian

Pelaku pengendalian Sumber arah pengendalian Macam ‘ macam Pengendalian

Ukuran prestasi dan tingkah laku Isyarat untuk tindak koreksi Imbalan untuk prestasi Hukuman untuk kegagalan

Organisasi formal Rencana organisasi, strategi, tanggapan atas persaingan Anggaran, biaya standar, target penjualan penyimpangan Penghargaan manajemen, insentif uang, promosi Minta penjelasan

Kelompok informal Keterikatan bersama cita’cita kelompok Norma-norma kelompok penyimpangan Pengakuan rekan, keanggotaan, kepemimpinan Ejekan, pengasingan, permusuhan

Perorangan Tujuan pribadi, aspirasi Harapan pribadi, target antara Dugaan akan kegagalan di masa yang akan dating, target tak tercapai Kepuasan karena ‘terkendali’ kegembiraan Merasa gagal

Sumber : Disarikan dari Gene W. Dalton dan Paul R. Lawrence, Motivation and Control in Organizations (Homewood, III. : Richard D. Irwin, 1971). Hak Cipta 1971 oleh Richard D. Irwin Inc.

Variasi dalam Pengendalian

Hakekat system pengendalian manajemen dibedakan menurut sifat pekerjaan, macam organisasi, lingkungan daan peran manajer. Berikut adalah tiga dimensi yang perlu diperhatikan dalam penggunaan dan pengembangan system pengendalian manajemen :

1. Besar keleluasaan manajemen

2. Besar interdependensi

3. Rentang waktu pelaksanaan

FUNGSI KONTROLER

Kontroler dapat diartikan sebagai petinggi atau pejabat yang bertanggung jawab atas apa yang telah direncanakan oleh organisasi dan bagaimana pengoperasiannya. Tanggung jawab para kontroler berbeda ‘ beda di tiap organisasi bahkan di tiap divisinya. Tanggung jawab kontroler didasarkan pada posisinya masing ‘ masing. Tanggung jawab tersebut dilaksanakan secara langsung. Selain tanggung jawab dalam perencanaan dan pengoperasian tersebut, berikut ini adalah fungsi lain dari kontroler :

a. Menyiapkan laporan kepada pihak pemerintah serta pihak ‘ pihak luar lainnya.

b. Mempersiapkan pengembalian pajak.

c. Mempersiapkan dan melakukan analisa terhadap laporan prestasi keuangan.

d. Membantu para manajer dengan cara melakukan analisa sertab menafsirkan laporan ‘ laporan tersebut.

e. Menggunakan prosedur pemeriksaan intern dan pengendalian akuntansi, memastikan validitas informasi, menetapkan usaha perlindungan yangcukup terhadap berbagai penyimpangan serta melakukan pemeriksaan operasional.

f. Melakukan pengembangan kepada orang ‘ orang yang ia pimpin serta berperan langsung dalam penambahan pengetahuan mengenai fungsi kontroler

g. Mengadakan manajemen kas, asuransi serta kegiatan ‘ kegiatan lainnya demi pengamanan kekayaan perusahaan.

Hubungan dengan Organisasi Lini

Kontroler juga memiliki hak untuk membuat kebijakan ‘ kebijakan dalam organisasi. Namun keputusan ‘ keputusan tersebut merupakan realisasi pelaksanaan kebijakan ‘ kebijakan yang telah dibuat oleh manajer lini. Dengan kata lain, terdapat keselarasan antara kedua belah pihak. Hal tersebut tentunya sangat baik untuk menjaga kelancaran jalannya organisasi tersebut.

Kontroler Divisi

Kebanyakan perusahaan atau organisasi membagi organisasinya tersebut menjadi beberapa divisi yang dikepalai oleh seorang manajer. Manajer divisi tentu juga memiliki kontroler divisi. Dalam hal ini, kontroler divisi harus patuh kepada manajer divisi dan juga kontroler perusahaan yang terkadang beda kepentingannya. Penilaian prestasi terhadap kontroler divisi dapat dilakukan dengan menilai beberapa poin, antara lain :

– Laporan akuntansi dan keuangan

– Pengetahuan mengenai operasi divisi

– Sasaran dan pelaksanaan kepatuhan terhadap kebijakan

– Kontribusi manajemen

– Pengetahuan terhadap akuntansi

– Kejujuran dan profesionalisme

– Kemauan bekerjasama

– Organisasi dan staf

– Inisiatif dan semangat

HUBUNGAN LINI-STAF

Seorang manajer divisi dapat dikatakan tidak memiliki staf maupun asisten pribadi. Manajer tersebut mendapatkan bantuan dari :

1. Tenaga yang ditugaskan untuk membantunya dari staf umum, insinyur serta petugas pembelian

2. Staf pusat yang dapat dimintai bantuan kapan saja sebanyak mungkin.

HUBUNGAN MANAJER DIVISI ‘ KONTROLER

Untuk mencapai kesuksesan organisasi dalam hubungannya dengan manajer divisi, maka organisasi perlu membina kerjasama yang baik dan solid di tiap ‘ tiap manajemen. Berikut merupakan beberapa factor yang dapat mempengaruhi hubungan baik adalah :

1. System akuntansi yang seragam dan terpusat

2. Sasaran ‘ saasaran keuangan yang telah ditetapkan sebelumnya untuk tiap ‘ tiap divisi.

(Pertumbuhan penjualan serta besar laba penjualan)

3. Pembagian laba antara kontroler dan manajer

SISTEM AKUNTANSI

Selain memiliki tanggung jawab dalam perencanaan dan pengoperasian organisasi, divisi kontroler juga memiliki kewenangan atas system akuntansi yang akan digunakan oleh organisasi tersebut termasuk di dalamnya menetapkan cara dan jenis pos ‘ pos yang harus mereka awasi. Sistem akuntansi dijadikan dasar dalam penyusunan laporan keuangan beserta analisisnya.

SASARAN ‘ SASARAN DIVISI

Seperti yang telah disebutkan pada bagian sebelumnya, perusahaan atau organisasi memiliki sasaran keuangan, yaitu pertumbuhan penjualan dan tingkat laba. Tingkat laba dalam organisasi atau perusahaan ditetapkan sebaga persentase penjualan. Berikut ini adalah beberapa factor penentu target laba penjualan :

1. Kemungkinan pematenan produk

2. Besar laba atas investasi yang diinginkan

3. Besar laba industry bersangkutan

4. Besar laba investasi bersangkutan

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Business notes: Creative problem solving law essay help

1 Unit 1 – Creative problem solving

1.1 Introduction

A business leader is expected to identify problems, implement solutions and find business opportunities. To do so, they must learn to plan, analyse situations, identify and solve problems (or potential problems), make decisions, and set realistic and attainable goals for the business/unit. These are the fundamental thinking/creative requirements for leadership, and these set direction to a successful future. Without this critical competence, you will have to rely on others to do your thinking for you, or you will simply have to learn to nurture your creative thinking skills which will help you on your journey towards successful business.

Creative thinking forms part of this continuous problem solving process, and is the fundamental basis for facilitating in the development of solutions, new initiatives, products or services. In an entrepreneurial context, the end result of this process should be directly linked to a feasible opportunity in the market environment.

Quote – What lies behind us and what lies before us, are tiny matters, compared to what lies within us. – William Morrow

The creative problem solving process consists of the following four steps:

‘ Problem analysis

‘ Solution analysis

‘ Decision analysis

‘ Solution implementation

1.2 The process

The creative problem solving process consists of an important core process, namely the idea generation process see figure 1. This is an important step, especially if you need to come up with creative ideas for products, services, and processes, to solve a consumer problem. The idea generation process consists of the following four steps:

‘ Step 1 – Generating ideas

‘ Step 2 – Developing ideas into a concept

‘ Step 3 – Converting a concept into a tangible or intangible product

‘ Step 4 – Finally protecting the tangible or intangible product

Figure 1 – The process of creative thinking (idea generation)

Initially you need to understand the problem and find the root cause of the problem. Many techniques are available to find the causes of problems, you can use the 5 Why technique in this case, if you are familiar with it. The more advanced courses will describe how to use the major problem identification techniques, but this course will focus on the idea generation process.

1.3 Where to start

In the entrepreneurial phase, the best way to start the idea generation process is when you are required to come up with a new product or service, to identify a potential consumer problem. Initially, focus on identifying problems in the area of your expertise (your knowledge base).

If you have no knowledge of the problem, the product development stage could be a challenge for you.

You will learn in the next section that not all problems are opportunities, and entrepreneurs should be careful as to how they approach this stage, when generating ideas in trying to identify a new product or service.

1.4 Problem versus opportunity

In most cases, the idea-generation phase in the creative problem solving process is neglected. Individuals normally identify a problem or an opportunity (which may seem like an opportunity, but is actually just an idea), and then develop a new product in line with the new assumed idea or opportunity. It is therefore important to distinguish between an idea and an opportunity. Resources may be wasted if a mere idea is incorrectly perceived as an opportunity.

Any opportunity is initially problem based (e.g. a coffee shop in a destination where there is a lack thereof, this creates several problem situations and potentially feasible opportunities for the entrepreneur). The creative thinking (idea generation process) involved, is the means to solving these problems, and bring forth solutions to the market problems, which create further opportunities.

1.4.1 Difference between problem and opportunity

There is, however, a critical difference between a problem and opportunity. Consider the following:

‘ Is it an idea or an opportunity to develop a high speed train between two major cities which are not far from each other? Some may say it is a great idea, but when you need to pay R200 a day to make use of it, it is simply not an opportunity. Only a few people would make use of the service, resulting in a negative impact on the market.

‘ If it is possible to transport people between the two cities for a lower cost, say R10, it would possibly be a more feasible opportunity.

Here is a good example of an opportunity – Around the turn of the twentieth century, a shoe manufacturer sent a representative to Africa, to open up a market in the undeveloped area in that continent. After exploring the culture for a month, the rep sent a telegram to the home office shouting,

‘Disaster! Disaster! These people do not wear shoes. Bring me home immediately!’

A short time later, another shoe company sent their agent to Africa for the same purpose. A month later his home office also received a telegram:

‘Opportunity! Opportunity! These people do not wear shoes! Triple production immediately!’

Quote – Every situation contains the potential for disastrous problems or unprecedented success. The event is what we perceive it to be. Unknown

Now the question arises: How do I distinguish between an idea and an opportunity? Looking at above examples, every problem is not an opportunity, and it really depends at how you are looking at the problem. If you see a viable opportunity in a problem then you are looking at the problem with a different perception than most people (the glass is half full or half empty). From a business perspective all opportunities are not necessarily a viable opportunity, the market determines the available opportunities. Without the knowledge to interpret the market conditions, you could miss it totally in terms of your opportunity analysis.

Table 1 shows the different industries in South Africa, the level of entrepreneurial activity, and how the same opportunity differs in each of these market areas.

