Activity Based Costing And Activity Based Budgeting Compare And Contrast Essay Help

Table of Contents
Introduction Textual Abstract Bibliography

Introduction

Accounting has evolved via the recognition of the impact of accounting information on management operations, security pricing decisions, and social responsibility and welfare. Consequently, the interpretations, measurements, and definitions of costs and benefits given in accounting reports have evolved. When discussing the cost of producing goods and services in accounting, the following distinctions are typically made. Johnson and Kaplan suggest a new method to cost accounting and management in their book Relevance Lost: The Rise and Fall of Management Accounting. This method permits businesses to enhance their accounting and management practices and uncover links between cause and effect in order to assign costs.

Principal text

According to Johnson and Kaplan, traditional accounting practices result in failures and low productivity. They discovered that management accounting reports are of little assistance to operating managers attempting to reduce expenses and boost productivity (Johnson and Kaplan 1991, p. 1). Cost accounting traditionally focuses on cost buildup, inventory valuation, and product costing. It stresses the expense aspect.

Thus, implicitly, the objective function of the new strategy is considered to be cost minimization. Activity-based costing is a more precise management technique that identifies an item's true cost. The advantage and strength of this strategy is that "complex and extensive organizations evolved to manage each of the activities" as a result of linking several separate processes (Johnson and Kaplan 1991, p. 19). The activity-based costing method emphasizes that expenses are determined for each activity and only for items that pass through it (Cooper & Kaplan 1997).

According to this accounting approach, the organization must take certain actions to implement this accounting system, including defining the process and analyzing its activities, establishing cost pools, matching the pools to the activities, and identifying cost drivers. The necessity for a standard financial measuring stick drove managers of integrated multi-activity organizations to advance management accounting beyond cost management methods (Johnson and Kaplan 1991, p. 87).

This method has the benefit of calculating indirect costs that cannot be attributed to a specific product based on cost drivers. The optimal allocation of resources is the focus of cost-based accounting and budgeting, according to Johnson and Kaplan. Profit maximization may be seen as the objective function. It is also considered that the cost accountant and the management accountant perform distinct functions; the cost accountant is responsible for cost control, while the management accountant is responsible for cost reduction (Cooper & Kaplan 1997).

Activity-based budgeting demonstrates that an emphasis is placed on cost management and planning, which may have perpetuated the notion that these two areas are distinct. Rather than emphasizing these distinctions, it is preferable to view accounting as an attempt to incorporate approaches from different disciplines into cost accounting. In fact, the scope of cost accounting has expanded in many ways in recent years.

The assumption that individuals act rationally and always choose the optimal alternative can only be maintained if a cost measure is included in the comparison of different choices. “The system of internal control is designed to improve the efficiency and effectiveness of routine business operations.” (Johnson and Kaplan 1991, p. 161). As long as costs are a question of human choices, based on subjective measurements and encompassing considerations, it is challenging to substantiate such a claim. In general, the cost principle contrasts various choices within the rational choice framework.

Various opportunity cost measures can be established based on the specific problem statement and underlying assumptions that describe a given issue. "Some costs are fixed over relevant activity ranges, while others vary according to output, scope of operations, quality levels, market coverage area, and number" (Johnson and Kaplan 1991, p. 160). In general, this approach of cost accounting gives cost information for the formulation of the optimal strategy required to acquire a competitive advantage.

Other scholars have created and evaluated the activity-based costing methodologies. Hussein & Tam (2004), Lindahl (1997), Albright & Sparr (1994), Maiga & Jacobs (2003). These academics expand their understanding of activity-based costing by incorporating the strategic components required to acquire a competitive advantage into their analysis. Consequently, accounting information plays a larger role in the strategic process phases:

The formulation of strategies and phases, the communication of strategies, the development of tactics, and the implementation of strategies.

In the paper titled "Management's Role in Enhancing Decision Making with Activity-Based Costing," Barnes (1992) examines the function and significance of activity-based costing in the decision-making process. He makes reference to Johnson and Kaplan:

Activity-based costing is not intended to automatically trigger decisions. It is intended to provide more precise information regarding production and support activities and product costs, allowing management to focus on the goods and processes with the most potential for profit growth. It assists managers in making better decisions regarding product design, price, marketing, and mix, and it promotes continuous operating improvements (Johnson and Kaplan cited Barnes 1992, p. 21).

Barnes demonstrates with these examples how activity-based costing and budgeting can improve decision-making and problem-solving techniques. This approach to practical decision-making offers a strategy for evaluating problem scenarios that arise as a result of suboptimal settings. These problem areas may not be limited to accounting profit metrics and obvious expenses, but may also involve implicit costs and mental values. In this sense, decision-making may involve much broader notions than those established for economically rational conduct based on explicit market values.

Lindahl (1997) expands the scope of problem analysis and posits that it is possible to identify interrelationships and complex adjustment processes that, over time, may eliminate existing problem circumstances. In conventional analytic, static, and simplified models, such dynamic processes are not "obvious." Lindahl (1997) emphasizes that activity-based costing can be effectively used in the marketing and strategic management domains.

The ABC way of thinking casts doubt on performance measurement. If the new “activity” insights require a different emphasis, then performance measurements should drive the manager’s efforts in that direction (Lindahl 1997, p. 62).

In addition, the cost principle gives criteria for selecting relevant information for economic decision-making. Depending on the choice problem at hand, this may also incorporate financial data in addition to estimates of intrinsic and opportunity costs. Given that decisions influence the future, this entails the notion of environmental stability.

Krumwiede and Roth (1997) extend the use of activity-based costing to include information technology. On a micro scale, decision options pertain to particular economic agents, such as companies or individuals. When market prices are fixed, their individual activities will not impact price levels, therefore decision alternatives pertain to diverse uses of resources. Krumwiede and Roth (1997) assert:

The activity-based strategy is expanded to encompass a larger cost management philosophy that focuses on finding and removing nonvalue-added activities related to design, procurement, distribution, selling, and even administrative tasks (98).

An objective of activity-based costing and accounting is to make relevant information on a company's objectives, policies, programs, performance, and contributions to strategic goals optimally accessible to all social constituents. Relevant information is that which supports public accountability and decision-making on social options and allocation of social resources.

Albright & Sparr (1994) and Maiga & Jacobs (2003) find that Johnson & Kaplan's (1991) approach efficiently balances potential information conflicts among a firm's many social constituents. Activity-based costing and budgeting consist of established systems for cost accumulation, product pricing, budgeting, performance evaluation, and resource allocation. Business strategies determine how a company competes in a certain industry and positions itself relative to its rivals.

They emphasize that the adopted strategy style must be backed by adequate and suitable accounting approaches. Therefore, the chosen strategy style is a significant predictor of the accounting principles, procedures, and systems implemented.

The identification of the proper approach is crucial for both internal and external users of management accounting information of a given organization, as it can reveal the "fit" between the strategic style and the management accounting system supporting its adoption, formulation, and implementation. Albright and Sparr (1994) state, "The cost analysis performed by TPG indicates that even in a labor-intensive manufacturing environment, ABC can produce cost estimates that differ from and are superior to those provided by a labor-driven overhead rate" (p. 215).

These tasks entail subjective interpretations and interpersonal interactions. Management control entails both upper and middle management who tackle challenges according to a predetermined pattern and timetable to ensure efficient and effective solutions. Maiga & Jacobs (2003) apply the notion of activity-based costing and assume that the performance of these tasks or transactions is governed by management control and planning-derived norms and procedures. Also, the interaction effect of Balanced Scorecard (BSC) and activity-based costing on manufacturing unit performance is investigated. They discover:

Management accounting systems and BSC systems can have complementary or synergistic effects on performance. The implications of this study are that (1) researchers need to be aware of the significant role BSC and ABC play in determining the efficacy of any "intervention" in contemporary manufacturing environments, and (2) organizations seeking substantial program improvements should modify their manufacturing initiatives to align with the new performance standards (385).

It is feasible to state that the process by which accounting principles have evolved has changed through time, and that management has complete control over the means by which accounting data is collected and the sort of data provided. In order to achieve their strategic objectives, modern firms have implemented activity-based costing and activity-based budgeting strategies.

New concepts and accounting techniques have a significant impact on the strategic management of businesses. The approach provided by Johnson and Kaplan is adaptable and flexible. It refers to the extent to which data can serve as the foundation for multiple sorts of information and reports. It depends on both the database's categorization into distinct categories and the level of aggregation employed for each category. Purchase data, for instance, may be categorised according to the following categories:

by individual product or service, by individual buyer, by individual vendor, etc.

Under the following categories, these data may be aggregated:

per transaction, per day, per month, etc.

The focus is on the management of activities within the framework created by strategic planning (Cooper & Kaplan 1997).

The activity-based strategy enables businesses to adapt to new settings and determine accurate product costs. The information obtained from the database can be adapted to or harmonized with the firm's decision-making processes, which is advantageous for businesses. The adaptability of an accounting system necessitates not only the existence of flexibility, but also an intentional method of harmonizing it with the decision-making procedure.

This is particularly significant within the concept of market equilibrium, in which any individual would be indifferent to the various options given by the market. This suggests that all humans have monetary-based choice structures and prefer more money to less. By applying this argument to the aggregate market environment, we may postulate that all market opportunity costs are equal to zero in equilibrium.

Commonly, while analyzing costs, benefits, profits, and losses, individuals examine cash flows or accounting definitions. Implicit costs and opportunity costs are not recorded since accounting information is primarily concerned with the measurement of revenue based on explicit costs and benefits of objectively determinable activities during a specific reporting period. Thus, accounting revenue does not correspond to economic revenue. This unique quality of accounting data must be taken into consideration in any economic analysis employing accounting data. According to Johnson and Kaplan (1991), "in a multiperson organizational setting, the benefits and costs of implementing a managerial accounting system depend on how people react to and utilize its output" (p. 174).

Failure to identify the conceptual foundations of management accounting as a guide for the creation and evaluation of management accounting procedures is primarily responsible for the absence of an acceptable activity-based costing structure. The primary benefit for businesses is that activity-based costing is based on accounting, issue and decisional, organizational, and behavioral strategies. The introduction of these five pillars into management accounting will offer the necessary framework for the collection of sufficient relevant managerial data for internal problem-solving.

Summary

In conclusion, the literature review demonstrates that activity-based costing and activity-based costing budgeting are excellent approaches that enable firms to estimate the true cost of products and enhance operations. The activity-based costing and activity-based costing budgeting include the elements of organizational structure that are most prevalent and essential to the proper functioning of a management accounting system, as well as the theories of organization that are essential for identifying the significant elements that approximate the patterning and order in organizations.

They define the role and scope of management inside an organization, as well as the strategies, tactics, and philosophies it may employ to offer sufficient services. These findings indicate the feasibility of building a model of the nature, elements, and determinants of management accounting's conceptual foundations. Such a model would be the initial stage in the creation of a combinatorial theory.

The new accounting framework determines the scope and methodology of activity-based costing and activity-based costing budgeting. The activity-based costing and activity-based costing budgeting may differ in different fields of business in terms of the level of appreciation and incorporation of these foundations, their determinants, and their components into the system's design. The research investigations and critiques of activity-based costing demonstrate that the original issue is irrelevant. The proof that each of the determinants depends on the collection of variables or elements of the foundations, which will define the resulting management accounting system through their application.

This model gives information that reflects the outcomes of previous decisions and the decision-makers involved. By disregarding opportunity costs and hidden costs, they are prone to make poor decisions and choose suboptimal options. On the other hand, actual judgments may incorporate not only accounting information but also a vast array of future projections, such as risk analysis and cost considerations. In such a context, the function of accountants and the importance of accounting data may be viewed differently. In cost-based budgeting, consistency, uniformity, and the resulting comparability are regarded as desirable characteristics. Long-term and short-term decisions have varying implications for management accounting.

Bibliography

Activity-Based Management for the Labor-Intensive Manufacturer: A Field Study. 1994. Albright, T., and L. Sparr. Journal of Managerial Issues, volume six, number two, pages 213–215

Barnes, F.C. (1992). Management's Role in Enhanced Decision Making Using Activity-Based Costing. SAM Advanced Management Journal, volume 57, number three, pages 20-22.

Cooper, R., and R. Kaplan. "Cost and Effect." McGraw-Hill Ryerson Agency, 1997.

Hussein, M. E. A., and K. Tam. 2004. Activity-Based Costing versus Volume-Based Costing. Pilgrims Manufacturing, Inc. Issues in Accounting Education, volume 19, number 5, pages 539 to 548.

Johnson, T. H., and R. Kaplan, 1991, The Rise and Fall of Management Accounting: The Loss of Relevance Harvard Business Publishing.

1997, Implementing Information Technology Innovations: The Activity-Based Costing Example, SAM Advanced Management Journal, vol. 62, no. 4, pp. 97-98. Krumwiede, K.R., and H.P. Roth.

Lindahl, F. W. 1997, Activity-Based Costing Implementation and Adaptation. Human Resource Planning, volume 20, number 2, pages 62 to 65.

Balanced Scorecard, Activity-Based Costing, and Company Performance: An Empirical Analysis, by A. S. Maiga and F. A. Jacobs, 2003. Journal of Managerial Issues, volume 15, number three, pages 383-385.

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Communication And Relationship Building Importance For Managers And Leaders Compare And Contrast Essay Help

Communication and connection development are essential workplace abilities, particularly for managers and leaders. Effective communication and pleasant connections between management and employees, as well as among employees, enhance the accomplishment of organizational objectives and provide a positive work environment. However, if a manager lacks these critical qualities, it can result in numerous communication, trust, and accountability issues. The top salesperson of Morton Paper Company, Justine Wood, is an example of such a person. She was unable to develop relationships with Andy Griffith and Ronnie Howard, which made working with them very difficult and ultimately caused her to make a poor business decision.

Justine has major communication challenges due to her lack of communication skills. For instance, she was unable to discuss Griffith's displeasure with her advancement in an open manner, which damaged their relationship. Justine did not raise her concerns about Griffith's actions during the negotiation, nor did she attempt to comprehend his genuine motivations. The same holds true for Justine's interactions with Howard, who maintained a neutral stance. Justine appeared to get Howard's need to satisfy everyone, but she made no effort to persuade him that his approach to teamwork was ineffective. Overall, Justine appears to rely on her assumptions regarding the behavior of others rather than actively communicating with them to clarify their perspective on the topic at hand.

Ineffective communication also contributed to Justine's lack of trust in her team members. Griffith lacked confidence in her since he was dissatisfied that she had been promoted over him. Griffith's friendship with Allied's CEO was stronger than his relationship with Justine, which negatively impacted her team's negotiations with Allied. By agreeing to additional terms without informing her team members, Justine was inevitably going to lose their trust.

The incapacity of the manager to assign responsibilities to team members and hold them accountable is the source of accountability issues. In the above case, it appears like Justine failed to convey to her team members what was expected of them throughout the discussion. Possibly, if she had been able to convey organizational goals to her team members and persuade them to work for the company's advantage, she might not have had as much trouble managing them.

If I were Justine, I would have dealt with the team members' communication, trust, and responsibility concerns prior to Allied's last-minute adjustment. First, I would have had one-on-one conversations with each team member to learn about their concerns and clarify their perspectives on the situation. I would require communication skills such as active listening, empathy, and respect to accomplish this. When listening to the worries of others, one should focus on listening rather than waiting to speak. Understanding and acknowledging the emotions of others requires empathy, which facilitates conversation and fosters trust. Everyone needs to be treated with respect, and when one feels appreciated, it is much simpler to discover one's true perspective on a situation. With the use of these talents, I would have addressed Griffith's disappointment in his promotion failure and determined why he supported the competitor company. I would have also been able to have an open talk with Howard in order to determine the cause of her neutrality and push her to adopt a stance.

The aforementioned one-on-one discussions would also act as the initial stage in establishing trust among team members. People often trust those who regard their interests when making decisions and do not exploit their shortcomings. After hearing the team members' worries, it would be crucial to take them into account when making significant decisions, such as the one Justine made after receiving a call from Black. I would not have agreed to new terms without informing team members if I were Justine. Even if there was little time for a discussion, it was conceivable to call each team member individually or organize a conference call to include both of them. This measure would retain the relationship of trust between Justine and her team members by demonstrating to them that their perspectives are valued.

As demonstrated by their actions during the negotiation, the team members in the supplied scenario do not seem to have a clear understanding of corporate goals and their roles. Consequently, I would have addressed concerns of responsibility by clarifying organizational objectives to team members and given them specific roles. I would require communication abilities such as rhetoric and the ability to solicit and provide feedback. I would have utilized rhetoric to be more convincing and persuade people to comply with the requirements. Feedback is another effective strategy for enhancing team members' communication. By offering feedback to team members, I would direct their activity, keep them accountable for their obligations, and enhance their motivation. If I were Justine, I would also ask for team members’ feedback to show them that their opinions matter and gain some valuable insights into how I could improve my work.

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Aspects Of Physical Privacy Compare And Contrast Essay Help

Table of Contents
Introduction The Characteristics of Physical Privacy in the Workplace from a Utilitarian Standpoint Deontological Considerations Conclusion References

Introduction

Physical privacy is the capacity of an individual or group to seclude themselves or restrict access to certain information about themselves (Moore, 2011). Employees have a constitutional right to bodily privacy in the workplace. Therefore, employers cannot violate the right to privacy of their employees. Employers have always been accused of invading the private of their employees, despite civil rights and labor organizations' efforts to safeguard privacy in the workplace. Genetic testing is one of the rising workplace practices that is widely regarded as a breach of privacy for employees. This is because genetic test results are frequently misapplied at the expense of employee welfare (Moore, 2011). This paper examines the utilitarian and ethical factors of workplace genetic testing.

The Characteristics of Physical Privacy at Work

The majority of modern employment contracts stipulate that companies must respect the right to privacy of their employees. This means that employers have restricted access to information on their employees. In addition, they can only supervise the activity of their employees to a limited degree and employ legal procedures. Every employer has an interest in closely monitoring their employees. This is because of the following factors: First, it enables them to prevent workplace theft by employees (Moore, 2011). Second, close monitoring enables employers to ensure that workers are doing the right thing and, as a result, achieving their objectives. It allows businesses to prevent the misuse of resources such as telephones, computers, and the internet.

Employers utilize different tactics to closely monitor their employees, including CCTV surveillance, eavesdropping, and computer monitoring (Moore, 2011). Recently, genetic testing has been used to aid in the monitoring of employee health. In this instance, prospective and current employees undergo genetic testing to identify their susceptibility to occupational disorders. It may be utilized as genetic screening or genetic monitoring. Genetic monitoring entails "detection of genetic abnormalities possibly caused by workplace toxins" (Sharpe & Carter, 2006). The purpose of genetic screening, on the other hand, is to discover the likelihood of an inherited disease or susceptibility to occupational contaminants. As with all other monitoring techniques, the misuse of genetic test results constitutes a violation of the privacy rights of workers. Such information may be used, for instance, to discriminate against or stigmatize employees in the workplace. A worker with a certain genetic disorder may be refused promotions or access to benefits enjoyed by coworkers.

There are utilitarian considerations

Multiple interest groups, including employers, have always promoted genetic screening on the grounds that it can dramatically reduce incidences of occupational disorders (Sharpe & Carter, 2006). Employers will be able to identify employees who are prone to workplace contaminants through DNA testing. Consequently, they will be able to avoid assigning such people to potentially hazardous work environments. Thus, it will be feasible to spare the families of employees "the physical, emotional, and financial costs as well as premature death associated with occupational diseases" (Moore, 2011). Employers will boost their profits by minimizing the costs associated with low productivity, high absenteeism, high labor turnover, and liabilities related with occupational sickness. Consequently, genetic testing will benefit both employers and employees.

Genetic monitoring serves as an early warning system that assists management in identifying the adverse impacts of workplace contaminants on workers. Thus, the test would enable management to take prompt corrective action to improve the welfare of employees and the reputation of the organization (Sharpe & Carter, 2006). Therefore, routine genetic testing will benefit both the employee and the employer.

Employers have also investigated genetic testing on the grounds that it enables employees to make educated decisions regarding their well-being (Miller, 2007). Genetic testing offers workers with readily accessible information regarding job risks and the dangers posed by these hazards to their lives.

Lastly, genetic testing is regarded on the basis that those who oppose it are free to forgo the test and seek employment with organizations that do not mandate it. However, requiring employees to take the exam constitutes an invasion of privacy. This results in the rejection of workplace genetic testing (Person & Hansson, 2003).

Deontological Considerations

Regarding ethical issues, genetic testing should only be permissible under the following circumstances: The genetic test should be highly specific and sensitive to begin with. This indicates that the test findings should be associated with a small number of false positives and false negatives. In other words, for the test to be of any use to all parties, it must be dependable (Sharpe & Carter, 2006).

Second, it is recommended that the examination be administered by an impartial body (Person & Hansson, 2003). The test results should be delivered immediately to the employee. As the employee's results become available, a genetic counselor can provide pertinent guidance. The results should be kept strictly confidential and only shared with the employer with the employee's approval. Keeping the results as private as possible prevents the misuse of genetic information and reduces the likelihood of privacy infringement.

Given the sensitivity of the genetic test results and their potential impact on the employee, it is prudent to provide professional counseling prior to and after the test. To increase the acceptability of the outcomes, the counseling should be offered by a trained professional (Moore, 2011). Additionally, the counseling will assist the employee to deal with their condition following the test. Regardless of test results, the employer should always cover the expense of counseling to improve test participation.

Fourth, the employer should ensure continuous access to benefits, such as insurance coverage, that were accessible to the employee prior to the test. Terminating such benefits based on test results constitutes discrimination and generates workplace opposition to the test (Miller, 2007). As a result, guaranteeing continuing access to present advantages is a method for reducing the anxiety associated with genetic testing. The employer must treat all employees equally, regardless of their health condition.

If an employee decides to share the results of a drug test, especially if the test is positive, policies should be implemented to increase job security. Genetic testing can be advantageous if employees trust their employers will use test results in their best interests (Miller, 2007). Therefore, genetic test findings should not be utilized to undermine the job security of individuals.

Regarding work ethics, each employer must provide workplace safety. Thus, if a company fails to conduct a test on employees who become unwell after being exposed to toxins on the job, the business can be held liable for negligence (Moore, 2011). Since protecting the safety of employees on the job is a legal responsibility, businesses have the right to undertake genetic tests in an effort to promote employee safety.

The duties and obligations of the employer regarding genetic testing include, but are not limited to, the deontological reasons listed above. Employers must obey the aforementioned factors when conducting genetic tests to avoid invading the privacy of their employees.

Conclusion

It is evident from the preceding explanation that bodily privacy is a fundamental right of all employees in the workplace. However, the right to privacy of employees has always been breached when employers attempt to closely monitor employees (Moore, 2011). Various corporations have utilized genetic monitoring to check the health status of its staff. Proponents of DNA testing assert that it enables employers to identify the health consequences of workplace pollutants on their personnel. As a result, it aids in preventing occupational diseases and deaths linked with these diseases (Sharpe & Carter, 2006). However, in certain instances, the test results have been misapplied. This has resulted in discrimination and unequal treatment of workers. Thus, several interest groups currently oppose genetic testing as an unwarranted breach of workers' privacy. To maximize the test's benefits, it is crucial that it be conducted legally.

References

Miller, P. (2007). Genetic Testing and the Future of Disability Insurance: Discrimination in the Genetic Age 35(2) Journal of Law, Medicine, and Ethics, pages 46-47

Moore, A. (2011). Privacy Rights. Penn State University Press, Pennsylvania.

Person, A., & Hansson, S. (2003). Privacy and Workplace Ethical Standards. Business Ethics Journal, 42(1), 59-60.

Sharpe, N., and R. Carter (2006). Genetic Testing: Care, Consent and Liability. New York: John Wiley and Sons.

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Ethical Issues And Standards In Group Counselling Compare And Contrast Essay Help

Executive Synopsis

Change management is a term that may appear to be a cliche and simple act, process, or collection of instances of transforming or being transformed. According to them, change management pertains to the composition's external appearance, and they argue that for a large-scale transformation to be successful, there must be process and pattern integration and modification. Cebrowski,(2003).

Introduction

Dynamism and the demand for change are inescapable in the workforce of the 21st century due to the constant evolution of the global and technological environment. As the transformative change tagline goes, "those who don't lead change are history.", there is a considerable need to address the managerial and performance issues of the 21st century. This instance pertains to an organization that is resistant to change as market needs evolve; such organizations are typically rendered obsolete by rising competition and market change that is constantly altering autonomously and outside the control of the organization. Bass (2003).

As one of the organizations with which I am familiar, I evaluated Telstra's business operations and the areas in which I believe the company has made adjustments to maintain its competitive advantage in the Australian telecommunications industry. This corporation is the national leader in the provision of its telecommunication services to the Australian market, and it is well-known for its extensive promotion of sponsoring events as part of its branding campaigns. In recent years, Bass and Avolio (2003) note that sponsorship has expanded from global sporting events to the construction of metropolitan hot spots in partnership with game producers such as Nintendo. The organization has a well-established strategic security plan that is handled by finance and economics professionals from the world's top universities.

Environment

Several elements, including culture, leadership, technology, attitude, and market constraints, have been proposed by Telstra's stakeholders in their pursuit of change in an effort to maintain their market niche.

Since culture refers to the common norms and values of a group of individuals in a given location, cultural modifications were necessary. According to Thorne (2006), adjusting the company's cultural orientation to meet the needs of each individual subscriber and Telstra store helps in retaining the consumers' loyalty. The corporation required to modify its cultural perspectives in order to accommodate each distinct culture in a way that promotes cultural values, resulting in a market expansion. Gordon (2007) writes in his book that the management of Telstra highlighted that organizational culture may be described in terms of organizational types since various organizations respect different values and norms. A company's culture is something profoundly rooted and ingrained. It is possible to say that the culture of an organization is its character. An organization's culture represents the company's vision and principles, which are interwoven into its strategic plan. Culture is what makes up an organization. Since culture comprises the organization, it is this component that varies between businesses. Consequently, this factor distinguishes organizations' achievements.

In his research, Waddell (2004) identifies several repercussions and implications of corporate culture, including the following: Power levels-This indicates that the society expects varied power levels in the society; it indicates that certain persons are expected to have greater power than others.

Individualism against collectivism-This refers to the extent to which a society prescribes the level at which individuals and groups are expected to perform.

Gender difficulties are typically mirrored in our daily lives and throughout society in terms of the level of gender-related expectations.

