The Internal Business Process Perspective Common App Essay Help

The significance of internal business processes resides in the selection and measurement of those business processes that result in improved results for target groups and eventually enable an organization to accomplish its mission. The chosen internal procedures are directly related to the objectives and measures set by an organization's mission. The table below illustrates the relationships between the Susan G. Komen Breast Cancer Foundation's identified objectives, measures, targets, and actions (Komen, 2010). Through research, education, screening, and treatment, the major objective of the organization is to eradicate breast cancer as a life-threatening disease.
Objective Measure Objective Aim

To concentrate the organization's efforts solely on breast cancer patients Ensure that the organization's operations focus primarily on helping breast cancer victims. Create additional alliances focused on breast cancer eradication. Reevaluate the organization's partnerships and sponsorships in light of its objectives.

To utilize the given financial resources efficiently, ensuring the maximum reach at the lowest possible cost. Ensuring the organization's financial dealings are transparent and ensuring greater reach at lower cost each year. Ensuring that more is accomplished with a smaller budget in later years Involvement of business experts in budgeting and auditing

To organize and expand a staff that is resourceful and committed to the organization's mission. To realize more workers in regions where breast cancer is still prevalent. Areas where the organization's breast cancer campaign has not yet reached. Recruit more employees for the organization, particularly in underserved regions.

To increase corporate partnerships with local and worldwide cancer centers and medical institutions. Ensure the progression of research initiatives Global advancements in breast cancer understanding Expand and advance participation with other corporate organizations with a similar objective.

To expand access and minimize screening and treatment costs Ensure an expansion of services to breast cancer patients Due to different obstacles, the group has not yet investigated certain territories. Utilize affiliates to investigate untapped regions

Relationships with other goals The established strategies are targeted at the eradication of breast cancer and precisely complement one another in order to respond to the unique problems posed by breast cancer and to implement the defined initiatives effectively. The ultimate measure of success for an organization is when it is evident that lives have been altered. To guarantee that the mission is accomplished, the performance is evaluated based on observable patient outcomes, organizational procedures, and staff learning and development. Therefore, strategy design is essential, with a focus on breast cancer sufferers, a clear financial plan, and an employee management approach. All implemented actions are expected to result in enhanced performance.

In accordance with its objective, the organization is primarily concerned with breast cancer patients, who might be considered its clients. As a non-profit organization, the organization's customer viewpoint is largely focused on meeting the needs of breast cancer victims in order to fulfill its objective. With the organization's primary emphasis clearly defined as breast cancer victims, the accomplishment of its objective is simplified, as this is crucial from an internal business perspective, as it facilitates the selection of performance indicators. Through raising millions of people's awareness of breast cancer, the disease can be detected early and treated effectively. Conducting educational programs that educate best practices and share resources with local activists can also serve to increase community awareness and assess its needs, allowing the group to realize its objective. In addition, the production of educational materials and their publication in multiple languages to enhance awareness of the breast cancer development process and treatment options. This will assist in improving the survival rate.

Without financial resources, it is almost difficult for an organization of any rank to operate and achieve its goals. The financial metrics are compatible with the quality of service delivery and the high level of efficiency. In addition, financing organizations would invest more when services are provided at the lowest possible price. Fundraising initiatives, donor solicitation, and corporate alliances, as well as educational institution engagement, will boost the organization's growth and effectiveness. The organization intends to investigate investments in equities securities further in order to increase revenue. These services are evaluated based on their contribution to financial assets and their value if professional skill is applied. Transparency of inputs and value of assets and liabilities are also sought to ensure donor responsibility and confidence.

To accomplish its objectives, the company relies largely on the expertise and dedication of its employees. Improving processes, functioning efficiently, and satisfying the needs of breast cancer sufferers would rely heavily on the input of staff and the equipment they use to advance the organization's purpose. To disregard these individuals is comparable to suicide. They are the key drivers of the entire improvement process (Niven, 2003).

Modifications to Module 1 and/or Module 2 Objectives, if any

Target Objective/Module Measurement

References

Niven, P. R. (2003). The modification of the balanced scorecard for use in the public and nonprofit sectors. Web.

Komen, S. (2010). Website for the Cure.

[supanova question]

The Coca-Cola Company’s Purpose And Strategy Common App Essay Help

Contents Listing
Introduction Importance Objectives Principles Bibliography Summary

Introduction

Over the past two decades, lean production has become much more sophisticated, making it easier and more cost-effective for people throughout the world to run efficient production enterprises. Two primary driving forces for this notion are developments in balanced input-output ratio and efficiency in corporate operations with optimal resource use.

Many physical hurdles to lean operations and production, which previously limited the ideal performance of businesses, have been eliminated by this concept's driving factors. The availability of low-cost, highly-skilled human resources, appropriate quality monitors, and efficient production and operations technologies are the driving forces behind the growing interdependence of lean production and operations in enterprises.

Moreover, accounting devices have substantially decreased the transaction costs associated with conducting business. Entrepreneurs have always looked for ways to maximize productivity while minimizing expenses. In the 21st century, in the era of globalization and technological advancement, the philosophy of the lean production model was the most important factor in attaining the stated objective. Lean operations model, generally characterized as the concept aimed at minimizing the amount of production expenses, offers such an opportunity and, as a result, has become widespread (Dolgui and Proth 218).

The lean operations paradigm, conceived and proposed by Toyota, is plainly a product of its period. Its mere existence is predetermined by the era's technical advancements and the existence of the information society. Modern businesses would not be able to survive in the global economy without the lean operations model principle. Consequently, the purpose of this reflection essay is to examine the principles of lean operation and production as methods for enhancing the performance of businesses, with specific reference to Toyota.

Importance

The value of a lean operations model for contemporary entrepreneurship cannot be overstated. Without the introduction of the aforementioned principles, the concept of a narrow task specification and, consequently, the conditions for a continual improvement in the quality of the final output would not have been conceived. In addition, lean production has improved accounting strategies.

It is crucial that the lean operations model maximizes the utilization of all available resources; as a result, the output-to-input ratio of a business may increase significantly if this principle is implemented (Starr 15). The aspect of flexibility will make a company's internal business environment sustainable, as the organization will be adaptable to changes in the supply and demand for production factors.

In a commercial setting, lean operations and output are crucial. Reflectively, the concept of leanness defines a company's viability and solvency within a specific time frame. In modern civilization, sustainability refers to the capacity to endure within a model of profitability.

In a business setting, market dynamics, decision science, corporate structure, and real financial management affect the sustainability of lean production and operation. Therefore, a business organization that has implemented tight procedures and strategies directed at and monitoring expansionary modules within practical levels is likely to operate in the optimal and most profitable business environment when lean operations and production concepts are balanced (Dolgui and Proth 114).

In fact, lean manufacturing and operations management are the backbone of a promising organization, as they decide survival and productivity in terms of operations flow and cutting overhead costs. Consequently, organizations "must rationalize their processes with the goal of cost reduction, as opposed to using low-cost materials or processes at the expense of quality" (Starr 31). Moreover, the models validate risk preparations before informed judgments are taken, particularly in a competitive context. This approach is required for monitoring decision science and the distribution of risk factors, as well as projecting future fluctuations in the economic climate market.

To effectively adopt a sustainable lean production and operations plan, managers must strike a balance between short-term and long-term considerations while making decisions. Management that ensures long-term obligations are met in a proactive manner so that short-term objectives are met. Lean operations focus primarily on the role played by resources invested in technology, ongoing innovations in the manufacturing of new products, and the outcomes of extensive market research to uncover new market niches.

As part of its leanness strategy, the Toyota Corporation places a premium on customer happiness in order to achieve a market edge over its competitors (Bowman 13). Specifically, lean operations and manufacturing systems are utilized by Toyota to monitor and boost productivity with minimum error margins. This is achievable due to the fact that this form of operations management system enables operational competitiveness by reducing needless overhead costs caused by waste and underutilization. In addition, it monitors the improper use of resources or misappropriation inside a production segment, as each step must be accounted for.

If the notion of lean production is not balanced inside the operation-production needs, the performance of managers guiding production implementation methods may be abysmal owing to a lack of knowledge to integrate micro-decisions alongside macro-decisions. In addition to technical factors such as management concepts in its lean operations model, the success of Toyota's operations management system is reliant on creative and communicative soft skills.

In addition, the feature of localizing labor and production components has played the most significant part in the company's lean production and operations strategy in terms of its operations management strategy (Starr 33). Under lean production and operations, decisions should be based on available resources, such as investment portfolio, infrastructure, personnel size, expertise, and efficiency, for specialized, high-skilled tasks needing certain credentials. These outcomes would provide a comprehensive estimate of the probability distribution of future projected returns.

On the global market, lean operations are thus seen to be of great significance. They are strongly related to the JIT (Just in Time) philosophy, which permits a link between organizational management and business activity. Regardless of the operating environment, this makes a company's performance more efficient and sustainable (Medina-López, Alfalla-Luque, and Arenas-Márquez 39). In the process of striking a balance, a quality operations management system should be able to apply scientific abilities in an artistic approach by employing soft skills in a well-informed and perfectly-structured manner to address technical aspects of production management.

Objectives

A corporation that integrates the lean operations model into its production process has as one of its primary aims the reduction of costs associated with the production process, logistics (including transportation), marketing campaign, and delivery of the final product. However, in addition to a reduction in financial losses, a rapid increase in the quality and quantity of items produced is also one of the primary goals of lean operations as its fundamental approach (Dolgui and Proth 119).

A lean production system's topological structure is comprised of communication and operations management coordination, which aid in establishing optimal resource use and efficient performance. This approach emphasizes optimal utilization of manufacturing resources and customer pleasure within accepted standards of moral obligation, while placing stakeholders at the bottom of the triangle. With long-term benefits in mind, this action is taken. For a business to be successful with leanness, it must be willing to utilize information and knowledge. Essentially, within the context of this purpose, the continuum of enhancing the value of quality in operations will be guided by data, information, and expertise (Bowman 17).

The ever-changing corporate environment has continued to aid human resource managers in their evaluations of company employees (Dolgui and Proth 121). The first stage in implementing a high-quality lean operations management system entails research and the development of a practical and well-informed business monitoring channel. In actuality, a business goal is realized through lean operations management.

Within the business vision and production management, the quality component of operations management encompasses all areas of a company's business activities, including the acquisition of raw materials, their processing and purchase, and their shipment and packaging. In addition, the system monitors the progress and financial limitations of each of these segments. Consideration of efficiency is based on the contributions it makes to ensuring that organizations continue to obtain a competitive advantage on the market (Starr 41).

Numerous studies have shown that lean production and operation are essential for long-term organizational functionality, particularly in the implementation of short- and long-term capital structure growth initiatives. The significance of lean operations is the assurance that contributions to organizational culture and human resources influence lean organizational productivity and business performance. As part of the lean operations system, it is essential to analyze the relative performance principles of competing forecast densities in accordance with the primary purpose of identifying the forecast density closest to the actual value (Dolgui and Proth 119).

For consistency, the parameters and variables used to control lean production and operations management are aligned so that the model-independent threshold is fulfilled across competing models. To address the underlying challenges in stochastic volatility estimation, the parameters must circle around pertinent information that is compatible with the real and expected parameter matrices. To achieve lean operations management, Toyota periodically upgrades its existing types of system monitoring to introduce numerous operating system models, such as ratio analysis in operations management. This is compatible with monitoring and analysis inside and outside the organization (Bowman 28).

Toyota's lean operations and production management methods encompass cost, dependability, velocity, quality, and adaptability. These factors determine whether a business will succeed or fail. These characteristics are attainable via value delivery, value addition, and originality. In retrospect, these ideas are crucial strategies and instruments for the craft of operations management.

This approach includes scientific features such as a technical process for comprehending the motions involved in operations management, their implementation, and regularly monitored evaluation criteria. Despite having an effective operations management system, the corporation has not completely built a framework for monitoring progress at the micro level and instead relies on macro auditing for decision-making. Consequently, the organization must manage the danger of internal redundancy (Dolgui and Proth 119).

Principles

Five traditional principles of lean operations include the concept of value from the customer's perspective, the identification of the steps to be taken in order to achieve previously established goals, the facilitation of the process flow, a complete compliance with the current demand, and the avoidance of any type of costs or wastes (Starr 21).

Environmentally (waste reduction) and economically (perspective shift), lean operations provide a sustainable environment inside an organization. When recurring costs such as labor, production space, and the cost of machinery are reduced to a level that is manageable, the company's return on investment will grow. In addition, the excess labor may be redirected to a different line of production besides the extra manufacturing area.

In order to develop high-quality products, it is evident that Toyota's lean operations philosophy has extensive expertise and experience about the uniqueness of its products and services. The variables are linked at a central point by strategic planning that incorporates costing, flexibility, and dependability to produce a continuous operation tracking model that functions like a computer from one segment to the next (Dolgui and Proth 120).

Consequently, the majority of the company's operations management delivery success hinges on soft skills involving the timeless vision of organizational principles, defining the value of the business, determining requirements, clarifying the vision, building teams, mitigating task, resolving issues, and providing direction for each production unit (Bowman 11).

In order to execute lean production and operations management, a business must embrace the six-sigma approach to quality control and assurance across its various dependent and independent units. Six Sigma is an experience of lean operations management that is applied to the development of business operations that guarantee efficiency through optimal and timely production. By reviewing the production matrix on a periodic basis, Six Sigma is implemented to achieve considerable production efficiency improvements. In actuality, Six Sigma is a series of business events; it generates good results that advance the company objective of reliability in production and operational systems (Medina-López, Alfalla-Luque, and Arenas-Márquez 39).

Quality control is often used to enhance the superiority of company products since it aims to eliminate manufacturing resource waste, which can manifest in the form of lengthy wait times and inefficient task completion. Through self-assessment and a proactive approach to skills testing, this concept often integrates individuals to offer the greatest quality products. The efficiency module is used to organize, synchronize, and manage the company's numerous activities.

This alternative can be compared to the three balls juggled by circus performers. By adopting the quality control alternative, Toyota has foreseen future risks and obstacles in the implementation of any production plan and is able to take appropriate corrective steps for unanticipated risks, such as changing client preferences for different autos (Starr 32).

Production efficiency through lean operations is crucial in the assembly line, as it is characterized by the optimal use of allotted production factors at the lowest possible cost. Essentially, a quality integration management system achieves optimal performance through the incorporation of relevant scientific methods and techniques.

Scientific procedures are useful for enhancing artistic management skills since they not only increase the likelihood of success, but also provide a seamless transition from one concept or event to the next. In addition, in order to avoid an immediate failure, it is imperative that the integrated management system concentrate on a clearly defined edge, since "proper tailoring of techniques and tools is an essential component of the regulatory strategy" (Bowman 32). The supply chain, production, and distribution processes of Toyota have been enhanced as a result of the lean integrated management system.

In order to develop a viable lean operating system, it is essential to incorporate quality control, progress monitoring, and planned flexibility to meet any unforeseen circumstances in a business. Goal planning and analysis is dependent on the quality of operations management. In reality, quality enables the seamless operation and coordination of concurrently operating variables.

Despite the market's continuous transformation of operations management designs, the quality determinant has remained mostly stable. Regardless of the size and structure of an organization, quality in operations management is the most important component in determining the success of short-, medium-, and long-term predictions (Medina-López, Alfalla-Luque, and Arenas-Márquez 37).

Since it determines how planning, integration, implementation, and control are integrated, the success or failure of a business entity is contingent on the effectiveness and quality of lean operations management. To achieve an optimal performance balance, the design of a high-quality operations management system should begin with a comprehensive analysis of budgeting, objectivity, and scheduling.

In addition, control mechanisms and an evaluation should be included in this section. Lean operations integrate tactics centered on the customer and the tenets of sustainability. In a climate of global competition, the concept of lean operations is extremely crucial for corporate management. With lean production and outsourcing, the auto parts sector is becoming increasingly vital to global production chains. Numerous automakers, including Toyota, are transitioning to modular assembly, in which the principal components manufacturer not only supplies but also organizes the design, manufacture, and installation of the automobile's or truck's major parts or systems (Bowman 16).

Summary

Regardless of the company's industry or size, lean production and operations management will yield long-term benefits. The advantages of implementing lean manufacturing and operations management exceed their disadvantages. For instance, when lean manufacturing and operations management are fully implemented, there will be a reduction in the cost of production elements such as labor, unitisation of raw materials, and overall process efficiency.

Consequently, the lowered real production costs will result in compounded gains as a result of regulated recurrent costs. If Toyota hadn't introduced the notion of lean operations into the modern paradigm of organization management, achieving a high level of performance today would be nearly impossible. Lean operations enable a whole redesign of the company's accounting model and the ensuing cost reduction, since waste is nearly eliminated. Reducing waste has a positive effect on the productivity and sustainability of business operations.

Bibliography

Singh Bowman. "Corporate restructuring: Reconfiguring the company." Strategic Management Journal 1, no. 4 (2003): 5–14 (print)

Dolgui, Alexandre, & Proth, Jean-Marie. Methods and techniques applicable to supply chain engineering. 2009, New York, New York: Springer Science & Business Media. Print.

Medina-López, Carmen, Rafaela Alfalla-Luque, and Francisco Arenas-Márquez. Active Learning in Operations Management: Multimedia Software for Teaching JIT/Lean Production Journal of Industrial Engineering and Management 4, no. 1 (November 2011): 31–80. Print.

Martin Starr Management of Manufacturing and Operations Alabama: South Western, 2009, in print.

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Business Analysis And Management Of Change: Applying SSM To The CONFIRM Case Common App Essay Help

Executive Synopsis

The collapse of CONFIRM, a cutting-edge information system, was to be constructed by AMRIS, the IS division of AMR, American Airlines' parent company. They were the managing partners of a partnership consisting of four businesses. The remaining three companies were Hilton Hotels, Marriott, and Budget Rent-a-Car. AMRIS was tasked with designing and developing the new IS that would act as the one comprehensive reservation system for the three other companies, allowing them to increase their business and profitability while retaining their existing cost structures in terms of cost per reservation. However, once the project began, it was delayed. AMRIS was forced to terminate certain personnel, and the project was ultimately abandoned. The dissolution of Intrico led in lawsuits amongst the former partners. However, these lawsuits were settled out of court by the firms. Thus, despite the fact that this situation was similar to other IS development failures, it was unusual due to the enormous expenses and scope involved. There are numerous systems thinking methodologies that might be used to investigate the reasons for the failure and to collect information for future use in similar projects. Due to the predominance of human activity systems in the CONFIRM case and the undefined and complicated nature of the challenges, it is recommended that a soft or unstructured approach, such as Checkland's Soft System Methodology or SSM, be used to analyze the case. This study aims to apply SSM concepts to the case and develops a conceptual model that is distinct from the case's real-world context. The same are then provided as recommendations to the steering committee as a remedy for a number of the project's concerns.

Presentation of the CONFIRM Case

Organizations frequently feel the need to upgrade their information systems (IS). Depending on the size and structure of the company, creating and implementing new information systems incurs extensive labor, time, and expense. Frequently, however, IS initiatives are never completed, or if they are, the expenditures far exceed the budgets initially predicted. Intrico, a consortium composed of Hilton Hotels Corporation, Budget Rent-A-Car Corporation, and Marriott Corporation, attempted to build CONFIRM, an information system, but was unsuccessful. This IS was intended to be a modern, advanced, and complete reservation system that provides up-to-date information on hotel accommodations, vehicle rentals, and flight reservations. The IS project was really subcontracted to AMR Information Services Inc. (AMRIS), the IS division of AMR, American Airlines Corporation's parent company. The companies spanning three industries and the IS sector believed that such a system would facilitate a state-of-the-art, comprehensive new reservation system as part of a single computerized infrastructure that could be marketed globally, generate increased profits at current cost levels, and provide a competitive advantage to the company utilizing the system. AMRIS, which was designated as the managing partner in Intrico, believed it could capitalize on the existing demand for a single reservation system for the car rental, hotel lodging, and airline booking sectors in order to effectively expand and diversify its product line. AMRIS also hoped to generate consistent revenue while serving as the system's data processing arm.

Concerns and Duties

AMR was already proud of its excellent SABRE online flight reservation system. It intended to replicate this system on a grander scale. In May of 1988, AMRIS, the IS division of AMR, began work on the CONFIRM project as the managing partner of Intrico's four-member consortium. The project was to be completed in two phases (design and development) by the end of June 1992 at a cost of USD 55.7 million, with operational costs per reservation set at USD 1.05. By the time the project was shelved and the consortium was dissolved in July 1992, however, about USD 125 million had been spent on it. The case also resulted in lawsuits, which were ultimately settled by the firms outside of court.

The failure of CONFIRM IS generated unsettling concerns. One was the issue of ethics. Clearly, the managements of the companies who merged to establish Intrico were motivated by maximizing profits for their owners. However, the position of the firms' top executives in the CONFIRM case demonstrates their unethical behavior. Whatever the case may be, the personnel of AMRIS, the clients for the system (the three Intrico partners), and the management of AMRIS all failed to adhere to professional rules of behavior. According to Oz (Oct 1994, p. 34), there appeared to be three causes for the CONFIRM failure. First, there were unanticipated technological complications that could not be handled. Two, the cost and timeline predictions were unrealistic. Thirdly, the system developers could not comprehend the user requirements and were hindered by post-launch requirements changes.

Regardless of the causes for CONFIRM's failure, a review of the case can produce solid analytical results that can be used to predict and prevent similar IS development failures. Specifically, such colossal losses from a failed project akin to CONFIRM may only impede the management's capacity to minimize costs, increase profits, and constantly evolve and implement successful IS projects. While numerous systems approaches exist for analyzing difficulties faced by management inside businesses, this analysis analyzed the CONFIRM situation by employing Checkland's Soft System Methodology based on soft system ideas (1972, pp. 87-116)

Selecting an Analytical Model

Developments of Information Systems (IS) involve large investments of time, labor, and funds. Nonetheless, numerous IS projects are canceled prior to completion, as determined by numerous research studies. Moreover, even if they are completed, a large number of projects incur astronomical cost overruns. 31% of new IS initiatives are canceled prior to completion, while 52.7% of finished projects exceed their initial budget by a staggering 189%, according to one study (PC Week 16, Jan 1995, 68). Another analysis reveals that a staggering 75% of all information system development projects were never completed or even utilized when they were (Gladden, 1982, pp. 35-39). Perhaps the failure of CONFIRM is comparable to other incomplete organizational IS projects. In terms of financial waste, however, the failure of CONFIRM was gigantic, causing Intrico's partners to suffer a major setback and ultimately necessitating the dissolution of the partnership. Clearly, managers of businesses are constantly concerned with the need to control costs, meet project deadlines, and oversee the transition from old to new systems. Therefore, it is necessary to study unsuccessful IS projects in order to improve human learning for anticipating and preventing such failures.

While there are numerous methods for assessing information system failures, systems thinking has generally been viewed as difficult and incapable of resolving many of the organizations' real-world challenges. In this context, soft systems methodologies arose. Due to Checkland, one of the most prominent soft systems approaches was developed (1981). Checkland envisioned Soft Systems Methodology or SSM as a comprehensive approach that conceptualizes vivid images when describing issue scenarios.

According to Lyytinen (1987, pp. 5-46), the SSM is a system engineering methodology used in action research contexts to solve real-world problems. Other systems engineering methodologies applied to business problems, such as the Viable System Model (VSM), Business Process Reengineering (BPR), and Business Process Transformation (BPT), are fraught with their own intrinsic difficulties. For starters, these traditional methodologies could not be applied adequately to organizational challenges that were generated by deliberate human behavior, were susceptible to differing perspectives on the issue, and were unstructured and difficult to define. Two, the implementation of such methods themselves caused additional issues, as the method of inquiry interfered with the study's findings. Third, when problems were identified too early, it was difficult to identify more fundamental or distinct issues. Thus, in complicated real-world circumstances such as the CONFIRM example, a soft model like as the SSM is seen more suitable for investigating the nature, causes, and resolution of the problem situation. The CONFIRM case included a number of human participants or stakeholders. The challenge involved the human condition, necessitating deliberate action to resolve issues. Accordingly, SSM might be perceived as the most suitable approach for investigating the CONFIRM case, given that it involves an investigation of the human activity system (HAS) and that the many views of the numerous stakeholders must be examined in the broadest possible manner.