1.4.2 The global entrepreneurship monitor

The Global Entrepreneurship Monitor ‘ specifically identified the entrepreneurial activity in the various industries of South Africa. It can be generalized to state that an industry with a high level of entrepreneurial activity, gives away more business opportunities (e.g. manufacturing, retail, hotel, restaurant and business services), while one with a lower level will indicate far less opportunities (e.g. agriculture, forestry, hunting, fishing, finance, insurance, real estate and health, education and social services).

If we analyse just one ‘high-opportunity’ industry, for instance manufacturing, it may be an opportunity today to manufacture a final product, and export it to an international market. A ‘low-opportunity’ industry, for instance insurance (especially in the market entry phase), may be negative as having an extremely high crime rate and insurance companies have to pay out claims at an alarming rate. It is also evident that low-opportunity industries may create feasible opportunities.

An entrepreneur should therefore be wary of following a fad, (latest trend) and exploiting assumed opportunities in a ‘popular’ industry.

Percentage of Entrepreneurs

ISIC Category Start-ups New Firms Total

Agriculture, forestry, hunting, fishing 1,3 2,6 1,6

Mining, construction 9,7 5,0 4,1

Manufacturing 14,3 19,1 13,8

Transport, communications, utilities 9,8 0,7 8,0

Wholesale, motor vehicle sales, repairs 6,0 6,5 6,3

Retail, hotel, restaurant 40,8 47,7 43,5

Finance, insurance, real estate 0,3 5,2 1,4

Business services 10,1 7,9 9,4

Health, education, social services 2,6 0,7 2,3

Consumer services 11,0 3,5 9,7

Source: Driver. Wood, Segal & Herrington, 2001

Table 1 – The percentage of entrepreneurs in the different industries in South-Africa

1.4.3 What is an opportunity?

What exactly is an opportunity and how does an entrepreneur exploit a feasible opportunity? According to Hesrich & Peters (2002), an opportunity is the process whereby the entrepreneur assesses whether a certain product, service or process, will yield the necessary earnings based on the resource inputs that are required to manufacture and market it.

The nature of opportunities needs to be assessed – thus, what leads to the existence of an opportunity? The following factors may result in an opportunity:

‘ General and specific problems faced by consumers

‘ Market shifts

‘ Government regulations

‘ Competition

There are two equally important criteria in the assessment of an opportunity. Firstly, the size of the market – will the number of customers reward the input and energy required, to create and deliver the product?

Secondly, the length in terms of the frame of the opportunity (window of opportunity). For example, is the demand for this product only a short fashionable phenomenon or is it based on sustainable business, or how long will it take before someone else (a competitor), to grab the opportunity?

These two aspects should also link directly to the personal skills and competence of the entrepreneur. For example, entrepreneurs with no skills or interest in information technology will not necessarily achieve their personal goals. They should rather venture into an opportunity which suits their experience and personality.

1.4.4 Transform opportunity into a business

Table 2 shows how the development of a business plan links to the identification and evaluation of opportunities, the determination of the resources required and the eventual management of the enterprise. All of these factors play a significant role in the correct assessment of the business opportunity.

This means that the business plan must explain in sufficient detail how the business will exploit the situation, to transform the opportunity, into solving a problem for the consumer, which generates extraordinary profits for the people involved.

Identify and evaluate the opportunity Develop the business plan Determine the resources needed Manage the enterprise

Creation and length of opportunity

Real and perceived value of opportunity

Risk and returns of opportunity

Opportunity versus skills and goals

Competitive situation Title page

Table of contents

Executive summary

Description of business

Description of industry

Marketing plan

Financial plan

Production plan

Organisational plan

Operational plan

Summary

Appendices Existing resources of the entrepreneur

Resource gap and available supplies

Access to needed resources Management style

Key variables for success

Identification of problems and potential problems

Implementation of control systems

Source: Hisrich, R.D. & Peters, M.P. 2002: 40. Entrepreneurship. Boston: Irwin/McGraw-Hill.

Table 2 – Link between Opportunity and business plan

1.5 Instruction

Exit and resume to your current page.

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The importance of employee engagement in an organization get essay help

1.4 Literature Review

Mark Kilsby and Stephen Beyer (1996) ‘ Engagement and Interaction : A comparison between supported employment and acts’. This research study was conducted with the help of interaction and commitment patterns of 13 supported employees and 38 regular adult training center attainders of the organization. Direct observation was used as method of data collection, within the 13 employment sites and a representative sample of ATC organized activities. Because of the higher level of task specific dialogue between individuals and the service of the organization it is found that there is more of social interaction in ACT. Interaction of employees with public within office hours was the cause for this as per the study conducted.

Douglas R. May, Richard L, Gilson and Lynn M . Harter (2004) ‘The Psychological Conditions Of Meaningfulness ,Safety And Availability And The Engagement Of The Human Spirit At Work’. This shows the study about a U.S western company which explored the determinants and mediated the effects of tree psychological conditions they are meaningful, safe and available. The above studies shoes that all the three factors (meaningfulness, safety and availability) have a positive relation with the engagement of an employee in the organization. In other words they are completely associated with the psychological safety where as loyalty to co worker norms and self- consciousness are negatively related.

Despoina Xanthopaolou, Arnold B, Bakker, Evangelia Demerouti and Wilmar B.Schaufeli (2009) ‘Work Engagement And Financial Returns : A Diary Study On The Role Of The Job And Personal Resources’. The above study shows that how daily fluctuations in job can affect the level of personal resource , financial returns and work engagement. Different level of analysis revealed that day level job resources had an effect on work engagement through the day level personal resources. When there was a control for the general level of personal resources and organizational engagement Day level work engagement showed a positive way towards day level training, which in turn showed the financial returns.

Dan-Shang Wang and Chia ‘Chun Hsieh (2013) ‘The Effect Of Authentic Leadership On Employee Trust And Employee Engagement’ they have examined the genuine leadership on employee engagement through employee trust. They have collected data from 386 employees from top 1000 manufacturing companies and top 500 service companies in Taiwan. Hierarchical multiple regression was used to test the hypothesis on the employees. Later on the results shows that the consistency between the supervisors , words and actions as well as their moral perceptions are optimistically related to employee engagement , when only supervisors are consist between the words and actions in positively related employment trust. The study shows how employee engagement had a positive trust on employee. Employee trust has a partial link between authentic leadership and employee engagement.

Benjamin J.C, Yuan and Michael B.H. Lin (2012) ‘Transforming Employee Engagement Into Long-Term Customer Relationships: Evidence From Information Technology Salespeople In Taiwan’. This article shows that when information sales people in Taiwan have perceived more transformational leadership and they were more expected to show increased development in work engagement. Over a period of time it was found that increased development in work engagement influenced the increased customer relationship. It showed how employee engagement is indirectly co related with customer relationship.

Xander M.Bezuijen, Karen Van Dam, Peter T . Van Den Berg and Henk Thierry (2010) ‘How Leaders Stimulate Employee Learning : A Leader ‘ Member Exchange Approach’. This study investigated how the three factors as such as leader member exchange, goal setting, and feedback are related to employee engagement in the learning activities. Here, two different mechanisms were proposed , first one a mediating mechanism telling that leader member exchange shows specific leader behavior. The second one is it as a moderating mechanism , holding that leader member exchange will strengthen the effect of leader behavior from 7 organizations a sample of 1112 employees was taken , to measure the leader member exchange approach. 233 of the direct leaders answered that they find difficulty in rating employee engagement in learning activities.

Maureen F.Dollard and Arnold B. Bakker (2010) ‘Psychosocial Safety Climate As A Precursor To Conducive Work Environment , Psychological Health Problems , And Employee Engagement’. This article shows the gap between work psychology and psychosocial working condition. Where we construct a psychosocial working condition PSC. It explains how PSC influences the senior management in psychological working conditions and in psychological health and engagement. They use the job demand and resources as a frame work and uses a multi level thinking into their explanation

James R.Jones (2009) ‘Comparative Effects On Race/Ethnicity And Employee Engagement On Withdrawal Behavior’. This study have added knowledge on the basis of effects on employee attachment. In addition to that it provides more evidence on looking at all types of employees as a single entity which can lead to false results.

Shane Crabb ( 2011) ‘The Use Of Coaching Principles To Foster Employee Engagement’. The above article focuses on the human condition that leads to the happiness of fulfillment and flourishing of employee engagement. Where positive psychology results in so many questions from traditional psychological approaches .Which have mean to focus on a different model of human functioning with healing people fail. In another way positive psychology takes additional holistic approach to human life. Seeing the positive and negative aspects of context when establishing what is right , working and good of people.

Roberta A . Neault and Deidre A .Pickerel (2011) ‘Career Engagement : Bridging Career Counseling And Employee engagement’ . this article is showing that employee counselors helps individuals in maximizing their career engagement at any career stage of an individual. When you facilitate career engagement it contributes to employee engagement which employee are looking for. They even encourages others to use the career engagement and employee engagement models as vehicles to combine the employers to interest in engagement counselors to create interest in supporting the development of employee an motivate them to work.

2.1 Title: A Cross Sectional Study Of Employee Engagement In Apollo Hospitals.

2.2 Objectives:

1. To determine the level of Employee Engagement in Apollo Hospitals.

2. To identify the factors of Employee Engagement.

3. To analyze and suggest strategies for improvement.

2.3 Research Methodology:

I had adopted descriptive research design for the purpose of this

Survey on employee engagement. The primary data was collected from the 100 employees conveniently selected from Apollo Hospitals Bangalore, through structured questionnaire.

2.4 Limitations:

1) The survey was carried out for a sample sized of 100 working staff only.

2) Findings and suggestion of this research are applicable only to Apollo Hospitals.

3) As an fact finding study advanced statistical tools or analysis are not used.

Table 1.1 Weighted Average on Opportunities for growth

X 1 2 3 4 5

I have adequate opportunities for professional growth in this organization. (X1) 10 20 32 19 19

I receive the training I need to do my job well.(X2) 2 52 22 16 08

My manager is actively interested in my professional development and advancement.(X3) 32 21 12 18 17

My manager encourages and supports my development (X4) 08 10 40 18 24

I am encouraged to learn from my mistakes (X5) 52 23 16 04 05

My work is challenging, stimulating, and rewarding(X6) 28 14 33 16 09

X1 ?? XI X2 ?? X2 X3 ?? X3 X4 ?? X4 X5 ?? X5 X6 ?? X6

10 50 2 10 32 160 08 40 52 260 28 140

20 80 52 208 21 84 10 40 23 92 14 56

32 96 22 66 12 36 40 120 16 48 33 99

19 38 16 32 18 36 18 36 04 08 16 32

19 19 08 08 17 17 24 24 05 05 09 09

TOTAL 283 TOTAL 324 TOTAL 333 TOTAL 260 TOTAL 413 TOTAL 336

Table 1.2 Calculation Of Weighted Average on Opportunities for growth

283/100 2.83 324/100 3.24 333/100 3.33 260/100 2.60 413/100 4.13 336/100 3.36

RANKED 6 RANKED 4 RANKED 3 RANKED 5 RANKED 1 RANKED 2

Table 1.3 Showing The Rank Of Each Component of Opportunities for growth

INFERENCE

The above table shows that the employees are encouraged to learn from their mistakes that is 4.15 out of 5.the work is stimulating rewarding and challenging is ranked 2nd.the manager is actively interested in employees professional growth is

ranked 3rd.the level of opportunity for professional growth shows the least ranking.