Ethics-organizational culture differs according on the referred society. Every society and organization integrates ethics to varied degrees.

The entrance to the corporate world has been shaped and governed by technical progress, which has led to the demise of many companies and the entry of new ones. In his investigations, Storey (1997) concludes that Telstra must alter its technology needs to remain competitive with the ever-changing market demands. The corporation has implemented numerous technological reforms in order to maintain its competitive advantage. Among these improvements was the provision of multiple internet packages to subscribers, including Telstra Internet Direct and Telstra Big Pond. Internet usage has also assisted the company's processes, and the company will spearhead the promotion of the internet as it is the future of mass marketing in the world.

Participants in alterations

In order for a revolution or transformation to be successful, all facets of the system must be involved. According to Bass (2003), a journey to the new land is not always smooth and depends on the leadership skills of the principal tasked with guiding the entire system into the new land. Failure to involve every aspect of the system diplomatically will inevitably end in a lengthy and fruitless journey. Considering Telstra, the company's leadership need extensive training on transformation-related strategies. This is due to the fact that there is a constant need for change in the business world, as the market is constantly evolving due to the emergence of new competitors.

Competitors

As the market expands, there is an unforeseen growth in the number of market competitors. Optus is Telstra's principal rival in the telecommunications industry. The company's competitive advantage over its rivals stems from the fact that it was the first to join the Australian market, giving it a head start and allowing it to raise its market share relative to rivals that began operations much later after Telstra had captured the market. Telstra, unlike these organizations, is present throughout Australia and maintains a fierce battle with its rivals due to the diversity and quality of its offerings. In order for the company to continue to be as competitive as it has been over the years, it has ensured continued consumer loyalty in the various services and markets it has already entered. This is essential because local inhabitants will experience a sense of belonging and not foreignness, as is typically associated to the Barger of such companies (2004).

Advised adjustments to the Diversity Promotion strategy

There is always a distinct history associated with the culture and the manner in which people coexist in each country or region. Telstra has supported a diversity strategy in the modern era of business, recognizing its importance to its performance in the country's diverse and intense market. Many individuals may not recognize the necessity of promoting and upholding varied beliefs in many business locations. Such actions are the origin of the company's failures, which more often than not establish a negative image in the eyes of the clients. Barger (2004). It was suggested that Telstra strengthen its strategy for promoting diversity and fostering a business-friendly climate in all of the locations that its operations span. Durant (2004).

Any change management program requires a positive attitude, dynamism that is all-encompassing in the process of revolution, and the regular redesign and reorganization of the company's system. This will produce a working environment that not only satisfies the requirements of the twenty-first century, but also keeps pace with global and technical improvements.

Strategy

SWOT Analysis

As a mature business with numerous service providers and suppliers, intense rivalry continues to be the company's greatest obstacle. In order to overcome the obstacles, the company has established an ambitious program and expansion plan that will see it expand into new sectors, produce new services, and reengineer its business processes. In his book, Cameron (2007) claims that the success of this program is due to the market opportunities created by the growing demand for restaurants that can cater to the needs of various customer groups. Consequently, Telstra intends to "open numerous owned stores in new and existing markets across the nation" (2008).

This increased its competitiveness with Optus, which has amassed a substantial market share due to its comparable product line. According to (Kotelnikov, 2010), Telstra's capacity to offer a wide range of services is a reflection of its technologically savvy and vigilant staff of innovators, as seen by the company's integrative and ever-changing strategy. Continuous, extensive research is conducted by the Research and development department as well as by contracting with third parties, guaranteeing that the delivered services are generally of high quality and value.

Opportunities and Strengths in Human Resource Practices

In his analysis, McConnell (2003) concludes that Telstra's organizational approach has aspects of the entrepreneurial school. Focus has been placed on chief managers led by the company's top executives, who oversee a substantial percentage of the company's control. The underperforming managers have been demoted or reshuffled, resulting in an emphasis on management as a whole. Additionally, the group has embraced the clan control system. Despite the fact that Telstra's employees share many similarities, the firm has consistently promoted visionary leadership.

In his research, Johnsons (2002) believes that as they share many values, expectations, and objectives, they tend to work in harmony with one another; a harmony that is fostered by good visionary leadership. This is demonstrated by the less formal manner in which Telstra's team addresses problems. According to his research, Telstra's integrated approach has resulted in greater cost savings, increased efficiency, improved product quality, enhanced customer service, and a happier, more cohesive workforce that works in harmony to produce positive results; therefore, despite the fact that Telstra's strategy is based on the cognitive school, the entrepreneurial school is evident in its strategy formulation process to a significant degree.

Employee happiness is a vital aspect of Telstra's Human Resource Management strategy since it closely correlates with customer satisfaction, particularly in a quickly expanding and highly competitive business.

Nonetheless, this expansion of the business presents additional obstacles, particularly in terms of the ability of the existing corporate entities to recruit more customers and keep their market shares, along with savvy business methods, as Telstra has realized. Fletcher (2004) argues in his book that if this is the case, it necessitates the introduction of solid human resource management methods that would not only improve performance but also ensure that labor turnover is kept to an absolute minimum and job satisfaction is constantly maintained. Universally, it is a Human Resource function and requirement of the responsible department to collaborate with executives, managers, and supervisors to maximize their productivity, prepare them for positions of greater authority and responsibility, provide them with maximum job satisfaction, and increase their promotability. Telstra (2008).

According to Darbishire's (2002) research, the company's strategy formulation process has been rather integrated, employing bureaucratic, market, and clan control mechanisms. Telstra has a board of directors, a core management team, and well-documented, specialized rules and regulations administered by a formal authority to drive staff performance.

According to Waddell's (2004) research, the organization has also exploited the dynamic features of internal marketing, where both open and filled positions are considered as products. Key characteristics of a product include excellent quality, competitive pricing, customization for a specific market niche, continuous improvement through market research, and a focus on satisfying the individual needs and desires of clients. In a highly competitive market, Telstra Corporation was able to ensure that the positions corresponded with the service, so boosting employee morale and organizational performance.

Analysis

Bass (1990) states in his study that when the change management was completed, Telstra refocused its activities on its key capabilities, which are:

The services provided to clients are:

Telstra Corporation ensures the quality of its services through routine inspections and the hiring of qualified quality assurance personnel. The services are effectively differentiated and adapted to accommodate various users. The services satisfy not only the safety criteria outlined by the public laws and regulations of the countries in which the company works, but also the special needs of individual and corporate customers.

People and clients

In his studies Barger (2004), Through its strategic marketing and public relations divisions, the Company guarantees that the diverse demands of its stakeholders, the people, are served successfully and efficiently. The organization has a responsive and proactive sales and marketing department, as well as a person in charge of public relations and communications. Personal selling employees receive frequent training in customer service, business communication, and conflict resolution. The complaints of consumers are also handled appropriately and on time, and efforts are taken to prevent a reoccurrence of an error or bad customer service. According to the company, this business marketing concept not only ensures flexibility in its marketing management, but also allows clients to closely identify with the company, choose from a wider range of services, including meal-packing services, and enhances a positive image with minimal marketing expenditure (McCarthy& Perreault, 2004). As a result, the company has been able to create a business-friendly atmosphere, in addition to customizing the "communication experience" and fostering client loyalty, which has led to repeat subscribers.

Location and physical proof

Through its strategic foresight and expansionist business plan, the company has not only expanded in various regions of Australia, but has also systematically and progressively undergone internationalization in an effort to increase its global reach. According to Camron (2007), the corporation has utilized mergers and acquisitions to accelerate its expansion and internationalization strategy, particularly throughout the 1980s. By selling its name and reputation, Telstra Company has established a substantial international footprint. As the proceeds from mergers and acquisitions are invested in more productive processes and market research, the proceeds have contributed equally to the company's success.

Pricing

The corporation uses competitive pricing as one method. The organization offers a vast array of services that are priced in accordance with market demand and prevalent industry standards. In addition, the company's marketing tools are intended to ensure that service pricing are competitive and optimized for "local market conditions" (Telstra, 2009).

Process

Therefore, the introduction of new services such as ADSL and others has improved service delivery and market penetration into fresh categories. According to the company, it was vital to expand its offerings to match the industry's rapid expansion. According to the corporation, their ordering and delivery procedures are "unique" This operational procedure

The Ocean Blue Business Strategy Analysis Compare And Contrast Essay Help

Table of Contents
The Cost Leadership Strategy of Toyota The Differentiation Strategy of Tesla Rolls Royce Concentrated Strategy Summary Citations

The Blue Ocean strategy proposed by Reene Mauborge and Chan Kim enables local and international businesses to remain proactively focused on creating strategic market space for their products and services, exceeding the comfort of the current market demand, and establishing a permanent strategy for focusing on the bigger picture. The Blue Ocean approach is perfect for surviving the market's competitive forces because it enables businesses to use techniques such as differentiation, cost leadership, and focus to make their products more visible and customer-centric (Kim & Mauborge, 2015).

Regardless of a company's size, the Blue Ocean strategy provides a framework for building or changing a market niche for their products. In addition, the approach is proactive in its incorporation of human intelligence with the other business decision-making tools (Kim & Mauborge, 2015). This indicates that the strategy enables decision-makers in the corporate environment to be innovative and reject the business-as-usual approach when executing their mission in the best interest of the organization. The Blue Ocean strategies are explained in the next section.

The Cost Leadership Strategy of Toyota

The headquarters of Toyota Motor Corporation is located in Aichi, Japan, and it has various worldwide plants in nations across the world. It is the largest automaker in the world, with the ability to produce over 10 million automobiles annually (Toyota Motors Corporation, 2016). The company has utilized the cost leadership strategy to gain firm-specific advantage, location-specific advantage, and internalization advantage as a result of the extremely low cost of manufacturing, resulting in low-priced finished products.

The firm has penetrated the worldwide automobile sector with its inexpensive and high-quality vehicles. Currently, the corporation controls more than 10% of the worldwide automobile sector since its vehicles are categorized as luxurious and affordable (Cantwell & Narula, 2009). Since the corporation has implemented efficiency in each production unit as a business strategy, the low price of its autos is a result of its low production costs.

The Toyota Corporation has chosen the cost leadership strategy in order to increase operational efficiency through simplification. As a result, this enterprise has acquired a wealth of experience, optimal performance, quality assurance, and complete operational chain management. In order to reduce the price of service delivery and advertising, the company has incorporated current technologies into its production, logistics, and customer support (Cantwell & Narula, 2009). Instead of focusing its resources on acquiring and selling to clients, the corporation has formed a partnership with car dealership representatives. As a result, the general operating overhead expenses have been drastically lowered.

In addition, the company has had great success with foreign direct investment in various countries of the world, as the cost of production in places such as Australia, Europe, and the United States is less than the cost of producing at home and exporting (Cantwell & Narula, 2009). The existence of inexpensive and abundant raw materials such as steel, power costs, and other industrial requirements was the original impetus for investing in these regions (Cantwell & Narula, 2009).

In addition, the corporation has used a number of efficiency monitoring tools, such as performance evaluation, target management, and franchising business model, which have drastically decreased product costs, resulting in inexpensive automobiles. These endeavors strive to enable the organization to maximize profits through sales efficiency, economies of scale, and utilization of company resources at the lowest feasible cost without sacrificing quality. Toyota's cost leadership approach is consistent with the Blue Ocean idea of combining cost effectiveness and excellent value for customers who seek inexpensive automobiles.

The Differentiation Strategy of Tesla

Telsa Motors was created in 2003, and its unique product differentiation strategy has enabled it to expand its operations beyond the typical US market. The plan has been implemented by the corporation through the production of electric and hybrid vehicles for middle- and upper-class consumers. Tesla Motors Inc. produces distinctive brands that remain unmatched in the majority of the Americas and Europe.

Many companies attempt to establish a business that sells these goods, but competition from other gasoline-powered cars typically acts as a barrier to advancement. Tesla Inc. has the goodwill of competitors such as Toyota and Nissan, which hire the company to convert their vehicles into battery-powered automobiles, due to its competitive brand name (Witcher & Chau, 2010). As the company's investment capital increases, the company's products and services are enhanced by the competitive technology.

Because Tesla offers affordable high-tech items to its target market, one of the company's competitive advantages is its well-known brand name. In contrast to firms that target wealthy and affluent customers, Tesla's 2009 corporate strategy shifted to focus on the middle class (Tesla Motors, 2016). When all employees and supervisors comply to the corporate strategy's policies, failure becomes extremely unlikely. This allows the corporation to diversify its product line as part of its portfolio diversification strategy. For example, the company offers hybrid, pure electric, and customized vehicles to various consumer sectors.

Tesla Motors chose to take action in order to manufacture and market electric automobiles by tailoring the equipment to user preferences. The American company employs specialists in several fields, such as automobile assembly, modification, design, and overall production. Typically, the company obtains automobiles from automobile manufacturing companies in order to design them to meet the needs of the target consumer population. The company's primary purpose is to promote green business as a product differentiation approach. Eliminating gasoline use in automobiles minimizes automotive exhaust emissions.

In light of the rise in instances of climate change and extreme weather, environmental preservation is of paramount importance (Tesla Motors, 2016). Carbon dioxide and other greenhouse gases erode the ozone layer constantly. This allows direct sunlight to penetrate the environment, resulting in occurrences of skin cancer and genetic alteration (Nexis, 2015). Fortunately, the company's introduction of hybrid and electric cars was intended to distinguish these goods as eco-friendly and provide customers with the option to drive without polluting the environment.

It is conceivable for a business to offer differentiated products or services and still fail to attain significant success. In the instance of Tesla Motors, however, differentiation has been so effective that it has enabled the company to achieve tremendous marketing success. One of the primary reasons for the success of this difference is the electric nature of the automobiles it sells. As previously stated, many individuals favor eco-friendly vehicle items. This has been beneficial for Tesla Motors. The corporation has participated in campaigns advocating for clean emissions and has funded groups interested in such initiatives. Additionally, its position has been bolstered by the numerous outlets it has opened across the globe (Tesla Motors, 2016). This helps the business expand its customer base, improve sales, and increase its profitability.

As indicated by the Ocean Blue approach, firms could enhance their competitive edge by entering uncontested markets (Kim & Mauborge, 2015). Tesla Motors has leveraged this technique to develop high-end and mid-range electric and hybrid vehicles to serve client niches that are underserved by other automakers. In reality, the company has transformed the market for electric cars by incorporating current technologies into autos without necessarily increasing the price.

Rolls Royce Concentrated Approach

Rolls Royce Motor, which was founded in 1904 in Manchester, United Kingdom, has catered to affluent clients by making expensive and luxurious automobiles. The company manufactures and sells Rolls Royce products through its global distribution shops. The company's distinctive targeting, segmentation, and positioning of the Royce brand product have enabled it maintain its leadership position for almost five decades. The distribution stores also serve as sales representatives for the Rolls Royce brand. It is frequently attributed with making automobiles a fashionable fashion statement among the affluent. The company is also renowned with producing the first electric luxury vehicles sold exclusively through authorized dealers (Daft, 2012). Today, Rolls Royce is the world's leading manufacturer and distributor of luxury automobiles.

The company focuses in niche marketing by emphasizing the highest quality premium brands that consumers seek. Rolls Royce is in a position to satisfy customer demand due to its commanding understanding of global consumer trends, made possible by its commanding market position. The company's focus on luxury has enabled it to target the 1% of the world's ultra-wealthy population (Cantwell & Narula, 2009). As a result, the company does not need to invest heavily in advertising and promotion, as its clients are well-known and purchase based on the current fashion.

In addition, the corporation has been proactive in sponsoring global events, such as luxury automobile shows, in order to reach their 1% target market (Phyper & MacLean, 2009). In fact, Rolls Royce has been able to preserve its visibility and global leadership position by limiting the number of customers who can purchase its products due to the association of its products with class statement (Rolls Royce, 2015). Currently, ownership of a Rolls-Royce car grants access to an exclusive club that admits only the ultra-wealthy as members.

Summary

Based on the above research, it is evident that the deployment of Blue Ocean strategies depends on the size and scope of the market a company wishes to access. Specifically, the focus, cost leadership, and differentiation strategies of Rolls Royce, Toyota, and Tesla Motors have been successful. However, the most successful cost leadership strategy has been Toyota's. As a result of its competitive pricing and low production costs, the firm has sold more automobiles than its rivals. Rolls Royce's focus strategy is ranked second since the company has been able to retain its niche market despite minimal market expansion. Despite the fact that more than 80% of autos on the market are gasoline-powered, Tesla's differentiation strategy is ranked third because the company's market has shrunk due to its concentrate on electric vehicles.

References

Cantwell, J., and R. Narula (2009). The OLI framework in the context of international business and the eclectic paradigm. Routledge, New York, NY

R. L. Daft, Management, South-Western Cengage Learning, Mason, Ohio, 2012.

Kim, C., & Mauborge, R. (2015). Blue ocean approach was published by Harvard Business Review Press in Boston, Massachusetts.

Nexis, L. (2015). Spring, Chicago, Glo-Bus, business and management approach.

Phyper, D., and P. MacLean (2009). Managing company risks and possibilities in the age of environmental consciousness. Hoboken, New Jersey: John Wiley and Sons.

Rolls Royce automobiles (2016). Explore luxury.Web.

Tesla Vehicles (2015). Electric period. Web.

The Toyota Motor Company (2016). About ourselves. Web.

Witcher, B., & Chau, V. (2010). Strategic management: Principles and practice. Alabama, Al: Cengage Learning.

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Checkpoint Company. Managing Information. Compare And Contrast Essay Help

Introduction

Checkpoint is an American firm that was founded in 1969. The company has global retail security, labeling, and merchandising operations. The organization has a presence throughout South America, Europe, Asia, Australia, and New Zealand. 2006 sales revenue of $688 million demonstrate the company's strong profitability.

Task 1 – Information systems

Current information issues at CS

The company's problems began in 1990, when it extended its activities in Europe by acquiring three large companies in Netherlands, Germany, and the United Kingdom. The primary issues facing CS are as follows:

CS's management reporting required additional time and money. Even issues that can be resolved or reported with the least amount of effort required more time and cost more money to report. This is primarily due to the varied skill sets of administrative departments. Additionally, the corporation struggled with knowledge transfer between its national divisions. The corporation faces a second key obstacle in the form of international duplication of efforts. CS operates in numerous countries. The branches in the concerned country adhere to the country's standard procedures for IT, e-commerce logistics, and other connected activities. There is no uniformity in the operations of the company's branches due to the fact that they adhere to varying systems. As a result of competition from low-cost producers in Asian countries such as China, Taiwan, Vietnam, India, etc., the company is facing a decline in market prices for its products.

Despite the fact that CS encounters the aforementioned issues, they were resolved by the adoption of SAP R/3. SAP R/3 is the most used standard business software for client/server computing in the world. It is meant to serve all business management functions of a company, including billing, production resource planning, financial accounting, etc. It offers the organization with a single, standard software platform and database that will ease transactions between the many functional departments inside the company and, in some situations, between the company and its customers and vendors. SAP implementation provides the following solutions to the three problems:

Through the deployment of SAP, management reporting is simplified. SAP consolidates every function under one roof. As a result, the actions in various branches and departments within those branches will begin to adhere to the same principles, which will facilitate management reporting. Under SAP, it is expected that the company's branches will adhere to identical procedures. This will decrease duplication of work within the organization. By implementing SAP, inventory levels were reduced while market intelligence enhanced sales. This decreased production costs and made the company more competitive.

CS staff positions

SAP implementation has had a significant effect on the roles of CS personnel. Many staff were transferred to new roles with new responsibilities. Many roles were transferred and added to the service centre, which increased its efficiency. In addition, increased automation in the firm requires staff to oversee the same group of clients. This leads in increased operational efficiency. Additionally, the technology led to an increase in the number of activities conducted by the company. This is a superior strategy since, as a result of enhanced efficiency, CS will enjoy greater profitability in the present and in the future.

Advantages for both client and supplier

Implementation of SAP has increased customer satisfaction by expediting product delivery. This is accomplished by implementing extensive warehouse modifications. Prior to the integration and consolidation of 15 warehouses into two, the corporation operated shipments from 15 warehouses, which facilitated the distribution of items. The purchasers can process inquiries, purchase orders, and billing more quickly.

Since CS receives timely payments from its consumers, it can pay its suppliers as soon as possible. This is beneficial for the suppliers since it will help them establish a stronger relationship with CS. The product standards have been standardized to permit supply and recruitment in accordance with client specifications. Suppliers can store standard materials so that they can provide immediate quotes and expedite deliveries.

Future developments

CS intends to implement modern supply chain management, a recent invention. The quantity and location of factories, warehouses, and retail stores are crucial considerations in the supply chain, as they involve considerable expenditures. An effective chain management reduces costs and improves service quality and flexibility. Its new supply chain management strategy involves automatic replenishment at customer locations. "Finally, Checkpoint intends to use SAP to plan supply chain activities at the enterprise level, rather than at the plant level." (Lykkegaard 2007)

Additionally, a new customer relationship management system is in the works. According to the new system, the company's sales personnel are provided with a gadget that enables them to access SAP. Access to SAP will enable sales personnel to provide superior customer service. The corporation has also planned to construct a customer interaction center in order to maintain stronger client relationships.

Second Task – Implementation

Implementation approach

A trial project was commissioned in 1999. The implementation was handled by an internal team, except in Norway, where a consultant was hired. The emphasis was placed on Germany, the birthplace of SAP. From 2002 to 2005, it spread to France, Poland, Norway, the United Kingdom, and England. The project therefore utilized a staged strategy as opposed to a parallel or direct method. Errors that occur during one phase can be corrected in succeeding phases so that they are not repeated. This is not possible with a parallel or direct approach because it requires executing all actions concurrently.

The SAP implementation encountered the following difficulties or obstacles.

The time and effort required to match SAP requirements and CS business terms is the initial obstacle. It took time for the talents of CS to catch up to the SAP concepts. Existing staff were provided with specialized training in order to solve the situation.

Language barrier is the second most significant obstacle to implementation. The SAP implementation team is a multinational organization. The locations of CS branches are dispersed across the globe. The implementation team must provide SAP training to CS's workers. In certain instances, however, the absence of local language proficiency among the implementation team made it impossible for them to train the personnel. The corporation resolved the issue by recruiting local SAP teams to overcome the language barrier.

The process of cleaning up is the third limitation. In order to establish a new system in computer networks, the previous system must be eliminated entirely. Therefore, the time required to remove the current data resulted in a significant loss of valuable time.

Integration challenges

Before the SAP system was implemented, each functional area had its own software and database. They were incompatible, making transactions across systems challenging. SAP is a software system of the latest generation that links the functional domains. The SAP system supplied the infrastructure with a standard IT platform. This connected all functional sectors to a centralized database. The SAP solution combines finance and accounting, sales orders, material and inventory management, production planning, logistics, manufacturing, human resources and payroll, business intelligence, customer relationship management, and franchise management. Prior to this, the company's biggest problem was that all of the aforementioned functions utilized disparate, difficult-to-use technologies. When everything was centralized on the SAP platform, however, management became simpler. Errors at multiple data bases could be reduced by utilizing a centralized database. SAP's added benefits include a quicker response to client inquiries and improved internal communication.

Electronic Data Interchange (EDI) is a system used in commercial organizations to exchange electronic data. It refers to the movement of structured data between computers. There is no human interaction in the transfer of data between departments. It has a set of standards and procedures that facilitate the optimal flow of data. Briefly, EDI enables the electronic transmission of data that was previously sent on paper.

IBM has created Lotus Notes as a client server for commercial enterprises. The software facilitates the users' access to business emails. In addition, it offers access to calendars and other programs. The enhanced security features of Lotus Notes aid commercial enterprises in the secure sharing of data.

TNT is a reputable company in the United States that provides mail and delivery services to businesses and other customers. It works in more than 200 nations. Through their extensive network, IT transports goods and services worldwide. The primary strategy of TNT is to exceed the consumers' expectations.

DHL is another global leader in logistics, similar to TNT. The company provides worldwide express, ground transportation, and air freight services. The corporation has a presence in over 220 countries. The organization offers specialist document transfer services.

Task 3 – Statistics on Retail Crime

The mean is the average of a group of data, but the standard deviation indicates how closely the data cluster around the mean. The central limit theorem states that regardless of the actual form of the distribution, when samples of a specific size are repeatedly chosen from it and the sample means are calculated and displayed on a graph, a normal distribution will result. These mean values will have a normal distribution.

Region Mean Deviation Standard

UK 40 2.5

Europe 35 6.3

This indicates that the number of thefts per store in the United Kingdom in 2006 was higher than in Europe due to the higher mean and lower standard deviation.

Correlation

Correlation denotes the degree to which one variable is dependent on another. y = bx, where x and y are variables, and b is the correlation coefficient. The correlation coefficient in this instance is -0.58. This demonstrates that y = -0.58 * x, where y is the amount of merchandise stolen by a customer and x is the amount spent on theft prevention. Therefore, there is a negative association between security expenditures and customer theft.

Regression

Using linear regression, a functional connection between two or more correlated variables can be determined. Typically, this relationship is derived from observed data in which one or more parameters (independent variables) are used to predict another dependent variable. In this case, the formula is Theft = £10,700 – 0.2% x Security. Regression is mostly used for predictions based on the historical connection between variables. This regression equation can be utilized by CS to forecast the society's security needs. In this example, if we invest £1000 in security, the loss due to theft will be £10,500.

Analysis of the Pareto Chart

The Pareto diagram indicates that 40% of thefts are committed by customers and 20% by employees. It indicates that client theft is twice as common as employee theft. Consequently, corrective measures should be done to reduce client theft.

The opportunity for CS is to focus more on markets where customer theft is more prevalent. Additionally, CS can create new and enhanced security technologies to capture market share.

Analysis of the graph depicting the average amount of theft by consumers and employees

The data indicates that the average amount stolen by customers is five times that of employees. It fluctuates from 4 to 6 depending on the year. In contrast to the Pareto diagram, which depicts the frequency of theft in each category, the bar chart displays the actual quantity of theft committed by customers and employees each year. A comparison of the Pareto diagram with the bar chart reveals that the client steals high-value products because where the frequency is doubled, the value is four- to five-fold higher. The advantage for the corporation is that it can create new security products to meet the market's demand, namely to reduce customer theft.

Bibliography

LYKKEGAARD, Bo (2007). Specialized research: future ambitions. IDC 2007. P. 7. Web.

