Strategic Management And The Competitive Strategies Essay Help Cheap

The adjective Strategic is derived from the noun Strategy. The term strategy refers to a plan or actions based on the plan that are intended to achieve a certain goal or set of goals. A business strategy describes how a company intends to achieve its long-term goals. Exploring Corporate Strategy by Johnson and Scholes defines strategy as "the direction and scope of an organization over the long-term: which achieves advantage for the organization through its configuration of resources within a challenging environment, to meet the needs of markets and to satisfy stakeholder expectations." In other words, strategy involves making decisions regarding which markets to operate in, how to get a competitive advantage over other market participants, the resources required by your business, etc. The term management refers to the process of coordinating and controlling existing resources to achieve predetermined goals. Strategic management is the practice of analyzing the external business environment (customers and competitors) and the organization's internal environment (the organization itself) in order to formulate better management practices that facilitate the alignment of corporate policies and strategic priorities. Porter suggested three primary tactics a business may employ to acquire a lasting competitive edge. This study will assess strategic management and Porter's proposed competitive strategies. Why is strategic management necessary? In recent years and now, business competition has intensified, making it tough for certain companies to outperform their rivals.

This intense competitiveness is the result of numerous reasons. They include an increase in the number of businesses, shareholder pressure on corporations to raise profits, cheaper transportation and communication leading in increased worldwide trade and awareness, and improved technology resulting in decreased manufacturing costs, among others. All of these factors have contributed to a growing interest in strategic management. Strategic management entails the creation and implementation of policies in an effort to gain and maintain a competitive edge over rival organizations. It can be regarded from three viewpoints: the traditional viewpoint, the resource-based viewpoint, and the stakeholders' viewpoint. In the conventional conception, a business is viewed as an economic entity, that is, a unit with costs and revenues, with profit being the difference. Gaining a competitive advantage requires capitalizing on a company's strengths and opportunities while overcoming its limitations. Under the resource-based viewpoint, an organization is considered as a collection of talents and resources. Here, the competitive advantage is achieved by the acquisition of superior talents and resources compared to those of competitors. This perspective can be utilized effectively in the entertainment and journalism industries. Under the stakeholders' perspective, the business is considered as an interconnection of ties between the company and its stakeholders, and competitive advantage is attained through improved stakeholder interactions.

What is his name? Michael Eugene Porter is an American scholar who specializes in economics and management. Author, management consultant, and Harvard Business School professor. In 1947, Porter was born in Ann Arbor, Michigan. He holds a Bachelor of Science in Aeronautical Engineering from Princeton University, a Master of Business Administration from Harvard Business School, and a Doctor of Philosophy in Business Economics from Harvard University. Porter is an expert in corporate rivalry and success strategy. Among his many works are Competitive Strategy, Competitive Advantage, Cases in Competitive Strategy, Strategy and the Internet, and Redefining Health Care. His most significant contribution is the formulation of the Five Forces Analysis, which consists of strategic groups, the value chain, Porter's clusters of competencies for regional economic development, strategies for market positioning that include variety-based, needs-based, and access-based techniques, and the well-known Diamond model. Porter has other accomplishments and credentials. He has won six times for the best Harvard Business Review article of the year. He co-founded the Monitor Group, a company that provides management consulting and capacity-building services to corporations, governments, non-profit organizations, and other businesses. He established and directs the Harvard program for newly appointed CEOs (Chief Executive Officers). On numerous times, he has also served as an advisor to the United States government.

What are the generic competitive strategies? This refers to the three general strategies a company can employ to establish and retain a competitive advantage over its rivals. According to the website tutor2u.net, "competitive advantage is an advantage gained over competitors by offering consumers greater value, either through lower prices or by providing greater benefits and service to justify higher prices."

Michael Eugene Porter invented the generic techniques in 1980. According to Porter, a firm's position in its industry is one of the most influential elements in determining its profitability. Two variables allow a company to strategically position itself inside an industry. Product differentiation and cost advantage are these considerations. The company can exploit product differentiation and cost advantage in either a narrow or broad scope, resulting in three generic methods. These are cost leadership, differentiation, and market segmentation/concentration strategies. There were initially twenty-seven possible strategies. However, the majority of the twenty-seven ideas had no practical application, so Porter selected only the top three. These are the three tactics discussed previously: (cost leadership, differentiation and market segmentation or focus). 1980 saw the publication of Porter's renowned book "Competitive Strategy: Techniques for Analyzing Industries and Competitors," which outlined the three tactics. These methods are considered generic since they are relevant to any sector.

Product differentiation and cost advantage are the two fundamental strategies used to achieve a competitive edge. Product differentiation is the process and action of making a product more appealing to customers by distinguishing it from competing offerings. Goods differentiation is all about giving your product advantages over its competitors. It can be accomplished by including additional features, creative packaging, and creative advertising, among other methods. In a market, there are two types of product differentiation: vertical and horizontal differentiation.

In vertical differentiation, some items are superior to others, and they can be ranked from best to worst. Cars on the market can be ranked based on characteristics like as fuel economy, safety, speed, etc. In horizontal differentiation, products are differentiated by characteristics that cannot be compared. In a market for ice cream, strawberry ice cream cannot be compared to vanilla ice cream, for instance. Cost advantage or cost efficiency refers to the capability of producing a product at a cheaper cost than competitors. It can be accomplished via more efficient production methods, economies of scale, etc.

The following concern is the issue of scope. This refers to the degree to which the company wishes to utilize the advantages of cost effectiveness and product differentiation. When a company applies the strength of cost efficiency and product differentiation to a limited portion of the market, this is referred to as narrow scope, however when the same is applied to the entire industry, broad scope is exemplified. The three competitive strategies are the consequence of applying the two strengths (cost effectiveness and product differentiation) in varying contexts. These are cost leadership, distinctiveness, and concentration (cost focus and differentiation focus). This is depicted in the diagram that follows.

The firm can achieve above-average success in a given industry as a result of the three generic tactics listed above. First strategy: cost leadership. In cost leadership, a company strives to have the lowest production costs in its industry. This refers to having the lowest production cost per unit at a specific quality level. The company strives for low prices in all areas, including labor, advertising, and raw materials. The company either charges average pricing for its products to increase its profit margin, or it offers them at a cheaper price to increase its sales volume. Consequently, enterprises employing this method will not always sell their products or services at a cheaper price than competitors. In other words, the company's objective is to be a cost leader. According to sm.au.edu, the website for the Au School of Management, enterprises in this area have a significant incentive to compete on the basis of cost rather than price.

Consequently, organizations with cost advantages are frequently subject to intense competitive pressures on their cost positions. Examples of companies that employ the cost leadership strategy include Ryan Air, Walmart, Tesco, Asda, and EasyJet. The enterprises employing this strategy target a large market in order to balance expenses with high sales volume.

Successful cost leadership firms typically have access to considerable amounts of capital for significant investment in production assets, manufacturing expertise, and efficient distribution routes. According to sm.au.edu, Wal-Mart has always employed this business style.

Two factors contributed to the company's cost advantage: the expansion pattern of rural areas surrounding distribution centers and information technology. The utilization of rural sites resulted in economic advantages due to the relatively low cost of land, as well as cheaper distribution because Wal-delivery Mart's trucks could readily access these regions via interstates. However, the businesses were able to draw a large number of clients in quest of inexpensive costs and an extensive selection of goods. The computerized information systems of Wal-Mart helped the company to attain lower costs than its competitors. These methods allowed the business to determine which products were selling and which were not. It knew how much of each product was required and where it was required. They would then be able to deliver these items promptly and effectively. Today, Wal-Mart has become the world's largest firm in terms of revenue. What are the limitations of the strategy for cost effectiveness? First, rival companies may decide to reduce their prices, causing your company to lose its competitive advantage, which was its intended goal.

Second, other enterprises in the industry may concentrate on small segments of the market and successfully serve them. These markets are comfortable with their costs and may believe that expensive products are of higher quality. Together, these companies may seize a substantial portion of the market.

The second tactic is difference. In this strategy, companies try to differentiate their product from the competition. The product satisfies the customer's needs in a manner distinct from alternative products. Product distinctiveness can be attained by new features, improved product performance, higher product quality, enhanced after-sale service, and increased product durability, among other means. If consumers value these characteristics, the producing company gains a competitive edge. The company can then charge the consumer for the additional value. The company will incur additional expenses in order to differentiate their goods. This additional expense must then be recouped by sufficient sales, which can be accomplished in a variety of ways. Establishing consumer brand loyalty is one method. Another method is to meet the consumer's needs in a manner that rival products cannot. Thirdly, by utilizing the product's differentiation as an entry barrier for new offerings. There are a variety of hazards involved with product differentiation as a competitive advantage for a business.

Initially, differentiating features or features may be duplicated by a rival company once the patent expires or by other means, making staff loyalty and integrity a factor to consider.

This encourages organizations that use differentiation as a competitive strategy to continually attempt to improve present features or invent new ones, resulting in higher costs and, at times, a high rate of employee turnover in the pursuit of originality. The third concern is that the additional price may deter buyers from purchasing your product. Fourthly, the product's method of distinction may no longer provide value to the consumer; for example, an established customer may acquire a better palate or feel that the adjustments are not suitable for him or her.

Focus, often known as niche strategy, is the third competitive approach. In this instance, the company targets a specific section of the market and attempts to gain a competitive edge through cost advantage or differentiation.

In other words, focus employs one of the other two tactics, but only in a certain market segment. There are a number of reasons why focussing on a narrow sector presents opportunities. One, existing organizations may miss specific market segments; focusing on a particular segment may result in improved product or service delivery; existing companies may lack the capacity to serve the whole market, etc. Under its concentrated cost leadership strategy, the company sells its goods in modest numbers to consumers.

IKEA is a fantastic example of a company that employs this method. IKEA is a firm that offers inexpensive furnishings to customers. Under a concentrated differentiation strategy, the company produces distinctive products for a small segment of the market. The firms prosper if the market falls under any of the two circumstances below. One, if the desired quantities are either too little or too huge for industry-wide competitors to economically furnish. Two, where the consumer-desired level of product difference cannot be met by the industry-wide differentiator. According to Porter, these three tactics must be mutually exclusive.

In other words, a company should employ only one approach at a time. He maintained that a corporation would receive no profit if it attempted to employ multiple strategies simultaneously. He termed this "being in the middle." For instance, a company that wants to be a low-cost producer in its industry but also wants to offer a differentiated product will fail at both strategies. Differentiated products are somewhat expensive to produce; thus, a corporation cannot produce the most differentiated product at the lowest cost.

Another argument is that attempting many tactics simultaneously might offer consumers confusing signals about your goods. This would have an effect on the product's marketing and, by extension, its sales.

Strategic management involves establishing or positioning the organization to achieve long-term objectives. Competition is an integral component of all businesses. For a business to earn above-average earnings, it must have a competitive advantage over its competitors. Michael Eugene Porter published three techniques a company may employ to achieve this competitive advantage. This includes cost leadership, distinction, and concentration. These three tactics were featured in Porter's renowned book "Competitive Strategy: Techniques for Analyzing Industries and Competitors."

The three tactics are built on two fundamental competitive advantages: cost effectiveness and product distinctiveness. Each strategy has its own dangers and limitations. It is essential to recognize that strategic management is complex and context-dependent. Porter employs business techniques and the industry's structure as determinants of competitive strategy. Therefore, he recommends selecting a strategy to optimize one's competitive advantage based on an examination of the economic market's current situation. A company should implement one strategy at a time. If the company attempted to implement multiple strategies simultaneously, it would not benefit from any of them, similar to the law of diminishing returns.

If all other inputs are held constant, the addition of a given input really results in a decrease in output. In strategic management, however, we neither invest a large sum of money nor compare inputs; rather, we invest in a single technique at a time.

Reference

2009 Web site: Au School of Management, "Cost leadership."

Exploring Corporate Strategy, 8th edition, Essex, England: Pearson Education Limited, 2008. Johnson, G., K. Scholes, and R. Whittington.

2009 Web. Porter, M., "Leading authority on competitive strategy," a financial website.

A model for industry analysis, Porter's Five Forces, quickmba website, 2009. Web.

mindtools.com, 2009. "Porter's Generic Strategies: Choosing Your Path to Competitive Advantage." Web.

Investopedia, 2009. Web. "Product Differentiation."

"Strategy and competitive advantage," tutor2u.net, Web site, 2009.

[supanova question]

GlaxoSmithKline Company’s Supply Chain Processes Essay Help Cheap

Executive Synopsis

A significant proportion of pharmaceutical companies struggle to manage their supply chain. Product shortages are one of the primary concerns affecting the supply chain of these organizations. Pharmaceutical businesses such as GlaxoSmithKline (GSK) are responsible for managing complex supply chains that present a significant management challenge. This condition will eventually impact product supply, which could result in enormous losses for corporations.

As the paper demonstrates, however, technological advancements such as the Automated Robotic Warehousing system, Automated Guided Vehicle System, and Radiofrequency Identification have provided ample solutions for addressing supply chain shortages and related problems in pharmaceutical companies by enhancing the operational efficiency and effectiveness of the systems.

Introduction

In pharmaceutical enterprises, the supply chain is frequently distinguished by the complexity of activities and processes. Before a medicine can be made accessible on the market, it must go through several steps, including research and development, manufacture, and distribution. The production and distribution phases of a drug's supply chain in a specific market are the most influential. It is possible to separate the manufacturing phase into main and secondary manufacturing. The primary manufacturing process entails the creation of the disease-curing active component.

This procedure involves lengthy, potentially time-consuming steps, needing a succession of rounded shifts. In this aspect, basic production entails a multitude of processes that may result in inventory holding between phases. In addition, materials must be subjected to time-consuming quality control tests before being approved for the next stage. These operations may result in further system delays. On the other hand, secondary manufacturing involves further processing and packing to produce market-ready items. The primary and secondary manufacturing sites are in various areas, creating a potential for transportation delays. Wholesalers and retailers play a crucial role in the drug supply chain of pharmaceutical firms like GSK, as they act as intermediaries between the corporation and the final consumers/patients.

GlaxoSmithKline Supply Chain Operations As-Is Processes

The company's supply chain consists of suppliers, manufacturing facilities, distribution networks, wholesalers, and retailers.

Figure 1: Mapping As-Is GSK Supply Chain Management Processes. Supplier Management

The organization has implemented an online bidding platform where vendors register for the online bidding procedure and await approval. According to the company's management, the implementation of this strategy has resulted in cost savings of up to 15 percent. Before being permitted to provide the company with materials, vendors must pass a vendor approval procedure. Once accepted, the successful providers' improvement capabilities, progress, and performance during the duration of the contract are evaluated (Chauthari, 2012). The company has adopted an electronic billing system that allows it to submit purchase orders to its suppliers, who are then sent an electronic delivery note. This style of operations management has paved the way for real-time invoicing and payment status, thereby providing suppliers with an advantage.

Manufacturing

The organization has two sets of manufacturing platforms: primary and secondary. Twelve primary manufacturing facilities are responsible for the production of active substances. In contrast, the fifteen secondary sites are responsible for the transformation of active ingredients into completed items. Therefore, main manufacturing sites are responsible for supplying resources to secondary manufacturing sites for final product conversion (Weyzig, 2004).

Storage and Transmission

The corporation has designed its supply network so that each production plant is responsible for generating a limited family of products and delivering them to local and regional markets.

Wholesalers/Retailers

Through its distribution facilities, the corporation sells its products to wholesalers, who then sell them to retailers, who then sell them to consumers. Before orders may be approved, the wholesalers must be certified as meeting the company's qualifying requirements.

Analysis of Product Shortages as a Supply Chain Issue for GSK

The following checklist demonstrates the causes of GSK's supply chain product shortages.

Problems in Manufacturing and Transport Delays

One of the primary causes of product shortages on the market is the company's internal and external production process, in which items that do not fulfill quality standards are rejected. As a result, market shortages occur from this circumstance. In addition, the corporation confronts issues with product movement from one area to another, such as from the principal manufacturing site to another location. This circumstance causes product manufacturing delays and eventual market shortages (Palmer, 2014).

Contractor problems

GSK is experiencing issues with one of its contractors, Xenoport. Horizant, a therapy for leg conditions, was manufactured by a third-party company. Xenoport accused GSK of contract breach as a result of manufacturing delays that caused a product shortage on the market (Palmer, 2014).

Theft

In addition, a number of theft incidents have been reported at the company's manufacturing and distribution facilities. This issue has contributed to supply chain bottlenecks (Ritchey, 2012).

Transmission of Counterfeit Goods

In addition to posing a risk to patients, the distribution of counterfeit items by middlemen contributes to genuine product shortages on the market. Contrary to authentic goods, counterfeit goods are less expensive in terms of both transportation and pricing, which explains their increased demand.

Technology Evaluation

System for Automated Guided Vehicles (AGVS)

Transporting products from one site to another, AGVSs are completely automatic transport systems. The benefit of utilizing this technology is that it is capable of functioning without any form of human intervention, hence making it applicable to warehouse, manufacturing, distribution, and logistics environments. GSK will eliminate shortages caused by inefficiencies in production, logistics, and distribution by implementing this technology (Jula, 2011).

System of Automated Guided Warehousing (AGWS)

By integrating this automated warehousing system into the distribution centers, GSK will increase the efficiency of its storage and distribution facilities, hence reducing incidents of shortages caused by inefficient warehousing procedures. To maximize the utility of this technology, GSK should adapt the automated guided technology's architecture to its specific storage requirements (Schulz, Behling, & Buhrs, 2008).

System for Radio Frequency Identification (RFID)

The organization can use RFIS to track specific product batches from manufacture to storage locations in terms of time and security. Moreover, with these devices, the corporation can track its product on the market, thereby minimizing instances of counterfeiting-related shortages (Li, 2006).

Future Processes as Answers

Qualities of Order Qualifying Candidates and/or Order Winners

Rapidly Advertise the distinctness of the goods

Deliver Effectiveness Reliability

Delivery accuracy Cost-saving

Cost-saving

Flexibility

Superior performance

System for Automated Guided Vehicles

The Automated Guided Vehicle System is a winning technological solution because it enables quick and effective management of both raw materials and completed goods in the warehouse. According to Schulz et al. (2008), this technology is both cost-effective and extremely dependable due to the system's ability to carry objects from one site to another at a minimal cost.

System of Automated Guided Warehousing

An automated warehousing system is an order winner because it eliminates the disadvantages of human labor, such as delay, inaccuracy, theft, and labor expense. For instance, by decreasing human mistakes, the corporation can boost the speed and accuracy of delivery to its distribution hubs, hence reducing shortages caused by such limits. Additionally, the system is dependable, efficient, adaptable, and effective.

Figure 2: GSK's Supply Chain Management To-be process mapping. System for Radio Frequency Identification

The organization can trace its raw materials and final goods throughout the supply chain using RFDIS technology. Therefore, it reduces instances of counterfeit goods shortages. This technology is not only dependable and fast-tracking, but it also ensures delivery accuracy. It also encourages uniqueness by lowering the number of counterfeit goods on the market.

Project Critical Appraisal

System for Automated Guided Vehicles

The AGVS has been demonstrated to handle standardization, modularity, energy, navigation, and safety concerns. In terms of safety, the navigation system is equipped with an automatic warning system that alerts drivers to potential collision risks. AGVS has been found to increase modularity by decreasing manufacturing delays and delivery times due to automation. Ultimately, this circumstance mitigates the problem of product shortages caused by production and storage inefficiencies (Schulz et al., 2008).

System of Automated Guided Warehousing

Inadequate inventory management at depots and/or distribution centers results in stock-outs, resulting in product shortages on the market. The integration of an automated warehousing system by warehouses and distribution centers has resulted in an improvement in inventory management and a decrease in stock-outs at these facilities. In addition, the system includes a storage and retrieval system that ensures effective warehouse management (Parthasarathy, 2010).

System for Radio-Frequency Identification

Through the use of tags, stakeholders such as consumers and hospitals are able to authenticate genuine pharmaceuticals and simply detect those that do not pass the test. Additionally, the method has reduced instances of product theft that could eventually lead to drug supply chain shortages.

Conclusion

GlaxoSmithKline's principal problem is a lack of supply chain capacity. The issue is caused by production problems/delays, contractor troubles, counterfeiting, theft, and increased demand that results in stock-outs. The Automated Guided Vehicle System, the Automated Guided Warehousing System, and the Radio Frequency Identification System are the winning solutions to the problem of supply chain shortages. In addition, the evaluation highlights the favorable outcomes of their integration. Therefore, the article suggests the three technologies as a solution to the problem of supply chain bottlenecks.

Bibliography

A. Chauthari (2012). Quality in the distribution chain and after sales Anil M Chaudhari, Executive Vice President of Quality for GSKCH South Asia Web site for GSK Consumer Healthcare Ltd.

Jula, I. (2011). Advanced material handling: guided vehicle automation at agile ports. Center for Commercial Deployment of Transportation Technologies, Los Angeles, California. Web.

Li, S. (2006). Applications, technological hurdles, and tactics for radiofrequency identification technology. Web.

Palmer, E. (2014). Are price limitations a factor in India's medicine shortages? Web.

S. Parthasarathy (2010). Enterprise information systems and IT infrastructure implementation. Business Science Reference, Hershey, PA, web.

Ritchey, David (2012). Solving the theft of pharmaceuticals from Eli Lilly. Web.

Schulz, L., Behling, S., & Buhrs, S. (2008). Automated Guided Vehicle Systems: A catalyst for enhanced enterprise performance. Web.

Weyzig, F. (2004).

The GlaxoSmithKline business profile. Amsterdam, Netherlands: Somo. Web.

[supanova question]

Work Life Balance Programs In Organizations Analysis Essay Help Cheap

Over view

Globally, social demands and economic conditions have altered the function of employment. Initially, individuals worked because they had to in order to survive. However, this has altered throughout time, as has the composition of the labor force. Even if employment is still a necessity in modern society, it should also result in personal fulfillment for the worker. Work-Life Balance (WLB) is an individual's command over all interactions and conditions involving their family, workplace, community, and friends (DeCarlo, D. & Gruenfeld, D. 1989).

This tremendous happiness and accomplishment in a worker's daily life are crucial. This is accomplished in organizations through WLB Programs and training. Work-Life Balance Programs are time or finance related programs established by an employer to provide employees with alternatives for juggling personal and professional duties. The success and satisfaction of an employee in his or her place of employment are crucial to his or her life, which is why these programs are necessary.

Literature review

Organizational WLB programs' antecedents in history

Work-Life balance has been around since the late 1970s. This expression was used to refer to the unhealthy decisions people were making. For example, prioritizing work-related goals and responsibilities over one's family, hobbies, and friends. Due to technological developments and increased rivalry in the workplace, the amount of work has dramatically expanded during the previous quarter-century. The current performance culture requires so much from employees, but provides less security (French, J., Caplan, R., & Van, 1982).

Due to rising stress and overwork, many employees are exhausted today. This has led to workplace violence, an increase in workers' compensation claims, and increasing absenteeism. In response to this unhealthy WLB, firms have developed initiatives that offer employees a balance between work and life. WLB programs provide both employers and employees with numerous advantages. Today, both the number of working mothers and the stress levels are on the rise. This has led to an increase in the need for flexibility in general.

Advantages of WLB Programs

Decreased absence Employee dedication Increased efficiency Reduced anxiety the morale of the workforce Employee retention enhanced company image

Factors/trends that motivated firms to offer WLB programs to their employees.

Working men and women experience time stress, but women report being more seriously affected than males due to longer working hours and unpaid labour, as well as less or no time for family, leisure, and other pursuits. Organizations have been confronted with intense global competitiveness and market pressures. This has caused organizations to undergo reorganization and downsizing. Additionally, employment in the service sector has increased significantly while employment in the products production sector has decreased. This has put pressure on the lower-ranking personnel. Significant shortages in engineering, nursing, and management have also contributed to the increasing pressure. The evolution of technology has necessitated a rise in the skill level of employees, as a result of the changing nature of work. In addition, it has led to a fall in job stability, a decline in employment for unskilled individuals, an increase in shift work and lengthy workdays, and an overrepresentation of women in non-standard jobs. The number of working women has increased during the past thirty years as a result of social and demographic developments. There have been changes in family structures, such as an increase in the number of single-parent families, dual-income families, and senior family members. Diversity and gender concerns have made it difficult for many individuals to manage work and home responsibilities. This has led to firms implementing flexible working hours, leave options, greater access to non-wage-related perks, and the acknowledgement of statutory holidays.