Table 1.4: Showing Adequate Opportunities/ Professional growth

STRONGLY AGREED AGREED NEUTRAL DISAGREE STRONGLY DISAGREE TOTAL

10 20 32 19 19 100

Chart 1.1: Showing Adequate Opportunities/ Professional growth

Interpretation:

32% of the employees from the given population says that they have a neutral opportunity to grow where as 10 % stands in the outstanding category and 20% of them in good category. An equal no of employees disagree to the fact in the other hand that is 19% of the given population.

STRONGLY AGREED AGREED NEUTRAL DISAGREE STRONGLY DISAGREE TOTAL

2 52 22 16 8 100

Table 1.5: Showing Training

Chart 1.2: Showing Training

Interpretation:

In the given sample 52% of the employees agrees to the fact that they receive good training in order to do their job efficiently and 2% strongly agrees. where 22 % is neutral to the situation given.16 % of them do not get proper training they required to do their jobs and 8 % strongly disagree to it. It is clear that the organization is giving a proper training to employees to make their work effective.

Table 1.6: Showing Professional Development And Advancement

STRONGLY AGREED AGREED NEUTRAL DISAGREE STRONGLY DISAGREE TOTAL

32 21 12 18 17 100

Chart 1.3: Showing Professional Development And Advancement

Interpretation:

Most of the employees agree that their manager takes attention in their professional development steps. 32 % to 25 of the employees from the given sample have strongly agreed and agreed to it respectively. whereas 12 % is neutral to it . but 18% to 17% disagrees and says that they are not taken care in respective of their advancement in profession.

Table 1.7: Showing Encouragement And Support

STRONGLY AGREED AGREED NEUTRAL DISAGREE STRONGLY DISAGREE TOTAL

8 10 40 18 24 100

Chart 1.4: Showing Encouragement And Support

Interpretation:

From the above graph its clear that 40% of the employees neither agree or disagree that management encourage them or support them. 8% to 10% agrees that they have been supported by the management . but 18 % to 24 % disagree to the fact that management supports them .

Table 1.8: Showing Challenges, Stimulation And Reward

STRONGLY AGREED AGREED NEUTRAL DISAGREE STRONGLY DISAGREE TOTAL

52 23 16 4 5 100

Chart 1.5: Showing Challenges, Stimulation And Reward

Interpretation:

More than half , 52% of the employees states that they have a challenging stimulating and rewarding work. A very few of them disagree to it 4 % to 5% . and 23 % of them agrees t it there is a majority of people agreeing to it.

Table 1.9: Showing Encouragement

STRONGLY AGREED AGREED NEUTRAL DISAGREE STRONGLY DISAGREE TOTAL

28 14 33 16 9 100

Chart 1.6: Showing Encouragement

Interpretation:

There is a 28% of people agreeing to it. And 16 % to 9 % disagreeing to the fact that they are not encouraged to learn from their mistakes .

Table 1.10: Showing Weighted Average on Work/Life Balance; Stress and Work Pace

X 1 2 3 4 5

My manager understands the benefits of maintaining a balance between work and personal life. (X1) 02 13 08 48 29

My job does not cause unreasonable amounts of stress in my life. (X2) 30 13 08 48 29

The amount of work I am asked to do is reasonable. (X3) 40 20 12 14 14

I am able to satisfy both my job and family/personal responsibilities. (X4) 27 12 08 09 44

X1 ?? X1 X2 ?? X2 X3 ?? X3 X4 ?? X4

02 10 30 150 40 200 27 135

13 52 13 52 20 80 12 48

08 24 08 24 12 48 08 24

48 96 48 96 14 28 09 18

29 29 29 29 14 14 44 44

TOTAL 211 TOTAL 351 TOTAL 370 TOTAL 269

Table 1.11: Showing Calculation Of Weighted Average on Work/Life Balance; Stress and Work Pace

Table 1.12: Showing The Rank Of Each Component of Work/Life Balance; Stress And Work Pace

211/100 2.11 351/100 3.51 370/100 3.7 269/100 2.69

RANKED 4 RANKED 1 RANKED 2 RANKED 3

INFERRENCE

By analysing the given data using weighted average method that the level of stress reduced in the employees is 3.51 out of 4 , and the amount of work the employee is asked to do is 3.7. the employee is able to balance between family and personal responsibility is 2.69 . the managers understanding in the benefits and maintaining balance between work and personal life should be taken care because it is got only 2.11 which have least rank

STRONGLY AGREED AGREED NEUTRAL DISAGREE STRONGLY DISAGREE TOTAL

2 13 8 48 29 100

Table 1.13: Showing Work/Life Balance; Stress And Work Pace Balance Between Work And Personal Life

Chart 1.7: Showing Work/Life Balance; Stress And Work Pace Balance Between Work And Personal Life

Interpretation:

Only 2% of the employees says that there is a balance between work life and personal life. 13% of them agrees to it and 8% is neutral to it.but 48% of the sample disagrees and 29 % of them strongly disagrees to it.

Table 1.14: Showing Stress Level In Employees Life

STRONGLY AGREED AGREED NEUTRAL DISAGREE STRONGLY DISAGREE TOTAL

30 13 8 48 29 100

Chart 1.8: Showing Stress Level In Employees Life

Interpretation:

30% of the employees strongly agrees that the job doesn’t cause much stress where 13% of them agrees and 8% is neutral to it. But 48%of them disagree nd 29% strongly disagrees and states that job causes stress in their life.

Table 1.15: Showing Amount Of Work Asked To Do

STRONGLY AGREED AGREED NEUTRAL DISAGREE STRONGLY DISAGREE TOTAL

40 20 12 14 14 100

Chart 1.9: Showing Amount Of Work Asked To Do

Interpretation:

40% of them strongly agrees that they have sufficient amount of work and they do not feel any stress where 20 % of them agrees. 12% of the sample is neutral.14% of them disagrees they don’t have suffient amount of work or they are overloaded with the work given.

Table 1.16: Showing Satisfying Family / Personal Responsibilities

STRONGLY AGREED AGREED NEUTRAL DISAGREE STRONGLY DISAGREE TOTAL

40 20 12 14 14 100

Chart 1.10: Showing Satisfying Family / Personal Responsibilities

Interpretation:

44% of them strongly disagree that they are not able to complete their job, family and personal responsibilities. 27 % to 12 % agrees to it and 8% is neutral to that. It shows that employees are not satisfied with the amount of work given to them.

Table 1.17: Showing Weighted Average on Personal Expression / Diversity

X 1 2 3 4 5

My ideas and opinions count at work. (X1) 03 18 19 32 28

I am comfortable sharing my opinions at work. (X2) 10 08 28 42 12

We work to attract, develop, and retain people with diverse backgrounds. (X3) 10 13 09 56 12

Senior management is genuinely interested in employee opinions and ideas. (X4) 24 23 36 07 10

People with different ideas are valued in this organization. (X5) 20 18 40 13 09

Table 1.18: Calculation Of Weighted Average on Personal Expression / Diversity

X1 ?? X1 X2 ?? X2 X3 ?? X3 X4 ?? X4 X5 ?? X5

3 15 10 50 10 50 24 120 20 100

18 72 08 32 13 52 23 92 18 72

19 57 28 84 09 27 36 108 40 120

32 64 42 84 56 112 07 14 13 26

28 26 12 12 12 12 10 10 09 09

TOTAL 234 TOTAL 262 TOTAL 253 TOTAL 344 TOTAL 327

234/100 2.34 262/100 2.62 253/100 2.53 344/100 3.44 327/100 3.27

RANKED 5 RANKED 3 RANKED 4 RANKED 1 RANKED 2

Table 1.19: Showing The Rank Of Each Component of Personal Expression / Diversity

INFERRENCE

By analysing the above table it shows that senior management is interested in personal opinions which shows the rank 1. And people with different ideas are valued in the organisation are considered 3.27 out of 5. Employees are free to share their ideas 2.62. the employees work in such a manner to attract and retain others 2.53 ,which has got the 4th rank. Ideas counted at work has got the least rank where they have to work on that part.

Table 1.20: Showing Idea And Opinion Count

STRONGLY AGREED AGREED NEUTRAL DISAGREE STRONGLY DISAGREE TOTAL

3 18 19 32 28 100

Chart 1.11: : Showing Idea And Opinion Count

Interpretation:

Only 3% of the employees agree that the management listens to their ideas and opinions. 18% of them agree to it as well. 19 % is neutral to the situation. Whereas there is a huge no of the sample size that is32% to 28% who is disagreeing to it. Their opinions and ideas are not taken seriously by the management.

Table 1.21: Showing Level Comfort in Sharing Opinions

STRONGLY AGREED AGREED NEUTRAL DISAGREE STRONGLY DISAGREE TOTAL

10 8 28 42 12 100

Chart 1.12 : Showing Level Comfort in Sharing Opinions

Interpretation:

The conducted shows that onl10% to 8% employees are comfortable in sharing their problems with the upper management. Rest of the sample that is 42% is disagreeing that they are not comfortable in sharing their ideas or problems.12% of them strongly disagrees.

Table 1.22: Showing The Work They Do Is To Attract , Develop And Retain

STRONGLY AGREED AGREED NEUTRAL DISAGREE STRONGLY DISAGREE TOTAL

10 13 9 56 12 100

Chart 1.13: Showing The Work They Do Is To Attract , Develop And Retain

Interpretation:

56% of the employees disagrees that they don’t work to attract ,develop or retain customers. Where 10% to 13% agrees to the statement . a little sample size of 12% strongly disagrees to the statement .

Table 1.23: Showing Senior Management Interest In Employee Opinion And Ideas

STRONGLY AGREED AGREED NEUTRAL DISAGREE STRONGLY DISAGREE TOTAL

24 23 26 7 10 100

Chart 1.14: Showing Senior Management Interest In Employee Opinion And Ideas

Interpretation

The management shows interest in taking employees ideas and opinions.24% of them agrees and 23% of the strongly agrees to the statement. A huge sample ,36% id neutral to the statement. But a little sample, 7% to 10% disagrees to the statement.

Table 1.24: Showing People With Different Ideas Are Valued

STRONGLY AGREED AGREED NEUTRAL DISAGREE STRONGLY DISAGREE TOTAL

20 18 40 13 9 100

Chart 1.15: Showing People With Different Ideas Are Valued

Interpretation:

20% to 18% of the employees agree that people with different ideas are well accepted in the organization. 40% to the employees are neutral to the statement. 13 % to 9% of the sample disagrees to the statement on the other hand.