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Business Ethical Models Analysis Compare And Contrast Essay Help

Table of Contents
Introduction Analysis problem Organizational architecture and structure Teams and teamwork Leadership and administration strategy Organization culture Recommendations Upon Concluding References

Introduction

Management is the practice of achieving objectives through other people in an effective and efficient manner (Agarwal 2008, p.302). These activities consist of planning, organizing, leading, and controlling, and are generally referred to as the four functions of management.

Planning is the process by which an organization determines its future actions (Hill and Jones 2009, p.381). In conjunction with the planning function, the organizing function guarantees that the firm's available resources are maximized and distributed strategically. Lastly, controlling is viewed as monitoring the progress in accordance with the initial plan and enforcing adjustments when necessary if feedback indicates that things are not aligned with the plan (Mullins 2010, p.34).

Therefore, organization management is the act of building a relationship between people and resources in order to achieve particular objectives and business goals (Agarwal 2008, p.303). Management of an organization is founded on five principles: procedure, scope of control, unity of command, homogeneous assignment, delegation of authority, and adaptability.

Organization management is a five-step process, the first of which entails identifying the tasks involved, taking into account the nature of the job, the credentials required for the job, and the time required to complete the assignment (Mullins 2010, p.35). The second phase is to subdivide big jobs into individual activities; the numerous possible tasks will be portioned as stand-alone projects that may be carried out independently by different departments (Triplet 2007, p.3).

The third step involves allocating specific activities to individuals; at this stage, the organization must determine the capabilities of each employee before assigning available assignments. The tasks are matched to the individual and assigned to the person most capable of completing them efficiently. The fourth step is to give the available resources to help individuals in successfully completing their assigned jobs (Moyles 2006, p.176). The organization allocates resources based on the nature and complexity of the allocated work. The final step involves building an organizational structure to decide the strategy that will merge the numerous allocated tasks into one once they are accomplished and how the various organizational structures can collaborate (Picot et al., 2008, p.12).

Managers in an organization should recognize the significance of organization and management, the process through which people, diverse jobs, and technology are blended and coordinated to achieve organizational goals (Triplet 2007, p.4). Bob and Lloyd must see the importance of linking the people, tasks, and resources in the fast-food company process. Bob and Lloyd must make optimal use of the organization's resources to complete all tasks and implement their fast food company concepts (Triplet 2007, p.5). Organization and management should be based on determining the policies, missions, and structures of the fast food firm (McNichol et al 2007, p.13).

Analysis problem

Bob and Lloyd's choice to launch a fast food restaurant in Cambridge will be a wise investment if they properly evaluate the organization and administration of the business. In Cambridge's fast food market, their success rate will be determined by how they establish structure, assemble their team, exercise leadership, and address organizational culture. Bob and Lloyd must carefully analyze the following four factors before making strategic judgments regarding their new venture (Chen 2004, p.5).

Organizational architecture and structure

An organizational structure is a network of interconnected jobs, job groups, and ultimately authority (Burstein 1991, p.327). A structure of an organization specifies how individuals are placed into departments and departments are grouped to form the organization. It comprises the creation of mechanisms to ensure effective departmental communication, integration, and coordination of efforts. Typically, an organizational chart depicts the formal relationships within an organization, including the number of levels in the hierarchy and the scope of control of managers and supervisors (Schriber and Gutek 2010, p.642). Bob and Lloyd must choose an organizational structure that corresponds to the span of control (Alder and Jelinek 2006, p.74). Each individual's function and responsibilities must be specified within the organizational structure of the fast food establishment.

The objective of an organization structure is to give a common reference that demonstrates the general relationship between upper management, middle management, and lower level management (Murphy and Willmot 2010, p.268). Traditional organization models always placed the CEO on top, with everyone else grouped in layers according to department, however today there are numerous decentralized and flexible organization systems. Bob and Lloyd should establish a structure that improves horizontal coordination and communication, despite the absence of a traditional organizational structure, in order to promote change adoption (Burstein 1991, p.327). In a fast food industry, a horizontal organizational structure will decentralize decision-making. The first diagram below depicts a contemporary organizational structure with three management levels. (Burstein 1991, p.327).

Three managerial levels.

One of the four factors that help a corporation develop its organizational structure is job specification, which entails outlining the departments' responsibilities (Barry 2000, p.33). The second is departmentalization, in which positions are grouped and responsibilities are assigned in accordance with the company's objectives. The third aspect is span of control, in which the management examines the tasks at hand and the number of units and, as a result, merges the two factors in an advantageous manner (Chen 2004, p.6). The final aspect is delegation of authority, which introduces managers in charge of units and gives the head of each unit the capacity to make decisions on behalf of the organization. Bob and Lloyd ought to distribute control to the managers of the fast food company so that they may make decisions with ease. Each unit department's managers should make choices on behalf of the organization.

Teams and group effort

In order to turn around an organization, management must support a team-based approach. Consistently, management gurus have asserted that a team exceeds an individual in terms of passion, focus, and overcoming formidable obstacles. (Mullins 2010, p.46)

A team is a small group of individuals with complementary skills and a shared purpose for which they all feel accountable (Katzenbach and Smith 1993, p.68). Bob and Lloyd must adhere to the five team standards in order to establish a formidable team for the fast-food hamburger enterprise.

The team for one must be modest, ideally between two to twenty-five members, because it is easier to collaborate with a small group (Hill and Jones 2009, p.385). The second concept is that team members must possess complementary abilities (Leitner 2004, p.35). The third principle states that members should share a common purpose and objective, which means that the team's objective and mission must coincide (Hill and Jones 2009, p.384). The fourth principle is that the team must build a shared working style in which the team pays attention to administrative and work-related aspects and each team member identifies their position in the team's work (Picot et al 2008, p.84). The final principle emphasizes that all members must be accountable to themselves and to others in order to ensure the commitment and trust of other members (Katzenbach and Smith 1993, p.68). The diagram below depicts a paradigm change in a team system, often known as a team structure (Picot et al 2008, p.84).

Team structure.

For the sake of strategic team building, Bob and Lloyd should carefully pick and staff their employees so that they have a motivated, vital workforce. The fast food sector necessitates qualified, quick, and efficient employees; else, the business could fail (McNichol et al 2007, p.2007). Staffing corresponds to human resource planning; here, the organization should evaluate the number of personnel required, their backgrounds, their credentials, and the cost of recruiting each one in order to achieve its objectives. Consideration must also be given to how to get the necessary personnel, with recruitment considerations including education, experience, human relations, communication skills, and motivation (Northouse 2009, p.165).

When undertaking employee selection, management should devise an elimination-based method for selecting the most qualified individuals. Having a set of criteria and a score sheet for each candidate guarantees that the organization will have a high rate of successful hires (Baligh 2006, p.126). The organization must define each interview, develop a strategy, communicate with the interviewee during the interview, and establish a conclusion for the interview. Bob and Lloyd should perform an in-person interview to determine whether or not each employee have strong interpersonal skills (Chen 2004, p.7).

Motivation is a crucial part of every firm; if the employees are not motivated, they will inevitably produce less (Sekhar 2010, p.16). Increases in working conditions, interpersonal relationships, income, job security, company regulations, supervision, and administration are examples of motivating factors (Sekhar 2010, p.17). Bob and Lloyd should motivate their fast food staff by providing them with favorable working conditions and bonuses.

Leadership and administration strategy

A leader is a person who directs a group of people, an organization, or a nation (Leitner 2004, p.87). To the followers, a leadership model according to Mitchell, Margaret and Casey, John, professors of leadership management at the University of Illinois (2007) emphasizes a collective strategy that involves all members and includes elements such as improving the overall performance, focusing specifically on strategy, and creating an environment of change (p.53).

Second, employing a collaborative approach begins to foster excellent community connections because everyone is represented, so laying the groundwork for collaborations within the institution, which benefits the entire community (p.58). A skilled leader will most effectively unite all members in a strategic manner to work together; he or she must also be intelligent and inspiring (McNichol et al 2007, p.104). In addition, a leader should propose innovative tactics that are effective and will provide positive performance outcomes; this will serve as motivation for all members.

Manpower planning would be the optimal strategy for implementing "imposed-incremental change" in an organization (Cooper 2005, p.231).

Cooper Crown (2005), a professional management guru and consultant in management issues, defines manpower planning as the process of forecasting and planning the human resource organization in every institution in order to plan for the future in accordance with the institution's goals and organizational structure (p.232).

The competency is intended to be useful when an organization has limited funds to spend yet must carry out its activities (Northouse 2009, p.168).

Well, the best approach to strengthen one's leadership characteristics is to develop skills in manpower planning, which will allow for the regulation of projects and the establishment of a structured workforce to complete the duties.

In order to achieve strong leadership, a leadership mission entails deciding on long-term and short-term objectives and allocating priority to methods (Moyles 2006, p.178; Bass and Avolio 1993, p1). A competent leader should have a strategy formula that focuses on effective resource allocation, making judgments on diversifications, and entering overseas marketplaces to combine and participate in an organization's initiative. A leader's strategy commits the organization to a defined vision, mission, and objective over a prolonged period of time in order to achieve it (Northouse 2009, p.169; Moyles 2006, p.179).

The success of policy implementation depends on the capacity of the leadership function to motivate others to assist in strategy redesign (Moyles 2006, p.179) Redesigning an organization's process enhances it and helps it adapt to external environmental restrictions over which the leader has no control (Murphy and William 2010, p. 268). Bob and Lloyd should construct a strategy-support culture at the fast food industry and establish an effective and functional structure in order to ensure policy implementation (Moyles 2006, p.522). Bob and Lloyd must encourage the managers of each unit and the staff to discover methods to contribute to the implementation process (Normore 2010). Implementation involves personal discipline, commitment and sacrifice. This is due to the fact that at this time is seen as unstable and requires everyone to embrace new systems (Picot et al 2008, p.86).

Organization culture

The word organization culture refers to a set of characteristics that are unique to a given organization and can be derived from the manner in which an organization develops and identifies the characteristics of cultures that promote learning and those that impede the learning organization process (Adler and Jelinek 2006, p.74).

Organizational culture encourages the learning process. Today's organizations are under a great deal of pressure to perform, which requires them to learn, adapt, and take ethically sound actions in order to meet the demands of the industry and the shareholders (Schriber and Gutek 2010, p.645).

According to McNichol et al. (2007), there are a variety of corporate learning culture approaches. The three most prevalent categories are (p.104):

A supportive organization learning culture is one in which team members or the management of an organization provide assistance for learning. Concretizing organizational learning culture: when the learning culture is founded on concrete procedures and practices, such as billing, logistics, and product development (Mullins 2010, p.35). Leadership organizational learning culture: a technique that employs leadership to reinforce learning inside an organization. This indicates that the leader in the organization must study the organization's constraints, acknowledge them, and explore alternatives to improve the organization's performance in order to steer the learning process (Sekhar 2010, p.17).

Organizational learning is under pressure to keep up with the shifting patterns of the times. In the past, people were not required to make quick decisions, but today they must do so in uncertain circumstances. A learning organization is an entity in which employees successfully transfer knowledge (Leitner 2004, p.89).

By attempting to develop an effective learning organization, the fast food corporation will demonstrate its efforts to rethink the organization culture process. There are two strategies to improve an organization's learning strategy. The first is a single-loop learning process that involves modifying the environment without altering the organization's structures (Chen 2004, p.8). The second consists of a double loop in which new systems are implemented and the learning process is redefined and tested (Murphy and Willmot 2010, p.270). Bob and Lloyd should come up with innovative ideas for the development of the fast food company and the establishment of a competitive edge in Cambridge. Chen (2004) specifies, if it is a single-loop, the condition.

Success Of Effective Marketing Strategies Compare And Contrast Essay Help

Table of Contents Introductory Material How IBM's Strategic Marketing Contributed to Its Success How eBay's Strategic Marketing Contributed to Its Success References Bibliography

Introduction

In the 21st century, privatization, liberation, and globalization of organizations have increased significantly. These factors, coupled with the development of information technology, have resulted in a highly competitive business environment. Due to increased innovation, product life cycles have been shortened, and as a result, macerating difficulties have increased dramatically. Numerous businesses are trying to find strategies and action plans that will assure their survival and expansion. In today's rapidly shifting socioeconomic climate, the consumer is a true moving target. Highly desirable is product segmentation based on consumer insights. The issue for marketers is to use the branding and price options at their disposal to ensure that their brand represents the most valuable package in the customer's opinion. Developing cooperative and collaborative relationships with customers is the most prudent strategy to monitor shifting client expectations.

The classification of services, customisation to recoup lost clients, differentiation techniques to charge premium prices, and gastronomy methods to provide consumers with a large quantity of engagement and personalization are among the most popular customer relationship management strategies. The market research should be represented as a sequence of informational building pieces required for strategy creation. Therefore, marketers must prioritize strategic marketing of their products/services if businesses are to remain competitive in a dynamic business environment. The marketing strategy of a company is more effective when it is an integral element of the business strategy that describes how the company will engage with its consumers, prospects, and competitors. Therefore, such a marketing plan must be derived from business strategies, missions, and objectives.

As the client is the source of a company's revenue, marketing strategy and sales are intrinsically related. Keeping marketing in line with a company’s main mission statement is frequently a crucial element of marketing strategy. (Knight, Tom, 2005)

Therefore, strategic planning can be defined as the process of planning and executing the conception, pricing, promotion, and distribution of ideas, goods, and services in order to produce exchanges that satisfy individual and organizational objectives. Numerous tactics are employed by marketers to determine how, when, and where product information is provided to consumers. Their objective is to convince consumers to purchase a specific brand or product. It has been shown that effective marketing methods generate product desire. Therefore, a marketer must comprehend consumer likes and dislikes. In addition, marketers must understand what information would persuade consumers to purchase their product and which information sources they view as reputable. Some marketing methods utilize fictional characters, celebrities, or experts (such as doctors) to sell items, while others use specific assertions or “health claims” that state the benefits of using or consuming a certain product or food (Bickart 2001).

Large corporations such as IBM and eBay have mastered this and have capitalized on the development of strategic marketing plans, which have enabled them to function exceptionally effectively on a worldwide scale.

How IBM's Strategic Marketing Contributed to Its Success

IBM's Marketing Department is responsible for developing and implementing customer-focused strategies, programs, and capabilities that contribute to the company's brand value. This enables IBM to achieve market dominance, strong client loyalty, and great customer happiness. IBM's objectives include: 1. positioning the company as the world's leading provider of integrated technology solutions for e-business on demand and the industry's leading technology innovator; 2. improving the competitiveness and market performance of IBM offerings; and 3. leveraging IBM brand equity to increase revenue, increase profit, and improve IBM's reputation.

IBM has implemented particular areas to increase their marketability in order to accomplish these goals. These industries include Marketing management is accountable for designing marketing strategies and implementing IBM's marketing plans and program management. Direct marketing, event marketing brand identity, the usage of sponsors, and media marketing tactics are promoted through integrated marketing communications. The IBM marketing department has built a marketing intelligence system that facilitates customer satisfaction surveys and the identification of new business prospects. For their marketing strategy to be highly effective, the company has ensured the existence of a marketing operations body that evaluates marketing effectiveness and recommends appropriate measures to be implemented by the marketing department to ensure IBM products and services continue to be in high demand.

IT has capitalized on growing its visibility via the internet and electronic media as a result of IBM's successful marketing efforts. The IBM company has tailored its marketing to target medium-sized enterprises and specific demographics. IBM has assured the development of highly effective casting rules for their global advertising agencies in order for individuals to positively respond to these benefits. IBM has accomplished this through sponsoring particular social activities, such as Black Family Technology Awareness Week during African, Hispanic Heritage Month, and by placing adverts in Gay, Lesbian, and Bisexual publications during their special occasions, such as Gay Pride Month. These advertising increase interest in IBM's products, so bolstering their brands across all cross-cultural and cross-social distinctions.

IBM has mastered the art of product promotion with commercial partners. A move that has facilitated its success across international borders. IBM chooses the most effective partner to engage with prior to determining the best strategy to reach individuals in order to increase their advertising at the constituent level. Therefore, IBM's partners aid in the marketing of IBM's products and services by generating demand and selling IBM solutions to government and commercial organizations. For instance, source System and Integration, one of IBM's Northern California-based partners, has facilitated the sale of IBM software and hardware-based solutions around the country. This is because this partner offers IBM business solutions to government and commercial clients in California. These collaboration relationships have enabled IBM to be successful on a worldwide scale by allowing all communities in the globe to choose IBM as their brand (Tom Knight 2005).

How eBay's Marketing Strategy Contributed to Its Success

EBay Company's performance in the U.S. and other markets has been significantly aided by a strategic marketing approach. Initially, eBay's activities were limited to the United States and all of its business operations were conducted there. Through their strategic decision to implement online selling on eBay, eBay's competent management significantly boosted the company's performance. This decision to use eCommerce allowed the organization to expand its global operations. This is due to the rapid expansion of its companies in Europe, Asia, and the United States. eBay's choice to participate in international marketing through the use of internet sales was a strategic one. Since then, its foreign business activity have significantly increased. The corporation has created multiple sites in Brazil, China, and Germany, among other global markets.

eBay's excellent performance has made it one of the world's major electronic marketers. Its successful performances are mainly based on its carefully crafted playbook. These eBay playbooks are comprised of hundreds of WebPages containing the collective knowledge of eBay's managers from America, Asia, and Europe. These playbooks are routinely updated. The playbook provides the formations that aid managers in their daily business operations at eBay. They provide details about online marketing, management, and community outreach. (O’Brien & Marakas2008, 323-324) Through internet sales, the corporation has been quite successful in establishing new sites in Asia and Europe outside the United States. Initially, the corporation expanded into Germany and China before going on to other countries. Today, eBay is by far the largest worldwide website, with yearly sales of over $70 billion. This sale is significantly greater than the $20 billion sale realized from the United States. The expansion of eBay into European countries such as the United Kingdom, the Netherlands, and Italy has been made possible by the marketing department's effective marketing methods.

The company's effective marketing methods have contributed to eBay's strong performance. In the past, eBay's advertising efforts were limited to television exclusively. The marketing department concluded that this strategy for promoting their services was ineffective. As a result, they modified their advertising strategy to include Internet-based product and service awareness campaigns. This was highly effective, and eBay now advertises its services and products widely on the Internet. Therefore, the company's performance has been significantly enhanced by the Internet advertising. This is due to the fact that the Internet generates a significant deal of exposure, which has allowed the organization to acquire many more clients worldwide. (O’Brien & Marakas 2008, 326) eBay's highly effective marketing division has assisted the corporation in establishing an effective system for resolving cross-cultural disagreement.

eBay typically adapts its business practices to the culture of the region in which it operates. In Germany, for instance, eBay is typically structured to accommodate German culture. All conversations are conducted in German. This is also the situation in China and Italy, among other countries. This assists the company in being perceived as a local business and not as an American brand. Therefore, all nations that host eBay services recognize eBay as their community's brand. This strategy has enabled the organization to operate exceptionally well on the international market by overcoming the common cross-cultural cultures and cross-cultural communication hurdles in international marketing (Chaffey 2003, 115). When eBay launches a site in a country, its administration initially focuses on marketing its services to the local populace via the Internet and other advertising channels. This allows the business to attract more customers to the website. The organization then moves on to perfecting specific category management or launching pay Pals. This considerably enhances and simplifies the company's operations (Carrol 1992).

eBay's local and international popularity can also be attributed to its simple URL and efficient electronic money transfer mechanisms, such as PayPal, E-gold, and others. This is due to the fact that Internet businesses require much more than an online storefront to be successful. A simple URL is one of the most important requirements for a successful online business. If your URL is too long, few people will remember it, and they will likely visit a more memorable site instead. Therefore, eBay has adopted a simple URL so that their clients may easily remember it. A good Internet business also requires a shopping cart so that clients may select things, continue shopping on your website, and keep track of their spending (Chaffey 2003, 116). eBay provides its consumers with a sufficient number of these amenities to facilitate shopping.

Internet retailers may also require a service that enables them to accept credit cards, such as PayPal or other merchant account providers. It is quite difficult to operate an online business if you just accept checks and money orders. People are increasingly paying for internet transactions with credit cards, electronic cheques, and virtual currencies such as E-gold. If you enable your business to take various forms of payment, you will increase the likelihood that people will make purchases from your website. All eBay websites have effectively handled this issue by integrating PayPal to increase their online sales internationally. There are also significant benefits to being online; from my perspective, these are the two most significant: These are the technological contrasts; purchasers in one nation can afford to purchase high-tech goods at a lower price than in their own nation. This is because distinct market developments have occurred. The other factor is the difference in currencies; persons from the United Kingdom or the United States can purchase goods at a lower price than in their home nation due to the strength of their currency. Therefore, internet shopping enables clients to purchase things at a discount, which is what the bulk of online shoppers seek. This is the reason why eBay has been so successful at selling thousands of jewelry, watches, and electronic items like as computer software. (Chaffey 2003)

Conclusion

Effective marketing tactics are crucial because they improve the performance of firms. Therefore, business organizations must guarantee that they develop effective marketing strategies that will enable their products to compete effectively with those of other enterprises. This can be secured by the marketing department advising the management of their companies on how to increase the sales of their products and services. Establishing websites for the purpose of promoting the company's products or services is one of the marketing tactics that businesses can adopt. The construction of the website also aids the company in marketing and selling its products or services online, allowing it to serve customers across a larger geographical area at a reduced cost. Good marketing techniques should also enable businesses to effortlessly advertise their products and services across all cross-cultural barriers by localizing services across borders, allowing international consumers to adopt the firm's products as their own brand. These are the techniques adopted by IBM and eBay, which account for their outstanding performance (Jackson 1985).

References

Internet forums as powerful sources of consumer information, Bickart, B. (2001). (Journal of International Marketing, Vol. 15 No.3).

The myth of customer retention, authored by P. Carrol in 1992 (Journal of retail banking, Vol.15 No 2.).

Tools of Marketing Strategies, New York: Prentice Hall, 2003, by Chaffey, K.

12–20 in David Campbell and George Stonehouse, Business Strategy, Oxford University Press, London, 2004.

Growing the e in security Virtual Business volume 5, by John A.

O'Brien, J. A., and G. M. Marakas (2008) Management information systems McGraw-Hill/Irwin, Boston.

Jackson, B. (Harvard: Business magazine Issue Vol 4 No.6).

Tom Knight, Strategic marketing approaches, volume 5, page 8 (September 9, 2005)

Chaffey, A. (2003). International Marketing. New York: Prentice Hall.

Bibliography

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Reich held, F. (2006). Driving good earnings and real growth. Harvard Business Review: (Harvard University Press).

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Techniques and Technologies of word of mouth, L. Gordon (1999). (John Wisely and sons publishers).

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Murray, K. (1991), A test of services marketing theory, consumer information acquisition activities, (Journal of Marketing, Vol. 55, No.4).

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Kuwait’s Economy And Measurements Compare And Contrast Essay Help

Table of Contents
GDP Interest Rate Inflation and CPI Unemployment Rate Foreign Direct Investments Introduction Conclusion References

Introduction

Every nation's prosperity is contingent on its social, political, and economic development. It relates equally to developed and developing states, with Kuwait representing the latter category. This Middle Eastern nation has a modest but relatively prosperous economy. It is situated in a desert, and its economy is supported by oil deposits and oil sales (Mohaddes & Pesaran, 2017). However, domestic political shocks, according to Burney, Mohaddes, Alawadhi, and Al-Musallam (2018), mitigate the economic benefits of oil resources to the state. Additionally, favorable weather conditions are believed to severely impact Kuwait's economy (Cashin, Mohaddes, & Raissi, 2017). The aforementioned information explains why the economy "was not able to advance as quickly as it could have" (Hassan, Shriaan, & Al-Mutairi, 2017, p. 24). Therefore, a more in-depth review of the country's GDP, interest rate, inflation and CPI, unemployment rate, and foreign direct investments is required for an accurate estimation of Kuwait's economy.

GDP

The GDP is one of the primary indices of the health of an economy. It implies that an increase in GDP will inevitably result in economic gains for the entire nation. Throughout its history, Kuwait has been unable to demonstrate a stable GDP because its ratio is dependent on numerous phenomena, oil prices being the most significant. According to Arslan, Bozgeyik, and Al-Azaki (2019), between 50 and 60 percent of Kuwait's GDP comes from oil earnings (p. 688). Consequently, any changes in oil prices have an appropriate effect on the economy of this country.

The preceding data explains the changes in the state's GDP ratio over its history. For instance, Kuwait experienced a period of continuous development in 2009, since its GDP increased every year thereafter (Almujamed, Tahat, Omran, & Dunne, 2017). However, the collapse in oil prices at the midpoint of 2014 led to a decline in GDP. As a result, as shown in Figure 1, it achieved a minimum of 109.42 billion USD in 2016. (Trading Economics, 2019c). This circumstance necessitated the search for alternate revenue streams in order to prevent future economic disasters. Figure 1 indicates that Kuwait has met this challenge since its GDP began to rise in 2017.

Annual Percentage Rate

The interest rate is a crucial and visible economic indicator for average citizens. The government is aware, and the Central Bank of Kuwait (CBK) strives to keep it low, despite the fact that this can be challenging in some instances. It relates to the notion that increased oil prices cause the interest rate to rise (Kisswani & Elian, 2017). The CBK counteracts this by tying the dinar to a basket of currencies instead of the dollar alone (NBK Economic Research Department, 2019). This adaptability makes it feasible to control the interest rate and respond to changing economic situations. As a result, the CBK is able to maintain this economic indicator at a very consistent level since it increased from 2% in 2015 to 3% in 2018. (NBK Economic Research Department, 2019, p. 4). Figure 2 corroborates this circumstance (Trading Economics, 2019e).

Inflation and the Consumer Price Index

As a measure of inflation, the consumer price index has a close relationship with inflation. The two indicators are significant for the economy and ordinary people because they reveal positive or negative price changes over time. Figure 3 demonstrates that since 2014, when it was 103 index points, the CPI has steadily increased, reaching 114.10 index points in June of this year (Trading Economics, 2019a).

In contrast, Figure 4 shows that between 2016 and 2018, the inflation rate approached zero, demonstrating an opposite trend (Trading Economics, 2019d). This change is regarded as beneficial considering the inflation rate in 2016 was 3.2%. (Fakir and Kanafani, 2017, p. 1). This decline could be viewed even more favorably because lower inflation rates reduce inflation uncertainty, which is beneficial for the economy and for individuals (Zuhd & Saleh, 2017). In addition, Paul, Ali, Soomro, Ali, and Abbas (2018) state that a 1% increase in inflation will increase economic growth by 0.019 percentage points (p. 161). Thus, it is possible to anticipate some positive effects of 2019's 1.2% inflation rate increase (Trading Economics, 2019d).

