Investigation On The Effect Of Graphene On Delamination By Drilling Jute/epoxy Nano Hybrid Composite

Abstract

Natural fibre composites are being widely used in many fields. They are preferred for their specific properties and eco-friendly nature. Natural fibres do not bond well with resin readily. Alkali treatment of these fibres has been reported to be effective in achieving better bonding. Addition of nano fillers have been reported to enhance the performance of composites. The current work investigates the machinability of jute fibre reinforced nano phased polymer composite. Machinability is expressed in terms of delamination factor, which has been obtained using image processing technique. The influence of matrix, fibre surface modification and nano filler on delamination is reported. Machining was done using HSS tool. ANOVA has been performed to identify the parameter that significantly influences the delamination factor.

KEYWORDS: Jute, graphene, alkali, treatment, drilling, nano, composites, ANOVA

Introduction

The search for a viable alternative to conventional metals has led to the discovery and usage of composite materials in variety of fields including aerospace, automobile, sporting goods, defence and construction. These man made composite materials are preferred for their enhanced properties that come from mixing different reinforcement and filler to a binding medium. Composite materials have many advantages like ease of manufacture, easy processing of complex shapes, availability and cost [1]. Commonly used fibres are classified as synthetic and natural. Synthetic fibres are dense, non bio-degradable, non-recyclable and are processed from non-renewable sources [1,2].

Due to the rise in global environmental awareness, use of bio products is gaining prominence. This has led to the use of natural fibres such as sisal, jute, hemp, kenaf, coir etc. as suitable alternative to commonly used glass fibres [3,4]. These fibres are non-abrasive, bio-degradable, renewable, available in abundance, eco-friendly and possess high specific strength. Natural fibres are cost effective, lighter and easy to manufacture [5,6]. Natural fibres are generally composed of cellulose, hemi-cellulose, lignin, pectin and water soluble wax [7,8]. Natural fibres make poor bonding with polymer matrix, as they are hydrophilic in nature. Various researches have been carried on increasing the adhesion of fibre and matrix [9,10].

Fibre surface modification by physical or chemical treatment has been reported to be effective in enhancing bonding. The various agents that can be used for fibre modification include acetic anhydride, n-alkyl isocyanate, styrene maleic anhydride and silanes. Fibre treatment using NaOH has been widely used. Alkaline processing directly influences the cellulosic fibril. The extraction of components of fibre such as lignin and compounds of hemicellulose and the degree of polymerization are also influenced by treatment. In alkaline treatment, fibers are immersed in NaOH solution for a given period of time. This increases the surface roughness, which result in better mechanical interlocking. It also increases the amount of cellulose exposed on the surface of the fibre thereby increasing the area for possible reaction. Consequently, alkaline treatment greatly improves the mechanical behaviour of natural fibres, especially fibre strength and stiffness [10-15].

The enhancement of mechanical, thermal and other properties can be achieved by modifying the matrix with nano fillers. The nano fillers can be particles of carbon, metals etc. Carbon nano tubes (CNT), graphene and nano fibres are widely used as fillers in composites. Graphene is lower in cost and its composites have better mechanical and thermal properties than CNT [16]. The improvement in properties due to nano filler is highly dependent on the level of dispersion in matrix. Various methods like ultrasonic mixing, calendaring, solution mixing, in-situ polymerisation have been reported to give better dispersion [16,17]. Solvent assisted sonication has been reported to give homogenous dispersion and increase the glass transition temperature of the composite, thereby enhancing the strength and toughness [18]. The dispersion is characterised by Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM), Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM), optical microscopy, etc.

Drilling is a machining operation, done widely on finished components, to employ the material in real time applications. All FRP composite materials, as laminates, frames, channels etc. are drilled to fit in places. Drilling is done conventionally using drill bits, which has a tip that come into contact with the work piece first. The cutting forces are concentrated on tool tip. This induces damage on the composite, especially around the drilled hole, on the top and bottom surface. This phenomenon has been reported by many researchers and is termed as peel-up and push-down delamination respectively. Delamination is an undesirable happening that should be minimized for longer life of the material. The quality of drilling (machinability) is assessed by measuring the delamination factor or thrust & torque developed. Measuring the delamination factor has been reported as direct method [19-25].

Delamination can be assessed visually using microscope or magnifying lenses or through latest techniques like CT scan, acoustic microscopy, digital image processing etc. Gao et.al [26] reported that visual assessment of the damage does not give accurate level damage. Alternatively Image J, an open source digital image processing tool, issued by National Institute of Health, USA, has been used to determine the delamination induced by drilling, by many researchers [27-29]. Various factors such as tool material, tool geometry and drill diameter have been shown to influence delamination apart from speed and feed. Special drill bits like candle stick, saw and core type have created lesser delamination [30,31]. J P Davim et al [32] investigated the effect of tool material on hole quality.

Current work is aimed to explore the superior machinability characteristic of nano phased epoxy over unmodified resin. The influence of nature of matrix and surface modification of jute fibre by NaoH treatment on delamination is also reported. Delamination factor and surface roughness are the measured output characteristics. Full factorial design based experiments were conducted. Machining was done using HSS drill bit, because of its wide spread usage in day to day life. Analysis Of Variance (ANOVA) has been performed to study the significance of various parameters on drilling induced delamination.

Materials and Methods

Material

In this work, woven jute (Corchorus oliotorus) fabric has been used for the specimen preparation. The following resins were used.

1.Unsaturated Polyester resin (PE) with 1% Cobalt Napthalate as accelerator and Methyl Ethyl Ketone Peroxide (MEKP) as catalyst.

2.Epoxy resin (EPX) of grade LY556 with hardener HY951.

Fibre Treatment

The woven fabrics were cut into mats of 30 cm x 30 cm and were treated using NaOH. The mats were pre-washed with distilled water and dried at 50oC for 2 hr, followed by drying at room temperature for another 24 hr. They were kept immersed in 5% sodium hydroxide (NaOH) solution for 120 min. and washed thoroughly to remove any observed alkali [15]. The mats were then dried at 60oC in a hot air oven for 120 min. followed by drying at room temperature for 48 hr duration. The SEM images of untreated and treated fibre are presented in Figure 1 (a) and (b).

Nano filler ‘ Graphene

Graphene nano powder, shown in Figure 1 (c), was purchased from Graphene Laboratories Inc. USA. Density of graphene was 2.25 gm/cm3, average flake/platelet thickness was 5-30 nm and average??particle (lateral) size 5-25 microns (supplier data).

Fabrication

All the laminates were fabricated in-house by hand lay-up technique. Graphene (0.3 wt% , 1 wt% and 3 wt%) was first dispersed in ethanol by bath sonication for 60 min. Duration. To this epoxy resin was added. The mixture was then sonicated and mechanically stirred to obtain a homogenous dispersion. The mixture was then heated to remove solvent [18]. Required quantity of resin was taken in a pot and calculated amount of hardener was added and stirred thoroughly to get adequate mixing. The fibre mats were placed in between steel plates inside an aluminium mould, sprayed with a releasing agent. Alternate layers of resin and fabric were laid and the setup was compressed using a hydraulic compression moulding machine at 2.5 MPa for 24 hr. duration. The composites were post cured at 80oC for 2 hr to relieve any stresses. The final jute fibre reinforced polymer (JFRP) composites had approximately 75% by vol. of resin and 25% by vol. of fibre. The average thickness of the final laminates was between 4.4 and 4.6 mm. The following laminates were prepared for this investigation.

1.Untreated jute ‘ polyester composite (PE)

2.Untreated jute ‘ epoxy composite (UT)

3.Treated jute ‘ epoxy composite (T)

4.Treated jute ‘ nano phased epoxy composite with 0.3 wt% (L), 1 wt% (M) and 3 wt% (H) graphene.

Drilling

The drilling operation was carried out on HASS VF2 SSYT Vertical Machining Centre, under dry conditions. Separate drill bit was used for drilling the specimens. HSS-twist drill was selected due to its frequent usage for drilling. Drilling was done twice and average output characteristic has been used for discussions. The machining details are given in Table 1 (a).

Design of Experiments

Full factorial based design was employed in designing the experiments for the considered factors and levels. The factors and levels are given in Table 1 (b). For the matrix comparison factor C was resin and for study of effect of modification it was untreated (UT) and treated (T).

Delamination factor

Many studies have determined the quality of the hole directly, based on the delamination factor, or indirectly, based on thrust force, torque, power etc. In this work direct method of evaluation has been used. The drilled specimens were scanned at a resolution of 1200 dpi to get a high quality image. These images were processed using Image J v1.46, a public domain software released by National Institute of Health, USA. The scanned images were imported into Image J and the threshold is adjusted to reveal the delamination around the hole, which was matched with the scanned image. The same has been presented in Figure 2. The delamination factor (Fd) was calculated from the ratio of maximum delamination diameter (dmax) to drill diameter (d) given in (1) [10]. Delamination factor was calculated at both entry (peel up) and exit (push down) side of the tool.

(1)

Results and Discussions

Effect of Matrix

In order to find the matrix that offers better machinability, composites with untreated jute were fabricated with polyester (PE) and epoxy (EPX). They were machined using HSS tool and compared on the basis of delamination factor. The results are presented as values in Table 2 and chart in Figure 3 (a) & (b). It is evident that epoxy matrix exhibited good machinability, in terms of delamination factor. Epoxy made better bonding with jute than polyester, which resulted in a well formed composite laminate with superior stiffness and strength [32]. It is also reported that epoxy cures with less shrinkage than polyester resulting in composite plate with comparatively less voids and pores. Epoxy has improved resistance to micro cracking than polyester. It is because of this property during drilling, the damage did not propagate to larger extent from the periphery of tool. This resulted in lesser delamination around the drilled hole.

Effect of fibre surface modification

The SEM images of untreated and treated fibre are presented in Figure 1(a) and (b) respectively. It can be observed that the treated fibre show increased effective fibre surface area for good adhesion with the matrix. It can also be seen that the treatment has increased the roughness of the fibre surface and exposes crystalline cellulose by dissolution of hemi-cellulose and outer water soluble wax coating. This resulted in better bonding with the matrix and reduction in voids [33].

Delamination factor at various speed feed combinations, after drilling the untreated (UT) and treated (T) jute fibre reinforced epoxy composite (JFRP), at both entry and exit sides, are presented in Figure 3(a) and (b). It can be observed that T-JFRP has given good machinability for all combinations of speed and feed, at both entry and exit side. This indicates superior response by T-JFRP to the advancing tool. The advancement of micro crack from tool tip has been effectively resisted due to better bonding, which was achieved by fibre treatment. The alkali treated fibre reinforced composite has exhibited better stress transfer ability from matrix to fibre than the untreated [33]. This confirms that the fibre surface modification by alkali treatment has improved the machinability considerably.

The damage around the drilled hole is presented in Fig. 4. The images correspond to experiment order 1 (a & b) and 16 (c & d). Delamination around the hole and fibre pull out at the periphery of the hole can be observed in all these figures At all speed and feed combination, the delamination on the exit side (push down) was found to be higher than at entry side (Peel up). The same response was observed in both UT-JFRP and T-JFRP. Delamination by push-down mechanism was observed to be higher and severe than peel-up [20,21].

ANOVA is a statistical tool used for understanding the process parameters that significantly affect or contribute to the output characteristic by measuring the variance in data. It was employed to investigate the influence of input parameters on drilling induced damage. It was performed on the delamination factor, at 95% confidence level. The results are presented in Table 3 (a) and (b), for entry and exit side respectively.

On the entry side, fibre treatment is the most significant factor on delamination with contribution of 53.98%. All other factors, including their interactions did not make significant contribution. At the exit, significance of fibre surface modification on delamination was much higher with 70.42% contribution. This indicates that the fibre surface modification has influenced the quality of holes in terms of delamination factor at both the entry and exit sides.

Effect of Graphene

The measured delamination factor for various nano composites is presented in Table 4. Graph showing the delamination factor at various feed levels and at various speed is shown in Figure 5 (a) and (b). It is evident from Figure 5 (a) and (b) that graphene filled composites has offered better machinability than T JFRP within the design space at both entry and exit.

At entry side, shown in Figure 5 (a), at lower speed-feed combination, the variation in delamination was smaller for different concentrations of graphene. As speed and feed increases, damage around the hole is effectively controlled by graphene than surface modification. This is evident from the lower values of delamination factor of L, M and H than T JFRP. It can also be said that delamination at entry side decreases with the addition of graphene. It is interesting to note that M JFRP gave less delamination than H JFRP in most combinations of speed and feed. The increase in graphene concentration may have increased the brittleness of the matrix, which could have resulted in more damage around the hole drilled on H JFRP.

The role of graphene in reducing the delamination around the hole was more significant at the exit side. With in the design space, composites filled with graphene gave good machinability than T JFRP, shown in Figure 5 (b). Delamination was found to decrease with increase in graphene concentration, especially at combinations of higher speed and feed. At the highest speed considered, performance of L JFRP was closer to T JFRP while the effect of increased graphene content was also evident. Generally during the push-out delamination, the last few remaining layers are removed by fracturing or breaking than drilling. The reduction in thickness of the laminate, due to drilling, reduces the strength of the composites locally. But presence of graphene has effectively resisted the advancing tool even at this level. The last layers of graphene filled M JFRP and H JFRP are also mostly machined and removed, thereby limiting the damage at exit due to drilling. This indicates the improvement in fracture toughness and increase in matrix stiffness due to addition of graphene [34,35].

The damaged area was further investigated under SEM for better understanding of mechanism of damage control by graphene, as given in Figure 6 a. SEM images of damage is given in Figure 6 a and b. The cracks initiated from the tool tip on the laminate surface propagate into the matrix until terminated by graphene particles. The filler in the form of micro agglomerates have effectively terminated the micro crack from further advancing (marked by arrows). The fracture energy of the crack is not enough to break through the agglomerates, thereby making the crack to bow around the cluster (Figure 6 a.). This explains the reduced delamination on graphene filled composite materials.

High magnification SEM image of a crack is presented in Figure 6 b. The graphene filler seem to effectively bridge the gap generated by crack propagation. They act like pins between the surfaces of crack and prevent its growth in to the matrix, marked by circle. The energy carried by the crack has been effectively reduced by this behaviour of graphene, which may have resulted in reduced damage around the drilled hole.

Conclusion

Composite material using polyester and epoxy as matrix were fabricated with surface modified jute. They were machined and analyzed. The quality of hole was reported in terms of delamination factor, at both the entry and exit side. The following conclusions are made with the obtained results.

‘Epoxy show superior machinability than polyester in terms of the delamination factor. This may be attributed to the tendency of epoxy to cure with less shrinkage and better bonding with fibre than polyester.

‘Delamination increases with increase in both feed rate and speed within the considered machining conditions.

‘Surface modification by alkali treatment has significant influence on hole quality, at both the entry and exit sides. The quality of hole was improved (maximum) by 6.4% at entry and 10.9% at exit.

‘Graphene as nano filler, enhances the machinability of composite materials. Increase in graphene content decreases the delamination within the range of drilling parameters considered.

‘Effect of increased graphene content on delamination was more significant at exit side than entry side.

Acknowledgment

This research work was supported by All India Council of Technical Education (AICTE) under Research Promotion Scheme. The authors thank the national funding agency for the grant sanctioned.

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Alzheimer's disease (AD): college essay help online

Alzheimer’s disease (AD) is the most common cause of dementia and chronic neurodegenerative disorder among the aging population. Dementia is a syndrome characterized by progressive illnesses affecting memory, thinking, behavior and everyday performance of an individual. Dementia affects older people, but 2% of people starts developing before the age of 65 years (Organization 2006). According to the Worlds Alzheimer Report 2014, 44 million of people are living with dementia all across the globe and its set to get doubled by 2030 and triples by 2050 (Prince, Albanese et al. 2014). Its estimated that 5.2 million Americans have AD in 2014 (Weuve, Hebert et al. 2014). This includes 200,000 individuals under 65 age have early onset of AD and 5 million people of age 65 and above (Weuve, Hebert et al. 2014). Women are affected more than men in AD and other dementias (Weuve, Hebert et al. 2014). Among 5 million people of above 65 years of age, 3.2 million are women and 1.8 million are men (Weuve, Hebert et al. 2014). The Multiple factors that leads to AD are age, genetics, environmental factors, head trauma, depression, diabetes mellitus, hyperlipidemia, and vascular factors. There are no treatments for AD that slows or stops the death and malfunctioning of neurons in the brain, indeed many therapies and drugs are aimed in slowing or stopping neuronal malfunction (Association 2014). Currently five drugs have been approved by the U.S food and Drug Administration to improve symptoms of AD by increasing the amount of neurotransmitters in the brain (Association 2014). It has been estimated that Medicare and Medicaid covered $150 billion of total health care for long duration care for individuals suffering for AD and other dementias (Association 2014).

Diagnostic criteria

Neurological and Communicative Disorders and Stroke’Alzheimer’s Disease and Related Disorders Association (NINCDS’ADRDA) in 1984 proposed a criteria which is as follows (1) clinical diagnosis of AD could only be designated as ‘probable’ while the patient was alive and could not be made definitively until Alzheimer’s pathology had been confirmed post mortem (McKhann, Drachman et al. 1984) and (2) the clinical diagnosis of AD could be assigned only when the disease had advanced to the point of causing significant functional disability and met the threshold criterion of dementia (McKhann, Drachman et al. 1984).

In 2007, IWG proposed criteria that AD could be recognized in vivo and independently of dementia in the presence of two features (Dubois, Feldman et al. 2007). The first criteria was a core clinical that require evidence of a specific episodic memory profile characterized by a low free recall that is normalized by cueing (Dubois and Albert 2004). The second is the presence of biomarker evidence on AD which include (1) structural MRI, (2) Neuroimaging using PET (18F-2-fluoro-2-deoxy-D-glucose PET [FDG PET] or 11C-labelled Pittsburgh compound B PET [PiB PET]), and (3) CSF analysis of amyloid ?? (A??) or tau protein (total tau [T-tau] and phosphorylated tau [P-tau]) concentrations (Dubois, Feldman et al. 2007)

In 2011, the NIA and Alzheimer’s association proposed guidelines to help pathologist and categorizing the brain changes with AD and other dementias (Hyman, Phelps et al. 2012). Based on the changes absorbed, they classified into three stages (a) preclinical Alzheimer’s disease, (b) mild cognitive impairment (MCI) due to Alzheimer’s disease, (c) Dementia due to Alzheimer’s disease (Hyman, Phelps et al. 2012). In pre-clinical AD, the individual have changes in the cerebrospinal fluid but they don’t develop memory loss. This reflects that Alzheimer’s related brain changes occur 20 years onset before the symptom occurs (Petersen, Smith et al. 1999, H??nninen, Hallikainen et al. 2002, Reiman, Quiroz et al. 2012). In MCI due to AD, individuals suffering from MCI has some notable changes in thinking that could be absorbed among family members and friends, but do not meet criteria for dementia (Petersen, Smith et al. 1999, H??nninen, Hallikainen et al. 2002, Reiman, Quiroz et al. 2012). Various studies show that 10 to 20% of individual of age 65 or above have MCI (Petersen, Smith et al. 1999, H??nninen, Hallikainen et al. 2002, Reiman, Quiroz et al. 2012). Its is estimated that 15% and 10% progress from MCI to dementia and AD every year (Manly, Tang et al. 2008). In Dementia due to AD, Individual is characterized by having problem in memory, thinking and behavioral symptom that affects his routine life (Association 2014).

In 2014, IWG proposed criteria for maintaining the principle of high specificity, based on the framework they classified as follows (1). Typical AD can be diagnosed in the presence of an amnestic syndrome of the hippocampal type, which could be associated with different cognitive or behavioral changes and having one of following changes in vivo AD pathology such as decreased A??42 together with increased T-tau or P-tau concentration in CSF or increased retention on amyloid tracer PET (Dubois, Feldman et al. 2014). (2) Atypical AD could be made in the presence of the following, which includes clinical phenotypes that is consistent with one of the known atypical presentation and at-least one of the following changes indicating in-vivo AD pathology (Dubois, Feldman et al. 2014). (3) Mixed AD can be made in patients with typical or atypical phenotypic feature of AD and presence of at-least one biomarker of AD pathology (Dubois, Feldman et al. 2014). (4) Preclinical states of AD require absence of clinical symptoms of AD (typical or atypical phenotypes) and inclusion of at-least one biomarker of AD pathology for identifying the presence of asymptomatic at-risk state or the presence of a proven AD autosomal dominant mutation of chromosome 1, 14 or 21 for the diagnosis of presymptomatic change (Dubois, Feldman et al. 2014). (5) To differentiate biomarkers of AD diagnosis from those of AD progression (Dubois, Feldman et al. 2014).

Neuropathology

Dr. Alois Alzheimer, a German physician in 1906 observed pathologic abnormalities in autopsied brain of women who suffered from memory related problems, confusion and language trouble (Prince, Albanese et al. 2014). He found the presence of plaques deposits outside the neurons and tangles inside the brain cells (Prince, Albanese et al. 2014). Thus, the senile plaques and neurofibrillary tangles have became two pathological hallmarks of AD (Prince, Albanese et al. 2014).

The histological hallmarks of AD in brain are intracellular deposition of microtubule-associated tau protein called neurofibrillary tangles (NTF) and extracellular accumulation of amyloid ?? peptide (A??) in senile plaques (Bloom 2014). A?? derived from the larger glycoprotein called amyloid precursor protein (APP) can processed through two pathways amyloidogenic and non-amyloidogenic (Gandy 2005) . In amyloidogenic pathway ??-secretase and ??-secretase proteolysis APP to produce soluble amyloid precursor protein ?? (sAPP??) and a carboxyl terminal fragment CTF?? (C99) to produce A?? peptides (Gandy 2005). Alternatively APP is proteolysed by the action of ?? and ??- secretase generating soluble amino terminal fragments (sAPP??) and a carboxyl terminal fragment CTF?? (C83) to produce non amyloidogenic peptide (Esch, Keim et al. 1990, Buxbaum, Thinakaran et al. 1998).

Figure 1. Amyloidogenic and non-amyloidogenic pathways of APP

APP is cleaved by ??-?? secretases (amyloidogenic) releasing amyloid A?? peptide(s) or by ??-?? secretases (non-amyloidogenic), adapted from (Read and Suphioglu 2013)

The amino acid sequences of A?? include A??42 and A??40. During normal condition A??40 is 10-fold higher concentration level, when compared to A??42 central nervous system (CNS) (Haass, Schlossmacher et al. 1992). However during inflammation, stress and injury in the brain causes A??40 and A??42 for a dynamic change and leads to an upregulation of A??42. In AD A??42 accumulates as misfolded proteins in extracellular space (Gurol, Irizarry et al. 2006).

Tau is a microtubule-associated protein (MAP), most abundant in central and peripheral nervous system that help in assembly and stabilizing of microtubules that is crucial among the cellular morphology and trafficking (Tolnay and Probst 1999, Iqbal, Liu et al. 2010, Cohen, Guo et al. 2011). NFT is the major hallmarks of AD patients in brain. In AD, phosphorylation of tau leads to the loss of neuronal function and death. Degeneration of synapse strongly correlates with cognitive decline in AD, while soluble oligomeric tau contribute to synapse degeneration (Morris, Maeda et al. 2011). Although, the protein aggregating into NFT are unclear, number of NFT and the progression of neurodegeneration as well as dementia showed a significant positive correlation in AD (Cohen, Guo et al. 2011) (Arnaud, Robakis et al. 2006).

Figure 2. AD pathology

Deposition of A?? and tau in neurons. The boxes shows the different biomarkers which are used for examination, adapted from (Nordberg 2015)

Biomarkers

A characteristic that is objectively measured and evaluated as an indicator of normal biological processes, pathogenic process or pharmacologic responses to a therapeutic intervention (Atkinson, Colburn et al. 2001).The pathology of neurodegenerative for individuals is provided by using imaging and fluid biomarkers (Dickerson, Wolk et al. 2013).

CSF Biomarkers

The CSF biomarkers play a major role in diagnosing probable AD. However, abnormality in the CSF is found long before the symptoms occur.

Amyloid beta (A??) is synthesized in brain and diffused into CSF. In cognitively normal individuals A?? appears in moderate condition, however for individuals suffering from AD has reduced A??42 in CSF which act as an useful biomarker during diagnosis (Sunderland, Linker et al. 2003). The low levels of A??42 appears at-least 20 years prior to clinical dementia in individuals with familial AD mutations (Ringman, Coppola et al. 2012). In addition, reduced levels of A??42 appear early in cognitively normal which precedes MCI by years (Fagan, Head et al. 2009). Therefore A??42 cannot be used individually as a specific biomarkers in discriminating from other dementia hence it should be combined with other biomarkers for determining specific dementia.

Tau in CSF relates with the progression of tau related pathology in cerebral cortex. Increased in the tau level in CSF for AD patients reflects the neuronal loss in brain (de Souza, Chupin et al. 2012). Similarly, like A??42 elevation in tau seems to occur at cognitive normal individuals (Fagan, Head et al. 2009). Hence its important to consider other biomarker for differential diagnosis of AD. Moreover, phosphorylated (p)-tau have 85% sensitivity and 97% specificity in discriminating AD from other neurological disorder (Tan, Yu et al. 2014). P-tau is therefore more superior to t-tau in differentiating diagnosis, thus helps in overcoming the short coming of A??42 and t-tau in differentiating diagnosis (Buerger, Zinkowski et al. 2002). CSF t-tau and p-tau occurs after A??42 initially aggregates and increases as amyloid accumulates (Buchhave, Minthon et al. 2012).

Imaging Biomarkers

Structural MRI

Structural MRI studies helps in subjects diagnosed with AD and MCI who consistently show change in atrophy in entorhinal cortex and hippocampus of medial temporal lobe (MTL) and cortical thinning in AD signature region are the MRI sign of emerging AD (Du, Schuff et al. 2001). MRI studies focus on normal subjects who have maternal history of AD, has reduced volume of MTL and precuneus (Berti, Mosconi et al. 2011). Voxel based analysis on whole brain determines the structural MRI could be used to identify the presence of brain atrophy in cortical regions up to 10 years before clinical symptoms of AD, with greater impact in MTL (Du, Schuff et al. 2001).

Positron Emission Tomography (PET)

PET is based on the principle of spontaneous emission of positron by the nuclei of unstable radionuclide, whose number of protons exceeds that of electrons (Granov, Tiutin et al. 2013). PET images in-vivo distribution of radiopharmaceutical substances with higher resolution and sensitivity (Fahey 2003). The positron which is a ??-particle with positive charge annihilates with an electron of negative charge, releasing equal number of gamma photons of same energy (511 keV) moving in 180 degree opposite to each other to conserve momentum (Kukekov and Fadeev 1986, Fahey 2003).

The components involved in the PET scanner are movable bed, detector, gantry and computer. The detector consist of multiple crystals attached with a photomultipliers (Granov, Tiutin et al. 2013). The interaction among the gamma photon and crystal produces scintillation which induces electric impulse in the photomultipliers and could be detected and processed using computer (Khmelev, Shiryaev et al. 2004). If the two detectors are in coincidence, then the positron emitted along the line connects the detectors which is termed as line of response (LOR) (Fahey 2003).In most of the scanners the two detectors are in coincidence, if they are detected with in 10 seconds (Fahey 2003). The sensitivity of the PET can be increased by increasing the number of detectors into a ring. The data examined from the individual is acquired in computer in the form of sinogram. There are different techniques of reconstruction such as filtered back projection (FBP), Iterative Method, OSEM are used for reconstructing an image. In modern PET scanners, LSO crystals with minimum size are used which permits high resolving capacity, high resolution, effective algorithm for image reconstruction and field of view sufficient for single stage scanning of the brain or heart (Granov, Tiutin et al. 2013).

The cyclotron, a particle accelerator provides the production of radionuclides for clinical use. Heavy particles are accelerated to a higher energy level of 5-100MeV using cyclotron (Granov, Tiutin et al. 2013). The beam of particles is focused on the target substance by using radio magnetic lens. The target material is bombarded with heavy particle to generate the required radionuclide (Granov, Tiutin et al. 2013).

The requirements of a good tracer which include higher affinity towards the target receptor, selectivity versus other receptors (Bmax / Kd of at least 10-fold,where Bmax is the density of the receptor and Kd is the concentration of the radiotracer) and good permeability (McCarthy, Halldin et al. 2009). The tracers has to be a poor substrate of p-glycoprotein if it has been developed for imaging targets in brain (Terasaki and Hosoya 1999). It has been found that low hydrogen bonding plays an important role in predicting good PET tracers (McCarthy, Halldin et al. 2009). For a good tracers, time to binding equilibrium should be long relative to washout of non-specifically bound tracer, but short relative to isotope decay (McCarthy, Halldin et al. 2009) .

Amyloid PET

PET imaging of amyloid binding agent Pittsburg compound B (PET-PiB) helps to determine the ??-amyloid (A??) and its distribution over the brain that were previously restricted to postmortem studies. The longitudinal study provided evidence relating with a direct relationship between PET-PiB and likelihood of conversion from clinical diagnosis of MCI to AD over three years (Klunk 2011). Since there is significant overlap between amyloid imaging and CSF- A??42, researchers attempt to address the areas where these two biomarkers may be equivalent and areas where one measurement could hold unique advantages (Vlassenko, Mintun et al. 2011). In addition, current hypothesis states that higher amyloid burden assessed by florbetapir 18F (18F-AV-45) amyloid PET is related with lower memory performance among clinically normal older subjects (Sperling, Johnson et al. 2013).

FDG-PET

FDG-PET (2-deoxy-2[18F]fluoro-D-glucose) is one of the neurodegeneration biomarkers included in the new research criteria proposed for the various diagnosis of AD by the International working group (IWG) in 2007 and 2010, also in the new diagnostic criteria of AD by National Institute of Aging-Alzheimer Association (NIA-AA) (McKhann, Drachman et al. 1984, Dubois, Feldman et al. 2007, Dubois, Feldman et al. 2014). FDG-PET measures the local glucose metabolism for neuronal activity at resting state to asses cerebral function. It is evident that AD individuals has reduced FDG uptake predominantly in tempoparietal association areas, precuneus and posterior cingulate region (Minoshima, Giordani et al. 1997). These changes could be observed in subjects from 1-2 year before the onset of dementia and are closely related to cognitive impairment (Herholz 2010). Although MRI is more sensitive in detecting and monitoring hippocampal atrophy (Fox and Kennedy 2009), FDG is more sensitive in detecting neuronal dysfunction in neocortical association areas. Hence FDG is well suited for monitoring the progression of the disease syndrome (Alexander, Chen et al. 2002).

Regional functional impairment of glucose metabolism in AD is related with the severity and progression of different cognitive deficits (Langbaum, Chen et al. 2009)

INDIAN NATIONALISM (1757-1947)

Great Britain had colonized the nation of India amid the 1700’s when East India organization picked up control of India in 1757 however the Company ruled India without impedance from British Government until 1800s With the measure of crude materials and the developing business for British products, the British government starts to build its control. In 1858, British government takes complete control of India after the Sepoy Mutiny and the British subdued and displayed bigotry against local Indians. Indian nationalistic developments, for example, ones drove by the Indian National Congress, had endeavored endeavors at lead toward oneself yet had never been entirely effective. The immense supporter of a free India, Gandhi, was influential in the Indian Pro-independence Movement. Known as the Mahatma, or the Great Soul, Gandhi constrained change and an end to British colonization through a strict approach of peacefulness, or detached resistance. This development picked up energy after the world war 1 however the llianwala Bagh Massacre where number of individuals had gathered at Jallianwala Bagh in Amritsar for going to the yearly Baisakhi reasonable were encompass by the armed force at the requests of General Dyer and opened fire on the swarm, slaughtering several individuals. The Aftermath of this slaughter brought about general hubbub when the swarms took to the roads in numerous north Indian towns. The British utilized ruthless suppression, trying to embarrass and threaten individuals. Individuals were flagellated and towns were besieged and this savagery constrained Gandhi to stop the development

A feeling of solidarity and patriotism was motivated by history and fiction, folktale and melodies, prevalent prints and images. Abanindranath Tagore’s picture of Bharat Mata and Bankim Chandra melody Vande Mataram united numerous individuals and groups During the Swadeshi Movement; a tri-shading (red, green and yellow) banner was outlined. It had eight lotuses speaking to eight regions of British India and a sickle moon, speaking to Hindus and Muslims In 1921, Gandhi had planned the tri-shading Swaraj banner (red, green and yellow) with the turning wheel at the focal point. This banner spoke to the Gandhian perfect of self improvement and turned into an image of resistance. This ingrained pride and united the Indians.

However Despite the impact of Gandhi, India fell into confusion. Hindu individuals needed an all-Hindu state and Muslims, drove by the Muslim League needed a different state. Gandhi was killed in light of this contention. In the end, Pakistan was framed as a different Muslim state. Along these lines, the quality and will of the basic individuals both attained to Indian autonomy and shredded India. The tale of Mahatma Gandhi and Indian patriotism is one of history’s most prominent ironies

PAN AFRICAN NATIONALISM

Soon after the end of World War II, most European countries were sometime during closure magnificent control of Africa. Skillet Africanism got to be overwhelming on the mainland of Africa. Container Africanism is a nationalistic development that requires the solidarity of all African countries. While is has immense impact, for example, the African National Council, it has never succeeded in uniting all of Africa. Difference and a hefty portion of the issues confronting Africa since the end of WWII into present-day can be faulted for European colonialism. Political defilement is uncontrolled in light of the fact that European colonialists left without making stable governments. Ethnic pressure exists in light of the fact that European fringes were made with no idea given to the tribal framework. Tribalism is one of the greatest impediments to Africa in light of the fact that conventional adversaries were contained inside one European-made outskirt. A decent sample of ethnic strain is the contention between the Hutus and Tutsis in which 1,000’s on both sides were slaughtered and numerous more fled to Zaire to look for shelter. Both the countries of Rwanda and Burundi had noteworthy populaces of Hutus and Tutsis, both customary tribes. Notwithstanding the mind-boggling issues, there have been some significant achievements where patriotism has brought about positive change.

The principal Arab-Israeli clash set two nationalistic developments against one another. The War for Independence (1948-49) was the disappointment of the Arab world to prevent Israel from being framed as a Jewish sovereign state. This war brought about Jerusalem falling under the control of the Israelis and the end to a proposed arrangement for a free Palestinian state to be shaped. The Suez War of 1956 brought about Nasser’s Egypt losing control of the Sinai Peninsula, debilitating the dependability of the immeasurably critical Suez Canal. The Six-Day War of 1967 saw large portions of the encompassing Arab countries assault Israel and afterward continue to lose region (the challenged ranges recorded above) to Israel in under a week. The Yom Kippur War of 1973 was an Egyptian assault over the Sinai and turned into a Cold War occasion as the Americans and Soviets got to be included. Nasser’s successor, Anwar al-Sadat, (envisioned here) was the first Arab pioneer to perceive Israel as a country. For this alone, he was killed, viably finishing any endeavors at enduring peace. The contention proceeds with today.

Ghana:

During the days of empire-building, the nation now called Ghana was called the Gold Coast, an English settlement. The nationalist leader Kwame Nkrumah called on the souls of the African people by renaming the obviously imperial European “Gold Coast” to something that back to the golden age of western Africa, the Empire of Ghana. As he was a believer in the principles of Gandhi. He established autonomy for Ghana through civil defiance and passive resistance. Through the superiority and bravery of Nkrumah and the Ghanaian people, Great Britain left. To quote the words of Nkrumah, “No people without a government of their own can expect to be treated on the same level as people of independent sovereign states. It is far better to be free to govern or misgovern yourself than to be governed by anybody else . . .

Kenya:

The situation in the British colony of Kenya was similar to Ghana. The exploitation of Kenyan resources and oppression of its people were the typical traits of British domination. The path to independence, however, was radically different. Kenya’s nationalist leader, Jomo Kenyatta, initiated his movement by means of passive confrontation. However, Great Britain refused to end its imperial rule of Kenya and had confined Kenyatta for paramilitary warfare he may or may not have asked for. Irrespective, the Mau Mau, Kenyan guerilla troops, resisted British troops until Great Britain released Kenyatta and left in 1963 with Kenyatta as the prime minister of a free Kenya.

South Africa:

The circumstance in South Africa was distinctive. It had encountered colonialism, however the nation had picked up self-rule when the new century rolled over. White setters called Afrikaners had control of the South African government and had forced a social structure known as apartheid. Apartheid comprised of two social classes, upper white and lower dark. The races were kept separate and unequal, with the dark populace enduring awful ill-uses. Illustrations of this misuse incorporate pass cards for blacks just, voting rights for whites just, and isolated reservations called Home Lands.

However the most acclaimed of all African patriot pioneers Nelson Mandela talked against these segregations and began his hostile to apartheid developments. Anyhow Mandela, because of taking a stand in opposition to apartheid, was detained for a long time and not discharged until the mid 1990’s. South African president F.W. De Klerk liberated Mandela and finished the bigot convention. In 1994, South Africa had its first free race and Mandela was chosen president. Mandela and De Klerk earned the Nobel Peace Prize together for their endeavors.

Canada Current Immigration Policies: essay help online free

A policy is a plan or course of action that an organized body undertakes to guide in decision making and other matters. Immigration policies are meant to guide the immigration of people into a country for which ever reason. Canada is a country found on the northern part of North America’s continent. It has ten provinces and three territories. Canada is a constitutional monarchy and a federal parliamentary democracy headed by queen Elizabeth II. It is a bilingual state that has a diverse cultural base owing to the large influx of immigrants to the country. The country’s economy is among the world largest since it depends on its natural resources and developed trade networks.

Canada has been shaped greatly by immigration in society and culture. With Its small population and large tracts of unoccupied Canada’s immigration policy was fuelled by the need for expansion with immigrants encouraged to settle in rural areas .In the early 20th century the country began to control the flow of immigrants using policies that excluded the applicants of non Europeans .1n 1976 new laws removed the ethnic criteria and it became a destination for all from a variety of countries.

There are three categories of immigrants the family class which consists of those closely related, independent immigrants who are admitted on the basis of skill capital and labor market requirements and refugees. When applying for settlement immigration officers are instructed to give priority to family reunifications and refugees before independent job seekers with skill or capital without families. Arrivals in the family category are usually unskilled or the skills they posses do not match the community they have settled in thus disrupting the labor market. This results to economic insecurity which might create disappointment and hostility among the immigrants or among Canadians who feel threatened by the newcomers.

Canada’s immigration policy encourages dispersal of immigrants across the country. Current policy has attempted to encourage immigrants to settle in smaller communities in the less-populated province of Canada. The organizations within the society that are tasked with the formulation of immigration policies and regulations are churches, employers, organized labor groups and community-based and ethnic organizations. Many of these organizations aims is to promote family reunification and to attain financial adjustment schemes.

Canada policy is non discriminatory to ethnicity however individuals suffering from diseases that pose a danger to the public, those with no clear means of financial support or criminals and terrorists are excluded. An undetermined number of persons in this undesired category have however gained entry through back doors while others who have been admitted rightfully on short term visas choose to remain by extending the time permitted by the Canadian law. The group of those entering the country illegally has grown for the recent and has become a major challenge to the government especially at border crossings and airports. This group usually operate in low tones and are unnoticed till they try to acquire some public service which will bring them to the attention of government authorities .the government is working towards sealing any loop holes that have facilitated the admission of persons not authorized under the current regulations and legislations. Claims falsified by refugees status trying to avoid normal overseas screening and processing constitute one of the more serious problems confronting immigration officials.

In accommodating the immigrants Canada provides immigrants with language training and access to Canada’s national health care and social welfare programs. However, the immigrants in the 80s do not match the economical success of those in the 90s and many find difficulty in finding jobs according to their qualifications. Other immigrants are not fluent in either English or French to be able to exploit their degrees while other qualifications are not recognized by the country.In employment a Canadian born income rises same as those of European origin individuals unlike the non -white Canadians who receive low income rates.

The admission of highly skilled professionals to Canada from less developed countries has continued to provoke controversy since the governments of these countries where these immigrants originate complain of poaching of people they cannot afford to lose. Canada has maintained the need for freedom of movements of people in the midst of the controversy that it should not encourage the outflow of trained individuals from the regions that require there services.

For the immigrants who are seeking asylum Canada is known for having a fairly liberal policy on asylum. Any person who arrives in Canada can apply for refugee status at any border, airport, or immigration office inside the country. Anyone who arrives and claims to be a refugee Canada will look at the claim even if they are could not be as considered to be a in other countries. The process is divided into two a claim is submitted to Citizenship and Immigration Canada . CIC determines within three days whether the claim is eligible to be referred to the Immigration and Refugee Board , the body that makes the final determination as to whether the applicant will receive protected status. After a person has received refugee status, he or she can apply for permanent residency. This system has been criticized as to encourage backdoor applications and posing a threat to security since after they apply they are free to move around as they wait for their determination

The Canadian policy is divide into two parts temporary entry to the country and permanent entry. Under the temporary entry one can apply while inside the country or outside the country. While outside the one applies for a visitor visa when they wish to visit the country as a tourist or a visitor. The purpose of such a visit should be to visit relatives, to attend a business meeting, to attend a conference or convention, pleasure trip or participating in a cultural show. the second class is the student authorization or the student visa which is granted to a person who wishes to come to the country to study as an international student. The third class is the employment authorization or work permit which is granted to one who wishes to come to Canada and work for a Canadian company. It is referred to work permit visa in many countries. Under any of this classes one can apply for an extension of their visas while they are within the country. While in the country one may apply for an immigrant visa as a conventional refugee also referred to as a political asylum work permit visa as a live-in-caregiver known as a domestic help, immigrant visa of Canada as a spouse granted to an application made if one gets married in Canada while on a temporary visa and immigrant visa of Canada under humanitarian and compassionate reasons. If an individual changes the visa status this may lead to permanent immigration visa of Canada.

One can apply for permanent immigration to Canada under three categories while outside Canada. In the independent class assessment is done based on a point system. It is a very popular class also called professional class or skilled worker class. This category is based on an individual’s desire to come to Canada based on qualification, work experience and knowledge of English or French. The other class is the entrepreneur class investor class or self employed class. It is also known as business migration class. Entrepreneur class and self employed is for individuals who wish to start a business in Canada while the investor class is for those who do not wish to start a business in Canada. Applying for immigrant visa to Canada under the family class is for those who have close relatives in Canada under family sponsorship.

Canadian citizens and permanent residents may make an application to sponsor their relatives under the class of family class relatives and private sponsorship for refugees. Another application is by a permanent resident if one wishes to stay outside Canada for more than six months and wants to return. It’s called a return resident permit. A person can be granted Canadian citizenship provided he or she is a permanent resident of Canada for more than three years. When applying for proof of citizenship, also called citizenship certificate the applicant may do this while within or outside of Canada.

Canada is currently a country of choice for many people from all over the world. That may not be the case in future, especially for highly skilled people. The current policies have both positive and negative effects to the society of Canada.. Some of the positive impacts of the current policies include refocusing the federal skilled worker program, an initiative to bring in skilled trades to the country who bring with them jobs and investments.

Increased protection for caregivers who come into the country for the nanny jobs or housekeeping. Those who go into foreign countries are usually abused by their workers at times and end up working in deplorable conditions such as working for long hours without time to rest, depriving them day-offs and confiscation of vital documents such as passports for the immigrants. Some also face sexual harassment which is against the laws .The immigrants are thus faced with difficult conditions yet they cannot report or if reported they cannot get help. The current policies have therefore come in handy to protect this individuals from such torture. Permanent resident status to be granted to eligible students. The students who apply for student visas and perform exemplary well will be granted permanent residency in Canada after completion of studies. This can enable students to acquire citizenship and settle in the country after completion of studies. This ensures a retention of skilled people to work towards the growth of the economy.

The current policies have helped in addressing the current short-term labor market needs for the country because of the small population of Canada which cannot meet its labor requirements. The immigrants solve the labor situation which otherwise the country would not have addressed.

These policies have their negative sides. In the long term Canada will be viewed as no longer welcoming as it was. These include decision to wipe out immigration application backlogs legislatively. The applications of immigrants to get visas for whatever reason has been denied by immigration officers thus preventing serious developments on either the job market or education sector. A suspension or delay on family sponsorships which will deny the coming in of family to reunite with the rest of the families. This will affect the status of those who seek to migrate to Canada for the fear of being isolated from their families.

Reliance on temporary foreign workers to meet labor market needs. These has affected the attitude of the skilled workers who jet into the country and have not been able to get jobs. The Canadian citizens at times feel insecure by the immigration of the people into the country since they view them as a threat to their jobs and opportunities in the country. Hostility has been reported against the immigrants to an extent of some losing their lives. Organized crime has been witnessed against the immigrants to scare them so as to instill fear in them.

Tightened citizenship requirements which has locked out a lot of people who have genuine reasons to apply for the citizenship. Some of the requirement has locked out skilled workers and potential job creators to get into the country. Jobs would have boost the economic state of the country but due to the being looked out vast opportunities are also shut out. A list of refugees tagged as safe whose claims would be checked vigorously to determine if the claims are true. This has affected those who genuinely seek to immigrate as refugees.

Mandatory detention of asylum seekers who arrive for the fear terrorist or criminal activities especially after the 9/11 attack on the us. The asylum seekers will not be allowed to walk freely before the determination of their pending applications. This usually creates unnecessary anxiety for the asylum seekers.

These policies are made in a flashy speed and the breadth of them is likely not to be understood by the masses. The way the policies interact with each other is also an issue that will impact negatively on the society.

Conclusion

The current policies on immigration has impacted the society of Canada in both negative and positive ways. Some have been very fruitful to the growth of the economy and the cultural state of the country. The cultural state of the country has been made diverse by the different origins of the immigrants. the economic growth has been made possible by the influx of highly qualified individuals to the job market and the coming in of investors and job creators.

Canada has however been accused of poaching of the best brains from less developed and still developing countries worldwide. In its defense however it has said that there is freedom of movement for all the people.

In general the current immigration policies have helped in several ways for the betterment of the society but has introduced some problems too to the people living in Canada.

Sex Offenders in the Community

The United States government has rules in place to register the names of sex offenders, but unfortunately seems to overlook the idea of sex offenders living near children. In that respect, there is an injustice in the fact that sex offenders live on the same streets as children without parole officers making this information explicit to the parents. There are many child molesters who, even if they do have a professional job, work near minors. The government has laws, which state that a sex offender must be registered, but there are no laws saying that a sex offender cannot live around children. I do not agree with the idea that sex offenders are allowed to live in communities near children. In order to keep our children safe, child molesters should be banned from living and working near a school.

Realistically, allowing sex offenders to continue living near school systems enables them to target individuals, the majority of which are adolescents. Unknowingly, I worked with a sex offender when I was sixteen. Between the ages of sixteen and eighteen, a different sex offender targeted me. Any child could come into contact with a situation in which she is vulnerable and unaware of the danger. As a young person, one should not have to worry about whether or not he or she will be a victim of rape or sexual assault. I was fortunate enough not to be a victim, but I could have been. There was another situation where I had to stay with my grandparents for a period of time because my parents were fearful of the child molester who lived nearby. These are perfect examples of why we need laws that regulate an offender’s proximity to young children. Individuals should not have to be frightened in their daily life.

According to Understanding Child Molesters, there are a number of ways in which a sex offender may be disciplined, including probation, parole, and incarceration. When an individual decides to assault another person, there are consequences, such as having a parole officer, experiencing felony or misdemeanor changes, and registering as a sex offender’among many other methods of discipline. Even though a sex offender has to register every year, he is able to continue living in the community. This registration is compiled into an online database, but some individuals may have difficulty accessing this information due to a lack of technology. Sometimes sex offenders even have jobs where they work with minors and this should be prevented to minimize the perpetuation of a reoccurring crime.

The Washington Department of Corrections goes into further detail regarding sex offenders who live in our communities. The sex offenders must allow their parole officers to know where they live, and the parole officers must visit the sex offender regularly. Parole officers must be notified if the sex offender moves, and the parole officer must also approve of where the offender lives. From this point, sex offenders must become registered and allow the neighborhood to know that they are living within the community (‘Rules’). Registration alone is not sufficient because having their name on list will not prevent sex offenders from committing future sexual assault.

After a person becomes known as a sex offender, he must follow precise supervision. A parole officer will then monitor the offender for a period of time that is determined by the court system. Then, the offender will register as a child molester, and continue to do so indefinitely. By order of the court, he cannot leave the state. A parole officer will make a determination of whether or not the sex offender is allowed to live in a particular location. If the offender decides to move, he must also get the approval of the parole officer (‘Rules’).

The offender’s parole officer will ensure that the offender does not have possession of a computer or any other forms of media. Having possession of magazines, computers, televisions, phones, or any similar item could enable the offender to have access to pornography. The offender must also ensure not to attend any events partaking in an adults’ club. Essentially, the offender must stray from any type of pornography or sexual setting. If an offender decides to date or marry, the potential candidate must be notified of the offender’s criminal history (‘Rules’).

In addition to notifying the potential dating or marriage partner, a sex offender must also alert family and friends of the incident. Once a person becomes labeled as a sex offender, the neighborhood must be aware that there is a sex offender living amongst the community (‘Rules’). The public is only notified via a website they can visit if they choose, but this information should be presented to them more explicitly. There are many individuals who do not know how to use a computer. A parole officer should visit the neighbors to discuss safety protocol and other warnings. The offender’s address should be shared with all of the local residents, as well as individuals who find the offense report on the internet. Having the offender’s information online is not sufficient. In order to protect children, we must make better efforts to notify the community in a better way. Making sure that the public is aware of sex offenders in the community is crucial, and may save the lives of many children.

Sex offenders may be required to attend counseling sessions, for the duration of time determined by the court system. The offender must continue to update the parole officer to ensure proper attendance of the sessions. A polygraph may be used on the offender, if necessary. He is required to submit to the polygraph, as well as any drug tests that may be administered. With that being said, the offender must refrain from consuming alcohol or using drugs. Taking a polygraph and being drug-free are required to show that the offender is making changes in his life. Ideally, making these requests is to ensure that the offender will not sexually assault another child.

The offender cannot, by any means, contact the victim of the crime. Possible contact of the victim is one of the reasons as to why the offender cannot have a phone or a computer. Offenders cannot have any methods of communication with the victim, but the offenders still live in communities, near children. Since the offenders cannot contact their victims, it is essential that the offenders not be able to contact other innocent children. Seeking Justice in Child Sexual Abuse explains that, ‘Child abuse is one of the most difficult crimes to detect and prosecute, in large part because there often are no witnesses except the victim,’ (Staler 3). Unfortunately, many times when a minor is sexually assaulted, there are no witnesses. Having a sex offender near school districts enables more children to possibly be harmed and ultimately, there may not be any witnesses.

Through Civil Disobedience, Thoreau argues that breaking laws is sometimes necessary. Thoreau goes on to justify his argument, saying that breaking the law can often be the only thing that changes the mindsets of individuals. In a parallel example of Thoreau’s theory, we must break the misconception that having sex offenders living near children is perfectly acceptable. Change will not happen unless we, as a community, do something drastic to make a change happen (Thoreau).

Unfortunately, children are still placed in danger when sex offenders live near the school systems. In Martin Luther King Jr’s Letter From the Birmingham Jail, he makes a comment that his children are afraid of their surroundings. In today’s society, children are still afraid of their environment. Martin Luther King Jr. has the idea that one should break a law, if he or she deems it as ‘unjust.’ (King). I completely agree with King, and in this situation, I feel as though it is completely unjust to have sex offenders live near children. Ultimately, we cannot simply remove sex offenders from the communities, because they must live somewhere. But, as Martin Luther King Jr. was calm and rational in his approach, I believe that is the best method for the nation to make a difference.

Martin Luther King Jr. and Henry David Thoreau are very similar in the sense that they both want to take a stand for the people, and essentially, do what is morally right. They both agree that if a law is unjust, it needs to be broken. And both men stay determined to break the laws that they deem ‘unjust.’ Neither man is willing to give up on what he believes, yet both men face imprisonment for doing the right thing. If these men can be incarcerated for doing the right thing, perhaps sex offenders can have more severe punishments for doing horrendous acts to children (Thoreau, King).

Both of these men are true inspirations as to how we can handle our disagreements in a rational manner. I do not feel comfortable having sex offenders live near children. We cannot completely remove child molesters from our streets, but there are many other ways to reduce the amount of rapes and sexual abuse. The first possibility is that sex offenders stay imprisoned indefinitely. Yes, that is an unfortunate experience, but the children that are raped are emotionally scarred for the rest of their lives. So, maybe it would be rational for sex offenders to stay in prison indefinitely.

Another alternative may be to have a ban, where sex offenders cannot live within a certain radius of schools. Either way, a list of sex offenders will still be posted to notify the community. But, in my proposal, there will be more ways of warning everyone. These registries will be abundantly clear, even to those who may not have access to the existing lists. Not everyone has access to the internet, or knows how to operate a computer. Perhaps, in addition to being posted online like they are now, the lists will also be given to each homeowner in a more noticeable method. Advising the community is the first step in making this situation better. Maybe we cannot eliminate sex offenders from our streets, but we can take better precautions.

I believe that, in order to protect innocent adolescents, it is necessary to make a stand. We, as a community, should make every effort to ensure that children are not put into a situation where they are harmed. No child should be raped, sexually assaulted, or murdered. There are simple changes that this country can take at this very moment to ensure better safety of children. Law enforcement can improve methods of notifying the public that there is a sex offender present. Sex offenders can have a ban on how close they live to a school system, or they can be incarcerated indefinitely. Child sex abuse is a very serious issue that we could possibly eliminate, or reduce the number of victims.

Facebook as a learning platform

Abstract

The past decade has seen a growing popularity of social networking sites and out of all that is available, Facebook is the one that stands out for being unique and offering a range of user-friendly features. This site has frequently topped the ranks with record number of memberships and daily users. Facebook is often considered as a personal and informal space for sharing pictures, information, webpages, forming ‘Groups’, participating in discussions and debates, and providing comments on wall posts etc. The aim of this paper is to explore the use of Facebook as learning and teaching tool. It will highlight some of the theoretical debates and existing research to understand the effectiveness of this site as an informal and learner driven space, and ways in which it empowers students and stimulates their intellectual growth. The conclusion highlights the on-going contested nature of technological advances and its influences on traditional ideas of teaching and learning.

Keywords: Facebook; Situated Learning Theory; Community of Practice; Connectivist Approach; Personal Learning Environment; Informal Learning; Criticical Thinking; Creativity; Communicative Confidence; Collaborative Learning.

Introduction

Over two decades ago, theorists Jean Lave & Etienne Wenger (1991) introduced a theory of learning called ‘situated learning’ and the concept of community of practice (CoP from here on), so as to describe learning through practice and participation. The CoP can be bracketed as a group of individuals who share a common interest and a desire to learn from and contribute to the community. Wenger (2010) elaborated the idea by stating that:

Communities of practice are formed by people who engage in a process of collective learning in a shared domain of human endeavor: a tribe learning to survive, a band of artists seeking new forms of expression, a group of engineers working on similar problems, a clique of pupils defining their identity in the school, a network of surgeons exploring novel techniques, a gathering of first-time managers helping each other cope. In a nutshell: Communities of practice are groups of people who share a concern or a passion for something they do and learn how to do it better as they interact regularly.

According to Wegner, the CoP needs to meet three essential characteristics i.e. domain, community and practice. The CoP has an identity defined by a shared domain of interest. Therefore, membership implies a commitment to that particular domain, and a shared competence that distinguishes members from other individuals (namely non-members). The community then becomes a way through which members can pursue interest in their domain, engage in collaborative activities and discussions, provide assistance to each other, and share or disseminate information. They build a co-operative relationship that enables them to learn from each other. Wegnner terms the members of a CoP as practitioners ‘ as they develop a shared repertoire of resources, experiences, stories, tools, and ways of addressing repetitive problems. This in short can be called a shared practice, which takes time and sustained interaction. It is the combination of these three components constitutes a CoP, and it is by developing these in parallel that one cultivates such a community (ibid).

Social networking sites are often seen as promoting CoP. In simple terms, these sites can be defined as: ‘web-based services that allow individuals to (1) construct a public or semi-public profile within a bounded system, (2) articulate a list of other users with whom they share a connection, and (3) view and traverse their list of connections and those made by others within the system.’ (Boyd and Ellison, 2008: 211). What makes social networking sites unique is not whether they allow individuals to meet new people, but rather that they enable users to articulate and make their social networks visible (ibid). Therefore, social networking can be seen as ‘the practice of expanding knowledge by making connections with individuals of similar interests’ (Gunawardena et al. 2009:4). Researchers have frequently concluded that social networking sites are at the core of what is described as online CoP (Watkins, and Groundwater-Smith, 2009).

According to Wong et al. (2011), growth in technology and social networking sites have contributed to an increase in the opportunity to operate in an improved learning environment through enhanced communication and incorporation of collaborative teaching and learning approaches. Amongst all the social networking sites, Facebook (FB from hereon) is the one that stands out the most. There are a number of reasons as to why FB can be used for building an online CoP and ways in which its features are considered as unique and suitable for Higher Education purposes:

1) Ability to create a ‘Group’: FB is equipped with dynamic features, such as, messaging, and ability to post videos, weblinks and pictures. However, Group is one of the most powerful features on the site, and it can encourage and enhance collaborative learning. Learners can create a Group or join an existing Group related to their interest, and they can use the site features for sharing information and performing variety of tasks. FB Group features can build an online CoP, as they meet the three fundamental components of communities (i.e. domain, community and practice). (ibid: 319)

2) Share information: FB features, such as, Groups, Chats and Docs enable sharing of information. Learners can form groups for a specific purpose, and post messages, have discussions/debates and share resources on a specific domain within the group. The members of a CoP are practitioners, and they can develop a shared repertoire of resources.(ibid:319)

3) Encourage collaborative tasks: ‘Docs’ feature on FB site can help with collaborative tasks, and it can allow Group members to work collectively (if required). Any/all group members can view, edit, add or remove sections of the ‘Doc’. (ibid:319)

While the above shows the ways in which FB can be useful in building an online CoP, a more careful analysis is required, in order to establish its usefulness as learning and teaching tool in Higher Education. Therefore, rest of this paper will draw upon theoretical debates and evidence from within the literature, so as to explain the ways in which FB could be a powerful tool ‘ one that could enhance learning and criticality amongst learners, and also boost their communicative confidence.

Why Facebook?

Created in 2004, by the end of 2013 FB was reported to have more than 1.23 billion monthly active users worldwide, and 24 million Britons logged on to the site each day (The Guardian, 2014). Due to its ease of use and availability in the form of mobile applications, FB has now become integral part of its users social lifestyle ‘ conventional estimates suggest that a typical user spends around 20 minutes a day on the site, and 2/3 of users log in at least once a day (Ellison et al. 2007). Since its creation, FB has been subjected to immense academic and scholarly scrutiny, especially for its uses within the educational settings. The initial literature largely focused on the negative aspects associated with its use, such as, identity presentation and lack of privacy (See Gross & Acquisti, 2005). It was argued that, amount of information FB users provide about themselves, (somewhat) open nature of the information, and the lack of privacy controls could put users at risk online and offline, for e.g. bullying, stalking and identity theft (Gross and Acquisti, 2005). However, constant changes made to the privacy settings have subsequently reversed these concerns. The users can control the release of information by changing the privacy settings. Issues surrounding student perceptions of lecturer presence and self-disclosure (Mazer, Murphy, & Simonds, 2007), and inconsistent patterns of use were also highlighted as potential causes of concern (Golder, Wilkinson, & Huberman, 2007). However, the positive effects of social networking tools in teaching and learning soon took precedence, as these computer-mediated communication modes are often seen as lowering barriers to interaction and encouraging communicative confidence amongst students. For instance, during a qualitative study at the Yale University, the members of staff praised FB for breaking the barriers between themselves and students, and it also encouraged students to feel part of the same academic community (mentioned in Bosch, 2009). Similarly, a study conducted by Ellison et al. (2007) explored maintained social capital, which assesses one’s ability to stay connected with members of a community. They concluded that FB usage amongst students is linked to psychological well-being, and it could especially be of benefit to students with lower self-esteem and low life satisfaction. It could also trigger a process, whereby goal attainment amongst students is significantly increased.

The above uses of FB in Higher Education and as a tool for enabling the maintenance of social capital, can be contrasted with its value as a learning environment. Selwyn (2009) has strongly cautioned against the use of FB for teaching and learning, as students might be reluctant to use it for learning purposes, shifting its focus away from being an academic tool and becoming considered purely as a site for socialisation and sharing mundane information. Selwyn presented an in-depth qualitative analysis of the FB ‘wall’ activity of nearly 1000 students in a British educational establishment, and his study offered a very pessimistic conclusion. He noted that students did not use this site for educational purposes and their interactions were limited to offering negative comments on learning/lecture/seminar experiences, casual comments about events, sharing factual about teaching and assessment requirements, seeking moral support for assessment or learning, and even boasting oneself as being academically incompetent and/or disengaged (2009:157). The evidence from this study suggests that, FB in Higher Education must be approached with severe caution and lecturers need to use it in a considered, strategic, logical and objective manner (ibid).

It is likely that FB could clash with traditional pedagogical models. Nevertheless, it can provide channels for informal and unstructured learning. For instance, Bugeja (2006:1) suggested that, social networking offers the opportunity to ‘re-engage’ individuals with learning, and promote ‘critical thinking’, which is one of the traditional objectives of education (explained further in subsequent paragraphs). Siemens (2005) connectivist approach also recognises these impacts of technology on learning and ways of knowing. According to him, learning in the digital age is no longer dependent on individual obtaining/storing/retrieving knowledge, but instead relies on the connected learning that occurs through interaction with various sources of knowledge and participation in communities of common interest, including social networks, and group tasks (Brindley et al. 2009). The shift of focus to group and network as the epicentre of learning relies on a concept of learning based on ‘exploration, connection, creation and evaluation within networks that connect people, digital artefacts and content’ (Manca and Ranieri, 2013:488). This type of learning through socialisation can foster student interest in the subject material. Duffy (2011) proposed that FB could be used for teaching and learning, as it enables students to share knowledge and information with the ‘Group’ members’ and the associations between them. Duffy (2011) further argued that FB provides a range of educational benefits by: Allowing students to demonstrate critical thinking, take creative risks, and make sophisticated use of language and digital literacy skills, and in doing so, the students acquire creative, critical, communicative, and collaborative skills that are useful in both educational and professional contexts. (p. 288). This in turn will also help to achieve the Abertay Graduate Attributes ‘ and encourage development of students’ intellectual and social capacity, give them tools to find creative solutions to real world problems, and work within a complex and interdisciplinary contexts. It could trigger intellectual, communicative and collaborative confidence amongst students, train them to take creative risks and help them broaden their knowledge base.

What is particularly fascinating about FB is the fact that it encourages a creation of Personal Learning Environment (PLE) ‘ which is an emerging pedagogical approach for both integrating formal and informal learning, supporting self-regulated learning, and empowering students intellectually (these values are also outlined in the Abertay Strategic Plan). According to Attwell (2010):

PLEs are made-up of a collection of loosely coupled tools, including Web 2.0 technologies, used for working, learning, reflection and collaboration with others. PLEs can be seen as the spaces in which people interact and communicate and whose ultimate result is learning and the development of collective know-how. A PLE can use social software for informal learning which is learner driven, problem-based and motivated by interest ‘ not as a process triggered by a single learning provider, but as a continuing activity.

PLEs are spaces for the modern learner to create, explore and communicate, and they are characterised as an approach to learning rather than a set of computer assisted applications (Dalsgaard 2006:2). The use of PLEs can help to reinforce classroom learning by extending communication outside of the classroom hours (but at the same time not creating classroom outside of the classroom), and thinking about topics beyond the weekly seminar sessions both individually and in collaboration with classmates through posting materials (like files, website links, notes etc.) and leaving comments. This type of engagement can result in the development of (informal) communities of learning. Whereas, collaborative learning can lead to deeper level learning, critical thinking, and shared understanding (Kreijns, Kirschner and Jochems, 2003). A study conducted by Churchill (2009) highlighted that ‘online-blogs’ can foster a learning community, and it makes learners feel as an important part of the classroom. The best is achieved from such blogs when they are designed to facilitate student access of course material, posting reflections on learning tasks and commenting on peer contribution. Taking into account that FB is one of the most popular network and method of community building, through which students today are communicating ‘ it can prove an useful tool in collaborative student-led learning (in prove equal or more beneficial than blogs). Downes (2007) argues that FB is distinctive when compared to other forms of computer-mediated communications because it has stronger roots in the academic community. One of the reports by the UK government body for technology in learning lists several potential uses of FB in education, and for developing communities of practice, communication skills, e-portfolios, and literacy ‘ all of which are essential aspects of the Abertay Graduate Attributes.

FB can be used not only to gain knowledge and information, but also to share information, as and when needed. McLoughlin and Lee (2007;2010) have pointed out that ‘learning on demand’ is becoming a type of lifestyle in modern society, and learners are constantly seeking information to solve a problem or to satisfy their curiosity. Learners should therefore not be considered as passive information consumers, but as active co-producers of content. This also makes learning highly independent, self-driven, informal and integral part of University life (ibid). Formal learning is described as highly structured (one that happens in classrooms), whereas informal learning happens through observation, listening to stories, communicating with others, asking questions, reflecting and seeking assistance. Informal learning rests primarily in hands of the learner and use of FB could allow learners to create and maintain a learning space that facilitates self-learning activities and connections with classmates and other academic/educational networks (ibid). However, informal learning outside of the classroom must be considered as a continuum, rather than either/or dichotomy (Attwell, 2007). The informal learning can be used to supplement formal learning (not substitute) and PLE as a pedagogical tool should be viewed as intentioned merger of formal and informal learning spaces.

PLEs are increasingly becoming effective in addressing issues of learner control and personalization that are often absent in the University Learning Management Systems, such as, Virtual Learning Environment (VLE) or Blackboard ( Dabbagh and Kitsantas, 2011). VLEs do not accommodate social connectivity tools and personal profile spaces, and they tend to replicate traditional models of learning and teaching in online environments. They create a classroom outside of the classroom, which may explain as to why educators ‘can’t ‘ stop lecturing online’ (Sheely, 2006). Also, VLEs are largely considered as tutor dissemination tools (for lecture notes, readings and assessment related information), over student learning tools. The University faculty and administrators control VLEs, and learners cannot maintain learning space that facilitates their own learning activities, and connection with and fellow classmates (Dabbagh and Kitsantas, 2011:2). When FB is employed as a learning tool, it moves away from this very hierarchical form of learning and empowers students through designs that focus on collaboration, connections and social interactions. It is much more dynamic and evolved in this sense.

It has been long argued that VLEs have had only a relatively slight impact on pedagogy in higher education, despite their commercial success (Brown, 2010). However, FB has the potential not only to fundamentally change the nature of learning and teaching but, through the creation of learner-controlled devices, it may challenge the role of traditional institutions in a way that previous technologies could not. Brown (2010:8) imposes a crucial question regarding VLE (such as Blackboard), and that it is ‘reasonable to wonder how much longer the return on investment will stand up to scrutiny’ (Brown 2010:8).

Conclusion

FB is increasingly becoming a popular learning platform that has a true potential in HE. A FB ‘Group’ can facilitate learning, by increased interaction between students and staff. The research has so far (despite being plausible in nature) indicated FB can be used to enhance the literacy, critical thinking, and collaborative and communicative skills amongst students. Some researchers have argued that social networking sites, such as, FB could offer ‘the capacity to radically change the educational system’ to better motivate students as engaged learners rather than learners who are primarily passive observers of the educational process’ (Ziegler 2007, 69). However, this overly-optimistic view is strongly contested by others, who have raised grave concerns about heightened disengagement, alienation and disconnection of students from education and to the detrimental effect that FB may have on ‘traditional’ skills and literacies (Brabazon, 2007). Academics have feared that FB could lead to intellectual and scholarly ‘de-powering’ of students, incapable of independent critical thought. According to Ziegler (2007:69), sites such as FB could lead to ‘the mis-education of Generation M’ (cited in Selwyn, 2009), and despite of its popularity as innovative educational tool, studies have indicated that it may distract learners from their studies and purely become a tool for socialisation (ibid). The use of FB remains controversial and further research is needed in this area to establish its effectiveness in HE teaching and learning.

Causes of drug failure: essay help online

One of the most common causes of drug failure is drug-induced liver injuries (DILIs). The majority of these failures are idiosyncratic reactions, which occur in small patient populations (between 1 in 1.000-10.000) in an unpredictable manner.1 The underlying mechanism of this type of DILI is very complex and still not completely understood.2 However, recent data have suggested that the crosstalk between cytokine-mediated pro-apoptotic signalling and drug reactive metabolite-mediated intracellular stress responses is essential in the comprehension of DILI.3

Various xenobiotics (e.g. diclofenac) can induce liver damage via the tumor necrosis factor ?? (TNF??) pathway. Excretion of this major cytokine will initiate through liver macrophages (Kuppfer cells) after exposure to bacterial endotoxins (e.g. Lipopolysaccharide).4 After binding of TNF?? to its receptor (TNFR1), the transcription factor nuclear factor kappa-B (NF-??B) is activated.5 In general, NF-??B is detained in the cytoplasm by binding to an inhibitor of ??B (I??B) complex. The initiated NF-??B leads to activation of I??B kinase (IKK), which eventually leads to the ubiquitination and phosphorylation of the I??B complex.6 Subsequently, this complex is targeted for proteosomal degradation. Hereafter, NF-??B translocates to the nucleus in an oscillatory way and activates the transcription of several genes which primarily encode survival proteins, such as cellular FLICE-like inhibitory protein (c-FLIP), inhibitor of apoptosis proteins (IAPs) and negative regulators proteins (e.g. A20, I??B??).7 After protein synthesis, A20 and I??B?? will inhibit the function of NF-??B in a negative feedback manner (Figure 1). Modified TNF??-induced NF??B translocation by various compounds is believed to shift the balance between cell survival and cell death.

Furthermore, reactive compound metabolites are capable of altering cellular molecules, which could lead to intracellular disturbances and eventually to the induction of various stress response or toxicity pathways.8 These pathways, combined with a decreased response for cell damage recovery and protection, will enhance the susceptibility to cell death of various cells. Up to now, insufficient studies have been performed to investigate the contribution of various pathways to DILI. It still remains uncertain which drug-induced toxicity pathways modulate the pro-apoptotic activity of TNF?? signaling in DILI reactions. However, there are different stress responses which are most likely involved in the formation of DILI. The Kelch-like ECH-associated protein 1 (Keap1)/nuclear factor-erythroid 2 (NF-E2)-related factor 2 (Nrf2) antioxidant response pathway and the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress-mediated unfolded protein response (UPR) have been studied in drug-induced toxicity of hepatocytes [2]. The Keap1/Nrf2 pathway is essential in recognizing ROS and/or cellular oxidative stress [6]. Keap1 maintains Nrf2 in the cytoplasm and guides it toward proteasomal degradation under normal circumstances. Nrf2 signaling is important in the cytoprotective response against ROS, but its role in the TNF??/drug interaction in idiosyncratic DILI remains unclear.

Furthermore, the ER stress-mediated UPR is a stress response due to enhanced translation and/or disturbed protein folding. Should the modification fail, a pro-apoptotic system will be initiated to eliminate the injured cell. The exact mechanism and role of the ER stress signalling response in managing DILI in relation to TNF??-induced apoptosis still remains unclear.

In this research, we hypothesize that stress response mechanisms (e.g. ER stress responses, oxidative stress responses) are involved in the delay of NF-??B nuclear translocation upon exposure to various NF-??B nuclear translocation compounds.

In this project, a human HepG2 cell line will be used to study the interaction between five different compounds (amiodarone, carbamazepine, diclofenac, nefazodone, ximelagatran) and cytokine TNF alpha. To investigate the overall percentage of cell death, a lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) assay will be performed. Furthermore, in order to quantify the amount of apoptotic cells, an Annexin V affinity assay will be executed. It is expected that the concentration-dependant toxicity of the compounds is enhanced with the presence of TNF??. Live cell imaging with HepG2 GFPp65 cells will be used to follow the NF-??B translocation after exposure to the five various compounds. Subsequently, an automated image quantification of the p65 signal intensity ratio of nucleus/cytoplasm is measured to show the exact onset of the second nuclear entry of NF-??B. It is estimated that the data of the NF-??B translocation will show a compound-induced delayed onset of NF-??B.

The activation of NF-??B target genes cIAP and c-FLIP will be measured using a Western Blot analysis. Moreover, the negative regulators of NF-??B, A20 and I??B??, will be studied to investigate the negative feedback loop of NF-??B. We anticipate that the data of the Western Blot analysis will show a decrease in production of the investigated target genes, because of the reduced TNF??-induced NF-??B transcriptional activity.

Ultimately, a data analysis will be applied on the results using t-test or two-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) in case of multiple comparisons.

Karma by Kushwant Singh

The text ‘Karma’ is written by Kushwant Singh in 1950 who is a English novelist.

The short story is 65 years old today but it is still relevant today, many of the issue that the text show.

The story deal with problems of the Indian cultures. Novel tells us the impact the empire have had on India, and shows us that the British norms have had influence on India.

It shows us that there is a big clash between women and men in India, and the way that men looks at women, but also the clash between rich and poor, is very big, in the story men and women does not sit in the same side of the train.

The text take place in a train.

And we have main character who names is Sir Mohan Lal, he is an Indian Man, and he think self he is very handsome and beautiful like the English men. He actually think of himself as an Englishman.

He think he is better than he Indians.

He despratly trys to fit in with the Englishmen.

Sir Mohan is very well iducated his job is a vizeier and barrister, he has been in England to stody, and maybe that is the reason that he thinks of himself as an Englishman. He think he is a good looking man, a time in the story he looks in the mirror ‘Distinguished, efficient – even handsome. That neatly trimmed moustache – the suit from Savile Row, the carnation in the buttonhole.’ It shows that he is proud of himself, and he knows which image he want to send to other people, but also that he only speaks to himself.

Sir Mohan Lal obsessed with how other people think of him. He will do anything to get to know an Englishman. In the train he meets many Englishmen and he always have an old copy of ‘The Times’ which shows how desperately he want to get in touch with an Englishman. And also that he think he as a well education, and also to show that he is a man of manners and English culture. He feels like he is an English man and not an India, he think that Indian people is poor, and not like him. He will not being seen with some of them, and also his wife would he not been seen with.

In the short story we also meet his wife, which is an Indian women, he doesn’t love her and think she is ugly, the only reason he is married to her is because he want to have children.

This shows us the problematic we have reading in the class, were many married has been arranged, and that the people there is married doesn’t love each other. Sir Mohan Lal makes her travel in the zenana(a section in the train only for women).

In the train Sir Mohan Lal meet two English soldiers, who he wants to travel and talk to them, that he tell the guard that they could sit in his coupe. Mohan should never had does that. The men were not looking for an Indian man to talk with, and they sees themselves as better than Sir Mohan Lal. Just like he had done before with the Indians people, then he could see how it feels, to not be an excepted person.

Karma is when something you have done comes back to you and it certainly does.

Human Resource Management and Employee Commitment: essay help

The concept of employment commitment lies at the heart of any analysis of Human Resource Management. Really, the rationale for introducing Human Resource Management policies is to increase levels of commitment so positive outcome can result. Such is the importance of this construct. Yet, despite many studies on commitment, very little is understand of what managers mean by the term ‘commitment’ when they evaluate someone’s performance and motivation. Development of organizational commitment is basically by major theoretical approaches emerge from previous research on commitment: Firstly, commitment is view as an attitude of attachment to the organization, which leads to particular job-related behaviors. The committed employee, for example, is less often absent, and is less likely to leave the organization voluntarily, than are less committed employees.

Secondly, one line of research in organizations focuses on the implications of certain types of behaviors on subsequent attitudes. A typical finding is that employees who freely choose to behave in a certain way, and who find their decision difficult to change, becomes committed to the chosen behavior and develop attitudes consistent with their choice. One approach emphasizes the influence of commitment attitudes on behaviors, whereas the other emphasizes the influence of committing behaviors on attitude. Although the ‘commitment attitude behavior’ and ‘committing behavior attitude’ approaches emerge from different theoretical orientations, and have generated separate research traditions, understanding the commitment process is facilitated by viewing these two approaches as, inherently, inter-related. Further by virtue of commitment the human recourse management department can fully utilized their talent, skill, and efficiency of the employee in productive way to fulfill the personal goals of the employees and organizational goals. More over commitment helps in fulfilling the purpose of training imparted to the employees because in spite of increasing the level of skill through training without commitment these cannot be maintained. After all existence of adequate commitment amongst employees create an work culture environment and there by all employees can be motivated and encourage towards the excellent performance of their duties.

3.5 Social Support ‘ its Concept, Purpose, Types, Relations with Social Network and social Integration

3.5.1 Concept of Social support

The concept of social support is strategic which defined as the belief that one is cared for and loved, esteemed and valued. It is a strategic concept in not only giving understanding to the maintenance of health and the development of (mental and somatic) health problems, but also their prevention. Types and sources of social support can vary. Four main categories of social support are (i) emotional, (ii) appraisal, (iii) informational and (iv) instrumental support. Social support is closely related to the concept of social network, the ties to family, friends, neighbors, colleagues, and others of significance to a person. Within this context, social support is the potential of the network to provide help.

It is important for organizations to collect information on social support in the employees, to enable both risk assessment and the planning of preventive interventions at different level such as:

a) Lack of social support increases the risk for Organizational Commitment:

Lack of social support is shown to increase the risk of both mental and somatic disorders, and seems to be especially important in stressful life situations. Poor social support is also associated with enhanced mortality. Social support may affect health through different pathways i.e. behavioral, psychological and physiological pathways.

b) Social support is determined by individual and environmental factors:

Social support is determined by factors at both the individual as well as the social level. Social support in adulthood may be to some extent genetically determined. Personality factors that might be associated with perceived social support are interpersonal trust and social fear. The position of a person within the social structure, which is determined by factors such as marital status, family size and age, will influence the probability of them receiving social support. The occurrence of social support depends on opportunities that an organization creates to commitment with employees.

c) Preventive interventions stimulate social support at different levels:

There are three types of preventive interventions aimed at stimulating social support: universal, selective or indicated interventions. The ultimate goal of universal interventions is to promote health. They are aim at providing social support at the group or community level. Selective preventions aim to strengthen social skills and coping abilities with, for example social skill training. Social support groups and self-help groups are other examples of selective prevention programs. Indicated prevention programmes aim to reduce the risk of people who already have symptoms of psychological stress, developing a mental disorder.

Social support is defining as help in difficult life situations. Social support is a concept that is generally understands in a spontaneous sense, as the help from other people in a difficult life situation. It is social support as ‘the individual belief that one is cared for and loved, esteemed and valued, and belongs to a network of communication and mutual obligations’. In spite of these widely accepted definitions of social support, there are very few consensuses in the literature about the definition and consequently the operation implementation of the concept. There is a need for further research, especially about what kind of support is most important for organizational commitment. Researcher tried to the applied social support score is the sum of the raw scores for each of the items. In the Guwahati Metro region, the sum-score of the Social Support Scale ranges. A score is classified as poor support, intermediate support and strong support.

3.5.2 Purpose of Social Support

Researcher thinks that in defining social support the qualities of support perceived (satisfaction) and provided social support for the managerial employees are significant here. Most of studies are constructed on the measurement of subjectively perceived support, whereas others aim at measuring social support in a more objective sense. One could also distinguish between the support received, and the expectations when in need, and between event specific support and general support. The definition in terms of a subjective feeling of support raises the question whether social support reflects a personality trait, rather than the actual social environment (Pierce et al., 1997). Most researchers will agree that the person as well as the situation affects perceived social support, and that the concept deals with the interaction between individual and social variables. In the present study researcher has tried to observe percentage of male and female managerial employees with poor support, intermediate support, and strong support in Public and private organizations of Guwahati Metro region.

3.5.3 Types of Social Support

Types and sources of social support may vary. Mainly four major categories of social support such as emotional, appraisal, informational and instrumental are in the use of research work. Researcher tried to observe it in her study.

a) Emotional support generally comes from family and close friends and is the most commonly recognized form of social support. It includes empathy, concern, caring, love and trust.

b) Appraisal support involves transmission of information in the form of affirmation, feedback and social comparison. This information is often evaluative and can come from family, friends, coworkers, or community sources.

c) Informational support includes advice, suggestions, or directives that assist the person respond to personal or situational demands.

d) Instrumental support is the most concrete direct form of social support, encompassing help in the form of money, time, in-kind assistance, and other explicit interventions on the person’s behalf.

3.5.4 Social Support & Concept of a Social Network

Social support is closely related to the concept of a social network, or the ties to family, friends, neighbors, colleagues, and others of significance to the person. However, when the social network is described in structural terms, like size, range, density, proximity and homogeneity, social support normally refers to the qualitative aspects of the social network within this context, social support is the potential of the network to provide help in situations when needed. However, the social network may also be the cause of psychological problems.

Halle and Wellman present the interplay between social support, the social network, and psychological health in a model: The social network as a mediating construct. This model shows that social support can be seen as resulting from certain characteristics of the social network, which are in turn caused by environmental and personal factors. The model suggests that it is important to distinguish between the structural and quantitative aspects of the social network on the one side, and social support on the other. In this study researcher has correlated stress and social support with organizational commitment taking in to consideration managerial employees of Public and private sector in Guwahati Metro region.

3.5.5 Social integration and Social Support

Whereas the concept of social support mainly refers to the individual and group level, the concept of social integration can refer to the community level. A well-integrated community refers to well developed supportive relationships between people in the community, with everybody feeling accepted and included. A related concept is social capital, which is often used as the sum of supportive relationships in the community. Social capital may, however, also be used in a somewhat different meaning, such as solidarity’. It is an important for the development of organizational commitment.

In the fields of Organizational Behavior and Industrial/Organizational Psychology is, in a general sense, the employee’s psychological attachment to the organization. It can be contrasted with other work-related attitudes, such as job satisfaction, defined as an employee’s feelings about their job, and organizational identification, defined as the degree to which an employee experiences a ‘sense of oneness’ with their organization. Nobel laureate Amartya Sen said that the sense of oneness in every individual should he ‘dynamic’ and not confined within the narrowness of a single identity. People have to judge contextually as to what oneness means in several aspects of our life. A person cannot have just one identity of oneness based on one’s nationality or religion.

Encompass the systematic study and careful application of knowledge about how people act within organizations. Organizational studies sometimes are considered a sister field for, or overarching designation that includes the disciplines like industrial and organizational psychology, organizational behavior, human resources, and management.

However, there is no universally accepted classification system for such subfields. Beyond this general sense, organizational scientists have developed many feelings especially in creative expression of organizational commitment; the present study is combination of the higher level employees stress and social support, which effects on organizational commitment. Researcher have selected Guwahati Metro region for their study. The study is design based on types of organizations i.e. Public and private organizations.

Climate Effect On Building facade: essay help

Abstract : Building facade is one of an important element of the architecture. It have a significant effect on energy conservation and the comfort of the building users. The facade is affected by the environmental conditions and it designs should take into consideration the climate of it regions this research will explain the facade treatment on different region, also the Basic methods for designing high-performance building facade it will explain two case studies that illustrate facade design methods for two different climate conditions.

Content

1. Introduction ”””””””””””””….. 3

2. Literature Review””””””””””””’ 4

3. Research discussion and data analysis””””””””’ 5

3.1. Design criteria For Mixed Climate”””””””’.. 5

3.2. Design criteria For Hot Climates””””””””.8

4. Conclusion””””””””””’..”””11

5. References”””””””””””””’11

1. Introduction

Climate is always affect our daily life ether if it’s sunny ,cloudy ,rainy it have an Influences on our sense of comfortable when we go outside the building. When we are inside the building, the building separate use from the outer environment and. It have it own conditions depend on the technology inside the building such as , HVAC systems which allows us to change the temperature or humidity’etc . Building protects us from the Weather problems that are not favored to stay out in it. Building interior spaces conditions also depends on the exterior facade treatment For example the interior heat or lighting that comes through the glazed windows will affect the temperature of the interior.

This research will explain the influence of the climate on the building facade , what is the main factor that affect the facade of the architecture on the other hand ,the techniques of treatment the facade to provide a suitable interior environment for it users in cretin climate condition, also how can we design the facade in simple way to fit with the changing in the climate , and facade materials selection to help in adaptation the building to the climate conditions.

2. Literature Review

Across the history Human used the shelter to protect them from danger Such as wailed animals and Climatic conditions. Later on with the evolution of human the dwellings has developed after it was a cave in Mount it became a building in various forms and functions. Buildings provide the foundation for our daily activities, for example ,educational ,commercial , Health care ‘. Etc.

Climate is generally the weather conditions of a region, as temperature, air pressure, humidity, precipitation, sunshine, cloudiness, and winds, throughout the year, averaged over a series of years (n.d, The American Heritage?? New Dictionary of Cultural Literacy). Every region have it own climatic characteristics that can affect the architecture facade differently, for example In warm areas like middle east region, people avoid the glare and the heat of the sun, as demonstrated by the decreasing size of the windows. On the other hand in north Europe they use glass in Exaggeration way to allow the sun light to inter the building and heat the interior space because of the cold weather of their region (””””” 2010).

3. Research Discussion And Data Analysis

facade is generally one exterior side of a building, usually but not always, the front side of the building(n.d, 2011). The building facade acts as a skin that wraps around the building and affects the internal environment as it interacts with the external one. Building facades is not only about the aesthetic of the building, it’s also perform as the barriers that separate a building’s interior from the external environment. facades are one of the most Important contributors to the energy consumptions and the comfort norms of any building. facade designs and performance are one of the main factors for sustainable, energy-efficient, and high performance buildings. A facade should satisfy the design as well as the functional requirements .The Climate of the area plays a major role in designing the facade, different design strategies are required for different climatic zones. One of the traditional way to deal with the climate in the Middle East the use of small opining and Mashrabia or (Roshan) to cover the windows. this techniques that characterized the facade in this region were use to prevent the heat to enter the building and to Imprisonment the cool inside the building, also to filter the air from the dust associated with it (Mady, 2010).

3.1. Design Criteria For Mixed Climate

the Center for Urban Waters is a Public laboratory building, in Tacoma, Wash. A Tacoma is in a region with a mixed marine climate. Designed by Perkins+Will and got LEED Platinum award.

Figure 1 shows average daily temperatures and the solar radiation for each month.

This temperature of this climate zone allows cooling by natural ventilation, and the quite soft winters with low solar radiation .This climate conditions using a reasonable amount of glazing on the south and west orientations will not have a negative affect a building’s energy performance.

This view of the building is the west and south facade. It shows the differ??ent treatments for different building sides.

– The west facade consists of an aluminum cladded rain screen system, with integration of win??dows that some of it operable and non operable, and exterior blinds.

– The south facade consists of a curtain wall of fritted glass and external hori-zontal shading devices.

It is located in industrial waterfront on a long narrow site. The building program element located according it’s possible needs of air and natural ventilation. The waterside of the building provides a fresh cold air which is idle foe ventilation, so the designer placed offices on the waterway to provide a good ventilation. On the road and industrial side the opportunities of fresh airs is reduced so the designer placed the laboratories on this side because of it need of mechanical ventilation.

The shading strategies used based on the facade orientation. The western orientation of the building receives the greatest solar heat gain so it designed with a low window to wall ratio, vertical Shading devices used to moderate the solar heat gain and glare from low afternoon sun. the south facade consist of a curtain wall that provide clear views to the waterside, while horizontal shading devices obstruct the solar heat gain. The north facade mainly consists of solid elements and minimum amounts of glass. This design approach improves thermal resistance , limiting the heat transmit from exterior to interior environment. The rain screen on the east facade are made of horizontal corrugated metal panels faces the industrial side. It covered the upper half of the 2nd and 3rd level with small win??dows opining on the corrugated metal screens. These aluminum screens help to manage the early morning sun and reduce it poten-tial glare, on the other hand maintaining of the exterior views and maximizing natural day lighting of the interior spaces. It uses natural ventilation to decrease the building’s energy loads, also control the amount of natural ventilation through the Operable windows.

In summary the center for urban water designed consist of many sustainable elements not only in the facade but also in the roof system sewage and mechanical system , see building section on (Figure 3).These sustainable systems will rise the building performance and suitable the real-time energy use(Aksamija, 2014).

3.2. Design Criteria For Hot Climates

The University of Texas at Dallas. It’s a Student Services Building located Texas ,USA. It’s in a hot climate region. Designed by Perkins+Will and got LEED Platinum award.

Figure 4 shows annual average daily temperatures in rela??tion to thermal comfort zone and the available solar radiation.

In designing the facade of this building, the main con??cern was the hot climate conditions, because In this region the climate is usually hot and sunny at the summer session ,while the other sea??sons are relatively mild.

The longer sides of the rectangular form building is facing north and south orientations. All sides of the build??ing are covered by a curtain wall. Add to that the shading devices which supported by the curtain wall are wrapping the east, west, south, and small part of north facade. The shading system consists of horizontal terra-cotta louvers and vertical stainless steel rods (Figure5). The shading devices are distributed around the building creating an asymmetrical pat??tern over the building facades however, the terra-cotta shading element is important for reduc??ing solar heat gain in summer hot climate.

In the interior of the Building there are three internal atriums pro??vide daylight to interior spaces (Figure6).

The location of the lobby is on the east side of the building in one of the atriums, it provide natural day light and limit the gaining of the heat.

This design strategy is suitable for hot climates regions, especially when reducing solar heat gain while providing a natural daylight for the interior spaces. The arrangement of shad??ing devices along the facade and internal atriums is an ideal for providing a natural daylight. Almost all of the spaces in the Building have views to the outside. The building also contains other sustainable design strategies which improves the energy efficiency and the comforts interior spaces (Aksamija, 2014).

4. Conclusion

Design the facade is important because it’s the connection between building exterior and interior. Architect has to take in consideration the building’s location and climate to make a high performance facades and to provide a sustainable and com-fortable spaces for building occu??pants, also significantly reducing a building’s energy consumption. Strategies differentiate from each other depending on the geographical and climatic regions, so criteria that work best in hot climates are different from those in hot and humid or cold regions. Architect should know the characteristics of each climatic condition and location as well as the program and function requirements to create a sustainable facade fit to it environment.

Online Behavioral Advertising (OBA)

In order to understand where online privacy concerns of consumers origins from it first need to be noted what OBA is and what is the main mechanism behind it. It is of great importance to note that this main mechanism behind OBA are cookies. These cookies in accordance cause privacy concerns among consumers.