Analyzing the Case's Problematic Situation, Key Findings

CONFIRM was the dream project of four industry-leading organizations. Development of an advanced multi-user, multi-industry reservation system was at issue. Once deployed, it would enable clients of Hilton Hotels Corporation, Budget Rent-A-Car Corporation, and Marriott Corporation with a single, complete reservation system. AMRIS, the IS division of AMR, the parent company of American Airlines, conceived the idea. AMR planned to capitalize on a perceived market demand for the product after discovering that just 20% of customers booked their hotel bookings online, but its airline reservation system SABRE serviced 80% of customers in that industry. AMRIS was the Managing Partner of the Intrico consortium, which was composed of four companies. While hotels and car rental agencies would use the IS for daily operations, the other three partners would assist AMRIS in marketing a customized version of the system to other potential enterprises. AMRIS would also be responsible for sustaining data processing processes. The entire undertaking was to be completed in two stages. The first phase was the design phase, and its completion would take seven months. The second phase would be the period of development, which would require a further 45 months to complete. Thus, the duration of the project would be 1988 to 1992. While AMRIS would help design and develop the IS, deploy it, and assist with process maintenance, the other three would receive a state-of-the-art reservation system that might help boost their bottom lines while maintaining present operational costs. In addition, there were returns from promoting the new IS system to prospective clients. The consortium partners would pay a total of $55.7 million for the project, and the cost per reservation would be $1.05. The partners agreed to keep a resident staff at AMRIS's Dallas headquarters, where the project would be designed.

AMRIS has consistently stated that the new IS will be vastly superior to existing systems and that the associated expenses would be lower than those of the current structure. However, despite assurances that the project would be completed on time, the project began falling behind schedule. Gradually, the expense of design began to skyrocket. The functional parameters also fell short of what each company desired. Particularly, Marriott objected to the parameters provided in the first development design. The AMR personnel who created the enormously successful SABRE system confirmed this by stating that the specs were insufficient for the developer to comprehend the user requirements. Thus, AMRIS's initial plan had to be altered, resulting in an increase in the estimated cost of creating the plan to USD 72,6 million, with the cost per reservation anticipated to be USD 1.30 in the first year of full operations and 0.72 and 0.40 in the fourth and fifth years, respectively. AMRIS provided the others the opportunity to withdraw from the project once completion for a USD 1 million penalty. Midway through 1989, Marriott discovered through an examination of AMRIS's pro forma financial statements that the company had misrepresented its number of reservations, understated operational costs, and derived an incorrect per reservation cost, which was one of the most crucial pieces of information for the project's viability for each of the three other partners. Despite estimating that each reservation would cost approximately $2, the corporations continued to participate in the project. In February 1990, the project was unable to meet the BAA deadline (a phase of the project). The developers then redefined the unfinished portion of the phase as part of the subsequent phase. AMRIS refused to provide Marriott with project details and asserted that the project was on pace as revised. AMRIS maintained to its partners that the project was on time and could be completed within the revised budget, despite the fact that the company's internal issues had begun to appear. Even after missing the January 1990 deadline for introducing the terminal screen, the company maintained that it could still make up for lost time. By March 1990, it was 13 months behind schedule. However, AMRIS's leadership asserted that the project was on track. Even AMRIS personnel questioned if the project could be completed on schedule. They also complained about how their bosses handled the situation. As soon as the company's leadership realized that the managers had misled to them about the project's specifics, they sacked eight top executives and then another fifteen employees. This occurred in Apr 1992. In July of 1992, the entire project expenses exceeded USD 125 million, significantly exceeding the initial predictions, and the project had to be abandoned. In actuality, the Intrico consortium was dissolved.

Additionally, the CONFIRM incident led to legal disputes between AMRIS and the other three firms. Each party maintained their account of the events leading up to the failure of CONFIRM. In this regard, it must be highlighted that the declared purpose of the project was explicitly defined in the agreement between the partners:

The CONFIRM would be an advanced IS that is created, produced, run, and maintained for profit, as well as distributed globally. The system would provide a centralized reservation system for booking hotel accommodations, vehicle rentals, and airline tickets. All interfaces would be created by AMRIS, which would also assist in the modernization of all partners' outdated information systems.

AMRIS bears all responsibility for design and development. Teams from each organization stationed at the AMRIS headquarters would contribute to functional development and evaluate the system as it was being designed. AMRIS in turn guaranteed to other partners that the project would be finished on time and under budget.

Despite AMRIS's fraudulent statements, Marriott still gave a gift.

Business Analysis And Management Of Change: Applying SSM To The CONFIRM Case Common App Essay Help

Executive Synopsis

The collapse of CONFIRM, a cutting-edge information system, was to be constructed by AMRIS, the IS division of AMR, American Airlines' parent company. They were the managing partners of a partnership consisting of four businesses. The remaining three companies were Hilton Hotels, Marriott, and Budget Rent-a-Car. AMRIS was tasked with designing and developing the new IS that would act as the one comprehensive reservation system for the three other companies, allowing them to increase their business and profitability while retaining their existing cost structures in terms of cost per reservation. However, once the project began, it was delayed. AMRIS was forced to terminate certain personnel, and the project was ultimately abandoned. The dissolution of Intrico led in lawsuits amongst the former partners. However, these lawsuits were settled out of court by the firms. Thus, despite the fact that this situation was similar to other IS development failures, it was unusual due to the enormous expenses and scope involved. There are numerous systems thinking methodologies that might be used to investigate the reasons for the failure and to collect information for future use in similar projects. Due to the predominance of human activity systems in the CONFIRM case and the undefined and complicated nature of the challenges, it is recommended that a soft or unstructured approach, such as Checkland's Soft System Methodology or SSM, be used to analyze the case. This study aims to apply SSM concepts to the case and develops a conceptual model that is distinct from the case's real-world context. The same are then provided as recommendations to the steering committee as a remedy for a number of the project's concerns.

Presentation of the CONFIRM Case

Organizations frequently feel the need to upgrade their information systems (IS). Depending on the size and structure of the company, creating and implementing new information systems incurs extensive labor, time, and expense. Frequently, however, IS initiatives are never completed, or if they are, the expenditures far exceed the budgets initially predicted. Intrico, a consortium composed of Hilton Hotels Corporation, Budget Rent-A-Car Corporation, and Marriott Corporation, attempted to build CONFIRM, an information system, but was unsuccessful. This IS was intended to be a modern, advanced, and complete reservation system that provides up-to-date information on hotel accommodations, vehicle rentals, and flight reservations. The IS project was really subcontracted to AMR Information Services Inc. (AMRIS), the IS division of AMR, American Airlines Corporation's parent company. The companies spanning three industries and the IS sector believed that such a system would facilitate a state-of-the-art, comprehensive new reservation system as part of a single computerized infrastructure that could be marketed globally, generate increased profits at current cost levels, and provide a competitive advantage to the company utilizing the system. AMRIS, which was designated as the managing partner in Intrico, believed it could capitalize on the existing demand for a single reservation system for the car rental, hotel lodging, and airline booking sectors in order to effectively expand and diversify its product line. AMRIS also hoped to generate consistent revenue while serving as the system's data processing arm.

Concerns and Duties

AMR was already proud of its excellent SABRE online flight reservation system. It intended to replicate this system on a grander scale. In May of 1988, AMRIS, the IS division of AMR, began work on the CONFIRM project as the managing partner of Intrico's four-member consortium. The project was to be completed in two phases (design and development) by the end of June 1992 at a cost of USD 55.7 million, with operational costs per reservation set at USD 1.05. By the time the project was shelved and the consortium was dissolved in July 1992, however, about USD 125 million had been spent on it. The case also resulted in lawsuits, which were ultimately settled by the firms outside of court.

The failure of CONFIRM IS generated unsettling concerns. One was the issue of ethics. Clearly, the managements of the companies who merged to establish Intrico were motivated by maximizing profits for their owners. However, the position of the firms' top executives in the CONFIRM case demonstrates their unethical behavior. Whatever the case may be, the personnel of AMRIS, the clients for the system (the three Intrico partners), and the management of AMRIS all failed to adhere to professional rules of behavior. According to Oz (Oct 1994, p. 34), there appeared to be three causes for the CONFIRM failure. First, there were unanticipated technological complications that could not be handled. Two, the cost and timeline predictions were unrealistic. Thirdly, the system developers could not comprehend the user requirements and were hindered by post-launch requirements changes.

Regardless of the causes for CONFIRM's failure, a review of the case can produce solid analytical results that can be used to predict and prevent similar IS development failures. Specifically, such colossal losses from a failed project akin to CONFIRM may only impede the management's capacity to minimize costs, increase profits, and constantly evolve and implement successful IS projects. While numerous systems approaches exist for analyzing difficulties faced by management inside businesses, this analysis analyzed the CONFIRM situation by employing Checkland's Soft System Methodology based on soft system ideas (1972, pp. 87-116)

Selecting an Analytical Model

Developments of Information Systems (IS) involve large investments of time, labor, and funds. Nonetheless, numerous IS projects are canceled prior to completion, as determined by numerous research studies. Moreover, even if they are completed, a large number of projects incur astronomical cost overruns. 31% of new IS initiatives are canceled prior to completion, while 52.7% of finished projects exceed their initial budget by a staggering 189%, according to one study (PC Week 16, Jan 1995, 68). Another analysis reveals that a staggering 75% of all information system development projects were never completed or even utilized when they were (Gladden, 1982, pp. 35-39). Perhaps the failure of CONFIRM is comparable to other incomplete organizational IS projects. In terms of financial waste, however, the failure of CONFIRM was gigantic, causing Intrico's partners to suffer a major setback and ultimately necessitating the dissolution of the partnership. Clearly, managers of businesses are constantly concerned with the need to control costs, meet project deadlines, and oversee the transition from old to new systems. Therefore, it is necessary to study unsuccessful IS projects in order to improve human learning for anticipating and preventing such failures.

While there are numerous methods for assessing information system failures, systems thinking has generally been viewed as difficult and incapable of resolving many of the organizations' real-world challenges. In this context, soft systems methodologies arose. Due to Checkland, one of the most prominent soft systems approaches was developed (1981). Checkland envisioned Soft Systems Methodology or SSM as a comprehensive approach that conceptualizes vivid images when describing issue scenarios.

According to Lyytinen (1987, pp. 5-46), the SSM is a system engineering methodology used in action research contexts to solve real-world problems. Other systems engineering methodologies applied to business problems, such as the Viable System Model (VSM), Business Process Reengineering (BPR), and Business Process Transformation (BPT), are fraught with their own intrinsic difficulties. For starters, these traditional methodologies could not be applied adequately to organizational challenges that were generated by deliberate human behavior, were susceptible to differing perspectives on the issue, and were unstructured and difficult to define. Two, the implementation of such methods themselves caused additional issues, as the method of inquiry interfered with the study's findings. Third, when problems were identified too early, it was difficult to identify more fundamental or distinct issues. Thus, in complicated real-world circumstances such as the CONFIRM example, a soft model like as the SSM is seen more suitable for investigating the nature, causes, and resolution of the problem situation. The CONFIRM case included a number of human participants or stakeholders. The challenge involved the human condition, necessitating deliberate action to resolve issues. Accordingly, SSM might be perceived as the most suitable approach for investigating the CONFIRM case, given that it involves an investigation of the human activity system (HAS) and that the many views of the numerous stakeholders must be examined in the broadest possible manner.

Analyzing the Case's Problematic Situation, Key Findings

CONFIRM was the dream project of four industry-leading organizations. Development of an advanced multi-user, multi-industry reservation system was at issue. Once deployed, it would enable clients of Hilton Hotels Corporation, Budget Rent-A-Car Corporation, and Marriott Corporation with a single, complete reservation system. AMRIS, the IS division of AMR, the parent company of American Airlines, conceived the idea. AMR planned to capitalize on a perceived market demand for the product after discovering that just 20% of customers booked their hotel bookings online, but its airline reservation system SABRE serviced 80% of customers in that industry. AMRIS was the Managing Partner of the Intrico consortium, which was composed of four companies. While hotels and car rental agencies would use the IS for daily operations, the other three partners would assist AMRIS in marketing a customized version of the system to other potential enterprises. AMRIS would also be responsible for sustaining data processing processes. The entire undertaking was to be completed in two stages. The first phase was the design phase, and its completion would take seven months. The second phase would be the period of development, which would require a further 45 months to complete. Thus, the duration of the project would be 1988 to 1992. While AMRIS would help design and develop the IS, deploy it, and assist with process maintenance, the other three would receive a state-of-the-art reservation system that might help boost their bottom lines while maintaining present operational costs. In addition, there were returns from promoting the new IS system to prospective clients. The consortium partners would pay a total of $55.7 million for the project, and the cost per reservation would be $1.05. The partners agreed to keep a resident staff at AMRIS's Dallas headquarters, where the project would be designed.

AMRIS has consistently stated that the new IS will be vastly superior to existing systems and that the associated expenses would be lower than those of the current structure. However, despite assurances that the project would be completed on time, the project began falling behind schedule. Gradually, the expense of design began to skyrocket. The functional parameters also fell short of what each company desired. Particularly, Marriott objected to the parameters provided in the first development design. The AMR personnel who created the enormously successful SABRE system confirmed this by stating that the specs were insufficient for the developer to comprehend the user requirements. Thus, AMRIS's initial plan had to be altered, resulting in an increase in the estimated cost of creating the plan to USD 72,6 million, with the cost per reservation anticipated to be USD 1.30 in the first year of full operations and 0.72 and 0.40 in the fourth and fifth years, respectively. AMRIS provided the others the opportunity to withdraw from the project once completion for a USD 1 million penalty. Midway through 1989, Marriott discovered through an examination of AMRIS's pro forma financial statements that the company had misrepresented its number of reservations, understated operational costs, and derived an incorrect per reservation cost, which was one of the most crucial pieces of information for the project's viability for each of the three other partners. Despite estimating that each reservation would cost approximately $2, the corporations continued to participate in the project. In February 1990, the project was unable to meet the BAA deadline (a phase of the project). The developers then redefined the unfinished portion of the phase as part of the subsequent phase. AMRIS refused to provide Marriott with project details and asserted that the project was on pace as revised. AMRIS maintained to its partners that the project was on time and could be completed within the revised budget, despite the fact that the company's internal issues had begun to appear. Even after missing the January 1990 deadline for introducing the terminal screen, the company maintained that it could still make up for lost time. By March 1990, it was 13 months behind schedule. However, AMRIS's leadership asserted that the project was on track. Even AMRIS personnel questioned if the project could be completed on schedule. They also complained about how their bosses handled the situation. As soon as the company's leadership realized that the managers had misled to them about the project's specifics, they sacked eight top executives and then another fifteen employees. This occurred in Apr 1992. In July of 1992, the entire project expenses exceeded USD 125 million, significantly exceeding the initial predictions, and the project had to be abandoned. In actuality, the Intrico consortium was dissolved.

Additionally, the CONFIRM incident led to legal disputes between AMRIS and the other three firms. Each party maintained their account of the events leading up to the failure of CONFIRM. In this regard, it must be highlighted that the declared purpose of the project was explicitly defined in the agreement between the partners:

The CONFIRM would be an advanced IS that is created, produced, run, and maintained for profit, as well as distributed globally. The system would provide a centralized reservation system for booking hotel accommodations, vehicle rentals, and airline tickets. All interfaces would be created by AMRIS, which would also assist in the modernization of all partners' outdated information systems.

AMRIS bears all responsibility for design and development. Teams from each organization stationed at the AMRIS headquarters would contribute to functional development and evaluate the system as it was being designed. AMRIS in turn guaranteed to other partners that the project would be finished on time and under budget.

Despite AMRIS's fraudulent statements, Marriott still gave a gift.

Resolving Conflict Through Effective Communication Techniques Common App Essay Help

Abstract

This study is an examination of the problem of conflict and communication as the source of its resolutions. This provides an overview of the available resources, including various instances of best practices in this subject. The objectivity of the research stands in opposition to the dependability of the issue in the contemporary business community. The study focuses specifically on the social realm. This evaluates the advantages and disadvantages of the practical application of discussion in the workplace. The objective of the study is to develop the most efficient organizational communication strategies. Thus, the research demonstrated that bioethical standards must be adhered to within the multicultural and multinational characteristics of organizations. This method is useful for reducing the influence of biases at each level of an organization's hierarchy.

Introduction

The strategic importance of self confidence and self esteem in the workplace for business ethics cannot be overstated. However, there are numerous instances in which things go wrong. The fundamental nature of disagreements is inescapable for businesses. This is why so many individuals fight for their spot in the sun while others attempt to address the problem's core causes. When there is a disparity in attitudes between two or more parties, such situations can arise. In its traditional form, it refers to the relationships between dominants and subordinates. Among the reasons contributing to the issue are the disparities between the formal document (contract or labor agreement) and the actual working circumstances. Another scenario involves the deliberate refusal of a chief or senior manager to become involved in the particulars of their profession in order to have an understanding of the issue. With every attempt by a dominant to reject the allegations of subordinates, the distance between the conflict's two parties grows.

This is why it is possible to either exacerbate the situation or resolve it. In order to defuse a conflict scenario, a senior employee must be able to identify and identify the problem at its earliest stage. In actuality, people struggle occasionally to have their goals acknowledged. Consequently, this impacts the entire working process. For the success of a business, there should be a timetable of ways for reducing the strands of conflict. First, maturity is advantageous for recognizing and resolving social problems through timely and effective communication. Second, it is a guarantee for implementing the correct workplace culture and ethics. Thirdly, a dominant's effective communication skills enable the tenacity of team spirit. It delivers perspectives for team building in return.

Methodology

The research is based on theoretical (logical) and practical data for a comprehensive examination of this social issue at the workplace. In this regard, descriptive and comparative analysis are primarily utilized to illustrate the validity of the employed approaches. More emphasis is placed on the practical application of expert recommendations. In this regard, the research literature and key publications are quite important. Various writing resources are presented in the research. Their authenticity and dependability is contingent upon the period of their refining as well as their relevance to present corporate environment.

Discussion

General analysis of the issue

Conflicts in the workplace are not a novel issue. This is why sociologists and psychologists examine many aspects influencing the situation in order to focus their attention on it. In this regard, the human factor has a disproportionately large impact on the survey. Furthermore, as Kellett (2006) emphasizes, one must be able to accurately depict the conflict's significance. This skill ensures the continued success of a corporation or organization for a director, a manager, or a chief in any setting where similar ties exist. To be exact, it is the factor of prosperity. Cahn and Abigail (2007) emphasize the significance of an appropriate and timely response to a conflict scenario through communication. In addition, communication is a powerful tool in the hands of a responsible man. It is a highly manipulative method. It may result in both positive and negative outcomes. Those that rely on communication are free to utilize it for improvement or not.

In turn, Hay (2009) offers a comprehensive examination of her experience in order to acknowledge the extraordinary significance of language. First, it is reasonable to assume that language is an excellent medium for communication. Second, it provides the context for predetermined acceptable conclusions. It is an instrument for interacting in general. For instance, if an employee's performance is worse than in the past, his/her supervisor may exert pressure to demand improved performance. In reality, such poor outcomes are not usually the result of unwillingness to work or laziness. Perhaps an employee is through the hardest time of his or her life. Perhaps there is something more pressing for him to consider at this time. Directors and managers should not take it for granted. Listening is one of the best examples of appropriate behavior in this situation. Everything will become evident as soon as a senior employee at the workplace seeks to listen to the genuine reason for such degradation. Conversely, such consultations or dialogues with junior workers will optimize the job process.

Regarding a large organization, there should be feedback between senior management and subordinate staff. If this technique works, there is no cause for concern. It is the product of successful leadership at the workplace. Real leaders will never and for a very long time take difficulties for granted. They are not concerned with such progression (or, more accurately, stagnation) of actions. This is related to the importance of commercial interests to the owner of significant capital. Edelstein et al. (2009) emphasize the significance of conflict management in the early identification and resolution of any conflict. Determining the interrelationship between conflict and communication in the language of business and corporate interactions remains crucial.

Intensity of conflict

First, conflict is the manifestation of struggle between two parties, which is manifested by the interference of the other parties as a result of each side's incompatible goals (Gibson, 2009). In this regard, a researcher must pay particular attention to the aspects that contribute to effective and efficient communications. Behavior, normative regulations, and personality are examples. These three significant variables implement their functional plan for every type of conflict. Consequently, it is essential to highlight three levels of conflict situations:

Interpersonal; Group; Corporate (Gibson, 2009).

Each depicts what is known as a hierarchy of interactions. This is why a leader must be able to identify and manage problems immediately. Obviously, the fundamental level is interpersonal character. Here, contradictions such as likes and dislikes, selfishness and altruism, and agreement or disagreement with work standards are examined. In order to get the most appropriate findings, it is necessary to weigh the entire study of past and present employee interaction.

The reasons for group conflicts are in opposition to the group's objectives and tasks (Gibson, 2009). In this situation, groups of people play an important role until just and equitable reforms or modifications are implemented. On average, everyone have equal rights and job security. Therefore, a leader must maintain a healthy discussion so as not to undermine the cohesion of the team. In other words, it is a realm of nuanced reciprocity in relationships. Excessive aggressiveness is not a means of escape. A leader should provide a strategy for future growth. In reality, a group dispute escalates into an organizational conflict if it is not resolved. Here, Gibson (2009) distinguishes between intraorganizational (inside an organization) and interorganizational (between organizations) organizational disputes (between different organizations). The 1886 strike of Chicago's working men is an example of a time when such a massive problem arose. The primary cause for this struggle was to offer an eight-hour workday on a firm foundation. As a result of this event, collaboration and knowledge management began to emerge as a necessity for the productive operation of organizations in capitalist societies. Employers began to pay attention to the working conditions of their employees.

Effective communication approaches

In determining the nature and intensity of a dispute, a leader can easily identify the factors that contribute to both its intensification and resolution. Hay (2009) concedes that communication continues at all times in the past, present, and future. The fact is that the winners are those who can create and maintain a suitable work environment. One of the best pieces of advise for a thriving business is to adhere to bioethical principles. It indicates that there should be no fostering of prejudices regarding diverse factors inside an organization. For instance, Hay (2009) identifies gender, race, and age as three factors that influence prejudices within the management or senior management team. These are the primary causes of workplace disagreements. It is primarily due to the transnational nature of many businesses. Second, women are increasingly assuming leadership positions in corporate, social, and political activities around the world.

Therefore, conversing well with individuals requires taking into account all habits learnt since birth. It will facilitate the bioethics points. On the other hand, it is a panacea for cultural and traditional differences in a company's workforce. UNESCO (2006) highlights the dynamics of roles between chairpersons and members of an organization for reducing "bioethical drawbacks"-related unfavorable elements. It implies that the bioethical challenge is global. The optimization of the work process necessitates that efficient and shrewd proprietors and business owners exhibit additional patience and tolerance today. This is why many firms seek to facilitate the working process and facilitate communication with lower-level employees. This is effective when the stability of communication is minimal. Moreover, communication is the source for identifying the causes of a company's good or poor performance. Cahn and Abigail (2007) claim to propose a theoretical foundation for handling conflict situations. This relates to the correct direction of negative emotions and discontent in the flow of comprehension and the provision of an alternative. "Language is the common thread by which we explore our differences and, if we are both fortunate and mature, the thread that will bring us to some form of agreement or at least understanding," writes Hay (2009). (1).

Conclusion

In conclusion, the research demonstrated that communication is the most effective tool for the successful evolution of the working process. Organizations should rely on the tolerance and accountability of all of their members. In this regard, a leader can lessen disputes if leadership, as it is, supports the necessity of understanding and motivation through encouragement. This characteristic should stem from the potential bioethical attitudes of dominants toward subordinates. By restoring the image of conflict and its negative impact on a company, it is possible to comprehend the breadth of questions to which a chairman or chief must provide solutions. In reality, it is a matter of extensive experience and maturity.