Unemployment Rate

This economic indicator represents the percentage of people who are not employed. This phenomenon may have both subjective and objective causes. A person does not work, for instance, because they either do not want to or cannot find a job. In addition, Doan and Erdoan (2016) assert that Arab nations are interdependent. It suggests that if a country's unemployment rate changes, its adjacent countries would likely experience the same changes (Doan & Erdoan, 2016). Consequently, it is legitimate to evaluate this economic indicator that draws attention to both the local and international affairs of a state. Indicators of Kuwait's unemployment rate have consistently been quite favorable, displaying 3.4% in 2011-2012. (Abdel-Khalek & Korayem, 2018). Thus, the nation exhibits a clear propensity to reduce its unemployment rate, which reached 2.06 percent in 2018, as shown in Figure 5. (Trading Economics, 2019f).

Direct Investments Abroad

As previously indicated, Kuwait's economy has already suffered due to its reliance on oil earnings. In this instance, a reduction in oil prices caused the state significant difficulties. Foreign direct investments were one of the new revenue sources that Kuwait needed to pursue. Figure 5 demonstrates that this economic segment is not stable because Kuwait’s FDI might fluctuate considerably over the course of a year (Trading Economics, 2019b). In conclusion, it appears that the greatest FDI ratio of 721 million dinars was attained in late 2012. (Trading Economics, 2019b). In addition, Figure 5 indicates that subsequent years witnessed a decline in investment quality, which might be attributed to volatile oil prices (World Investment Report, 2015). According to Haque, Patnaik, and Hashmi (2016), foreign direct investments result in "a positive contribution to the economic growth of the country" (p. 14). However, due to 2018's dismal FDI outcomes, Kuwait should reevaluate its approach to this economic sector.

Conclusion

Kuwait is an example of a developing Middle Eastern nation. Due to its geographical location, the country possesses vast oil reserves, allowing it to grow its economy quickly and efficiently. However, several external and local political shocks prohibit Kuwait from attaining considerable economic results. Simultaneously, the nation strives to enhance numerous aspects of its economy, including its GDP, interest rate, inflation and CPI, unemployment rate, and foreign direct investments.

References

Abdel-Khalek, A. M., & Korayem, A. S. (2018). Arab and Western countries' relationships between happiness, income, and unemployment rate. 59(2) Mankind Quarterly: 242-254.

Almujamed, H., Tahat, Y., Omran, M., & Dunne, T. (2017). An examination of the evolution of accounting legislation and practices in Kuwait. 28(6), 14-28, Journal of Corporate Accounting & Finance.

Al-Fakir, D., & Kanafani, N. (2017). The inflation rate remained unchanged at 3.5% in December and averaged 3.2% in 2016 [PDF document]. Web.

Al-Zuhd, T. A. H., & Saleh, M. H. (2017). A generalized autoregressive conditional heteroscedasticity modeling approach to the inflation and inflation uncertainty nexus in Kuwait. 7(5), 198-203, International Journal of Economics and Financial Issues.

Arslan, I., Bozgeyik, Y., & Al-Azaki, Z. (2019). The function of bank loans in Kuwait's economic expansion. 9(2), 686-700. International Journal of Academic Research in Business and Social Sciences.

Burney, N. A., Mohaddes, K., Alawadhi, A., & Al-Musallam, M. (2018). The long-term growth dynamics and factors of Kuwait's economy. Economic Modelling, 71, 289-304.

Cashin, P., K. Mohaddes, and M. Raissi (2017). What kind of weather is it? The El Nio's macroeconomic effects. International Economics Journal 106, 37-54.

Doğan, C., & Erdoğan, S. (2016). MENA country-specific empirical analyses of unemployment hysteresis and natural rate of unemployment methodologies. The Optimum Journal of Economics and Management Sciences, 3(2), pages 41 to 50.

Haque, A., Patnaik, A. K., & Hashmi, S. Z. (2016). Foreign direct investment and economic growth: A case study of Kuwait 8(1) of the International Journal of Financial Research, pp. 9-15.

Hassan, M., Shriaan, A. A., & Al-Mutairi, A. k. (2017). A study of the Kuwaiti economy from 1995 to 2015. Asian Social Science, 13(12), 24-34.

Kisswani, K. M., & Elian, M. I. (2017). Exploring the relationship between oil prices and sectoral stock prices using nonlinear evidence from the Kuwait Stock Exchange. Economics & Finance, Cogent, 5(1), 1-17.

Mohaddes, K., & Pesaran, M. H. (2017). Oil prices and the global economy: Is this time different? Energy Economics, volume 65, pages 315-325.

Department of Economic Research at NBK (2019). Non-oil growth is anticipated to reach 3% in 2019, and the budgetary situation is anticipated to remain sustainable. [PDF document]. Web.

Paul, F. H., Ali, S. R., Soomro, R., Ali, Q., & Abbas, S. K. (2018). Exchange rate volatility and economic expansion: Kuwaiti evidence 13(6), 158-163, Eurasian Journal of Analytical Chemistry.

Commerce Economics (2019a). Index of consumer prices in Kuwait. [Graph] Web.

Commerce Economics (2019b). Foreign direct investments in Kuwait. [Graph]. Web.

Commerce Economics (2019c). Kuwait GDP. [Graph]. Web.

Commerce Economics (2019d). [Graph] The inflation rate in Kuwait. Web.

Commerce Economics (2019e). Kuwait interest rate. [Graph]. Web.

Commerce Economics (2019f). Kuwait unemployment rate. [Graph]. Web.

The Global Investment Report (2015). [PDF file] United Nations conference on trade and development (UNCTAD). Web.

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Chinese Economy’s Exports And Future Compare And Contrast Essay Help

Table of Contents Summary Change management Opposition to Change Managing resistance Critical Review Citation

Overview

There have been numerous changes to the global corporate landscape. Globalization and technology advancement are among the most significant contributors to business environment change. Increased corporate competition and expansion necessitate several organizational changes. Change management is one of the most difficult responsibilities in management. No organization can be competitive and expand without modifying its organizational structure and other aspects of its operations. Despite the development of numerous theories to aid in change management, many managers find change difficult to handle. Change management faces a number of obstacles. This study will examine some of the factors that make managing change difficult for the majority of managers. The article will also attempt to design a change implementation plan for an organization.

Every part of existence undergoes transformation. There are times when companies require reform. Organizational change can be described as the movement of an organization from one intended condition to another. Changes in an organization are prompted by a variety of circumstances, but their primary purpose is to boost its effectiveness. In the current corporate environment, organizational reform is a need. Globalization, technical development, an increase in international trade, and frequent market fluctuations necessitate an organization's transformation in order to adapt to a fluctuating business environment. Employees are integral to any company transformation. Changes inside a company effect employees in some capacity. People naturally oppose change. People are typically accustomed to their surroundings, and therefore they tend to resist change (Tobin, 1999, p. 71). In a company where individuals perform specific duties and processes, it becomes difficult to implement change. Despite an organization's inherent reluctance to change, there are instances when change is necessary and must be accomplished.

Change management

Adapting to a specific business climate may necessitate transformation within a company. In some instances, a business may need to adopt changes in order to remain competitive with its rivals. Expanding a business may also necessitate the implementation of new procedures. The conflict of interest between those who implement the changes and those who are affected by the changes is the most significant factor in opposition to change. Change resistance can be organizational, individual, or individual. Resistance to change at the organizational level occurs when numerous elements within an organization reject change. When a given group or groups within an organization demonstrate opposition to change, this is known as group-level resistance. Individual resistance to change, on the other hand, occurs when an individual or individuals inside an organization resist change.

Change within an organization is not served on a silver platter; effort is required to execute the desired changes. Change management is an organized method for implementing change inside an organization. The primary purpose of change management is to facilitate the transition of an individual, group, or organization from its current state to the desired state. There are numerous change management theories. These views acknowledge that any organizational transformation requires individuals (Tobin, 1999, p. 109). In fact, change management is sometimes known as the human face of change. It is evident from this definition that organizational change involves people. Whether in a senior or junior role, the individuals engaged have a significant impact on the success of change implementation. The success of a change in an organization depends not only on the nature of the change but also on its implementation. Changes with the potential for beneficial outcomes frequently fail owing to ineffective change management. Change within an organization involves multiple parties. All stakeholders play a significant role in organizational transformation. A good change management guarantees that the interests of all organization stakeholders are taken into account. Failure to evaluate the interests of the individuals engaged in an important change may increase resistance or result in its failure.

Organizational change is a change that affects every area of a company, as opposed to a simple change like hiring a new employee. Changes to an organization's mission or vision, as well as significant alterations to its operations, a merger, or a downsizing, are examples of organizational transformation. Transformation is sometimes used to describe organizational transformation. This concept indicates that organizational transformation results in a new organization's appearance. Organizational change entails substantial modifications to an organization's operational structure. Usually, the alteration is an attempt to adapt to a shifting environment. Organizational change may influence the organization as a whole or part of its fundamental processes.

Opposition to Change

Resistance to change has diverse causes and motives. In general, people resist change due to the related worry. Some employees experience discomfort with change because it demands them to acquire new skills. The unpredictability of the future that accompanies change causes resistance to change. The majority of the time, individuals do not disagree on the advantages of a change, but they dread the uncertain future. Even while uncertainty about the future is the primary source of resistance, there are additional incentives for resistance. The behaviors that try to obstruct change and maintain the status quo are resistance to change. Resistance to change makes it difficult to implement change. It is appropriate, when investigating the causes of resistance to change, to recognize that management and employees interpret change differently. Other employees may regard change as a threat to their careers, whereas top management may view it as an opportunity to expand the organization. Most people regard change as disturbing and obtrusive.

Some employees experience agitation and anxiety as a result of organizational change. Employees may be concerned about their capacity to adapt to the changing circumstances; they may also fear for their job security or simply dislike change. Some managers within a business are likewise impacted by change, alongside employees. Some managers' self-interests could be threatened by change. A change may, for instance, affect the impact of certain managers on organizational choices. Managers who are impacted by a change may fight against it.

Despite being implicit, the majority of resistance to change is rooted in fear. The purpose of change is to go from a certain state to the intended state. This procedure entails transitioning from a known state to an unclear state. Throughout the process of change, some individuals may feel compelled to cling to the known and more comfortable past. For instance, if an employee was accustomed to the previous method of work, he or she may oppose change out of concern that they will not be able to function under the new adjustments. Doing tasks in a routine and familiar manner is relaxing. When changes are introduced, individuals will be required to operate under unfamiliar circumstances. Implementing change is comparable to asking them to leave their comfort zone. As many people dislike working in unfamiliar locations, there is a likelihood of resistance. Resistance to change is significantly more prevalent among persons who struggle to alter their routines. These folks may oppose change not because to its bad consequences, but because it requires them to encounter something new.

In addition to fear and routine, some persons may resist change because they do not recognize the need for it. The purpose of change is not evident to all. The inability of some stakeholders to comprehend the necessity of a change may dampen their excitement for the change. Some workers may evaluate a change from an egotistical standpoint in relation to their specific jobs. Employees may not perceive the good impact of a change if they are unable to see it in the context of the organization as a whole. Inability to comprehend the necessity of change promotes resistance. In this scenario, employees regard the modifications as disruptive and unnecessary. This mentality results in resistance to change implementation.

Control may be lost as a result of change. Employees are more confidence in their work when they are acquainted with the routines of the workplace. Some employees may feel as though they have lost control of their work when change is adopted. The other cause of change is a refusal to learn. Certain alterations need that staff learn to operate in a new setting (Fleming & Senior, 2006, p. 237). Employees who are unwilling to learn may reject change. When new technology is introduced, employees may resist change due to loss of control and unwillingness to learn. When a new technology is implemented, employees may feel as though they have lost control. Additionally, some technologies may necessitate staff learning, resulting in resistance.

The majority of reluctance to change stems from apprehension of the unknown. Despite the fact that some employees may identify the existence of a problem, they fight any changes aimed at resolving the issue due to a fear of the unknown. However, some persons may conclude that the desired scenario is not necessarily superior. They may fail to see the need for an organizational viewpoint shift. Employees who view change exclusively from a personal perspective are more inclined to resist it.

Managing resistance

Resistance management is crucial to change management. Since failing change is costly to a business, the ability to effectively manage opposition is crucial. The first stage in change management is identifying opposition to change. Managers of change should anticipate resistance to change. If managers are aware of potential opposition in advance, they can devise strategies to counteract it. The assumption that all stakeholders will fully accept a change is one of the most common errors made by change managers (Fleming & Senior, 2006, p. 241). This presumption encourages managers to implement change carelessly. Change failure can result in the departure of key personnel, a decline in employee royalties, and monetary losses. These potential side effects necessitate greater vigilance while initiating change. Change implementation can be executed successfully. The ability to overcome resistance and push all stakeholders towards the desired change determines success. Change management can be defined as the human aspect of change. This indicates that people should be involved in any organizational transformation. A change manager should involve everyone affected by a change from the outset by explaining its necessity. Having a clear vision, direction, and strategy for change, as well as valuing the perspectives of diverse individuals, are essential for organizational change success. Instead of proposing a solution, it is appropriate to include the affected parties in developing one (Tobin, 1999, p. 146).

Change management requires careful preparation and implementation, but most importantly, consultation with the affected parties. When change is imposed onto individuals, there is a significant probability of resistance. In addition to dialogue, the change should be feasible and realizable. A significant difference between the existing condition and the intended state causes higher resistance (Palmer, 2003, p.127). Before proposing a change to an organization, it is appropriate to assess the motivation for the change, possible implementations, and intended outcomes. In addition, change managers must be able to marshal the necessary resources for the change and inspire stakeholders to support it.

Fear is the leading cause of resistance to change. Change agent and those affected by the change are worried about the outcome of the change. Individuals implementing change can overcome fear by assessing the change's purpose and suggested remedy closely (Robbins, 1990, p.67). For instance, when adopting a significant change in technology, managers should analyze both the motive for the change and the suggested solution. Change must be implemented in a manner that allows affected parties to adapt. A change manager should recognize resistance to change and fear of change (Goodstein & Burke, 1999, p.98). Therefore, there must be sufficient time for implementing change. In addition, the change should be introduced gradually to allow the affected individuals to adjust.

Before executing a change, it is essential to notify those who will be affected of its necessity. The change manager should ensure that those affected by a change comprehend the necessity of the change not only for the organization, but for themselves as well (Lawrence, 1954, p. 47). Individuals should also be included in determining the change's implementation strategy. This provides the participants with a sense of ownership over the solution. Instead of using other kinds of communication, face-to-face communication should be used to convey the need for change. From conversations with those affected by a change, a change manager is able to allay their anxieties and persuade them of the change's necessity.

Communication is the most critical aspect of change management. Change is accompanied by anxiety and fear, which can be alleviated by constant communication. All stakeholders should be informed of every organization-wide event that affects them. Change should be conveyed throughout its development and execution. Frequent and high-quality communication reduces stress and anxiety during times of change. Any change that impacts specific individuals must be told in advance to allow them to adjust. In addition to communication, change managers must prepare individuals for the shift. For example, before executing a change that involves training, management should train the personnel (Fleming & Senior, 2006, p. 239).

Critical Analysis

According to Senge, organizational change is the adaptation of an organization's internal structure to a shifting business environment (Senge, 2000, p. 102). Change inside an organization does not occur by happenstance. According to Robbins, proactive planning is required for organizational change (Robbins, 1990, p 15). Kanter argues that a transformational shift should be accompanied by a change in character (Senge, 2000, p. 107). According to him, any other change results in resource loss because it has no major impact on a company. According to Gouillart and Kerry, transformation occurs when an organization maximizes its human resource potential and aligns its cultural and structural processes with its goal and vision (Gouillart & Kelly, 1995, p. 89). Gouillart and Kerry relate organizational transformation to the multi-stage development of a live creature. To survive, organizations must adapt to their surroundings. They stress the organization's transformational effect and consider it as more than mere reorganization.

Resistance to change is a universal characteristic of all transformations. Many researchers argue that resistance is the primary reason why most organizational changes fail. According to Ansoff, resistance to change increases change process cost and time (Ansoff, 1990, p.137). According to Beer and Einsentat, however, resistance to change has supplied crucial knowledge for the development of more effective change processes. According to Rumelt, there are five sorts of resistance sources (Rumelt, 1995, p. 67). According to him, resistance to change stems from a perception of its necessity, a lack of drive, and an absence of inventive reaction. According to Lorenzo, a pessimistic outlook on change may result from past failures. According to Rumelt, the solution to change resistance is to identify and address each source of resistance.

Reference

1990. "Implanting Strategic Management" by I. Ansoff. London: Prentice Hall International, Ltd.

Fleming, J., and B. Senior. "Organizational change." London: Financial Times Prentice Hall.

Goodstein, L., and W. Burke, "Creating Successful Organization Change," Organizational Dynamics, volume 19, number 4, pages 5 to 17, 1991.

F. Gouillart and J. Kelly, "Transforming the Organization," 1995. Manhattan: McGraw-Hill

1954. "How to Deal with Change Resistance." Harvard Business Review, 49-57.

Making Change Work: Practical Tools for Overcoming Human Resistance to Change, B. Palmer, 2003. American Society for Quality, New York.

Organization theory: Structure, design, and application, Englewood Cliffs: Prentice Hall, S. Robbins, 1990.

1995. "Inertia and change in Montgomery, C.A., Resource-Based and Evolutionary Theories of the Firm" by Rumelt, R. Commonwealth: Kluwer Academic Publishers

In breaking the code of change, Senge, P. (2000). "The puzzle and paradox of how living companies create wealth: Why single-valued objectives functions are insufficient." Beer and Nohria are available in Boston.

Tobin, R. (1999). Overcoming change resistance. Publishers of Kogan Page in New York

[supanova question]

Sustainable Growth And Security In The Gulf Cooperation Council: Recommendations For UAE Compare And Contrast Essay Help

Introduction

Since the discovery of oil and natural gas in this region at the turn of the twentieth century, the Gulf Cooperation Council (GCC) countries have experienced tremendous economic growth. The vast extraction of mineral resources was carried out using methods and strategies that did not take environmental security and economic sustainability into account. The prime objective for resource-rich nations was rapid economic development at any cost, regardless of environmental damage or fossil fuel depletion.

Nonetheless, with the recent rise of global concerns about sustainable growth and environmental protection, the GCC is beginning to participate in the global discussion of the potential means to sustain natural resources and progress economies with the aid of renewable forms of energy. During the post-oil era, the top priority for the Gulf states, including the United Arab Emirates (UAE) as one of the most prosperous states in the region, is the development of national policies aimed at diversifying their economies with the private sector and nonrenewable, environmentally friendly, and cost-effective sources of energy.

This paper will investigate the case study of sustainable development and security in the GCC states. First, an overview of the region's current economic and political conditions will be presented. Second, the discovery of oil and natural gas will be examined historically, along with its effects on the global energy market and regional economies. Thirdly, the obstacles impeding sustainability in the GCC region will be highlighted after the UAE's goal for future economic growth has been introduced. The presentation will conclude with a set of suggestions for the UAE to sustain its economic development in the face of diminishing energy resources and fast increasing environmental problems.

Current Economic Conditions inside the GCC

Since its formation in 1981, the Gulf Cooperation Council has evolved into an association of rich nations whose economic priorities are the production and global distribution of natural energy resources such as oil and natural gas. Bahrain, Kuwait, Oman, Qatar, Saudi Arabia, and the United Arab Emirates are the members of this alliance (Ben Hassine & Harrathi, 2017). These six states provide "about a third of the world's known oil reserves" and "about a quarter of its natural gas requirements" (Al-Maamary, Kazem, Chaichan, 2017, p. 11).

The political and economic development of these nations differs based on their respective regimes, but they all play a prominent role in the global oil market. Regarding economic integration, the union has robust export-import links, and the Gulf has made large investments in the development of neighboring Arab nations (Al-Maamary et al., 2017). Additionally, the region provides a large number of employment opportunities for migrant laborers from less developed nations (Sillitoe, 2017). Indeed, the Middle East states gain greatly from the region's economic development and aim to engage in other economic sectors.

To provide more precise information about individual states, it is important to note that Saudi Arabia is one of the biggest oil reserve owners in the region. Qatar is the world leader in liquefied natural gas production (Al-Maamary et al., 2017). The United Arab Emirates is one of the most investor-friendly states in the GCC due to its prospects in the technology and tourist sectors, as well as its low taxes and support of small businesses. From a small, poorly populated country dependent on agriculture and fishing to a contemporary trade economy in many decades (Abou Hana, 2017, p. 414). Therefore, the current economic prosperity is dependent on inexpensive energy resources and the Gulf's ability to invest in its continued expansion.

However, in the GCC region there are considerable safety issues. Due to its location in the most strategically significant region of the world, the GCC confronts risks to its stability and security. In fact, three wars have occurred here in the preceding thirty years (Al-Maamary et al., 2017). Considering that oil and gas have proven to be strategically powerful resources, the battles over them are currently a major cause for concern. Consequently, the union of the GCC members is driven not only by the need for economic cooperation, but also by the necessity to sustain coordinated security plans geared at defending against challenges from inside and beyond the area (Al-Maamary et al., 2017).

Thus, the experience of the GCC is an illustration of successful collaboration capable of enhancing "convergence and coordination in the economic, defense, and security fields" (Al-Maamary et al., 2017, p. 11). This is why the Gulf's place in the global economy is relatively solid.

Overall, the GCC states are the largest contributors to the global energy industry. Since the Gulf plays such a big role in the global economy, it is only natural that the policies these countries implement regarding the unsustainable use of fossil fuels have an impact on the global economy and ecology (Ghadimi, 2016). However, in order to achieve industrialization and urbanization, as well as international leadership in energy economics, these nations have overlooked the dangers of pollution and resource depletion (Sillitoe, 2017). Consequently, the economic plans for sustainable growth in these nations are in the best interests of the entire global community. The geographic situation

Oil and Natural Gas Discoveries in the GCC

The level of development currently observed in the GCC states was not previously typical of the Gulf area. Traders from these regions maintained trade links with India and Africa over many centuries. Fishing and pearling were the most important sources of goods for trade (Kubursi, 2016). Hot subtropical climates and landscapes dominated by deserts, stony hills, and dunes are inhospitable to flora and agricultural resources in general (Sillitoe, 2017). Until the nineteenth century, however, the shipment of fish and pearls contributed greatly to the region's economy and attracted traders from neighboring countries (Kubursi, 2016). The discovery of oil and natural gas deposits in these territories altered the trajectory of development.

The first oil pools were discovered in Bahrain in 1932, however this did not result in a big economic shift. However, as a result of the Iranian crisis in 1951, oil consumption surged, and its extraction reached its peak in 1973. (Kubursi, 2016). This delay in oil consumption by Gulf region nations could be attributed to a lack of financial and technological resources to extract and export fossil fuels. As a result of the 1973 spike in oil prices, governments gained opportunity and desire to recruit foreign investors and advance the oil industry (Kubursi, 2016). The UAE, Saudi Arabia, and other states in the region were able to increase their earnings because to the low cost of oil and gas production, which also fostered the formation of profitable relationships with overseas partners and consumers.

As a result of such a swift global transition toward natural gas and oil as the primary energy sources, the Gulf states embarked on a rapid development path that propelled them from poverty to affluence in a relatively short amount of time. According to Ghadimi (2016), the global economic community was and remains dependent on nonrenewable resources, which directs financial capital flow to "energy-rich economies, particularly those with abundant oil and gas" (p. 68).

Thus, the UAE was successful in investing in city-building processes and technology advancement, for instance. According to Abou Hana (2017), Dubai and Abu Dhabi have become the primary commerce and tourism hubs in the Gulf. The administration created regulations that facilitate the utilization of the country's strategic geographical location and investment in innovation. In such favorable conditions, small and medium-sized businesses began to expand and generate profits (Abou Hana) (2017). As a result of the discovery of oil, other GCC governments also went on a rapid development path.

Difficulties for Sustainability

Since its economic development in recent decades, the GCC has been confronted with the hard reality of depleted nonrenewable natural resources and environmental harm. The difficulty of fulfilling the goals put out by the governments and the union as a whole is exacerbated by a number of obstacles stemming from these nations' limited focus on fossil fuels. The enormous global demand for petroleum renders the Gulf a crucial participant in the global economy and requires the international energy market to rely on the region (Ghadimi, 2016). The fossil fuel deposits on which countries like as Saudi Arabia, the United Arab Emirates, and Qatar based their economic prosperity and global energy domination appeared to be limited.

According to Kubursi (2016), the six members of the union share comparable cultural, geographical, and economic characteristics and, as a result, face comparable challenges in maintaining sustainable growth. Such a circumstance cannot be disregarded and must be effectively addressed by the leaders of the major energy-producing nations. Before considering strategies to possibly improve the situation, it is essential to recognize the issues that the GCC states now face.

Realizing Sustainability

The urgent demand for sustainability has emerged as the dominant economic trend worldwide. It is widely acknowledged in the field of economics that the key to achieving sustainable growth is the capacity to offer a steady flow of resources (Sillitoe, 2017). As an economic component, sustainable development necessitates well-planned plans and procedures that seek both the profitable utilization of available resources and their conservation.

In the case of the Gulf region governments, the challenges of continuing economic growth were not considered when creating resource exploitation strategies. According to Sillitoe (2017), until recently, the GCC governments promoted rapid industrial and urban expansion at the expense of "natural resource depletion and pollution" (p. 1). Indeed, such persistent and compelled usage of previously discovered resources allowed for rapid GDP growth and the construction of a respectable position in the global economy. However, sustainability is the pivotal concept of the twenty-first century, as it represents the future stability of progress in the domains of economy, politics, and the environment.

Locating Renewable Energy Sources

Extraction and distribution of nonrenewable resources cannot be considered a sustainable source of income (Ghadimi, 2016). Any dependence on a finite resource that does not conform with sustainable development principles is doomed to fail. Now that oil and natural gas supplies are nearly depleted, it is imperative to rethink the status of the GCC nations in the global economy.