1.1 Online behavioral advertising

Online advertising is the provision of content and service for free, from the website publishers to the website visitors. In this case advertisements are aimed at everyone visiting their websites (networkadvertising.org, 2012). However, there is a type of online advertising specifically aimed at providing tailored advertisement content to a specific customer. This type of advertisement is known as Online Behavioral Advertising. Online behavioral advertising is the practice of gathering information regarding someone’s activities online. This data is used in order to determine which form and content to display to the web site visitor (McDonald & Cranor, 2009). This practice provides advertisements on the websites the individual visits and make them with the collection of their content relevant to their specific interests (Leon et al., 2012). When they consequently visit a website which correlates with their specific interests, suiting advertisement will be provided.

Consumers can control OBA by the application of tools, including those concerned with self-regulatory programs. If these tools are applied appropriately, the consumer could reach more control of self-disclosure. Tools to control OBA are for instance op-outs tools, built-in browser settings, blocking tools (Leon et al., 2011). Tools such as Do Not Track headers to websites show a message that the website visitor does not prefer to be tracked. Opt-out tools on other side, create the ability for the user to set opt-out cookies for multiple advertising networks. The issue that arises with the latter case is that if a consumer chooses to opt-out, the network of the establisher will discontinue to show customized advertising but on the other hand will keep tracking and profiling the website visitor (Leon et al., 2011). The continuation of tracking and profiling website visitors has caused considerate privacy concerns among consumers. This situation shows high correlation with the case of NPO. NPO didn’t make the consumer aware of an opt-out option even before using an opt-out option, which is expected to create even more privacy concerns (B. Comb??e, 2013).

1.2 Cookies

The most important feature of OBA is the utilization of cookies. Third-party HTTP cookies are the main mechanism used for online tracking. In comparison to first party cookies, which are located by the domain the website user is visiting. Third party cookies are visited by a different domain such as an advertising network. Other cookies such as flash cookies and HTML 5 (local storage) continue to stay on the user ‘s PC even if the website visitor deleted cookies or change browsers (B. Krishnamurthy and C. Wills, 2009;M. Ayenson et al., 2011 and M. Dahlen and S. Rosengren, 2005).

Cookies are directly linked to OBA because as earlier explained OBA uses third-party cookies to provide customized advertisements. A cookie is a small document of signs in the form of numbers and letters. For example: lghinbgiyt7695nb. The computer provides the cookie an unique code. These signs are downloaded on an individuals’ web browser when they access most websites (Zuiderveen Borgesius, 2011). Cookies enable websites to notice them whenever they return back to a website. Only the server that sent the cookie can read and therefore utilize that cookie. These cookies are vital in order to offer a more customized experience. (youronlinechoices.com, 2015).

1.2.1 Types of Cookies

There are different types of cookies. The most important cookies relevant to this research are discussed. The selection of cookies are derived from the cookies used by NPO. There are 2 different categories of cookies. First party cookies are cookies which make sure the website functions optimally. The behavior of the website visitor is tracked within one website, the website the consumer visits. Third party cookies on the other hand, are placed by third parties, in order for the website to be analyzed by google analytics. This type of cookie makes sure the website visitor will receive customized advertisements (Zuiderveen Borgesius, 2011 ).

First party cookies (npo.nl, 2015):

‘ Functional cookies: Cookies that make the website functioning as it should. These cookies keep track of the web site visitors’ preferences and memorize the individual previously visited the website.

Third party cookies (npo.nl, 2015):

‘ Analytics: Cookies to measure utilization of website.

‘ Social media: Cookies to share the content of the NPO website through social media. The video’s and articles opened on the website can be shared through buttons. To make these buttons function, social media cookies are used by different social media parties. This in order for them to recognize the website visitor whenever it wants to share an article or video.

‘ Advertisement cookies: Cookies to show Star- adverts. These advertisements are placed by the website owner or third parties on the website of the website owner.

‘ Recommendations: Cookies to make more suitable recommendations. The NPO wants to make suggestions to website visitors on other program’s for consumers to watch online.

The main information these cookies store are:

‘ Keeping track of visitors on their webpages

‘ Keeping track of time it spends on its visit

‘ What are areas the website should take notice of in order to improve

‘ Keeping track of the order of visits of different webpages within the website

If this information is gathered, this data can be added to the existing profile information. In time third parties will be able to create a personal profile of the consumer, even though there is no name attached to it. Today third-party tracking is subject to privacy debates (Zuiderveen Borgesius, 2011 ). Consumers can feel invaded in their privacy if they suspect digital marketers from creating a personal profile, by gathered information from consumers visiting websites. Third party tracking and consumer privacy get a significant amount of attention from the government and consumer protection (Zuiderveen Borgesius, 2011 )

1.2.2 Cookie use by marketers

Since the law is updated continuously on privacy regulations and there is no uniform law concerning privacy of consumers marketers are recommended to weigh out the benefits of using practices that are not 100% conform privacy regulations against the financial and risks on their reputation that comes along with this consideration. (Chaffey & Ellis-Chadwick, 2012; Zuiderveen Borgesius, 2011)The organization must inform the website visitors properly the reasons and the procedure of data collection. The marketers’ website needs to provide its visitors with information on how they will make use of a website visitors’ data . Next to that, the consumer has to give consent for the utilization of consumer data. The figure below, indicates the issues that should get considerate attention when a data subject is informed by how his/her data will be utilized. These issues are described below the figure.

Figure 1. Information flows that need to be understood for compliance with data protection legislation.

Source: D. Chaffey and F. Ellis-Chadwick, Digital Marketing, 2012, p. 163

‘ Whether the consumer will receive future communications

‘ Whether the data will be passed on to third parties with consent explicitly required. Referring to section 2.1 on privacy and the recommendation section, on privacy issues regarding NPO, it can be obtained that the NPO didn’t comply with explicit ‘consent’ from the website visitor which caused their bad publicity.

‘ The length of data storage. Referring to the models in section 2.3 confidence, knowledge and control are major indicators on consumer behavior regarding OBA.

According to marketingsherpa.com (2011) A business making use of OBA has to know whether it properly understands its application. It is important to adopt an ‘cookie audit’. A cookie audit is the principle of understanding the types of third-party tracking systems that are available and which are located on the browser of consumers when they visit the company’s website. This is important since third-party tracking can cause deceleration on a company’s website. Next to that, information obtained from customers can leak out to even unknown companies.

Furthermore, it is important to clearly give website visitors the option to opt out and to provide them with information on any form of tracking. First the website visitor needs to be aware where the website is about. Secondly the consumer need to be provided with information about the substance of the ads. Last the website visitor should get the ability to learn more about how to opt-out.

An opt out means a company will discontinue collecting and utilizing information from different web domains for the aim of providing personalized based advertising from data gathering using third party cookies in OBA. However it should be noted to the website visitor that opting out does not specifically mean they will cease receiving online advertising. The website visitor will continue to receive advertisements but not tailored to their specific preferences. (networkadvertising.org, 2012; youronlinechoices.com, 2009). Some companies make use of flash cookies. These cookies make regular cookies come to life again after the website visitor has deleted the cookies. The new cookie will get the same code as the web site visitor has removed (Soltani, 2009).

In addition it is of great importance to give website visitors the control of their data. 67% of the website visitors entrust transparent brands more. This confidence makes the chance of purchase 36% more likely than if a brand is not transparent. Companies that do not obey regulations regarding privacy also showed decreases in turnover. (Brown, 2009). Furthermore it is important to take measures for website visitors to manage cookie tracking and privacy. The website visitor should very easily know what the purpose if of the data obtained from them. As earlier explained they should also have the quick option to opt-out. (marketingsherpa.com, 2011)

1.2.3 Drawbacks cookie use

Netscape Navigator, the first successfully implemented web browser, introduced cookies. Version 1.0 of the web browser was introduced in 1994. In Netscape 1.0 cookies where introduced. (Turnbull, 2013). Even though the cookies are introduced almost 20 years ago, until recently two thirds of the samples used in research are not even able to explain what a cookie actually is. Even up to now customers believe more data is collected from them than is the case. Next to that consumers do not understand who are involved and how these companies are involved in OBA. Neither there is a understanding of technologies present (Ur et al 2012).

Next to that, the majority of web users don’t know about opt out cookies. Even nowadays the perception still exists it can be done through turning to their web browsers or delete cookies.(Ur et al., 2012). However if the website visitors are aware that if they have the ability to opt out and gain more knowledge on privacy matters, visitors feel more positive about the application of OBA by businesses (McDonald & Cranor , 2008) . If consumers do not understand their rights on privacy, they are pre-biased on this matter. This issue will be discussed further in chapter 2. If organizations easily and properly inform website visitors on their privacy rights they can possibly break through this pre-assumption. (McDonald& Cranor, 2008 and 2009)

In addition, the icon for opt-out options demonstrated in section 2.1, is subject to discussion whether the aim of this icon is reached. According to critics the meaning of this icon is not known by consumers, therefore opt-out possibilities are perceived as difficult. (‘Volg-me-niet register is wassen neus’, 2011).

Furthermore, according to marketingsherpa.com (2011) consumers should be better informed about opt-out opportunities in order to take away uncertainty of privacy matters. The privacy issues that are involved as partly discussed above will be further analyzed in chapter 2 and with the assistance of models the effects of privacy matters on consumer behavior are analyzed.

Besides, consumers complain they find privacy important but ease of use as equally important. They are annoyed by the question they are asked continuously regarding accepting the use of cookies (B. Comb??e, 2013). Next to that consumers complain about websites which place a cookie wall which makes it only possible to enter the website if the use of cookies is agreed upon.

2. How do consumers react to current privacy concerns in OBA?

2.1 Privacy

Privacy is defined as a moral right of having the possibility to prevent intrusion into someone’s personal information. Nowadays, privacy is of high importance to consumers with increasing technology increasing possibilities to more enhanced practices in identity theft, such as hacking or just invasion of consumers’ online privacy practices. By gathering personal information of consumers with the use of earlier explained cookies, the degree of customization can highly increase. (Chaffey & Ellis-Chadwick, 2012)

2.1.1 Root of privacy concerns online

In Europe the legal framework concerned with online behavioral tracking is regulated by the European Data Protection Directive. These regulations enclose gathering, processing, filing and transmission of personal information. Next to that the European e-Privacy Directive mainly regulates privacy of data and the use of cookies. This regulation made third parties placing cookies apply a regulation to give website visitors the ability to opt-out. This gave web site visitors the chance to reject cookies. Consequently, websites provided information on how to opt-out or reject cookies.

J. Zuiderveen (2011) did research on to what extent practice is complying with data protection directives on ‘permission’: a willingly, specific, based on information volition. Research has shown that the processing of personal data cannot be based on article 7.b data protection directives: there should be a positive agreement. There is no form of agreement if consumers are not aware of exchanging personal information in turn for a service. Next to that collection of personal information can neither be justified by article 7.f which states that the interests of third parties are important, unless the privacy of the concerned is invaded. Privacy interests also means that the right on privacy is a significantly important right. By following online behavior of web site visitors, Dutch companies cannot refer to these 2 articles. However in 2011 article 2.h came to attention which states that with unambiguous permission the website is not allowed to make to quick assumptions that the website user give permission to make use of personal information (European commission, 2003; 2006). This latter was specifically the case with NPO as described in the introduction. They explicitly did not asked for permission before collecting data.

Even though policies on cookies are changing continuously, it is important to describe how consumers are up dated on getting more insight into their privacy rights and consequently what effect the extent of privacy has on consumer behavior discussed with models in chapter 2.3.

Components consumer update on privacy (iab.net, 2015):

‘ Advertising option Icon : This icon will represent that the form of advertising is supported by a self-regulatory program. If the consumer clicks on this icon it will be provided with a disclosure statement concerning data gathering and where the information is used for and a simple opt-out system.

‘ Consumer choice mechanism: At AboutAds.info consumers are provide with information on how to opt out.

‘ Accountability and enforcement: Since 2011, DMA (Direct marketing association) and CBBB employed technologies to provide website visitors with information on a company’s transparency and control purveyance.

‘ Educational programs: Businesses and consumers will be educated on opt-out options and thus self-regulatory systems.

For now self-regulatory systems are opt-outs with the future possibilities of opt-ins. These mentioned components above all provide consumers with more information on opt-out possibilities. According to privacy concerns this self-regulatory systems proofs that consumers should be educated about opt-out options. Privacy regarding personal information using cookies needs considerate attention. Previous research has shown that if consumers have the perception their privacy is invaded they consider it as invasive and obstructive. Therefore, it is important for companies to be transparent. (Goldfarb & Tucker 2011). Even though advertisement becomes more personalized web site visitors do feel uncomfortable with companies tracking their online affairs. (Beales, 2010; Goldfarb & Tucker 2011).

2.2 Statistics

With assistance of statistics it will be analyzed in which area the problems of consumers and their privacy occur. If this is obtained, with the application of multiple online behavior models in section 2.3 , the problem areas can be theoretically analyzed in order to come up with a decent recommendation on how consumers actually are behaving and how marketers can respond to this.

(TRUSTe, 2008) Areas of consumer concerns regarding to online privacy in OBA:

Advertising relevance:

‘ Of 87% respondents, 25% of the ads were actually personalized.

‘ 64% would only choose to see ads of online stores they are familiar with and trust.

‘ 72% find OBA intrusive if it’s not to their specific needs.

Awareness of OBA:

‘ 40% are familiar with OBA and a higher percentage knows of tracking. 71% knows their browsing data is gathered by third parties.

Attitudes toward OBA:

‘ 57% say they are not comfortable with collecting browsing history for customized advertising.

‘ 54% state they delete their cookies 2-3 times monthly.

‘ 55% are willing to get customized online ads in order by filing in an anonymous form. 19% did not. 37% would still fill out a form about products services and brands to buy even if they aren’t held anonymous.

‘ 40% of participants in our online study agree or strongly agree they would watch what they do

online more carefully if advertisers were collecting data. (McDonald & Cranor, 2010)

Intent to take measures:

‘ 96% want to take measures on protecting their privacy settings. However respondents don’t state they don’t want to be part of OBA at al. even 56% won’t click to reduce unwanted ads. And 58% would not register in the don’t-follow-me registration.

From these statistics it can be obtained that the majority of respondents of this study have negative attitudes towards privacy matters in OBA. However referring to the first heading advertising relevance and the last heading; intent to take measures, it could be stated that the majority of consumers do prefer some form of OBA. This implies cookies are needed. Therefore the problem area as earlier discussed lies more in that consumers do not know enough about opt-out and are not confident with privacy statements. Therefore knowledge and trust will be the major factors to be analyzed in order to see how companies can overcome this issue.

These factors which will be analyzed using models are of great importance. This because TRUSTe states that knowledge and trust are great factors influencing online behavior since there is an increased level of awareness that website visitors are being tracked, to be provided with customized advertisements. Even though they are aware that they are anonymous because their name is not obtained (google.com, 2015; J. Zuiderveen 2011) they do not feel comfortable with them being followed and targeted. Therefore website visitors strongly prefer to limit and have more control on OBA practices. (TRUSTe, 2008).

2.3 Models concerned with consumer behavior

2.3.1 Knowledge: Consumer Privacy States Framework

In order to assess to what extent consumers consider their privacy as important and what are the factors that influence this degree, the use of a Consumer Privacy States Framework will be applied. This framework is derived from the Journal of Policy & Marketing and established by G. Milne and A. Rohm. According to G. Milne and A. Rohm, this framework focuses on 2 dimension. The dimensions of this framework are a reaction to consumers privacy concerns and their willingness to provide marketers with their personal information (Sheehan & Hoy 2000; Milne & Rohm 2000). These dimensions are awareness of data collection and knowledge of name removal mechanism.

According to this model privacy is only present in cell 1. In this stage consumers are aware that their personal information is being gathered. Next to that they know how to opt-out. In this stage consumers are more satisfied and react more positive towards direct marketing relationships (Milne & Rohm 2000). Research has shown that consumers are willing to exchange private information for benefits. Consumers will give more information to digital marketers if there are perceived long term benefits. Next to that, if consumers are able to control their privacy, consumers are more willing to give up their personal information. (Ariely, 2000).

Table 1: Consumer Privacy States Framework (G. Milne and A. Rohm, 2000)

Consumer is knowledgeable about name removal mechanisms Consumer is not knowledgeable about name removal mechanisms

Consumer is aware of data collection Cell 1: Privacy exists Cell 2: Privacy does not exist

Consumer is not aware of data collection Cell 2: Privacy does not exist Cell 4: Privacy does not exist

( Note: opt-out options in the study of 2008 is used as a similar concept as name removal mechanisms in the study of 2000)

Research has shown that 34% of the population is positioned in cell 1, 74% was aware of data collection and 45% knew how to handle name removal mechanisms. This research has shown that organizations need to educate consumers more intensively about name removal mechanisms (Culnan 1995; Milne 1997). Nowadays this issue is still the case. According to TRUST E marketwire.com (2008) 70% of consumers is aware of data collection and 40% knows about opt-out options.

On the other hand, Wood & Quinn (2003) evaluated the effects on attitudes of forewarnings. If consumers are pre-informed on what is the function of cookies, biased thinking can be encouraged which will generate negative attitudes to its function. However, if people are not provided with information on how to opt-out or opt-in possibilities they are more likely to share their personal information. The cookie-icon could be seen as a pre-warning. This makes consumers see a pre-warning as being warned for something which makes their behavior turn to resistance. This resistance occurs because individuals will feel invaded in their privacy. Next to that consumers do not feel comfortable with others knowing their preferences. Therefore, according to Jacks and Devine (2000), resistance occurs in the form of keeping personal freedom. If resistance occurs, resistance strategies could be applied.

According to Jacks and Cameron (2003) consumers could respond with resistance strategies. These strategies are built as described below. The individual could show resistance by not responding to the customized advertisement message or by leaving the situation as it is. This is called selective exposure. Either the receiving individual could immediately start making counter arguments. In this case counter arguing finds place. On the other side, attitude bolstering implies the individual strengthens its own original view without directly making up counter arguments. Source derogation implies insulting the source or reject the validity of the source. In case of social validation, individuals resist the customized message and bring to mind others who share the same viewpoint. In case of negative effect, individuals get angry because their personal information is utilized without the source indicating what it is used for.

Eventually resistance doesn’t have to appear when getting a pre-warming in the form of an icon. Instead of resistance strategies, individuals could choose to make adjustments to their cookie settings or choose to register to not be followed anymore by signing in an authorized non-registration register. As explained under the heading statistics it could be stated that indeed 40% would take measures if their personal information would be collected (TRUSTe, 2008), therefore resisting strategies play a significant role.

2.3.2 Rank order table: Trust

Next to this framework Earp & Baumer (2003) introduced a rank order of most influential factors affecting consumer behavior regarding their privacy. The table below states that consumers that have high confidence in privacy practices of a website are more willing to provide personal information.

Table 2: Rank ordering of stated influential factors in confidence of privacy practices of web site . Bron: J. Earp and D. Baumer, 2003

Rank of most influential factors Factor

1 Company name

2 Option ‘to opt out’

3 Presence of a privacy policy

4 Presence of a web seal

5 Design of the site

76% of respondents from this study showed that having the ability to opt-out as an important factor for having reliability in the privacy practices of the website. However according to research 87.5% of consumers expect detailed information about privacy policies when visiting websites, while only 54% of this amount is actually reading these privacy policies. 66% of this study showed a rise in reliability if a website provides comprehensive privacy policies.(Earp & Baumer, 2003). Next to that consumers believe websites having a comprehensive privacy policy, will make the website always live up to its policy (Ant??n et al. 2002). This again implies that most internet users prefer assurance of privacy policy but are less apprehensive about what the policy actually says (J. Earp and D. Baumer, 2003). Therefore trust and confidence plays a more important role on providing private information than what the policy actually says.

2.3.3 The consumer profile

The consumer profile is relevant to this particular situation in the sense that the effect of consumers’ perceptions of OBA can be measured. Risk and privacy invasion are major areas of concern among consumers and therefore it could be analyzed to what extent these perceptions will affect their online behavior. By making an analyses, companies could get more focused on what areas to improve in order to not deal with privacy issues in future.

The first factor in the consumer profile that should be analyzed is that security and privacy information should be considered. As described earlier, consumers need to be secured that accurate privacy information is provided to them, however in reality this doesn’t make them read it. Referring back to the rank order table, 66% of website visitors expect proper privacy disclosure but only 54% of the website visitors is actually reading it (Earp & Baumer, 2003). Therefore it could be stated that customers are not focused on explicitly security but only on the idea of security. Therefore the issue that evolves around privacy is more on the security of privacy information but not specifically the content of privacy information. Therefore websites with just being able to demonstrate proper regulations on privacy will have greater chance of creating customers having a more positive perception on online privacy practices. Next tot that according to C. Hoofnagle (2010) internet users rarely read privacy statements. However on the other side, if consumers are better informed on opt-out options there is a possibility this knowledge will create resistance as earlier described (Wood & Quinn, 2003) .

Secondly risk plays an important role in behavior on consumers online. The degree of online sales effectiveness can be raised substantially if the perception of risk is reduced. If customers would read the stipulations it would even be questionable whether they realize the consequences of gathering and analyzing their personal information by cookies (Barocas & Nissenbaum, 2009). Even if anonymized information can be linked to an individual, this individual might think there is a small chance of this happening (Zuiderveen Borgesius, 2011). Therefore again privacy regulations are supposed to just be there to gain security. Risk is sometimes not even considered in its essence but more the perception of risk. Because if web site visitors think there is a small chance of third party’s getting access to information perceived personal, evaluation of risk is seemingly poor.

Third, trust is highly correlated to risk. Increased trust is the consequence of a decrease in perceived risk. This will cause positive beliefs in the business’s online reputation. Fourth, Perceived usefulness. This incorporates the time and effort required for an individual to educate itself on how to opt-out (Perea et al., 2004). Website visitors only have limited knowledge on technology, information and communication technology. Consumers need to understand what is written in privacy statements and what they actually sign an agreement with (Perea et al., 2004). As earlier described, educating web site visitors more by forewarnings can create resistance, which will negatively impact their purchasing behavior (W. Wood & J. Quinn 2003) .

At last the ease of use also has significant impact on consumers their online behavior. Using a new technology need to be free of effort. If an internet user visits a website, he or she experiences this as very time consuming to completely analyze the statement. This makes the website visitor not read it and either state they do not care about their privacy. In statics this is about 3%. On the other side incorporating the law, it cannot be assumed that website visitors not reading the privacy statements willingly accepts the browser settings of cookies. Therefore according to article 2 subsection h Data protection directive which demand for permission a free, specific and on information founded volition will cause considerate problems. (Group privacy protection 29, 2008)

3 What strategies should marketers apply to respond to current privacy concerns regarding cookies in OBA?

3.1 Coercive vs. non- coercive strategies

Organizations that deal with online privacy concerns among consumers should realize whether they are adopting an coercive influence strategy or a non-coercive influence strategy. The coercive influence strategy involves web sites offering incentives to consequently make consumers increase self-disclosure (provide more personal information) (Acquisti & Varian, 2005). Incentives to provide personal information can be categorized into economic incentives such as promotions, discounts and coupons. Non-economic incentives are for instance translated into customization, personalization and access to exclusive content. Threats indicate a penalty or exclusion of benefits for noncompliance. Therefore if the request is not honored, the website visitor cannot make use of the content of the website. For example, NPO, like more websites demand from customers to provide their personal information to get the ability to register on the website and to access specific information on the website. This method of data gathering is aimed at punishing people who refuse to provide their personal information by not providing them with the website content they requested (Sheehan, 2005).

Non-coercive influence strategies. In this case NPO would still take the same actions but without making use of rewards or penalties. For example, a website could explicitly demand the web site visitor by using web forms for these visitors to provide their personal information without the use of non-economic incentives, in this case providing customized advertisement. Instead of providing incentives, NPO could start providing recommendations, such as making the consumer believe, if they provide personal information it can improve their experience on the website (customization) and therefore making the website still reach its original aim. In this case websites can make use of information provision, where they can provide web site visitors with privacy policies which states how and why information will be collected (Milne, Rohm and Bahl, 2004) . Next to that they will provide seals of trust to provide website visitors the guarantee of privacy protection. (Gabbish, 2011).

The main focus for websites such as NPO is identifying strategies for gathering information from website visitors that provide the opportunity to reduce privacy concerns and increase consumers’ trust. According to Payan & McFarland (2005) the application of non-coercive influence strategies have shown positive relational effects. On the other side, coercive strategies have shown the opposite effect. According to Hausman & Johnston (2009) non- coercive strategies have a positive influence on trust while coercive strategies show the opposite. Privacy literature also shows that privacy policies and seals make concerns on privacy decrease and trust to rise. Rewards and threats on the other side makes trust decrease and privacy concerns to increase (Gabbish, 2011).

3.2 Application of the structural model of privacy policy

For companies to reduce the chances of the adoption of resistance strategies from consumers, they could opt for making use of a structural model of privacy policy, privacy concern, trust and willingness to provide personal information. This model showed that if applied properly companies can increase consumer confidence and willingness to provide their personal information (Wu et al., 2012). The model consist of the parameters notice, choice, access, security and enforcement.

Source: Wu et al., 2012

Notice is the most important parameter, stating that consumers should be informed about the collection of personal data before personal data is gathered from these individuals (Wu et al., 2012). In the NPO case, personal data from consumers was collected from consumers without them being aware of it (Pijnenburg, 2014). Choice gives consumers the ability to control the personal data obtained from them. Access gives web site users the ability to have insight into their data. Next to that, website visitors can check whether the data collected from them is correct and complete. Security is concerned with checking whether information is secure and correct.

In order for data integrity to occur, web site owners and third-parties should take measures that provide consumers the ability to have insight into data, erase information and change it to anonymous characters. Enforcement is one of the most important parameters of privacy protection, since privacy can only be assured if there are measures that enforce privacy protection (Wu et al., 2012).

According to Wu et al. (2012) the study came to the conclusion that security ranks highest in concerns of consumers. If the web site owner is aimed at increasing trust among web site visitors, in order for them to provide more personal information, they increase their focus on the provision of security and security data along with creating privacy statements.

This study done by Wu et al. 2012 did research on the relationship of the content of privacy policy to trust and online privacy concern. There are moderating variables that can affect the relationships. These moderating variables tend to describe consumer behavior. Therefore these factors shouldn’t be left out of the original model. The moderating variables that have been researched are cross-cultural effects, age and gender. According to this study, culture has an important moderating effect on the behavior of website visitors to the content of Privacy Policy. Some cultures show a rise in trust in websites when they give consumers access to their data and when their personal data is secure. Differences in cultures have a significant function in the behavior of website users and have influence on their choices in activities online. Gender also influences privacy concerns and willingness to provide personal information. Woman show more openness and therefore more self-disclosure. However they have higher needs for privacy (Wu et., al 2012). Age on the other hand could also have significant impact on the relationship of content of privacy policy and privacy concern/trust. Research showed, the older people get, the more worried they are on their online privacy.

3.3 Web bugs

According to Goldfarb &Tucker (2010) web bugs can be described as 1×1-pixel parts of a code that give online advertisers the ability to follow consumers online. Web bugs are not similar to cookies since they are not visible to the website user and are not saved on the computer of the website visitor. A consumer is therefore not aware of being tracked, unless they analyze the html. code of the webpage. Web bugs track the consumer from website to website. Next to that, web bugs are able to track how far a visitor scrolls down a page. This will have a positive impact on the collection of the preferences of the website visitor (Goldfarb &Tucker, 2010). According to Murray &Cowart (2001) web bugs are used by approximately 95% of top brands. Since consumers are not aware of data collection, privacy concerns will not occur as much as with cookies. However if the law would make websites inform consumers about web bugs, privacy concerns could rise again (Goldfarb &Tucker, 2010). Therefore web bugs could be seen as an alternative for cookies. But if the Privacy Directive adjusts the law, web bugs would become similar to cookies, with the same privacy concerns as consequence.

4 Conclusion/ Recommendation

The reason why this paper focuses on NPO is because in July 2014 they received a penalty by the Dutch authority for consumers and markets known as ACM (acm.nl, 2014). The NPO placed cookies which track the web site visitors without giving accurate information to its visitors. ACM claimed the NPO was not complying with article 11.7A of the Dutch telecommunication, neither complying with the Dutch data protection act. The NPO is only allowed to track consumers if consent of the web-site visitor is given willingly and unambiguously, according to the information that is disclosed (Fouad, 2014). Referring back to section chapter 2 it can be obtained that the NPO didn’t comply with laws referring to article 2.h. In 2011 article 2.h came to attention that with ‘unambiguous’ permission the website is not allowed to make to quick assumptions that the website user gives permission to make use of personal information (European commission, 2003; 2006).

From the models of factors influencing consumer behavior in section 2.3, it can be obtained that the Consumer Privacy States Framework states that according to consumers if the consumer is aware of data collection and the consumer is knowledgeable about opt-out practices, it could be stated that privacy exists, therefore NPO went wrong in not giving consumers the idea that privacy exists.

The rank order table in section 2.3.2 statistics showed that consumers do need assurance from websites that a website have a comprehensive privacy policy. However websites having privacy policies don’t make consumers actually read them (Earp & Baumer, 2003; Ant??n et al. 2002). Therefore consumers not feeling knowledgeable about their rights show resistance. This can be emphasized by figures showing that the cookie wall of NPO is perceived as a pressure. They actually state; if you don’t accept my cookies you can’t visit my website, with the consequence that they lose visitors. Other businesses use a softer approach with the risk of a loss of personal information. This cookie wall has resulted in a loss in turnover of 0-5% in short term. The NPO expects on the long term a rising trend in visitors on their website (Douma & Verspreek, 2014).

Referring back to the Customer profile model in 2.3.3, influencing factors in consumer behavior online show that if consumers feel more secure on how to control their privacy online they will show a more positive perception about OBA. However on the other side, more control would mean more resistance (Wood & Quinn 2003) . Next to that actual risk is not really experienced but the perception of risk.

Therefore NPO should in the future focus on having their privacy statements accurate and clear and create confidence among website visitors. In the end, the consumers are not specifically worried about their privacy and the detailed information in privacy statements but more on their degree of control, what all 3 models confirm.

In order for consumers not to choose to turn to resistance strategies, influence strategies could be applied. Some of these influence strategies could be considered as manipulative. However on the other side, other influence strategies could increase consumers’ perception of security (Kirmani & Campbell, 2004). The effect of influence strategies is not similar to all individual website visitors. Differences may appear in privacy concerns, consumers ‘trust and their willingness to provide personal information (Milne et al., 2009). Research has shown that non-coercive strategies, such as placing privacy policies on a website, decreases concerns on disclosure of personal information. However on the other side, coercive strategies offering a reward would increase privacy concern and decrease self-disclosure willingness (Andrade et al., 2002). Therefore it is recommended to NPO to adopt a non-coercive strategy to increase trust and willingness to provide personal information.

Referring back to the structural model of Wu et al. (2012) the study came to the conclusion that security ranks highest in concerns of consumers. If the web site owner is aimed at increasing trust among web site visitors, in order for them to provide more personal information they increase their focus on the provision of security and security data along with creating privacy statements or building the website. Therefore again, this strategy shows that NPO should increase attention to the parameter trust in order to increase willingness to provide personal information. This strategy highly correlates with the non-coercive strategy. In the coercive strategy NPO would put too much focus on trying to let customers know about the customization provided which would increase resistance and reduce trust. The non-coercive strategy and (the importance of trust in) the structural model both focus on providing security to increase trust and in turn reach a higher willingness to provide personal information.

The alternative of using cookies could be the application of web bugs. However the application of web bugs is only a short term solution until privacy regulations will change. When privacy regulations will change web bugs would become similar to cookies. Therefore it is recommended that NPO as an example organization should not turn to this strategy.

MPPT CONTROLLER UNDER PARTIAL: essay help online free

ABSTRACT: Maximum Power Point

Tracking (MPPT) is the most important part

of an energy conversion system using

photovoltaic arrays. Maximum power point

tracking (MPPT) techniques are used in

photovoltaic (PV) systems to maximize the

PV array output power by tracking

continuously the maximum power point

(MPP) which depends on panel temperature

and on irradiance conditions. The power

voltage characteristic of PV arrays

operating under partial shading conditions

exhibits multiple local maximum power

points (LMPPs). In this paper, a review of

various characteristics curves of MPPT

controller under partial shading conditions

has been presented to analyze the

performance of MPPT controller under

such conditions.

Keywords: Maximum Power Point

Tracking (MPPT), Global Maximum Power

Point (GMPP), Local Maximum Power

Point (LMPP), Multiple Maxima, Partial

Shading, Photovoltaic (PV).

I. INTRODUCTION

A PHOTOVOLTAIC (PV) cell is an

electrical device that converts the energy of

light directly into electricity through PV

effect. PV cells have a complex relationship

between solar irradiation, temperature, and

total resistance, and exhibit a nonlinear

output efficiency characteristic known as

the P’V curve. Therefore, maximum power

point tracking (MPPT) techniques should be

developed in PV systems in order to

maximize the output power of PV systems.

Nowadays, there have been many MPPT

methods reported in the literature, such as

hill climbing, perturb and observe

incremental conductance (INC) and ripple

correction.

However, when there is multiple local

power maxima, from partially shading or

from installation on a curved surface,

conventional MPPT techniques do not

perform well. Multiple maxima may occur

due to bypass diodes, which are used to

avoid hot spots from forming when some

cells in a module or some modules in a

string receive less irradiance than others.

Without the remediation of power

electronics, the lost energy due to partial

shading can be significant. Thus, it is

imperative to utilize MPPT techniques that

reliably track the unique global power

maximum present in shaded arrays.

Some researchers have proposed global

maximum power point tracking (GMPPT)

algorithms to address the partial shading

condition. It is observed that the peaks

follow a specific trend in which the power at

a peak point continues to increase until it

reaches the GMPP, and afterward, it

continuously decreases. The proposed

algorithm incorporates an online current

measurement and periodic interruptions to

address certain challenges associated with

rapidly changing insolation and partial

shading. This method can be an effective

solution to mitigate the effect of partial

shading. The simulation results, however,

obtained by measuring environmental

parameters and the actual case will be

drastically different, because the actual

characteristic of the solar panels depends on

many factors (e.g., light intensity,

temperature,

Fig. 1 PV array under different partial

shading conditions.

ageing, dust, and partial shading). In

addition, the method increases the PV

system cost in practical commercial

applications.

II. PARTIAL SHADING

CONDITIONS

Fig. 1 shows a PV array which has

four PV modules connected in series under

uniform insolation conditions. Fig. 2(a)

illustrates typical I’V and P’V curves for

the PV array under a uniform solar

irradiance of 1000 W/m2 on all the PV

modules. The traditional MPPT algorithm

can reach this peak and continue oscillating

around the MPP. The P&O method, e.g.,

perturbs the solar array voltage in one

direction in each sampling period and tests

the power change afterward. It is assumed

that initially PV array is operating at point

A, as shown in Fig. 2(a).

An operating voltage of the PV array

is perturbed in a given direction (from A to

B), and an increase in output power is

observed (PB > PA). This means that point B

is closer to the MPP than point A, and the

operating voltage must be further perturbed

in the same direction (from B to C). On the

other hand, if the output power of the PV

array decreases (from D to E), the operating

point has moved away from the MPP, and

therefore, the direction of the operating

voltage perturbation must be reversed (from

D to C). Through constant perturbation,

eventually the operating voltage will reach

and continue oscillating around the MPP

level.

However, in some practical

conditions, the series strings of PV modules

are not under the same solar irradiance

condition. The partial shading condition is a

common situation due to the shadows of

buildings, trees, clouds, dirt, etc. Fig. 1

shows several different partial shading

situations. Under the partial shading

condition, if there is one module in a PV

string that is less illuminated, the shaded

module will dissipate some of the power

generated by the rest of the modules. It

means that the current available in a series

connected PV array is limited by the current

of the shaded module. This can be avoided

by using bypass diodes which can be placed

in parallel with the PV module.

The method of using bypass diodes

allows the array current to flow in the

correct direction even if one of the strings is

completely shadowed. Bypass diodes are

widely implemented in commercial solar

panels. Because of bypass diodes, multiple

maxima appear under the partial shading

condition. The P’V curve of PV array in

Fig. 1 possesses multiple maxima under the

partial shading condition, as shown in Fig. 2

(b). The unshaded modules in the sample

PV array are exposed to 1000 W/m2 of

solar insolation and the shaded module is

exposed to 400 W/m2 of solar insolation.

There are two observed peaks in the P’V

curve, because of the natural behavior of the

bypass diode and PV array connection

inside the module. Point A is the GMPP,

while point B the local maximum power

point (LMPP). When the area covered by

the shadow changes, the P’V curve and the

location of GMPP also changes, as shown in

Fig. 2(c) and (d). Under these conditions,

traditional algorithms can only track either

of the two MPPs, and cannot distinguish

between GMPP and LMPP.

Continuing with the P&O method as

an example, both points satisfy the

conditions to be the ‘MPP.’ If the operating

point obtained by the PV array algorithm is

LMPP, the output power is significantly

lower. Some researchers proposed a global

scan method to obtain the PV output curves.

Then a complex algorithm is required to

calculate the GMPP of the curves. This

method is able to obtain the GMPP, but it

cannot determine whether the PV cell is

operating under shading conditions, and

blindly and constantly scans for the MPP,

wasting the output energy. For these

reasons, a new improved MPPT method for

the PV system under the partial shading

condition is proposed in this paper.

Fig. 2 P’V and I’V characteristics curves

of a PV array under different partial

shading conditions

III. ANALYSIS OF

CHARACTERISTIC CURVES

UNDER PARTIAL SHADING

CONDITIONS

In order to avoid blind global scan,

methods to determine the presence of partial

shading are essential. It is noted that when a

series of PV array is under the identical

solar irradiance condition [Fig. 1], every PV

model works as a source, and all modules

are identical in their voltage, current, and

output power at any time. But this state

changes when there is shadow. Fig. 1 is an

example in the following analysis. The

models in the series array are exposed to

two different solar irradiances, and the solar

irradiation levels are 1000 and 400 W/m2,

respectively. The voltages of the modules

that are exposed to different irradiation

levels are completely different.

The two peaks on the P’V curve are

divided into two separate parts, as shown in

Fig. 2(c). Part A is the curve containing the

left peak (curved A’C), and part B is the

curve containing the right peak (curve C’B’

E). In part A, the current of the PV array IPV

is greater than the maximum current that the

PV module can

Fig. 3 Every module output voltage with

array output power.

(a) Unshaded module. (b) Shaded

module.

produce under the shade (M3 and M4);

therefore, the current will flow through the

bypass diode of each module. At this stage,

only PV M1 and M2 are supplying power,

and PV M3 and M4 have been bypassed by

the diodes. The characteristic curves of the

PV module voltage with output power are

shown in Fig. 3(a) and (b). The voltages of

PV M3 and M4 are approximately negative

0.7V (the diode’s forward voltage drop) in

part A, as shown in Fig. 3(b).

Therefore, the module voltages

being equal to the negative of the diode’s

forward voltage can be used as one effective

way to estimate partial shading condition. In

part B, all PV modules are supplying power,

but the unshaded and shaded modules are in

different working conditions. Because the

PV modules receive different amounts of

solar radiation, the voltages of the PV

modules are different. In part B (curve C’

B’E), the voltage of the unshaded modules

is greater than that of the shaded modules,

as shown in Fig. 4. It is evident that this is

another indicator to efficiently identify

partial shading. Following the above

analysis, some of the observations are listed

as follows.

1) I’V curves under partial shading

conditions have multiple steps, while the

P-V curves are characterized by multiple

peaks.

2) The number of peaks is equal to the

number of different insolation levels

irradiated on the PV array, and any peak

point may be the GMPP.

Fig 4 Array output power with unshaded

module output voltage and shaded

module output voltage.

3) The voltages of PV modules that receive

different solar radiations are different.

4) The voltage of the PV module that is

bypassed by a diode is equal to the negative

of the diode’s forward voltage drop.

CONCLUSION

In this paper, a review of concepts &

developments in the field of MPPT has been

shown. Also various partial shading

conditions have been briefly reviewed. The

comparison between this various conditions

of partial shading has been summarized with

the help of various characteristic curves.

Finally it is concluded that conventional

MPPT techniques have disadvantages like

energy loss, not able to determine partial

shading conditions, etc. Majority of these

problems can be eliminated by improved

MPPT controller method. Therefore

application of Improved MPPT controller

method now a day’s not limited up to

generation level but research work

suggested that it is having ability to replace

the conventional MPPT methods too in near

future.

REFERENCES

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modified adaptive hill climbing MPPT

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1, pp. 302’310, Mar. 2008.

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S. Pulver, and A. D. Cronin, ‘A simple non

linear model for the effect of partial shade

on PV systems,’ in Proc. IEEE Photovoltaic

Spec. Conf. (PVSC), 2010, pp. 2321’2326.

[7] Yang Chen, Keyue Ma Smedley, ‘A

Cost-Effective Single-Stage Inverter With

Maximum Power Point Tracking’, IEEE

Transactions Power Electronics, Vol. 19,

No. 5, pp. 1289-1294, Sep. 2004.

[8] Eduardo Rom??n, Ricardo Alonso, Pedro

Iba??ez, Sabino Elorduizapatarietxe &

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Grid-Connected PV Systems’, IEEE

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No. 4, pp. 1066-1073, Aug. 2006.

[9] Hiren Patel, Vivek Agarwal, ‘Maximum

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[10] Hiren Patel, Vivek Agarwal,

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Characteristics’, IEEE Transactions Energy

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[12] Jung-Min Kwon, Bong-Hwan Kwon,

Kwang-Hee Nam, ‘Grid-Connected

Photovoltaic Multistring PCS with PV

Current Variation Reduction Control’, IEEE

Transactions Industrial Electronics, Vol. 56,

No. 11, pp.4381-4388, Nov. 2009.

Learning theories – behavioural, social & cultural, constructivism, cognitive

Learning is defined as the permanent change in individuals mind, voluntary or involuntary. It occurs through an experience that can bring about a relatively permanent change in an individual’s knowledge or behavior. Behaviorist defines learning as the changes in an individual’s mind resulting in a permanent change. It is learning that takes place intentional or unwillingly in individuals. Cognitive psychologist defines learning as the changes in knowledge that can be an internal mental activity that cannot be observed directly. Learning involves obtaining and modifying knowledge, skills, strategies, beliefs, attitudes and behaviors to understand old or new information. Individuals learn skills from experiences that tend to take the form of social interactions, linguistic or motor skills. Educational professionals define learning as an ‘enduring change in behavior or in the capacity to behave in a given fashion which results from practice or other forms of experience’.

One may ask how does learning happen? Learning happens every day to every individual, it doesn’t only happen in the classrooms, colleges or universities buildings but it can happen anywhere and every day. Learning can occur through interacting with others, observing or simply as just listening to a conversation. Learning happens through experiences good and bad, or ones that can provoke an emotional response or simply offer a moment of revelation. Behaviorist and cognitive theorist believed that learning can be affected by the environment an individual resides but behaviorist focused more on the role of the environment and how the stimuli is presented and arrange and the responses reinforced. Cognitive theorist on the other hand agrees with behaviorist but tend to focus more on the learners abilities, beliefs, values and attitudes. They believe that learning occurs by consolidation which is the forming and strengthening of neural connections which include the factors organization, rehearsal, elaboration and emotional. Learning occurs in many ways, psychologist believe that learning is the key concept of living whether it’s intentional or unintentional which is why they came up with the learning theories.

Learning theories are considered theoretical frameworks in describing how information is contain, refined and maintain during learning. Learning is an important activity in the lives of individuals; it is the core of our educational process, even though learning begins out of the classroom. For many years psychologist sought to understand what is learning, the nature of it, how is it transpired and how individuals influence learning in others through teaching and similar endeavors. Learning theories tend to be based on scientific evidence and more valid than personal opinions or experiences. There are five basic types of theories used in educational psychology which are: Behavioral, Cognitive, Social & Cultural, and Constructivism.

Behavioral Theory

The behavioral approach is the behavior view that generally assumes that the outcome of learning is the change in behavior and emphasizes the effects of internal events on an individual. In the behaviorist approach, they believed that individuals have no free will, and that the environment an individual is place in determines their behavior. They believe that individuals are born with a clean slate and that behaviors can be learned from the environment. The learning theories from the behaviorists Pavlov, Guthrie and Thorndike have historical importance on learning. Although they may differ each theory has its own process of forming associations between stimuli and responses. Thorndike believed that responses to stimuli are strengthening when it is followed by a satisfying consequence. Guthrie reasoned that the relation between stimulus and responses is established through pairing. Pavlov, who developed the classical conditioning, demonstrated how stimuli can be conditioned to obtain certain responses while being paired with another stimulus. The behavior theory is expressed in conditioning theories that explains learning in the terms of environmental events but is not the only conditioning theory.

B. F. Skinner developed the Operant conditioning; this form of conditioning is based on the assumptions that the features of the environment serves as cues for responding. He believed that we learn to behave in certain ways as we operate on the environment. In operant conditioning reinforcement strengthens the responses and increases the likelihood of the occurring when the stimuli are present. The operant conditioning is a three-term contingency that involves the antecedent (stimulus), the behavior (response) and the consequences. Operant conditioning involves consequences which can determine how individuals respond to environmental cues. Consequences can be either good or bad for individuals, it can reinforce behavior that increases it or a reinforcement that decreases behavior. There are other operant conditioners such as generalization, discrimination, primary and secondary reinforcements, reinforcement schedules and the premack principle.

Shaping is another form of operant conditioning, it is the process used to alter behavior in individuals. Shaping is the successive approximations which involves the reinforcing progress. It is the complex behaviors that are formed by the linking of simple behaviors in the three-term contingencies. This operant conditioning involves self-regulation which is the process of obtaining an individual stimulus and reinforcement control of themselves.

Cognitive Theory

The cognitive theory focuses on the inner activities of the mind. The cognitive theory states that knowledge is learned and the changes in knowledge make the changes in behavior possible. Both the behavioral and cognitive theory believe that reinforcement is important in learning but for different reasons. The behaviorist suggests that reinforcement strengthens responses but cognitive suggest that reinforcement is a source of feedback about what is likely to happen if behaviors are repeated or changed. The cognitive approach suggests an important element in the learning process is the knowledge an individual has towards a situation. Cognitive theorist believe that they information we already know determines what we will perceive, learn, remember and forget.

There are three main theorist of the cognitive development Gestalt, Kohler and Koffka. Gestalt learning theory approach proposes that learning consists of grasping of a structural whole and not just a mechanistic response to a stimulus. The main concept of his theory was that when we process sensory stimuli we are aware of the configuration or the overall pattern which is the whole. Kohler theory stated that learning can occur by a ‘sudden comprehension’ as to gradually understanding. This theory could happen without any reinforcement and there will be no need for review, training or investigations. Koffka theory suggested that he supported the fact that animals are can be participants in learning because they are similar to humans in many ways. He believed that there was no such thing as meaningless learning, and that the idea interdependent of facts was more important than knowing many individual facts.

Social & Cultural theory

The social and cultural theory is based on how individuals functioning are related to cultural, institutional and historical context. Vygotsky was a psychologist in Russia who identified the Social & Cultural theory also known as sociocultural theory. The Sociocultural theory is known as the combining theory in psychology because it discussed the important contributions society makes on an individual development and cognitive views of Piaget. The theory suggested that learning occurs between the interactions of people. Lev. Vygotsky believed that Parents, Caregivers, Peers and culture played an important in the development of a high order function. According to Vygotsky ‘Every function is the children cultural development that appears twice: firstly on the social level, secondly on an individual level. In the social cultural theory tends to focus not only on how adults or peers influence learning but how an individual culture can impact how learning takes place.

According to Vygotsky children are born with the basic constraints on their mind. He believed that each culture provides ‘tools of intellectual adaptation’ for each individual. Theses adaptation allows children to use their basic mental ability to adapt to their culture for example a culture may utilized tools to emphasize on memorization strategies. Vygotsky was a brilliant man, he worked along with Piaget in developing the cognitive theory their theories differ in certain ways. Firstly Piaget theory was basically based on how children interactions and explorations influenced development, Vygotsky placed greater emphasis on the social factors that influence development. Another difference is the Vygotsky suggested that cognitive development can be different between cultures while Piaget theory suggested the development in universal. There is one important concept in the sociocultural theory known as the zone of proximal. The Zone of proximal is considered to be the level of independent problem solving and a level of potential development, through problem solving under the guidance of an adult or with peers. It includes the skills that a person cannot understand or perform on their own yet, but is capable of learning with guidance.

Constructivism Theory

The constructivism learning theory is defined as how learners or individuals construct knowledge from pervious experiences. Constructivism is often associated with a pedagogic approach that often promote learning or learning by doing. Constructing is known as the meaning for learning because constructivism focuses on the individual thinking about learning. The constructivist theory argues that individuals can generate knowledge from interactions between experiences and ideas. Constructivism examined the interactions between individuals from infancy to adulthood to try to comprehend how learning is done from experiences and behavior patterns. The constructivist theory is attributed to Jean Piaget who articulated the mechanisms by stating that knowledge is internalized by learners. Piaget stated that through the processes of adaptation the accommodation and assimilation, individuals can construct new knowledge from past experiences.

According Piaget theory of constructivism accommodation is the process of an individual reframing one’s mental view of the world and tries to fit in new experiences. Accommodation can be understood when failure leads to learning, as humans if we have an idea that the world works only one way and that way fails us then we will fail. In accommodation we learn from our failure or the failures of others. The constructivism theory describes how learning happens whether the individuals learn from using their experiences to understand information or by just following instructions to construct something. In both cases constructivism suggest that learner construct knowledge from experiences. The constructivism theory tends to be associated with active learning because5 individuals learn from experiences, something that was already did. Several cognitive psychologists argued that constructivist theories are misleading or can contradict findings.

As an educator I can facilitate learning by encouraging my students, helping them to develop to their fullest potential. As an educator I am compelled to vie and asses learning styles so that I can meet every student needs within the classroom. As an educator I want to be able to allow students to learn gradually. I would want my students to thrive academically and socially in and out of the classroom. From my understanding the four learning theories discussed in the paper all contribute to my understanding of learning. Despite all the different theories each theory gave me a new insight on learning occurs in and out of a class, college or university. From Behaviorist perspective view of learning is the change in behavior and emphasis of external events on an individual. For example Pavlov experiment in classical conditioning, where he taught dogs to salivate when they hear the tuning of a fork. If we used both conditioning theories with the classrooms can train students to behave and operant in the way they would want them to.

The theory that can be used in Music is the Behaviorist theory, I say this because music is the incorporating of knowledge and feeling. Music sets the atmosphere for an environment for example if a relaxing song is being played at home, that song puts the individual in a relaxing mood , in the behaviorist theory the environment influences the response of an individual so the relaxing song will evoke a relaxed response as done in Pavlov experiment of classical conditioning with the dogs that provoke salivating when hearing the tuning of a fork. In music classical conditioning is where students can be conditioned to like or enjoy a piece of music. For example if a classical song is being played that the students don’t know or like the teacher can play it repeatedly so they can get an understanding of it and eventually the students will enjoy the music because of the repetition of the song being played. There response to the song might be in the way of moving their bodies, tapping their feet or nodding their head.

In ‘The Prince’, Machiavelli Puts A Twist On The Notion Of Virtue

The idea of virtue can best be described as someone who strives to have high moral standards. A person who is virtuous possesses characteristics such as integrity, perseverance, and humility; all qualities that are considered admiral in those who can achieve them. Machiavelli presents a twist on virtue in his work, The Prince, placing before the reader this idea of virtue that doesn’t fit it’s with today’s understanding of the concept. Virtue, to Machiavelli, aligns more closely with a leader doing what is necessary to attain and maintain a state. Doing what is necessary can require a number of things, both good and bad. According to Machiavelli, cruelty is necessary can be considered virtuous as long as the ends justify the means. Machiavelli offers up the notion that people have fickle and selfish tendencies that a prince must play to his advantage. Throughout the novel, he offers up a number of men throughout history that have possessed his definition of virtue and consequently found great success, to achieving greatness by conquering and holding control over states.

Human nature is a major theme throughout the novel. Machiavelli presents humans as being innately changeable, self-serving, skeptical, and lukewarm. These natural qualities would make it difficult for a prince to win over his people and maintain their loyalty. Machiavelli often mentions the behavior of the common people in times of prosperity and in times of adversity. When times are good, the people will support their prince, but when times are hard, the people will grow to dislike the prince. Humans will often choose to preserve their lives and property and advance their interests over maintaining their loyalty to the prince of their state. By recognizing and exploiting these selfish tendencies, a prince can maintain his state through fear. By threatening lives and property, and reminding the people just how much they depend upon the mercy of their prince, the prince can persuade his subjects to remain loyal to him. A prince should, however, take care not to exploit these fears too much lest he become not lonely feared, but hated. Machiavelli puts forth the argument that due to these tendencies of human nature, a prince appears to be virtuous. A prince should gain a reputation over time that allows him to seemingly possess the qualities that men admire, but tend to take advantage of such as generosity and liberality. A prince that successfully appears to be what the people want while completing means necessary to maintain their state fits Machiavelli’s definition of virtue.

Machiavelli offers up a few examples throughout the novel to illustrate his idea of virtue. He describes Caesar Borgia as a leader who has virtue. Borgia

“acquired his state through the fortune of his father and lost it through the same, notwithstanding the fact that he made use of every deed and did all those things that should be done by a prudent and virtuous man to put his roots in the states that the arms and fortune of others had given him” (Prince, 27).

Borgia maintained his state through use of a henchman, Remirrio, who was tasked with terrorizing his subjects. When the people grew to hate and fear Remirrio, Borgia swept in pretending to be their hero and publically placing Remirrio’s dead body in the square for all to see as proof of his ability to protect the people. Borgia used the people’s fear to trick them into being loyal to him. Machiavelli states that “if one considers all the steps of the duke, one will see that he had laid for himself great foundations for future power, … for I do not know what better teaching I could give to a new prince than the example of this actions. And if his orders did not bring profit to him, it was not his fault because this arose from… extreme malignity of fortune” (Prince, 27). Even though Borgia was not successful in leaving a legacy, to Machiavelli he was a virtuous man who took all the right steps and was afforded all the right opportunities to attain, protect, and provide for his state and that his ultimate failure was through no misstep of his own.

Continuing with Machiavelli’s examples of virtuous men, he offers a parallel of two men that were virtuous in different ways and died with a legacy of glory or cruelty. Hannibal has made a name for himself in history due to his inhumane sense of cruelty. Although not necessarily a prince, Hannibal’s story is employed by Machiavelli as an example of vice can actually be a virtue. Hannibal does everything in his power to achieve his goal of military success. Machiavelli writes, “this could not have arisen from anything other than his inhuman cruelty which, together with his infinite virtues, always made him venerable and terrible in the sight of his soldiers; and without it, his other virtues would not have sufficed to bring about this effect” (Prince, 67). Hannibal’s means of cruelty combined with his military prowess are what allowed him to find success, though his legacy remembers him as cruel. Hannibal’s less cruel counterpart is Scipio, who similar to Borgia, completed his dirty work through the actions of others. Scipio was seen as agreeable and well-liked, but also was seen as merciful. His mercy “would in time have sullied Scipio’s fame and glory if he had continued with it in the empire; but while he lived under the government of the Senate, this damaging quality of his not only was hidden, but made for his glory” (Prince, 28). His compassion combined with his manipulation of others to complete unscrupulous tasks made him virtuous at least according to Machiavelli’s definition. Ultimately, Machiavelli concludes that “returning to being being feared and loved, that since men love at their convenience and fear at the convince of the prince, a wise prince should found himself on what is his, not on what is someone’s else’s; he should only contrive to avoid hatred, as was said” (Prince, 68). Through this, Machiavelli believe that one with a mixture of good fortune, can achieve the status of a successful prince.

Machiavelli puts a twist on the notion of virtue. To a modern audience, it seems rather bizarre due to cruelty not being synonymous with virtue, but I think Machiavelli’s version of virtue can be reasonably applied to the time period in which he was writing. During this time, the majority of the population didn’t enjoy the same luxuries and stability of life that we do today. These selfish qualities would be much more prevalent in an environment where survival is a daily task for everyday people. They would respond to cruelty and punishment because they valued their lives during a time period where life wasn’t always guaranteed. In modern times, a clear pattern of successful people implementing a watered down version of Machiavelli’s concept of “by any means necessary” is evident. Ruthlessness and selfishness are often seen as prerequisites to extreme success. Cruelty in the way conceived by Machiavelli may not be deployed, but Machiavelli’s idea of “by any means necessary” is still prevalent in today’s society.

Persepolis

Traditionally, graphic novels are thrown into the category of comic books.  This means that usually they are not taken seriously and are assumed to be humorous. However, Persepolis is much different than a traditional comic book. While it does use humor, it carries as much weight as a traditional novel. Marjane Satrapi makes her graphic novel humorous and enjoyable because it is filled with the playful innocence of her childhood memories. Children see the world in a different way than adults. Satrapi uses real-life humor to make light of the critical situations she is growing up being exposed to.  The innocent, childlike humor along with the graphics makes Persepolis easy to become absorbed in. Connecting with characters in the graphic novel is made easy with the humor revealed as reactions to horrors in their life. The drawn images paired with the comments on events allows for easy visualization of facial expressions, moods, and reactions throughout the telling of the story that would otherwise be lost if Persepolis were a traditional non-fiction novel.

According to Merriam-Webster dictionary, a graphic novel can be defined as “a story that is presented in comic-strip format and published as a book”. Imagery throughout novels allow readers to create their own individual meanings of parts to the story. Imagination must be used to try and envision what the writer has put in front of you. However, when actual images are present along with the words of the story, less dependence is put on the imagination. With graphics, authors are allowed the room to most accurately portray the points they are trying to get across. For example, the author’s words alone may be taken seriously, but when paired with an image of a facial expression it is revealed that the words are sarcastic.

Will Eisner singlehandedly pioneered the way of graphic novels. Eisner’s career successfully began in the early forties as he used his images to communicate with military members (Vulture). As the Vulture website states, Eisner is commonly known to many as the “father of the graphic novel”. This makes a lot of sense considering he even coined the phrase “graphic novel”. Eisner is quoted by the Vulture saying “I had finally settled on the term ‘graphic novel’ as an adequate euphemism for comic book” (Vulture). Eisner also created the image included above. It is fitting that the “father of the graphic novel” would be the person to create such a great piece of art to be used to discuss himself. The image shows a man firmly grasping a boy by the arm, showing how intensely graphic novels would soon be hitting markets. Graphic novels have changed the world of writing and brought a new meaning to writing and Will Eisner is to be greatly thanked for his role in introducing them.

As graphic novels have recently shaken the world of literature, and continue to, it must be thought, what makes Persepolis as great as it is? What would be lost if Persepolis were simply a traditional novel? When the fine words written by Marjane Satrapi are paired with magnificent drawings, a story of a revolution is made relatable. A simple history lesson on the Holocaust may begin to get boring after a while. However, while reading The Diary of Anne Frank or visiting a Holocaust museum, this simple history lesson is given a new meaning and made real. Readers are able to truly connect to literature once they are given the correct platform to by the author. Should Persepolis have been a traditional novel, it would be another boring history lesson. However, Satrapi knew the story well enough to understand that it would be better understood when paired with graphics. Without the images, readers would lose the personal connection felt with Marji. The viewing of Marji growing and getting older would be lost along with facial expressions, mood changes, and reactions. Persepolis is a unique story to be told and heavily relies on the images throughout it to fully portray the importance of the story and how it affected the lives of those involved. Satrapi’s pairing of literature and graphics allows a white, American girl to feel as though she too has felt the pain of and lived through the Iranian Revolution alongside Marji.

While there is obvious importance to the images in Persepolis revealing key parts of the story, there is a significance that may commonly be missed. Throughout the novel, readers are allowed to observe the progression of Marji’s growth. It is not written that Marji notices herself getting taller or realizes how much older she is getting because the images clearly show the advancements of the stages of her growth. However, part of what makes Persepolis such a brilliantly executed graphic novel is the humorous innocence of viewing the story from the perspective of a child. While the literature in the novel is written in a Childs perspective, the images paired along greatly adds a childlike effect to the entirety of the book. Children are notorious for drawing. Whether it be scribbles or doodles, on the walls or on paper, children begin to express themselves at an early age with what they draw. The drawings in Persepolis accurately tap into this fact to further intensify and exemplify the childlike viewpoint.

Marjane Satrapi accurately guides readers through the events of the Iranian Revolution. However, she does not offer textbook facts or extensive research to give knowledge on what happens. Instead, she uses her memories of her childhood. Satrapi tells the story of the Iranian Revolution as she remembers it and how she recalls living through it. The connection with readers and this real-life event would be pulled away significantly if Persepolis were written as any traditional novel. Persepolis is meant to be written as a graphic novel so it can be most accurately portrayed in a way that would be lost without the images paired with the story of the Revolution.

Levitz, Paul. “Will Eisner and the Secret History of the Graphic Novel.” Vulture, 10 Nov. 2015,
“Graphic Novel.” Merriam-Webster, Merriam-Webster
Satrapi, Marjane. Persepolis: The Story of a Childhood. Pantheon, 2003.

Application of mechatronics in medicine and treatments: college essay help online

Paragraph IA

The first most significant application of mechatronics is in medicine. To begin with, robots using in medicine are in a day-to-day evolution from the past to the future. One of the valuable parts of this evolution is the history dating back to the present. The thought of using robots in medicine for the soldiers which are injured frontline in war is to begin to be shaped by The United States Department of Defense. Therefore in the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Ames Research Center, researchers have begun to work extensively in order to allow usage of robotic in medicine. After NASA’s initiative, many research centers have contributed to the overall development of robots. Today, there are a lot of devices which are created to enhance the conditions in medicine. Therefore robots must be reprogrammed, renew or rebuilt according to technology and requirements. For example, Soleimani, Moll, Wallace, Bismuth, and Gersak asserted that trans-urethral resection of the prostate was accomplished by using a unique PUMA in 1988 at Imperial College, London. After developments, PUMA transformed to SARP (Surgeon Assistant Robot for Prostatectomy) and it was used successfully in -maybe the first- robotic prostate surgery in 1991 in Shaftesbury Hospital, Institute of Urology, London, UK (2011, p.617). Ideally, the rapid evolution of robotic provide patients and doctors with the opportunity to faster return to normal activities, shorter hospital stay, smaller incision, quicker resolution of pain, minimal blood loss and little scarring and these are only some advantages of using of robotic in medicine, also robots in medicine are in constant development. Another chapter that needs to be examined is future of these robots. There are projects that can shape the future in many subjects such as overcoming mechanical constraints, long-distance surgery, and robotic surgery advancing diagnostics, informatics surgery and simulation. Different methods are being tried to put these robotic processes in view. Experiments are made to the doctors and patients to find out what will change in the future correspondingly with an evolution of robotic in medicine. For instance, Soleimani, et al. found that remarkable effects of the simulation system on the behavior of interfering performance in a dangerous a carotid artery stenting (CAS) indicated by researchers according to an experiment in which 33 endovascular doctors attended in different degrees of CAS experience; unpracticed, partially or highly practiced. Particularly on the choosing of catheters and guiding to reach the common carotid artery beside the selective fluoroscopy angles (2011, p.628). It is clear that with the technological improvements and new learning techniques, abilities of doctors and medical care system make a progress.

Paragraph IB

Besides rapid evolution of robotic in medicine, robots are useful in treatments. One of the ways of using robots in medicine is rehabilitation. Preising, Hsia, and Mittelstadt defined that, “Rehabilitation is the restoration of normal form and function after injury or illness, and rehabilitation engineering is dedicated to providing assistive equipment for the disabled” (1991, p.14). Therefore, these disabled people need to be helped for satisfying their daily requirements and mobility. These individuals are confronting different obstacles such as nursing home, home care expenses, and also taking a lot of time of family members who have to look after them. Preising, Hsia, and Mittelstadt explained that the opportunity to diminish these expenses and also to work all the more productively in the public is offered by assistive gadgets for the disabled persons. Defective people with these issues are helped by some created robot frameworks as a modified HERO 2000 mobile robot (1991, p.14). According to a study by Preising, Hsia, and Mittelstadt (1991), in 1980, money that spent on study and improvement identified with innovation that would enable handicapped to look after themselves was there thousand fold more than cash that spent on individuals and equipment who cared for the handicapped people ($ 210 billion versus $ 66 million) (p.14). Considering the information above, it can be said that researchers who try to solve disabled’s problems with using technology are more interesting in rehabilitation methods than people cared for disabled. This makes us look more hopeful for the future. Another way to profit by robots in medicine is surgery. There are two classes of robots defined in the surgical area: surgical assistive robots and actually robots performed the surgery. Surgical assistive robots are programmed to locate the target coordinates in the robot’s reference frame. The robot can be controlled by a surgeon with using the arm of the robot. Before the robots are experienced in real treatment, different sort of tests are applied. Preising, Hsia, and Mittelstadt stated that 52-year-old man’s brain biopsy is taken by using a surgical assistive robot in April of 1985. It is the verification of the first example of correct biopsy (1991, p.17). Preising, Hsia, and Mittelstadt clarified that Arthobor that can be controlled by voice (20 commands have been pre-programmed) or a control panel was created and experimented at the University of British Columbia Health Sciences hospital in Vancouver, Canada. A patient’s limb is held at an exact distance and should stay for a long time in this position. A robot system that used in more than 200 surgical operations prevents undesirable motions of a limb which surgeon is not able to endure (1991, 18). In view of all this information, it can be deduced that assistive robot system is useful in the diverse area such as actual surgical procedure, and help the surgeon by keeping the tools the exact position, clenching, and also drive wanted the location. The robots also are designed in order to perform challenging and length surgeries.

Diagonal Earlobe Crease May Predict Early Atherosclerosis

Diagonal Earlobe Crease May Predict Early Atherosclerosis Without Clinical Manifestation of Atherosclerotic Cardiovascular Disease

Introduction

Diagonal earlobe crease (DEL) is defined as diagonal fold or wrinkle of the ear lobe skin, extending from the tragus towards the ear lobe. DEL can be seen in patients with coronary artery disease (CAD) (1). This condition was first reported by Frank in 1973 (2) and was recognized as a simple cutaneous marker to identify patients with CAD. In some studies, intima-media thickness of the carotid artery was shown to be increased in patients with DEL, and it has been suggested that DEL is closely related to atherosclerosis (3,4).

Carotid artery intima-media thickness (cIMT), a widely-accepted radiological marker for atherosclerosis, reportedly predicts adverse cardiovascular events (5-7) and is closely linked to cardiovascular risk factors (8,9). Intima-media thickness (IMT) is a non-invasive, early marker of atherosclerosis; an increase in this measure may reflect an increase in cardiovascular risk (10). This is an independent predictor of CVD, and may be considered as a marker for the assessment of subclinical atherosclerosis (11).

Studies in adults have shown that the measurement of the cIMT represents an excellent marker of subclinical atherosclerosis (12,13). The carotid artery has been the target in these studies because it is located rather superficially on the neck and can be easily visualized by ultrasound. Autopsy studies, however, have shown that the first atherosclerotic lesions actually begin to develop in the abdominal aorta (14). Because it is now possible to visualize the abdominal aorta and accurately assess its wall thickness (aortic intimamedia thickness, aIMT), measuring aIMT might provide a better index of preclinical atherosclerosis in high-risk children than cIMT.

Although there have been a few studies on the association between ELC and cIMT (4,20), there is not any research directly examining the relevance between ELC and abdominal (aIMT) and common femoral intima-media thickness (fIMT). In our literature review, the relationship between ELC and abdominal aIMT and cfIMT has not been investigated yet. We aimed to investigate the association of ELC with early atherosclerosis in our study. For this purpose ; We aimed to investigate the relationship between abdominal aIMT that shows preclinical atherosclerozis among ELC present and ELC absent patients.

Method

Study Population

Asymptomatic subjects, who admitted to University of Health Sciences, Trabzon Ahi Evren Cardiovascular and Thoracic Surgery Research and Application Center Cardiology Clinic for assessment of cardiovascular risk profile for screening and primary prevention purposes, were systemically screened for presence of cutaneous markers of cardiovascular disease. Among subjects screened, 52 DEL cases were identified.  A propensity score matched 52 subjects, according to age and sex, were selected as a control group from the same population pool. DEL is defined as diagonal fold or wrinkle on the ear lobe skin, extending from the tragus towards the ear lobe (figure 1). Patients with DEL in both ear lobes were included in the DEL group.

Patients with moderate to severe valvular disease including prosthetic valves, and patients with congenital heart disease, bacterial endocarditis, hematological, oncological, or an inflammatory disorder; white blood cell (WBC) count >12000 mm3; hemoglobin level <10 g/dL; ejection fraction <40%, renal insufficiency, liver or thyroid dysfunction, thrombocytopenia or thrombocytosis, as well as those who had symptomatic vascular disease such as stroke, transient ischemia, coronary heart disease, congestive heart failure, or intermittent claudication, were excluded. After exclusion of patients who met above mentioned exclusion criteria, 104 patients (52 patients with DEL and 52 patients without DEL) were included in the study. Informed consent was obtained from each participant and the study was conducted in accordance with the Principles of Declaration of Helsinki. The study was approved by the local Ethics Committee.

History of hyperlipidemia (HL) , arterial hypertension (HT), diabetes mellitus (DM), smoking and family history of coronary artery disease (CAD), noted down all patients. Patients with known hypertension history, antihypertensive drug use history, the average measurement of systolic blood pressure ≥ 140 mmHg and / or diastolic blood pressure ≥ 90 mmHg at least twice from both arms, defined as hypertension. Patients with fasting blood glucose level of ≥126 mg/dl, history of DM and antidiabetic drug use were considered as type II DM. The patients who were on anti-hyperlipidemia therapy use and had a fasting total cholesterol level ≥200 mg/dl, a fasting low-density lipoprotein level ≥160 mg/dl, a fasting triglyceride level ≥200 mg/dl were considered as HL. History of CAD or sudden cardiac death in a first-degree relatives under the age of 55 years for men and 65 years for women were defined as family history of CAD.

IMT assessment

cIMT, abdominal aIMT and common fIMT was quantified by an Esaote Mylab 50 (Esaote Biomedica, Genova, Italy) device using a 7.5-MHz linear array imaging probe. The right and left common carotid artery were selected for the study. The patients were placed in supine position, with their heads turned away from the testing side and their necks mildly bended. Proximal and distal walls of the common carotid artery were aligned parallel to the transducer’s axis, and its lumen was augmented in the longitudinal plane. The IMT was quantified at a site 1 cm proximal to the carotid bifurcation, by determining the distance from the border of arterial lumen and intima to the border between media and adventitia. A mean CIMT was obtained by averaging a total of four CIMT measurements taken from adjacent sites 1 cm apart. An experienced physician (A.K), who was unaware of the clinical and demographic data of the participants, performed all ultrasonography examinations.

Two images of the far wall IMT were obtained in the distal 10 mm of the abdominal aorta proximal to the iliac artery. For aorta images, aIMT was calculated as the mean thickness along the 10-mm length, and a mean IMT measure was then computed from the 2 images to obtain the overall aIMT value used for analysis.

Abdominal IMT ve Femoral IMT Esaote Mylab 50 (Esaote Biomedica, Genova, Italy) device using a 7.5-MHz linear array imaging probe

Statistical analyses

Data analysis was performed using SPSS (Statistical Package for Social Sciences) for Windows 19 (SPSS Inc. Chicago, IL, USA). The continuous variables were described as mean±SD or median (minimum–maximum), and the categorical variables were reported as frequency and percentage. Kolmogorov Smirnov test was used to evaluate normal distribution of numerical variables. Independent samples t test was used to compare normally distributed and Mann Whitney U test was used to compare non-normally distributed variables between the two groups. Quantitative data were analyzed using the Chi-square test. A correlation analysis was performed to assess the relationship between continuous variables and the analysis was interpreted using Spearman’s Rank correlation coefficient. The confidence interval was at 95 % and p values of < 0.05 were considered statistically significant.

Results

Istatistiksel olarak ELC absent ve ELC present grupların yaÅŸ, cinsiyet, BMI, hipertansyon, diabetes mellitus, dislipidemi, sigara içimi ve ailede CAD arasında anlamlı fark yoktu. Klinik ve demografik özellikler tablo 1 de gösterilmiÅŸtir. Ä°statistiksel olarak ELC present grubunda ELC absent grubuna göre , Carotid artery intima-media thickness ( CIMT) left, CIMT right, aortic intima media thickness ( AIMT), common femoral intima media thickness saÄŸ ve sol ( CFIMT left and right) arasında anlamlı fark izlendi ( AIMT ELC present 1,04±0,22 mm and ELC absent 0,87±0,15 mm p< 0,001 ; CIMT Left ELC present 0,52±0,12 mm and ELC absent 0,44±0,10mm ; CIMT Right,  ELC present 0,53±0,12mm and ELC absent 0,43±0,10 mm p<0,001 ; CFIMT Left ELC present 0,64±0,12 mm and ELC absent 0,54±0,13 mm ; CFIMT Right ELC present 0,63±0,11 mm and ELC absent 0,55±0,12mm p< 0,001 ) ( Figure 2)

Discussion

This is the first study that has investigated the relationship between ELC and abdominal aIMT and common fIMT in patients without clinical manifestation of CVD. The main finding of the our study is that ELC was significantly associated with cIMT, abdominal aIMT and common fIMT, independently of cardiovascular risk factors.

DEL is defined as diagonal fold or wrinkle on the ear lobe skin, extending from the tragus towards the ear lobe. In 1973, Frank first described that a bilateral or unilateral prominent ear crease in the lobule of the ear-lobe was present in a large proportion of his patients who had one or more risk factors for coronary heart disease. Several clinical studies have subsequently examined the association of the diagonal ear crease with coronary atherosclerotic heart disease [15–22]. A previous study also reported a correlation between DEL and carotid intima media thickness and epicardial fat thickness [23]. DEL was shown to be associated with vascular inflammation and oxidative stress [24], as well as cardio ankle vascular index (CAVI), which is a subclinical marker of atherosclerosis (25). In a postmortem autopsy study of 520 patients, DEL was strongly associated with CAD in both men and women [26].

It was initially proposed that both the earlobe and heart are supplied by end arteries, without the possibility of collateral circulation, which could cause simultaneous rise in both DEL and CAD (28). Some researchers found degeneration of the elastin, tear in elastic fibers, and pre-arteriolar wall thickening in cases of DEL (29). Although atherosclerotic changes in the arterial wall could include smooth muscle cell proliferation and accumulation of collagen and proteoglycans, degeneration caused by changes in the collagen:elastin ratio may be the final common pathophysiological pathway of both atherosclerosis and DEL (30).

Labropoulos et al measured abdominal aIMT using transcutaneous ultrasound in a group of adults and observed increased aIMTs in subjects with atherosclerosis (31). Autopsy studies have shown that the first atherosclerotic lesions actually begin to develop in the abdominal aorta (14).

Study limitations:

Several limitations of this study should be addressed. First, the most important limitation of this study was the small number of patients. As the study population consisted of patients who presented to our clinic, we can speculate that it would not reflect the general population.

References

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intima-media thickness progression as a predictor of stroke in multi-ethnic study

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14. McGill HC, McMahan CA, Herderick EE, et al. Effects of coronary heart disease risk factors on atherosclerosis of selected regions of the aorta and right coronary artery: PDAY research group: Pathobiological Determinants of Atherosclerosis in Youth. Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol. 2000;20:836–845.

15. Frank ST. Aural sign of coronary-artery disease. N Engl J Med 1973;289:327–8.

16. Doering D, Ruhsenberger C, Phillips DS. Ear-lobe creases and heart disease. J Am Geriatr Soc 1977;25:183–5.

17. Kaukola S, Manninen V, Valle M, et al. Ear-lobe crease and coronary atherosclerosis. Lancet 1979;2:1377.

18. Lichstein E, Chadda KD, Naik D, et al. Diagonal ear-lobe crease: prevalence and implications as a coronary risk factor. N Engl J Med 1974;290:615–6.

19. Shoenfeld Y, Mor R, Weinberger A, et al. Diagonal ear lobe crease and coronary risk factors. J Am Geriatr Soc 1980;28:184–7.

20. Elliott WJ. Ear lobe crease and coronary artery disease 1000 patients and review of the literature. Am J Med 1983;75:1024–32.

21. Mehta J, Hamby RI. Diagonal ear-lobe crease as a coronary risk factor. N Engl J Med 1974;291:260.

22.Jorde LB, Williams RR, Hunt SC. Lack of association of diagonal earlobe crease with other cardiovascular risk factors. Western J Med 1984;140:220–3.

23. Ziyrek M, Şahin S, Özdemir E, Acar Z, Kahraman S. Diagonal earlobe crease associated with increased epicardial adipose tissue and carotid intima media thickness in subjects free of clinical cardiovascular disease.Turk Kardiyol Dern Ars. 2016 Sep;44(6):474-80.

24. Koyama T, Watanabe H, Ito H. he association of circulating inflammatory and oxidative stress biomarker levels with diagonal earlobe crease in patients with atherosclerotic diseases. J Cardiol. 2016 Apr;67(4):347-51.

25. Levent Korkmaz, Mustafa Tarık Ağaç, Hakan Erkan, et al: Association between Diagonal Earlobe Crease and Cardio-Ankle Vascular Index in Asymptomatic hypertensive Patients. Med Princ Pract 2013;22:530–534.

26. Edston E. The earlobe crease, coronary artery disease, and sudden cardiac death: an autopsy study of 520 individuals. Am J Forensic Med Pathol. 2006 Jun;27(2):129-33.

27. Korkmaz L, Ağaç MT, Acar Z, Erkan H. Earlobe crease may provide predictive information on asymptomatic peripheral arterial disease in patients clinically free of atherosclerotic vascular disease. Angiology. 2014 Apr;65(4):303-7

28. Friedlander AH, López-López J, Velasco-Ortega E. Diagonal ear lobe crease and atherosclerosis: a review of the medical literature and dental implications. Med Oral Patol Oral Cir Bucal 2012;17:153–9. Crossref

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Rome’s Model and idea: essay help online

Introduction

Building and construction seems to have begun as the same time as human existence as shelter was a requirement. Human beings needed to be shielded from environmental factors such as rain and solar heat. Although the structures back then were constructed of temporary materials such as grass and mud, they still required prior planning and preparation. As time went by, people came up with more complex designs and ideas that called for detailed planning. Building materials also had a more permanent nature, thus the construction of permanent buildings. Some of the earliest nations to come up with permanent structures with unique designs included the Egyptians and the Persians; others such as the Greeks and Etruscans were not left behind (Ambler, nd). The structures in the above named nations were appealing on the exterior but had limited interior space due to the mode of construction used. However, the Romans architects are the ones who came up with designs that still inspire architects in the modern world and were also an inspiration during the construction and development of medieval cities (Ambler, nd). The structures in Rome had ample interior space and were appealing on the outside, thus making them outstanding (Ambler, nd). The Rome idea and model also includes factors such as culture and Christianity under which medieval cities were developed. The aim of this article is to discuss the idea of Rome and how it was an inspiration in the development of other medieval cities.

The idea and model of Rome and how Medieval Cities developed from the same

It is important to look at the idea and model of Rome in order to better understand the inspiration drawn from the same in the development of other medieval cities. Rome was characterized by peace and prosperity, sponsorship of high cultural practices while still considering the needs of the vulnerable in the society and a legal system that ensured justice for all; such was the model of Rome which inspired the idea of Europe (Nicols, nd). The peace among the people of Rome ensured that people such as the architects worked together to come up with various structures. The characteristics of Rome were witnessed in the early Europe as well as the modern Europe. Most medieval cities in Europe were developed based on peace and the cultural practices that were adopted from the model of Rome. The cities that came up after the fall of the Roman Empire carried own with the rituals that were being practiced in Rome before the fall. When it comes to peace, Europe has enjoyed three decades of peace as a result of the founding fathers of Rome who ensured peace and tranquility (Nicols, nd).

As seen earlier, the idea and model of Rome revolved around many things such as building and construction, road networks, peace and prosperity, theaters (to ensure preservation of the Roman culture), legal system, national language and public works undertakings. All these led to the development of a collection of cities, giving rise to Rome. These cities developed as a result of urbanization and civilization which led to Romanization (Nicols, nd).  Small cities developed to become the bigger city of Rome. To this day, the urban culture is evident throughout Europe and it hails from the Rome idea and model. The idea and model of Rome has influenced various cultures across the world. The Roman law was adopted by nations such as the United States (Houghton Mifflin Company, nd). The legal system has been identified as an outstanding factor of the Rome model. The Roman literature is also a characteristic that has lived on even after the fall of the Roman Empire as people read it to this day.

From the introduction, Rome was identified as the first to be in a position to construct structures that had ample space in the inside. The Roman developed a bigger and more prominent arch which was adopted during the construction of medieval cities (Houghton Mifflin Company, nd).Although the Romans were not the inventors of the arch, they were the first to build one which had extensive area in the interior. With time, other people adopted the idea of Rome and started constructing longer and stronger archs.

Building and construction was one part of the model of Rome. The Romans constructed monuments that are still mentioned in history today and they are an admiration to this day (Nicols,). Among the most significant item in the construction industry by the Romans was the arch. As seen earlier, the arch was never invented by the Romans, but they did improve the same to a point that it became emulated by other cities across Europe. The Romans constructed a larger arch than the ones that had previously been constructed by the likes of ancient Egyptians and Greeks (Houghton Mifflin Company, nd). The arch by Romans was constructed in such a way as to bear large amounts of force. The Romans used concrete to put up their buildings hence were able to build large buildings such as palaces and government premises (Houghton Mifflin Company, nd). The concrete was made from a mixture of lime and sand from volcanic eruptions. From this concrete, the Romans constructed aqueducts, hence were able to provide water to their cities (Houghton Mifflin Company, nd).

The aqueducts ensured that the Romans accessed clean water, thus maintaining sanitary conditions throughout Rome. The ready supply of water facilitated the construction of water baths which were used as a luxury (Ambler, nd). The latter was adopted by other medieval cities across Europe. The Byzantine architects (from Eastern Europe) and the Romanesque (from Western Europe) were the first to apply the Roman arch culture in the development of their cities (Houghton Mifflin Company, nd). It can be seen that Rome successfully provided a platform for the construction and development of medieval cities across Europe.

True urban planning started at the same time as true settlement of people in urban areas at around 3,000 B.C in places such as Egypt, Mesopotamia and Indus Valley (Ellis, nd). The urban centers were designed in such a way that the represented political, military as well as religious dominance. In other terms the cities were divided in two urban forms namely organic and planned (Ellis, nd). Those that fell under the planned form belonged to the elite in the society while those falling under the organic form were the residential areas which registered slow growth with irregular patterns. While other cities grew slowly and followed certain patterns, it was different for Rome. Romans architects and builders are known to have engaged in vigorous city-building activities; a characteristic putting Rome ahead of other cities and making it one to be emulated (Ellis, nd). Some of the settlements were experienced organic growth while others comprising of the most were well planned. In fact, some of the European cities such as London and Paris came up as a result of former Roman urban centers (Ellis, nd). In the illustration above, it can be seen that the model of Rome inspired the development of cities such as London and Paris.

‘Rome was not built in one day’; this saying is true as it took years to build the city of Rome. However, the time spent paid off as the planning and structures that were put up in Rome are still referred to in modern times. Apart from buildings, Romans specialized in the construction of road networks and other infrastructures that were on a different level from that of ancient cities in Egypt and Greece (Bee Breeders, nd). Rome as seen earlier was modeled using concrete and it is this aspect that led the Romans into constructing structures that were stronger than those constructed earlier by Egyptians and other ancient cities (Houghton Mifflin Company, nd). According to Bee Breeders (nd), Romans made use of concrete due to various reasons namely; concrete was stronger than any other materials at that time, concrete could be decorated with ease, many shapes could be made from concrete and since concrete was produced locally, it was cheap enough. Due to the many functions of concrete, the buildings in Rome were beautiful and of great designs. Many structures came up after the latter realization.

Romans were focused on an open plaza that was surrounded by prominent buildings (Ambler, nd). The open plaza was the heart of the city where major temples and shrines were situated. The law courts were also located within the plaza. Other important buildings that were within the plaza included among others the curia building which was used for council meetings (Ambler, nd). Magnificent structures such as the porticoes, colonnades and the fountains surrounded the fountain and they attracted travelers to the beautiful city of Rome (Ambler, nd).

Rome has a vast road network system. Rome was the first city to have a complicated road network system that was also widely spread; a network connecting the cities to the main capitol (Bee Breeders, nd). Romans could easily access different parts of the city of Rome and even conduct business. Romans constructed their roads by using a different system from the one that was used in other cities. Three levels of substructure were laid beneath the stones and the center of the road was inclined at an angle such that the rainwater could drain off (Danxner.com, nd). The Romans invented the use of signs on the road, some which could tell the distance between urban settlements. Road signs were used during the medieval period and they are still used in modern Europe. Bridges and aqueducts were also created, some of which inspired the construction of medieval cities across Europe and the world at large. The road networks constructed during the Roman era still existed in the medieval cities. Some of these roads included the Lutetia roads (Cardo maximus rue Saint-Jacques, the cardo Boulevard Saint-Michel and the cardo rue Valette) (Ellis, nd). The ideas of the Roman architects are still used by modern-day architects (Bee Breeders, nd).

Medieval cities developed after the fall of the Roman Empire. Roman and medieval cities were linked by among others bishops through the churches, monasteries, cathedrals and cloisters (Gutjahr, 1999). People who had been displaced during the dark days were attracted back to the fallen city by spiritual focal points (Gutjahr, 1999). The bishops had turned the centers in the old Roman cities into worship centers.  Christians were attracted from various parts of Europe and they gradually came in large numbers to form large settlements which later turned into cities. Therefore, it can be said that the medieval cities started mushrooming from the old Roman cities. Were it not for premises such as the churches and cathedrals constructed by the Romans, Christians could not have moved back to the old settlements. These cathedrals and churches had initially been constructed within the plaza which was the heart of the city.

Medieval cities also developed as a result of the fortresses which had been constructed by the Romans before the fall (Gutjahr, 1999). These fortresses included castles, kings’ palaces and the princely courts. The kings and princes who reoccupied the fortresses surrounded themselves with churches which in turn attracted Christians back to the urban centers; thus the development of medieval cities (Gutjahr, 1999). The immigrants felt safe close to the fortresses, thus the development of settlement areas around the castles and palaces.

The historic towns which had stood during the Roman era were attracting people back to the urban centers. These immigrants were the ones who could eventually grow to be large numbers of people to become medieval cities. After the fall of the Roman Empire, not all residents left the cities and it is such people that revived the cities once more by attracting immigrants (Gutjahr, 1999). The buildings which had fallen during the war were also being revived and it is from such actions that medieval cities developed. Remember the Romans used to construct strong structures; some of which remained even after the fall of the Roman Empire. Some structures such as the amphitheatres, courts and the baths were being used as residential areas for settlement of people (Gutjahr, 1999). The latter led to the growth of new cities from the Roman ruins.

Medieval cities also developed as a result of people regrouping for economic purposes. People needed to continue developing economically and socially and therefore had to join together (Gutjahr, 1999). People had been scattered during the war and even though some feared the repeat of the same, they soldiered on to make their lives better. The peace that existed during the Roman Empire was extended to the medieval period. Although the regrouping was slow, eventually the cities were starting to form and people from different cities could link using the road network that still existed after the Dark Age.

Romans were good city planners and their plans are being used to this day. The Romans constructed extensively and the military and colonial towns were highly planned (Danxner.com, nd). The Romans architects ensured that their city plans allowed easy maneuverability and also laid focus on authenticity; whereby they came-up with plans in which the town would be appealing to the viewer. Walls were built around the city of Rome which ensured its occupants were safe (Ellis, nd). Most of the medieval cities that were constructed using the Rome model also had a wall around them.  Cities such as Washington DC used some building plans from the Romans to put up their own buildings (Danxner.com, nd). Their plans were used during the construction of various medieval cities across Europe.

Conclusion

Rome is a city known for its dominance in architectural designs that have stood the test of time. Roman architects have been seen to be among the best in the world as their plans which were drawn decades ago are still in use in the modern world. Rome’s model and idea was used in the construction and development of other medieval cities across Europe as It has been discussed in this article. Romans invented the construction of arch using concrete, an act that remains outstanding to this day. Egyptians and other ancient cities used to build the arch but it was not as strong as compared to that constructed by the Romans. The Romans also constructed structures that were pleasing to the eye on the outside and had ample space in the interior. The road networks, underground piping and the aqueducts built by the Romans were of magnificent designs and were used to construct other medieval cities. Most medieval cities across Europe rose as a result of the ruins of the Roman Empire, whereby bishops, Kings and princes attracted people back to the ruined cities of Romans by use of the structures that had remained after the ruins. The latter led to the growth and development of medieval cities.

References

Ambler, J. nd. Roman architecture. Khan Academy. [Online] available from https://www.khanacademy.org/humanities/ancient-art-civilizations/roman/beginners-guide-rome/a/roman-architecture Accessed on 27th August 2017
Bee Breeders. Nd. How Roman architecture influenced modern architecture. [Online] available from https://beebreeders.com/how-roman-architecture-influenced-modern-architecture Accessed on 28th August 2017
Danxner.com. nd. The influence of the Roman Empire. [Online] available from http://www.danxner.com/extramaterials/art003/Final_Project/Influences.htm Accessed on 28th August 2017
Ellis, C. nd. History of Cities and City Planning. [Online] available from http://www.art.net/~hopkins/Don/simcity/manual/history.html Accessed on 27th August 2017
Ellis, C. nd. Paris: The development of Roman and Medieval Urban forms. [Online] available from http://www.arch.ttu.edu/people/faculty/ellis_c/Paris_Lectures/2RomanandMedievalParispdf.pdf Accessed on 28th August 2017
Gutjahr, C, M. 1999. Culture and History of Urban Planning: Part 4- Medieval Cities. [Online] available from http://artserve.anu.edu.au/htdocs/bycountry/italy/rome/popolo/melbourne.planning/Part4-Medieval_Cities.pdf Accessed on 28th August 2017
Houghton Mifflin Company. Nd. The Influence of the Roman Arch. [Online] available from https://www.eduplace.com/kids/socsci/ca/books/bkf3/writing/06_romarch.pdf Accessed on 27th August 2017
Nicols, J. nd. Idea of Rome, Idea of Europe. [Online] available from https://scholarsbank.uoregon.edu/xmlui/bitstream/handle/1794/5054/Nicols_IdeaRomeEurope.pdf?sequence=4 Accessed on 27th August 2017

Mary Prudence Wells Smith – The Great Match: college admission essay help

Baseball for centuries has been characterized as America’s national pastime. Its history provides evidence as to how its cultivation in society served as a catalyst during the Civil War, and how it evolved American culture and society. Baseball’s roots stem from the early 1800s as variations of the game cricket. By the mid-19th century, several versions of the game were being played across the country and were beginning to inspire literature. One of the earliest publications about baseball was made by Mary Prudence Wells Smith in 1877 called The Great Match. Its vivid setting detail leads the book to become one of the greatest baseball books ever written. It also allows readers to experience a 19th century baseball game vicariously.