Reference

Cahn, D. D. & Abigail, R. A. (2007). Conflict Management Through Communication (3rd ed.). Toronto: Pearson Education Canada.

Edelstein, L. M., DeRenzo, E. G., Waetzig, E., Zelizer, C. & Mokwunye, N. O. (2009). Communication and Conflict Management Training for Committees of Clinical Bioethics. ” HEC Forum 21(4): 341-347.

Griffin, M. (2009). "Managing Conflict Through Communication," Chapter 11.

Hay, H. (2009). Even 20 years later, conversation continues. Daily Sentinel, Grand Junction, Colorado

Kellett, P. M. (2006). Using several levels of meaning in conflict communication to foster constructive partnerships. New York: SAGE.

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Vertical Organization Design In Business Structures Common App Essay Help

Abstract

Organizations must rapidly evolve and adapt in order to fulfill the stringent requirements of their operating environment. Organizational design is a determinant in a company's ability to be successful in its chosen setting. The design of an organization has two sides: the vertical and the horizontal. A firm with a vertical structure is more rigid and centralized, whereas an organization with a horizontal structure is fluid, organic, and decentralized. This article will study the vertical design of bureaucratic organizations with an emphasis on the overall success of these organizations and decide if there is sufficient evidence to support the change to a less vertical and more hybrid organizational design. The design features of bureaucratic organizations that will be examined are their history, benefits, problems, and distinctions between private and public enterprises.

Introduction

Organizational structure is a collection of corporate assemblies and their linkages, within which administrative activities are delegated to different units and the authority and responsibilities of managers and officials are decided. The organizational structure is constructed, on the one hand, in conformity with the tasks and objectives the organization desires to accomplish. On the other side, the structure at different levels allows the organization to utilize economies of scale to save resources. Therefore, the structure links exterior and internal efficiency. To ensure the replication and maintenance of the strategy, the distribution of tasks between departments and officials, as well as the distribution of authorities and responsibilities, should remain consistent for some time. Therefore, the structure determines the organization's management's static system properties. It is crucial to establish the appropriate structure based on the company's profile, long-term strategy, and current and future demands.

As the company advances and establishes new objectives, a certain organizational structure may no longer be fit for new sorts of activity. In this situation, management may consider adopting new structures in order to fulfill current demands. As with the adoption of any other culture or technology, alterations to the organizational structure are rarely simple and may be followed with challenges. The resistance of employees, the inefficiency of the management team, and the selection of an improper structure are examples of potential obstacles. This article presents an overview of the vertical structure that now dominates the market, its major flaws, and potential remedies. In addition, the study outlines the knowledge vacuum in the field of organizational structure and gives a number of research proposals. Current knowledge of organizational structure is primarily limited to theoretical foundations, and there is a dearth of quantitative evidence.

Definition of Vertical Structure

Initial organizational structures in businesses were linear and functional (Young & Ghoshal, 2016). Traditional social institutions, including the military, gave rise to linear frameworks (Young & Ghoshal, 2016). The structures, which were built on linear subordination and vertical links, allowed for leadership in a stable corporate environment in expanding markets with stable technologies (Young & Ghoshal, 2016). The functional concept led to the linearization of line units in circumstances when the enterprise's work entailed the application of multiple functions of economic activity, such as R&D, production, marketing, and finance, among others (Young & Ghoshal, 2016). Thus, a variety of linear structures were created, which came to be referred to as the functional structure.

Initial characteristics of a lot of industries included the production and improvement of existing products as part of operational activities and the creation of new technology through inventive management. In the history of Western manufacturing, numerous strategic external factors necessitated modifications to previously established techniques and management structures at the firm and industry levels (Young & Ghoshal, 2016). The first was associated with the worldwide economic crisis known as the Great Depression (Young & Ghoshal, 2016). This crisis revealed the ineffectiveness of the leadership ideas utilized during the preceding cycle of economic expansion for new high-tech industries (Young & Ghoshal, 2016). At the time of mastering new industrial technologies, a vertical integration model was commonly utilized, in which the corporation controlled the entire production process, from the earliest phases of raw material processing through final consumer delivery (Young & Ghoshal, 2016).

The majority of businesses have organizational structures that more closely adhere to the concepts of constructing a vertical management structure. The vertical organizational management structure is a hierarchical management structure within an enterprise (Macdonald, Burke, & Stewart, 2018). Verticality is a design aspect present in the majority of businesses, regardless of their nature and shape. In most circumstances, the enterprise's employees are subject to the general manager, either directly or through their direct managers, or another individual at the enterprise's helm.

The vertical structure is distinguished by the number of subordinate levels and the existence of a single leader for every employee. The management's vertical organizational structure is also known as bureaucratic or hierarchical (Macdonald, Burke, & Stewart, 2018). It is highly centralized in terms of the decision-making process (Macdonald, Burke, & Stewart, 2018). The leader of a corporation with a vertical organizational structure is an individual or group of individuals. In direct subordination to the chief executive are the remaining department heads and all other workers (Macdonald, Burke, & Stewart, 2018). Typically, the executive makes all strategic decisions about the company's work alone, although operational decisions cannot be made without his or her participation (Macdonald, Burke, & Stewart, 2018).

On the one hand, the vertical organizational structure serves to ensure a high level of control over the organization's processes, while on the other, it drastically widens the area of responsibility of corporate executives, thereby increasing their workload. Formalization is another characteristic of an organization with a high rate of verticality of the organizational structure (Macdonald, Burke, & Stewart, 2018). The formalization process enables businesses to speed the adoption of operational choices by explicitly defining the boundaries of each employee's, department's, or unit's duties (Macdonald, Burke, & Stewart, 2018). However, a high level of codified company processes might hinder the inventiveness of employees.

The so-called height of the organization is determined by the principal parameter of the vertical organizational structure. Height of an organization is the number of successive subordinate management levels (Macdonald, Burke, & Stewart, 2018). Companies with a significant organizational structure height indicator are systems with a substantial number of management levels (Macdonald, Burke, & Stewart, 2018). When an increase in the number of management levels corresponds to a growth in the enterprise's workforce and the volume of business processes, this may reflect the organization's size.

The management of firms with a high level of hierarchical structure is likely to be placed further from customers and clients. Although the lowest levels of management with direct customer contact obtain information about consumer preferences quickly and efficiently, major efforts must be taken to transmit information through a vast number of management levels and deliver it to the top management (Macdonald, Burke, & Stewart, 2018). Management's vertical organizational structure is characterized by the alteration of information at each level of the hierarchy. This distortion of client data causes management to make big errors when making strategic decisions. In this instance, distance from consumers can become a significant issue connected with this organizational structure.

Bureaucracy in Government Entities Is Inevitable

The vertical design is the manifestation of bureaucracy, which is a complex social phenomena that pervades the majority of government organizations worldwide. In terms of its public functions, it is inseparable from the public administration process (Verkuil, 2017). The bureaucracy is essential to the success of any political system, as no society can thrive without a management apparatus consisting of individuals who are constantly engaged in handling public affairs (Verkuil, 2017). In addition to possessing a hierarchical structure and the capacity to carry out key public responsibilities, the bureaucracy possesses an incontestable administrative authority (Aubry & Brunet, 2018). In this way, its social standing is typically more stable than that of the political elite (Verkuil, 2017). In spite of its aspiration to represent the general interests of society, it pursues its own business objectives.

Having the chance to achieve these objectives through its daily control over the conduct of public affairs, a well-organized and powerful bureaucracy can become autonomous and ascend above society, subordinating it to its tyranny. In this view, a state bureaucracy that has inherited a system of power relations might be one of the greatest challenges to civil society, as it greatly restricts mass participation in political life (Ang, 2017). Max Weber methodically presented the concept of bureaucracy as an unique form of modern social organization. Weber viewed bureaucratic rationality as the embodiment of the logic of capitalist production itself (Ang, 2017). Weber pointed out the negative features of the rise of bureaucracy, which led to the suppression of individuality, and saw the depersonalization of individuals in bureaucratic institutions as an immediate threat to democracy (Ang, 2017).

What is the Problem with Vertical Structure?

Typically, the successful development of businesses in a specific industry is followed by an expansion of their size (Joseph & Wilson, 2018). Expansion can involve increasing both the number of people and the company's market share, as well as increasing the complexity of management and business processes to satisfy the company's specific requirements (Joseph & Wilson, 2018). It is well known that the increase in organizational complexity is a systemic challenge of corporate development, necessitating new responsive and planned solutions to improve the effectiveness of upcoming and present functional operations of the company (Joseph & Wilson, 2018).

The company management team's structural adaption and reorganization is one of the methods for resolving this challenge (Fransen, Delvaux, Mesquita, & Van Puyenbroeck, 2018). The decision should be founded on a review of the organization's vertical and horizontal division of labor, as well as the hierarchies and relationships that result from it (Neis, Pereira, & Maccari, 2017). The objective of management should be to study the structural issues that hinder corporate communication and to provide strategies that can mitigate the negative impact of the problems that occur from closely adhering to the vertical structure (Katayama, Meagher, & Wait, 2018). The managers should also determine whether there is sufficient information to determine whether it is viable and effective to transition to more modern hybrid organizational design methodologies (Neis, Pereira, & Maccari, 2017). Using horizontal management arrangements in a vertical hierarchy, for instance, may result in some benefits (Karimi, Abokhamsi, & Saki, 2019).

The primary contributors to the emergence, expansion, and complexity of the organization's management system are the size and complexity increases that occur naturally as the business grows (Neis, Pereira, & Maccari, 2017). The company's expansion results in the creation of various structural divisions, each with its own leader for the timely assignment of work from top to bottom and reporting from bottom to top (Katayama, Meagher, & Wait, 2018). Increased firm complexity can be characterized as a rise in the number of managerial and technological processes carried out during the production of goods or services (Neis, Pereira, & Maccari, 2017).

The design of the management apparatus assumes a hierarchical structure when a company that was previously run by a single individual and employed a small number of workers expands to employ hundreds or thousands of personnel (Neis, Pereira, & Maccari, 2017). The company's expansion and complexity also led to the split of responsibilities among the management team (Joseph & Wilson, 2018). As a result, the entity is subdivided into a number of groups, and management responsibilities for production, personnel, technical, economic, and other areas of the business are distributed among them (Katayama, Meagher, & Wait, 2018). The resulting vertical structure appears objectively required for focusing all employees and departments of the organization toward the end goal (Joseph & Wilson, 2018). It implements a chain of teams, with reporting and information flow regarding the current state of business processes flowing from bottom to top. The number of management levels is mostly governed by manageability requirements, which vary according on the level of management and the type of work performed (Joseph & Wilson, 2018). With each successive layer of supervision, however, the task of establishing administrative cohesion becomes more difficult, as each level will inevitably have its own beliefs and perspectives, which may lead to contradictions between departments or levels (Katayama, Meagher, & Wait, 2018).

In the simplest scenario, these perspectives and objectives try to tackle the leader-subordinate interaction issues. A person in charge of a work strives to decrease the scope of the obligation while simultaneously increasing the quantity of resources committed to its completion. On the other hand, the manager may not always be able to confirm the validity of enquiries from subordinates (Turner & Miterev, 2019). In firms engaged in mass manufacturing, statistical data from earlier intervals during steady operation periods may serve as the basis for a generally dependable regulatory framework (Katayama, Meagher, & Wait, 2018). It can be used to evaluate the effectiveness of resource allocation. In some instances, however, a vertical organizational structure with a large number of management levels may hinder transparent operations, resulting in wasteful resource utilization.

Each additional level of management, particularly in large corporations, exacerbates the issues associated with providing high-quality training to new managers. Senior executives can become too removed from the production process. Seniors will be required to outsource a significant portion of their tasks to other functional and technical departments. This method is undesirable because these entities typically have their own objectives and performance benchmarks, which may differ from those of the senior management. Consequently, the management process becomes an iterative approach for locating compromise solutions (Katayama, Meagher, & Wait, 2018). This increases the time required to make choices, and as new management layers are added to an organization's structure, problems tend to multiply.

Each employee beneath the company's top manager reports to the respective leader. The subordination of all employees forms a linear relationship between a manager and subordinates (Pereira-Moliner et al., 2016). Since each manager is linearly connected with a higher manager, the

Victoria Bitter Goes Clubbing With VB Raw Common App Essay Help

Introduction

After more than a century of success, it seems foolish for a corporation to attempt to reinvent the wheel or mend what is not broken. It appears that the brightest minds at Foster's Group, an Australian beer and liquor corporation, knew something that the ordinary beer drinker does not. A cursory examination of the beer business, however, reveals a tendency toward low-calorie beers (Lee, 2009). After an unbroken run of success dating back to the late 19th century, Victoria Bitter – a very popular brand among blue collar workers and the "average bloke" – will be updated because the marketing department sought to provide an alternative for the under-30 male demographic. This is the primary reason why Foster's Group is willing to take a risk with a product spin-off to be called VB Raw. While Forester's Group is enthusiastic about VB Raw, some are concerned that the new low-calorie beer could be detrimental to the brand in the long run.

Purpose

It is necessary to determine why consumers prefer one product over another. Understanding the elements that drive consumer behavior is essential, especially when it comes to switching brands or abandoning one product in favor of another. These are really crucial thoughts and concepts that, if grasped correctly, will assist businessmen and their respective marketing executives in developing a revenue-boosting strategy. In this study, it is necessary to understand why, after decades of successfully branding and promoting Victoria Bitter, the corporation is ready to take a chance and develop a product with a similar sounding name, VB Raw, that is intended for a new market. Similarly, the proponent of this study wishes to determine whether or not the VB Raw marketing will be successful.

Method

The first step is to locate an article that outlines a problem with consumer behavior. This was accomplished by collecting a business article from The Sydney Morning Herald about Forester's Group's plan to develop a new product to meet a perceived demand (Lee, 2009). After focusing on this piece, the following step is to collect information from various sources in order to comprehend why adjustments must be done and how consumer behavior principles are fueling growth and leading to increased rivalry between two or more organizations.

Limitation

This study is limited to the Australian beer market only. It is also specific to the launch of VB Raw, a new beer product. The data that will be utilized include those that may be easily gleaned from a review of relevant literature as well as those that can be found via the Internet. In addition, the debate will focus on an article written about VB Raw, with the majority of the conversation centered on the scant information supplied by Foster's Group. This is not a report about the Australian beer industry.

Consumer Conduct

A process must be completed before a customer can purchase a new product or switch to a different brand. It might be claimed that distinct consumer behavior stages can be observed on other continents and under different socioeconomic conditions, however most would agree that the following phases are typical of modern consumer behavior:

Problem/Need Identification; Information Search; Evaluation of various buying alternatives; Purchase Decision; and Post-Purchase Behavior (Learn Marketing.net, 2009).

This advanced study of products and consumerism was made feasible by the development of psychology as a scientific discipline. It is now possible to investigate human behavior using scientific methods. Aside from that, some renowned psychologists, such as Maslow and Freud, have conducted tests demonstrating conclusively that human nature is rather predictable (Doole & Lowe: 2008, p. 80). This has driven marketing experts to construct their own set of rules, and for the most of the 20th century, they demonstrated that they, too, can convince buyers to purchase their products. This study just scratches the surface, but it will also demonstrate how some consumer behavior principles may be applied to VB RAW.

Problem or Need Acknowledgement

In the case of Australian males, the problem is evident: they are beer enthusiasts who require a continual supply. In recent years, the urge to appear attractive and the desire to remain healthy despite consuming big quantities of this beverage have complicated matters. The marketing gurus at Foster's Group were convinced that a growing demand exists for a low-calorie beer on the basis of this concept. This comprehension of consumer behavior is fundamental to success (Peter & Donnelly: 2003, p. 42). However, this is only the beginning. The company will be required to provide a product that addresses this specific demand.

They decided to launch a spin-off product. In Australia, it is well known that Victoria Bitter ("VB") is an instantly identifiable brand. If they can build a product that simultaneously creates a strong connection to a popular brand and satisfies a deeply felt need, they will have a winner on their hands. As the VB brewer has been in business since the 1890s, there are others who believe that VB fans may not like the thought of interfering with a product that has been a part of their life since practically the day they were born (Victoria Bitter, 2009). Foster's Group will be successful if they prioritize the following facets of consumer behavior.

Information Lookup

In the twenty-first century, there are numerous methods for disseminating knowledge. In the past, companies relied on word-of-mouth, but with the advent of technology in marketing, television and radio advertisements became the norm. Internet and cellular technology currently complicate the distribution of advertising content to consumers. In addition, consumers are influenced by the opinions of their friends, family, coworkers, and acquaintances. Promotion is essential to their success.

Evaluation of Various Alternatives

Depending on their needs and the information they receive from the media and the people around them, they must decide whether to continue using the product they've been using for the past few years, switch to a competitor brand, or try a new product. So that individuals can make educated decisions, the proper set of information must be provided. But in a highly competitive sector like the beer industry, the Foster's Group cannot rely solely on the notion that its beer is likely Australia's finest. They must conduct a vigorous campaign based on this idea.

Their greatest issue is convincing males under 30 to choose a low-calorie option while still experiencing the emotional and psychological benefits of consuming a VB, even if they consume it in a different style of container and with the word RAW connected to the iconic VB logo. It is difficult to overlook the implication of the word RAW; it appears that the corporation is also targeting a market group that is knowledgeable about the advantages of natural products. This word also indicates that the beer is intended for serious consumers who are also concerned with their general appearance, hence the low-calorie content.

Purchase Choice

Foster's Group will require extensive knowledge of social, commercial, and situational factors on consumer decision-making in order to persuade consumers to attempt to transition to VB RAW (Peter & Donnelly: 2003, p. 42). However, they hold an advantage. There is evidence to suggest that early experiences influence decision-making (Wright: 2006, p. 24). Foster's Group will need to capitalize on the fact that many young Australian men grew up in VB-drinking households.

This indicates that their customers will choose VB Raw above competing products since drinking this particular brand lets them to reminisce about happier times in the past. In addition to influences and emotional ties to their youth, friends, neighbors, and acquaintances influence decision-making. Here is where a robust media campaign should be implemented.

Post-Purchase Conduct

The most effective television ads and Internet campaigns are only effective within the first few months after a product's introduction. The product's remaining shelf life will now depend on the mental, emotional, and financial impact VB RAW has on the consumer. The social risk of acquiring a new product is one factor (Doole & Lowe: 2008, p. 82). Customers may determine that it is not worthwhile to purchase VB RAW if the feedback of friends and relatives generates opposition. In some families, it can be argued that drinking VB is part of the family culture, and departing from this tradition can be problematic in particular communities. However, if the outcome is favorable, young men under 30 may be encouraged to continue; this is positive reinforcement (East: 2008, p. 10). If consumers are seen consuming VB RAW at social or family occasions, they must still be regarded as group members and not be ostracized (Moore: 2008, p. 360). Consequently, the marketing strategy and consumer response to VB RAW are critical in the product's first few months on the market.

There are numerous psychological factors at play during the final phase (Mooij: 2004, p. 13). It should be noted that the same firm, Foster's Group, already produces a low-calorie beer called Pure Blonde (Foster's Group, 2009). This indicates that the corporation is not developing VB RAW to satisfy a need or solve an issue. They are competing for a larger portion of the market. This is the reason why some critics assert that the corporation may suffer as a result in the long run. Since time immemorial, the VB emblem has been synonymous with hardworking blue collar workers. In this current marketing strategy, some customers may feel as though the corporation no longer cares.

Conclusion

Foster's Group marketing personnel were certain that the market is ripe for a product spin-off. This is understandable given that Australia is one of those nations where both men and women like drinking beer (Swierczynski, 2004: p. 76). However, it appears that the sole reason Foster's Group is pushing for the development of VB RAW is to grow their market share, not to better serve their clients. There is nothing wrong with that, but there are those who believe they are interfering with something that is already a part of the culture of many beer-drinking Australian men and that this might quickly backfire.

References

Doole, I. & R. Lowe. Analysis, development, and implementation of an international marketing strategy Cengage Learning UK. East, R. (2008) Consumer Behavior: Marketing Applications. Sage Publications, London. The Foster Group. (2009) Regarding Us. [online] The Foster Group. (2009) Pure Blonde. [online] Discover Marketing.net (2009) Consumer Purchasing Behavior. Internet. Lee, J. (2009) VB dons a shirt and to a nightclub. Fairfax Digital [online] Mooij, M. (2004). Consumer Behaviour and Culture: Global Marketing and Advertising Implications. Sage Publications, London. Moore, C. Managing Small Businesses with an Entrepreneurial Focus, 2008. Cengage Learning UK. Donnelly, Jr., Peter, P. & J. A Preface to Marketing Management, 2003 9th ed. McGraw-Hill Higher Education, New York. Swierczynski, D. (2004). The Big Book O' Beer: all you've ever wanted to know about the world's finest beverage. PA: Quirk Books. Victoria Sweet. Victoria Bitter (2009) [online] (2006) Wright, R., Consumer Behaviour. British: Thomson Learning

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Capital Structure Analysis: British Airways Case Study Common App Essay Help

Introduction

Capital structure is one of the most fundamental business concepts, as this structure defines a company's market position, as well as its appeal to partners and investors, to a large extent (Grossman, 2009, p. 129). The topic of this study is the airline or aviation industry, as exemplified by British Airways, one of the world's leading airlines. This company's annual reports provide rather disputed data in the areas of equity, debt, and WACC (British Airways, 2007; 2008; 2009), which is the primary basis for the following examination of British Airways' capital structure. Specifically, the capital structure dynamics of a corporation are investigated with the aid of debt and equity and gearing ratios and main capital structures theories now available.

Basic Theories of Capital Structure

Overall, capital structure theory rests on four major pillars, i.e. the four most prominent hypotheses that researchers have developed throughout the course of their work in this field of study. In 1958, Modigliani and Miller developed the seminal theory of capital structure (Brigham, 2007, p. 442). According to this theory, if market circumstances are ideal, the capital structure has no effect on the company's overall value, as both phenomena are viewed as distinct and independent business concepts. Many scholars, including Brigham (2007) and Grossman (2009), criticize this theory for being impossible in practice, as Modigliani and Miller consider capital structure irrelevant under the conditions of no taxes and agency costs, firms not using debt to fund operations, and investors possessing the same information as the management of the firm regarding the latter's growth potential (Brigham, 2007, p. 442).

Obviously, such conditions are impossible in the real world. Nevertheless, scholars have used the ideas of Modigliani and Miller to develop opposing theories, based on the assumption that if the capital structure has no value in an ideal market, it has a significant impact in the real business world. Brigham (2007) and Grossman (2009) believe, based on this concept, that three key theories dominate capital structure research today: the trade-off, the pecking order, and the agency costs theories. Kraus and Litzenberger's trade-off theory defends the relevance of bankruptcy costs and debt financing of a firm (Grossman, 2009, p. 151), whereas Myers and Majluf's pecking order theory sees the least effort principle as the basis for capital structure development, where equity is preferred during internal funding and debt is used during external funding processes (Grossman, 2009, p. 152).

Lastly, the agency costs theory is the position that acknowledges the significance of other factors Modigliani and Miller neglected in the construction of a firm's capital structure. In particular, the agency costs theory emphasizes the significance of debt and equity ratios, underinvestment difficulties, and free cash flows for the construction of an appropriate capital structure (Brigham, 2007, p. 16).

History of the Airline Industry

Therefore, British Airways is a prominent player in the international aviation business. The recent history of this business allows for the formation of substantial hypotheses regarding the capital structure of firms in this industry in general and British Airways in particular. Thus, Zinnov (2007) argues about the predicted 5.6% expansion of the global aviation industry since 2004 and observes that European airlines were expected to account for more than 60% of the global market under these conditions.