Table 1.25: Showing Weighted Average On Compensation

X 1 2 3 4 5

I am paid fairly for the work I do. (X1) 19 42 12 25 2

My salary is competitive with similar jobs I might find elsewhere.(X2) 32 12 28 23 5

My benefits are comparable to those offered by other organizations.(X3) 8 29 28 32 3

I understand my benefit plan. (X4) 42 15 19 9 15

I am satisfied with my benefit package. (X5) 58 12 11 6 13

Table 1.26: Calculation Of Weighted Average On Compensation

X1 vX1 X2 ?? X2 X3 ?? X3 X4 ?? X4 X5 ?? X5

19 95 32 160 08 40 42 210 58 290

42 168 12 48 29 116 15 60 12 48

12 36 28 84 28 84 19 57 11 33

25 50 23 46 32 64 09 18 06 12

02 02 05 05 03 03 15 15 13 13

TOTAL 351 TOTAL 343 TOTAL 307 TOTAL 360 TOTAL 396

Table 1.27: Showing The Rank Of Each Component Of Compensation

351/100 3.51 343/100 3.43 307/100 3.07 360/100 3.60 396/100 3.96

RANKED 3 RANKED 4 RANKED 5 RANKED 2 RANKED 1

INFERENCES

The above table shows that the employees are satisfied with the benefit package they are given 3.96 out of 5.the employees understand their plan is 3.60. the fair pay is ranked 3rd.the employees salary is competitive with others is ranked 4th. The salary is not comparable with salary with others which has been ranked the least, rank 5.

Table 1.28: showing Fair Pay

STRONGLY AGREED AGREED NEUTRAL DISAGREE STRONGLY DISAGREE TOTAL

19 42 12 25 2 100

Chart 1.16: Showing Fair Pay

Interpretation:

19% to 42% of the Employees agree that they are paid fairly according to the amount of work they do. But 25% to 2% of the sample size disagrees to the statement. And 12% is neutral to it.

Table 1.29: Showing Salary Competitiveness

STRONGLY AGREED AGREED NEUTRAL DISAGREE STRONGLY DISAGREE TOTAL

32 12 28 23 5 100

Chart 1.17: Showing Salary Competitiveness

Interpretation:

32% of the employees agrees that they get a competitive salary when compared to other organizations with same designation. 12% of them strongly agrees to it .28% of them are neutral to the statement. 23% to 5% is disagrees to the statement in the other hand.

Table 1.30: Showing Comparability Of Benefits

STRONGLY AGREED AGREED NEUTRAL DISAGREE STRONGLY DISAGREE TOTAL

8 29 28 32 3 100

Chart 1.18: Showing Comparability Of Benefits

Interpretation:

There is balance, 29% of the employees agrees and 32 % of them strongly disagrees that they have a comparable benefits.28% of them are neutral in the other hand.

Table 1.31: Showing Understanding Of Benefit Plan

STRONGLY AGREED AGREED NEUTRAL DISAGREE STRONGLY DISAGREE TOTAL

42 15 19 9 15 100

Chart 1.19: Showing Understanding Of Benefit Plan

Interpretation:

42% of the employees agrees that they understand their benefit plan. 15% strongly agrees ,where 19% is neutral.9% to 15% disagrees to the fact and says they don’t understand the benefit plans they are given.

Table 1.32: Showing Satisfaction With Benefit Package

STRONGLY AGREED AGREED NEUTRAL DISAGREE STRONGLY DISAGREE TOTAL

58 12 11 6 13 100

Chart 1.20: Showing Satisfaction With Benefit Package

Interpretation:

58% of them are satisfied with their benefit package. 12% strongly agrees. Whereas little sample of 6% to 13% disagrees to the statement. Or they are not happy with their benefit package.11% is neutral to it.

Summary of Findings

‘ Most of the employee’s ability state the opinion firmly and positively is better than acceptable standards.

‘ Majority of the employee’s ability in exercising the professional duties without assistance is better than acceptable standard.

‘ The Emotional Stamina of the majority of the employees is better than acceptable standard.

‘ Majority of the Employee’s Ability to work co-operatively and collaboratively to achieve common goal is better than acceptable.

‘ Majority of the employees Ability to effectively guide a group through an appropriate process to help to achieve their desired outcomes is better than acceptable standard.

‘ Majority of the employee’s ability to clarify and establish with a group roles and responsibilities, common goal and plan to achieve them and group behavioural is outstanding.

‘ Majority of the employees Ability to deal with multiple issues and details, alertness and learning capacity is better than acceptable standard.

‘ Majority of the employee’s ability to see and think beyond the obvious and formulate original solution is better than acceptable standards.

‘ Majority of the employee’s ability to present ideas, concept, plan and procedure clearly to the target group is better than acceptable standard.

‘ Concern for excellence of the majority of the employee’s is better than acceptable standard.

‘ Majority of the employee’s Aware of what is going on in the workplace and responds in a suitable manner to situations as they is better than acceptable.

‘ The understanding between the top level and employees are in good terms.

‘ Employees do understand their benefits and opportunities given by the organisation.

‘ The employees are paid fairly according to the work done.

‘ Freedom of sharing new ideas and opinions are welcomed in the organisation.

‘ The employees are able to make a balance between personnel and work life. which reduces the amount of stress in them.

‘ The organisation encourages the employee to learn from their mistakes.

‘ Recommendations

‘ In this organization employee engagement study must be regularly done in order to check the level of employee effectiveness.

‘ Since many of the employees are performing different jobs to what they were doing at the time of their joining they need training to perform the new work allotted them.

‘ Different sources of employee engagement tactics must be encouraged in employees.

‘ The top management should support the lower level employees since it is considered a major hurdle in effective employee engagement and the employees must also be made aware of importance of engagement at work system

‘ The employees should be then and there motivated for work.

‘ The understanding between management and employees should be increased.

‘ Level of stress in work should be reduced.

‘ Better benefit package should be given to the employees.

Conclusion

In the report we have discussed the importance of employee engagement in an organization and how it affects the efficiency of work and productivity. Employment counselors should help individuals to maximize their career engagement at any stage of their career. Basically employee engagement should be a buzz word for the employee engagement and a positive attitude held by the employees towards the organization. Employee engagement is gaining its importance and popularity in work places and its impact in many ways. It emphasis on the importance of employee engagement in a organization, an organization should thus give more importance for its employees than any other variable as they are the powerful contributors to a company’s competitiveness. Thus it shows that employee engagement should be a continues process for learning, improvement, measurement and action of an employee.

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The limitations of the Chit Acts need essay help

1.1 BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY

The financial system assumes strategically a very important role in channelling the funds from surplus units to deficit units. The financial system here refers to the group of institutions, markets and instruments which helps in formation of capital and thus accelerates to the pace of economic development.

The base of this study stems from the fact that there exists a gap between gross capital formation and gross domestic savings in India. So, there exists the need to augment the growth rate of voluntary domestic savings. This goal can be realized by widening and strengthening the working of different financial intermediaries which will result in mobilizing savings from various income level categories. .It is in this context that the role of the Non-Banking Financial Intermediaries like Chit Finance should be appreciated in supplementing the functions of the Banking Institutions.

Chit funds are Chit funds are the Indian equivalent of the Rotating Savings and Credit Associations (ROSCA). ROSCAs are famous in many parts of the world and is seen as an instrument to ‘save and borrow’ simultaneously. ROSCAs basically started as a way to help in fulfilling the needs of the low-income households as it enables the people to convert their small savings into lump sums. The concept of chit funds originated more than 1000 years ago. Initially it was in the form of an informal association of traders and households within communities, wherein the members contributed some money in return for an accumulated sum at the end of the tenure. Participation in Chit funds was mainly for the purpose of purchasing some property or, in other words, for ‘consumption’ purposes. However, in recent times, there have been tremendous alterations in the constitution and functioning of Chit funds. A significant difference between Chit Funds and ROSCAs are that in most places ROSCAs are user-owned and organized informally, but chit funds have been formally institutionalized in India. (Chit Funds-An innovative access to finance for low income households, 2009)

1.1.1 WHAT DO WE MEAN BY CHIT FUNDS?

Chit fund is a savings-cum-borrowing instrument. The basic aim of this instrument is to pool small amount of savings by all the members which is then managed by a foreman. The foreman has the responsibility to act as a trustee-cum-supervisors for the process of collection and allotment of the pooled amount.

Chit funds represent a traditional form of saving-cum-credit institution evolved before the bank system was introduced in rural India. There are many who avail themselves of this avenue for saving for a reasonable return.

1.1 NEED AND RATIONALE OF THE STUDY

Despite the growth of a wide range of savings avenues and the widespread network of banks and other financial institutions, it has been found that Chit scheme still forms an important part in the asset portfolio of many households and firms in India and especially in South India including Karnataka. Also, the review of literature shows that there are only a few studies on Chit Finance. Therefore, the need to conduct the study stems from the requirement to understand Chit Funds in Bangalore.

1.2 NEED TO CONDUCT THE STUDY

The research titled ‘A Study on Chit Funds in Bangalore to understand the behaviour and financial needs of the chit fund members as well as to identify the important predictors of regular participation in chit funds’ The study estimates the net returns and interest rate on Chit funds. This study tries to point out the limitations of the Chit Acts and suggests feasible recommendations for improving the working of such institutions.

.3.2 STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM

‘A Study on Chit Funds in Bangalore to understand the behaviour and financial needs of the chit fund members as well as to identify the important predictors of regular participation in chit funds’.

VARIABLES UNDER INVESTIGATION

1. Age

2. Occupation

3. Monthly income

4. Gender

5. Bank loan

6. Regular participation in chit fund

7. Membership in multiple chit schemes

8. Cause for participating in multiple schemes

9. Preferred avenue of saving

10. Preferred source of finance

11. Safety

12. Better service

13. Flexibility

14. Timely Payment

15. Low commission

16. Personal contact

17. Unregistered chit funds membership

18. Cause for participating in unregistered chit funds

19. Cause for not participating in unregistered chit fund

3.5 OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDY

3.5.1 OBJECTIVE(PRIMARY)

1. To understand the behaviour and financial needs of the chit fund members.

2. To identify the important predictors behind chit fund participation

3.5.2 OHER OBJECTIVES OF RESEARCH

1. To estimate interest rates in registered chit funds.

2. To compare the relative ratings of Chit subscribers towards registered and unregistered chit funds on

3. To estimate the return on Chit Funds.

3.6 HYPOTHESIS

There are two types of statistical hypotheses.

1. Null hypothesis

2. Alternative hypothesis.

Hypothesis 1:

H0: There is no significant relation between gender and cause for participation in chit fund.

H1: There is significant relation between gender and cause for participation in chit fund.

Hypothesis 2:

H0: There is no significant relation between occupation and cause for participation in chit fund.

H1: There is significant relation between occupation and cause for participation in chit fund.