In addition, as a result of the GCC countries' exclusive reliance on global gas and oil prices, their economy become fragile, as they are solely dependent on these fuels. Therefore, the area confronts the difficulty of identifying possible sources of revenue from non-oil industries; in other words, economic diversification is one of the GCC's future policy priorities (Al-Sarihi, 2018). The governments aim to sustain long-term growth through utilizing renewable resources. Nonetheless, the threat to financial stability is not the only concern for the Gulf.

Climate Variation

Environmental deterioration is the second area of difficulty for the GCC nations. Climate change, air pollution, and CO2 emissions pose a threat to the global community as a whole. The effect of global warming on the world is demonstrated to be linked to the pollution created by heavy industries, such as the production of oil and gas (Al-Sarihi, 2018). Failure of GCC states to preserve environmentally friendly technologies during industrialization and depletion of natural resources have resulted in irrevocable changes to the ecology (Sillitoe, 2017). The deterioration of the environment in the severe climate of the Gulf region necessitates prompt action due to its negative effects on non-oil economic sectors, including fisheries, agriculture, infrastructure, and tourism (Al-Sarihi, 2018, p. 6).

In the post-oil era, these specific regions represent the sole option for the CGG governments to retain economic stability. Therefore, it is essential to swiftly address the identified concerns and invest in renewable energy.

As evidence of the GCC members' failure to adopt adequate measures aimed at reducing environmental damage, it is pertinent to present the following facts. According to study, there is a dearth of "environmental and technological awareness" and "education on sustainable energy systems" in Saudi Arabia (Al-Maamary et al., 2017, p. 12).

Similar problems exist in other nations of the Gulf region, which, due to their abundance of energy resources, rely heavily on the extraction industries as their primary source of income. Due to its efforts to reduce the consequences of climate change, one of the UAE's cities becomes a model for other GCC nations. As demonstrated by Al Maamary et al. (2017), Masdar City endured the 2008 global financial crisis and became the first city to operate carbon-free industry. Such a program of sustainable energy use with due regard for the environment justifies the region's prospective commitment to clean and continuing economic development.

GCC's Declining Impact on the Global Market

Environmental problems are the third issue that provides a hurdle to the Gulf's continued economic growth. It covers the global energy market's growing interest in decreasing greenhouse gas emissions and utilizing renewable energy sources (Al-Sarihi, 2018). This tendency indicates a potential decline in the worldwide demand for petroleum and may undermine the GCC states' standing in the global economy. The top nations in the globe are transitioning their industries to clean and environmentally acceptable energy sources. The bulk of investment projects and strategic initiatives promote innovation in the area of alternative energy source development.

Under these conditions, oil and gas extraction processes with large levels of carbon pollution are eliminated. Therefore, it is even more important to refer to the innovative, non-fossil-fuel dependent strategies for economic development in the region.

UAE Economic Future Vision

The mounting dangers to the GCC's economy force national issues on the unity's members. Several countries' policies, notably the UAE's, have already addressed a number of these problems. Extractive industries (29.5%), "wholesale and retail commerce; repair of motor vehicles and motorcycles (11.7%), and financial, constructive, and transformative industries each contribute around 8% of GDP ("Economy," 2019, para. 8). This suggests that, despite the undeniable fact that oil and gas production are the most lucrative sectors of the economy, other crucial fields should be advanced with the goal of achieving sustainable growth.

The state administration was able to predict the effects of a “bottom-up” oil and gas extraction policy.

Sustainable Growth And Security In The Gulf Cooperation Council: Recommendations For UAE Compare And Contrast Essay Help

Introduction

Since the discovery of oil and natural gas in this region at the turn of the twentieth century, the Gulf Cooperation Council (GCC) countries have experienced tremendous economic growth. The vast extraction of mineral resources was carried out using methods and strategies that did not take environmental security and economic sustainability into account. The prime objective for resource-rich nations was rapid economic development at any cost, regardless of environmental damage or fossil fuel depletion.

Nonetheless, with the recent rise of global concerns about sustainable growth and environmental protection, the GCC is beginning to participate in the global discussion of the potential means to sustain natural resources and progress economies with the aid of renewable forms of energy. During the post-oil era, the top priority for the Gulf states, including the United Arab Emirates (UAE) as one of the most prosperous states in the region, is the development of national policies aimed at diversifying their economies with the private sector and nonrenewable, environmentally friendly, and cost-effective sources of energy.

This paper will investigate the case study of sustainable development and security in the GCC states. First, an overview of the region's current economic and political conditions will be presented. Second, the discovery of oil and natural gas will be examined historically, along with its effects on the global energy market and regional economies. Thirdly, the obstacles impeding sustainability in the GCC region will be highlighted after the UAE's goal for future economic growth has been introduced. The presentation will conclude with a set of suggestions for the UAE to sustain its economic development in the face of diminishing energy resources and fast increasing environmental problems.

Current Economic Conditions inside the GCC

Since its formation in 1981, the Gulf Cooperation Council has evolved into an association of rich nations whose economic priorities are the production and global distribution of natural energy resources such as oil and natural gas. Bahrain, Kuwait, Oman, Qatar, Saudi Arabia, and the United Arab Emirates are the members of this alliance (Ben Hassine & Harrathi, 2017). These six states provide "about a third of the world's known oil reserves" and "about a quarter of its natural gas requirements" (Al-Maamary, Kazem, Chaichan, 2017, p. 11).

The political and economic development of these nations differs based on their respective regimes, but they all play a prominent role in the global oil market. Regarding economic integration, the union has robust export-import links, and the Gulf has made large investments in the development of neighboring Arab nations (Al-Maamary et al., 2017). Additionally, the region provides a large number of employment opportunities for migrant laborers from less developed nations (Sillitoe, 2017). Indeed, the Middle East states gain greatly from the region's economic development and aim to engage in other economic sectors.

To provide more precise information about individual states, it is important to note that Saudi Arabia is one of the biggest oil reserve owners in the region. Qatar is the world leader in liquefied natural gas production (Al-Maamary et al., 2017). The United Arab Emirates is one of the most investor-friendly states in the GCC due to its prospects in the technology and tourist sectors, as well as its low taxes and support of small businesses. From a small, poorly populated country dependent on agriculture and fishing to a contemporary trade economy in many decades (Abou Hana, 2017, p. 414). Therefore, the current economic prosperity is dependent on inexpensive energy resources and the Gulf's ability to invest in its continued expansion.

However, in the GCC region there are considerable safety issues. Due to its location in the most strategically significant region of the world, the GCC confronts risks to its stability and security. In fact, three wars have occurred here in the preceding thirty years (Al-Maamary et al., 2017). Considering that oil and gas have proven to be strategically powerful resources, the battles over them are currently a major cause for concern. Consequently, the union of the GCC members is driven not only by the need for economic cooperation, but also by the necessity to sustain coordinated security plans geared at defending against challenges from inside and beyond the area (Al-Maamary et al., 2017).

Thus, the experience of the GCC is an illustration of successful collaboration capable of enhancing "convergence and coordination in the economic, defense, and security fields" (Al-Maamary et al., 2017, p. 11). This is why the Gulf's place in the global economy is relatively solid.

Overall, the GCC states are the largest contributors to the global energy industry. Since the Gulf plays such a big role in the global economy, it is only natural that the policies these countries implement regarding the unsustainable use of fossil fuels have an impact on the global economy and ecology (Ghadimi, 2016). However, in order to achieve industrialization and urbanization, as well as international leadership in energy economics, these nations have overlooked the dangers of pollution and resource depletion (Sillitoe, 2017). Consequently, the economic plans for sustainable growth in these nations are in the best interests of the entire global community. The geographic situation

Oil and Natural Gas Discoveries in the GCC

The level of development currently observed in the GCC states was not previously typical of the Gulf area. Traders from these regions maintained trade links with India and Africa over many centuries. Fishing and pearling were the most important sources of goods for trade (Kubursi, 2016). Hot subtropical climates and landscapes dominated by deserts, stony hills, and dunes are inhospitable to flora and agricultural resources in general (Sillitoe, 2017). Until the nineteenth century, however, the shipment of fish and pearls contributed greatly to the region's economy and attracted traders from neighboring countries (Kubursi, 2016). The discovery of oil and natural gas deposits in these territories altered the trajectory of development.

The first oil pools were discovered in Bahrain in 1932, however this did not result in a big economic shift. However, as a result of the Iranian crisis in 1951, oil consumption surged, and its extraction reached its peak in 1973. (Kubursi, 2016). This delay in oil consumption by Gulf region nations could be attributed to a lack of financial and technological resources to extract and export fossil fuels. As a result of the 1973 spike in oil prices, governments gained opportunity and desire to recruit foreign investors and advance the oil industry (Kubursi, 2016). The UAE, Saudi Arabia, and other states in the region were able to increase their earnings because to the low cost of oil and gas production, which also fostered the formation of profitable relationships with overseas partners and consumers.

As a result of such a swift global transition toward natural gas and oil as the primary energy sources, the Gulf states embarked on a rapid development path that propelled them from poverty to affluence in a relatively short amount of time. According to Ghadimi (2016), the global economic community was and remains dependent on nonrenewable resources, which directs financial capital flow to "energy-rich economies, particularly those with abundant oil and gas" (p. 68).

Thus, the UAE was successful in investing in city-building processes and technology advancement, for instance. According to Abou Hana (2017), Dubai and Abu Dhabi have become the primary commerce and tourism hubs in the Gulf. The administration created regulations that facilitate the utilization of the country's strategic geographical location and investment in innovation. In such favorable conditions, small and medium-sized businesses began to expand and generate profits (Abou Hana) (2017). As a result of the discovery of oil, other GCC governments also went on a rapid development path.

Difficulties for Sustainability

Since its economic development in recent decades, the GCC has been confronted with the hard reality of depleted nonrenewable natural resources and environmental harm. The difficulty of fulfilling the goals put out by the governments and the union as a whole is exacerbated by a number of obstacles stemming from these nations' limited focus on fossil fuels. The enormous global demand for petroleum renders the Gulf a crucial participant in the global economy and requires the international energy market to rely on the region (Ghadimi, 2016). The fossil fuel deposits on which countries like as Saudi Arabia, the United Arab Emirates, and Qatar based their economic prosperity and global energy domination appeared to be limited.

According to Kubursi (2016), the six members of the union share comparable cultural, geographical, and economic characteristics and, as a result, face comparable challenges in maintaining sustainable growth. Such a circumstance cannot be disregarded and must be effectively addressed by the leaders of the major energy-producing nations. Before considering strategies to possibly improve the situation, it is essential to recognize the issues that the GCC states now face.

Realizing Sustainability

The urgent demand for sustainability has emerged as the dominant economic trend worldwide. It is widely acknowledged in the field of economics that the key to achieving sustainable growth is the capacity to offer a steady flow of resources (Sillitoe, 2017). As an economic component, sustainable development necessitates well-planned plans and procedures that seek both the profitable utilization of available resources and their conservation.

In the case of the Gulf region governments, the challenges of continuing economic growth were not considered when creating resource exploitation strategies. According to Sillitoe (2017), until recently, the GCC governments promoted rapid industrial and urban expansion at the expense of "natural resource depletion and pollution" (p. 1). Indeed, such persistent and compelled usage of previously discovered resources allowed for rapid GDP growth and the construction of a respectable position in the global economy. However, sustainability is the pivotal concept of the twenty-first century, as it represents the future stability of progress in the domains of economy, politics, and the environment.

Locating Renewable Energy Sources

Extraction and distribution of nonrenewable resources cannot be considered a sustainable source of income (Ghadimi, 2016). Any dependence on a finite resource that does not conform with sustainable development principles is doomed to fail. Now that oil and natural gas supplies are nearly depleted, it is imperative to rethink the status of the GCC nations in the global economy.

In addition, as a result of the GCC countries' exclusive reliance on global gas and oil prices, their economy become fragile, as they are solely dependent on these fuels. Therefore, the area confronts the difficulty of identifying possible sources of revenue from non-oil industries; in other words, economic diversification is one of the GCC's future policy priorities (Al-Sarihi, 2018). The governments aim to sustain long-term growth through utilizing renewable resources. Nonetheless, the threat to financial stability is not the only concern for the Gulf.

Climate Variation

Environmental deterioration is the second area of difficulty for the GCC nations. Climate change, air pollution, and CO2 emissions pose a threat to the global community as a whole. The effect of global warming on the world is demonstrated to be linked to the pollution created by heavy industries, such as the production of oil and gas (Al-Sarihi, 2018). Failure of GCC states to preserve environmentally friendly technologies during industrialization and depletion of natural resources have resulted in irrevocable changes to the ecology (Sillitoe, 2017). The deterioration of the environment in the severe climate of the Gulf region necessitates prompt action due to its negative effects on non-oil economic sectors, including fisheries, agriculture, infrastructure, and tourism (Al-Sarihi, 2018, p. 6).

In the post-oil era, these specific regions represent the sole option for the CGG governments to retain economic stability. Therefore, it is essential to swiftly address the identified concerns and invest in renewable energy.

As evidence of the GCC members' failure to adopt adequate measures aimed at reducing environmental damage, it is pertinent to present the following facts. According to study, there is a dearth of "environmental and technological awareness" and "education on sustainable energy systems" in Saudi Arabia (Al-Maamary et al., 2017, p. 12).

Similar problems exist in other nations of the Gulf region, which, due to their abundance of energy resources, rely heavily on the extraction industries as their primary source of income. Due to its efforts to reduce the consequences of climate change, one of the UAE's cities becomes a model for other GCC nations. As demonstrated by Al Maamary et al. (2017), Masdar City endured the 2008 global financial crisis and became the first city to operate carbon-free industry. Such a program of sustainable energy use with due regard for the environment justifies the region's prospective commitment to clean and continuing economic development.

GCC's Declining Impact on the Global Market

Environmental problems are the third issue that provides a hurdle to the Gulf's continued economic growth. It covers the global energy market's growing interest in decreasing greenhouse gas emissions and utilizing renewable energy sources (Al-Sarihi, 2018). This tendency indicates a potential decline in the worldwide demand for petroleum and may undermine the GCC states' standing in the global economy. The top nations in the globe are transitioning their industries to clean and environmentally acceptable energy sources. The bulk of investment projects and strategic initiatives promote innovation in the area of alternative energy source development.

Under these conditions, oil and gas extraction processes with large levels of carbon pollution are eliminated. Therefore, it is even more important to refer to the innovative, non-fossil-fuel dependent strategies for economic development in the region.

UAE Economic Future Vision

The mounting dangers to the GCC's economy force national issues on the unity's members. Several countries' policies, notably the UAE's, have already addressed a number of these problems. Extractive industries (29.5%), "wholesale and retail commerce; repair of motor vehicles and motorcycles (11.7%), and financial, constructive, and transformative industries each contribute around 8% of GDP ("Economy," 2019, para. 8). This suggests that, despite the undeniable fact that oil and gas production are the most lucrative sectors of the economy, other crucial fields should be advanced with the goal of achieving sustainable growth.

The state administration was able to predict the effects of a “bottom-up” oil and gas extraction policy.

Sustainable Growth And Security In The Gulf Cooperation Council: Recommendations For UAE Compare And Contrast Essay Help

Introduction

Since the discovery of oil and natural gas in this region at the turn of the twentieth century, the Gulf Cooperation Council (GCC) countries have experienced tremendous economic growth. The vast extraction of mineral resources was carried out using methods and strategies that did not take environmental security and economic sustainability into account. The prime objective for resource-rich nations was rapid economic development at any cost, regardless of environmental damage or fossil fuel depletion.

Nonetheless, with the recent rise of global concerns about sustainable growth and environmental protection, the GCC is beginning to participate in the global discussion of the potential means to sustain natural resources and progress economies with the aid of renewable forms of energy. During the post-oil era, the top priority for the Gulf states, including the United Arab Emirates (UAE) as one of the most prosperous states in the region, is the development of national policies aimed at diversifying their economies with the private sector and nonrenewable, environmentally friendly, and cost-effective sources of energy.

This paper will investigate the case study of sustainable development and security in the GCC states. First, an overview of the region's current economic and political conditions will be presented. Second, the discovery of oil and natural gas will be examined historically, along with its effects on the global energy market and regional economies. Thirdly, the obstacles impeding sustainability in the GCC region will be highlighted after the UAE's goal for future economic growth has been introduced. The presentation will conclude with a set of suggestions for the UAE to sustain its economic development in the face of diminishing energy resources and fast increasing environmental problems.

Current Economic Conditions inside the GCC

Since its formation in 1981, the Gulf Cooperation Council has evolved into an association of rich nations whose economic priorities are the production and global distribution of natural energy resources such as oil and natural gas. Bahrain, Kuwait, Oman, Qatar, Saudi Arabia, and the United Arab Emirates are the members of this alliance (Ben Hassine & Harrathi, 2017). These six states provide "about a third of the world's known oil reserves" and "about a quarter of its natural gas requirements" (Al-Maamary, Kazem, Chaichan, 2017, p. 11).

The political and economic development of these nations differs based on their respective regimes, but they all play a prominent role in the global oil market. Regarding economic integration, the union has robust export-import links, and the Gulf has made large investments in the development of neighboring Arab nations (Al-Maamary et al., 2017). Additionally, the region provides a large number of employment opportunities for migrant laborers from less developed nations (Sillitoe, 2017). Indeed, the Middle East states gain greatly from the region's economic development and aim to engage in other economic sectors.

To provide more precise information about individual states, it is important to note that Saudi Arabia is one of the biggest oil reserve owners in the region. Qatar is the world leader in liquefied natural gas production (Al-Maamary et al., 2017). The United Arab Emirates is one of the most investor-friendly states in the GCC due to its prospects in the technology and tourist sectors, as well as its low taxes and support of small businesses. From a small, poorly populated country dependent on agriculture and fishing to a contemporary trade economy in many decades (Abou Hana, 2017, p. 414). Therefore, the current economic prosperity is dependent on inexpensive energy resources and the Gulf's ability to invest in its continued expansion.

However, in the GCC region there are considerable safety issues. Due to its location in the most strategically significant region of the world, the GCC confronts risks to its stability and security. In fact, three wars have occurred here in the preceding thirty years (Al-Maamary et al., 2017). Considering that oil and gas have proven to be strategically powerful resources, the battles over them are currently a major cause for concern. Consequently, the union of the GCC members is driven not only by the need for economic cooperation, but also by the necessity to sustain coordinated security plans geared at defending against challenges from inside and beyond the area (Al-Maamary et al., 2017).

Thus, the experience of the GCC is an illustration of successful collaboration capable of enhancing "convergence and coordination in the economic, defense, and security fields" (Al-Maamary et al., 2017, p. 11). This is why the Gulf's place in the global economy is relatively solid.

Overall, the GCC states are the largest contributors to the global energy industry. Since the Gulf plays such a big role in the global economy, it is only natural that the policies these countries implement regarding the unsustainable use of fossil fuels have an impact on the global economy and ecology (Ghadimi, 2016). However, in order to achieve industrialization and urbanization, as well as international leadership in energy economics, these nations have overlooked the dangers of pollution and resource depletion (Sillitoe, 2017). Consequently, the economic plans for sustainable growth in these nations are in the best interests of the entire global community. The geographic situation

Oil and Natural Gas Discoveries in the GCC

The level of development currently observed in the GCC states was not previously typical of the Gulf area. Traders from these regions maintained trade links with India and Africa over many centuries. Fishing and pearling were the most important sources of goods for trade (Kubursi, 2016). Hot subtropical climates and landscapes dominated by deserts, stony hills, and dunes are inhospitable to flora and agricultural resources in general (Sillitoe, 2017). Until the nineteenth century, however, the shipment of fish and pearls contributed greatly to the region's economy and attracted traders from neighboring countries (Kubursi, 2016). The discovery of oil and natural gas deposits in these territories altered the trajectory of development.

The first oil pools were discovered in Bahrain in 1932, however this did not result in a big economic shift. However, as a result of the Iranian crisis in 1951, oil consumption surged, and its extraction reached its peak in 1973. (Kubursi, 2016). This delay in oil consumption by Gulf region nations could be attributed to a lack of financial and technological resources to extract and export fossil fuels. As a result of the 1973 spike in oil prices, governments gained opportunity and desire to recruit foreign investors and advance the oil industry (Kubursi, 2016). The UAE, Saudi Arabia, and other states in the region were able to increase their earnings because to the low cost of oil and gas production, which also fostered the formation of profitable relationships with overseas partners and consumers.

As a result of such a swift global transition toward natural gas and oil as the primary energy sources, the Gulf states embarked on a rapid development path that propelled them from poverty to affluence in a relatively short amount of time. According to Ghadimi (2016), the global economic community was and remains dependent on nonrenewable resources, which directs financial capital flow to "energy-rich economies, particularly those with abundant oil and gas" (p. 68).

Thus, the UAE was successful in investing in city-building processes and technology advancement, for instance. According to Abou Hana (2017), Dubai and Abu Dhabi have become the primary commerce and tourism hubs in the Gulf. The administration created regulations that facilitate the utilization of the country's strategic geographical location and investment in innovation. In such favorable conditions, small and medium-sized businesses began to expand and generate profits (Abou Hana) (2017). As a result of the discovery of oil, other GCC governments also went on a rapid development path.

Difficulties for Sustainability

Since its economic development in recent decades, the GCC has been confronted with the hard reality of depleted nonrenewable natural resources and environmental harm. The difficulty of fulfilling the goals put out by the governments and the union as a whole is exacerbated by a number of obstacles stemming from these nations' limited focus on fossil fuels. The enormous global demand for petroleum renders the Gulf a crucial participant in the global economy and requires the international energy market to rely on the region (Ghadimi, 2016). The fossil fuel deposits on which countries like as Saudi Arabia, the United Arab Emirates, and Qatar based their economic prosperity and global energy domination appeared to be limited.

According to Kubursi (2016), the six members of the union share comparable cultural, geographical, and economic characteristics and, as a result, face comparable challenges in maintaining sustainable growth. Such a circumstance cannot be disregarded and must be effectively addressed by the leaders of the major energy-producing nations. Before considering strategies to possibly improve the situation, it is essential to recognize the issues that the GCC states now face.

Realizing Sustainability

The urgent demand for sustainability has emerged as the dominant economic trend worldwide. It is widely acknowledged in the field of economics that the key to achieving sustainable growth is the capacity to offer a steady flow of resources (Sillitoe, 2017). As an economic component, sustainable development necessitates well-planned plans and procedures that seek both the profitable utilization of available resources and their conservation.

In the case of the Gulf region governments, the challenges of continuing economic growth were not considered when creating resource exploitation strategies. According to Sillitoe (2017), until recently, the GCC governments promoted rapid industrial and urban expansion at the expense of "natural resource depletion and pollution" (p. 1). Indeed, such persistent and compelled usage of previously discovered resources allowed for rapid GDP growth and the construction of a respectable position in the global economy. However, sustainability is the pivotal concept of the twenty-first century, as it represents the future stability of progress in the domains of economy, politics, and the environment.

Locating Renewable Energy Sources

Extraction and distribution of nonrenewable resources cannot be considered a sustainable source of income (Ghadimi, 2016). Any dependence on a finite resource that does not conform with sustainable development principles is doomed to fail. Now that oil and natural gas supplies are nearly depleted, it is imperative to rethink the status of the GCC nations in the global economy.

In addition, as a result of the GCC countries' exclusive reliance on global gas and oil prices, their economy become fragile, as they are solely dependent on these fuels. Therefore, the area confronts the difficulty of identifying possible sources of revenue from non-oil industries; in other words, economic diversification is one of the GCC's future policy priorities (Al-Sarihi, 2018). The governments aim to sustain long-term growth through utilizing renewable resources. Nonetheless, the threat to financial stability is not the only concern for the Gulf.

Climate Variation

Environmental deterioration is the second area of difficulty for the GCC nations. Climate change, air pollution, and CO2 emissions pose a threat to the global community as a whole. The effect of global warming on the world is demonstrated to be linked to the pollution created by heavy industries, such as the production of oil and gas (Al-Sarihi, 2018). Failure of GCC states to preserve environmentally friendly technologies during industrialization and depletion of natural resources have resulted in irrevocable changes to the ecology (Sillitoe, 2017). The deterioration of the environment in the severe climate of the Gulf region necessitates prompt action due to its negative effects on non-oil economic sectors, including fisheries, agriculture, infrastructure, and tourism (Al-Sarihi, 2018, p. 6).

In the post-oil era, these specific regions represent the sole option for the CGG governments to retain economic stability. Therefore, it is essential to swiftly address the identified concerns and invest in renewable energy.

As evidence of the GCC members' failure to adopt adequate measures aimed at reducing environmental damage, it is pertinent to present the following facts. According to study, there is a dearth of "environmental and technological awareness" and "education on sustainable energy systems" in Saudi Arabia (Al-Maamary et al., 2017, p. 12).

Similar problems exist in other nations of the Gulf region, which, due to their abundance of energy resources, rely heavily on the extraction industries as their primary source of income. Due to its efforts to reduce the consequences of climate change, one of the UAE's cities becomes a model for other GCC nations. As demonstrated by Al Maamary et al. (2017), Masdar City endured the 2008 global financial crisis and became the first city to operate carbon-free industry. Such a program of sustainable energy use with due regard for the environment justifies the region's prospective commitment to clean and continuing economic development.

GCC's Declining Impact on the Global Market

Environmental problems are the third issue that provides a hurdle to the Gulf's continued economic growth. It covers the global energy market's growing interest in decreasing greenhouse gas emissions and utilizing renewable energy sources (Al-Sarihi, 2018). This tendency indicates a potential decline in the worldwide demand for petroleum and may undermine the GCC states' standing in the global economy. The top nations in the globe are transitioning their industries to clean and environmentally acceptable energy sources. The bulk of investment projects and strategic initiatives promote innovation in the area of alternative energy source development.

Under these conditions, oil and gas extraction processes with large levels of carbon pollution are eliminated. Therefore, it is even more important to refer to the innovative, non-fossil-fuel dependent strategies for economic development in the region.

UAE Economic Future Vision

The mounting dangers to the GCC's economy force national issues on the unity's members. Several countries' policies, notably the UAE's, have already addressed a number of these problems. Extractive industries (29.5%), "wholesale and retail commerce; repair of motor vehicles and motorcycles (11.7%), and financial, constructive, and transformative industries each contribute around 8% of GDP ("Economy," 2019, para. 8). This suggests that, despite the undeniable fact that oil and gas production are the most lucrative sectors of the economy, other crucial fields should be advanced with the goal of achieving sustainable growth.