However, Brogden (2009) notes that the recession is affecting the sector and cites a 5.7% decline in passenger counts on a global scale in 2009, while airline operators lost an astonishing $4.7 billion in the same year. All of these circumstances are compared with the long-term industry advancements that have enabled airline service providers, for instance, to raise productivity by 61% and fuel economy by over 20%. In light of this reality, airline sector investments increased by 49% between 1980 and 2007. (Zinnov, 2007; Brogden, 2009). The aforementioned statistics demonstrate that the aviation business is exposed to several forces, which cannot help but affect the capital structure of any of its participants.

British Aviation

General Concepts

British Airways is a global leader in the provision of aviation services. The organization was created in 1919 under the name Aircraft Transport and Travel Limited (AT&T). Since then, the company has changed its name several times and added several other services, including hotel reservations, worldwide cargo delivery, electronic ticketing, and other investor relations-related endeavors (British Airways, 2010). British Airways today holds one of the most significant positions in the global aviation business due to these factors.

British Airways's Position in the Industry

British Airways holds one of the most prominent positions within the airline sector. According to the company's 2009 annual report, British Airways is projected to hold a 35% share of the EU airline market and a 21% share of the US market (British Airways, 2009). British Airways earned £8.992 billion at the end of the 2009 fiscal year, compared to £8.753 billion at the end of the 2008 fiscal year, despite the fact that the global economic recession reduced demand for airline services by almost 6% over the same period (British Airways, 2008; 2009). Therefore, British Airways' position in the business is quite strong, yet the recent modifications in its capital structure provide information for airline investors to examine.

Capital Structure

Cost of Equity from 2007 through 2009

Therefore, the first part of British Airways' capital structure is the cost of equity. British Airways's cost of equity has nearly doubled between 2007 and 2009, if only the dividend model is considered. In such a circumstance, the formula for estimating the cost of equity is:

Ko = Do / Po,

where Do represents the dividend per share and Po represents the current market value of British Airways stock. Accordingly, the cost of equity under the dividend model for the years 2007 to 2009 is as follows:

2007: Ko = 20.995/615 = 3.4% 2008: Ko = 29.387/526 = 5.6% 2009: Ko = 36.417/600 = 6.1%

However, if the growth rate g is included to the formula, the growth rate will be substantially slower.

g = √ (36.417/20.995)-1=31.7%

Consequently, the formula for calculating the actual rise of the cost of equity, with the growth rate g included, and the yearly cost of equity calculations will look as follows:

Ko = D1 / Po + g 2007: Ko = 29.387/615+0.317 = 3.6% 2008: Ko = 36.417/526+0.317 = 3.9% 2009: Ko = [36.417*(1+0.317)]/600+0.317 = 4.0%

The preceding equations demonstrate that the growth rate has a significant impact on the cost of equity, which, according to Grossman (2009, p. 184), indicates that the company's stock is highly leveraged, as demonstrated by the cost of debt.

Debt Cost from 2007 to 2009

In particular, between 2007 and 2009, the cost of debt for British Airways has been steadily declining. It is crucial to note that in 2008, the cost of debt declined by only 0.38 percent, whereas in 2009, the figure decreased by over double that amount. Using the formula (10), it is possible to follow the cost dynamics of debt:

Kd = I * (1-t) / Pd Kd = 1,393*(1-0.33)/15,651 = 5.96% Kd = 1,547*(1-0.37)/17,464 = 5.58% Kd = 1,110*(1-0.33)/25,518 = 2.91%

Accordingly, two key assumptions may be made based on the estimated statistics presented above. First, the drop in British Airways' cost of debt may have been contingent on the growth of revenue and the cost of equity. Grossman argues that the latter two elements provided the corporation with all necessary internal finance, resulting in a decrease in the cost of debt for British Airways (2009, p. 152). Second, British Airways may have artificially lowered the cost of debt to avoid underinvestment, as stated by Brigham (2007, p. 142) in light of the global economic slowdown and the debt-to-equity ratio that continued to rise from 2007 to 2009.

WACC in 2007 – 2009

On the basis of the cost of equity and cost of debt for British Airways in 2007, 2008, and 2009, it is now feasible to examine the evolution of the WACC (weighted average cost of capital) during the same time period. Specifically, this can be accomplished using the following formula:

WACC = [RS*(S/V)+[RB*(B/V)]

,

Where R represents the return on capital, V represents the whole company's capital, B represents the company's total debt, and S represents British Airways' equity for the relevant time. Consequently, the dynamics of the three-year WACC can be depicted as follows:

2007: WACC = [0.036*(93,690/109,341)+0.0596*(15,651/109,341)] = 3.94% 2008: WACC = [0.039*(91,303/108,767)+0.0558*(17,464/108,767)] = 4.17% 2009: WACC = [0.04*(101,613/127,131)+0.0291*(25,518/127,131)] = 3.78%

Thus, it can be seen that British Airways' WACC increased only in 2008 compared to 2007, while the 2009 WACC statistic reflected a decline of this element in the company's operations.

Capital Structure Dynamics

All of these specifics, i.e., the calculations of cost of equity, cost of debt, and WACC from 2007 to 2009, make it possible to trace the evolution of British Airways' whole capital structure during the same time period. Using the following formula (18), it is feasible to determine that the company's total capital has increased substantially over the specified time period:

V = B + S,

Where V represents the total capital, B represents the total debt, and S represents the company's equity. Consequently, the total capital for the years 2007 to 2009 increased as follows (British Airways, 2007; 2008; 2009):

Year Calculation Total capital

2007 £15,651 + £93,690 £109,341

2008 £17,464 + £91,303 £108,767

2009 £25,518 + £101,613 £127,131

British Airways' capital structure evolved as the cost of equity increased and the cost of debt declined dramatically (British Airways, 2007; 2008; 2009):

Cost of Equity by Year Price of Debt

2007 3.6% 5.96%

2008 3.9% 5.58%

2009 4.0% 2.91%

Intriguingly, the dynamics of the company's WACC correspond to the dynamics of its tax payment percentages from 2007 to 2009 (British Airways, 2007; 2008; 2009):

Annual WACC Taxes

2007 3.94% 33%

2008 4.17% 37%

2009 3.78% 33%

Thus, it can be seen that the capital structure of British Airways evolved in accordance with the agent costs theory from 2007 to 2009, insofar as the WACC levels were directly affected by the company's tax payment, while its cost of equity rose as the cost of debt fell in the context of the global economic recession and sufficient funds were available for internal financing.

Conclusions

Thus, the preceding discussion permits the conclusion that the capital structure of any business enterprise is a crucial aspect of its functionality and appeal to investors and business partners. The capital structure of a corporation largely dictates its market performance, whereas market success can alter the capital structure of a company. British Airways is used to illustrate these concepts since the capital structure of this corporation changed in tandem with the evolution of the market and the global economy.

Bibliography

Brigham, Edward (2007). Cengage Learning's Financial management fundamentals

British Airways Annual Report and Accounts for 2006/2007

Web.

British Airways Annual Report and Accounts for 2007/2008 Web.

British Airways Annual Report and Accounts for 2008/2009 Web.

British Airways is an airline (2010). Official Business Website. Web.

Brogden, L. (2009). Trends in the Airline Industry's Development Web.

T. Grossman (2009). MBA in Finance and Accounting on the Go. John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

Zinnov, L. (2007). Global Aviation Markets – Internet Analysis.

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Human Resource Management In Jordan Common App Essay Help

Introduction

This study examines Lincoln Electric's incentive reward system, which has been researched and replicated by other corporations worldwide. The incentive system compensates workers based on the quality and quantity of the things they generate through piece work rates. The earning potential of employees is measured by how much they can generate in a given amount of time. According to Buller & Schuley, their wage rate is the highest in Cleveland among industrial workers (2003). This research aims to determine why this reward system is underperforming and what may be done about it. In addition, it will describe how management must contemplate a transformation process in order to position the company's incentive structure for the future.

System of Rewards for Incentive at Lincoln Electric

The earning potential of Lincoln Electric personnel is defined by how much they can generate in a given amount of time. Their salary rate is the highest among industrial workers in Cleveland (Buller & Schuler, 2003). The incentive system includes an annual bonus based on a system of merit-based rewards. Annually, there are two evaluations, and the typical maximum score of 110 is utilized to compute the bonus at the end of the year. These employees are beginning to complain that their bonuses are not increasing quickly enough; they do not view them as rewards, but rather as compensation. In order for awards to be effective, they must be desired by the employees.

Lincoln Electric techniques in management

As there is no routine supervision and there is an open-door policy, the employees self-manage. It is noteworthy to notice that there are typically three levels of supervision between manufacturing employees and the firm president (Lincoln Electric, 2011).

Internal and external announcements are made initially for entrance-level positions. There are no aptitude or psychological tests administered during the interview process; there are only one-on-one interviews with a panel of vice presidents and supervisors; the supervisor makes the final selection. It provides employees with job stability in that, after three years, they will be offered permanent employment. Since 1948, there have been no layoffs despite the economic crises that resulted in numerous job losses and business closures.

The results of the twice-yearly performance evaluation are utilized to decide the annual bonus amount. Workers are compensated on a piecework basis, where the quantity and quality of their output determines the amount of earnings they receive. In the event of inferior goods production, the employee is required to redo the products or pay for the loss. When the factory is closed for two weeks in August and another two weeks at Christmas, the staff go on vacation. However, there is no paid leave, and if an employee is absent or sick, they are not compensated for those days.

As a result of the advisory board's supervision, the work atmosphere at Lincoln Electric is very autocratic and worker engagement is minimal. The employees submit their proposals to the board, which then presents them to management and puts the responses on bulletin boards for all employees to view. The management believes that if workers are allowed to participate in most decision-making processes, they will become lackadaisical and unfocused, which would not benefit Lincoln Electric. They feel that providing workers responsibility constitutes including them in the decision-making process. According to Buller and Schuler (2003), proposals from employees are disregarded if they do not directly benefit the organization.

The majority of factory personnel receive in-house training when they join new work stations. The management believes that it is unnecessary to spend money on external training for staff that will not benefit the organization. Lincoln Electric offers a retirement plan and health insurance to employees who have been with the company for at least three years. Employment Association provides disability insurance as well as a fund for workers' activities. The cafeteria provides food at a discounted rate for all employees, including senior executives. This is one of the rare companies where executives have no special advantages such as private parking, lunch rooms, or executive office suites.

Included in the incentive scheme is an Employee Stock Ownership Program through which employees can purchase company stock at a discount. It is only available to employees with at least three years of service. The company's basic objective and vision emphasize the importance of customer happiness, employee satisfaction, and shareholder accountability. A satisfied employee may provide exceptional customer service, however a dissatisfied employee is a nightmare for the organization. If Lincoln Electric's employees are dissatisfied, management must remedy the matter before it's too late. There are numerous areas in which the organization may improve to attract and keep satisfied employees.

The management may ask why such highly compensated staff with generous end-of-year bonuses are complaining. Lincoln Electric does not permit idle time or coffee breaks; employees self-manage their work, and everyone is always extremely occupied. The workers do not even interact, and their lack of breaks might lead to burnout (Buller & Schuler, 2003).

Lincoln Electric's pay-for-performance incentives may not be effective since employees require both financial and nonfinancial incentives to be motivated. When people obtain employment, they appreciate the job pleasure, the chance to interact with others, and of course the pay. However, after a period, the income ceases to be the primary incentive, and without additional motivators, the employees are not productive. This is typical in industrial environments, where most of the job is repetitive and monotonous (Kerr, 2003).

Why this system does not operate in other locations

The management style of Lincoln Electrics has been imitated by several organizations, however the company's employees are now disgruntled despite their excellent incentive management strategy because the work environment has changed. This strategy may have been successful for Lincoln Electric due to its cultural background. Early work was characterized by a great deal of red tape and served as a means to an end, namely cash. Therefore, the pay-for-performance system worked effectively, and the harder one worked, the more money one made. Strong cultural habits might be difficult to eradicate in some organizations.

This method does not work elsewhere because the motivational dynamics have shifted in response to new work requirements and altered worker expectations (Kenneth & Walter, 2009). Money is the primary motive of Lincoln Electric, as evidenced by interviews conducted in Ohio's main factory around 1995. (Buller & Schuler, 2003). The fact that money is not the main motivator for sustaining excellent productivity and employee satisfaction is another reason why it does not work for other businesses.

According to O'Toole and Lawler (2007), modern employees have evolved; they now self-manage, invent, and adapt to suit client requirements. For these employees, it is necessary to integrate extrinsic and intrinsic customer satisfaction needs. These personnel evaluate their achievement based on the worth and efficacy of their efforts (Sirji, 1988).

Additionally, the nature of employment has shifted, with employees being expected to exercise greater discretion than in the past. Under Lincoln Electric's merit system, an employee loses points for absenteeism and other infractions. This serves as a de-motivational weapon for the employees, as an employee who has worked extremely hard will receive roughly the same bonus as one who has never been late or absent but has not worked as hard. monetary incentives are only effective when combined with non-monetary incentives (Reif, 1975).

Lincoln Electric lacks an organizational structure that specifies job descriptions and responsibilities. This organization provides workers with a feeling of direction and a goal to strive for, so serving as a source of motivation. There are just two jobs between the president and the workers in this corporation, leaving few chances for advancement.

Some of the company's methods have only remained effective for more than a century because its organization structure is solid and well-established. If these procedures were used now, they would not function as effectively or at all. Attempting to replicate this method elsewhere in the United States or around the world is futile, as workers everywhere are motivated by factors other than money, and because they would be new to the foreign markets, they would need to offer better working conditions to workers in order to penetrate the market.

External and internal rewards

Extrinsic rewards are external benefits that are typically provided by the employer, who also decides their amount and presence. Intrinsic rewards are ones that are internal, under the employee's control, and psychological as a result of high performance and meaningful job.

When combined with pay performance incentives, intrinsic rewards have a higher impact on employee motivation (Kenneth & Walter, 2003). Lincoln Electric could benefit from this if its employees are no longer motivated by monetary incentives. Workers are more driven by a sense of purpose and direction in their job, which is a sense of meaningfulness. When they feel that whatever they have done has been worth their time and effort, they will want to do it again (Beswick, 2007).

Choice enhances worker motivation by empowering them to determine the most efficient means to complete a particular activity. An employee will be more productive and motivated if they perceive progress in their task. Therefore, management should create routes for advancement and prospects for expansion (Dematteo et al., 1968).

Lincoln Electric exclusively provides in-house training and does not promote outside learning opportunities unless the subject matter is directly beneficial to the company. As an employer, the primary concern should not be limited to the employee's contribution to the firm; rather, the organization should also provide value to the employee's life by giving possibilities for all-around development. Extrinsic benefits can diminish intrinsic motivation, and in this case, Lincoln Electric employees are committed to getting the task done rather than to the job itself; the job is a means to an end (Heath, 1999).

Self-management induced intrinsic rewards boost employee concentration and output. The majority of intrinsic benefits are self-sustaining, whereas extrinsic rewards are not. In the event of a financial crisis, a corporation may reduce the number of hours its employees work, so reducing their income. Employees are motivated by motivation factors and hygiene factors, according to Herzberg's two-factor theory of motivation. Motivational factors are primarily concerned with the intrinsic incentives provided by the job's content, whereas hygienic elements are concerned with the job surroundings. Lincoln Electric management may assume that their staff need more monetary motivation than they do; they see nothing wrong with their management and are perplexed as to why their people are dissatisfied (Herzberg, 1966).

Recruitment procedures and Motivational techniques

Lincoln Electric employs professionals and college graduates. At the entry level for college and high school graduates, this group of employees is predominantly motivated by income. The vice president and supervisor of the division with a vacancy perform a brief recruitment and hiring procedure (Buller & Schuler, 2003). It appears that they specifically target those whose primary objective is money. This is unfair because there are individuals with qualifications who contribute significantly to the firm but leave after a short time due to dissatisfaction.

For employees to be satisfied and highly motivated, management must provide overall rewards, such as remuneration, perks, work-life balance, and development opportunities (World at Work, 2006). There is interaction between the employee and the employer in the workplace. The employee offers time, talent, and output, while the employer provides the desired total compensation.

An employee at Lincoln Electric receives a salary/wages, a bonus, and other perks such as medical insurance. The employees only receive time off when the company is closed for two weeks in August and two weeks during the Christmas holiday. Every management should be concerned about the work-life balance of their employees, because if things at home are not running smoothly, the employee cannot be productive. Therefore, it is essential that employees are permitted to organize their vacation days to attend to personal matters and are not required to adhere to a rigid schedule between August and December.

Career advancement should be an integral aspect of the organization's objectives. There should be sufficient training opportunities available to enable individuals to assume a variety of responsibilities within the firm. According to Maslow's hierarchy of requirements, a person whose basic and safety needs have been addressed strives to meet their esteem needs; in this category, a worker seeks acknowledgment, affiliation, and status.

This demand can be satisfied through promotions at work, however Lincoln Electric does not offer them, possibly due to a lack of a defined organizational chart. It is a reflection of an individual's sense of self (Leonard et al., 1999). Self concept is an additional source of motivation for employees and is comprised of their traits, beliefs, and conceptions. Since self-perception impacts how a person works, which is influenced by his environment, an employee whose management at Lincoln Electric has not changed in a long time will experience a change in self-perception.

Appraisal systems

At Lincoln Electric, supervisors from several divisions conduct evaluations twice a year. Through these evaluations, the supervisor assigns merit points that are utilized to determine the annual bonus, with reliability, inventiveness, quality, output, and cooperation serving as the evaluation criteria. Individual performance should be tied to the goals and objectives of the organization. Self-evaluation should also be a part of the evaluation process, and it should give functional feedback. It is possible that Lincoln Electric's evaluation system is invalid since it does not measure all parts of the job (Success Factors, 2011). It should have explicit performance requirements, such as metrics for measuring dependability and originality, among others.

According to Caruth and Humphreys (2008), a performance evaluation should have eleven characteristics. These include formalization, standards and measurements, validity, dependability, open communication, skilled appraisers, ease of use, employee access to results, and mechanisms for review and appeal. This ensures that evaluations are accurate and genuine in every respect.

Market Metrics In Measuring Performance Common App Essay Help

Introduction

This article illustrates how market measures are used to evaluate the efficacy of marketing strategy tools employed by various organizations. Marketing metrics are statistical measurements pertaining to marketing operations that an organization uses to evaluate the efficacy of its market strategies (Arikan, 2011). This paper is a presentation of the marketing strategies of five organizations, as measured by marketing metrics. In the United Kingdom, the five corporations belong to two distinct types of market industries. There are a beer industry and a media industry among these two types of industry markets. Martson Beer Company, Green King brewery, and Heineken Beer Company are the companies analyzed in the beer industry, while Thomson Reuters and Virgin Media Company are analyzed in the media industry. The segmentation of the companies into the two distinct industry markets will aid in assessing the competitive standing of each company in relation to its marketing operations. The marketing plan and analyzed marketing metrics can be found in the accompanying Excel spreadsheet.

Analysis of marketing data

Percentage of a company's market share to market size: this indicator indicates a company's dominance within the industry market in which it operates (Bragg, 2010). A corporation with a large market share indicates that its brand has garnered substantial consumer loyalty. Consequently, such a corporation is likely to experience significant market sales revenue. According to the attached stats, Martson Company has a market share of 36%, Green King brewery has a market share of 24%, and Heineken has a market share of 28%. The ratios indicate that Martson is more dominant in the beer sector than Heineken and Green King. This indicates that the Martson brand has a greater number of loyal customers than Heineken and Green King. With a greater level of market dominance than a competition, it is much easier for a business to penetrate the market than for the competitor. This indicates that Marston's market entry costs are anticipated to be lower than those of Heineken and Green King brewery. This is due to the fact that the company enjoys greater client loyalty, which makes it simpler for it to relate to new emerging markets than the other two companies. Thomson Reuters has a larger market share than Virgin media, indicating that Reuters enjoys a larger following in the media industry. Thus, Reuters has a stronger advantage in commercial airwave broadcasting than Virgin, as its smaller viewership makes it less likely to attract commercial advertisements. The two companies with the largest market share are required to devise steps to ensure they do not lose their competitive advantage over their rivals. The two businesses with the smallest market share percentages should launch large marketing campaigns to promote their products and beat the competition.

Change in the company's market share as a percentage: these measurements help a business determine the rate at which it is acquiring or losing consumer loyalty. This aids the organization in devising methods for maintaining an upward trend or regaining lost market share (Bendle, 2006). Additionally, it assists the organization in reevaluating its marketing approach to increase its efficacy in terms of market share expansion. According to the linked measures, all companies have a positive market share, indicating that they have not lost market share since their previous market shares. This is a beneficial trend for all businesses, however the rate of consumer growth varies amongst businesses. Heineken and Virgin Company have greater market share growth than their competitors, indicating that they are drawing more customers. The metric is an assurance sign that the two companies' campaigns to attract loyal customers are more successful than those of their competitors. Martson and Virgin must increase their customer service initiatives to match the client level increases of their competitors.

Percentage change in sales revenue: this statistic evaluates the sales revenue trend in order to determine the rate at which the business is increasing or decreasing sales compared to the prior period. This helps the organization determine the cash flow prospects of future sales. The five evaluated organizations exhibit an upward trend in sales revenue compared to the preceding period. The rate at which each company is raising its sales revenue is not same. This is due to the fact that some companies are experiencing a greater percentage shift in sales income than their competitors. The sales revenue cash flow increments of Martson and Thomson are greater than those of their respective competitors. This indicates that the sales revenues of the two companies will increase at a faster rate than those of their competitors in the future.

The ratio of sales revenue to sales volume measures how many units must be sold on average to achieve total sales revenue. This assists the organization in selecting the appropriate price policy, whether to decrease or increase prices. The five companies have varying sales figures relative to their rivals. This means that some companies have a window of opportunity to increase their pricing, while others must reduce their rates to avoid losing clients. Heineken and Virgin are able to raise their pricing, whilst Martson and Thomson can only reduce their prices.

The ratio of sales volume to advertising expenditure gauges the efficacy of an organization's advertising activities in generating sales. The statistic aids an organization in assessing how an advertisement influences the market demand for its goods. A highly high number indicates that the corporation spends a great deal of resources to sell a single item. In the beer sector, the volume of sales is almost equally influenced by advertising, according to metric metrics (Davis, 2009). This means that each business must increase its advertising budget in order to maintain product demand. The media industry metrics reveal that the efficacy of each advertising dollar spent varies between the two companies. Thomson spent one dollar on advertising to sell 37 units, while Virgin Company spent one dollar to sell 55 units. This suggests that Virgin's advertising program is more effective than Thomson Company's. Thus, Thomson Company must reevaluate its advertising to ensure that the money spent on advertising generates increased demand for its products.

The ratio of sales revenue to advertising expenditure gauges the efficacy of advertising in generating sales revenue for an organization. The metric measurements of the five organizations indicate that advertising influences the sales revenue cash flows to a similar degree. This implies that corporations should boost their advertising budgets in order to increase their cash flow from sales revenue.

Cost of distribution to sales volume: this indicator indicates how much an organization spends on distribution, on average, to sell one item. The attached ratios demonstrate that the five companies have distinct sales-related expenditures. The Martson and Thomson enterprises have lower distribution costs per unit sold than their respective competitors. Therefore, Heineken and Virgin must reevaluate their distribution tactics in order to become more competitive.

The ratio of sales volume to call cost gauges the effectiveness of customer calls in generating sales. The statistic assists an organization in recognizing the benefits of making direct client calls. The metrics demonstrate the effectiveness of the organizations' distinct customer call strategies. On the market for the beer industry, Heineken has become more effective. This is demonstrated by the measure value, which indicates that the company spends one dollar on customer calls for every 32 units sold, whereas Martson spends one dollar for every 21 units sold. To defend its competitive advantage, the corporation should invest heavily in making direct consumer calls (Farris et al., 2010). Therefore, Martson must evaluate its interactions with its clients via direct phone calls in order to increase its efficiency. Thomson's customer call strategy is effective in the media market industry, as the company sells 375 units every dollar spent on customer calls, whereas Virgin Company spends one dollar to sell 275 units.