Hypothesis 3:

H0: There is no significant relation between age and causes for participation in chit fund

H1: There is significant relation between age and cause for participation in chit fund

Hypothesis 4:

H0: There is no significant relation between monthly income and cause for participation in chit fund

H1: There is significant relation between monthly income and cause for participation in chit fund

Hypothesis 5:

H0: There is no significant relation between gender and causes for bidding in chit fund

H1: There is significant relation between gender and cause for bidding in chit fund

Hypothesis 6:

H0: There is no significant relation between occupation and cause for bidding in chit fund

H1: There is significant relation between occupation and cause for bidding in chit fund

Hypothesis 7:

H0: There is no significant relation between age and cause for bidding in chit fund

H1: There is significant relation between age and cause for bidding in chit fund

Hypothesis 8:

H0: There is no significant relation between monthly income and cause for bidding in chit fund

H1: There is significant relation between monthly income and cause for bidding in chit fund

Hypothesis 9:

H0: There is no significant relation between gender and cause for saving in chit fund

H1: There is significant relation between gender and cause for saving in chit fund

Hypothesis 10:

H0: There is no significant relation between occupation and cause for saving in chit fund.

H1: There is significant relation between occupation and cause for saving in chit fund.

Hypothesis 11:

H0: There is no significant relation between age and cause for saving in chit fund

H1: There is significant relation between age and cause for saving in chit fund

Hypothesis 12:

H0: There is no significant relation between having bank loan and membership in multiple chit schemes.

H1: There is significant relation between having bank loan and membership in multiple chit schemes.

Hypothesis 13:

H0: There is no significant relation between monthly income and participation in unregistered chit funds

H1: There is significant relation between monthly income and participation in unregistered chit funds

Hypothesis 14 :

H0: There is no significant relation between causes to prefer chit fund over bank and having bank loan.

H1: There is significant relation between causes to prefer chit fund over bank and having bank loan.

Hypothesis 15:

H0: Presence of safety, flexibility, timely payment, low commission, better service, personal contact, having a bank loan are no significant predictors of regular participation in chit fund.

H1: Presence of safety, flexibility, timely payment, low commission, better service, personal contact ,having a bank loan,are significant predictors of regular participation in chit fund.

.

3.8 SAMPLING METHOD

Members of four registered chit fund companies in Bangalore. The four registered chit fund companies were selected due to the large size of their subscriber base.

3.8.3 SIZE OF SAMPLE

150 respondents

3.9 MECHANISM OF STUDY

3.9.1 PRIMARY RESEARCH

Questions relating to behaviour and financial pattern will be found out through questionnares

3.9.2 SECONDARY RESEARCH

‘ Reports on chit fund industry

OVERVIEW OF INDIAN CHIT FUND INDUSTRY

4.1.1 NUMBER OF REGISTERED CHIT FUND COMPANIES:

According to the Ministry of Corporate Affairs, as on 31st December, 2013:

Volume of registered chit companies: 5412

Volume of chit companies in Karnataka: 703

Number of chit fund companies in Bangalore: 315

UNREGISTERED CHIT FUND INDUSTRY

Although unregistered chits are an informal source of finance but still they are a significant part of the chit fund industry. Though they are more easily accessible as compared to registered chit funds.

4.3 PURPOSE OF THE STUDY

The study titled ‘A Study on Chit Funds in Bangalore to understand the behaviour and financial needs of the chit fund members as well as to identify the important predictors of regular participation in chit funds’ attempt in The study estimates the net returns and interest rate on Chit funds. This study also examines the limitations of the Chit Acts and suggests suitable recommendations for improving the functioning of such institutions.

4.4 LIMITATION OF STUDY

‘ Unwillingness of the members to share their income and financial details made the task of data collection somewhat difficult.

‘ Collecting data became difficult since I don’t know the regional languages.

5.2 ANALYSIS OF DATA

The analysis is done on the primary data collected from 150 chit funds members in Bangalore

TESTING OF HYPOTHESES

5.4.1 Hypothesis 1:

H0: There is no significant relation between gender and cause for participation in chit fund.

H1: There is significant relation between gender and cause for participation in chit fund.

Chi-Square Tests

Value df Asymp. Sig. (2-sided)

Pearson Chi-Square 31.070a 16 .013

Likelihood Ratio 35.945 16 .003

Linear-by-Linear Association 8.809 1 .003

N of Valid Cases 150

a. 1 cells (10.0%) have expected count less than 5. The minimum expected count is .30.

Symmetric Measures

Value Approx. Sig.

Nominal by Nominal Phi .455 .013

Cramer’s V .228 .013

N of Valid Cases 150

a. Not assuming the null hypothesis.

b. Using the asymptotic standard error assuming the null hypothesis.

INTERPRETATION:

The value of chi-square=31.070 was p=.013, less than 0.05.

We can see that the strength of association between the variables is moderate (Phi and Cramer’s V -0.455).

Therefore, the research hypothesis that differences in ’cause to participate in chit funds’ are related to differences in ‘age” is supported by this analysis. This means that different age groups of the chit fund members have different reasons of participating in chit funds. As can be seen from the table above that those who belong to ’36-45 years’ have saving as the predominant reason to participate whereas members of other age groups do not have any dominant reason to participate.

5.4.2 Hypothesis 2:

Hypothesis 2:

H0: There is no significant relation between occupation and cause for participation in chit fund.

H1: There is significant relation between occupation and cause for participation in chit fund.

Hypothesis 3:

. Hypothesis 3:

H0: There is no significant relation between age and causes for participation in chit fund

H1: There is significant relation between age and cause for participation in chit fund

Chi-Square Tests

Value df Asymp. Sig. (2-sided)

Pearson Chi-Square 10.018a 4 .040

Likelihood Ratio 10.478 4 .033

Linear-by-Linear Association 6.876 1 .009

N of Valid Cases 150

Symmetric Measures

Value Approx. Sig.

Nominal by Nominal Phi .258 .040

Cramer’s V .258 .040

N of Valid Cases 150

a. Not assuming the null hypothesis.

a. Using the asymptotic standard error assuming the null hypothesis.

INTERPRETATION:

The value of chi-square=10.018 was p=.040, less than 0.05.

.We can see that the strength of association between the variables is weak (0.258)

Therefore, the research hypothesis that differences in ’cause to participate in chit funds’ are related to differences in ‘gender” is supported by this analysis. This means that males and females have different reasons of participating in chit funds. As it can be seen that males participate in chit funds for business and personal consumption purposes apart from saving whereas women predominantly participate to save.

5.4

Hypothesis 4:

H0: There is no significant relation between monthly income and cause for participation in chit fund

H1: There is significant relation between monthly income and cause for participation in chit fund

Chi-Square Tests

Value df Asymp. Sig. (2-sided)

Pearson Chi-Square 82.176a 12 .000

Likelihood Ratio 97.665 12 .000

Linear-by-Linear Association 15.696 1 .000

N of Valid Cases 150

Symmetric Measures

Value Approx. Sig.

Nominal by Nominal Phi .740 .000

Cramer’s V .427 .000

N of Valid Cases 150

INTERPRETATION:

We can see that the strength of association between the variables is strong (0.740)

Therefore, the research hypothesis that differences in ‘reason to participate in chit funds’ are related to differences in ‘occupation” is supported by this analysis. It can be seen that the self-employed members mainly participate to avail for business reasons whereas salaried employee participate mainly for personal consumption purposes.

Hypothesis 5:

Hypothesis 5:

H0: There is no significant relation between gender and causes for bidding in chit fund

H1: There is significant relation between gender and cause for bidding in chit fund

Chi-Square Tests

Value df Asymp. Sig. (2-sided)

Pearson Chi-Square 66.691a 20 .000

Likelihood Ratio 43.579 20 .002

Linear-by-Linear Association 4.804 1 .028

N of Valid Cases 150

a. 1 cell (10.0%) has expected count less than 5. The minimum expected count is .07.

Symmetric Measures

Value Approx. Sig.

Nominal by Nominal Phi .667 .000

Cramer’s V .333 .000

N of Valid Cases 150

a. Not assuming the null hypothesis.

b. Using the asymptotic standard error assuming the null hypothesis.

INTERPRETATION:

The (chi-square=66.691) was p=.000, less than 0.05.

We can see that the strength of association between the variables is moderately strong (0.667)

Therefore, the research hypothesis that differences in ’cause to bid in chit funds’ are related to differences in ‘age” is supported by this analysis. It can be seen that the members of age group’36-45 years’ are more interested in bidding for business related purposes where members of other age groups bid mainly for emergency needs.

5.4.6 Hypothesis 6:

. Hypothesis 6:

H0: There is no significant relation between occupation and cause for bidding in chit fund

H1: There is significant relation between occupation and cause for bidding in chit fund

Chi-Square Tests

Value df Asymp. Sig. (2-sided)

Pearson Chi-Square 7.167a 5 .209

Likelihood Ratio 7.885 5 .163

Linear-by-Linear Association 1.120 1 .290

N of Valid Cases 150

a. 5 cells (41.7%) have expected count less than 5. The minimum expected count is .81.

Symmetric Measures

Value Approx. Sig.

Nominal by Nominal Phi .219 .209

Cramer’s V .219 .209

N of Valid Cases 150

a. Not assuming the null hypothesis.

b. Using the asymptotic standard error assuming the null hypothesis.

INTERPRETATION:

The probability of the chi-square test statistic (chi-square=7.167) was p=.209, more than the alpha level of significance of 0.05.

Therefore, the research hypothesis that differences in ‘reason to bid in chit funds’ are related to differences in ‘gender” is not supported by this analysis.

5.4.7 Hypothesis 7:

Hypothesis 7:

H0: There is no significant relation between age and cause for bidding in chit fund

H1: There is significant relation between age and cause for bidding in chit fund

Chi-Square Tests

Value df Asymp. Sig. (2-sided)

Pearson Chi-Square 180.915a 15 .000

Likelihood Ratio 160.460 15 .000

Linear-by-Linear Association 28.379 1 .000

N of Valid Cases 150

a. 1 cell (10.0%) has expected count less than 5. The minimum expected count is .13.

Symmetric Measures

Value Approx. Sig.

Nominal by Nominal Phi 1.098 .000

Cramer’s V .634 .000

N of Valid Cases 150

INTERPRETATION:

The (chi-square=180.915) was p=.000, less than 0.05.

We can see that the strength of association between the variables is extremely strong (1.098)

Therefore, the research hypothesis that differences in’ are related to differences in ‘occupation” is supported by this analysis. It can be clearly seen that self-employed people bid in chit scheme mostly for business purposes, salaried people for emergency needs and housewives for household purposes.

5.4.8 Hypothesis 8:

Hypothesis 8:

H0: There is no significant relation between monthly income and cause for bidding in chit fund

H1: There is significant relation between monthly income and cause for bidding in chit fund

Chi-Square Tests

Value df Asymp. Sig. (2-sided)

Pearson Chi-Square 123.331a 35 .000

Likelihood Ratio 106.298 35 .000

Linear-by-Linear Association 4.957 1 .026

N of Valid Cases 150

INTERPRETATION:

The probability of the chi-square test statistic (chi-square=123.331) was p=.000, less than the alpha level of significance of 0.05.