The state administration was able to predict the effects of a “bottom-up” oil and gas extraction policy.

Role Of Leadership In Organizations Compare And Contrast Essay Help

Introduction

An event is notable if it occurs once or repeatedly within a short period of time and leaves a lasting impact. This occasion could include festivities or performances, speeches, and ceremonies. The majority of events are arranged to commemorate cultural, political, or cooperative goals.

Recent years have witnessed substantial expansion in the event packaging business. The government's attention has been brought to the significance of this industry to the economies of various nations as a result of its expansion. The development of events supported by state governments has prompted the establishment of units. The purpose of which is to connect the success of tourism to the outcomes of these events. According to a number of academics, the success of an event has a good association, first with the visiting tourist and then as a method of conducting business. Providing quality beverage and food services, as well as the perception of authenticity, are agreed-upon factors that influence the happiness of event attendees.

In today's service-driven economy, corporations bundle their goods and services with an experience in order to increase sales. To reap the full benefits of experience staging, firms must embrace a fee-commanding, experience-engaging design. The transformation of promoting or selling an experience has not been simple for established businesses to execute.

The progression of economic history can be retraced through the many evolutionary stages experienced by birthday cakes. As proof of the agrarian economy, women baked birthday cakes from the very beginning. Combining farm products, such as sugar, butter, eggs, and flour. All of these together are inexpensive or free. At Betty Croker, women spent a dollar or more for pre-mixed components as the economy of the industrial period developed. At the beginning of this service-based economy, busy parents ordered cakes from bakery shops that, if purchased for $15 or $20, would have cost significantly more than the packed ingredients. In the 1990s, parents did not celebrate birthdays with cakes or celebrations. Instead, substantial sums were spent to completely outsource an event. From exploration zone to Chuck E. Cheeses, other event-promoting companies were noteworthy for children. Recently, free cakes have become the norm at festivals. Thus, this is the beginning of an economy of experience. Despite the fact that economists have grouped services and experience together, experience is a distinct economic gift that is distinct from services and goods. This economic gift is acknowledged and articulated today since experience is indisputably what people want, and more businesses are planning and implementing accordingly. From now on, leading firms will learn that experience staging is the new competitive frontier.

Literature Review

design and execution of services

There is a line of distinction between experience and service; to comprehend this divide, recollect an episode of the old television show Taxi. In it, Iggy, a poor and hilarious driver, decided to become the greatest taxi driver this planet has ever seen. He offered beverages and sandwiches to his passengers while providing city excursions. Frequently, he sung Frank Sinatra songs. He transformed an average taxi ride into an unforgettable experience that his clients will never forget. Iggy presented an altogether new economic contribution. The experience of riding in Iggy's taxi was significantly more important to his passengers than the service of being driven around the city. The response was that his consumers paid him more money. One of his customers had to pay far more than the statutory sum since poor service prolonged his experience. Iggy supplied services – taxi driving – as a front for selling an experience, which was in fact what he was doing. If businesses use their services as a stage and their products as props to engage with clients on an individual level, they will create a memorable experience. Thus, commodities are said to be fungible, while goods are said to be tangible, services are said to be intangible, and experiences are said to be memorable. Following Walt Disney, the pioneer of the experience economy, we will refer to experience purchasers as guests. This customer prefers to value firms' revelations over time. While pecuniary contributions, such as services and presents, are secondary to the guest. Experiences are personal, dwelling in the mind of an individual, including emotional, intellectual, and bodily components. Thus, the experiences of two individuals will always be distinct. This is because an experience consists of the fundamental interactions between an individual's mental state and the stage show. Walt Disney and his enterprises have cleverly utilized the concept that experience is the essence of show business. Today, marketing experience is valued in industries far from parks and theaters. The development of innovative technologies has altered the nature of experience. From online chat rooms to interactive video games, new types of entertainment have emerged. According to new schools of thought, business is more than the manufacture and sale of new things; it also involves information distribution and interactive life connection experiences.

At Planet Hollywood and Hard Rock Café, food serves as a prop for the entertainment that is the primary focus. Cabalas', Nike town, attracts clients by presenting them with amusing activities and attractive displays. Often commonly termed entertailing. However, experiences cannot be considered solely entertaining. Businesses stage experiences when they want to engage customers in a personal way that will be remembered for eternity. Sir Collin Marshal, the former chairman of British Airways, remarked that in the field of business travel, the commodity mentality is the belief that a business is only executing a function — in our instance, carrying people from point A to point B on time and at the lowest possible price. The airways compete with others on the level of offering an experience, going above and beyond just functionality. Experiences are not limited to companies that manufacture consumer items.

The attributes of experiences

Before collecting an admittance fee, a business must plan and implement an experience that customers deem to be worth the cost. Experiences, like goods or services, will require a flawless plan from conception through marketing and delivery. Inventiveness and uniqueness will always precede income growth. Experiences, like goods and services, include unique characteristics and face significant design challenges. One method to consider experiences is from a two-dimensional perspective.

Participation of the visitor

At one end of the spectrum is inactive involvement, in which customers have no effect on performance. Attendees of symphonies are a fantastic illustration of this type of participant. During an event, they gain experience by observing and listening. On the opposite end are active players. Here, clients contribute to the formation of the experience. Skiers are a fantastic illustration of this type of participation. Even ski race spectators cannot be considered as passive participants. By participating in the ski race, they contribute to the visual experience of people at the event.

The affiliation of the visitor

This is often referred to as the customer's or guest's ability to interact effectively with the environment. Connection unites the client or attendee with the event's performance. At one angle of connection range, absorption occurs, but at the other, immersion occurs. Guests seated in the grandstand and seeing the Kentucky Derby tend to focus on the action occurring beneath and in front of them. While those infield are immersed in the noises, sights, and smells of their surroundings. In physics class, frantically scribbling notes on a notepad can be far more engaging than reading a book. However, seeing a film in a theater with others, stereophonic sound, and a large screen is more immersive than watching the same film on a home video player.

The classification of experiences

Attending a live performance or watching television are examples of entertainment experiences in which the involvement or participation of consumers or guests is more passive than active. In this instance, the connection at the event is one of absorption rather than immersion. Educational events, such as taking a ski lesson or attending a class, engage people actively. However, students are typically more detached from the event than absorbed in it. Escapist experiences can educate in the same manner that educational ones do, or they can be funny as entertainment, but with a greater client immersion. Participating in an orchestra or acting in a play involves active and immersive experiential participation. Active guest participation must be lowered for an escapist experience to become ecstatic, the fourth type of experience. Here, visitors are immersed in the atmosphere, yet they have no effect, such as a gallery visitor. All experiences of depth, such as a trip to Disney World, embrace all dimensions of experience. The most essential question for those in positions of authority to ask themselves is, "How unique and distinct is the experience my company provides?" The quality of the experience provided will significantly impact the business of the firm. Experience must meet the customer's demand or expectation, just as goods or services do. Experiences are the product of a process of examination, scripting, and execution, whereas services are the outcome of a process of examination, blueprint construction, and enhancements.

Creating an exceptional experience

It is anticipated that developing experiences will become a business in the future, similar to product and process design. Design principles are undeniably evident from the actions and outcomes of organizations already in the industry. Below are the experience design principles.

The experience must have a theme

When one hears the names of entertainment-oriented restaurants, he or she forms an impression of what to expect from such an establishment. For instance, the rain forest café and the Hard Rock café, to name a couple. The first and most crucial step that owners must take when attempting experience staging is to create a memorable theme. A badly sculpted topic prevents prospective customers from imagining what to anticipate. And the memories from such locations are frequently fleeting. Such is the case with Gertrude Stein's Oakland. The guidelines are frequently violated by retailers. The motif created does not correspond with the retail experience that is to be performed, despite the fact that they trumpet the shopping experience. When it comes to theme creation, home appliance stores are especially lacking in originality. Considering that a Las Vegas-based mall features the notion of a "ancient Roman marketplace," this motif has been realized in every way through architectural elements. These features include pristine white columns, marble floors, an outdoor café, running fountains, living trees, and completion during a thunderstorm.

Impression complemented with positive cues

While the topic lays the groundwork, it is of utmost importance that the experience leave an unforgettable mark on the audience. The impression is what a guest takes away from an encounter, signifying that the theme has been accomplished. Companies must introduce clues that confirm the nature of the experience to the client or guest in order to establish the desired impression. Each cue must provide support for the theme. Harob George, the creator of a Washington, D.C.-based coffee business, conceived the company's mission statement (the marriage of Old world Italian espresso bars with fast paced American living). Customers are able to create queues without the need for signage, which would have deviated from the theme's objective, due to the interior design's representation of the ancient world. There is a feeling of quick service in a pleasant environment. Additionally, the franchise owner encourages his employees to recall the faces of regular customers in order to serve them without prompting. The cue, regardless of its size, contributes to the creation of a memorable experience. When a restaurant host informs you that your table is ready, he or she has given you no indication. However, the proclamation by a Rainforest Café host to her visitor to be on the lookout for an upcoming adventure tends to generate the impression of a unique encounter. Cues produce impressions, and impressions generate client experiences that are memorable. An unpleasant experience could be the result of an undervalued, ignored, or disorganized architectural feature. A customer may be left perplexed if an unintended visual signal is applied. After receiving information on the direction, it may be difficult to locate one's hotel room. The client's experience would be enhanced by clearer and more comprehensible indications on the walkway.

Remove unmotivated cues

Positive indicators alone are insufficient to preserve the authenticity of the guest or client experience. Everything that conflicts with the concept must be eliminated. Experienced stagers must adhere to this rule tenaciously. In offices, shopping malls, and airplanes, trivial massages are common. Despite the fact that customers occasionally require guidance, service providers frequently employ improper massage forms. For example, trash cans at fast food restaurants may feature a "thank you" sign. Instead, stagers of experience may transform the trash can into a talking, garbage-eating character that expresses gratitude when the lid is opened. A good massage is conveyed to the customer without any negative cues. The simplest way to transform a service into an experience is to deliver subpar services. This creates an interaction that is memorable, but of a negative one. Excessive service can ruin an experience.

The five senses must be stimulated.

The sensory stimuli accompanying an encounter must advance its topic. The more senses involved in an encounter, the more unforgettable that experience will be. Smart operators of shoeshine shops enhance the aroma of polish using fragile material fragments. Aroma and sounds that do not contribute to the shoe but improve the whole experience. During the blending of produce, grocery stores, channel bakeries, and others employ sound and light to resemble a thunderstorm. The Cloud Forest

The World Wide Web And Its Benefits To Real Estate Agents Compare And Contrast Essay Help

Abstact

I welcome you to the internet's enchanted realm. Through the use of tracking technology and the internet, we are able to find out what is around us at the push of a button. Previously, we utilized paper maps and the Yellow Pages to locate businesses and obtain instructions. Imagine living in a future where you can access all the information you need on a property via the internet on your phone. The Internet has played a crucial role in allowing remote business transactions in a variety of industries.

This article will therefore investigate the benefits of the Internet for real estate brokers. To this purpose, a basic introduction of Internet technology and its benefits for small enterprises will be offered. In addition, the applications that can be used to facilitate commercial transactions will be described, as well as their usefulness to the real estate industry. This will be accomplished by the application of the correlative research method, which aims to establish the relationship between two or more variables. The information offered here will be gathered from a variety of trustworthy sources, including scholarly publications, books, essays, and websites devoted to this topic.

Introduction

The invention of the computer and the subsequent development of the internet was arguably one of the greatest achievements of the 21st century. In terms of information processing and transmission, these two entities have virtually revolutionized the globe. As effective worldwide communication has become the distinguishing characteristic of successful enterprises, organizations and business leaders have embraced the widespread use of computer technology.

The integration of information technology into project management is essential among the systems. As a result, the Internet has played a crucial role in fostering easy and accessible global communication. Due to the internet and related apps, commercial transactions no longer require extensive travel. In addition, internet technology has considerably decreased the expensive costs associated with traveling and lodging, allowing people to conduct business from the comfort of their own homes and offices.

As a result, the Internet is highly advantageous for those who seek to access the global market. If real estate agents utilize this opportunity well, they stand to benefit. This proposal would investigate the benefits of the World Wide Web for real estate brokers in an environment marked by uncertainty and intense competition.

Context of the study

During the past few decades, the real estate sector has experienced substantial shifts in housing pricing, technology, and competition. The days of using paper maps and word of mouth to find a house or a buyer are long gone. People are desperately searching for a place to call home, as the world population has increased dramatically. This increasing demand for housing coupled with the limited availability of affordable housing has caused a housing crisis throughout the majority of the world.

As if that were not enough, the high cost of living has compelled many individuals to work long hours in order to meet their own personal and financial demands as well as those of their dependents. As a result, individuals no longer have a great deal of spare time to hunt for homes. This duty has been delegated to real estate agents, whose principal function is to find occupants for vacant and available homes. In light of this circumstance, this industry has proven to be a successful and sustainable source of income for numerous agents.

Despite this demand for homes, only a small number of real estate brokers are successful in this industry. Their success is built on their dedication, sales abilities, and solid social network. The lives of persons with minimal means as real estate brokers are frequently brief and arduous. In the past decade, technological improvements have allowed all real estate agents to compete on an even playing field. Internet and other technical applications have shown to be crucial for the development of social networks, client bases, and market expansion. Thus, a real estate agent in Miami has a chance of selling to a buyer in another state without necessarily knocking on doors.

Description of the problem

While the Internet offers an abundance of commercial options, many business owners and organizations are resistant to abandoning their conventional methods of conducting business. For the majority of individuals, the internet is a complex, risky, and unclear environment. For others, it provides doors for their company to expand and profit from worldwide business prospects. This misconception has plagued the real estate industry. While some real estate agents consider the Internet as an ally to advancement, others view it as a weapon that enables Forney real estate agents to defraud and blackmail unsuspecting buyers. While their assumptions are somewhat accurate, the potential benefits of this technology greatly outweigh the anticipated concerns.

In addition, no one can confidently claim to comprehend the Internet in its entirety. It is a network that has yet to reach its full potential. As a result, many new and experienced realtors who seek to conduct business through e-commerce are unaware of certain conditions for success in e-commerce. This proposal would therefore investigate potential technologies that could be utilized to guarantee that online real estate enterprises receive the full benefits associated with this business form.

Subject justification

Before I begin my paper, I would want to introduce myself and explain why I chose this topic. I earned a bachelor's degree in Technology Management with a minor in Studio Arts from the University of Houston. I then worked as a Business Analyst and Project Manager for a computer firm. Currently, I work as a realtor. Consequently, my interest in these two fields had a crucial influence in selecting a research topic. This is also supported by the notion that I will be able to use the insights I obtain from this research to my own real estate practice. As a result, I am hopeful that this research will enable me to produce further marketing and sales tactics that position my company for success and competitive advantage in the real estate industry.

Literature review

The network

Dreyfus (2009) states that the Internet is frequently known as the information superhighway. The origins of the Internet may be traced back to the 1950s and 1960s, around the same time as the invention of computers. To comprehend the internet, it is necessary to examine the word itself. inter (short for international) and net combine to create the word internet (short for network). Therefore, the Internet is an abbreviation for international network. This is a technology name for the link that lets two or more computerized devices to share data across the globe. The World Wide Web is a search engine that enables internet users to explore, search, add, and remove content (Pogue & Biersdorfer, 2006).

According to Weber (2004), the Internet was created in the 1960s as a result of the foresight of those who realized the potential in exchanging knowledge through computers. The goal of the inventors at the time was to disseminate knowledge about research and scientific advancements in numerous disciplines of study. In addition, the author argues that the Internet has undergone substantial modifications since its inception. Changes include increased speed, coverage, and accessibility. Prior to twenty years ago, the internet was restricted to a select few users. However, it has exploded in popularity and is now one of the primary sources of information, commercial opportunities, and communication. As a result, the Internet is crucial for those who seek to share their information, company, and experience with individuals from around the globe. This sentiment is applicable to real estate brokers because the worldwide demand for housing is enormous.

The Internet's Impact on Small Businesses

Small firms face numerous obstacles in the current business environment. According to Hedbor (2005), small businesses cannot effectively compete for resources, market share, and customers due to the presence of huge corporations. He relates this to the fact that small businesses are unable to conduct substantial study on how to develop their enterprises, cannot grow their markets, and, most importantly, cannot advertise as much as is required. In contrast to major firms, which have unlimited resources and financial support to carry out these activities, small businesses lack the means to do so.

The internet has significantly altered the status quo. Williams (2010) claims that through the Internet, small businesses have access to free and usable information on how to develop their company, allowing them to conduct as much research as possible on their market, goods, and customers. In addition, the Internet offers small business owners a cost-effective and inexpensive advertising tool for their products and services. As may be gathered from the increase in sales for firms that engage in extensive advertising, commercials have a tremendous effect on the general public.

While most media outlets focus on certain regions, the internet encompasses the entire globe. Consequently, online advertising enables small firms to sell their products internationally, so increasing their earnings. According to current data, a large portion of the worldwide population connects to the internet daily. This indicates that the likelihood of acquiring new customers via the Internet is substantially greater than through traditional kinds of promotion, which are typically localized.

Moreover, according to Bidgoli (2004), the internet has aided the communication efforts of small enterprises. Communication is arguably the foundation of any successful relationship, whether corporate or personal. The significance of successful communication is universally understood, and as Greene and Burleson (2003) indicate, a great deal of study has been conducted on the topic, and countless books have been written to assist people improve their communication skills and become more effective.

Internet allows firms to communicate with customers about product and operating enhancements (Goldenberg, 2008). In addition, the Internet has proven to be a useful resource for businesses conducting research on their products and services. For instance, on the majority of websites, businesses post surveys and questionnaires that visitors must complete. The data acquired from these technologies can be utilized to fix problems, enhance products, services, and processes, and, most importantly, to determine what the targeted market expects from diverse offerings (Schenck, 2005).

Clearly, the Internet has demonstrated its value to small enterprises. It not only provides businesses with a level playing field, but also allows them to improve their products and services through study and communication. In addition, according to Schenck (2005), the use of the Internet as a marketing and competitive strategy is more effective and less expensive than traditional methods such as radios, televisions, and newspapers.

The ordinary entrepreneur's Internet understanding is extremely restricted. In addition, their restricted access to finance and time constraints discourage them from utilizing the Internet. A Google search will reveal that the average price range for a professionally designed website is between $2500 and $6500. Many of these businesses offer a variety of services, ranging from email configuration to search engine optimization. Because most small business owners are unaware of the web resources accessible to them, they waste money on services they could have obtained for free or at a low cost.

The prospects for E-commerce

According to Meier and Stomer (2009), we live in an information age when technology is as significant as the enterprises we engage in. Computers have permeated every part of our life nowadays. Whether at school, home, or the workplace, we frequently use the computer to ease and complete specific tasks. As businesses and individuals strive to take advantage of globalization, electronic commerce is quickly becoming a way of life.

In the majority of developed nations, the usage of currency is becoming obsolete. Cards made of plastic are the future of commerce. As a growing number of organizations engage in online transactions, the demand for offices continues to decline. Increasing numbers of people today buy and sell items and services online (Board, 2003). Amazon.com and eBay are two examples of well-known internet retailers. In actuality, no industry does not provide its products and services online. The internet makes it simple to locate and purchase any product or service imaginable. In the future, E-commerce will be the primary method of conducting business if this trend continues. It is inexpensive and provides a range of things. This means it provides consumers with more options than conventional methods.

The property market

In the modern era, purchasers frequently choose to view possible homes online prior to investing additional money in it or personally viewing it (Richard, 2004). Consequently, the Internet gives buyers this convenience at a reduced price. According to Kidd (2000), it is essential for an online real estate agent to have a website that displays available properties to prospective purchasers. This saves both the real estate agent and the buyer important time that would otherwise be wasted on unpleasant calls requesting information about a certain property.

In most cases, these websites permit real estate sellers to exhibit four or five photographs of their property, along with information about its location, price, and size. In addition, purchasers are able to compare the best aspects of several properties without having to visit each home individually (which is time and money consuming). Most websites that advertise real estate attract a large number of customers, hence boosting the realtor's likelihood of generating speedy transactions (Swanepoel, 2000).

In addition, internet advertising is less expensive and more convenient than traditional methods such as newspapers. Once a property is placed on a real estate website, it remains advertised until it is sold, according to Vieira (2008). This saves the realtor a substantial amount of money, given that newspaper advertising requires weekly payments to keep the ad running. Additionally, the fact that multiple images can be uploaded to a website is more convenient than newspaper advertisements, which often only let a single image to be uploaded.

Likewise, properties offered on the Internet are displayed 24 hours a day, seven days a week. This augments

Human Resource Planning In Tourism Industry Compare And Contrast Essay Help

Methodology for human resource planning

Human resource planning has always been an integral part of the tourism industry's competitive growth and evolution. Human resource assets are crucial to the growth, development, and market positioning of businesses. 1 Here, the human resource asset is planned strategically and continues to be a vital part of the industry-wide business strategy for tourism industry companies. 2 Despite the importance of human resource planning in the sector, there is no evidence that enterprises within the industry have a single industry-wide universal human resource planning framework on which human resource planning standards, methods, and policies are based. However, a basic understanding of the processes and tactics utilized in any industry for human resource planning is applicable to tourism industry businesses. In this instance, enterprises within the industry conduct human resource planning operations using models tailored to their operating environment, with a decision-making process linked with organizational aims and objectives. 3

Companies in the tourist business do human resource planning by identifying and hiring individuals with the necessary capabilities. In addition, the companies use motivating approaches to improve the performance of their employees by ensuring that human resource planning activities and business planning objectives are interconnected. 4

According to studies, organizations in the tourist industry have taken a situational approach to human resource planning based on both short-term and long-term corporate strategy planning. Long-term strategic planning provides firms with a strategic approach to forecasting future human resource demands, whereas short-term corporate strategic planning focuses on coordinating the current human resource in an industry to facilitate the effective operation of a business in achieving its business-level objectives and strategies. Forecasting the demand for labor, analyzing the supply of labor in the market, and ensuring that the demand for labor in the industry is well balanced enable enterprises and their top-level managers to identify and plan their human resource staffing needs in depth. 5

Setting organizational goals and objectives, scanning the external environment for any changes that affect the human resource in the industry, as well as environmental factors that affect the supply of human resources for the firms, including the labor supply, comprise the majority of the human resource planning process for firms operating in the industry.

6 In addition, businesses frequently recruit highly qualified personnel. The recruitment process is an industry-wide strategy based on the fundamental principles of human resource management. In this instance, companies are always on the lookout for the appropriate number of qualified individuals who possess the necessary skills to execute the tasks entrusted to them successfully and efficiently in pursuit of organizational goals. 7 Firms in the tourist sector acquire the greatest talent by first creating strong planning strategies that serve as the foundation for organizational success in a competitive industry. Each organization in this field must compete and establish a reputation as the top tourist destination on the market.

Firms that operate within the framework of their industry plan effectively based on the ever-changing business environment in order to get the most qualified human resource in the sector. Changes in the corporate environment may be internal or external. Changes in technologies, such as the emergence and usage of the Internet to discover the finest tourist destination and determine what is offered at the target point without visiting that location, are among the variables that change in either scenario. In this instance, technologies might have a beneficial or bad impact on the competitiveness of a tourist site and any business operating in its vicinity. Other factors that affect the flow of tourists and the operations of a business in the destination of interest include still-existing and emerging economic structures within the industry, employee attitudes toward an organization and its organizational structure, government policies within which a business operates, and other issues that may be associated with employee turnover within the industry. 8 When issues arise within an industry-operating company, the management encounters a large increase in the number of human resource planning issues.

In order for managers to be effective in human resource planning and to handle the problems and challenges facing tourism industry businesses, a variety of tactics are employed. Theoretically and practically, individual enterprises within an industry employ a framework for human resource planning. Within the framework for human resource planning, it is essential to recognize that a number of crucial objectives must be attained due to their significance in the human resource planning procedure. In this instance, organizations operating within the industry must determine the human resource goals and work to achieve them. 9

Objectives

Individual enterprises in the tourism industry establish targets to optimize human resources and position themselves competitively. A firm operating in the tourism industry must be able to accurately forecast its human resource needs and requirements, identify the best ways to adapt to rapidly changing technologies and market conditions, maximize its available human resources, and establish a framework for the development and promotion of its human resources. It is crucial for businesses to define the objectives that pertain to them in order to realize all the benefits associated with the objectives' proper application. Diverse studies demonstrate that when objectives are correctly implemented, the accruing benefits, which include the accumulation of the industry's top personnel, enable a company to profit from their skill. 10 In addition, well-utilized objectives facilitate staff progress in terms of skills and experience. In addition to other components of employee personal development, this is included. Cost reduction, organizational growth and expansion, and planning success are further advantages that result from the correct use of objectives by a company. According to research studies, human resource planning in the tourism business is based on a variety of methods, depending on the organization. 11

The firms' approaches to human resource planning include defining and categorizing the plans according to the responsibilities the firm aims to play in the society of its setting, which are consistent with the expectations and influence each plan has on the society and the firm as a whole. In this instance, the firms classified the plans according to their guiding ideology. In this instance, the company's philosophy is based on its intentions and the image it wishes to cultivate inside its operational environment. The philosophy includes a clear declaration of the firm's economic objectives and the action plan that will offer the framework necessary to attain those objectives. 12 In this instance, the raison d'etre de la création de la société ainsi que ses principales activités et les résultats escomptés sont elucidated. In addition, companies in the tourist industry develop strategic approaches for long-term objectives and the necessary course of action to achieve the goals. 13 Here, rules, procedures, standards, the budget, and plans are formed to meet the goals for which the company was founded. The human resource is the essential asset that drives the design of strategies and underpins the successful implementation of strategies in an organization or company's pursuit of its goals. Firms within the tourist industry have models for human resource planning processes in order to successfully implement plans within the industry. Each model is relevant based on the operating environment of the specific business. Figure 1 depicts such a model from the past.

The HRP Method

Based on the human resource planning process described previously, the human resource professionals in charge of the entire process is responsible for evaluating the operational environment to identify the amount of human resource needs and skill level requirements.