Telecommuting

This is a relatively new concept in companies and can be largely ascribed to the broad availability of computers and the internet (Friedman, S., & Greenhaus, J. 2000). Telecommuting enables predominantly white-collar staff to work from home by connecting them to the organization’s network and allowing them to complete their assignments from home. Telecommuting permits employees to spend less time traveling and to have more flexible work hours. Approximately 30% of U.S. businesses currently permit telecommuting in some capacity.

Technological improvements have prompted corporations to embrace telecommuting. Particularly, the Internet has shrunk the world into a global village, allowing people to work from home while simultaneously fulfilling their social and familial obligations.

Flextime

This term alludes to a flexible work schedule, as opposed to the usual 9-to-5 workday. Flextime has a core period during the day when employees are expected to work, such as 9 a.m. to 3 p.m. All remaining time in the day is flextime, and employees are free to select the hours that are most convenient for them, so long as they meet the requisite number of hours for the month, week, or day.

Flextime in companies has been prompted by social and demographic shifts in which the majority of families now have two incomes, are headed by a single parent, or have senior members who require care (Gottlieg, B., Kelloway, K., & Barham, E. 1998). This structure permits employees to alter their work schedule, which has a number of advantages. For example, employees can escape rush-hour traffic, parents can spend time with their children, and employees can attend part-time studies. Flextime is nevertheless only applicable to part-time employees.

Cafeteria-style perks

Under this type of plan, employees are provided with an accounting of all wages contributed to basic benefits such as retirement funds and health care. The employee can choose from a list of options to divert the donations. The primary difficulty in introducing cafeteria-style benefits is the financial impact on the firm (Greenhaus, J. 2003).

Before a worker can become eligible for this type of WLB program, all of his or her basic information must be entered into the organization's database. This requires a great deal of accuracy. Today, organizations are implementing this program in the belief that they can control the associated costs or pass them on to employees.

The rising cost of living is the motivating element for cafeteria-style benefits. Particularly, health care has become exorbitantly expensive, and employees with families and children require this type of arrangement to assist them pay for health care.

Job-sharing possibilities

This is a system in which two workers share a single position. Job sharing is advantageous for both employees and employers. For instance, two individuals working together contribute a broader range of expertise and abilities to the task at hand, which would not be achievable with a single person. Moreover, it contributes unique and desired attributes to the job, including as trust, reliability, and relationship compatibility.

There are other issues associated with this type of organization. The management is dubious and strongly opposed to job sharing. The business culture and the specific nature of the work may also make job sharing challenging. The novice employee is frequently concerned about how to manage a job partner and the repercussions if the arrangement fails.

The increasing market pressure and the nature of the job push firms to use job sharing as a component of their Work-Life Balance initiatives. Today's market requires high-quality products and services, and the contributions of two individuals in the same position go a long way toward assisting firms in meeting these needs.

Present Situation

Recent economic difficulties have caused a shift in the organization's perspective on WLB programs. Organizations are now far more cognizant of the cost consequences of these programs, despite recognizing their significance. Unpopular are the programs that place organizations at a cost disadvantage ( John W. & Sons. Kanter, M. 1997).

Changes have occurred in businesses as a result of technological advancements, the adoption of information technology, and the use of automation systems. For instance, Employee Assistance Programs and job-sharing opportunities are regular offerings. With the birth of the Internet Age, WLB Programs are merely a bonus intended to recruit and retain quality personnel.

Currently, these incentives have evolved from big bonuses and company automobiles to more practical perks such as dry washing and fitness centers. The majority of organizations are no longer able to afford the financial remuneration they offered in the early 1990s. In response to the rise in layoffs, firms are employing inexpensive methods for fostering employee loyalty and fostering teamwork.

The extent to which the WLB Programs achieve their intended goals

In organizations, the success of WLB programs is not unique. Some of the programs, such as flextime, telecommuting, and job sharing, are beneficial. However, cafeteria-style benefits have shown to be ineffective due to their high cost to the firm. Sometimes, corporations have been compelled to transfer costs to employees (Jossey B. 2002).

Emerging socioeconomic and demographic trends that will have an immediate impact on WLB programs in the coming decades

Employee diversity

The makeup of the labor force will continue to shift drastically in the next decades. There will be older workers, women, and members of minority groups in the workforce. Organizations will need to modify their current Work-Life Balance Programs in order to accommodate these different personnel. For instance, an increase in the number of older workers will need that firms cover the increased expense of health care and retirement benefits.

Globalization

In the coming years, businesses will expand into new foreign markets. The entire economy will be integrated into a single huge marketplace. Many international organizations will relocate their operations to other nations in search of both talented and inexpensive labor. This will need organizations to restructure and expand their existing WLB programs.

Technological innovations

In the coming years, a number of occupations will experience a shift in employment due to technological advancements. There will be a shift toward computer-aided manufacturing technologies and an increase in robotics (Lee, M. 1997). Unfortunately, this will result in the replacement of blue-collar workers with less qualified but highly skilled workers. Organizations will be required to provide various incentives, pay plans, and WLB initiatives.

Service community

In organizations, there will be a shift from manufacturing to service jobs in the next decades. In the service industry, jobs in retail, legal work, teaching, and consulting will be created. These changes will impose new expectations on workers' ability to juggle their professional and personal obligations.

nature of the job

Globalization and technological developments will result in substantial changes to the workplace. For instance, technology will enable businesses to shift to regions with a lower demand for labor. Additionally, temporary and part-time jobs will expand rather than permanent employment. WLB programs will need to be modified in the future to meet the changing needs of employee categories.

Future status

In general, organizations have recognized the value of WLB programs and continue to consider implementing such efforts. Today, the foundation of these initiatives is what the business can do for the employees. To achieve WLB, employees will need to evaluate how they might adopt certain behaviors that will assist them achieve this balance. It may be necessary to provide employees with training that addresses any personal deficiencies that may prevent them from earning WLB after all.

Listed below are some additional programs that organizations may need to adopt in the next decades.

Wellness programs in the workplace

The majority of people in modern society spend virtually all of their time at work. Complex and demanding, with a heavy emphasis on efficiency and performance, the workplace has grown increasingly difficult and demanding. This has contributed to employee stress and a rise in workplace dangers (Parasuraman, S., 2002). To address these events, employers should develop health and wellness initiatives in the workplace. Wellness, safety, time management, work sharing, stress management, and healthy lifestyles can be addressed by such programs. To create and sustain a healthy workplace, both the employee and employer should develop and implement these initiatives.

To achieve this, employees need take responsibility for their health and fitness. Due to the lengthy hours that employees spend together, there is an increased likelihood of workplace and sexual assault. Through the development of awareness campaigns, this type of program can aid in mitigating such hazards. The primary goals of workplace health and wellness initiatives are the formation of a healthy workforce, an improved work culture, and happier employees.

Leave for fathers and child care

Recent attention has been paid to the subject of paternity leave, especially since the Family and Medical Leave Act was passed. This Act was intended to standardize the rights of employees to family leave. It was originally intended to serve working women, but has since been expanded to accommodate the changing needs of American families. Today's population must deal with single parenting, child care, and senior care. Such programs can assist employees in achieving a work-life balance and becoming more productive and fulfilled at work (William M. 2000).

The majority of traditional households have two incomes. As a result, employers should offer child care advantages in order to attract employees with families. Employers can aid their employees in caring for their children through a variety of means, including in-house child care facilities, referral services, child care subsidies, and after-school activities.

Vacation

Organizations have not conducted extensive research on this problem. This is the norm in the United States, where the majority of companies provide new employees a two-week sabbatical. As a means of gaining a competitive edge, they should be concerned with the well-being of their employees and establish a vacation policy. Currently, senior employees are awarded greater vacation time, and only countable organizations provide additional vacation time as a reward for excellent performance.

Conclusion

Work-Life Balance programs assist people to achieve a balance between their work and typical life duties, such as family and community. The contemporary job market is characterized by extended work hours, which result in employee strain and stress. In response, both organization management and employees have adopted initiatives that make working life advantageous for both the organization and the employee.

References

New York: DeCarlo & Gruenfeld, 1989. Stress in the American workplace: Options for the working wounded.

J. French, R. Caplan, and V. Van (1982).

Mechanisms of occupational stress and strain New York City

Friedman, S., & Greenhaus, J. (2000). Family and career: Allies or foes? What occurs when business professionals face life decisions? Oxford University Press, New York.

B. Gottlieg, K. Kelloway, and E. Barham (1998). Flexible work arrangements: balancing work and family obligations New York City

Greenhaus, J. (2003). Toward the reduction of major research gaps in the work-family domain. Human Resource Management Review, volume 12, number 3, page

Sons & John W. Kanter, M. (1997). Work and family in the United States: A critical analysis and research agenda. New York's Russell Sage Foundation.

Joseph B. (2002). How organizations contribute to individual stress and countermeasures. San Francisco: Inc.

Lee, M. (1997). Fighting back against workplace stress. Chiron International Publishing is located in Minneapolis, Minnesota.

Parasuraman, S. (2002). Work/life balance: the manager's responsibility New York Russell Sage Foundation.

Work/life initiatives, by William M., in 2000. Mercer, Incorporated. New York, NY.

[supanova question]

Epidemiological And Clinical Predictors Of COVID-19 Essay Help Cheap

Executive Synopsis

This paper emphasizes the significance of appropriately visualizing acquired data. The data set obtained by the researcher from Google regarding mobility trends in the United States could be used to establish a stronger connection between the impact of the pandemic and the responses of the government, private organizations, and individual citizens who must also deal with the consequences of quarantine and self-isolation.

Therefore, the current study provides a comprehensive assessment of potential scenarios that could have long-term effects on the country if the three parties mentioned above opt to do nothing.

The initial scenario described by the study involved a tiny neighborhood eatery exposed to COVID-19's effects. One of the potential remedies offered by the author of this research was to combat the impacts of isolation by expanding delivery options and increasing the number of opportunities for customers to purchase food online instead of visiting brick-and-mortar eateries. Cartesian diagrams, cycle diagrams, and timelines were selected as the three kinds of visualisation for the current scenario.

The second scenario described by the researcher involved a workplace in which the management was tasked with determining how the corporation would convey critical employees to work. Based on the data set acquired by the author of this study, it was determined that corporate transportation, public transit, and taxis were the most dependable options. The author chose a line chart, a pie chart, and a tree map for the three methods of data visualization for the second case.

The researcher's third scenario addressed the role of city administration representatives during the pandemic. COVID-19 has a clear influence on vulnerable populations and those with impairments, as it affects social, economic, psychological, and physiological situations without reservation. Visualizations of a decision tree, an area chart, and a concept skeleton are included in the solution given within the scope of this study.

Data Description

The current data indicate changes in movement throughout the United States during the COVID-19. The importance of this data is backed by the notion that firms could respond to community-wide changes in order to match their operations and goods with the demands and opportunities of consumers. Google came up with the idea for the mobility change reports in part because the negative consequences of COVID-19 must be mitigated (Sun et al., 2020).

Customers seeking products and services that are accessible regardless of the state of the world could benefit from access to additional information regarding consumer mobility. The current data cannot be utilized for any other purpose but predicting business trends, as it focuses primarily on changes that occur in various regions of the United States. On the basis of the suggested mobility reports, firms can evaluate state-by-state developments and make crucial judgments regarding the business strategies they may employ in the near future.

The latest mobility report indicates that retail and recreation, as well as supermarket and pharmacy, are experiencing a decline in the number of consumers. Transit stations and workplaces have a similar pattern, meaning that only a restricted number of individuals are permitted to use public transportation and attend their physical workplace (Kraemer et al., 2020).

On the other hand, the research demonstrates unequivocally that mobility patterns for places of residence continue to expand, as does the number of people visiting national parks, public beaches, marinas, dog parks, plazas, and public gardens. According to Google's instructions, these data cannot be used to compare COVID-19-related data between countries. Nonetheless, this data set could be considered statistically significant. The idea is that firms may utilize such mobility data to predict consumer behavior and respond to any potential changes in a timely manner.

Alternative Business Scenarios

Business Scenario 1

The first scenario involves a tiny neighborhood eatery that must adapt its operations to the COVID-19 circumstance and deal with the consequences of the pandemic. The company must implement delivery and provide its clients with access to the same high-quality cuisine it offered when it was a brick-and-mortar establishment. Google's proposed data collection could be advantageous for this small eatery, as the management would acquire a greater understanding of the types of people they should expect to order delivery and how to optimize their operations.

During the quarantine, the proposed data collection would serve as evidence of the existence of additional options necessary for the restaurant to attract new customers and keep existing ones. In a sense, the management would be responsible for monitoring the possible number of consumers who could be drawn by quarantine deals unavailable prior to the COVID-19 outbreak by checking daily mobility statistics.

Second Business Scenario

The second scenario is the availability of online job chances to employees so that they are no longer required to attend physical offices. As a result, public transit would experience less strain, and several businesses would move their activities online to protect employee health and prevent wasteful expenditures on the local infrastructure. The issue with public transit is that some individuals lack viable alternatives to existing modes of transportation and are forced to spend money on taxi services.

Due to the COVID-19 issue and the lack of options that may be investigated by organizations who still require their key employees to report to work, the situation becomes especially complicated.

It raises the question of whether private transportation companies and additional resources should be used to bring individuals to work regardless of where they reside or how long their commute is. During the COVID-19 quarantine, organizations that cannot afford to close must devise the most resource-efficient means of allowing their staff to report to work safely. This data set could aid organizations in predicting the effects of transportation-related choices.

Third Business Scenario

The third business scenario deals to how important service and product providers could approach individuals with impairments and special needs. The quarantine situation has made it extremely difficult for people with disabilities to access their favorite stores, restaurants, parks, and other recreational areas. The local administration's lack of comprehension may be remedied by the analysis of the proposed data collection.

The conclusions derived from the analysis of data sets must also be reviewed with the representatives of people with disabilities to ensure that any potential modifications to the operations of vital organizations do not negatively impact persons with disabilities. Therefore, the Google data set could be one of the simplest ways to identify the places where the disabled population needs assistance the most.

The underlying concept here is that quantitative reports should never be undervalued. Especially when the obtained data pertains to a vulnerable population that may not be able to defend their rights or accomplish certain goals during the epidemic.

Analytical Description and Justification

Scenario 1

Cartesian coordinates are the first available visualizing option in this instance. This visualization may be required to describe the potential outcomes of restaurant management's decisions (Kumar et al., 2020). Justification: the value of Cartesian coordinates (see Figure 1) can be explained by the greater likelihood of identifying the optimal development vector for the organization without executing costly research and development operations.

Cartesian coordinates are displayed in Figure 1.

A cycle diagram could also be used to display the restaurant's information (see Figure 2). It would be used by management to establish the proper operating cycle and specify the steps that the team must take to succeed and keep the majority of customers. Justification: this style of visualisation is one of the simplest ways to communicate facts and emphasize the need for change and development using visually appealing tools.

Figure 2. Cycle diagram.

The option to display a timeline is equally significant (see Figure 3). It would show the team how the restaurant's operations convert into revenue and whether it will provide any competitive advantages over rivals. Justification: the team could use the timeline to determine how long it took to perform the necessary modifications and accomplish the predetermined goals.

Figure 3. Timeline. Scenario 2

A line chart would be one of the best visualisation options for the second case (see Figure 4). The justification for this is that the organization would have the opportunity to assess employee trends and choose the most efficient mode of transportation to get all employees to work on time. Justification: the line graph below might be used to illustrate a hypothetical result of the proposed scenario based on the existing data set, in which the number of both essential and non-essential workers will drop due to the COVID-19 pandemic.

Figure 4. Line chart.

The organization might use a pie chart (see Figure 5) to convey information regarding employee perspectives and to select the optimal mode of transportation to help important personnel get at work safely. Google's previous data set revealed a decline in the mobility trend in relation to transit stations. According to Falvey et al. (2020), this might be a vital piece of evidence for the management, as it would assist the administration in allocating available resources and establishing a stronger link with the most important employees during the COVID-19 epidemic.

Figure 5. Pie chart.

The tree map could also be a useful instrument (see Figure 6). During the epidemic, only essential employees should have the freedom to pick how they will travel to work. Justification: The team will be able to use the tree map below to graphically convey the available facts and make a decision regarding the optimal mode of transportation for the organization.

Figure 6. Tree map. Scenario 3

In the event that the municipal government has deal with the consequences of the pandemic, the decision tree below (shown in Figure 7) illustrates the various possibilities. The tree demonstrates that the administration has numerous options accessible if it adapts its operations to meet the requirements of vulnerable groups. Justification: the inclusion of a decision tree as a visualisation tool is based on the fact that it is the quickest way to determine potential approaches to certain populations during catastrophic situations.

Diagram of a decision tree

The following region chart is significant to the COVID-19 data set because it depicts the number of individuals with special needs who might be affected by the catastrophic occurrences (see Figure 8). This visualization is one of the various methods for monitoring COVID-19 trends and responding to them in the most prudent manner, so city administration representatives may pay attention to it.

Justification: the current visualization is necessary since it establishes the probable number of crippled and vulnerable individuals who would require government support during the pandemic, a crucial point given that government assistance is finite.

Figure 8 is a diagram of area.

The concept skeleton from below (see Figure 9) is an important contribution to the topic because it may provide the administration with additional ideas for how to address both people with impairments and vulnerable populations. During the COVID-19 epidemic, a concept skeleton could serve as a tool for outlining the team's finest strategies and most valuable resources.

Figure 9. Concept skeletal.

Justification: the inclusion of a concept skeleton in the current project is based on the fact that the majority of the framework's concepts could assist the administration approach additional communities in the future.

Findings and Suggestions

The current research provides as evidence that there are multiple ways to visualize the same data using different tools and obtain different results based on the tools employed. Google's data set on COVID-19 mobility trends provides business analysts with a variety of methods for analyzing and reporting crucial information across the enterprise, organization, or community. The lack of awareness could be easily remedied with the aid of infographics containing at least a portion of the visuals presented in this study.

From small business decisions to state-wide operations, no team should disregard the importance of how staff-collected information may be visualized and shared to others. The current article verifies the good influence of data visualizations on enterprises, organizations, and individual individuals and proposes that everyone should increase their understanding of how various forms of data can be handled and presented.

References

Falvey, J. R., Krafft, C., & Kornetti, D. (2020). The crucial function of home- and community-based physical therapists during the COVID-19 epidemic. The Journal of Physical Therapy, 100(7), 1058-1061.

Kraemer, M. U., Yang, C. H., Gutierrez, B., Wu, C. H., Klein, B., Pigott, D. M.,… & Brownstein, J. S. (2020). The impact of human movement and control measures on China's COVID-19 epidemic. Science, 368(6490), 493-497.

Kumar, D., Kumari, K., Jayaraj, A., Kumar, V., Kumar, R. V., Dass, S. K.,… & Singh, P. (2020). Using MD simulations at varying temperatures to determine the binding affinity of noscapines with the protease of SARS-CoV-2 for COVID-19. 1-14 in Journal of Biomolecular Structure and Dynamics

Sun, Y., V. Koh, K. Marimuthu, O. T. Ng, B. Young, S. Vasoo, and R. T. Lin (2020). Epidemiological and clinical predictors of COVID-19. Clinical Infectious Diseases, 71(15), 786-792.

[supanova question]

Apple Training And Development For Employees Essay Help Cheap

Abstract

Selecting an acceptable individual for main scanning was a difficult task. Consequently, it is crucial to build dependable systems and approaches for decreasing and eliminating the significant expenses associated with re-training and re-employment. The purpose of this study is to establish a relationship between candidate effective initial scanning (CEIS) and actual employment processes associated to organizational tactics and procedures that may result in monetary losses. The study is a comparative qualitative case study. Using an 8-question survey, pertinent data will be gathered regarding the basic human resource processes in a certain firm.

Introduction

Employment selection refers to a series of procedures for identifying the best competent candidates for a certain job vacancy that has been announced in advance. To do this, an organization-employer may opt for external or internal employment selection, or perhaps attempt both. The preliminary procedure of candidate scanning is a crucial instrument that might be advantageous for achieving relevant results during first selection.

Potential employees and organizations should have a relationship, as companies seek to hire only those who can add value via the application of their skills, efforts, and competences. Thus, the process of recruitment is essentially an election based on a variety of factors and qualities, including a successful preliminary scan. If preliminary screening is performed successfully, it will not result in issues such as rehiring or additional training. As a result, a firm will be able to select the most qualified candidate for the open position, and over time, it will gain the most talented employees because the preliminary screening was performed correctly.

Preliminary screening is a vital component of the employment selection procedure; therefore, it must be established in a manner that ensures its efficacy. Consequently, this tool will play a vital role in the hiring process; to be effective, HR personnel must be well-trained and hold relevant and up-to-date data for doing preliminary scanning efficiently. Both the selection and recruitment processes are essential for the proper administration of human resources, since the selection of a suitable employee encourages the growth of other HR administration facets.

The introduction of manual employment and hiring selection as a foundation for the development of the HR department and a facilitator for the resolution of any ambiguities linked with employment selection procedures is also vital. Notably, if a company lacks a clearly defined procedure for selection, recruiting, and preliminary screening, it will miss out on the opportunity to acquire more competent and successful employees.

Simply put, the preliminary screening phase entails firms gathering pertinent information to aid HR personnel in understanding the fundamental traits and abilities of prospective prospects. The purpose of preliminary scanning is to create a job profile that will assist in locating not the "best" but the "appropriate" candidate. This indicates that preliminary screening should be a well-designed and implemented method that assists HR professionals in selecting the most qualified candidate without requiring extra processes and technologies.

It is vital to note that the preliminary screening technique gives recruiters an idea of the qualifications of a particular candidate and assists in gathering general information about him or her to determine whether the primary selection criteria are met. In addition, this approach prevents the waste of time and money, particularly when possible applicants immediately meet the selection requirements. Thus, adopting a well-designed and effective preliminary screening procedure is likely to improve the initial phase of recruitment. This indicates that the first step of planning should consist of identifying the organization's core needs in order to determine which personnel are necessary for achieving the specified goals.

Recruitment was created to attract competent and professional personnel, and selection is the HR department's approach for choosing the best candidates. In some companies, employees are recruited on the basis of personal affinity or a simplified test, without taking into account the most important factors in the recruitment of a candidate. Employers must therefore conduct preliminary screenings to choose the ideal employee from the start.

Research Questions and Objectives of Study

The overall purpose of the study is to establish a relationship between candidate effective initial scanning (CEIS) and existing employment selection procedures.

The study has the following particular objectives:

Establishing that the current employment processes are identifiable and well-designed. Determine the reasons why already established techniques and processes result in the loss of financial resources owing to rehiring and retraining. Through the implementation of CEIS, organizations can improve their general practices.

Research questions are the following:

What are the current recruitment processes within organizations, and are they properly defined? Existing practices contribute to the reduction or rise of re-training and re-employment costs? What role does CEIS play in ensuring that HR professionals interview and recruit the most qualified candidate for a position?

Literature Review

The HRM department of a commercial organization of any type, size, or orientation must be responsible for recruitment and selection procedures. Both methods are associated with the actions taken by HR experts to attract and recruit qualified candidates for an open position. Notable is the correlation between the quality and efficacy of an organization's HR department and the success of recruiting and selection. Consequently, selecting inappropriate applicants who cannot meet the requirements of a particular job results in extra expenses that many businesses cannot afford. Consequently, the objective of recruitment and selection is to generate a list of applicants who are ideal for meeting an organization's demands and achieving its goals without wasting important resources such as time and money.

It has been stated that the recruitment process is analogous to the beginning of a company's journey to ensure that the correct employees are selected to fulfill cultural and organizational demands and achieve strategic objectives. Similarly, the recruitment process consists of HR searching for applicants who would add value and profit to the firm. It is the set of activities that establishes a network of links between potential employers and candidates. In addition, recruitment may be defined as the process of attracting experienced candidates for a job position or the discovery of new sources of the workforce in order to fulfill the organization's goals and requirements and to facilitate the effective selection of a capable and competent workforce.

The following are three examples of recruitment requirements:

Planned demands, which develop as a result of alterations in the retirement practices of organizations that create vacant positions. The process of employee turnover that enables firms to foresee future patterns linked with the internal and external corporate environment is referred to as anticipated needs. Unanticipated requirements that develop for a variety of causes, including resignations, relocations, fatalities, and sicknesses, among others.