We can see that the strength of association between the variables is extremely strong (.907)

Therefore, the research hypothesis that differences in ‘reason to bid in chit funds’ are related to differences in ‘income” is supported by this analysis. It can be clearly seen that low income members bid mostly for consumption reasons whereas higher income members bid for business related and emergency purposes.

SUMMARY:

Reason to bid in chit fund has the strongest association with the occupation of the chit fund members as the probability of the chi-square test statistic (chi-square=180.915) was p=.000 and the strength of association between the variables is extremely strong (1.098).

5.4.

Hypothesis 9:

H0: There is no significant relation between gender and cause for saving in chit fund

H1: There is significant relation between gender and cause for saving in chit fund

Chi-Square Tests

Value df Asymp. Sig. (2-sided)

Pearson Chi-Square 21.702a 16 .153

Likelihood Ratio 23.775 16 .095

Linear-by-Linear Association 2.397 1 .122

N of Valid Cases 150

INTERPRETATION:

The chi-square=123.331) was p=.153, more than 0.05. Therefore, the research hypothesis that differences in ’cause to save in chit funds’ are related to differences in ‘age” is not supported by this analysis.

5.4.10 Hypothesis 10:

H0: There is no significant relation between occupation and cause for saving in chit fund.

H1: There is significant relation between occupation and cause for saving in chit fund.

Chi-Square Tests

Value df Asymp. Sig. (2-sided)

Pearson Chi-Square 20.510a 4 .000

Likelihood Ratio 29.038 4 .000

Linear-by-Linear Association 7.062 1 .008

N of Valid Cases 150

a. 1 cell (10.0%) has expected count less than 5. The minimum expected count is .81.

Symmetric Measures

Value Approx. Sig.

Nominal by Nominal Phi .370 .000

Cramer’s V .370 .000

N of Valid Cases 150

a. Not assuming the null hypothesis.

b. Using the asymptotic standard error assuming the null hypothesis.

INTERPRETATION:

The chi-square=20.510) was p=.000, less than 0.05.

We can see that the strength of association between the variables is weak (.370).Therefore, the research hypothesis that differences in ’cause to save in chit funds’ are related to differences in ‘gender” is supported by this analysis.

5.4.11 Hypothesis 11:

Hypothesis 11:

H0: There is no significant relation between age and cause for saving in chit fund

H1: There is significant relation between age and cause for saving in chit fund

Chi-Square Tests

Value df Asymp. Sig. (2-sided)

Pearson Chi-Square 67.261a 12 .000

Likelihood Ratio 60.380 12 .000

Linear-by-Linear Association 9.507 1 .002

N of Valid Cases 150

a. 1 cell (10.0%) has expected count less than 5. The minimum expected count is .13.

Symmetric Measures

Value Approx. Sig.

Nominal by Nominal Phi .670 .000

Cramer’s V .387 .000

N of Valid Cases 150

INTERPRETATION:

The chi-square=67.261 was p=.000, less than 0.05.

We can see that the strength of association between the variables is moderately strong(.670).Therefore, the research hypothesis that differences in ‘reason to cause in chit funds’ are related to differences in ‘occupation” is supported by this analysis. Salaried people save their money in chit fund with no particular purpose. But self-employed people are equally interested in saving for house purchase as well as for general purpose.

SUMMARY:

chit fund is most closely associated with occupation of the chit fund members as it has the highest value of chi-square statistic and Phi coefficient.

5.4.12 Hypothesis 12:

Hypothesis 12:

H0: There is no significant relation between having bank loan and membership in multiple chit schemes.

H1: There is significant relation between having bank loan and membership in multiple chit schemes.

Chi-Square Tests

Value df Asymp. Sig. (2-sided)

Pearson Chi-Square 56.697a 3 .000

Likelihood Ratio 67.900 3 .000

Linear-by-Linear Association 36.400 1 .000

N of Valid Cases 150

INTERPRETATION:

The probability of the chi-square test statistic (chi-square=56.697) was p=.000, less than the alpha level of significance of 0.05.

We can see that the strength of association between the variables is strong (.615).

Therefore, the research hypothesis that differences in ‘membership in multiple chit schemes are related to differences in ‘having currently bank loan” is supported by this analysis. It is clearly evident that those members currently having bank loan have invested in only one chit scheme whereas those members who do not have availed bank loan have invested in more than one chit schemes.

5.4.13 Hypothesis 13:

Hypothesis 13:

H0: There is no significant relation between monthly income and participation in unregistered chit funds

H1: There is significant relation between monthly income and participation in unregistered chit funds

.

Chi-Square Tests

Value df Asymp. Sig. (2-sided)

Pearson Chi-Square 96.660a 7 .000

Likelihood Ratio 85.378 7 .000

Linear-by-Linear Association 59.577 1 .000

N of Valid Cases 150

a. 1 cell(10.0%) has expected count less than 5. The minimum expected count is 1.08.

INTERPRETATION:

The chi-square=96.660 was p=.000, less than 0.05.

We can see that the strength of association between the variables is extremely strong (.803).

Therefore, the research hypothesis that differences in ‘participation in unregistered chit funds’ are related to differences in ‘income” is supported by this analysis. It is clearly evident that mostly low- income members have participated in unregistered funds. This is because the registered funds have become expensive due to the increase in their operational cost as a result of stringent regulations.

5.2.14 Hypothesis 14 :

H0: There is no significant relation between causes to prefer chit fund over bank and having bank loan.

H1: There is significant relation between causes to prefer chit fund over bank and having bank loan

Chi-Square Tests

Value df Asymp. Sig. (2-sided)

Pearson Chi-Square 28.049a 5 .000

Likelihood Ratio 31.806 5 .000

Linear-by-Linear Association 2.967 1 .085

N of Valid Cases 150

a. 2 cells (15.0%) have expected count less than 5. The minimum expected count is 1.79.

Symmetric Measures

Value Approx. Sig.

Nominal by Nominal Phi .432 .000

Cramer’s V .432 .000

N of Valid Cases 150

INTERPRETATION:

The probability of the chi-square test statistic (chi-square=28.049) was p=.000, less than the alpha level of significance of 0.05.

We can see that the strength of association between the variables is moderate (.432).

Therefore, the research hypothesis that differences in ’cause to prefer chit fund over bank’ are related to differences in ‘having bank loan” is supported by this analysis. It is clearly evident that members who have bank loan have preferred chit fund over bank mainly due to better dividends. But those who do not have bank loan prefer chit fund over bank mainly due to better service in terms of more personalized service.)

5.2..15 Hypothesis 15: To identify significant predictors of regular participation in chit funds using Binary Logistic Regression

Hypothesis 15:

H0: Presence of safety, flexibility, timely payment, low commission, better service, personal contact, having a bank loan are no significant predictors of regular participation in chit fund.

H1: Presence of safety, flexibility, timely payment, low commission, better service, personal contact ,having a bank loan,are significant predictors of regular participation in chit fund.

Variables in the Equation

B S.E. Wald df Sig. Exp(B)

Step 0 Constant -1.046 .186 31.574 1 .000 .351

Model Summary

Step -2 Log likelihood Cox & Snell R Square Nagelkerke R Square

1 37.170a .533 .576

a. Estimation terminated at iteration number 6 because parameter estimates changed by less than .001.

Variables in the Equation

B S.E. Wald df Sig. Exp(B)

Step 1a bank_loan(1) 1.068 1.265 14.715 1 .000 11.720

reason_2 2.286 4 .683

reason_2(1) 1.336 1.077 1.540 1 .215 3.805

reason_2(2) .134 2.239 .004 1 .952 1.143

reason_2(3) -.559 1.896 .087 1 .768 .572

reason_2(4) .731 1.347 .294 1 .588 2.076

reason_3 4.874 5 .431

reason_3(1) 1.188 .924 1.652 1 .199 3.279

reason_3(2) 1.661 2.048 .658 1 .417 5.263

reason_3(3) -1.654 1.228 1.813 1 .178 .191

reason_3(4) .404 1.192 .115 1 .735 1.497

reason_3(5) -17.379 20.722 .000 1 .700 .000

reason_4 .355 4 .986

reason_4(1) -1.047 1.850 .320 1 .571 .351

reason_4(2) -.839 1.979 .180 1 .672 .432

reason_4(3) -.932 1.637 .324 1 .569 .394

reason_4(4) 3.519 4.199 .000 1 .600 3.746

reason_5 8.553 5 .128

reason_5(1) -.254 1.768 .021 1 .886 .776

reason_5(2) -19.245 9.890 .000 1 .999 .000

reason_5(3) 1.420 1.338 1.126 1 .289 4.136

reason_5(4) -.747 1.306 .327 1 .567 .474

reason_5(5) .561 1.342 .174 1 .676 1.752

B S.E. Wald df Sig. Exp(B)

Step 1a Safety -.075 .320 4.377 1 .011 0.928

Flexi -.178 .426 3.337 1 .021 0.837

commision -.185 .188 1.868 1 .026 0.831

payment -.267 .178 1.657 1 .097 0.766

service -.859 .412 1.348 1 .083 0.424

personal -1.122 .163 .996 1 .079 0.329

Constant 3.058 2.440 1.571 1 .010 21.291

a. Variable(s) entered on step 1: : bank_loan, reason_2, reason_3, reason_4, reason_5.imp1, imp2, imp3, imp4, imp5, imp6.

INTERPRETATION:

‘ -2 Log Likelihood statistic is 37.170. This statistic how poorly the model predicts the decisions — the smaller the statistic the better the model. Since, 37.170 is a relatively small number therefore, this model is able to predict the decisions in a better way.

‘ Here Cox & Snell R Square statistic indicates that 53.3% of the variation in the regular participation in chit funds is explained by the logistic model.

‘ In our case Nagelkerke R Square is 0.576, indicating a moderate relationship of 57.6 % between the predictors and the prediction.

‘ If it is less than .05 then, we will reject the null hypothesis and accept the alternative hypothesis.

‘ In this case, we can see that bank loan, safety, flexibility and low commission have contributed signi’cantly to the prediction of regular participation in chit funds but other variables are not significant predictors of regular participation in chit funds.

‘ Since only bank loan has p=.000, therefore we can say that bank loan is the most significant predictor

among other significant predictors. This is followed by safety (p=.011), flexibility (p=.021) and low commission (p=.026).

‘ Here, the EXP (B) bank loan is 11.727. Hence when bank loan is availed by one unit (one person) the odds ratio is 11 times as large and therefore people are 11 more times likely not to regularly participate in chit funds.

‘ Here, the EXP (B) with safety is .928. Hence when safety is increased by one percent the odds ratio is .928 times as large and therefore people are .928 more times likely to regularly participate in chit funds.

‘ Here, the EXP (B) flexibility is 837. Hence when flexibility is increased by one percent the odds ratio is .928 times as large and therefore people are .837 more times likely to regularly participate in chit funds.

‘ Here, the EXP (B) low commission is .831. Hence when flexibility is increased by one percent the odds ratio is .928 times as large and therefore people are .831 more times likely to regularly participate in chit funds.