14 Figure 1 depicts a conceptual framework of the human resource planning operations across a company's lifecycle. It is essential that the entire procedure be carried out by human resource specialists with the necessary expertise and qualifications. To recruit the best talent in society, human resource personnel should employ scientifically validated methodologies and procedures for scanning the surroundings. In this situation, once the organizational objectives have been established, it is essential to align the objectives with the human potential available within the company, and if the talent is not available, it becomes essential to locate and recruit talent from outside the organization. 15 To avoid unwarranted labor disputes, it is essential to integrate human resource planning activities with the proper staffing requirements, appropriate compensation, identification of training and development needs, and establishment of strong labor relationships within an industry-operating company. 16

Using the appropriate human resource forecasting methods, competent human resource employees identify the gap between the market for human resource personnel and the firm's available personnel. In this instance, scientifically validated forecasting strategies include the use of judgment, logic, and market trend analysis, the Delphi forecasting technique, work study methodologies, and flow models, among others. 17 In this instance, the environmental factors consisting of employee turnover from the firm or within the industry, demand creation for their talents, and the prevalent microeconomic and macroeconomic factors that influence the demand and supply of labor force within the industry. During this era, other aspects to consider include social conditions such as labor conditions, government laws, religious and cultural difficulties, and technological factors such as the exponential growth of internet usage.

As part of the forecasting process, it is essential to develop personnel ratios based on the historical relationships between employees and job categories. In addition to the use of other forecasting tools, such as time series analysis, which provides a thorough picture of past staffing levels and present trends, a number of difficulties pertaining to the human resource planning of a tourism industry company are uncovered. The objective of the time series analysis is to identify past staffing levels and define the trend in human resource staffing, while ensuring that information regarding cyclical patterns and random movements of talented individuals is known. The findings can be utilized to identify the relationship between personnel levels, current economic conditions, and the strategy for retaining the finest talent and abilities inside an industry-operating company. In addition, the results are utilized to inform the programming phase for human resources and the implementation strategies for organizational objectives derived from several information sources.

For effective human resource planning, the usage of tools such as replacement charts involves factors such as promotions and replacements. In addition to generating a skills inventory against which to evaluate employee skills for promotion or replacement purposes, this step include creating a skills matrix. Alternatively, when human resource personnel determine that employees must be recruited from outside an organization, it is crucial to identify the availability of the required labor, the supply level, and the alternatives in order to complete the entire process of human resource planning up to the control and evaluation and supply assessment levels, as shown in figure 1.

The effect of external factors

Human resource planning in the tourism business is significantly impacted by external factors. It is essential to identify external effects in order to establish their level and nature of influence on human resource planning. External impacts include economic conditions characterized by the growth or expansion of the enterprises or the contraction of the industry, job creation in the economies of nations, the demand and supply of competent human resources on the labor market, and the labor union contract signed by the firms. 18 The influences have direct and indirect effects on human resource planning because they affect the approach used by firms in the industry to forecast the demand for labor, internal supply forecasts, the capacity to reconcile the demand and supply of human resources in identifying and filling gaps, and the strategies developed by the firms to develop the action plan for the human resource planning process. The political climate is another component that is strongly related to external forces. The political climate is determined by a nation's level of stability and security. In this situation, professional employees find it difficult and risky to operate in an unstable political climate, suggesting that it is difficult to locate skilled and experienced personnel willing to work in a hostile political atmosphere. 19 In addition, enterprises in the tourism industry may not be able to operate in such a hazardous atmosphere. Despite the fact that the economy and economic environment are external elements that effect human resource planning in an organization, enterprises in the sector face a number of obstacles to human resource planning.

The framework underlying the recruitment and selection procedures used by the tourism company included the employment equity act, which prohibits discrimination based on diversity, sex, gender, etc., codes of good practice, medical scheme act and regulations for the employee's health insurance coverage were also focal points, and the successful candidate for the position could enjoy the benefits.

As shown below, an overview of the phases and tasks performed throughout each phase of the recruiting and selection process illustrates the effect that legal, regulatory, and ethical issues had on the process.

Stage One

A job analysis is performed in order to provide a work description for a vacant position. At this stage, neither the job analysis nor the job descriptions include any hints of prejudice, and the information was provided so as to leave no room for misunderstanding in the mind of the potential applicant.

Phase two

Each candidate is received a letter acknowledging receipt of their application, and each application is evaluated based on the job description specifications supplied in the advertisement, per the request to find the information on the company's website. Each unsuccessful candidate is sent a letter of regret if they do not qualify because they did not pass the screening examination.

Level three

Each successful applicant undergoes an interview, and comparable questions are asked to prevent discrimination. Each respondent is examined and assigned scores based on a valid and reliable measurement scale. Other considerations include engaging a professional to do psychometric assessment of the candidates. Each of the candidates

Global Standards In Non-financial Reporting Compare And Contrast Essay Help

Introduction

We have noticed an increase in the number of organizations embracing non-financial reporting over the previous decade. For instance, Alesina and Weder (2002) state that in 2000, only roughly 44 organizations were using the Global Reporting Initiative-popularized idea of sustainability reporting. According to Rubin (2012), around 1,973 companies had previously complied with these regulations by 2010. In tandem, stock exchange authorities and national governments have strengthened their support for sustainability reporting by adopting legislation governing sustainability reporting.

The purpose of this study is to investigate critically how the increased demand from customers and investors for companies to have enhanced disclosures has stimulated a growing desire for global standards in non-financial reporting (Alesina & Weder 2002). In addition, the study will analyze how the introduction of such mandatory non-financial reporting requirements can improve non-financial reports, such as those on economic risk and corporate social responsibility. The study will conclude by examining how the adoption of such standards contributes to the improved environmental risk management of a company.

Environmental reporting

Due to the increasing need to be accountable and transparent, many businesses have not adopted the concept of non-financial reporting. The new technique, commonly known as sustainability reporting, involves reporting on corporate social responsibility or risk management concerns (Kolk 2004, p. 53). Sustainability reporting is the public disclosure of an organization's environmental, economic, and social performance (Gwendolen 2009). The majority of businesses have learned that financial reporting alone cannot satisfy the expanding expectations of their customers, shareholders, communities, and other stakeholders.

This is because the aforementioned parties require a comprehensive picture of the company's performance if they are to be supported in their decision-making processes (Markus, Wolfgang & Witte 2006, p. 11). In this aspect, "sustainability reporting" is also comparable to "triple bottom line reporting" and "citizenship reporting" (Kolk 2004, p. 54). This is due to the fact that sustainability reporting enables readers to better understand the extent to which a company adheres to the "triple bottom line" of social, environmental, and economic performance.

When these nonfinancial reports are issued voluntarily, they also shed light on the sustainability-related possibilities and hazards that the reporting organization may face, whether it be a private or public firm, an academic institution, a government agency, or a nonprofit (The Economist 2004). The idea is that if a company wishes to advertise its sustainability practices, it will also reveal areas where it has fallen short of expectations, in addition to the areas where it has succeeded. This will inevitably result in a short-term state of reputational risk.

However, there are numerous long-term benefits connected with a company's adoption of sustainability reporting methods, which will more than offset the short-term disadvantages. According to Walmsey and Bond (2004), sustainability reporting can enhance an organization's reputation over time. Separately, Schaltegger, Bennett, and Burritt (2008) recognized some of the benefits of sustainability reporting to a company, including enhanced risk management and increased operational efficiency. Moreover, the company is likely to gain the confidence of multiple stakeholders.

The majority of the aforementioned advantages are attributable to the internal controls and processes that the companies in issue may have adopted to help them collect, store, and process non-financial data (Farneti & Guthrie 2009, p. 94). Companies that have developed systems to collect real-time, high-quality data on topics such as water use, greenhouse gas emissions, and supply chain activities, for instance, are able to improve their decision-making process and eliminate any associated risk (Markus et al 2006). In contrast, businesses that do not report on sustainability ultimately increase risk.

Increased need for global non-financial reporting required and optional benchmarks

Over the past decade, advocates for mandatory and voluntary reporting standards have engaged in heated disputes. These discussions have nearly always resulted in confrontation due to perceptions and vested interests (Goldsmith 2012). In contrast, pressure groups, trade unions, and non-governmental organizations (NGOs) advocated for mandatory benchmarks to guide the adoption of non-financial reporting a decade ago.

They lacked confidence that companies would freely provide objective non-financial information (Cazier, Corley & Gora 2011). 35% of CFOs, according to a research published by ACCA Global in 2010, believe that such stanzas would go a long way toward boosting non-financial reports in areas such as environmental risk concern and corporate social responsibility. Only 9% of CFOs disagree. About half of CFOs (46%) are persuaded that the establishment of global benchmarks that facilitate the publishing of non-financial data would be extremely beneficial for strengthening the reputation of companies among consumers and stakeholders.

Nevertheless, CFOs are generally in agreement that organizations' risk management might potentially benefit from such an arrangement. Executives are also of the idea that worldwide benchmarks or norms in corporate governance are essential for instilling a "long-term" mindset within a company (Kearins, Collins & Tregidga 2010, p. 514).

However, the majority of executives and CFOs agree that adopting corporate governance during boardroom meetings would be beneficial since it would encourage 'long-term' thinking (Adams & Whelan 2009, p. 124). Alternatively, the legislator may elect to remain inactive, effectively leaving the issuance of sustainability reports to international agencies or market forces, or they may decide to assist various non-governmental initiatives to impede firms' efforts to embrace non-financial reporting (Needles & Powers 2010). In contrast, politicians may opt to introduce the following measures:

Regulatory requirements include a reporting requirement; Offering firms reporting incentives; Endorsing the GRI Guidelines in order to convince industry participants to adopt them; Guidelines and regulations on performance that may or may not refer to GRI and UN Global Compact as worldwide benchmarks. Giving regulatory authorities such as the NYSE regulatory authority

As a growing number of companies publish their financial reports in accordance with global standards, they will undoubtedly face rising pressure to provide more than the typical bottom-line statistics (Kearins et al 2010, p. 521). These demands have been spurred by a variety of issues, but are mostly the outcome of a greater awareness of the environmental and social effects of business action (Weiss 2012). Corporate Sustainability Reporting Coalition's initiative to advocate for increased accountability and transparency from corporate boards is a worthy case study (Horrigan 2010).

This initiative was introduced at the United Nations General Assembly in September 2011. Affiliate member of the Corporate Sustainability Reporting Coalition lobbying organization. It consists of institutional investors responsible for managing assets worth more than $1.6 trillion (ACCA Global 2010). The 2011 ACCA study reveals that investors and issuers support a choice to codify methods for evaluating business performance not only in non-financial but also in financial domains. This is a clear indication that global standards have the ability to influence the communication styles of investors and corporate boards.

Although the current increase in non-financial reporting can be traced back to the previous decade, executives and CFOs believe that worldwide standards are necessary to ensure that this information remains meaningful. Even though the disclosure of non-financial information suggests that companies are moving in the right way, their first objective should be to avoid operational risks (Schaltegger, Bennett & Burritt 2006).

This is due to the fact that stressing disclosure helps us detect suboptimal standards. For instance, if a company decides to disclose something that is generally undesirable, investors are typically expected to possess the requisite skills to recognize it. After that, the investor may contact the company's leadership and ask the pertinent questions until they are comfortable with the risk in question (Saudagardan 2001). In general, the majority of survey respondents questioned for the ACCA Worldwide report (2010) believed that creating global standards for non-financial reporting would be a beneficial tool that would assist company executives to better manage potential environmental risks (ACCA Global 2010).

Certainly, the majority of businesses today appear to support the establishment of global benchmarks for non-financial reporting, as they have understood that society members and investors increasingly rely on such reports prior to making decisions. Such choices could involve the purchase of a product or the making of an investment. Therefore, it is necessary to guarantee that such a report is well-structured so that both consumers and investors can have an objective understanding of how your business activity will influence them. Similarly, the establishment of worldwide standards for non-financial reporting may have a significant effect on your company's balance sheet.

Should businesses implement mandatory non-financial reporting?

There are numerous arguments for and against the implementation of mandatory and voluntary financial reporting. Mandatory non-financial reporting aids in altering the organization's culture. Consequently, leaders can take the initiative in innovation (Pratt 2010). In addition, it provides legal clarity and enables the business to reduce expenses. There is also the question of decreasing the market risk that cannot be diversified.

In addition, the company achieves standardization. Voluntary non-financial reporting also enables the company to stay flexible, to comply with established standards, and to demonstrate an awareness of the sector's collective interests (Smith, Haniffa, and Fairbrass, 2011). Also, the company is unlikely to be adaptable in the event of complex change. There is also the problem of limitations on competitiveness and efficiency, not to mention the absence of an incentive for innovation. In addition, voluntary non-financial reporting may result in conflicts of interest, poor enforcement, inadequate fines, and worldwide competition. It may also encounter inadequate resources.

Companies who fail to provide sustainability information can and can appear less transparent than their rivals and may be viewed as laggards, although this may not be the case (Pilot 2011). In addition, firms that publish partial sustainability reports with insufficient energy quickly discover that if it becomes required to issue such reports and if the benchmarks are raised, glaring contradictions appear between past and present reports (Lohr 2011).

When the aforementioned causes combine, businesses may feel considerable pressure to guarantee that their non-financial reporting methods are made public (Adams & Whelan 2009, p. 124). Consequently, the majority of firms are committed to reporting, but have yet to implement the necessary systems and procedures. Other companies are also searching for creative approaches to enhance the quality of their present reporting systems in order to mitigate any long-term risks related with sustainability and to manage their reputation.

Environmental report use

Environmental reports are especially valuable when management wishes to communicate with consumers, investors, and other stakeholders on a variety of problems, such as investment, business development, corporate responsibility, capital development funding, community impacts, and expansion. Environmental reports provide the company a public face, in addition to enhancing the acceptability and legitimacy of its activities (Cazier et al 2011).

Clearly, if the information given is inaccurate, if the company fails to meet the goals it has set, or if it fails to fulfill the commitments specified in reports, the resulting consequences could be extremely embarrassing and have a significant impact on the company's reputation (Brunetti & Weder 2003). Under certain conditions, the results could have a detrimental effect on the share price of a corporation. Therefore, the entire organization needs and should be aware of its responsibilities as outlined in the report (Horrigan 2010). In addition, businesses must be prepared to meet and accept their obligations and objectives.

Commercial advantages

There appears to be a lack of consensus among researchers as to whether environmental reporting and financial gains are directly related. Walmsley and Bond (2003) conducted a study to examine if environmental reporting played a role in boosting the share values of companies listed on the FTSE 100. They discovered that, on average, companies that release environmental reports fared no better financially than those that did not.

In contrast, a mixed evaluation of the financial services and energy and utility industries found that enterprises with the best reports had a greater probability of benefiting from an enhanced reputation and increased share prices because investors perceived in them an investment opportunity worth pursuing. Moreover, the analysis revealed that organizations that reported lower share price volatility predicted likely stable growth. Moreover, sustainability of environmental reporting provides investors with additional information that enables them to identify companies that enable them to invest their resources in an eco-efficient manner, thereby bolstering both non-financial and monetary value in terms of sound environmental management practices.

Conclusion

Sustainability reporting is a new idea that requires organizations to report their non-financial performance. This is a growing need for organizations. This is a radical shift from traditional reporting, which has centered on the economic performance of companies.

In contrast, non-financial reporting focuses primarily on a company's environmental and sustainability practices. Beyond the end-of-year financial reports, investors, consumers, and other stakeholders are slowly discovering the need for extra information about a particular company. This data has proven valuable in assisting them in making the best investment and/or buying selections. Consequently, numerous stakeholders exert a great deal of pressure on businesses to disclose their non-financial performance data in the form of sustainability reporting.

On the one hand, there are reports that non-financial reporting could put a company's reputation at danger in the near term, but on the other hand, the company that adopts this approach stands to gain a great deal from sustainability reporting in the long run. For instance, investors and customers acquire the company's trust, which serves as a crucial competitive advantage.

Bibliography

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Adams, C., and G. Whelan, "Conceptualising Future Change in Corporate Sustainability Reporting," Accounting Auditing and Accountability Journal, Vol. 21, No. 1, pp. 118-130, 2009.

Do corrupt governments receive less foreign aid?, American Economic Review, vol. 92, no. 4, pp. 1126-1137, 2002.

Brunetti, A., and B. Weder, "A free press is bad news for corruption," Journal of Public Economics, vol. 87, no. 7/8, pages 1801-1824, 2003.

Cazier, J., K. Corley, and D. Gora, "Do Independent Sustainability Audits Offer a Competitive Advantage?," The EDP Audit, Control, and Security Newsletter, Volume 43, Number 2, 2011.

Sustainability Reporting by Australian Public Sector Organizations: Why They Report, Accounting Forum, Volume 33, Number 2, Pages 89-98, 2009.

Goldsmith, T. (2012). "Wake commissioners oppose sustainability report," News Observer, p.

Sustainability reporting: managing for wealth and business health, published by Business Expert Press and Techlink in Singapore in 2009.

B. Horrigan, Corporate social responsibility, Edward Elgar, Northampton, Massachusetts, 2010.

Beyond corporate environmental management: a consideration of nature in visionary small business. Business and Society, Vol. 49, No. 3, pp. 512-547, 2010.

A decade of sustainability reporting: advances and relevance.

First, Make Money, Then, Do Good, S. Lohr, The New York Times, p. 6, 2011.

Trends in non-financial reporting, November 2006, GPPi Research Papers, Volume 6, pages 1-50, Markus, P., R. Wolfgang, and J. Witte, 2006.

Needles, B., & Powers, M. (2010). International Financial Reporting Standards: An Introduction. Stamford, MA: Cengage Learning.

The Guardian, p. 1-2, Pilot S., 2011, "Companies are embracing corporate responsibility in their annual reports."

Pratt, J. (2010). Financial Accounting in an Economic Context. Cincinnati, Ohio: John Wiley & Sons.

Saudagardan, S. (2001). International Accounting: A User Perspective. Cincinnati, OH: South-Western College Publishing.

Schaltegger, S., M. Bennett, and R. Burritt, "Sustainability Accounting and Reporting Series," Eco-Efficiency in Industry and Science, vol. 21, no. 10, pages 716, 2006

Schaltegger, S., M. Bennett, and R. Burrit. (2008). Environmental management accounting for cleaner production.

2011', 'A Conceptual Framework for Investigating 'Capture' in Corporate Sustainability Reporting Assurance', Journal of Business Ethics, Vol. 99, No. 3, pp. 425-439.

2004 The Economist The Economist, page 3, "Are company reports on their social and environmental impact useful?"

Making the argument for a corporate conscience, by J. Rubin, The Washington Post, p. 2, 2012.

Walmsley, John, and Alan Bond, 2003, "An Assessment of the Role of Environmental Reporting in Supporting Share Values in FTSE100 Companies," Journal of Environmental Assessment Policy and Management, Volume 5, Number 2, Pages 149 to 182.

The Washington Post, p. 2, Weiss, D. (2012). "Social responsibility and a new world order."

[supanova question]

Product Marketing Throughout Three Time Zones Compare And Contrast Essay Help

Describe, from the standpoint of a company and a client, the whole product throughout the three time zones.

In discussing an organization's and a customer's perspective on the total product across three time zones (the pre-service, the service encounter, and the post-service), it is important to note that the unique nature of services necessitates a marketing mix comprised of seven elements (7Ps): product, place, price, and promotion (4Ps), process, physical evidence, and people. As a deviation from conventional marketing, service marketing requires consideration of the adaptive parts of service product, process, and experience.

Since the fundamental product notion of a service is its intangibility, it might be difficult for a consumer to comprehend its meaning and context unless the entire customer-producer relationship is carefully controlled and an integrated service is provided. The service contact may involve both a distribution channel and a sort of personal marketing communication generally referred to as the consumer-producer connection. People are crucial to the production and consumption of a services product bundle or package. Therefore, the people within the organization and the people utilizing the service will have a significant impact on any service product in the three time zones.

In analyzing views, the relevance and usefulness of gauging customer expectations, customer perceptions, customer happiness, and service quality are crucial. There are two distinct perspectives about the management and delivery of services.

The first perspective is that of the client, whereas the second is that of the service organization or management. The majority of service evaluations focus on the consumer's expectations, perceptions, and overall satisfaction with a service. From a managerial standpoint, services are evaluated based on the efficiency with which clients are provided and moved through the service process, how they are managed, and how skillfully service staffs deliver the service. These distinct viewpoints influence how services are evaluated, what is evaluated, and who, when, and how assessments are conducted.

In general, both business-to-business marketing and consumer marketing emphasize the significance of the consumer/buyer perspective. For customers within the context of diverse service market categories, their perceptions are mostly determined by the attitudes and behaviors, which make them, relate as a homogenous group. Managers of service marketing form their viewpoints by identifying the demands, preferences, broad trends, and changes within client groups. In the context of specific consumer services, consumers' perceptions are determined by their intended needs.

The viewpoints of service marketing managers will be affected by the identification of individual consumers' wants and preferences within a particular service category and the comprehension of the perspectives of the key rivals and their customers1.

Strategy is determined by the nature of the product; describe this product and explain how the nature of the product might impact marketing management strategy.

There are two components to services: the main service and the auxiliary service. The core service (core or expected product) is the fundamental service, such as accommodation, that is being provided. The added benefit that distinguishes the service from its competitors is the auxiliary service (augmented or supplementary product). In the instance of a hotel, the supplementary services may consist of providing complimentary breakfast and a morning newspaper to guests, which the competitors do not.

The quality of a service can be separated into two categories: technical quality, which is the actual activity (e.g., booking a hotel room), and functional quality, which is how the service is presented or given (e.g., double room, single room, spacious room, small room, air-conditioned or not). This component of the service is crucial in terms of concrete evidence, as the client will evaluate all tangible facets of the service. It is of the utmost importance that all service components, whether essential or supplementary, adhere to the highest standards.

In building a product mix, it is crucial that the essential elements that differentiate a service from a product are examined and included into the marketing strategy to produce a marketing mix that is respectable. Inseparability, perishability, intangibility, and heterogeneity are the basic qualities of services. How they can influence a marketing management strategy is discussed below.

Intangibility

The majority of services involve tangible components, such as a hotel room, a meal, and a classroom, but the service that leads to a customer's experience is intangible. The advantages of purchasing a service area based on its performance. Due to this characteristic, services cannot be kept, conveniently exhibited, patent-protected, and communicated and priced with difficulty. Therefore, buyers find it difficult to evaluate and compare services.

Consequently, they may utilize pricing as a criterion for evaluating quality and place a larger focus on personal information sources. Due to the nature of services, they cannot be examined in terms of the typical product mix's tangible design attributes. In addition, the physical distribution management may not be required for location mix selections. In service marketing, one can only imagine the tangibility of services. For instance, in the restaurant industry, the environment and uniforms of the workers can assist make the experience concrete.

Inseparability

Customers are an integral part of the service production process, as services are routine operations or actions. Additionally, additional clients may be involved in the production site, and centralized mass production is challenging, particularly when the service is sophisticated or individualized. It is difficult for a barber to shave more than one person at a time, so even if the demand for his services increases, he cannot devise a means to serve all of his customers simultaneously. In most cases, both the buyer and the seller must be present for the service to take place. Due to the difficulty of centralized mass production, most customers must travel to the location of service production. A medical treatment procedure, for instance, requires the attendance of both the patient and the physician2.

Additionally, the promotion of the service member is possible. For a storyteller or comedian, the production of the service is an integral part of the overall promotion of the service. Lastly, users are co-consumers of a service, therefore the conduct and attitude of other consumers can influence the character and experience of a service. A loud customer, for instance, can divert the attention of the service employees and influence the quality of service provided to other customers.

Perishability

Because services are intangible, they cannot be stored, inventoried, warehoused, or reused. For instance, a dentist cannot preserve his knowledge or competence for the use of his coworkers while he is absent. Similarly, a hairdresser cannot store haircut designs so that all customers can have their hair cut simultaneously during a rush. Therefore, it is essential for service managers to have ample possibilities for service delivery at appropriate times.

Heterogeneity

The intangible character of services makes it difficult to regulate their quality and standards. Since humans are involved in the delivery of services, it is doubtful that they will work as consistently and reliably as robots, making it difficult to measure and regulate quality. Therefore, it may be challenging for customers to assess quality and for employers to measure and oversee quality. Evaluation of the quality is possible, but it is more difficult than measuring and managing the quality of the product. Lastly, these evaluations will rely heavily on intangible factors such as the customers' and potential customers' attitudes, beliefs, and expectations.

Describe the client [STP plans and methods] and the organizational management difficulties.

Marketing strategies are based on STP (Segmentation, Targeting, and Positioning) strategies and tactics through which the organization identifies different customer needs and groups in the marketplace, targets those needs and groups that it can satisfy superiorly, and positions its offering so that the target market recognizes the organization's distinctive offering and image.

3. The STP process is essential to marketing strategy because it enables the business to create a marketing mix targeted to a certain market segment with similar traits and needs.

Market segmentation

Market segmentation is the process of dividing the total market (everyone to whom an organization can sell its products or services) into identifiable, measurable, and distinct groups that share common characteristics or needs and whose attitudes or responses to communications messages about the products may be similar. The process of market segmentation has progressed through three phases.

Initially, the earliest approaches to marketing embraced a mass marketing production orientation in which commodities were mass-produced, distributed, and marketed to all purchasers. This was followed by product variety marketing, in which producers understood that various people had varying demands that change over time, and thus produced subtly varied items to meet these needs. These ideas eventually evolved to a concentration on target marketing, in which firms identify distinct market niches and produce products and services suited to their needs.

The extent and type of segmentation processes differ amongst firms based on their size, the stage of the marketing planning process, their financial status, and their present market position. The tourist and hospitality businesses segment their markets based primarily on demographic, behavioral, and psychographic criteria. On the basis of age, gender, geographic region, family lifecycle stage, education, diversity (race, ethnicity, and culture), occupation or socioeconomic class, and sexual orientation, demographic segmentation is conducted.

Motivation/purpose of trip, frequency of use/purchase, decision-making processes, advantages sought from the experience, usage, attitudes, perceptions, values, and beliefs will inform behavioral segmentation. The basis for psychographic segmentation will be personality, identity, and way of life. At different points of the marketing planning cycle, the majority of firms may do market research on their existing served markets and potential markets. In essence, market segmentation is an essential tool for identifying new opportunities, and creative segmentation aids in identifying new emerging categories that lead to service innovation. Thus, segmentation can contribute to competitive advantage and a marketing strategy based on differentiation.

Target marketing

Segmentation of the market generates a number of distinguishable market segments. The organization then begins the targeting process, which includes defining metrics of the segments' desirability and selecting segments to target. This procedure reevaluates the segments and profiles in relation to the core capabilities and resources to determine which segments are the most desirable to target. This technique of segment prioritization requires two types of study: segment attractiveness and competitive position analysis of the organization. 4.