If mentioning employment selection myths and misconceptions, researchers pointed to the lack of validity associated with various measures of recruitment and selection, such as interviews, tests, and reference checks, as well as the conditions necessary for maximizing the effectiveness of the aforementioned practices or the misunderstanding of the interviewing process. Therefore, it can be stated that all firms are searching for the ideal applicant, but few possess sufficient knowledge on how to maximize the likelihood of selecting the correct individual who will add value and aid in achieving the desired objectives.

This finding suggests that the proper operation of the human resources department is crucial to the success of a business, in terms of raising productivity or minimizing the expenditures associated with ineffective HR management.

Another viewpoint related with the employment selection process holds that the selection procedures should determine who is hired. Employment selection, if established and performed correctly, will help organizations to match the recognized needs with the appropriate individuals. As a result, this will result in the creation of a tool for boosting the likelihood that the best candidate will be selected for an open post. It is general knowledge that if the appropriate individuals are chosen for a position, their productivity will grow. Researchers have shown a correlation between good recruitment methods and the financial success of businesses. Similarly, recruitment and selection techniques have demonstrated a positive correlation with organizational performance.

In the advanced modern environment, managers are aware that the success of their human resource team has a direct impact on the effectiveness of the organization as a whole. With low unemployment rates, competition for the most qualified candidates for highly rated positions is intense. To explore the nature of recruitment and hiring, contemporary scholars have centered their attention on the various approaches that employers approve or reject. Methods of employee selection can be evaluated in a number of ways, including evaluating employment practices based on their efficacy, cost, application methods, and other aspects.

This means that recruitment tactics and experiences vary from company to organization, and the most effective way to determine which practices are the best is to evaluate the outcomes of prior recruitment practices, not the efforts that all businesses do. Once a business has determined the most relevant measures for monitoring the effectiveness of recruitment, the next step is to employ the tools and channels that are most likely to meet its needs.

Human resource managers are currently faced with the difficulty of hiring qualified candidates for available positions. This implies that modern HR professionals must devise more creative hiring and selection procedures, regardless of how complex and difficult they may appear. Without a doubt, the basic purpose of the selection process is to discover individuals who are the best fit for both the open position and the organization's human resource strategy.

Due to the rapid pace of the contemporary business environment, organizations are seeking ways to reduce the time and resources required for the selection and recruitment process. Nonetheless, recruitment efforts must contribute to an organization's competitive advantage, and hiring methods should lead to the enhancement of organizational outcomes. According to some studies, the implementation of a qualitative recruitment system is a valuable method for assisting firms to improve and expand as they encounter more qualified candidates for open positions.

In any organization, selection and recruiting are important tools for attaining success and enhancing efficiency, as well as favorably impacting the performance quality of the workforce that has been selected through the application of beneficial practices and exercises. In addition to focusing on gaining a "pool" of competent and qualified candidates who will be subjected to a valid selection procedure, businesses should prioritize the quality of the tools and exercises they use to hire new personnel. For this reason, managers must comprehend the selection process's objectives, procedures, and numerous policies. Professionals who play a significant part in employee selection decisions should be equipped with pertinent information upon which to base their selection criteria for qualified candidates.

Methodology

Using qualitative comparative case research, it is proposed to investigate the linkage between candidate effective initial scanning (CEIS) and actual employment processes associated to organizational strategies and procedures that may result in monetary losses. The case study technique was chosen because it is efficient for investigating certain topics in depth and permits the use of numerous data sources, which is particularly advantageous for descriptive studies that focus on specific situations and where generalizability is less acceptable. A case study is a strategy that can be used to create theories in response to "how" or "why" questions.

Case study research may also contribute to the development of a holistic approach to the concept of causality, as it permits the treatment of an individual case holistically. Consequently, this research methodology emphasizes the possibility of investigating causal links between specific components based on several observations. In addition, case studies can be utilized by researchers when there are research issues regarding a particular process, as the usage of many data sets can facilitate the retrospective investigation of past events.

Study Location

The objective of the identified research approach is to analyze the number of open positions issued by HR over the course of six months throughout the current year. Throughout 2016, the Telecommunications Regulatory Authority (UAE headquarters) advertised sixteen available vacancies.

Instruments of Study

The primary instrument for this study is an eight-question survey with the following questions:

How many individuals comprise the Human Resource Department of the organization? How many of them are involved in the recruitment procedure? How many and what are the channels candidates can utilize to submit their applications for available positions? Does the organization document the processes used to evaluate applicants' skills and professionalism before to the interview? How does the organization determine whether a candidate's résumé matches the organization's current needs? What are the criteria for selecting or rejecting a suitable resume? How many interviews did the HR department conduct with prospective applicants in 2014, 2015, and 2016 (compare this number to the number of resumes the department received)?

Sample Dimensions and Style

The research sample consists of three distinct TRA departments that have posted eighteen job openings. The Spectrum Department had three available opportunities, the TDA department issued six positions, and the Regulatory department reported nine open posts.

Considering Ethical Concerns

The most important ethical concern of the research relates to the cliché of locating "the ideal candidate for the position." Therefore, the researcher must comprehend that an employee should not be viewed as the "best" but as the "right" one. The researcher may also be confronted with the issue of probable personal prejudice, cultural preferences, and preconceptions. To overcome this issue, a team of researchers with diverse backgrounds and points of view is required to conduct reliable preliminary scanning. Another issue is related with internal selection, hence it is recommended to adopt external selection instead, so that the research will be conducted with new individuals devoid of preconceived notions and preferences.

Processing and Analysis of Data

Because this research employs the case study methodology, a structured survey is used to collect data. Following the collection of pertinent data, the major role players in the employment selection process will uniformly record the information to verify the data's reliability; additionally, a database can handle the obtained data.

Research Proposed Chapters

These are the potential chapter titles for the report:

Introduction

Research objectives (both general and particular), research questions, and a literature review.

Methodology

Study sample; Research instruments; Data collection; Research methodology and kind. Research findings Data analysis, Results, Conclusion, Limitations and Recommendations of the Study. References. Appendices.

Analyze Limitations and Issues

The primary limitation of the current study is that the researchers are unable to determine whether the organization under study has a team of well-trained and competent professionals who can successfully perform preliminary scanning and develop appropriate interview questions for potential candidates. It is necessary to examine the procedures of job selection over a period of time to establish if the organization's needs are met; nevertheless, this imposes a further limitation, as businesses run the risk of missing the opportunity to obtain more accurate findings. Lastly, the study is constrained by the relatively small sample size for covering all HR departments and industries in TRA, as well as the allotted time for completion.

Project Timeframe

Due to the necessity of designing a survey to collect relevant data and writing the actual report, the full project is projected to take one semester.

[supanova question]

Marketing Aspects Based On The Cruiser Thorr Simulation Essay Help Cheap

Table of Contents
Introduction Simulation; Graph and Conclusion Three periods Simulation Graph Measurements (Perceptual Map) Simulation and Perceptual Mapping Marketing Components Implications of Product life cycle References

Introduction

Perceptual mapping is a visualization technique developed by marketing experts to provide graphical perceptions and visualizations of a perceived marketing problem scenario necessitating a workable marketing strategy as a means of effecting a turnaround. Perceptual mapping is useful when applied to the creation of graphical representations of the perceived or established perceptions of consumers regarding specific items and services. Perceptual maps are comprised of two or more dimensions that are used to create a framework for locating product or service characteristics such as customer perceptions, popularity, and marketed segmentation in order to gain a greater understanding of the market and product/service performance.

Simulation; Graph and Conclusion

Cruiser Thorr is a multi-billion dollar company that specializes in the assembly of motorcycles. In 2008, the company has manufactured more than 150,000 units. The problem scenario is predicated on the drop in Thorr Motorcycle sales. A perceived association between product price and quality is deemed crucial to the problem scenario based on declining product sales. Thorr Motorcycles must alter the perceptions consumers have of its products in order to implement a viable strategy for reversing the company's declining profitability. The Perceptual Map that illustrates the link between two simulation parameters, namely product pricing and quality, has aided in the development of a workable marketing strategy to increase the company's profitability by restoring and expanding profitable sales volume.

Three periods

The first of the simulation's three key phases is problem identification, which in this case is an unwanted sales decline. The second step is the development of a marketing strategy based on the simulation results and perceptual maps. The final phase comprises evaluating outcomes and validating marketing in preparation for implementing the identified and created positioning strategy.

The simulation graph shown below displays the relationship between the market performance of Thorr motorbike items and the two dimensions chosen for simulation. Price and quality have been selected as the two criteria for this simulation.

Simulation Graph Measurements (Perceptual Map)

Perceptual Mapping and Virtual Reality Simulation

There has been a decline in the link between product price and quality during the past three years. The observed pattern envisioned by the perceptual map implies that there is a concentration of purchasing for somewhat lower quality and more affordable motorbike products. In order to reestablish and raise profitable sales volumes, the company's marketing organs must examine the creation and implementation of viable marketing and repositioning strategies for higher-quality items.

Marketing Features

Thorr has a clear focus on product differentiation across its high- and low-quality product lines, but the company must take steps to further differentiate its high-quality products in order to maintain its lucrative market share in the face of intensifying competition. Chekitan S. Dev et al. (2005) concur that "customers should have a specific reason for purchasing from your company, and that purchase motivation stems from the positioning and differentiation elements of marketing."

In marketing, differentiation strategy is viewed as the establishment of distinction between two or more products or services. Mootee (994), in conclusion, provides the following definition of placement. He defines positioning as the beneficial placement of a product or service.

Due to a lack of acceptable and adequate difference, the simulation implies that Thorr Motorcycles' high-quality products are well-positioned to withstand the fierce competition faced by other companies offering comparable top-of-the-line items. In this simulation, this has been observed to be the relationship between differentiation and location.

Based on the results of the simulation, the repositioning of the Thorr products in the simulation indicates the viability of the assembled marketing strategy.

In the simulation, the repositioning based on successful differentiation of product image and quality has led to an increase in the purchase of the company's high-quality items, restoring sales to profitable levels.

Implications of Product life cycle

The Product Life cycle refers to the steps a new product will go through in marketing. Introduction, growth, maturity, and decline are the stages.

The product or service's revenue can be represented in connection to its position in the cycle using the graph shown below.

The product life cycle is a conceptual and application framework for marketing that highlights the dynamics of a product's many stages. Product life cycle (PLC) refers to the trajectory of a product or service's existence on the market in relation to its costs, sales proportion, and business or commercial measurements. PLC has aided in the development of the management and valuations of product or serviced performance in the market and by larger purports to assist marketers in formulating feasible and effective strategies that will help consolidate product and service position sin the market to protect or ensure or even increase a product’s performance with the goal of maintaining profitability margins. The PLC framework is based on the premise that a product has a finite lifespan and will through many stages that bring dynamic and varied difficulties. Profits will fluctuate over the product’s life cycle, increasing and decreasing at certain stages. The formulation of the PLC model was also influenced by the reality that products and services require distinct and effective marketing, purchasing, manufacturing, and people strategies in each life cycle phase.

The market launch phase is typically characterized by high costs and low sales volume, with an emphasis on demand generation. The second stage, which is the expansion stage, is characterized by cost reductions due to economies of scale. This stage is characterized by a substantial increase in sales volume. This phase is likewise characterized by an increase in consumer awareness. The maturation phase is characterized by low expenses, as products become more established and no longer require public awareness. The third phase, known as the decline or saturation phase, is characterized by a reduction in sales volume and falling pricing. As a result, costs become counterproductive at this time.

Thorr Motorcycles has been in business for decades, and the decline phase of the product life cycle is negatively affecting the company's sales volumes. The majority of the company's high-quality items are obsolete versions that have outlasted the company's growth and maturity phases. Thorr Motorcycles must incorporate Lifestyle image in its turnaround marketing strategy targeted at revitalizing and repositioning its premium motorcycle products. The image will encourage people to purchase the high-quality items of the company, so increasing sales and restoring the company's profitability.

References

Chekitan S. Dev and Don E. Schultz, Marketing Management (2005), Milleniumm Publishers, UK, p, 34.

Guiltinan et al., McGraw Hill/Irwin, "Marketing Management: Strategies and Programs," NYK Books, p. 342, 1996.

Mootee, (1994), The Concept of the Marketing Mix, Journal of Advertising Research, High Intensity Marketing (2001). I. SAPress, pp. 2-7

[supanova question]

Intel Corporation: Financial Ratio Analysis Essay Help Cheap

Introduction

The analysis of financial ratios will be performed for Intel Corporation. Intel Corporation is a publicly traded firm situated in the United States. It was founded in 1968. It is in the semiconductor business. Intel Corporation's ticker symbol on the NASDAQ is INTC. Moreover, it is a Dow Jones Industrial Average, S&P 500, and NASDAQ-100 component (Intel Corporation, 2014). The purpose of this article is to conduct ratio analysis over a three-year period.

Ratio evaluation

Liquidity ratios

2011 2012 2013 Average in the industry

ratio current 2,15 2,43 2,36 3,28

ratio quick 1.54 1.71 2.

The liquidity ratios provide information about a company's financial strength. During the period, the current ratio fluctuated between 2.15 and 2.43, while the quick ratio fluctuated between 1.12 and 1.71. The ratios indicate that the corporation can easily settle its current commitments using its current and liquid assets. However, both ratios were below industry standards (CSIMarket.com, 2014). This indicates that Intel Corporation's financial strength is weaker than the average for its industry.

Asset management ratios

2011 2012 2013 Average in the industry

turnover of inventory 5,16 4,57 4,76 4,28

Turnover of total assets 0.80 0.69 0.60 0.69

Fixed asset turnover 2.60 2.07 1.77 2.13

Day's sales outstanding 22.03 25.60 25.67 22.10

The asset management ratios provide information on the company's efficiency. The inventory turnover rate has decreased from 5.16 to 4.76. Inventory turnover indicates the number of times a company refreshes its stock within a fiscal year. The three-year ratios were greater than the industry average.

The total turnover of assets decreased from 0.80 to 0.60 (Intel Corporation, 2014). This indicates that the sales generated by a certain asset component decreased. The ratios were slightly higher than the averages for the industry. The fixed asset turnover ratio calculates the amount of revenue that can be generated per unit of fixed assets. In 2013, the value decreased from 2.60 in 2011 to 1.77. The values of the day's sales outstanding rose from $22.03 in 2011 to $25.67 in 2013.

The increase indicates that customers are waiting longer to pay their debts. It may be observed that the ratios are slightly higher than the averages for the industry (CSIMarket.com, 2014). A decrease in the ratios' values implies a reduction in the company's degree of efficiency.

Debt management ratios

2011 2012 2013 Average in the industry

ratio of EBITDA coverage to interest earned 434.68 166.26 52.68 38.4

Total debt to total assets 0.1030 0.1594 0.1458 0.1623

The ratios of interest coverage decreased from 434.68 in 2011 to 52.68 in 2013. Even if the ratios are strong and above the industry average, the company's ability to pay interest expense from earnings before interest and taxes has decreased. The ratio of total debt to total assets grew from 0.1030 to 0.1458.

The increase indicates that a greater share of assets are now financed by debt. The growth is attributable to the expansion of both total assets and liabilities. Additionally, the ratios were lower than the industry norm (CSIMarket.com, 2014). Overall, the degree of debt inside the capital structure rose. This means that leverage increased.

Performance ratios

2011 2012 2013 Average in the industry

Return on equity capitalization 27.15% 22.66% 17.58% 14.43%

Total return on assets 19.27% 14.16% 10.89% 10.01%

Basic income potential 24.57% 17.35% 13.31% 9.21%

Profit margin on sales 23.97 percent 20.63 percent 18.25 percent 13.69 percent

The return on common equity provides an indication of the returns achieved by shareholder investments. The ratios fell from 27.15 percent in 2011 to 17.5 percent in 2013. In addition, the values of the ratios were greater than the industry average (14.43%) for the three-year period. Return on assets fell from 19.27% in 2011 to 10.89% in 2013. The net earnings earned from a unit of total assets decreased from 19.27% in 2011 to 10.89% in 2013. The ratios were greater than the average for the industry (10.01%).

The fundamental earnings power and profit margin on sales fell from 27.15% in 2011 to 17.58% in 2013 and from 23.97% in 2011 to 18.25% in 2013, respectively. Between 2011 and 2013, all profitability ratios experienced a drop. In terms of profitability, the company's performance is also superior to industry norms (Intel Corporation, 2014). The loss in profitability is attributable to a substantial decline in sales value and an increase in operating expenses (Intel Corporation, 2014).

Market value ratios

2011 2012 2013 Average in the industry

Market/book 2.6 2.0 2.2 3.2

Price/earnings 10.1 9.7 13.8 21.5

Cost/cash flow 6.3 5.6 6.4 1.2

The market-to-book ratio varied from 2.0 to 2.6. The numbers are far below the industry average (3.2). The price-to-earnings ratio varied from 9.7 to 13.8. Consequently, the valuation of the share price relative to earnings per share improved over the time. A rise in this valuation ratio indicates that shareholders can anticipate larger returns in the future. Intel Corporation has a lower price-to-earnings ratio than the industry average (21.5). This may indicate that the company's valuation is lower than the industry average.

In 2012, the price/cash flow ratio fell from 6,3 in 2011 to 5,6. In 2013, the ratio grew to 6.4%. This ratio illustrates the link between the stock price and cash flow per share (Intel Corporation, 2014). A greater ratio indicates that the stock is overvalued (Yahoo Finance, 2014). According to the data presented, the price/cash flow ratio is greater than the industry average (1.2). This indicates the company is overpriced.

Conclusion

In conclusion, the liquidity ratios indicate that the corporation can easily meet its current obligations. Despite having strong ratios, the company's total financial strength is below the industry average. The asset management ratios deteriorated substantially. This demonstrates a decline in efficiency. In addition, the debt management ratios deteriorated over the three-year period, indicating that the company's leverage increased.

According to profitability ratios, the company's earnings have decreased. In addition, the market value ratios indicate that the company's value remained relatively consistent throughout the period. The above ratio study demonstrates that the company's overall financial performance declined. The decline can be attributed to a number of factors, including economic fluctuations, changes in consumption, intense competition, rapid technological and market advancements, a change in the combination of products offered by the company, difficulties arising from entering new international markets, and rising production costs.

References

CSIMarket (2014). Semiconductor sector. Web.

Intel is a company (2014). Annual reports, 10-Ks, and proxy statements comprise the financials and filings section. Web.

Yahoo Finance (2014). Intel corporation (INTC). Web.

[supanova question]

Fazza Galleria: Performance And Employee Management Essay Help Cheap

Executive Synopsis

HighChem is a corporation engaged in the production of pharmaceuticals. Although it is headquartered in Texas, its products are distributed globally. The business has witnessed substantial expansion during the past two decades. It has, however, been experiencing a significant migration of its staff to rival companies. The majority of individuals who leave enroll in postsecondary institutions of higher education to advance their careers. Others are just interested in part-time employment. HighChem's work environment is characterized by inconsistent hours, heavy workloads, and lengthy order backlogs, prompting management to return staff from their leaves and time off. It is impossible for the company's employees to improve their careers. This paper advocates, based on the nature of HighChem's work environment, the adoption of WLB policies that allow employees to improve their careers as part of a professional management program, which can also increase their retention rates.

Recommendation

The nature of work at HighChem is unpredictable. Depending on order deadlines, employees are frequently expected to work overtime and may even be called back to the office during their leave or spare time. In certain circumstances, the workload must be raised in order to satisfy order deadlines. From the perspective of human resource management, increasing the workload indicates that employees who remain after their coworkers have left are likely to be disengaged owing to the unfairly increased obligations. This condition may generate imbalances between employees' outside lives, such as time to improve their careers, and the job itself.

Due to the work-life imbalance of the surviving employees, DiMeglio and Piatek (2010) conclude that a single attrition has the potential to result in many attritions. The only practical solution to this self-replicating problem is to seek employee retention measures. The desire to retain personnel inside a company encourages management researchers to investigate numerous ideas that can serve as a guide for achieving this objective (Revels & Morrism, 2012). Some of these methods include developing motivation, coaching, and even choosing a work-life balance for employees. It is strongly recommended that HighChem seek out measures to improve work-life balance, as doing so may increase work motivation and job satisfaction, hence reducing turnover intentions and/or actual turnover due to a lack of time to participate in career development and progress.

The corporation should invest $1,000,000 in the hiring of more personnel. This amount corresponds to 40 percent of the cost of managing current employees and conducting employee training and development initiatives. This increase will allow current employees to devote more time to other life priorities, such as self-career development. It will also prevent disputes between HighChem and individuals' private life. The objective is to promote work-life balance to encourage individuals to engage in self-career development.

Justification in broad strokes

Small, medium, and big firms place a significant emphasis on attracting and maintaining outstanding people. Retaining personnel determines a company's competitive edge through higher productivity and customer relationship management. Employee turnover raises the expense of recruiting and training new workers to replace the voids left by departing workers. In their study on employee turnover, Cegarra-Leiva, Sanchez-Vidal, and Cegarra-Navaro (2012) argue that firms seeking to leverage cost competitiveness as a success strategy should manage the turnover process proactively. Considering the detrimental effects of excessive staff turnover, many businesses, like HighChem, seek to increase employee retention rates.

Work-life balance is a strategy for boosting employee retention (Hayman, 2009; Lockwood, 2010). The recommendation to change organizational policies to promote work-life balance as a program for ensuring career management at a HighChem is justified by the fact that career management is a self-monitored, lifelong process of planning one's career by establishing and setting specific goals and developing strategies for achieving them. This objective cannot be achieved if HighChem's job conflicts with its workers' personal life to the extent that they are unable to engage in self-career development.

The inference is that individuals do not acquire new skills and information through continued schooling. Due to the unpredictability of the nature of the work at HighChem, employees are compelled to postpone their personal career growth goals and ambitions at the expense of their overburdened workload. Investment in training and development as a means of preparing personnel for promotions to higher positions promotes upward career mobility (Lewis & Heckman, 2006; McCauley & Wakefield, 2006). This strategy will result in high levels of employee engagement and work satisfaction. The result is an increase in retention rate.

Kramar and Syed (2012) investigated Work-Life-Balance (WLB) by conducting interviews with Japanese, South African, and Indian people. The new economy emphasizes the emergence of work intensification as a global trend. Therefore, working long hours is indicative of employee dedication to an organization. For instance, one of the South African participants advised Lewis and Heckman (2006) that working long hours effectively contributed to organizational differentiation. According to the researchers, a management consultant in India stated that working long hours "had become so ingrained, particularly in the new economy where people are required to work hard and literally sacrifice their personal lives" (Kramar & Syed, 2012, p.388). This scenario generates an individual-life conflict comparable to that encountered at HighChem. The conflict limits professional advancement.

Background

Origins of the Problem

In order to comprehend the company's history and current position, this study solicited the opinions of numerous employees who have direct knowledge of the challenges the company has been facing. Since participation was voluntary, however, workers were required to complete a consent form (see Appendix 1). Consequently, this part describes the company based on the responses of all respondents.

HighChem has been manufacturing medicinal goods for more than two decades. The company has expanded from employing 30 people at its inception to employing more than 1000 individuals. This progress has occurred as a result of the company's transition from a Texas-only medium-sized business to a corporation that can accept orders from all over the world. Its operational model is centered on placing orders first and then manufacturing to satisfy order deadlines. Due to the increasing demand for the company's products, there are typically long lines of orders awaiting fulfillment, despite the demands of customers for timely delivery. Increasing the number of employees and/or boosting the company's capacity are two methods for addressing lines expeditiously. During its expansion, HighChem has investigated these two opportunities. However, it acknowledges that all company operations must be profitable. Therefore, it prioritizes minimizing its operational expenses.

HighChem only manufactures a handful of items. Therefore, different work units are repetitious so that personnel do not need to spend time becoming accustomed to new activities. When employees become accustomed to performing repetitive tasks, they no longer need to "think hard" about their actions. However, after one year of working in the same position, the company has observed a decline in output to the extent that some employees seek employment chances with other organizations. Due to the repetitious nature of the work units at HighChem, the company does not invest in training and development unless new technologies are implemented. Individuals that obtain promotions are those with extensive knowledge of the company's operations. This promotion typically affects individuals who have been with the organization for more than eight years and/or who have demonstrated a high level of proficiency with the company's operations.