SUMMARY

Bank loan is the most significant predictor of regular participation in chit funds. This is followed by safety, flexibility and low commission.

Instalment no No of months remaining Monthly subscription Prize amount PV of monthly subscription(PV of outlow at 10%) PV of Prize amount(PV of inflow at 10%) Net Present Value(PV of inflow – PV of outflow)

1 24 2000 50000 2000 50000 10444.9

2 23 1500 35000 1488.1 34723.1 -4832.0

3 22 1500 35000 1476.4 34448.4 -5106.7

4 21 1500 35000 1464.7 34175.9 -5379.2

5 20 1500 35000 1453.1 33905.5 -5649.6

6 19 1500 35000 1441.6 33637.3 -5917.8

7 18 1500 35000 1430.2 33371.2 -6183.9

8 17 1500 35000 1418.9 33107.2 -6447.9

9 16 1620 38000 1520.3 35660.6 -3894.5

10 15 1620 38000 1508.2 35378.5 -4176.6

11 14 1700 40000 1570.2 36945.9 -2609.2

12 13 1700 40000 1557.8 36653.6 -2901.5

13 12 1780 42000 1618.2 38181.8 -1373.3

14 11 1780 42000 1605.4 37879.8 -1675.3

15 10 1780 42000 1592.7 37580.1 -1975.0

16 9 1860 44000 1651.1 39058.2 -496.9

17 8 1860 44000 1638.0 38749.2 -805.9

18 7 1860 44000 1625.1 38442.6 -1112.5

19 6 1940 46000 1681.6 39872.1 317.0

20 5 1940 46000 1668.3 39556.6 1.5

21 4 1940 46000 1655.1 39243.7 -311.4

22 3 1940 46000 1642.0 38933.2 -621.8

23 2 1940 46000 1629.0 38625.2 -929.8

24 1 1940 46000 1616.1 38319.7 -1235.4

25 0 1940 46000 1603.3 38016.5 -1538.6

39555.1 934465.9 -54411.4

[supanova_question]

Merit goods assignment help sydney

Merit goods are goods which will be under-provided by the market, therefore they will be under-consumed. They are thought by the governments to be good for the populations and so the governments want them to be consumed to a great extent. They increase the private and social benefits and cause the social benefit be higher than the private one. The best examples of them, apart from all the public goods, can be the education, health care, sports facilities and the opera.

Although the majority of the merit goods is provided by the private sectors, not all the people can afford buying them, therefore they will be under-consumed. That is why the government is needed to destroy the market failure increasing the supply and consequently raising the consumption.

To explain the reasons for government to provide the merit goods, I need to apply some examples of them. The first one can be the education. It is significant for the governments to provide it so that the society would be well-educated. Governments determine the period of education required for people (the compulsory education) to maintain the proper level of education of the society. The governments find education an important aspect that should be available for everyone as it cause the whole country to have better both economic growth and economic development.

Considering another example such as health care, the situation is quite similar. The governments want to provide the population with it because they care about the high states of health of society in their country. To gain these, the countries need to have high quality of health care. Governments often offer people unpaid programs consisting of preventative medical examination which contribute to maintain the high number of healthy people. This is also connected with the problems of the labour market. The healthier people are, the more efficient their work is, the greater revenue firms have and countries are more developed because of taxations.

Other examples like sport facilities or the opera are meant for people to become physically and culturally developed but their availability is not as important as in the case of the previous examples. That is why they are not as much provided by the governments as the rest of the merit goods.

Although most of the merit goods provided by the governments are free, the fact is that they are paid through the taxes that the societies pay. The number of the merit goods of particular types that the governments provide or subsidize depends on the necessity of them. If they are provided, the societies’ benefits get higher and so is the public treasury of the countries.

[supanova_question]

Research proposal: The effect of pregnancy on the adolescent pregnant teen & father essay help us

Abstract: The purpose for this research paper is to address the adolescent pregnant teen & father and the effects a pregnancy has on both of their lives during and after her pregnancy. How the teens need the support of the family, community, church, and the school system. I will also address the teen father mostly disregarded in any aspect of the teen’s pregnancy and how this affects him, and how both teens need support in our society. How we can address the social problem of teen pregnancy from all avenues.

‘Three issues that have an impact on the pregnant adolescent are discussed education, identity development, and maternal support’ (Turnage & Pharris, 2013). My research focuses on adolescent pregnant teen women 19 years old and younger. It will also reflect the problems of the teen pregnant adolescents journeying thru the process of becoming a teen mother, finishing high school, developing her own identity and the maternal support she gets from her mother during her transition from pregnant teen to motherhood.

‘Several issues that differently influence the pregnant teen is individually based on the female’s chronological age’ (Turnage & Pharris, 2013). ‘For the pregnant adolescent, her pregnancy supersedes high school graduation as the benchmark for her being viewed as an adult’ (Turnage & Pharris, 2013). ‘Failure to graduate high school is associated with poor social and educational outcomes for teen mothers and their children’ (Turnage & Pharris, 2013).

‘While the pregnant adolescent is defining who she is as a person she experiences a transition to the new identity of mother’ (Turnage & Pharris, 2013). ‘During her pregnancy the adolescent’s mother is seen as the primary source of support that contributes to a positive self-image and can assist her in the adapting to the role of parent’ (Turnage & Pharris, 2013).

My research paper will also show how important it is to support the teen during and after pregnancy. It addresses the need for the teen mothers to finish high school, and find her identity. How important it is to have the support system of her mother and family to achieve all of these things. Without these support systems, the pregnant adolescent could end up in poverty, no social skills, homeless and a host of other social problems for her and her baby.

Addressed and examined is teen motherhood and its long-term mental and physical health of the teen mother’ (Patel & Sen, 2012). They used a (PCS) health survey known as SF-12 NLSY79 a study that compared two major comparisons groups of which only teens who experienced teen pregnancy and girls who did not experience teen pregnancy. On average the survey for teen mothers was on average 50.89.

The study to access the health outcome of ‘two major comparison groups, which consisted of women who were only experienced teen pregnancy & women who were having unprotected sexual relation as a teen but did not become pregnant ‘ (Patel & Sen, 2012). Estimated is that teen mothers are more likely to have poor health later in life in the study of all the comparison groups.

Along with support, they desperately need help taking care of an infant as a teen; they need a support system to take notice of how they are managing their health & well-being so that they can be a successful teen parent. In addition, being a teen parent can affect the mother’s mentally as the pressure of being new teen mom can be stressful.

The teen mothers who marry after they give birth to their children statistics state that 30 % of them will not remain in their marriages into their 40’s. This result comes from teen adolescents in a single parent home raising their child. This can put a strain on the teen adolescent because she will financially have to seek support from her family or enter into the welfare system and suffer mental health issues.

‘Adolescent teen mothers identify social support with, parenting and emotional support primary emanating from family members, particularly their own mothers, as well as from the father of the baby (Savio Beers & Lee, 2009)’. ‘Older sisters may play an important role in the support network for adolescent mothers, the supportive sister relationships decrease depressive and anxiety-related symptoms in adolescent mothers (Savio Beers & Lee, 2009).

‘For some adolescent parents, participation in a religious community programs may provide the significant social support and serve as a protective factor’ (Savio Beers & Lee, 2009). This directly stresses the point that without the support of family, community, and church with the support of the father the adolescent teen mother can suffer mental issues, poverty issues, and marriage problems.

We addressed the many issues that teen mothers have to face, so now I would like to address the teen father in our society. What are their concerns on becoming a teen father, and how do they view their role as father where their masculinity is concerned? While most of the research done on teen pregnancy and parenting mainly focusing on the mother, the father is invisible.

Interviewed were 26 young teen fathers in the mid-western American towns. The in depth survey of three themes of gender discord focused on teen father narratives, which took on responsibility, sex, being a man, this is the direct viewpoint of the invisible teen father. What they feel about getting a teen girl pregnant and what responsibility they take in the pregnancy if any. How they relate to getting a teen pregnant and how that affects his identity as a man and their masculinity.

‘Gendered assumptions regarding pregnancy and contraception’specifically that women are in charge of preventing pregnancy and they have the belief that male sexuality is uncontrollable; and that use of love and intimacy talk (Weber, J. B., 2013). The teen fathers that took the questionnaire did not blame themselves for getting the teen girl pregnant. They see the teen’s pregnancy as her problem.

Studies suggest that teen fathers are more likely to be of a minority race. He has a mother who had a baby as a teen; his parents have a minimal education. His parents do not have high expectations of him finishing school; all of these factors result in the likelihood that makes him a candidate to becoming a teenage father. ‘The research states that the teen fathers go to school fewer years less than non-teenage fathers (Fletcher & Wolfe, 2011).

‘Evidence shows that men who have children before marriage leave school earlier and have worse labor markets outcomes’ (Fletcher & Wolfe, 2011). ‘Data was used only on young men who reported a pregnancy as an adolescent’ (Fletcher & Wolfe, 2011). It affects his completion of high school.

It also affects his ability to take care of the teen mother & baby, which causes him to drop out of school early. Statistically, ‘teen fathers work more hours and earn more money following the birth of a child then his non-parent counterparts’ (Fletcher & Wolfe, 2011). Teen fatherhood results in the teen father getting married early or co-habitation with the teen mother.

In conclusion, teen pregnancy is a social problem in the United States both teens will have to suffer in their education, grow up before their time, take on adult responsibilities, and suffer financial problems to take care of the child. Which ultimately falls on the parents of the teens, society or the welfare system in which the teen mother becomes a social statistic or shall I say a number.

Teen pregnancy as of 2014 have been on the decline in the United States and increased in other states, however a positive support system for both teens is minimal at best. Socially as communities, churches and government we have to take an active role in education of abstaining from sex, talking to the teens about sex, and protecting themselves against pregnancy.

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Reconnaissance attacks in IPv6 networks research essay help

2.1.1 Reconnaissance attacks in IPv6 networks

The 1st larger attack in IPv6 is usually a reconnaissance attack. An attacker try reconnaissance attacks to get some confidential information about the victim network that can be misused by the attacker in further attacks. For this he uses active methods, such as scanning techniques or data mining strategies. To start, an intruder begins to ping the victim network to determine the IP addresses currently used in the victim network. After getting some of the accessible system, he starts to scan the port to find out any open port in the desired system. The size of subnet is bigger than that of the in IPv4 networks. To perform a scan for the whole subnet an attacker should make 264 probes and that???s impossible. With this fact, IPv6 networks are much more resistant to reconnaissance attacks than IPv4 networks. Unfortunately, there are some addresses which are multicast address in IPv6 networks that help an intruder to identify and attack some resources in the target network.

2.1.2 Security threats related to IPv6 routing headers

As per IPv6 protocol specification, all of the IPv6 nodes must be able to process routing headers. In fact, routing headers can be used to avoid access controls based on destination addresses. Such action can cause security effects. It may be happen that an attacker sends a packet to a publicly accessible address with a routing header containing a ???forbidden??? address on the victim network. In such matter the publicly accessible host will forward the packet to the destination address stated in the routing header even though that destination is already filtered before as a forbidden address. By spoofing packet source addresses an intruder can easily perform denial of service attack with use of any publicly accessible host for redirecting attack packets.