The setting takes place right after the Civil War in a small, hospitable town named Milltown. While baseball was well-established before the start of the war, in the New York area, it was largely expanded during it. “The civil war had done much for Milltown” (The Great Match, 3). War will inevitably cause low morale, and during long periods of encampments, it reached a peak. This was when New Yorkers introduced the game of baseball to their comrades from other northern states. It became so popular that Generals asked that troops promote baseball activities in their encampments because it promoted good health and kept the mind off the war. After the war ended, the soldiers brought baseball back to their homes. By 1869 the game was adapted by colleges and became a professional sport that paid its players.

In The Great Match, Grandhurst entered Milltown in hopes to find someone with the directions to the neighboring town, Dornfield. The personalities of both towns were drastic. Most of the inhabitants of Milltown were “as good as anybody;” meanwhile, Dornfield exhibited more exclusivity with cliques. A group of boys in “base ball costumes” celebrating an out-of-town victory against Milltown offered Grandhurst a ride to Dornfield in their stage coach, although he begrudgingly refused. The Dornfield players were sons of aristocracy and unconcerned with professionalism with the sport. Their town was located in fine agricultural land and could only be reached by coach. Milltown players, on the other hand, were more working-class folk who sometimes received compensation for playing. Their town was located upon a river and was the center of many manufactories.

This satire contains irony, as it was written by a female, but places a strong emphasis on manliness. The rivalry between the Dornfield Nine and Milltown was motivated by who could assert the most masculinity. The language used in this first couple chapters conveys the social status of baseball players. “…said Ned Black, extending his hand in a manly way to Dick” (5). Ned Black is the captain of the Dornfield Nine. This description of him shows the virility and power status of being the captain of the baseball team, which stereotypes similarly in modern day society.

The novel also illustrates well the logistics and supply chain of small-town baseball. Players traveled to games in a stage-coach, and Smith, through vivid setting details provides a vicarious experience for the reader. She describes the attire and the social hierarchy of male and female fans in the stands. There was seating by age, class distinction, and debates about the use of professional players. Fans debated play versus competition, and whether there should be a distinction between an amateur player versus a professional one. Smith included these sideline debates in the book because, in context, the first baseball publications were written right after the establishment of the major leagues; therefore, many people questioned whether professional play that promotes competition would wreck the fun of the game.

Through the perspective of the protagonist Molly Milton, the reader can easily understand the attitudes of female fans and their support of the Dornfield Nine. Molly’s father describes how baseball is a way for diverse interests to come together for a united cause. “This base-ball business…unites all the diverse interests in the village” (96). While gender inequality is highly prevalent during the 19th century, women knew just as much baseball terminology as other fans. Molly’s father proves that even in 1877 baseball served as the birthplace of some early social movements. In this scenario it is the inclusion of women in the discussions that is a stepping stone to more renowned movements such as Jackie Robinson––the first African-American baseball player in the MLB.

Mary Prudence Wells Smith, in The Great Match, offers great insight on the social context of the 19th century interwoven with the baseball culture. The grandiose descriptions of the inhabitants, such as Ned Black, in Dornfield and Milltown provides readers with a clear understanding of the masculine role of baseball players, and how the sport became America’s national pastime. New Yorkers introduced the sport during the civil war, and its popularity permeated across the country. It is a constantly evolving sport, and Smith is one example of how baseball not only impacted social movements, but also literary moments.

Smart cars (VW, mercedes, Ford and Toyota)

INTRODUCTION: – Smart cars has been around since 1980s. SMH, the company that produces Swatch Watches decided to create a brand of car that relates to smart accessories. After rejected by brands such as Volkswagen, FIAT, BMW, the smart project was finally accepted by Daimler-Benz, which now holds 51% of total shares. After that other brand like Volkswagen, Fiat, BMW, also started working on the smart cars. Smart cars have features like excellent gas mileage and is more convenience. Smart cars are more safe as it uses forward facing sensors like radar, camera, laser based. It also holds features like automatic parking, autopilot, lane keep assist which will help to reduce collisions and accidents. Smart cars are in demand these days. Brands like BMW, Volkswagen, Fiat, Ford, etc. are using different and more advanced techniques to make their cars safer and effective for the drivers and to make roads safer.

VOLKSWAGEN:-  Sedric was the fist smart car designed by Volkswagen and is the first vehicle in group to have been created as it does not need human driver. The car was made for the convenience for full family. Volkswagen provides services like App-connect, Guide & Information and Security and Services. App connect is a new feature. It includes Android Auto, Apple car play, Mirror Link means can easily assess to music, navigation, weather and many more app. Guide and Inform is a paid subscription. It is specially designed for city driving. It not only supports navigation but also provides information about traffic alerts, fuel prices, ski reports. It also tells about the traffic areas and destructive areas to save time and make it easy for us to reach their Respective destination. Security and Services hold old features like tracking vehicle, safety, access to communication with emergency in case of accidents. It protects the driver and other people sitting beside him in case of any collision. Volkswagen’s new autonomous car has no driver and it is self driving car or robotic car which will take the smart cars to a new generation.

MERCEDES-BENZ:- In January 2007, Mercedes benz display their first smart car project. The plastic body panels were supposed to be easily swappable to suit the mood of driver much like plastic trim on swatch watches. “Anyone who who focuses solely on technology has not yet grasped how autonomous driving will change our society”, (Dr.  Zetsch. D,2009). The innovative four seaters are a forerunner of a mobility revolution, and this is immediately apparent from futuristic appearance. Autonomous driving is taken for granted as it is acceptable in society and technology is perfectly reliable. As the autonomous car takes over from the driver in situation where driving is not much fun, it gives real added quality to spent out time on road. The transition between organic, synthetic and metal material have been designed using matrix graphics. One core theme of the innovative interior concept is a continuous exchange of information between vehicles, passengers and the outside world.

FORD:- In 2015 ford introduce a new technology Amazon Echo smart home device through which car owner could turn on their home lights or browse their playlist from comfort of their fusions or they can switch it up and asked to start their car from inside the homes. It also uses voice activation system that lets you use your phone while your hands are on wheel and eyes on road. You can place calls, play music and can stay interact with navigation system without using your hands. If you do not have your keys with you, you can simply unlock the driver’s door with a touch of handle. To fire up the ignition, just put your feet on break press START/STOP button and you are away.

TOYOTA:- Toyota, BMW and Chrysler designed a beautiful smart concept for the future of Cars. Featuring gull-wing doors, a unique styling, and a pulsing centre console. Toyota’s concept is clear: make car more safe and comfortable for drivers as well as the other people sitting beside him. Interior and exterior graphics are used to share your trip details. Lighting helps with ambiance and to alert occupants of certain things happening around car on and off the road. It also includes the driverless autonomy but still integrates a manual mode for those not ready to let a car do the driving themselves. Foe Toyota, keeping the car warm, friendly and intuitive in design for occupants was a priority. While looking for a smart car, the consumers want to feel comfortable sitting in one which is why Toyota chose to develop this route. The interior is designed to feel serene, with bright whites and transparency throughout the car so you can see the world and feel the beauty of life. Overall, it feels comfortable and feels cozy.

REFRENCES

Morin.A,2015 “The smart: A Brief history.” http://www.guideautoweb.com/en/articles/35822/the-smart-a-brief-history/
Preston.B,2017 “Rise of the Robocar.” https://www.theguardian.com/technology/2017/aug/13/robot-connected-cars-hacking-risks-driverless-vehicles-ross-now
Posner.A,2008 “Smart car: How Smart It Is?” https://www.treehugger.com/cars/smart-car-how-smart-is-it.html

What did the Aboriginal Embassy actually achieve?: online essay help

Since the colonisation of Australia, Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people have experienced mistreatment and injustice. However, during the Indigenous rights activist movement of the 20th century, there were many turning points that inspired change within Australia. Although there were many events that had led to better treatment of Aboriginal people, the establishment of the Tent Embassy in 1972 has great significance. In this essay, it will be discussed what the Tent Embassy is, what led to its resurrection, the aims and outcomes of this movement, and why it is such a significant event.

The Tent Embassy, or Aboriginal Embassy, is an ongoing establishment, which advocates for Aboriginal political rights. It was initially composed of a beach umbrella and signs, which was soon replaced by several tents (Briscoe, 2014; Iveson, 2017). Over the years, it has been a site of political controversy, and as such has been taken down on several occasions (Iveson, 2017). However, it has always been re-erected and still stands today from its final re-establishment in 1992. Although it is not recognised as an official embassy by the government, it was listed on the Australian Registrar of National Estate in 1995, as a site in Australia symbolising the political struggle of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people (The National Museum of Australia, 2007).

In 1966, a movement began as a push for political recognition of Aboriginal land rights. This would mean that not only would Aboriginal people have recognition of their connection to land and water, as it were later outlined in the Native Title legislation; but also compensate them for the past dispossession of their land (Foley & Anderson, 2006; Curthoys, 2014). In 1972, five years after the referendum that allowed Aboriginal people to be included in the census, Prime Minister McMahon made the decision to announce the rejection of the proposed Land Rights for Aboriginal people (Foley & Anderson, 2006; Foley, Schaap & Howell, 2014). Even more devastatingly, he chose the symbolic date of January 26th to do so; the date known as Australia Day, Invasion Day, or Survival Day (Foley & Anderson, 2006). This statement sparked fury amongst Aboriginal activists, and within a matter of hours, they were on the lawns of Parliament House in Canberra to protest (Foley & Anderson, 2006). Four activists began this protest by erecting an umbrella with a sign, declaring themselves the “Aboriginal Embassy” (Foley & Anderson, 2006). This act and its dubbed title gave attention to the fact that Aboriginal people were seen as foreigners on their own land (Foley & Anderson, 2006; Curthoys, 2014).

On the February 5th 1972, the Aboriginal Embassy sought to formalise the demands of their protest. Their demands involved a five-point plan for Aboriginal land rights (Foley, 2001). The plan pushed for the Northern Territory to be entirely Aboriginal with legal title and mining rights, to be granted legal title to all existing reserve lands and settlements throughout Australia, the preservation of all sacred sites within Australia, legal title and mining rights to areas around the capital cities of Australia, and compensation starting at a minimum of six billion dollars, plus a percentage for lands that were unable to be reclaimed (Newfong, 1972; Foley, 2001; Pieris, 2012). On several occasions, the embassy was led to believe that it had seen victory. Politicians made promises of freehold title and ownership of land. However, many of these were empty promises (Foley, 2011; Nicoll, 2014). During Whitlam’s 1972 election campaign, he announced that his government would grant land rights to Aboriginals, but once he became prime minister, it was discovered that Whitlam’s promise of land rights only applied to Aboriginals within the Northern Territory (Foley, 2011; Nicoll, 2014). This move was backed by the claim that the Northern Territory was the only state within the Commonwealth jurisdiction and therefore all other Aboriginals governed by state jurisdictions were left behind (Foley, 2011).

This brings to light the question; what did the Aboriginal Embassy actually achieve? Well, despite being somewhat unsuccessful in achieving the aims set out by the Embassy, they are still seen as being successful for bringing to light the issue of land rights, and keeping it on the agenda with Australian political parties (Robinson, 1993). The embassy was also successful in removing the McMahon government, which began the journey towards The Northern Territory Land Rights Act, 1975; which although it was not achieving one of their aims in its entirety, was still part of their plan. The erection of the protest in itself is also a great success for Aboriginal people, and Australia, through their ability to express their constitutional rights through the camp, due to a legal loophole that allowed their indefinite stay on the site. Despite the cruelty and political resistance the protestors experienced, enforced by police, for many years, the embassy stood strong. (Robinson, 2014)

In many ways, the story of the Aboriginal Embassy is one of success. The embassy drew focus to the failing of the government upon the election of Whitlam (Harris & Waterford, 2014). They created a legend of both political and historical importance for Aboriginal people. Even though the embassy’s central claim for land rights was only partially fulfilled by the Northern Territory Act of 1967, the length of embassy’s fight for the return of land, as well as for Aboriginal self-determination, demonstrates its cardinal significance in the history of contemporary Aboriginal politics (Iveson, 2014; Nicoll, 2014; Watson, 2014). The embassy was also successful in establishing a much-needed sense of power, by acting beyond the expected bureaucratic system of negotiation and compromise (Muldoon & Schaap, 2014; Watson 2014). The activists drew attention to the fact that without land rights, they and all Aboriginal people, were to be made to feel like outsiders. The establishment of a ‘tent’ embassy also brought to light the quality of living conditions of Aboriginal people all over Australia (Iveson, 2014). It is because of all these acts that the Tent Embassy movement was such a landmark event in Australian and Aboriginal history.

The notion of land rights for Aboriginal people is an ongoing struggle, even today. Although injustice for Aboriginal people still exists, the movement of the Tent Embassy set in motion a series of events to begin the journey towards fair treatment of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islanders, as well as much-needed healing. The demands made by the Aboriginal Embassy, which are still being fought for today, are not unreasonable by any means. They are purely advocating for the right to fulfil the needs of Aboriginal people, in the sense of their connection to land and water, whilst still allowing the preservation of many non-indigenous built areas. There is still a long way to go when it comes to righting the past wrongs; however, it is events such as this one that ensures that the public is kept aware of the issues that Aboriginal people are facing and struggling with. It is this awareness that inspires movement and change within society, to a better future and existence for all Australians, both indigenous and non-indigenous.

Blasphemous or Brilliant? How ancient rebellion shaped the modern era of religion.

Religious practices did not start when Jesus Christ was born. Many people in modernity share this misconception.  It started years before that, within ancient civilizations. Many of the modern era’s religious traditions, beliefs and practices derive from antiquity, hundreds of years before the birth of Jesus Christ. Some of these similarities come from leaders or figures of antiquity who rebelled against their society’s religious values. Akhenaten’s “Great Hymn to the Aten” and the Apology of Socrates have obvious superficial differences, however they both prove how each great leader’s rebellious thinking shaped modern religion.

Akhenaten reigned over Egypt from around 1353-1336 BCE.  During his time as pharaoh, he radically changed traditional Egyptian religion. Preceding his rule, Egyptians’ religion was largely polytheistic. Akhenaten soon banished all religious traditions, and instituted the first recorded monotheistic religion. He believed that the sun god, Aten, was the one and only deity. In his “Great Hymn” he writes “O sole god, whom there is no other,” (Akhenaten 5). Akhenaten is stating his belief that there is only one God that rules, rather than traditional Egyptian belief that there are many. Akhenaten also believes that Aten rules over “the countries of Syria, Nubia, (and)the land of Egypt,” (Akhenaten 5). In antiquity, each country and society believed they had their own god or set of gods, however Akhenaten believed his sole god ruled over all. This idea that there is one god that is regnant over everyone is identical to the beliefs of modern day’s Abrahamic faiths. After his death, the succeeding pharaoh condemned him as the “heretic king” and believed his beliefs and memory needed to be eradicated. Historians, however, have commended Akhenaten’s reforms as being the first instance of monotheistic religion. Some have gone on to link aspects of Jesus Christ’s relationship with God to be similar to Akhenaten’s relationship to Aten. Abrahamic religions in the modern era practice with the same ideas that Akhenaten had thousands of years before Jesus Christ was even born. The religion Akhenaten initiated, which was overthrown after his death, was based on the worship of the same Holy Father that all Abrahamic believers follow today.

There is no argument that Socrates was one of the greatest contributors of intellectual development to ever live. Without Socrates, all of history and the modern era would be profoundly different, but many of his ideas at the time were widely viewed as defamation. Ancient Greeks who lived among Socrates worshiped a group of twelve gods that they believed lived on Mount Olympus in Greece. These gods strongly affected their daily lives; they held daily worships, gave offerings constantly, and believed the way to live a fulfilling life was by serving and pleasing the gods. Socrates spent his time challenging thought and questioning ideas rather than worshiping the gods. The Oracle of Delphi went to Socrates and told him he was the wisest man of all, which he did not believe. This made him question the idea of wisdom, and what makes a man wise. Socrates was charged impiety, meaning disregarding the pantheon of Athens. The Athenian government believed that Socrates ignored religious practices and did not seek to honor the gods. Plato writes his rebuttal of the charges in the Apology of Socrates; “but necessity was laid upon me- the word of the divine…(to) find out the meaning of the oracle,” (Plato 17). He believed that he was not guilty of impiety because he was following the word of the Oracle of Delphi. He spent time doing what he believed was his mission from the gods; examining people and convincing his fellow citizens that the most important thing as humans is virtue, and doing what is right. This is a major theme in religions like Christianity; the idea that the way to live is by blindly following God. Christians, among other religions, believe strongly that God has a path for everyone, and Socrates claimed he was trying to follow his. In his apology, he also makes a point to say “this occupation quite absorbs me… (and) I am in utter poverty by reason of my devotion to the divine,” (Plato 17). Socrates did not center his life around pleasing the gods in exchange for wealth, which was tradition in ancient Greece. Socrates believed that wealth was not nearly as valuable as having strong values and a healthy soul. Many modern religions focus on the same idea. The Bible states that “a man’s life does not consist in the abundance of his possessions,” (Luke 12:15). This is an idea that Socrates is harvesting in ancient Greece, close to 400 years before the New Testament was written. The trial was over, and the court sentenced him to death.  Socrates did not purposely defy ancient Greek religion, nor was he ever clear on his true religious stance. Socrates, however, had an unorthodox view and practice of religion for his time and was sentenced to death because of it.

Akhenaten and Socrates were superficially different in many ways, but they shared common values. Their ideas and practices of religion were seen as blasphemous during their lifetimes, but are now customary belief in many modern religions. Akhenaten is the father of monotheism. He holds the record of being the first to believe that the one god rules over the whole universe. After Akhenaten’s death, he was referred to as heretic. Statues and memorials built of him were torn down, as the new pharaoh attempt to erase his legacy.

Akhenaten was the pharaoh and made everyone he ruled over believe in his monotheistic view while Socrates was more of a lone wolf of his time. Socrates set out on a mission he believed his god called him to do. Socrates did not worship the gods to get gratification or wealth, he followed his god in order to gain virtue and do what is best. His ideas and actions were punishable by death in his era. Socrates and Akhenaten were chastised for their defiant thought, but both of their ideas are apparent in the modern era’s religious practices.

Both Akhenaten and Socrates, however, rebelled against common religious belief of their time, and were condemned for it. Neither of them worried about being judged or consequences they would face, but instead believed in a stronger, higher power. Together, but separately, Akhenaten and Socrates shaped major aspects of modern day religions.

The Secret History of 9/11 (documentary, reflective)

The Secret History of 9/11 was a documentary that chronicled the events leading up to the terrorist attacks on 9/11 and what actually happened on that fated day.  I viewed the comprehensive film and was intrigued about several of the facts discussed in the movie.  After viewing the reflecting the informational film, I thought that the reasons for the terrorist attacks, the mistakes that prevented the terrorist attacks on 9/11 from being stopped or lessened in their severity, and the actions of President Clinton and President George W. Bush during the time period around and during 9/11 were interesting.

One aspect of the documentary The Secret History of 9/11 that I found interesting were the reasons for the terrorist attacks.  The messages those responsible wanted to be conveyed through those attacks could easily have been communicated without any deaths.  In the documentary, the narrator states the Ramsay Usaf, the main person behind the first bombing of the World Trade Center, told The New York Times that, “ . . . the bombing was in retaliation for American support of Israel, and oppression of the Palestinian people” (The Secret History of 9/11 5:55).  If Usaf and his associates wanted America to stop supporting Israel and end Palestinian oppression, a violent attack that killed six people and injured over a thousand hardly correlates with what they wanted.  Though these terrorists did want to spread fear and chaos, the results barely helped the Palestinians.  This is not to say that the terrorists had good intentions, rather, had they considered their options and realized why the United States supported Israel over the rebel Palestinian state, they could have realized that their attacks would only worsen America’s position on the Palestine, in their point of view.  Because of the 9/11 attacks, the U.S. also strengthened airport security and brought a military presence to Afghanistan, a fact that was intriguing because these results led to Bin Laden’s death and the near end of the Taliban.  One aspect of the documentary The Secret History of 9/11 that I found interesting were the reasons for the terrorist attacks.

Another aspect of the informational film that I found interesting are the mistakes that prevented the terrorist attacks on 9/11 from being stopped or lessened in their severity.  An example of one of these surprising mistakes was the fact that the CIA withheld information that, if released, could have prevented the 9/11 bombings.  The Central Intelligence Agency did not share the identifications of two suicide bombers, Khalid Al Mihdhar and Nalaf Alhazmi, with the FBI or any other branch of government that could have ordered a warrant for them.  In the documentary,  “When the president was made aware that night that there had been a mistake between the FBI and the CIA involving their sharing of information, he had the same attitude that I [Richard Clarke, Chief of Counter-Terrorism] did, which was outrage” (1:21:49).  If the CIA had the presence of mind to inform the FBI about the two terrorist suspects who were let in the U.S. with incomplete identification, the attacks on 9/11 could have been prevented.  Though these agencies are known for their efficiency, the information was revealed too late.  In addition, the fact that the phone lines were down and the White House could not be reached by the president on 9/11 intrigued me.  It is even noted in the documentary that those phone lines were always secure and open before that point, but even with a borrowed cell phone, Bush could not reach Washington to relay orders concerning the terrorist attacks. Another aspect of the informational film that I found interesting are the mistakes that prevented the terrorist attacks on 9/11 from being stopped or lessened in their severity.

The final aspect of The Secret History of 9/11 that I thought was interesting were the actions of President Clinton and President George W. Bush during the time period around and during 9/11.  In both presidencies, the commander in chief did not act on or acted too late on the growing threat of al-Qaeda, the capture or killing of Bin Laden, and the numerous warnings and advice from the Chief of Counterterrorism, Richard Clarke.  In the documentary, it is stated that, after  George W. Bush was sworn in as the president, former president Bill Clinton told him that “ . . . not catching or killing Bin Laden was one of the greatest regrets of his presidency”  (33:45).  Though the former president warned Bush about al-Qaeda and its leader, “ . . . for the Bush administration, al-Qaeda was a low priority” (35:02).  After, Richard Clarke advised the president to take further action against the terrorists, but no great action was taken until after September 11th.  This was of special interest to me because it is relatable to today’s threat of ISIS, and the fact that former president Barack Obama failed to end that threat, so it must be dealt with by President Trump.  It remains to be seen, whether, like Bush administration, action will be delayed until it is too late. Also, it was interesting that Bush stayed at the Florida school he was visiting on 9/11 even though he received information about the attacks.  If he had not delayed, it is conceivable that more immediate action would have been taken to stop the third hijacked plane from crashing into the Pentagon.  Though he later said that he was trying to project an image of calm, that image only used up time that could have been used to take measures to stop the planes.  The final aspect of The Secret History of 9/11 that I thought was interesting were the actions of President Clinton and President George W. Bush during the time period around and during 9/11.

Three details I thought were thought-provoking in the documentary film The Secret History of 9/11 were, the intent behind the bombings, the miscalculations that led up to 9/11, and the measures took by the two successive presidents during the movie’s era.  From the first bombing of the World Trade Center to the end of the Bush administration after 9/11, the entire film is detailed and moving.  Indeed, this documentary was also informative, interesting, and provided the viewer with a near-complete view of the secret history of 9/11.

Works Cited

cjnewson88. YouTube, YouTube, 12 Mar. 2013, www.youtube.com/watch?v=MVh9WgGxuIY. Accessed 19 Sept. 2017.

Is race biological or social?: essay help online free

Race, so seemingly simple but so intricate and personal, too. It appears humans of all time periods and genetic decent have been fighting over race, but is there any reason to? This question is something that has been discussed by Anthropologist for ages, and they have quite a few different answers. Some aspire to the idea that “Racial experience is real, and human biological diversity is real.” (Torres Colón, G. A., 2015). Others, disagree and say no, “race is real, but the authority science has been assigned as it pertains to race has been misappropriated.” (Simon). And all the while, some admit that race it exist, but it has limits and is “only skin deep” (Cassata). There are many more ideas on race as an anthropological subject, but the central argument lies around the question of its construct, Biological, or Social?

Jada Torres and Gabriel Colon from Wayne’s University authored a peer review on Racial experience and Biological diversity, they came to the conclusion that although race is not a biological construct, but rather a social construct, has real social consequences. They went even further to say that the even more pressing issue is that race is “cultural concept that contains implicit and explicit understandings of how collective bodies differ.”  I agree with their theory, if you think of race as an experience rather than a box that you are put into at birth many problems relating to racial injustice can be avoided.

The author of the second article, Simon Mashuan, is a reporter for NBC news, it’s important to remember that NBC news is a for profit organization, meaning that every story they put out is attached with a specific set of values, motives, and agenda. This article is not a peer reviewed journal like the first which means its contents cannot be taken as scientifically sound, however Mashuan based his information off an interview with University of North Carolina Anthropologist, John Marks. The main point that Marks is trying to convey is that he views race as a bio-cultural construct, stating that there is much more to race than simply the color of your skin. Marks asked goes on to compare the relationship hominoid in East Africa, may have to a hominoid in West Africa, saying “An East African is more closely related to a West Asian than to a West African; geographic distance is the main determinant of similarity in the human species.” (Marks,2017).  Simply because two people may have ancestors from Africa does not mean that they descended from the same line of hominoids. Marks describes anthropologist work as “an unusual burden as the custodians of the scientific narratives of who we are and where we come from” he goes on to describe that those narratives have cultural power and people feel like they own them, this is why he studies race.

The final article is brought to us by an author who specializes in health and wellness from a magazine by the name of Healthline. Cathy Cassata, the author, claims that race truly is only skin deep, making it a social construct. Cassata states that racial categories account for only six percent of human variation and diversity. She goes further to explain that race in humans is not organized into discrete boxes but is instead continuous; Clines are the proof that provide evidence for that claim. A Cline is a gradient line that can best be visualized by picturing the temperature gradient of earth, at the tops and bottoms are the poles which are cold, and towards the middle at the equator the temperatures are much hotter and more tropical. Race can be viewed on clines too. Cassata finishes her point by pointing to the fact that

“Even in our evolutionary past, our earliest modern human ancestors in Europe and parts of Asia were exchanging genes with related human populations that existed at the same time. Mixing of genes and gene flow and spread of genes and population expansion is something that is literally as old as human history itself” (William R. Leonard, PhD Northwestern University)

What Leonard is saying here is that humans have been procreating between populations for as long as history itself, there is no such thing as a pure genetic build. Leonard says race is in fact, only skin deep, making it a social construct.

There are many other arguments as far as how we can categorize race but many anthropologists ascribe to the belief that race is something that is strictly a social construct, bearing social consequence.

Product quality and sales service quality – PNJ stores

The aim of this study was to identify the relationship between customer satisfaction and service quality and product quality of PNJ stores in HCMC. Besides that, it tries to examine the impact of four factors (tangibles, assurance, empathy and price) as well as the factor of service quality and product quality on customer satisfaction. As a result, the empirical information found in this thesis provides a general view about assessment of customer about product quality and service quality of PNJ stores in HCMC in order to make appropriate adjustments and effective improvement for running a good business.

Based on the results of the path analysis exploring the direct and indirect effects of four independent and two dependent variables on customer satisfaction, this study argues that in order to achieve high customer satisfaction, PNJ company should have high level of service quality, product quality, better tangibles in stores, better assurance and empathy to customers and better price. Moreover, from the result of this research, the findings indicate that the factor of empathy plays crucial role for customer satisfaction.

In conclusion, from the experiences in process of conducting research, it points out limitations of this study and provides helpful recommendations for further dissertation. And according to the research findings, this study gives some recommendations to PNJ company in order to take adjustment and improve the level of service quality, product quality and customer satisfaction.

CHAPTER I

Introduction

1.1 Background

Jewelry industry of Vietnam is one of the developing sectors of Vietnamese economy. And most of enterprises in the field do not have the organizational system. There are more than 12,000 business enterprises in the industry, most of them are small jewelry store and the rest are a number of organized retail business. Domestic jewelry market develops in all segments, including gold, platinum, silver and precious stones, where gold is the preferred choice of most customers.  According to Updating Report of Sacombank-SBS in first quarter of 2013, from 2005 to 2011, the value of gold jewelry in Vietnam compounds annual growth rate of 6-8%, increases from 399 million USD to 634 million USD. In 2011, the demand for gold jewelry in Vietnam increased by 14%, which is 634 million USD, accounting for 13% of total gold demand. Jewelry market decreased 10% to 13 tonnes in 2011. The increase in gold prices helped to increase the value by 14%, even if production reduced by 10% in the same period.

In Quarter 1/2012, production of consumed gold jewelry fell by 9% to 5 tons, the domestic gold price increases from last year which leads to decrease in demand because customers have to face with high inflation. Gold jewelry demand in Vietnam in quarter 1/2012 has made positive changes, with the value of 269 USD million (up 9.8%) and mass consumption of 5 tonnes (down 9%) .

In the future, growth rate in Vietnam jewelry market  is expected to be positive, which is driven by the increase in domestic demand and income. And as a result of this trend, customers with higher income will have higher requirements. For jewelry products industry, this is an opportunity as well as a challenge. Now that more and more enterprises start this kind of  business with products of competitive quality and price, how can old enterprises attract more new customers and retain the old ones? The enterprises should not only concentrate on improving products quality and design, they should also attach special importance to enhance service quality in their stores.

In order to achieve this, a method should be usually implemented is to do research about customer satisfaction about product quality and sale service quality of their distribution system. By doing these studies, the companies can have more knowledge about customer desire and evaluation, so they can give methods to improve the quality of product as well as service, satisfy their customers in best ways, and contribute to gain customer loyalty.

1.2 Problem statement

Many researchers have looked into the importance of customer satisfaction. Kotler (2000) defined satisfaction as: “a person’s feelings of pleasure or disappointment resulting from comparing a product’s perceived performance (or outcome) in relation to his or her expectations”. Hoyer and MacInnis (2001) said that satisfaction can be associated with feelings of acceptance, happiness, relief, excitement, and delight.

In addition, to be a strong brand with high reputation and credibility, Phu Nhuan Jewelry Joint Stock Company (PNJ) is considered to be one of the enterprises with significant contributions to the growth of the jewelery industry in Vietnam. It can be seen as the market leader among domestic jewelry company with 20% gold jewelry market share and upto 70% silver jewelry market share in Vietnam. Hence, to keep the leader position in jewelry industry in Vietnam, research on customer satisfaction on product quality as well as sales service quality is a necessary method to attract more new customers and retain the existing ones.

Thus, I would like to do my thesis about ‘Evaluate customer satisfaction on product quality and sales service quality of PNJ stores in Ho Chi Minh City’

1.3  Introduction of Phu Nhuan Jewelry Joint Stock Company

Phu Nhuan Jewelry Joint Stock Company is a firm operating in fields of verifying diamond and gemstone service; manufacturing, trading gold, silver and gemstone jewelry, gold bullion; house renting according to real estate trading law.

1.3.1 Foundation and development history

In April 28th, 1988, Phu Nhuan Jewelry Trading Store was founded with an investment of only VND 14 million – equivalent to only 9.0 ounces of gold at that time – and its first 20 employees.

In 1990, this founding store became Phu Nhuan Jewelry, Fine Arts and Currency Exchange Company, being under direct control of Financial Administration of Ho Chi Minh City Committee. Phuong Hoang Gold Bar was also launched then.

In 1992, the company was renamed Phu Nhuan Jewelry Joint Stock Company. This stage witnesses great changes with bold investment in Italian technology production line. In the same year, the company also co-founded Dong A Bank and formed a joint venture with Phu Nhuan House Trading and Development Company.

Mutually antagonistic nationalism between China and Japan: essay help site:edu

The rising mutually antagonistic nationalism between the two countries cause China and Japan to have contrasting perspectives and thus view the current issues between them through different lenses. This will continue to undermine bilateral relations and the possibilities of future collaborations between the two countries due to the nationalistic pressure of the countries’ people. Historical events like the second Sino-Japanese war has caused animosity and mistrust between the two countries. It was exacerbated in 2001 through the politically driven visits to the Yasukuni Shrine by the Prime Minister of Japan, Junichiro Koizumi, despite China’s constant disapproval which cause bilateral relations to deteriorate greatly. Events like this reopen historical war wounds and thus cause a deterrence for the development of Sino-Japanese relations. However, other factors like territorial disputes and assertive actions are also indispensable as the obstacles to improving Sino-Japanese relations. Despite the considerable significance of nationalism, the effects of territorial disputes, historical differences and assertive actions also plays a big part in the improvement of Sino-Japanese relations. However, territorial disputes, historical differences and  assertive actions stems from the same source which is the mutually antagonistic nationalism each country has for each other. Furthermore, the effects of mutually antagonistic nationalism greatly magnifies the problems of  current issues. Thus, mutually antagonistic nationalism has been the key obstacle to improving Sino-Japanese relations since 2001.

Overcoming historical differences hold great significance as it is a latent problem for the development of Sino-Japanese relations. Japan’s stance for its relationship with China to improve is for the latter to not dwell on their past where Japan has been aggressive towards them as seen in the protest of China’s application to put the Nanking massacre as well as the “comfort women” in the UNESCO programme. On the contrary, China wants a sincere apology as well as for Japan to take full responsibility for past war crimes towards China as seen in their repeated reminder to Japan that without it the relationship between China and Japan would be kept stagnant. This has limited the development of their ties as both countries do not want to be the first to reconcile with the other as they have different viewpoint on who is in the wrong. This can be further supported by the Japanese Government authorising the Atarashii Rekishi Kyokasho, which is a history textbook reform, that led to the numerous amount of  anti-Japanese mass incidents in 2005, this shows how the difference in the perceptions of their shared history can worsen relations between the Chinese and Japanese. Displeasure between the people due to their rough past can be seen in the form of these mass incidents which would greatly erode the opportunities to form a better relationship between the two countries. Hence, overcoming historical differences will aid in the relationship between China and Japan.

Furthermore, historical issues have also cause the relations between political leaders to be eroded due to their use of the different perception in history as a tool to garner more support for their political expediency. Koizumi’s visit to Yasukuni Shrine on 13 August 2001 has eroded his relationship with China as it contains the remains of fourteen Class A Japanese war criminals. On top of that, the Japanese Premier was to visit the Yasukuni Shrine every year during his incumbency. However, his visits was beneficial to Koizumi’s political support as seen in his landslide victory in the 2001 elections. Thus, political leaders would be able capitalise on the difference in their shared history to gain more political support from its people due to their strong nationalistic sentiments. Premier Li Ke Qiang’s firm warning on 4 March 2014 that China would not allow anybody to “reverse the course of history” shows the severity of the issues bought up by misinterpretations of shared history and the erosion of relation not only between the countries’ people but also their respective political leaders. Thus, solving the issue of historical differences will be beneficial to Sino-Japanese relations.

However, the evidence and scholars that have posited the fact that historical difference is the primary obstacle for Sino-Japan relations have failed to provide an in-depth look into the problems related to historical difference due it’s complexity. As the governments of both countries have to consider nationalistic pressures from their citizens to keep their political expediency which has deter further improvements of their relations. According to Gries, the relations between China and Japan has deteriorate more due to the political leaders using different perceptions of shared history to brew nationalistic animosity to gain political support. Thus, problems caused by different viewpoints have only arise due to the political leaders’ use of the strong mutually antagonistic nationalism as a tool for political support. It is also due to the instability like mass incidents cause by the respective country’s people due to their mutually antagonistic nationalism that has further dampened the efforts for the development of Sino-Japan relations.  Thus, the effects of historical difference have been amplified by the mutually antagonistic nationalism of the citizens. According to He, the different interpretation of their common history, had acted to amplify the friction manifested through nationalistic sentiments. Thus, the problem between the difference in viewpoint of the countries’ people only grew due to their mutually antagonistic nationalism. Furthermore, with the Chinese people’s impression of Japan’s lack of remorse for past aggression like the Nanking massacre has caused the rise of anti-Japanese sentiments which pressures the Chinese government to dwell on historical scars, thus deterring the improvement of Sino-Japanese relations. Similarly, the Japanese government also experience the same pressure from their anti-Chinese citizens to not engage in any type of conciliatory measure for past incidents. Showing the significance of the mutually antagonistic nationalism in limiting the government’s decision and ability to reconcile and build new ties with one another. Thus, the root cause of the problems arising from the different views in their shared history is due to the nationalistic sentiments of both countries as it acts as the catalyst that greatly amplifies the problems of historical difference. Therefore the nationalistic pressure from the citizens is the foremost considerations in improving Sino-Japan relations.

Meanwhile, territorial dispute is another paramount issue that will undermine further development of bilateral ties between China and Japan as tensions are rising mostly due to the dispute over the East China Sea. In November 2004, a Chinese submarine was detected in Japan’s Exclusive Economic Zone. That incident was led by the dispatch of Chinese drilling teams in search for oil and gas deposits in Japan’s Exclusive Economic Zones. In response to this incidents, China was formally declared a security concern for Japan in its December 2004 National Defence Program Outline. According to Yuan, both China and Japan are not willing to give way on competing for the claims due to the geo-economic importance leading to the build-up of tensions. Smith further support this view by emphasising the attempts of both governments to establish sovereignty over the Islands through diplomatic countermeasures, militarized threat and economic sanctions, which do not essentially support the development of relations. The Senkaku Islands are close to important shipping lanes, offer rich fishing grounds and lie near potential oil and gas reserves thus it holds great importance for both countries as these resources and shipping routes would bring great economic benefits to the country that has the Senkaku Islands. This increased of military presence like the Air Defence Identification Zone (ADIZ) that challenge the sovereignty and control of Japan on the Islands has increased the possibility of armed conflict and naval battles, threatening the relations between the countries. Economic ties are also at stake due to territorial disputes as economic sanctions are being implemented due to the breach of sovereignty rights. Which is evident in the case where China set up trade embargos on rare earth materials to Japan after the 2010 confrontations. This has not only affected the imports and exports of goods but also eroded other sectors like tourism due to the display of nationalisation of the Islands in 2012 where 50,000 Chinese tourist cancelled their trip to Japan. Thus, the fight for the Senkaku Islands have affected the economic ties between the two country eroding further possibility of any collaboration between the two countries.

Besides Economic problems, political relations was also eroded due to the persistent territorial disputes, as seen in the harsh response of China towards Japan’s arrest of the crew of a fishing boat, which included the detainment of four Japanese citizens for entering restricted military area and disruption of bilateral negotiation. Furthermore , Chinese Premier, Wen Jiabao delivered a speech which emphasised the fact that China “will never budge, even half an inch, over sovereignty and territorial issues.” The events mentioned above are signs of the limited cooperation and poor communications in solving territorial disputes further eroding the relations of China and Japan. Therefore, territorial disputes seems like the main cause for the stagnations of the development of ties as there are limited space for negotiations on both side thus coming up with an mutually agreeable resolution is almost impossible.

On a closer look, we should not dismiss the role that opposing nationalism plays as government persistence on the issue of territorial dispute is built on nationalism and pride of the country as if in the case of the Senkaku Islands, cooperation with the other country would be a better approach to reap economic benefits rather than fighting for full sovereignty rights. Stated by Zhang, the governments of both countries would take a harsher stance due to the nationalistic public sentiments as the soft measures would lead to a fall in the support of the ruling party threatening their legitimacy. This is evident, in the hard-line stance of both countries on territorial dispute such as the greater emphasis on the sovereignty over the Senkaku islands due to the nationalistic pressures.  Showing the significance that nationalistic pressure has amplified and further escalated the fight over sovereignty rights of the Senkaku Islands. Induced by the angry Chinese public openly showing the disapproval of Japan by destroying their factories and rioting, the Chinese government had to introduce naval presence in the area further escalating tensions. This brings out the fact that both governments are afraid of anti-government sentiments due to the failure of protecting the countries’ territorial sovereignty thus would much rather create tension and disrupt the development of ties instead of eroding their own political stability. Therefore with the main priority of the government being the protection of its legitimacy as it is the foundation for most of the Chinese government’s policies, thus nationalistic pressure greatly influences the decisions made by the government in terms of territorial disputes, and it is the main obstacle for the development of Sino-Japan relations.

Assertive actions to prove and strengthen their political power creates the hostility between the two countries thus eroding bilateral relations. Both China and Japan are known as the great powers in Asia, thus there has always been and underlying dispute over who is the stronger of the two. As China has risen in their power capabilities, naturally it has been asserting more security based interest in East Asia, however as Beijing pressed for its position, the Japanese government has tried to go against it. This is evident in the Chinese policies towards Japan between 2001 and 2007 as it shows the growing military capabilities of China. This shows the growing Chinese power and influence over Asia and the world which would erode the strength and influence of its rival, Japan. This can be further supported by the fact that there has been a change in Chinese policy in the beginning of 2008, where China has become more assertive leading to the deterioration of bilateral ties. Thus proving the point that assertive actions in terms of China’s policies towards Japan has been a huge force in the deterrence of Sino-Japanese ties. Further evidence of China reducing Japan’s influence and power can be seen in Chinese Premier Wen Jiabao’s implications that China was opposed to Japan’s candidacy for a permanent seat in the UN security council. Japan has also expressed its worries of China’s assertive actions in the decision to mention the Taiwan Issue in the joint statement at the end of the consultations between U.S. and Japan in February 2005. Thus, the rise in assertive actions in the area has made to two countries increasingly wary of each other which does not provide for a good foundation for the building of Sino-Japanese relations. Therefore, to aid in further development of their relations, both government has to lessen its assertive actions towards each other as it would create animosity and hostility between the two country.

However, mutually antagonistic nationalism is the main source for the increased assertive actions as well as the hostility between the two countries due to the desire of the people to be better off as compared to each other. As stated before, both the Chinese and Japanese have engaged in a competition with each other and thus it has significantly eroded the possibility of a good Sino-Japan relations due to the hostility between the countries’ people. This can be seen in August 2004 where there was a full scaled rioting by angry Chinese soccer fans following the Japanese team’s victory over China in the finals. This shows the strong mutually antagonistic nationalism that the Chinese has against the Japanese thus fuelling tension and hostility between the countries. Furthermore, the government’s need to assert its dominance and strength is also fuelled by the nationalistic sentiments of its countries. The development of ties weigh heavily on the mutual perception of the people as any nationalistic sentiments would lead to the adaptation of harsher approaches and attitude in both states’ foreign policies.  As the mutually antagonistic nationalism grows between the countries’ people, the government would be forced to take a harsher stance and assert its dominance over the other country. Thus, assertive actions between the country is to satisfy the need of the people’s mutually antagonistic sentiments leading to increase hostility between the countries, eroding further development of their ties.

While there may be a huge array of problems that will undermine the long term relations between Japan and China, they are purely just problems that came from the same root cause which is the mutually antagonistic nationalism. Even though, on the surface historical differences, assertive actions and territorial disputes are seen as the  most prominent problems, the underlying problem of the countries’ mutually antagonistic nationalism has a greater impact on the ability to further develop Sino-Japanese relations thus solving mutually antagonistic nationalism will solve the root cause of the problem and therefore eradicating the effects of the other problems. Furthermore, the opposing nationalism also amplifies the negative impacts of the current problems and thus have been a huge contributing force to worsening relations of Japan and China. All in all, the primary issue that will affect and shape bilateral relations is the mutually antagonistic nationalism. Thus, mutually antagonistic has been the key obstacle in improving Sino-Japanese relations.

Day of the dead: college application essay help

Day of the dead is a holiday closely related to Halloween and All Saint’s/Soul’s Day. This holiday is celebrated from October 31st to November 2nd in Mexico and in some places in the United States. Día de los Muertos is specifically celebrated in the states from Mexico City south. This includes Michoacan, Mexico City, Puebla, Oaxaca, Veracruz, Guerrero, Guanajuato, Chiapas and the Yucatan. Northern Mexico, is not as celebratory, at least not the way the South is. The people of the Northern part of Mexico can be seen going to mass and visiting grave sites, while the people of the South can be seen building ofrendas, throwing wild parties and leaving out offerings for their ancestors and family members who have passed on. Interestingly enough, Latin America and the Latino parts of Los Angeles, California also take part in the festivities of the Day of the Dead.

What is an Ofrenda you may ask? An ofrenda is a huge part of the Día de los Muertos celebration. Ofrenda means offering in Spanish, and they are also called altares or altars in English. The ofrendas are not to be worshipped though, most of the Mexicans celebrating this holiday are of Catholic faith.  The ofrendas are created to honor the memory of their dead relatives. Ofrendas are complex and time consuming to set up; however, the effect of a finished one is wonderful. Ofrendas can consist of many layers, there is usually a crucifix on the top level, then a lit candle is set out for each deceased relative.  Flowers, salt and water, incense (or copal), sugar skulls, and tons of food are also set out onto the ofrenda.

On November 2nd- when the adult spirits are said to come down to earth- people bring their celebrations to the cemeteries and grave sites. People clean tombs, leave flowers, play cards, listen to music, and remember their loved ones.  Some also drink tequila, and sing along to the mariachi bands.

Foods play a huge part in every culture, we Americans have our apple pie and hamburgers but what does Mexico do? For Dia de los Muertos, there are several specialty foods. According to ocweekly.com , Pan de muerto is probably the most recognizable food in the celebration. “The most common culinary representation of the Day of the Dead is an eggy, brioche-like bread, often topped with sugar.” Some Pan de Muerto is often accented with skull and crossbones and other shapes. Mole is also a big food of the Dia de los Muertos celebrations. The mole is a huge undertaking as it has anywhere from 20 to 50 ingredients. Foods such as tamales, atole, and candied pumpkin can also be seen in the Day of the dead festivities.

Music is self expression, but you may be surprised to hear what music is played on the Day of the Dead, and you may be surprised to learn that music in different cultures isn’t all that different after all. For example, in 2015 one of the most played radio songs was the salsa version of Thriller as a tribute to Michael Jackson. Another, is La Llorona by Chavela Vargas. And according to Billboard.com, No es serio este cementerio by Mecano is a popular ‘80s Spanish pop song that can turn a graveyard visit into a dance party. Shakira’s “She Wolf” is a favorite in the US, Mexico, and other Hispanic countries.

Marigolds are a key element of Día de los Muertos. Marigolds have a long history in Mexico. They were brought over the Atlantic to Mexico hundreds of years ago. Aztecs used these hearty flowers for herbal medicine and decoration. Now, Marigolds are place all around ofrendas to guide the visiting spirits because of their bright colors and strong scent. Marigolds also represent how fragile life is. Marigolds are known as cempasúchiles or flowers of the dead, which is definitely appropriate for the Day of the Dead.

José Guadalupe Posada has heavily influenced today’s Day of the Dead artists. Posada was born in 1852 in the Mexican town of Aguascalientes and he started started studying art at the age of 18, skip a few years ahead and we find him doing print after print and painting after painting. In his lifetime he created over 20,000 images, however; he died as an impoverished man in 1913. His most famous works include Calvera: Guerra Mundial or Skeleton: World War in English, and Calvera Catrina or Dapper skeleton.

Day of the Dead and Halloween share many characteristics. Day of the Dead and Halloween are both celebrated in the US and in Mexico. Day of the dead is celebrated in Los Angeles and Halloween is celebrated pretty much everywhere in the US. Halloween has picked up popularity in Mexico in the past 40 years. They are also similar because of the lavish celebrations and decorations, they are also both of European origin. They are different because they have different mentalities and roles. Halloween is a Holiday for children to dress up, have fun, and get free candy. Adults dress up, go to parties, and hand out candy. Day of the Dead, as mentioned earlier, is to honor dead ancestors with ofrendas, food, and grave visits. Although they are similar in some ways they are also very different. Every culture has its own celebrations and it’s clear that Día de los Muertos is a very lavish and unique holiday that would be very cool to see in person.

Sigmund Freud – career, theories, legacy

Sigmund Freud was born in the Czech Republic in 1856. He is an Australian psychologist who is known for the development of techniques and theories of psychoanalysis. He developed psychoanalysis which is a method through which other analysts have been able to unpack conflicting unconscious basing them on fantasies, dreams and free associations of the patients (Freud 23). Some of the most influencing academic contributions that he has made include libido and the age, child sexuality among other topics that he developed in the 20th century.

Freud’s father, referred to as “Jakob” was a wool trader who had been married to another wife before he wed Freud’s mother (Jay1). The father who was 40 years when Freud was born can be described as being rare and authoritarian while the mother was emotionally present.

Although Freud had other brothers, he was not closely attached to them but was more attached to his nephew John, who provided the intimate friend and also hatred rival that reproduced in the later stages of Freud’s life (Jay 1). For example, the sensitivity to perianal authority within such that he later talked about in his theories and work was mainly stimulated by the decline in power that his father suffered in his generation. The father suffered this ion the liberal rationalists who lived in the Habsburg Empire. It is also believed that the interest that he had in the theme of the seduction of daughters was based in the complicated ways in the context of the attitude that Viennese had towards female sexuality.

When Fred was four years, his family relocated to Vienna where he lived and worked for the most part of his life. He started studying medicine at the University of Vienna, and he had a medical degree in 1881. After graduation, he worked as a doctor at the Vienna General Hospital.  He got engaged, and his marriage led to six children in which his last born Anna became a distinguished psychoanalyst.

In his career, Freud viewed himself as a scientist most and not a doctor. Many people thought that he was a doctor, but he took more of his time on science and research. He endeavored through this to make understanding of human knowledge and the experience that human went through his journey of development.  The movement of the family from Freiburg was mainly due to economic reasons. Despite the dislike that Freud had to the imperial city, he was forced to become part of it.  It is also from the city that most of his thoughts and the arguments on the theories that he developed at a later part of his life emerged.  They were mainly encouraged by the political and the social situation in the city.

His career and development of theories

Earlier in his career, he was mainly influenced by the discoveries and the works of his friend, Jose Breuer. Breuer had made a discovery that through the encouragement of a hysterical patient to talk about the earlier experienced and the symptoms that he had seen, these symptoms sometimes abated. This discovery encouraged Freud and he posited that the neurons of the patient in these situations had their origins in the traumatic events and experiences that the patient had gone through. As part of the treatment, he argued that the patient could be empowered to recall the experiences and bring them to his awareness.  In doing so, he could challenge it both emotionally and intellectually. He supposed that a patient in these situations could then release it and rid themselves of the neurotic indications. The findings and the theories that the two friends developed were first published in the book Studies in Hysteria in 1895.

The relationship between Breuer and Freud ended when Breuer felt that Freud had made much emphasis on the sexual origin on the patients’ neutrons and he was not willing to look at other factors that could have brought the change. He was not willing at the time to welcome other viewpoints and suggestions by Breuer. Freud in this aspect decided to focus on this point of arguments and he went ahead to refine his own arguments. Most of the contemporaries that he had were that the emphasis he had on sexuality was either overplayed or scandalous just as it had been seen by Breuer. He had an in vitiation in 1909 to give several lectures in the United States. After the visit, he made more analysis on his theories and wrote another book in 1916, ‘Five Lecturers on Psycho-Analysis’. His fame grew exponentially from the arguments that he made in this book.

In 1985, Freud went to Paris as a student where he studied neurology and it is at the school that he met neurologist Jean Charcot.  The 19 weeks that he had in the French capital greatly contributed to the development of his career and opened up ways through which he explained his theories.  It is this time that he spent with Charcot that gave him a lead to his works and some of his theories. He realized during this time that the psychological disorders that patients might be undergoing might have had an origin in the mind. He decided to get more on this. He was also inspired by the practices and the knowledge of the neurologist and when he returned to Vienna the previous year, he set up his private exercise. In his practice, he mainly focused and specialized on brain and nervous disorders.  In his practice, he developed a theory that humans have an insentient in which aggressive and sexual instincts are continuous conflict to gain reign with the defense against them. He began an analysis of himself in 1897 and did a major work in 1900, “The Interpretation of Drama” in which he examined dreams basing them on experiences and unconscious needs(Freud 41).

He was appointed the Professor of Neuropathology at the University of Vienna in 1902. He held this post until 1938. Although in his career and the discoveries that he made at this time and later, the medical establishments disagreed with many theories he developed. Students and followers began to gather and look keenly on some of the arguments that he made and compared them to the medical establishments that they knew or researched about. He worked with some of the students until there the establishments of International Psychoanalysis Association in 1910. The organization was founded by Carl Jung who was his close friend. Carl Jung broke with him to develop his own philosophies.

After the First World War, Freud did not spend much of his time in clinical observations and used most of time on the application on the theories that he had developed to history, literature, art and anthropology. In 1923, he did more research on the theories and published the book “The Ego and the Id” (Freud 78). In the book, the main idea was the suggestion on the new physical model of the mind. He divided the mind in to the “id” and the “superego’.

 Lasting legacy

Freud has remained an icon in the world of psychology and medicine. Many of the theories that Freud developed including those on ‘Psychic energy’ were in no doubt influenced by the discoveries that were made by other scientific discoveries at the time. One of the works that influenced his thinking and actions were those of Charles Darwin. Darwin developed an understanding of humankind as progressive elements of the animal kingdom that led and informed the investigation by Freud on human behavior. Additionally, the new principles that were formulated by Helmholtz which stated that the energy in any given system is constant were used by Freud in studying the human mind. At first, however, he was not uncertain about the exact status of the sexual element in the conception of the mind that he developed.  The work that Freud did have been criticized but there is still no person in history that has influenced the science of psychology as intensely as he did.

Although Freud has contributed extensively in understanding human psychology, there have been many controversies over some of his publications. For example, during his early years, the Nazis openly burned a number of his books in 1933. This invasion by the Nazis was the beginning of his end. In 1938, shortly after the Nazis occupied Austria, he left for London together with his daughter Ann and wife. He had been diagnosed with cancer of the jaw and went through thirty operations. He died of cancer in 1939.

Juliet Eilperin – Demon Fish: Travels Through the Hidden World of Sharks: college admission essay help

In the introduction, the book gives a description of the sharks and what their environment is like. The author, Juliet Eilperin, talks about how amazing the sharks are in the beginning of the book and states that they operate in a another world. Juliet Eilperin also talks about how sharks move and how they interact with other sharks. She compares and contrasts the wide variation of shark species and their interaction as well. Being in the water for the first time is scary enough let alone including sharks. Juliet Eilperin was in an environment filled with sharks 50 miles off the coast of Florida on an island called Bimini. Everybody was very scared for her and told her to be extra careful and aware of every little thing. Comparing this to a car going seventy five miles per hour, this situation was far more worse. All the adrenaline flowing through her blood came from the fear of possibly being eaten by a shark. Though, she is not alone in this risky situation. Juliet Eilperin is taking this journey as a journalist with other brave scientists. As the others took a chance and hopped into the danger, she thought about things that would make her less frightened. She convinced herself that since she was very slim, the sharks will not want to just eat bones and instead devour the others first so she has time to get away. When she physically went into the water, it was not as frightening as she thought it would have been. She got to spot a plethora of species that lived in the ocean. Juliet Eilperin mentions how sharks predate. Sharks were respected and known for their power and destruction; this caused them to be seen as gods. In the past, Sharks seemed to be a threat to the human population but in the present, we seem to be more of a threat to them. Because of the human race exploring roughly seventy five percent of the ocean, sharks have been forced to immigrate to other coasts. For example the coast of Hawaii and California. Technology in tracking devices has made it tremendously easy to track any living being. Scientists tag sharks with trackers and also with microphones and cameras. By doing this, we can receive the most accurate information about the shark species. Sharks are praised for their uniqueness because of their adaptive skills as well as their buoyancy. We have access to details down to their denticles. Their smooth speed come from denticles. One of the top three places to go too to see sharks is located in Tembin. Juliet Eilperin and an acquaintance learn about Tembin culture. They learn how much the shark impacts the culture and the meaning of the shark and how it is essential to survive and spiritually survive. In order to get to Tembin, the scientists attempt to cross by a swampy terrain because the bridge to Tembin was essentially destroyed. During their trip, the team encounters a shark caller named Karasimbe. He is a man with mad respect and is a leader who continues to pursue this hundreds of years old culture. Another shark caller who they call Kiput, lived to about 93 years old who died in 2003, was also greatly respected by the local people of Tembin and provided much guidance, purpose, and hope. Sharks have a great history and have great meaning in the villages who are brave enough to attempt to catch sharks with their bare hands. Although this culture seems dangerous, young men of Tembin villages sell these sharks they catch to other big companies and big cities to make more money. In Tembin today, they seem to care more about gaining a profit rather than just fishing. Elders have started to worry about this problem a lot more because they are not preserving their own culture. This has caused much conflict with making money and preserving culture. With that being said, Karasimbe is convinced that he will save Tembin and its precious culture because he has the potential ability to save everything.

Chapter Two Summary:

Chapter two starts off by informing me about the age of sharks. Everybody assume that dinosaurs have to be the oldest creature ever to live on this earth but little do they know that sharks are just about two hundred million years older. Montana is where you can discover shark fossils found. Aristotle, a greek roman conducted research on sharks a long time ago and aristotle discovered knowledge and names that we still use to this day. Sharks were originally called dogfish in the past by the ancient roman people. Islamic people were truly amazed when they found out the dangers on the Tigris river. The human race is very segregated from the species of sharks and fear the sharks a lot more than the elders did in the past. The ages that were toward the middle, sharks got a bad reputation that led to the ignorance of sharks. People do not care for them and hate on them because they are seen as evil or wicked animals. Sailors also were also scared of sharks because of how they could sink their sailing boat. Sharks reputation has changed tremendously throughout history and time. People used to see sharks as gods and praised them until the human race became selfish and took them for granted which caused sharks to act up and begin to harm us. Now we do not care about ocean creatures for we catch them for profit and for food.

Chapter Three Summary:

Chapter three hands me two main perspectives of the shark hunters or shark guiders and the environmentalists in the world. A man named Quariano who gets paid to guide tourists and visitors offshore and onto the ocean, protects his paying customers and takes them to parts of the ocean were many sharks prowl so that the visitors may have a chance to fish for some sharks. His market target is young men who are living life on the edge and who are willing to take risks like that. Being a professional, it causes Quariano to have very strong opinions and causes him to be very biased. He states that since there are a plethora of sharks in the ocean, killing sharks is not wrong and that it is a very efficient way to make money. The environmentalist perspective is of course the complete opposite. Environmentalists believe that people like Quariano is not good enough to find real jobs in the world. They are leading people on the wrong path by allowing them to harm natural habitats and their niches. By continuing this  hunting, sharks will go extinct and will become endangered because of human selfishness. Chapter Four Summary:

In chapter four, it talks about how in a lot of markets and cultures, the fins of sharks contain much value. They have auctions for shark fins where men offer a lot of money for the fins. In certain cultures, humans believe shark fins have magic or contain supernatural powers. An example of this is to cure aids or cancer. Some so sick that there is no cure. In some cultures, many people believe that owning a shark fin will benefit in ones health. The significance of a shark fin in these cultures is very great. It bears magic that can cure diseases that may not have a cure. Shark fins also can be food. In china and india, shark fins are very rare to receive. It is very expensive to buy and if you are lucky enough to have some as a meal, you would be considered very rich.

David Livingstone Smith’s Less Than Human

“Less Than Human” is chapter 1 in David Livingstone Smith’s Less Than Human, includes various stories of dehumanization throughout history to the present day and elaboration and further comments on those pieces of history. Some of these examples include stories from war and stories of dehumanization in the media. Smith uses these tales from history and his reflections on them to illustrate his purpose of writing this; in fact, from these stories we can easily come up with his argument and analyze it. In “Less Than Human,” Smith clearly provides his purpose, audience, how he decided to arrange this writing, evidence for his argument, implications, and his word choice.

Smith doesn’t get to telling his purpose of writing this selection until the end, but even then, the reader may have to infer what it may be. In the last paragraph, he says that “dehumanization is… widespread… it is found… through the full span of human history, and… the problem of dehumanization is everyone’s problem” (Smith 25).  From this, one can find Smith’s purpose of writing this; that being, to show that dehumanization continues today, that it’s not only a part of history, and that it affects everyone across many cultures. He makes this argument because dehumanization continues today and needs to be stopped before we reach another large war or have a major incident. One example Smith uses to illustrate this is Rush Limbaugh’s radio show on the “Abu Ghraib prison scandal [saying] “[The prisoners] are the ones who are sick” … They are the ones who subhuman” (Smith 22). Smith provides multiple other examples to show his purpose and why he made this his argument/purpose; at the same time, he also uses these to tell who the audience is intended to be by Smith.

The factor of who the audience is and who Smith is directing the argument at is a different story. He uses multiple stories of dehumanization; whether it’s the Israelis versus the Palestinians or the 1946 Nuremberg doctors’ trial, and at least one can relate to whoever is reading the book. Therefore, the audience that Smith intends to reach and reach with his argument is one that is universal; despite this, one can say that the secondary audience is an academic crowd. The reason one could say that his secondary audience is an academic crowd is because of his organization of the paper and his evidence to support his purpose of writing “Less Than Human.”

Smith arranges this chapter in three sections; stories of dehumanization in war, dehumanization in media, and a conclusion. He further divides the first two sections into a pattern that is basically; story, supporting info on the story and introduction to the next story, story, supporting info, so on and so forth until he concludes the section. For example, the excerpt begins with an example of dehumanization occurring between Israelis and Palestinians, it says “Degrading taunts rang out from behind the fence that divided the Palestinian side of the Khan Younis refugee camp from the Israeli side” (Smith 11); afterwards, Smith reflects and elaborates on the story by telling the reader that Khan Younis was a “stronghold of Hamas” and further elaborates on the story, he then introduces another example and repeats (Smith 12).

Smith demonstrates his purpose and caters to his audience through the use of evidence of dehumanization in war and dehumanization in media. This evidence ranges from the Holocaust to Rush Limbaugh’s view on the Abu Ghraib Prison Scandal. Smith illustrates his purpose by providing examples from various points in history like the “1946 Nuremberg doctors’ trial [that] was the first of twelve military tribunals held in Germany [in which] twenty doctors and three administrators … stood accused of wars crimes and crimes against humanity” (Smith 14). Using examples like this, Smith gets the reader’s attention and shows his purpose before actually saying it on the last page. Smith also uses this evidence to cater to whoever reads this excerpt by using examples in which a person could relate to at least one example or imagine an example in their lives like those in the paper. One such piece of evidence would be when “on September 4, 2007, the Columbus Dispatch published a cartoon portraying Iran as a sewer” (Smith 22); one person in the audience could imagine or relate to this by remembering something they read that made them feel uncomfortable, etc. Smith also uses such evidence to hint to or provide an implication or suggestion to the reader.

Smith provides a specific recommendation to the audience; however, part of it is stated and the other part is implied. He never deliberately states the whole suggestion, but Smith states a part of it in the last paragraph.  He states this part of his suggestion by saying that “We are all potential dehumanizers, just as we are all potential objects of dehumanization. The problem of dehumanization is everyone’s problem” (Smith 25). By saying this, Smith states that dehumanization is everyone’s problem and that we are affected by it. While this is deliberately stated, he eludes to the other parts of his purpose that it continues today, not just a part of history by; once again, his use of evidence from different points in time.

Smith does repeat specific words or phrases like dehumanization; but he also uses specific types of words or phrases. The most repeated word or words used is dehumanization and the other versions of that word, this is done since it is the topic of this excerpt. More interesting is the special type of word or phrase Smith uses, that being derogatory names or phrases that one side calls its enemy; specific examples of this would be what the Nazis called their victims, “Untermenschen – subhumans” and another being what the Japanese called the Chinese or “Chancorro [meaning] below human, like bugs or animals” (Smith 15- 18). He uses these to his purpose that dehumanization affects everyone across multiple cultures and that it is still a part of everyday life.

Throughout “Less Than Human” from Less Than Human, Smith uses tales of dehumanization in history to the modern day to present his argument. In using these the argument can be studied and interpreted by his audience. By doing this, Smith’s purpose, audience, arrangement of the excerpt, evidence, suggestions, and word choice is shown and can be recorded.

 The Brief Wondrous Life of Oscar Wao by Junot Diaz

In the novel,  The Brief Wondrous Life of Oscar Wao by Junot Diaz, the main character Oscar Wao struggles with obesity and finding love throughout his life. His misfortunes are blamed on a curse that haunts him and his family. Like Oscar and his family, real life people struggle with the same issues as they do. The author addresses real life issues while incorporating a cultural history and background. Although the readers of The Wondrous Life of Oscar Wao may not all relate to having a Dominican family, the author addresses issues readers can associate with such as struggling with love and family.

The Fuku curse is a historical curse that dates back hundreds of years back into Oscar’s family. Throughout the novel, the narrator spends a great deal of time trying to convince the readers that every bad detail that happens in Oscar’s family’s life is due to the Fuku curse. All through the novel, Oscar struggles with with finding love. As a child, he was a playboy and flirted with all the girls but as he grew up, he became a nerd and had trouble finding a girlfriend. Just like Oscar, many people struggle with finding love in their lives. His first love is named Ana Obregon and she leads him on and then returns to a relationship with her abusive ex-boyfriend. In college he falls for another girl, who yet again has rejected him. Oscar responds by trying to kill himself by jumping off a train, but he does not succeed. After college, he goes on a trip with his sister and mother to the Dominican Republic where he falls in love with a prostitute named Ybon. Unfortunately Ybon has a boyfriend who is the captain of the police force. Everyone warned Oscar not to see Ybon but Oscar had believed he finally found true love. Eventually Ybon’s boyfriend finds Oscar and badly beats him up resulting in Oscar’s mom sending him back to the States. But, Oscar can not seem to get Ybon out of his head and asks his best friend for money to fly back to the Dominican Republic to see her. Ybon’s boyfriend then finds him and kills him.

The misfortune with love does not only affect Oscar, but other people in his family too. His mother for example had trouble with men her whole life, starting in grade school. His mother, Beli, finally got the boy she liked and they were have constant sex in the broom closet at school. When they got caught, he blamed it on Beli even though he promised to marry her and she did nothing wrong. The boy was then shipped off to military school. Beli later on meets another man referred to as “The Gangster”. No man had ever appreciated her the way he did and she ended up falling in love with him and pregnant with his child. As it turned out, The Gangster was married and his wife sent people to go and beat her near to death and she ended up losing her baby.

Like all families, there is conflict and tension between the members of the Wao family. Beli, the mother of Oscar and Lola, had been diagnosed with breast cancer. Lola responds by becoming goth and shaving her head all while taking care of her sick mother. The cancer eventually goes away but at dinner one night, Beli announced it had come back and Lola just asks her to pass the salt in response which causes Beli to hit Lola. Lola sees this as a chance to be free from her controlling mother once and for all and runs away to live with her boyfriend. Things were not going well at her boyfriend’s house, so Lola call Oscar to meet her at coffee shop where she sees her mother and uncle waiting for her. Lola runs and her mother chases her and falls, Lola rushes to help her but it turned out her mother had faked the fall. The members of the Wao family all went through many unfortunate events in their lives but they do not share them with each other. No one likes to talk about their past with each other which can lead to tension in a family.

Even though the novel, The Brief Wondrous Life of Oscar Wao is relatable mostly to Dominican readers, there are still aspects of the book that non-Dominican readers can relate to such as the struggles with love and family.

Guns, Germs, and Steel – Jarod Diamond: college application essay help

When reading Guns, Germs, and Steel, one may assume that the author has an extensive background with history, mainly focusing on prehistoric times. This assumption would be incorrect. Jarod Diamond, the author of Guns, Germs, and Steel (as well as The Third Chimpanzee, Collapse, and The World Until Yesterday) began his studies in physiology, which then turned into him also studying biology, geography, and many other disciplines as stated by his website (http://www.jareddiamond.org). Although his main interests are about the sciences, he continues to write books about the history of the world. This is because he does something that many authors cannot do: he uses his biology background to make sense of the world and how we got here. For example, on page 53, Diamond is talking about environmental effects on the Moriori and Maori people. To show how the environmental effects could affect these people, he brings up an example of placing lab rats in different environments to see what happened. Most historians would not think of an example like that; only someone with a biology background (such as Diamond) would. By using two disciplines to explain a topic, this forces the reader to not only think about the historical side of something, but also the biological side, thus expanding the readers knowledge on the topic.

One of Diamond’s central questions asks why did history unfold differently on different continents. He is trying to see and explain why some areas developed the way that they did. In part one, he uses each chapter to explain how a culture grew. For example, Diamond focused on Moriori and Maori in chapter two, and Cajamarca in chapter three. This question and answer is intriguing because it challenges the common perception that everything happened at the same time. It also makes people realize that humans did not exist everywhere in the beginning of time. They evolved from the great apes of Africa, and migrated from there and created families everywhere they stopped (36). Some people may disagree with Diamond’s ideas and say that humans may have evolved differently or that they did not travel to certain places in a certain order. He addresses this by stating what other historians think, explaining why they think that way, acknowledging that either theory could be correct, and continues on with what he believes about the situation.

One of the ways Jarod Diamond answers his question is to look at the fossils that were left behind. From this, he can tell who or what was in this area, what they did to survive, what they ate, how advanced they were, as well as during what time period they were in a particular area. By piecing together different bones, he can determine what type of animals existed in a particular area. For example, if he found Homo erectus bones, then he would know that they existed there. This can also apply to fossils not found in an area. If there are no fossils present, then we cannot be sure if a species lived in that area. Arrowheads, writing utensils, and spears that are found can also tell us if they had the technology to build and use these things for a purpose. Diamond also determines when these species were living, however his method differs from other historians. He uses calibrated radiocarbon dates instead of the usual uncalibrated radiocarbon dates because it provides dates that are closer to calendar dates. This can confuse readers because if they do not know the difference between the two, they may think they are receiving false information when they are actually seeing two correct dates that are relative based on calibration. I find this useful because it gives the date a meaning that is relative to the calendar that we use today. It makes it easier to create and connect a sequence of events.

One thing that Diamond does well in Guns, Germs, and Steel is taking other historians viewpoints into consideration. He recognizes that his way and thoughts is not the only way to think, and that other historians can disagree with him and still be correct. Diamond explains this on page 37 when he is talking about the earliest “X”. Here, he states that when someone finds the earliest existence of something (X), it challenges all other beliefs of when X first existed. He also acknowledges that it can take an extensive amount of research to confirm when X actually happened. This allows the reader to stay open minded, and to not be completely set on a fact because it can change when new information is found.

A weakness of part one would be that it can get pretty dull. For someone who does not gravitate towards history, this book can become very boring very fast. This then leads the reader to start to only read the words on the pages, rather than to comprehend and analyze them. When this happens, the reader could miss a lot of information, which leads to them rereading the same passage over and over again, adding to their frustration. To fix this, I would remove the parts where Diamond seemed to drone on about the same thing, as well as try to engage the reader more by forcing them to think critically about the topics they are reading.

The Immortal Life of Henrietta Lacks by Rebecca Skloot

Introduction

For the book club assignment, I chose to read The Immortal Life of Henrietta Lacks by Rebecca Skloot. The book was originally published in 2010 by Crown Publishers. However, the copy of the book I read was published in 2011 by Broadway Books, a partner of Crown Publishers. The book is about an African-American woman named Henrietta Lacks. She was diagnosed with cervical cancer and when she went to John Hopkins to be diagnosed and receive treatment, her tumor was biopsied and cultured. Her cells were grown and led to an immortal cell line. George Gey, the scientist who grew these cells, was the director of the lab at Hopkins and it was his work that helped to create this immortal cell line. The book explains how this ability to grow cells led to many medical breakthroughs including the testing of the polio vaccine and research about cancer cells. Although these breakthroughs have saved numerous lives and advanced modern medicine, the ethics of it is called into question. Henrietta did not know her cells were taken from her and used for research. Neither she nor her family were ever compensated for their contribution to advancing medicine. Finally, there was no informed consent and therefore, her cells, known as HeLa cells, have become a giant for profit business that is of no benefit to her children, husband, or other family members. I chose to read this book because I had heard of HeLa cells during my undergraduate coursework. I took a cell biology course and we discussed the benefits of the cells. However, as it talks about in the book, the medical advances were celebrated in my class but how the cells were grown was completely left out. I was curious to learn more about the famous HeLa and so I chose to read this book.

Summary of Contents

In part 1, titled Life, the first unethical situation arises. Henrietta had just been diagnosed with cervical cancer. She had discovered the tumor herself shortly after giving birth to her daughter Debora. The tumor had grown so fast that it was not in her medical charts. The doctor who diagnosed the cancer noted that after delivering the baby 6 weeks earlier, there was no note “made in the history at the time, or at the six weeks’ return visit” that would indicate cancer.1

As she traveled to John’s Hopkins, the nearest hospital that could treat her and treat other people of colors, she went to the doctor, told him where to look for the tumor and sure enough, a mass was found on her cervix. It is not known for sure in her case, but many black people were treated poorly by the doctors at this time.2 However, what she wasn’t told was that the doctor biopsied her cancerous tumor and was going to attempt to grow them outside the human bodied. She left the doctor with her diagnosis and her treatment of radium being inserted into the cervix and went home happily and peacefully.

Meanwhile, at the Gey labs at John’s Hopkins, Mr. Gey began to grow and cultivate the cells. It became an incredible breakthrough that would eventually lead to other immortal cell lines being grown. The new cells, called HeLa cells in this case, we’re going to become essential in discovering advances to treat diseases. However, the question remains: Did the doctor have any right to remove the tumor, experiment with the cells, all without telling the patient? It would appear that from a public health standpoint, the greater statistical number, or the population, was benefitted by the doctors taking the cells. However, on an individual level, it is a terrible precedent and very unethical that they would take the cells without asking her, without compensating the family. I believe this is a very crucial philosophical argument: What is the price to benefit the greater good? Part of the issue here is also that not only did they not inform her what they were planning on doing, they did not acknowledge her real name until an article appeared in 1973 that mentioned her name could be Henrietta Lacks and not Helen Lane.3

Another example of the unethical behaviors in the book come from one of the researchers who benefitted from the HeLa cells. Dr. Southam, a physician studying cancer, wanted to know if the cells could grow inside another person’s body. Using his terminal patients as guinea pigs, Dr. Southam injected the HeLa cells into the patients under the cover up that the injections were testing the immune systems of the patients. As a result of his experiment, he saw that cancer did grow in the patients. The cost however was that 4 patients could not have the cancer removed completely and one of the patients had the cancer metatisize through their body.4

He did not stop at these patients. Once proven they could grow in terminal patients, he wanted to see the cell effects on healthy patients. So, he found a population which could be coerced into doing things against their will, a prison population in Ohio. Instead of educating and promoting good health to this population, Dr. Southam decided to inject all the inmates with the cells and observe their reaction.4 He did learn a lot about resistance to cancer from these healthy inmates. However, as a public health official, he was not actively promoting good health. Rather, he was endangering the health of the population he was studying. The fact that this endangerment was occurring shows the lack of ethics used in this time period. Although good did come of it, one has to wonder if there could have been a better way for the research advances to be made.

Conclusion

In conclusion, The Immortal Life of Henrietta Lacks was a very difficult read. Not difficult as in hard to understand the words and meaning. Rather, difficult as in thought provoking and leaving a general feeling of uneasiness. The underlying issue of the ethics of medical research as well as how Henrietta Lacks was treated is put side by side with the advances in medicine that came because of the ability to culture her cells. This leaves an uneasy feeling in the stomach as one tries to wrestle with what is more important, the individual or the “greater good”. Understanding that statistics can be changed to justify one’s actions, I feel that the action taken has benefited society as a whole. However, as someone who aspires to become a full-time physician, the practice is completely unethical. In a perfect world, I would like to see the family of Henrietta be compensated today for the enormous breakthrough courtesy of her cells, especially considering the cell industry is now a multimillion dollar industry.5 It is terrible to read of her family and learn that after the death of their mother, her children were abused, molested, and suffered into adulthood because of these traumas. In my opinion, you can not put a price on a life. However, financial compensation is the least that could be done to support her family and possibly improve their socioeconomic status. Supposing that they could be compensated fairly, I would also like them to continue supporting research using the advances that have occurred so that more diseases and issues can potentially be solved. The cells have led to numerous breakthroughs and who knows how many more will come because of it. Yes, it is a cop out answer of staying right on the fence, yet I believe it is the correct answer.

This research has benefited the world. Public health is about population. The population is the patient and it is the job of public health professionals to do all they can to implement practices and policies that promote and sustain healhy populations. Because of the HeLa cells, population health was improved. While the book illustrates the clear unethical decisions made with regard to the HeLa cells, the Lacks family, and the other experiments mentioned, the advances made from studying her cells have led to medical breakthroughs. Vaccines, treatments, knowledge about infectious diseases, all have been influenced by the culture of immortal cell lines. Were it not for the cell line, perhaps these advances would not have occurred.6 Therefore, I believe that while unethical, Henrietta Lacks unknowingly advanced the field of public health and has contributed to making our society a healthier environment for all people.

American Democracy in Peril by William E. Hudson (the fifth challege): essay help free

Reading Response #2

The Fifth Challenge: Elections Without the People’s Voice

In the book “American Democracy in Peril,” the author William E. Hudson discusses eight challenges that America would face sometime in its history. In the fifth challenge, Hudson argues that, just like the Separation of Powers (discussed in the first chapter), elections are not an indicator of democracy but a tool that has become a major challenge to it. Hudson also argues that in order for elections to be democratic all citizens must have equal representation, elections must enforce deliberation about public policy issues and must control the government’s actions.

The equal representation in elections comes with the equal right to vote, where each individual has the same amount of power (one vote). However, what Hudson wants us to take out of this chapter is that equal representation seems to be violated in many ways. One of them being the way that the Senate is organized. Since the Senate is composed of two senators from each state, voters in the least populous states are more in control of the Senate than voters in larger states. As a result, twelve states containing less than 5 percent of the US population have control of a quarter of all the votes in the senate. Similarly, the House of Representatives also fails to represent a large number of people using the single-member plurality electoral system. This system gives “the victory in an election to the candidate who wins the plurality of votes in a district,” the result being that the individuals who didn’t vote for the winning candidate don’t get represented also violating equal representation. Hudson also accuses the Electoral College system of violating equal representation since it fails to represent all the voters, just like the Senate, and uses “the single-member plurality” electoral system’s tactics.

Still analyzing equal representation, or the lack of it, Hudson talks about money elections which I found very interesting. I was unaware that the candidates in political campaigns depended on funding to keep their campaigns alive. After reading the passage “The Money Election”, my opinion is that, in fact, campaign funding prevents equal representation and that all candidates’ political campaigns should be worth almost the same. This would allow all the candidates to have the same opportunities and, therefore, a fairer campaign not only for the candidates but also the voters who will have the chance to vote without a money election made first.

Similar to the equal representation, individuals in our society participate in public deliberations by voting. During the political campaigns, candidates will express their ideas and views so that the voters can vote. This vote is a way for the individuals to express what they expect their society to be and what changes they want to see, by voting in one candidate that has the same expectations and beliefs, and wants to achieve the same results. Also, the goal is for elections to enforce deliberation about public policy issues, however, it can get tricky when the sources that the voters use to get the information necessary for them to make a decision or deliberate are ineffective. According to Hudson, there are two main sources of information that the voters use for democratic deliberation–the news media and the campaigns–and they both have been failing to provide voters with useful content for democratic deliberation.

I completely agree with Hudson that the news media nowadays is not a reliable source of the candidates “serious proposals for addressing the country’s problems” (CITATION). I believe that this is mainly because the news industry main focus is not to deliver important and serious informative content, rather, its main focus is making news attractive and controversial to hold the attention of the viewers so that it could make more money. It cannot be forgotten that viewers are also guilty since they are the ones who feed this kind of news. As a result, when it comes to presidential elections, the news media has become a reliable source of drama between the candidates, political scandals, and all the less important issues that cannot be used for deliberating about public issues.

Campaigns are another source of information that the voters use for deliberation on public issues. However, these campaigns are being used a tool to transmit messages that will “stimulate a positive or negative reaction” on voters, where the ultimate aim is to win votes. Just like the news media, many campaigns don’t focus on promoting serious discussion on policy issues which makes it harder for individuals to deliberate over these same issues/policy issues and make a decision about who they are going to vote for.

After analyzing how elections are connected to equal representation and public deliberation, there’s still a need to understand how it controls the government’s actions. Hudson argues that since the elections are decided “on the basis of sound bites, debate gaffes,  and campaign image manipulation” they fail to really give us an idea of what the elected officials’ specific agenda is, and since they are already in power, these officials decide for themselves without the “democratic electorate’s control” (CITATION). Political parties tend to be the ones who/that try to enforce the voters’ control over the government’s actions by making policies that reflect their voters’ preferences. Also, these parties help the voters to hold someone responsible if they don’t agree with what happens after the elections. One thing that makes this possible is that now political parties have different sets of “principles, ideas, and policies” that allow voters to differentiate them, and also allows parties to compete in elections. In conclusion, Hudson believes that if the elections fail to control the government’s actions is/it’s not because the parties stopped being in favor of the voters, but because there was no equal representation or significant deliberation during the election.

The Great Depression – biggest causes: college application essay help

The Great Depression was one the worst time periods in American history. The Great Depression started in 1929 and ended in 1939. It started in America with the crash of the stock market and then later began to have a big impact globally. As shown in Document 1, the Great Depression was the worst economic downfall in American history. Millions of people were left unemployed and searching for nonexistent jobs. It was a common sight to see children begging on the roads. Furthermore, banks started to fail and people started to lose any savings that they had. Overall, the main causes of the Great Depression were the stock market crash of 1929, the reduction in purchasing, and the abuse of the major economic ideas.

The stock market crash of 1929 was the biggest cause of the Great Depression. The stock market crash impacted millions of American people. Before the stock market crash, many Americans were getting greedy. They were continuously buying more and more. As described in Document 10 after the Americans “bought all they can afford they go on buying, a little down and the rest in easy payments.” (Document 10). This method of buying with installments was bad for the economy. Elmer Davis foreshadows the Great Depression when he states, “the bill will be all the larger when it finally has to be faced.” (Document 10). Another reason that Americans got greedy was the speculative boom in the stock market. As described in Document 5 there was a “speculative boom that developed with increasing intensity in the years after 1927.” (Document 5). The speculative boom made Americans greedy as they were hoping to make quick profits from the speculative rise. However, as more Americans began to invest in stocks, the prices started to be forced upwards. These forced up prices were a result of “competitive bidding rather than by any fundamental improvement in American (business).” (Document 5).  As a result of the speculative boom, investors bought more stocks. However, when the stock market crashed, the investors with the most stock were trying to get rid of it as fast as possible. This lead to the stock prices being dropped drastically. This is shown in the newspaper title in Document 3 which is “Stock prices slump $14,000,000,000 in nation-wide stampede to unload” (Document 3). The drop in prices would have been a good way to jumpstart the economy, but Americans were no longer buying anything. Most Americans stopped buying stocks which was worse for the economy since it cannot grow without consumers. Overall, the stock market crash of 1929 was one of the greatest causes of the Great Depression because it completely dropped the prices of all stocks and put millions of Americans into poverty.

After the stock market crash of 1929, many Americans were reluctant to buy anything. Also, many Americans were too poor to be able to buy anything besides the absolute necessities. After the stock market crash, many Americans lost their jobs. As shown in the table in Document 4, unemployment rates were drastically rising after the stock market crash. Without jobs, Americans could not purchase anything and this made the country continue downwards. Maintaining a family became extremely hard since many adults were losing their jobs. The hardships of family life are further explained in Document 7 where the average mill worker describes her daily lifestyle. In her story, she explains that her income combined with her husbands is just barely enough to support her entire family. This means that the average family did not have much money leftover to spend on other items and luxuries. The table in Document 9 further supports this argument because it shows the average US family income distribution. After the stock market crash, nearly 60% of American family’s annual income was under the poverty line (Document 9). This showed that the families under the poverty line could not afford anything other than the absolute necessities which meant that they could not purchase other luxuries. Overall, the reduction in purchasing was one of the causes of the Great Depression and it was happening because of the unemployment which led to a lack of money.

The abuse of economic ideas was one of the smaller causes of the Great Depression. As described in the background essay, the 4 major economic ideas are the law of supply and demand, say’s law, the business cycle, and the stock market (Background essay, 437-439). Before the Great Depression started, American people were breaking some of these economic ideas. As described in Document 6, “consumers bought goods on installment at a rate faster than their income was expanding” (Document 6). By buying goods on installment, it meant that people would pay over time. This purchasing style was okay in the beginning but after a while, it had serious consequences since many people were gaining debt and their income wasn’t capable of paying the installments. Also, this type of purchasing broke the law of supply and demand since the supply and demand for goods remained the same, but people didn’t have money to buy goods and had to use installment. This meant that there would be a time where people would stop buying which would lead to a sap in the economy (Document 6). Furthermore, Document 10 describes that people continued buying even after they couldn’t afford it. This shows that people broke the business cycle because usually if people stopped buying after they couldn’t afford it, then production slowed and workmen were fired. However, in the years before the Great Depression, people used installments and continued buying which broke the business cycle. Additionally, the farming economy also started to abuse the law of supply and demand. Farmers started to overproduce items in hopes of being able to sell more. However, this overproduction backfired and as shown in Document 11 the prices of goods completely dropped. The farm industry fell as farmers were forced to sell their goods at a very low price. Overall, the abuse of economic ideas impacted the Great Depression since people started paying with installments and breaking the business cycle and the law of supply and demand.

In conclusion, the Great Depression was caused by many different factors. The greatest cause for the Great Depression was the stock market crash of 1929 which put millions of Americans into poverty and made many lose their jobs. Additionally, the Great Depression was also caused by the reduction in purchasing since many were unemployed and couldn’t afford to purchase anything besides the absolute necessities. The reduction in purchasing also kept the economy down since it can’t grow without consumers. Furthermore, the abuse of the major economic ideas also had an impact on the Great Depression. Overall, the stock market crash of 1929, the reduction in purchasing, and the abuse of the major economic ideas were the three major causes for the Great Depression.

An Abundance of Katherines by John Green

Synopsis.

The novel I studied is “An Abundance of Katherines” that was written by John Green. This book was published on September 2016 by Dutton and Speak. The genre of this book is fiction. The main characters are Colin Singleton, who is anagram-loving seventeen-year-old boy who is depressed. Hassan Harbish who is Colin’s lazy, funny, and slightly overweight best, and only, friend. Lindsey Lee Wells who Colin and Hassan on their road trip in Gutshot, Tennessee. Hollis Wells, Lindsey’s mother. She is an extreme workaholic. The conflict of this story occurs between Colin and the other Colin when Colin Singleton finds the other Colin cheating on Lindsey. The other Colin threatened Colin if he told Lindsey and Colin was forced to decide to tell Lindsey or not. Though Colin made his decision to tell Lindsey what happened. This lead to her breaking up with the other Colin and a very brutal beating for Colin Singleton and his best friend Hassan.

Colin Singleton is a child prodigy who is fearing he will not grow to become an adult prodigy. After being dumped by his girlfriend, Katherine XIX, Colin is looking for his “missing piece” longing to feel whole, and longing to matter. He hopes to accomplish his goal of becoming a genius by having a “eureka” moment. Over the span of his life, Colin has dated nineteen girls named Katherine, all spelled in that manner. In these relationships, Colin remembers only the Katherine dumping him.

After graduating from high school, and before college, Colin’s best and only friend, Hassan Harbish, convinces him to go on a road trip with him to take his mind off the breakup. Colin goes along with the idea, hoping to find his “eureka” moment on the way. After driving all the way from Chicago to Tennessee, they come across the alleged resting place of the body of Archduke Franz Ferdinand. There, they meet Lindsey Lee Wells. After a short time, Colin and Hassan find themselves employed by Hollis, Lindsey’s mother who runs a local factory that is currently producing tampon strings. They live with their employer and her daughter in a rural town called Gutshot, Tennessee. The employment she sends them on is to interview all current adult residents of Gutshot and assemble an oral history of the town. As time passes, Colin finds himself becoming attracted to Lindsey, though matters are somewhat complicated by her on-again, off-again boyfriend Colin. He and Hassan call him TOC which means “the other Colin”. Our Colin, the prodigy, is still chasing his eureka moment, finally finding it in his theorem he created called the Theorem of Underlying Katherine Predictability. It is meant to determine the curve of any relationship based on several factors of the personalities of the two people in a relationship. It would predict the future of any two people. His theorem eventually works for all but one of his past relationships with a Katherine. It is later discovered by Colin that he had dumped this Katherine (Katherine III), rather than the other way around. The graphs all make perfect sense at this juncture. As Colin’s story is revealed to the reader, we find that K-19 was also the first of the Katherines, “Katherine the Great.” While the back stories of Colin’s life play out, Hassan gets a girlfriend, Katrina, a friend of Lindsey’s. The relationship is cut short when Colin and Hassan catch Katrina having sex with TOC while on a feral hog hunt with Lindsey, her friends and Colin’s father. A fight between TOC and all of the surrounding acquaintances begins when Lindsey finds out that he’s been cheating on her. While recovering from a knee whack to the groin, Colin anagrams the Archduke’s name while in the grave yard to dull the pain, and realizes that it is actually Lindsey’s great-grandfather, named Fred N. Dinzanfar, that is buried in the tomb.

Colin finds Lindsey at her secret hideout in a cave that she had shown him previously, where he tells her the story of every Katherine he has ever loved. Lindsey tells him that she feels so self-centered, claiming that she does not feel sad but instead slightly relieved by TOC’s affair. They discuss what it means to them to “matter” and eventually confess their love for each other. As their relationship continues, Colin decides to use his dating formula to determine whether or not he and Lindsey will last. The graph reveals that they will only last for four more days. Lindsey then slips a note under his door, four days later, stating that she cannot be his girlfriend because she is in love with Hassan. But she leaves a P.S. stating that she is joking. Colin realizes that his theorem cannot predict the future of a relationship; it can only shed light on why a relationship failed. Despite this, Colin is content with not “mattering”. Hassan also states that he is applying for two college classes, which Colin has been trying to convince him to do throughout the book. The story ends with the trio driving to a nearby Wendy’s. Lindsey states her desire to just “keep going and not stop.” Colin takes her advice, as a transcendental and ecstatic feeling of a “connection” with Lindsey, Hassan, and everyone not in the car surges through him. He has finally found peace and happiness via connection with other people, rather than from the pursuit of distinguishing himself from everyone, feeling “non-unique in the very best way possible.”