A recent internal poll reveals that, with the exception of workers in the management sector, the company retains approximately 40% of male employees and 10% of female employees after two years. Approximately 70% of people who leave an organization enroll in postsecondary education before pursuing employment with rival organizations. Nearly 70% of departing female HighChem employees find part-time employment with other companies. This situation has made the company's human resource management curious about whether employees prefer part-time versus full-time employment. Currently, the corporation is getting increasingly concerned about its growing budget for selection and recruitment. It necessitates $500,000 per month.

Symptoms versus Root Causes

The section on the issue's background illustrates the symptoms of a failing organization due to human resource management issues. High personnel turnover, the rising cost of selection and recruitment, customer complaints about delays, and sub-optimal employee performance are indicators of impending operational challenges in the business (By, 2005). This situation requires immediate intervention. Variables have changed, resulting in the onset of the symptoms. There is an increase in the number of employees who quit to pursue more education in order to obtain a higher-paying employment with a competitor. Others enroll in only part-time positions, despite their initial preference for full-time employment at HighChem. The incapacity of personnel to execute a given task in a timely manner is a third crucial variable.

Financial Implications

HighChem will incur expenses as a result of the advice to promote career development based on WLB. The organization's annual pay bill is currently $15 million. Increasing the number of employees by 40% results in a $6 million increase in the wage bill. This rise is similar to the annual recruitment costs to replace departing staff. However, the expenditure is justified by the benefits acquired over time. Given that the budget for Human Resources will increase by $1 million, the total cost associated with the recommendation will be $7 million.

Compared to the current condition, there is a one million dollar cost difference. This price cannot be compared to the annual benefits of higher staff productivity and motivation. Good customer reputation enables the company to charge higher rates for its products, particularly in situations where urgent orders must be fulfilled by highly motivated and knowledgeable personnel who will have time to focus on their career growth.

Legal Implications

The recommendation is consistent with labor relations best practices. Employees are entitled to yearly leave and vacation time (Hausknecht, Hiller, & Vance, 2008). Consequently, the advice strengthens HighChem's compliance with employee rights as stipulated by law. This assertion implies that the adoption of the proposal poses no legal risk.

Implications of Relationships

Employees support the expansion of WLB at HighChem as a means of fostering professional advancement. Due to the increasing workload and inconsistent shift schedules, employees do have disputes with their employers. This circumstance may explain why individuals also choose employment in businesses with more consistent work schedules and flexible work hours, such as part-time positions. Employees, particularly those who are interested in advancing their careers, may favor aligning HighChem's rules with this methodology. The result is higher retention of these employees.

The recommendation emphasizes an organizational transformation. The modification can facilitate worker involvement. This impact of change is supported by Ledez (2008), who states, "Change is important in organizations because it enables employees to acquire new skills, explore new opportunities, and exercise their creativity in ways that ultimately benefit the organization through new ideas and increased commitment" (p.113).

Therefore, change is all about boosting employee performance by implementing procedures that enable them to produce better results. In the instance of HighChem, the proposed recommendation ensures career progression and, thus, high job mobility. The public can respond to the new policy by applying for more jobs at HighChem. The only relational issue arises among those who currently have high-ranking positions, since they may perceive employees who advance in their careers as a danger to others with less education. Supervisors and managers are therefore expected to apply the new policy, practice, and procedures with reluctance.

Other Business Procedures

Other businesses believe that rigid work cultures can raise the likelihood of people leaving a company voluntarily. For instance, Google believes that shifting labor demographics influence people's propensity for particular occupations. According to Moen, Kelly, and Huang (2008), a 2005 poll conducted by Merrill found that around 20% of all baby boomers engage in leisure employment. Nearly 45 percent of all baby boomers favored occupations that allowed them leisure time. This research shows that the workforce of the future prioritizes firms that provide flexible employment so that employees can manage other equally essential elements of their lives, such as career development.

In a 2007 PEW study, fifty percent of all working mothers affirmed their unwavering dedication to domestic duties while still contributing to the family's income (Harzing & Pinnington, 2011). Similar to the situation at HighChem, these women prefer part-time employment. An employee poll done within the business, as described in the firm's history, suggests that employees have a poor opinion of a work environment that does not allow them time to improve their careers and/or complete other personal chores. This conclusion is supported by the huge number of employees who pursue higher education possibilities before returning to the labor market at higher-level positions, in contrast to the scenario at HighChem, where a substantial percentage of female employees seek part-time employment elsewhere.

Timing

In either the pre-crisis or post-crisis stage, organizations might confront a situation that necessitates change. Although there has been no crisis at HighChem, one is imminent. Indeed, businesses that can detect the need to modify their policies before the causes that necessitate the change interfere with their operations have a competitive edge over those that implement change in a reactive manner (Waddell, Cummings, & Worley, 2011). After a crisis, the implementation of new policies results in significant organizational expenses and a high possibility of regaining the lost competitive edge (Amagoh, 2008).

The new policy to address the problems plaguing HighChem must be created within the 2015 fiscal year (January 1-December 31). It should be available for implementation between January 1, 2016 and December 31, 2016. The implementation schedule begins with the design of the proposed policy (1 month), followed by evaluation and analysis of the policy (2 months), implementation of the policy (1 month), and evaluation of the implementation process (1 month) (2 weeks). Consequently, by March 2016, the corporation will have implemented a new policy that enhances employee career management using WLB.

Evaluation

The status quo, implementing the recommended strategy that promotes career growth through the formation of WLB structures, and automating the majority of its production processes to eliminate human decision makers are three essential choices. The suitability of each of

Guam’s Economy Essay Help Cheap

Situation

It is anticipated that Guam's population would expand considerably as a result of the military buildup that will be in full effect by 2011. The other kinds of changes that can be expected include more major equipment for the military and their operations, an increase in their training activities, more construction, changes or improvements of existing or new infrastructure, and more usage of land. How will these changes effect Guam's tourism economy, specifically the hotel business? In our findings, the main source for Guam’s economy resides within the military and the tourism industry.

In the 1960s, the military was a greater source of cash for Guam than tourism, accounting for 75% of Guam's revenues. Since 2003, tourism has contributed sixty percent of this revenue. Japan, Korea, Taiwan, Hong Kong, the Philippines, and the U.S. are Guam’s main markets, with Japan being our major market, covering 80% of our market demographics (Guam Economic Development Authority, 2010). We believe that the market dynamics will shift, with the military market gaining a larger share of Guam's total market demography as the number of military people increases.

Issues

The perception of the island is a big societal issue at hand. People on the island anticipate a change in their environmental and social lifestyles as a result of this military buildup. This harkens back to the "stigma" that service members stationed in Okinawa were responsible for the majority of crime and problems. With this information being disseminated and discussed on Guam, the military may pose a threat to the family-oriented culture of the island.

The majority of Guam's population, according to a survey performed by Amy Owen at the University of Guam, believe that the buildup will be good for the economy but terrible for our culture (Kelman, 2010). Given that Guam's culture and pleasant environment are a major draw for Japanese tourists, the change or adjustment may effect whether or not Japanese tourists return.

More people equals more garbage and more traffic. With an increase in population in Guam, it is expected to be more trash-filled as well. In the hotel industry, the majority of the hotels are strategically placed right next to the beaches so that the guests who stay within the hotel can easily walk to the beaches (Ysrael, 2010). (Ysrael, 2010). The scenery is yet another one of the beautiful qualities of the island. With this being said, the beaches are one of the main sites where trash is seen lying about.

Traffic affects the hotel industry in ways where parking may be a concern, where there is a greater risk of accidents, and where it may make “pleasure island” a difficult road to navigate because it can impede the flow of incoming trolleys, buses, and hotel vehicles. The soldiers and their dependents will be remaining in Guam for several years. In addition to their lengthy stay on the island, transportation plays a significant role in their daily activities. Thus, an increase in the number of cars is to be predicted as well

Internally, hotels may have to re-adjust their target markets. A change in population because of the build-up puts the whole island’s demography in a different dimension. Some hotels may adhere to traditional target markets. However, change may present the perfect opportunity to increase sales, promote the hotel(s), and utilize previously underutilized hotel amenities.

Employment and occupancy are an additional concern. Military prices are lower than tourist and local rates. Assuming that an increase in the military population would mean a regular hotel to be fully booked with all military for days, weeks, or months, can we conclude that this is enough to support the hotel’s survival? Is this beneficial to the hotel? Every hotel on Guam has Japanese-speaking concierges who cater specifically to Japanese visitors.

What will happen to personnel who deal with guest relations and concierges who specialize in dealing with Japanese clients if any of the hotels in Guam are taken by the military? They are paid more for speaking the Japanese language, so will hotels take out the extra payment if their market changes? What effect will this have on employees? Will employees want to continue to work for these hotels, or will they want to find a better opportunity elsewhere?

Our group conducts the research to see what hotels have in preparation for the military buildup and whether the military market would dominate over Guam’s Japanese tourist market or not. We especially look at the social, political, economic, legal, and technological factors to see how hotels will respond to the buildup, to recommend what changes to be made, what improvements will be seen, what jobs will be more focused on, to watch out for what jobs may be lessened out, what room rates will stay or change, and so forth.

Problem statement

Given that the military build-up will result in a changing market, in what way(s) can hotels in Guam ensure their success in the long term?

Effective Segmentation Customer Requirement: Prolonged stay Technology: CondoTel Geographic Scope: Guam Customer Type: Military Family CondoTels (1) (1)

For individuals in the military with dependents, the Naval and Air force bases may not be able to accommodate them all. Only so many families will be able to get housing on base. This means that more houses, apartments, and condominiums will be built off-base on the island. However, hotels may decide to convert a number of rooms into “Condotels” to guarantee that their rooms are occupied and earning revenue. Condotels are pricier than traditional hotels, which the military can afford. The OHA (Off-Base Housing Allowance) in the military is $2,100 for both single and married.

The utility allowance is $755 for married individuals and $500 for singles. This indicates that hotels that provide condo-tel accommodations may make a substantial amount of cash. Because there’s such a significant potential of Guam’s main market moving or increasing to the military, certain reforms will eventually take place to ensure that the hotels on Guam stay in business. Hotels that offer this “Condotel” option allow for increased revenue and a guaranteed room occupied for a few of months/years. The renovation of a room into a condo-tel is contingent on its architectural characteristics. Estimate of the cost on average: $140/sq. ft.

Customer Requirement: Green Hotel Sustainability: Eco-hotel (usage of Solar Power Panels) Geographical Extent: Guam Customer Type: Military Eco-Hotels (2) (2)

Eco-hotels and ecologically friendly hotels are advantageous in ways that they decrease or eliminate the usage of inefficient energy. Since “going green” is a trend worldwide, several hotels have already implemented numerous eco-friendly policies in their organizations, including Guam. However, an eco-hotel is more concerned with its construction than with eco-friendly "practices." There are already many eco-hotels in North America, Central America, South America, Africa, Europe, Asia, Oceania, and Antarctica (Eco Hotels of the World, 2009). Different hotels utilize various eco-friendly technologies. Some use wind power. Some utilize the water's pressure. Most popularly, solar power is in use.

Analysis

General Environment

Guam is the largest island in Micronesia, with a total land area of approximately 550 square kilometers. A few years ago, the island had a population of approximately one hundred and fifty thousand people, but a very high rate of U.S. military personnel has been entering the island. Guam now has approximately 170,000 residents. Guam is scheduled to have an additional 8,000 marines and their dependents to arrive in Guam (McAvoy, 2010). (McAvoy, 2010). Guam's tourism industry has been the region's primary source of revenue. The sandy beaches and the hot sunny atmosphere attract numerous vacationers.

The entry of the U.S. military has brought about numerous commercial changes. There are numerous hotel types in Guam, which affects market dynamics and the manner in which room inventory is sold. The hotels span around six kilometers along Tumon Bay. There are various hotels in Guam. Hotel Nikko, Hotel Okura, The Westin Resort, Guam Reef Hotel, Outrigger Guam Resort, Hyatt Regency Guam, Holiday Resort, Guam Marriott Resort, Pacific Islands Club, Guam Hilton, Royal Orchid, Holiday Plaza, Grand Plaza, and Guam Plaza are some of the hotels in Tumon.

Beachfront hotels outside of the Tumon district include the Palace Hotel, Onward Beach Resort, Santa Fe on the Bay, and Alupang Beach Tower Inn on the Bay.

Other hotels away from the beach include the Imperial Suites, Tamuning Plaza Hotel, and Mai'Ana Airport Hotel.

The island of Guam is legally and politically a territory of the United States of America. There are no legal difficulties with the military build-up on Guam (Global Property Guide, 2010, para.5). Guam's local government is subordinate to the federal government.

This is illustrated by the fact that the federal government can assume responsibility for situations previously handled by the Guam Police Department. The people of Guam may sign a petition regarding the military buildup, but the president of the United States has the final say. The Environmental Protection Agency has also questioned the expansion, noting that the rise in population will significantly impact Guam's water supply, sewage system, and coral reefs (McAvoy, 2010). In relation to the usage of condotels or eco-hotels, there have been no found concerns under the legality of whether hotels should contain condotels or eco-hotels.

Technology dictates how tough it is to get the materials to put up condotels or ecohotels in Guam. Condotels require renovations initially. For hotels to place rooms that will be transformed into “condos,” an additional blueprint or design is required. Many hotels also consider the expense, as it would be costly to remodel and fill the condo rooms (on average, $140/sq. ft.). Hotel clientele normally spend $25,000 each room to remodel into condo-tel rooms. When building begins, it falls to $12,000 to $15,000 (Arcellana, 2010). The cost of lodging varies from hotel to hotel.

Regarding eco-hotels, the use of solar electricity, water, or wind has not yet become widespread on the island. Despite the expensive cost of using solar/water/wind-powered equipment to power the hotel, an increasing number of establishments are embracing the trend of "going green." The Guam Environmental Protection Agency also requires hotels to eliminate or at least reduce their energy waste.

The Hyatt Regency Brunswick has teamed with SunPower and has already implemented a solar energy system that minimizes carbon emissions and lowers energy expenses (Environmental Leader, 2009). To conserve energy, SunPower provides solar panels, roof tiles, and ground products to enterprises across the world (Sunpower Corporation, 2010). Solar panels cost from $72 to $809.74 per unit and $1 to $5 per Watt (Ecobusiness Links, 2010).

Economically, the military expansion will increase employment prospects (Quindara, 2010). Guam predicts an increase in restaurant patronage, recreation, and other activities as a result of the population boom. To accommodate the U.S. Marines and their dependents who will come on the island in full force by 2011, the construction of residences, condominiums, a new hotel in Tumon, and the placement of more American restaurants are already underway. However, the rising cost of electricity and water on the island is a challenge for hotels.

Respect and family are at the center of the island's social and cultural activities. Guam is a melting pot of cultures due to the island's diverse population. With the development, there is also the risk that island residents will become a minority, altering the island's “culture” and “society”.

Industry Conditions

As a result of the recent increase in the island's population, Guam's hotel business faces numerous obstacles (Captain, 2002, para.7). The military influences the market system, where they will likely become the island's primary source of revenue. Many Japanese tourists have stayed at Guam hotels. The presence of U.S. military personnel on the island will exacerbate population-related difficulties. Considering the high costs, the threat from new entrants is modest. Regular condos, apartments, and temporary housing may find it challenging to replicate the quality and efficiency of hotel service in a condominium.

It is projected that only a handful of hotels will be able to integrate condo-tel rooms in less than one and a half years, giving suppliers (condo-tels) strong bargaining power.

Since there are only a few possibilities for long-term lodging, including the Royal Orchid, Pia Marine, and Ohana, the buyer's bargaining power is moderate.

In addition, the threat of alternatives is negligible because no known hotels with condo-tel amenities are located directly on the beach.

Other hotels offering condo-tel amenities and an attractive price range are competitive rivals.

Competitive Conditions

Guam's genuine apartments, condominiums, and empty homes are the primary competitors of hotels with condo-tel amenities. The rent for apartments, condominiums, and temporary local housing ranges between $300 and $2400, utilities excluded. Nonetheless, these facilities must adhere to military specifications and pass safety assessments. Hotels with condo-tel features have a competitive edge due to the fact that their staff can provide speedier customer service and upkeep.

A hotel with condo-tel elements has an additional competitive advantage in that it is within walking distance of a restaurant. Since most of Guam's major hotels have on-site eateries, this is a significant competitive advantage. In addition to service, maintenance efficiency, and restaurant accessibility, hotels in Tumon are situated near the beach. Service and scenery (location) are, in essence, crucial success elements for hotels on the island. This gives hotels (with condotel features) a durable competitive edge over apartments, condominiums, homes, and other hotels that welcome long-term visitors, because condo-tels have service already integrated.

Internal Capabilities

A hotel in Tumon near the beach with condo-tel features with strong internal skills that give it a competitive advantage over its rivals. They can use these talents to address the needs of the military market with products and services. In addition, hotel staff members are highly qualified. These folks have both expert and unskilled labor abilities. Additionally, the personnel' extensive experience aids in providing client pleasure (QuickMBA, 2010, para.2).

Hotel management is also competent and cultivates positive connections with subordinate personnel. This facilitates communication, which is crucial to the success of any firm. The management devises tactics that are employed to boost the industry's revenue.

The industry's profitability enables it to actively compete with other industries (Montgomery, 1996, p.48). The Guam hotels advertise their products and services through the media, newspaper, radio, and magazines. This boosts the hotels' popularity. New members of the military are likely to go for accommodation in these hotels because they are the ones that have been heard of.

Sainsbury’s And The Application Of Marketing Principles Essay Help Cheap

Table of Contents
What exactly is marketing? Sainsbury's in comparison to Tesco Sainsbury's and Product Offerings The SWOT and PESTLE Analysis Recommendations Conclusion Bibliography

Sainsbury's is among the most prominent grocery chains in the United Kingdom. However, this organization was once the best in existence. Tesco has recently surpassed Sainsbury's in popularity. The dominance and efficacy of these two organizations can be comprehended by studying marketing principles. It is also essential to comprehend how these supermarket chains utilize marketing principles to boost their market share. This study focuses on marketing principles and their application, but a substantial portion of it is devoted to a discussion of how Sainsbury’s attempts to raise revenue, notably in relation to the debut of a new health drink product.

What exactly is marketing?

Not only is knowledge of marketing essential, but so is knowledge of its development. In the past, marketing consisted solely of one-way streets, a legacy of the mass-marketing methods of the 20th century. "Marketing is the process of planning and executing the conception, pricing, promotion, and distribution of ideas, goods, and services to generate exchange and satisfy individual and organizational objectives," states one commentator (Hougaard & Bjerre, 2004. p.12). Historically, marketing was conducted purely from the merchant's standpoint. Little effort was put towards determining precisely what the customer required.

In the past, there were very few channels for customers to provide feedback to companies selling products and services. The revenue-driving salespeople were convinced that everything hinged on the presentation and, of course, marketing plans. The prevalent belief was, "The marketing mix of product, price, place, and promotion is what will conquer the consumer and establish market dominance." The only viable answer for the consumer is to buy or not to buy" (Hougaard & Bjerre, 2004, p.12). In a highly competitive world, however, there are other stores offering the same types of products, and it does not matter whether they are located a great distance away from the buyer because the items may be transported even when ordered online. Thus, customers in the twenty-first century have the opportunity to transfer providers and suppliers whenever they so want.

There are numerous reasons why businesses persistently refuse to change their marketing strategy to the changing times. Significantly improving one's business procedures necessitates a substantial financial commitment. As computers became an integral component of conducting business, many were left behind because they lacked the financial resources to make the necessary improvements. Secondly, changing something that they believe is working for them is very difficult. It could be true, but not in the long run. Lastly, it is well-known that deviating from the established path involves risk and quite likely costly errors. It is preferable to adhere to a tested method rather than incur losses.

However, the company's profitability remains the most crucial factor, making change unavoidable. The internal and external perspective of market dynamics is one of the most significant modifications to marketing theory that has occurred in recent years. For instance, the internal environment consists of variables that are closer to the organization and can be managed to some extent (Ennew & Waite, 2003). (2007, p.70). One application of this notion is the development of distinct product lines to serve distinct market segments. Another application is determining the type of distribution system that will be utilized to boost the business's efficiency.

A comprehension of the external environment, on the other hand, enables corporate leaders to comprehend the intricacy of the market, taking demographics and client preferences into account. In order to adapt the old method of providing a single product for everyone, the notion of segmentation was developed. Segmentation is also a method for dividing the market into groups with comparable desires, features, and demands (Weinstein, 2004, p.4). Segmentation is also the deliberate process of comprehending the target market in such a way that the business can meet the present and future demands of its customers.

Despite tremendous changes in the evolution of marketing techniques, it must be emphasized that the marketing fundamentals of product, price, distribution, and promotion remain significant. Adjustments made to all four criteria can result in an effective market mix, which can then be used to develop a matrix that enables the organization to reach a specific target market (Pride, Hughes, & Kapoor, p. 348). It can be claimed that a buyer can be convinced to purchase a product based on criteria other than the quality of the goods for sale.

It is also crucial to know that marketing is not limited to offering the greatest product and designing the most effective ads to attract potential clients. Even before a product is released, producers must have access to credible information that will assist them in creating consumer-satisfying products and services. This involves data management. According to proponents of a more scientific approach to marketing, corporations struggled to make decisions in the past due to a lack of data. But in the current context, an increasing number of organizations are having to overcome "information paralysis" since there is so much available data that it is impossible to decide what is relevant (Nemati & Barko, 2005, p.2). This clearly demonstrates the necessity to understand more about information technology and how it may improve marketing, particularly in terms of product delivery and awareness.

In the case of supermarkets, client loyalty presents an additional obstacle. It is tough to maintain client loyalty when things are readily available in so many locations. For example, no specialization is required in order to provide juice drinks. Even a small enterprise can stockpile supermarket supplies, making it an immediate rival. Relationship marketing techniques must be utilized in order to deal with a market with a fickle mindset. According to proponents of this concept, trust must be established, and customers must regard the firm as trustworthy in order to continue doing business with it.

Sainsbury's as opposed to Tesco

Tesco and Sainsbury's are two of the largest supermarket chains in the United Kingdom. Their success can be traced to their adoption of the marketing principles and methods described above. This requires a sharp emphasis on product, price, distribution, and marketing decisions. These two organizations also demonstrated a sophisticated awareness of product segmentation and the importance of giving customers with a number of options for the things they truly need and desire.

Other than that, both businesses embraced information technology. Instead of depending on traditional methods of manufacturing and transporting their products, both Sainsbury's and Tesco were eager to build online stores so that their consumers could order from the comfort of their homes and never have to spend many hours driving or walking to the supermarket.

It is evident that both organizations are excellent at utilizing information technology not just to market their products, but also to handle client data and other information required to track sales and other key business data. These corporations are thus outstanding instances of 21st-century businesses that have fully embraced the use of technology to achieve a competitive edge. This is a primary reason why Sainsbury's and Tesco are two of the largest grocery businesses in the United Kingdom.

Sainsbury's and Tesco are essentially identical in terms of their long-term viability and profit margins. There are differences, but there are significantly more commonalities. It makes it challenging for each business to keep consumer loyalty. Nonetheless, it is simple for them to endure losses during pricing wars. Because customers can simply switch to another supermarket if the cost of goods in one are higher than in another, the profit margins cannot be as high.

If Tesco chose to engage in a pricing war with Sainsbury’s, it would be problematic because Tesco has a wider reach than Sainsbury’s. Due to Tesco's strong market position, Sainsbury's is at a disadvantage. In other words, Tesco can employ a business model comparable to that of Walmart to further reduce prices. From the perspective of Sainsbury’s, this issue is exacerbated by the fact that customers may make online purchases and, consequently, Tesco products are readily available.

Tesco’s greater selection compared to Sainsbury’s is an additional obstacle to overcome. In addition, Tesco has diversified its product offerings and integrated them with its online grocery store. Consider, for example, that when a customer visits their official website, they are overwhelmed with offers for technological devices, reduced food items, home and garden equipment, as well as used vehicles and homes for sale.

In order for Sainsbury's to remain competitive, it is essential to carefully select the products sold. It must be superior than those found on the shelves of competitors. In addition, the business must be mindful of the prices. In order to connect with customers, Sainsbury’s must also examine the concepts of relationship marketing. As a result, customers will view Sainsbury’s as the superior option.

It is crucial for Sainsbury’s corporate leaders to realize that it is not enough to supply quality items; they must also select the appropriate price and marketing strategy so that consumers who are interested in a certain product are eager to do business with them.