This metric is intended to determine how much an organization spends per dollar for each salesperson to earn a specific amount of sale revenue (Kotler, 2010). The metric ratio indicates that the organizations have varying levels of salesperson efficiency (Jeffery, 2006). Heineken has more effective salespeople than the Martson Company in the beer market. This is because Heineken pays one dollar each salesperson to earn up to $67 in sales revenue. In contrast, Martson Company pays one dollar per salesperson to generate 64 dollars in sales income. Therefore, Heineken needs invest more in its sales staff in order to maintain its competitiveness in the market. To boost efficiency, Martson Company must reevaluate its sales force approach plan in the marketplace. Compared to that of Virgin, Thomson Company's sales force in the media sector industry is far more efficient. The sales force generates 89 dollars in sales income for every $1 invested in the sales force department. Virgin Company makes 33 dollars in sales revenue for each dollar invested in the sales force department. Therefore, Virgin Company must engage heavily in sales staff training in order to become more competitive.

The ratio of sales volume to the size of the sales force demonstrates the efficiency of a sales force (Kimmel, 2010). The metric allows a company to evaluate the effectiveness of its sales force against that of its competitors. According to the measure values, Heineken Company's sales force has been more successful at generating revenue than Martson Company's sales team. According to the data, each Heineken salesperson sells an average of 1,640 units, whereas each Martson salesperson sells an average of 1,133 units.

Conclusion

Analysis of the beer business marketplace

The marketing strategies of the two industries have been relatively effective in producing revenue for their respective businesses (Gunelius, 2011). Two distinct perspectives exist regarding the success and efficiency of the marketing strategies employed by the two companies. The market share any company enjoys has a significant impact on the advantages each company enjoys (Keown, 2006). Martson Company has gained significantly more from market-level consumer loyalty than Heineken and Green King Companies. According to the metrics data, Heineken is growing market share at a faster rate than Martson Company. This indicates that Heineken's rate of market share growth poses a significant danger to Martson Company, as Heineken is expected to overtake the market leader (McDonald, 2011). This will transfer market advantages from Martson to Heineken, which currently has a small market share. The sales revenue growth of Martson Company is greater than that of Heineken Company, indicating that Martson Company's sales revenue is likely to expand significantly more than that of its competition. This means that Martson Company's future profitability will surpass that of Heineken. This will benefit the Company's stockholders, who will receive future dividends that are greater than those of the Heineken Beer Company. Heineken Company, on the other hand, benefits from having more effective and efficient market industry resources. It is anticipated that this advantage will help the company attract a larger sales volume than its competition in the future. The company has a highly effective sales force that will allow it to strengthen its position in the competition to acquire more loyal clients. When it comes to adding its price level, Heineken's average price level gives it an advantage that its competition does not enjoy (Patterson and Pauwels, 2008). This indicates that the company has the opportunity to boost its prices and maximize its future sales cash flows. As a result of the effectiveness and efficiency of the company's resources, the company's investors are likely to profit in the future.

Advertising has about the same effect on the sales income generation of the two companies. This indicates that the company's willingness to invest more in advertising will likely have a significant positive impact on future sales revenue cash flows. This is because, despite the fact that one company's average pricing is higher than the other, the advertising returns for both companies are identical. Consequently, the future profitability of the two companies will depend on the share market each company will reach and the effectiveness of each sales force.

Analysis of media market industry metrics

Profitability in the media industry is affected by the market share of each individual company (Raman, 2005). The market share of Thomson Reuters Media Company is comparatively superior to that of its competitors. This has made the company more successful in the industry and in terms of generating sales income than its competitor Virgin Company (Tadajewski, 2009). The company's highly efficient and successful sales staff allows it to outperform the competition in terms of sales volume and revenue size. Compared to how Virgin Company employs its distribution funds, the company's contribution cost is utilized more effectively to produce greater sales income. This has contributed to an increase in the number of devoted Thomson Company consumers. Due to its large customer base, the business enjoys significant economies of scale, such as higher average prices.

References

A. Arikan, Multichannel Marketing: Metrics and Methods for Online and Offline Success, Telso Publishers, California, 2011.

Bendle, N., "Marketing Metrics: 50+ Metrics Every Executive Should Know," Oxford University Press, London, 2006.

Bragg, S. (2010). Cost reduction analysis: tools and methodologies.

Measuring markets: 100 essential measures. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2009. Davis, J.

Farris, P, Bendle, N et al, 2010, Marketing metrics. The authoritative handbook to measuring marketing performance, published by the Wharton School of Business.

S. Gunelius, "Content Marketing for Dummies," Chicago: Chicago Publishers, 2011.

Jeffery, M. (2006). Data-driven marketing: the 15 metrics you should know. Oxford University Press, London.

Keown, A. (2006). Foundation of Finance. Telso Publishers, California.

Kotler, P 2003, A framework for marketing management, published in Chicago.

P. Kotler, Marketing Strategies for the Masters, Telso Publishers, Chicago, 2010.

Connecting with consumers: marketing for changing market realities. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2010.

McDonald, M. (2011). Marketing accountability: measuring marketing effectiveness. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

Patterson, L., and K. Pauwels. (2008). Marketing metrics in action: developing a performance-driven marketing. Telso Publishers, California.

Raman, A. (2005). Analysis and evaluation of Cim coursework 05/06, Chicago: Chicago publishers.

2009, The sage handbook of marketing theory, Chicago, Chicago publishers, M. Tadajewski.

[supanova question]

Market Metrics In Measuring Performance Common App Essay Help

Introduction

This article illustrates how market measures are used to evaluate the efficacy of marketing strategy tools employed by various organizations. Marketing metrics are statistical measurements pertaining to marketing operations that an organization uses to evaluate the efficacy of its market strategies (Arikan, 2011). This paper is a presentation of the marketing strategies of five organizations, as measured by marketing metrics. In the United Kingdom, the five corporations belong to two distinct types of market industries. There are a beer industry and a media industry among these two types of industry markets. Martson Beer Company, Green King brewery, and Heineken Beer Company are the companies analyzed in the beer industry, while Thomson Reuters and Virgin Media Company are analyzed in the media industry. The segmentation of the companies into the two distinct industry markets will aid in assessing the competitive standing of each company in relation to its marketing operations. The marketing plan and analyzed marketing metrics can be found in the accompanying Excel spreadsheet.

Analysis of marketing data

Percentage of a company's market share to market size: this indicator indicates a company's dominance within the industry market in which it operates (Bragg, 2010). A corporation with a large market share indicates that its brand has garnered substantial consumer loyalty. Consequently, such a corporation is likely to experience significant market sales revenue. According to the attached stats, Martson Company has a market share of 36%, Green King brewery has a market share of 24%, and Heineken has a market share of 28%. The ratios indicate that Martson is more dominant in the beer sector than Heineken and Green King. This indicates that the Martson brand has a greater number of loyal customers than Heineken and Green King. With a greater level of market dominance than a competition, it is much easier for a business to penetrate the market than for the competitor. This indicates that Marston's market entry costs are anticipated to be lower than those of Heineken and Green King brewery. This is due to the fact that the company enjoys greater client loyalty, which makes it simpler for it to relate to new emerging markets than the other two companies. Thomson Reuters has a larger market share than Virgin media, indicating that Reuters enjoys a larger following in the media industry. Thus, Reuters has a stronger advantage in commercial airwave broadcasting than Virgin, as its smaller viewership makes it less likely to attract commercial advertisements. The two companies with the largest market share are required to devise steps to ensure they do not lose their competitive advantage over their rivals. The two businesses with the smallest market share percentages should launch large marketing campaigns to promote their products and beat the competition.

Change in the company's market share as a percentage: these measurements help a business determine the rate at which it is acquiring or losing consumer loyalty. This aids the organization in devising methods for maintaining an upward trend or regaining lost market share (Bendle, 2006). Additionally, it assists the organization in reevaluating its marketing approach to increase its efficacy in terms of market share expansion. According to the linked measures, all companies have a positive market share, indicating that they have not lost market share since their previous market shares. This is a beneficial trend for all businesses, however the rate of consumer growth varies amongst businesses. Heineken and Virgin Company have greater market share growth than their competitors, indicating that they are drawing more customers. The metric is an assurance sign that the two companies' campaigns to attract loyal customers are more successful than those of their competitors. Martson and Virgin must increase their customer service initiatives to match the client level increases of their competitors.

Percentage change in sales revenue: this statistic evaluates the sales revenue trend in order to determine the rate at which the business is increasing or decreasing sales compared to the prior period. This helps the organization determine the cash flow prospects of future sales. The five evaluated organizations exhibit an upward trend in sales revenue compared to the preceding period. The rate at which each company is raising its sales revenue is not same. This is due to the fact that some companies are experiencing a greater percentage shift in sales income than their competitors. The sales revenue cash flow increments of Martson and Thomson are greater than those of their respective competitors. This indicates that the sales revenues of the two companies will increase at a faster rate than those of their competitors in the future.

The ratio of sales revenue to sales volume measures how many units must be sold on average to achieve total sales revenue. This assists the organization in selecting the appropriate price policy, whether to decrease or increase prices. The five companies have varying sales figures relative to their rivals. This means that some companies have a window of opportunity to increase their pricing, while others must reduce their rates to avoid losing clients. Heineken and Virgin are able to raise their pricing, whilst Martson and Thomson can only reduce their prices.

The ratio of sales volume to advertising expenditure gauges the efficacy of an organization's advertising activities in generating sales. The statistic aids an organization in assessing how an advertisement influences the market demand for its goods. A highly high number indicates that the corporation spends a great deal of resources to sell a single item. In the beer sector, the volume of sales is almost equally influenced by advertising, according to metric metrics (Davis, 2009). This means that each business must increase its advertising budget in order to maintain product demand. The media industry metrics reveal that the efficacy of each advertising dollar spent varies between the two companies. Thomson spent one dollar on advertising to sell 37 units, while Virgin Company spent one dollar to sell 55 units. This suggests that Virgin's advertising program is more effective than Thomson Company's. Thus, Thomson Company must reevaluate its advertising to ensure that the money spent on advertising generates increased demand for its products.

The ratio of sales revenue to advertising expenditure gauges the efficacy of advertising in generating sales revenue for an organization. The metric measurements of the five organizations indicate that advertising influences the sales revenue cash flows to a similar degree. This implies that corporations should boost their advertising budgets in order to increase their cash flow from sales revenue.

Cost of distribution to sales volume: this indicator indicates how much an organization spends on distribution, on average, to sell one item. The attached ratios demonstrate that the five companies have distinct sales-related expenditures. The Martson and Thomson enterprises have lower distribution costs per unit sold than their respective competitors. Therefore, Heineken and Virgin must reevaluate their distribution tactics in order to become more competitive.

The ratio of sales volume to call cost gauges the effectiveness of customer calls in generating sales. The statistic assists an organization in recognizing the benefits of making direct client calls. The metrics demonstrate the effectiveness of the organizations' distinct customer call strategies. On the market for the beer industry, Heineken has become more effective. This is demonstrated by the measure value, which indicates that the company spends one dollar on customer calls for every 32 units sold, whereas Martson spends one dollar for every 21 units sold. To defend its competitive advantage, the corporation should invest heavily in making direct consumer calls (Farris et al., 2010). Therefore, Martson must evaluate its interactions with its clients via direct phone calls in order to increase its efficiency. Thomson's customer call strategy is effective in the media market industry, as the company sells 375 units every dollar spent on customer calls, whereas Virgin Company spends one dollar to sell 275 units.

This metric is intended to determine how much an organization spends per dollar for each salesperson to earn a specific amount of sale revenue (Kotler, 2010). The metric ratio indicates that the organizations have varying levels of salesperson efficiency (Jeffery, 2006). Heineken has more effective salespeople than the Martson Company in the beer market. This is because Heineken pays one dollar each salesperson to earn up to $67 in sales revenue. In contrast, Martson Company pays one dollar per salesperson to generate 64 dollars in sales income. Therefore, Heineken needs invest more in its sales staff in order to maintain its competitiveness in the market. To boost efficiency, Martson Company must reevaluate its sales force approach plan in the marketplace. Compared to that of Virgin, Thomson Company's sales force in the media sector industry is far more efficient. The sales force generates 89 dollars in sales income for every $1 invested in the sales force department. Virgin Company makes 33 dollars in sales revenue for each dollar invested in the sales force department. Therefore, Virgin Company must engage heavily in sales staff training in order to become more competitive.

The ratio of sales volume to the size of the sales force demonstrates the efficiency of a sales force (Kimmel, 2010). The metric allows a company to evaluate the effectiveness of its sales force against that of its competitors. According to the measure values, Heineken Company's sales force has been more successful at generating revenue than Martson Company's sales team. According to the data, each Heineken salesperson sells an average of 1,640 units, whereas each Martson salesperson sells an average of 1,133 units.

Conclusion

Analysis of the beer business marketplace

The marketing strategies of the two industries have been relatively effective in producing revenue for their respective businesses (Gunelius, 2011). Two distinct perspectives exist regarding the success and efficiency of the marketing strategies employed by the two companies. The market share any company enjoys has a significant impact on the advantages each company enjoys (Keown, 2006). Martson Company has gained significantly more from market-level consumer loyalty than Heineken and Green King Companies. According to the metrics data, Heineken is growing market share at a faster rate than Martson Company. This indicates that Heineken's rate of market share growth poses a significant danger to Martson Company, as Heineken is expected to overtake the market leader (McDonald, 2011). This will transfer market advantages from Martson to Heineken, which currently has a small market share. The sales revenue growth of Martson Company is greater than that of Heineken Company, indicating that Martson Company's sales revenue is likely to expand significantly more than that of its competition. This means that Martson Company's future profitability will surpass that of Heineken. This will benefit the Company's stockholders, who will receive future dividends that are greater than those of the Heineken Beer Company. Heineken Company, on the other hand, benefits from having more effective and efficient market industry resources. It is anticipated that this advantage will help the company attract a larger sales volume than its competition in the future. The company has a highly effective sales force that will allow it to strengthen its position in the competition to acquire more loyal clients. When it comes to adding its price level, Heineken's average price level gives it an advantage that its competition does not enjoy (Patterson and Pauwels, 2008). This indicates that the company has the opportunity to boost its prices and maximize its future sales cash flows. As a result of the effectiveness and efficiency of the company's resources, the company's investors are likely to profit in the future.

Advertising has about the same effect on the sales income generation of the two companies. This indicates that the company's willingness to invest more in advertising will likely have a significant positive impact on future sales revenue cash flows. This is because, despite the fact that one company's average pricing is higher than the other, the advertising returns for both companies are identical. Consequently, the future profitability of the two companies will depend on the share market each company will reach and the effectiveness of each sales force.

Analysis of media market industry metrics

Profitability in the media industry is affected by the market share of each individual company (Raman, 2005). The market share of Thomson Reuters Media Company is comparatively superior to that of its competitors. This has made the company more successful in the industry and in terms of generating sales income than its competitor Virgin Company (Tadajewski, 2009). The company's highly efficient and successful sales staff allows it to outperform the competition in terms of sales volume and revenue size. Compared to how Virgin Company employs its distribution funds, the company's contribution cost is utilized more effectively to produce greater sales income. This has contributed to an increase in the number of devoted Thomson Company consumers. Due to its large customer base, the business enjoys significant economies of scale, such as higher average prices.

References

A. Arikan, Multichannel Marketing: Metrics and Methods for Online and Offline Success, Telso Publishers, California, 2011.

Bendle, N., "Marketing Metrics: 50+ Metrics Every Executive Should Know," Oxford University Press, London, 2006.

Bragg, S. (2010). Cost reduction analysis: tools and methodologies.

Measuring markets: 100 essential measures. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2009. Davis, J.

Farris, P, Bendle, N et al, 2010, Marketing metrics. The authoritative handbook to measuring marketing performance, published by the Wharton School of Business.

S. Gunelius, "Content Marketing for Dummies," Chicago: Chicago Publishers, 2011.

Jeffery, M. (2006). Data-driven marketing: the 15 metrics you should know. Oxford University Press, London.

Keown, A. (2006). Foundation of Finance. Telso Publishers, California.

Kotler, P 2003, A framework for marketing management, published in Chicago.

P. Kotler, Marketing Strategies for the Masters, Telso Publishers, Chicago, 2010.

Connecting with consumers: marketing for changing market realities. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2010.

McDonald, M. (2011). Marketing accountability: measuring marketing effectiveness. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

Patterson, L., and K. Pauwels. (2008). Marketing metrics in action: developing a performance-driven marketing. Telso Publishers, California.

Raman, A. (2005). Analysis and evaluation of Cim coursework 05/06, Chicago: Chicago publishers.

2009, The sage handbook of marketing theory, Chicago, Chicago publishers, M. Tadajewski.

[supanova question]

A Case Study Of 3M Company Common App Essay Help

Introduction
Overview of the research topic History of Information Technology (IT) Implementation

In the modern corporate environment characterized by the spread of eCommerce and mCommerce and the availability of online buying options, supply chain management has become a significant concern for many organizations. This deployment of IT is especially crucial for commercial entities that rely extensively on the supply chain, such as manufacturing enterprises that rely on the network to deliver their products to end users. In this situation, the major stakeholders are suppliers, shipping entities, distributors, and retailers.

An integrated supply management system encompassed within a digital environment that integrates the operations carried out by the various stakeholders in the supply chain is no longer a value-added proposition, but rather a necessity in a rapidly evolving marketplace characterized by exponential technological development and shifting customer expectations. This would enable an enterprising company to avoid the various bottlenecks of conventional supply chains while accelerating the entire process and streamlining the duties of just-in-time procurement, inventory reduction and management, manufacturing efficiency, and meeting customer-specific requirements such as mass customization in a timely and efficient manner. Intriguingly, the adoption of a modern supply chain management system requires real-time or near-real-time information dissemination and delivery.

Description of the 3M Company

The Minnesota Mining and Manufacturing Corporation was conceived and established in 1902 near Lake Superior in Minnesota (3M n.d.). 3M is a multinational conglomerate headquartered in the United States that primarily operates in the domains of healthcare, consumer goods, industrial, and worker safety. Maplewood, a suburb of St. Paul, Minnesota, houses the company's headquarters, which manufactures a variety of products under many brand names. At least 55,000 products, including laminates, abrasives, adhesives, personal protective equipment, passive fire protection, paint and window protection films, car-care products, circuitry, electrical and electronic products, dental and orthodontic products, and insulating materials, are represented in the company's product portfolio (3M, n.d.; Baker, 2017).

As of 2018, the company was ranked number 95 on the Fortune 500 list of the largest U.S. corporations by revenue (Fortune, n.d.). It also employed over 93,500 people and had operations in at least 70 countries, with franchisees in approximately 200 nations by the conclusion of that fiscal year. (3M, n.d.) As with any other multinational organization, globalization and technology have a substantial impact on corporate behavior. Through market research and development, any business must react nimbly to shifting globalization and technological trends (Susarla & Karimi, 2012). Efficient globalization provides a framework for the successful management of 3M Company's assets and resources; bringing a comprehension of transnational research and development, as well as improved budgetary and innovation considerations and managerial restrictions (Bertho & Crawford, 2008).

A company that adapts to the market by recognizing the effects of technology and globalization on its business practices is likely to expand its market presence and preserve its profitability margins (Borgia 2014; Juntao & Yinbo, 2016). The flow of information within a multinational corporation, such as 3M Company, is crucial to its continuing growth. A multinational firm such as 3M should ideally have the infrastructure in place to scale, enhance, and renew its resource base while cost-effectively serving its diversified clientele.

Object of the Report

This study's objective is to examine the application of information technology (IT) in 3M Company. The establishment of 3M Company as a worldwide conglomerate with operations in more than 200 countries will give an excellent case study review and generalizable outcomes that can be applied to other Small and Medium-Sized Enterprises (SMEs). Utilizing a vast network of suppliers and distributors, The 3M Company's products are accessible in the majority of serviced nations and locations. However, the majority of the company's products are available for purchase online (3M, n.d.). A examination of the company's global research and development in the field of IT in SCM would also be crucial for comprehending how to innovate for a more effective consolidation of budget and resources. This study will evaluate 3M Company's IT deployment in relation to the company's revenue-generating capabilities, operational efficiency, and competitiveness relative to its competitors. Based on the effect of IT on the implementation, expansion, and replenishment of the company's supply chain, the data can then be used to draw conclusions and make recommendations.

Literature Review

Introduction

Supply Chain Management (SCM) generally refers to the management of a network of interconnected enterprises involved in the provision of commodities, products, or services that the final consumer requires (Varma & Khan, 2014; Foerstl, Schleper & Henke, 2017). The fast transmission of information throughout supply chain networks enables supply chain stakeholders to collaborate on the integration and coordination of supply chains, resulting in a more effective SCM. Information also plays a crucial role in enhancing the performance of supply chains by increasing their speed and reducing bottlenecks, and in reducing risk by providing processes for executing transactions and creating opportunities for decision-makers within a company by providing them with timely information in the format they require (Zhu, Krikke, & Canils, 2017).

In the modern business environment, decision-makers can efficiently track products and services at every stage of the process flow, thanks to the technological advancements that have enabled the automation of numerous operations. This progress in technology and globalization also improves the transmission of essential and correct information within timeframes that permit the implementation of information with fewer errors. The primary goals of IT in the field of SCM are to provide abundant and visible information, to enable a single point of contact for critical data, to enable decision-making based on an informed overview of the entire supply chain, and to facilitate collaboration among the various supply chain stakeholders (Nair, 2012; Varma & Khan, 2014).

IT adoption in SCM is intended to generate cohesiveness between product supply and demand, enabling a more sensible approach to inventory management, decision-making, and customer acquisition and management. This is consistent with the specified functional functions of IT in SCM, which include Decision Support, Collaboration and Coordination, and Transaction Execution (Varma & Khan, 2014). Integration of external partners into the supply chain is also greatly facilitated by the adoption of IT in SCM (Gilaninia et al., 2011). The application of IT in SCM is also regarded as a requirement for the management of cybercrime and other e-risks (Soosay & Hyland, 2015; Zhong, Xu & Wang, 2017).

Electronic Records Administration

Electronics Records Management (ERM) is an umbrella word for paperless corporate transactions handled by Enterprise Resource Planning (ERP), Electronic Data Interchange (EDI), and Automatic Identification (AutoID) systems (Rawat et al., 2013). The increasing complexity of data considerably heightens supply chain uncertainty hazards. Nonetheless, an effectively integrated IT system may control information flow inside important business processes, money, and resources, so enhancing quality and profit margins by minimizing transaction risk and coordination costs (Jian, Yang & Gao, 2015). The major purpose of Electronic Records Management (ERM) systems within SCM is to guarantee process flow accountability.

Electronic Data Interchange (EDI) is the computer-to-computer exchange of organized, standardized, and machine-retrievable corporate information and documents. This enables the computer to independently access and process the information with minimal human intervention. This contributes to an overall improvement in customer service, cost efficiency, productivity, tracing and expediting, competitive advantage, and billing (Angelova, Kiryakova & Yordanova, 2017).

Enterprise Resource Planning (ERP), on the other hand, consists of organizational planning systems that revolve around the key business operations and have all the essential logical interfaces to permit the seamless flow of information to all entities along the supply chain. ERP is essentially a framework consisting of administration, human resources, and production rather than a system. It is collaborative software that manages and coordinates the activities, assets, and resources of an organization. The ERP is designed as an enterprise information system that integrates and simplifies a corporation's business processes and transactions (Jian et al., 2015).

Scanners, Bar Code, and Radio Frequency Identification (RFID)

There are two possible orientations for bar codes: ladder orientation, where the width lines are arranged horizontally, and picket fence orientation, where the width lines are set vertically. The data is subsequently stored in optical or magnetic form as part of a communication system, and enterprises use it as part of a supply chain network to automate the identification and tracking of items and services at each process step.