Tones, themes of the story and issues presented by the Author.

There are many tones in this novel such as happy, insecure, and hopeless. For the first one, happy. Mrs. Harbish shook her head and pursed her lips. “Don’t I tell you,” she said in accented English, “not to mess with girls? Hassan is a good boy, doesn’t do this ‘dating.’ And look how happy he is. You should learn from him.” (chapter 3, paragraph 15) In a lot of ways, Hassan’s mom is right, Colin would be much happier if he didn’t mess around with the Katherines. He couldn’t whine about them dumping him then. On the other hand, we’re not sure Hassan really qualifies as the best sample of happiness; he even admits later on that he’s lazy and should do something else with his life.

The next tone would be insecure. With all the nasty back-and-forth, Colin fought the urge to ask Katherine whether she still loved him, because the only thing she hated more than his saying she didn’t understand was his asking whether she still loved him. He fought the urge and fought it and fought it. For seven seconds. (chapter 5, paragraph 85) That’s a really long time to wait. Oh wait, it look longer than seven seconds to read that sentence. That’s the whole point: Colin is so impatient and needy when it comes to love. He can’t just leave Katherine alone for one minute without asking her if she loves him, which sounds both pretty insecure and pretty annoying. The last tone is hopeless. “Technically.” Colin answered, “I think I might have already wasted it.” Maybe it was because Colin had never once in his life disappointed his parents: he did not drink or do drugs or smoke cigarettes or wear black eyeliner or stay out late or get bad grades or pierce his tongue or have the words “KATHERINE LUVA 4 LIFE” tattooed across his back. Or maybe they felt guilty, like somehow they’d failed him and brought him to this place. (chapter 3, paragraph 7) After he tells his parents about the road trip, he lets them in on a secret: his potential is already wasted. We’re not so sure about that. You can still have hopes and dreams and be an all-star even if you don’t have a huge eureka moment. Too bad Colin doesn’t believe that.

Themes of the story is life, consciousness and existence. Not to go all parental on you, but it’s time to ask some heavy-hitting questions: what do you want to do with your life? What’s the purpose of life? If you’re in high school, chances are your parents are always bugging you about which college you want to go to, or what major you want to take. It’s the norm for us to think about these things when we get to those teenage years, and Colin and Hassan are plagued by these questions too in An Abundance of Katherines. And in true young adult novel form, they come up with different answers to these questions. Colin wants to study, study, study, while Hassan is happy watching TV and doing nothing. The thing is though, both of them start to reconsider their life’s goals and path towards the end of the story.

The first issue that has been presented by the author in “An Abundance Of Katherines” the boy who’s been dumped several times which is Colin Singleton. He feels a desperate need for people to remember and appreciate him. In the beginning of the story, once Katherine the 19th (is what he called her) dumped him because she felt that he was more into being the only smart person around and cared too much about being told how much she cared about him than the relationship itself. As soon as it happened, Colin had felt broken especially since she was his first “actual” love and had dated her for a year and eight months. Hassan who’s Colin’s loyal and dearest best friend, wanted to do anything to cheer him up so he took him on a road trip. Colin thought that no one really appreciated him as a person, and they didn’t care about him after Katherine dumped him. So Hassan wanted to prove a theory that if he went on this road trip with him, it would get his mind off of the break up with Katherine the 19th. Little did he know that he was about to have his whole perspective on himself changed for the better. Hassan and Colin drove to Gunshot, Tennessee and found a extremely attractive tour guide named Lindsey who he automatically grows a connection with. While the tourist started to give both Hassan and Colin the tour on Archeduke, he realizes Lindsey had only dated one person who’s named Colin. Except, her Colin as Hassan calls him “TOC” which means “The Other Colin” is the complete opposite of Colin Singleton. TOC was a jerk lets put it that way. As Colin and Hassan stay in Gunshot, they start to get to know Lindsey better. And Colin, let’s say he’s falling in love again, it’s going to be tough for him since he knows she has a boyfriend. TOC starts to show his true colors as the story progresses. Lindsey finds out that Colin had been cheating on her with the hottie with a body, Katrina. Lindsey is beyond upset as soon as she finds out. Once Colin found out, he relieved Lindsey from those negative feelings that she had. I mean, a break-up isn’t always an easy thing to get over, and Colin knew exactly how she felt. One quote that really stuck out to me through this main issue is when Lindsey tells Colin: “If people could see me the way I see myself – if they could live in my memories – would anyone love me?” That quote stuck out to me because it shows that it’s not just Colin who feels like no one appreciates him or cares about him, but Lindsey does too. And it’s good for Colin knowing that he has someone who also knows how it feels when it comes to someone loving him. That quote and both Colin and Lindsey both show that they lose themselves after a tough break-up. It took Colin a while to be himself again, and he’s willing to help Lindsey get over the break up and be herself again. The next issue is, the journey of getting know ourselves. Are you unique? What makes you, you? That’s one of the big questions An Abundance of Katherines asks us to think about. We’ve got a washed-up child prodigy who wants to matter, but he’s just not sure if he’s unique any more. Then we’ve got Lindsey who’s faked it so much that she’s one big phony most of the time. She wants to fit in, so she pretends to be nerdy, ditzy, southern just to do so. It’s easy to lose sight of who we really are deep down in our cores, and this book is all about questing to get in touch with our true selves. The last issue would be Person vs. Self because Colin is a child prodigy trying to be a genius. Colin wants to do something big with the way he lives his life. Like become a genius. He needs to discover himself and what he’s meant to be here for before he becomes a genius. He’s been dumped so many times throughout his life. He dates girls named Katherine, all spelled in that manner. The conflict is resolved because he comes up with an equation to calculate how long until or why he gets dumped.

Critical Analysis.

The novel I studied is “An Abundance of Katherines” that was written by John Green. This book was published on September 2016 by Dutton and Speak. The genre of this book is fiction. The main characters are Colin Singleton, who is anagram-loving seventeen-year-old boy who is depressed. Hassan Harbish who is Colin’s lazy, funny, and slightly overweight best, and only, friend. Lindsey Lee Wells who Colin and Hassan on their road trip in Gutshot, Tennessee. Hollis Wells, Lindsey’s mother. She is an extreme workaholic. The conflict of this story occurs between Colin and the other Colin when Colin Singleton finds the other Colin cheating on Lindsey. The other Colin threatened Colin if he told Lindsey and Colin was forced to decide to tell Lindsey or not. Though Colin made his decision to tell Lindsey what happened. This lead to her breaking up with the other Colin and a very brutal beating for Colin Singleton and his best friend Hassan.

The main idea of the work is the boy who’s been dumped several times which is Colin Singleton. An Abundance of Katherines follows with Colin Singleton, a prodigy with an obsession for anagramming. Colin has a very specific type when it comes to the opposite sex: he only dates girls called Katherine. And so far, he’s been dumped by 19 of them. We follow Colin as he ventures into the unknown on a road trip with his best friend, Hassan. He encounters all sorts of things on his travels, from feral satan hogs to scrabble. The structure of this novel jumps around and is not in chronological order, it goes to flash backs of Colin’s past and then goes to the future again and does this repeatedly throughout the novel. The novel is third person omniscient and a quote from the novel is “As Hassan screamed, Colin thought, oh right, should have flushed.” which this point of view is significant throughout the book because the reader is not stuck reading about the same person the whole time. Also there is no bias in this novel.

I loved the plot of this book. Normally, road trips just annoy me because it is far too cliche. But, in this book, it really works. A road trip is perfect for Colin, as the ever-changing, exciting and foreign atmosphere is just like him. As the scenery changes, Colin changes as a person. I couldn’t help but see a deeper meaning in this story. On the surface, it is the tale of a prodigy on a road trip, but there is so much more than that. The novel carries some very important messages about fitting in and about trying to see logic in everything. In the hands of some authors, this would become a cheesy parable. Luckily, Green is skilled enough to make it sincere. He understands teenagers, particularly those who are nerdy and socially awkward. This gives the book a friendlier tone, which is great. What I don’t really like about this book is how Colin needs to go through a few heartbreaks and it was all came all the way from those girls named Katherines. Those Katherines should have not left him at the first place for they should have appreciated Colin for loving them so much. But finally, he hurt himself. Nineteen times of heartbreaks for he had fallen for nineteen girls named Katherines.

Dating nineteen girls, all coincidentally named Katherine seems to be a ridiculous phenomenon to a teenager whose age is only 17. This might not happen in reality. Such phenomenon can be considered as something fancy. The author here employs magical realism as he is able to translate his experiences into something that seems to be fictional in his literary work. Through writing An Abundance of Katherines, he was able to inculcate fantastical elements that were drawn from reality. The possibility of dating nineteen Katherines in a span of 17 years is quite remote, but the author managed to turn it into something fictional and at the same time realistic. A major part of this book is The Theorem of Underlying Katherine Predictability. This is a complicated idea that Colin comes up with, and it’s basically a graph that can supposedly predict when and how two people will break up. Personally, I found the idea that love can be graphed really interesting, but it might bore some readers. Luckily, you don’t need to understand the maths to enjoy the plot. The theorem is really just a vehicle to show how Colin is a prodigy, and to help him reach his final conclusion that “The future is unpredictable.” and I do think that the formula is biased. It only represented and summarized only what happened in the past and is not a viable representation of what happens in the future. This can be applied to real life. Sometimes we stick into something objective that we fail to realize that there are missing pieces that we do not consider. We tend to be close-minded and miss opportunities in life. In life, we sometimes have to take risks and modify our own formulas. To conclude, An Abundance of Katherines is a fantastically nerdy coming-of-age road trip that I would recommend to John Green fans and self-proclaimed nerds everywhere, as well as anyone who needs some good life advice.

Recommendations.

Based on the novel I studied, an issue that had been chosen for recommendations is the boy who’s been depressed for get dumped several times which is Colin Singleton. He feels a desperate need for people to remember and appreciate him. A recommendation on this issue is we as a human being we need to know on how to appreciate others most likely to be those people who is close to us such as family and friends by treating them right. Their existence matters. Not until to the point where they desperately need people to remember and appreciate them. We as the people who had known them well, close to them somehow need to understand them more because people who goes through depression needs support as well. Next, talk to them more often. Don’t ignore them because you will make them feel alone until the feel they were born to deserve no one is life. Depression people needs company. A good company. Talk to them about anything as long as they feel they have someone then that is okay. They might need someone to have a conversation with but were so afraid to talk to anyone since they know they will get ignored by the people. Last but not least, as a close friend to the people who goes through depression we need to always cheer them up by not letting them down the same thing Hassan Harbish did. He is the only best friend Colin has. So he took Colin out for a road trip so that Colin can calm himself a little bit.

Awareness and treatment of breast cancer: college application essay help

According to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, “About 40,000 women and 400 men in the U.S. die each year from breast cancer,” (CDC, 2016). For ages now, breast cancer awareness has reached out to communities all over the country, yet most of us do not concern ourselves with this particular cause. We tend to not care about this sort of issues in the world unless it happens to be inflicted upon those closest to us, such as our friends, and family. We tend to ignore the fact that we are not totally immune to a certain disease just because it does not show up in our family’s history. Every woman and men has the risk of developing breast cancer, however, this issue can be properly taken care of only when you are fully aware of the disease.

To start off, it is still unclear to researchers as to why breast cancer unexpectedly appears, however, they have come up with some theories that may explain it all, genetic mutation being one of them. Within the article provided by the Mayo Clinic Health Letter it states that “Although only 5 to 10 percent of breast cancers are attributed to inherited genetic mutations, the presence of these mutations can significantly influence the likelihood of developing the disease” (“Mayo Clinic”, 2016). I believe that our genes play a huge role in the presence of all types of diseases and disorders. With an incredibly strong family history of cancer, it has been determined that certain inherited mutated genes, in our case are BRCA1 and BRCA2, will have an impact on increasing the risk of breast cancer. The BRCA genes are initially created to act as a suppressor gene, keeping our cells replicating at a steady pace, but can perform the exact opposite when altered. Our cells will rapidly develop in an abnormal speed, located in the lobules, ducts, or tissues, which will then form lumps in your breast. These abnormal cells are said to be malignant tumors that initially start in the breast, and can spread to the lymph nodes and such. Another cause could be due to our menstruation and age. Once we are exposed to the hormone estrogen, there is then an increase in risk for breast cancer.

Breast cancer is not just limited to the people in the U.S., but has been occurring worldwide for centuries. In Third World countries, they are less likely to develop breast cancer, however, it cannot be said the same for more economically developed countries. Because of the changes in our reproductive factors, our lifestyles, and a rise in life expectancy, the incidence rate for developing countries have greatly escalated. For example, North America is shown to have the highest breast cancer rate in the globe, while the lowest rate would be in East Asia. Therefore, white and African American women have a higher chance than Hispanic and Asian women. In the European Journal of Cancer, it states how “It is generally accepted that breast cancer risk factors, which have mainly been studied in Western populations are similar worldwide. However, the presence of gene–environment or gene–gene interactions may alter their importance as causal factors across populations” (“European”, 2013). This statement is completely accurate, because many countries obtain similar risk factors, such as late childbearing, obesity, old age, avoiding breastfeeding, alcohol, hormone level, diet, and so on. But at the same time, what we intake, our traditions, and even alcohol consumption, which is basically our environment makes a difference. On another note, on the year of 2015, it was presumed that a little more than two-hundred thousand women would be diagnosed with invasive breast cancer, sixty-thousand with non-invasive breast cancer, and about forty-thousand deaths in just the United States alone.

Early detection of breast cancer is crucial in saving a life, so it is first important to know how the disease will present itself. Checking your body regularly is highly recommended for all women. Some symptoms of breast cancer include a lump in the breast, a discharge of the nimples, a breast that has swollen up, skin irritation, and any physical changes in the breast and nipples. Then there is the subject of diagnosing breast cancer, which is a whole other matter. Those with breast cancer would need to go through a breast ultrasound, a mammogram, and an MRI testing. These are all done by a radiological technician. A radiological technician’s job is to use certain machines to capture images of structures deep inside the breast. For a breast ultrasound, sound waves are produced to create sonograms to verify if the lump is either a solid mass or is a fluid-filled cyst. A mammogram is simply a breast screening. And for an MRI testing, the system operates on magnetic fields and radio waves to capture a model of the interior body. Patients can also receive a biopsy, in which they proceed to remove tissue or fluid in your breast, and brings the test to the lab for examination. A biopsy offers a conclusive result; it determines whether your cells are indeed cancerous, the types of cells that are involved, if the cell is aggressive, etc. Once the diagnosis is completed and the patient is positive for breast cancer, the patient next undergoes a process called staging. This helps determine if the cancer cells have spread, and also the stage that the patient is in. It allows your doctor to decide what kind of treatment would be recommended with consideration to your health.

Finally, there are various ways when trying to treat breast cancer. It depends on certain types of factors, such as, the stages that you are in, the type of breast cancer that you have, your general health, and even your preferences that can make a difference. Surgery is typically suggested only towards patients with small size tumors, and those medical procedures are called lumpectomy and mastectomy. These procedures are used as an attempt to surgically remove the entire tumor, however, there are also treatments such as chemotherapy, radiation therapy, and hormonal therapy that can be given after surgery in order to shrink the remainder cancer cells. Chemotherapy is used to end the cancer cells reproducing cycle by utilizing common drugs, for example, methotrexate, vinorelbine, etc. Hormonal therapy on the other hand stops the hormones from reaching to the cancer cells by use of the drug, tamoxifen. It is even stated in the Systemic therapy: Hormonal therapy for cancer article that “5 years of tamoxifen after surgery reduces the annual recurrence rate by 41% and annual mortality rate by 34%.” (Jacinta & John, 2016). It can be used for even more than five years for better results.

In conclusion, being aware of breast cancer will definitely help us become prepared for a surprise appearance. To understand the cause, detect it, and then treat it is something that every woman and men should be aware of. This is not a matter that can be taken lightly. With a great amount of lives already been lost, who is to say that it couldn’t have been prevented with the right amount of knowledge.

Hua-gu-deng Dance

Dance is a universal understanding accepted by all. The varieties of dance forms that exist within the world are infinite. Two interesting and comparable dance styles are Hua-gu-deng Dance, which is a typical Chinese dance form, and ballet, a classical style originating from Europe. Both genres of dance have distinct features that make them unique from each other and other branches of dance.

Ballet originated as a court dance, and then later transformed into a performing art. Ballet has its own terminology in the French language; the language of ballet can be used in any country and it will have the same definition. According to the Atlanta Ballet, A Brief History of Ballet, “The official terminology and vocabulary of ballet was gradually codified in French over the next 100 years, and during the reign of Louis XIV.” At the time, the King of France performed many of the beloved dances. Ballet became a staple art form in countries like Russia, Italy, and France who fostered the importance of ballet. In France, King Louis XIV generated the Académie Royale de Danse, and he established requirements and began certifying instructors. Ballet’s popularity began declining in France after 1830. Today, ballet is still very popular and can be found all around the world. Ballet has still held on to its traditional roots with very little changes to the style. The French language is still used to define movements and the historic technique types have remained the same. The only aspect that slightly differs from historic ballet is the methods used to practice it: for instance, Italy practices the Cecchetti method of ballet. Besides the different methods of ballet, there are sub-categories of ballet; these distinct dance styles all have slight variations, yet they stay true to their roots. One variation of ballet is Neo-classical ballet. Neo-classical ballet popularized in the 20th century by talented individuals such as George Balanchine. This style of ballet is fast-paced, has more energy, can be asymmetrical, does not tell a story, and focuses on aesthetic. On the other hand, classical ballet is graceful and fluid, balanced and symmetrical, it always is a narrative dance, and elaborate costumes and sets are preferred.  Another more modern style of ballet is contemporary ballet. Contemporary ballet is greatly influenced by modern dance. It includes floor work, more body movement and greater range of the bodyline, and it can be danced in pointe shoes or barefoot. During the 19th century, the Romantic Movement was occurring. Most ballets created during this era had endearing, loving themes and they often portrayed women as passive and fragile. In today’s world, ballet has moved away from the constraints of classical ballet and has begun including “plot-less” ballets with darker, deeper meanings.

Classical Chinese dance, more specifically Hua-gu-deng dance, has been around for thousands of years. Hua-gu-deng dance has played a major role in the cultural development of the Chinese; it originated from the Huai River in eastern China. Classical Chinese dance has been around for nearly 5,000 years. With every changing era and dynasty in China, the dance tradition has adapted and combined aesthetics with its distinct dynamic content, rhythms, and narrative. Classical Chinese dance goes back to the Qin Dynasty. Each dynasty that followed the Qin Dynasty created different and specific dance elements. Classical Chinese dance has three main factors that are focused on during training: technical skill, form, and bearing. Technical skill encompasses any acrobatic movements such as flips, jumps, leaps, turns, aerial tricks etc. Form, the second aspect of classical Chinese dance, is referring to the way in which the dancers move their bodies from one movement to another. The movement is usually very circular and full, similar to modern dance: modern dance tends to have round and flowing movements that are loose and asymmetrical. Every movement in the form of classical Chinese dance is choreographed. Breathing is also very crucial to Chinese dance. Dancers are taught how and when to breathe. All movements in this dance form must be round and full. In classical Chinese dance, a vital element named “bearing” is the inner spirit of the dancer. By emphasizing “bearing”, the dancer is able to extenuate the deeper meanings of dance and create a further understanding of the narrative. It is in this “bearing” that classical Chinese dance carries the ancient characteristics of its culture.

How did the Nazi party garner support? – Conformity and obedience

In 1933, Adolf Hitler became the Chancellor of Germany. His Nazi party had grown in size from a small party to becoming the rulers of Germany. The Nazis were fascist and they used their racist ideas as an excuse to commit atrocious crimes. Despite all the crimes they committed, the Nazis were very popular. Hitler got to power despite having ideas that people would not tolerate or support. Indeed we know that the Nazi ideals were racists and bigots, so how did they receive such support from a society of people who were so democratic?

Conformity and obedience plays a big role in this ordeal.

Conformity can be a behavior to follow certain standards that a group may expect.

Conformity can be both good and bad. Every culture has its own practices that other cultures might find a bit “awkward”. Although awkward to one culture, some practices are completely normal in other cultures. Slavery is an example of this. Even at the height of slavery, some cultures detested the idea of keeping a human being in bondage and withhold their freedom from them. These cultures took great strides to outlaw slavery in their land. Indeed different cultures value different beliefs, however, even in the same culture, some people might have different views. During the height of slavery in America, there were those who believed that slavery was wrong, but they themselves owned slaves. This included Thomas Jefferson, who was known to have as much as 175 slaves despite referring to slavery as an “assemblage of horrors”. Despite being fully aware that slavery was wrong, many people participated in slavery because that was the way of life for the culture. The same could be said of the Nazi party. Many Germans believed that the treatment of Jews by the Nazi party was unfair and wrong, however, not many people questioned it. In that period of time and in that society, it was normal for people to think that anyone that wasn’t Aryan was subhuman. Anyone who had different views was thought to be odd. No one dared to question this belief because they did not want to be considered a Jewish sympathiser. Anyone who tried to help the Jews during their persecution was subject to severe repercussions.

The Nazi party that took control of Germany blamed the Jews for the depression that Germany faced and for losing the war. They started implementing laws that limited the rights of the Jews even though Jews were German citizens. Properties that belonged to Jewish households were confiscated and Jews were ordered to concentration camps where six million would go on to lose their lives. How did a country which was known for its democratic idealism succumb to such fascist state? Obedience. Germans believed that Hitler would be the one to bring Germany from their economic depression. Germans were outraged because they felt their leaders betrayed them after the first world war. Hitler promised to bring to Germany political and economic stability, which he did. He was very popular among the German people and so not many people questioned him when he became the Fuhrer of Germany. As Fuhrer, he ordered the Jews to be isolated and sent to prison camps, many not only failed to question his decisions, they supported it. They also supported his decision to invade Poland and eventually France, sparking the second world war. After the war, German soldiers were tried in court and they justified their actions because they said they were just following orders. How could people commit such horrid crimes fully knowing that what they were doing was wrong? Sometimes these may be symptoms of obedience.

The German Jews were a minority group, so it was easy for other German groups to isolate them from the rest German society. Because they were the minority group, Hitler was able to capitalize on that and create an “us vs them” mentality against them. The German Jews were easy to isolate because they had a different religion and culture from average Germans.

Aryan Germans were able to distance themselves from this group which had different. This gave Germans an excuse to place them in a class that was viewed as subhuman. This was the same tactic used by the Europeans to colonize and conquer the rest of the world. They believed that the humans residing in the places they conquered had little to no right to govern themselves because they were subhuman, so they could not possibly be trusted to govern themselves.

Another reason Germans allowed the Nazi party to commit crimes to humanity was because they felt they just following orders from their Fuhrer. Hitler was a man who according to the German people kept his promises. He promised to bring Germany back from the recession and he did; something the German government had struggled with until then. He also promised to restore Germany to the once great nation it had been and to unite all the Germans in the world under one flag. The Germans placed such high hopes in Hitler that they gave him the highest authority in the country. After Hitler was declared the Fuhrer, he was known as the most powerful man in Germany and he was very popular with his countrymen. To defy the orders of the hero of Germany would have been seen as an act of treason. They believed that if they did not obey Hitler, they must not have the best interest to Germany. To defy Hitler was to defy Germany as well. No patriot would want to go against the best interest of his country. Even if they knew their actions were evil, they did it regardless because Hitler ordered it; Germany ordered it. Even if it meant killing innocent people, Germans were willing to follow the orders of their Fuhrer because he represented the collective mind of the whole country. A country is nothing if the citizens can not follow the orders of its leaders.

The Nazi party was a great example of how conformity and obedience could lead us to do things that we may feel is wrong. It was easier for them to commit these crimes because they convinced the majority to think it was ok to do these things. They also used the trust of the people in their government to their advantage. People are more willing to listen to commands if there is a higher authority directing them. Hitler utilized obedience and conformity to rule a country of intellectuals and to lead the country into a war that took so many lives. It is easy to say that we won’t do bad things even if someone forces us, but history says otherwise.

Sometimes we don’t even have to be forced, we just have to believe in authority and isolate groups of people.

Works Cited

Andrews, Evan. “How Many U.S. Presidents Owned Slaves?” History.com, A&E Television Networks, 19 July 2017,
www.history.com/news/ask-history/how-many-u-s-presidents-owned-slaves.
crashcourse. “Social Influence: Crash Course Psychology #38.” YouTube, YouTube, 11 Nov. 2014, www.youtube.com/watch?v=UGxGDdQnC1Y&t=416s.

Influence of the Strange Case of Dr. Jekyll and Mr. Hyde on popular culture: college essay help near me

The Strange Case of Dr Jekyll and Mr Hyde, a title you may not have heard of before but is a story you definitely know. In order for you to understand the topics discussed in this article, you need to understand the plot of the novel, so here is a quick summary.

Basically, there is a well-known doctor named Henry Jekyll who has a lawyer/friend named Mr. Utterson. Mr. Utterson admires his friend very much , but is concerned when Dr. Jekyll has him write up a very strange will naming his entire estate to a man named Edward Hyde, whom Utterson has never heard of before. The will is odd because it states that

“in case of the decrease of Henry Jekyll, M.D., D.C.L., L.L.D., F.R.S., etc, all his possessions were to pass into the hands of his “friend and benefactor Edward Hyde,” but that in case of Dr. Jekyll’s “disappearance or unexplained absence for any period of time exceeding three calendar months,” the said Edward Hyde should step into the said Henry Jekyll’s shoes without further delay and free from any burthen or obligation, beyond the payment of a few small sums to the members of the doctor’s household (Stevenson, 39).”

Utterson begins to investigate Mr. Hyde and is told a story about a brute of a man who knocked down a little girl in the street near where Dr. Jekyll lives, everyone on the street yelled at the rude man, and the man offered to pay a large sum of money to the family of the girl. He then disappeared  through the door of Dr. Jekyll’s home and office, only to return with a large check drawn from Dr. Jekyll’s bank account. Utterson is appalled by this story and goes to talk to Mr. Hyde himself. He hunts down Mr. Hyde and describes him as a man with evil oozing out of his pores. He then asks Dr. Jekyll about these odd arrangements. Dr. Jekyll refuses to comment, and nothing happens for about a year… Skip ahead to one year later where the brutal murder of a popular public politician occurs and Mr. Hyde is the one and only suspect. Everyone tries to hunt down this evil man, but no one succeeds and it is forgotten. But during this whole situation with Mr. Hyde, Dr. Jekyll is in excellent health and is throwing dinner parties for his friends, including a certain Dr. Lanyon. Once again, skip to 2 months later, where Dr. Lanyon and Dr. Jekyll fall terribly ill after admittedly fighting with one another and Dr. Lanyon dies, leaving mysterious documents with Mr. Utterson’s, to ONLY be opened if Dr. Jekyll dies or disappears. Dr. Jekyll remains in seclusion, even though Mr. Utterson visits him often. Finally, one evening, Dr. Jekyll’s butler visits Mr. Utterson at home and tells Utterson he is worried about his employer’s mental state and health and is convinced there was some sort of foul play. The butler persuades Mr. Utterson to return to Dr. Jekyll’s house, where they break into Dr. Jekyll’s laboratory. There they find Edward Hyde dead on the floor and Jekyll nowhere to be found. Utterson finds several documents written to him in the labratory, and goes back home to read what he later finds out is Mr. Lanyon’s narrative and Dr. Jekyll’s narrative, which turns out, is two parts of the same story about Mr. Hyde. These documents tell us that Dr. Jekyll was able to transform into Mr. Hyde by means of a potion that he created and as Mr. Hyde, he discovered a world of pleasure and crime. In his story, Dr. Jekyll writes that Mr. Hyde became very  powerful and very harder to control, in the end the dominant personality beat out the weaker one.

“I guess we’re all two people. One daylight, and the one we keep in shadow.”

— Bruce Wayne/Batman, Batman Forever

That is a very basic summary of all the important plot points in the story but it is the two people inside one body that you most likely recognize. In today’s popular culture, this story makes itself known very frequently and all exmaples stem from this original “split personality story”, The Strange Case of Dr Jekyll And Mr Hyde! A few current examples of this story in today’s popular culture are:

The Hulk, also referred to as The Incredible Hulk is a character from the Marvel Comic Universe created in comic book form in 1962. The nuclear Physicist Dr. Robert Bruce Banner is caught in the a blast of a gamma bomb that he created. This nuclear blast creates a alternate personality/physical distortion within himself named Hulk; a giant, green angry monster. The character, both as Banner and the Hulk, is often pursued by police or armed forces, usually because of the destruction Hulk causes. The powerful and monsterous emotional alter ego of an emotionally repressed scientist who comes forward whenever Banner experiences emotional stress, is an example of the Jekyll and Hyde motif. While the Hulk usually saves the day, seeking usually to protect, his terrifying nature drives Bruce Banner into isolation, much like Jekyll, fearing discovery. Stevenson’s book was also the inspiration behind Two-Face, a villain created in 1941 for the Batman comic book series. Harvey Dent, an upstanding citizen and DA, was horribly scarred on one side of his body and traumatized in a warehouse fire set by The Joker. This caused his formerly repressed “Hyde” personality to emerge. The two personalities come into direct conflict often and make decisions they are split on using the outside moderator of a flipped coin. Bane is another character from the DC Comics universe and another villain from the Batman comic series. Shrouded in mystery, Bane appeared in Gotham City with the one goal to eliminate Batman once and for all. Besides being a man of great physical size and power, Bane’s strength is augmented by “Venom,” a Super Steroid that increases his strength, physical size and durability for limited periods of time. Much like Dr.Jekyll turns himself into Hyde using a potion, the Venom potion, injected into his body is also his weakness — when the supply of the chemical is cut he goes back to normal and loses his powers. I also see a huge parallel between Jekyll and Hyde and the most iconic movie villain of all time, Darth Vader. Just like Dr. Jekyll, Anakin Skywalker has his alter-ego. In EPISODE V, Yoda tells Luke Skywalker “Anger, fear, aggression; the dark side of the Force are they. Easily they flow, quick to join you in a fight. If once you start down the dark path, forever will it dominate your destiny, consume you it will” — just like when Jekyll first transformed into Hyde and then he felt the urge to do it again and again until finally he lost control over the transformation and ends up as Hyde permanently. Similarly, Anakin Skywalker first tastes the power of the dark side when he kills an entire camp of Sand-people to protect his mother and this starts his fall to the dark side and his eventually transformation into Darth Vadar. Another Marvel Comics supervillain was named after and based on Mr Hyde. Calvin Zabo was born in Trenton, New Jersey. He was a morally abject yet brilliant medical researcher who was interested by the effect of hormones on human physiology. One of his favorite books was The Strange Case of Dr Jekyll and Mr Hyde. He was convinced that the experiment in the book could actually be performed and became obsessed with the idea of letting loose his full beast-like nature in a superhuman form. He was eventually successful in creating the formula, and turned into a huge, Hulk-like creature he named “Mister Hyde”. The character of Jekyll and Hyde can be seen in Alan Moore’s comic book, The League of Extraordinary Gentlemen. In the comic, interesting team of crimefighters, made up of famous characters from classic literature, fight crime in Victorian London. In the issues Hyde is very strong and has a Jekyll persona, whereas in the novel, Jekyll has a Hyde persona. Sometimes in film, television, literature, or theater, a character and his evil twin, evil counterpart, or shadow archetype (all different titles for the same type of character) are really the same guy in the end or sometimes, a completely different character is sharing body space with another. The point is, the villain sometimes lives inside the hero’s body, therefore hiding in plain sight. For the entire story, the hero is trying to catch himself; which has created many of the detective stories you read today. You can also see this idea in many different pop culture examples. If the two personalities are aware of each other, it becomes a case of Gollum Made Me Do It.

A character has another personality to keep him company, the other personality isn’t exactly a model citizen. However, he is… persuasive. He often finds himself being bullied or forced into following his darker side’s advice, even if it’s advice he wouldn’t have followed normally.

The Hyde personality’s crimes are outside of Jekyll’s control and, often, the character is unable to stop themselves from becoming “evil”, this is often a case of being Driven to Villiany.

Sometimes, your villain’s just a normal guy who’s brought into villainy against their own will. Don’t get confused with mind control or possession, it’s because they’ve been warped by events happening around them, and forced into villainy by forces outside their control. A broken shell of a human being, the only thing left is insanity.

Sometimes they’re not really evil but, occasionally this can be resolved with a Split-Personality Merge that reconciles both sides into a healthy whole.

There are many possible reasons for the existence of these split personalities, but this co-habitation is rarely peaceful or long lasting. It usually results in a battle of the central mind to try and find out which personality will take over. Sometimes, the winning personality does not reduce the loser to a small, powerless voice but, instead offers to become one again; they merge into a single, whole person that is greater than the sum of its minds.

Also, the Jekyll side isn’t necessarily “good” either. Comes, of course, from The Strange Case of Dr. Jekyll and Mr. Hyde, by Robert Louis Stevenson. It used to be a twist ending, but it no longer suprises anyone. Most adaptations of the work focus on said twist. The real life example of Deacon Brodie is said to have inspired Stevenson. William Brodie or Deacon Brodie was a Scottish cabinet- maker, deacon of a trades guild, and Edinburgh city councillor, who maintained a secret life as a burglar. As did the story of Horace Wells, a pioneer of medical anaesthetics. While researching the chemical formula, chloroform, Wells tested many of the various dosages on himself. Because of this, Wells unknowingly built up a dangerous level of the drug in his system, and ended up attacking two prostitutes during a sulfuric acid drug related episode. Once he sobered up and learned of what he had done, he committed suicide.

Doctor Horace Wells born January 21, 1815.Along with many comic book characters, there are examples of Jekyll and Hyde’s story in one of the most popular shows of the past few years, American Horror Story. American Horror Story (AHS) is a show that uses so many of the important details that make up the story The Strange Case of Dr. Jekyll and Mr. Hyde in the show’s many series. In season one titled, Murder House, there is a character named Dr. Charles Montgomery who is a “surgeon for the stars” and the original builder of the “murder house”. In the series, his character is technically a ghost but we do get flashbacks to when he was alive. The Jekyll and Hyde connection is that the Doctor becomes addicted to the drug Ether and starts to lose his mind and kill is patients without realizing it. He is later on shot and killed by his wife after he tries to stitch their dead and dismembered son back together Frankenstein-style.

In season five of American Horror Story titled Hotel, there is another Jekyll and Hyde like character/storyline named the Ten Commandments Killer. Season five basically revolves around a LAPD Detective named John Lowe, played by actor Wes Bently, trying to hunt down the Ten Commandments Killer.

Now before I continue with the storyline and connection to Stevenson’s novel, let me explain the story of the Ten Commandments Killer’s and his MO.   The original Ten Commandments Killer was a man named James March, designer and owner of the Hotel Cortez (the main setting for the entire season), which opened on August 23, 1926. James Patrick March was born in 1895 and started killing people in 1920. He was described as a man of new money and he decided to build and open a grand hotel to make it easier to kill people without getting caught. He built many secret rooms and hallways into the hotel to allow for more killing and he used the hotel’s infrastructure to hide all the evidence of the crimes. His wife Elizabeth knew all about his murdering and actually enjoyed the sounds of his victims screams, so she encouraged his dark habit. There are many gruesome details to the murders he committed but most of his early murders in the hotel involved playful, thespian-esque ways. The actual Ten Commandments killing started with March when he explained to one of his victimes that he despised religion and that it was the worst thing in the world. March said he was going to have to kill God, because as long as there was a God, men like himself would never find peace. His hate of religion is what gave him the motivation to collect all the bibles from the hotel bed stands and arrange them with a pile of his victims to leave behind for the police; this is where the Ten Commandments murders started. But on February 25, 1930 an anonymous phone called tipped off the police and they came to the Hotel Cortez to arrest March. Before the police could arrest March however, he killed his servant and slit his own throat leaving the Ten Commandment murders unfinished. March, along with all of his victims and numerous other victims of the hotel are trapped in the hotel as ghost that appear to guests and interact as characters in the show.

This is where the character John Lowe comes into play in the show. As previously stated, John is a LAPD officer trying to solve the case of the Ten Commandments Killer, but in 2010, John visited the Hotel Cortez on a drunken night and the ghost of James March sees potential in him to finish his work as the Ten Commandments Killer. It wasn’t until 2015 when John finally agrees to complete the murders and this is where the season begins. Each murder symbolizes one of the ten commandments, for example the first murder is Thou Shalt Not Steal and the victim is a infamous thief whom is killed, and for each murder something is taken from each victim and places it in a glass jar in Room 64 of the Hotel Cortez, so for the first murder the thief’s hand is cut off. James March was able to complete two of the ten murders in 1926 but then John Lowe finished off the other eight in 2015. The connection I see to Jekyll and Hyde in this whole story is the fact that John has no recollection of committing any of these murders or even his first time at the Hotel Cortez in 2010. It isn’t until the second to last episode where John finally remembers that he has been doing all this and has a psychotic break and is eventually killed by the SWAT team in the last episode. When watching the season, you can actually see a physical change in John throughout the season as more and more of the ten commandment murders happen. His eyes sink in, be becomes pale and loses weight, his clothes are wrinkled and he just looks physically exhausted more and more as each episode happens. It isn’t until that final episode that his appearance is like this because his good personality is losing strength as his evil, murderous personality is slowly taking over and killing more people.

The scene where Detective John Lowe suddenly remembers all the murders he has committed as the “Ten Commandments Killer” that he has been so desperately searching for at his day job in the police force. Along with the story of Jekyll and Hyde inspiring so many different movie and television characters and plot schemes, the 1931 film version of The Strange Case of Dr. Jekyll and Mr. Hyde made movie history with it’s incredible never before seen or done on screen transformation (see the video below). Fredric March, the actor who played Jekyll and Hyde in the movie, actually won an Academy Award for his performance in the film. Film directors and makeup artists everywhere wanted to know the secret behind the scene but it wasn’t until 1970 when director Rouben Mamoulian described how it was done: it was done with colored make-up and matching colored filters, which were removed or added to the scene to change March’s appearance. Since the film was in black-and-white, the color changes didn’t show.

The 1931 transformation scene that rocked the film industry and won actor Fredric March an Academy Award. All in all, The Strange Case of Dr. Jekyll and Mr. Hyde by Robert Louis Stevenson has had a HUGE influence in popular culture since it’s first publication in 1886. You can see it’s influence in television, movies, horror makeup, comic books, theater, and so much more. This storyline is here to stay and will probably be influencing popular culture for generations to come.

Franklin D. Roosevelt heroism

Villainification is the process of creating original actors as the faces of systemic harm, with those hyper-individualized villains losing their shared characteristics. Like heroification, there is a simplified portrayal of historical actors, but villainification has particularly harmful consequences. We suggest that villainification obscures the way in which evil operates through everyday actions and unquestioned structures because of the focus on the whim of one person. Although it is unfortunate that we do not often see how we can inadvertently help others and make systemic change, it is disconcerting when we fail to look at our part in the suffering of others. In this paper, I will try to unravel Franklin D. Roosevelt heroism which was the President of the United States where he served through the Great Depression and the Second World War and received the “hero” treatment.

Franklin D. Roosevelt was elected during the height of the Great Depression in 1932 and remained President until his death in 1945. During this period of the presidency, he oversaw an expansion of the Federal Government and helped America lose its isolationist stance as it joined World War Two and helped formulate the United Nations. He was an influential figure in both American and world politics.

Roosevelt came from a privileged background but was influenced by his headmaster at Groton School in Massachusetts, who taught the importance of Christian duty in helping less fortunate people.

Franklin married a distant cousin Eleanor in 1905. They had six children in quick succession, two of them who went on to be elected to the House of Representatives. FDR has several affairs outside of his marriage including Lucy Mercer, his social secretary.  His wife Eleanor offered a divorce at one point, but for a variety of reasons, it was not taken up. She later became a dedicated wife/nurse during Franklin’s moderate disability brought on by polio.

When FDR was elected president in 1930, America was facing an unprecedented economic crisis; unemployment was reaching 25%  – Furthermore, government unemployment relief was insufficient at the time. There was real financial desperation, and many classical economists were at a loss as to how to respond.

To some extent, FDR pursued an expansionary fiscal policy as advocated by John M Keynes. The government borrowed, levied a national income tax and spent money on public works (known as the New Deal). This period also marked a shift in power from local governments who could not cope to the national government. Roosevelt also helped introduce legislation protecting worker’s rights. The new deal in no way solved the economic crisis, but it did mitigate some of the worst effects, creating employment and eventually kick-starting the economy. By the end of the 1930s, some sectors of the economy such as construction were booming.

FDR was keen for America to become a good citizen of the world and fight for individual freedoms. However, in the early 1940s, America still retained a powerful isolationist approach, and he campaigned for re-election promising to stay out of World War Two – despite his dislike of Nazi Germany. The bombing of Pearl Harbour in December 1941, completely changed the outlook of America. F.D.R wasted no time in declaring war on Japan and then Germany as well.

“In these days of difficulty, we Americans everywhere must and shall choose the path of social justice…, the path of faith, the path of hope, and the path of love toward our fellow man.” ~ Franklin D. Roosevelt

Once America had entered the war, they entered whole-heartedly into both arenas – the Pacific and Europe. In the D Day landings of 1941, America supplied roughly 2/3 of the troops. Roosevelt was an astute Commander in Chief. In particular, he was able to identify generals with genuine talent and promoted them to key roles. As Roosevelt said himself:

“I’m not the smartest fellow in the world, but I can sure pick smart colleagues.”

In particular, FDR promoted Dwight Eisenhower and George Marshall – both to play critical roles during the Second World War.

Roosevelt’s real political skill lay in his powers of communication and identification with ordinary people. His radio fireside chats were instrumental in building confidence with the American people, both during the Great Depression and during the Second World War.

“This great Nation will endure as it has endured, will revive and will prosper. So, first of all, let me assert my firm belief that the only thing we have to fear is fear itself — nameless, unreasoning, unjustified terror which paralyzes needed efforts to convert retreat into advance.” – 1933

Roosevelt had a close relationship with Winston Churchill. There was a high mutual admiration. At one point Roosevelt said ‘It is fun being in the same decade as you.’

Together with Churchill and Stalin, the Big Three helped lay the foundations for the post-war period, which included the setting up of the United Nations – a successor to the League of Nations.

Roosevelt died unexpectedly from a massive brain haemorrhage in April 1945, just before the first meeting of the United Nations. His death stunned the world, and he was remembered as a champion of freedom and a man of humanity and optimism.

I’ve never understood the reverence for Franklin Delano Roosevelt. He gets points for picking great Generals and led this country to victory in WWII. But he totally mismanaged the economy, during the recession of 1937 unemployment reached 19% (the excellent depression high was 25%), his freedom-sapping policies never did get this country out of the Great Depression, and don’t forget that he tried to circumvent constitutional separation of powers (now who does that remind me of?). And then there is the issue never discussed, he was a bigot, his hatred of Jews caused thousands to be added to the ranks of Hitler’s victims, and his hatred of Asians convinced him to put Japanese Americans into internment camps.

Some point to the fact he didn’t he bomb and destroy the train tracks that were shipping Jews to the concentration camps? But my opinion sides with the people who say that wouldn’t have worked. The real question to be explored was why didn’t allow more Jews into the country and why didn’t he pressure Britain to enable Jews to move from Nazi-controlled areas into what was then called Palestine?

In the book “FDR and the Holocaust: A Breach of Faith,” historian Rafael Medoff suggests that Roosevelt failed to take relatively simple measures that would have saved significant numbers of Jews during the Holocaust because his vision for America was one that had a small amount of Jews. In other words, FDR doomed many Jew to suffer not because he wanted them to die, but because he didn’t want a lot of them living in his neighborhood.

Loewen argues that this heroification is something that enables readers and teachers to overlook the conflicts that will allow a full reading of historical narratives and bring in other points of view. The heroification process is done to make textbooks more appealing to school districts and also to present an artificial exceptionalism view of American History. At the same time, heroification enables students to assume a role of passivity in constructing the next wave of American social and historical dynamics. If all that is read are about heroes, it creates the mentality that there is nothing left to do and this enables those in the position of power to continue doing what they do without any questioning or in-depth analysis.

Joseph Paul Franklin: college essay help online

White supremacy is a form of vile racism where white people are perceived as superior to all other races in every physical, mental, social, economic, and political aspect. This repugnant mindset dates back in United States’ History to centuries ago, but unfortunately still exists in the minds of people today. White supremacy is clearly very wrong, however it is important to be aware that it can be very dangerous when it is implemented by the mentally ill. John Paul Franklin used white supremacy as a stimulus for unethical, malicious and remorseless actions that lead to the death of at least 15 people in 11 different states. (FBI, 2014) Franklin’s three-year killing rampage was motivated by his “pathological hatred of African Americans and Jews”. (Montaldo, n.d.) Joseph Paul Franklin was a perfect example of how abusive households can lead to serious psychological issues such as mental illness, which in turn can lead to extreme violence.

James Clayton Vaughan was his birth name. Born into a poor family in Alabama, Franklin was physically abused by both of his parents throughout his entire childhood. He once told investigators, “My momma didn’t care about us” and stated that he and his three siblings were not fed properly or “allowed to play with other children”. (Nye, 2013) While in high school in the 1960’s, Franklin became interested in southern white supremacist groups and went on to becoming an active member of The Ku Klux Klan (KKK), The American Nazi Party, The National States Rights Party, and The National Socialists White People’s Party. His interest in these groups started when his obsession with evangelical Christianity and Nazism took off in his early high school years. Franklin changed his name in 1976 when he wanted to join the Rhodesian Army but couldn’t due to his criminal record. Franklin proceeded to choose “Joseph Paul” in honor of Joseph Paul Goebbels, Adolf Hitler’s minister of propaganda. He then chose “Franklin” in honor of the US founding father, Benjamin Franklin. He never ended up joining the army, and instead started a battle between him and every minority that he could get his hands on. (Montaldo, n.d.)

Franklin became more and more aggressive towards minorities as he got older, to the point where he “rejected the most radical hate groups because he didn’t think they took their hatred far enough”. (FBI, 2014) He felt that sitting around and complaining about the supposed “inferior” races wouldn’t do any good- he thought it was more effective to actually go out and kill them. He was constantly looking for opportunities to “cleanse the world” of races that he felt were inferior. Blacks and Jews were the primary races that Franklin went after, and he considered interracial couples to be even worse. (FBI, 2014)

Franklin was born on April 13, 1950. He was a high school dropout, and had a daughter after getting married in 1969 at the age of 19. (FamPeople, 2012) He became an abusive husband and got a divorce not long after. (FBI, 2014) The abuse he had towards his family is a direct result of the physical abuse he faced as a child. Child abuse has a direct relationship with mental health, and can be the cause of any kind of mental illness. (Szalavitz, 2012) Franklin’s actions were inexcusable but can definitely be linked to the abuse he endured as a child. Franklin was treated as inferior throughout his entire upbringing, and he transferred this energy from pain into hate. He used white supremacy as an outlet for his hatred. His obsession with hate allowed him to feel superior to other races, however this was probably the one thing that ever allowed Franklin to feel superior to other people.

Since Franklin was a high school dropout, he couldn’t carry a stable job. To keep himself afloat, Franklin robbed multiple banks up and down the East Coast. In between robberies, Franklin sold his blood and sold/traded guns. (FamPeople, 2012) He spent most of his time plotting to kill minorities as well as interracial couples. His killing rampage began in 1977 at the age of 27, and ended in 1980 when he was arrested at the age of 30. (FBI, 2014) He has been linked to or associated with many murders, some of which he was not arrested for or convicted of. He confessed to the murders of 20 people, some of which are believed to be untrue. (Montaldo, n.d.) This is one of the many reasons that defense lawyers claimed Franklin to be a “paranoid schizophrenic” that was not fit to stand on trial. (BBC News, 2013)

Franklin was officially convicted of nine murders, however was a suspect in another twelve. Eight of these convictions resulted in a life sentence. However, Franklin was sentenced to death by lethal injection by the state of Missouri for the murder of Gerald Gordon in 1997.

(Vitello, 2013) Gordon’s murder was just one of Franklin’s attacks on a synagogue. He chose Synagogues as his primary target for the single purpose of killing Jews. Gordon’s death occurred on October 8th, 1977 in Potosi, Missouri. Franklin took five shots at both Gerald Gordon as well as a man named William Ash while they were walking through the synagogue parking lot. He killed Gordon and injured Ash using a Remington 700 Hunting Rifle. He was then sentenced to death the following February. (Montaldo, n.d.) Franklin told investigators that he selected this synagogue at random. (Vitello, 2013) He also said that his primary goal in the event was to “find a Jew and kill him” (Nye, 2013) Franklin bombed another synagogue in July 1977 that was located in Chattanooga, Tennessee. Unlike the Missouri attack, nobody was injured that day. (BBC News, 2013)

Franklin did not confess to Gordon’s murder until 17 years after the incident while in a prison cell talking to an investigator. (Vitello, 2013) This is just one of many instances where Franklin’s story has changed, and that is the primary reason why the court has been unable to convict him of some of the other crimes he has supposedly committed. Some of the 22 murders that he has confessed to haven’t even been brought to court because of lack of evidence. (Montaldo,1) Franklin has also robbed about 16 banks in order to “fund his activities” (BBC, 2013)

Franklin was a drifter and often “floated up and down the east coast” planning his next attack. He carried a sniper rifle and his main target was “MRC’s”, or mix-raced couples.

(FamPeople, 2012) His most well-known crime involving interracial couples was the attempted Murder of Larry Flynt, a publisher for the Hustler magazine. (Vitello, 2013) Franklin went after Flynt because of the cover of the December 1975 issue of Hustler showing an interracial couple having sex. Franklin stated to CNN, “I saw that interracial couple he had, photographed there, having sex”. He then proceeded to say, “It just made me sick. I think whites marry with whites, blacks with blacks, Indians with Indians. Orientals with Orientals. I threw the magazine down and thought, ‘I’m going to kill that guy’”. (Nye, 2013) This quote shows Franklin’s extreme, obsessive hate towards interracial couples and how it correlates with his mental instability. Anyone that feels the need to murder someone because of their skin color, or because of the skin color of their significant other, clearly isn’t mentally stable enough, or safe enough, to be roaming the world by his or herself. Franklin’s freedom was a threat to lives of every nonwhite person in the country.

Franklin’s psychiatrist, Dorothy Otnow Lewis, was one of a few people who testified that he was unfit to stand on trial. Lewis stated that he was a delusional thinker due to the abusive childhood that he endured. One example of this irrational thinking was when he claimed that God wanted him to “start a race war”. (FamPeople, 2012) However, the court still convicted him for his crimes and sentenced him to death. Franklin was held on death row in Missouri. Clearly Franklin was thinking straight enough to plan his attacks as well as his escapes ahead of time, and he was able to avoid law enforcement for years. Many of Frankin’s escape methods included dying his hair, changing clothes, and changing vehicles. He would plan his escape paths ahead of time and make sure that he left no evidence. (FamPeople, 2012) However, the FBI was becoming closer and closer to catching Franklin by 1980. In September of that year, a Kentucky police officer noticed a car in the back of Franklin’s car. An outstanding warrant appeared during a records check, and he was then brought in for questioning and detained. He was able to escape detainment but was recaptured again not long after. Franklin was finally caught for good in 1980 when a nurse, who was drawing his blood, recognized an eagle tattoo on his arm and called the Police. (FamPeople, 2012)

Another one of Franklin’s attacks on an interracial couple occurred in Madison, Wisconsin. Alphonse Manning and Toni Schwenn were pulling out of a parking lot of a shopping mall. Franklin crashed into their car from behind, got out, and shot both 23 year olds to death. (Montaldo, n.d.) Another instance occurred in Cincinnati, Ohio on June 6th, 1980. Franklin was standing on an overpass waiting for an interracial couple to pass by. Franklin had planned this attack, so he knew that the couple should eventually be there. While he was waiting, Franklin became impatient and shot his cousins Darren Lane, age 14, and Dante Brown, age 13, while they were walking into a convenience store. Both children died and Franklin was charged with two life sentences. (Montaldo, n.d.) This instance shows Franklin’s short temper and yearning for violence. Franklin shot two innocent children of his own blood because he was getting impatient. That alone shows true mental illness, because anyone in their right mind wouldn’t be waiting on an overpass to commit those murders to begin with. His lack of patience and reliance on violence shows mental instability by itself, and his extreme racism and obsession with white supremacy infinitely multiplies the level of danger that he creates for those around him.

Larry Flynt was paralyzed from the hips down after Franklin attacked him. However, Flynt didn’t believe in the death penalty and actually fought against Franklin being put to death. Flynt stated, “The government has no business at all being in the business of killing people” he then told investigators that he believes, “It’s much more punishment to put somebody in prison for the rest of their lives than it is to snip their life out in a few seconds with a lethal injection”.  (Nye, 2013) Oblivious to the fact that Flynt was not trying to help him, Franklin referred to Flynt as “old pal” in regards to his opposition to his death sentence. Franklin’s mental instability is evident in this instance; Franklin seems to have thought that Flynt’s opposition to the death sentence was not because of Flynt’s conservative political views, but because somehow, Flynt was now on his side.

On May 29th 1980, Franklin was charged with the attempted murder of African American civil rights leader, Vernon Jordan. (BBC News, 2013) He committed this crime after seeing Jordan, who was black, with a white woman in Fort Wayne, Indiana. (FamPeople, 2012) He previously had threatened to kill President Jimmy Carter for his pro-civil rights views, along with Jesse Jackson. He realized that the security that protected these two men was too tight, and so he went on to murder Vernon Jordan instead. (FamPeople, 2012) Franklin was clearly an impatient, impulsive character that acted strictly on random, unethical reasoning. Franklin’s sister informed investigators that he was the target of the majority of the abuse in their dysfunctional household. She also added that Franklin used to read fairytales in order to escape the domestic abuse that he endured on a daily basis. (Montaldo, n.d.) This was definitely one of the main reasons for Franklin’s evident mental illness; Franklin used white supremacy as an outlet for his prolonged childhood anger and frustration.

On July 29th, 1978, Franklin shot Bryant Tatum and his girlfriend, Nancy Hilton with a 12-gauge shotgun simply because they were an interracial couple. The attack happened at a Pizza Hut in Chattanooga, Tennessee and unfortunately resulted in the death of Tatum. Hilton was able to survive but was injured, and Franklin was given a life sentence. (FamPeople, 2012) On July 12th, 1979, Franklin shot Harold McIver through a window. McIver was a 27 year old black man that unfortunately was killed in the incident. McIver was a manager at Taco Bell in Doraville, Georgia and according to Franklin, McIver came in close contact with white women. Franklin, as a result, felt it was his responsibility to murder the innocent man. (FamPeople, 2012)

One of the most outrageous parts of Franklin’s criminal history is that he was committing these horrible crimes because he thought he was doing his job. He once told CNN Investigators, “I consider it my mission, my three-year mission. Same length of time Jesus was on his mission, from the time he was 30 to 33.” (Lah, 2013) When CNN investigators asked him to clarify what his mission was exactly, he replied, “To get a race war started”. (Lah, 2013) Franklin thought it was his responsibility to brutally murder every person that was black, Jewish, or in an interracial relationship. On June 25th 1980, Franklin killed Nancy Santomero, age 19, and Vicki Durian, age 26 using a .44 Ruger Pistol. Both women were hitchhikers in Pocahontas County, West Virginia at the time. Franklin confessed to the crime in 1997 but felt that he did what was necessary. (FamPeople, 2012) Both girls were white, however he decided to murder them both once he heard one of the girls say that she had a black boyfriend. Jacob Beard, a Florida resident, had been incorrectly convicted and imprisoned for these murders. In the year 1999, Jacob Beard was freed and a new trial was to be created on Franklin’s behalf. Franklin was then correctly convicted of the crime, and was given a life sentence as a result. (FamPeople, 2012)

Franklin confessed to almost all of the murders that he committed because he felt he was doing right by his people. After he abandoned the most extreme white supremacist groups because he felt that they were not radical enough, he went on to commit these crimes because he thought that other white supremacists would follow him. He stated to reporters, “I figured once I started doing it and showed them how, other white supremacists would do the same thing”. (Nye, 2013) He claimed that after his attacks, he now has members that love him. He said to investigators, “When you commit a crime against a certain group of people, a bonding takes place. It seems like you belong to them.” (Nye, 2013) This sick feeling of family that Franklin received from his white supremacist groups was probably more of a closely-knit environment than the blood-related family that he had at home. This is most likely what drew Franklin so far deep into the racist cult.

Franklin shot and killed 15-year old prostitute Mercedes Lynn Masters on December 5th, 1979. He had been living with her in Dekalb County, Georgia, but decided to hill her when she told him that she previously had black customers. Two more murders were committed by Franklin on August 20th, 1980. Franklin killed two black men in Salt Lake City, Utah. He was near Liberty Park when he took the lives of Ted Fields and David Martin. He was charged with first-degree murder, convicted, and was given two life sentences. He was also tried on federal civil rights charges. These instances, along with multiple others, are just examples of the sick, twisted things that went on in Franklin’s head. Mental illness was evident, and his merciless actions are what made him so dangerous.

It was also evident that Franklin was completely self-centered and delusional. His reference to Flynt being an “old pal” and his comparison between Jesus and himself are just two examples of how deranged and neurotic that the high school dropout was. Franklin even said that he hoped his killings would act as an example. (Nye, 2013) The three-year mission that Franklin referred to took place when he was age 27 up until he was arrested at age 30. He told authorities that he has no regrets, and that the only regret he has is that killing Jews isn’t legal. He later told investigators that the only regret he has is that some of his victims managed to survive. (Montaldo, n.d.) Franklin had been in prison for over 30 years before he was finally executed. Not long before his execution, Franklin claimed that he was no longer a white supremacist and had “renounced his racist views”. (BBC News, 2013) Franklin claimed he had “interacted with black people in prison” and stated, “I saw they were people just like us”. He also added that he knew his actions were illogical and were a result of “an abusive upbringing”. (BBC News, 2013) Joseph Paul Franklin was sentenced to death on February 27th, 1997. He was on Missouri Death Row until August 20th, 2013, when the State of Missouri set the date for his execution. Franklin was executed by lethal injection on November 20th, 2013 at 6:08 AM. (Missouri Death Row, 2008) It took 10 minutes for Franklin to be officially pronounced dead. (BBC News, 2013) According to the jury, Franklin’s actions were a result of “depravity of mind”, better known as mental illness. (Missouri Death Row, 2008) Mental illness can be a direct result of child abuse. The life, the actions, and the attitude of Joseph Paul Franklin are a perfect example of that.

Works Cited

BBC News. (2013, November 20). BBC News US & Canada. Joseph Franklin, white supremacist serial killer, executed: Retrieved from bbc.co.uk/news/world-us-canada-25016217
FamPeople. (2012). Joseph Paul Franklin: Biography. Retrieved from FamPeople: http://www.fampeople.com/cat-joseph-paul-franklin
FBI. (2014, January 14). Serial Killers Part 4: White Supremacist Joseph Franklin. Retrieved from fbi.gov: https://www.fbi.gov/news/stories/2014/january/serial-killers-part-4-joseph-paul-franklin/
Lah, K. (2013, November 19). Serial Killer Joseph Paul Franklin Prepares to Die. Retrieved from CNN News: http://www.cnn.com/2013/11/18/justice/death-row-interview-joseph-paul-franklin/index.html
Missouri Death Row. (2008, December 9). State of Missouri vs. Joseph P. Franklin. Retrieved from Missouri Death Row: http://missourideathrow.com/2008/12/Franklin-Joseph/
Montaldo, C. (n.d.). Profile of Serial Killer Joseph Paul Franklin. Retrieved from About News: http://crime.about.com/od/hatecrimecriminalcases/a/josephfranklin.htm
Nye, J. (2013, November 19). Racist Serial Killer Shows No Remorse In Final Interview On Eve Of His Execution- Even Joking Larry Flynt, Who He Paralyzed, is “‘Old Pal” For Campaign Against Death Penalty. Retrieved from Daily Mail: http://www.dailymail.co.uk/news/article-2509759/Joseph-Paul-Franklin-shows-remorse-ahead-death-penalty.html
Szalavitz, M. (2012, February 15). How Child Abuse Primes The Brain For Future Mental Illness. Retrieved from Time: http://healthland.time.com/2012/02/15/how-child-abuse-primes-the-brain-for-future-mental-illness/
Vitello, P. (2013, November 13). White Supremacist Convicted of Several Murders Is Put To Death In Missouri. Retrieved from New York Times: http://www.nytimes.com/2013/11/21/us/joseph-paul-franklin-executed-in-missouri.html?_r=0

Why did Hitler target Jews?: writing essay help

One man in control of 65 million people at once during the 1930s is pretty incredible. But how incredible is it really, if this power is used for, what many people today consider is, evil. Adolf Hitler was a dictator in Germany that would eventually become known for how intense he believed in creating a perfect race.

Hitler was born in Austria and would eventually go to Germany, for many reasons, to take over the office and begin his extermination in search for the perfect race.  During all of World War II and a few years before that starting in 1933, Hitler was able to successfully capture and kill millions of people. The group of people Hitler mainly killed off were Jews because he didn’t consider them of the superior race, in his opinion the superior race was the Aryan race. Not only were Jews part of a massive genocide, but anyone who was disabled, homosexual, or gypsy were in danger of being captured and taken to concentration camps.

The night of the broken glass is a day that can be seen as the day that truly began the genocide in Germany because people were being taken away from their homes in mass amounts. In November 1938, Ernst Eduard vom Rath, was murdered by a Jewish teenager causing for police in Germany to begin entering houses and looking for any Jew who had weapons in their possession.  Hitler saw the killing of this German Diplomat as a threat against the Nazis by the Jews, and so began the Holocaust.

For over 10 years millions of people were taken away into concentration camps all over Europe, but there really can’t be an exact number as to how many were captured and killed because who knows if others were killed outside of concentration camps or used for experimentation, for now the number that is used as an estimate is 11 million people killed over a period of 12 years, 6 million were only Jews.

The goal of this research is not to focus on Hitler and how he governed Germany and what his political views were in the world, but rather look at how he grew up and how he was able to capture millions of people to kill them off, just to have his perfect race, and why? The main question is, why did he mainly target Jews? For one person to have control of about 65 million people and how they should be living their day to day life is pretty incredible.  But the way Hitler went about making these people live did not seem like a very good idea, considering that Hitler was a very intelligent person.

Anti-Semitic views have been around since the time of Ancient Rome, which is interesting when we look back at because all these years have passed and there still seems to be a prejudice against Jewish people.  While Jewish people are not the only group that face prejudice or discrimination, this group has had a tremendous impact on the history of the world because of the way they were treated during the Holocaust by Hitler, while it is not comparable to the slave trade during the sixteenth and nineteenth century, it is something that still amazes people because of the way it was executed.

Adolf Hitler was the leader of the Nazi Party in Germany during the 1930s and 1940s. During his time as leader, he rose to a high enough power that he began to order for the extermination of the Jews.  Hitler is one of the most famous cases of genocides that is known in history today because of the amount he was able to successfully murder from 1933-1945. In history class, students are taught about WWII and how Germany’s defeat caused the end of the Holocaust. What many never wonder is why he did it; the amount of people that were murdered by Hitler and his Nazi group is still not exact because not only were Jewish people murdered, but anyone of inferiority to Hitler or his Aryan race.  Like mentioned before, anyone with physical or mental disability were also taken to concentration camps because they were people who could destroy the perfect race.

Starting from when Hitler was first a child, he went through physical abuse at home. Hitler’s father would beat him because Adolf would find ways to taunt his own father and make him mad at Hitler. While this all happened, Hitler’s mother, would make him feel better and make sure he was okay because like most mothers, their instinct is to make sure their children are never hurt.  While this might not be a contributing factor as to why Hitler’s main goal was to exterminate all Jews, this can be part of a reason many thought his views were insane; this instability at home definitely seemed to cause instability within himself and possible feelings and affection he could feel towards other human beings.

As Hitler grew up, it was evident that Hitler never cared for school work and would much rather learn about art and music as much as he could. According to Hitler’s sister, he was a student that would bring home bad grades and didn’t really care for the consequences he would face with his parents, and especially his dad.  Eventually in 1905, when Hitler’s mother was very sick, he moved to Vienna in pursue of his dreams. While his mother being sick due to breast cancer caused great devastation to him, this seemed like a great opportunity to follow his dreams and pursue a career in the arts.

Hitler’s goal was to get into Vienna Academy of Fine Arts and become successful in the city of Vienna, where many artists got their name, but when he was told that his work was not good enough for the school, this caused anger within him. Hitler has always been very confident in the things he did and not being able to get into his dream school really shocked him.  According to many sources, when he went back to get an explanation as to why he has not been accepted, he was told that his art lacked “human form” and that his artwork would be successful in an architecture school. While this doesn’t seem like a bad idea to people, to him it was horrendous because he had not finished high school and to get into the architecture schools, he would need a high school diploma.

While in Vienna, Hitler applied twice to the Vienna Academy of Fine Arts and got rejected twice. During his time there, many people believe that Hitler began to grow a hate towards Jews because Vienna, at the time, was populated with many Jews.  His anti-Semitic views might have stemmed from there, but there is no exact reason as to why. According to a source, one of Hitler’s childhood friends stated that even before Hitler left Austria to pursue his dreams, he was ant-Semitic, but like many other sources that explain when Hitler became this way, they fail to mention why.

While there might still be no exact reason as to how Hitler grew into his views, sources can introduce new ideas and theories as to how he thought. During the 1930s, Hitler was perceived as a very important figure for the Germans because he helped them bring the economy to a stable point since Germany lost World War I. According to charts, Germany’s unemployment rate in 1933 totaled 6 million people, but as Hitler took power in Germany, he was able to lower it to about 300 thousand people in 1939.

Hitler was a very smart man, like mentioned before, he was even put on Time Magazine as Man of the Year in 1938.  But when Hitler went into power in Germany, he already had anti-Semitic views in play because according to a book published in Germany, November 9: How World War One Led to the Holocaust by Joachim Riecker, it talks about Hitler believing that Jews did not care enough for Germany to win World War I at the time. Mr. Riecker goes on to describe how Hitler believed that the Jewish people in Germany ruined the government and its economy overtime, World War I was just a push towards finishing off the country. While this theory seems like a bit of stretch, it doesn’t seem entirely wrong as a reason to hate Jewish people, but Hitler was incorrect in saying that the Jews were the group of people that mainly were involved during the First World War.

According to a German census, the majority that lived in Germany around 1910, which were a few years before World War I, were either Catholics or Protestants. Most of Europe was mainly made up of these two religious groups, so to target Jews as the main participants of the First World War is incorrect. While there might have been Jews that participated in the war, not all of the Jews were to blame for, so this goes to show that this reason is not exactly a valid reason for Hitler to have anti-Semitic views.

Analyzing sources thus far, many of them mention many instances where Hitler has found an excuse to say he does not appreciate a Jew.

How Significant A Role Did Britain Play In The War Against Germany?

World War Two was the most devastating war in history. It was a battle of ideologies. Germany fought for control of Europe; The allies, Britain, America and Russia fought for freedom. The only way to crush an Ideology was total war, a devastating method of warfare killing an estimated 55 million civilians. The war ended the lives of 3% of the world population at the time. While all the allies suffered casualties, the Russians lost 29 million civilians on the eastern front. While Britain and America lost 870000 people combined, only 3% of the Russian deaths. With Russia taking Berlin, and Russia absorbing most of the deaths on the Eastern Front, was Britain significant in the defeat of Nazi Germany?

When war broke out, Germany swept through Europe during the Blitzkrieg, gaining military control of countries rapidly. The capture of France on June 14th, 1940 left Britain a sole island nation fighting against Nazi Germany. As an island, Britain relied on the sea for defence. German operation Sealion planned to land German forces to capture Britain; in order to safely transport troops, Germany needed to control the sea. At the same time, Britain was importing supplies across the Atlantic from America, which kept them alive through the war. The need for control on the sea was underpinned by looming threat from the Germans, and the necessity of trade between the Allies. Britain needed to import weapons and supplies from America, as the Germans attacked these trade routes the Battle of the Atlantic begun. The battle of the Atlantic was fought between 1939 until the end of the war in 1945. It was the longest battle in WW2, and victory would ensure the survival of Britain. Germany attempted to cripple the British navy through the use of undetectable U-boats, which sank thousands of Military and trade ships in an attempt to weaken the British navy and starve them to surrender. But for the British, the sea was too important to lose. At the beginning of the war, there were no reliable methods for avoiding U-Boats, so allied ships were at the mercy of luck, so much so that Winston Churchill said: “the only thing that really frightened me was the U-Boat peril”. But by 1941 the enigma was cracked, Britain now knew where U-Boats were headed and could steer convoys away from danger, saving 105 out of 174 convoys between may 1942 and may 1943. Furthermore, technological advancements led to the creation of depth charges which helped the British to combat the U-boats. As well as the production of the Hedgehog anti-submarine weapons destroyed many German naval resources. This kept trade between Britain and America going, ensure vital goods like food and munitions reached Britain keeping them alive. Britain’s contribution to the war at sea had considerable importance as it led to naval dominance in the Atlantic. If Germany had have controlled the Atlantic, the D-day invasion would have been nearly impossible to bring to fruition. Defeat in the Atlantic meant almost certain defeat for Britain and their resistance. And would have damaged Russia’s defence in the east, due the destruction of German U-Boats forced Hitler to draw more resources from the Eastern Front where Hitler desperately needed them.

Britain not only had to fight the German Navy, they had to compete with the German Air Force. With the invention of modern aircrafts, factories and towns could be destroyed by bombers. Germany planned to cripple the British air force, allowing them to destroy the ports in order to launch a full-scale invasion. To stop the Germans Britain had to control the air. The war began poorly for Britain. They were marred by the defeat at Dunkirk, the evacuation of 343,000 soldiers from the beaches of France. It was a complete military failure; the British lost 1954 of its artillery and 615 tanks, leaving them to be captured or destroyed by the Germans. Yet it was a Symbolic success for Britain, the boats of the British saved the soldiers and led to the British resilience that came to be known as ‘Dunkirk spirit’. This was integral in allowing the British to persevere through the Battle of Britain. The Battle of Britain signified the end of the phoney war, the period in which the British were at war with the Germans but did not fight. The Germans planned to invade Britain, and Hitler’s generals were worried about the damage that the Royal Air Force could inflict on the German Army during the invasion. Because of this Hitler agreed that the invasion should be postponed until the British Air Force had been destroyed. The German campaign objective became gaining air superiority over the RAF, especially Fighter Command. They began with the bombing of aircraft bases across Britain. This was less effective than the Germans had hoped; Britain had built up its air defences since 1936 under air chief marshal Sir Hugh Dowding. The widespread use of radar alerted the RAF of incoming Luftwaffe and allowed for a quick defence. Britain was outshooting and outproducing the Germans. Germany couldn’t destroy all the air force bases and In September 1940 Germany shifted their targets to bomb cities. This was terrifying for civilians, claiming over 32,000 lives and injuring over 80,000 more, But it gave the RAF the ability to rebuild their planes. They were able to put an end to the German air raids, and the Battle of Britain signified the first loss of the German army. The defence against the German Luftwaffe was integral to the survival of Britain, which in turn became a base of future attacks on Germany. Had Britain lost to the Germans, Britain would have fallen, and the base of D-day operations would be under Nazi control. The victory ensured that Germany have would fight a war on two fronts.

The success at the Battle of Britain also allowed Britain to launch aerial attacks, with the USA, against Germany. These attacks continued throughout the war. It was a controversial tactic. While British aerial attacks were not very effective, only 1 in 100 bombs landed five miles within its target, and the prediction that bombing cities would break the German morale was false. carpet bombing was extremely effective in large cities such as Hamburg, where thousands of deaths and the destruction of over 4000 factories occurred. The damage caused by these attacks crippled the German industrial might and forced resources and troops away from the Eastern Front, 2/3 German planes had to protect German cities. The bombings also destroyed German coastal defences and allowed for D-day plans to be made, opening a second front for the already stretched Germans. However, Britain was not alone. America produced the most machinery during the war, they produced 300,000 planes and supplied both Britain and Russia with planes to cover their losses in combat. As well as supply Britain money to build their own planes through lend-lease. They also took the brunt of the losses in the bombing campaign because they bombed during the day to ensure they struck their target. While this caused a better success rate of missions, it led to far more American deaths. The bombing campaign did not win the war, but it aided in the invasion of Germany.

If Germany had not been invaded, the war would have continued. To destroy the Nazi forces, Berlin would have to be captured. All three of the Allies would open fronts against the Germans in the East and West. With Russia suffering the most casualties at 29 million. On land, Britain made two major contributions in the war. The first British contribution on land was in the North African campaign against the Afrika Korps led by Rommel. Britain had lost much of its territory due to Rommel’s advance across North Africa in late 1942. But the British victory of the Battle of El Alamein in November 1942 was an important victory for the British campaign in Africa. It blocked Hitler’s access to the oil fields. The North Africa campaign was seen as insignificant to the Germans, but it led to the invasion of Southern Italy, and the fall of Italy as an axis power. It was a large blow to Germany, they stood against the combined forces of the Allied powers. However, Germany put little resources into the Africa campaign, with only four divisions under the control of Rommel.

The second contribution from Britain was D-day. Britain helped retake France from the German army. On 6 June 1944, Britain landed on the Beaches of Normandy, for the biggest land campaign of the western front. Britain was instrumental in the planning of D-day; they disrupted the German intelligence, making Hitler believe the invasion would begin at France’s Pas de Calais region 150 miles northeast of Normandy. Britain was the launch point of the invasion, and if Britain had fallen in the war D-day would be impossible. However, Britain was not alone. For the initial invasion, they only attacked two out of the five beaches and sent 14 divisions, compared to the USA’s 23 divisions.  And by the end of the war, the number of British soldiers decreased on the Western Front, whilst America’s grew to 60 divisions.

But the aim of D-Day was to create a second front to draw German troops away from the Eastern Front, the single largest battle in the war. It claimed the lives of 29 million Russians, both soldiers and civilians. Total War was never more evident in the East when invading Russia, Germany would kill soldiers who tried to surrender. Captured Russians were executed; German POW camps had policies for the deliberate mistreatment of Russians which led to 3.5 million deaths. This brutality caused the most devastating battles: the battle of Stalingrad, 400,000 people Russians died (more than the number of British casualties in the whole war); the battle of Kursk had 860,000 casualties; the Siege of Leningrad lasted 872 days, and resulted in the deaths of 1.5 million people. The number of deaths suffered by the Russian people shows the resilience they had during the war, and the determination of the Red Army to win at all costs. But after Russian victory at the Battle of Stalingrad, Russia began a counteroffensive. They began to push the Germans out of Russia. Once the Eastern Front had been moved past the Soviet border, the new goal was to reclaim the Baltics and communism in Eastern Europe. The Red Army pushed the Germans back. Slowly they weakened the German army, cut off its supply lines and drove it back to Berlin. The Russian counter-offensive was responsible for the death of 80% of the German army. It was agreed upon by the Allies that Russia would take Berlin, and obtain Germany’s surrender. Russia had won the war, while the British and Americans aided.

The War was a combined effort from the three allied powers. At the beginning of the war, Britain acted alone, with the fate of Europe resting on their survival. But they were only kept fighting by the funding of their war effort from America, $5.8 billion of goods were lent to Britain. The threat of defeat and a unified Nazi Europe was only quashed when Hitler turned his attention to Russia. That is where the war was decided. The majority of the casualties of the war took place on the eastern front, with the Russians losing more people in Stalingrad than the Americans and British lost in the whole war, the Red Army killed the most German soldiers and stormed Berlin. Without the manpower of the Russians, the war could not have been won.

Fate vs. free will in Frankenstein by Mary Shelley: writing essay help

Fate is the development of events beyond a person’s control, regarded as determined by a supernatural power, while Free Will is the power of acting without the constraint of necessity or fate; the ability to act at one’s own discretion. Throughout the novel Frankenstein by Mary Shelley, the question of fate vs. free will is brought to the reader’s attention. Victor Frankenstein and the Monster make many decisions throughout the novel. Each decision has an effect on different characters in the novel. The decisions that Victor and the Monster make in the novel cause the reader to think about whether these are of fate or free will.—tighten up

Throughout the novel, Victor Frankenstein speaks of fate and similar topics often. One of the first times we hear Victor speaking of fate is in Robert Walton’s fourth letter to his sister Mrs. Saville.”I thank you…for your sympathy, but it is useless; my fate is nearly fulfilled. I wait but for one event, and then I shall repose in peace. I understand your feeling…but you are mistaken, my friend, if thus you will allow me to name you; nothing can alter my destiny: listen to my history, and you will perceive how irrevocably it is determined.” In this quote, Victor is speaking to Captain Walton and is implying a future confrontation with the monster. Some readers think this implies the possibility of Victor killing his own creation, however towards the end of the novel, Victor dies on board the ship and moments later the monster is standing over his body. The monster then swears to burn himself committing suicide. By committing suicide, the monster suffers the same fate as Victor.

Although Victor and the Monster are different beings and do not share the same blood, they do share similar personalities and paths. They both like to gain knowledge of how the world works, for example when Frankenstein was interested in the mysteries of the natural world and the monster wanted to and did learn how to speak and read by learning from De Lacey, Felix, and Agatha teaching Safie. He also then starts to read and gain knowledge from the books he reads which include, Paradise Lost, Plutarch’s Lives, and the journals that he stole from Victor in his clothes. They also become more aware of their surrounds and adapt to them as they gain more knowledge. An example of this is Victor learning of electricity by watching a lightning storm, which he then later uses to bring the monster to life. An example of the monster learning and adapting is when he learns of fire. “One day, when I was oppressed by cold, I found a fire which had been left by some wandering beggars, and was overcome with delight at the warmth I experienced from it. In my joy I thrust my hand into the live embers, but quickly drew it out again with a cry of pain.” This quote is proof of the monster’s quick learning and adaptation. They are also both outcasted by society and although they don’t like it, they prefer to live away from society. Another similarity between the two is their hate for each other. Their mutual hatred started off when Victor saw the monster as ugly and worthless. Had he been a real father to the monster, he would have cared for him anyway. However due to the disapproval and abandoning of the monster by Victor, the monster grew a special hatred for his creator and father, Victor. All of these similarities are a way to show how although they take different versions, they are paths. They continually both suffer the same fates.

In the time period that the novel takes place, many people had major belief in religion and that God had chosen a path and fate for them. By creating the monster, it is almost as if Victor Frankenstein passes his fate and personality to the monster. They both continuously lose and kill loved ones throughout the novel. For example, the monster kills Victor’s nephew, William and therefore indirectly kills Justine by planting the photo on her. Later in the novel when Victor is working on his second creation and then foresees a future of the monsters reproducing and creating offsprings that are also monsters. Due to this “vision” he decides to destroy his second creation and what was supposed to be the monster’s companion. It just so happens that the monster was watching as through the window as he did this and swore to be with Victor on his wedding night. As promised there he was and he kills Victor’s new wife Elizabeth Lavenza. They both now are suffering the pain of losing their companions.

“I gazed on my victim, and my heart swelled with exultation and hellish triumph: clapping my hands, I exclaimed, ‘I, too, can create desolation; my enemy is not impregnable; this death will carry despair to him, and a thousand other miseries shall torment and destroy him.”

The monster is speaking of how he is not a victim of fate but rather a commander of fate. He is able to create desolation as that is what he feels. Due to the neglect by society and the lack of friendship or companionship, the monster feels as if his life is empty.

The whole novel can be seen as events that are supposed to happen because it was fate. After the many mentions of fate by Victor it is hard see the events and decisions as anything but those of fate and destiny. Due to the time that the novel was written in and the religious attitude in that era, it is very easy to see everything as destiny and fate. Many people believed in the theory of predestination. Predestination is the doctrine that God in consequence of his foreknowledge of all events infallibly guides those who are destined for salvation.

Lives in Germany – early-mid 1930s

In what ways do these primary sources contribute to your understanding of how economic conditions and the rise of the Nazis shaped people’s lives in Germany in the early-mid 1930s?

When Adolf Hitler was elected German Chancellor in January 1933, the economy was in turmoil. The Third Reich at this time underwent significant economic development after, like many other European countries, suffering after the Great Depression. However, by the outbreak of World War Two, the unemployment rate in Germany had tumbled: trade unions had been tamed, the work force had seemingly developed a positive work ethic and job prospects did improve. These primary sources contribute highly to any understanding of economic conditions in Germany and how the rise of the Nazis altered people’s lives in Germany at this time.

The first source is a photograph called ‘Unemployed Men Standing in Front of the Berlin Employment Office’ and was produced in June 1933, six months after Hitler became German Chancellor. It is by Hans Schaller, a popular German photographer. It was produced in order to convey the discontent and frustration experienced by unemployed people.

This source states, ‘In 1932, when the crisis reached its peak, about 6 million people were registered as unemployed in Germany’, conveying that with the turn of the rise of the Nazis before Hitler came to power, there was a significant unemployment epidemic. This number would have been higher as women were also unemployed, however, as their traditional roles in society were to be homemakers, they were not included in this statistic.

This can be corroborated by the Sopade Report by Otto Wels, the chairman of the Social Democratic Party of Germany from 1919 and a member of parliament from 1920 to 1933, therefore he would have been well-informed and experienced in the inner mechanics of the economy. The source articulates that ‘Hitler understood that a general economic upswing – and the drop in unemployment that would follow – was the best means for securing the loyalty of the German people’, highlighting Hitler’s understanding of the pressing issue of unemployment after becoming Chancellor and his willingness to tackle this for the German people.

‘Work and Bread’ was the name of a speech made by Gregor Strasser, a prominent German Nazi official and politician. It was produced few months prior to the July 1932 election, therefore, aiming to persuade the German electorate towards the mindset of the Nazi Party. The general message of this source highlighted the current state of the government was not successful, and national socialism was the most suitable route towards political stability. He asserts, ‘Article 163 will have to one day be altered to the effect that every German must have the right to work and people will have to be aware of the full significance of this alteration.’ Article 163 of the Weimar Constitution stated that ‘Every German should be given the possibility of earning his living through work’, therefore, emphasising to the German people that having stable employment is key to success and happiness.

This can be furthered by the explanation of the photograph by Hans Schaller which articulates that ‘The persistent worldwide depression and the mass unemployment associated with it were among the main catalysts for the general radicalisation of the political climate in Germany’. The impact of unemployment levels nationwide resulted in the public wishing for a new and distinct political sphere, which arguably led to the rise of the political extremism of the Nazi Party, thus, significantly shaping the lives of the German people at this time.

Furthermore, employment conditions for workers in Germany were arguably poor. An interview with Sally Tuchklaper, who was Polish and working in German factories throughout the war, thus being a first-hand oral account of events in employment in Germany. It was conducted by Anita Schwartz, for the purposes of fellow survivors and the academic circle, however, gradually generated a wider audience.

She said the working conditions, ‘weren’t bad but we were still under pressure. We couldn’t do nothing; we had to go on their rules which – them and we came in the morning at nine o’clock and we worked the whole day’, which affirms the nature of the heavy workload that young girls had to face at this time.

Oral history can be defined as the recording, preservation and interpretation of historical knowledge, based on the personal encounters and opinions of the speaker. This is a very subjective and personal form of evidence and can give a voice to groups who are sometimes marginalized in ‘conventional’ stereotypes, such as the working classes and women. It can provide new information, alternative explanations and varied insights which are highly valuable. The spoken word can convey emotions with immediacy and an impact that the written documents cannot match and allows the historian to ask questions of his or her informant – to be present at the creation of a historical source, rather than relying on those created by others.

On the other hand, oral history can be classed as inaccurate in other areas. It can be contended that someone’s memory may be selective or distorted over time, and so, the quality of these sources may be questioned. Additionally, the interviewer’s questions may intentionally or unintentionally influence the informant’s response.

Black Sunday Dust Storm (April 14, 1935)

Black Sunday refers to a severe dust storm that occurred on April 14, 1935, as a part of the Dust Bowl, which was a series of dust storms that had been occurring all through America during 1930s. It was one of the worst dust storms in American History, it had caused massive economic and agricultural damage. It had been estimated that 300 million tons of top soil had been moved from prairie areas in US. The black blizzard started in the Eastern state in 1930, affecting agriculture from Maine to Arkansas. Then by 1934 they had reached the Great Plains, stretching from North Dakota to Texas.

That afternoon of April 14th, residents of the Plains States had been forced to take cover as the dust storm or black blizzard, blew through the region. Oklahoma Panhandle and Northwest Oklahoma were the first to be hit, and then moved south for the remaining days. 4:00p.m it hit Beaver, Boise City around 5:15p.m, finally Amarillo and Texas at 7:20p.m. The storm was more severe due to the high winds that hit the area that day also the combination of drought, erosion, bare soil, and winds caused the dust to fly freely and at high speeds.

The causes that made the blizzard so sever was due to the cattle farming and sheep ranching which had left the West devoid of any nature, that would have anchored the soil, and due to that lack of allowing nature to replenish itself the soil was left dehydrated and lacking organic matter.

The effects caused by the dust storm, and especially by the storm on Sunday, caused hundreds of thousands of people to be homeless and needing somewhere to stay, due to this they had flooded California, overtaking the state’s health and employment infrastructure. In 1935, after the massive damage caused by these storms, congress passed the soil conservation act, which established the soil conservation service. The Soil conservation Service was created to provide guidance for land owners and users to reduce soil erosion and improve forest and field conservation.

After the government doesn’t want another dust bowel to happen, research has been able t provide environmental evidence to what produced the storm and what could, prevent massive destruction or at least prevent any death, because man cannot control the weather. So scientist today have found that ships have recorded sea surface temperatures for more than 150 years. Even before they had begun any studies, other research had notice that drought tended to be accompanied by unusual sea surface temperature in other parts of the world. The scientists used a model to run a simulation of the 20th century’s climate patterns. The model was able to reconstruct the dust bowel drought quite closely, providing strong evidence that the sea surface temperature may have had an impact on causing the drought.

The model had data on the sea surface temperatures most tightly linked to the drought were in the tropical Atlantic, where the waters were slightly warmer than usual, and in the tropical Pacific, where they were slightly cooler. The actual temperature difference were small, just be a tenth of a degree Celsius. The change in the tropical Atlantic probably contributed to the drought by disrupting a band of low-lying air that blows moisture over the Great Plains from the Gulf of Mexico. The role of temperatures in the tropical Pacific is still not well-understood, but it appears to involve the generation of large-scale circulation patterns that suppress rising motion over the Great Plains. Interactions between the Great Plains land surface and the atmosphere also played a great role in the drought. The severe event seem to have occurred once or twice before over the last 400 years. Some evidence suggests droughts lasting more than a decade during the last 13th and 16th centuries that were much much more severe than those of the 20th century, according to Siegfried Schubert a colleagues at NASA’s Goddard Space Flight Centre. “Certainly history suggests that we can expect much worse than what happened in 1930, but the warning seems to be unique in last fewer decades, it’s difficult to say what impact of that will be,” Siegfried Schubert said. In the future Schubert predicted, improved climate models and global satellite observations should lead to useful predictions of the chances of long-term drought.

But what if scientist in 1930 had this technology, what would have happened? Well man can’t stop a natural disaster from happening, but they can prevent agricultural and economic damage to a minimum. With the technology and research that has been found, it could have lead to an evacuation of people and preparedness for cattle and other farming industries, allowing them to bunker down or move to safer areas. If the research on the temperature of the sea could help in predicting a dust blizzard and having satellite imaging to also predict the movement and areas going to be affected, this would prevent or decrease a death toll in animals and people, also having agricultural lands well manage reducing the amount of top soil being moved.

The Great Depression – biggest causes: college application essay help

The Great Depression was one the worst time periods in American history. The Great Depression started in 1929 and ended in 1939. It started in America with the crash of the stock market and then later began to have a big impact globally. As shown in Document 1, the Great Depression was the worst economic downfall in American history. Millions of people were left unemployed and searching for nonexistent jobs. It was a common sight to see children begging on the roads. Furthermore, banks started to fail and people started to lose any savings that they had. Overall, the main causes of the Great Depression were the stock market crash of 1929, the reduction in purchasing, and the abuse of the major economic ideas.

The stock market crash of 1929 was the biggest cause of the Great Depression. The stock market crash impacted millions of American people. Before the stock market crash, many Americans were getting greedy. They were continuously buying more and more. As described in Document 10 after the Americans “bought all they can afford they go on buying, a little down and the rest in easy payments.” (Document 10). This method of buying with installments was bad for the economy. Elmer Davis foreshadows the Great Depression when he states, “the bill will be all the larger when it finally has to be faced.” (Document 10). Another reason that Americans got greedy was the speculative boom in the stock market. As described in Document 5 there was a “speculative boom that developed with increasing intensity in the years after 1927.” (Document 5). The speculative boom made Americans greedy as they were hoping to make quick profits from the speculative rise. However, as more Americans began to invest in stocks, the prices started to be forced upwards. These forced up prices were a result of “competitive bidding rather than by any fundamental improvement in American (business).” (Document 5).  As a result of the speculative boom, investors bought more stocks. However, when the stock market crashed, the investors with the most stock were trying to get rid of it as fast as possible. This lead to the stock prices being dropped drastically. This is shown in the newspaper title in Document 3 which is “Stock prices slump $14,000,000,000 in nation-wide stampede to unload” (Document 3). The drop in prices would have been a good way to jumpstart the economy, but Americans were no longer buying anything. Most Americans stopped buying stocks which was worse for the economy since it cannot grow without consumers. Overall, the stock market crash of 1929 was one of the greatest causes of the Great Depression because it completely dropped the prices of all stocks and put millions of Americans into poverty.

After the stock market crash of 1929, many Americans were reluctant to buy anything. Also, many Americans were too poor to be able to buy anything besides the absolute necessities. After the stock market crash, many Americans lost their jobs. As shown in the table in Document 4, unemployment rates were drastically rising after the stock market crash. Without jobs, Americans could not purchase anything and this made the country continue downwards. Maintaining a family became extremely hard since many adults were losing their jobs. The hardships of family life are further explained in Document 7 where the average mill worker describes her daily lifestyle. In her story, she explains that her income combined with her husbands is just barely enough to support her entire family. This means that the average family did not have much money leftover to spend on other items and luxuries. The table in Document 9 further supports this argument because it shows the average US family income distribution. After the stock market crash, nearly 60% of American family’s annual income was under the poverty line (Document 9). This showed that the families under the poverty line could not afford anything other than the absolute necessities which meant that they could not purchase other luxuries. Overall, the reduction in purchasing was one of the causes of the Great Depression and it was happening because of the unemployment which led to a lack of money.