Market segmentation is crucial. The same approach was taken by Tesco in supplying a vast array of products. The customer is informed that Tesco is not only in the business of selling food and electronics, but that the online store is a virtual one-stop shop for time- and money-conscious shoppers. Consider the fact that a customer can enter the Tesco website intending to purchase dog food, but also in need of a used car to present to his daughter as a thank-you gift for receiving a college degree. The link to a used automobile area maximizes the company's profit potential because site visitors are not only interested in purchasing a certain product, but also other goods and services.

The objective of this marketing mix is to enhance revenue by tapping into markets that the company was aware of but was unable to leverage with its previous business model. The same can be stated for those seeking a residence. There are undoubtedly other websites that advertise houses for sale, but very few can compete with Tesco in terms of their reach. Consider the fact that Tesco's website attracts hundreds of thousands of customers compared to other websites. Therefore, the degree of exposure cannot be compared.

The executives of Sainsbury's should examine their market segmentation and increase the variety of products available. It must optimize its website usage. In the case of online shopping, there is a need for greater creativity in terms of product options, price, marketing, and even product delivery to customers' doorsteps.

To strengthen its competitive advantage over rivals, Sainsbury's must reevaluate how it approaches the promotional component of its business. It is no longer prudent to rely just on print and television advertising. This is a consequence of the digital age. Historically, advertising content was given by television, radio, and print adverts. The issue, however, is that efficiency cannot be attained when the segmentation principle and the unique needs of each potential customer are considered. There is no generic product that can be tailored to their particular requirements.

If Sainsbury’s disregards this recommendation, it is probable that the corporation may spend a great deal of money on mass-media marketing tools such as television advertisements without being able to connect with its target demographic.

Sainsbury's and Product Selections

When it comes to Sainsbury's Taste the Difference product line, the use of segmentation is blatantly apparent. A review of this product line reveals that there are hundreds of various food items accessible to satisfy the discriminating tastes of consumers. In addition, a great deal of consideration was paid to the fact that customers have varying preferences about the amount of food that can be offered per meal.

As a result, the family is having a roast dinner. There is also a selection of goods for couples. There are slogans that read: delectable dinners for two. In addition, the corporation was aware that individuals who live alone, such as young professionals living in a condo or apartment, may not have the time to prepare their own meals from scratch. It is possible to save money by purchasing products for one individual. In addition, there are goods available that might serve as delicious weekday snacks.

These items are excellent examples of segmentation. This strategy can be applied to a variety of consumer types. If the company merely built a product line for families, there would be no way to break into the market of young professionals who do not have time to cook, and when they do prefer ready-to-eat meals, the serving size must be sufficient for one person.

The SWOT and PESTLE analyses

Studental is a new product that Sainsbury's is marketing. This is a good application of segmentation marketing because it tries to meet the demand for a health drink aimed at adolescents aged 16 to 19. This product's marketing claims that it is not only a health drink created from natural components, but also a drink that can assist strengthen gums.

Explaining the value of the new product offering.

The Goal Of Surveying The Employees Essay Help Cheap

Table of Contents
Introduction Self-Evaluation Supervisor Evaluation Survey Improvements Application of 360-Degree Surveys to Organizational References

Introduction

The purpose of the employee survey is to assess the employees' job performance. This work requires the fulfillment of numerous conditions necessary for an objective and exhaustive evaluation. The survey design should incorporate multiple perspectives on the performance of the employees. Not only should their productivity at work be evaluated, but also their communication abilities.

To evaluate the organization, a Typeform questionnaire was utilized. Typeform is an internet organization that provides reviews of companies, employees, and management. The survey is the result of a collaborative effort aimed at examining companies, individuals, supervisors, their performance, and communication. Due of Typeform's internet accessibility, any user can conduct the survey at any time.

The Typeform survey was selected over alternative methods for three reasons. First, it is a free tool that offers a sample without requiring registration or limiting the number of uses (Free 360 Degree Feedback Form Template, n.d.). Second, it fits the criteria for selecting evaluation tools by being easily available, highly individualized, and rapid to generate results (Fleenor et al., 2008). Thirdly, the selection of departments as survey respondents is appropriate for the organization. Overall, Typeform is a suitable and free tool for conducting 360-degree surveys.

Self-Evaluation

The Typeform survey employed a comprehensive set of options to evaluate its users. It begins with the type of job being performed by the surveyor. Typeform has registered eight departments: Administration, Finance, Human Resources, Information Technology, Marketing, Production, Research & Development, and Sales. The survey then requests the number of team members and the role the surveyor has. There are nine different levels of hierarchical structure: Intern, Trainee, Assistant, Junior, Senior, Lead, Manager, Director, and Executive.

Self-evaluation involves numerous assertions to which a respondent must indicate his level of agreement or disagreement. Five responses are available, ranging from "strongly disagree" to "strongly agree" The first statement addresses the surveyor's adherence to specified standards and procedures. The second question concerns occupational expertise. The third statement is meeting deadlines and completing tasks. The level of communication is then evaluated, specifically the frequency with which the surveyor requests input. The fifth statement examines originality and receptivity to new concepts. The respondent must then indicate their commitment to the organization. The following statement discusses the constancy of exceeding the team's expectations and one's personal ambitions. The final question asks the respondent to score their overall job performance on a scale from one to five. The poll continues by requesting the respondent to list the strengths and weaknesses of their current position.

The poll was beneficial for self-evaluation and contemplation of one's blind spots. Specifically, I have discovered that I lack enthusiasm for the organization. This realization opened my eyes because it clarified why my leadership had been ineffective. I understood I should pay more attention to the firm's objective and the team's comprehension of it. The second area for improvement involves setting the right example. I have discovered that by missing deadlines myself, I encourage team members to become complacent. For subordinates to be driven, they must see that their leaders are similarly dedicated.

Evaluation of Managers

Typeform includes a distinct section for evaluating a supervisor. However, its content is essentially identical to that of the surveyor's. The most significant change is that the user must now agree or disagree with remarks about the supervisor. In addition, there are a few question variations that manifest on the organizational side. In the instance of a surveyor, their work skill was evaluated; for a supervisor, the focus shifts to their ability to manage their subordinates.

The results indicated that the supervisor is enthusiastic about the organization's performance, yet is chronically late. Their communication abilities were lauded in the survey, indicating that they are willing to share and receive feedback from the team. This is mostly accurate, as the supervisor is genuinely a social individual who is enthusiastic about the company's activities. However, the conclusion that they do not adhere to deadlines is incorrect, as the supervisor consistently meets them, rather than failing to do so.

According to the survey results, the supervisor has room for development in two categories. They should first pay closer attention to the time constraint and organize the teamwork accordingly. Second, the supervisor should discontinue the practice of treating deadlines as easily amendable, as it undermines the organization's efficiency. Improving these areas would assist the supervisor in enhancing discipline and productivity.

Survey Enhancements

Typeform survey has two significant problems, the first being the exclusivity of its efficiency and communication. The authors appear to feel that constant interactions with coworkers are detrimental to work output. This is not a valid dichotomy, as stakeholders in the survey should appreciate the importance of honest communication to colleagues' cooperation (Fleenor et al., 2008). It would be preferable if the survey contained a different question that assessed the contribution of worker communication to overall performance.

The second issue with the poll is the apparent merging of team expectations and individual objectives. In one of the questions, respondents are asked to assess how successfully they achieve their goals and perform to the standards of their coworkers. Combining these distinct characteristics muddies the survey results by conflating individual and group objectives. A more accurate technique would be to evaluate the extent to which individual ambition fits with team expectations using many statements.

Organizational Use of 360-Degree Surveys

The most significant problem with surveying the organization is the surveyor's bias. Whether or not they are aware of it, individuals have particular attitudes toward their coworkers and superiors. Furthermore, evaluating a worker's job performance is a very subjective topic. Personal beliefs will always cloud the surveyor's assessment (Fleenor et al., 2008). Consequently, the poll results' trustworthiness may be significantly damaged.

It is vital to incorporate an unbiased observer in order to reduce the influence of personal prejudice. This individual would not participate in any way in the organization's activities (Cousar et al., 2020). In addition, they must be forbidden from fraternizing with survey participants. After collecting sufficient data, they will undertake the evaluation. As a result, there will be no subjective input in the survey results, making them more credible.

References

Cousar, M., Huang, J., Sebro, R., Levin, D., & Prabhakar, H. (2020). Too frightened to teach? The unforeseen effects of 360-degree feedback on the education of residents. Current Problems in Diagnostic Radiology, 49(4), pages 239-241. Web.

Fleenor, J.W., S. Taylor, and C. Chappelow (2008). Utilizing the effectiveness of 360-degree feedback. Wiley.

Web. Typeform. Free 360 Degree Feedback Form Template.

[supanova question]

JetBlue Company’s Entrepreneurial Transformation Essay Help Cheap

JetBlue began as an entrepreneurial startup airline with a primary focus on nonstop routes. In late 2000, while the company was preparing to make the move from a startup to a significant airline operator, the case study highlights the approaching problem that the company faced. The primary topic posed by the case study is how JetBlue can transition from a small airline to a large corporation while maintaining its core values and business culture. In addition, the case discusses a number of concerns that impact the operating environment of the organization. First, the airline sector has numerous low-cost competitors that have struggled to maintain their businesses. Secondly, is JetBlue's second-mover approach sustainable? Third, if service differentiation is the key to the airline's success, what is the airline's competitive advantage? Fourth, will the organization have a capital shortage similar to other businesses? Fifth, how can the company maintain a small business culture and atmosphere while growing? The case will be investigated to determine the factors that lead to entrepreneurial enterprises' success or failure.

Large transnational firms have typically controlled the airline business in the United States. Southwest Airlines was responsible for introducing the notion of low-cost, low-fare airlines. Southwest's distinctive operational model afforded it a competitive advantage that enabled it to retain low operating costs. In imitation of Southwest Airlines's business strategy, a great number of companies have been founded whose strategies mirror those of the airline. 2002 saw a 12.6% decline in the market value of the US aviation industry, according to a report by Datamonitor (3). The aviation business was then negatively affected by the Gulf War and rising crude oil prices. As a result, cost reduction became a necessity for all businesses, as did a greater emphasis on operations. Therefore, the industry downturn was a problem for JetBlue, as it was a new operator, and the top management was concerned about maintaining expansion in uncertain industry conditions. The strategy adopted by the majority of other airlines was to lower fleet size and staffing levels (Datamonitor 12). The question that emerges is whether or not this was the best expansion strategy for JetBlue. The external environment posed a significant danger to the company's expansion aspirations. Therefore, the primary objective was to establish its key competencies and maintain the growth pace company was experiencing.

JetBlue was founded in 2000 with the goal of providing low-cost operations and superior services. To achieve greater success, the corporation developed a low-cost and low-fare strategy. As the company's CEO, David Neeleman, states in an interview, the company's goal was to deliver "high quality service at low cost" (Ford 139). Although the company's operating strategy for a low-cost airline was similar to that of Southwest Airlines, they distinguished their service offering by providing superior on-board service to consumers. They gave additional amenities like as deluxe leather seats, live television, additional legroom, etc. The company's primary objective was to run its operations at the lowest possible cost, offer the finest customer service, and hire the most qualified business leaders. According to Neeleman,

"It doesn't matter what industry you're in or what you're selling; if you have the best product at the lowest price and the best people running your business, you will succeed." (Ford 139-40)

Therefore, JetBlue's second-mover approach was designed only to a limited degree. Southwest was the most cost-effective airline in terms of boosting operational efficiency, and JetBlue imitated this technique. However, they distinguished themselves from their competitors in terms of the services they provided. Southwest was a no-frills, low-cost, no-extra-fee airline, whereas the latter offered superior on-board passenger service.

JetBlue's success hinges on its ability to differentiate itself from competitors. As indicated by Neeleman, the company's competitive advantage is its employees (Ford 140). The business model of the organization cannot be simply replicated because it is unique due to the company's employees. It is not the added amenities like leather seats or live television that distinguishes this company from others, but rather the service that its employees deliver to consumers. Thus, Neeleman mentions,

"I believe that our in-flight entertainment offering receives much too much credit for our success, while our personnel receive insufficient credit. Our reliance on our employees is important to how we conduct business. Therefore, there will be certain things that competitors can do that will mimic JetBlue, but I believe it will be quite difficult for anyone to entirely replicate us." (Ford 140)

Thus, JetBlue differentiates itself by the service provided by its personnel and the people within the organization. Therefore, it is simple to replicate the tangible components of a service, however the intangible aspects of a company provide its services a competitive advantage.

All entrepreneurial endeavors eventually confront a cash crisis because they fail to determine what needs to be done when the firm expands faster than its capital can support. This is the time when the company must plan to leverage liquidity from other sources, and maybe issue an IPO. JetBlue was expanding at a rate that was significantly quicker than its competitors. Therefore, the company's top management needed to devise a plan for commencing IPOs in order to leverage liquidity and sustain the company's rapid expansion.

The company's competitive advantage depends in its employees and work culture. As is the case with all entrepreneurial endeavors, a difficulty develops when the entrepreneur is forced to choose between money, growth, and power since firm founders believe that only they can lead the business to success (Wasserman 104). However, the viewpoint is not entirely defensible, and credit must also be given to the contributions of other company members.

However, it is essential for businesses to preserve their corporate culture, as it is one of the business's distinctive qualities. This stems from the founder's character, taste, and preferences. JetBlue's success can be attributed to founder David Neeleman's role in establishing the company's culture and working environment. The company's employees have assimilated the organization's culture and have become a part of it. Therefore, retention of the organization's culture and people was crucial, as JetBlue's uniqueness stemmed from its employees. Thus, preserving the company's original work culture was essential, since it held the key to the company's success.

From the analysis of the case and external sources presented above, JetBlue's strategy for continued success is evident. First was to preserve the culture. The organization's culture gave it a competitive advantage. As business shifting is a crucial phase for all entrepreneurial endeavors, and fifty percent of transitions fail, it is imperative that entrepreneurs take the necessary precautions (Hull and White 10). Initiating the company's transition therefore requires the complete cooperation of the CEO and the organization's employees. This is crucial since only these individuals can help preserve the organization's basic values and culture. In addition, because they embody the company's ethos, these individuals are able to preserve the small business's intimacy. The service that the company gives to its clients reinforces the organization's culture.

The impact of the CEO is the second basic value of the firm. As a typical entrepreneur, Neeleman believes that the company need a strong leadership capable of preserving its basic values and culture. The key values of the organization are "safety, caring, fun, honesty, and passion" (Ford 141). These ideals must be carried forward as the company expands into a larger organization.

A corporation that is expanding is continually in motion, with new developments occurring at all times. Especially during a change, the organization will be confronted with a variety of new areas and circumstances. These must be manageable for the business. To initiate a transition, the management plans must be communicated to all personnel of the organization. This would empower the company's employees to anticipate the future and have faith in their leadership.

The primary objective of the firm should be to train workers, especially new hires, to adapt to the company's culture and values. Additionally, it is essential to keep everyone on the same page and ensure they understand what is expected of them. Even after transitioning, the organization must strive to deliver the finest customer service possible, as this will complete their product.

In addition to its low operational costs, the corporation must keep its other initiatives as it moves forward with the change. With the industry in the doldrums due to rising oil prices and rising costs, the business must retain its low operating expenses. Low unit cost of operations will allow the company to offer tariffs in order to attract new clients from rivals who charge higher prices for their services. Utilizing their fleet efficiently was the primary tactic necessary to maintain minimal operational costs. High aircraft utilization and the distribution of fixed costs reduced the company's operating expenses. This would allow the corporation to capitalize on its cheap operating expenses.

The corporation must also maintain a low distribution cost as its second approach. Utilizing ticketless travel and paper tickets helped the corporation to save on paper cist, portage costs, personnel time, and processing charges, hence reducing distribution costs. Thus, direct booking system cut distribution costs. These tactics must be maintained. To maintain a high quality of service, it is necessary to hire and retain qualified personnel. As people are the company's competitive edge, it is essential to select individuals who are compatible with the company's culture and capable of offering superior customer service. Training is necessary to ensure that new employees grasp the organization's culture. Entrepreneurial ventures require the founder to serve as a leader in order to preserve the company's culture and basic beliefs (Wasserman 105). Given these strategies, JetBlue will be able to change and continue to be successful.

Sources Cited

Datamonitor's analysis of U.S. airlines. Industry Analysis. 2003, Datamonitor, New York

"David Neeleman, CEO of JetBlue Airways, on people + strategy = growth." Ford, Robert C. Academy of Management Executive, Volume 18, Issue 2 (2004), pages 139-144.

Sam Hull and Andrea White, "Five Misconceptions That Could Ruin Your Business Transition," August 2009's Practice Management Solutions: 10-12.

Noam Wasserman. "The Founder's Dilemma." 103-111 in Harvard Business Review (2008).

[supanova question]

Company Insolvency And Its Prevalence In The Economic World Essay Help Cheap

Table of Contents
Introduction Importance of Unfair Trade Acts Limitations of the Act Undervalued transactions Conclusion List of Citations Footnotes

Introduction

Insolvency refers to the inability of a business to pay its debts when they become due. Numerous businesses have been insolvent as a result of the present economic downturn. In order to be able to pay creditors on time, compensate employees, and reward shareholders as necessary, a company must generate sufficient earnings. Businesses are under pressure to make solid and well-informed strategic financial decisions as a result of intensifying competition, future uncertainty, and the desire to gain a competitive edge. 1

This has been horrible for the majority of entities, causing many to leave. A few businesses that have managed to survive have been forced to make merciless financial decisions, such as mass layoffs, salary cuts, and the cessation of activities in other divisions or departments. However, there are two primary causes of insolvency: forces outside a company's control, such as changes in government policy, external and internal rivalry, or significant natural disasters (earthquakes, floods, etc.), and managerial mistakes. The second bankruptcy may stem from bad management. This may result from a company's inability to hire competent and skilled management personnel. In this scenario, a number of inefficiencies are likely, including a failure to implement effective internal control measures. When operating systems are inadequate, certain individuals may be able to use the situation to pursue their own egotistical and subjective objectives, resulting in significant financial losses for the firm. It is the obligation of every organization to implement robust, well-functioning internal mechanisms to eliminate the chance of fraud. 1

This will prevent the company from incurring excessive financial losses. Despite the fact that they were aware that the company was heading towards liquidation, the management at this company are extremely determined; they continued to work tirelessly in the aim of moving mountains, which they did. In this case, the management may be held criminally accountable for failing to use their information to alert the company and its shareholders to the possibility of insolvency. They disregarded their professional due diligence and the public practice and ethics laws. The business legislation stipulates that managers are required to give shareholders with appropriate market information regarding the company's performance.

Everyone is aware that the majority of the world's economies are in recession and that insolvency is not a crime; nonetheless, these managers failed to tell the shareholders of this knowledge. In light of this, they are very subject to prosecution not only by shareholders but by all stakeholders. Under these conditions, Paresh and Joe should be obligated to trade with care and prudence, but their attempt to trade recklessly during this protracted period of unpredictability will have catastrophic consequences. As the sole directors of this organization, this will apply to both of them. Therefore, they are regarded as executive directors. 3

Where a liquidator can establish that the directors were aware or ought to have been aware of the impending insolvency and took limited steps to avoid it, the liquidator will be guided by the wrongful trading provisions contained in section 214 of the Insolvency Act 1986, which states that a company may enter insolvent liquidation when its assets are deemed by directors to be insufficient to pay its debts. 4

In this case, Paresh and Joe could have resumed trading only after receiving court approval that they had taken essential precautions to lessen the possibility of insolvency, but they did not. They did nothing that may have improved the situation; instead, they continued trading despite the early indications of the current conditions. Therefore, they are liable for the possible damage made to the company's creditors and must contribute to the company's assets to pay the creditors. 5

In the majority of instances, the court will reach these determinations after conducting subjective and objective tests. There is no reasonable question that Paresh and Joe were aware of the alternative actions they should have taken, given their diverse skills, expertise, and experience, which they should have displayed professionally. As outlined in the articles, they are obligated to meet the standards of performance that can be fairly expected of others holding similar positions. 6

Shareholders typically hire directors based on their qualifications and expertise, as evidenced by their credentials. Remember that under agency principal shareholders are the legitimate owners of the firm, but due to a lack of appropriate managerial knowledge and technical skills, they delegate management of the company to managers. Therefore, directors are expected to handle the company's activities in a way deemed efficient, so that shareholders might have a reasonable expectation of returns. Therefore, directors might be executive, non-executive, and full-time. However, while rendering a verdict, the court will take these factors into account in order to decide the functions assigned to each party. The rule stipulates that non-executive directors must keep shareholders informed of the company's business activities and have, in general, the same obligations and liabilities as executive directors. Paresh and Joe are both executive full-time directors at this corporation and have no reason to complain. The more a director's involvement in a corporation, the more probable it is that courts will allocate standing to him. 6

Paresh and Joe were obligated to determine the veracity of the rumor that the corporation was headed for a possible insolvent liquidation, identify the entity's genuine status, and take any relevant action. If they had truly believed that the company was suffering such a financial crisis, they should have sought competent advice. If they had done so, the courts could have granted them the statutory protection that could have been applicable under the insolvency statutes. Despite having the knowledge, these men decided to trade in the belief that things would improve; instead, the company was subsequently liquidated. Managers are required to connect these dots in order to demonstrate their competence, particularly now, when the economic climate has become so dynamic and turbulent that most firms have been caught off guard, hinting that it may be technically impossible to trade again. 7

Directors should be able to take any steps necessary to guarantee that no loss occurs that could potentially harm creditors. If, for example, a director has repeatedly attempted to provide the information to management without success, he is not required to continue serving and may retire. Parish and Joe exhibited no resigning behavior. Courts could perceive the director's resignation as an attempt to exert influence over creditors and, as a result, may grant the director in question protection. If this could have been taken by any of the directors, then the courts may have provided protection to the director. 8

At this point, the situation is so terrible that court intervention is inevitable. As stipulated in the clause, judges will render their verdict in accordance with the provisions of Insolvency Act 214. The Act stipulates that directors are not obligated to continue business operations, resulting in the company's liquidation. However, financial experts may view the court's decision as too punitive, given that when a corporation becomes insolvent, the first step is not to liquidate the business. 9

Managers of a company may have a number of strategic options, such as selling a business or engaging in short-term trading, while other viable routes are explored. Generally improper trading Acts are quite ruthless and non-discriminatory towards all managers. This is one of the most widely utilized laws in international business. 10

Importance of Unfair Trade Acts

Due to the agency relationship between shareholders and the organization's board of directors, care should be made to avoid any potential conflicts of interest. Shareholders expect directors to generate fair profits to recompense them for their risks, while directors execute their implied and fiduciary obligations diligently each day in the hope of receiving their compensations. The Unfair Trade Practices Act prohibits directors from pursuing personal interests other than overseeing the company's overall performance. It also requires directors to ensure that all stakeholders, including clients, creditors, shareholders, the government, the community, and themselves, are protected by implementing internal controls that can detect and report any unusual event that is likely to plunge the company into an endless series of financial losses. If a corporation has been placed into temporary liquidation and the liquidator has reasonable grounds to suspect that the directors are incompetent, he or she can petition the court to prevent or eliminate the directors' access to the liquidated assets. 11

Exceptions to the Act

Typically, this conduct is accompanied by lengthy and time-consuming judicial proceedings. Several legal matters are still outstanding, and it is unknown whether they will be resolved. This, combined with characteristics such as corruption that have defined the vast majority of our public judiciaries, makes it extremely difficult for everyone to apply and utilize the law. In the case of Paradise Properties Limited, when the directors, Joe and Parish, have resigned and formed a competing firm with the same name, this may be the best solution. 12

There are several instances of illegal dealing, but just a few are addressed in this section. This makes it unpopular with foreign nations. It does not provide an exclusive method for managing comparable circumstances. This suggests that creditors can be negatively affected by their legislators in certain instances.