Radio Frequency Identification (RFID) is a technique based on tags that emit and transmit an object's identification in the form of a unique serial number through radio waves. The data transmitted from RFID tags is then received by readers and sent to the company's information system for examination and analysis. Bar codes and RFID tags are both based on automatic identification (AutoID) technology, with the distinguishing factor being that in bar codes, the scanning technology reads the bar code using optical imaging or laser technology, whereas in RFID, the reading technology scans the RFID tag using radio signals. Both are essential for delivering accurate identifying information in a timely manner to reduce errors (Xiao, Bo & Chen, 2017).

This fundamental benefit of both technologies mitigates the extremely prevalent Bullwhip effect in the consumer goods industries (Oliveira et al., 2015). This effect is caused by distorted or exaggerated communication, which leads to erroneous capacity plans, excessive inventory and investment, missed production schedules, poor customer service, and lost profits. Implementing RFID and bar code technologies in various parts of the supply chain can drastically reduce inaccuracies. A real-world example of this implementation is Walmart's deployment of RFID and bar code technology in 1983, followed by the implementation of satellite connection in 1987. (Alyahya, Wang & Bennett, 2016). This permitted the exchange of inventory data in real time. In addition, FedEx applies the same technology, enabling customers to track their packages in real time (Goudarzi, Malazi & Ahmadi, 2016).

The implementation of RFID and bar code systems enables accurate product identification, improves data accuracy, simplifies data entry, minimizes on-hand inventory, verifies orders on reception and in shipping, improves customer support, reduces ide time and work-in-process, reduces scrap or increases product yield, and improves, monitors, and controls shop floor activities, including scheduling and floor space (Jedermann et al., 2009; Ballestn et al., 2013). These solutions further enable the company to mitigate supply chain risks resulting from manual oversight and probable insider data entry fraud.

However, these technologies are susceptible to data mismanagement, which can be caused by the execution of unauthorized data changes prior to their addition to the system, fraudulent input data, inaccurate posting of transactions, omission of accurate input data, modification of master file records, destruction of output data, or the introduction of a virus that can manipulate the data, program, or database (Goudarzi et al., 2016).

E-Commerce

Electronic commerce (e-Commerce) refers to the procedures and instruments used to manage a firm in a paperless setting. This involves the installation of Electronic Data Exchange (EDI), electronic financial transfers, image processing, databases, optical or magnetic data capture, the Internet, electronic mail, and electronic publishing (Yu et al., 2017). The implementation of e-commerce may take the following forms:

Electronic procurement (e-Procurement)

Integration of an e-procurement framework into an existing buy to pay (P2P) supply value chain transforms it into an automated SCM system. This is accomplished through the use of a software application that preferably contains functions for vendor management, supplier management, catalogue management, and contract management. E-Procurement is typically implemented and supported using a web-based enterprise resource planning (ERP) application (Wamba & Chatfield, 2011; Li, 2014).

Intel is widely regarded as a pioneer in this field, having created a groundbreaking global online ordering system in 1998 and exceeding $1 billion in product orders in its first month of operation (Cao, 2014). Today, nearly 85 percent of the corporation's revenue is generated online, and the vast majority of Intel's customers deal with the company in some capacity via the internet. From the issuance of purchase orders to the shipment deployment and notification processes, the organization is vigorously pursuing paperless business activities (Yu et al., 2017).

Electronic Retail (e-tailing)

Electronic Retail (e-commerce) is merely the development of infrastructure that enables the sale of items via the Internet (Kembro, Danielsson & Smajli, 2017). This is a market segment in which Amazon has become well-known by providing a wide range of products and services through its Amazon.com online marketplace.

Technology for Secure Electronic Transactions

Safe electronic transaction (SET) is a proposed industry standard for the secure transmission and acceptance of online payments and payment cards. Typically, the heart of the system consists of a pair of digital keys, one private key and one public key, owned by each participant in a payment transaction. In practice, the client is provided with both keys and a digital certificate that verifies the keys' authenticity. When this customer desires to conduct business with an online merchant, he can provide the merchant with his public key and digital certificate to demonstrate the authenticity of the certificate. Similarly, the merchant provides his own key and certificate for assurance, which enables the transaction to continue. This is required to ensure that customer accounts are properly matched (Prajogo & Olhager, 2012; Hübner, Holzapfel & Kuhn, 2015).

Extensible Markup Language (XML)

A markup language is a method used for identifying and decoding document structures. The extensible markup language (XML) specification provides a standard means for users to incorporate markup and data into a document, allowing the document's content to be processed with minimal human interaction. It also ensures that this data flow is efficient and accessible across a variety of hardware, software, and operating systems (Xie et al., 2014).

XML may be transmitted across languages, programs, and platforms using a variety of development tools and utilities. XML's application possibilities are limitless, and its deployment in electronic commerce (e-business) and SCM is but one example. XML-based solutions would give viable alternatives to conventional Electronic Data Interchange (EDI) and dramatically lower the barriers to entry into the realm of e-business due to its relatively cheaper investment and implementation costs than conventional EDI (Xie et al., 2014; Ben-Daya, Hassini & Bahroun, 2017). In principle, XML provides a reasonably inexpensive method for the transmission of information across systems and organizations.

Intranet/Extranet

By integrating specialized web browsers and server software into their internal systems, businesses can enhance their internal information networks and connect otherwise incompatible nodes in supply chain networks to decrease manual involvement. These machines

Determining Personal Perfect Position Common App Essay Help

Table of Contents
Introduction Contextual task-oriented leadership Change-oriented conduct Bibliography

Introduction

This presentation explores the most suitable job for me within my expanding and restructuring organization. Therefore, I have the ability to decide my ideal position by comparing and contrasting my strengths and shortcomings with leadership styles that are pertinent to the position. According to the results of my self-evaluation, I scored seven for my concern for people and 10 for my concern for task. Even though I lean toward a task-oriented leadership style, my results indicate that I have a balanced approach to both categories (Bush, 2003). In my prior position as a sales agent, I performed satisfactorily. I am currently employed by the military, which is more deadline and schedule focused. My task-focused leadership is fundamentally applicable in a military setting such as a military squadron.

A self-assessment score of 10 implies that I am a task-oriented individual capable of applying my leadership style as a military squadron in managing supplies and organizing forces. My prior experience as a sales representative has equipped me with the interpersonal and communication skills necessary to maintain order and efficiency in coordinating military tasks (Robbins & Judge, 2007). A score of seven is the maximum possible for my charismatic leadership qualities. Despite this, my charisma can be enhanced to better accommodate subordinate deficiencies in pursuit of personal and military objectives. I must have faith in others, especially after assigning responsibility to them, in order to foster employee autonomy and creativity on assigned tasks. As a task-oriented individual, I am better suited to direct subordinates based on their professional qualifications and areas of expertise. As a transformational leader, it is crucial to the efficient management of military operations to recognize the various potentials of followers.

Background

Due to the sensitive nature of their jobs, soldiers are instructed in high levels of professional discipline and ethics. The ability to discipline followers is a critical leadership trait that complements my task-oriented leadership viewpoint. However, there should be a balance between rigid approaches to completing tasks and encouraging followers to be independent and creative in their areas of expertise. The capacity to construct a productive team requires management skills that address the many stages of group activity planning and execution (Yukl, 2006). Considering the ambitious growth plans into peacekeeping efforts in conflict-prone countries, if I had the chance to choose my ideal military post, I would be happy working as a military squadron. Planning, monitoring, coordinating, and controlling military supplies, equipment, and resources for training soldiers and supporting their peacekeeping and combat missions would fall within my purview.

This requires a leader who is task-focused and capable of focusing on planning and arranging assignments within predetermined timeframes. It also involves coordinating subordinate tasks using a deadline-driven, task-oriented strategy that ensures the achievement of realistic goals. In order to supervise the various forces without jeopardizing professional ethics and the efficacy of teamwork, it is also important to possess people-oriented skills. The people-focused approach is beneficial for inspiring subordinates to believe in the military's vision and purpose. Additionally, it improves their morale via intrinsic motivation and job satisfaction (Bush, 2003). Having the ability to build interpersonal skills enables me to be sensitive to the various requirements and desires of each individual soldier throughout training and actual military duties.

The timely delivery of supplies to soldiers in the field is crucial to the accomplishment of military objectives. To be effective in their mission, peacekeeping personnel require a steady supply of military equipment and personal items. Coordinating the distribution of supplies to soldiers needs quick and accurate reasoning to avoid errors that can cost the military lives, property, and reputation. Understanding the obstacles that soldiers face on the battlefield and during training requires interpersonal skills. As a military squadron, it is crucial that I never make assumptions about the actual state of the military environment at any given time. Trusting subordinates aids in identifying errors and problems in the camp so that necessary action can be taken (Robbins & Judge, 2007). The nature of the military environment necessitates accurate actions and choices, as the entire nation's security depends on the armed forces.

Style of task-oriented leadership

The task-oriented leadership style employs a "initiating structure" that adheres to a time-based approach when completing tasks. Individual monitoring is advised to be replaced with group supervision. The most effective method for organizing several teams is group supervision. Consequently, team leaders are tasked with managing their various groups under my supervision. As the military squadron, I require the assistance of team managers in order to receive accurate field-specific input. Therefore, group supervision is a suitable leadership style for the efficient planning and organization of military assignments (Yukl, 2006).

Taking into account my evaluation scores and the experience I gained as a sales representative, the position of a military squadron is an excellent fit for me. Being both task- and people-oriented, I find it advantageous to work in the military, which is defined by strict deadlines and work schedules. According to the Platinum rule, people's preferences in the workplace vary, and these variations should be respected individually to prevent disputes. Conflict management is essential for good engagement between diverse teams. In an environment defined by severe deadlines and regulated work schedules, the position of a military squadron allows me to use an appropriate leadership style and set of talents.

The Platinum criteria imply that I should be flexible and professional enough to allow subordinates to contribute to suitable timelines for tasks and the best method for completing military missions (Bush, 2003). Military operations demand a high level of specialization and professionalism. It is essential for the successful execution of duties that several departments work together effectively. To guarantee safe and secure outcomes, it is necessary to strictly adhere to the initial plan. Therefore, the transformational leadership style is appropriate in the military in order to maximize the diverse field for a successful outcome.

As a military squadron, I am in a better position to encourage critical thinking among soldiers of various ranks. The hierarchical position provides a structure for the coordinated execution of responsibilities. Respect is assured amongst officers of different ranks in the military due to uniformity and appreciation of the chain of command. The degree to which a group's activities are accomplished is determined by its internal processes. Team leaders may be accountable for the efficient execution of team tasks, but the underlying internal processes are essential for a flawless conclusion. The nature of contact and collaboration among team members is vital for firms to respond to necessary change (Robbins & Judge, 2007).

According to the Path-Goal Theory, leaders should encourage and enable their followers to value their colleagues and aim their efforts toward achieving organizational goals. The "leader versus follower theory," which acknowledges the importance of subordinates in management, supports the Path-Goal concept. Leaders and followers are essentially equal and cannot underestimate each other. The military scenario requires maximum cooperation amongst all parties involved. Due to the sensitive nature of military tasks, confidentiality as a virtue and professional ethic must be at the forefront of organizational culture. The Fielder model of leadership stresses the application of a stress-related approach to the reinforcement of a task-focused leadership system (Yukl, 2006).

In organizational management, transformational leadership paradigm promotes tolerance and adaptability. The dictatorial hands-on approach is replaced with an inclusive hands-off leadership style that effectively stimulates creative and critical thought. Leaders foster an environment conducive to the sharing of ideas and the appropriate delivery and reception of feedback in the workplace. In order to adapt qualities and aspects of good organizational management, my role as a military squadron is not restricted to a certain leadership style, but rather spans a variety of ideas.

Change-oriented conduct

Change-oriented behavior is also applicable in a military setting. My role as a military squadron necessitates a mental and perceptual shift from my former position as a sales representative, as evidenced by related professional profile transition processes. To adapt and integrate military personnel with a shared professional identity, technical and management training is important. There is ample expertise in people-oriented skills from the sales profession, but the task-oriented attitude needed in my new role as a military squadron necessitates the development of relevant military-related abilities. In essence, acceptable leadership styles are isolated from many leadership theories, which coalesce into a specific task-oriented, people-driven method that can direct me appropriately to complete military schedules within rigorous but realistic timescales (Bush, 2003).

Bibliography

Bush, T. (2003). Educational Leadership and Management Theories The New York location of SAGE. Robbins, S. P., and T. A. Judge (2007). Organizational conduct (12th Ed.). Pearson Education has its headquarters in Upper Saddle River, New Jersey. Yukl, G. (2006). Leadership within corporations (6th Ed.). Pearson Education has its headquarters in Upper Saddle River, New Jersey.

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Internship Program At Monsanto Company Common App Essay Help

Introduction

Internships are arrangements in which students offer their skills to companies in exchange for the opportunity to hone their business skills and gain practical experience in a real-world work environment. A vast majority of internship programs do not pay their interns, although some companies do so out of their own volition or to adhere to predetermined guidelines. Regardless of this, internship programs are quite beneficial to the interns who take part in them. This is because they can gain real-world experience and have the opportunity to impress future employers. Establishing an internship program with Monsanto will be of tremendous value to the Student of X University School of Business for a variety of reasons.

Company Background

Monsanto is an American agricultural firm headquartered in St. Louis, Missouri that provides agricultural goods and integrated solutions to the global market. The company manufactures both agricultural seeds and herbicides for controlling weeds. Joining an institution with such a background would allow students to play an active role in the provision of solutions to the needs of farmers. The essence of identifying and satisfying the needs of their target customers more effectively than their competitors is taught to business students. Monsanto will offer such an opportunity to these students (Monsanto Intern, Co-op and Entry Level/Trainee Opportunities for 2010)

Understanding Product Offerings

Monsanto is a multinational corporation that provides farmers with a variety of products. The corporation is so varied that it gives other agriculturally related enterprises with generic materials and generic features for their seed brands. This section has the following products: canola seed, vegetable and fruit seeds, corn and soybean seed, sorghum seed and sunflower seed. In addition, Monsanto offers franchises to other companies that produce seeds. The company's product distribution network is intricate. Such a global exposure will expose the students to international competition and strategy formulation. Because penetrating foreign markets is not a simple endeavor, students will be able to study how and why businesses enter various market segments. In addition, they will gain an understanding of the various challenges multinational corporations face in the global marketplace.

Understanding How to evaluate a company

Internship program at Monsanto will let students obtain information on how to analyze business investments. The following is a summary of how the company did its review, which interns can collect and utilize not only at other companies but also for starting their own enterprises. In evaluating their investments, the company came up with the following key positive arguments and key negative arguments. The positive arguments include: 1) the company’s pipeline of agricultural biotechnology are unique and unequaled in the industry. 2) A double digit growth in coming years 3) The business uses hedging to manage prices 4) The company has an established expansion strategy.

This study is beneficial for the interns because they will be able to comprehend how logical thinking assists managers to coordinate business operations with more concentration. In addition, they will discover how this study has helped the organization refine its aims and strategies, as well as prepare for unexpected changes. These abilities are crucial in a competitive business climate (Monsanto Internship, Co-op, and Entry-Level/Trainee Opportunities for 2010).

A business does not run in a vacuum, thus it must encounter several obstacles. Monsanto does not deviate from this rule. There are various hurdles that face its operations (Kotler 664). (Kotler 664). Understanding the rationale behind such an analysis is crucial for business students (Monsanto Internship, Co-op, and Entry-Level/Trainee Opportunities in 2010).

This is due to the fact that they are tasked with providing guidance to the companies they will be working with, particularly through the development of entry or exit strategies. For example, the student will be able to understand how a Company like Monsanto is able to sustain competition from companies like DuPont. What strategies are used? To combat competition, does the company engage in price wars or competitive pricing?

Understanding Managerial Climate and Culture

The managerial atmosphere and culture of a corporation effect how individuals go about making decisions and doing business. Employing values such as being the best, recognizing and implementing worker diversity, and including people in decision-making, excellent firms adhere to a set of core principles. The company has employed diverse technology that is unique and distinct to its production, for instance the biotechnology technique used in creating next generation traits is exclusive. Their research in field of biopesticide alternative for pest control and stress management has seen Monsanto maintain the yield potential for farmers across the globe (Reference for Business 1). (Reference for Business 1).

Embracing Technology

Seed treatment technology supplies greater pest and stress management alternatives that are effective and sturdy that has an eventual help to farmers to increase on their farm productions. The seeds must be treated with the utmost care if they are to be protected from pests and illnesses in general. This has contributed to the globalization of Monsanto Company products. The main aim of the company is to provide farming solutions to small farmers while at the same time conserving the environment. Interns will discover the value of technology as a competitive tool through the application of technology in the present business world. This is an important truth that every business student must be armed with (Reference for Business 2).

The role of Partnerships and venture in Success of Business

Partnership and joint ventures are ideal for many businesses entering international markets. Monsanto's colossal success hinges on its collaboration with other top-tier research firms. Monsanto has partnered with numerous businesses. For example, it has partnered with AgraQuest that led to the manufacture of insecticides advantageous to the core vegetables and crops of Monsanto. Compared to other innovative research and development companies, Monsanto has excelled in the field of agriculture. Therefore, environmentally friendly pest control methods that are effective have been created (Brass 104). The partnership has also bolstered Monsanto's commitment to agricultural sustainability, allowing farmers to finally increase crop yields. The intern will not only gain an understanding of the significance of partnerships and joint ventures in attaining success, but also the reasons why firms go global. Additionally, they will learn how these international divisions are structured and administered.

Understanding the Effects of Financial Vitality

A business with a solid financial foundation can do well in the international arena. The financial stability that Monsanto Corporation commands in the worldwide market has totally positioned the company on the globe market. The company has great financial strength which has made it acquire assets overseas, transport their products to global markets, employ personnel with superb qualifications to aid in technological growth of the company and manage to contact worldwide research to establish what the farmers and market at large need. With this, Monsanto Company has conquered in providing farmers with what they want at the right time and hence helping in attain their desired accomplishments in the agricultural sector. Interns will be able to see how the company uses financial strength to their advantage. Students will be able to emphasize financial discipline within their organizations in order to achieve Monsanto-like success.

Diversification of Businesses

Diversification is a business strategy that all business students must understand and be prepared to implement when making company decisions. Successful companies make use of this strategy well. Monsanto has adopted a business strategy of diversification. The Company offers a variety of products. This is a crucial technique that the Monsanto Company has included into their goals in order to expand their market territory. Crop cultivation and animal health are the company's primary focuses. The genomic division of the company deals with all types of seeds and technologies, such as biotechnology, that contribute to the formation of the characteristics of the next generation. Interns will be able to study and personally observe the advantages of such a technique.

The Challenge of Diversity

Diversity is a significant obstacle for many businesses. Global players must be able to properly meet this threat. Global marketplaces have provided Monsanto with a more level playing field than other corporations that operate just within the United States of America. For instance, Monsanto has expanded her markets to Europe, Asia and Africa. This diversity is key to Monsanto’s existence and has also helped embracing workplace diversity; recruiting their employees across the globe. Students will be able to comprehend the crucial role that diversity plays in a company's success. Successful organizations welcome diversity of products as well as diversity of staff (Monsanto Intern, Co-op and Entry Level/Trainee Opportunities for 2010)

Conclusion

As a prominent agricultural company, Monsanto seeks to increase agricultural output via the use of cutting-edge technology and innovative techniques in order to aid farmers throughout the world in achieving greater success. The company's primary focus is the creation of nutritious foods, improved animal feeds, and increased fiber. An internship program will give student an opportunity to learn many business activities especially those affecting multinational corporations such as Monsanto. Several opportunities and threats to the operations of businesses have been investigated. Indeed, the internship program will allow students to witness firsthand how businesses devise ways to combat competition. It is believed that this degree would prepare students for success in the corporate sector or in private enterprises.

Bibliography

Journal of Marketing Research, 2005, page 104, Frank Brass, "Market Segmentation: Group versus Individual Behavior."

Advertising Age, 2004, p. 54, "Global Marketing: The New Wave," by Chase Dennis.

Kotler, Philip. "Marketing Principles." New York: Prentice-Hall, 2005.pp 664-665.

“Monsanto Intern, Co-op and Entry Level/Trainee Opportunities for 2010”. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

"Reference for Business Transactions" New York: Academic Press, 2005.pp 1-3.

Roberts, Peter “Applying the Strategy of Market Segmentation,” London: McMillan Press, 2009, p. 66.

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Potential Of Implementing The Modern System Of Attendance Control Called Smart Time Common App Essay Help

Abstract

The advancement of modern technology is one of the defining characteristics of 21st-century social existence. Obviously, business is likewise influenced by technology growth and utilizes technical breakthroughs to increase the efficiency of corporate operations. The ability to enhance business performance and get better results with fewer inputs is one of the most significant benefits that current technology offers to business organizations. As employees are the foundation of any organization, systems of control over their job attendance, arrival and departure times, working hours, holidays and leaves are quite vital. The current proposal explores the possibility of deploying the modern attendance control system known as SMART TIME in the UAE-based corporation ADSSC and assesses the potential impacts of such a move on the organization.

Overview of the Abu Dhabi Sewerage Services Company

Background

Abu Dhabi Sewerage Services Company (ADSSC) is a United Arab Emirates-based organization that deals with "wastewater collection and treatment, as well as the safe and sustainable disposal of end products" (ADSSC, 2009). The corporation is a wholly-owned subsidiary of Abu Dhabi Water & Electricity Authority, a larger Abu Dhabi-based company (ADWEA). ADSSC was established in 2005 and was initially tasked with managing municipal water waste concerns in Abu Dhabi and Al Ain. The company has formed its mission and values, among which community service, environmental conservation, and health are of paramount importance (ADSSC, 2009). The business is constantly evolving and confronting hurdles along the way.

Current Conditions

The current condition of ADSSC's development allows us to say that this company is one of the market leaders for sewerage services in Abu Dhabi. The company's government ownership also adds to this position and makes ADSSC the city's major sewerage operator (ADSSC, 2009). Currently, ADSSC is responsible for the development of modern sewerage networks in Abu Dhabi and the creation of sewage treatment plans for facilities that require such standards for their construction (ADSSC, 2009).

Today, the firm manages two main STP, 24 package STP, over 200 pumping stations, and more than 7,000km of sewer mains in the municipalities of Abu Dhabi and Al Ain, which account for 80% and 63% of the total for the city of Abu Dhabi (ADSSC, 2009). Despite being the leading provider of sewerage services in the city and emirate of Abu Dhabi, ADSSC faces some development obstacles.

Major Challenges Observed

At the current stage of its development, the ADSSC encounters mostly societal obstacles. First, the company's official website claims that ADSSC evolves to satisfy the needs of Abu Dhabi's permanently rising urban population (ADSSC, 2009). ADSSC is also accountable for implementing the new sewerage projects developed by this body and ADWEA. In the midst of the worldwide economic downturn, one of ADSSC's greatest problems is to preserve its cost-quality balance and avoid raising rates for its services. In addition, ADSSC views the employment of professional and experienced employees as one of the primary concerns in the current professional workforce shortages (ADSSC, 2009).

Problem

Business Plan

These factors describe the fundamental development tendencies of the ADSSC corporation situated in Abu Dhabi. The obsolete condition of ADSSC's attendance control system is the driving cause for the creation of the current project proposal (ADSSC, 2009). Numerous businesses throughout the world still rely on paper records to track the time and attendance rates of their employees and to reflect the payroll procedures associated with their employment.