The abuse of economic ideas was one of the smaller causes of the Great Depression. As described in the background essay, the 4 major economic ideas are the law of supply and demand, say’s law, the business cycle, and the stock market (Background essay, 437-439). Before the Great Depression started, American people were breaking some of these economic ideas. As described in Document 6, “consumers bought goods on installment at a rate faster than their income was expanding” (Document 6). By buying goods on installment, it meant that people would pay over time. This purchasing style was okay in the beginning but after a while, it had serious consequences since many people were gaining debt and their income wasn’t capable of paying the installments. Also, this type of purchasing broke the law of supply and demand since the supply and demand for goods remained the same, but people didn’t have money to buy goods and had to use installment. This meant that there would be a time where people would stop buying which would lead to a sap in the economy (Document 6). Furthermore, Document 10 describes that people continued buying even after they couldn’t afford it. This shows that people broke the business cycle because usually if people stopped buying after they couldn’t afford it, then production slowed and workmen were fired. However, in the years before the Great Depression, people used installments and continued buying which broke the business cycle. Additionally, the farming economy also started to abuse the law of supply and demand. Farmers started to overproduce items in hopes of being able to sell more. However, this overproduction backfired and as shown in Document 11 the prices of goods completely dropped. The farm industry fell as farmers were forced to sell their goods at a very low price. Overall, the abuse of economic ideas impacted the Great Depression since people started paying with installments and breaking the business cycle and the law of supply and demand.

In conclusion, the Great Depression was caused by many different factors. The greatest cause for the Great Depression was the stock market crash of 1929 which put millions of Americans into poverty and made many lose their jobs. Additionally, the Great Depression was also caused by the reduction in purchasing since many were unemployed and couldn’t afford to purchase anything besides the absolute necessities. The reduction in purchasing also kept the economy down since it can’t grow without consumers. Furthermore, the abuse of the major economic ideas also had an impact on the Great Depression. Overall, the stock market crash of 1929, the reduction in purchasing, and the abuse of the major economic ideas were the three major causes for the Great Depression.

An Abundance of Katherines by John Green

Synopsis.

The novel I studied is “An Abundance of Katherines” that was written by John Green. This book was published on September 2016 by Dutton and Speak. The genre of this book is fiction. The main characters are Colin Singleton, who is anagram-loving seventeen-year-old boy who is depressed. Hassan Harbish who is Colin’s lazy, funny, and slightly overweight best, and only, friend. Lindsey Lee Wells who Colin and Hassan on their road trip in Gutshot, Tennessee. Hollis Wells, Lindsey’s mother. She is an extreme workaholic. The conflict of this story occurs between Colin and the other Colin when Colin Singleton finds the other Colin cheating on Lindsey. The other Colin threatened Colin if he told Lindsey and Colin was forced to decide to tell Lindsey or not. Though Colin made his decision to tell Lindsey what happened. This lead to her breaking up with the other Colin and a very brutal beating for Colin Singleton and his best friend Hassan.

Colin Singleton is a child prodigy who is fearing he will not grow to become an adult prodigy. After being dumped by his girlfriend, Katherine XIX, Colin is looking for his “missing piece” longing to feel whole, and longing to matter. He hopes to accomplish his goal of becoming a genius by having a “eureka” moment. Over the span of his life, Colin has dated nineteen girls named Katherine, all spelled in that manner. In these relationships, Colin remembers only the Katherine dumping him.

After graduating from high school, and before college, Colin’s best and only friend, Hassan Harbish, convinces him to go on a road trip with him to take his mind off the breakup. Colin goes along with the idea, hoping to find his “eureka” moment on the way. After driving all the way from Chicago to Tennessee, they come across the alleged resting place of the body of Archduke Franz Ferdinand. There, they meet Lindsey Lee Wells. After a short time, Colin and Hassan find themselves employed by Hollis, Lindsey’s mother who runs a local factory that is currently producing tampon strings. They live with their employer and her daughter in a rural town called Gutshot, Tennessee. The employment she sends them on is to interview all current adult residents of Gutshot and assemble an oral history of the town. As time passes, Colin finds himself becoming attracted to Lindsey, though matters are somewhat complicated by her on-again, off-again boyfriend Colin. He and Hassan call him TOC which means “the other Colin”. Our Colin, the prodigy, is still chasing his eureka moment, finally finding it in his theorem he created called the Theorem of Underlying Katherine Predictability. It is meant to determine the curve of any relationship based on several factors of the personalities of the two people in a relationship. It would predict the future of any two people. His theorem eventually works for all but one of his past relationships with a Katherine. It is later discovered by Colin that he had dumped this Katherine (Katherine III), rather than the other way around. The graphs all make perfect sense at this juncture. As Colin’s story is revealed to the reader, we find that K-19 was also the first of the Katherines, “Katherine the Great.” While the back stories of Colin’s life play out, Hassan gets a girlfriend, Katrina, a friend of Lindsey’s. The relationship is cut short when Colin and Hassan catch Katrina having sex with TOC while on a feral hog hunt with Lindsey, her friends and Colin’s father. A fight between TOC and all of the surrounding acquaintances begins when Lindsey finds out that he’s been cheating on her. While recovering from a knee whack to the groin, Colin anagrams the Archduke’s name while in the grave yard to dull the pain, and realizes that it is actually Lindsey’s great-grandfather, named Fred N. Dinzanfar, that is buried in the tomb.

Colin finds Lindsey at her secret hideout in a cave that she had shown him previously, where he tells her the story of every Katherine he has ever loved. Lindsey tells him that she feels so self-centered, claiming that she does not feel sad but instead slightly relieved by TOC’s affair. They discuss what it means to them to “matter” and eventually confess their love for each other. As their relationship continues, Colin decides to use his dating formula to determine whether or not he and Lindsey will last. The graph reveals that they will only last for four more days. Lindsey then slips a note under his door, four days later, stating that she cannot be his girlfriend because she is in love with Hassan. But she leaves a P.S. stating that she is joking. Colin realizes that his theorem cannot predict the future of a relationship; it can only shed light on why a relationship failed. Despite this, Colin is content with not “mattering”. Hassan also states that he is applying for two college classes, which Colin has been trying to convince him to do throughout the book. The story ends with the trio driving to a nearby Wendy’s. Lindsey states her desire to just “keep going and not stop.” Colin takes her advice, as a transcendental and ecstatic feeling of a “connection” with Lindsey, Hassan, and everyone not in the car surges through him. He has finally found peace and happiness via connection with other people, rather than from the pursuit of distinguishing himself from everyone, feeling “non-unique in the very best way possible.”

Tones, themes of the story and issues presented by the Author.

There are many tones in this novel such as happy, insecure, and hopeless. For the first one, happy. Mrs. Harbish shook her head and pursed her lips. “Don’t I tell you,” she said in accented English, “not to mess with girls? Hassan is a good boy, doesn’t do this ‘dating.’ And look how happy he is. You should learn from him.” (chapter 3, paragraph 15) In a lot of ways, Hassan’s mom is right, Colin would be much happier if he didn’t mess around with the Katherines. He couldn’t whine about them dumping him then. On the other hand, we’re not sure Hassan really qualifies as the best sample of happiness; he even admits later on that he’s lazy and should do something else with his life.

The next tone would be insecure. With all the nasty back-and-forth, Colin fought the urge to ask Katherine whether she still loved him, because the only thing she hated more than his saying she didn’t understand was his asking whether she still loved him. He fought the urge and fought it and fought it. For seven seconds. (chapter 5, paragraph 85) That’s a really long time to wait. Oh wait, it look longer than seven seconds to read that sentence. That’s the whole point: Colin is so impatient and needy when it comes to love. He can’t just leave Katherine alone for one minute without asking her if she loves him, which sounds both pretty insecure and pretty annoying. The last tone is hopeless. “Technically.” Colin answered, “I think I might have already wasted it.” Maybe it was because Colin had never once in his life disappointed his parents: he did not drink or do drugs or smoke cigarettes or wear black eyeliner or stay out late or get bad grades or pierce his tongue or have the words “KATHERINE LUVA 4 LIFE” tattooed across his back. Or maybe they felt guilty, like somehow they’d failed him and brought him to this place. (chapter 3, paragraph 7) After he tells his parents about the road trip, he lets them in on a secret: his potential is already wasted. We’re not so sure about that. You can still have hopes and dreams and be an all-star even if you don’t have a huge eureka moment. Too bad Colin doesn’t believe that.

Themes of the story is life, consciousness and existence. Not to go all parental on you, but it’s time to ask some heavy-hitting questions: what do you want to do with your life? What’s the purpose of life? If you’re in high school, chances are your parents are always bugging you about which college you want to go to, or what major you want to take. It’s the norm for us to think about these things when we get to those teenage years, and Colin and Hassan are plagued by these questions too in An Abundance of Katherines. And in true young adult novel form, they come up with different answers to these questions. Colin wants to study, study, study, while Hassan is happy watching TV and doing nothing. The thing is though, both of them start to reconsider their life’s goals and path towards the end of the story.

The first issue that has been presented by the author in “An Abundance Of Katherines” the boy who’s been dumped several times which is Colin Singleton. He feels a desperate need for people to remember and appreciate him. In the beginning of the story, once Katherine the 19th (is what he called her) dumped him because she felt that he was more into being the only smart person around and cared too much about being told how much she cared about him than the relationship itself. As soon as it happened, Colin had felt broken especially since she was his first “actual” love and had dated her for a year and eight months. Hassan who’s Colin’s loyal and dearest best friend, wanted to do anything to cheer him up so he took him on a road trip. Colin thought that no one really appreciated him as a person, and they didn’t care about him after Katherine dumped him. So Hassan wanted to prove a theory that if he went on this road trip with him, it would get his mind off of the break up with Katherine the 19th. Little did he know that he was about to have his whole perspective on himself changed for the better. Hassan and Colin drove to Gunshot, Tennessee and found a extremely attractive tour guide named Lindsey who he automatically grows a connection with. While the tourist started to give both Hassan and Colin the tour on Archeduke, he realizes Lindsey had only dated one person who’s named Colin. Except, her Colin as Hassan calls him “TOC” which means “The Other Colin” is the complete opposite of Colin Singleton. TOC was a jerk lets put it that way. As Colin and Hassan stay in Gunshot, they start to get to know Lindsey better. And Colin, let’s say he’s falling in love again, it’s going to be tough for him since he knows she has a boyfriend. TOC starts to show his true colors as the story progresses. Lindsey finds out that Colin had been cheating on her with the hottie with a body, Katrina. Lindsey is beyond upset as soon as she finds out. Once Colin found out, he relieved Lindsey from those negative feelings that she had. I mean, a break-up isn’t always an easy thing to get over, and Colin knew exactly how she felt. One quote that really stuck out to me through this main issue is when Lindsey tells Colin: “If people could see me the way I see myself – if they could live in my memories – would anyone love me?” That quote stuck out to me because it shows that it’s not just Colin who feels like no one appreciates him or cares about him, but Lindsey does too. And it’s good for Colin knowing that he has someone who also knows how it feels when it comes to someone loving him. That quote and both Colin and Lindsey both show that they lose themselves after a tough break-up. It took Colin a while to be himself again, and he’s willing to help Lindsey get over the break up and be herself again. The next issue is, the journey of getting know ourselves. Are you unique? What makes you, you? That’s one of the big questions An Abundance of Katherines asks us to think about. We’ve got a washed-up child prodigy who wants to matter, but he’s just not sure if he’s unique any more. Then we’ve got Lindsey who’s faked it so much that she’s one big phony most of the time. She wants to fit in, so she pretends to be nerdy, ditzy, southern just to do so. It’s easy to lose sight of who we really are deep down in our cores, and this book is all about questing to get in touch with our true selves. The last issue would be Person vs. Self because Colin is a child prodigy trying to be a genius. Colin wants to do something big with the way he lives his life. Like become a genius. He needs to discover himself and what he’s meant to be here for before he becomes a genius. He’s been dumped so many times throughout his life. He dates girls named Katherine, all spelled in that manner. The conflict is resolved because he comes up with an equation to calculate how long until or why he gets dumped.

Critical Analysis.

The novel I studied is “An Abundance of Katherines” that was written by John Green. This book was published on September 2016 by Dutton and Speak. The genre of this book is fiction. The main characters are Colin Singleton, who is anagram-loving seventeen-year-old boy who is depressed. Hassan Harbish who is Colin’s lazy, funny, and slightly overweight best, and only, friend. Lindsey Lee Wells who Colin and Hassan on their road trip in Gutshot, Tennessee. Hollis Wells, Lindsey’s mother. She is an extreme workaholic. The conflict of this story occurs between Colin and the other Colin when Colin Singleton finds the other Colin cheating on Lindsey. The other Colin threatened Colin if he told Lindsey and Colin was forced to decide to tell Lindsey or not. Though Colin made his decision to tell Lindsey what happened. This lead to her breaking up with the other Colin and a very brutal beating for Colin Singleton and his best friend Hassan.

The main idea of the work is the boy who’s been dumped several times which is Colin Singleton. An Abundance of Katherines follows with Colin Singleton, a prodigy with an obsession for anagramming. Colin has a very specific type when it comes to the opposite sex: he only dates girls called Katherine. And so far, he’s been dumped by 19 of them. We follow Colin as he ventures into the unknown on a road trip with his best friend, Hassan. He encounters all sorts of things on his travels, from feral satan hogs to scrabble. The structure of this novel jumps around and is not in chronological order, it goes to flash backs of Colin’s past and then goes to the future again and does this repeatedly throughout the novel. The novel is third person omniscient and a quote from the novel is “As Hassan screamed, Colin thought, oh right, should have flushed.” which this point of view is significant throughout the book because the reader is not stuck reading about the same person the whole time. Also there is no bias in this novel.

I loved the plot of this book. Normally, road trips just annoy me because it is far too cliche. But, in this book, it really works. A road trip is perfect for Colin, as the ever-changing, exciting and foreign atmosphere is just like him. As the scenery changes, Colin changes as a person. I couldn’t help but see a deeper meaning in this story. On the surface, it is the tale of a prodigy on a road trip, but there is so much more than that. The novel carries some very important messages about fitting in and about trying to see logic in everything. In the hands of some authors, this would become a cheesy parable. Luckily, Green is skilled enough to make it sincere. He understands teenagers, particularly those who are nerdy and socially awkward. This gives the book a friendlier tone, which is great. What I don’t really like about this book is how Colin needs to go through a few heartbreaks and it was all came all the way from those girls named Katherines. Those Katherines should have not left him at the first place for they should have appreciated Colin for loving them so much. But finally, he hurt himself. Nineteen times of heartbreaks for he had fallen for nineteen girls named Katherines.

Dating nineteen girls, all coincidentally named Katherine seems to be a ridiculous phenomenon to a teenager whose age is only 17. This might not happen in reality. Such phenomenon can be considered as something fancy. The author here employs magical realism as he is able to translate his experiences into something that seems to be fictional in his literary work. Through writing An Abundance of Katherines, he was able to inculcate fantastical elements that were drawn from reality. The possibility of dating nineteen Katherines in a span of 17 years is quite remote, but the author managed to turn it into something fictional and at the same time realistic. A major part of this book is The Theorem of Underlying Katherine Predictability. This is a complicated idea that Colin comes up with, and it’s basically a graph that can supposedly predict when and how two people will break up. Personally, I found the idea that love can be graphed really interesting, but it might bore some readers. Luckily, you don’t need to understand the maths to enjoy the plot. The theorem is really just a vehicle to show how Colin is a prodigy, and to help him reach his final conclusion that “The future is unpredictable.” and I do think that the formula is biased. It only represented and summarized only what happened in the past and is not a viable representation of what happens in the future. This can be applied to real life. Sometimes we stick into something objective that we fail to realize that there are missing pieces that we do not consider. We tend to be close-minded and miss opportunities in life. In life, we sometimes have to take risks and modify our own formulas. To conclude, An Abundance of Katherines is a fantastically nerdy coming-of-age road trip that I would recommend to John Green fans and self-proclaimed nerds everywhere, as well as anyone who needs some good life advice.

Recommendations.

Based on the novel I studied, an issue that had been chosen for recommendations is the boy who’s been depressed for get dumped several times which is Colin Singleton. He feels a desperate need for people to remember and appreciate him. A recommendation on this issue is we as a human being we need to know on how to appreciate others most likely to be those people who is close to us such as family and friends by treating them right. Their existence matters. Not until to the point where they desperately need people to remember and appreciate them. We as the people who had known them well, close to them somehow need to understand them more because people who goes through depression needs support as well. Next, talk to them more often. Don’t ignore them because you will make them feel alone until the feel they were born to deserve no one is life. Depression people needs company. A good company. Talk to them about anything as long as they feel they have someone then that is okay. They might need someone to have a conversation with but were so afraid to talk to anyone since they know they will get ignored by the people. Last but not least, as a close friend to the people who goes through depression we need to always cheer them up by not letting them down the same thing Hassan Harbish did. He is the only best friend Colin has. So he took Colin out for a road trip so that Colin can calm himself a little bit.

Awareness and treatment of breast cancer: college application essay help

According to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, “About 40,000 women and 400 men in the U.S. die each year from breast cancer,” (CDC, 2016). For ages now, breast cancer awareness has reached out to communities all over the country, yet most of us do not concern ourselves with this particular cause. We tend to not care about this sort of issues in the world unless it happens to be inflicted upon those closest to us, such as our friends, and family. We tend to ignore the fact that we are not totally immune to a certain disease just because it does not show up in our family’s history. Every woman and men has the risk of developing breast cancer, however, this issue can be properly taken care of only when you are fully aware of the disease.

To start off, it is still unclear to researchers as to why breast cancer unexpectedly appears, however, they have come up with some theories that may explain it all, genetic mutation being one of them. Within the article provided by the Mayo Clinic Health Letter it states that “Although only 5 to 10 percent of breast cancers are attributed to inherited genetic mutations, the presence of these mutations can significantly influence the likelihood of developing the disease” (“Mayo Clinic”, 2016). I believe that our genes play a huge role in the presence of all types of diseases and disorders. With an incredibly strong family history of cancer, it has been determined that certain inherited mutated genes, in our case are BRCA1 and BRCA2, will have an impact on increasing the risk of breast cancer. The BRCA genes are initially created to act as a suppressor gene, keeping our cells replicating at a steady pace, but can perform the exact opposite when altered. Our cells will rapidly develop in an abnormal speed, located in the lobules, ducts, or tissues, which will then form lumps in your breast. These abnormal cells are said to be malignant tumors that initially start in the breast, and can spread to the lymph nodes and such. Another cause could be due to our menstruation and age. Once we are exposed to the hormone estrogen, there is then an increase in risk for breast cancer.

Breast cancer is not just limited to the people in the U.S., but has been occurring worldwide for centuries. In Third World countries, they are less likely to develop breast cancer, however, it cannot be said the same for more economically developed countries. Because of the changes in our reproductive factors, our lifestyles, and a rise in life expectancy, the incidence rate for developing countries have greatly escalated. For example, North America is shown to have the highest breast cancer rate in the globe, while the lowest rate would be in East Asia. Therefore, white and African American women have a higher chance than Hispanic and Asian women. In the European Journal of Cancer, it states how “It is generally accepted that breast cancer risk factors, which have mainly been studied in Western populations are similar worldwide. However, the presence of gene–environment or gene–gene interactions may alter their importance as causal factors across populations” (“European”, 2013). This statement is completely accurate, because many countries obtain similar risk factors, such as late childbearing, obesity, old age, avoiding breastfeeding, alcohol, hormone level, diet, and so on. But at the same time, what we intake, our traditions, and even alcohol consumption, which is basically our environment makes a difference. On another note, on the year of 2015, it was presumed that a little more than two-hundred thousand women would be diagnosed with invasive breast cancer, sixty-thousand with non-invasive breast cancer, and about forty-thousand deaths in just the United States alone.

Early detection of breast cancer is crucial in saving a life, so it is first important to know how the disease will present itself. Checking your body regularly is highly recommended for all women. Some symptoms of breast cancer include a lump in the breast, a discharge of the nimples, a breast that has swollen up, skin irritation, and any physical changes in the breast and nipples. Then there is the subject of diagnosing breast cancer, which is a whole other matter. Those with breast cancer would need to go through a breast ultrasound, a mammogram, and an MRI testing. These are all done by a radiological technician. A radiological technician’s job is to use certain machines to capture images of structures deep inside the breast. For a breast ultrasound, sound waves are produced to create sonograms to verify if the lump is either a solid mass or is a fluid-filled cyst. A mammogram is simply a breast screening. And for an MRI testing, the system operates on magnetic fields and radio waves to capture a model of the interior body. Patients can also receive a biopsy, in which they proceed to remove tissue or fluid in your breast, and brings the test to the lab for examination. A biopsy offers a conclusive result; it determines whether your cells are indeed cancerous, the types of cells that are involved, if the cell is aggressive, etc. Once the diagnosis is completed and the patient is positive for breast cancer, the patient next undergoes a process called staging. This helps determine if the cancer cells have spread, and also the stage that the patient is in. It allows your doctor to decide what kind of treatment would be recommended with consideration to your health.

Finally, there are various ways when trying to treat breast cancer. It depends on certain types of factors, such as, the stages that you are in, the type of breast cancer that you have, your general health, and even your preferences that can make a difference. Surgery is typically suggested only towards patients with small size tumors, and those medical procedures are called lumpectomy and mastectomy. These procedures are used as an attempt to surgically remove the entire tumor, however, there are also treatments such as chemotherapy, radiation therapy, and hormonal therapy that can be given after surgery in order to shrink the remainder cancer cells. Chemotherapy is used to end the cancer cells reproducing cycle by utilizing common drugs, for example, methotrexate, vinorelbine, etc. Hormonal therapy on the other hand stops the hormones from reaching to the cancer cells by use of the drug, tamoxifen. It is even stated in the Systemic therapy: Hormonal therapy for cancer article that “5 years of tamoxifen after surgery reduces the annual recurrence rate by 41% and annual mortality rate by 34%.” (Jacinta & John, 2016). It can be used for even more than five years for better results.

In conclusion, being aware of breast cancer will definitely help us become prepared for a surprise appearance. To understand the cause, detect it, and then treat it is something that every woman and men should be aware of. This is not a matter that can be taken lightly. With a great amount of lives already been lost, who is to say that it couldn’t have been prevented with the right amount of knowledge.

Hua-gu-deng Dance

Dance is a universal understanding accepted by all. The varieties of dance forms that exist within the world are infinite. Two interesting and comparable dance styles are Hua-gu-deng Dance, which is a typical Chinese dance form, and ballet, a classical style originating from Europe. Both genres of dance have distinct features that make them unique from each other and other branches of dance.

Ballet originated as a court dance, and then later transformed into a performing art. Ballet has its own terminology in the French language; the language of ballet can be used in any country and it will have the same definition. According to the Atlanta Ballet, A Brief History of Ballet, “The official terminology and vocabulary of ballet was gradually codified in French over the next 100 years, and during the reign of Louis XIV.” At the time, the King of France performed many of the beloved dances. Ballet became a staple art form in countries like Russia, Italy, and France who fostered the importance of ballet. In France, King Louis XIV generated the Académie Royale de Danse, and he established requirements and began certifying instructors. Ballet’s popularity began declining in France after 1830. Today, ballet is still very popular and can be found all around the world. Ballet has still held on to its traditional roots with very little changes to the style. The French language is still used to define movements and the historic technique types have remained the same. The only aspect that slightly differs from historic ballet is the methods used to practice it: for instance, Italy practices the Cecchetti method of ballet. Besides the different methods of ballet, there are sub-categories of ballet; these distinct dance styles all have slight variations, yet they stay true to their roots. One variation of ballet is Neo-classical ballet. Neo-classical ballet popularized in the 20th century by talented individuals such as George Balanchine. This style of ballet is fast-paced, has more energy, can be asymmetrical, does not tell a story, and focuses on aesthetic. On the other hand, classical ballet is graceful and fluid, balanced and symmetrical, it always is a narrative dance, and elaborate costumes and sets are preferred.  Another more modern style of ballet is contemporary ballet. Contemporary ballet is greatly influenced by modern dance. It includes floor work, more body movement and greater range of the bodyline, and it can be danced in pointe shoes or barefoot. During the 19th century, the Romantic Movement was occurring. Most ballets created during this era had endearing, loving themes and they often portrayed women as passive and fragile. In today’s world, ballet has moved away from the constraints of classical ballet and has begun including “plot-less” ballets with darker, deeper meanings.

Classical Chinese dance, more specifically Hua-gu-deng dance, has been around for thousands of years. Hua-gu-deng dance has played a major role in the cultural development of the Chinese; it originated from the Huai River in eastern China. Classical Chinese dance has been around for nearly 5,000 years. With every changing era and dynasty in China, the dance tradition has adapted and combined aesthetics with its distinct dynamic content, rhythms, and narrative. Classical Chinese dance goes back to the Qin Dynasty. Each dynasty that followed the Qin Dynasty created different and specific dance elements. Classical Chinese dance has three main factors that are focused on during training: technical skill, form, and bearing. Technical skill encompasses any acrobatic movements such as flips, jumps, leaps, turns, aerial tricks etc. Form, the second aspect of classical Chinese dance, is referring to the way in which the dancers move their bodies from one movement to another. The movement is usually very circular and full, similar to modern dance: modern dance tends to have round and flowing movements that are loose and asymmetrical. Every movement in the form of classical Chinese dance is choreographed. Breathing is also very crucial to Chinese dance. Dancers are taught how and when to breathe. All movements in this dance form must be round and full. In classical Chinese dance, a vital element named “bearing” is the inner spirit of the dancer. By emphasizing “bearing”, the dancer is able to extenuate the deeper meanings of dance and create a further understanding of the narrative. It is in this “bearing” that classical Chinese dance carries the ancient characteristics of its culture.

How did the Nazi party garner support? – Conformity and obedience

In 1933, Adolf Hitler became the Chancellor of Germany. His Nazi party had grown in size from a small party to becoming the rulers of Germany. The Nazis were fascist and they used their racist ideas as an excuse to commit atrocious crimes. Despite all the crimes they committed, the Nazis were very popular. Hitler got to power despite having ideas that people would not tolerate or support. Indeed we know that the Nazi ideals were racists and bigots, so how did they receive such support from a society of people who were so democratic?

Conformity and obedience plays a big role in this ordeal.

Conformity can be a behavior to follow certain standards that a group may expect.

Conformity can be both good and bad. Every culture has its own practices that other cultures might find a bit “awkward”. Although awkward to one culture, some practices are completely normal in other cultures. Slavery is an example of this. Even at the height of slavery, some cultures detested the idea of keeping a human being in bondage and withhold their freedom from them. These cultures took great strides to outlaw slavery in their land. Indeed different cultures value different beliefs, however, even in the same culture, some people might have different views. During the height of slavery in America, there were those who believed that slavery was wrong, but they themselves owned slaves. This included Thomas Jefferson, who was known to have as much as 175 slaves despite referring to slavery as an “assemblage of horrors”. Despite being fully aware that slavery was wrong, many people participated in slavery because that was the way of life for the culture. The same could be said of the Nazi party. Many Germans believed that the treatment of Jews by the Nazi party was unfair and wrong, however, not many people questioned it. In that period of time and in that society, it was normal for people to think that anyone that wasn’t Aryan was subhuman. Anyone who had different views was thought to be odd. No one dared to question this belief because they did not want to be considered a Jewish sympathiser. Anyone who tried to help the Jews during their persecution was subject to severe repercussions.

The Nazi party that took control of Germany blamed the Jews for the depression that Germany faced and for losing the war. They started implementing laws that limited the rights of the Jews even though Jews were German citizens. Properties that belonged to Jewish households were confiscated and Jews were ordered to concentration camps where six million would go on to lose their lives. How did a country which was known for its democratic idealism succumb to such fascist state? Obedience. Germans believed that Hitler would be the one to bring Germany from their economic depression. Germans were outraged because they felt their leaders betrayed them after the first world war. Hitler promised to bring to Germany political and economic stability, which he did. He was very popular among the German people and so not many people questioned him when he became the Fuhrer of Germany. As Fuhrer, he ordered the Jews to be isolated and sent to prison camps, many not only failed to question his decisions, they supported it. They also supported his decision to invade Poland and eventually France, sparking the second world war. After the war, German soldiers were tried in court and they justified their actions because they said they were just following orders. How could people commit such horrid crimes fully knowing that what they were doing was wrong? Sometimes these may be symptoms of obedience.

The German Jews were a minority group, so it was easy for other German groups to isolate them from the rest German society. Because they were the minority group, Hitler was able to capitalize on that and create an “us vs them” mentality against them. The German Jews were easy to isolate because they had a different religion and culture from average Germans.

Aryan Germans were able to distance themselves from this group which had different. This gave Germans an excuse to place them in a class that was viewed as subhuman. This was the same tactic used by the Europeans to colonize and conquer the rest of the world. They believed that the humans residing in the places they conquered had little to no right to govern themselves because they were subhuman, so they could not possibly be trusted to govern themselves.

Another reason Germans allowed the Nazi party to commit crimes to humanity was because they felt they just following orders from their Fuhrer. Hitler was a man who according to the German people kept his promises. He promised to bring Germany back from the recession and he did; something the German government had struggled with until then. He also promised to restore Germany to the once great nation it had been and to unite all the Germans in the world under one flag. The Germans placed such high hopes in Hitler that they gave him the highest authority in the country. After Hitler was declared the Fuhrer, he was known as the most powerful man in Germany and he was very popular with his countrymen. To defy the orders of the hero of Germany would have been seen as an act of treason. They believed that if they did not obey Hitler, they must not have the best interest to Germany. To defy Hitler was to defy Germany as well. No patriot would want to go against the best interest of his country. Even if they knew their actions were evil, they did it regardless because Hitler ordered it; Germany ordered it. Even if it meant killing innocent people, Germans were willing to follow the orders of their Fuhrer because he represented the collective mind of the whole country. A country is nothing if the citizens can not follow the orders of its leaders.

The Nazi party was a great example of how conformity and obedience could lead us to do things that we may feel is wrong. It was easier for them to commit these crimes because they convinced the majority to think it was ok to do these things. They also used the trust of the people in their government to their advantage. People are more willing to listen to commands if there is a higher authority directing them. Hitler utilized obedience and conformity to rule a country of intellectuals and to lead the country into a war that took so many lives. It is easy to say that we won’t do bad things even if someone forces us, but history says otherwise.

Sometimes we don’t even have to be forced, we just have to believe in authority and isolate groups of people.

Works Cited

Andrews, Evan. “How Many U.S. Presidents Owned Slaves?” History.com, A&E Television Networks, 19 July 2017,
www.history.com/news/ask-history/how-many-u-s-presidents-owned-slaves.
crashcourse. “Social Influence: Crash Course Psychology #38.” YouTube, YouTube, 11 Nov. 2014, www.youtube.com/watch?v=UGxGDdQnC1Y&t=416s.

Influence of the Strange Case of Dr. Jekyll and Mr. Hyde on popular culture: college essay help near me

The Strange Case of Dr Jekyll and Mr Hyde, a title you may not have heard of before but is a story you definitely know. In order for you to understand the topics discussed in this article, you need to understand the plot of the novel, so here is a quick summary.

Basically, there is a well-known doctor named Henry Jekyll who has a lawyer/friend named Mr. Utterson. Mr. Utterson admires his friend very much , but is concerned when Dr. Jekyll has him write up a very strange will naming his entire estate to a man named Edward Hyde, whom Utterson has never heard of before. The will is odd because it states that

“in case of the decrease of Henry Jekyll, M.D., D.C.L., L.L.D., F.R.S., etc, all his possessions were to pass into the hands of his “friend and benefactor Edward Hyde,” but that in case of Dr. Jekyll’s “disappearance or unexplained absence for any period of time exceeding three calendar months,” the said Edward Hyde should step into the said Henry Jekyll’s shoes without further delay and free from any burthen or obligation, beyond the payment of a few small sums to the members of the doctor’s household (Stevenson, 39).”

Utterson begins to investigate Mr. Hyde and is told a story about a brute of a man who knocked down a little girl in the street near where Dr. Jekyll lives, everyone on the street yelled at the rude man, and the man offered to pay a large sum of money to the family of the girl. He then disappeared  through the door of Dr. Jekyll’s home and office, only to return with a large check drawn from Dr. Jekyll’s bank account. Utterson is appalled by this story and goes to talk to Mr. Hyde himself. He hunts down Mr. Hyde and describes him as a man with evil oozing out of his pores. He then asks Dr. Jekyll about these odd arrangements. Dr. Jekyll refuses to comment, and nothing happens for about a year… Skip ahead to one year later where the brutal murder of a popular public politician occurs and Mr. Hyde is the one and only suspect. Everyone tries to hunt down this evil man, but no one succeeds and it is forgotten. But during this whole situation with Mr. Hyde, Dr. Jekyll is in excellent health and is throwing dinner parties for his friends, including a certain Dr. Lanyon. Once again, skip to 2 months later, where Dr. Lanyon and Dr. Jekyll fall terribly ill after admittedly fighting with one another and Dr. Lanyon dies, leaving mysterious documents with Mr. Utterson’s, to ONLY be opened if Dr. Jekyll dies or disappears. Dr. Jekyll remains in seclusion, even though Mr. Utterson visits him often. Finally, one evening, Dr. Jekyll’s butler visits Mr. Utterson at home and tells Utterson he is worried about his employer’s mental state and health and is convinced there was some sort of foul play. The butler persuades Mr. Utterson to return to Dr. Jekyll’s house, where they break into Dr. Jekyll’s laboratory. There they find Edward Hyde dead on the floor and Jekyll nowhere to be found. Utterson finds several documents written to him in the labratory, and goes back home to read what he later finds out is Mr. Lanyon’s narrative and Dr. Jekyll’s narrative, which turns out, is two parts of the same story about Mr. Hyde. These documents tell us that Dr. Jekyll was able to transform into Mr. Hyde by means of a potion that he created and as Mr. Hyde, he discovered a world of pleasure and crime. In his story, Dr. Jekyll writes that Mr. Hyde became very  powerful and very harder to control, in the end the dominant personality beat out the weaker one.

“I guess we’re all two people. One daylight, and the one we keep in shadow.”

— Bruce Wayne/Batman, Batman Forever

That is a very basic summary of all the important plot points in the story but it is the two people inside one body that you most likely recognize. In today’s popular culture, this story makes itself known very frequently and all exmaples stem from this original “split personality story”, The Strange Case of Dr Jekyll And Mr Hyde! A few current examples of this story in today’s popular culture are:

The Hulk, also referred to as The Incredible Hulk is a character from the Marvel Comic Universe created in comic book form in 1962. The nuclear Physicist Dr. Robert Bruce Banner is caught in the a blast of a gamma bomb that he created. This nuclear blast creates a alternate personality/physical distortion within himself named Hulk; a giant, green angry monster. The character, both as Banner and the Hulk, is often pursued by police or armed forces, usually because of the destruction Hulk causes. The powerful and monsterous emotional alter ego of an emotionally repressed scientist who comes forward whenever Banner experiences emotional stress, is an example of the Jekyll and Hyde motif. While the Hulk usually saves the day, seeking usually to protect, his terrifying nature drives Bruce Banner into isolation, much like Jekyll, fearing discovery. Stevenson’s book was also the inspiration behind Two-Face, a villain created in 1941 for the Batman comic book series. Harvey Dent, an upstanding citizen and DA, was horribly scarred on one side of his body and traumatized in a warehouse fire set by The Joker. This caused his formerly repressed “Hyde” personality to emerge. The two personalities come into direct conflict often and make decisions they are split on using the outside moderator of a flipped coin. Bane is another character from the DC Comics universe and another villain from the Batman comic series. Shrouded in mystery, Bane appeared in Gotham City with the one goal to eliminate Batman once and for all. Besides being a man of great physical size and power, Bane’s strength is augmented by “Venom,” a Super Steroid that increases his strength, physical size and durability for limited periods of time. Much like Dr.Jekyll turns himself into Hyde using a potion, the Venom potion, injected into his body is also his weakness — when the supply of the chemical is cut he goes back to normal and loses his powers. I also see a huge parallel between Jekyll and Hyde and the most iconic movie villain of all time, Darth Vader. Just like Dr. Jekyll, Anakin Skywalker has his alter-ego. In EPISODE V, Yoda tells Luke Skywalker “Anger, fear, aggression; the dark side of the Force are they. Easily they flow, quick to join you in a fight. If once you start down the dark path, forever will it dominate your destiny, consume you it will” — just like when Jekyll first transformed into Hyde and then he felt the urge to do it again and again until finally he lost control over the transformation and ends up as Hyde permanently. Similarly, Anakin Skywalker first tastes the power of the dark side when he kills an entire camp of Sand-people to protect his mother and this starts his fall to the dark side and his eventually transformation into Darth Vadar. Another Marvel Comics supervillain was named after and based on Mr Hyde. Calvin Zabo was born in Trenton, New Jersey. He was a morally abject yet brilliant medical researcher who was interested by the effect of hormones on human physiology. One of his favorite books was The Strange Case of Dr Jekyll and Mr Hyde. He was convinced that the experiment in the book could actually be performed and became obsessed with the idea of letting loose his full beast-like nature in a superhuman form. He was eventually successful in creating the formula, and turned into a huge, Hulk-like creature he named “Mister Hyde”. The character of Jekyll and Hyde can be seen in Alan Moore’s comic book, The League of Extraordinary Gentlemen. In the comic, interesting team of crimefighters, made up of famous characters from classic literature, fight crime in Victorian London. In the issues Hyde is very strong and has a Jekyll persona, whereas in the novel, Jekyll has a Hyde persona. Sometimes in film, television, literature, or theater, a character and his evil twin, evil counterpart, or shadow archetype (all different titles for the same type of character) are really the same guy in the end or sometimes, a completely different character is sharing body space with another. The point is, the villain sometimes lives inside the hero’s body, therefore hiding in plain sight. For the entire story, the hero is trying to catch himself; which has created many of the detective stories you read today. You can also see this idea in many different pop culture examples. If the two personalities are aware of each other, it becomes a case of Gollum Made Me Do It.

A character has another personality to keep him company, the other personality isn’t exactly a model citizen. However, he is… persuasive. He often finds himself being bullied or forced into following his darker side’s advice, even if it’s advice he wouldn’t have followed normally.

The Hyde personality’s crimes are outside of Jekyll’s control and, often, the character is unable to stop themselves from becoming “evil”, this is often a case of being Driven to Villiany.

Sometimes, your villain’s just a normal guy who’s brought into villainy against their own will. Don’t get confused with mind control or possession, it’s because they’ve been warped by events happening around them, and forced into villainy by forces outside their control. A broken shell of a human being, the only thing left is insanity.

Sometimes they’re not really evil but, occasionally this can be resolved with a Split-Personality Merge that reconciles both sides into a healthy whole.

There are many possible reasons for the existence of these split personalities, but this co-habitation is rarely peaceful or long lasting. It usually results in a battle of the central mind to try and find out which personality will take over. Sometimes, the winning personality does not reduce the loser to a small, powerless voice but, instead offers to become one again; they merge into a single, whole person that is greater than the sum of its minds.

Also, the Jekyll side isn’t necessarily “good” either. Comes, of course, from The Strange Case of Dr. Jekyll and Mr. Hyde, by Robert Louis Stevenson. It used to be a twist ending, but it no longer suprises anyone. Most adaptations of the work focus on said twist. The real life example of Deacon Brodie is said to have inspired Stevenson. William Brodie or Deacon Brodie was a Scottish cabinet- maker, deacon of a trades guild, and Edinburgh city councillor, who maintained a secret life as a burglar. As did the story of Horace Wells, a pioneer of medical anaesthetics. While researching the chemical formula, chloroform, Wells tested many of the various dosages on himself. Because of this, Wells unknowingly built up a dangerous level of the drug in his system, and ended up attacking two prostitutes during a sulfuric acid drug related episode. Once he sobered up and learned of what he had done, he committed suicide.

Doctor Horace Wells born January 21, 1815.Along with many comic book characters, there are examples of Jekyll and Hyde’s story in one of the most popular shows of the past few years, American Horror Story. American Horror Story (AHS) is a show that uses so many of the important details that make up the story The Strange Case of Dr. Jekyll and Mr. Hyde in the show’s many series. In season one titled, Murder House, there is a character named Dr. Charles Montgomery who is a “surgeon for the stars” and the original builder of the “murder house”. In the series, his character is technically a ghost but we do get flashbacks to when he was alive. The Jekyll and Hyde connection is that the Doctor becomes addicted to the drug Ether and starts to lose his mind and kill is patients without realizing it. He is later on shot and killed by his wife after he tries to stitch their dead and dismembered son back together Frankenstein-style.

In season five of American Horror Story titled Hotel, there is another Jekyll and Hyde like character/storyline named the Ten Commandments Killer. Season five basically revolves around a LAPD Detective named John Lowe, played by actor Wes Bently, trying to hunt down the Ten Commandments Killer.

Now before I continue with the storyline and connection to Stevenson’s novel, let me explain the story of the Ten Commandments Killer’s and his MO.   The original Ten Commandments Killer was a man named James March, designer and owner of the Hotel Cortez (the main setting for the entire season), which opened on August 23, 1926. James Patrick March was born in 1895 and started killing people in 1920. He was described as a man of new money and he decided to build and open a grand hotel to make it easier to kill people without getting caught. He built many secret rooms and hallways into the hotel to allow for more killing and he used the hotel’s infrastructure to hide all the evidence of the crimes. His wife Elizabeth knew all about his murdering and actually enjoyed the sounds of his victims screams, so she encouraged his dark habit. There are many gruesome details to the murders he committed but most of his early murders in the hotel involved playful, thespian-esque ways. The actual Ten Commandments killing started with March when he explained to one of his victimes that he despised religion and that it was the worst thing in the world. March said he was going to have to kill God, because as long as there was a God, men like himself would never find peace. His hate of religion is what gave him the motivation to collect all the bibles from the hotel bed stands and arrange them with a pile of his victims to leave behind for the police; this is where the Ten Commandments murders started. But on February 25, 1930 an anonymous phone called tipped off the police and they came to the Hotel Cortez to arrest March. Before the police could arrest March however, he killed his servant and slit his own throat leaving the Ten Commandment murders unfinished. March, along with all of his victims and numerous other victims of the hotel are trapped in the hotel as ghost that appear to guests and interact as characters in the show.

This is where the character John Lowe comes into play in the show. As previously stated, John is a LAPD officer trying to solve the case of the Ten Commandments Killer, but in 2010, John visited the Hotel Cortez on a drunken night and the ghost of James March sees potential in him to finish his work as the Ten Commandments Killer. It wasn’t until 2015 when John finally agrees to complete the murders and this is where the season begins. Each murder symbolizes one of the ten commandments, for example the first murder is Thou Shalt Not Steal and the victim is a infamous thief whom is killed, and for each murder something is taken from each victim and places it in a glass jar in Room 64 of the Hotel Cortez, so for the first murder the thief’s hand is cut off. James March was able to complete two of the ten murders in 1926 but then John Lowe finished off the other eight in 2015. The connection I see to Jekyll and Hyde in this whole story is the fact that John has no recollection of committing any of these murders or even his first time at the Hotel Cortez in 2010. It isn’t until the second to last episode where John finally remembers that he has been doing all this and has a psychotic break and is eventually killed by the SWAT team in the last episode. When watching the season, you can actually see a physical change in John throughout the season as more and more of the ten commandment murders happen. His eyes sink in, be becomes pale and loses weight, his clothes are wrinkled and he just looks physically exhausted more and more as each episode happens. It isn’t until that final episode that his appearance is like this because his good personality is losing strength as his evil, murderous personality is slowly taking over and killing more people.

The scene where Detective John Lowe suddenly remembers all the murders he has committed as the “Ten Commandments Killer” that he has been so desperately searching for at his day job in the police force. Along with the story of Jekyll and Hyde inspiring so many different movie and television characters and plot schemes, the 1931 film version of The Strange Case of Dr. Jekyll and Mr. Hyde made movie history with it’s incredible never before seen or done on screen transformation (see the video below). Fredric March, the actor who played Jekyll and Hyde in the movie, actually won an Academy Award for his performance in the film. Film directors and makeup artists everywhere wanted to know the secret behind the scene but it wasn’t until 1970 when director Rouben Mamoulian described how it was done: it was done with colored make-up and matching colored filters, which were removed or added to the scene to change March’s appearance. Since the film was in black-and-white, the color changes didn’t show.

The 1931 transformation scene that rocked the film industry and won actor Fredric March an Academy Award. All in all, The Strange Case of Dr. Jekyll and Mr. Hyde by Robert Louis Stevenson has had a HUGE influence in popular culture since it’s first publication in 1886. You can see it’s influence in television, movies, horror makeup, comic books, theater, and so much more. This storyline is here to stay and will probably be influencing popular culture for generations to come.

Franklin D. Roosevelt heroism

Villainification is the process of creating original actors as the faces of systemic harm, with those hyper-individualized villains losing their shared characteristics. Like heroification, there is a simplified portrayal of historical actors, but villainification has particularly harmful consequences. We suggest that villainification obscures the way in which evil operates through everyday actions and unquestioned structures because of the focus on the whim of one person. Although it is unfortunate that we do not often see how we can inadvertently help others and make systemic change, it is disconcerting when we fail to look at our part in the suffering of others. In this paper, I will try to unravel Franklin D. Roosevelt heroism which was the President of the United States where he served through the Great Depression and the Second World War and received the “hero” treatment.

Franklin D. Roosevelt was elected during the height of the Great Depression in 1932 and remained President until his death in 1945. During this period of the presidency, he oversaw an expansion of the Federal Government and helped America lose its isolationist stance as it joined World War Two and helped formulate the United Nations. He was an influential figure in both American and world politics.

Roosevelt came from a privileged background but was influenced by his headmaster at Groton School in Massachusetts, who taught the importance of Christian duty in helping less fortunate people.

Franklin married a distant cousin Eleanor in 1905. They had six children in quick succession, two of them who went on to be elected to the House of Representatives. FDR has several affairs outside of his marriage including Lucy Mercer, his social secretary.  His wife Eleanor offered a divorce at one point, but for a variety of reasons, it was not taken up. She later became a dedicated wife/nurse during Franklin’s moderate disability brought on by polio.

When FDR was elected president in 1930, America was facing an unprecedented economic crisis; unemployment was reaching 25%  – Furthermore, government unemployment relief was insufficient at the time. There was real financial desperation, and many classical economists were at a loss as to how to respond.

To some extent, FDR pursued an expansionary fiscal policy as advocated by John M Keynes. The government borrowed, levied a national income tax and spent money on public works (known as the New Deal). This period also marked a shift in power from local governments who could not cope to the national government. Roosevelt also helped introduce legislation protecting worker’s rights. The new deal in no way solved the economic crisis, but it did mitigate some of the worst effects, creating employment and eventually kick-starting the economy. By the end of the 1930s, some sectors of the economy such as construction were booming.

FDR was keen for America to become a good citizen of the world and fight for individual freedoms. However, in the early 1940s, America still retained a powerful isolationist approach, and he campaigned for re-election promising to stay out of World War Two – despite his dislike of Nazi Germany. The bombing of Pearl Harbour in December 1941, completely changed the outlook of America. F.D.R wasted no time in declaring war on Japan and then Germany as well.

“In these days of difficulty, we Americans everywhere must and shall choose the path of social justice…, the path of faith, the path of hope, and the path of love toward our fellow man.” ~ Franklin D. Roosevelt

Once America had entered the war, they entered whole-heartedly into both arenas – the Pacific and Europe. In the D Day landings of 1941, America supplied roughly 2/3 of the troops. Roosevelt was an astute Commander in Chief. In particular, he was able to identify generals with genuine talent and promoted them to key roles. As Roosevelt said himself:

“I’m not the smartest fellow in the world, but I can sure pick smart colleagues.”

In particular, FDR promoted Dwight Eisenhower and George Marshall – both to play critical roles during the Second World War.

Roosevelt’s real political skill lay in his powers of communication and identification with ordinary people. His radio fireside chats were instrumental in building confidence with the American people, both during the Great Depression and during the Second World War.

“This great Nation will endure as it has endured, will revive and will prosper. So, first of all, let me assert my firm belief that the only thing we have to fear is fear itself — nameless, unreasoning, unjustified terror which paralyzes needed efforts to convert retreat into advance.” – 1933

Roosevelt had a close relationship with Winston Churchill. There was a high mutual admiration. At one point Roosevelt said ‘It is fun being in the same decade as you.’

Together with Churchill and Stalin, the Big Three helped lay the foundations for the post-war period, which included the setting up of the United Nations – a successor to the League of Nations.

Roosevelt died unexpectedly from a massive brain haemorrhage in April 1945, just before the first meeting of the United Nations. His death stunned the world, and he was remembered as a champion of freedom and a man of humanity and optimism.

I’ve never understood the reverence for Franklin Delano Roosevelt. He gets points for picking great Generals and led this country to victory in WWII. But he totally mismanaged the economy, during the recession of 1937 unemployment reached 19% (the excellent depression high was 25%), his freedom-sapping policies never did get this country out of the Great Depression, and don’t forget that he tried to circumvent constitutional separation of powers (now who does that remind me of?). And then there is the issue never discussed, he was a bigot, his hatred of Jews caused thousands to be added to the ranks of Hitler’s victims, and his hatred of Asians convinced him to put Japanese Americans into internment camps.

Some point to the fact he didn’t he bomb and destroy the train tracks that were shipping Jews to the concentration camps? But my opinion sides with the people who say that wouldn’t have worked. The real question to be explored was why didn’t allow more Jews into the country and why didn’t he pressure Britain to enable Jews to move from Nazi-controlled areas into what was then called Palestine?

In the book “FDR and the Holocaust: A Breach of Faith,” historian Rafael Medoff suggests that Roosevelt failed to take relatively simple measures that would have saved significant numbers of Jews during the Holocaust because his vision for America was one that had a small amount of Jews. In other words, FDR doomed many Jew to suffer not because he wanted them to die, but because he didn’t want a lot of them living in his neighborhood.

Loewen argues that this heroification is something that enables readers and teachers to overlook the conflicts that will allow a full reading of historical narratives and bring in other points of view. The heroification process is done to make textbooks more appealing to school districts and also to present an artificial exceptionalism view of American History. At the same time, heroification enables students to assume a role of passivity in constructing the next wave of American social and historical dynamics. If all that is read are about heroes, it creates the mentality that there is nothing left to do and this enables those in the position of power to continue doing what they do without any questioning or in-depth analysis.

Joseph Paul Franklin: college essay help online

White supremacy is a form of vile racism where white people are perceived as superior to all other races in every physical, mental, social, economic, and political aspect. This repugnant mindset dates back in United States’ History to centuries ago, but unfortunately still exists in the minds of people today. White supremacy is clearly very wrong, however it is important to be aware that it can be very dangerous when it is implemented by the mentally ill. John Paul Franklin used white supremacy as a stimulus for unethical, malicious and remorseless actions that lead to the death of at least 15 people in 11 different states. (FBI, 2014) Franklin’s three-year killing rampage was motivated by his “pathological hatred of African Americans and Jews”. (Montaldo, n.d.) Joseph Paul Franklin was a perfect example of how abusive households can lead to serious psychological issues such as mental illness, which in turn can lead to extreme violence.

James Clayton Vaughan was his birth name. Born into a poor family in Alabama, Franklin was physically abused by both of his parents throughout his entire childhood. He once told investigators, “My momma didn’t care about us” and stated that he and his three siblings were not fed properly or “allowed to play with other children”. (Nye, 2013) While in high school in the 1960’s, Franklin became interested in southern white supremacist groups and went on to becoming an active member of The Ku Klux Klan (KKK), The American Nazi Party, The National States Rights Party, and The National Socialists White People’s Party. His interest in these groups started when his obsession with evangelical Christianity and Nazism took off in his early high school years. Franklin changed his name in 1976 when he wanted to join the Rhodesian Army but couldn’t due to his criminal record. Franklin proceeded to choose “Joseph Paul” in honor of Joseph Paul Goebbels, Adolf Hitler’s minister of propaganda. He then chose “Franklin” in honor of the US founding father, Benjamin Franklin. He never ended up joining the army, and instead started a battle between him and every minority that he could get his hands on. (Montaldo, n.d.)

Franklin became more and more aggressive towards minorities as he got older, to the point where he “rejected the most radical hate groups because he didn’t think they took their hatred far enough”. (FBI, 2014) He felt that sitting around and complaining about the supposed “inferior” races wouldn’t do any good- he thought it was more effective to actually go out and kill them. He was constantly looking for opportunities to “cleanse the world” of races that he felt were inferior. Blacks and Jews were the primary races that Franklin went after, and he considered interracial couples to be even worse. (FBI, 2014)

Franklin was born on April 13, 1950. He was a high school dropout, and had a daughter after getting married in 1969 at the age of 19. (FamPeople, 2012) He became an abusive husband and got a divorce not long after. (FBI, 2014) The abuse he had towards his family is a direct result of the physical abuse he faced as a child. Child abuse has a direct relationship with mental health, and can be the cause of any kind of mental illness. (Szalavitz, 2012) Franklin’s actions were inexcusable but can definitely be linked to the abuse he endured as a child. Franklin was treated as inferior throughout his entire upbringing, and he transferred this energy from pain into hate. He used white supremacy as an outlet for his hatred. His obsession with hate allowed him to feel superior to other races, however this was probably the one thing that ever allowed Franklin to feel superior to other people.

Since Franklin was a high school dropout, he couldn’t carry a stable job. To keep himself afloat, Franklin robbed multiple banks up and down the East Coast. In between robberies, Franklin sold his blood and sold/traded guns. (FamPeople, 2012) He spent most of his time plotting to kill minorities as well as interracial couples. His killing rampage began in 1977 at the age of 27, and ended in 1980 when he was arrested at the age of 30. (FBI, 2014) He has been linked to or associated with many murders, some of which he was not arrested for or convicted of. He confessed to the murders of 20 people, some of which are believed to be untrue. (Montaldo, n.d.) This is one of the many reasons that defense lawyers claimed Franklin to be a “paranoid schizophrenic” that was not fit to stand on trial. (BBC News, 2013)

Franklin was officially convicted of nine murders, however was a suspect in another twelve. Eight of these convictions resulted in a life sentence. However, Franklin was sentenced to death by lethal injection by the state of Missouri for the murder of Gerald Gordon in 1997.

(Vitello, 2013) Gordon’s murder was just one of Franklin’s attacks on a synagogue. He chose Synagogues as his primary target for the single purpose of killing Jews. Gordon’s death occurred on October 8th, 1977 in Potosi, Missouri. Franklin took five shots at both Gerald Gordon as well as a man named William Ash while they were walking through the synagogue parking lot. He killed Gordon and injured Ash using a Remington 700 Hunting Rifle. He was then sentenced to death the following February. (Montaldo, n.d.) Franklin told investigators that he selected this synagogue at random. (Vitello, 2013) He also said that his primary goal in the event was to “find a Jew and kill him” (Nye, 2013) Franklin bombed another synagogue in July 1977 that was located in Chattanooga, Tennessee. Unlike the Missouri attack, nobody was injured that day. (BBC News, 2013)

Franklin did not confess to Gordon’s murder until 17 years after the incident while in a prison cell talking to an investigator. (Vitello, 2013) This is just one of many instances where Franklin’s story has changed, and that is the primary reason why the court has been unable to convict him of some of the other crimes he has supposedly committed. Some of the 22 murders that he has confessed to haven’t even been brought to court because of lack of evidence. (Montaldo,1) Franklin has also robbed about 16 banks in order to “fund his activities” (BBC, 2013)

Franklin was a drifter and often “floated up and down the east coast” planning his next attack. He carried a sniper rifle and his main target was “MRC’s”, or mix-raced couples.

(FamPeople, 2012) His most well-known crime involving interracial couples was the attempted Murder of Larry Flynt, a publisher for the Hustler magazine. (Vitello, 2013) Franklin went after Flynt because of the cover of the December 1975 issue of Hustler showing an interracial couple having sex. Franklin stated to CNN, “I saw that interracial couple he had, photographed there, having sex”. He then proceeded to say, “It just made me sick. I think whites marry with whites, blacks with blacks, Indians with Indians. Orientals with Orientals. I threw the magazine down and thought, ‘I’m going to kill that guy’”. (Nye, 2013) This quote shows Franklin’s extreme, obsessive hate towards interracial couples and how it correlates with his mental instability. Anyone that feels the need to murder someone because of their skin color, or because of the skin color of their significant other, clearly isn’t mentally stable enough, or safe enough, to be roaming the world by his or herself. Franklin’s freedom was a threat to lives of every nonwhite person in the country.

Franklin’s psychiatrist, Dorothy Otnow Lewis, was one of a few people who testified that he was unfit to stand on trial. Lewis stated that he was a delusional thinker due to the abusive childhood that he endured. One example of this irrational thinking was when he claimed that God wanted him to “start a race war”. (FamPeople, 2012) However, the court still convicted him for his crimes and sentenced him to death. Franklin was held on death row in Missouri. Clearly Franklin was thinking straight enough to plan his attacks as well as his escapes ahead of time, and he was able to avoid law enforcement for years. Many of Frankin’s escape methods included dying his hair, changing clothes, and changing vehicles. He would plan his escape paths ahead of time and make sure that he left no evidence. (FamPeople, 2012) However, the FBI was becoming closer and closer to catching Franklin by 1980. In September of that year, a Kentucky police officer noticed a car in the back of Franklin’s car. An outstanding warrant appeared during a records check, and he was then brought in for questioning and detained. He was able to escape detainment but was recaptured again not long after. Franklin was finally caught for good in 1980 when a nurse, who was drawing his blood, recognized an eagle tattoo on his arm and called the Police. (FamPeople, 2012)

Another one of Franklin’s attacks on an interracial couple occurred in Madison, Wisconsin. Alphonse Manning and Toni Schwenn were pulling out of a parking lot of a shopping mall. Franklin crashed into their car from behind, got out, and shot both 23 year olds to death. (Montaldo, n.d.) Another instance occurred in Cincinnati, Ohio on June 6th, 1980. Franklin was standing on an overpass waiting for an interracial couple to pass by. Franklin had planned this attack, so he knew that the couple should eventually be there. While he was waiting, Franklin became impatient and shot his cousins Darren Lane, age 14, and Dante Brown, age 13, while they were walking into a convenience store. Both children died and Franklin was charged with two life sentences. (Montaldo, n.d.) This instance shows Franklin’s short temper and yearning for violence. Franklin shot two innocent children of his own blood because he was getting impatient. That alone shows true mental illness, because anyone in their right mind wouldn’t be waiting on an overpass to commit those murders to begin with. His lack of patience and reliance on violence shows mental instability by itself, and his extreme racism and obsession with white supremacy infinitely multiplies the level of danger that he creates for those around him.

Larry Flynt was paralyzed from the hips down after Franklin attacked him. However, Flynt didn’t believe in the death penalty and actually fought against Franklin being put to death. Flynt stated, “The government has no business at all being in the business of killing people” he then told investigators that he believes, “It’s much more punishment to put somebody in prison for the rest of their lives than it is to snip their life out in a few seconds with a lethal injection”.  (Nye, 2013) Oblivious to the fact that Flynt was not trying to help him, Franklin referred to Flynt as “old pal” in regards to his opposition to his death sentence. Franklin’s mental instability is evident in this instance; Franklin seems to have thought that Flynt’s opposition to the death sentence was not because of Flynt’s conservative political views, but because somehow, Flynt was now on his side.

On May 29th 1980, Franklin was charged with the attempted murder of African American civil rights leader, Vernon Jordan. (BBC News, 2013) He committed this crime after seeing Jordan, who was black, with a white woman in Fort Wayne, Indiana. (FamPeople, 2012) He previously had threatened to kill President Jimmy Carter for his pro-civil rights views, along with Jesse Jackson. He realized that the security that protected these two men was too tight, and so he went on to murder Vernon Jordan instead. (FamPeople, 2012) Franklin was clearly an impatient, impulsive character that acted strictly on random, unethical reasoning. Franklin’s sister informed investigators that he was the target of the majority of the abuse in their dysfunctional household. She also added that Franklin used to read fairytales in order to escape the domestic abuse that he endured on a daily basis. (Montaldo, n.d.) This was definitely one of the main reasons for Franklin’s evident mental illness; Franklin used white supremacy as an outlet for his prolonged childhood anger and frustration.

On July 29th, 1978, Franklin shot Bryant Tatum and his girlfriend, Nancy Hilton with a 12-gauge shotgun simply because they were an interracial couple. The attack happened at a Pizza Hut in Chattanooga, Tennessee and unfortunately resulted in the death of Tatum. Hilton was able to survive but was injured, and Franklin was given a life sentence. (FamPeople, 2012) On July 12th, 1979, Franklin shot Harold McIver through a window. McIver was a 27 year old black man that unfortunately was killed in the incident. McIver was a manager at Taco Bell in Doraville, Georgia and according to Franklin, McIver came in close contact with white women. Franklin, as a result, felt it was his responsibility to murder the innocent man. (FamPeople, 2012)

One of the most outrageous parts of Franklin’s criminal history is that he was committing these horrible crimes because he thought he was doing his job. He once told CNN Investigators, “I consider it my mission, my three-year mission. Same length of time Jesus was on his mission, from the time he was 30 to 33.” (Lah, 2013) When CNN investigators asked him to clarify what his mission was exactly, he replied, “To get a race war started”. (Lah, 2013) Franklin thought it was his responsibility to brutally murder every person that was black, Jewish, or in an interracial relationship. On June 25th 1980, Franklin killed Nancy Santomero, age 19, and Vicki Durian, age 26 using a .44 Ruger Pistol. Both women were hitchhikers in Pocahontas County, West Virginia at the time. Franklin confessed to the crime in 1997 but felt that he did what was necessary. (FamPeople, 2012) Both girls were white, however he decided to murder them both once he heard one of the girls say that she had a black boyfriend. Jacob Beard, a Florida resident, had been incorrectly convicted and imprisoned for these murders. In the year 1999, Jacob Beard was freed and a new trial was to be created on Franklin’s behalf. Franklin was then correctly convicted of the crime, and was given a life sentence as a result. (FamPeople, 2012)

Franklin confessed to almost all of the murders that he committed because he felt he was doing right by his people. After he abandoned the most extreme white supremacist groups because he felt that they were not radical enough, he went on to commit these crimes because he thought that other white supremacists would follow him. He stated to reporters, “I figured once I started doing it and showed them how, other white supremacists would do the same thing”. (Nye, 2013) He claimed that after his attacks, he now has members that love him. He said to investigators, “When you commit a crime against a certain group of people, a bonding takes place. It seems like you belong to them.” (Nye, 2013) This sick feeling of family that Franklin received from his white supremacist groups was probably more of a closely-knit environment than the blood-related family that he had at home. This is most likely what drew Franklin so far deep into the racist cult.

Franklin shot and killed 15-year old prostitute Mercedes Lynn Masters on December 5th, 1979. He had been living with her in Dekalb County, Georgia, but decided to hill her when she told him that she previously had black customers. Two more murders were committed by Franklin on August 20th, 1980. Franklin killed two black men in Salt Lake City, Utah. He was near Liberty Park when he took the lives of Ted Fields and David Martin. He was charged with first-degree murder, convicted, and was given two life sentences. He was also tried on federal civil rights charges. These instances, along with multiple others, are just examples of the sick, twisted things that went on in Franklin’s head. Mental illness was evident, and his merciless actions are what made him so dangerous.

It was also evident that Franklin was completely self-centered and delusional. His reference to Flynt being an “old pal” and his comparison between Jesus and himself are just two examples of how deranged and neurotic that the high school dropout was. Franklin even said that he hoped his killings would act as an example. (Nye, 2013) The three-year mission that Franklin referred to took place when he was age 27 up until he was arrested at age 30. He told authorities that he has no regrets, and that the only regret he has is that killing Jews isn’t legal. He later told investigators that the only regret he has is that some of his victims managed to survive. (Montaldo, n.d.) Franklin had been in prison for over 30 years before he was finally executed. Not long before his execution, Franklin claimed that he was no longer a white supremacist and had “renounced his racist views”. (BBC News, 2013) Franklin claimed he had “interacted with black people in prison” and stated, “I saw they were people just like us”. He also added that he knew his actions were illogical and were a result of “an abusive upbringing”. (BBC News, 2013) Joseph Paul Franklin was sentenced to death on February 27th, 1997. He was on Missouri Death Row until August 20th, 2013, when the State of Missouri set the date for his execution. Franklin was executed by lethal injection on November 20th, 2013 at 6:08 AM. (Missouri Death Row, 2008) It took 10 minutes for Franklin to be officially pronounced dead. (BBC News, 2013) According to the jury, Franklin’s actions were a result of “depravity of mind”, better known as mental illness. (Missouri Death Row, 2008) Mental illness can be a direct result of child abuse. The life, the actions, and the attitude of Joseph Paul Franklin are a perfect example of that.

Works Cited

BBC News. (2013, November 20). BBC News US & Canada. Joseph Franklin, white supremacist serial killer, executed: Retrieved from bbc.co.uk/news/world-us-canada-25016217
FamPeople. (2012). Joseph Paul Franklin: Biography. Retrieved from FamPeople: http://www.fampeople.com/cat-joseph-paul-franklin
FBI. (2014, January 14). Serial Killers Part 4: White Supremacist Joseph Franklin. Retrieved from fbi.gov: https://www.fbi.gov/news/stories/2014/january/serial-killers-part-4-joseph-paul-franklin/
Lah, K. (2013, November 19). Serial Killer Joseph Paul Franklin Prepares to Die. Retrieved from CNN News: http://www.cnn.com/2013/11/18/justice/death-row-interview-joseph-paul-franklin/index.html
Missouri Death Row. (2008, December 9). State of Missouri vs. Joseph P. Franklin. Retrieved from Missouri Death Row: http://missourideathrow.com/2008/12/Franklin-Joseph/
Montaldo, C. (n.d.). Profile of Serial Killer Joseph Paul Franklin. Retrieved from About News: http://crime.about.com/od/hatecrimecriminalcases/a/josephfranklin.htm
Nye, J. (2013, November 19). Racist Serial Killer Shows No Remorse In Final Interview On Eve Of His Execution- Even Joking Larry Flynt, Who He Paralyzed, is “‘Old Pal” For Campaign Against Death Penalty. Retrieved from Daily Mail: http://www.dailymail.co.uk/news/article-2509759/Joseph-Paul-Franklin-shows-remorse-ahead-death-penalty.html
Szalavitz, M. (2012, February 15). How Child Abuse Primes The Brain For Future Mental Illness. Retrieved from Time: http://healthland.time.com/2012/02/15/how-child-abuse-primes-the-brain-for-future-mental-illness/
Vitello, P. (2013, November 13). White Supremacist Convicted of Several Murders Is Put To Death In Missouri. Retrieved from New York Times: http://www.nytimes.com/2013/11/21/us/joseph-paul-franklin-executed-in-missouri.html?_r=0

Why did Hitler target Jews?: writing essay help

One man in control of 65 million people at once during the 1930s is pretty incredible. But how incredible is it really, if this power is used for, what many people today consider is, evil. Adolf Hitler was a dictator in Germany that would eventually become known for how intense he believed in creating a perfect race.

Hitler was born in Austria and would eventually go to Germany, for many reasons, to take over the office and begin his extermination in search for the perfect race.  During all of World War II and a few years before that starting in 1933, Hitler was able to successfully capture and kill millions of people. The group of people Hitler mainly killed off were Jews because he didn’t consider them of the superior race, in his opinion the superior race was the Aryan race. Not only were Jews part of a massive genocide, but anyone who was disabled, homosexual, or gypsy were in danger of being captured and taken to concentration camps.

The night of the broken glass is a day that can be seen as the day that truly began the genocide in Germany because people were being taken away from their homes in mass amounts. In November 1938, Ernst Eduard vom Rath, was murdered by a Jewish teenager causing for police in Germany to begin entering houses and looking for any Jew who had weapons in their possession.  Hitler saw the killing of this German Diplomat as a threat against the Nazis by the Jews, and so began the Holocaust.

For over 10 years millions of people were taken away into concentration camps all over Europe, but there really can’t be an exact number as to how many were captured and killed because who knows if others were killed outside of concentration camps or used for experimentation, for now the number that is used as an estimate is 11 million people killed over a period of 12 years, 6 million were only Jews.

The goal of this research is not to focus on Hitler and how he governed Germany and what his political views were in the world, but rather look at how he grew up and how he was able to capture millions of people to kill them off, just to have his perfect race, and why? The main question is, why did he mainly target Jews? For one person to have control of about 65 million people and how they should be living their day to day life is pretty incredible.  But the way Hitler went about making these people live did not seem like a very good idea, considering that Hitler was a very intelligent person.

Anti-Semitic views have been around since the time of Ancient Rome, which is interesting when we look back at because all these years have passed and there still seems to be a prejudice against Jewish people.  While Jewish people are not the only group that face prejudice or discrimination, this group has had a tremendous impact on the history of the world because of the way they were treated during the Holocaust by Hitler, while it is not comparable to the slave trade during the sixteenth and nineteenth century, it is something that still amazes people because of the way it was executed.

Adolf Hitler was the leader of the Nazi Party in Germany during the 1930s and 1940s. During his time as leader, he rose to a high enough power that he began to order for the extermination of the Jews.  Hitler is one of the most famous cases of genocides that is known in history today because of the amount he was able to successfully murder from 1933-1945. In history class, students are taught about WWII and how Germany’s defeat caused the end of the Holocaust. What many never wonder is why he did it; the amount of people that were murdered by Hitler and his Nazi group is still not exact because not only were Jewish people murdered, but anyone of inferiority to Hitler or his Aryan race.  Like mentioned before, anyone with physical or mental disability were also taken to concentration camps because they were people who could destroy the perfect race.

Starting from when Hitler was first a child, he went through physical abuse at home. Hitler’s father would beat him because Adolf would find ways to taunt his own father and make him mad at Hitler. While this all happened, Hitler’s mother, would make him feel better and make sure he was okay because like most mothers, their instinct is to make sure their children are never hurt.  While this might not be a contributing factor as to why Hitler’s main goal was to exterminate all Jews, this can be part of a reason many thought his views were insane; this instability at home definitely seemed to cause instability within himself and possible feelings and affection he could feel towards other human beings.

As Hitler grew up, it was evident that Hitler never cared for school work and would much rather learn about art and music as much as he could. According to Hitler’s sister, he was a student that would bring home bad grades and didn’t really care for the consequences he would face with his parents, and especially his dad.  Eventually in 1905, when Hitler’s mother was very sick, he moved to Vienna in pursue of his dreams. While his mother being sick due to breast cancer caused great devastation to him, this seemed like a great opportunity to follow his dreams and pursue a career in the arts.

Hitler’s goal was to get into Vienna Academy of Fine Arts and become successful in the city of Vienna, where many artists got their name, but when he was told that his work was not good enough for the school, this caused anger within him. Hitler has always been very confident in the things he did and not being able to get into his dream school really shocked him.  According to many sources, when he went back to get an explanation as to why he has not been accepted, he was told that his art lacked “human form” and that his artwork would be successful in an architecture school. While this doesn’t seem like a bad idea to people, to him it was horrendous because he had not finished high school and to get into the architecture schools, he would need a high school diploma.

While in Vienna, Hitler applied twice to the Vienna Academy of Fine Arts and got rejected twice. During his time there, many people believe that Hitler began to grow a hate towards Jews because Vienna, at the time, was populated with many Jews.  His anti-Semitic views might have stemmed from there, but there is no exact reason as to why. According to a source, one of Hitler’s childhood friends stated that even before Hitler left Austria to pursue his dreams, he was ant-Semitic, but like many other sources that explain when Hitler became this way, they fail to mention why.

While there might still be no exact reason as to how Hitler grew into his views, sources can introduce new ideas and theories as to how he thought. During the 1930s, Hitler was perceived as a very important figure for the Germans because he helped them bring the economy to a stable point since Germany lost World War I. According to charts, Germany’s unemployment rate in 1933 totaled 6 million people, but as Hitler took power in Germany, he was able to lower it to about 300 thousand people in 1939.

Hitler was a very smart man, like mentioned before, he was even put on Time Magazine as Man of the Year in 1938.  But when Hitler went into power in Germany, he already had anti-Semitic views in play because according to a book published in Germany, November 9: How World War One Led to the Holocaust by Joachim Riecker, it talks about Hitler believing that Jews did not care enough for Germany to win World War I at the time. Mr. Riecker goes on to describe how Hitler believed that the Jewish people in Germany ruined the government and its economy overtime, World War I was just a push towards finishing off the country. While this theory seems like a bit of stretch, it doesn’t seem entirely wrong as a reason to hate Jewish people, but Hitler was incorrect in saying that the Jews were the group of people that mainly were involved during the First World War.

According to a German census, the majority that lived in Germany around 1910, which were a few years before World War I, were either Catholics or Protestants. Most of Europe was mainly made up of these two religious groups, so to target Jews as the main participants of the First World War is incorrect. While there might have been Jews that participated in the war, not all of the Jews were to blame for, so this goes to show that this reason is not exactly a valid reason for Hitler to have anti-Semitic views.

Analyzing sources thus far, many of them mention many instances where Hitler has found an excuse to say he does not appreciate a Jew.

How Significant A Role Did Britain Play In The War Against Germany?

World War Two was the most devastating war in history. It was a battle of ideologies. Germany fought for control of Europe; The allies, Britain, America and Russia fought for freedom. The only way to crush an Ideology was total war, a devastating method of warfare killing an estimated 55 million civilians. The war ended the lives of 3% of the world population at the time. While all the allies suffered casualties, the Russians lost 29 million civilians on the eastern front. While Britain and America lost 870000 people combined, only 3% of the Russian deaths. With Russia taking Berlin, and Russia absorbing most of the deaths on the Eastern Front, was Britain significant in the defeat of Nazi Germany?

When war broke out, Germany swept through Europe during the Blitzkrieg, gaining military control of countries rapidly. The capture of France on June 14th, 1940 left Britain a sole island nation fighting against Nazi Germany. As an island, Britain relied on the sea for defence. German operation Sealion planned to land German forces to capture Britain; in order to safely transport troops, Germany needed to control the sea. At the same time, Britain was importing supplies across the Atlantic from America, which kept them alive through the war. The need for control on the sea was underpinned by looming threat from the Germans, and the necessity of trade between the Allies. Britain needed to import weapons and supplies from America, as the Germans attacked these trade routes the Battle of the Atlantic begun. The battle of the Atlantic was fought between 1939 until the end of the war in 1945. It was the longest battle in WW2, and victory would ensure the survival of Britain. Germany attempted to cripple the British navy through the use of undetectable U-boats, which sank thousands of Military and trade ships in an attempt to weaken the British navy and starve them to surrender. But for the British, the sea was too important to lose. At the beginning of the war, there were no reliable methods for avoiding U-Boats, so allied ships were at the mercy of luck, so much so that Winston Churchill said: “the only thing that really frightened me was the U-Boat peril”. But by 1941 the enigma was cracked, Britain now knew where U-Boats were headed and could steer convoys away from danger, saving 105 out of 174 convoys between may 1942 and may 1943. Furthermore, technological advancements led to the creation of depth charges which helped the British to combat the U-boats. As well as the production of the Hedgehog anti-submarine weapons destroyed many German naval resources. This kept trade between Britain and America going, ensure vital goods like food and munitions reached Britain keeping them alive. Britain’s contribution to the war at sea had considerable importance as it led to naval dominance in the Atlantic. If Germany had have controlled the Atlantic, the D-day invasion would have been nearly impossible to bring to fruition. Defeat in the Atlantic meant almost certain defeat for Britain and their resistance. And would have damaged Russia’s defence in the east, due the destruction of German U-Boats forced Hitler to draw more resources from the Eastern Front where Hitler desperately needed them.

Britain not only had to fight the German Navy, they had to compete with the German Air Force. With the invention of modern aircrafts, factories and towns could be destroyed by bombers. Germany planned to cripple the British air force, allowing them to destroy the ports in order to launch a full-scale invasion. To stop the Germans Britain had to control the air. The war began poorly for Britain. They were marred by the defeat at Dunkirk, the evacuation of 343,000 soldiers from the beaches of France. It was a complete military failure; the British lost 1954 of its artillery and 615 tanks, leaving them to be captured or destroyed by the Germans. Yet it was a Symbolic success for Britain, the boats of the British saved the soldiers and led to the British resilience that came to be known as ‘Dunkirk spirit’. This was integral in allowing the British to persevere through the Battle of Britain. The Battle of Britain signified the end of the phoney war, the period in which the British were at war with the Germans but did not fight. The Germans planned to invade Britain, and Hitler’s generals were worried about the damage that the Royal Air Force could inflict on the German Army during the invasion. Because of this Hitler agreed that the invasion should be postponed until the British Air Force had been destroyed. The German campaign objective became gaining air superiority over the RAF, especially Fighter Command. They began with the bombing of aircraft bases across Britain. This was less effective than the Germans had hoped; Britain had built up its air defences since 1936 under air chief marshal Sir Hugh Dowding. The widespread use of radar alerted the RAF of incoming Luftwaffe and allowed for a quick defence. Britain was outshooting and outproducing the Germans. Germany couldn’t destroy all the air force bases and In September 1940 Germany shifted their targets to bomb cities. This was terrifying for civilians, claiming over 32,000 lives and injuring over 80,000 more, But it gave the RAF the ability to rebuild their planes. They were able to put an end to the German air raids, and the Battle of Britain signified the first loss of the German army. The defence against the German Luftwaffe was integral to the survival of Britain, which in turn became a base of future attacks on Germany. Had Britain lost to the Germans, Britain would have fallen, and the base of D-day operations would be under Nazi control. The victory ensured that Germany have would fight a war on two fronts.

The success at the Battle of Britain also allowed Britain to launch aerial attacks, with the USA, against Germany. These attacks continued throughout the war. It was a controversial tactic. While British aerial attacks were not very effective, only 1 in 100 bombs landed five miles within its target, and the prediction that bombing cities would break the German morale was false. carpet bombing was extremely effective in large cities such as Hamburg, where thousands of deaths and the destruction of over 4000 factories occurred. The damage caused by these attacks crippled the German industrial might and forced resources and troops away from the Eastern Front, 2/3 German planes had to protect German cities. The bombings also destroyed German coastal defences and allowed for D-day plans to be made, opening a second front for the already stretched Germans. However, Britain was not alone. America produced the most machinery during the war, they produced 300,000 planes and supplied both Britain and Russia with planes to cover their losses in combat. As well as supply Britain money to build their own planes through lend-lease. They also took the brunt of the losses in the bombing campaign because they bombed during the day to ensure they struck their target. While this caused a better success rate of missions, it led to far more American deaths. The bombing campaign did not win the war, but it aided in the invasion of Germany.

If Germany had not been invaded, the war would have continued. To destroy the Nazi forces, Berlin would have to be captured. All three of the Allies would open fronts against the Germans in the East and West. With Russia suffering the most casualties at 29 million. On land, Britain made two major contributions in the war. The first British contribution on land was in the North African campaign against the Afrika Korps led by Rommel. Britain had lost much of its territory due to Rommel’s advance across North Africa in late 1942. But the British victory of the Battle of El Alamein in November 1942 was an important victory for the British campaign in Africa. It blocked Hitler’s access to the oil fields. The North Africa campaign was seen as insignificant to the Germans, but it led to the invasion of Southern Italy, and the fall of Italy as an axis power. It was a large blow to Germany, they stood against the combined forces of the Allied powers. However, Germany put little resources into the Africa campaign, with only four divisions under the control of Rommel.

The second contribution from Britain was D-day. Britain helped retake France from the German army. On 6 June 1944, Britain landed on the Beaches of Normandy, for the biggest land campaign of the western front. Britain was instrumental in the planning of D-day; they disrupted the German intelligence, making Hitler believe the invasion would begin at France’s Pas de Calais region 150 miles northeast of Normandy. Britain was the launch point of the invasion, and if Britain had fallen in the war D-day would be impossible. However, Britain was not alone. For the initial invasion, they only attacked two out of the five beaches and sent 14 divisions, compared to the USA’s 23 divisions.  And by the end of the war, the number of British soldiers decreased on the Western Front, whilst America’s grew to 60 divisions.

But the aim of D-Day was to create a second front to draw German troops away from the Eastern Front, the single largest battle in the war. It claimed the lives of 29 million Russians, both soldiers and civilians. Total War was never more evident in the East when invading Russia, Germany would kill soldiers who tried to surrender. Captured Russians were executed; German POW camps had policies for the deliberate mistreatment of Russians which led to 3.5 million deaths. This brutality caused the most devastating battles: the battle of Stalingrad, 400,000 people Russians died (more than the number of British casualties in the whole war); the battle of Kursk had 860,000 casualties; the Siege of Leningrad lasted 872 days, and resulted in the deaths of 1.5 million people. The number of deaths suffered by the Russian people shows the resilience they had during the war, and the determination of the Red Army to win at all costs. But after Russian victory at the Battle of Stalingrad, Russia began a counteroffensive. They began to push the Germans out of Russia. Once the Eastern Front had been moved past the Soviet border, the new goal was to reclaim the Baltics and communism in Eastern Europe. The Red Army pushed the Germans back. Slowly they weakened the German army, cut off its supply lines and drove it back to Berlin. The Russian counter-offensive was responsible for the death of 80% of the German army. It was agreed upon by the Allies that Russia would take Berlin, and obtain Germany’s surrender. Russia had won the war, while the British and Americans aided.

The War was a combined effort from the three allied powers. At the beginning of the war, Britain acted alone, with the fate of Europe resting on their survival. But they were only kept fighting by the funding of their war effort from America, $5.8 billion of goods were lent to Britain. The threat of defeat and a unified Nazi Europe was only quashed when Hitler turned his attention to Russia. That is where the war was decided. The majority of the casualties of the war took place on the eastern front, with the Russians losing more people in Stalingrad than the Americans and British lost in the whole war, the Red Army killed the most German soldiers and stormed Berlin. Without the manpower of the Russians, the war could not have been won.

Fate vs. free will in Frankenstein by Mary Shelley: writing essay help

Fate is the development of events beyond a person’s control, regarded as determined by a supernatural power, while Free Will is the power of acting without the constraint of necessity or fate; the ability to act at one’s own discretion. Throughout the novel Frankenstein by Mary Shelley, the question of fate vs. free will is brought to the reader’s attention. Victor Frankenstein and the Monster make many decisions throughout the novel. Each decision has an effect on different characters in the novel. The decisions that Victor and the Monster make in the novel cause the reader to think about whether these are of fate or free will.—tighten up

Throughout the novel, Victor Frankenstein speaks of fate and similar topics often. One of the first times we hear Victor speaking of fate is in Robert Walton’s fourth letter to his sister Mrs. Saville.”I thank you…for your sympathy, but it is useless; my fate is nearly fulfilled. I wait but for one event, and then I shall repose in peace. I understand your feeling…but you are mistaken, my friend, if thus you will allow me to name you; nothing can alter my destiny: listen to my history, and you will perceive how irrevocably it is determined.” In this quote, Victor is speaking to Captain Walton and is implying a future confrontation with the monster. Some readers think this implies the possibility of Victor killing his own creation, however towards the end of the novel, Victor dies on board the ship and moments later the monster is standing over his body. The monster then swears to burn himself committing suicide. By committing suicide, the monster suffers the same fate as Victor.

Although Victor and the Monster are different beings and do not share the same blood, they do share similar personalities and paths. They both like to gain knowledge of how the world works, for example when Frankenstein was interested in the mysteries of the natural world and the monster wanted to and did learn how to speak and read by learning from De Lacey, Felix, and Agatha teaching Safie. He also then starts to read and gain knowledge from the books he reads which include, Paradise Lost, Plutarch’s Lives, and the journals that he stole from Victor in his clothes. They also become more aware of their surrounds and adapt to them as they gain more knowledge. An example of this is Victor learning of electricity by watching a lightning storm, which he then later uses to bring the monster to life. An example of the monster learning and adapting is when he learns of fire. “One day, when I was oppressed by cold, I found a fire which had been left by some wandering beggars, and was overcome with delight at the warmth I experienced from it. In my joy I thrust my hand into the live embers, but quickly drew it out again with a cry of pain.” This quote is proof of the monster’s quick learning and adaptation. They are also both outcasted by society and although they don’t like it, they prefer to live away from society. Another similarity between the two is their hate for each other. Their mutual hatred started off when Victor saw the monster as ugly and worthless. Had he been a real father to the monster, he would have cared for him anyway. However due to the disapproval and abandoning of the monster by Victor, the monster grew a special hatred for his creator and father, Victor. All of these similarities are a way to show how although they take different versions, they are paths. They continually both suffer the same fates.

In the time period that the novel takes place, many people had major belief in religion and that God had chosen a path and fate for them. By creating the monster, it is almost as if Victor Frankenstein passes his fate and personality to the monster. They both continuously lose and kill loved ones throughout the novel. For example, the monster kills Victor’s nephew, William and therefore indirectly kills Justine by planting the photo on her. Later in the novel when Victor is working on his second creation and then foresees a future of the monsters reproducing and creating offsprings that are also monsters. Due to this “vision” he decides to destroy his second creation and what was supposed to be the monster’s companion. It just so happens that the monster was watching as through the window as he did this and swore to be with Victor on his wedding night. As promised there he was and he kills Victor’s new wife Elizabeth Lavenza. They both now are suffering the pain of losing their companions.

“I gazed on my victim, and my heart swelled with exultation and hellish triumph: clapping my hands, I exclaimed, ‘I, too, can create desolation; my enemy is not impregnable; this death will carry despair to him, and a thousand other miseries shall torment and destroy him.”

The monster is speaking of how he is not a victim of fate but rather a commander of fate. He is able to create desolation as that is what he feels. Due to the neglect by society and the lack of friendship or companionship, the monster feels as if his life is empty.

The whole novel can be seen as events that are supposed to happen because it was fate. After the many mentions of fate by Victor it is hard see the events and decisions as anything but those of fate and destiny. Due to the time that the novel was written in and the religious attitude in that era, it is very easy to see everything as destiny and fate. Many people believed in the theory of predestination. Predestination is the doctrine that God in consequence of his foreknowledge of all events infallibly guides those who are destined for salvation.

Lives in Germany – early-mid 1930s

In what ways do these primary sources contribute to your understanding of how economic conditions and the rise of the Nazis shaped people’s lives in Germany in the early-mid 1930s?

When Adolf Hitler was elected German Chancellor in January 1933, the economy was in turmoil. The Third Reich at this time underwent significant economic development after, like many other European countries, suffering after the Great Depression. However, by the outbreak of World War Two, the unemployment rate in Germany had tumbled: trade unions had been tamed, the work force had seemingly developed a positive work ethic and job prospects did improve. These primary sources contribute highly to any understanding of economic conditions in Germany and how the rise of the Nazis altered people’s lives in Germany at this time.

The first source is a photograph called ‘Unemployed Men Standing in Front of the Berlin Employment Office’ and was produced in June 1933, six months after Hitler became German Chancellor. It is by Hans Schaller, a popular German photographer. It was produced in order to convey the discontent and frustration experienced by unemployed people.

This source states, ‘In 1932, when the crisis reached its peak, about 6 million people were registered as unemployed in Germany’, conveying that with the turn of the rise of the Nazis before Hitler came to power, there was a significant unemployment epidemic. This number would have been higher as women were also unemployed, however, as their traditional roles in society were to be homemakers, they were not included in this statistic.

This can be corroborated by the Sopade Report by Otto Wels, the chairman of the Social Democratic Party of Germany from 1919 and a member of parliament from 1920 to 1933, therefore he would have been well-informed and experienced in the inner mechanics of the economy. The source articulates that ‘Hitler understood that a general economic upswing – and the drop in unemployment that would follow – was the best means for securing the loyalty of the German people’, highlighting Hitler’s understanding of the pressing issue of unemployment after becoming Chancellor and his willingness to tackle this for the German people.

‘Work and Bread’ was the name of a speech made by Gregor Strasser, a prominent German Nazi official and politician. It was produced few months prior to the July 1932 election, therefore, aiming to persuade the German electorate towards the mindset of the Nazi Party. The general message of this source highlighted the current state of the government was not successful, and national socialism was the most suitable route towards political stability. He asserts, ‘Article 163 will have to one day be altered to the effect that every German must have the right to work and people will have to be aware of the full significance of this alteration.’ Article 163 of the Weimar Constitution stated that ‘Every German should be given the possibility of earning his living through work’, therefore, emphasising to the German people that having stable employment is key to success and happiness.

This can be furthered by the explanation of the photograph by Hans Schaller which articulates that ‘The persistent worldwide depression and the mass unemployment associated with it were among the main catalysts for the general radicalisation of the political climate in Germany’. The impact of unemployment levels nationwide resulted in the public wishing for a new and distinct political sphere, which arguably led to the rise of the political extremism of the Nazi Party, thus, significantly shaping the lives of the German people at this time.

Furthermore, employment conditions for workers in Germany were arguably poor. An interview with Sally Tuchklaper, who was Polish and working in German factories throughout the war, thus being a first-hand oral account of events in employment in Germany. It was conducted by Anita Schwartz, for the purposes of fellow survivors and the academic circle, however, gradually generated a wider audience.

She said the working conditions, ‘weren’t bad but we were still under pressure. We couldn’t do nothing; we had to go on their rules which – them and we came in the morning at nine o’clock and we worked the whole day’, which affirms the nature of the heavy workload that young girls had to face at this time.

Oral history can be defined as the recording, preservation and interpretation of historical knowledge, based on the personal encounters and opinions of the speaker. This is a very subjective and personal form of evidence and can give a voice to groups who are sometimes marginalized in ‘conventional’ stereotypes, such as the working classes and women. It can provide new information, alternative explanations and varied insights which are highly valuable. The spoken word can convey emotions with immediacy and an impact that the written documents cannot match and allows the historian to ask questions of his or her informant – to be present at the creation of a historical source, rather than relying on those created by others.

On the other hand, oral history can be classed as inaccurate in other areas. It can be contended that someone’s memory may be selective or distorted over time, and so, the quality of these sources may be questioned. Additionally, the interviewer’s questions may intentionally or unintentionally influence the informant’s response.