2.1.3 Fragmentation related security threats

As per IPv6 protocol specification, packet fragmentation by the intermediate nodes is not permitted. Since in IPv6 network based on ICMPv6 messages, the usage of the path MTU discovery method is a duty, packet fragmentation is only allowed at the source node.1280 octets is the minimal size of the MTU for IPv6 network. The packets with size less than 1280 octets to be discarded unless it???s the last packet in the flow as per security reasons. With use of fragmentation, an attacker can get that port numbers not found in the first fragment and thus they bypass security monitoring devices expecting to find transport layer protocol data in the very first fragment. An attacker will send a huge amount of small fragments and create an overload of reconstruction buffers on the victim system which resulted to the system crash. To prevent system from such attacks it???s necessary to bound the total number of fragments and their permissible arrival rate.

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WMBA 6000-13 Topic: Course Evaluation cheap essay help

WMBA 6000-13

Topic: Course Evaluation

Date: March 2, 2014

Based on the assigned readings for this course (Dynamic Leadership), I have read an enormous amount of information about the different categories of leaders and leadership styles. Today’s leaders are different from the leaders of twenty to fifty years ago. In the past leaders gave commands and they controlled the actions of others. Today leaders are willing to involve others in their decision making and they are more open to new possibilities.

A good leader has a vision for their organization and they know how to align and engage employees in order to promote collaboration. The successful leader knows how to lead by using superior values, principles and goals that fit the organization’s values, principles and goals. Also these leaders know that leadership is not made from authority, it’s made from trust and followership. Coleman, J., Gulati, & Segovia, W.O. (2012)

I am impressed most by the characteristics of the authentic leader because they know how to develop themselves; they use formal and informal support networks to get honest feedback in order to drive long-term results. Authentic leaders build support teams to help them stay on course and counsel them in times of uncertainty. George, B., Sims, P., Mclean, A.N. & Mayer D. (2007)

In addition, I found the Leadership Code to be important because it provides structure and guidance and helps one to be a better leader by not emphasizing one element of leadership over another. Some focus on the importance of vision for the future; others on executing in the present; others on personal charisma and character; others on engaging people’; and others on building long-term organization. The code represents about 60 to 70 percent of what makes an effective leader. Ulrich, D., Smallwood, N., Sweetman, K. (2008)

The information that I acquired from this course will help me to pursue the goal of owning a beauty supply business. Another goal that I can add to my action plan is to include not only wigs and welted hair, but I will add hair, skin and nail products to my inventory. A future goal will be to add handbags and accessories as well.

After completing my short-term goal of finishing my MBA, I can take the knowledge from this course along with my values, ethics and principles to help me to manage employees and operate a successful business. Annie Smith (March 2, 20

Coleman, J. G. (2012). Educating young leaders. Passion and Purpose , 197-202.

George, B. S. (2007). Discovering your authentic leadership. Harvard Business Review , 129-138.

Lyons, R. (2012). Dean of Haas of School of Business University of California, Berkely. It’s made from followership. (J. G. Cole, Interviewer) Coleman, J., Gulati, D., & Segovia, W.O.

Ulrich, D. S. (2008). Five rules of leadership. In The leadership code five rules to lead by. Defining Leadership Code , 1-24.

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Family presence during CPR (cardiopulmonary resuscitation) essay help websites

In a pre-hospital setting, there are few moments that are as intense as the events that take place when trying to save a life. Family presence during these resuscitation efforts has become an important and controversial issue in health care settings. Family presence during cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) is a relatively new issue in healthcare. Before the advent of modern medicine, family members were often present at the deathbed of their loved ones. A dying person’s last moments were most often controlled by his or her family in the home rather than by medical personnel (Trueman, History of Medicine). Today, families are demanding permission to witness resuscitation events. Members of the emergency medical services are split on this issue, noting benefits but also potentially negative consequences to family presence during resuscitation efforts.

A new study has found that family members who observed resuscitation efforts were significantly less likely to experience symptoms of post-traumatic stress, anxiety and depression than family members that did not. The results, published in an online article in The New England Journal of Medicine, entitled ‘Family Presence during Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation,’ were the same regardless of the survival of the patient. The study involved 570 people in France whose family members were treated by emergency medical personnel at home. These EMS teams were unique in that they were comprised of a physician, a nurse trained in emergency medicine, and two emergency medical technicians. The study found that the presence of relatives did not affect the results of CPR, nor did it increase the stress levels of the emergency medical teams. Having family present also did not result in any legal claims after the incidents occured. While the unique limitations of the study warrant consideration, the results show a definite benefit in having families stay during CPR (Jabre Family Presence).

Historically, although parents of children have been allowed to be present for various reasons, relatives of adult patients have not. As medical practices change to increasingly involve family in the care of patients, growing numbers of emergency medical practitioners say that giving relatives the option of watching CPR can be a good idea. Several national organizations, including The American Heart Association, have revised their policies to call for giving family members the option of being present during CPR (AHA Guidelines for CPR). Witnessing CPR, say some emergency medical experts and family members, can take the mystery out of what could be a potentially terrifying experience. It can provide reassurance to family members that everything is being done to save their loved ones. It also can offer closure for relatives wanting to be with their family members until the last minute (Kirkland Lasting Benefit). Another benefit is that it shows people why reviving someone in cardiac arrest is much less likely than people assume from watching it being done on television (Ledermann Family Presence During). Family members who can truly understand what it means to ‘do everything possible’ can go on to make more informed decisions about end-of-life care for themselves or their families.

There are three perspectives on this issue- that of the emergency medical personnel providing care, the family, and the patients. The resistance on the part of the medical community to family presence during CPR stems from several different concerns. The most common concern among these is that family members, when faced with overwhelming fear, stress and grief, could disrupt or delay active CPR. Another concern raised by emergency medical personnel is that the realities of CPR may simply be too traumatic for loved ones, causing them to suffer more than they potentially would have if they had never witnessed the event. Some families share this view, citing the potential for extreme distress as a main reason for not wanting to witness resuscitation (Grice Study examining attitudes). Many emergency medical personnel also fear an increased risk of liability and litigation with family members present in the room (Fullbrook the Presence of Family). The worry is that errors can occur, inappropriate comments may be made, and the actions of the personnel involved may be misinterpreted. In an already tense situation, the awareness of the family could increase the anxiety of the personnel and create a greater potential for mistakes.

Another complication that arises from having families present during resuscitation attempts is that of patient confidentiality. The patient’s right to privacy should not be circumvented with implied consent. There is always the possibility that medical information previously unknown to the family may be revealed in the chaos of resuscitation. In addition, patient dignity, whether physical or otherwise, may become compromised (Fullbrook the Presence of Family). Beyond moral considerations, legal concerns regarding revealing patient information are real. This could become an even larger issue if there is no one available to screen witnesses, which could result in unrelated people gaining access to personal information. Eventually, a breach in confidentiality can lead to a breach in the confidence that the public has gained in pre-hospital emergency care.

Family presence during CPR in a pre-hospital setting remains a highly debatable topic. This could be largely due to the fact that the needs of the emergency medical providers and the rights of the patients can be at odds with the wishes of the family members. Although there are several possible reasons why family presence is not being welcomed into daily practice, one of the major reasons could be the lack of formal written policies that define the roles of families and providers placed into this situation. Bringing family members into a situation where CPR is being performed on a loved one should not happen haphazardly. It should happen with careful concern and support for everyone involved. Policies and protocols, defined by experienced personnel, can provide legal and emotional support. They can also potentially help ease anxiety by defining expectations and placing responsibility in the hands of people who are experienced enough to know how to handle the situation appropriately. The policies and protocols should address the basic needs of all people involved. Five basic needs should be addressed:

1. The number of people allowed to be present

2. Which relatives should be allowed to be present (age, relationship, etc.)

3. The role of the family members present and what is expected of them.

4. The place where the family should remain during the duration of CPR.

5. The formal wishes of the patient- written as a directive like a living will.

An important component of this is available, trained staff that can prepare the family members for what they will witness, support them through the event, and then direct them after the event’s conclusion.

The American Heart Association states that the goals of cardiopulmonary resuscitation are, ‘to preserve life, restore health, relieve suffering, limit disability, and respect the individual’s decisions rights and privacy’ (AHA Guidelines for CPR). The practice of offering family members the opportunity to be present during CPR is a controversial ethical issue in emergency medical services. While the results of the study published on this topic in The New England Journal of Medicine clearly show no negative side effects from having families present during resuscitation attempts, the limitations of the study lend to the need for more research before it could be universally accepted.

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Respondeat Superior instant essay help

Legal claims that derive from a situation where there are claims of negligence can sometimes involve an entity other than the neglectful parties. In certain circumstances employers are fully responsible for their employees, and the tasks they perform during working hours. During the course of this paper, the doctrine of respondeat superior will be defined and explained. Two case studies in which the doctrine was applied will also be analyzed to determine if it was applied correctly.

Respondeat superior is a legal theory that holds employers responsible for any negligent or harmful act performed by an employee during the commission of their employment duties (Thornton, 2010). The Maryland Supreme Court in 1951 was the first court to utilize respondeat superior in a court case involving a question of employer liability (Burns, 2011). This doctrine is important as it holds employers liable in court cases where one of its employees does harm to an individual. Vicarious liability and indirect liability are two base concepts that make-up respondeat superior (Thornton, 2010). Respondeat superior shows that the employer did not have to be responsible for the employee???s negligent behavior, in the form of improper training or instruction to perform harmful acts, in order for the employer to be held legally responsible.

In the case of Valle v. City of Houston, the police force was sued for excessive force and an illegal search in an attempt to remove an individual from his parent???s home (Nicholl & Kelly, 2012). The situation stemmed from a man, Omar Esparza, barricading himself in his parent???s home and refusing to come out (p. 285). After a long police standoff, the SWAT team was ordered to forcefully enter the home and remove Mr. Esparza (p. 285). The SWAT team utilized taser gun and bean bag ammunition in an attempt to subdue Mr. Esparza after they felt he posed a physical threat by wielding a hammer, but as those attempts failed the suspect was fatally wounded when an officer fired his weapon (p. 286). Shortly after the incident the mother was allowed into the home, and she reported no visible evidence that her son was possession of a hammer (p. 286). The court found that the city was not liable for damages under the theory of respondeat superior, because the order to remove the individual from the home was not made by an individual deemed as a decision-maker by the city (p. 286).

From the outside, this case seems to fit the theory of respondeat superior. As the employer, the city should be held responsible for the actions of its employees. The police, serving as the city???s employees acted in a manner that was unnecessary for the situation and in conflict of their training (p. 286). However, the court sided with the City of Houston because the chain of command was not followed in regards to the use of force (p. 286). The end result is a case where an individual made a decision that was not his to make; that ultimately cost a man his life.

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