However, with the ever-increasing competition and the shrinking time left for organizations to respond to market changes, such time-consuming but established procedures become their most significant performance detriments (Hughes and Cotterell, 2009, p. 119). ADSSC is also one of the businesses that still operate their time, attendance, and payroll control using paper documents and hard copies (ADSSC, 2009). Actual hazards associated with ADSSC's continued use of an obsolete time and attendance system prompt the organization to seek a remedy. The primary dangers posed by the existing time and attendance control system include:

Protection menace Calculation or entrance errors Potential data inconsistency Excessive and redundant labor Additional time, money, and effort required for paper work Space usage Time usage and sluggish work progress

Currently, ADSSC recognizes that maintaining a paper-based time and attendance control system and payroll process is a competitive disadvantage. First, maintaining records in paper format necessitates the use of filing cabinets that are accessible to nearly every employee of the business. Consequently, if the time and attendance management data, and particularly the payroll accounts, are made public or accessible to ADSSC competitors, the company could incur significant losses and be forced to modify its organizational practices (Hughes and Cotterell, 2009, p. 138). This circumstance will incur significant expenses for ADSSC and poses a threat of insolvency to the company.

In addition, the paper records of the time and attendance control and payroll procedure present ADSSC with extra internal risks. As a result of these records being handled by regular personnel, they are susceptible to mechanical, purposeful and inadvertent errors, misspellings, and other human factor concerns. For instance, errors may occur when computing the figures for each employee or when entering the figures into the printed record (Mitchell-George and Risteau, 2008, p. 17). This, in turn, may offer ADSSC with an additional challenge, as mistakes and mechanical entry errors may be the cause of inconsistent data. In other words, the ADSSC cannot rely on the information contained within the paper-based records. In addition, these data cannot be amended or updated in a timely manner because it takes a large amount of time to operate thousands of document hard copies (Mitchell-George and Risteau, 2008, p. 19).

From the standpoint of ADSSC employees, the company's obsolete time and attendance control system is a disadvantage. Such a system necessitates redundant and wasteful labor, which might be avoided if the issue were resolved by ADSSC. Lastly, finding a solution to the issue could enable ADSSC to save money now spent on maintaining time and attendance control and payroll systems. A modernized and up-to-date time and attendance system could have a significant impact on the performance enhancement of ADSSC as a commercial organization.

Proposed Method

In the situation described in the preceding paragraphs, the proposed solution for ADSSC is the implementation of an automated system for controlling time and attendance and maintaining payroll records. The automated time and attendance control system presented as a solution by this study is SMART TIME, the system that might help ADSSC to cut expenses and enhance profits, hence enhancing the company's overall performance efficiency.

The selection of an automated time and attendance control system was deliberate. In addition, it is supported by extensive scholarly study in the area of corporate strategies and software tools that increase efficiency. Consequently, Mitchell-George and Risteau (2008) believe automated time and attendance control systems (T&A) to be the most effective tool for enhancing the organizational performance and profitability of a commercial organization:

Companies that automate their time and attendance (T&A) systems not only realize huge reductions in their direct payroll processing expenses, but some realize even greater reductions in their total labor expenditures (Mitchell-George and Risteau, 2008, p. 7 – 6).

In other words, the automation of record keeping may serve not just the payroll needs of ADSSC, but may also be an excellent instrument for enhancing the company's overall financial performance. This is made possible by the ability of T&As to maintain an accurate record of the company's financial performance and payroll accounts over the years (Mitchell-George and Risteau, 2008, p. 7 – 7). The automated record keeping enables the tracking of the financial history of the company and protects it from any legal or ethical dispute relating to payment and working conditions.

What is also crucial to ADSSC is that the operation mechanism of SMART TIME, as well as the vast majority of other time and attendance control systems, is very straightforward and efficient. First, the transition from traditional manually operated systems to an automated time and attendance control system necessitates the introduction of specialized training for the individuals responsible for record keeping. It is a relatively expensive operation, but its benefits outweigh the costs (Hughes and Cotterell, 2009, p. 140).

Thus, the first step of the T&A operation is the organizational requirement that all employees register their coming to the office or starting work outside the office, for remote employees, by accessing a registration system via the Internet or by calling a specially designed calling center and reporting the time of starting the work (Mitchell-George and Risteau, 2008, p. 7 – 8). These registration methods are accessible through personal computer or telephone. The primary advantage of the systems is that the data on the time of arrival at work is promptly entered into the organization's database. Non-authorized personnel cannot access or modify the database in any manner.

Thus, the issue of paying employees excessive earnings for time they did not actually labor can be resolved. As a result of the automatically and digitally recorded data on the number of daily working hours, businesses cannot charge employees for excessive work loads (Mitchell-George and Risteau, 2008, p. 7 – 7). ADSSC can derive significant benefits from deploying automated time and attendance control systems to track the times its employees begin and conclude work, arrive and depart the office. In addition, the payroll administration process at ADSSC will be significantly enhanced in terms of efficiency.

Project Proposal Overview

Scope

The considerations mentioned above regarding the proposed implementation of the automated time and attendance control system SMAT TIME by the UAE-based company ADSSC permit at least some comprehension of the overall scope of the proposed project. The project described in this proposal is therefore meant to be comprehensive. The implementation of the SMART TIME system will encompass the whole ADSSC organization and entail the adjustment of all attendance control and payroll-related facets of its operations. The planned project's scope would also include training for the individuals responsible for SMART TIME operation. In addition, the project will incorporate methods for measuring the preliminary SMART TIME performance outcomes and evaluating the project's efficacy. Such a comprehensive nature of the project will permit consideration of all surrounding circumstances and monitoring of their impact on the implementation of SMART TIME.

In greater detail, the automated time and attendance control system will be implemented across the entire organization, requiring every employee to operate SMART TIME in terms of correct registration at the workplace at the beginning and conclusion of each workday. In addition, SMART TIME operators must receive specialized training and preparation for their work with the system. In addition, the special personnel, comprised of both ADSSC employees and outside observers, should be trained to evaluate the efficacy of SMART TIME based on a scale that compares the company's performance before and after the deployment of SMART TIME. Thus, the project scope encompasses all facets of SMART TIME implementation, from software installation to the evaluation of initial performance outcomes.

Key Stakeholders

The project's extensive breadth implies that its implementation and outcomes are designed to have diverse effects on ADSSC's main stakeholders. The key stakeholders of the company under consideration are its investors, board of directors, senior management, employees, direct customers, and the general community. Every stakeholder group will need to acclimate to the new ADSSC time and attendance control systems, and the organization will need to make the shift to automated control and record keeping as painless and unpleasant as feasible for its stakeholders (Mitchell-George and Risteau, 2008, p. 7 – 8).

Specifically, ADSSC's investors, i.e. the government of the Emirate of Abu Dhabi, will be the first set of stakeholders to experience the effects of SMART TIME. The government will be required to enhance funding and support the SMART TIME project with financial and human resources as a result. The method to cover the government's expenses in this instance is for ADSSC to begin working more efficiently following the implementation of automated record keeping software. The Board of Directors and Senior Management are the organization's stakeholders who will be required to implement the proposed project. The success of SMART TIME is highly dependent on the performance of various stakeholder groups, which will influence their future career growth at ADSSC.

The employees of the organization will be the subjects of the automated record keeping innovation and the stakeholder group that will experience the SMART TIME effects to the greatest degree, in terms of potential inconveniences during the initial stages of system implementation and a subsequent improvement in their performance results. The clients of ADSSC and the Abu Dhabi community will be influenced by the proposed project in terms of the quality of services obtained from ADSSC before and after the implementation of SMART TIME. The purpose of the project is to provide a higher quality of service to the community than ADSSC could without the automated time and attendance control system.

Project Objectives

The proposed project's objectives and goals can be discerned based on what has been said. The following items comprise the list of objectives for SMART TIME's incorporation into the organizational process:

Resolve the organizational issue at ADSSC caused by the company's obsolete time and attendance control system: Achievement of this objective is intended to be the result of the SMART TIME automated control system implementation. As the paper record keeping is considered to be outdated and is rather time, effort, and resource consuming, the electronic and automated time and attendance control system will allow ADSSC get to the higher level of cost effective performance and funds saving.

Improve

Transparency In Kuwaiti Corporate Governance And Stock Market Common App Essay Help

Introduction

In light of recent scandals involving huge and prominent firms on both sides of the world, the topic of corporate governance is gaining increasing prominence. Transparency and openness of all financial operations are essential for the long-term survival of large corporations, since they deter theft, fraud, and inefficient use of financial resources. Since the issuance of its guidelines for private and state-owned firms in 2005, the OECD has been emphasizing the requirement of transparency and disclosure as methods of more effective corporate governance and stock market exchange. Disclosure and transparency are essential for the effective functioning of the stock market, as improper procedures would unwittingly lead to distorted impressions of the company and economically illogical decisions. Businesses that wish to compete on a worldwide scale must also maintain high levels of transparency and disclosure.

For developing nations such as Kuwait, attaining transparency and disclosure in corporate governance and the stock market could present a number of obstacles (International Monetary Fund 2012). The majority of businesses in the country are either state-owned or held by affluent and influential families, resulting in a concentration of wealth and power in the hands of a small number of individuals. In addition, the absence of a suitable legislative framework to ensure disclosure and transparency creates further obstacles to OECD compliance. The goal of this article is to analyze the state of corporate governance in Kuwait based on a review of the relevant literature.

Problem Statement

Numerous emerging GCC nations have recognized the significance of corporate governance in the context of international business and stock market practices, and have enacted regulatory frameworks to safeguard shareholders and stakeholders equally. Kuwait is currently lagging behind its main competitors due to the absence of its own statutory corporate governance code (Koldertsova 2010). There are numerous proposals and suggestions regarding the statewide implementation of this code, such as the CSR's Corporate Governance Code. However, none of the available codes currently have any official or legal standing. All of the guidelines offered in them are viewed as suggestions, not as rules. Due to the numerous economic commonalities amongst GCC members, Kuwait is able to compete with its neighbors. The following are the primary issues to be discussed in this paper:

Transparency and Disclosure problems. This study will investigate the difficulties in Kuwait and other developing nations in the region in order to establish a pattern of parallels between the situations. Lack of a strong legal foundation for corporate governance. The research will investigate why Kuwait's Corporate Governance Code has not yet been established or implemented. Familial corporate practices. Due to the fact that many firms in Kuwait are owned by rich and important families, company leadership is frequently determined by familial ties rather than merit or professional skill.

Literature Review

Before tackling the subject of corporate governance in Kuwait, the research must define corporate governance on a fundamental level. Definitions differ from scholar to scholar based on the characteristics relevant to their research. Low (2002) defines corporate governance as an environment in which the company's directors and top executives work to advance the interests of all shareholders. This term makes no distinction between large and small stockholders. However, it excludes other parties with their own rights and interests inside the corporate governance paradigm.

Spedding (2004) provides a definition that is more prevalent in the Asia-Pacific area, which includes the company's stakeholders. The corporate governance model should defend the interests and rights of these stakeholders, which include employees, consumers, suppliers, and lower-level managerial people. This model is popular in Japan and has already demonstrated its effectiveness. It suggests that stakeholders are a vital part of the economy and that the corporate governance code should safeguard their interests.

While the concepts of corporate governance were created and reaffirmed after the 2008-2009 global economic crisis, the importance of transparency and disclosure in business has been recognized for more than a century. Disclosure and transparency, according to the Basel Committee on Banking Supervision (1999), are the cornerstone for monitoring the financial sector. These characteristics provide reliable information to market players, allowing them to appraise the situation quickly and effectively. Timeliness, completeness, and accuracy of the presented information boost the investors' ability to make prudent investment decisions, so contributing to the overall economic health.

The agency theory is one of the most influential ideas of corporate governance, upon which many contemporary western systems are founded. It emphasizes shareholder rights and states that separating management and ownership would be problematic. According to McColgan (2001, p. 33), "the directors of such joint-stock companies, being the managers of other people's money rather than their own, cannot be expected to watch over it with the same anxious vigilance as the partners in a typical private partnership."

In many developing nations, corporate governance is a relatively new concept, as the bulk of industries have historically belonged to the government or to influential local clans and families. Such is the case in Nigeria, where local businesses and organizations, as well as the government, appear to be uncertain as to which corporate governance model they should adopt (Agelbite & Amaeshi 2010). The reason for this is that three powerful actors operating in the region, such as the prominent international organizations (IMF and OECD), local corporate governance institutions, and indigenous initiatives, are pulling the country in different directions, preventing the adoption of a unified corporate governance model (Agelbite & Amaeshi 2010). Similar circumstances can be observed in Kuwait.

This is accurate for many rising economies, including Turkey. According to Aksu and Kosedag (2006), emerging economies require external finance to expand into international markets. In addition, they have a poor corporate governance structure and an ineffective regulatory framework to ensure the transparency and disclosure of financial operations, which are essential for global market participation. While Turkish corporations have low-to-moderate levels of transparency and disclosure, their capacity and willingness to engage in voluntary disclosure of financial activities remain low (Aksu & Kosedag 2006). There are significant parallels between the Turkish and Kuwaiti business sectors, including Islamic influence on the economy, powerful familial companies, and an expansive government sector.

Examining the legislation and choices pertaining to openness and disclosure in other nations of the region provides a fascinating perspective on the practices and common issues of the emerging Arabic economy. According to Masry (2015), who examined the corporate governance system in Egypt, the country's Financial Market AW number 95 and its revisions require the submission of financial data by local enterprises and corporations within 90 days for annual accounts and 45 days for quarterly statements. According to the research, the overall disclosure rates for Egyptian companies have reached 71.6% for annual statements and 65.5% for corporate data amendments. The overall rate of disclosure has reached 66.5%.

Al Sawalqa (2014), who examined the application of a corporate governance code among Jordanian banks, provides an intriguing case regarding corporate governance and transparency. The Central Bank of Jordan issued a guidebook containing all the necessary instructions and regulations regarding corporate governance in the banking sector, including policies regarding familial ties among the board of directors, transparency and disclosure requirements, and general governance concerns. While compliance with general governance rules was absolute (all banks have adopted the CBJ-specified practices), and compliance with board of directors rules was relatively high (90.4%), audit information compliance was at 70.5%, indicating that nearly a third of banks did not comply or only partially comply with the CBJ's transparency and disclosure requirements. According to Al Sawalqa (2014), this disobedience is due to the fact that the CBJ rules are viewed as recommendations, and Jordanian banks are permitted to interpret or adapt the rulings to their particular circumstances and needs.

When it comes to openness and disclosure, the methods and procedures of various economies are distinct. Malaysian companies have been working under the new MFRS 7 disclosure protocols, which stress internal and external audit support to promote company transparency and disclosure, since 2012. According to Adznan and Nelson (2014), the overall level of transparency and disclosure has increased by 11.5% since the implementation of MFRS 7. The research demonstrates that implementing mandated disclosure and transparency norms improves the situation in emerging markets.

Various transparency and disclosure-related scandals involving huge corporations have given emerging economies a poor name. Even major nations like China cannot avoid the potential effects of scandals, such as investment and earnings losses. Nonetheless, the nation makes significant efforts to combat corruption and increase its transparency and disclosure rates. According to Myers and Steckman (2014), China has embraced certain OECD policies and practices to enhance its corporate governance, including factual laws to assure director independence, shareholder protection rights bulletin, and insider information regulations.

While the majority of studies consider transparency and disclosure to be an uncontested objective with apparent benefits for companies and stock markets in general, not everyone shares this viewpoint. Hermalin and Weisbach (2007) discovered that policies intended to promote transparency and disclosure can also result in decreased firm profit, increased executive compensation, and higher CEO turnover rates. According to the research, these considerations may be responsible for the lower levels of compliance with T&D regulations in emerging economies, as these procedures offer no short-term benefits and may result in a loss of profit.

As a tool of regulating the stock market, OECD is one of the international financial organisations that promote transparency and information. It publishes standards for both privately owned and state-owned businesses. According to OECD standards on corporate governance of state-owned businesses, the timely and accurate disclosure of information enables the company to maintain a solid corporate governance structure and reduces the company's financial crisis-related risks (OECD 2014). This is one of the reasons why corporate governance is essential for Kuwait and other GCC nations, whose economies are strongly dependent on oil prices.

Until the economic crisis of 2008, the issues of openness and transparency were largely neglected, as corporations operated under their own corporate governance laws and regulations. According to Kirkpatrick (2009), antiquated and ineffective corporate governance frameworks did not offer sufficient protection against stock market-related risks. Accounting and audit systems did not give sufficient feedback to allow the correct course of action, and essential information did not reach the boards in many instances due to inadequate computer systems and flawed risk-management approaches (Kirkpatrick 2009). As a result of these occurrences, numerous corporations and financial institutions have revised their corporate governance standards and implemented stock market transparency to avoid future risks.

The growing value of CEO compensation is one of the primary causes for Kuwait's financial fragility during crises. In many Kuwaiti companies, improper business practices favor large and opaque CEO compensation, hence lowering the threshold for earnings and prospects. According to Moore (2004), a concentration on immediate value rather than a long-term perspective is the only reason why the majority of enterprises in rising economic sectors such as Kuwait and Jordan shun transparency and disclosure.

Kuwait operates under the rules and regulations of the Kuwait Stock Exchange (KSE), which provides a list of rules and regulations on business openness and disclosure. As a corporate governance instrument, the system is inefficient, as many of its functions overlap with those of the Central Bank of Kuwait and the Ministry of Commerce and Industry. According to a research by the International Monetary Fund (2010), KSE is ineffectual for a variety of reasons, including the fact that most corporations and banks hire senior managers and corporate executives through a simple shareholder vote.

In the state-owned company sector, one of the flaws of the corporate government system in Kuwait is that regulations are quite lax and control mechanisms are inadequate. This element, combined with the issue of practically limitless funding for the government sector, leads to management and directors taking advantage of the lack of transparency and disclosure to plunder the organization. Therefore, foreign investors are reluctant to invest in the Kuwaiti economy until theft and corruption issues are resolved (Center for International Private Enterprise 2002).

The Central Bank of Kuwait issued the Banks of Kuwait with a set of corporate governance standards in 2004. These proposals include the protection of shareholder interests, guidelines and regulations for the role of stakeholders, a demand for disclosure and transparency, the election mechanism for the board of directors and managerial responsibilities, and the rules governing audit processes (The Central Bank of Kuwait 2004). Despite the fact that these legislation are based on OECD principles, Kuwait lacks an effective enforcement mechanism to assure compliance.

According to the Institute of International Finance (2007), several GCC countries and economies share comparable issues with relation to corporate governance and transparency. On the basis of multiple results and observations, they have identified a number of critical aspects that corporate governance systems should contain in order to improve openness and disclosure. The following are listed by the Institute of International Finance in 2007:

Strong regulatory structure with a clear separation between regulator and stock exchange functions. There must be complete separation between regulators and the government. Compliance with codes of corporate governance must be required. The relevant institutions must be equipped with the means to supervise and ensure compliance.

Governments throughout the world implement both obligatory and optional disclosure and transparency measures. Each method has benefits and drawbacks. According to Black (2000), voluntary disclosure is effective when the government offers positive incentives for compliance, such as tax refunds and tax returns. However, it is ineffective for smaller organizations and those who believe that not declaring their financial activity will bring a greater short-term gain than the incentives. On the other hand, mandatory disclosure is deemed more efficient, but its efficiency is dependent on the effectiveness of enforcement and oversight agencies. In a corrupt government, these instruments are employed to impose unfavorable conditions, according to Black (2000).

Netflix: Analysis Of The Strategy Common App Essay Help

Existing Conditions Current Performance

Netflix displayed business industry achievement in 2019. The overall assets of the company are estimated to be $33,975,712, while the market shares reached $437,799 (basic) and 451,765 (advanced) (diluted). Netflix acquired $387,064 in cash as a consequence of its investing activity. 1

Strategic Posture

Netflix's mission is to give clients with access to television series, movies, and other forms of entertainment. The corporate purpose is to deliver excellent services in accordance with consumer needs, while the business objective is to expand internationally and grow the number of customers. The company's functional purpose is to enhance consumer ease. 2 The objectives appear to align with the organization's mission and present values and priorities. Netflix engages with electronics manufacturers to give access to its content on a variety of devices. Additionally, it creates original material to promote customer interest and provides its services internationally (for example, in Canada). 3 The tactics are designed to improve product quality and expand internationally. Netflix provides data and privacy protection, and its material is protected by copyright and trademarks, which must be utilized with authorization. Netflix's DVDs and streaming services are protected by patents. 4 Netflix's laws address the most vital areas of the company's operations and are consistent with its primary mission, objectives, and operating environment. The features presented are distinct and consistent with one another. The company's objectives and strategies reflect the direction of its global expansion and the maintenance of its leadership position.

Corporate Administration

The company's board of directors consists of eight officers and eleven directors. These employees with extensive experience received their university degrees from various places across the globe (for example, in America, Australia, and Germany). 5 There are five key members of the organization's management:

Reed Hastings is the founder and chief executive officer of the artificial intelligence-focused corporation he founded. David Hyman is the Chief Legal Officer and a seasoned senior business attorney. Chief Marketing Officer Jackie Lee-Joe has more than twenty years of marketing experience. Chief Talent Officer responsible for engineering department careers is Jessica Niel. Spencer Neumann is the Chief Financial Officer of the Walt Disney Company, where he previously worked. 6

External Environment: Chances and Dangers

Societal Environment

Economical trends:

There is a growing financialization of the media and entertainment industry.

7 Netflix's success may be evaluated exclusively based on its market performance, which poses a threat to the business. A corporation may view a change in international expansion as a chance to increase its global success. 8

Technological innovations:

Distribution is controlled by cable and data providers; consequently, coordination with these organizations is the key to success.

9

Political-legal trends:

The importance of privacy data is growing and poses a risk to the organization if its privacy policy is not adequately regulated.

10

Socio-cultural trends:

Increasing media influence leads to fragmentation of the audience; the corporation must respond to different categories of consumers, such as families. Its success may be jeopardized if it cannot be accomplished. 11

The forces highlighted may change based on the economic or political climate of specific places.

Task Environment The prospect of new competitors

New entrants do not pose an imminent threat to the company's industry position.

negotiating leverage of buyers

Due to the audience's specific pricing and quality expectations for Netflix items, the bargaining power of purchasers is significant.

The risk of competing products or services

In some regions, movies and television series are available online; for instance, in the United States, the threat of replacement items may be serious.

negotiating leverage of suppliers

The bargaining power of suppliers is relatively considerable; for instance, Amazon and other content providers compete with the corporation in this industry. Netflix should partner with well-known technology companies, such as Apple, to make its services available on several devices.

Competition between competing enterprises

Netflix's competitors include Disney + and Amazon, which also provide access to movies and television shows.

Immediate Surroundings

Today, Netflix's opportunities are tied to its international audience and partnerships with technology providers. Concurrently, competitors with comparable or superior offerings may pose a danger to its reputation.

Possibilities and dangers confronting the organization

Significant potential for the organization include global expansion, client expansion, and collaboration with electronics suppliers. They are all related to domestic and international development. The corporation faces competition, financial, and societal difficulties as risks. Netflix must conform to current market conditions by adapting to current trends.

Strategic Group Evaluation

Amazon is Netflix's primary competitor with same priced products and services; it also creates its own original programming, like Netflix. Disney + adheres to the same customer-centric strategy by producing content for various clientele. 12 Both corporations are quite established and prosperous internationally, making them a potential danger.

Table 1. Netflix External Environment

Threats and Advantages

Financing International development

function of privacy Audience fragmentation

Distribution in a Competitive Market

Netflix should pay greater attention to its market share, partners, and privacy policy, as seen in Table 1. Targeting distinct customer segments, reaching out to international customers, and creating online and offline technology may have a favorable effect on its performance.

An Overview of External Factors

Since the world is experiencing transformations in technology and globalization, technological and social developments are most likely to effect Netflix. Netflix should also pay attention to its investments and market share, since these elements may become crucial to its success as the role of finance grows.