Irma Zandi – Trendwatcher As An Acknowledged Expert In The Field Of Consumer Insight

president of trend-analysis firm The Zandi Group

Background

Zandi who has been trendwatcher since 1986 has operated Zandi group which is named after her. Zandi group is A New York City-based agency dedicated to keeping brands & businesses on-trend and culturally relevant to today’s hard-to-reach consumers: Gen Y/Millennials, Gen X, Boomers. This company analyzes the nature of the fashion which is sent by about 3000 correspondents across the United states

Methodology & approach

Zandi who is acknowledged as one of America’s foremost experts on trends starts every day with watching cable music channel MTV at 5:30a.m. After that, she reads five daily newpapers to understand the flow of that day. She travels to many cities worldwide and makes it a point to attend every concert, party, car show that could be an issue. Meeting people there and identifing their interest and fashion is her job.

Zandi group has a lot of methodologies. Every excursion are customized to their client partners’ needs. Scouting, Patterning & Scene Immersions, one of their methodology, include 3 steps.

First thing is Pre-search & Planning. It is tapping into our network of experts and directional consumers as well as mining blogs and other online sources for the most forward-looking developments

Second one is Experiential Activities. It is about Private meetings and interviews with relevant experts/insiders

Third one is Retail/Market Immersions. Itineraries are developed to provide first-hand exposure to directional stores, markets, restaurants, and other new venues.

Immersions are often documented by a videographer or photographer to provide a visual record. They also engage resident experts and ‘cultural translators’ to provide context and further dimensionalize the scene for them (e.g. hoteliers, skate pros, museum curators, nightlife promoters, chefs).

And there is Industry Experts & Tastemaker Interviews as well.

It is a rare opportunity to interact with, and learn from, creative, forward-looking entrepreneurs and companies and Informal discussions with individual experts/frontline insiders, who are chosen for their diverse perspectives and for their high level of category/industry engagement. In many instances, They help clients have continued to work with the experts independently as projects evolve.

In New York, They frequently conduct the interviews at the Zandl Rivington Loft, a relaxed setting that encourages easy participation in the discussions by both clients and experts. In other cities, the interviews are conducted in hotel suites or other locations conducive to the creative flow of information.

Their network includes cultural observers and insiders/experts with diverse backgrounds and expertise – ranging from influential sub-cultures to mainstream tastemakers.

Zandi Group has published Bimomthly megazine ‘ hot sheet ‘ based on

survey responses and information which is sent by a wide range of various correspondents aging from 8 years old to 24 years old. Coca, Disney, GM, etc. sensitive to market trends are paying a lot of money $ 15,000 to subscribe to the magazine .

Specialization

Zandi group specializes in directional research, experiential immersions, and custom presentations that help businesses better understand their consumers and anticipate future trends.

Over the past 20 years, They have pioneered the use of many non-traditional and ethnographic approaches that yield rich insights while also providing our client partners with first-hand exposure to their consumers’ world.

Irma zandi’s Specialties are Trends, Blogging, Marketing Innovation, Consulting, Consumer and Generational Insights, Keynotes and other Presentations

clients

with FOX, Nestle, Discovery, Kellogg’s, NIKE, MTV, Coca Cola, P&G, 20th century fox, NBC, etc

‘Our instinct and insight on contemporary culture make them a valuable resource for anyone trying to get in touch with what’s going on today’-Irma zandi

Jane buckingham

Founder and president of consumer insights firm Trendera, and an expert on marketing to people of different generations.

Background

At the age of 16, Jane Buckingham wrote the book Teens Speak Out, a report from teens on their most intimate thoughts, feelings and hopes for the future. This started her on a quest to better understand and explain how young people feel. The book was featured on programs including “The Oprah Winfrey Show” and “Regis and Kelly.”

After working in advertising at BBDO New York, FCB/Leber Katz New York and Houston Effler Boston, she started her own youth-focused trend-forecasting firm, Youth Intelligence, in 1996. which she sold to Creative Artists Agency in 2003.

She created and published The Cassandra Report, the leading trend forecasting study which is used by CEO’s and Movie Studio heads and has become an industry wide standard for all things ‘cool.’ Jane has worked with numerous Fortune 500 Clients including Microsoft, Nike, Target, Chanel, NBC, Procter and Gamble, MTV, Levis, Sony and others.

Having studied the generations for over 20 years she is able to help companies and individuals gain insights and actions around these dif’cult to understand groups. Buckingham left the Intelligence Group in 2009 to start Trendera, an innovative trend forecasting, consulting, research, and multi media company. Using digital technologies and traditional social research, Trendera became an authority in consumer insights with clients such as Target, NBC, ABC, 20th Century Fox, and Gap.

Methodology & approach

Jane’s work is based on personal observations and survey data. Jane combines research tools with trend knowledge helping companies understand how consumers feel and what trends will impact their businesses.

With a focus on Gen X, Y and Z, Trendera assists companies, parents and educators in reaching the most sought after groups: Teens, twenty-somethings, kids, and parents. She and her team leverage online and real world research to provide Trendera’s cutting edge services to help clients gain a competitive advantage.

With networks of ‘Trenders’ from around the globe and panels in each segment (moms, teens, tweens, 20’s, 30’s), Trendera accesses the minds of consumers to help shape its marketing and consulting strategies. Recently, Jane has launched a new multi-media business in synch with the digital age. Trendera utilizes digital platforms to allow for more digital research to be used in conjunction with traditional research. In addition, Trendera has launched several websites and iphone apps for consumer use.

Trendera’s mission is to access, engage and analyze consumers by creating new and innovative research methodologies that are reflective of and integrated into the way consumers live their lives. So, Trendera combines traditional and non-traditional methods and engages consumers online, in person and wherever they can get insight into their thoughts, behaviors, passions, likes and dislikes. More importantly, Trendera then contextualizes findings with cultural and behavioral insights in order to provide meaningful implications for brands.

As consumers have become accustomed to customization and instant gratification, their research methodologies and tools for engagement have had to evolve in order to be able to forecast what’s next rather than report what’s already happened. Therefore, they are constantly evolving and tweaking the frequency and format with which we disseminate information, in order to make it the most impactful for our clients. Their methodologies and reporting will continue to evolve and change with the lifestyles of the consumers we track and the needs of our clients.

Their products and services include proprietary research and consulting as well as a digital syndicated report (The Trendera Files). Their proprietary services include social media consulting, mobile research, immersion investigations, Travel Trends and Customized Branded Communities, just to name a few. Their proprietary work with clients is highly customized. They pride theirselves in developing strategies and executions that will result in greater insights with longer impact across multiple areas of a brand’s business.

The Trendera Files is a multi-media trend study covering attitudes and behaviors among 8-44 year olds. The report includes access to an interactive community of their “Influencers”. The Trendera Files covers what consumers are into or over, and digs into the ‘Why’?. The Trendera Files reveal not only who the consumer is today, but also who they will become, giving marketers and brands the ability to be a step ahead. The Trendera Files is a forecasting tool not a reporting tool.

Specialization

Jane Buckingham is the world’s foremost expert on Gen X, Y, and upcoming Z Generations.

Partnerships

Trendera produces the trend forecasting report ‘THE TRENDERA FILES’ and works with clients including Facebook, Paramount, Fox, Target, L’Oreal, numerous Fortune 500 Clients including Microsoft, Nike, Target, Chanel, NBC, Procter and Gamble, MTV, Levis, Sony and others.)

‘How key it is to know how to pivot. Not reinvent, pivot. Look at where you are going and adjust slightly.’ -Jane buckingham

James Meredith the civil activist

The story of James Meredith rests on the wide and dispense in most libraries and various historical sources. Although the information does to cover his later life, the information provided equips the reader with a list of documentation of his experiences up to and through the 1963 era. We know that history is made when a person stands on his ground and demands his dreams to be fulfilled. However history still needs its reinforces and that is why when James Meredith sought to become the first black person to enroll at the University of Mississippi forty years ago, he was met by several challenges that he had to endure before he could be fully acknowledged. He had a duty to uphold the federal law for him to be allowed to join the university. There were about 127 deputy marshals who decided to risk their lives just to make his dreams come true. There has always been a wide race challenge in the United States of America facing the black people and in 1962 the cases were on the rise. Black people were denied some rights but changed when Meredith set his sight on overcoming all the obstacles and become the first black person to attend the Ole Miss.

He was determined to fight racism since he was dissatisfied with the way people related especially in the south and that is why he decided to apply for admission although he knew it was going to be a hard task. It was not going to be an easy task to get an admission at the university but Meredith was already aware of that. The citing administration refused to accept his application in huge numbers for several months. This prompted him to write a letter to the Thurgood Marshall and another one to the head of the National Association to get a defense for his colored people’s rights to enjoy the same rights as the whites. In the letter, he explained that he was aware of the difficulties involved in taking such a move but he said that he was fully prepared to pursue his dreams and overcome all the challenges he might come across. He wanted to make his dreams come true under all circumstances and nothing was going to stop him from doing what he felt was the right thing to do.

Kennedy was the only sympathetic leader to Meredith’s issue; this is because he scored a narrow election victory thanks to the black voters who supported him mightily. On the other hand Mississippi’s governor was very objective of the issue and during a TV interview he said that the institution was not ready to surrender to the illegal forces of tyranny and he declared that no school was going to be integrated in Mississippi while he was still in power. However later that year the court ruled in favor of Meredith and he was allowed the admission to join classes at the Mississippi university but Barnett was still against the court ruling. The task of enrolling safely and getting an admission at the university was entirely the role of the federal government and after the ruling president Kennedy sent his deputy Marshals into the fray. Meredith had to be accompanied by the chief U.S marshal to register at the university. Every time they went there they were stopped by the state politicians who were doing in accordance to Barnett orders. He had ordered that Mereith was not to be allowed to register at the university at all cost although the court had allowed him to register. After a long struggle president Kennedy escalated the matter and ordered that more marshals and deputies should accompany Meredith for his admission and ensure that he got admitted.

After a long struggle and state intervention Meredith finally got admitted into the university and he became the first black student to attend the ‘Ole Miss’. His admission was surely a violent confrontation between the students and the deputies. During the struggles more than 160 deputies got injured twenty eight out of them sustaining gun injuries. During the next year, the deputy marshals provided Meredith with a 24 hour protection while in his school and also when out of campus. They ensured that Meredith attended a school of his choice despite his race or color. He was determined to face all the challenges just to show everybody else that he had equal rights to attend college just lie his white peers.

Regardless of successfully enrolling into the university and graduated in 1964, Meredith was not fully satisfied with the way people approached him. He was the focal point of racism and this issue seemed to ignite a passion in him. In March 1966, he began his ‘March Against Fear’ movement from Memphis to Jackson in a move to protest against racism in the country and especially in learning institutions. Many Africa ‘Americans were subjected to violence and faced a lot of racism when they wanted to register as voters. Even before this movement bore any fruits Meredith was shot and got hospitalized. His place in the march was taken by other activists like Martin Luther King who were now determined to finish the march and get their rights on Meredith’s behalf. He rejoined the movement in June 25th 1966 after he had full recovered. Meredith continued with his education later at the University of Ibadan in Nigeria and later joined Columbia University where he gained A LL.B. towards the end of 1960s he had become the stockbroker and he stopped being a civil rights. He activist joined the Republican Party and that is where he contributed in fighting the white liberals since according to him they were the greatest enemy to civil rights of the African-American people.

In 1962 he highlighted and planned a solo 220 mile march to fight against the continuing racism especially in the south and encourage voter registration for the blacks. He did not want to engage in major civil right activism but during the second day of his call he was shot and suffered serious numerous wounds. However during the course of the movement more than 4,000 African-Americans had registered as voters and the march acted a as catalysts to continue with the community organization into the movement. In 2002 and in 2012 the University of Mississippi conducted one year long series of events in memory of the 40th and 50th anniversaries of Meredith and his integration into the institution. He was one of the greatest speakers invited into the campus and in his honor a statute was built to commemorate him and his role in the university.

School rules to regulate student behaviour and their connection to the law: custom essay help

All schools must have rules to regulate student behavior. Teachers and administrators are not at liberty to expel or suspend students in the special education program due to procedures and safeguards outlined in the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act (IDEA). There are significant restrictions existing against certain types of discipline of students with disabilities that result in a unilateral change in placement. But, how should children with disabilities be disciplined when they pose a threat to school staff and to other students?

In extreme cases of disciplinary action, an Interim Alternate Educational Setting (IAES) is a suggested method under IDEA 1997. An IAES would meet the obligation of providing FAPE during a 45 day removal. An IAES may be used in the following situations if a student is removed for 10 days or less, for 45 days suspension for carrying a weapon or possessing or selling illegal drugs or through a safety-dangerous process. In the safety-dangerousness process a school district may seek a hearing officer decision to place a student with disabilities in an IAES for up to 45 days when the student’s current placement is likely to result in the injury of the student or in injury to others, Hartwig & Reusch (2000).

Court Cases and the Law

1) the case of Kaelin v. Grubbs (1982) on March 13, 1979, Michael defied the authority of his teacher, William C. Daniel (the teacher). Michael refused to complete assigned classroom work. He also destroyed a work sheet and one of teacher’s coffee cups. Moreover, in attempting to leave the classroom, Michael kicked, pushed and hit the teacher. Michael was suspended from school the very next day. On April 17, 1979, the Walton-Verona Board of Education (“Board”) held a hearing concerning Michael’s behavior. The Board did not convene or consult the AARC before or during this hearing. Moreover, the Board did not address the relationship, if any, between Michael’s handicap and his disruptive behavior. Consequently, the Board expelled Michael from school for the remainder of the 1978-79 school year; effective April 30, 1979. The court concluded that the ‘use of expulsion proceedings’ as a means of changing the placement of a disruptive handicapped child violates the procedures of the Handicapped Children Act.

a) The Georgia law that applies to this case is 20-2-751.6 which states the disciplinary policy for students committing acts of physical violence against a teacher, school bus driver or other school official or employee.

b) P. L. 94-142

c) Statute: TITLE I / B / 615 / k / 1 (iii) has inflicted serious bodily injury upon another person while at school, on school premises, or at a school function under the jurisdiction of a State or local educational agency

d) The article Opportunities Suspended: The Disparate Impact of Disciplinary Exclusion from School describes the lost ‘seat time’ of approximately 3 million students in the 2009-2010 school year due to suspensions.

2) Honing v Doe (1988) stated the stay-put provision prevents schools from unilaterally moving students from placement to placement as decided by the U. S. Supreme Court. The Court also ruled that typical disciplinary procedures for establishing school discipline such as restriction of privileges, detention, and removal of students to study carrels may be used with students with disabilities.

a) Georgia law 160-4-7-10(5)(a) applies in that ‘school personnel may remove a child to an interim alternative educational setting for not more than 45 school without regard to whether the behavior is determined to be a manifestation of the child’s disability.’

b) Mergler, M. S., Vargas, K. M. & Caldwell, C. (2014) article notes that positive behavior supports seek to minimize the need for exclusionary procedures.

3) Stuart v Nappi (1981) court case addressed the issue that students with disabilities are neither immune from a school’s disciplinary process nor are they entitled to participate in programs when their behavior impairs the education of other children. School authorities can take swift disciplinary measures against disruptive students with disabilities. In brief, the school wanted to expel Stuart due to her behavioral and academic problems. Stuart’s parents brought suit against school officials and the Danbury Board of Education seeking an injunction of an expulsion hearing. Stuart alleged that she was being denied guaranteed rights for FAPE as guaranteed under IDEA. The court ultimately decided that expulsion was a change in placement inconsistent with IDEA’s procedural guidelines.

a) Georgia law 160-4-7-10(5)(b). applies in that ‘the interim alternative educational setting is determined by the IEP team.’ The Equal Protection Clause of the 14th amendment of the U.S. Constitution prohibits states from denying any person within its jurisdiction the equal protection of the laws.

b) Hartwig & Reusch (2000) noted in their article, Disciplining Students in Special Education, for a long-term removal in an IAES the student’s IEP team must determine the setting and services that will be offered.

4) In the case of S-1 v Turlington (1981) the 5th Circuit Court The trial court found that the EHA, effective in Florida on September 1, 1978, provided all handicapped children the right to a free and appropriate public education. The court further found that the expelled students were denied this right in violation of the EHA. In addition, the trial court decided that under section 504 and the EHA, no handicapped student could be expelled for misconduct related to their disability, unless it was determined that the student’s misconduct was not a manifestation of the disability.

a) Georgia law 160-4-7-10(5)(a). applies to this case as well.

b) Regulations: Part 300 / E / 300.530 / e (i) If the conduct in question was caused by, or had a direct and substantial relationship to, the child’s disability;

c) The article Positive Discipline discusses how students with disabilities are likely to be suspended more than once and the type of disability frequently identified was emotional and behavioral disorder.

d) Research shows that when education is disrupted by long absences, such as expulsion, the likelihood of dropping out increases dramatically and children with special needs are more likely to drop out Dwyer (1997), Disciplining Students with Disabilities.

Connection to the P-12 Schools

Significance

Gender equality and women's authorization

Women and young ladies face limits and damages in each zone within which we have a tendency to work.

While ladies compose quite forty % of the commercial enterprise work compel solely three to twenty % ar landholders. In Africa, ladies declared endeavors compose as pitiful as ten % of all associations. In South Asia, that variety is just three %. to boot, no matter addressing a large little bit of the general plenty, ladies deal underneath twenty % of the world’s administrators.

Putting ladies and young ladies on identical offset with men and young fellows will amendment each division within which we have a tendency to work. the first lady congressperson, wife Felton, served in 1922 (for one day), but the primary lady set to the Senate was Hattie Caraway in 1932. Fourteen of the ladies WHO have served were assigned; seven of these were named to succeed their nonchurchgoing companions.

There were still number of ladies within the Senate around the top of the twentieth century, long when ladies began to form up a foremost piece of the cooperation of the House. Really, the primary well-versed there have been 3 ladies within the Senate at constant time was in 1992, once Jocelyn Burdick of ND, joined urban center Kassebaum of Kansas and Barbara Mikulski of Maryland. the amount extended to four in Nov, once Dianne Feinstein won an outstanding selection in CA.

Before 2001, numerically talking, the foremost typically perceived approach for a lady to ascend to the U.S. Senate was to own been allotted there taking when the passing or abandonment of a companion or father WHO formally control the seat.

Two late folks from the Senate sent with them a combination of name affirmation happening in lightweight of the political callings of their distinguished mates and their own specific liberal association get in the open problems.

Why will the North American nation Still Have therefore Few ladies in Office?

With mountain climber Clinton the first pioneer within the 2016 Democratic very important, the u. s. could be a part of the united kingdom, Germany, Brazil and Argentina as larger half decide governments that have had a lady as their prime pioneer.

The Wahhabi movement: essay help online free

The Kingdom of Saudi Arabia would have never existed if it was not for the Wahhabi movement. The policies of Wahhab still influence the modern political and social structure of Saudi Arabia. In the 1500’s, ancestors of the family Al Saud occupied an indefinite amount of grove lands. The area evolved into a town and the family led its people over time. Then during the 1700’s a scholar named Muhammad ibn Abd al Wahhab created the teachings of Wahhabism. He studied islamic law in Mesopotamia and Hijaz before going to Najd to preach his theology. Wahhab’s teachings objected against polytheism, the belief that multiple figures and people held powers equivalent to the one central God. Wahhabism detested the idea of saints, pilgrimages to tombs and mosques, the worshiping of trees, caves, and stones, votive offerings, and any sort of indirect prayer to God that involves a third party. Ibn Abd al Wahhab considered this behavior as jahiliyya that violated islamic law. In the eyes of Wahhab, suffis, shiites and other religions in the middle east branched away from his code. The ways of the prophet and his people in Medina were only found acceptable. Wahhab demanded that all Muslims follow his ways. Instead of polytheism, Wahhabism centered on the oneness of god. Wahhabism also believed that in order for a country to run smoothly it had to stay under the path of God. Muslims must pledge allegiance to their leaders. The rulers in turn will guide their people in the ways of God and that will ensure that all people will have life after death. At first the public opposed Wahhabism. Later on, chief Ibn Saud of the Al Saud family protected this theology.

With support of the tribal ruler, Wahhab sent armies into Najdi to spread the ways of Wahhabism and abolish all other theologies. By 1765, Wahhabism had spread over most of Najd. In 1788, the united people under Wahhab created the first Saudi State in Najd. The city of Ad Diriyah became the center of study and missionaries were sent out through the peninsula, gulf, Syria, and Mesopotamia to spread Wahhabism. By the early 19th century the Saudi State expanded to most of the Arabian Peninsula. The state controlled Makkah and Madinah, the two holy Muslim cities. Scientific and economic knowledge flourished during the time of the first Saudi State. The first Saudi State also had a stable political system because it followed the principles of Islam. They captured city of Karbala in Iraq and the Wahhabis destroyed the tomb of Imam Husayn, a prominent figure among the Shiite people, in 1802. In 1804 the Wahhabis captured the city of Mecca and destroyed the cemetery of the holy men in Medina. These actions grabbed the attention of the Ottoman Empire, the strongest power in the Middle East and North Africa. Then in 1818, the Ottoman ruler of Egypt went off to overthrow the First Saudi State. The Ottoman army used advanced weapons to conquer Ad Diriyah. They ruined the lands resources by uprooting fields and destroying wells. This point marked the end of the first Saudi State. But even with the downfall of the Saudi State, people still followed the teachings of Wahhab. Descendent Turki bin Abdullah Al-Saud established the Second Saudi State in 1824. He later spent his eleven year rule retaking stolen land from the Ottomans. He used the same governing foundation as the first state and still relied greatly on the teachings of Islam. Under the rule of Turki and his son Faisal, a period of peace, agricultural and trade prosperity took place. That is, until 1865, when the Ottomans extended their empire into the Arabian Peninsula and took parts of the state that was ruled by Faisal’s son Abdulrahman bin Faisal Al-Saud. Originally the Saudi State fought back against the Ottomans but in 1891, Abdulrahman abandoned the fight. He escaped to Kuwait with his family and son Abdulaziz. The young Saud was a strong ruler, and would later become a warrior in the name of Islam.

Ibn Saud, also known as Abdulaziz, was determined to take his power back from the Ottomans occupying Riyadh. In 1902, he and only forty of his followers marched into Riyadh to take the city garrison. The victory lead by Ibn Saud in Riyadh marked the beginning of the formation of the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. The rule of Abdulaziz grew throughout the peninsula. Meanwhile, his followers became violent. They smashed the tombs of Muslim saints, imams or Islamic leaders, and even the tomb of the prophet Muhammad’s daughter, Fatima. These extreme acts were labeled as the Wahhabi Raid of 1924. With Riyadh as the center capital, the Wahhabis, under the leadership of Ibn Saud, captured all of the Hijaz, the western region of present day Saudi Arabia in 1925. The Wahhabis also controlled Makkah and Madinah. The region of warring tribes changed into one entity. On September 23, 1932 the nation officially became the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. The kingdom’s official language is arabic and the holy qur’an is its constitution.

Office of Special Education and Rehabilitative Services (OSERS): college essay help

The agency known as OSERS, Office of Special Education and Rehabilitative Services, is an agency that I wanted to pay particular attention to, because it services those who need extra help and brings benefits to the people of special needs. As an aspiring teacher, equality will be evident in my classroom and integration of children with special needs will be something I experience. ‘OSERS is committed to improving results and outcomes for people with disabilities of all ages’ (‘OSERS’). This agency has an important history, is important to my career as a teacher, and has passed regulations that impact the lives of people with special needs.

When defining exactly what OSERS is, it is a broad agency that helps research and provides opportunities such as jobs and education rights. According to the National Collaborative on Workforce and Disability Website, ‘OSERS provides a wide array of support to parents and individuals, school districts, and states in three main areas: Special education, vocational rehabilitation and research’. According to the Department of Education, there are three goals established by OSERS: To increase OSERS’ organizational capacity to promote successful outcomes for individuals with disabilities; to integrate disability issues and ensure participation of individuals with disabilities at the national, state, and local level; to improve employment outcomes for individuals with disabilities. Each individual is different; therefore, this agency can dedicate time to researching about a specific disability and try to make adaptations for the individual’s job or regular day at school.

To begin the history of OSERS, it is part of the United States Department of Education. It was made official by the signing of the 1979 Department of Education Organization Act. Jimmy Carter, the president in 1979, signed the act. Carter stated in his speech presiding the signing, ‘At no time in our history has our Nation’s commitment to education been more justified. At no time in our history has it been more obvious that our Nation’s great educational challenges cannot be met with increased resources alone’ (‘Jimmy Carter’). Before OSERS, along with other agencies that were created to benefit special needs and various services, acts such as the Randolph-Sheppard Act was established. According to the Education Department, the Randolph- Sheppard Act of 1936, promoted employment for the blind and provided opportunity to access jobs with the vending service. Acts such as the Randolph- Sheppard Act made differences in peoples lives even at the base employment level. OSERS, however, when established in 1979, brought together and provided a broader means of resources. ‘OSERS supports programs that serve millions of children, youth, and adults with disabilities’ (‘OSERS’). Today the Office of Special Education Rehabilitative Services is located in Washington D.C along with many other Agencies. OSERS supports and works on many programs, projects, and institutions.

My industry is Education; therefore, I will be influenced by OSERS with the most important item in my class, the students. As an education student, we are consistently taught about how students with disabilities will be and have been integrated into the classroom. For example, a student that is blind may be provided brail that has been specially created to enhance that certain lesson. OSERS provides research on how that particular student will function. The student will then be integrated in with the rest of the students. Another example is listed on the Department of Education website that provides resourceful e-books for students who cannot be in class everyday (‘OSERS’). OSERS works with my industry by expanding certain programs or regulations that teachers and educators would have to know and work by. As an educator or employer you cannot discriminate or single out against anybody; therefore, OSERS makes it easier for individuals to be integrated into a job or school. If the office provides regulations, then those are required to be followed when working with those of special needs. As listed above, the rehabilitation part of OSERS is of importance. ‘Rehabilitation is to return someone or something to a good or healthy condition, state, or the way of living’ (‘Cambridge’). OSERS uses the rehabilitative aspect to always improve the learning or working environment.

Two regulations created by OSERS that will impact my work are the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act (IDEA) and the Rehabilitation Act of 1973. ‘IDEA governs how states and public agencies provide early intervention, special education, and related services to more than 6.5 million eligible infants, toddlers, children, and youth with disabilities’ (‘OSERS’). This act is important because it will impact me in my work as a teacher because if I am to have a special needs student in my class, I have to ensure they are getting the most out of their education. Regardless of disability, I have to witness that everybody is treated the same. This is also important because if I was to single-out a student because of a disability it is both against regulations and against the right of the student. The Rehabilitative Act of 1973 is, ‘ The federal legislation that authorizes the formula grant programs of vocational rehabilitation, supported employment, independent living, and client assistance’ (‘OSERS’). The Rehabilitation Act is important to me because I may have a co-worker as a teacher that has impairment and receives discrimination even though they can perform their job just as well. As a teacher, somebody can have a hearing impairment and still provide a clear lesson to students; however, I may see that co-worker is being discriminated against by administration, and then it would be my job to report it to somebody.

In conclusion, I learned a lot of beneficial information regarding the OSERS. I believe the most beneficial fact I learned is that it is important that students with disabilities are provided with what they need. As a future teacher, I will always keep the guidelines of OSERS in check.

System Requirement Study

2.1 User Characteristics

User :

User can create their own individual user profile up to 9 different users. Each different user can give their name as input for their profile. Each profile contains a different icon for their profile. This application provides services for the user like:

User profile creation as player

Player icon selection from given options

Player icon with their name as input for different user

Player score card for selected user

Change player at any time

Player profile contains level and score information for individual Task.

2.2 Hardware and Software Requirement

The details below shows the minimum requirement that must be is required to run this application:

Hardware Requirements :

Processor : 800MHz

RAM : 256Mb

Screen Size : 240 X 120 dpi

Device : Android base device

Software Requirements :

Operating System : Android 2.3.1(API 9)

Supported Device :

This application developed by us supports all types of Android platform devices like Mobiles, Tablets, etc. which meets the minimum hardware and software requirements.

NOTE: The given requirements of system are minimum. So to run this application on any device this is minimum required to execute application efficiently.

2.3 Constraints

2.3.1 Hardware Limitation

It must be required minimum 256Mb Ram and processor with 800MHz and Android 2.3.1(API 9).This application will requires at least 10 to 20 Mb of phone storage or SD card.

2.3.2 Interface to other Applications

This application does not integrate with any other different application. It is a small application that stands and operate individually it does not depends or a component of any other larger application. Also it is not a replacement for any other application.

2.3.3 Parallel Operations

This application is parallel processing so, application is parallel to update player information for each level with its score. E.g. if user creates a player and reach to next level it stores level information and score for completed level.

2.3.4 Higher Order Language Requirement

In development it uses JAVA as higher order language. JAVA is a concurrent, class-based, object oriented programming language.

2.3.5 Assumptions

The Android device that is used is meeting minimum requirement in terms of hardware and software.

The database is correct and up-to-date every time.

2.3.6 Dependencies

The entire application task and processes are depended on end-users operations. They should possess basic knowledge to work with the application. The application is easy to interact but always depended on the input given by the user.

2.3.7 Criticality of the Application

When the available RAM goes it may possible this application may crash or in the case of low processor availability.

2.3.8 Safety Security Consideration

This application provides basic security like when only the player complete its level then only they are authorized to go to next level. Also completed level cannot be deleted by any other player.

2.4 Timeline Chart And Process Model

Process model

Here, we have decided to take ‘WATERFALL MODEL’ as our process model for developing the application. Because we find it more suitable for our application development.

The waterfall model is often called as ‘Linear-sequential model’ or ‘classic life cycle’. It is oldest software paradigm. This model suggests a systematic, sequential approach to software development.

The development process starts with requirement analysis, system design, implementation, testing, deployment, maintenance.

Framework Type:

In our Application we use Linear Framework because of

a. Project under control

b. Milestones are known and tracked

c. Resource requirements are know

d. Work distribution

e. Work well with inexperienced developers

This model is mainly divided into six phases as mentioned below:

1. Requirement analysis

2. System design

3. Implementation

4. Testing

5. Deployment

6. Maintenance

Fig. 2.2 Waterfall process model

The sequential phases in model are:

Requirements specification:

The first step of waterfall model is analysis of requirements in the beginning and to check whether the project is actually feasible with the technologies available in present or not. Requirements are gathered, analyzed and then proper documentation is prepared which is useful further in the development process of the project. Here all the requirements of the application ‘Kid’s World ‘ Play Learn Fun’ are gathered from the user. Gathered requirements are clear and will be used by the other software phases.

Design:

The requirements collected in the above phase are analyzed and a proper implementation strategy is created according to the software developing environment. The design phase is sub categorized into two sections, i.e. system design and component design. The system design contains details and specifications of the whole system and explains how each component of the system will interact with others. The component design contains specifications as to how each component will work separately and how results from one component will travel to another. Coders are individually assigned to develop each component. So, on the base of the client’s requirements collected by us will be used by the next phase to implement the functionality of the application.

Implementation:

Now is the time to actually start making the components. The information gathered in the first two phases is applied in this step to create the real working components of the system. The design generated in the above phase is converted into machine language that the computers can actually understand and process.

Testing:

The testing phase is a very important phase. In this phase the software is checked for any errors or compatibility or other issues. When the implementation phase is in its ending stage and codes are prepared that’s where testing phase starts. In order to make sure that the system is error free various tools, software and strategies are used for testing the solution. The individual program unit or programs are integrated and tested as a complete system to finalize that the software requirements have been met. After testing, the software system is ready to be delivered to the customer. Implemented coding of ‘Kid’s World ‘ Play Fun Learn’ is now tested against user’s requirements so that it is delivered to the intended user.

Deployment:

The deployment phase go smoothly if all the above phases are completed carefully. Once software is tested it needs to be assembled as a whole system and installed on the computer or required device.

Maintenance:

As the time passes requirement of users will change so modifications or upgrade is required for the system. Here where the maintenance phase comes in the picture. Maintenance is an upcoming process after deployment it may last for weeks months or years. No matter how carefully the software is made there is always possibility of occurrence of bugs in the tested software.

Advantages of Waterfall Iterative Model

1) Waterfall model is simple to implement and also the amount of resources required for it are minimal.

2) In this model, output is generated after each stage (as seen before), therefore it has high visibility. The client and project manager gets a feel that there is considerable progress. Here it is important to note that in any project psychological factors also play an important role.

3) Project management, both at internal level and client’s level, is easy again because of visible outputs after each phase. Deadlines can be set for the completion of each phase and evaluation can be done from time to time, to check if project is going as per milestones.

4) This methodology is significantly better than the haphazard approach to develop software. It provides a template into which methods of analysis, design, coding, testing and maintenance can be placed.

5) This methodology is preferred in projects where quality is more important as compared to schedule or cost.

Limitations of the waterfall model

1) The model implies that you should attempt to complete a give stage before moving on to the next stage

Does not account for the fact that requirements constantly change.

It also means that customers cannot use anything until the entire system is complete.

2) The model makes no allowances for prototyping.

3) It implies that you can get the requirements right by simple writing them down and reviewing them.

4) The model implies that once the product is finished, everything else is maintenance.

Why we use waterfall model?

Situations where waterfall model is appropriate:

Clear, Fixed and Well documented requirements.

Stable product definition.

Understandable technology and not dynamic.

Unambiguous requirements.

Illegal dumping of healthcare waste: college application essay help

The Constitution of the Republic of South Africa (1996) provides that everyone has the right to an environment that is not harmful to their health and well-being. However, the illegal dumping of health care risk appears to be a challenge in South Africa. health care risk waste (HCRW) poses a danger; not only to the health of scavengers who are directly exposed to it, but also to the environment when pollutants migrate into water sources and ultimately cause widespread infection and toxicity. To give effect to the Constitution, the safe disposal of hazardous waste is governed by legislation. ‘However, constant findings of illegal disposal of waste suggest a general lack of awareness and training in this sector’ (World Health Organisation (2011. According to the Hazardous Substances Act, (1973), waste is classified as general or hazardous waste according to the risk it poses. ‘General waste is defined as waste which does not pose a significant threat to public health or the environment. Hazardous waste; however, has the potential, even in low concentrations, to have a significant adverse effect on public health and on the environment’ (Hazardous Substances Act, 1973). According to the Health Care Risk Waste (HCRW) Management Regulations of 2008, health care risk waste is defined as that hazardous portion of healthcare waste which primarily consists of infectious waste; waste that may contain pathogenic micro-organisms, sharps; which includes sharp and pricking objects that may cause injury as well as infection, pathological waste includes parts that are sectioned from a body, chemical waste includes all kinds of discarded chemicals, including pharmaceuticals that pose a special risk to human health and environment. Looking at the definition of hazardous waste, it can be said that health care risk waste has the potential to become hazardous.

According to the World Health Organisation (2011), it is estimated that there is about 45 000 t of healthcare risk waste generated annually in South Africa. ‘There is a perception that there is insufficient capacity to treat the amount of the waste produced and this results in illegal storage and dumping,’ states Jewaskiewitz (2009), adding that a number of cases of illegal dumping have been reported in the media over the last five years or so. Illegal dumping is defined by Jewaskiewitz (2009), as the unlawful act of discarding waste in an improper manner, where it does not belong and where environmental damage is likely because of the improper disposal. Jewaskiewitz (2009) further mentions that ‘there are still some major cases of illegal dumping being prosecuted by the authorities going back some four to five years’ ,arguing that tender irregularities and fraud are also regularly being cited as the cause for many of the problems and challenges facing the healthcare risk waste industry. The reason behind the risk of the healthcare waste results when the waste has a potential to cause danger or possible loss or injury. According to the Draft Health Care Risk Waste Management Regulations (2012), a generator of waste refers to a person; including healthcare practitioners and facilities, whose actions or activities result in healthcare risk waste. ‘Any generator of waste has a duty of care to society; to handle, store, transport or dispose of waste in an environmentally sound way’ (National Environmental Management: Waste Act No. 59 of 2008).This is according to the National Environmental Management Act No. 107 of 1998 referred to as the cradle-to-grave responsibility since it lasts throughout the whole process of waste disposal. The World Health Organisation (2011) states that the major sources of healthcare risk waste are hospitals and other healthcare establishments, laboratories and research centres, mortuary and autopsy centres, animal research and testing laboratories, blood banks and collection services, nursing homes for the elderly. In this assignment, a closer look will be given to what are the causes of illegal dumping. The significance and degree of concern in South Africa will also be explored, as well as what the impacts of illegal dumping are with specific reference to health, the environment and the economy.

What causes illegal dumping of healthcare risk waste?

The South African Government News Agency (2012) reported that illegal dumping occurs when a person or business discards waste where it does not belong rather than disposing of it through proper channels, through a licensed waste hauler, recycler or permitted landfill. The report further elaborated that this often occurs because proper disposal is too convenient; the perpetrator does not want to pay the disposal fee or does not take the time to prepare the material for proper disposal. ‘In most cases the problem starts with the lack of awareness by different sized healthcare risk waste generators from both the public and private sector in terms of the risks associated with HCRW management as well as the duty of care principle’ (Department of Environmental Affairs and Tourism, 2008). This problem is evident from large HCRW generators all the way down to patients on home based care. (The South African Government News Agency (2012) argues that lack of cooperation by departments of Public Works that continue to install onsite HCRW incinerators at health care facilities without Environmental Impact Assessments being undertaken ends up in dire states. The Department of Environmental Affairs and Tourism (2008) reported that one of many causes of the illegal dumping of HCRW is the inappropriate and financially viable HCRW management systems for rural communities where relatively small volumes of HCRW are generated and long transport distances to treatment facilities are involved. It has also been mentioned that what encourages the illegal dumping of such waste is the lack of appropriate HCRW treatment facilities located in accordance with HCRW generation patterns throughout South Africa; as well as appropriate and readily accessible facilities for the disposal of treated HCRW residues (Department of Environmental Affairs and Tourism, 2008).

COGNITIVE ELEMENTS

“Change your thoughts and you will change your world.” These words are true and meaningful because after changing my thoughts about eating fast food for lunch I was able to change my behavior which led to eating a healthy lunch and excising, ultimately resulting in a healthy lifestyle. Cognitive Restructuring was vital in changing my thoughts, beliefs and attitude towards my behavior of eating fast food for lunch.

My attitude towards eating fast food for lunch was my denial to admit that at my age it can lead to various unhealthy conditions. I also thought being young will give me enough time to gradually start eating a healthy lunch and exercising. Another attitude that favored this behavior was eating in moderation. I knew that eating fast food leads to some of the medical conditions like obesity, hypertension, high cholesterol to name a few. Since I mostly ate small size meals only at lunch break therefore I thought neither will I get these unhealthy conditions nor will I be addicted to it. My family believes in certain values like eating should be enjoyable. A meal should always generate happy mood and it should be satisfying. Therefore, I too believed that it was perfectly fine to eat fast food as long as I was satisfied and enjoyed it.

Due to the hectic work, I believed that eating fast food for lunch was easier because it was less time consuming, readily available everywhere, convenient and it was relatively inexpensive which was an added benefit. I also believed due to my busy work schedule it would be difficult to stop eating fast food and switching over to eating a whole healthy lunch. Most of the times I ate lunch with my older colleagues. We often visited the same restaurants and ended up eating the same type of fast food. So I had this irrational thought that since they were older and had been eating the same lunch for a long period of time and were still healthy, therefore my body will definitely not suffer from any ill effects of fast food. My attitude, values, beliefs and irrational thoughts had me convinced that the fast food I ate for lunch would not make me unhealthy.

But after a few months I was diagnosed with gastritis and was prescribed medicines. The weight gain and mood changes that I had developed made me feel unwell. Author Ann Pietrangelo in the article The effects of fast food on the body (2014), writes in detail about the diseases it causes like hypertension, increase in body weight, insulin resistance, headache depression to name a few. In an article Break the fast food habit, author Kristin Ohlson (2008) tells about how fast food is not only unhealthy but also addictive. Just like drugs it also has all the addictive properties and even has withdrawal symptoms. Therefore, early acceptance regarding addiction and then reforming the habit is important. After reading all these articles it became clear to me that my thoughts of being young, eating in moderation and never getting addicted to fast food were all wrong. During the same time my grandfather passed away because of a heart attack and both my parents were diagnosed with hypertension. Along with my unhealthy status these health conditions diagnosed in my family members put a fear in me and I became determined to change my behavior.

Cognitive restructuring helped me change my way of thinking and my behavior from eating fast food to eating a healthy lunch and leading a healthy life. Just like Alia Hoyt mentions in her article Break your junk-food addiction (2014), I too started to change my behavior step by step. First, I tried to cut down my fast food intake for lunch and started taking salads, whole grain sandwiches, a set of home cooked rice, lentils, vegetables and one serving of fruits. Then, I completely stopped eating fast food, increased my fruit intake to two servings and drank one liter of water each day. After one month I combined my healthy eating habit with jogging for thirty minutes every morning. Initially, it was difficult because I did not like the taste and had a craving for fast food. Also, because of my hectic work schedule it was challenging to follow the healthy lunch diet. But gradually I made it a habit to follow these changes. The result was evident in my weight loss and I felt happy and good about myself. Just like we humans our taste buds are also very adaptable that’s why now I not only like healthy food but also enjoy it. Now-a-days I enjoy cooking too. The advantages of cooking are I eat healthy homemade food and it also relieves stress. Now, my new goal is to follow a healthy menu for an entire day so that I get the required calories and nutrients for an entire day instead of just lunch. I also want to increase my exercise regimen to moderate level of workout along with jogging.

My initial belief of having difficulties in changing my behavior because of various reasons was wrong. Once I realized that I too can get unhealthy as a result of eating fast food and with a family history of hypertension and heart attack the fear of suffering the same in the future motivated me to change my thinking and ultimately my behavior. My priority now is to happily enjoy healthy living.

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References

Hoyt, A. (2014, March 27). Break your junk-food addiction. Retrieved from cnn.com: http://www.cnn.com/2014/03/27/health/upwave-junk-food-addiction/

Ohlson, K. (2008, May). Break the Fast-Food Habit. Retrieved from experiencelife.com: https://experiencelife.com/article/break-the-fast-food-habit/

Pietrangelo, A. (2014, October 22). the Effects of fast food on the body. Retrieved from http://www.healthline.com: http://www.healthline.com/health/fast-food-effects-on-body

 

Equality in organisations

Introduction

In the United Kingdom, every organization is committed to promote equality, value diversity and create an all-inclusive environment for both their clients as well as their employees in their policy. They are increasingly embracing diverse environments at local and also international level. This can be noticed in their clients, customers, workforce, suppliers, suppliers, partners and communities. The business environment is very competitive and for an organization to be successful, performances and employees engagement is a key factor. Therefore, this paper attempts to evaluate the key features of the equality and diversity of an organization. The organization to be examined critically is UK Oxford shire. The paper would examine the challenges in which the organization experience in operationalizing its policy and approaches which could be taken to ensure effective implementation.

Main Body

Age UK Oxford shire is an organization that is promoting the well-being of old persons and is working to make later life most enjoyable and fulfilling experiences. They understand that all people are individual with diverse preferences, abilities and needs. The organization is aiming to reflect diversity and equality in everything it undertakes. They make their services accessible and inclusive to old persons from all sections of the community, retaining and attracting diverse workforce. Age UK Oxford shire believes that discrimination denies human dignity and should be actively opposed. Diversity means variety, difference and multiplicity. It implies an approach to tackle an inequality that stems from forms of discrimination based on disability, age, disability, domestic circumstances, ethnic or national origin, gender. In addition, they want equality regardless of nationality, race, religion or belief, political affiliation, sexual orientation and trade union membership.

Age UK Oxford shire is aiming at treating people in a fair manner, dignity and with respect. The organization cannot give room any form of victimization, harassment and discrimination. Their aim is to value differences in a positive manner. Age UK Oxford shire believes that in order to be more effective and a better place to work they require to harness attributes, experiences and contributions. The organization prioritizes equality as their mainstream part of work. They make sure that their policies, practices and plans embrace equality targets and objectives appropriately. Age UK Oxford shire organization is committed to publicly do something visible and practical about Diversity and Equality.

Age

Ageism can be defined as ‘application of assumed age-based group characteristics to an individual, regardless of that individual’s actual personal characteristics’3. Age discrimination can be experienced by anyone, at any age, young and old. As an example, in an interview the panel may assume that ‘older’ candidates are less able to learn new skills or ‘younger’ candidates are less likely to be committed to the organization. Such assumptions may mean that the panel members fail to consider the individual’s skills, experience and personal characteristics.

Disability

The ‘social model’ of disability, which MMU supports, locates the disability within the physical barriers and negative attitudes in society rather than a person’s impairment. In the medical model, disabled people are seen as the problem. They need to change and adapt to circumstances (if they can), and there is no suggestion that society needs to change. It is important to avoid characterizing disabled people as a victimized group. Avoid expressions that turn adjectives into nouns e.g. ‘the disabled’ which depersonalize, or which define people in terms of their disability, such as ‘epileptics’. It is helpful to use positive images of disabled people in case studies etc. in order to illustrate that disability is incidental to the activity being undertaken. Bear in mind the needs of disabled people in the design of written material. In producing typed text consider the size and shape of the typeface to ensure that the maximum number of readers can see it clearly without assistance.

This will help those with visual loss or dyslexia to read the text, as smaller and more elaborate fonts are more difficult to read. High contrast text/images with uncluttered backgrounds are best. Try to avoid text superimposed on images. Glossy paper and coloured print also make reading more difficult for everyone. Written materials, where requested should be available in alternative formats e.g. on disk for those unable to read print and in advance of the meeting or lecture. All web based material should be accessible to the technologies used by some disabled people and conform to the good practice guidelines on accessibility to disabled people.

Gender

The English language has traditionally tended to assume the world to be male unless specified otherwise and therefore it is important to be sensitive to ways in which the use of sex neutral words can actively promote equality. Using ‘he’ to refer to an unspecified person is now generally considered unacceptable and it is preferable to use ‘(s) he’, ‘she/he’ or’s/he’ or ‘he or she’ and vice versa. Use gender-neutral language; women are also often referred to in terms of the title conferred by their marital status ‘ ‘Miss’ or ‘Mrs’. As you will often not know a woman’s marital status, it is safer to use the title ‘Ms’, which may not always be their preferred title, but will not be inaccurate. Approximately half of the people in paid work in Britain are women and a minority of households now takes the form of a traditional nuclear family. It is important to reflect this in case studies and teaching materials and you should consider showing women in jobs, hobbies and roles traditionally ascribed to men and vice versa. Use ‘partner’ instead of spouse routinely, to avoid assuming that everyone is a heterosexual couple or part of a ‘traditional’ family. Sex has traditionally been associated with the words for particular roles for example ‘foreman’, ‘housewife’ and ‘chairman’. The test is always to ask yourself whether you would describe someone of the other sex in the same way and so using the word ‘chairman or ‘chairwoman’ to advertise a post on a committee or board would not be advisable.

Race and Ethnicity

When it comes to cultural classification or ethnicity both of these factors are always self-defined and one individual’s opinion may differ from another. The term ‘ethnicity’ is used to refer to the sense of identity which derives from shared cultural characteristics such as language, religion, history or geographical location. Everyone has a race and belongs to an ethnic group, whether they are in the majority or minority. The term ‘ethnic’ to describe someone’s racial origin is therefore meaningless. BME stands for black and minority ethnic. ‘Minority ethnic’ refers to those people/groups other than the white British majority. The term ‘black people’ refers to Black British, African-Caribbean, African, or African American people. Opinion is divided amongst British Asians about whether they consider themselves as ‘black’ and for this group the term should be considered a matter of self-definition. ‘Asian’ and ‘South Asian’ in the UK is used to refer to people from India, Pakistan, Bangladesh and their British Asian descendants. ‘South East Asian’ includes people and their descendants from the Far East.

Religion and Belief

You should be respectful of people’s religious beliefs and be aware that some terminology may offend. The most commonly used inappropriate terms in the UK tend to refer to Christianity. You should be respectful of, and sensitive to, the way in which we refer to the religious beliefs and customs of all faiths.

Sexual Orientation

The dominant societal bias towards heterosexual lifestyles fosters assumptions that attraction to people of the opposite sex is the ‘norm’ and a different orientation towards people of the same sex is therefore unacceptable. As equal members of society lesbians and gay men should be described in terms that do not demean them, sensationalize their lives or imply deviance. The term ‘homosexual’ is generally not used now, as it has medical and derogatory connotations and is often considered only to refer to men. To avoid any misunderstanding people should stick to using the words lesbian, gay or bisexual – even though they may hear LGB people choosing to speak about themselves differently. Care is needed however. Some women, for instance, may refer to themselves as gay women rather than as lesbians.

Transgender

‘Trans’ is an inclusive term for those who identify themselves as transgender, transsexual or transvestite. The word ‘trans’ can be used without offence to cover people undergoing gender transition; people who identify as someone with a different gender from that in which they were born, but who may have decided not to undergo medical treatment; and people who choose to dress in the clothing typically worn by the other sex.

Challenges in Operationalization of the Policy

Furthermore, the legal and social structures put in place not only enable this to happen, but are deliberately utilized to create inequality. Jewson and Mason (1986) argued that at times those responsible for equality of opportunity at the ground level deliberately conflate policy models to confuse opponents; we believe that the problem is much greater than this.

The 1998 guidelines for EU member states refers to ”main streaming” of gender

equality issues into all four of the pillars for action of increased employment,

entrepreneurship, adaptability and equal opportunity (Booth and Bennett, 2002). The

concept of main streaming is not unproblematic. For example, gender specific issues

around violence, poverty, abuse and prostitution are impossible to ad dress with

main streaming. The focus on equal treatment further denies the oppression of certain

groups (Young, 2000).

At the organizational level main streaming has meant something else. Part of this organizational mainstreaming agenda has been caught up in the development of a parallel project which is often labelled as ”diversity ”. On one level it is a free-standing policy objective, where greater diversity is something to be pursued and celebrated, on another it forms the co re of a policy agenda known as ”man aging diversity” (Kandola et al. 1995). While managing diversity has made an impact on some organisations, as we will argue below (see also Johns, 2006), in practical terms it has yet to displace equal opportunities thinking, language and practice. Diversity, as a principle is conceptually at odds with the policy of mainstreaming, despite its inclusive language (Dickens, 1994).

The problems of the European Union: essay help site:edu

Introduction

Ever since the beginning of European culture and the European way of life began its journey in ancient Greece throughout the Roman times, the medieval ages or in the modern times, it has never been this integrated and peaceful as now. The continent has been one of the most diverse of all continents, if accounted for size. Europe was a strong continent, with countries that have ruled half of the planet at some points, but in the modern age the continent have became divided and weak, especially compared to the continent sized superpowers of the USA and the Soviet Union. This reason have brought forth the idea of a single, united Europe, which is able to held its own in both military and economic terms. After this enlightment, the leaders of the continent have gradually made changes in their policies and facilitated change so a supranational organization can be founded to unite the old continent. Even though the cooperation is much more developed as it was used to, but the fiscal and monetary cooperation is far from perfect. Only the fiscal policy is a common policy, but the monetary policy is at national level. The current debt crisis showed the dangers of this half integration.

Europe and the problems of unity

First of all, the European Union is using a same currency, with same interest rates for very differently developed countries. The needs of Germany are completely different and on a whole different level as of a smaller county such as Malta or even Belgium. The problem is that the common monetary policy is set for the whole Euro zone.

This means that the interest rates are similar for countries with different growth prospects. There is no “one size fits all” in economics what is acceptable for Germany or other countries, with relative high growth rate and developed financial markets, is not acceptable for other countries, which are dealing with recession. This has become clear when the Greek government have launched a campaign to change the mind of the policymakers and the leaders of the main countries of the EU, first and foremost, Germany (Bird, 2015). This continuous battle shows that the one size fits all economic policy is simply not fitted for such a diverse union. The ECB set higher interest rates to favor the German economy and help to boost the European economy through that, but these higher interest rates were not appropriate for some other countries such as Portugal and Italy (Pettinger, 2013).

Europe is really diverse and this makes it harder for workers to deal with unemployment, than it does in a country with less diversity in language and culture. Because of this, if someone got unemployed in Hungary, he would have a much harder time finding a new job in another country. The language and the culture are quite different in Europe, unlike the US.

The US is often thought to be the Optimal Currency Area. The main criteria are the labor and capital mobility. The second one is the price and wage flexibility across regions and the third is the ability to transfer government funds and adjust the taxation across region.

How do the countries of the EU compare to the states of the US in terms of the OCA criteria?

Labor mobility US > EMU

Capital mobility US = EMU

Price flexibility US = EMU

Wage flexibility US > EMU

Union level fiscal transfers US > EMU

(CES, 2009, Optimal Currency Area)

It is evident, that the US outperforms the European Monetary Union in 3 areas out of the 5, and even in the remaining field, the two unions are equals. The EU is not able to beat the US in any relevant fields, which leads to structural level problems, and smaller competitiveness compared to the US and the rest of the world economy.

To balance out these problems and to become similar to the US, the EU needs to remove language and cultural barriers throughout the Union. It also need to make the wages much more responsive to price and inflation fluctuations. This limits the labor movement severely. The last main issue is that the EMU cannot transfer funds or adjust taxes from one region to another. In the US these issues are resolved and it is a one of the main source of their general efficiency.

A similar, federal-local system similar to the US could solve funding issues in EU projects; as regions would be able to use their funding for the smaller issues, while the higher level could concentrate on European cohesion. This of course would also require that the EU would get more funding from the members, and this is unlikely in the foreseeable future (Knipton, 2013).

The fiscal policy is limited. It is important to have similar levels of national debts, because otherwise the counties which have a higher national debt will have a hard time finding buyers for their national debt. This caused a huge problem in the PIIGS (Portugal, Ireland, Italy, Greece and Spain), who have huge national debt, which is getting harder and harder to finance.

One of the main problems is that there is no Europe-wide fiscal authority. Each individual country in the EU controls its own budget and thus fiscal policy. It is a problem because the EMU cannot deal with the economic fluctuations on a regional level and it cannot eliminate the ups and downs. Because of the nationally lead fiscal policy, it is harder for the European Central Bank to cooperate with the national level authorities. Another setback is that these national authorities can and already have acted without regards to the common hazards and they already collected high national deficits (Pettinger, 2013).

The specialists argue that countries which are member of the Euro Zone, tend to fall into a sense of security and they think that they are safe from the currency crisis. This sense that for security can be a quite dangerous one, because countries and the local governments are delaying the structural changes and fiscal responsibility. This is weakening the Euro Zone, because the Economic and Monetary Union cannot affect the local fiscal policies.

Germany has a sense of recovery, as the investors are flocking to the largest and safest economy of the Euro zone. This made the Germans sure that their mix of fiscal and monetary strictness and discipline is the only working way; this perception have blocked the talks between Germany and Greece, as Germany is unwilling to accept alternative solutions or any kind of extra support (Smith and Rankin, 2015).

In the case of Greece, they benefitted from the low bond yields, because the Euro zone was backing up the Greek debt. Because of this, they delayed the structural reforms and this lead to a dangerous situation, where even the complete bankruptcy of Greece was imaginable (El-Elrian, 2012).

There is no lender of last resort yet, because the European Central Bank will not buy bonds from countries which have short term liquidity problems. Because of this, those member states that need the ECB the most – are excluded.

Also, there divergence in bank rates. The Euro zone is supposed to create a common interest rate, however we see something else. We see that the interest rates for the private sector in the peripheral countries are significantly higher than the ones at the central countries. Even though the ECB tried to counter it by cutting the official interest rate, but it was not effective, since the banks did not cut a meaningful amount from the interest rates charged after debt. So this move failed to solve the issues of the companies in the peripheral countries, such as Italy or Spain (Pettinger, 2013)

Social Issues

“Europe is facing its worst humanitarian crisis in six decades,” according to the general secretary of the International Federation of Red Cross (IFCR), Bekele Geleta. Even years after the financial crisis, there are millions of people falling under the poverty and staying there for indefinable time (Machaus, 2013).

The crisis made the poor poorer, and it also started to destroy the middle class as well. The middle class of Serbia for example had already been shirked.

The crisis also affected the hospitals and the social sector, because the countries cut from the funding of these as a reaction to the crisis. So now when the people need it most, there is less help than it used to be. The level of service in these sectors keeps declining, which is completely in contrary with the EU’s objectives.

The unemployment is also one of the largest concerns of European Union. The newcomers to the job market are affected even more severely. This means that the young people are not able to find jobs in their own country and they start migrating to other countries. In Spain the unemployment rate under 25 years is more that 50%. This leads to the overburdening of the receiver’s social sector and it also increases xenophobia and rising social turmoil, such as anti migration protests. The migrated workers are already causing problems, and it would only deteriorate; with a mass of peripheral Europeans migrating to the centre (Pipes, 2014).

These people are not only in the peripheral countries, with weaker economy. The number of people dependent on welfare is growing in the most powerful economies of EU as well. In Germany and France there are more and more people who are unable to afford food and rent at the same time. If it was not for the food aids, these people would either starve or would be homeless. According to the Red Cross, there are around 600 000 German citizens, who are in this situation and the number is still growing (Machaus, 2013)

Conclusion

The problems of the European Union can come from several reasons. The first is the Great Recession, which hit the Euro zone and crippled the economy.

However there are other factors as well, which can be equally if not more dangerous. The countries of the EU are not pushing the structural, fiscal and monetary reforms which are needed to secure the future of the European Union.

The rising problem of unemployment is also linked to both reasons. To stop this, the European Union needs to deal with structural reforms, because this problem cannot be solved by just policy changes, it needs real changes and real solutions for the problems of the European Union.

Challenges of caregivers

Caregivers were found to endure mental stress due to their relatives’ injury and care-related issues. They were worried about the impact of the trauma on their clients’ health, outcome of treatment and longevity of care giving. The findings of this study were consisted with those of Dickson et al., (2011) that reported spousal caregivers of persons with spinal cord injury (SCI) experience worries as a result of uncertainty of the outcome of their partners’ health conditions, sudden change of role and chronicity of their roles. This study found that some caregivers were despaired by the poor outcome of their clients’ treatment when the care recipients could not walk during discharged. This concurs with the findings of a study reported caregivers were devastated and worried upon realizing the clients’ spinal injury was permanent (Lucke et al., 2013). The situation worsened their mental health by increasing their risk of developing depression (Rodakowski et al., 2013).

Thoughts of how to get money for treatment of clients culminated in obsessive thinking and worrying due to the high monetary requirement. Gardiner, Brereton, Frey, Wilkinson-Meyers, & Gott, (2014) gave similar description in their which suggested the cost of caring for a family member led to increased caregiver burden. This resulted in sleepless night and loss of concentration. Effects of financial burden on caregivers have also been reported to include increased worrying and difficulties in coping (Gardiner et al., 2014).

This study also found pains that persons with spinal cord injury (SCI) went through also emotional affected their caregivers. They were worried when the clients were going through pain or grief due to unexpected injury. They empathized with their care recipients when they were in pain. As commented by PP3 ‘When he went to the theatre and came back, that very day the doctors needed to do (wound) dressing, the way the child was shouting, I could not stand there. It was as if I was the one they were working on.’ The findings of this study is similar to those reported by Angel & Buss, (2011) among cohabitant couples whose partners had SCI in Denmark that the injured person’s pain increased psychological stress of healthy partners. Studies have also shown that caregivers go through sorrow without having emotional assistance (Lucke et al., 2013;Wells et al., 2009) but are however expected to provide emotional support to the injured person. This current study reported caregivers who could not control their emotions after their client’s injury wept upon seeing them immediately after the injury. Consistent with other findings, a qualitative study using grounded theory approach by Lucke et al., (2013) indicated that family caregivers of newly Latino persons with SCI experienced feeling of sadness during the early months of caring. The issue was not peculiar to only this study, Chen & Boore, (2009) reported that caregivers wept because of the incapacitation of their clients at the early stage of the injury. Dickson et al., (2011) also suggested moderate depression among 40% of caregivers caring for persons with SCI due to caregiver burden.

5.2 Challenges of caregivers

Caregivers reported being worried by myriad challenges. According to ABCX family stress model, stressors are the issues or needs that upset the caregiver or the family. The study revealed caregivers were faced with financial need because of the huge cost of treatment that affected the family’s finances. The findings of this study mirrors those by Monlinari, Gum, Roscore & Mills, (2008) which found family members were upset by the continual financial demands of caring for an injured relative. Similarly, Chen & Boore, (2009) reported caregivers and their families were faced with financial challenges after the unexpected injury. They were worried because of fear of lack financial resources required for the treatment of the disabled member (Chen & Boore, 2009). Caring for persons with SCI is financially intensive as a result, a huge financial burden is placed on families whose member is injured in the Ghanaian setting. A study reported financial cost included transportation to hospital, costs of medical service, prescription drugs and hospital bills (Gardiner et al., 2014; Sun, 2014). It was revealed that inadequate funding could limit the quality of medical treatment the client could access since the cost of treatment had to be paid by the family before certain services could be rendered.

The study also identified that, transportation of persons with SCI to the hospital was perceived a challenge for caregivers because the client’s condition, cost involved and scarcity of ambulances in certain remote parts of Ghana. Other studies found lack of access to transportation as a vexed challenge that made the need for physiotherapy and going out with the person with SCI for social activities difficult (Beauregard & Noreau, 2009; DeSanto-Madeya, 2009). Use of taxi and other commercial vehicles were employed to convey persons with SCI to the hospital and this sometimes caused the clients a lot of discomfort. This study result supports claims by Ahidjo et al., (2011), that indicated the use of ambulances and commercial vehicles for transportation of person with SCI in Nigeria. According to Ahidjo et al., (2011), the use of commercial vehicles and crouch positions were factors that negatively influence the outcome of the injured person condition.

Besides, the art of caregiving was as a major challenge that caregivers estimated as a difficult. Caregivers had to take care of all personal care activities that the clients could not perform personally. Caregiving tasks identified included bath??ing, dressing, diaper change, transferring, laundry, and transportation, feeding, managing medications (Rodakowski et al., 2013). Physical care of clients was reported by this study as a cumbersome activity that required extra training or caution. Likewise, 68% of caregivers in a comparable study reported being overwhelmed by their caregiving responsibilities (Arango-Lasprilla et al., 2010). They reported being anxious about the risk of causing further injury and pain to their clients because such clients require special attention (DeSanto-Madeya, 2009). This study reported their caregiving functions affected their physical health. Chen & Boore, (2009) gave a similar description when they reported, caregivers complained of exhaustion due to caregiving tasks. This study also found bed sore made caregiving tasks complex because the sores were never healing. Caregivers felt unprepared to deal with the complications of the client’s condition such as bedsores (Lucke et al., 2013). This was supported by PP1 as he pointed out ‘He is going to be discharged but here he is having some bed sores. Which we know it is not something which can be handled easily by us or any other person’Now how are we going to handle it’?

Though caregivers lacked the skills for caring for the injured family member, they were not given any training. A study found caregivers observed nurses without being able to assist their clients much at the initial stages of care. They further indicated how significant it is to involve relative in the caring process Angel & Buus, 2011). It is apparent that a special training for caregivers of person with SCI on the management of the injured family member at home in the Ghanaian setting would be worthwhile. This current study found that caregivers faced difficulties at the health facility during admission of their clients due to limited access to beds, uneasy access to medical specialist and unfriendly relationship of some healthcare providers. Brew Richardson, (2002) reported 7.7% of clients were delayed at the emergency because they had difficulty accessing hospital inpatients beds. This means that delays in access to inpatient beds could also delay certain specialist care. This study found that, relationship with healthcare providers had two facets. While some caregivers reported having supportive relationship with healthcare providers others were not treated friendly. The finding of this study is consistent with those by Lucke et al., (2013) which identified some caregivers found healthcare providers very helpful and supportive with the educational and physical aspects of care. Unfriendly relationship with family caregivers resulted in poor discharge information that complicated client’s condition. This finding pararelles other studies that suggested poor discharge information to caregivers can have direct effect on the care of clients in the community placing client safety in danger (Shivji, Ramoutar, Bailey, & Hunter, 2015). PP5 pointed out she was not given any information with regards to her daughters wound dressing at home except being told to come for review in two (2) weeks’ time. She was also not able to make enquiry from the nurse on duty because she was very unfriendly and that resulted in her daughter’s wound being infected. Accordingly, healthcare providers need to ensure good relationship with clients and their family caregivers so that their concerns can be broached for redress.

Also, caregivers were reported by this current study to spend more time at the hospital while their clients were on admission. Some caregivers came to the hospital early in the morning to attend to their clients and left there late in the evening. Similar findings have been reported by Lucke et al., (2013) that caregivers visited the hospital frequently while the family member was on admission, to learn to care for their loved ones.

Electrical Engineering: writing essay help

Electrical Engineering is a standout amongst the most imperative designing fields. It is a blend of different majors, for example, hardware, computerized interchanges, information transfers, and force gadgets, sign handling, incorporated circuits, micro processors and controllers. Livelihood opportunities are bounty in this field of study. Designers of this stream get employments in PC related firms, electrical and electronic firms, telecom commercial ventures and different assembling businesses. Electrical Engineering employments incorporate research, advancement, and outline, testing, counseling and educating. To be effective in Electrical Engineering we ought to be productive in critical thinking, innovative, and expert of PC plan, science and great learning in physical science and power to deliver adequate and decided yields.

“The architect and the technologist utilize a blend of science, math, and critical thinking abilities to outline, build, keep up, and circulate products, administrations, and data. In particular, specialists and designing technologists outline and grow new items and administrations. They create testing techniques and utilization research strategies to deliver sheltered, practical, and tough items and deal with the improvement and creation of products and administrations” [FDU Library]. Imagination is the real perspective that an Electrical Engineer ought to have.An Electrical Engineer ought to have solid learning at ideas in material science and math.

Moreover, specialized abilities and PC capability are needed for an essential basic occupation. There are some extra aptitudes helps Electrical Engineer manages diverse labs, for example, VHDL lab, Mat lab furthermore for outlining new CAD programming. Architects oblige manual and itemized learning of numerous sorts of get together procedures and different devices. Livelihood prerequisites differ by the forte of the stream we work.

We ought to have definite learning of the properties of metal and outline to make sheltered, proficient yields when we construct modern apparatus. To discover the vocation as an Electrical Engineer an individual ought to have a professional education. A percentage of the little occupations we traverse single guys degree just. The work here taking into account the standards and procedures in outline and usage with utilization of equipment and programming. Individuals who buckle down and fit for showing their abilities have extensive variety of headway opportunities in the assembling organizations and designing firms. Relational abilities are important to have the capacity to work with gatherings. We ought to comprehend proficient and moral obligations to be an impeccable specialist. We ought to have capacity direct new examinations, plan and examine to decipher information.

Electrical Engineers have difficulties, for example, critical thinking and the utilization of proper specialized arrangements, test supplies, and systems which will help us to accomplishment over the span of study. In this field we have long lasting adapting through course in specialized correspondence, research facility and division research exercises. Effective electrical designers have an alternate way to the issues furthermore conceive brand new ideas to discover the better arrangements. We ought to be meticulous when are dealing with our items. An effective specialist is one who is fit for checking little subtle elements at every step.

To be effective we ought to be great communicators and we ought to know how to compose clear and compact reports, the best approach to pass on our thoughts to our directors and ready to convey the guidelines to our representatives. Cooperation is most imperative in this field in light of the fact that it have all that much hard works which could be possible effortlessly when imparted. In a group the designer ought to work with an inspirational disposition for the accomplishment of the venture. Certainty at the work will pick up trust from the associates and great distinguishment from the higher powers.

In the event that you are an Electrical designer you are a regular learner on the grounds that innovation changes continually, so it keeps us to proceed with our training and stays overhauled with any progressions or new thoughts in the field. To be effective in this field we need to ceaselessly look at things and thinking in distinctive ways help us in adapting new ideas. We must think well when we are doing our work in light of the fact that slight blunder can result in the whole thing to come up short. Time administration is all that much essential here on the grounds that the vast majority of the things we bargain here are with time just; every gear is situated to work in the certain timeline. Fruitful electrical specialist can dissect and interfere with information and outline new gear’s when vital. We ought to be ready take obligations and difficulties at work. We ought to be mindful of the contemporary issues. You must realize what your errand is and ready to create dependable yield.

A decent specialist makes a supplies and innovation to the serve client needs. You must impact the client with the venture what you made. One ought to be dedicated furthermore a have decent hard working attitude. We ought to look after a ‘can do’ state of mind at the work space. Promptness ought to be kept up by great architect. Versatility and adaptability furthermore the capacity buckle down are fundamental for the development in this field when we take occupation as an issue. Impeccable judgment abilities are essential in adjusting expense issues, advantages, wellbeing quality.

There are a few vital subjects in this field, for example, Power hardware, Control frameworks, Integrated Circuits, Computer Communication Networks, VLSI, Electrical Circuits, Embedded frameworks, Micro Processors and Controllers, Electrical Circuits, CAD, Wireless Communications, Telecommunications and numerous more fields that an individual ought to have great learning for the gigantic accomplishment in Electrical Engineering.

In the present day world Telecommunication assumes a critical part as we all utilizing the some correspondence mediums, for example, Cell Phones to correspond with others, so the individual with great learning in Telecommunications have incredible interest concerning livelihood. IC circuits are vital on the grounds that it manages the outline of chips and coordinated circuit. Any electronic supplies ought to utilize coordinated circuits for its process. So IC circuits likewise assume a noteworthy part in Electrical building.

All the fields in Electrical Engineering are co related with one another, in the event that you have incredible information in any of the fields of Electrical Engineering one can have great job opportunities. Electrical and Communications Engineering is a stream in which we can work in Software field too. So Electrical Engineers will have double open doors.

At last an Electrical Engineer ought to have exhaustive information in different subjects and definite learning of central Electronics. One ought to be actually sound, inventive with new thoughts, effective with yields, great at arithmetic to manage the issues furthermore ideas of material science in light of the fact that one needs to manage significant ideas of physical science, look into, and grow new systems, gears. One ought to have learning on distinctive dialects and be arranged to work in different nations for turning into an effective Electrical Engineer.

Flora in the oral cavity: essay help

The oral cavity contains some of the varied and vast flora in the entire human body and is the main entrance for two systems vital to human function and physiology, gastrointestinal and respiratory systems. The mouth harbors a diverse, abundant and complex microbial community. This highly diverse microflora inhabits the various surfaces of the normal mouth. Bacteria accumulate on both the hard and soft oral tissues in biofilms. Bacterial adhesion is particularly important for oral bacteria. Some bacterial population causes the oral disease like dental caries, gingivitis, periodontitis etc. (Seymour et al.,2007)

The periodontal diseases are a diverse group of clinical entities in which induction of an inflammatory process results in destruction of the attachment apparatus, loss of supporting alveolar bone, and, if untreated, tooth loss. Periodontal disease is one of the most common diseases of the oral cavity and is the major cause of tooth loss in adults. Recently, there has been increasing interest in the relationship of periodontal disease to important systemic diseases, such as cardiovascular disease. (O’Toole G et al.,2000)

The group of bacteria identified as causative organisms in periodontitis are Actinobacillus actinomycetemcomitans, Porphyromonas gingivalis, Bacteroides forsythus, Treponema denticola, T. socranskii, and P. intermedia.

2.2 Atherosclerosis

Cardiovascular disease (CVD), also called heart disease, is caused by disorders of the heart and blood vessels. It includes coronary heart disease (CHD), cerebrovascular disease, raised blood pressure, peripheral artery disease, rheumatic heart disease, congenital heart disease and heart failure. Many of these conditions are related to atherosclerosis.

Fig1: Showing atherosclerosis phenomenon

Atherosclerosis is a condition that develops when a substance called plaque (atheroma) builds up in the walls of the arteries. It involves a gradual and focal accumulation of lipids, smooth muscle cells, white blood cells, cholesterol crystals, calcium, and fibrous connective tissue under the surface lining (endothelium) of the artery, ultimately forming an elevated plaque that protrudes into the vessel’s lumen and significantly reducing blood flow.

2.3 Relation between periodontal disease and atherosclerosis

Oral conditions such as gingivitis and chronic periodontitis are found worldwide and are among the most prevalent microbial diseases of mankind. The cause of these common in’ammatory conditions is the complex microbiota found as dental plaque, a complex microbial bio’lm.

The association between periodontal diseases and coronary heart disease such as atherosclerosis, has been realised. (Chun Xiao et al.,2009)

Several studies have shown bacteria in the atherosclerotic plaques. In a study by Ford et al. , real-time PCR was used to show Porphyromonas gingivalis in 100% of atherosclerotic plaques. Chlamydia pneumoniae was found in approximately 30%. Helicobacter pylori and Campylobacter rectus were both found in approximately 4% of the arteries. These results clearly show that oral organisms can and do invade blood vessel walls.

Possible explanations for the association between periodontal disease and atherosclerosis

1. It may merely reflect confounding by common risk factors that cause both periodontal disease and atherosclerosis, such as smoking, obesity, and diabetes.

2. The autoimmune theory, according to which antibodies against bacterial antigens may also react against endothelial protein, causing destruction of the artery wall and initiating the arterial lesion

3. Both atherosclerosis and periodontitis are inflammatory processes. The presence of gum inflammation enhances theory is supported by an increase in white blood cells, C-reactive protein and other markers for inflammation in patients with periodontitis.

4. Periodontal bacteria entering the bloodstream during chewing, or small cuts and tears made by dental procedures. Once in the bloodstream, bacteria can produce an enzyme that causes blood platelets to become sticky and form small blood clots which may contribute to the development of atherosclerosis. (Wong et al.,2004)

For adherence and entry into bacterial surface some surface structures are important which include:Fimbrae i.e, binding partner Fibronectin(FN) and Arg-gingipain A and Arg-gingipain B and they form the complex with tranglutaminase of the host epithlial cell.

Fig2: Showing difference in normal and atherosclerotic condition of blood vessel

The connection is indeed biologically plausible. Various epidemiological studies have shown this association in the past 20 years. There is 25% increase in the risk for CHD associated with periodontal disease. A longer follow-up period demonstrated a stronger relationship, and the risk for CHD increased gradually with the severity of periodontal disease. It is important to note that periodontitis and atherosclerosis share a number of powerful risk factors like smoking, diabetes mellitus, and low socioeconomic status, all of which can contribute to a confounded association.

2.4 Vaccine development

A vaccine is a biological preparation that improves immunity to a particular disease. A vaccine typically contains an agent that resembles a disease-causing microorganism and is often made from weakened or killed forms of the microbe, its toxins or one of its surface proteins. The agent stimulates the body’s immune system to recognize the agent as foreign, destroy it, and keep a record of it, so that the immune system can more easily recognize and destroy any of these microorganisms that it later encounters. Exploration of available bioinformatics tools for epitope based vaccine design affords a thorough consideration of vaccine design without expenditure of excess time or resources.

2.5 Emerging concepts regarding vaccine development

Three emerging concepts of periodontal disease may influence the development of a sophisticated vaccine to eradicate or alleviate the disease burden. The first is that periodontal disease is a polymicrobial infection. The second is that it is a major cause of adult tooth loss worldwide. The third is that periodontal disease contributes to the perpetuation of systemic diseases of critical importance (atherosclerosis, diabetes mellitus, etc.)

Recruitment methods

The recruitment methods can be informal or formal, depending on the source.

Informal recruitment methods:

filling job openings above entry-level positions with current employees. A major advantage of a promotion-from-within policy is its positive effect upon employee motivation. Availability provided by this practice thus may not only motivate employees to perform better and increase their satisfaction with the company, but also improve their morale and commitment toward the company.

filling a vacancy with a candidate that comes with a personal recommendation. This approach is usually favored when the costs of recruiting needs to be reduced. It is considered that when a candidate comes with a referral, they are better suited for the job and they already have a mentor. There are also disadvantages to putting too much emphasis on referral schemes, such as reduced workforce diversity and unfairness regarding other prospective candidates

Portfolio with hiring requests: this method works only when the hiring requests database is updated.

hiring interns reduces time and training costs because the intern already knows the company and its requirements.

has the advantage of knowing the employee and their potential and also reducing time and costs. The main disadvantage is that an employee who left the company once can’t be a long-term investment.

Formal recruitment methods:

These are paid for by the government and are responsible for helping the unemployed find jobs or get training. They also provide a service for businesses needing to advertise a vacancy and are generally free to use.

Advertisements are the most common form of external recruitment. They can be found in many places (local and national newspapers, notice boards, recruitment fairs, websites) and should include important information relating to the job. Where a business chooses to advertise will depend on the cost of advertising and the coverage needed.

if a company decides to go outside to fill an upper level management position, it may ask an executive search consultant to find potential candidates. Head-hunters usually analyze the vacancy and offer an opinion about the type of person required, conduct initial screening, and administer psychometric tests, etc. This may save the client many administrative costs and advertising expenses.

Provides employers with details of suitable candidates for a vacancy and can sometimes be referred to as ‘head-hunters’. They work for a fee and often specialise in particular employment areas e.g. nursing, financial services, teacher recruitment

Under this method of external recruitment, educational institutions such as schools, colleges and universities offer opportunities for recruiting fresh candidates. Most educational institutions provide placement services where the prospective recruiters can review credentials and interview the interested graduates.

When the application period is over, the process of recruitment comes is said to have ended. The next step of the process is to select the candidate.

The selection process is a series of specific steps used to decide which candidates should be hired. The process starts with an evaluation of application forms and ends with the selection decision or a job offer. Each step in the selection process seeks to expand the organization’s knowledge about the candidates’ background, abilities, and motivation, and it increases the information from which HR managers/specialists can make their predictions and final choice.

Museums: college admission essay help

Museums are defined as institutions that seek to serve the public by way of acquiring, conserving, researching, communicating and exhibiting the natural and cultural inheritance. At the center of these institutions is one important component which is research. Research is a major constituent of museum business. Smith (1960: 311) describes museums as centers for research, study, and contemplation. It can be noted that research is a significant part in museums because it fosters generation of new knowledge, it is also important in acquisition, preservation, conservation, and interpretation of the objects. It is against this background that this paper is going to discuss the relevance of research in museums.

According to Desvallees et al (2010), research in museums is mainly classified into four major categories. The first deals with museum’s collections, relating to disciplines such as history, and natural sciences. The second type is that which relates the material objects to science and other subjects outside the realm of museology, such as physics and chemistry. The third form is concerned with the operations of the museums, and the final category addresses the issues to do with institutional analysis. All these various forms of research are conducted within a museum at different levels, therefore, it can be noted that research is of importance in museum business.

Museums have the mandate to acquire, preserve, conserve, and promote their collections, as a contribution to safeguarding the natural, cultural, and scientific heritage (ICOM Code of Ethics, 2006). For museums to be able to fulfill this mandate there is need for them to conduct research so as to protect the potential value of their collections. Desvallees et al (2010) further note that, ‘the objective of conservation is to use all the means necessary to guarantee the condition of an object against any kind of alteration in order to bequeath it to future generations.’ It can therefore be noted that research is a crucial part of museums because before conservation can be done, there is need to first conduct research so as to guarantee the possible and appropriate measures to be taken for conservation and preservation of different material objects. Hence, research is a major component in museums because it is through research that information about how to preserve and conserve the material objects is acquired.

A museum mainly deals with the collection of objects. Desvallees et al (2010) defines a collection as a set of material or intangible objects which have been assembled, classified, selected, and preserved. These collections keep the museums in motion. However, collection of objects or intangible aspects of culture, is not just done at random, the set of objects collected must form a coherent and meaningful whole. This assessment whether the collection is meaningful is reached at through research. Therefore, it can be argued that research is a major component of museums because it is crucial in acquiring meaningful collections.

Bearing in mind that a good museum needs a good collection, and a good collection a, good scholarship; research is viewed as a crucial section of museums. Research in museums leads to the development of the collections. Smithies (2011) argues that the need to keep actively developing collections, including through ongoing acquisition and disposal all depend on the research which is conducted. Therefore, research is a significant component in museums because it leads to the acquisition of good collections, hence excellent museums in the end.

Museums can be said to be institutions that seek to serve the society through interpreting the cultural and natural inheritance to the general public. Lewis (2004: 6) notes that these museums are concerned with the up keep and interpretation of any aspect of the world’s tangible and intangible cultural legacy. For museums to be able to appropriately interpret the cultural and natural heritage, they need to first conduct research before they come up with conclusions based on their expertise. Van Mensch (1992) then elude that, research entails the scientific interpretation of the information value of cultural and natural heritage, to come up with new conclusions. Therefore, it can be noted that research is a major component in museums because it fulfills that main aims of the museums which is to interpret the cultural and natural inheritance to the society.

Desvallees et al (2010: 73) notes that in museums, research consist of the intellectual activities and work aimed at discovering, inventing, and the advancement of new knowledge connected with the museum collections. In other words, research can be said to be the driving force in the function of museums. The main aim of museums is to conduct research about the material objects that will have been acquired; this will then generate knowledge about the objects. Smithies (2011: 9) notes that, sufficient expertise research in museums generate new knowledge and create new narratives that speak to the general public. Therefore, it can be argued that research is a major component of museum business because it provides new insights to the objects and also aide as a form of communication between the audience and the silent objects.

Museums have also accepted the role of being learning centers; therefore there is need for research to be conducted in these institutions so that the information disseminated to the audience is adequate. Dudzinska-Przesmitzki et al (2008: 9) notes that, apart from their usual roles as conservators and collectors, society have bestowed upon museums, and most museums have acknowledged, the mission of acting as cultural and enlightening centers of knowledge. Research therefore is crucial if museums are continue to be learning centers as Jelinek (1978) contends that, neglecting of the scientific activities of research in museums will result in liquidation of the whole work even the educative discourse. It can therefore be argued that research is a major factor of museum business because museum act as center of attaining information by the general public, thus they should always have relevant and adequate information for the audience.

Research is viewed as the stronghold of any museum. Sofka (1978: 59) contend that with the absence of research, the collecting, cataloguing, and preservation function of the museum will be curtailed. It is argued that research is important for museums because without it, there will be no knowledge acquisition from the material objects. Also it is significant because through research museum personnel acquire knowledge and will be able to convey it to the general public in a way which they can understand better. Research therefore, improves the scientific quality of the collection and acts as the connection between the collection and the society.

Museums are regarded as important institutions, especially at national level; they do carry with them the sense of national consciousness. In Prague for instance, the revival of nationalism led to the foundation of the national museum in 1818, and later it became the Czech nationalism. It is against this background that research should be a paramount factor in museums because it is through research that the heritage of a nation can be preserved. Lewis (2004) further reiterates that, museums are appropriate institutions for the preservation of a nation’s historic heritage. Therefore, it can be noted that research is significant in museums because it provides the platform where the heritage can be preserved appropriately.

Research is a major constituent of museum business because it gives the responsible authority, the perception of users of the museum. Chang (2006) notes that, research give an understanding to the authorities, of the different characteristics of museum visitors and the nature of their museum experience. This is crucial for museum business because it is through the use of such knowledge that the museum is developed. Therefore, it can be argued that research is a major component for museums because aide the development of museums through understanding the visitor perceptions.

Moreover, it can be drawn from the above presentation that research is surely a major component of museum business. Research is the central constituent in the running of the museum. It provides the knowledge about how to acquire, conserve, preserve, communicate, and dispose the objects. It is through research that most museums in the world do have different obligations to meet. However, it should be noted that the role of research is not the same in all parts of the world.

Fish

Fish are very susceptible to both microbiological and chemical deterioration, due to large amounts of free amino acids, volatile nitrogen bases, highly unsaturated fatty acids and higher final pH Razavi Shirazi (2001). Chemical, enzymatic and microbial activity caused to loss of fish quality during storage ??zogul et al., (2006) and ??zyurt, (2009). Lipid oxidation is one of the major problems encountered in fish processing which have high content of polyunsaturated fatty acids. Synthetic antioxidants have been widely used as food additives to provide protection against oxidative degradation and to prolong the storage stability of foods. According to some reports, these compounds have possible toxic properties to human health and environment and can exhibit carcinogenic effects in living organisms Stich (1991), Ames (1983) and Baardseth (1989). Many efforts have been done to reduce these activities for supplying fresh fish according to consumers’ demand Hassan (2002). In this situation, using natural additives such as essential oils has been studied on shelf life of different food Burt (2004), to develop natural preservative with high antioxidant and antibacterial effect that could extent the shelf life of fish.

Recently, increasing attention has been focused on the use of natural antioxidants, such as essential oils. Essential oils possess antibacterial, antioxidant, antiviral and anti-mycotic properties Burt (2004). The antioxidant properties of these plant extracts have been mainly attributed to their polyphenolic compounds, which are plant secondary metabolites, have many positive effects on human health, including their anti-inflammatory activity and anti-carcinogenic properties. Moreover, the activity of these components as food lipid antioxidants is well known Iqbal Bhanger et al., (2008) and Fazel et al., (2008).

Coriander (Coriandrum sativum L.) also called as ”cilantro’ is an annual herbaceous plant originally from the Mediterranean and Middle Eastern regions, cultivated for its culinary, aromatic and medicinal use Mildner-Szkudlarz et al., (2009). This plant is of economic importance since it has been used as a flavoring agent in food products, perfumes, cosmetics and drugs. This culinary and medicinal plant widely distributed and mainly cultivated for the seeds which contain an essential oil Neffati et al., (2011). The essential oil and various extracts from coriander have been shown to possess antibacterial, antidiabetic, anticancerous, antimutagenic, antioxidant and free radical scavenging activities Sreelatha et al., (2009) and Zoubiri and Baaliouamer, (2010).

Cumin (Cuminum cyminum L.) is a small annual plant belonging to the Apiaceae family, and is native to the Mediterranean region, where it is cultivated extensively. It is one of the popular spices regularly used as a flavouring agent Thippeswamy and Naidu (2005). Cumin’s distinctive flavour and strong, warm aroma is due to its essential oil content that may be considered as an interesting source of antibacterial, antifungal and antioxidant components, which are used as potent agents in food preservation and for therapeutic or nutraceutical industries. Its main constituent and important aroma compound is cuminaldehyde (4-isopropylbenzaldehyde) Hajlaoui et al., (2010).

Parsley (Petroselinum crispum) is a member of Apiaceae family that has been employed in the food, pharmaceutical, perfume, and cosmetic industries Lopez, Sanchez-Mendoza and Ochoa-Alejo (1999). Many investigations point out to the antioxidant properties of parsley. The flavonoid apigenin, one of the components of parsley plant, was shown to express strong antioxidant effects by increasing the activities of antioxidant enzymes and related to that, decreasing the oxidative damage to tissues. Potential for anticancer activity by parsley was reported as well Nguyen et al., (2004) and Kinoshita et al., (2006).

The objective of the present study was to investigate the effect of some essential oils in improvement some quality attributes of fish finger freeze stored at -18??C up to 6 months.

Bureaucratic Approach (Management Theory)

This theory was proposed by Max Weber, a German Sociologist. It focused on a stratified structure, which outlined apparent assignment of authority providing managers with a constitutional control over their workers. Weber saw each firm as an administration with aims to be accomplished at the cost of individual contribution. He stated that managers would be obeyed just because of their position as managers (O’ Connor, T., 2013).

His theories had two dominant characteristics which are the stratification of authority and the system of rules. Through his analysis of firms he stated three basic types of authorities are legal and these are;

‘ Traditional Authority: the approval of people in authority had its roots in tradition and custom.

‘ Charismatic Authority: In this case, the approval came from solidarity to, and trust in, the individual abilities of the leader.

‘ Rational-legal Authority: The approval came from the office, or level of the individual in authority as restricted by the guidelines and procedures of the firm. This rational-legal authority is what constitutes the form of authority in firms today and Weber’s bureaucracy theory is attributed to this form of authority (Caughey, et al, 2009).

Features of Bureaucracy

‘ Funct??ons ??n a f??rm are defined by rules.

‘ Workers operate within the boundaries of the specialization of the task, the level of authority attributed and the guidelines running the use of authority.

‘ A stratified framework of offices.

‘ Employment is made based on technical capability only.

‘ The ownership of the firms is distinct from officials.

‘ The authority is imputed on the legitimate positions and not on the individuals holding these positions (Debra Mesch et al, 1995).

Advantages of Bureaucracy

‘ Employment, promotion and authority depend only on technical capability and is put in place by written down guidelines and procedures of elevating those capable of managing rather those who are favored to manage as in nepotism and corruption.

‘ The implementation of bureaucracy management theory enables firms to develop into large and elaborate firms with the vision of formalizing clear goals.

‘ Weber’s theory can be used as a basis on which to compare and propagate new modern theories (Jessica Snow, 2014).

Disadvantages of Bureaucracy

‘ There is a likelihood of firms becoming more procedure-oriented than goal-oriented.

‘ There is a tendency of greatly formalized firm objectives to superintend creativity and resilience of workers.

‘ Strict attitude of senior managers may cause regulated services that do not meet the customer needs.

‘ Strict procedures and guidelines do not motivate the employees in a firm.

‘ Implementation of authority based on knowledge has caused the development of ‘experts’ whose ideas and behavior may frequently go against those of other general managers and coordinators (Rubin C. et al, 2012)

2.4.1.4 Human Relations Movement Theories (Behavioral Management Theories)

It is called the human relations movement because it focuses on the human aspect of work. Human relations theorists’ belief that a good understanding of the behavior of people at their work places such as the drive, prospects, rivalry, group gestures will improve productivity. They saw the employees as individuals, resources and not liabilities that are to be improved upon and worked with. Hence the foci of human relations theory are motivation of different factions of a firm and leadership (Joseph Kennedy, 2007).

The different human relations theorists, there experiments, the criticisms and strengths of their works are discussed below:

2.4.1.4.1 Elton Mayo

In the 1920s, Elton Mayo, a Harvard Professor, after his observation of the importance of both human interaction and individual relationships in the work place, performed experiments to comprehend the influence of different working conditions on worker’s productivity. His experiments proved that when the social needs of employees are met, it improves the working conditions and hence has positive effects on productivity (Houghton Mifflin, 2014).

As an improvement on the scientific management theory of seeing managers as task masters; his new human relations approach was concerned with the essence of group dynamics, collective team work and positive effects of social interaction. Managers under this theory now have care and affection for the employee’s needs and health as part of their roles (Slayor Foundation, 2015)

Also, human relations and the social requirements of workers are necessary aspects of managing an organization (Houghton Harwert, 2015).

Advantages

‘ Mayo’s experiment was the premier attempt to carry out leg??t??mate social experiments in an industrial environment.

‘ It proved that people cannot be worked with in isolation, but work with other group members.

‘ He proved that personal motivation did not rest solely in monetary or physical incentives, but in their necessities and their roles in a group.

‘ It stated the need for managers to be shown concern and cater for the social desires of employee’s in a group (Richard Trahair, 2012).