To analyze segment attractiveness, a relevant collection of criteria or factors must be identified. The sector attractiveness criteria may include market potential, growth rate, expansion opportunities, and positive macroenvironmental trends such as legal, political, economic, demographic, technological, sociocultural, and unmet customer requirements. After evaluating the segments on the attractiveness dimension, the competitive position of the firm is assessed. The ability to establish a competitive advantage, one's capabilities, and one's resources may be included among the competitive position criteria.

After evaluating the segment's appeal and analyzing the organization's competitive position, selecting the target is simple. The most desirable target would be one that is structurally appealing and has a solid competitive position. With the target market selected strategically, the following step is to present a service product that exceeds consumer expectations more than the competition.

Marketing position

Market positioning is the identification of market segment demands, product strengths and limitations, and the degree to which competing products are perceived to match customer needs. What counts in designing a positioning strategy is how rivals position themselves. A positioning strategy aims to align a company's products in the market and make them comparably competitive through superior product design and effective media communication to produce a favorable product perception in the consumer's mind in comparison to rival items.

Effective marketing requires pairing the appropriate product or service with the appropriate market. There are three marketing and product/service positioning alternatives available. First, making a unique claim. An organization can make a unique claim through advertising that is distinct from that of its competitors. Second, showcasing the product/service, i.e., highlighting the product/service aspects that have not been elucidated by its competitors. The process of placing a product or service based on several aspects will include:

Selecting the competitive market for the service; defining the characteristics that identify the product or service segment; Collecting data from a representative sample of customers regarding their perceptions of each product or service's important features; Determining the perception of each product or service; Determining the market niche for each product/service Determining the preferred combination of features for the target market; Comparing the standing of your product or service against that of the competition; Making a determination regarding the market position of the product or service.

In the last phase of building a market positioning strategy for the product or service, a perceptual or positioning map will be created. This is a graphical representation of consumers' perceptions of competing products in a market. At the service/product ideation stage, it is crucial for hospitality marketers to consciously decide where the product/service will fall on the technological dimension and what level of process/people interactivity it will possess. This choice will allow you to fine-tune the market segment you wish to serve, the expectation you wish to establish, and the satisfaction you wish to deliver5.

The difficulties in STP management confronting the organization.

First, they consist of providing marketing and managerial support to all departments and divisions. The second step is safeguarding process secrets. Thirdly, locating other eligible organizations with which to collaborate and consult. The fourth is developing a solid financial foundation for economically and sustainably managing the STP. Creating and analyzing the prospective market for the products and services is subsequently getting more challenging.

Communication is essential to services marketing. What function does the travel brochure serve across the three time zones?

First, the images in the trip brochure work as a magnet to entice clients to want to learn more or view the brochure's contents. This is increased by "ensuring that the text supports the images with an appropriate informal tone." 6. Like in the Contiki Holidays for 18-35, Europe Summers brochure front page, there are very attractive photographs and a positioning statement “legendary for a reason” which serve as a bait to customers creating the first impression or contact7.

Second, brochures are vital for content design and presentation; on the second page of the Contiki Europe Summers 2011/12 brochure, for instance, there is a well-coordinated display of a few places, a list of contents, and a brief description of each.

Operations Management And Capacity Planning Compare And Contrast Essay Help

Introduction

Every business organization has different departments, each of which is important and plays a part in the organization's success. As a result, it is impossible to say that one department controls an entire corporation. Collaboration between departments is necessary for success. The coordination of activities strives to improve the performance of a company and the flow of operations, and capacity decisions have a long-term impact. For operations management to be successful, a company must embrace strategic planning. Additionally, competent and efficient operations management is a requirement for accomplishing organizational goals, suggesting that this function in a firm is more significant than all others. When allocating duties in operations management, the company views capacity planning, organization, and resource control as the key areas that must be addressed in order for the company to provide its market with actual goods and services (Gallopin, 2006).

Planning for capacity: its significance

In order to reduce production risk, it is crucial for an organization to identify and prepare for demand changes. Planning for capacity lowers demand uncertainty. Planning for overall capacity is crucial since it helps a company's entire competitive strategy. The following justifies the significance of capacity planning.

cost-related effects

A corporation gets enough information following the capacity planning exercise to affect the budgeting process. It gives budgeting certainty and enables any business to assess the cost-cutting choices in the suggested adjustments for controlling present and upcoming demand variations. With accurate projections of all costs, both short- and long-term, a corporation may make long-term decisions about the cost of operations more easily. A company might then compare the cost consequences to its current corporate strategy (Slack, Chambers, & Johnston, 2011).

financial repercussions

In order to achieve organizational goals, production staff in an organization must choose the proper product mix. Planning for capacity takes into account the product life cycle. Products move through three phases: introduction, plateauing, and diminishing. To maintain revenue control throughout shifts in product demand, a company must foresee changes in demand and make the appropriate production decisions. When an organization is growing, capacity planning ensures that production capacities do not remain stagnant, as this would make it more difficult to take advantage of the potential for additional revenue (Gassenheimer, Siguaw, & Hunter, 2013).

customer unhappiness

When it comes to expected shipping to customers or deliveries to retail stores, many products are time-sensitive. Planning for capacity helps businesses find the best strategies to guarantee that customers receive the items they anticipate. Services fall under this as well. Planning for capacity prevents lines and makes sure that consumers who depend on a service are not irritated by delays. The capacity of various organizations depends on a number of variables that businesses or customers can influence (Hill & Hill, 2012). An organization's primary responsibility is to fulfill its end of the contract by offering services or products when they are required. In order to prevent customers from being irritated by delays, it might also shift demand.

Demand uncertainty for the future

By forecasting, a company can lower uncertainty with capacity planning. The method also alerts a corporation to the steps that must be taken to move the surplus demand during certain periods to the low demand periods. The market can then be segmented so that it serves clients with predictable and regular demand patterns, or businesses can develop activities that help to balance demand. Additionally, businesses might develop unique capacity plans for clients whose demand patterns are quite unpredictable (Horton, 2005).

Long-term expenditure of costly resources

Organizations must choose the best options for meeting demand before committing resources to increasing production capacity. Capacity planning helps an organization choose the best approach for balancing demand and supply so that it is feasible to evaluate the various risks associated with allocating the expensive resources of the company. Companies may develop an accurate demand prediction by predicting future demand and using historical data to assess potential changes in demand. Therefore, when a company adopts capacity planning as part of its production strategy, it cannot unintentionally commit resources. Organizations in the service sector must commit expensive resources to a service that will have consistent and predictable demand, which capacity planning can help to foresee (Silvester, Lendon, Bevan, Steyn, & Walley, 2004).

Typically, capacity planning is bought in installments.

Once more capacity is purchased or installed, a company must deal with the resulting increase in operational expenses. In the short term, excess capacity cannot be stopped or sold. It emphasizes how crucial capacity planning is to prevent making the wrong decisions. Before making the purchase decision, it is crucial to first understand the ramifications of the additional capacity because doing so is a dangerous strategic choice (Silvester et al., 2004).

Using demand management and strategic planning for production

Demand is seasonal, which presents problems for businesses in terms of manufacturing. Utilizing aggregate production planning, businesses may establish production, inventory, and staffing levels that will adapt to demand swings (APP). This occurs over a predetermined planning horizon, which may be a calendar year. The goal is to ensure that the output cost-effectively corresponds to the seasonal predicted product demand (Hill & Hill, 2012). The three phases of production planning are long-term or strategic, medium-term or tactical, and short-term or operational. The aggregation aids businesses in improving demand projections, data collection, and decision analysis, claims the hierarchical production planning (HPP) theory. A company that is familiar with APP strives to match its anticipated demand by modifying production levels. It may also modify inventory, labor, or other resources that can aid in achieving its goal, hence it is crucial to take capacity planning seriously as a function of a corporation (Horton, 2005).

The APP-experienced businesses might employ the following production techniques. The chase strategy is the first, in which businesses adjust output volumes in response to demand. The level approach is another option, where businesses aim for a consistent production schedule that meets total demand volume within a certain planning horizon. The third option is a blended strategy, which incorporates the benefits of the first two options (Takey & Mesquita, 2006).

When it comes to capacity planning, businesses may employ design capacity or effective capacity. The purpose of design capacity is to identify the maximum production that could be achieved under perfect conditions. By employing temporary strategies like overtime, overstaffing, and subcontracting, the company achieves its maximum productivity. On the other hand, effective capacity is defined as the maximum production rate that a company can sustain under ideal conditions. In a company, effective capacity takes into account reasonable work schedules and downtime for machine maintenance. Additionally, a business must decide how it prefers to handle challenges with rising demand or surplus capacity (Slack, Chambers, & Johnston, 2007).

To improve its functioning level, a company must adhere to the planning process. Forecasts of the overall demand as well as the current or anticipated competitive and political environments are used to inform corporate strategies and policies in the beginning. These elements help a business plan come into being. The following step entails the company creating an overall plan that sets the firm's operational capabilities. The company then creates the master schedule, which establishes the schedules for particular items. When completing this duty, the company must take into account the scope of planning as indicated by its planning horizon (Liao & Yu, 2013).

Operations managers must adopt a specific approach to managing variance once they have a firm grasp of the fundamentals of aggregation. One of the typical tactics is to maintain a certain level of extra capacity to accommodate the anticipated rise in demand. A company should adopt the best operating level when possible. When a company is in this situation, it can have extra capacity if it expects demand to rise. Here, a business will adhere to its effective capacity and production plan while expanding output to meet demand. There won't be any additional fixed charges. A company would want to produce at the level with the lowest average cost per unit. A corporation achieves a balance between economies of scale and diseconomies of scale at the highest operational level (Stevenson, 2011).

Maintaining some degree of flexibility to allow a company to handle changes is another coping mechanism. It may use ongoing personnel or temporary personnel. Waiting as long as you can before committing to a specific amount of supply capacity is a third tactic. When doing so, a business will plan goods or services in accordance with the known level of demand and then postpone scheduling for additional goods until the level of certainty in those goods' demand increases (Smit & Wandel, 2006).

Before assessing each strategy's efficacy and applicability to a firm, it's critical to understand the inputs and outputs of aggregate production planning. The parameters for the analysis will benefit from the inputs and outputs (Roh, Tokar, & Swink, 2013). APP attempts to meet demand, use capacity efficiently, and meet inventory policy while minimizing the total costs. At the same time, a corporation can act proactively by modifying demand to fit the capacity.

When choosing a proactive strategy, the company will take a variety of demand management methods into account. A company can change demand by employing advertising, marketing, and pricing to move demand from peak to off-peak times. The good or service must have an elastic price elasticity of demand in order to employ pricing as a method. As a result, people will be encouraged to plan their purchases for off-peak times due to cheaper prices during those times. A business may also provide goods and services in response to demand patterns that are not seasonal. As an alternative, it may decide to back-order, accepting current orders with the promise of fulfilling them later. If the customers are impatient, backordering cannot be used. By having customers wait for goods or services, businesses run the danger of losing them. New demand generation and working with suppliers to reduce information asymmetry along the supply chain are further alternatives for demand management.

Backordering depends on consumer support yet enables a business to avoid overtime and maintain capacity. Businesses that exploit the back ordering procedure to lock in clients by requiring them to pay in advance have made this tactic a widespread one. Low-season products are crucial because they enable the company to make the best use of its resources. Unfortunately, the company is forced to hire outside help to complete activities that are outside of its purview. Additionally, it raises the risk of loss because businesses must work hard to discover goods and services with opposing demand trends (Waters, 2008).

modifying capacity to accommodate supply and demand alternatives

In order to fulfill demand, businesses might produce at a steady rate while using stocks to absorb variations in demand. The benefit of this approach is the progressive transformation of the workforce and the minimal disruption of production schedules (Hill & Hill, 2012). Unfortunately, the company will have to pay for the storage of its inventory, and when shortages occur, sales will be lost. This strategy works best for businesses that deal with items rather than service activities. To ensure that production satisfies demand, the alternative supply option is to change the size of the workforce. The option's biggest feature is that it enables a company to forgo employing other substitutes. Unfortunately, the decision increases costs for the company because new hires require training. Furthermore, it only applies to companies who operate in areas with a plentiful supply of labor. Making people work extra is another strategy for expanding a business's capacity. Additionally, all downtime must be used to its fullest. It can adjust to seasonal changes without having to recruit and train new workers. However, overtime may cause the current employees to become worn out. Additionally, working overtime may not give employees enough hours to accommodate the rise in demand. However, the choice is advantageous since it gives a company some flexibility as it executes its overall plan (Slack, Chambers, & Johnston, 2007).

Companies can embrace flexibility in their production capacity with the aid of part-time workers. In the event of subcontracting, the business will benefit from flexibility and a consistent output schedule, but it will forfeit quality and control. Additionally, subcontracting has different characteristics in the products and service industries. A corporation can be more flexible by hiring temporary workers to perform ad hoc tasks thanks to part-time employees. This approach, however, has a high turnover rate and hefty training expenses. Additionally, it has a negative impact on quality, making scheduling challenging (Reid & Sanders, 2012).

Choosing a sound plan

When fixed costs of capacity are low and subcontracting is not an option, overcapacity will ultimately be advantageous. It is also helpful when a lot of time is required and delivery cannot be skipped. When building capacity takes a long time and costs a lot of money, undercapacity is a positive thing. Additionally, it works well when technology is rapidly evolving (Hill & Hill, 2012).

Conclusion

Any corporate organization must make important capacity decisions since they have an impact on the real capacity. Additionally, capacity is the supply side of the demand-supply equation, where supply and demand should always be equal. According to this assertion and the discussion in this paper, I concur that capacity planning is the most important factor in properly managing an operation. The assertion, however, only holds true when capacity planning is viewed as a requirement for operations management and not as a business unit within a company.

References

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Hunter, G., Siguaw, J., and J. Gassenheimer (2013). investigating the potential of crowdsourcing for business. 3(4), 205-216. AMS Review

A. Greasley (2008). operations administration. SAGE Publications, Los Angeles, California.

A. Hill and T. Hill (2012). Operations administration (3rd ed.). Palgrave Macmillan UK, Hampshire.

Increasing capacity while enhancing bottom line, S. Horton, Frontiers of Health Services Management, 17–23, 2005.

Yu, C.-M., and Liao, T.-J. (2013). the effects of regional connections, global connections, and capacity for absorption on innovation for foreign businesses working in emerging economies. 38(6), 809-827, The Journal of Technology Transfer.

Sanders, N. R., and Reid, R. D. (2012). Operations administration (5th ed.). John Wiley & Sons, New York, New York.

Tokar, T., Swink, M., and B. D. Roh (2013). Internal integration plays a moderating role in leveraging supply chain visibility for responsiveness. 31(7-8), 543-554 in Journal of Operations Management.

Bevan, H., Steyn, R., Silvester, K., Lendon, R., and Walley, P. (2004). Increasing capacity or reducing wait times in the NHS? 12, 105–111, Clinician in Management

Slack, N., Johnston, R., & Brandon-Jones (2012). Operations Administration (7th ed.). Pearson, Upper Saddle River, NJ.

N. Slack, S. Chambers, & R. Johnston (2007). Operations administration (5 ed.). Prentice Hall/Financial Times, New York, NY.

N. Slack, S. Chambers, & R. Johnston (2011). Operations management, 6th edition, Prentice Hall, FT New York, NY.

Adaptation, adaptive capability, and susceptibility. Global Environmental Change, 16(3), 282-292. Smit, B., and Wandel, J. (2006).

Management of operations – Stevenson, W. (11th ed.). McGraw Hill/Irwin, New York, NY.

F. M. Takey and M. A. Mesquita (2006). Planning in aggregate for a significant food producer with a high seasonal demand. 3(1), 05-20. Brazilian Journal of Operations & Production Management

D. Waters (2008). managing production of goods and services. Prentice Hall, New York, New York.

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Organisations Performance Appraisal: History And Challenges Compare And Contrast Essay Help

Table of Contents
History and Challenges of Organizational Performance Evaluation Principal Performance Evaluation Issues Conclusion References

The evaluation of performance is at the center of contemporary theoretical and practical discussions. As the intensity of corporate rivalry increases, organizations develop new strategies and techniques to retain the most qualified employees. Human resources are one-of-a-kind, irreplaceable, and incredibly expensive, thus it is logical and understandable that there is an increasing emphasis on staff difficulties. In this context, performance evaluation systems are particularly important, as they are utilized by organizations to evaluate employee abilities and make employment decisions. However, as with any organizational phenomenon, performance evaluations have their flaws.

They are frequently criticized for failing to differentiate between individual and organizational factors of employee effectiveness. Organizations are extremely concerned about the dependability and validity of their metrics. Employees' opinions of trust and fairness should not be neglected. Otherwise, performance appraisal systems can have far-reaching legal ramifications. The goal of this study is to describe the difficulties associated with performance evaluation systems and to advocate for their continued usage, but with suggested modifications.

History and Challenges of Organizational Performance Evaluation

Performance evaluations are a crucial aspect of organizational performance. According to Kline and Sulsky (2009, p. 161), performance evaluation is an umbrella term encompassing a variety of activities through which organizations strive to evaluate and grow the competence of their employees, improve their performance, and issue rewards. As with every other system, performance evaluation possesses both strengths and flaws. Nonetheless, organizations still have ample possibilities to organize and execute performance evaluations in a manner that enhances their performance.

The history of performance evaluations extends back to antiquity. Numerous examples of individual performance evaluations can be found in the Bible (Wiese & Buckley, 1998, p. 234). In approximately 1350 B.C., Moses had to select the most capable man to construct and furnish the tabernacle (Wiese & Buckley, 1998, p. 234). However, it was not until the turn of the nineteenth century that performance evaluations became an acknowledged industrial and organizational standard.

Wiese and Buckley (1998, p. 235) state that the U.S. Army utilized the first formal performance evaluations, but they swiftly spread to other industries and businesses. When this occurred, the philosophy of organizational performance evaluation was created. From a very ineffective method of analyzing individual performance, performance assessments have progressively come to symbolize the triumph of objectivity in personnel decisions. Nonetheless, many issues surrounding performance evaluations persist. Frequently, managers disregard the significance of performance evaluation results in favor of their subjective opinions and discretionary authority.

One of the most serious criticisms of performance appraisals is that they favour the use of covert management control (Prowse & Prowse, 2009, p. 72). By extending performance appraisals to manual and professional workers, managers simply tighten their control over employee behaviours (Prowse & Prowse, 2009, p. 72). At the same time, performance appraisals are often criticised for the lack of objectivity. Many traditional performance appraisal systems are believed to promote win-lose relationships among managers and employees, thus increasing employee competition and reducing cooperation among them (Elmuti, Kathawala & Wayland, 1992, p. 44).

Performance appraisals cannot be effective or relevant, unless they are based on the following philosophic assumptions. First, employees make distinctly different contributions to organisational performance (Carson, Cardy & Dobbins, 1991, p. 145). Second, the cause of such differences must be necessarily attributed to an individual employee (Carson et al., 1991, p. 145). Third, raters must be ready to distinguish between individual-level and organisational factors of performance (Carson et al., 1991, p. 145).

Unfortunately, the problem with many performance appraisals is that they are often based on the analysis of the performance factors, which are beyond employees’ control. Moreover, in most cases, workers do not differ significantly in their contribution to organisational performance (Carson et al., 1991, p. 146). Therefore, many organisational situations do not favour the use of traditional performance appraisal systems. However, that does not mean that performance appraisal is totally irrelevant. Issues do exist, but they can be successfully resolved, empowering organisations and their managers to evaluate employee performance and use this information for quality improvements.

Principal Performance Evaluation Issues

One of the key issues in relation to performance appraisal is that of reliability and validity. Kline and Sulsky (2009, p. 162) suggest that the quality of performance appraisal results varies considerably, depending on the quality, type, and conceptual underpinnings of the specific rating scales. Evaluating the reliability and validity of these measurements is particularly difficult, given the indirect character of most validity ratings. As a result, managers cannot be confident that the performance appraisal scales they use in practice are reliable enough to produce usable results. Furthermore, the quality of rater training has tangible effects on how performance appraisals are administered and interpreted. Kline and Sulsky (2009, p. 162) and Johnson and Geal (2010, p. 53) suggest that rater training has the potential to improve the psychometric quality of performance appraisals.

However, the manager or supervisor is solely responsible for acquiring the knowledge and skills needed to administer performance appraisals and interpret their results. As mentioned earlier, these issues are significant, but they can be resolved. Valle and Davis (1999, p. 238) recommend providing employees with objective performance appraisal metrics, so that they can make personal decisions about their performance results. Not all employees have the knowledge and skills required to understand statistics, but it is a good way to ensure that the results are objective and unbiased. Performance appraisal mechanisms and results should not be used for negative interpretation. They should serve as the basis for self-awareness and self-improvement.

Neither self-awareness nor self-improvement is possible, if employees are not satisfied with the use of performance appraisal systems and their results. The issues of trust and justice are central to understanding the philosophy and organisational underpinnings of performance appraisal models. It is not uncommon for employees to perceive performance appraisal as being inherently biased and susceptible to major errors (Boachie-Mensah & Seidu, 2012, p. 79). Mayer and Davis (1993, p. 133) write that, if employees perceive performance appraisal as unfair or biased, the level of trust and rapport in their relations with managers will inevitably decline.

Employee reactions play a huge role in the quality and effectiveness of working relationships within organisations (Pichler, 2012, p. 709). As a result, employees who are not fully satisfied with the quality of performance appraisal systems will be more likely to be dissatisfied with their jobs (Brown, Hyatt & Benson, 2010, p. 375). They will also be more likely to consider leaving the organisation (Brown et al., 2010, p. 375).

By contrast, employees who are actively involved in the process of creating and managing performance appraisals display greater acceptance of the system and greater satisfaction with their results (Cawley, Keeping & Levy, 1998, p. 623). It would be fair to say that justice and objectivity are among the most significant issues in relation to performance appraisals. Equally fair is the statement that organisations have all chances to address these challenges, by prioritising employee satisfaction over the rigid performance evaluation results. Salleh, Amin, Muda & Halim (2013, p. 126) are right: employee satisfaction with performance management should become one of the top strategic goals for any organisation. At the same time, employee engagement in performance appraisals should be encouraged to reduce the risks of unfairness and injustice.

Unfortunately, even these steps cannot eliminate the risks of legal controversies. Performance appraisals rarely become the basis for prosecution or court proceedings (Werner & Bolino, 1997, p. 1). Nevertheless, the legal challenges facing organisations in relation to their performance appraisal systems should not be totally discarded. Performance appraisals must be administered in accordance with the whole set of laws, regulations, and legal norms. Not all employees perceive the results of performance appraisals as fair or just. Perceptions of unfairness or injustice can motivate some employees to make a claim or even go to court. One of the most painful topics is who and when gets a promotion based on the results of performance appraisals (Veglahn, 1993, p. 596). The employer will have to prove that the employee showed considerable performance weaknesses or professional shortcomings that did not allow for his or her fast promotion to the desired position (Veglahn, 1993, p. 596).

No less problematic are the discharge decisions made on the basis of performance appraisals. In such cases, employers will have to argue that the employee showed chronic patterns of inacceptable or absolutely unsatisfactory performance against the minimum standards of quality in the workplace (Veglahn, 1993, p. 598). Even in the presence of compelling performance appraisal evidence, the employer will face difficult times trying to prove that performance had deteriorated to the extent, which did not allow him or her to keep the job. Layoffs, merit pay, rewards, and other organisational decisions made on the basis of performance appraisal results may readily become an object of court proceedings. No organisation can eliminate these risks. As a result, organisations will either have to improve the quality of their performance appraisal systems or be ready to face court challenges and costs.

The purpose of this paper is to argue that, despite all these issues, organisations can successfully adopt and utilise performance appraisal systems for their benefit. What they need to do is develop better knowledge of the challenges mentioned in this work and be ready to follow the basic principles of successful performance appraisal systems. In the age of competition and rivalry, organisations will not survive without having relevant systems of performance appraisal in place.

Roberts (2003, p. 89) is confident that performance appraisal is a highly controversial instrument of making management decisions, because it lacks measurement accuracy and leads to employee conflicts and excessive organisational controls. Moreover, because organisations adopt different forms of performance appraisals, it is difficult to imagine that any performance appraisal model can become a universally accepted ideal. On the contrary, when it comes to performance appraisals, one size never fits all (Scott & Einstein, 2001, p. 107). Still, some recommendations could definitely improve the quality of performance appraisal results.

First, in line with the ideas mentioned in this paper, rater training should become a compulsory element of performance appraisal systems and processes in organisations. Kondrasuk (2011, p. 65) emphasises the importance of rater training for achieving greater quality of appraisal results. Managers and supervisors, who are trained to administer performance appraisals and interpret their results, are more likely to avoid biases in evaluating employees and be able to review the quality and effectiveness of the performance appraisal system (Kondrasuk, 2011, p. 65). However, employees also need to be trained in performance appraisals, since such training has the potential to guarantee greater acceptance of the system and its results among the staff.

Second, the organisation must ensure that its performance appraisal system reflects the principles and values of the organisational culture. Not all cultures welcome the implementation of performance appraisal systems, but it is always beneficial for the organisation to measure both work outcomes and employee behaviours (Aguinis, Joo & Gottfredson, 2011, p. 506; Kondrasuk, 2011, p. 66). Third, it is never too late to create favourable conditions for employee participation in building and managing a performance appraisal system. Such participation could create a diversity of views, opinions, and ideas to change or improve the system. Obviously, these steps will not eliminate the risks of failure, but they will greatly increase the chances to make performance appraisal an important condition of continuous organisational and employee success.

Conclusion

All organisations have performance appraisal systems. All these systems have strengths and weaknesses. The philosophy of performance appraisal is frequently criticised for its failure to distinguish between individual and organisational factors of employee performance. Furthermore, reliability and validity of measurement scales remain a matter of organisations’ concern. No less serious are the risks of prosecution and legal claims, which usually stem from workers’ perceptions of performance appraisals as being unfair and biased. However, as argued in this paper, all these problems can be successfully solved. Performance appraisal can become a successful tool of organisational decision making. Certainly, such recommendations will never be universal, because there is no size that could fit all organisations. Nevertheless, rater training, employee engagement, and cultural congruence can make up a promising recipe for creating a successful performance appraisal system.

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