Footnotes

Netflix (2019). Q4 2019 Financial Statements. [Excel document]. Lussier, R.N. (2019). Fundamentals of management: theories, applications, and skill development. Publications by SAGE. Lussier, R.N. (2019). Fundamentals of management: theories, applications, and skill development. Publications by SAGE. Legal notices (2018). Directors and officers of Netflix. (n.d.) Directors and officers of Netflix. (n.d.) Netflix . McDonald, K., and D. Smith-Rowsey (2016). The Netflix effect: entertainment and technology in the twenty-first century. Bloomsbury Publishing in the United States. McDonald, K., and D. Smith-Rowsey (2016). The Netflix effect: entertainment and technology in the twenty-first century. Bloomsbury Publishing in the United States. McDonald, K., and D. Smith-Rowsey (2016). The Netflix effect: entertainment and technology in the twenty-first century. Bloomsbury Publishing in the United States. McDonald, K., and D. Smith-Rowsey (2016). The Netflix effect: entertainment and technology in the twenty-first century. Bloomsbury Publishing in the United States. D. Johnson (Editor) (2018). A guide to changing channels, from networks to Netflix. Routledge. Moskowitz, D. (2020). Who are Netflix's principal rivals? Investopedia, online.

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Apple Inc. Marketing Analysis Common App Essay Help

Customer-Focused Marketing Methodology and Outstanding Value

Apple is one of the most prominent smartphone and technology companies on the market. It has attained this position by employing one of the most alluring and strategic marketing strategies that focuses on the consumer experience. The youthful generations and millennials who witnessed Apple’s ascent to prominence in the smartphone sector remain the company’s primary market, but its simplicity and the tools it provides also appeal to older generations and specialized markets such as creative artists. Apple's key value proposition continues to be the outstanding quality of its goods, which creates a lifestyle brand in a highly atypical business.

Developing Solid Customer Relationships

Since Steve Job's return to Apple and the company's entry into, or maybe development of, the smartphone sector, Apple has placed a great emphasis on cultivating a huge base of devoted customers. Powered by Apple’s early marketing efforts of “think differently,” the Apple brand is linked with originality, innovation, and the ‘cool-factor,’ despite retaining a market share of over 30% in Western markets. All Apple goods, marketing, and services are centered on developing an immersive and integrated ecosystem to a degree that no other software or smartphone maker can match, resulting in a strong customer relationship that encourages brand loyalty.

Macro-Environmental Factors

Apple, like other multinational firms, encounters a wide range of macroenvironmental issues. Apple must manage political and economic stability, influences, and laws, notably between the United States, where it is headquartered and where the majority of its sales are conducted, and China, where its gadgets are manufactured. Apple has faced several obstacles throughout the years, including problems with supply chains and pricing laws. It must also maintain a technological advantage by inventing and designing new versions of its most successful products in order to remain competitive. All while relying on dependable legal counsel to safeguard its intellectual property, data protection rights, and other liabilities.

Organization Structure

Apple's organizational structure is efficient and adds to the company's innovation, integration, and success. Apple's business structure is hierarchical, with CEO Tim Cook making strategic choices at the executive level. In contrast to the days of Steve Jobs, when he exercised ultimate authority, the present structure gives product division vice presidents liberty. However, power remains concentrated at the top, and middle management has little effect. The weak functional matrix permits collaboration between divisions while preserving hierarchy. In this manner, the organization promotes the spread of information for the advancement of innovation processes, which are then reflected in brand development and marketing.

Mission and Objectives

The mission and vision of Apple are both obvious and aspirational. It is a product-driven endeavor that needs substantial engineering, design, and technology expertise. This has helped Apple to flourish since the days of Steve Jobs, who passionately pushed the firm toward perfection, allowing it to become a market leader and contribute to innovation for a competitive advantage.

SWOT Analysis

Apple's most valuable asset is its brand, a globally known name and logo that is synonymous with technology's finest quality and elegance. However, this is also tied to its greatest shortcoming, which is high price points, which make the items somewhat unique and hard to sell in large amounts, as well as fewer frequent upgrades. Apple strives to enter new product categories, many of which it has helped to build, and to innovate in new ways while growing its distribution network. Apple's greatest concern is competition, since Samsung has challenged it in the high-end phone category and numerous Chinese companies provide low-cost phones that resemble Apple and give largely the same functionality without the ecosystem.

Promotional Objectives

Apple's marketing objectives have a strong correlation with its marketing mix, which will be examined further on. Apple, as a business, aims to raise its sales and maintain its profit margins; hence, the volume of sales, especially for new, pricey goods, is essential. However, because Apple's brand is such a significant component of its image and marketing potential, Apple's marketing objectives also include maintaining the brand's name, interacting with consumers, and improving the brand's perception and reputation. Apple is able to develop a competitive edge as a result of its brand recognition, something other companies struggle to acquire.

Marketing Strategy

Apple is not just a distinctive firm in terms of its products, but also in the manner in which it advertises. There are a few advertisements that broadcast on television other visual media such as YouTube, but they are not essential. Instead, it employs product placement, in which their latest devices are used by sports and celebrities, as well as the buzz generated by positive evaluations from experts, journalists, and enthusiasts surrounding each release. As shown in all promotional materials, Apple's marketing technique is basic; the product is exhibited and presented clearly, emphasizing its unique selling proposition. Apple rarely advertises on social media, instead publishing (as an example) a good iPhone photo that, without a sales pitch, generates the urge to acquire the device.

Measuring and Managing Return on Marketing

These measurements are essential markers of marketing success. Due to competition, Apple has recently witnessed a considerable reduction in nearly all of these. Due to the emergence of cheaper alternatives with less constraints, sales and market penetration have declined dramatically. Moreover, in the smartphone sector, behavioral metrics are crucial due to the fact that consumers frequently upgrade their phones, preferring to stick with the same brand but occasionally changing their preferences. Lastly, Apple attempts to maintain user happiness with its products and services, which enables word-of-mouth marketing and encourages brand loyalty.

B2B & B2C Sales Strategies

Apple’s B2C marketing strategy is renowned for its great emotional appeal. According to the company's aim, it develops items that challenge the status quo and then distributes them to consumers so they can do the same. Consumers identify with Apple, and this strategy is effective. Even though it is well-known, the organization also has a significant B2B presence. It has strong ties to education systems and offers iPads and computers for student education. Apple products are also utilized by government systems due to their superior encryption security. Apple ensures that it takes a customized approach to each organization by employing sales professionals with industry knowledge to develop a sales pitch for how the goods can be applied there.

Marketing Mix

While Apple was formed as a computing company, it has migrated predominantly to the mobile device market, producing a variety of famous products, each of which has created its own industry category. Due to their ubiquity, Apple products are sold and advertised nearly everywhere, both online and in stores. Due to the importance of its brand and the exceptional quality of its products, Apple maintains premium prices, frequently in excess of the competitors for products of comparable type. Apple gains greatly from promotions that range from traditional advertising to word-of-mouth and internal ecosystem advertising.

Relationship of Marketing to Other Departments

Marketing is extremely targeted. It has transitioned from a corporation that marketed an idea and compared itself to others to one that focuses solely on its own product and brand. The marketing consistently stresses Apple ecosystem offerings. In a promotional image of the new iPhone, for instance, Apple Music or the App store is displayed. All Apple products have warranties or purchasable Apple Care, which drives consumers to its iconic physical stores where additional purchases can be made. Apple exemplifies integration and interdependence between its product offers and corporate structure and departments.

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A Singapore-Based Company’s Perspective Common App Essay Help

Table of Contents
Executive Synopsis Introduction FTAs Overview Context Rationale Benefit Areas Obstacles and Pitfalls Conclusion Bibliography

Executive Synopsis

The phenomena of FTAs cannot be regarded a novel economic strategy, but in the aftermath of the worldwide pandemic, they may be able to assist the countries that have suffered greatly and demand active assistance. Due to the recent economic difficulties, the chances afforded by the FTA may be particularly advantageous for Wilmar International, a Singaporean agricultural concern. Prior to choosing an FTA option, Singapore must evaluate numerous dangers, such as a tarnished reputation if the responsibilities and tasks as a member of the FTA are mismanaged and the misallocation of available resources. In spite of the recent decline in Singapore's GDP and the excruciatingly sluggish rates of economic recovery, Wilmar International must take advantage of every opportunity to enhance its performance. In light of this, it is strongly suggested that an FTA within the ASEAN community be promoted in the target setting. Thus, Wilmar International will have the opportunity to enhance and modernize its supply chain networks by offering less expensive and more efficient solutions, while also making the infrastructure more flexible and avoiding catastrophic taxes.

Introduction

The concept of a free trade agreement is a relatively new phenomena, but it has proven to be fairly effective in circumstances where economic prosperity levels are roughly similar and in the majority of cases astonishingly high. This study aims to demonstrate that Wilmar International, a Singapore-based food processing company facing difficulties in overcoming the effects of the coronavirus-induced economic crisis, is likely to experience a significant boost that will allow it to manage the recently incurred costs and address the damages caused by the pandemic, while also expanding its supply chain and exploring the possibility of attracting new customers.

FTAs Overview

Currently, WTO-related agreements and cooperation between nations within a same geographic region account for the majority of FTAs. Singapore, as the most successful member of ASEAN, may need the assistance of other ASEAN members to increase its economic growth rates (Duong et al., 2020). An FTA, as an agreement between two or more countries regarding trade terms, offers a variety of opportunities, including the chance to attract investors and the chance to encourage the further promotion of innovative solutions in target setting, which will enable Wilmar International to flourish and expand its supply chain. Wilmar should specifically investigate negotiating into a Bilateral Trade Agreement with Vietnam in order to collaborate with Vietnamese organizations.

Background

Up until recently, Singapore's economic performance has been rising at an amazing rate. Singapore has been at the head of the ASEAN group, exemplifying exemplary management of the available economic, financial, and other resources, due to its elaborate and well-considered use of technological advances, its emphasis on fostering entrepreneurship, and its commitment to enhancing education (Duong, Holmes, & Strutt, 2020). Wilmar International, a company in the agricultural industry that offers services such as the refinement and cultivation of some of the most popular plants, such as oil palms, oilseed, and edible oils, is one of the companies that have had a particularly significant impact on Singapore’s economy (Duong et al., 2020). Nonetheless, with the emergence of the pandemic and its impact on the world economy, Singapore has encountered various difficulties, which have significantly reduced Wilmar International's profits (Duong et al., 2020). Currently, the business could benefit from the assistance of potential business partners.

Rationale

Given Singapore's current economic and political climate, the country is an ideal candidate for a free trade pact. In light of the fact that Singapore has an incredibly high human development index of 0.93 (2019) (Jamrisko, 2020), the country is quite secure despite the threats the FTA may expose it to (Duong et al., 2020). Similarly, although being heavily impacted by the pandemic, the country's GDP is still fairly high (See, 2021). The described adjustments have had an effect on Wilmar International, affording the company an opportunity to improve its performance while leaving its present share price at $4.79 and falling (Duong et al., 2020). Although Wilmar International's current business situation is manageable, the company might use a boost, which can be achieved by entering the Vietnam market. "Wilmar International Limited (F34.SI)," 2021. However, the corporation must mitigate the dangers that could impede its worldwide trade expansion. Wilmar International's sales climbed by 50 percent in 2020, reaching $611 million (Wilmar International Limited, 2021). In turn, the assistance of local partners and the influx of international investors could assist Wilmar International in addressing the problem.

Areas of Advantage

The establishment of a free trade zone always necessitates the introduction of a plethora of advantages for the participating nations. The formation of a free trade environment will be especially beneficial for ASEAN for the several reasons outlined below. The ASEAN Free Trade Area is a beneficial project for Wilmar International since it will give the organization with a solid support system due to their shared cultural heritage and the resulting many opportunities to establish a platform for active and successful interactions (Wong et al., 2017). In addition, the company's improved performance will attract overseas investment.

Wilmar will be able to explore the prospects of the Vietnam market without the restrictions it would have faced as a foreign company had it not joined an FTA. Specifically, Wilmar will not be required to pay the fees that are presently levied on companies importing items into Vietnam, allowing the company to concentrate on raising the quality of its products and enhancing its supply chain (Duong et al., 2020). Participation in an FTA will therefore enable Wilmar to reorganize its resources to obtain a competitive edge. In the ASEAN context, a cheaper labor force and the opportunity to efficiently outsource should be viewed as important objectives.

In addition, domestic industries and firms in the target nations will receive a significant and direct incentive for future development and an expansion of their activity and initiative on the ASEAN market (Duong et al., 2020). As a result, the ASEAN market will become more competitive, which will encourage the parties involved in the tainted partnerships to seek out improvement and innovation opportunities. Consequently, the concerned nations and enterprises will avoid the risk of becoming stale and inactive. Wilmar International views the opportunity to grow and strengthen the supply chains of its key organizations as a significant advantage, as it will assist the country to strengthen its position and offer its businesses with crucial resources, such as a cheaper labor force. Specifically, Wilmar International will be able to develop into the Vietnamese oil market, one of the places it has not yet entered.

As a result of the observed economic growth and the shift in the trade relationship dynamics, it is anticipated that an influx of investors would be detected in a relatively short period of time. Indeed, current examples of free trade agreements between states indicate that investors will consider the stated environment as especially attractive due to the absence of physical boundaries and, consequently, tax-related concerns between the states. As a result, a significant number of businesses are likely to evaluate the ASEAN environment as a prospective investment location, which will result in an additional boost for ASEAN firms and a rise in their performance rates. By comparing the GDP growth rates before and after the establishment of the free trade zone, it is probable that the resultant increase in economic growth rates within the ASEAN member states will exhibit a significant improvement.

In the case of Singapore, however, foreign direct investment prospects should be ranked among the most important investment-related opportunities for countries negotiating a free trade agreement. According to Duong, Holmes, and Strutt (2020, p. 1), "the expectation of increased FDI flows is one of the most important reasons a country enters into a free trade agreement." Consequently, the opportunity to attract investors and establish a constant supply of financial support for Singapore entrepreneurs, businesses, and SMEs continues to be one of the most compelling benefits to consider. Specifically, it will allow Singapore to address its recent dip in GDP growth to 0.73 percent (USD 371,200,000,000). (Jamrisko, 2020).

Mention should also be made of the opportunity for the enterprises participating in the transactions to gain expertise, so establishing the conditions for a potential quick increase in the states' GDPs and allowing them to become significant players in the global market environment. The chance for participants to get the crucial experience of engaging in international trade also highlights the value of training to deploy the most suitable technical tools for managing the essential operations. The introduction of new control technologies, particularly digital ones, represents a substantial issue for a variety of businesses and their accompanying governing bodies (Duong et al., 2020). In reality, the very nature of the digital market, with the advent of extra uncertainties and the lack of experience in operating within it, may be a source of anxiety and a significant barrier to economic development (Duong et al., 2020). However, once an FTA is signed and the trade process begins, the parties may try novel solutions without fear of being dominated by a more experienced and influential corporation belonging to a worldwide market competitor (Duong et al., 2020). Instead, mutual assistance and collaboration can be encouraged in the stated context, which will result in more opportunities for constructing a solid support network and gaining a significant competitive advantage over other participants in the global market contacts.

Given the effects of the coronavirus epidemic on Wilmar International's economic and well-being as a whole, the support of the ASEAN member nations will be highly significant. Wilmar International will be able to enter the Vietnam oil market and establish a supply network inside it, thereby attracting new customers. Given the sluggish growth of Singapore's economy, diversification looks to be an appropriate strategy for Wilmar International. In particular, the 3.6% rate in 2020 compared to the 3.5% rate in 2019 illustrates that Singapore was severely impacted by the global economic crisis (Jamrisko, 2020). Even if the state's economy is showing indications of steady recovery, Singapore could benefit from the assistance of its neighbors.

Challenges and Pitfalls

Unfortunately, along with the various favorable elements of the usage of free-trade agreements, there are also a number of issues that one must be aware of and prevent from being the cause of substantial financial losses. Among the most significant dangers involved with the creation of a free trade zone are information management issues.

The threat to participants' intellectual property should be placed at the top of the list of major issues related to signing a free trade agreement and participating in related activities. Existing information indicates that intellectual property theft is one of the many realities of operating in the economic environment of third-world nations (Duong et al., 2020). However, despite the fact that countries with lower income rates and a significantly poorer GDP are particularly vulnerable to the threat of a cyberattack, the issue in question may also occur in the relatively innocent settings of the second- or first-world countries, indicating the issue of inadequate safety standards and the lack of tools that could serve as constraining options.

The problem of insufficient security rats can be explained by the discriminatory nature of the proposed framework for ASEAN to establish a free-trade zone for select population groups (Duong et al., 2020). In addition, the disclosed tool is extremely time- and resource-intensive, which suggests that further use of the label is almost impossible. Before signing a contract that requires thorough and rigorous labeling and allocation of Wilmar International's available resources, one must thus not consider the outlined option. Nonetheless, it appears that the organization has a good possibility of obtaining the necessary funding and enhancing its performance by attracting new investors and commercial partners.

When negotiating an agreement to participate in free trade, an oblivious entrepreneur must also be cautious of the issue of insufficient working conditions. Due to the emerging outsourcing prospects that free tared enterprises may enjoy, they are very likely to seek out labor outsourcing alternatives. As a result, corporations may feel less responsible for failing to satisfy the needs of the target audience than for failing to meet the requirements that local staff members will set (Duong et al., 2020). Consequently, a company may discover that its managers are inclined to implement somewhat exploitative human resource management practices (HRM).

Surprisingly, in addition to failing to meet legal requirements, the indicated threat also entails a devaluation in the eyes of the rest of the community. Specifically, as the example of Wilmar International will undoubtedly demonstrate, the amount of favorable attention a company used to receive from its target audience will inevitably drop. In addition, the potential for engagement with the states and organizations that provide the most opportunities for professional development and the learning of new tools and skills should be addressed. Failure to comply with local cultural norms mostly results in a poor reputation; consequently, it is extremely desired for the company's executives, their managers, and employees for whom the managers are responsible to exercise extreme caution while selecting partners within the ASEAN context. Wilmar International must therefore develop a SC-wide strategy centered on the promotion of transparency and incremental innovation. Thus, the company will get a competitive advantage on the oil market in Vietnam.

The issue of natural resource depletion must be mentioned towards the conclusion of an honest summary of the impact that the signing of a free trade agreement will have on the ASEAN member states. Since the process of economic development remains constrained inside a limited context rather than expanding into the global environment, the prospect of exhausting all available resources within the context of the home country remains perilously plausible (Duong et al., 2020). The described threat is a distinct possibility for both developing and developed governments, making the issue at hand one of the most important in establishing a free trade zone.

Due to the lack of accessible resources in the aforementioned states, the dilemma stated above poses a unique challenge to the ASEAN community.

Performance Management Processes In Multinational Corporations Common App Essay Help

Introduction

With the growth of agile management techniques and the increasing importance of the unique qualities of each employee, performance management is growing in importance. The performance management system is a strategy used to assess the performance of employees (Thorpe, 2015). Performance management systems rely on two-way procedures since they are designed to collect data about worker productivity and supply the individual with knowledge about the organization's mission and objectives. There are a number of goals performance management is intended to achieve. First, it is used to sustain strategic planning by ensuring that individual employee goals align with the company's overall objective. Secondly, it fulfills administrative functions. As performance management assesses employee productivity, it also gives sufficient information for arranging promotions, wage adjustments, and human resource management in general. Thirdly, it contributes significantly to the growth of communication within the firm. To maximize workflow, it may be required to collect information regarding the values and objectives of employees.

Management of performance is also vital for personnel growth and organizational maintenance. It gives useful information regarding the strengths and weaknesses of individual employees and corporate divisions. As a result, it can provide context for crucial management decisions such as staff training, mentoring, and coaching. For performance management to be fully functional, documentation is necessary. Performance management is ideally suited for organizations that employ a diverse workforce with varying requirements, skills, and capacities. Consequently, performance management is consistent with the labor management requirements of international organizations. It has a wide range of applications in multinational organizations worldwide and provides adequate methodologies and frameworks.

Development of Expats in Performance Management

As previously said, staff development is a crucial component of performance management. It is especially important for multinational corporations and expatriates. Consider a wide range of unique features, such as language studies, communication skill development, and cultural knowledge acquisition. It may be required to equip the expatriate with adequate information about the unique characteristics of the host community and the intended market (Varma et al., 2020). Before the assignment, it is also essential to collect information regarding the expatriate's strengths and shortcomings. To properly recoup expatriation expenses, the individual should be supplied with the necessary training. Of the framework of performance management processes in multinational organizations, employee development is thus of particular significance.

Offering Employment Opportunities to Returning Expats

The provision of opportunities for returning expatriates to utilize their expatriation-gained knowledge is a somewhat unique and vital part of international performance management. In many instances, transnational firms do not give employees returning from abroad assignments with suitable employment opportunities (Varma et al., 2020). Such an attitude may result in a variety of negative and expensive outcomes for the business. First, returning expatriates may experience work dissatisfaction due to a lack of opportunity to apply their new skills. In turn, the organization loses valued employees. Second, businesses miss out on the opportunity to learn from the expertise of international specialists. To effectively utilize the skills of returning expatriates, it may be essential to assign them with special responsibilities.

Communication Monitoring between Expatriates and the Host Organization

It may be required to monitor and maintain appropriate communication between expatriates, their home organization, and their host organization. Nonetheless, communicating with the host company may provide particularly difficult obstacles. According to numerous studies, expatriates require assistance to successfully adapt to and excel in foreign environments (Razafiarivony, 2006). Supported expatriates tend to adapt and perform at higher rates. This assistance includes assistance with adjusting to the local community and gaining an understanding of cultural characteristics. Information pertaining to the infrastructure of the targeted nation may also help to an improvement in performance. By offering such assistance, the host nation may lessen the challenges faced by the expatriate and enable the employee to concentrate on the job process.

Establishment of Precise Performance Objectives

Maintaining strong connections between overseas staff and host supervisors may be crucial. Communication is one of the most crucial facets of international commerce. There is, however, a crucial feature that applies to both local and international performance management. An employee should be able to comprehend and adhere to performance objectives. Providing accurate and current objectives is essential for enhancing staff performance. It is particularly essential for international business. Initially, expatriate programs are extensive and time-limited. Therefore, introducing defined and meaningful objectives may not only reduce the amount of time required, but also the associated expenses. Second, expatriate programs are usually competitive, and delays in completion may result in market share loss.

Adjusting Performance Objectives for Diverse Expats

As expatriate assignments are quite diverse and have distinctive characteristics, it may be required to customize each program. Personal factors should include the formulation of separate objectives and performance targets in accordance with the company and project being addressed. Numerous factors influence multinational organizations, and it may be impossible to build a consistent framework for addressing developing difficulties. Adapting to new regions and conditions may be an ongoing job for international corporations. Numerous examples exist of multinational firms failing to enter a market due to insufficient evaluation of their unique traits. Flexibility and equipping expatriates with pertinent objectives may be the key to international success.

Possible Challenges

Several of the difficulties associated with performance management in international businesses have already been mentioned. Nevertheless, international performance management is complex and influenced by a multitude of circumstances. Consequently, there are additional substantial obstacles to consider. Absence of prior international experience may be a major obstacle in relation to the topic. Such information and expertise may not be obtainable from external sources. In some instances, expatriating a worker with no overseas expertise is the only viable alternative. It is essential to provide as much pertinent information and training as feasible in order to reduce associated risks. A further difficulty relates to the impact of cultural distance. Cultural factors can frequently create communication hurdles and impede efficient performance management. Taking cultural elements into account may aid in the accomplishment of global objectives.

Conclusion

Performance management offers a vast array of useful approaches that can be utilized in contemporary enterprises. Therefore, it is gaining popularity, and companies are paying close attention to employee performance. It is especially pertinent in the context of international management and relationships. As it addresses a wide number of unique concerns, performance management approach is directly applicable to global organizations. In conclusion, the application of flexible performance management systems may greatly increase domestic and foreign worker productivity.

References

Razafiarivony, M. A. (2006). Journal of Adventist Mission Studies, 2(2), pp. 89-96, "Expatriates and the Performance Management System"

Performance Management, by R. Thorpe, Palgrave Macmillan, 2015.

A. Varma, C.-H. Wang, and P. S. Budhwar (2020). Performance Management for Expatriates. Global Mobility and the Management of Expatriates, 80–99. Web.

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