Disadvantages

‘ Doubts started to rise between the 1930s and 1950s on the increased usefulness of these theories in day to day working life (Korajczyk, 1961).

Power quality of AC system: essay help online free

With the outburst in number of electronic equipment’s, power electronics & High voltage power systems including induction motors and inductive loads , the power quality of AC system has become a matter of concern. Heavy Penalty is laid on people who do not follow the limited value of PF (Power Factor) allocated by Electric Power Companies. All this is done so as to prevent excessive drawing of power and increased number of connected load which lead to harmonic contamination in power lines and degradation in transmission efficiency. Because of all these reasons PF correction has become a hot topic in today’s world. There are many methods proposed for PF correction.

In this project we have tried studying about nature of industrial load, designing of a PF corrector for the same and Development of a single phase PF corrector using PIC microcontroller chip. Using PIC microcontroller and sensors it measures and senses the PF of the load. With the help of programming done right it will determine and switch appropriate number of capacitors to compensate the reactive components of the electrical load. Thus, driving a Power Factor value to unity results in higher efficiency and reducing the maximum demand.

Exposure to construction of manual and automatic Power Factor Correction apparatus is also imparted at DDK (DoorDarshan Kendra) and BSNL (Bharat Sanchar Nigam Ltd.) Sub Stations.

In earlier times the loads have been fairly benign, having either resistive characteristics (light bulbs) or input currents that are sinusoidal but phase shifted (AC Motors). Most electronics systems now use one or more switch mode power converters that will tend to draw currents from the power line in a non-sinusoidal fashion. This input current characteristics results in current & possibly voltage distortions that can create problems with other equipment connected to the power lines & degrade the capability of the mains. In electrical plants the loads draw network electrical power as power supply source or convert it to other form of energy or into mechanical output. To get this, it is often necessary that the load exchanges with the network, the reactive energy, mainly of inductive type. This energy if not immediately converted into other forms, contributes to increase the total power flowing through the electrical network, from the generator along the conductors, to the users. To smooth such a negative effect, the power factor correction obtained by using capacitor banks to generate locally the reactive energy necessary for the transfer of useful electrical power, allows a better & rational technical- economical management of plants.

In our work we aim to improve the overall power factor of an installation. Improving power factor means taking necessary steps to increase the power factor in a defined section of the installation by locally delivering necessary reactive power so that the value of current & consequently of the power flowing through the upstream network can be reduced, at the required output power. Our work provides a solution which allows technical & economic advantages.

A modern technological development in our society

It’s agreeable that, Technological progress has merely provided us with more efficient means for going whether forwards or backwards as well. Technology has enable Us to increase our comfort and to achieve efficiency in all sectors of life .without technology ,we can’t achieve any progress or development . thanks to technology ,we can modernize our industry so life becomes easier for us and next generations .despite advantages mentioned above, there are drawbacks of technology . so we can consider technology is a servant but a bad master.

There are some modern technological developments that play a major role in making our daily life more effective . television is ,no doubt, a good servant .it’s the cheapest source of information and entertainment nowadays .TV has a big influence in our life . It can be an educational tool. there is a considerable variety of TV programmes which give us instruction as well as education . there are , for examples , some programmes for educating adult illiterates and others for teaching foreign languages . besides ,a lot of films, plays and series are presented time at home . Television also provides outlet for creative talents . many playwrights ,actors emerged from television . color TV has given greater opportunities for such talents.

However ,television is a bad master . it has a negative effect on our behavior It encourages us to accept violence and to be inactive and unimaginative. it occupies most of our time . thus , we have no time left to pursue our hobbies , listen to music or read books . it also regulates our free time . we rush home ,gulp food and then sit in complete silence before the TV screen . Many television channels broadcast violent films and programs. The more our children see violence on television , the less sensitive they become to it . So , violence doesn’t seem wrong . We can also notice that violence on television doesn’t seem to have consequence s . An actor who is killed in a film an hour ago ,can be seen laughing in another program . This may confuse with reality and we forget killing must be permanent

Television also encourages passive enjoyment it is a tool to cut us off from the real world .We become less active . We do nothing except turning it on and changing the channels . We can’t even move around to practice sports . we get little so lazy and of course we will suffer from physical diseases . we choose to spend a fine day in semi ‘darkness ,glued to our sets , rather than go out into the world itself. Besides , its bad effect concerning social relationship, we notice that TV cuts the soul of gathering people in one trend . In addition, we notice the bad morals that spread in society among people . Crimes spread as a result of bad films and forcing scenes . social illnesses prevail over the countries Addiction to watching TV acts as a hindrance to our imagination . Stories are told for us . We don’t even have to imagine what the place of stories look like

On my opinion . television can tight relations . News and other information , we see on television gives us topics to discuss with our friends and family . Television also helps us to understand each other better as we all have access to its programmes . TV can help us share our interests with other people . Television programmes give us topics to think about . Now we can know about news in a few minutes after they happen all over the world . For example , now we know about those who die of birds flu minutes after the event . We all like to discuss these matters with other people . So , Television news and information programmes help us to discuss our ideas with others . No matter where you live ,you have access to many television channels . You can watch television programmes and movies of many other foreign countries . through them you can get information about many different cultures . When you go to a new city to work , study or take a vacation , you will already have something in common with the people there . Where you meet new people ,you will probably be familiar with at least some of the television programs they watch . The gives you something to talk about and a way to begin new friendships

Most people use television as a way to pursue their interest . People who play sports usually like to watch sports on television . Those who like to cook prefer to watch cooking programs . Television encourage s communication among people . Television is a tool that gives access to information and entertainment as well as education . You can share others’ interests effectively

Technology is also needed to raise our standard of living . our homes are more comfortable and use fewer energy recourses thanks to improvements in home construction techniques as well as computer technology . without technology we couldn’t have treatments for heart diseases thanks to progress in medicine

From the above ‘ mentioned lines we come to a conclusion that says “technology is good ” Without it there would be no change ,no improvement s in our economy ,our standard of living , or our health . Hence , We can’t deny the necessity of technology.

Holography: essay help online

Hologram is defined as ‘a three-dimensional image reproduced from an interference pattern produced by a split coherent beam of radiation (as a laser)’ [1]. Holograms can achieve a three-dimensional image, but it can be easily minded of a hologram as a photograph which can be refocused at any depth [2]. Therefore, as a photograph taken of two people standing far apart would have one in focus and one blurry, a hologram taken of the same scene can be reconstructed to bring either person into focus [2].

This chapter will concern on the definition of holography and its advantages over the conventional imaging techniques. Also it will investigate the holographic technology development and its application including microscopy.

In conventional imaging techniques, such as photography, what is recorded is merely the intensity distribution in the original scene resulting that all information about the optical paths to different parts of the scene is lost [2].The unique characteristic of holography is the concept of recording both the phase and the amplitude of the light waves from an object [2].

When a hologram is illuminated by a proper light source, the exact amplitude and phase is reconstructed and the original light field recreated, Since the observer has the whole light field available, the genuine three dimensional sensation is achieved, therefore, Holography is about capturing and reproducing light field, and each point in this field is determined by an amplitude and phase [3].

Holography has advanced to the digital area since 90s, after the advent of CCD and CMOS digital cameras [4]. In digital holography there is no need of wet processing to record the holograms and it is convenient to evaluate the properties of the specimen structures quantitatively [4]. Three major areas of holography which usually addressed in a context of digital holography can be considered, They are the capturing, the reproduction and hologram fringes synthesis, in addition, digital holography introduces one specific issue that don’t have parallel in optical holography, the area is numerical reconstruction[3].Since the mid 90’s, digital holography had attract many applications such as in optical metrology, encryption of information and microscopy[4],which is the goal of this thesis.

Digital holographic microscopy is proposed to yield a microscope that can image optical thickness as well as phase object [4].

Fig.(1.1) Digital holographic microscopy of SKOV3 ovarian cancer cells (60 ?? 60 ??m^2,404??404 pixels): (a) hologram, (b) amplitude image,(c)phase image, (d) unwrapped phase image, and ( e) phase image in pseudo-color pseudo-3D view [5].

An example of DHM imaging of a SKOV3 ovarian cancer cells is shown in Fig. (1.1), where Fig. (1.1) a) is the hologram and Fig. (1.1) b) is the reconstructed amplitude image, similar to what one would see through a conventional microscope, the phase image in Fig. (1.1) c) indicates that the cells appear having thickness of several microns, therefore the phase profile varies by several cycles of 2?? radians. A public domain phase unwrapping algorithm is used to remove the 2 ?? discontinuities in Fig. (1.1) d), and it is rendered in pseudo-color pseudo-3D perspective in Fig. (1.1) e). The apparent height profile is the profile of optical thickness that includes both physical thickness and index variation [5].

Stage plays in Ancient Greece and the film Selma: essay help online free

It was the tradition of the Ancient Greek civilization to have their Tragedies and poetry performed in a stage play; more confident writers would enter their work in competitions and have it compete with the works of other fellow writers. These traditions were carried on and adapted into more modern channels of expression, progressing alongside with the changing times. The Tragedies and poetry that were once performed by actors on a stage for a present audience, are now performed by actors projected onto a screen upon the discretion of the viewer ; more commonly known as film. The tradition of having one’s work compete with others was also carried on and a modern day counterpart being the Cannes International Film Festival. The modernization of the channels of expression significantly affect the process of creation and overall outcome of the work. However the underlying principles of what makes Tragedy efficient and proper, as introduced by Aristotle, and the poet as inspired by the divine, as proposed by Socrates, maintains its place at the very core of it all; an example is the film Dancer in the Dark. In summary the film is centralized upon Selma, a Czech immigrant with a hereditary eye condition and passion for American musicals. After accidentally killing her neighbor, in an attempt to retrieve her savings for her son’s eye operation, she is wrongfully convicted of murder and is sentenced to the death row.The film, which garnered the Golden Palm at the Cannes film festival, exhibited the elements of proper and efficient Tragedy and poetry as divine inspiration.

To illustrate, it should be noted that at certain parts of the film Selma made use of the surrounding noise to initiate a musical number; with the exception of the last song, where in the number was unaccompanied by any noise or instrument and Selma was unable to finish her song. These musical numbers were packaged as a daydream as well as a coping mechanism. It depicts how Selma would breakaway from reality during distressing situations, such as upon the realization of the gravity of her crime and the moments leading up to her execution. The performance of the ballads is analogous to the performance of poetry by the Rhapsodes of Ancient Greece. While the disassociation with reality prior to the performance is also analogous to Socrates’ concept of Divine Inspiration as the primary source of the Rhapsode’s driving force. However to concede to the notion of Divine Inspiration would also concede to the idea that the Rhapsode, Selma (and to some extent the actress, Bj??rk Gu??mundsd??ttir, herself), is without talent and incapable of achieving such feats in art without the aid of the divine. Yet, it can be argued that talent and inspiration are forces that complement rather than negate. Inspiration may function as a stimulant for an inherent talent, and the execution of said talent will in turn give justice to the inspiration.

Likewise, the film also conformed to the standards of Aristotelian tragedy. Since Tragedy, according to Aristotle, is an imitation of action, rather than man; in the hierarchy of elements Plot is superior superior to all. According to Aristotle Plot must be whole, complex, must posses magnitude, a single issue and the elements of emotional interest. The film exhibits all of these elements; it his whole as it has a beginning, middle and end. In terms of complexity, the innocence of Selma but wrongful conviction excites pity; while her execution arouses fear. Although the film’s magnitude was twice as long as a regular film, still it is considered to be the proper length because it was able to narrate the plot without being too vast for easy consumption. The single issue in the film is the mistrial that led to Selma’s demise. Finally, the element of emotional interest namely: Reversal of situation, Recognition, and Scene of suffering. The Scene of suffering can be found at the very end, it was the moments of psychological turmoil leading up to the execution and finally as Selma was hung from the gallows. The Reversal of situation is when Selma’s savings became Bill’s,her neighbor, inheritance money. Although the reversal did not occur on screen, it is still an event that is probable within the given parameters of the film; thus it is valid. Lastly, Recognition was achieved during the scene where Selma was going to put away her final salary only to realize that the tin box was empty and Selma realizes that the person with the motive and capability to commit the act was Bill.

Following Plot is Character and Thought, respectively. The Character performs the action, thus reigns over Thought. Aristotle states that a character of Tragedy must be good, true to life, consistent, aim at propriety and must transition from prosperity to despair. The character of Selma conforms to these standards. As a mother Selma wants to provide the best life for her child, Gene, thus she saves her salary and work overtime to ensure that he does not suffer the same eye condition. As a person with a passion for musicals, Selma joins a local theater play and finds music in everyday noise. As a friend, she refused to divulge Bill’s motives for theft, stating that she had promised to keep it a secret, which destroys her only chance in winning the case. As a victim of circumstance, Selma expresses her trust that all of her savings are still intact as she retrieves it from Bill; as well as the grave remorse she experiences as she desperately takes the money by force. Thought, on the other hand, is portrayed through Selma’s song rather than proverbs or maxims. The song, “I’ve Seen It All”, displays how Selma no longer fears being blind and how grand objects have a more simplified version. In the lyrics Selma sing how Niagara Falls, considered to be one of the great waterfalls in the world, is nothing more than water. Another example is the song “107”, which narrates the supposed one hundred and seven steps of the convict to the death row. It portrays how Selma copes with reality using her songs.

Below the level of Thought is Song followed by Diction, both of which are mediums of imitation.The songs are reflective of Selma’s situation and character. An example of a Song is her final one entitled, “Next to the Last Song” that delivered the final blow in arousing the audience’s pity and fear. This was achieved by executing Selma, thus preventing from finishing the song but revealing to the audience the final stanza: “They say it’s the last song/ They don’t know us you see/ It’s only the last song/ If you let it be.” In terms of Diction, the generally short dialogue allowed the tension to gradually build. This was best exhibited in the scene where her neighbor asks for a loan, but Selma refuses for the second time. The conversation did not progress any further but it heightened the sense of foreboding.

Finally, the remaining element is Spectacle. In the hierarchy of the elements of Tragedy, Aristotle places Spectacle as the least relevant element; claiming that a Tragedy need not be an extravagant stage play to achieve its purpose. The “Spectacle” being referred to equates to the special effects, setting, editing, and other components that deal with the visual aspect of the film. With regard to Spectacle the film had minor continuity errors in most of the scenes, it was shot using cheap digital cameras, and settings were very commonplace (a factory, the railroad, a trailer home, etc.). Compared to the usual Hollywood movies that makes use of professional cinema-cameras, flamboyant musical numbers, and high end special effects, the film’s Spectacle is inferior but it did not hinder the arousal pity and fear.

The great interval between the creation of the works of Aristotle and Plato to the production films of the modern day, did not alienate these works from each other. Although some concepts are debatable while others provide an exemplary standard for art. It can be said that the elements of the classics still reign true and are applied to its contemporary counterparts.

The history of newspapers in the US

The United States political structure transformed from loosely organized states to a strong central government with a strong constitution. In America’s early years of independence, the two dominant political parties that contested for power were Federalism and Republicanism. Federalists advocated a strong central government while Republicans favored less centralization and more power for states. Federalist and the country’s second President, John Adams, pushed for the Alien and Sedition Acts to silence newspapers that opposed the Federalist Administration. It embodies the notion of ‘patriotism to write in favor of our government; it is sedition to write against it’ (Copeland, 151). Newspapers could help or hurt people in an office since it had a great influence on the public. Literacy rates surpassed ninety percent in some regions of the United States by 1800. The popularity of newspapers and other forms of print reflected the attractiveness of public debate. However, writers faced certain risks when publishing their work because it may land them in trouble with certain groups. As a result, writers resorted to anonymity, which protected writers from defamation charges and reflected a pledge to a cause, rather than an appeal to a personal agenda (Copeland, 141). Interestingly, the author points out that certain news were published to avoid controversy in the colonies (Copeland, 142). I agree with the claim to a degree because the extensive circulation of the newspaper gave way to debate and discussion, people would discuss what was on the news. However, if the state or whoever controls the press, they can choose what contents can be printed to control the debates in public spheres. The 1750s was engulfed by the French and Indian War, and it lead newspapers to increase coverage of local, trans-colonial and international events that had an effect on America. Also, the debate concerning the enactment of the Constitution and Bill of Rights between 1787 and 1791 drove the growth of newspapers farther. To obtain news people in the colonies would attend taverns to borrow newspapers that recently arrived in a town or listen to someone read the paper out loud (Copeland, 143). Congress authorized the Secretary of the Sate to select newspapers to publish the latest resolutions it passed. By 1799, it ordered that at least one newspaper in each state. Newspapers allowed individuals at all levels of society to become part of the public sphere and ‘join in debate of issues bearing on state authority’ (Copeland, 144). People wrote letters to publishers regarding an article or any topic of discussion and sometimes their letters were published in the newspaper. Copeland also mentions that in colonial America the phrase ‘Printed by Authority’ appeared in the paper’s nameplate indicated that newspapers needed a license from the colonial government to publish news. However, this licensing never stopped those without permits from printing. By 1760, increases in sales meant that printers did not need a government contract to produce a profitable newspaper. The daily newspaper made its debut in the colonies in 1783. Before that, most papers were published on a weekly basis. As America’s population grew, and the economy strengthened, political issues became the central focus of opinion in newspapers (Copeland, 145). The press sought to influence the country’s managing of its international affairs by supporting causes and urging adoption of political action. It was then considered as an architect of political culture and an agenda-setter for public debate (Copeland, 146). As the number of newspapers thrived during the early nineteenth century, so did their level of political affiliation. For example, in 1808, out of 329 newspapers in the United States, only fifty-six were not aligned with a political party (Copeland, 149). Affiliation to a political party in power meant that newspapers could incentives from the party in power. Some of those incentives include government printing contracts and political office. Patronage was a hefty source of income for newspapers.

Furthermore, the establishment of institutions of learning and a printing press were objectives of the settlers (Thomas, 4). Presses and printers in the colonies were sent over from England but for religious purposes, which was spreading the gospel among the Native American in the colonies (Thomas, 5). Similar to Copeland’s discussion of licensing to print newspapers. Thomas takes a more in-depth analysis, where he gives the reader a specific state (Massachusetts). According to the author, in 1664, Massachusetts passed a law concerning the publication of contents. “No printing should be allowed in any towns within the jurisdiction, expect in Cambridge; nor should anything be printed but what the government permitted’ (Thomas, 6). The author also mentions that offenders against the 1664 law were to forfeit their presses to the country and to be stripped of the privilege of printing. What is eye-opening in Thomas’s work is how colonial authorities chose to keep people in ignorance. For example, in the colony of Virginia decided it was best not to allow public schools, nor to allow the use of the press. In doing so, they kept the people unaware, so they can be more obedient to the laws, to prevent them from causing political unrest, and prevent heresy (Thomas, 7).

Indeed Uribe’s The Birth of a Public Sphere claims that the development of a legitimate public sphere in New Spain was obstructed by the absence of printed news and the lack of a literate population (Uribe, 425). From 1760 to 1800 a new feeling of equity emerged, and the rejection of public powers based on privilege, status, or tradition became the dominant paradigm. ‘Capitalists’ and ‘scholars’ were groups that developed new institutions of sociability which made it possible for individuals to gather, critique, and ultimately mold ‘public opinion’ to influence State policies. Members of such societies were more knowledgeable about American and French revolutionary events, intellectual debates, enlightened ideas, and modern scientific doctrines. In addition, some men launched scientific expeditions, academic and literary groups, and newspapers in the colonies (Uribe, 437). Interestingly, Venezuelan Francisco Miranda organized a secret society of Spanish Americans in London to promote the independence of the Spanish colonies. Individuals later active in the liberation movements in the Americas were initiated in Masonic groups during their time in the European continent. For example, General Simon Bolivar joined the French Masons in 1804. With that, the public sphere was created and expanded New Spain. Colonial regimes in Spanish and Portuguese America tried hinder any open discussion of or participation in politics and policymaking. Such efforts made possible by eliminating printing presses and political organizations (Uribe, 427). As with Freemasonry, tertulias were accused of heresy where they questioned the divine right of monarchs and charged with advocating popular sovereignty and the need to free the colony from Spanish tyranny (Uribe, 430).

Therefore, in Guerra’s work, An Alternative to Modernity, societies are presented as a place to think and share ideas; to arrive at a collective opinion (Guerra, 6). Most importantly, the author discusses tertulias. They were the first form of modern sociability similar to the ‘salon’ in France. Nobles, officials or the bourgeoisie assembled at such places to discuss an array of topics such as literature, science, or religious issue (Guerra, 9). Additionally, Guerra does talk about other societies that are somewhat similar to the tertulias. The numbers of such societies were about one hundred in Spain and a dozen in the Americas. Interestingly, several of the peninsular economic societies were connected to the Spanish Crown. Spain promoted some of the societies to exemplify enlightened despotism and show that such societies can coincide with the Crown and not result in an all-out overthrow of rule like in France. In a way, the authorities wanted to show that such societies did not pose a threat to the state. However, Guerra mentions that in America, the role of the State as a supportive motor was missing (Guerra, 21). The absence of support was interpreted by many people in New Spain as a sign that the crown was uninterested in them (Guerra, 22). Guerra points out that in Mexico, the extent of literacy due to an abundant circulation of printed sources facilitated for progressive ideas of the elite to travel faster to the masses and provoke very strong reactions of rejection. However, from my understanding, Mexico did not have numerous newspapers or high literacy. In Copeland’s America 1750, he mentions that America experienced an expansion of newspaper circulation and publishing along with high literacy rates. With that, the spread of progressive ideas is much easier and faster than in a place that lacked such qualities. Guerra explains that the spread of liberal ideas in Mexico is demonstrated by the Independence of Mexico and Father Hidalgo, who he was able to mobilize indigenous communities (Guerra, 27). According to Guerra, public space was formed not just by the press, but also by the abundance of books, and enlightened practices.

Drosophila melanogaster: essay help

Drosophila melanogaster is a model organism used in genetics and various research in cellular and molecular biology for many years. This organism is known for its short life cycle, small size, genetic variability, and its in-expensive trait to be studied in the laboratories. Thomas Morgan, an American geneticist is heavily credited for his work in discovering eye pigment mutation in the flies. He discovered mutation of white eyed Drosophila and concluded they were sex-linked. For many years, 75% specific genes in Drosophila have equivalency with humans in relation to certain diseases. Disease include cancer, renal disorders, Parkinson’s disease, and Azhelmer’s. (Russel and Tikko 2002).

The recessive allele rugose (rg) is one of many genes studied for eye color pigmentation in D. melanogaster. rugose was first seen as a rough eye phenotype due to abnormal retina and cone development. This abnormality resulted in loss of cone cells. Furthermore, this gene encodes for a kinase protein A and is mandatory for retinal formation and cell differentiation. The gene rugose (rg) is an aging gene, that plays a role in physiological age and senescence. Fecundity changes are also incorporated into this, and assimilate dramatically with age. SNPs, otherwise known as single-nucleotide polymorphisms, affect fecundity and life span as well. With this said, increase in SNP levels, result when comparing fecundity with age. This relation provides adequate support and provides theory of aging (Durham, 2014).

At the biological level rugose participates in imaging circadian pacemakers in order to detect brain study and intact cAMP levels by a neuropeptide pigment dispersing factor also known as PDF. In some flies, pacemakers were elevated by, activating ortholog of mammalian adenylate cyclase 3 (AC3), however it seemed to have no effect. Although, a different isoform was utilized known as AC78C by RNAi which reduced, but did not completely take usage of PDF (Duvall, 2013).

Phenotypic characteristics in the mutation of the gene

The sex-linked recessive rugose (rg) gene is located on chromosome 1 is observed to have small rough eye phenotype showing an abnormality in the ocelli. Many are seen with two or three cone cells in their ommatidia when normal complements are observed to have four. In comparison to wild type the ommatidia are not hexagonal in shape. rugose (rg) bristles are positioned irregularly and excess bristles tend to form at the corner of the ommatidia. Photo receptors are also lacking in the ommatidia and position of them tend to be disoriented resulting in disformity in the retina. Wings are curled upward, thin and frayed toward the margins with body being pale in color (lindsley,1992). These phenotypic classes cause a mutation in both dominant and recessive alleles and contribute in being lethal. Two alleles in particular address this chromosomal effect; rugose (rg1) and rugose (rg7) to signify differences as rugose (rg) in the phenotype.

The (rg1) allele is the only non extinct allele associated with rugose (rg). This allele is hypomorphic with a slight rough appearance at 17??, but moderately rough at 25??. Depending on the severity of the roughness, the eye is classified into mild, moderate, and severe classes. The (rg1) allele deals with loss in memory similar to rugose (rg), in addition to learning disability. On the other hand, (rg7) has the same phenotypes seen as rugose (rg), but differentiates by having a mutation of eclosion delay.

Molecular characteristics of the gene and gene product

rugose (rg) is responsible for the regulation protein kinase A and targeting the membrane. Pathways predicted to direct memory formation are anesthesia-resistant memory and protein synthesis-dependent. With the membrane it may or may not include surrounding organelles associated proteins. Its identity of being required for retinal pattern as well as, interactions with epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) signaling pathways links to learning, short-term memory loss, neuromuscular junction, and their body. Short-term memory impairment is one of the main discrepancies caused in this gene by the absence of cold shock. This deficiency is seen at three hours after one cycle training. After every three hours more deduction in memory is seen to occur (Qin, 2013). At the molecular level, it is said, in the pathway of memory formation theirs a direct link which connects dysfunction in short-term memory into long-term memory (Zhao, 2013). Pathways predicted to direct memory formation are anesthesia-resistant memory and protein synthesis-dependent (Zhao, 2013).).

The mutation of rugose (rg) primarily causes abnormal or complete loss of cone cells. This can be retrieved by proapoptotic signals. However, a complete rescue can only be completed by Notch signaling. Cone cell loss is also seen by N-terminal kinase activity and reduction of EGFR signaling pathway. Together, both these aspects accumulate in integrating various signals for accurate regulation of cone cell development.

Conclusion

The biological and molecular perspective of Drosophila melanogaster leads up to gaining insight on different genes and their specificity on how they function and various mutations they cause to help scientists understand what they are experimenting with. In such a case, rugose a protein A kinase induced allele has been evident to be seen in 58 other alleles that are crucial in learning, mushroom body development, and neuromuscular junction development. Studying gene rugose (rg) further, can help gain knowledge on cone cell abnormality in the Drosophila as well as memory loss and learning impairment. Even though, there is no research that rugose (rg) has yet a significance in human diseases currently, Drosophila argose (aos) share similar phenotypes that are visualized in Drosophila rugose (rg). argos also, a protein coding gene located on chromosome 3 functions In enlargement of cell size as well as the development of the optic lobe located in the midbrain of the Drosophila melanogaster. While this gene affects cell size and the midbrain it is also important in photoreceptors of the eye and is hypomorphic as rugose (rg1) (Shamloula, 2002).

With ongoing research, the various functions and perspectives that play a part in the abnormality of cone cells in the retina, and memory loss disability have gave scientists the access and knowledge of rugose mutations that can be observed in other Drosophila flies. Research supports the idea that short-term memory is always associated with long-term memory and factors into olfactory attributes as well. Furthermore, this condition of memory impairment is still inconclusive due to rising alleles which develop and are complemented with others for further research.

Australia and obesity

Australia is the fattest nation in the world, and due to this there is an increasing obesity epidemic. The Brisbane Bariatric Centre (n.d) stated that obesity is an excess total of fat, which results from kilojoule intake that exceeds the energy usage, measured by the Body Mass Index (BMI). Whether it is lifestyle choices, genetics, parental, peer or social influence, these many causes are largely affecting the health of the nation. This research assignment will cover why with all the media coverage of obesity in society the numbers are increasing, and it will argue that individuals, families and society must change to be responsible for guaranteeing a decline in obesity epidemic numbers, starting now.

The Gympie State High School year 11 Home Economics class of 2015, have the surveyed the school community including teachers, parents and students in order to gain information about lifestyle choices (Appendix 1). The most significant figures out of each question was taken and put into percentages and the data is as follows (Appendix 2). Out of those surveyed, 55% saw themselves as overweight, 45% saw themselves as having a healthy weight while only 5 % saw themselves as obese. Out of these figures, 20% have take-away once a week, 45% have once a month and a small sum of only 5% have it once year, with the most predominant meal being take-away pizza. In addition, 95% of the participants stated that they were responsible for their own health, and in leisure time 50% watch TV and 20% spend it on their phone/ iPod. The statistics furthermore validate the undeniable fact that the nation is detrimental to its own health, through not eating healthy foods and spending large amounts of time watching TV/social media and not exercising.

The media has many outlets; television, print and social media sites, for example, Facebook or twitter. Due to this there are many ways for fast food companies to promote their products. The numerous advertisements showing delicious, appetising meals at an inexpensive price, is ultimately creating the desire in viewers to consume these products. Also, the simplicity and ease of driving and not having to put any time or effort into making meals makes it so much easier when in a hurry to purchase fast food and this relates directly to many Australians, especially mothers who work full time and are time poor. However, what many do not realise is no matter how tasty, quick and easy the food is to get, it is extremely unhealthy due to high levels of saturated fats, sugars and salts. These fats increase low density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol levels which are linked to cardiovascular diseases (Better Health Channel, 2015) such as coronary heart disease and possibly causing heart attacks and/or strokes. Overall, these foods are contributing to the numbers of obese individuals, therefore making health problems more prevalent.

Obesity has many consequences in terms of health and the damage can be seen both physically and psychologically through many conditions. Depression, poor body image, low self-concept/esteem, behavioural and learning problems (Obesity Society, 2014) are just a few of the possible psychological conditions associated with obesity. Type 2 diabetes, asthma, hypertension (high blood pressure), High LDL cholesterol levels, low HDL cholesterol levels, sleep apnea, non-alcoholic steatohepatitis, coronary heart disease, fatty liver disease, osteoarthritis, gallbladder disease and some forms of cancer including endometrial, breast and colon/colorectal (Obesity society, 2014), (Cdc.gov, 2015) are the physical conditions. These illnesses are directly linked to obesity, and as a result doctor and hospital visits ultimately end up costing the economy millions each year.

The enormity of these visits in relation to the illnesses caused by obesity, the cost to the economy is into the millions. Data from (The growing cost of obesity 2008: three years on, 2008) clearly corroborates this and includes specific information with regard these associated diseases and health conditions. The many financial costs to the Australian health system can include the costs of running hospitals and nursing homes, GP and specialist services, the cost of pharmaceuticals, allied health services, research, productivity losses, carer costs, deadweight loss (DWL) from transfers, aids, equipment and modifications, transport and accommodation costs along with respite and other government programs. As well as the financial costs there are also the non-financial costs. These can include, disability, loss of wellbeing, premature death caused by the disease obesity and its affects which is measured in Disability Adjusted Life Years (DALYs), also known as Burden of Disease (BoD). (The growing cost of obesity 2008: three years on, 2008) also gives specific financial information from both 2005 and 2008 on obesity related diseases and the data is as follows. (Table 4-1: Cost Summary, Obesity ($M), 2005): In 2005 alone, the total of the diseases including BoD was at a whopping 21’013 million dollars with the individual diseases including: Type 2 diabetes at $2’289 million, CVD at $12’653, osteoarthritis at $2’027 and cancer at $3’954. This rapidly increases over the three year gap with Type 2 diabetes increasing 57.3% to $8’251 million, CVD increasing 71.4% to $34’565 million, osteoarthritis increasing 63.6% to $5’662 million and cancer increasing 72.4% to $9’701 million with a total of 58’179 million dollars. This data furthermore validates the fact that obesity is not only affecting the lives of Australians but also the Australian economy and due to this an immediate change is needed, and eating healthy and exercising each week can make the positive impact Australia so desperately needs.

Bridge to Terabithia characters by Katherine Paterson

Author: Katherine Paterson

Illustrator: Donna Diamond

Genre: Friendship

Publisher: HarperTrophy

Publication date: January 1, 1977

Number of pages: 176

Jesse Aarons is a eleven-year boy who lives in England, he loves running. his dream is to be the fasted boy from year five out of his class. When school starts in the fall, feeling that this is his change to be in the spotlights amomg his five sisters, he might aswell will get more attention of his preocupied dad. Jess is realy insecure about his identety. He likes painting and drawing, but he dosn’t realise that other people bully him for likeing those things. including his dad. In addition, his family is stretched so tight by poverty that he has little chance to really explore his own identity during this crucial period of adolescence. He has therefore built up the importance of winning in his mind, feeling that here, at least, is something that he is good at which won’t win him an undesired label of “sissy” in the eyes of his father or schoolmates, and which will allow him to shine in his own right. He practices each morning, always dreaming of his upcoming victory. However, when the races come around at recess, a new girl, Leslie Burke, who just moved next door to Jess, boldly crosses to the boys’ side of the playground and beats everyone.

A rather unpromising start, but Jess en Leslie became friends realy quikly. They builded a secrect fantasy place accros the creek in the woods, named Terabithia, where they play everytime. This place makes them forget that the rest of the world exist. Like the kids at school or Jess’s family. The time they spend in Terabithia, in fact, seems to strengthen them for these trials of everyday life: it is there that they map out a plan of revenge on the school bully when she steals May Belle’s Twinkies, and it is there that they discuss Jess’s feelings of insecurity when Leslie begins to draw closer to her father. Leslie also introduces Jess to the world of imagenation and creativity. Telling him the stories of such classics of literature as Moby Dick and Hamlet. All of this made Jess’s artestic talent stronger, Leslie Supports his ambition and, through the stories she tells, provides him with great subject matter. But much of the time they play wonderful games of their own invention-defeating intruders on Terabithian territory, praying to the Spirits of the Grove to end a long spell of rain, and numerous other fantasies.

However, Jess and Leslie’s friendship, although centered in Terabithia, is not limited to Terabithia.They see each other at school, where they have a ribbing of fun for their diffrents in gender, but now Leslie dosn’t have the feeling to tease Jess now, and Leslie is never particularly bothered by what others think. At home, they celebrated together on holiday, such as Christmas, when Jess gives Leslie a puppy and she gives him an expensive art set to his artistic talent to develop. At Easter, when Jess goes to the Church he takes Leslie with her. Leslie is impressed by the beauty of the story of Christ.

One day there music teacher at school, Miss Edmunds, who Jess realy likes, invites him to go with her to the art galleries in washington. This trip does a lot for his spirit to expand and make him feel as if he is special, a feeling that he only had when he was whit Leslie. Jess has a perfect day, but when he comes home, he’s told that Leslie drowned in the Creek that morning trying to sway in Terabithia on the rope that they used to get to Terabithia. Jess is completely devastated and goes through the stages of denial, anger, fear and tears incredibly painful to suffer and, indeed, to read about. Initially he does not see how he is in the first place. Leslie has him raised to new heights as the King of Terabithia, and now he feels that without her, he has no choice but to return to the old Jess, plagued by fear and uncertainty. But in the end he realizes that he just Leslie’s memory, and his own newly discovered sense of self, live by the continuation of the fantasy of Terabithia. He brings his little sister May Belle there and makes her the new Queen, make sure that a part of Leslie will live as well.

Jesse Oliver: The main character. Jess is a guy from year five at his school. He is lonely because he likes art, people at his school call him sassy. Then a girl arrives at his school named Leslie Burke. She became the fasted runner at their school, something that Jesse always dreamed of. Jess en Leslie become best friends. Jess is very talented in art.

Leslie Burke: Jesse’s new neighbour and best friend she is a realy intelligent girl. She came with the idea to create there own fantasyland named Terabithia. Leslie’s family is well educated in diffrent then the rest of the neighbours, esecially Jess’s neigbours.

For me the theme of the book is friendship, because its all about the friendly relationship between Jess and Leslie. They both have the same hobbies, for example they both like running.

My opinion of this book is that its a good book, i realy enjoyed reading it. Especially the bond between Jess and Leslie, They proof that a boy and a girl can be friends.

FUNDAMENTALS OF SERVICE MANAGEMENT: custom essay help

A Conceptual Model of Service Quality and Its Implications for Future Research

OBJECTIVE: To attain the insights in the importance of quality in service industry through an extensive exploratory research.

SUMMARY: For a tangible good, the products quality has always been measurable by various marketers and it has been one of the important roles of the organizations to maintain their quality standards throughout their run. But, for the service sector, a lot of researchers have not been able to find the quality of the service and are yet to focus on it. In this article, the authors have focussed and tried to rectify this situation by using numerous methods some of which are:

‘ Recording the perceptions obtained in an extensive exploratory investigation of quality in four service businesses

‘ Developing a separate model for determining the service quality.

‘ To create new propositions to help future research in this field.

The main problem for the authors here is the INTANGIBILITY of service sector, which prevents many from having an access to its insights. Most services cannot be calculated, measured, inventoried, confirmed, and verified in progress of sale to promise quality. This intangibility makes it difficult for the firm to understand how consumers perceive the services and its quality. Secondly, services are heterogeneous i.e, they differ from maker to maker, customer to customer and time to time.

The authors used exploratory investigation in this article which included,

1) Executive interviews- This included a nationally recognized company from each of the four service businesses participated in the study. The respondents held titles such as president of the company, senior vice president of the company, director of customer relations and manager of consumer market research.

2) Focus Group Interviews- This was done in 12 groups for, 3 for each selected service industry. 6 groups consisted only male and 6 consisted only female. The groups were formed on the basis of age and sex to maintain the homogeneity.

FINDINGS

Two types of service quality exist: Technical and functional. The technical quality involves what the customer gets from the service and functional quality is the manner in which the service is delivered. The service quality can actually be attained by the interaction between the customers with the elements of the service organization. They have actually used three quality dimensions which are

Physical quality: This includes the physical aspects of the service (e.g., equipment or building)

Corporate quality: This involves the company’s image or profile

Interactive quality: This actually derives from the interaction between contact personnel and customers as well as between some customers and other customers.

After conducting the interviews and the focus group a discussion, a table was formed which mentioned the determinants of service quality. The following were found out to be the determinants:

1. Reliability: Consistence of performance and reliability.

2. Responsiveness: Readiness of employees to provide service.

3. Competence: Having the required skills/knowledge to provide the service.

4. Access: Ease of contact.

5. Courtesy: politeness of contact personnel.

6. Communication: Making the customers understand in a language they know.

7. Credibility: Honesty and reliability

8. Security: Freedom from risk or danger.

9. Understanding the customer: Understanding what the customer needs.

10. Tangibles: Physical evidence of the service.

CONCLUSION:

The quality of service given to the customers plays a pivotal role in the growth of any service industry. The importance of quality has been mentioned clearly in the article which leads them to find out on how to measure the same. The research methodologies used by the authors have provided us with various insights and propositions, concerning consumer’s perception of service quality. The authors also mentioned 10 various dimensions through which the customers actually perceive the service quality given to them. The article can be used a base for further investigation and research in the findings of the quality of service provided by industries

OBJECTIVE: combine implementation of service marketing and strategic bonds in health care sector.

SUMMARY:

Fundamentals of service marketing must be practiced by hospitals in spite of the policies followed by healthcare industry which benefits them and sustain its competition, compromised of physicians, consumers, pharmaceutical firms, etc. A service lead culture plays in important role in the positioning of hospitals. Hospitals will need to differentiate themselves by making effective strategic alliances to position themselves as members of an integrated healthcare organization. It is known that various existing strategies will continue to dominate this industry for the next several years, hospitals need to redefine the concept of marketing, sales and service to include establishing comprehensive customer service centers and information centers.

FINDINGS:

1. SERVICE MARKETING IS HERE TO STAY: in order to sustain the competition from the players in same industry and meet customer requirements, service marketing principles are to be followed. Positioning hospitals’ potential role as the most important activity of health care industry will help a hospital to remain it s position in market. Since a decade service marketing has been in practice in hospital industry.

2. NEED FOR STRATEGIC ALLIANCES AND SERVICE MARKETING: Hospitals that are standing out from others with service market programs are those which are effective in making strategies. As the network of healthcare market has increased, the conversion of health care delivery programs into managed care is implemented by Group Health Assoc.

3. A PARADIGM SHIFT FOR HEALTH CARE MARKETING: In the forthcoming decade, it is clear that health care industry will be dominated by different capitation strategies. These strategies will not affect the requirements that are necessary for a hospital to be ‘market- oriented’ but affects the style of marketing of a hospital and its business activities.

4. MARKETING, SALES AND SERVICE- REDEFINED: Hospitals should have the positioning strategy in order to act as reliable source of information for customer to access various services. Embracing this responsibility can position hospitals successfully in a market that will continue to separate winners from losers. To abandon this responsibility places them at risk, as they will lose the ability to favorably influence activities within their market.

5. APPLYING MARKETING TECHNOLOGY TO THE NEW PARADIGM: Information systems technology is readily available to support a broad range of strategic marketing activity. Consumer information extends beyond basic demographics to include past and predicted use of health care services. Consumers with predefined health profiles should be targeted in order to detect in early stages regarding health situation. It is important to monitor the consumers who have accessed to the services in the past, since it is as important as various reform models implementation.

6. PUSHING THE EDGE OF THE ENVELOPE THROUGH STRATEGIC ALLIANCES: The programs which use the health information for the hospitals are important as they manage risk under certain captivated contracts. The service centers of a hospital acts as a tangible asset for the other providers who seeks this information in order to have some extent of security.

CONCLUSION:

The conclusion is that these service marketing and selective alliances will prepare the changes which are hidden so that it simplifies the important strategies for the hospitals. The hospitals can concentrate on the activities which create value addition and attract the business partners while the hospitals’ health care proposals remain controversial. Rather than going for a particular strategy which is uncertain about predicting of success, fundamentals of service marketing and strategic alliances will help the organization in positioning for success under any policy.

Richard Ford – The Sportswriter (1986)

Richard Ford is one of the most gifted novelists in the contemporary America. He was awarded the Pulitzer Prize for Fiction for his novel Independence Day. This novel is the first one in history to win together the Pulitzer Prize for Fiction and PEN/Faulkner Award for Fiction in 1995. His works are being associated by the literary critics to the movement of ‘foul realism’. Ford is widely respected for the work with the language he applies in his texts. He was born in 1944. Ford has written eight novels and a collection of short stories in American literature. Ford’s The Sports Writer is a highly acclaimed pattern of contemporary realistic fiction. It revolves around the thoughts and observations of one central character, the protagonist Frank Bascome. This paper encapsulates the protagonist, life, affairs, happiness, love, feelings and pain, as well as the dramatic change in his style. Of course the soundless plight of men in contemporary society was skilfully depicted by American author Richard Ford in his award winning novel The Sportswriter (1986).

Ford’s Frank novels efficiently dramatize the poverty of human relationships in contemporary culture. Frank, the protagonist, and the men with whom he interacts suffer from problems that are quite conman to many North American men. Thirty year-old Frank faces the tragedies and disappointments in his life without self ‘ pity. He faces difficulties similar to those the earlier athlete faces. Frank is no longer a husband and barely a father. He is a writer for an American sports magazine who is struggling to understand himself and the world around him. The opening paragraph, “My name is Frank Bascombe. I am a sportswriter” (3).provides us with a complete list of al1 the things which are clear to Frank as the novel begins. The paragraphs which follow reveal his confusion over the disappointments and failures of his life; he has made money but is neither happy nor stable, as he thought he would be. Mid-life crisis has cast the protagonist into a state of dreaminess and depression. He remains, yet, a unfailing narrator as he assures us early on: ‘I have a voice that is really mine, a frank argues in rural voice more or less like a used car salesman: a no-frills voice that hopes to uncover simple truth by a straight-on application of the facts”(11). The Sportswriter chronicles a weekend of Frank’s life and the lives of three men he encounters, and reveals the problems the male mystique causes them. Frank responds to his feelings of alienation by joining The Divorced Men’s Club, a group of five single men who meet occasionally to relax and engage in traditionally masculine activities such as watching baseball games and fishing. These activities are alluring to Frank and other men because they appear to promote social interaction; unfortunately, the activities also distance the men from interaction with women and true progress in their lives The men are unable or unwilling to express their feelings about their individual lives, and the club exists simply as an excuse for the men to drink and display bravado, rather than engage in any manner of therapeutic conversation.’ This unfortunate arrangement is attributable to the masculine mystique and the manner in which it encourages men to conceal their emotional problems so that they do not appear weak or feminine. While Frank does not address his problems another club member, Walter Luckett, does and is, in fact, the only man to do so in the novel.,

In the novel’s starting page, Frank and his ex-wife (Anne Dykstra, but referred to in this novel only as X) are standing in a cemetery sharing a moment of reflection on the anniversary of their first son’s death. Even as in the cemetery, Frank makes mention to three poems: “The Hollow Men” by T. S. Eliot, “To An Athlete Dying Young” by A.E. Housman, and “First Meditation” by Theodore Roethke–each of which is thematically relevant to The Sportswriter. Like the men described in the poem, lead empty, meaningless, life-in-death existences in a dying and meaningless world. The American men lead empty lives, dedicated to accumulating wealth and power instead of friendships and happiness. These poems indicate that there is something wrong.

With the social codes that govern men’s lives; the codes create an absurd world and ruin the lives of its inhabitants. Frank and X exemplify Ford’s disregard for gender conventions; while each retains feelings for the other, they each transmit those feelings in unconventional ways. Frank still cares deeply for his wife and openly displays his emotions when they are together. X still cares about Frank but she erects a transparent facade of stoicism. Frank is often depicted as fragile, dreamy, and sympathetic. He notes that “I have always liked hearing women talk more than men” (11). And believes that ‘men feel things women don t”(329). The death of his first son has dispelled the notion of continuity for Frank, as has his divorce. Trapped in what he refers to as the Existence Period, Frank inhabits a world that is seemingly unknowable and retreats within himself to escape. Frank, like many men, lacks the vocabulary to describe the psychological turmoil from which he suffers, so Existence Period is his label for this turmoil. The turmoil includes his divorce, the death of one son, and his inability to fa11 in love again, and regrets from his past. The Sports Writing is unambiguous and Frank depends on the simplicity of his profession to keep himself sane, but the therapeutic qualities of his vocation are a lie. Frank

Claims to love Sports writing superficiality, but the truth is that the job is perp&uating Frank’s dreaminess. Rather than confronting his mid-life problems, Frank is allowing himself to slip in and out of a dream-like state (10).

His dreaminess provides temporary escape, but it provides no true solace because, in his dreamy state, he sees that he is himself, as complex, chaotic, and mysterious as the world around him. Frank does not fit into the world because the world insists on obedience to the doctrines of the masculine mystique-doctrines against which Frank is unconsciously rebelling as he suffers his mid-life crisis. Frank’s divorce, for example, tags him as socially dysfunctional. As he notes, it is not, I have come to understand, easy to have

a divorced man as your neighbour. Chaos lurks in

him–the viable social contract called into

question by the smoky aspect of sex. Most people

feel they have to make a choice and it is always

easier to choose the wife, which is what my

neighbours and friends have mostly done(5).

Frank responds to his feelings of alienation by joining The Divorced Men’s Club, a group of five single men who meet infrequently to relax and engage in traditionally male activities such as watching baseball games and fishing. These manners are alluring to Frank and other men because they appear to promote social contact; unfortunately, the activities also distance the men from interface among women and true progress in their lives. The men are unable or unwilling to express their feelings about their individual lives, and the club exists simply as an excuse for the men to drink and display bravado, rather than engage in any manner of therapeutic conversation. While Frank does not address his problems, another club member, Walter Luckett, does and is, in fact, the only man to do so in the novel. Even though, Frank listens with discomfort and annoyance, Walter explains that his life is in shambles. He is undergoing a crisis, a mid-life crisis, which he does not fully understand and which recently has led him to have sexual intercourse with a man he met in a bar. After his shocking revelation, Walter reflects on his inability to bond with Frank during his confession. Even though his future is uncertain, he is able to take consolation in the knowledge that his own problems with the men mystique and the male mid- life crisis are shared by others: ‘We have all felt that way, I am confident; since there’s no way that I could feel what hundreds of millions of other citizens have not (375). What separates Frank from the crowd is that he redeems himself from his life long participation in the men mystique, which tens of millions of other American men are unable to do. Because Frank plays the role of “the saved” in The Sportswriter, it is not he who is most illustrative of the negative effects of the masculine mystique because he manages to survive his mid-life crisis

and re-focus his life. While Frank’s fate preserves optimism and saves the novel from a morbid conclusion, it is the men who interact with Frank, “the damned,” who are more interesting subjects of study. Unlike Frank Bascombe, Walter Luckett, Herb Wallagher, and Wade Arcenault do not contend well with the masculine mystique and the male midlife crisis.

At the end of the novel Frank is dumped by Vicki because of his argument at the supper table. It is an interesting separation because it marks a physical separation form those from whom he is ideologically distancing himself–those who, like the Arcenaults, are-content to live under the thumb of the masculine mystique. The separation is a violent one–Vicki punches him in the face, making his mouth bleed when he protests–which marks the abrupt termination of his association with mental and. ideological apathy and the birth of a new Frank, who is more clearly able to understand his own life and the world around him.

The Berlin Wall: custom essay help

History

After Germany lost World War II the country was split into four zones, each occupied by one of the four Allied powers that defeated the Nazis. (je kan misschien een foto hiervan plakken in je verslag; je kan het opnemen als bijlage I) The zones controlled by France, Great Britain and America became West Germany, or Bundesrepublik Deutschland (Federal Republic of Germany = FRG). The Soviet-controlled zone became East Germany, or Deutsche Demokratische Republik (Germany Democratic Republic = GDR). Germany’s capital, Berlin, was situated in Soviet-controlled East Germany , but as this city was the administrative area for the Allied forces, it too was split into four. This meant that France, Great Britain and America controlled West Berlin, whereas the Soviet Union controlled the East. Relations between America and the Soviet Union soured considerably during much of the second half of the Twentieth Century. The Berlin Wall was a symbol of this hostility, a physical representation of what was called the Iron Curtain.

Iron Curtain

The Iron Curtain symbolized the ideological conflict and physical boundary dividing Europe into two separate areas from the end of World War II in 1945 until the end of the Cold War in 1991. The term symbolized efforts by the Soviet Union to block itself and its satellite states from open contact with the west and non-Soviet-controlled areas. On the east side of the Iron Curtain were the countries that were connected to or influenced by the Soviet Union. On either side of the Iron Curtain, states developed their own international economic and military alliances.

Economic situation in West and East Berlin

West Berlin received financial help from the Allied powers (especially Marshall Fund of the United States) , but East Berlin didn’t get any help from Soviet Union. Unlike East Berlin West Berlin could build a good economy. In East Berlin, there was food shortage and there was unemployment, while they had enough food and luxury in West Berlin. The result was that many people who lived in East Berlin fled to West Berlin. There were so many people that the GDR fell from 18.4 million in 1950 to 17.2 million in 1960. Especially highly skilled workers moved to West Berlin, to find a better job there. Only low-skilled workers remained in East Berlin.

The rise of the Wall

On August 13,1961 Premier Khrushchev of the Soviet Union gave the East German Government permission to stop the flow of emigrants by closing its border for good. In just two weeks, the East German army, police force and volunteer construction workers had completed a makeshift barbed wire and concrete block wall’the Berlin Wall (45 kilometers long)’that divided one side of the city from the other.

Before the wall was built, Berliners on both sides of the city could move around fairly freely: They crossed the East-West border to work, to shop, to go to the theater and the movies. Trains and subway lines carried passengers back and forth. After the wall was built, it became impossible to get from East to West Berlin except through one of three checkpoints: at Helmstedt, at Dreilinden and in the center of Berlin at Friedrichstrasse. (Eventually, the GDR built 12 checkpoints along the wall.) At each of the checkpoints, East German soldiers screened diplomats and other officials before they were allowed to enter or leave. Except under special circumstances, travelers from East and West Berlin were rarely allowed across the border.

Politicsl

After World War II Germany was divided into West Germany and East Germany (as stated above). In East Germany the Communism arose and in West Germany the capitalism.

In the west, it was actually quite good. There was free economy, so it went well with the prosperity. This was done with the help of the United States. There were free elections and a parliamentary democracy.

In East Germany the communists took control and the SED (Sozialistische Einheitspartei Deutschlands) became the official state party. There was a people’s democracy under the leadership of the communists. There were no free elections. There was a dictatorship because the political party was the only party that did exist. The residents of the East were very suppressed. There was no freedom of speech. Only positive things about the SED appeared in the newspaper and the negative things were omitted (propaganda). East Berliners wanted to live in freedom like the West Berliners.

Social and economical consequences of Berlin Wall

Most people lost their jobs because 60,000 East Berliners were working in West Berlin and 13,000 West Berliners in East Berlin. Before the wall West Berliners could buy their products for lower prices in East Berlin. People were separated from relatives, because they were living on the other side of the wall.

At the beginning the West Germans felt imprisoned by the Berlin Wall, but it soon became apparent that the East Germans were locked. Unlike the East Germans the West Germans lived in luxury. The West Germans could just eat, drink and wear anything what they wanted. In fact, the West Germans were not much affected by the wall beyond the fact that they were separated from relatives in the East (as stated above). Until 1972 it was not allowed to travel to the other side of the city. The East Germans tried to smuggle all kinds of articles like food and clothes from the West.

Animal testing: essay help

Every year thousands of animals are tested on for human safety and die of agonisingly long and painful deaths. Animal testing is a valuable asset in scientific research, drug development, health and medical research and cosmetic manufacturing. Animals are frequently used as a test subject since their body are very similar to the humans and will react in a similar way to different substances. Do you want innocent animals suffer painful deaths just for your beauty?

Not surprisingly, many types of animals tested on are mice, rats, rabbits, monkeys, dogs, cats, guinea pigs, hamsters, birds and mini pigs. Mice are the most popular animal to be tested on due to their size, ease of handling, fast reproduction rate, availability and low cost. 7342 mice are used in worldwide labs everyday- one every 12 seconds! They are widely considered to be the prime model of inherited human disease and share 99% of their genes with humans. In 2012, 3,045,690 mice, 262,641 rats and 28,677 other rodents were used in the UK alone (83.1% of total animals used that year). In 2011, the statistics show animal use totalled to 3,792,857 animals. This equates to 10,391 per day, or one every 8.3 seconds.

Even though many people oppose to the idea of animal testing, it has saved so many human lives and helped with our knowledge of different drugs, cosmetics(etc.). For example, we now have the technology for organ transplants. Organ transplants have improved the quality- and length- of life for millions of people across the world. For example, the first human cornea transplant took place over 100 years ago, following research using rabbits. In 2007, 2,403 people had their sight restored by cornea transplants. In addition, of the 5,000 people to develop kidney failure every year in the UK, 1 in 3 would die without a transplant. The surgery behind transplantation itself but also method of tissue-typing and anti-rejection drugs were developed using dogs, rabbits and mice from 1950 onwards. In 167, the first human to human heart transplant finally took place. Few people knew it took 60 years to prepare for this using animal research. Professor Christian Barnard carried out nearly 50 animal heart transplants over 4 years. Heart-lung transplants were later developed using monkeys.

The animals tested on can either survive; they won’t react to the product or the animal will suffer in great pain a die from a reaction from the product. They can be infected with a disease, poisoning, burning skin, brain damage, implanting electrodes into the brain, and blinding. They are abused and tortured. Over 100 million animals are burned, crippled, poisoned and abused in US labs every year. When used in cosmetic tests, mice, rats, rabbits and guinea pigs are often subjected to skin and eye irritation tests were chemicals are rubbed onto shaved skin or dripped into the eye without any pain relief given. Some tests can involve a killing of a pregnant animals and testing on their fetus. This is inhumane.

Animals in labs live stressful, monotonous, and unnatural lives of daily confinement and deprivation. The only changes in their lives may come from being called into a research or testing protocol- which may include an invasive experiment, or a procedure whose endpoint id death. Imagine spending your whole entire life as a hospital patient or a prisoner.

Would you pay a high amount of money for designer make-up when an animal has suffered in great pain and lost their life for something that isn’t necessary in life?

Use of fossil fuels and global warming

Due to global warming and other ill-effects of conventional energy sources, there is a need to produce energy by clean and environmental friendly ways. Fuel cell is one of the effective solution to produce energy without polluting the environment. There are various types of fuel cells viz. solid oxide, proton exchange membrane, alkaline fuel cells, etc. We are going to discuss more about solid oxide fuel cells. A solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) is a device which generates electricity by using chemical energy stored in the fuel viz. hydrogen or hydrocarbons. SOFC consists of three parts ‘ electrolyte, anode and cathode. SOFCs have fuel flexibility, are low cost and have long-term stability. Operating temperature is the main disadvantage of the SOFC. To overcome this disadvantage, nanomaterials are used for electrolytes, anodes and cathodes of SOFC in order to improve their performance. Various fabrication and preparation methods are used to integrate different nanomaterials in the different parts of SOFCs. In this research, different fabrication methods along with their applications are discussed. [1, 2]

‘ Problem statement or gap:

The high use of fossil fuels like coal, gas and oil in last 100 years has increased the carbon dioxide and other poisonous gases emissions from power generation devices. This is considered to be an important factor for some of the environmental problems like global warming. The energy demand is always increasing and fossil fuels are depleting at faster rate. The power generation by using fossil fuels would not be sustainable. Thus, there is a need to find alternative or renewable energy sources that can meet this demand. The fuel cell is considered to be the one of the efficient and clean power generating device. Now, as we are considering fuel cells as replacement for the current power generating devices, the efficiency and durability of the fuel cells should be ideally equal or higher than those devices. To increase the efficiency and durability, different nanomaterials can be used in three different parts i.e. electrolyte, cathode and anode of fuel cells. Thus, in summary, there is need for better understanding of how these nanomaterials can be integrated on these parts in an efficient, fast and low cost ways. [1, 2, 4]

The research questions that the paper is going to address are:

1. What are some of the efficient methods to integrate the nanoparticles?

2. What are some of the applications of above methods along with the results to show the power output and durability of the fuel cells? [2, 3, 4, 5]

3. What future work needs to be done in order to improve the long term performance of the fuel cells? [6]

‘ Objectives of your research:

The objective of the current study is to provide a comprehensive review of literatures related to the application and advantages of each fabrication method of SOFCs. The fabrication methods discussed in the current study are photolithography process, sintering process and infiltration process. These processes are used for fabrication of nanomaterials on electrolyte, anode and cathode respectively. In this research, the methods are discussed using one nanomaterial for each fabrication method. The nanomaterial used for photolithography is YSZ (yttrium stabilized zirconia) [1, 2], for sintering is NiO/YSZ [3, 5] and for infiltration is metal salt nitrate [4]. These materials would increase the power output and performance of SOFCs. Different nanomaterials can also be used other than the mentioned, for improving the performance. The long term goal of the research is to help the researchers to understand the impact of use of nanomaterials in SOFCs.

‘ Expected solution or anticipated results of your research:

The results of this research will be shared in a form of paper, power point and poster presentation. The results would primarily include the schematic diagrams of the fabrication methods. They would also include the preparation methods for a particular nanomaterial used in the fabrication. The results for nanomaterial in electrolyte would include tables and graphs related to performance of SOFCs with respect to crystalline sizes, temperature, durability and cell voltage. For anode, the results would include performance of fuel cells with respect to temperature and cell voltage. The results for cathode would include performance with respect to temperature. In summary, the performance and durability of SOFCs are expected to increase with addition of nanomaterials.

‘ Timetable for completion:

February 28, 2015 ‘ Literature review and start research from the reference papers.

March 13, 2015 ‘ Proposal for Final Project.

March 27, 2015 ‘ Progress Report for Final Project.

April 17, 2015 ‘ Present Results in Poster Presentation.

April 24, 2015 ‘ Submit Final Paper.

‘ Your qualifications:

I am pursuing Master of Science in Electrical and Computer Engineering. I am writing this research paper as a part of curriculum for TCM 460.

‘ Limitations, discussion, conclusion:

In this research paper, we will see how nanomaterials can be used by using fabrication methods for electrolyte, anode and cathode of SOFCs. Introducing these nanomaterials will increase performance and durability of SOFCs. But, there are some limitations of this research. We are going to see only limited number of fabrication methods for integration of nanomaterials in fuel cells and only one application of the nanomaterial used for electrolyte, anode and cathode. There might be several other fabrication methods and nanomaterials which are not covered in this research paper. Degradation of performance after a certain number of working hours of SOFCs should also be considered while doing future work. [6]

Situated learning: essay help online free

Situated learning is a type of learning that allows individual learners to learn through socializing with other people, or with knowledgeable people or through observing and imitating real activities in real life situations. The above mentioned practice builds on participation and observation in activity.

Situated learning is based on practical activities whereby learners gain beneficial knowledge that they ought to get from schools. In the past years, learners were taught things that were not really useful to them in their everyday life. Learners need to learn or acquire skills or knowledge that are relevant to their lives, and that might be related to the career that they are going to choose in the near future.

Situated learning declared that thinking, learning and doings cannot be separated from the practical and social situations in which they occur. They work in harmony

When the teacher allows learners to have an opportunity to participate, demonstrate and interact their own thoughts, this will build their cognition abilities. Learners will acquire specific skills by observing, visualize, hear and listen by having someone to imitate or follow.

In situated learning, learner’s works through participating in a particular activity of a certain community. Participation involves joining in with the community or group of people who are performing that activity. For example, if a learner wants to know to design clothes or wants to become a fashion designer, he will probably join a group of people who design different types of clothes. In this way a learner will gain his designing experience through doing and from there, he will be able to become productive in his life after mastering the designing skills.

Teaching method -Demonstration

The teaching method that I will use in situated learning perspective is demonstration. It is the process of teaching through giving or showing examples, or acting out situations or carries out experiments. Demonstration can be used as a proof or evidence about whatever theory or situation explained to the learners, through a combination of visual evidence (of things that you can really see with your eyes) and associated reasoning.

Demonstration gives learners an opportunity to relate to the presented information individually and reinforce memory storage, because they provide the link between facts and real world implementation of those facts.

Heather (2009) on his education reference article when he explained the demonstration method of teaching stated that: ‘when using the demonstration model in the classroom, the teacher or some other expert on the topic being taught, perform the tasks step-by-step so that the learner will be able to complete the same task independently. After performing the demonstration, the teacher’s role becomes supporting students in their attempts, providing guidance and feedback and offering suggestions for alternative approaches.

Implementing the practice in my teaching, using demonstration method to improve learning

According to the situated learning perspective, people learn through participation and we participate by joining the group of people who are experts or experienced in carrying out a particular activity. To implement the practice of working to bring authentic practice into the classroom, a learner need to be able to do things or carry out tasks appropriately in real life situations . And the teacher or an expert from a certain community of practice will act as a scaffold in this situation, by carrying out demonstrations.

In English language teaching under the speaking domain, I will implement this practice in teaching my learners about how to give (deliver) a speech in public. Firstly I will teach my learners about what is a speech, how people present speeches and what is the layout of a speech, in presenting it as well as in writing, and also about the main components of a speech such as: The speech should be logically written (should have an introduction, body and conclusion) speaker should be relaxed and try to be calm even when he knows that he is nervous, speech should be interesting, the speaker should use the body language correctly. I will also demonstrate to learners by giving them a short speech as an example.

Secondly I will invite an expert from the community of practice, a person who deliver speeches at different occasions to my class. This person will demonstrate to my learners about how people present speeches, so that they can improve their skills. After the expert’s presentation, learners will be given an opportunity to ask questions, I will also ask them questions to check what they have captured from the presentation. Then I will ask them to work in collaboration with each other in groups, to come up with a speech following the layout that I taught them, and then they should choose a presenter from their groups to present the speech to class. After the group’s presentations, they will be given a chance to comment or make suggestions about others presentations.

As the learners become able to perform the task on their own effectively, more tasks are given, until they master the tasks of speeches presentations. Learners will then be given a task to prepare their own speeches, individually. Before presentations, they will be given opportunities to rehearse. Firstly, they will submit their speeches that they wrote down (draft). I will give those comments and suggestions. In the second rehearsal they will present their speeches in class, this will be done with the purpose to increase their fluency in reading, and to remind them of speech presentation strategies such as: use of voice, facial expressions, and use of body language. Then I will ask them to make changes in their speeches where necessary. Finally they will present their speeches again with an expert observing them. The expert would give comments after the presentations. If possible the presentations should be recorded or videotaped.

From the situated learning perspective, learning is a process that does not take place in an individual mind, but it takes place in a situated learning. In the case of situated practice of speech presentation rehearsal, the teacher as an instructor and the learners constructed the changes in participation that were observed as the learners developed skills from peripheral to fuller participation. In these process learners participation was transformed through demonstration and the teacher’s participation complemented the learner’s learning.

Diabetic ketoacidosis

Introduction:

Diabetic ketoacidosis, or DKA, is one of the most serious metabolic disorders seen in both human and veterinary medicine. A severe complication of diabetes mellitus, DKA is characterized by a more concentration of blood sugar, the presence of substances called ketones in the urine, and decreased concentrations of bicarbonate in the blood. Some dogs with DKA will be less affected but the majority will be seriously ill and may have severe complications such as neurological problems due to brain swelling, acute kidney failure, pancreatitis, and anemia. DKA will lead to death in many cases, but aggressive diagnostics and treatment can be life saving.

DKA often develops in diabetes that had previously been unrecognized or untreated. Thus, it is essential to identify diabetes mellitus or the development of additional symptoms in a dog that is known to be diabetic to prevent DKA from occurring.

Clinical Signs:

Clinical signs include weight loss, lethargy, anorexia, and vomiting. Complications may include anemia, electrolyte abnormalities, neurological disorders, and acute renal failure.

Symptoms:

Some of the symptoms related to this disease are as follows;

‘ Increased thirst

‘ Loss of appetite

‘ Frequent urination

‘ Weight loss

‘ Tiredness

‘ Vomiting

Explanation:

In addition to diabetes mellitus, another most serious condition that may develop. Ketones, also called ketone bodies, are used for energy production in most body tissues. They are normally formed when fatty acids are released from fatty tissue and are transported to the liver. The liver then makes ketones from the fatty acids. Excessive production of ketones can occur in uncontrolled diabetes mellitus, and as they accumulate, ketosis, and eventually acidosis, develop. The four major factors that contribute to ketone formation in DKA are

1. insulin deficiency

2. fasting

3. dehydration, and

4. increased levels of “stress” hormones such as epinephrine, cortisol, glucagon, and growth hormone.

DKA is more common in animals with previously undiagnosed diabetes mellitus, but it can also be seen in dogs with established diabetes that are not receiving enough insulin. In these dogs, there may be an associated inflammatory or infectious disease. Other canines may develop conditions associated with insulin resistance such as hypothyroidism or Cushing’s disease. Dogs may be only mildly affected by DKA, or they may be close to death at the time of diagnosis. DKA develops at an unpredictable rate, and some diabetic dogs may be able to live fairly normal lives for several months with no treatment at all. However, once DKA develops, most dogs become seriously ill within one week.

The aggressiveness of treatment depends on how sick the dog is. While dogs with mild DKA may be successfully treated with intravenous fluids and insulin, dogs with severe manifestations of disease will need more significant intervention. Fluid therapy, potassium, bicarbonate, and phosphorus supplementation can be vitally important. Any accompanying disorders must be identified and treated specifically where possible to enhance resolution of DKA.

Complications during DKA treatment are common, and can include the development of hypoglycemia, neurological signs due to brain cell swelling, and severe electrolyte abnormalities. Anemia due to red blood cell breakdown can occur if the serum phosphorus concentration drops too low. Acute kidney failure also is possible.

DKA is one of the most serious metabolic disorders seen in both human and veterinary medicine. Many patients will die from it. However, the majority of patients can pull through a crisis successfully with aggressive diagnostics and treatment.

Diagnosis

The diagnosis of DKA is based on the clinical signs and the presence of elevated serum glucose concentrations and ketones in the urine, and reduced serum bicarbonate concentrations within the blood stream. Mild DKA is present when dogs with high serum glucose concentrations and ketones in the urine appear healthy, or have only mild clinical signs, or have mild decreases in serum bicarbonate concentration. These dogs do not require extremely aggressive treatment, and should be distinguished from dogs with severe DKA. Dogs with severe DKA have high serum glucose concentrations, ketones in the urine, extreme reductions in serum bicarbonate concentration, and often show severe signs of illness.

In addition to the serum glucose concentrations and urinalysis results, other key diagnostic procedures include measurement of venous total carbon dioxide, blood gas evaluation, and analysis of electrolytes and serum kidney values. In addition to a routine urinalysis, a urine culture should be performed on any dog with DKA, as urinary tract infections are very common complicating factors for this condition. A complete blood count, serum liver and pancreatic enzyme measurements, and cholesterol and triglyceride levels should also be obtained. X-rays of the chest and abdomen, and ideally an abdominal ultrasound, should also be used to investigate underlying or associated factors, as well as other abnormalities that might require specific treatment.

Prognosis

The prognosis for DKA is guarded. As many as five to 10 percent of humans with DKA die from this condition. Death rates for dogs may be as high as 30 to 40 percent in some environments.

Transfer:

DKA usually occurs in either dogs with diabetes that has been present but unrecognized and untreated for a long time, or in previously diagnosed diabetic dogs that have become ill with another problem or that are taking inadequate amounts of insulin

Cure:

Relatively healthy dogs with DKA can be treated with potent but regular short-acting crystalline insulin injections to help get the serum glucose levels back under control. It may take a few days for serum glucose and urine ketone levels to fall, but aggressive treatment may not be needed as long as the dog’s condition is basically stable.

Treatment of sick diabetic dogs needs to be more aggressive. Paramount to the treatment of DKA is the gradual replacement of fluid deficits, as well as the maintenance of normal fluid balance. Many dogs will seem substantially better after being treated by intravenous fluids alone. Phosphate supplementation may also be needed, since serum phosphorus concentrations can drop to dangerously low levels during the treatment of DKA leading to serious complications such as a red blood cell breakdown that results in anemia. Bicarbonate is given to help correct acid-base disturbances. Insulin also is vital in the treatment of DKA. In some situations, fluids need to be replaced quickly, while the glucose levels will need gradual adjustment.

Until safer serum glucose concentrations are obtained, most dogs with DKA are treated first with regular crystalline insulin, the most potent and shortest acting form of insulin, which may be given intravenously or on an hourly basis in the muscle. If the dog is not eating on its own, dextrose may be added to the fluids to keep the serum glucose level from dropping too low after insulin is started.

Concurrent illnesses must be identified and treated specifically where possible. Pancreatitis is extremely common in DKA, but there is no specific treatment for this disorder. Bacterial infections need to be identified and treated in a timely manner. Antibiotics usually are given even if a bacterial infection has not been confirmed, due to the problems that infections cause in DKA. Acute kidney failure may also accompany DKA, and needs to be treated aggressively with fluids. Drugs may be needed to stimulate urine production if it appears inadequate.

Complications during treatment of DKA that occur most frequently include the development of hypoglycemia, central nervous system signs, electrolyte abnormalities, and anemia. The best way to prevent these side effects is to aim for gradual correction of the multiple abnormalities associated with DKA. Excessively rapid correction of glucose concentrations and electrolyte abnormalities often leads to brain cell swelling and neurological signs. Electrolyte concentrations need to be monitored very carefully during the treatment of DKA, as frequent adjustments of fluid type and rate, and the amount of potassium supplementation, are often needed. Also, close attention must be paid to the serum phosphorus concentration, as supplementation with phosphorus is often needed to prevent the development of severely low serum phosphorus concentrations and the anemia that can result from this.

Once the dog is stabilized and eating and drinking on its own, longer-acting insulin types can be initiated. In addition, the supportive measures, such as fluid therapy and medications, can be tapered, as long as no other complicating issues surface and improvement continues. Eventually, the animal should be able to go home with an insulin regime designed for at home use, as well as any other treatments necessary to address additional disorders that might be present.

Preventive measures:

There is no specific method for preventing DKA, but careful treatment and monitoring of diabetic dogs is essential. Recognition of the common signs of diabetes mellitus in a dog–increased thirst and urination, increased appetite, and weight loss–also is important so the diagnosis of uncomplicated diabetes mellitus can b

Rhetorical Analysis of Jonathan Swift's 'A Modest Proposal'

A Modest Proposal is a satirical pamphlet that examines the attitude of the rich towards the poor starving children in their society. Jonathan Swift uses a number of rhetorical devices effectively as he highlights his proposal. He uses logical fallacies, metaphors, repetition and parallelism as well as humor, sarcasm and satire tone to highlight these negative attitudes.

Jonathan swift begins by mocking and blaming the mothers of the children by telling them that they should engage or find themselves in working to earn an honest living instead of strolling to beg for alms. He also predicts tough future for these children that when they grow up they will turn to be thieves. This is simply because the parents did not train their children the modest way of life.

Swift uses logical fallacies to make his argument in ‘A Modest Proposal’. His way of argument and thinking is incorrect and lack validity in what is proposing. This is evident in this pamphlet on line 69 to 73, ‘that a young healthy Child well Nursed is at a year Old, a most 71 delicious, nourishing, and wholesome Food, whether Stewed, Roasted, 72 Baked, or Boyled, and I make no doubt that it will equally serve in a Fricasie’. He notes down that a young healthy child is a delicious food to be roasted, stewed and boiled to be served and eaten. Secondly, he has computed twenty thousand children to be reserved for breeding. This dehumanizes the children to be like animals.

Jonathan swift uses emotional appeal in his argument by proposing slaughter houses to be erected or built in suitable places and butchers to be employed to do the work of slaughtering the children. He further exaggerates by saying that the children will be roasted like pigs. Jonathan knows clearly that this proposal will affect many because no person would want his or her child to be butchered. Beyond that, Swift captures the reader’s emotion on line 34 and 35 ‘prevent those voluntary Abortions, and that horrid practice of Women 35 murdering their Bastard Children’. This is a horrific behavior that is being opposed everywhere in this world.

Another rhetorical device that Jonathan Swift use in his work is irony. He says ‘I calculate there may be about two hundred thousand couple whose wives are breeders’ and ‘how this number shall be reared and provided for’. This suggestion is ironic because he compares women to animals. Also, this creates a good argument because human beings do not breed and cannot be reared. He therefore dehumanizes human beings and creates satire in this statement.

Jonathan swift in his scheme of supporting his argument, he is sarcastic that certain body parts of a child are good to eat. He further clarifies that in certain occasion, the body parts will be on demand. He further suggests that good and healthy children will be skinned and the skin will be used to make admirable gloves for ladies and summer boots for gentlemen. This idea is ridiculous to an extent that children will not only be a delicacy, but their body parts will be used to make ornaments. Secondly, he sarcastically suggests option to Ireland to counter its economic problems. Jonathan proposes that if the poor children can be food, this will create a good revenue to the country through exporting the surplus child’s flesh to the rich outside Ireland. Thirdly, Swift computes the selling price of one child to be ten shillings. This is recorded on line 103-105 ‘I believe no gentleman would repine to give Ten Shillings for the Carcass of a good fat child, which, as I have said will make four Dishes of excellent Nutritive Meat’. He proceeds and make fun of the mothers that they will get eight shillings profit to use until they will able produce another child.

Swift applies a sympathetic tone in his proposals, especially at the beginning. In paragraph two, he is requesting for amicable and a permanent solution to help these children from deplorable state they are living. He goes ahead to award anyone who will find cheap and easy method of making these children useful by building a statue in his or her memory. Jonathan’s tone is not constant in his recording of his proposals. He later changes to scary tone as he progresses to give his personal opinions about these children. For instance, he talks of butchering these children to be made delicious food and skinning of the children to make admirable gloves for ladies and summer boots for gentlemen. This tone shocks and creates fear for the reader.

To what extent the psychiatric services can be improved in the special observation ward in a general hospital under Hospital Authority by nurse leader?: college application essay help

What is leadership about?

There are many different people defined leadership in different ways (Heacock, 2013). According to Hickman (1998), leadership aimed to induce the followers to follow and take action in order to complete the specified goals, and it can helped to show the values of the leaders and the followers and also their motivations can be showed. According to Jooste (2004), leadership is more complicated and not simply acted as a role by how to control the followers, and leaders always tried to help and teach the followers to complete the task by step by step such as planning, leading, controlling and organizing. According to Northouse (2009), leaders can have the ability to affect the followers to complete a specified goal. Rogers (2003) stated that leaders can help the followers to become more aware of the uncertainty and possible outcome about the possible changes. The above information showed that a leader must have good leadership skills in order to affect the followers about what is happening and the values to change the current conditions. It can helped the followers to have a more and better understanding of the specified goal, as a result, the followers are more willing to follow and complete the tasks smoothly.

Importance of Leadership

According to the Strategic Service Plan of the Hospital Authority (2009-2012), health care workers and the frontline staff need to increase and enhance their related skills for the raising patient’s service’s needs, the number of patients, the complexity of medical devices and more complicated medical cases. In order to solve the above problems and needs, Hospital Authority has focused on three main different aspects such as including management skills, leadership skills and clinical competence. Hospital Authority emphasis the importance of leadership and put sufficient resources such as overseas training and classroom courses in order to enhance the leadership skills to current ward mangers, nursing officer, advanced practice nurse and future leaders. According to the Hospital Authority Annual Plan (2011-2012), one of the key objectives was ‘Build People First Culture’ and the one of the priority services for 2011-2012 was to ‘Enhance professional competencies and build up effective management and leadership’.

Overview of psychiatric services in Hong Kong

According to the Hospital Authority Mental Health Service Plan for Adults (2010-2015), there was estimated 1 million to 1.7million people were having psychiatric problem in Hong Kong and about 70,000 to 200,000 people were suffering from severe psychiatric problems. And around 40,000 of them with diagnosed schizophrenia and nearly half of them were treated at out-patient setting.

According to Chui, Mui and Cheng et al. (2012), the aim for public psychiatric hospital was to minimize the psychiatric admission rates and wanted to focus on psychiatric community services such as psychiatric out-patient clinic, psychiatric community out-reach team services and the Consultation Liaison team (CLT) in public general hospital for patients who needed to have psychiatric services. Hospital Authority tried to minimize the psychiatric admission rate by implementing some services since the year 2009.

Why I chose the topic to discuss and how it is important to me and others

I chose this topic because I am working in a ward call special observation ward which strongly supported by the Consultation Liaison team (CLT) services in public general hospital for patients who needed to have psychiatric services. Some of the patients are not physically fit for transfer to psychiatric unit, some of them are patients who are transferred back from psychiatric unit for medical problem, some of them are elderly with newly diagnosed dementia with relatives cannot accept the reality even with poor social support. However, many problems such as placement problems, complaint cases, safety problem and long waiting lists for patients who needed to admit to my ward existed.

This paper will start with the introduction and my selected real case scenario in my ward (special observation ward). I will compare different leadership models such as laissez-faire leadership, transactional leadership and transformational leadership. I will discuss the leadership style of my leader in my case scenario. For the discussion part, force field analysis will be used for analysis the data and I will summarize the findings, and also, I will discuss how the situation can be more effectively with how to improve the situation. Reflective summary will be the last part of this paper with my comment.

Context

Case scenario:

I am working in a special observation ward in one of the general hospital under Hospital Authority and this ward aimed to receive patient with unstable emotion or some psychiatric problem, but they are not physically fit for transfer to psychiatric hospital or need some close observation in general hospital. There are only 24 beds available with long waiting list that patients needed a bit long time to be admitted to my ward. There are only 3 APNs, 13 RNs and 5 ward assistants to support the ward within 3 shifts with heavy workload and stress.

My ward manger wanted to improve the quality of service and reduce the long waiting time for admission. She carried out a lot of guidelines and policies for staff to follow. Some of the policies are: 1) Discuss with relatives whom patients got dementia to find a placement to reduce the length of hospital stay, 2) Team in-charge should screen out cases who can be early discharged or transfer to psychiatric hospital. 3) Writing detailed report in each patient’s record to reduce the chance of getting challenge when patient’s service department receives complaints.

One month later, 1) some relatives complained that nurses forcing them to find old age home within a short period of time and forcing patients to discharge even they were not yet prepared well. 2) Doctors felt unpleasant and complained that nurses overriding their decisions about the discharge plan as some newly upgraded nurses does not have sufficient knowledge to screen suitable cases which causing low morale and conflicts. 3) Nurses needed to spend a lot of time in writing patient’s record causing low morale because nurses always need to spend their own time after duty turnover to finished writing detailed patient’s record (usually more than one hour). Also, many junior nurses do not have sufficient knowledge about detailed and special required documentation skills which put the nurse in-charge in a very difficult position.

Analysis

I will compare different leadership styles and analyze the leadership style in this scenario. According to Hickman (1998), transactional leaders will only correct the problems or mistakes once it happened in which will threatens the leader’s management plan and no changes will be made if nothing happened. Hickman (1998) also stated that transactional leaders also avoid development and improvement as they do not have motivation to have any changes. According to Bass (1990), transactional leadership will use rewards or punishments to the followers in order to achieve the goals.

For the transformational leadership, Hickman (1998) stated that transformational leadership will try to motivate the followers to achieve the goals and needs to changes, and the morality of the followers could be higher. Transformational leader need not to use the authority or power to control the followers. According to Bass (1990), transformational leaders will acted himself/herself as role model to the followers in order to obtain trustfulness and loyalty of his followers. Besides, through mentoring and empowering, Transformational leaders also use the mentoring and empowering skills to let the followers to enhance and develop the potential power in order to complete the specified goals.

According to Gill (2011), there are no guidelines and protocols for the followers to follow for the laissez-faire leadership style. The morale of the followers may be high or low as the followers can do whatever they wanted. However, the followers will have their own style of work and therefore more easily to reach the specified goal.

However, both transactional leadership and transformational leadership will set a clear objectives and goals for their followers with clear guideline. As a result, the followers can have a better understanding of what they should do in order to achieve the goals.

The leadership style of my case scenario:

Firstly, in this scenario, the leadership style of my ward manager was autocratic leader style and she was as a transactional leader. She has the greatest powers and the highest position in order to influence all the staff including nurses, doctors and patients with their relatives. According to Bass (1990), transactional leader got the power to make the plan and ask the followers to perform that in order to achieve the specified goals with the authority power.

In this scenario, she used her power to set some guidelines and policies for the staff to follow in order to improve the quality of service and reduce the long waiting time for admission. The advantages were 1) Admission rates to special observation ward were increased from average 10 patients per days after one month time as evidenced by the admission book. 2) Patient’s Services Department sent an e-mail to department head to appreciate the detailed documentation written in patient’s record in order to minimize the investigation time to answer the complaint cases. 3) Discharge rates were increased as many elderly with placement or caring problem were directly discharged to aged home other than home. And also, the cases which were medically fit for transfer to psychiatric unit were screened out earlier. That evidences were showed in the discharge record. Although her goals were achieved, there were disadvantages such as 1) Low morale of the nurses as they have to spend a lot of time in writing documentation by using their own time. 2) Heavy workload for staff for writing detailed documentations together with the routine work. Junior staff may have difficulties in proper and special documentations and senior staff also felt fatigues by doing their own work together with teaching and supervising the junior staff. 3) Poor relationship between nurses and doctors together with the relatives. As they always said that nurses forcing early discharge of patients which leading to increase in complaints.

Discussion

Changes and Force Field Analysis

According to Carney (2000), the basic and essential skills for all nurse leaders are manage, implement and support the changing process in order to ensure the followers to adopt about the changes. If the leaders lack of the quality of leadership skills, the changing process may be not successful. Force Field Analysis (Lewin, 1951) stated that it can help to how and what were the difficulties about the followers encountered. In the year 1951, Force Field Analysis was done in order to assess the followers for how to the implement the Family-Centered Care Program from the original situation. There were some advises given to improve the leadership skills according to the analysis result of the Force Field Analysis.

Force field analysis is a model designed by Lewin on the year 1951. It is useful to determine the effectiveness of the variables included and also helped to develop some strategies to change or by intervene some of the variables. Lewin assumed that both driving and restraining forces will be occurred when there were any changes existed. Driving forces are equal to the forces in which it keeps the changes are going on continuously. And the restraining forces are equal to the forces that occurred to resist the driving forces. According to Baulcomb (2003), equilibrium can be occurred once the leader can be able to decrease the restraining forces and allow reaching to the desired status by increasing the driving forces.

From the analysis, restraining forces were 1) Poor documentation skills of new staff, 2) Poor communication skills between staff and relatives, 3) Heavy workload due to extra jobs such as teaching new staff and extra time for detailed documentations, 4) High stress from staff to choose potential early discharge patient would due to conflicts with doctors and relatives and 5) Increase in the number of complaint cases. And the pushing forces were 1) Reducing waiting time for admission, 2) increase discharge rate, 3) improve documentation skills of staff and 4) increase the quality of services.

What has been successfully done listed in the Force Field Analysis in this scenario?

1) Reduce the waiting time for admission to special observation ward.

2) Increase the discharge rates in special observation ward.

3) Increase documentation skills for some of the nurses in special observation ward. (but not all).

What has been addressed but failed to success at the beginning without changes?

1) Increase documentation skills for some of the nurses in special observation ward.

2) Reduce the rate of complaints (as increasing rate of conflicts about placement issues)

3) Improve the quality of care as the morale of nurses is low and they feel stressful with heavy workload.

After identify the restraining and pushing forces, some changes or solutions can be established in order to eliminate and minimize the negative factors to make improvement. For the stress issues, as many junior nurses needed a lot of time to handle the routine work because lack of experiences, so they needed to stay after duty off to finish the all the tasks including the detailed documentations. Senior nurses also have the responsibilities to supervise the junior nurses in which they also have to leave lately after off duty. Documentation class training can be implemented by some experienced staff to junior staff and some samples of special documentations can be shared for reference. For the discharge issues, there are communication problems and many doctors and relatives would not listen to nurse’s advice and leading to conflicts and complaints. This can helped by holding a meeting with doctors with agreement made before starting the program. And nurses can invite medical social worker and pre-discharge team if difficult to handle to placement problem in order to avoid conflicts and complaints from relatives. As a result, stress and workload can be reduced with the specified goals can also be achieved.

According to Cain and Mittman (2002), there should be promoting and supporting in changes within the health care setting, but should not greatly influence the existing situations. Conner and Patterson (1982) stated that the reason for the failed to changes were due to the lack of commitment for the followers to changes and it was important for the followers to accept and support the changes in order to success any changes.

In this scenario, although changes were necessary for improving the quality of services, but the leader did not provide adequate support, time and training before implemented the policies and protocol. As a result, the followers showed lack of energy and even felt stressful to support the changes.

Conclusion

Different leadership style such as laissez-faire leadership, transactional leadership and transformational leadership were introduced with a case scenario was shared. Force Field Analysis was used to point out the pushing and restraining forces which can help to improve the situation. There is also a discussion part to discuss the case scenario for improvement. A good leader should show the advantages to changes and to minimize the weaknesses. Regular review and support are essential and a good leader should be ready to accept feedback and suggestions.

Part2:

Reflective Summary

I am a Registered Nurse who is working in Medical Department for nearly nine years and rotated to the special observation ward under medical department for about seven years. I am the second highest appointment Registered Nurse working in this ward and always needed to perform the job as ward in-charge and mentors for new comers and student nurses. As my ward manager decided to implement the guidelines and protocols as stated in Part 1, the workload was increased and I felt very stress as I needed to choose some potential early discharge cases and presented to my ward manager and doctor-in-charge. Also, I needed to spend a lot of time to explain the importance of placement issues to the relative with caring problem during visiting hour with half of my colleagues went out for dinner time and some of them will scolded nurses for forcing patients to aged home. For the potential complaint cases, nurses involved needed to write detailed documentations in patient’s record in which sometimes involves three pages of papers to write. All of the nurses feel fatigue and stress about the new guidelines.

If I am my ward manager, I will choose to be a transformational leader. It is because transactional leadership only focuses on the goals achievement with punishment and rewards were made for the followers. Although Outhwaite (2003) stated that the transactional leaders must have their own abilities to achieve a common goal and the routine job should be done sufficiently. The followers have sufficient instructions from the transactional leader to ensure the work having done successfully and effectively. However, the moralities of the staff under transactional leadership were low as they will always tried to avoid punishment by following the standard guidelines to achieve the specified goals.

I think that transformational leadership is more suitable in nursing field because the followers can have more opportunities and freedom to involve in the decision making process. The transformational leader can allow the followers to implement some tasks with their specified abilities. It provides opportunities for the followers to learn the leadership skills and knowledge. The relationship between the leader and the followers will be better for transformational leadership.

Transformational leader always try to emphasis changes and encourage having commitments. Moreover, I believed that transformational leaders will spend more time to teach and provide coaching to the followers, as a result, the followers should be more satisfied and happier. Transformational leader will also provide the followers some training and for further development of the specified areas and helps to develop the strengths of the followers.

As all of the public hospitals are facing the problem of manpower insufficient already and the turnover rates are high due to heavy workload and poor working environment. It is not practical to implement some new guidelines without sufficient support to increase the workload of staff. If I am the leader, I will have sufficient information and suggestions before implement a new guideline or policy and I will provide adequate professional training and support to the staff in order to allow them to develop their strengths. I will also listen and allow staff to provide suggestions or advises for improvement and changes because the morality will be higher if the staff having the chance for involvement.

To improve my leadership skill, I will use a reflective diary to written down some special events which are happened in my ward together with the advantages and the disadvantages of the leadership style of my ward manager in order to have further improvement or what is good for learning. It can help me to summarize all the events and make an evaluation to be a role model before I can promote to Advanced Practice Nurse. Also, I can seek the approval of my ward manager to set some projects such as the topic ‘Documentation’ by using transformational leadership style to test the effect of performing projects and it can helped to observe the response of the followers for me for further development.

I will set a three to twelve months leadership developmental plan in special observation ward -by SMART. The SMART Objectives of the project as set below:

1) To implement a documentation training course for all of the nurses working in the special observation ward to enhance the documentation skills and special documentation style especially for the patients in special observation ward. For 100% of nurses working in special observation ward have the chance to join the training course within six months time.

2) To implement a communication skills training course for all of the nurses working in the special observation ward to enhance the communication skills especially for the patients and their relatives in special observation ward. For 100% of nurses working in special observation ward have the chance to join the training course within twelve months time.

3) To increase the morale of the colleagues in my ward by receiving feedback of the new guideline to allow their involvement to improve the services within three months time.