If, for instance, paradise is already bankrupt, where will it obtain the funds to pay its creditors and yet have enough to pay the court? Court proceedings are often avoided due to their expense. These are some of the accusations the public has always leveled against this Act. 13

Creditors of Paradise Properties Limited now have the option of filing a lawsuit against the directors for fraudulent trading. This is to ensure they are compensated for losses made as a result of the director's unyielding stance on market conditions. They had previous information of a potential insolvency but neglected to seek professional counsel on the matter and continued to do business, so exposing creditors to this poor financial state. Additionally, the directors are liable for any harm made to employees. This suggests that employees can sue the corporation for wrongful termination if the liquidator decides to sell the business. 13

When this occurs, it is anticipated that the organization will pay redundancy expenses. All of these costs will likely be covered by the board of directors or the liquidator. However, Paresh and Joe may decline based on this section of the Act, which states that the court may protect such directors if there is sufficient and corroborating evidence that directors took additional steps to leverage creditors. Paresh and Joe can argue, based on this scenario, that they implemented aggressive marketing and advertising strategies to rectify the condition, but sadly, the situation proved to be formidable against their strategy. 14

Transactions at a discount

This is a transaction entered into by a firm that subsequently enters insolvency, for which the court issues an order requiring it to be voided upon receiving the liquidator's motion for the benefit of creditors. Ordinarily, the courts are not required to examine the sufficiency of the consideration; however, if a company appears to be facing serious financial risks, the courts will provide mechanisms rendering transactions that appear to be adversely affected commercially null and void in order to protect creditors. A transaction is considered undervalued when the consideration received by the company is much less than the value given during a period in which the company was unable to pay its debts. In this instance, Paresh and Joe had already sold the company's assets to themselves at a price below market value. This constitutes a trade being undervalued. This constitutes a breach of their fiduciary obligation under IA section 212.

This makes Paresh and Joe liable for prosecution; however, under section 238 the courts are prohibited from making any order in relation to a transaction at an undervalue if the court is satisfied that the company in question entered into the transaction in good faith and to conduct its business, and that there were reasonable grounds at the time to believe that the transaction would benefit the company. 2006's Sands v. Clitheroes case BPIR 1000. 14

Conclusion

A company's insolvency may be caused by either its management or by external causes over which it has no control. However, the truth is that it is invariably the result of poor management. Creditors who believe they are in a precarious position as a result of the management's conduct are required to sue the directors for unlawful trading if they have good grounds to do so. The court is required by law to ensure that directors compensate creditors and that no additional conflicts of interest arise. However, prior to making such decisions, creditors should weigh time, cost, and the courts' capacity to resolve their cases. Therefore, directors should be allowed to play their cards safely. They have a professional obligation of diligence and competence to guarantee that their responsibilities are not questioned. Therefore, directors should keep themselves apprised of corporate concerns and utilize their best judgment in situations when they fear things may go awry. This is the only method to ensure that the corporation fulfills its goals, including the maximizing of shareholder wealth.

List of Citations

"Wrongful Trading and the Liability of Company Directors: A Theoretical Perspective," by Andrew K. 25 Legal Studies. Directors' Responsibilities to Creditors in Insolvency, by Andrew K. Henderson M. (2007) Wrongful Trading. Andrew K. and Peter W. (2008). Corporate and Personal Insolvency Law Chapters 29, 32, 33, 37-42. Corporate and Personal Insolvency Law, 2nd edition, by Fiona T. Chapters 23 and 31 (of Cavendish) R.M. Goode (2005) published Principles of Corporate Insolvency Law. Third version Insolvency Act (1986) section 214 of the Law and Practice chapter of Sweet & Maxwell (2005) Recent Developments on Personal Liability for Trading Under a Prohibited Name Page 12 Mike G. (2006). "The Phoenix Syndrome." 156 NLJ 7218:530-531. Rebecca P., together with Hamish A. (2002). Transaction Avoidance in Insolvencies. Oxford Publishing Company. Re Ltd. Brian D Pierson (Contractors) (2001) (1998) 1 Ch 170 1 BCLC 275 Re Oasis Merchandise Services Limited Singer V. B. (2001) Re Continental Assurance Co. of London plc BPIR 733, Ch. 2 BCLC 287 A. Smith, "Fraudulent Trading During Company Dissolution: When Section 653 Met Section 213," 20(2) Insolv Int 28 Cork Report, chapter 28 (2007). Swanson J., P. Marshall, H. Lokey, L. Norley, and Kirkland & Ellis International LLP (2008). A Guide for Practitioners to Corporate Restructuring. The very first edition of City & Financial Publishing

Footnotes

Regarding Brian D Pierson (Contractors) Limited (2001) 1 BCLC 275 Singer V. B. (2001) Re Continental Assurance Co. of London plc BPIR 733, Ch. 2 BCLC 287 With respect to Oasis Merchandise Services Limited (1998) 1 Ch 170 Swanson J., P. Marshall, H. Lokey, L. Norley, and Kirkland & Ellis International LLP (2008). A Guide for Practitioners to Corporate Restructuring. The very first edition of City & Financial Publishing Fiona T. (2003) Corporate and Personal Insolvency Law, 2nd edition, Chapters 23 and 31 (Cavendish). Andrew K. (2006) Directors' Obligations Towards Creditors Insolvency Statutes and Procedure (2005) Recent Developments on Personal Liability for Trading Under a Prohibited Name Page 12 Mike G. (2006). "The Phoenix Syndrome." 156 NLJ 7218:530-531. "Wrongful Trading and the Liability of Company Directors: A Theoretical Perspective," by Andrew K. 25 Legal Studies. A. Smith, "Fraudulent Trading During Company Dissolution: When Section 653 Met Section 213," 20(2) Insolv Int 28 Cork Report, chapter 28 (2007). R.M. Goode (2005) published Principles of Corporate Insolvency Law. Third version Sweet and Maxwell chapter eleven Andrew K. and Peter W. (2008). Corporate and Personal Insolvency Law Chapters 29, 32, 33, 37-42. Rebecca P., together with Hamish A. (2002). Transaction Avoidance in Insolvencies. Oxford Publishing Company. 214 of the Insolvency Act (1986) R.M. Goode (2005) published Principles of Corporate Insolvency Law. Third version Sweet & Maxwell chapter 11. Henderson M. (2007) Wrongful Trading. Retrieved on March 28th, 2009

[supanova question]

The Case Of Husk Power Systems Essay Help Cheap

Table of Contents
Introduction Key Concerns Recommendations for Action Conclusion Notes cited

Introduction

The instance of Husk Power Systems (HPS) demonstrates how businesses can initiate new initiatives that address the needs of the underprivileged. This small business began as a provider of inexpensive electricity to rural Indians, allowing it to solve the majority of their problems. This report analyzes the firm's most significant challenges and suggests evidence-based solutions.

Key Concerns

It was not simple to create and build HPS to become a top provider of inexpensive and affordable electricity to more consumers. Within the first few years, the organization and its management encountered numerous barriers with the potential to hinder performance. The greatest obstacle was the lack of financial assistance for a successful project launch, identification of the best source of energy, development of the best business model, and resolution of the pollution problem (Gupta et al. 130). The partners were able to launch the company and provide electricity to more people by utilizing the funds earned from various awards. The successful deployment and transfer of electricity to several villages paved the way for new concerns.

First, the growth and expansion of HPS through the opening of new energy-generating facilities compelled the firm to begin recruiting new employees. The standard station required four employees to guarantee everything ran well.

However, the increasing expenses and costs of electricity production was a reason to cut down the number of employees to three. Within a short time, the company recognized that it was unable to get sufficient human resources to ensure that everything ran well. Since HPS was functioning on a huge scale, the government demanded that it cease operations (Gupta et al. 132). This action was against the current law, which prevented minor energy producers in local regions from obtaining licenses. This became a significant barrier to enhancing performance and satisfying the requirements of more citizens.

When different millers realized that husks were necessary for HPS, their bargaining power became a reality. Therefore, the corporation had to design new strategies for overcoming the obstacle and focusing on the future needs of its most important consumers. Fourthly, communication challenges in rural areas became a reality since employees and technicians lacked the proper infrastructure to use mobile phones (Gupta et al. 130). Eventually, the company's upper management was stunned to discover that some employees were stealing electricity. This necessitated the development of a new strategy to address the issue.

Recommendations for Action

If HPS is to become sustainable and address the requirements of the targeted communities, evidence-based initiatives are required. The first is employing a robust management structure. The partners will need to redefine the roles of each individual and the rest of the staff. They will construct a new department of human resources (HR) to oversee employee matters and adopt superior hiring procedures. The ultimate objective is to ensure that every activity resonates with the intended organizational goals (Gupta et al. 133). The rationale for introducing such a structure is that it will pave the way for an improved culture that is capable of driving performance.

The second course of action is to create positive relationships with its suppliers and to guarantee that their bargaining strength does not undermine the company's success. This objective can be achieved by partnering with millers from across the nation (Gupta et al. 136). The rationale is that identifying additional potential suppliers will make the company's model more sustainable and able to meet the fluctuating needs of all clients. The choice to establish its own rice milling business may be ill-advised because it will strain the existing human resources and ultimately derail the planned goals.

The third course of action should be focused at resolving the current problem of communication between rural workers and company leaders. To launch their activities in the designated rural areas, the major players must form partnerships with certain communications service providers. Given that Wi-Fi and SMS may not be tenable in the long run, such a step will mitigate the difficulties associated with their use.

The rationale for this project is that it will result in a win-win situation for both HPS and the telecommunications firm by delivering the expected benefits (Gupta et al. 137). As a result, HPS will be able to rigorously pursue its aims, expand into more rural areas, and eventually find it simpler to launch other operations in underserved regions across the country and beyond. The model will enable more individuals to realize their potential and concentrate on their economic objectives.

Conclusion

According to the preceding explanation, HPS is a revolutionary business concept that has met the requirements of many people in poor towns and villages. The concept has made it easier for the company to continue providing the public with sustainable and affordable electricity. The proposed action plans would provide answers based on empirical facts for the most significant obstacles to profitability, thereby empowering more citizens. In order to advance HPS to the next level, all leaders and stakeholders should thus support these activities.

Notes cited

"Husk Power Systems: Bringing Light to Rural India and Exploiting Wealth at the Bottom of the Pyramid," by Rakesh Gupta et al. 129-143. Asian Journal of Management Cases, volume 10, number 2 (2013).

[supanova question]

The Difference Between Incident Management And Problem Management Essay Help Cheap

Outline

This article focuses mostly on decision-making about incident management and problem management. The primary objective is to determine if incident management or problem management is superior. This page also provides an explanation and comparison of incident management and problem management. Conclusion: issue management is superior to incident management.

Introduction

The purpose of this article is to demonstrate whether IT service incident management or problem management is superior. Both are essential parts of management, although one is favored above the other. This will be covered in the following article. For "improving service to business throughout the entire life cycle of all workflows," problem management and incident management are crucial. (2009, p.1) ITSM processes and mobility accelerate corporate change.

"Although incident and problem management have different objectives, their processes are closely related." (Locke, 2009, p.1). Before comparing the two and explaining which is superior, this article explains incident management and problem management in order to familiarize the reader with these concepts.

Incident management

"The goal of incident management is to minimize business disruption by restoring service operations to agreed levels as quickly as possible and maximizing the availability of IT services." (Tipton, & Krause, 2008, p.337). By identifying the source of the problem, incident management will also safeguard the integrity and confidentiality of the information.

There are several advantages to the incident management method. One of the perks is incident recording detection. The examination and diagnosis of the problem is another benefit. This allows one to determine the source of the problem. Another advantage of incident management is resolution and recovery, which may be applied to problem recovery. These factors are extremely useful for providing or ensuring the quality of IT services.

As an application, examples of occurrences include service unavailability, bugs, and disk quota exceeding. In the case of hardware, incidents may include a printer that is unable to print, an automatic alert, or a system failure.

Problem management

The primary objective of problem management is to identify and eliminate the problem's root cause. Once the root cause of an issue is identified, it is possible to minimize it within the IT infrastructure and to take preventative measures or actions to remove it in the future. The occurrence of an issue is frequently the result of many instances.

The objective of problem management is to lessen the impact of incidents that occur in the IT service industry or any corporate organization. Their responsibility is to monitor the company's ongoing processes, and if they identify any potential difficulties, they must notify the helpdesk so that proactive actions can be taken to address the issue. Thus, the occurrence of an incident that causes business interruption might be disregarded.

There are several activities engaged in the process of problem management. One is trend analysis, which involves situational analysis. Providing or processing information for the organization is another activity. In other words, after the problem has been detected during analysis, it is their responsibility to provide the information to the helpdesk so that preventative actions can be taken to avoid its recurrence.

Comparative analysis of IT company problem management and incident management

The objective of problem management is to prevent incidents, while the objective of incident management is to restore regular operations to an organization. Consequently, problem management is essential and superior to incident management, as a major loss will occur if an incident occurs in an organization; therefore, it is preferable to take preventative measures against incidents than to renovate after they have occurred. "The primary distinction between Incident Management and Problem Management is that Incident Management focuses on eliminating the symptoms of incidents, while Problem Management seeks to eliminate the root causes of incidents from the IT infrastructure." The distinction between incident management and problem management (ITIL solutions: ITIL-based service management, 2008, paragraph 1)

Today, not just IT businesses but also the majority of commercial organizations rely on computers for daily operations, and the majority of problems are caused by computer system failure. The problem management will discover any issues with the computer system and take immediate corrective action, so ensuring the computer system's smooth operation.

For such problem management services, the IT Service Helpdesk plays a crucial role in resolving any computer system issues. This service will manage operational issues mostly connected to IT, including hardware and software service, problem logging, error detection and correction, and so forth. There are a variety of softwares for supporting the helpdesk, allowing for the rapid examination and elimination of computer issues. The primary objective of problem management is to eradicate the occurrence inside an organization, while the secondary objective is to maintain the stability of the present system by providing suitable and consistent services.

"Client involvement in Incident Management is typically reactive, with the primary goal being to discover workaround solutions to restore regular services to the customer as quickly as possible. In Problem Management, IT support personnel are more proactive, devoting efforts to determining the root causes of events. Typically, there is little to no interaction with consumers, as this is the duty of the service desk." (Service support incident management, 2008, p.113).

Even if they restore regular operations of the organization quickly during incident management, they will not take safety precautions to prevent future events. While making the decision to eliminate the incident, the project management will determine whether problem control is required and how to implement their method, i.e., they will anticipate the problem in order to prevent it. However, incident management will only give the service after the event has occurred and will collect data for additional study. Due to a variety of causes, system downtime can lead to the loss of data and the disruption of the organization's operations, resulting in significant financial loss and customer discontent.

In such a scenario, the organization, particularly the IT company, must implement problem management, which aids in preventing such issues by establishing appropriate protocols for system downtime. As the incident management service is only provided after the problem has happened, i.e. system failure, the data would be lost. In order to avoid risk in an organization, problem management must be implemented. Problem management is concerned with problem control, error control, and proactive problem management, whereas incident management is just concerned with incident management.

Problem management focuses primarily on addressing the causes of incidents. The incidents are events that impede a routine procedure. It identifies the causes of numerous errors and finds a remedy for them. "The purpose of the incident management lifecycle is to restore service as quickly as possible in accordance with Service Level Agreements." (Incident management, n.d., ITIL incident management, para. 3).

Incident management operates at the user level, whereas problem management operates at the enterprise level. Incident management consists of activities taken to restore services in the event of an incident. In many situations incident management takes over occupations like system programmers, event managers, and system engineers etc. The difference between incident management and problem management is that incident management restores services swiftly, but problem management resolves flaws permanently so that occurrences do not reoccur. In incident management, the impact on the business is minimal.

Problem management reduces the negative effects of problems produced by organizational flaws. It also prevents these problems from occurring again. Problem management identifies the causes of errors and then develops a permanent solution, whereas incident management focuses on rapidly restoring service and does not determine a permanent solution. As a result, problem management focuses on identifying the root causes of a problem in order to resolve it permanently, as opposed to restoring service quickly.

In an IT organization, problem management is an important procedure. Within an organization, the problem management process resolves issues with software, hardware, networks, and other components. Problems can range from minor issues, such as the inability to print data, to severe ones, such as the loss of a controller. Problem management includes the resolution of client issues. The management of difficulties is crucial to a company's performance.

Therefore, problem management measures should be highly effective and dependable. If it is dependable and efficient, the organization will be able to notify and resolve problems on time. In problem management, it is necessary to first comprehend the problem before implementing solutions. It demands an accurate and exhaustive record of the happenings. Only then can the incident's causes be determined. In a business, troubles can arise from the clients. The customer gains an understanding of the company by examining the problem's resolution. Thus, problem management impacts the company's reputation.

Help desk resources aid in problem resolution. The IT service support desk offers clients a variety of services. Problem management is the process implemented by these support desks for this goal. Thus, IT service help centers are focused with the process of problem management. The purpose of the problem management process is to reduce the quantity and severity of events and problems affecting the business, and to report this information to the first-line and second-line help desk. Problem management (Wikipedia: information technology infrastructure library, n.d., paragraph 5)

The incidents are identified and averted before they occur. In issue management, a problem is given the highest priority. It is also ensured that the correct personnel are involved in providing the services, and that all the causes of the problem are identified. Problem management contributes to the provision of highly reliable services. Improvements in service quality are advantageous for the IT industry. Problem management is a process that involves learning from the past and can therefore aid in the prevention of future errors. It also repairs incidents permanently and improves the help desk's incident resolution rate.

Conclusion

Problem management is better than incident management. By implementing effective problem management, it is evident that the number of occurrences can be reduced to an extremely low level. If one employs appropriate problem management, he or she does not have to worry about the incident and how to overcome it, which is a significant advantage. Additionally, time consumption will be much reduced, and one will be able to focus more on his work without interruption, thereby increasing the organization's productivity.

Bibliography

Incident management: ITIL incident management (n.d.). Web.

The distinction between incident management and problem management in ITIL-based service management (2008). EMC: IT Service Management Best Practices. Web.

Mobility and ITSM procedures drive corporate transformation. (2009). Softwired. Web.

Locke, R. (2009). A CA service management workflow map for problem management: 1. Web-based CA Transforming IT Management.

Service support incident management: Compare incident vs. problem management (2008). 113, Web. Renmin University of China.

Tipton, H F., & Krause, M. (2008). Volume 2 of the Information Security Management Handbook: Incident Management (6th ed.). 337 CRC Press.

Problem management: information technology infrastructure library on Wikipedia (n.d.). Wapedia. Web.

[supanova question]

Applying The Four Principles: Case Study Essay Help Cheap

Indications of Medical Beneficence and Nonmaleficence

James, who is eight years old, is the patient. Acute glomerulonephritis was brought on by a streptococcus infection. It is both a rare disease and a rare complication (Center for Disease Control and Prevention, 2018). Blood pressure elevation and fluid accumulation were indications for the use of temporary dialysis, which was not performed. Two days after the refusal, the patient's condition deteriorated; he now requires continuous dialysis and a kidney transplant within a year. The sole potential donor is Samuel, James's identical twin brother.

Patient Selections

Autonomy

Due to the patient's young age, Mike and Joanne make judgments regarding his health. Their preferred method of healing is faith and prayer. However, they are depressed because their initial preference-based decision led to difficulties and the need for a kidney transplant. Each parent planned to donate a kidney to their son, but the organs were incompatible. As a result, parents are now more receptive to operations. Several other donors were deemed inappropriate, therefore the patient's twin brother's kidney was the only viable alternative. Mike and Joanne are unsure if it is worthwhile to ask Samuel to donate a kidney or whether they should wait for God's will.

Standard of living

Beneficence, Nonmaleficence, Autonomy

James enjoys an average quality of life due to his regular dialysis treatments; he is stable. Due to pressure, loss of appetite, pain, and swelling of the joints, a patient with this diagnosis is likely to feel a drop in strength, dizziness, or headache. However, within a year he will require a kidney transplant, which will enhance his life expectancy and eliminate the need for dialysis.

Contextual Features

Justice and Equity

The parents of the patient are Christians who trust in God's will, and their pastor is an authoritative figure in their lives. The disease's rarity may influence the sense of its complexity. In addition, parents want their child to have a new kidney. Important to the case is the fact that the patient has a brother twin, Samuel, who is an ideal donor. Considering the deep bonds that are typically formed between twins, Samuel's future and health may be significantly impacted by the loss of his sibling.

How would each of the principles be stated and weighted according to the Christian worldview?

In practice, medical ethics concepts and religious beliefs are frequently faced. Both can complement and contradict one another, therefore it is essential to understand how ethical ideas might be viewed from a religious perspective.

Nonmaleficence and Beneficence. The practical attitude of a physician toward a sick patient, initially centered on care, assistance, and support, is unquestionably the defining characteristic of medical ethics. “Love your neighbor as yourself” (“Mark 12:30-31,” n.d.) “Love your enemies” (“Matthew 5:43-48,” n.d.) are the norms for interpersonal relationships in Christian morality. In professional medical ethics, they serve as both a criterion for selecting a profession and a standard for evaluating the quality of medical art. This means that the doctor is primarily responsible for James's health and recovery, and makes recommendations accordingly. Moreover, the sanctity of life is of primary importance to Christians. If parents and medical officials explain to Samuel what organ donation entails, it will be a kind and life-saving gesture. Autonomy. In the scenario under consideration, the choice is made by the patient's parents. According to the Christian worldview, parents are responsible for the bodily and spiritual well-being of their children. Therefore, they must make a judgment that is as considerate of James and Samuel's interests as feasible. Justice and equity From a Christian perspective, fairness requires that a physician treat all patients equally, regardless of their circumstances (Torry, 2017). In any such scenario, regardless of the family's faith or color, the patient would receive the same care.

How would a Christian, according to the Christian worldview, balance each of the four principles in this situation?

A Christian must examine the situational applicability of ethical principles in order to apply them most effectively. James may perish if no action is taken, making beneficence the most important factor in the situation under study. Medical personnel and the boy's family are required under the sanctity of life to take all conceivable measures to save him. A Christian must also demonstrate neighborly love. Donation and compassion can be one way to demonstrate this and follow Jesus' sacrifice example (“A Christian perspective on organ donation,” n.d.). In addition, the nonmaleficence principle applies here because inaction can inflict James even more pain.

Justice and autonomy are not as crucial in this situation. A Christian must always act with integrity, whether as a physician distributing treatment resources or as a parent making decisions concerning their boys. It may appear dishonest to remove a healthy son's kidney in order to help James. However, it would be unfair to deny him the opportunity to save his sibling and demonstrate his affection. Autonomy can manifest itself through respecting the positions of all parties involved and communicating without dispute. Considering the authority of the pastor, the doctor may recommend that James' parents consult with him. In conclusion, the balance of ethical norms from a Christian perspective moves in favor of beneficence in this instance. The boy's life is sacred, and if there is a chance to save him, everyone must seize the opportunity.

References

A Christian viewpoint towards organ donation (n.d.). Web.

CDC stands for the Center for Disease Control and Prevention (2018). Post-streptococcal Glomerulonephritis: Comprehensive Information Web.

Mark 12:30-31. (n.d.). Web.

Matthew 5.43 to 48 (n.d.). Web.

Theresa M. (2017). Religion and ethics in primary care. London primary care journal, 9(4), 49–53. Web.

[supanova question]

Islamic Banking: History And Economic Crises Essay Help Cheap

Introduction

Islamic banking, according to Lewis and Algaoud, is a financial system based on Sharia and associated ideas (23). Profits and losses are divided among the numerous stakeholders in this banking arrangement. The accumulation of interest is prohibited. The system appears to follow the idea of "no risk, no reward." Islamic banking is distinct from other types of financial transactions since it is governed by Sharia law. In the promotion of a model based on the Islamic faith, morals are adhered to. Practices that violate Sharia law are prohibited. Among them are investments in the alcohol and pork industries.

The author will present an overview of Islamic banking in this paper. The author will, among other things, assess the strengths and limitations of this system. The operation of the model will also be examined. The study will also investigate how the banking sector weathered the recent global economic crisis.

Islamic Banking: An Introduction

Islamic financial organizations adhere to religious tenets. Therefore, every financial institution must have a Sharia board (Rammal and Zurbruegg 4). Members receive training in Sharia law in order to better advise the bank. Islamic banking, in contrast to conventional institutions that lend money based on financial criteria, emphasizes investment and the "soundness" of a given enterprise. This method is also known as interest-free banking. It provides as an alternative to financial transactions based on interest. This system has become established in both Islamic and non-Islamic nations. It has expanded dramatically during the years. Some nations have even abandoned conventional banking to adopt this system.

The banking model can be traced back to the time of the Prophet Muhammad, whose wife engaged in trading. Egypt is considered the origin of the system before its diffusion to other nations. In this North African country were established the first local savings accounts (Rukhsar, Kamran, and Immamuddin 43).