Manhole Rehabilitation

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Decentralisation: college essay help online

Over the past two decades a wave of decentralization to the local political bodies has been noticed all over the world. (Martinez-Vazquez, May 2007, p. 1) These worldwide trend towards decentralization is welcomed by the academicians and experts as a positive sign for democratic transformation and the process can be perceived in two fundamental observations,:’First, decentralization is most often associated with an increase in local autonomy. Second, the connotations and values attached to decentralization and local autonomy are almost exclusively positive.’ (Beer-T??th, 2009, p. 29)However, it is observed in most of the cases that political or administrative transfers of power were not followed by proper empowerment in fiscal affairs. Low fiscal autonomy has been a major policy problem in the decentralization process at local level both in developed and developing nations. Central control and supervision of local affairs also found to be a major obstacle in the trends of governing local governments around the world. Lack of fiscal autonomy is closely related to ensuring accountability and transparency for the local government bodies. For better governance at local level, it is urged that more emphasis should be given to local level fiscal decentralization so that local governments can have a certain level of financial resources to organize their internal affairs and ensure peoples empowerment at local level .This paper is designed to examine the major issues and concerns related to fiscal autonomy, accountability mechanism and decentralization at local level around the world and connect those issues to broder governance paradigm and find out the major challenges to advance democratic practices at local level. The paper will try to give an overall view of the trends of local level governance practices in both developed and developing world and will try to bring under a comparative lens of all the concurrent issues and challenges related to local level governances financing.

A) Financing by Central Government: central control and the question of autonomy

Dependence on central government in fiscal affairs is a worldwide trend in local government financing. Intergovernmental transfers are the important sources of local government financing around the world. It is thought that these government transfers have political dimensions as most of such kinds of transfers are designed from center with political motives. Therefore, it is important to assess the role of center government in financing local bodies around the world. In this part, the global trends of intergovernmental transfers, imbalance between center and local and its political dimensions around the world will be discussed and analyzed with the purpose to comprehend the magnitude of central government transfers to local government around the world.

1. Intergovernmental transfers for financing local governments

Intergovernmental transfers are the main source of local governmental finance around the world.

The transfers are especially important for developing nations because local government taxing powers are very limited in most of the developing world. In fact, many different types of transfers are in use around the world and it is difficult to settle on a best practice (Roy, 2008, p. 30). It is urged to reduce the flow of government grants to local governments and increase the scope of local taxation and resource mobilization. In fact, the share of government grants in local government budgeting is recognized as an indicator for financial autonomy at local level (Daniel Bergvall & Merk, 2006, p. 4) and bridging the gap between revenues and expenditures remain the main challenge for the effective execution of decentralization and democratic transformation. However, there is yet any consensus whether those transfers promote efficiency or misallocate resources at local level. In one view, lack of adequate resource transfers to local governments creates difficulties to finance their expenditure responsibilities, while in other view; overdependence of central grants can undermine local accountability. According to one analyst over-dependence can created perverse incentives at the local level to misallocate public resources in federal system. (Khemani, July 24,2001, pp. 5-6)

2. Political dimension of financial decentralization

Local autonomy is a fundamental base for making democracy work, and is often referred to as a ‘school in democracy.’ (Shimizutani, 2010, p. 99) People’s participation should come from the roots and decentralized and autonomous local body can equip the people at local level to promote democratic procedures .Nevertheless, it can backfire from its own strength. Decentralization which is believed to break down the asymmetric relationship of clientelism at local level can create a new type of clientical political practices in real world (Garc??a-Guadilla & P??rez, 2002, p. 104). Indeed, in many cases, decentralization simply empowers local elites to capture a larger share of public resources, often at the expense of the poor (Johnson, Deshingkar, & Start, 2005, p. 937). Recentralization process also can be noticed for political reasons. Nicholas Awortwi examines the administrative reform policy of Ghana and Uganda; and showed that recentralization and further weakening of LGs are likely to continue in both countries because the initial path that was created benefited politicians and bureaucrats and they are committed to staying on that course. (Awortwi, 2011) Political calculation is always a major factor in any policy setting. Even, in Developed world, like UK, political trend of targeting local government fund can be identified. (John & Ward, 2001).Central-periphery financial relations in different countries always evolved differently in different political perspective. Moreover, developing countries often reach their decision about intergovernmental transfers for political reasons as well. (Roy, 2008, p. 33) Bahl Roy explained the politics behind the intergovernmental transfers in three categories:

i. The Central authority likes to provide local governments with intergovernmental transfers that carry stringent conditions to bypass the decentralization demand.

ii. A reason for advocating intergovernmental transfers by central government is the goal of enforcing uniformity in the provision of public services.

iii. A transfer system may be put in place as part of a political strategy to hold open the option of offloading the budget deficit on to subnational governments (for example, underfunding a grant program). (Roy, 2008, pp. 33-34)

Thought, it is thought that there are political calculations behind the sanctions of government grants, it is the dominating trends in both developed and developing world and the trend of Intergovernmental transfers is likely to continue.

3) Financial Gap between local and central governance

Countries, both developed and developing, transfer funds to equip the local governments for providing services and generate development at local level .However; Developing and transition countries are characterized by wide disparities among regions in economic well-being. (Roy, 2008, p. 31) Nevertheless, vertical imbalance existed between centre and periphery is a common symptom of fiscal imbalance of developing nations which is believed to treat with taking policies of financial empowerment. An analyst emphasized the solution to adopt equalization measures of inter-regional differences in financial capacities and it can be accomplished by providing intergovernmental transfers. (Roy, 2008, p. 31) In a study of 9 major developed and developing countries , it is suggested to adopt more equalization formula to face the disparity problem. (Ma, 1997)Roy Bahl identified a reason behind transfers (subnational) is to offset externalities so that local governments can make their own decision and may underspend on services where there are substantial external benefits (Roy., 2000, p. 3). It is also argued by Roy that reducing administrative cost of taxing may be another cause to collect tax by central authority and then the central government transfers grants to local level. (Roy., 2000, p. 4)

In OECD countries 34.4 percents of revenues come from transfers. (Shah & Shah, 2006, p. 37). In a study of OECD countries , a growing trend of widening gap between sub-national tax and expenditure shares in the last twenty years is identified (Daniel Bergvall & Merk, 2006, p. 5)which caused a higher dependence of sub-national governments on grants. So fiscal decentralization in OECD countries, in fact, shrink the scope of fiscal autonomy as sub-national governments have become more dependent on central governments for their resources. Intergovernmental transfer from centre to state governments in USA constitutes a larger part of state budgeting. These transfers accounted for about 38% of all local government revenues, ranging from a low of 19.2% in Hawaii to a high of 70.2% in Vermont (Wildasin, 2009, p. 7).In developing countries, the dependence of fiscal transfers is more instrumental. Intergovernmental fiscal transfers finance about 60 percent of subnational expenditures in developing and transition economies. (Shah. A. , 2007, p. 1) In a study of World Bank on some selected countries, it is found that the average funding of local governments by government transfer is 50.9 percent. (Shah & Shah, 2006, p. 37)It is found that the fiscal transfers are much larger than average in Uganda (85.4 percent), Poland (76.0 percent), China (67.0 percent), Brazil (65.4 percent), and Indonesia (62.0 percent). (Shah & Shah, 2006, p. 37) It is also noticed in AND report that significant vertical fiscal imbalances prevails in Bangladesh, India, and Pakistan, and at the local level in the Philippines, the PRC, and Viet Nam. (Martinez-Vasquez, 2011, p. 5)In case of revenue autonomy, lower autonomy can be found as a common practice in many countries. Revenue autonomy is found low outside Japan and the Republic of Korea, and much less in Indonesia and the Philippines. However, autonomy at provincial level can be traced in India, Pakistan, and the PRC. (Martinez-Vasquez, 2011, p. 5)

4) Fiscal autonomy and the question of public service delivery of Local Government

Decentralization is recognized as a way to bring people closer to government services and also as a feedback mechanism to response the local people needs. This move reflects public preferences for more democratic and participatory forms of government in order to improve the level of public services to respond to the needs of users of those services. (Sayuri, 2005) Though the notion of fiscal autonomy is central in fiscal decentralization literature; the idea of fiscal autonomy did not get proper academic investigation at the beginning. The local autonomy concept can be traced from Tibeout model of 1956 as an arrangement for local competition. Probably the earliest attempt was from Clark who described autonomy as a relative concept with two specific powers: power of initiations and power of immunity. (Beer-T??th, 2009, p. 31) Early theorization was mostly involved to deal with the question of the capacity of local government following Clark and then later literatures incorporate other issues including local government autonomy. The European Charter of Local Self-Government taken by the Council of Europe in 1985 described local self-government (i.e. local autonomy) along the double characteristics of right and ability to manage local public affairs. (Beer-T??th, 2009, p. 36) Therefore, it is obvious that fiscal empowerment is an important part of decentralization and without it, the goal of effectively providing services from local level cannot be achieved.

Though a wave of decentralization is recorded around the globe in the last two decades, the decentralization of local bodies did not supported by proper autonomy in fiscal affairs. Low expenditure autonomy due to the central supervision lacks the local government to introduce or keep services by their own. A study on the local government finance of some OECD countries found that the most common way of transferring resources from central to subnational government is through earmark grants and these grants are used for the purpose of financing and subdivision of services and for equalization of tax or service capacity (Daniel Bergvall & Merk, 2006) The study affirmed that non-earmark grant can be more effective instrument for financial purposes. On the other hand, a study on fiscal decentralization of Asian countries found that many Asian countries exhibits the highest level of decentralization in the world in term of the share of subnational government in total expenditures. (Martinez-Vasquez, 2011, p. 3) It is showed in the report that 70% of total expenditure is allocated at subnational level in PRC, 66% in India, 60% in japan,45% both in republic of Korea and Vietnam. However, this data in many cases failed to interpret the actual level of autonomy at local level. Throughout the entire region, heavy reliance and dependence on transfers and revenue sharing can be found. Lower tier governments in most Indian states have a very little expenditure autonomy from their state governments. (Martinez-Vasquez, 2011, p. 3) It is also noticed that central government in many countries involved in local functions as well. Expenditure autonomy (percentage of own expenditure under effective control of sub-national governments), is on average higher (74% for all but 96% in Croatia, and 7% in Albania) in transition economies than developing countries (58% for all but 95% for Dominican Republic and 23% for South Africa. (Shah. A. , 2004, p. 17)

B) Financing by own: three major sources for local financing

There are different means of financing local needs by own resources of local governments. Three sources from which local level bodies mostly rely on are local level taxation, local government Borrowing and Public private partnership which have significant importance to enforce local financing.

1. Local level Taxation: empowered by own sources

Taxes are the most important sources of the local government revenues. Financial decentralization process provides the Local governments institutions with the necessary authority to change tax rate, initiate new tax and enhance the scope of the tax. It is thought that fiscal decentralization will increase taxation net and a greater share of GDP will be reached by tax system. Indeed, it is believed that increased subnational revenue mobilization will reduce the need for intergovernmental transfers from central revenues (Bird & Bahl, 2008, p. 4).

Significant tax assignment to subnational governments has become prevalent in developed countries (Bird R. , November 2010, p. 1). Bird & Bahl examines different country cases and identified the trend of developed world. (Bird & Bahl, 2008, p. 6)US State governments and Canadian provinces have almost complete autonomy in choosing any tax base, so long as there is no interference with interstate commerce. In Denmark and Sweden, local taxes account for nearly one-half of local government spending. Revenues from subnational government taxes in Switzerland are greater in amount than revenues received from grants. Though, Japan had a conservative tax policy which allow little to local government in term of taxing capabilities but the country is planning to introduce new intergovernmental reform to shift taxing power significantly to local governments (Bird & Bahl, 2008, p. 6) However, it is noticed that in most developing countries, central governments have been reluctant to reform the taxing system for subnational governments. (Bird & Bahl, 2008, p. 7) The subnational tax share in total taxes in developing countries is only about 10 percent while it is 20 percent in industrialized countries. These figures have changed little in the last 30 years. (Bird & Bahl, 2008, p. 7) Local governments in countries like Cambodia, China and Vietnam get less than 5 percent of their total revenues from their own sources (Talierciao, 2005, pp. 107-128) On the other hand, in a few developing countries, like the Philippines, Brazil, and Colombia, a third or more of subnational government expenditure is met up by own sources (Bird & Bahl, 2008, p. 7)

It is thought that increased fiscal autonomy would improve the efficiency and responsiveness of the public sector governance. (Fjeldstad & Semboja, 2000, p. 28) However, strengthening autonomy by providing more taxation power to local government can cause greater mismanagement and corruption in local authorities. In developing country like Tanzania where Local taxes represent less than 6 per cent of total national tax revenues (Fjeldstad & Semboja, 2000, p. 7), it is strongly recommended to restructure the revenue system combined with capacity building and improved integrity mechanism. In case of India, it is noticed that decentralization of fiscal power to local Panchayat Body eventually decreases the volume of taxes and also shrink the tax base. The chiefs of the Panchayats always count the elections factors which is one of the cause of declining taxes. So it is recommended to undertake more accountability measures and provide intensives in tax collection of the Panchayat. (Jha, Kang, & Nagarajan, 2011) Therefore, in case of tax autonomy, it can be assumed that capacity building and ensuring accountability and transparency are crucial while transferring power to local authority.

A major part of local revenues is collected from property taxes around the world. OECD countries raise 54 percent of local revenues from property taxes, 23 percent from personal income taxes, 14 percent from corporate taxes, and 9 percent from other taxes. (Shah & Shah, 2006, pp. 37-39) Therefore, it is apparent that local governments in OECD countries depend more on property and income taxes than other sources. But developing word lacks proper tax autonomy because of the unwilling political elites and capacity problems. For all developing countries, revenues from property taxes constitute only 0.5percent of GDP which is about 2 percent (1 to 3 percent) of GDP in industrial countries. (Shah & Shah, 2006, p. 39) Therefore, property taxes may represent significant untapped potential for funding local affairs in developing countries.

2. Local government borrowing: Challenges and promises

Unavailability of government grants and Lack of local funding sometimes compelled local governments to take loans from public and private sectors. Local government bodies usually collects loans from banking sector ( both national and international development program loans) or issued bonds. (Bucic & others, 2011, p. 2) Developments projects are designed with such type of borrowing options for emergency situation. Large infrastructure deficiencies in developing countries call for significant access to borrowing by local governments. (Shah & Shah, 2006, p. 40) Local access to credit requires well-functioning financial markets and creditworthy local governments; however, in most of the local governments in developing countries lacks both. (Shah & Shah, 2006, p. 40) Heavy reliance on borrowing also can jeopardize macroeconomic stabilization. For example, perversely structured intergovernmental systems destabilized the economy of Argentina in the late 1990s. (Yilmaz, Beris, & Serrano-Berthet, 2008, p. 281) After the 90es Japan took some initiatives to empower local governments by issuing bonds with guarantees, uniform issuing conditions, and secured finance from public funds to meet up the gap between revenues and expenditure. But it was proven ineffective and unproductive in most of the cases and it is suggested to adopt accrual-based accounting system instead of cash-based accounting system. (Sayuri, 2005)Most countries follow the policy to limit, control, or even prohibit the issuance of debt by local governments. A World Bank study report found none of the local governments of ten country’s health and education sectors that are surveyed in the study was given full discretion to borrow. However, it is noticed in the study that local governments in Burkina Faso, Ethiopia, Kerala, Philippines, Rwanda, Tanzania and Uganda, have partial authority over borrowing. (Bank, 2009, p. 55)

3. Public Private Partnership (PPP): A New Window of local Financing

Public-Private Partnerships (PPP’s) have been hailed as the latest institutional form of co-operation between the public sector and the private sector. (Greve & Ejersbo, 2002, p. 1) If local government enjoys necessary autonomy from central government, PPP can be used as effective instrument to respond to the local demand without looking funding from central government. For example, Mandaluyung city of the Philippines build a new Market place using the PPP formula which had lacking of fund at that time. But PPP has some instrumental risks concerning the possibilities of misuse of power, corruption and transparency. The Danish local government of Farum in Denmark was considered as one of the success story of PPP at local level governance in 90s.But later, a huge scandal of corruption and irregularities were erupted in the organization in 2002. Clash between central government and lack of democratic accountability mechanism were thought to be responsible for the failure of the local governance. (Greve & Ejersbo, 2002) In an article on the PPP taken by Morogoro municipality in Tanzania, Lameck analyzed various PPP project by the city and urged that there should be a framework of rule and regulation to undertake such practice; otherwise Government will lose control over the whole procedure. (Lameck, 2009).As private organizations are more profit oriented, the local governments should be more careful about the accountability and responsiveness of the project. John Hood and N Mcgarvey showed that the local Government PPP initiatives taken by Labour Government in Scotland lack proper risk management procedures which might jeopardize the whole arrangement. (Hood & Mcgarvey, 2002)

C) Corruption, accountability and Fiscal decentralization

Decentralization of fiscal affairs is thought to be a panacea for corruption and to promote accountability and transparency at local level. However, it has some significant policy risks as it can open up new windows of nepotism, corruption and mismanagement.

1. Does fiscal decentralization combat corruptions?

It is assumed that fiscal devolution to local governments creates space to bring the services to the people and installs a way of trustworthiness which can decrease the culture of corruption practice. A flow of increasing intergovernmental and political competition installed by decentralization can reduce rent seeking and monopolistic behavior and improve service deliveries. (Fisman & Gatti, 2002) But there is huge debate on the effectiveness of fiscal reforms to bring accountability and transparency by installing decentralized structure. Some researchers have an optimistic assessment on the effect of decentralization of fiscal affairs on corruption while some other explained decentralization as a way of corruption. Treisman argued that decentralized government creates many levels of governments and a more complex system of governance reduce accountability and increase corruption. (Treisman, 2000) Prud’homme stated that there is more opportunity for corruption at local level as local bureaucrats have more powers to execute and they are influenced by the local interest groups. (Prud’homme, 1995) Goldsmith argued that it is easy to hide corruption in local level than center level. (Goldsmith, 1999) But most other studies found a negative relationship between the two variables. An exclusive study on 24 countries in the time frame of 1995-2007 found that fiscal decentralization has a positive impact in reducing corruption. (Padovano, Fiorino, & Galli, 2011) In another rigorous study of 182 countries, it is founded that decentralization and corruption has a negative relationship. (Ivanyna & Shah, 2010)

In Malawi, a move to decentralize the local government body in 2000 following the act of 1998 opened up a huge window of corruption in the country. (Tambulasi & Kayuni, 2007) After the fiscal reform and devolution of fiscal power to local bodies, the new-patrimonial leadership became reinforced exploiting the opportunities which eventually broke down the accountability system. (Tambulasi & Kayuni, 2007) Tambulasi in another article expressed the view that adaptation of new public management strategy is the policy problem of the whole process and suggested to take public governance reform model with more participation and transparency. (Tambulasi R. I., 2009) Some argues that using bribery as an indicator of corruption is problematic and other social and economic indicators should be examined. (Bardhan & Mookherjee, 2005) He summarized that the relation between corruption and decentralization is very complex as a lot of variable is involved in the process and single one approach is not enough to unveil the underlying relationship. He also mentioned that the problem of capture and lack of accountabilities are the major obstacles in developing countries. Robert Klitgaard (1988) explained the principle’agent theory and argued that monopoly and discretion can exacerbate corruption while accountability has a reducing effect. (Witz, 2011, p. 5)A report on the corruption of Local governments in Latin American countries also suggested taking legal and institutional reforms to combat the problem. (Bliss & Deshazo, 2009) The Report emphasizes on the availabilities of information and urged for performance management efforts to be undertaken. (Bliss & Deshazo, 2009, pp. 14-15) Nina Witz in a paper showed that accountability in local level water governments is relatively higher than central government in Sweden and described decentralization as an antidote of corruption. (Witz, 2011)Arikan also found evidence that decentralization can lower the level of corruption. (Arikan, 2004) .Furthermore, fiscal decentralization believed to have positive impact on the citizen behaviors regarding the corruption issues and can boost social capital by increasing trust among the citizens to the government officials and bring the government closer to the people. Oguzhan Dincer found a positive correlation between fiscal decentralization and trust using data from US states. (Dincer, 2010) Following the seminal work of Putnam, a good number of empirical studies found a positive impact of social capital on the economic growth of a country and it is suggested to follow fiscal decentralization as a policy to increase social capital and trust in both developing and developed countries. (Dincer, 2010, p. 189). In case of Zambezia of Mozambique, Akiko Abe found that Social trust (one dimension of social capital) was formed in a shorter period of time than Putnam has outlined. (Abe, 2009, p. 77)

2. Risks of Local fiscal Autonomy and accountability mechanism

Financial devolution of power is thought to empower the local leadership and provides accountability and transparency to the whole settings. However, providing financial autonomy at local level has some potential risks. Fiscal decentralization depends on the ability of local governments to manage revenues and expenditures effectively and requires strong institutions for financial accountability. (Yilmaz, Beris, & Serrano-Berthet, 2008, p. 23) Financial accountability seeks transparency in the management of public funds. It also requires that governments manage finances prudently and ensure integrity in their financial reporting, control, budgeting and performance systems. (Sahgal & Chakrapani., 2000., p. 3) In an article, Serdar Yilmaz, Yakup Beris and Rodrigo Serrano-Berthet explained two methods of downward accountability (Public accountability approaches and Social accountability approaches) of local financial organization along with other methods .They examined different experiences of financial autonomy and accountability from different countries and identified different issues arising from the lack of internal controls. (Yilmaz, Beris, & Serrano-Berthet, 2008) They showed that many nations impose central control over local governments as a policy to restructure subnational relations observing the capacity problem of local governments around the world. They suggest not taking only upward accountability mechanism which may limit local government autonomy in decision-making and service delivery negating the intended empowering of local governments. (Yilmaz, Beris, & Serrano-Berthet, 2008, p. 26) Yilmaz and Felicio examined the decentralization and low accountability problems of Angola and urged for a checked and balanced policy to cope with the tendency of abusing of discretion power. (Yilmaz & Felicio, 2009) Though citizen participation is ensured at local level there, Provincial and Municipal administrators did not genuinely embrace the spirit of the citizen councils. It is suggested to incorporate appropriate advocacy efforts to ensure quality participation processes at the municipal and provincial levels and emphasis on strengthening civil society’s skills that will incrementally increase accountabilities in public expenditure management activities and will ensure proper oversight. (Yilmaz & Felicio, 2009, p. 21)In Ethiopia, it is noticed that progressive features of fiscal decentralization were not followed by political management. A strong upward accountability structure without the accompanying discretion and downward accountability mechanism was the main feature of the system which failed to ensure the accountable nature of organization. (Yilmaz & Venugopal, 2008, pp. 23-24) It is evident from different experiences that a combination of upward and downward accountability arrangement and a participatory nature of governance only can ensure democracy, better management and transparency at local level. Anwar Shah, in an article, urged for judicial accountability measures in developing countries where laws on property rights, corporate legal ownership and control, bankruptcy, and financial accounting and control are not fully developed. (Shah. A. , 2004, p. 34) He also emphasis on traditional channels of accountability such as audit, inspection and control functions should be strengthened, since they tend to be quite weak in transition and developing economies. (Shah. A. , 2004, p. 34)

3. Participatory local budgeting for more accountability and transparency

Budgeting at local level is a significant instrument for the fiscal health of a local body. Traditional municipal budgets which is in fact, focused with incremental line-item budgeting practice, have historically been constructed on giving emphasis on accounting staffs to face the audit requirements and it said by one analyst mentioned that it is aimed to the audited financial statements required to be submitted by municipal authorities after the fiscal year. (Schaeffer & SerdarYilmaz, 2007, p. 8)Over the last two decade, it is observed that different reform measures have been taken incorporated with the traditional budgeting to ensure more transparency and accountabilities. Program budgeting at local level brought different planning and accountability measures differing from the traditional line-item approach in preparing, reviewing, and presenting the budget. In recent changed global world, participatory local budgeting becomes a powerful good governance tool to integrate citizens in government’s matters. Participatory budgeting is considered as a direct-democracy approach to budgeting and by enhancing transparency and accountability participatory budgeting can help reduce government inefficiency and curb clientelism, patronage, and corruption. (Shah, Overview, 2007, p. 1) However, Participatory budgeting has some significant risks. Participatory processes can be captured by interest groups. Such processes can mask the undemocratic, exclusive, or elite nature of public decision making, giving the appearance of broader participation and inclusive governance while using public funds to advance the interests of powerful elites. (Shah, Overview, 2007, pp. 1-2)

4. E-Governance for strengthening decentralization

The potential of e-government in advancing good governance is increasingly being recognized. (Bank., 2004) E-governance is identified as an efficient tool to generate transparency and ensure accountability in government procedures. Moreover, one of the strength of e-governance is that it is cost effective. E-procurement creates a highly competence and transparent environment of procurement and a faster method of getting quotes which can narrow the scope of corruption and also reduce the cost as well. E-procurement can even cut 50 % municipalities public procurement cost. In this backdrop, it is highly recommended to induce electronic methods in government procurement and other administrative procedures for transparency and ensure easy access of the citizens.

World Bank funded some pilot cases in developing world (some state in India) and found a positive result in widely used services, such as issuance of licenses and certificates and collection of payments and taxes (Bank., 2004). One of the strength of e-governance is that it provides transparency which acts as a viable tool against corruption. For example, Karnataka State of India digitalized the transfer system of teachers and it eventually reduced the scope of corruption in the transfer process. (Bank., 2004) In Andra Pradesh of India, the e-governance strive faced lot of difficulties due to manage huge information of complex administration which is related to a vast population. Reengineering and changing work processes across 70 departments in the secretariat have been a challenge even for the country’s largest information technology company, which is implementing the project. (Bank., 2004) Most e-governance project requires huge funding to automation the whole system and also huge population in developing countries are outside the internet facilities. In a report on African prospect to introduce e-governance, it is identified that adequate funding and low rate of literacy and PC penetration rate are the challenges to update the whole system under e-governance. (Kitaw, 2006, p. 8) Another study of six African southern countries (Ghana, Kenya, Tanzania, Namibia, South Africa and Swaziland) examined e-Readiness conditions and suggested to initiate more capacity building measures to strengthen the procedures. (Meyaki, 2010)Digital divide is a big challenge to integrate all the people in a more citizen centric structure of e-governance. Growing mobile networks around the world and also in developing countries can be easily recognized and m-Governance (providing services though mobile phones) can be an option to fight the digital divide. Integrating fiscal measures in local affairs can ensure accountability and transparency at local level as well. Kerala state of India initiated m-governance by launching varies services focusing on the utilization of mobile technologies to deliver citizen services which includes electricity and water services billing, road tax and vehicle registration. (Young, 2009)

Conclusion

Strengthening Local governments by providing more autonomous power in fiscal affairs and ensuring citizen involvement is believed to empower people at local level and can bring changes from root level as local governments only know the needs from grassroots. In this paper a wide range of literatures is examined to recognize the trends and issues concerning fiscal autonomy and financial accountability mechanism at local governments around the world. Most of the local government experiences indicate positive relations between financial decentralization and better governance. In this age of globalization and Information technology revolution, a more global world with localization of governments is emerging. This trend must be supported by financial empowerment of local bodies and accountability mechanism at local level. Access to untapped revenue sources and digitalization of organization procedures has become an important tool to cope with the challenge of globalization and Information technology revolution nowadays. Bangladesh, a developing nation which has a huge population living under local government bodies and the weakness of her local government is depicted as the root cause of her dysfunctioning democracy, can be benefited from the lessons of decentralization around the world and can reevaluate her policy regarding local government and decentralization.

The emerging role of distance bounding protocol in aerospace systems: college essay help near me

Abstract: RFID (Radio Frequency Identification) systems are vulnerable to replay attacks like mafia fraud, distance fraud and terrorist fraud. The distance bounding protocol is designed as a countermeasure against these attacks. These protocols ensure that the tags are in a distant area by measuring the round-trip delays during the rapid challenge response exchange. Distance Bounding protocols are cryptographic protocols which enable verifier to establish the upper bound on the physical distance to the prover. They are based on timing the delay between the sending out a challenge bit and receiving back the corresponding response bits. A timing based response followed by consecutive timing measurement provides more optimistic approach in authenticating the prover.

Index Terms: RFID, Mafia fraud, Distance fraud, Terrorist fraud, Distance Bounding protocol.

I. INTRODUCTION

A famous story of the little girl who played against two Chess Grandmasters’ How was it possible to win one of the games? Annie-Louise played Black against Spassky. White against Fisher. Spassky moved first, and Ann-Louise just copied his move as the first move of her game against Fisher, then copied Fisher’s replay as her own reply to Spassky’s first move, and so on.

This problem exploited by Anne-Louise is known in the cryptographic community as mafia-fraud. Mafia fraud is a man in the middle attack against an authentication protocol where the adversary relays the exchanges between the verifier and prover, making them believe they directly communicate together. The mafia fraud is particularly powerful against the contactless technologies. The most threatening systems are Radio Frequency Identification (RFID) and Near Field Communication (NFC) because the devices answer to any solicitation without explicit agreement of their holder. The vulnerability of these technologies has already been illustrated by several practical attacks [10]. The two attacks related to mafia fraud are distance fraud and terrorist fraud. The distance fraud only involves a malicious prover, who cheats on his distance to the verifier. The terrorist fraud is an exotic variant of the mafia fraud where the prover is malicious and actively helps the adversary to succeed the attack.

Measuring the physical distance between communicating parties is important for communication security. For example, we can imagine a building security system that allows a visitor to open the door to the building only when the visitor has an authorized radio frequency Identification (RFID) tag for entering the building. When authenticating the tag, the security system should also verify the upper-bound distance between the door and the tag to thwart the remote attackers who may desire to open the door from a distance between communicating parties [4].

To solve the above problem, Brands and Chaum have proposed a distance-bounding protocol. In this protocol, a verifier V seeks to authenticate a prover P while measuring the distance d between V and P. For authentication, most of these protocols rely on multi-rounds of single-bit challenge and response, also known as a fast bit exchange phase. They are also lightweight in the sense that they do not require an additional (time and resources consuming) slow phase to terminate the protocol. A timing based response followed by the consecutive timing measurement provides more optimistic approach in authenticating the prover.

II. SYSTEM ARCHITECTURE

By using distance bounding protocols, a device (the verifier) can securely obtain an upper bound on its distance to another device (the prover). The security of distance-bounding protocols was so far mainly evaluated by analyzing their resilience to three types of attacks. For historical reasons, these are known as Distance Fraud, Mafia Fraud and Terrorist Fraud. In Distance Fraud attacks, a sole dishonest prover convinces the verifier that he is at a different distance than he really is. In Mafia Fraud attacks, the prover is honest, but an attacker tries to modify the distance that the verifier establishes by interfering with their communication. In Terrorist Fraud attacks, the dishonest prover colludes with another attacker that is closer to the verifier, to convince the verifier of a wrong distance to the prover. So far, it was assumed that distance bounding protocols that are resilient against these three attack types can be considered secure. In case of hostile attackers, the dishonest prover can pretend to be closer to or further away from the verifier than it actually is by either jumping the gun or sending a response before the request, or pretend to be further away than it is by delaying its response. Hostile attacker could attach its own identity to the prover’s response, and pass off honest verifier’s location as its own [1], [13].

Finally, dishonest provers can conspire to mislead the verifier, one prover lending the other prover its identity so that the second prover can make the first prover look closer than it is. The idea is that the prover first commits to a nonce using a one-way function, the verifier sends a challenge consisting of another nonce, the prover responds with the exclusive-or of its and the verifier’s nonce’s, and then follows up with the authentication information.

Fig 1: System Architecture

METAR is constructed to analyze the Weather report and cloud base height of an airplane. These details or information is passed between the verifier and prover. METAR is Meteorological elements observed at an Airport at a specific time. The verifier uses the time elapsed between sending its nonce and receiving the prover’s rapid response to compute its distance from the prover, and then verifies the authenticated response when it receives it. Through the wireless, verifier raises an authentication query to the prover side. If the prover gives an exact answer to the question means he/she is able to receive the extracted information at the end.

III. RFID TECHNOLOGY OVERVIEW

RFID frequency identification (RFID) technology consists of small inexpensive computational device with wireless communication capabilities. Currently, the main application of RFID technology is in inventory control and supply chain management fields. In these areas, RFID tags are used to tag and track the physical goods. Within this context, RFID can be considered a replacement for barcodes. RFID technology is superior to barcodes in two aspects. First, RFID tags can store information than barcodes [3]. Unlike a barcode, the RFID tag, being a computational device, can be designed to process rather than just store data. Second, barcodes communicate through an optical channel, which require the careful positioning of the reading device with no obstacles in-between [12]. RFID uses a wireless channel for communication, and can be read without line-of-sight, increasing the read efficiency.

The pervasiveness of RFID technology in our everyday lives has led to concerns over these RFID tags pose any security risk. The future applications of RFID make the security of RFID networks and communications even more important than before. The ubiquity of RFID technology has made it an important component in the Internet-of-Things (IoT), a future generation Internet that seeks to mesh the physical world together with the cyber world. RFID is used within the IoT as a means of identifying physical objects [11]. For example, by attaching an RFID tag to medication bottles, we can design an RFID network to monitor whether patients have taken their medications.

IV. DISTANCE BOUNDING PROTOCOL

Verifying the physical location of a device using an authentication protocol is an important security mechanism. Distance Bounding protocol aim to prove the proximity of two devices relative to each other. Distance bounding protocol determines an upper bound for the physical distance between two communicating parties based on the Round-Trip-Time (RTT) of cryptographic challenge response pairs. Brands and Chaum proposed a distance bounding protocol that could be used to verify a device’s proximity cryptographically. This design based on a channel where the prover can reply instantaneously to each single binary digit received from the verifier [1]. The number of challenge ‘response interactions is being determined by a chosen security parameter, Distance bounding protocol not only in the one-to-one proximity identification context but also as building blocks for secure location systems. After correct execution of the distance bounding protocol, the verifier knows that an entity having data is in the trusted network. Distance bounding protocol can be dividing in three phase: the Commitment Phase, the Fast Bit phase and signing phase.

The first DB protocol suitable for resource-constrained devices example: RFID tags. This protocol is considered lightweight in the sense that a single computation of a hash function and a call to a Pseudo Random Number Generator (PRNG) are the most costly operations required for its execution. The simplicity and efficiency of this protocol yield to similar designs for other DB protocols which modify how answers are calculated in order to improve the security performance. The protocol first contains a slow phase in which nonce are generated and exchanged [4], [7]. From this nonce and a secret value x, the possible response used in the first phase are computed via a function f. Then the fast phase consists of n consecutive rounds. In each of these rounds, the verifier picks a challenge ci, starts a timer and sends ci to the prover. When the prover receives the challenge he computes the answer ri and sends it back to the verifier as soon as possible. Upon reception of the answer, the verifier stores as well as the round trip time. Once the n rounds are elapsed, the verifier checks the validity of the answers, i.e., the n rounds, the protocol succeeds. Initialization, execution and decision steps are presented below and a general view is provided in Fig. 2.

Fig 2: Distance Bounding Protocol

Initialization. The prover (P) and the verifier (V ) agree on (a) a security parameter n, (b) a timing bound ‘tmax, (c) a pseudo random function P RF that outputs 3n bits, (d) a secret key x.

Execution. The protocol consists of a slow phase and a fast phase.

Slow Phase. P (respectively V ) randomly picks a nonce NP (respectively NV ) and sends it to V respectively P). Afterwards, P and V compute P RF (x, NP , NV ) and divide the result into three n-bit registers Q, R0 , and R1 . Both P and V create the function fQ : S ‘ {0, 1} where S is the set of all the bit-sequences of size at most n including the empty sequence. The function fQ is parameterized with the bit-sequence Q = q1 . . . qn, and it outputs 0 when the input is the empty sequence. For every non-empty bit-sequence Ci = c1 . . . ci where 1 ‘ i ‘ n, the function is defined as fQ(Ci) = Lij=1(cj ‘ qj ).

Fast Phase. In each of the n rounds, V picks a random challenge ci ‘R {0, 1}, starts a timer, and sends ci to P. Upon reception of ci , P replies with ri =Rcii ‘ fQ(Ci) where Ci = c1…ci. Once V receives ri , he stops the timer and computes the round-trip-time ‘ti .

Decis.ion. If ‘ti < ‘tmax and ri = Ri ci’ fQ(Ci) ‘ i ‘ {1, 2, …, n} then the protocol succeeds.

V. SECURITY ANALYSIS

Being resistant to both mafia and distance fraud is the primary goal of a distance bounding protocol. An important lower-bound for both frauds is (1/2) n [6], which is the probability of an adversary who answers randomly to the n verifier’s challenges during the fast phase. However, this resistance is hard to attain for lightweight DB protocols. Therefore, our aim is to design a protocol that is close to this bound for both mafia and distance frauds, without requiring costly operations and an extra final slow phase[5],[2].

A. Mafia Fraud:

A mafia fraud is an attack where an adversary defeats a distance bounding protocol using a man-in-the-middle (MITM) between the verifier and honest tag located outside the prover.

Fig 2(a): Mafia fraud

Among the DB protocols without final slow phase, those achieving the best mafia fraud resistance are round dependent. The idea is that the correct answer at the ith round should depend on the ith challenge and also on the (i-1) previous challenges.

B. Distance Fraud:

A distance fraud is an attack where a dishonest and lonely prover supports to be in the neighborhood of the verifier.

Fig 2(b): Distance Fraud

In mafia fraud, the best protocols in terms of the distance fraud are round dependent. However, round dependency by means of predefined challenges fails to properly resist to distance fraud. Intuitively [9], [7], the higher control over the challenges the prover has, the lower the resistance to distance fraud is. For this reason, our proposal allows the verifier to have full and exclusive control over the challenges.

C. Terrorist Fraud

A terrorist fraud is an attack where an adversary defeats a distance bounding protocol using a man-in-the-middle (MITM) between the reader and a dishonest tag located outside the neighborhood.

Such that the latter actively helps the adversary to maximize her attack success probability, without giving to her any advantage for future attacks. Terrorist fraud attack is not considered in our proposed system.

Fig 2(c): Terrorist Fraud

VI. PREVENTION TECHNIQUE OF ATTACKS

Different methods are used for prevention of these attacks. In the distance fraud the location will not be sufficient because the verifier does not trust the prover [5]. He wants to prevent a fraud prover claiming to be closer. Different type’s location mechanism that prevent these attacks are:

A. Measure the signal strength

Node can calculate distance from other node by sending it a message and see how long it takes to return. If response authenticated, fraud node can lie about being further away than it is, but not closer. Sender includes strength of transmitted message in message; Receiver compares received strength to compute distance.

B. Measure the Round Trip Time

Another solutions measure the round trip time. The round trip time is the time required for exchange a packet from a specific destination and back again. In this protocol the verifier sends out a challenge and starts a timer. After receiving the challenge, the prover does some elementary computations to construct the response. The response is sent back to the verifier and the timer is stopped. Multiplying this time with the propagation speed of the signal gives the distance.

C. Measure the Consecutive Time

Timing based input information followed by consecutive timing measurement provides more optimistic approach in authenticating the user. The verifier uses the time elapsed between sending its nonce and receiving the prover’s rapid response to compute its distance from the prover, and then verifies the authenticated response when it receives it. Our proposed system provides a proof breaks down concept if the prover is dishonest.

D. Validation and Identification

i. Validate the authentication information provided by the user

ii. Extract the MAC address to validate the request origin location

iii. Consecutive Execution time duration on the request processing.

VII. CIPHER BLOCK RIVEST ALGORITHM

Cipher Block Rivest Algorithm is used in our proposed system for encryption process. Fast symmetric block cipher. Same key used for encryption and decryption algorithm. Plaintext and cipher text are fixed-length bit sequences.

In cryptography, RC% is a symmetric-key block cipher notable for its simplicity. Designed by Ronald Rivest in 1994. RC stands for ‘Rivest Cipher’, or alternatively ‘Ron’s Code’ (compare RC2 and RC4). A key feature of RC5 is the use of data-dependent rotations; one of the goals of RC5 was to prompt the study and evaluation of such operations as a cryptographic primitive. RC5 also consists of a number of modular additions and exclusive OR (XOR). The general structure of the algorithm is a Fiestel-like network. The encryption and decryption routines can be specified in a few lines of code. The key schedule, however, is more complex, expanding the key using an essentially one-way function with the binary expansions of both e and the golden sources of nothing up my sleeve numbers.

The RC5 is basically denoted as RC5-w/r/b where

w = word size in bits,

r=number of rounds,

b= number of 8-bit in the key.

Cryptanalysis 12-round RC5 (with 64-bit blocks) is susceptible to a differential attack using 244 chosen plaintexts. 18-20 rounds are suggested as sufficient protection. Block Ciphers plaintext is divided into blocks of fixed length and every block is encrypted one at a time. The number of rounds can range from 0 to 255, while the key can range from 0 to 2040 bits in size [7]. Cipher text involves

C = E (PUB, E (PUA, M)

Cipher text can be generated by the encryption of public key with the private key associated in the source place. De-cipher text involves

M = D (PUA, D (PRB, C))

Actual message can be generated by public and private key followed by the consecutive timings.

BLOCK CIPHER

Defined as a cryptosystem with large plaintext space

P=C=Z2n

Typically n’64 bits

Round structure

Apply same function on the intermediate cipher text repeatedly Nr time.

Use different key Ki defined from K on ith round.

Pseudo code 1

1. INPUT: plaintext x, key K

2. OUTPUT: cipher text y=ek(x)

3. ASSUME: round function g, last function h, key scheduling procedure Ki

w0=x

For i = 0 to Nr-1

wi = g (wi-1,Ki)

y = g (wNr-1, K Nr-1)

VIII. EXPERIMENTAL AND COMPARISON

A. Error free environment

The first lightweight DB protocol was proposed by Hancke and Kuhn’s [11] in 2005. Its simplicity and suitability for resource-constrained devices have promoted the design of other DB protocols based on it [2], [13]. All these protocols share the same design: (a) there is a slow phase4 where both prover and verifier generate and exchange nonces, (b) the nonces and a keyed cryptographic hash function are used to compute the answers to be sent (resp. checked) by the prover (resp. verifier). Below, we provide the main characteristics of each of these protocols, especially the technique they use to compute the answers.

a) Mafia Fraud

Mafia Fraud

a) Tradeoff with memory constraint

Hancke and Kuhn’s protocol [11]. The answers are extracted from two n-bit registers such that any of the n 1-bit challenges determines which register should be used to answer.

Avoine and Tchamkerten’s protocol [2]. Binary trees are used to compute the prover answers: the verifier challenges define the unique path in the tree, and the prover answers are the vertex value on this path. There are several parameters impacting the memory consumption: l the number of trees and d the depth of these trees. It holds d ‘ l = n, where n is the number of rounds in the fast phase.

Trujillo-Rasua, Martin and Avoine’s protocol [12]. This protocol is similar to the previous one, except that it uses particular graphs instead of trees to compute the prover answers.

b) Distance Fraud

Mafia Fraud

b)Tradeoff without memory constraint

Kim and Avoine’s protocol [13]. This protocol, closer to the Hancke and Kuhn’s protocol [11] than [12], uses two registers to define the prover answers. An important additional feature is that the prover is able to detect a mafia fraud thanks to predefined challenges, that is, challenges known by both prover and verifier. The number of predefined challenges impacts the frauds resistance: the larger, the better the mafia fraud resistance, but the lower the resistance to distance fraud.

Mafia and distance fraud analysis in a noise free environment can be found in [12]. Fig. 3(a) and Fig. 3(b) show that the resistance to mafia fraud and distance frauds respectively for the five considered protocols in a single chart. For each of them, the configuration that maximizes its security has been chosen: this is particularly important for AT and KA2 because different configurations can be used.

In case of draw between two protocols, the one that is the less memory consuming is considered as the best protocol. Trade-off chart represents for every pair (x, y) the best protocol among the five considered ones. Fig. 4(a) shows that our protocol offers a good trade-off between resistance to mafia fraud and resistance to distance fraud, especially when high security level against distance fraud is expected. In other words, our protocol is better than the other considered protocols, except when the expected security levels for mafia fraud and distance frauds are unbalanced, which is meaningless in common scenarios.

Another interesting comparison takes into consideration the memory consumption of the protocols. Indeed, for n rounds of the fast phase, AT requires 2n+1 -1 bits of memory, which is prohibitive for most pervasive devices.

We can therefore compare protocols that require a linear memory with respect to the number of rounds n. For that, we consider a variant of AT [10], denoted n/3 trees of depth 3 instead of just one tree of depth n. The resulting trade-off chart shows that constraining the memory consumption considerably reduces the area where AT is the best protocol, but it also shows that our protocol provides the best trade-off in this scenario as well.

IX. CONCLUSION AND FUTURE WORK

The time stamp based distance bounding protocol has been introduced in this paper which provides the optimistic approach to identify the relay attack. This protocol deals with both mafia and distance frauds with less computer memory and additional computation. The analytical expressions and experimental results show that the new protocol provides best trade-off between mafia and distance fraud resistance. Such a performance is achieved based on the round dependent design where the prover is unable to guess any challenge with a probability higher than the 1/2.

For computer-intensive systems, our consecutive timed response provides significantly better throughput for a broad variety of scenarios, including the mafia fraud, distance fraud and terrorist fraud attack. The encryption and decryption can use more than one different algorithm on each round of the resistance, which provides more confidential services in the system.

REFERENCES

[1] Ronalndo Trujillo-Rasua, Benjamin Martin, and Gildas Avoine,’Disrance-bounding facing both mafia and distance frauds,’IEEE Transactions on Wireless Communications,vol 9, May 2014.

[2] Sangho Lee, Jin Seok Kim,Sung Je Hong, and Jong Kim, ‘Distance Bounding with Delayed Responses,’ IEEE Communications Letters, vol. 16, september 2012.

[3] Kapil Singh,’Security in RFID Networks and Protocols,’ International Journal of Information and Computation Technology, vol.3, pp.425-432, 2013.

[4] Ammar Alkassar,Christian Stuble,’Towards Secure IFF:Preventing Mafia Fraud Attacks,’Sirrix AG security technologies, Germany Saarland University,D-66123 Saarbrucken,Germany.

[5] Srikanth S P,Sunitha Tiwari,’A Survey on Distance Bounding Protocol for attacks and frauds in RTLS system,’International journal of Engineering and Innovative technology(IJEIT),vol.3,April 2014.

[6] J.H.Conway,’on numbers and games,’AK Peters,Ltd., 2000.

[7] Claus P.Schnorr,’Efficient signature generation by smart cards,’Journal of Cryptology, vol.4, no.3, pp. 161-174, 1991.

[8] Capkun, Srdjan and EI Defrawy,Karim and Tsudik, Gene. GDB: Group Distance Bounding Protocols, arXiv.org, 2010.

[9] S.Brands and D.Chaum, ‘Distance-bounding protocols,’in 1993 EUROCRYPT.

[10] G.Avoine, C.Lauradoux,B.Martin,How secret-sharing can defeat terrorist fraud, The 4th ACM Conference on Wireless Network Security,WiSec’11,pp.145-156.

[11] G.Avoine ‘RFID, Distance Bounding Multiple Enhancement’, progress in cryptography, pp.290- 307.

[12] J. Munilla, A.Painado, ‘Distance Bounding Ptotocol for RFID enhanced by using void challenges and analysis in noise channels’, compute 8(2008) 1227- 1232.

[13] J. Kelsey, B. Schneier, and D. Wagner. Protocol interactions and the chosen protocol attack. In Proc. 5th International Workshop on Security Protocols, volume 1361 of LNCS, pages 91{104. Springer, 1997.

Center Parcs

Strategy

A company has to stand for something in order to have success. You need to know where it is at this certain point and where you want the company to be in the future. To reach those goals in the future you have to have a strategy and so does Center Parcs.

The mission of Center Parcs is to let the guests experience a moment of happiness in a save and stimulating place. This is being created with the help of caring employees.

Their vision is that people need a place to connect with their friends and family. Therefore Center Parcs tries to offer a place where they can enjoy the simpel but yet special things in life and give the oppurtunity to just be yourself.

In the near future Center Parcs will be building new parcs. In 2015 they hope to open Center Parcs Vienne and in 2016 Village Nature (nearby Disneyland Paris). Center Parcs is innovative in the designs of their cottages. Some new cottages for example are tree houses, eden cottages and boats.

In the longer term they want to further develop their innovative desings and renovate the already existing parcs. In this way they want to distinguish themselves from the competition, offering short holidays which can not be found anywhere else. With this they want to be an inspiration towards their guests and be an recognizable ‘brand’.

Center Parcs’ most important visitors are families with children 0-11, this group accounts for 49% of the visitors, followed by families with children 12-18 and adults 18-54 with both 21%. Given the 49% of the families with children 0-11 it is presumable that this is the target group of Center Parcs. Center Parc is with 3.1 million visitors per year the European market leader. 1.3 million visitor have a Dutch nationality, this makes them the best represented nationality. Followed by the German with 806.000 visitors. The French account for 589.000 visitor and 372.000 are Belgian. the last 12.400 visitors have other nationalities.

The three biggest competitors of Center Parcs are Landal Greenparks, Dinseyland Paris and Roompot.

Landal Greenparks advertises the nature in their parks as well as Center Parcs. Landal Greenparks also focuses on young families and they offer many activities, outdoor and indoor. The parks are located in the Netherlands, Germany and Belgium and therefore they aim for the same group geographically speaking.

Disneyland Paris has several hotels in and surrounding the attractionpark. Each hotel has his own theme and atmosphere. They offer a attractionpark with mutiple activities and focusses on extended families, with this families with smaller childern.

Roompot also has parks in the Netherlands, Germany, Belgium and France. They also offer facilities for business people. Roompot’s parks are also located in nature enviroments and they advertise with the possibilty to cycling and hiking.

They are competitors of Center Parcs because they share the same target group. They focus on young families and are geographically all located in the same locations. They offer the same facilities and Landal and Roompot are cheaper than Center Parcs. This makes them competitors of Center Parcs.

3. Structure

Every organisation needs some sort of organisational structure in order to function. An orginasational chart shows how tasks are divided between departments and individuals. At Center Parcs they work according to the line and staff organsation. The most traditional organisational structure is a line organisation. Authority and accountibilty travel downwards from the top to the bottom. There is a strong hierarchy between the department managers and the department employees. One of the function at the top of the charts is the function of General Manager, the departments at Center Parcs all have to report back to the General Manager. Center Parcs has the following departments: Safety & Pool department, Leisure department, Technical department and the Houskeeping department.

In a line-and-staff organisation there are staff departments which support the line departments. In the staff departments there are experts in specific areas who advice and inform the line management in that specific area. The overall responsibilty belongs to the line manager and the staff departments are responsible for qaulitative advice. Center Parcs has two staff departments: Human Resource department and Finance department.

As you can see in de organogram up top the top manager is the General Manager, after that follows the manager of the department, after that the floor manager of the department and at the end of the chain comes de rest of the staff in that department.

If an employee of the Kids Club faces a problem he goes to the the Floor manager of the Kids Club. If the Floor manager cannot solve this problem alone he turns to the manager of the Leisure department. The Leisure manager reports the problem to the General Manager. If the Leisure mananger needs financial advice, he can contact the Finance department. If he has a question for the Human Resource department, he can also contact them.

As a Finance Manager you fulfil a management position as well as a executive position and carrie the responsibility for business analysis and reports of the park. He manages the budget of the park and pro-actively assist the other staff of the Management Team to meet set targets and budgets. Besides the responsibilty for an appropiate administrative organisation and internal control, the Finance Manager is also the financial oracle for the entire park organisation. Moreover the Finance Manager is partly responsible for the business implementation of the park, excluding the Horece & Retail Food activities.

5. Staff

Center Parcs has 11.600 employees of which 7.000 full-time and 4.600 are in part-time or other employement. Of all those employees, 66% is female and 34% is male.

19 % of the employees is under the age of 25. Most of the employees are between the ages of 25 and 45, in fact a large 51% is. Followed by the second biggest group of people over 45 with a 21%. Which leaves 9% left for the employees over 55.

The nationality that is most represented at Center Parcs are the French with 4960 employees. Followed by the Dutch with 2965 employees. Belgium accounts for 2511 employees, Germany for 926 employees and Spain accounts for another 238 employees.

The management functions are almost equally divided with 55% male managers and 45% female manangers. The techinal part is mostly in hand of the male employees and female employees overrule the housekeeping and reception departments.

Most of the employees of Center Parcs are native speakers. Especially in the higher positions, as for example the management positions. In those positions it is also expected that you speak more different languages, such as English, German, French or Dutch. All the positions in which you have contact with the customers it is important that you are a native speaker and in some cases it might even be necessary that you speak a little of the other lanuages. In the jobs such as housekeeping and maintenance it is not necessary to be a native speaker. Those jobs can also be performed by expats, since contact with the customer is exceptional.

7. Skills

A good hospitality performance will make your guests feel welcomed in your company, in this case in the park. As a company you should do everything within your power to let your guests have the most comfortable experience. This is important in all sorts of companies but even more so for companies within the hospitality industry such as Center Parcs. They can dustinguish themselve from the other competitors by offering quality service. Guests come to enjoy their holiday and with this comes a good experience of the park. For a stay at a bungalow park a big part of this experience is created by the behavior of the staff. Therefore ‘customer service’ skills is a requirement for the staff.

A good way to accomplish this is by offering good working conditions and rewarding them to the employees to keep them motivated. The employees will emit this positivity to the customers, which hopefully results in happier customers. Another way is by offer employees a training to learn about ‘customer service’ skills and how to put them into practice.

Another important point is that if problems occur the staff needs to respond professionally, the problems needs to be solved according the situation and immediately.

Waiting times are need to be kept as short as possible and the staff needs to be on time for an appointment or meeting.

Enviromentally speaking there should always be enough and nearby parking space. The guests have to easily find their way around the property. In smaller businesses like a restaurant or caf?? this is not essential, but at Center Parcs the guests have to be able to find their way around the park, to the reception, their bungalow, the pool etc.

The company has to have a corperate identity. The guests have to recognise the staff by the cloting and so on. The uniforms need to be appropiate and clean. The hospitality performance can also be improved by greeting the guests at the welcome and the receptionist or spokesperson for the park needs to be a native speaker and preferably be fluent in English, even better would be if they speak several languages.

And at last the facilities should be in working order and clean.

Center Parcs askes you to respond immediately in case of a complain, you can file a complain in the park so the management gets the chanche to solve it right away. If you feel like your complain is not handled accordingly you can send an e-mail to ‘[email protected]’ or send a letter by mail, this can be done untill a month after leaving the park. Still not sattisfied? Then you can file a complain to the ‘Geschillencommissie Recreatie’ and they will look at it, this can be done untill three months after leaving the park.

This shows that Center Parcs always tries to solves problems immediately and if that cannot be done, the guests are given mutiple oppurtunities to complain. That they try to solve it immediately and the chanches the guests get to file a complain are according to the hospitality performance.

This picture shows that Center Parcs has clear indication signs to lead the guests around the park. the numbers of the cottages are reffered to as well as all the other facilities in the park.

Center Parcs got elected top employer 2014. They have be scored on 5 different critertia: primary conditions, secundary conditions, training & development, career perspectives and cultural management. The fact that they received this quality mark shows that employees have good working conditions. Happy employees results, most of the time, in happy customers.

This picture show the corporate identity. Most of the employees wear a blue shirt with a Center Parcs logo on the sleeve, this is very recognizable for the guests and in this way they will know who to approach. The logo can be found around the park, on the internetsite etc. which also cnotributes to the corporate identity.

If you would like to become a receptionist at Center Parcs in the Netherlands, there are a few job requirements you need to meet. One of them is that you have sufficient oral and written knowledge of the English and German language. This is to make sure you can help guests from different nationalities and that contributes to the hospitality performance.

Health and safety – Capstan construction site in Kutno, Poland: online essay help

This report is written on 07/02/2015 following Health and Safety inspection of Capstan construction site in Kutno, Poland. Capstan project involves approximately three hundred people working on ap. 20 000 square meters, the aim is to build a snack factory. The factory will include main production building, utilities building, waste water treatment plant and other facilities.

The factory main building is already erected, wrapped with sandwich panels. The project has already reached its milestone but there is still a lot of works performed on site. Most of them, inside of the building. Civils, mechanical works, pipe installation (hot works) and Manufacturing machinery installation are main activities at the moment. There are also pressure and other tests carried on. The works are being performed by 8 contractors and their subcontractors. Each has at least one works supervisor and one first aider with certification. Construction Management company with 25 engineers staff is managing the project on the spot and supervising all the works.

Executive Summary

Inadequate access and egress routes inside of the main building make it a high-traffic area with too many pedestrians and mobile elevating work platforms or forklifts passing by every hour. Outside is not bad, pedestrian paths and a road for vehicles are both separated and kept clean. There are signs informing about speed limit and a ‘zebra’ straps marked for crossing the road.

Every task must be first planned and introduced in a method statement including time and equipment used (Occupational Health and Safety Regulations 2007),

Despite a large amount of time spent on trainings, working at height is an issue to be solved. Some of workers were wearing their safety harnesses incorrectly, or did not anchor themselves while working. Mobile Elevating Work Platforms should be operated only by certified operators. There was equipment out of date for inspection found on site. Working at heights is one of the biggest killers in construction, therefore there must be an extra care and awareness along all the people involved.

Hot works is a big issue on this contruction site. Cutting, grinding and welding are only allowed when Permit-to-work has been issued. Permits are clear instructions and a source of information for both workers and supervisors, yet lack of firefighting accessories, lack of fire watch after works are completed and poor housekeeping are everyday threat.

Cabling and electrical works should also be improved. Many cables were found lying without protection on the floors easy to be damaged by MEWP, they are a trip hazard for people and, if destroyed, may cause an electric shock.

Main findings of the inspection

Working at height

There are MEWP (mobile elevation work platforms), scaffolds and ladders used every day on site. Despite of a monthly inspection, some of the above equipment was found damaged and missing manufacture manual instructions. Before using MEWP, all the documentation of each machine must be checked (Ustawa z dnia 21 grudnia 200r o dozorze technicznym Dz.U.z 2013, poz. 963) according to Polish law. Also, this documentation should be on the workplace for all times attached to the machine. All the works at heights, including MEWP are marked as a dangerous zone. Workers must use a safety tape to barrier they area and protect people from falling objects.

All works at height must be performed with fall protection system. International (Amendment of the Provision and Use of Work Equipment Regulation 1998/2005) and Polish (Rozporzadzenie Ministra Pracy I Polityki Socjalnej, 26/09/1997 no. 169, 1650) laws are clear about this matter. To prevent falling and death risk, no worker is allowed to work at heights without ‘harness training’. Workers are using safety harness when working above 1 meter height. This PPE must be not only visually inspected each time before and after use but also annually checked by a proper company / third party organization. This inspection should result with a mark or certificate as ‘good to use’. Without such proof, no harness should be used.

Mobile scaffolds must be erected, used and maintained according to its design and manufacturer instruction to prevent displacement and collapse ( ILO R175, art.17) Only after an inspection made by a certified engineer, works on scaffold are allowed. Workers should always check by themselves if the scaffold is levelled, wheels are blocked and authorised to use by an inspector.

Lack of anchoring, safety harness worn too loose or damaged, missing parts of scaffolds are one of the most common problems found during inspection. The management must take care of these matters every day putting pressure on daily inspections of the equipment, placing barriers where applicable and wearing safety harness according to manufacturer instructions. The indirect costs of WAT accident may be crucial for an organisation, moreover, potencial loss of a human life and living with responsibility of somebody’s death are higher cost than any money.

Fire

Fire is one of the main dangers on construction site. Along with WAT, it can cost life, time ‘ dalay, loss of property, materials, equipment. It is much cheaper and easier to prevent fire than maintain the workplace after fire occure.

When hot works performed, there must be Permit- to- work system introduced. Also, ongoing supervision is a must in order to execute all the actions/ preventive measurements included in a hot work, method statement, risk assessment, safety plan and a legislation of a country we work in.

Before working, all the flammable materials must be removed, area should be barried and marked as a Hot Works Zone/Workshop. Fire blankets and extinguishers must be always on the work place and gas cylinders kept properly: stored vertically, minimum 10 meters from the flame, secured in order not to fall. Works can be performed after supervisor check the workplace comparing to measures and information from a Hot Work Permit.

Electricity

Every activity with using electricity must be supervised. Labels, LOTO procedures, Work Permit, are one of the ways to avoid shock, death and burns. Only certified electricians and engineers should have access to life electricity. All the cables and electrical tools must be checked by an authorised inspector once a month, and labelled according to a ‘sticker system’. Each month has its own colour and all the equipment missing current label is being removed from a work place immediately. In order to avoid damage and tripping, all the cables lying on the floor must be protected.

Welfare

The temperature inside of the building was less than 10C. Hand function drops very fast in the cold. Workers are forced to perform activities with safety gloves which are not warm enough for them, and tend to restrict hand movement. Workers are also at risk of cold stress injuries. According to International Labour Organisation (Ambient Factors in the Workplace, paragraph 8.4.) the employer has a responsibility to lower the risks connected with cold workplace. The temperature held in the work area is unacceptable.Workers must be provided with more heating.

Moreover, the lighting went on and off during the inspection making it very difficult for people to work, and creating a very dangerous Environment.

With that amount of traffic and works at heights, problem with lightening is a huge risk. Tripping and falling along with collisions are more likely to happen, especially during late/night shifts.

A Lack of breakfast break was also noted, workers are only allowed to have a lunch break. This is inadequate, especially taking under consideration the low temperatures in the workplace.

Housekeeping

Housekeeping standards aren’t bad, but can be higher. Tripping and slipping hazards should be taken under consideration and removed.

Chemical Substances

Chemical substances must be stored properly, marked with safety signs, labelled and kept as the manufacturer recommends. Material Safety Data Sheet (MSDS) should be attached in the area and available for everyone involved to read.

Conclusions

The amount of supervisors on site would be enough if not for a poor safety culture among engineers. Health and Safety matters are only HSE department problem according to many people on site. Safety should be everyone responsibility and priority.

Working at heights must be taken seriously at all times, ongoing inspections of MEWP, scaffolds, laders and fall arrest PPE is very important, sharing awareness throughout contractors by trainings should be carried out.

Fire is a grate cost in many dimensions. Therefore, Hot Works must be done as carefully as possible. The area must be checked before, during and after performing works. This takes less time, than delay and loss caused by fire.

Welfare is a big issue, the organisation must improve lightetnig and rise the temperature in order to avoid workers sick leave payments or legal threats.

All in all, the safety culture and supervision must be improved, Hot Works, Electrical works must be authorised by a Permit- to- Work, WAT supervised. Each activity on site is a potential risk of harm for people working around.

Pesticides

Pesticides are designed to kill, supposedly insects but not humans. Numerous pesticides are sprayed upon crops to keep them glamorous enough until they reach grocery stores and last until consumption. Even though assessing detailed health effects is still a scientific challenge, the accumulated health risks and detriments cannot be completely ignored. These toxins have been developed to eradicate insects but are causing side effects to our health too. The pesticide residues remaining on what we consume each day have proven to be harmful and can be attributed as the source of many untraceable and unexpected health problems in the long run.

While leading a more natural and healthy lifestyle has been under the spotlight in this age of artificialization, pesticide usage could be targeted as a root cause for many chronic diseases and prolonged health effects. The chemical composition of certain pesticides has been discovered to hinder the biochemical processes of vital organs

As soon as a pesticide enters the passageways of the body and comes in contact with any cell, it chemically reacts with its newfound surroundings, lowering the toxicity. These counter effects occur to make it more water soluble and easier to excrete out of the system. The body reacts to each pesticide depending on its chemical structure and properties including its shape, size, electronic charge, and how stable it is, defining how soluble the pesticide will be in different solutions and surroundings. These unique characteristics can determine if the substrate, or the reacting pesticide molecule, can bind onto its complementary receptor site on cells. As electron distribution changes and energy transition states are lowered, chemical reactions via enzymes instigate the formation of products, in this case the catalysis of a biological process.

Enzymes are the proteins present in our body that speed up the reactions taking place within us at a desired rate for life to sustain. The presence of pesticides interrupts the rate of habitual routines that the body performs. Any interruptions or interferences in the midst of these enzymatic processes can trigger a toxic response, acting as an inhibitor to the natural reactions. Homeostasis is disrupted as a result, creating numerous imbalances that cause organs to respond in unpredictable manners.

Sodium bisulfite is one of the ordinary pesticides that prevent the browning and blackening of fresh fruits, vegetables. Known as sodium hydrogen sulfite, has a chemical formula of NaHSO3. Refer to its structural formula in Figure 1. This chemical combination has the properties of readily reacting against dissolved oxygen. In addition, it discharges sulfur dioxide as a byproduct in the presence of water, which inhibits bacterial and fungal growth caused by common chemical reactions (3).

Generally, any foreign substance that goes into the lungs elicits reactions which set off asthma attacks as the airways in the lungs contract and restrict airflow. The presence of pesticides in the respiratory system creates a more hyperactive and aggressive response as the constriction of airways causes bronchiole contractions to occur, causing wheezing and breathlessness. The high level toxicity of pesticides that engulfs the lungs through residues from food puts your respiratory system under enormous stress, which is detrimental to victims of asthma.

Organophosphates are a type of phosphoric acid consisting of the elements phosphorus, carbon, and hydrogen. Refer to the structural formula in Figure 2. Especially seen on fruits we eat every day, organophosphates are repeatedly sprayed on pounds and pounds produce to keep them insect-free enough to catch your eye at the grocery store even though the EPA classifies them to moderate to highly toxic. Tests conducted by the USDA in 2008 found that ‘95% of celery tested contained pesticides, and 85% contained multiple pesticides, 93.6% of apples, 96% of peaches, a single blueberry has residue from 13 different chemicals,’ (HuffPo).

The organic molecule, whose purpose is to function as a neurotoxin to insects has been now discovered as an inhibitor to multiple processes. Since cells aren’t physically connected to one another, the synapses of neuron relay messages to the brain. These ‘bridges’ forming the entire network throughout the body are broken when hit by organophosphates. In the nervous system, the organophosphate is accountable for restraining the flow of acetylcholinesterase (AChE), an enzyme crucial to nerve transmissions of impulses between our cells or a neurotransmitter. The breaking down of this particular enzyme signals when one transmission is completed and another is ready to begin. Figure 3 displays how the toxin enters the neuron and obstructs its path.

Synthetically composed pesticides in today’s industry are causing health deterioration greatly impacting children at a young age. Children in general are about twice as more vulnerable to intoxication by pesticides as eating and drinking more, they take in more pesticides and toxic chemicals relative to body weight. Their undeveloped organs are unable to filter out hazardous chemicals, which remain in their system and overtime produce a negative effect in several mediums.

The excess buildup of AChE makes young children whose bodies are still in growing stages, extremely susceptible to neurological damage and dysfunction, preempting problems in behavior and cognition. The conditions of an over-stimulated nervous system is the defining neuropathic cause of ADHD, holding about 5.9 million children captive in the United States (CDC 2015).

High percentages of residues present in common foods we eat daily, the vast use of these human-composed toxins is directly unsafe. The exact chemical arrangement of these, have been proved to collide with the cellular functions performed to sustain life within us. While organic foods are considered healthier but also more expensive, currently less than 1% of US farmland has been adopted for implementation of organic farming systems. As we wait for organic farming to amplify and become more affordable, an alternative resolution is the evolution of biopesticides. Recently, the federal government has proposed to increase research in alternate solutions using biotechnology under the National Bio-economy Blueprint. They have given their consent to find microbiological substances and microorganisms to synthesize chemicals replacing toxic pesticides.

Pulmonary Embolism (PE)

Pulmonary Embolism (PE) results when there is blockage of pulmonary arterial system preventing both circulation and gas exchange in the lungs. PEs have a variety of causes including air, amniotic fluid, fat, foreign bodies, septic emboli, and, the most common, embolus of a thrombus originating in the venous circulation or the heart (Lange). Blockage may present in a variety of ways depending on the extent of arterial blockage. Small emboli can cause alveoli hemorrhage, called pulmonary infarction, which causes hemoptysis, pleuritic chest pain, and pleural effusions which are usually mild (uptodate and 3). If 30-50% of the total cross sectional area of the pulmonary arterial bed is obstructed, the pulmonary artery pressure increases which increases the right ventricular afterload. This issue is further potentiated with the release of thromboxane A2 and serotonin which causes vasoconstriction making the blockage more extensive. The increase in pressure in the right ventricle causes stress which dilates the heart which decreases its contractile strength via the Frank Starling law of the heart. This stretch also increases the time that it takes for the right ventricular to contract which causes the intraventricular septum to shift into the left ventricle. This combined with the fact that the right ventricle is not functioning properly leads to a decrease in the left ventricular preload which decreases the systemic perfusion which is a big reason you may see a decrease in the blood pressure in patients with PE who are hemodynamically unstable (3).

The development of a pulmonary embolism (PE) is relatively common, seen in anywhere from 20.8 to 65.8 cases per 100,000 (21), and it is due to an interaction between a wide variety of patient-related factors and situational factors that come together and put someone at increased risk of developing PE. PE is closely associated with deep vein thrombosis as they are two manifestations of the same disease. The risk factors involve defects in the venous circulation. Virchow’s triad describes the combination of variables that contribute to thrombus formation: venous stasis, hypercoagulability, and injury to the vessel wall. Any time one of these factors is compromised a person is at increased risk of developing a PE. Hyperviscosity, from polycythemia, increased central venous pressure, from pregnancy, and immobility, from surgery or obesity, are all things cause venous stasis which puts a person at risk for thrombus formation (lange). Hypercoagulability can be caused by medications (oral contraceptives and erythropoiesis stimulating agents), malignancy (particularly hematological malignancies, pancreatic cancer, gastrointestinal cancer, lung cancer, and brain cancer), anticoagulation protein deficiency, such as deficiencies in protein C and S, and genetic disorders, such as factor V Leiden (present in ~3% of American men and 20-40% of patients with idiopathic venous thrombosis) (Lange and 3). Lastly, vessels may be damaged due to trauma, lower limb fracture, surgery, or prior thrombosis (Lange). Another disease process that causes stasis of blood is a patient who is in atrial fibrillation. Because of the altered electrical system in the heart, the muscle contraction is uncoordinated and ineffective causing blood flow to be altered over time causing thrombogenesis and, if it breaks free, a pulmonary embolism or stroke (7). Other factors that indirectly contribute to the development of PE include cardiovascular disease, cigarette smoking, obesity, hypercholesterinemia, and diabetes mellitus.

HM has many major risk factors for developing pulmonary embolisms. First, and perhaps most significantly, he is a paraplegic and his legs have been rendered immobile. Blood is then able to pool which puts him at high risk for developing a clot. He also mentioned his extensive hospital and surgical history. He said that he has had 32 procedures which may have resulted in damaged vasculature. This injury to the vasculature is an area of the vessel that could form a thrombus that could rupture. The multiple surgeries and hospitalizations for the recurrent UTIs also increase his immobility as discussed earlier. He is also moderately obese which is a factor that increases his risk for thrombus formation as well. Trauma is also a major risk factor for developing a PE and he was involved in a motor vehicle accident which resulted in his spinal injury. He did not specify if he had any familial blood condition which would affect clotting. A more detailed family history would be necessary to assess his risk of a clotting disorder.

Clinical Findings in the History and Physical of Pulmonary Embolism:

When evaluating a patient for a PE, it is notoriously difficult because the common signs and symptoms are highly variable and nonspecific for PE. The most common symptom in patients presenting with PE is dyspnea with pleuritic chest pain (uptodate). The Prospective Investigation of PE Diagnosis study looked specifically at common presenting signs and symptoms in patients with acute PE. They included dyspnea (73%), inspiratory chest pain (66%), cough (37%), leg pain (26%), hemoptysis (13%), palpitations (10%), wheezing (9%), angina pain (4%), respiratory rate >20 (70%), crackles (51%), heart rate >100 (30%), fourth heart sound (S4) (24%), accentuated P2 heart sound (23%), temperature >38.5C (7%), Homans sign (4%), pleural friction rub (3%), third heart sound (3%), cyanosis (1%) (lange). In the study, 97% of patients had at least one of these three findings: dyspnea, chest pain with breathing, or tachypnea (lange). However, as seen in the wide variety of signs and symptoms, the clinical picture that the patient presents with could be vastly dissimilar. Because of this, clinical decision tools have been formulated to use information that the patient can provide to make a more educated assessment of the likelihood that the patient is having an acute PE. Some of these tools are discussed below. Shock and arterial hypotension are two clinical findings that are rare but extremely important to identify as they indicate a central PE and a lack of hemodynamic reserve (3).

An electrocardiogram (ECG) is a tool that can be used in the work up of a patient who is experiencing acute chest pain that may result from a PE. While there are no signs that are diagnostic of acute PE, it is useful in ruling out other causes of chest pain such as myocardial infarction or pericarditis. Having said that, 70% of ECG results in patients experiencing acute PEs are abnormal but most are nonspecific (lange). The most common abnormality seen is sinus tachycardia (lange) but another common finding is T-wave inversion in leads V1-V4 which is most commonly associated with the severity of the PE (13). Other classic findings associated with PE include S1Q3T3 (S wave in lead I, Q wave in lead III, and inverted T wave in lead III) and right bundle branch block both indicating right ventricular strain.

Chest x-ray is another test that is commonly done to rule out other causes of the presenting symptoms. There is nothing that is diagnostic of PE on chest x-ray, but there are some signs that are suggestive of the diagnosis. The three signs are Westermark sign, Fleishner sign, and Hampton hump. The Westermark sign is a sharp cut off in the pulmonary vasculature that results from dilation of the pulmonary artery proximal to the embolism and a collapse of the vasculature distal to the embolism. Fleishner sign (also called the knuckle sign) is an enlargement in the pulmonary artery proximal to the embolism. The Hampton hump is a wedge-shaped opacity in the lung that is secondary to infracting tissue due to a PE. While these signs are characteristic of acute PE, they are not commonly seen.

HM was breathing comfortably and had normal breath sounds with no crackles or wheezes and had a normal respiratory rate. He has no chest pain or cough which are common presenting symptoms of PE.

Work up:

The provider must have a high index of suspicion of PE and respond accordingly. One meta-analysis found that the clinical impression alone provided a sensitivity and specificity of 85% and 51% respectively (10). The first step in the assessment of the patient who is presenting with signs and symptoms characteristic of a PE is to determine the hemodynamic stability of the patient. Hemodynamic instability is that which results in hypotension which is defined as systolic blood pressure <90 mmHg or a drop > 40 mmHg from baseline for more than 15 minutes or hypotension demanding vasopressors or inotropic support that is not explained by other sources. Hemodynamically stable patients are those that do not fit the definition of hemodynamically unstable patients. The stability of the patient does not necessarily dictate the size of the PE although there is an association between the size of the emboli and the hemodynamic status of the patient (i.e. larger emboli are more likely to result in a hemodynamically unstable patient). However, a small embolus in a patient who has multiple comorbidities can result in a hemodynamically unstable patient. This hemodynamic distinction is important because the patients who are hemodynamically unstable are more likely to die from obstructive shock due to right ventricular failure within two hours from onset of symptoms (uptodate). Hemodynamically unstable patients also have been seen to have a 90-day mortality rate of 52.4% despite treatment. It was once thought that saddle PEs (3-6% of all PEs), which is an embolus that lodges at the bifurcation of the main pulmonary artery which often extends into the left and right main pulmonary arteries, was a significant cause of hemodynamic instability and mortality. However, studies have shown that only 22% of saddle emboli result in patients who are hemodynamically unstable and some studies have shown that rapid embolectomy is not necessary and they can be treated more conservatively using thrombolytic therapy or even standard anticoagulate therapy (8). Most PEs bypass the left and right pulmonary artery bifurcation and flow distally into the main lobar, segmental, or sub-segmental branches of the pulmonary artery (lange). A clot in transit is a mobile echogenic mass in the right atrium that, in the patient with acute PE, is a residual thrombus that has the propensity to embolize into the lung and is often associated with malignancy or infection. Therapy is urgent in these patients as mortality is high (27 to 45%), with nearly all deaths occurring in the first 24 hours (9).

The only way of definitively diagnosing a PE is through imaging studies of which the computed tomography pulmonary angiography (CTPA) is the most commonly used. However, the use of these tests is only necessary in a subset of patients as there are many situations where the risks outweigh the benefits that a CTPA provides. A practitioner must consider the elevating healthcare costs associated with the test, radiation exposure, as well as further risks associated with the contrast materials used in the scan. Thus, there have been a wide variety of efforts to create algorithms that sufficiently evaluate the likelihood that a patient is having a PE. These start with a clinical decision rule (CDR) which assesses the pretest probability that a patient is having a PE, which is followed by a D-dimer blood test, and if necessary a CTPA (A). Two of these CDRs that have been adequately validated include the Wells Rule and the Revised Geneva score and they are shown below (3). They work by classifying patients as either likely or unlikely. Patients who are likely having a PE, according to the scores, are immediately imaged using CTPA to definitively diagnose the PE. CTPA provides the benefit of visualizing the pulmonary artery to the point of the segmental level and has a sensitivity and specificity of 83% and 96% (3).

Wells Rule

Original version

Simplified version

Revised Geneva score

Original version

Simplified version

Previous PE or DVT

1.5

1

Previous PE or DVT

3

1

Heart Rate >100 bpm

1.5

1

Heart Rate 75-94 bpm

3

1

Immobilization (>3 days) or Surgery within 4 weeks

1.5

1

Heart Rate > 95 bpm

5

2

Hemoptysis

1

1

Surgery or fracture within 1 month

2

1

Active Malignancy

1

1

Hemoptysis

2

1

Clinical signs of DVT

3

1

Active Malignancy

2

1

Alternative diagnosis less likely than PE

3

1

Unilateral lower limb pain

3

1

Pain on lower limb deep vein palpation and unilateral edema

4

1

Age > 65 years

1

1

Modified Wells Clinical Probability Categories

Clinical Probability Categories

PE likely (37-43%)

> 4

> 1

PE likely (37-43%)

> 5

>2

PE unlikely (12-17%)

< 4

< 1

PE unlikely (12-17%)

< 5

< 2 (A uptodate) There is a two and three category classification system for the Wells criteria. The two category system is listed above and the three category includes patients were scored high (>6), moderate (2-6), or low (<2) and given a percent probability of developing a PE (3.4%, 20-28%, and 60-78% respectively) (uptodate). One thing that is extremely important when considering the use of these scores is the proper use of the evaluations. Improperly implementing these tools could lead to inappropriate use of imaging modalities as well as an elevated 3 month VTE incidence in whom anticoagulant therapy is withheld (A). This is a big reason that the scores were simplified from the original version: to provide a more clinician friendly test so that they would more accurately implemented. This was done without significantly changing their diagnostic sensitivity and specificity from the original model (A).

The fibrin D-dimer serum marker is a blood test that is an index of intravascular thrombogenesis. As cross-linked fibrin assembles during intravascular thrombin formation, the serum levels of D-dimer rise making this a useful tool in the evaluation in patients with PEs as the sensitivity for a negative test (<500 ng/mL) is 90% making it an excellent test when trying to rule out PE in a patient (4,2). Many providers are hesitant to order a D-dimer because it has a very low specificity (40-68%). A big reason for this low specificity is the fact that a wide variety of factors may contribute to elevating the serum D-dimer such as cancer, surgery, pregnancy, necrosis, bleeding, or trauma (3). However, a quantitative D-dimer can be a good way of detecting PE when a patient presents with vague signs and symptoms and PE is on the differential.

Pulmonary Embolism Rule-out Criteria

Age < 50 years

Heart Rate < 100 bpm Oxygen Saturation > 94%

No unilateral leg swelling

No hemoptysis

No surgery or trauma within 4 weeks

No history of venous thromboembolism

No estrogen use

The pulmonary embolism rule-out criteria (PERC) is a tool that is used in patients who are clinically considered low risk to rule out PE and prevent unnecessary imaging in patients who are low risk. The clinician will apply each of these criteria to the patient. If they meet any of the criteria they are considered PERC negative and must continue further work up for PE. If patients are negative for the PERC then it reduces the probability that the patient is experiencing a PE to less than 2% (6).

If we apply the PERC to HM, he fits none of the criteria so PE can safely be ruled out in him with less than a 2% probability. If we were to get a quantitative D-dimer on this patient it may come back elevated. Since he experienced the trauma plus has had so many procedures, this could have elevated the value. CTPA is unnecessary due to the fact that there is little chance that he is experiencing a PE. If he were to develop symptoms, a CTPA may be necessary.

Treatment:

Anticoagulation therapy in patients with acute PE is need for two reasons: to limit the extend of the damage caused by the PE as well as prevent any recurrent PEs. The standard initial treatment for a PE is low molecular weight heparin (LMWH) (A). Unfractionated heparin is an option that is to be used in patients who have a creatinine clearance < 20-30 mL/min with severe renal impairment (A). Fondaparinux is also another option that can be used in place of LMWH in patients who have a history of heparin induced thrombocytopenia (A). The benefits of LMWH and fondaparinux over unfractionated heparin include a longer half, better bioavailability and a more predictable anticoagulation response with sub-cutaneous injection (11). All patients who have an acute PE from all causes must be treated with anticoagulated therapy for at least 3 months. Those suffering from an acute PE resulting from malignancy, antiphospholipid syndrome, or a recurrent PE should automatically receive 6 months of anticoagulant therapy. Traditionally, this is done using a vitamin K antagonist, such as warfarin, for extended treatment with the additional use of a parenterally administered direct-onset anticoagulated drug until the international normalized ration reaches a range of 2-3 in two consecutive days. The major advantage to these drugs are that they provide a safe and reliable means of providing anticoagulated therapy while maintaining a low risk of hemorrhage (1-2% in 3 months) (A). The downside is that labs must be monitored closely to assure that the patient is receiving proper treatment. Another downside is that there are a wide variety of food interactions that can both increase and decrease the effectiveness of the drug in the body which can either lead to hemorrhagic events or thromboembolic events. Recently, several additional drugs have been proposed as long term treatment options for anticoagulation for patients who experienced an acute PE. They are referred to as the new oral anticoagulants (NOAC) and they include rivaroxaban, apixaban, dabigatran and edoxaban. They have been shown to have a comparable effectiveness at preventing recurrent PEs with the added benefit of having a shorter half-life, decreased incidence of bleeding complications, and not having to monitor blood levels which is a major quality of life factor. The main concern with these new agents is the lack of antidotes that could offset their actions in the case of a hemorrhagic event. Clinically this isn’t as big of an issue because of the shorter half-life as well as the fact that there is a lower incidence of hemorrhagic events in the patients that take the NOACs. The newer agents should not be recommended in patients with cancer associated PEs (A). Once patients complete the 3-month course of anticoagulation therapy, it must be determined whether therapy will be continued further. The major concern with extended long term anticoagulant therapy is the risk of bleeding complications that goes along with it. So, the risks of continuing the anticoagulant agent must be weighed with the benefits of preventing a recurrent PE. In patients who have a transient provoking factor such as surgery, prolonged immobility, or pregnancy, a recurrence risk of 2.5% in a year is sufficient to stop anticoagulant therapy. One of the ways that this risk is being assessed is by using the Vienna prediction model which considers variables such as sex, location of the VTE, and D-dimer tests to produce a risk for recurrence. Traditionally vitamin K antagonists (VKA) have been used for this long-term therapy, however, with the advent of the NOACs they have proven to be as effective as the VKAs while providing a lower risk of hemorrhage. For patients who are unable to tolerate any of these oral anticoagulants, aspirin may be used as it has been shown to provide some ability to lower the risk of recurrent PEs. However, this is nowhere to the degree of the other oral anticoagulants. Aspiration vs open surgical thromboectomy 9 Prognosis: Pulmonary Embolism Severity Index Score Parameter Orignal Version Simplified Version Age Age in years 1 point if age > 80 years

Male Sex

+10 points

Cancer

+30 points

1 point

Chronic Heart Failure

+10 points

1 point

Chronic Pulmonary Disease

+10 points

Heart Rate > 110 bpm

+20 points

1 point

Systolic BP < 100 mmHg +30 points 1 point Respiratory Rate > 30 breaths per min

+20 points

Temperature < 30C

+20 points

Alerted Mental Status

+60 points

Oxygen Saturation < 90%

+20 points

1 point

Risk Stratification:

• Original Version

o Class I: < 65 points; very low mortality risk: 30-day mortality risk 0 – 1.6% o Class II: 66 – 85 points; low mortality risk: 1.7 – 3.5% o Class III: 86 – 105 points; moderate mortality risk: 3.2 – 7.1% o Class IV: 106 – 125 points; high mortality risk: 4.0 – 11.4% o Class V: > 125 points; very high mortality risk: 10.0 – 24.5%

• Simplified Version

o 0 points: 30-day mortality risk 0 – 2.1%

o > 1 point(s): 30-day mortality risk 8.5 – 13.2%

Right ventricular (RV) function has a significant impact on mortality in the patient with an acute PE. The RV can also be assessed using echocardiography as well as the CTPA. Changes in the RV include, “RV dilation, increased RV/left ventricular diameter ratio, hypokinesia of the free RV wall, increased tricuspid regurgitation jet velocity or decreased tricuspid annulus plane systolic excursion” (A). As many as 25% of patients who present with an acute PE will have some signs of RV dysfunction. Abnormalities present in the RV on echocardiography and CTPA are associated with an increased short-term mortality in patients who are hemodynamically stable (OR of 2.4 and 1.8 respectively).

High levels brain-type natriuretic peptides (BNPs) or the N-terminal of the prohormone of BNP (NT-proBNP) in PEs associated with right ventricular pressure are strongly associated with mortality in acute PE comparted to low levels which have a marked less mortality rate (A33). Additionally, high troponin I or troponin T in hemodynamically stable patients are associated with increased short-term mortality (A34).

Hestia Decision Rule

Hemodynamically instable?

Thrombolysis or embolectomy necessary?

High risk of bleeding?

Oxygen supply to maintain oxygen saturation >90% for more than 24h?

Pulmonary embolism diagnosed during anticoagulant treatment?

IV pain medication for more than 24h?

Medical or social reason for treatment in hospital for more than 24h?

Creatinine clearance <30 mL/min? Severe liver impairment? Pregnant? Documented history of heparin-induced thrombocytopenia? Interpretation: if the answer to at least one of the above questions is ‘YES,’ the patient cannot be treated as an outpatient Clinical Questions: 1. Clinical Findings In patients diagnosed with a deep vein thrombosis (DVT), is imaging looking for pulmonary embolism in the absence of symptoms compared to not looking for PEs in the absence of symptoms increase survival? 2. Differential Diagnosis In patients presenting with chest pain, is a quantitative D-dimer compared to an electrocardiogram (ECG) a more specific test to differentiate between myocardial infarction (MI) and PEs? The diagnosis of chest pain can be ominous because there are many very serious etiologies that demand a rapid diagnosis for the well-being of the patient. A D-dimer test and ECGs are similar in the sense that they can be rapidly obtained but also by the fact that their results are nonspecific and can be misleading. One study by Sakamoto et al looked at implementing the D-dimer test to differentiate between PE and MI upon admission to the hospital when both of those items were on the differential. They found that by implementing a cut-off value for the D-dimer of 5.0 μg/ml they had a sensitivity and specificity of 68.4% and 90.3% for PE. They found that they could raise the sensitivity to 88% if they lowered the cut off value to 2.0 μg/ml lowering the specificity to 75%. They demonstrated the effectiveness of this strategy by applying it to a case in a patient who presented with chest pain and non-specific ECG changes. A quantitative D-dimer revealed a value of 70 μg/ml and went straight to CT to get diagnosed as opposed to coronary angiography for the workup of MI. This serves as an example in patients where rapid diagnosis is urgent. While there are no studies that compare the two tests directly, the D-dimer provides information in that differentiates the two diagnoses in a valuable way (19). 3. Clinical Epidemiology In pregnant women, does a prior history of DVT compared to no prior history of DVT put a patient at increased risk for developing PE in pregnancy? 4. Etiology In patients who are having an acute pulmonary embolism, do patients who are diagnosed with saddle PE compared to all other types of PE (lobar, segmental, and sub-segmental) have a higher mortality rate? In the past, saddle PEs have been diagnosed during autopsy and was regarded as the most catastrophic forms of PE. With the increased use of CT scan over the years the diagnosis of PE, specifically saddle PEs, have gone up. Little is known about the best treatment for saddle PEs and how it differs from standard treatment for PE. It has been thought that urgent surgical treatment is necessary. However, others suggest that more conservative therapy may be successful as well. One study compared the progression of patients with saddle PEs with those who had at least lobar PEs. Both cases were treated with anticoagulation and, when necessary (based of patient status according to attending physician), thrombolysis. Thrombolytics were given more often in the saddle PE group (29% compared to 16%); however, this was not found to be statistically significant (p=0.1). Interestingly, mortality was found to be higher in the non-saddle PE group compared to the saddle PE group (20% compared to 5.8%) though it was not found to be statistically significant (16). Another study by Sardi et al looked at 680 patients with pulmonary embolisms, 37 of which were saddle embolisms. They showed that most patients with the saddle embolism are not hemodynamically unstable and can be treated with standard unfractionated heparin depending on the hemodynamic status of the patient. In this study, two of the 37 patients (5.4%) with the saddle embolisms died from complications associated with the embolism. The study did not specify how many other patients with acute PEs died but indicated that treatment should not be any different for those with saddle embolisms unless hemodynamically unstable. Thus, based off these two research articles saddle PEs are not more deadly than other types of PEs but more research needs to be done as to the best management for patients with saddle embolisms. 5. Diagnostic Tests: In patients who are being worked up for having a pulmonary embolism, is a CT angiogram more sensitive compared to the gold standard pulmonary angiogram in detecting PEs? For decades, the gold standard in the diagnosis of PE is pulmonary angiography. However, since the introduction of the multi-detector computed tomographic pulmonary angiography (CTPA), pulmonary angiography has been widely replaced being mostly performed to guide percutaneous catheter mediated direct treatment. There are many reasons why the CTPA is more widely used; it allows for rapid and accurate assessment of the area under examination in a way that pulmonary angiography was never able to do due to the speed and ease of use. However, the reason that pulmonary angiography is still considered the gold standard is because it is accurate allowing for direct visualization of the vasculature. In a study by Remi et al, they compared CTPA with pulmonary angiography in patients with acute PE and found that CT provided images that were either excellent or good based off direct visualization of the clot. With CTPA, the findings of 112 emboli (8 main, 28 lobar, and 76 segmental) matched the results of the pulmonary angiography. There were nine instances where obstruction by lymph nodes were misinterpreted as filling defects and a case where a normal CTPA was misinterpreted as a PE (18). Another study found that CTPA was inconclusive anywhere between 0.9-4.6% of the time (3). Thus, the CTPA has comparable accuracy at diagnosing acute PEs relative to pulmonary angiography with the added benefits of being faster and more convenient in the emergency room setting. 6. Prognosis In patients who are experiencing a PE, does an eleva