Fundamentals of Islamic Banking

To achieve success in any project, a set of rules and principles must direct the actions of all involved parties. To this goal, every Islamic institution establishes an advisory council (Sharia Board). The council is open to anybody with training in Sharia law, including attorneys and religious experts.

The restriction of transactions that generate interest is the first and most essential principle of this type of banking. Muslims think that charging or receiving any type of interest is unethical. This notion is also known as Riba or Usury (Rukhsar et al. 42). When investors place a greater emphasis on the returns associated with their investments than on the welfare of their clients, they earn a substantial profit. Muslims, however, consider this technique as having a bad effect due to the investors' pursuit of self-interest. The abolition of the aforementioned riba is one of the reasons for establishing an Islamic financial system. In light of this, the borrower pays the bank simply what is owed. However, they may make additional payments as a gesture of appreciation.

Observance of ethical standards is another principle. Sharia law is utilized to decide whether or not a particular economic transaction is permissible. An further element that defines Islamic banking is liability and risk. In this scenario, it is expected that if one desires profits, they must also be willing to share risks. The majority of individuals are unwilling to participate. They are overcome by dread of losing what they already have (Banaji 53).

The final principle is concerned with moral and social ideals. The Quran encourages individuals to assist those in need. Therefore, financial institutions should strive to provide particular services to the underprivileged through charitable activities. Exemplary is the Quard Hasan. It is a sort of short-term funding given to persons in need, often for one year. The lender does not expect any return on such funds. Quard Hasan is available to anyone who want to study or pay for medical expenses. Money does not generate profits, in conclusion. It should only be used for economic development (Lewis and Algaoud 17).

Origins of Islamic Banking

In the early days of the Prophet Muhammad, banking activity were present. However, these activities were not developed sufficiently. After the establishment of conventional banks throughout Europe, interest-free banking ceased to exist. Mit Ghamr Local Savings Bank of Egypt's establishment altered the circumstances (Rukhsar et al. 63). The institution represented a fresh start for Islamic banking. It was founded in 1963. (Rukhsar et al. 63). There were two sorts of accounts available. One of them was a savings account that did not accrue interest. The second account was an investment account with profit sharing.

In nations such as Sudan, the expansion of the banking sector was linked to two 'periods.

The government's complete support was the first one. As a result of the government's withdrawal of support, the system subsequently faced a number of problems. In 1984, the government decided to convert all banking systems into Islamic institutions. As a result, there are no typical banks in Sudan today.

Dubai Islamic Bank was the first Islamic financial institution in history, according to Lewis and Algaoud (28). The establishment was founded in 1975. (Lewis and Algaoud 28). It expanded swiftly in both quantity and number. Today, more than sixty nations operate Islamic banks. The majority of them are based in Middle Eastern and Asian nations. There are no conventional banks in certain nations, such as Sudan and Pakistan, because they were all turned into Sharia institutions.

The founding of Islamic banks is primarily motivated by the promotion and development of religiously inspired financial services and products. The institutions serve as investment partners for anyone in need of capital to engage in Sharia-compliant enterprise. Following investment, the bank becomes a "part-owner" of the business. Consequently, clients live in fear of repossession, as they are in debt (Kayadibi 435). In spite of this, Islamic banking continues to be the only financial system that uses its funds to serve humankind. The institutions foster moral values because they adhere to Sharia law. They seek to improve the welfare of society's members.

Fundamental Techniques of Islamic Banking

The initial strategy is Musharaka (Banaji 65). Additionally known as equity participation. The basic principle is the division of earnings and losses (Banaji 72). The bank and the customer enter into a partnership. Both parties are entitled to business management responsibilities. It is observed that the shares owned by the parties impact the allocation of profits and losses.

Another strategy is Mudaraba (Banaji 53). Additionally, it is considered trustee financing. In Mudaraba, unlike Musharaka, the bank or investor gives all the necessary finances for a given project. After the completion of the project, the investor receives a portion of the revenues generated. There can be multiple lenders that share the profits and losses.

Murabaha or markup is another Islamic financial term. The parties involved meet and reach an agreement on the price of products and services. They eventually determine the profit margins. The agreed-upon amount is paid in installments. The transaction may involve a third party. A client may approach a bank in order to "buy" financing from the seller at a predetermined price. The client then pays interest to the bank. This practice is therefore discouraged. According to Sharia, both partners are required to share in the risk-taking. In this instance, though, the bank receives profits without incurring any financial risk (Kayadibi 434).

Ijara or lease comes last. In conventional banking systems, individuals lease property for a profit. However, this is not the case in Sharia banking. Islamic institutions can reach an agreement with a client to purchase an asset from the seller (Banaji 65). The client pays the bank in installments over a certain time period. The entire operation is predicated on profit sharing.

Islamic Banking in Malaysia

This country's system has a long history. September 1963, according to Rukhsar et al., marked the beginning of the banking model (72). In 1983, however, the first formal bank was founded. Islamic banks operate similarly to conventional financial institutions. The main distinction between them is that the former adheres to Sharia law. Malaysia was the first nation to implement two separate banking systems. Banking without interest has grown in this Asian economy. The process serves as a model for the development of international banks, such as Malaysia's Asian Finance Bank.

Islamic Capital Market is an additional component of this banking system in Malaysia (ICM). This market's growth led to the issue of Sukuk or Islamic bonds. The Kuala Lumpur Regional Centre for Arbitration was formed to address Islamic banking and finance-related issues (Kayadibi 433). In addition, educational institutes have been established to provide professionals certified to perform Islamic banking. Statistics from the Malaysian Central Bank suggest that during 2004 and 2005, the number of these banks climbed from 126 to 766. (Kayadibi 431).

Malaysia established Islamic banking as an alternative to conventional financial systems. However, mechanisms were implemented to distinguish it from traditional banks. The Islamic Banking Scheme (IBS) was created to assist businesses in offering Sharia-compliant financial solutions (Kayadibi 435). Malaysians of both Muslim and non-Muslim faiths have expressed interest in this financial system. It is acknowledged that the principles and values of the Sharia are applicable to all facets of human life. Lenders are not only investors seeking to increase their fortune, but also the borrower's friends and business partners.

The government of Malaysia is determined to establish a comprehensive Islamic financial system. Nevertheless, the system has experienced several obstacles. A small number of banks have embraced riba, which generates interest. These institutions are attacked for being unable or unwilling to comply to Sharia. As previously stated in this study, Mudarabah pushes for risk sharing. However, the majority of banks are risk-averse and profit-driven (Rukhsar et al. 48). Some non-Muslims who participate in Islamic banking disregard Sharia law. As a result, some individuals criticize Islamic banking as a means for the wealthy to amass wealth at the cost of the poor (Rammal and Zurbruegg 5).

Malaysian Islamic banking is regarded as one of the most progressive in the Muslim world (Rammal and Zurbruegg 3). To maintain this trend, however, the government should make measures to solve the issues listed above. Failure to address these obstacles could result in a situation in which the distinctions between Islamic and regular banking systems are eroded. Banking misconduct may have a negative effect on the Sharia's underpinnings. The development may alter the people's faith and belief systems. The goals of Islamic finance are distinctive and must be honored.

Islamic Banking in Pakistan

In order to meet their economic and religious requirements, Pakistanis opted to adopt a non-interest banking model. The system began operation in 1970. In 1980, though, it became more practicable. Initial efforts to promote Islamic banking were ineffective. In order to adapt the new paradigm, the state was necessary to eradicate riba. Despite this, the introduced financial system failed to fully incorporate Sharia principles, resulting in its demise. In 2001, when the government intended to promote Islamic banking, it was relaunched (Lewis and Algaoud 54). As a result of this determination, the government permitted Islamic banks to operate in the country. Additionally, conventional banks were permitted to establish independent branches selling Islamic financial products.

There are differences between Malaysian and Pakistani Islamic banking. In the former, institutions collaborate with other financial institutions. Pakistan presents a distinct scenario. All banks in this country operate according to Islamic financial law (Lewis and Algaoud 32). However, financial basics remain the same in both nations. During its embryonic phases, the banking sector in Pakistan faced similar obstacles to that in Malaysia. As an illustration, the number of these institutions was less than that of other banks.

Many individuals feel that non-interest-based banks can expand quicker than interest-based institutions. However, the dearth of certified and skilled workers hinders its expansion (Rukhsar et al. 62). People take advantage of the fact that penalties are considered a kind of interest and take a long time to pay off their obligations (Rukhsar et al. 53). To overcome this issue, late-payment penalties should not be structured to benefit the investor. Instead, they should be geared on enhancing the economy.

Effects of the Global Financial Crisis on Islamic Banking

Several causes precipitated the recent global financial crisis. They involve excessive and unrestrained bank lending over an extended period of time. The mortgage is an excellent illustration of this type of lending (Rammal and Zurbruegg 44). The crisis had a greater impact on conventional banks than on Islamic organizations. The latter demonstrated some resiliency during the trying times. Scholars feel that a lack of discipline among interest-based banks was also a significant cause of the financial catastrophe. As previously stated in this study, Sharia promotes the distribution of earnings, losses, and risks. Other banks do not observe this principle. Islam considers violation of this requirement a kind of pecuniary and moral injustice (Rammal and Zurbruegg 66).

Compared to conventional financial institutions, Islamic banks were negatively affected by the global financial crisis in terms of losses. It is a truth that interest-based banks were impacted by the economic collapse, although they did not sustain as severe losses as Islamic institutions. Despite this, Islamic banks are believed to have contributed to economic stability during the crisis. A substantial portion of their portfolio was held by consumers who were less impacted by the economic crisis (Rukhsar et al. 54). The crisis enabled Islamic banks to recognize and concentrate on system-specific difficulties.

Islamic Banking and Future Prospects

In Islam, all forms of profit-making are forbidden. This premise underpins the future of Islamic banks. Therefore, this type of financial transaction is considered interest-free banking. The system began tiny but has developed substantially over time. This approach has been established in non-Muslim nations as a result of the expansion. Non-Muslim participants are involved in these transactions (Kayadibi 438).

Malaysia is projected to remain one of the leading nations in Islamic finance in the future. Other nations, such as Sudan, have no conventional banks since they have all been converted into Islamic organizations. The primary objective of Islamic banking is to increase Sharia compliance in all facets of economic transactions. The banking system has resulted in the establishment of numerous organizations, including as schools, that provide training on Sharia law (Lewis and Algaoud 34). Future visibility of groups founded to address Islamic banking-related issues is projected to expand.

Every Islamic financial organization must comply to certain rules. A panel of Sharia-trained professionals is appointed to advise and direct the activities of these businesses (Rukhsar et al. 72). Islamic banking remained durable during the recent economic crisis because it functions differently than other financial organizations around the world. The crisis also assisted banks in identifying numerous systemic flaws. The ability to survive such crises is indicative of Islamic banking's promising future.

Conclusion

In conclusion, it is essential to underline Islamic banking's advantages and downsides. Profits and losses are shared equally by both parties, as interest-bearing transactions are prohibited. Due to the observance of the Sharia's rigorous laws, morality is upheld. According to the Quran, it is the responsibility of all Muslims to assist the needy. Therefore, Islamic financial institutions provide assistance to individuals in need. Therefore, banks are not solely motivated by profits (Lewis and Algaoud 22).

Similar to other business models, Islamic banking has a variety of flaws. When banks lend money, for instance, they serve as investing partners. As a result, the consumer owes the institution money and lives in fear of losing the assets the bank helped them obtain (Rammal and Zurbruegg 95). In addition, there are institutions that do not adhere to Sharia law. As a result, the institutions may be considered profitable businesses. In addition to fostering distrust, these activities undermine the Islamic religion and the principles of the Quran.

The repayment of debts is an additional big issue. This paper demonstrates that Islamic banking discourages profit-making. Given that they are not penalized for late payments, many individuals take advantage of this rule. To remedy this issue, Sharia banking institutions should devise rules for punishing such individuals.

Sources Cited

Islam, the Mediterranean, and the Rise of Capitalism, by Jairus Banaji Historical Materialism, 15, 1 (2007), pp. 47-74. Print.

The Growth of Islamic Banking and Finance in Malaysia, by Saim Kayadibi Print Islamic Finance 1.1 (2011): 429-440.

Mervyn Lewis and Latifa Algaoud. Islamic Banking, Edward Elgar Publishing, Cheltenham, 2001. Print.

Rammal, Hussain and Ralf Zurbruegg. "Muslims' Awareness of Islamic Banking Products: The Case of Australia" Journal of Financial Services Marketing, volume 12, number 1 (2007), pages 65-74. Print.

Rukhsar, Ahmed, Siddiqui Kamran and Mufti Immamuddin. Islamic Banking in Pakistan: Difficulties and Prospects. Asian Journal of Research in Banking & Finance, Volume 3, Issue 7 (2013), pp. 42-72. Print.

[supanova question]

Lee Greenwood And John Newton, Composers Essay Help Cheap

Lee Greenwood and John Newton are two composers that have written great works of art. Lee Greenwood is famous for the song “God Bless the USA” while John Newton wrote “Amazing Grace”. When choosing a composer to research I picked these two men because of what they songs they composed mean to me and make me feel. I have grown up with knowing the song “Amazing Grace” but did not know anything about the man who composed it or why he was compelled to write this hymn. The same for “God Bless the USA”, Lee Greenwood will always be remembered for this song but I always wanted to know why he wrote it.

Lee Greenwood is a California native born in October 27, 1947.Lee Greenwood has always had music in his life. He was in the band in high school that played pop, jazz, rhythm and Blues but eventually made his way to Nashville playing country music. Lee plays the drums, piano, saxophone, trumpet, banjo, timpani and vocals. Lee did not attend college for technical musical training, he played many different places including Nevada eventually moving his way to Nashville. Lee writes mostly country at this time but has in the past used his pop, jazz and rhythm and blues background to write songs. Many songs have been written by Lee Greenwood including: ” I.O.U.”, ” Somebody’s Gonna Love You” and ” Dixie Road”. Lee comes from a farming family and still helps out on the farm but his main source of income is music. The married the love of his life Kim and they had two boys Dalton and Parker. He is a “conservative Christian”. Lee has some significant honors in country music including Male Vocalist in 1983 & 1984 from the Country Music Association, Grammy for top Male Performance of “I.O.U.”. and in 2001 one about 18 years after he wrote “God Bless the USA” the song went number one on the pop charts (http://www.leegreenwood.com/biography).

John Newton was born in London England on July 24, 1725. John composed hymns later in life while he was ships in his younger years. John self taught himself after he left boarding school. John was also a preacher in the evangelical church. He married Mary, a women he had loved since he was a young man. While they did not have children of their own they raised their nieces. John wrote ” Glorious Things of Thee are Spoken”, ” Sinner Art thou still secure?” and ” Saved by Blood I Live to Tell” just to name a few. John was a strong advocate to abolish slavery in his later years while he did run a slave ship when he was younger.

Lee Greenwood and John Newton have several similarities. Both men have a sing relationship with their faith in God. John became an evangelical preacher and Lee is a Baptist. Lee and John have ties to the military. Lee Greenwood’s father was in the merchant Marines and Navy, this could be one of the reasons he felts so compelled to write “God Bless the USA”. Johns was in the British Navy as a young man. Throughout his stay in the Navy John has seen many different circumstances. Both men married women that were and are the loves of their lives, Lee married Kim and John married Mary.

With as many similarities that the two man had with each other they also has many differences. John was in the era of slavery. He was one of the front runners supporting to abolish slavery. Lee Greenwood was not around during this time. John Newton was a writer of hundreds of hymns while Lee Greenwood stuck with country and pop songs. John Newton’s mother died and his father remarried while Lee’s parents were divorced. Lee Greenwood also has a sister while John was an only child.

[supanova_question]

The limitations of the Chit Acts narrative essay help

1.1 BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY

The financial system assumes strategically a very important role in channelling the funds from surplus units to deficit units. The financial system here refers to the group of institutions, markets and instruments which helps in formation of capital and thus accelerates to the pace of economic development.

The base of this study stems from the fact that there exists a gap between gross capital formation and gross domestic savings in India. So, there exists the need to augment the growth rate of voluntary domestic savings. This goal can be realized by widening and strengthening the working of different financial intermediaries which will result in mobilizing savings from various income level categories. .It is in this context that the role of the Non-Banking Financial Intermediaries like Chit Finance should be appreciated in supplementing the functions of the Banking Institutions.

Chit funds are Chit funds are the Indian equivalent of the Rotating Savings and Credit Associations (ROSCA). ROSCAs are famous in many parts of the world and is seen as an instrument to ‘save and borrow’ simultaneously. ROSCAs basically started as a way to help in fulfilling the needs of the low-income households as it enables the people to convert their small savings into lump sums. The concept of chit funds originated more than 1000 years ago. Initially it was in the form of an informal association of traders and households within communities, wherein the members contributed some money in return for an accumulated sum at the end of the tenure. Participation in Chit funds was mainly for the purpose of purchasing some property or, in other words, for ‘consumption’ purposes. However, in recent times, there have been tremendous alterations in the constitution and functioning of Chit funds. A significant difference between Chit Funds and ROSCAs are that in most places ROSCAs are user-owned and organized informally, but chit funds have been formally institutionalized in India. (Chit Funds-An innovative access to finance for low income households, 2009)

1.1.1 WHAT DO WE MEAN BY CHIT FUNDS?

Chit fund is a savings-cum-borrowing instrument. The basic aim of this instrument is to pool small amount of savings by all the members which is then managed by a foreman. The foreman has the responsibility to act as a trustee-cum-supervisors for the process of collection and allotment of the pooled amount.

Chit funds represent a traditional form of saving-cum-credit institution evolved before the bank system was introduced in rural India. There are many who avail themselves of this avenue for saving for a reasonable return.

1.1 NEED AND RATIONALE OF THE STUDY

Despite the growth of a wide range of savings avenues and the widespread network of banks and other financial institutions, it has been found that Chit scheme still forms an important part in the asset portfolio of many households and firms in India and especially in South India including Karnataka. Also, the review of literature shows that there are only a few studies on Chit Finance. Therefore, the need to conduct the study stems from the requirement to understand Chit Funds in Bangalore.

1.2 NEED TO CONDUCT THE STUDY

The research titled ‘A Study on Chit Funds in Bangalore to understand the behaviour and financial needs of the chit fund members as well as to identify the important predictors of regular participation in chit funds’ The study estimates the net returns and interest rate on Chit funds. This study tries to point out the limitations of the Chit Acts and suggests feasible recommendations for improving the working of such institutions.

.3.2 STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM

‘A Study on Chit Funds in Bangalore to understand the behaviour and financial needs of the chit fund members as well as to identify the important predictors of regular participation in chit funds’.

VARIABLES UNDER INVESTIGATION

1. Age

2. Occupation

3. Monthly income

4. Gender

5. Bank loan

6. Regular participation in chit fund

7. Membership in multiple chit schemes

8. Cause for participating in multiple schemes

9. Preferred avenue of saving

10. Preferred source of finance

11. Safety

12. Better service

13. Flexibility

14. Timely Payment

15. Low commission

16. Personal contact

17. Unregistered chit funds membership

18. Cause for participating in unregistered chit funds

19. Cause for not participating in unregistered chit fund

3.5 OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDY

3.5.1 OBJECTIVE(PRIMARY)

1. To understand the behaviour and financial needs of the chit fund members.

2. To identify the important predictors behind chit fund participation

3.5.2 OHER OBJECTIVES OF RESEARCH

1. To estimate interest rates in registered chit funds.

2. To compare the relative ratings of Chit subscribers towards registered and unregistered chit funds on

3. To estimate the return on Chit Funds.

3.6 HYPOTHESIS

There are two types of statistical hypotheses.

1. Null hypothesis

2. Alternative hypothesis.

Hypothesis 1:

H0: There is no significant relation between gender and cause for participation in chit fund.

H1: There is significant relation between gender and cause for participation in chit fund.

Hypothesis 2:

H0: There is no significant relation between occupation and cause for participation in chit fund.

H1: There is significant relation between occupation and cause for participation in chit fund.

Hypothesis 3:

H0: There is no significant relation between age and causes for participation in chit fund

H1: There is significant relation between age and cause for participation in chit fund

Hypothesis 4:

H0: There is no significant relation between monthly income and cause for participation in chit fund

H1: There is significant relation between monthly income and cause for participation in chit fund

Hypothesis 5:

H0: There is no significant relation between gender and causes for bidding in chit fund

H1: There is significant relation between gender and cause for bidding in chit fund

Hypothesis 6:

H0: There is no significant relation between occupation and cause for bidding in chit fund

H1: There is significant relation between occupation and cause for bidding in chit fund

Hypothesis 7:

H0: There is no significant relation between age and cause for bidding in chit fund

H1: There is significant relation between age and cause for bidding in chit fund

Hypothesis 8:

H0: There is no significant relation between monthly income and cause for bidding in chit fund

H1: There is significant relation between monthly income and cause for bidding in chit fund

Hypothesis 9:

H0: There is no significant relation between gender and cause for saving in chit fund

H1: There is significant relation between gender and cause for saving in chit fund

Hypothesis 10:

H0: There is no significant relation between occupation and cause for saving in chit fund.

H1: There is significant relation between occupation and cause for saving in chit fund.

Hypothesis 11:

H0: There is no significant relation between age and cause for saving in chit fund

H1: There is significant relation between age and cause for saving in chit fund

Hypothesis 12:

H0: There is no significant relation between having bank loan and membership in multiple chit schemes.

H1: There is significant relation between having bank loan and membership in multiple chit schemes.

Hypothesis 13:

H0: There is no significant relation between monthly income and participation in unregistered chit funds

H1: There is significant relation between monthly income and participation in unregistered chit funds

Hypothesis 14 :

H0: There is no significant relation between causes to prefer chit fund over bank and having bank loan.

H1: There is significant relation between causes to prefer chit fund over bank and having bank loan.

Hypothesis 15:

H0: Presence of safety, flexibility, timely payment, low commission, better service, personal contact, having a bank loan are no significant predictors of regular participation in chit fund.

H1: Presence of safety, flexibility, timely payment, low commission, better service, personal contact ,having a bank loan,are significant predictors of regular participation in chit fund.

.

3.8 SAMPLING METHOD

Members of four registered chit fund companies in Bangalore. The four registered chit fund companies were selected due to the large size of their subscriber base.

3.8.3 SIZE OF SAMPLE

150 respondents

3.9 MECHANISM OF STUDY

3.9.1 PRIMARY RESEARCH

Questions relating to behaviour and financial pattern will be found out through questionnares

3.9.2 SECONDARY RESEARCH

‘ Reports on chit fund industry

OVERVIEW OF INDIAN CHIT FUND INDUSTRY

4.1.1 NUMBER OF REGISTERED CHIT FUND COMPANIES:

According to the Ministry of Corporate Affairs, as on 31st December, 2013:

Volume of registered chit companies: 5412

Volume of chit companies in Karnataka: 703

Number of chit fund companies in Bangalore: 315

UNREGISTERED CHIT FUND INDUSTRY

Although unregistered chits are an informal source of finance but still they are a significant part of the chit fund industry. Though they are more easily accessible as compared to registered chit funds.

4.3 PURPOSE OF THE STUDY

The study titled ‘A Study on Chit Funds in Bangalore to understand the behaviour and financial needs of the chit fund members as well as to identify the important predictors of regular participation in chit funds’ attempt in The study estimates the net returns and interest rate on Chit funds. This study also examines the limitations of the Chit Acts and suggests suitable recommendations for improving the functioning of such institutions.

4.4 LIMITATION OF STUDY

‘ Unwillingness of the members to share their income and financial details made the task of data collection somewhat difficult.

‘ Collecting data became difficult since I don’t know the regional languages.

5.2 ANALYSIS OF DATA

The analysis is done on the primary data collected from 150 chit funds members in Bangalore

TESTING OF HYPOTHESES

5.4.1 Hypothesis 1:

H0: There is no significant relation between gender and cause for participation in chit fund.

H1: There is significant relation between gender and cause for participation in chit fund.

Chi-Square Tests

Value df Asymp. Sig. (2-sided)

Pearson Chi-Square 31.070a 16 .013

Likelihood Ratio 35.945 16 .003

Linear-by-Linear Association 8.809 1 .003

N of Valid Cases 150

a. 1 cells (10.0%) have expected count less than 5. The minimum expected count is .30.

Symmetric Measures

Value Approx. Sig.

Nominal by Nominal Phi .455 .013

Cramer’s V .228 .013

N of Valid Cases 150

a. Not assuming the null hypothesis.

b. Using the asymptotic standard error assuming the null hypothesis.

INTERPRETATION:

The value of chi-square=31.070 was p=.013, less than 0.05.

We can see that the strength of association between the variables is moderate (Phi and Cramer’s V -0.455).

Therefore, the research hypothesis that differences in ’cause to participate in chit funds’ are related to differences in ‘age” is supported by this analysis. This means that different age groups of the chit fund members have different reasons of participating in chit funds. As can be seen from the table above that those who belong to ’36-45 years’ have saving as the predominant reason to participate whereas members of other age groups do not have any dominant reason to participate.

5.4.2 Hypothesis 2:

Hypothesis 2:

H0: There is no significant relation between occupation and cause for participation in chit fund.

H1: There is significant relation between occupation and cause for participation in chit fund.

Hypothesis 3:

. Hypothesis 3:

H0: There is no significant relation between age and causes for participation in chit fund

H1: There is significant relation between age and cause for participation in chit fund

Chi-Square Tests

Value df Asymp. Sig. (2-sided)

Pearson Chi-Square 10.018a 4 .040

Likelihood Ratio 10.478 4 .033

Linear-by-Linear Association 6.876 1 .009

N of Valid Cases 150

Symmetric Measures

Value Approx. Sig.

Nominal by Nominal Phi .258 .040

Cramer’s V .258 .040

N of Valid Cases 150

a. Not assuming the null hypothesis.

a. Using the asymptotic standard error assuming the null hypothesis.

INTERPRETATION:

The value of chi-square=10.018 was p=.040, less than 0.05.

.We can see that the strength of association between the variables is weak (0.258)

Therefore, the research hypothesis that differences in ’cause to participate in chit funds’ are related to differences in ‘gender” is supported by this analysis. This means that males and females have different reasons of participating in chit funds. As it can be seen that males participate in chit funds for business and personal consumption purposes apart from saving whereas women predominantly participate to save.

5.4

Hypothesis 4:

H0: There is no significant relation between monthly income and cause for participation in chit fund

H1: There is significant relation between monthly income and cause for participation in chit fund

Chi-Square Tests

Value df Asymp. Sig. (2-sided)

Pearson Chi-Square 82.176a 12 .000

Likelihood Ratio 97.665 12 .000

Linear-by-Linear Association 15.696 1 .000

N of Valid Cases 150

Symmetric Measures

Value Approx. Sig.

Nominal by Nominal Phi .740 .000

Cramer’s V .427 .000

N of Valid Cases 150

INTERPRETATION:

We can see that the strength of association between the variables is strong (0.740)

Therefore, the research hypothesis that differences in ‘reason to participate in chit funds’ are related to differences in ‘occupation” is supported by this analysis. It can be seen that the self-employed members mainly participate to avail for business reasons whereas salaried employee participate mainly for personal consumption purposes.

Hypothesis 5:

Hypothesis 5:

H0: There is no significant relation between gender and causes for bidding in chit fund

H1: There is significant relation between gender and cause for bidding in chit fund

Chi-Square Tests

Value df Asymp. Sig. (2-sided)

Pearson Chi-Square 66.691a 20 .000

Likelihood Ratio 43.579 20 .002

Linear-by-Linear Association 4.804 1 .028

N of Valid Cases 150

a. 1 cell (10.0%) has expected count less than 5. The minimum expected count is .07.

Symmetric Measures

Value Approx. Sig.

Nominal by Nominal Phi .667 .000

Cramer’s V .333 .000

N of Valid Cases 150

a. Not assuming the null hypothesis.

b. Using the asymptotic standard error assuming the null hypothesis.

INTERPRETATION:

The (chi-square=66.691) was p=.000, less than 0.05.

We can see that the strength of association between the variables is moderately strong (0.667)

Therefore, the research hypothesis that differences in ’cause to bid in chit funds’ are related to differences in ‘age” is supported by this analysis. It can be seen that the members of age group’36-45 years’ are more interested in bidding for business related purposes where members of other age groups bid mainly for emergency needs.

5.4.6 Hypothesis 6:

. Hypothesis 6:

H0: There is no significant relation between occupation and cause for bidding in chit fund

H1: There is significant relation between occupation and cause for bidding in chit fund

Chi-Square Tests

Value df Asymp. Sig. (2-sided)

Pearson Chi-Square 7.167a 5 .209

Likelihood Ratio 7.885 5 .163

Linear-by-Linear Association 1.120 1 .290

N of Valid Cases 150

a. 5 cells (41.7%) have expected count less than 5. The minimum expected count is .81.

Symmetric Measures

Value Approx. Sig.

Nominal by Nominal Phi .219 .209

Cramer’s V .219 .209

N of Valid Cases 150

a. Not assuming the null hypothesis.

b. Using the asymptotic standard error assuming the null hypothesis.

INTERPRETATION:

The probability of the chi-square test statistic (chi-square=7.167) was p=.209, more than the alpha level of significance of 0.05.

Therefore, the research hypothesis that differences in ‘reason to bid in chit funds’ are related to differences in ‘gender” is not supported by this analysis.

5.4.7 Hypothesis 7:

Hypothesis 7:

H0: There is no significant relation between age and cause for bidding in chit fund

H1: There is significant relation between age and cause for bidding in chit fund

Chi-Square Tests

Value df Asymp. Sig. (2-sided)

Pearson Chi-Square 180.915a 15 .000

Likelihood Ratio 160.460 15 .000

Linear-by-Linear Association 28.379 1 .000

N of Valid Cases 150

a. 1 cell (10.0%) has expected count less than 5. The minimum expected count is .13.

Symmetric Measures

Value Approx. Sig.

Nominal by Nominal Phi 1.098 .000

Cramer’s V .634 .000

N of Valid Cases 150

INTERPRETATION:

The (chi-square=180.915) was p=.000, less than 0.05.

We can see that the strength of association between the variables is extremely strong (1.098)

Therefore, the research hypothesis that differences in’ are related to differences in ‘occupation” is supported by this analysis. It can be clearly seen that self-employed people bid in chit scheme mostly for business purposes, salaried people for emergency needs and housewives for household purposes.

5.4.8 Hypothesis 8:

Hypothesis 8:

H0: There is no significant relation between monthly income and cause for bidding in chit fund

H1: There is significant relation between monthly income and cause for bidding in chit fund

Chi-Square Tests

Value df Asymp. Sig. (2-sided)

Pearson Chi-Square 123.331a 35 .000

Likelihood Ratio 106.298 35 .000

Linear-by-Linear Association 4.957 1 .026

N of Valid Cases 150

INTERPRETATION:

The probability of the chi-square test statistic (chi-square=123.331) was p=.000, less than the alpha level of significance of 0.05.

We can see that the strength of association between the variables is extremely strong (.907)

Therefore, the research hypothesis that differences in ‘reason to bid in chit funds’ are related to differences in ‘income” is supported by this analysis. It can be clearly seen that low income members bid mostly for consumption reasons whereas higher income members bid for business related and emergency purposes.

SUMMARY:

Reason to bid in chit fund has the strongest association with the occupation of the chit fund members as the probability of the chi-square test statistic (chi-square=180.915) was p=.000 and the strength of association between the variables is extremely strong (1.098).

5.4.

Hypothesis 9:

H0: There is no significant relation between gender and cause for saving in chit fund

H1: There is significant relation between gender and cause for saving in chit fund

Chi-Square Tests

Value df Asymp. Sig. (2-sided)

Pearson Chi-Square 21.702a 16 .153

Likelihood Ratio 23.775 16 .095

Linear-by-Linear Association 2.397 1 .122

N of Valid Cases 150

INTERPRETATION:

The chi-square=123.331) was p=.153, more than 0.05. Therefore, the research hypothesis that differences in ’cause to save in chit funds’ are related to differences in ‘age” is not supported by this analysis.

5.4.10 Hypothesis 10:

H0: There is no significant relation between occupation and cause for saving in chit fund.

H1: There is significant relation between occupation and cause for saving in chit fund.

Chi-Square Tests

Value df Asymp. Sig. (2-sided)

Pearson Chi-Square 20.510a 4 .000

Likelihood Ratio 29.038 4 .000

Linear-by-Linear Association 7.062 1 .008

N of Valid Cases 150

a. 1 cell (10.0%) has expected count less than 5. The minimum expected count is .81.

Symmetric Measures

Value Approx. Sig.

Nominal by Nominal Phi .370 .000

Cramer’s V .370 .000

N of Valid Cases 150

a. Not assuming the null hypothesis.

b. Using the asymptotic standard error assuming the null hypothesis.

INTERPRETATION:

The chi-square=20.510) was p=.000, less than 0.05.

We can see that the strength of association between the variables is weak (.370).Therefore, the research hypothesis that differences in ’cause to save in chit funds’ are related to differences in ‘gender” is supported by this analysis.

5.4.11 Hypothesis 11:

Hypothesis 11:

H0: There is no significant relation between age and cause for saving in chit fund

H1: There is significant relation between age and cause for saving in chit fund

Chi-Square Tests

Value df Asymp. Sig. (2-sided)

Pearson Chi-Square 67.261a 12 .000

Likelihood Ratio 60.380 12 .000

Linear-by-Linear Association 9.507 1 .002

N of Valid Cases 150

a. 1 cell (10.0%) has expected count less than 5. The minimum expected count is .13.

Symmetric Measures

Value Approx. Sig.

Nominal by Nominal Phi .670 .000

Cramer’s V .387 .000

N of Valid Cases 150

INTERPRETATION:

The chi-square=67.261 was p=.000, less than 0.05.

We can see that the strength of association between the variables is moderately strong(.670).Therefore, the research hypothesis that differences in ‘reason to cause in chit funds’ are related to differences in ‘occupation” is supported by this analysis. Salaried people save their money in chit fund with no particular purpose. But self-employed people are equally interested in saving for house purchase as well as for general purpose.

SUMMARY:

chit fund is most closely associated with occupation of the chit fund members as it has the highest value of chi-square statistic and Phi coefficient.

5.4.12 Hypothesis 12:

Hypothesis 12:

H0: There is no significant relation between having bank loan and membership in multiple chit schemes.

H1: There is significant relation between having bank loan and membership in multiple chit schemes.

Chi-Square Tests

Value df Asymp. Sig. (2-sided)

Pearson Chi-Square 56.697a 3 .000

Likelihood Ratio 67.900 3 .000

Linear-by-Linear Association 36.400 1 .000

N of Valid Cases 150

INTERPRETATION:

The probability of the chi-square test statistic (chi-square=56.697) was p=.000, less than the alpha level of significance of 0.05.

We can see that the strength of association between the variables is strong (.615).

Therefore, the research hypothesis that differences in ‘membership in multiple chit schemes are related to differences in ‘having currently bank loan” is supported by this analysis. It is clearly evident that those members currently having bank loan have invested in only one chit scheme whereas those members who do not have availed bank loan have invested in more than one chit schemes.

5.4.13 Hypothesis 13:

Hypothesis 13:

H0: There is no significant relation between monthly income and participation in unregistered chit funds

H1: There is significant relation between monthly income and participation in unregistered chit funds

.

Chi-Square Tests

Value df Asymp. Sig. (2-sided)

Pearson Chi-Square 96.660a 7 .000

Likelihood Ratio 85.378 7 .000

Linear-by-Linear Association 59.577 1 .000

N of Valid Cases 150

a. 1 cell(10.0%) has expected count less than 5. The minimum expected count is 1.08.

INTERPRETATION:

The chi-square=96.660 was p=.000, less than 0.05.

We can see that the strength of association between the variables is extremely strong (.803).

Therefore, the research hypothesis that differences in ‘participation in unregistered chit funds’ are related to differences in ‘income” is supported by this analysis. It is clearly evident that mostly low- income members have participated in unregistered funds. This is because the registered funds have become expensive due to the increase in their operational cost as a result of stringent regulations.

5.2.14 Hypothesis 14 :

H0: There is no significant relation between causes to prefer chit fund over bank and having bank loan.

H1: There is significant relation between causes to prefer chit fund over bank and having bank loan

Chi-Square Tests

Value df Asymp. Sig. (2-sided)

Pearson Chi-Square 28.049a 5 .000

Likelihood Ratio 31.806 5 .000

Linear-by-Linear Association 2.967 1 .085

N of Valid Cases 150

a. 2 cells (15.0%) have expected count less than 5. The minimum expected count is 1.79.

Symmetric Measures

Value Approx. Sig.

Nominal by Nominal Phi .432 .000

Cramer’s V .432 .000

N of Valid Cases 150

INTERPRETATION:

The probability of the chi-square test statistic (chi-square=28.049) was p=.000, less than the alpha level of significance of 0.05.

We can see that the strength of association between the variables is moderate (.432).

Therefore, the research hypothesis that differences in ’cause to prefer chit fund over bank’ are related to differences in ‘having bank loan” is supported by this analysis. It is clearly evident that members who have bank loan have preferred chit fund over bank mainly due to better dividends. But those who do not have bank loan prefer chit fund over bank mainly due to better service in terms of more personalized service.)

5.2..15 Hypothesis 15: To identify significant predictors of regular participation in chit funds using Binary Logistic Regression

Hypothesis 15:

H0: Presence of safety, flexibility, timely payment, low commission, better service, personal contact, having a bank loan are no significant predictors of regular participation in chit fund.

H1: Presence of safety, flexibility, timely payment, low commission, better service, personal contact ,having a bank loan,are significant predictors of regular participation in chit fund.

Variables in the Equation

B S.E. Wald df Sig. Exp(B)

Step 0 Constant -1.046 .186 31.574 1 .000 .351

Model Summary

Step -2 Log likelihood Cox & Snell R Square Nagelkerke R Square

1 37.170a .533 .576

a. Estimation terminated at iteration number 6 because parameter estimates changed by less than .001.

Variables in the Equation

B S.E. Wald df Sig. Exp(B)

Step 1a bank_loan(1) 1.068 1.265 14.715 1 .000 11.720

reason_2 2.286 4 .683

reason_2(1) 1.336 1.077 1.540 1 .215 3.805

reason_2(2) .134 2.239 .004 1 .952 1.143

reason_2(3) -.559 1.896 .087 1 .768 .572

reason_2(4) .731 1.347 .294 1 .588 2.076

reason_3 4.874 5 .431

reason_3(1) 1.188 .924 1.652 1 .199 3.279

reason_3(2) 1.661 2.048 .658 1 .417 5.263

reason_3(3) -1.654 1.228 1.813 1 .178 .191

reason_3(4) .404 1.192 .115 1 .735 1.497

reason_3(5) -17.379 20.722 .000 1 .700 .000

reason_4 .355 4 .986

reason_4(1) -1.047 1.850 .320 1 .571 .351

reason_4(2) -.839 1.979 .180 1 .672 .432

reason_4(3) -.932 1.637 .324 1 .569 .394

reason_4(4) 3.519 4.199 .000 1 .600 3.746

reason_5 8.553 5 .128

reason_5(1) -.254 1.768 .021 1 .886 .776

reason_5(2) -19.245 9.890 .000 1 .999 .000

reason_5(3) 1.420 1.338 1.126 1 .289 4.136

reason_5(4) -.747 1.306 .327 1 .567 .474

reason_5(5) .561 1.342 .174 1 .676 1.752

B S.E. Wald df Sig. Exp(B)

Step 1a Safety -.075 .320 4.377 1 .011 0.928

Flexi -.178 .426 3.337 1 .021 0.837

commision -.185 .188 1.868 1 .026 0.831

payment -.267 .178 1.657 1 .097 0.766

service -.859 .412 1.348 1 .083 0.424

personal -1.122 .163 .996 1 .079 0.329

Constant 3.058 2.440 1.571 1 .010 21.291

a. Variable(s) entered on step 1: : bank_loan, reason_2, reason_3, reason_4, reason_5.imp1, imp2, imp3, imp4, imp5, imp6.

INTERPRETATION:

‘ -2 Log Likelihood statistic is 37.170. This statistic how poorly the model predicts the decisions — the smaller the statistic the better the model. Since, 37.170 is a relatively small number therefore, this model is able to predict the decisions in a better way.

‘ Here Cox & Snell R Square statistic indicates that 53.3% of the variation in the regular participation in chit funds is explained by the logistic model.

‘ In our case Nagelkerke R Square is 0.576, indicating a moderate relationship of 57.6 % between the predictors and the prediction.

‘ If it is less than .05 then, we will reject the null hypothesis and accept the alternative hypothesis.

‘ In this case, we can see that bank loan, safety, flexibility and low commission have contributed signi’cantly to the prediction of regular participation in chit funds but other variables are not significant predictors of regular participation in chit funds.

‘ Since only bank loan has p=.000, therefore we can say that bank loan is the most significant predictor

among other significant predictors. This is followed by safety (p=.011), flexibility (p=.021) and low commission (p=.026).

‘ Here, the EXP (B) bank loan is 11.727. Hence when bank loan is availed by one unit (one person) the odds ratio is 11 times as large and therefore people are 11 more times likely not to regularly participate in chit funds.

‘ Here, the EXP (B) with safety is .928. Hence when safety is increased by one percent the odds ratio is .928 times as large and therefore people are .928 more times likely to regularly participate in chit funds.

‘ Here, the EXP (B) flexibility is 837. Hence when flexibility is increased by one percent the odds ratio is .928 times as large and therefore people are .837 more times likely to regularly participate in chit funds.

‘ Here, the EXP (B) low commission is .831. Hence when flexibility is increased by one percent the odds ratio is .928 times as large and therefore people are .831 more times likely to regularly participate in chit funds.

SUMMARY

Bank loan is the most significant predictor of regular participation in chit funds. This is followed by safety, flexibility and low commission.

Instalment no No of months remaining Monthly subscription Prize amount PV of monthly subscription(PV of outlow at 10%) PV of Prize amount(PV of inflow at 10%) Net Present Value(PV of inflow – PV of outflow)

1 24 2000 50000 2000 50000 10444.9

2 23 1500 35000 1488.1 34723.1 -4832.0

3 22 1500 35000 1476.4 34448.4 -5106.7

4 21 1500 35000 1464.7 34175.9 -5379.2

5 20 1500 35000 1453.1 33905.5 -5649.6

6 19 1500 35000 1441.6 33637.3 -5917.8

7 18 1500 35000 1430.2 33371.2 -6183.9

8 17 1500 35000 1418.9 33107.2 -6447.9

9 16 1620 38000 1520.3 35660.6 -3894.5

10 15 1620 38000 1508.2 35378.5 -4176.6

11 14 1700 40000 1570.2 36945.9 -2609.2

12 13 1700 40000 1557.8 36653.6 -2901.5

13 12 1780 42000 1618.2 38181.8 -1373.3

14 11 1780 42000 1605.4 37879.8 -1675.3

15 10 1780 42000 1592.7 37580.1 -1975.0

16 9 1860 44000 1651.1 39058.2 -496.9

17 8 1860 44000 1638.0 38749.2 -805.9

18 7 1860 44000 1625.1 38442.6 -1112.5

19 6 1940 46000 1681.6 39872.1 317.0

20 5 1940 46000 1668.3 39556.6 1.5

21 4 1940 46000 1655.1 39243.7 -311.4

22 3 1940 46000 1642.0 38933.2 -621.8

23 2 1940 46000 1629.0 38625.2 -929.8

24 1 1940 46000 1616.1 38319.7 -1235.4

25 0 1940 46000 1603.3 38016.5 -1538.6

39555.1 934465.9 -54411.4

[supanova_question]

Merit goods university essay help

Merit goods are goods which will be under-provided by the market, therefore they will be under-consumed. They are thought by the governments to be good for the populations and so the governments want them to be consumed to a great extent. They increase the private and social benefits and cause the social benefit be higher than the private one. The best examples of them, apart from all the public goods, can be the education, health care, sports facilities and the opera.

Although the majority of the merit goods is provided by the private sectors, not all the people can afford buying them, therefore they will be under-consumed. That is why the government is needed to destroy the market failure increasing the supply and consequently raising the consumption.

To explain the reasons for government to provide the merit goods, I need to apply some examples of them. The first one can be the education. It is significant for the governments to provide it so that the society would be well-educated. Governments determine the period of education required for people (the compulsory education) to maintain the proper level of education of the society. The governments find education an important aspect that should be available for everyone as it cause the whole country to have better both economic growth and economic development.

Considering another example such as health care, the situation is quite similar. The governments want to provide the population with it because they care about the high states of health of society in their country. To gain these, the countries need to have high quality of health care. Governments often offer people unpaid programs consisting of preventative medical examination which contribute to maintain the high number of healthy people. This is also connected with the problems of the labour market. The healthier people are, the more efficient their work is, the greater revenue firms have and countries are more developed because of taxations.

Other examples like sport facilities or the opera are meant for people to become physically and culturally developed but their availability is not as important as in the case of the previous examples. That is why they are not as much provided by the governments as the rest of the merit goods.

Although most of the merit goods provided by the governments are free, the fact is that they are paid through the taxes that the societies pay. The number of the merit goods of particular types that the governments provide or subsidize depends on the necessity of them. If they are provided, the societies’ benefits get higher and so is the public treasury of the countries.

[supanova_question]

Research proposal: The effect of pregnancy on the adolescent pregnant teen & father essay help from professional writers

Abstract: The purpose for this research paper is to address the adolescent pregnant teen & father and the effects a pregnancy has on both of their lives during and after her pregnancy. How the teens need the support of the family, community, church, and the school system. I will also address the teen father mostly disregarded in any aspect of the teen’s pregnancy and how this affects him, and how both teens need support in our society. How we can address the social problem of teen pregnancy from all avenues.

‘Three issues that have an impact on the pregnant adolescent are discussed education, identity development, and maternal support’ (Turnage & Pharris, 2013). My research focuses on adolescent pregnant teen women 19 years old and younger. It will also reflect the problems of the teen pregnant adolescents journeying thru the process of becoming a teen mother, finishing high school, developing her own identity and the maternal support she gets from her mother during her transition from pregnant teen to motherhood.

‘Several issues that differently influence the pregnant teen is individually based on the female’s chronological age’ (Turnage & Pharris, 2013). ‘For the pregnant adolescent, her pregnancy supersedes high school graduation as the benchmark for her being viewed as an adult’ (Turnage & Pharris, 2013). ‘Failure to graduate high school is associated with poor social and educational outcomes for teen mothers and their children’ (Turnage & Pharris, 2013).

‘While the pregnant adolescent is defining who she is as a person she experiences a transition to the new identity of mother’ (Turnage & Pharris, 2013). ‘During her pregnancy the adolescent’s mother is seen as the primary source of support that contributes to a positive self-image and can assist her in the adapting to the role of parent’ (Turnage & Pharris, 2013).

My research paper will also show how important it is to support the teen during and after pregnancy. It addresses the need for the teen mothers to finish high school, and find her identity. How important it is to have the support system of her mother and family to achieve all of these things. Without these support systems, the pregnant adolescent could end up in poverty, no social skills, homeless and a host of other social problems for her and her baby.

Addressed and examined is teen motherhood and its long-term mental and physical health of the teen mother’ (Patel & Sen, 2012). They used a (PCS) health survey known as SF-12 NLSY79 a study that compared two major comparisons groups of which only teens who experienced teen pregnancy and girls who did not experience teen pregnancy. On average the survey for teen mothers was on average 50.89.

The study to access the health outcome of ‘two major comparison groups, which consisted of women who were only experienced teen pregnancy & women who were having unprotected sexual relation as a teen but did not become pregnant ‘ (Patel & Sen, 2012). Estimated is that teen mothers are more likely to have poor health later in life in the study of all the comparison groups.

Along with support, they desperately need help taking care of an infant as a teen; they need a support system to take notice of how they are managing their health & well-being so that they can be a successful teen parent. In addition, being a teen parent can affect the mother’s mentally as the pressure of being new teen mom can be stressful.

The teen mothers who marry after they give birth to their children statistics state that 30 % of them will not remain in their marriages into their 40’s. This result comes from teen adolescents in a single parent home raising their child. This can put a strain on the teen adolescent because she will financially have to seek support from her family or enter into the welfare system and suffer mental health issues.

‘Adolescent teen mothers identify social support with, parenting and emotional support primary emanating from family members, particularly their own mothers, as well as from the father of the baby (Savio Beers & Lee, 2009)’. ‘Older sisters may play an important role in the support network for adolescent mothers, the supportive sister relationships decrease depressive and anxiety-related symptoms in adolescent mothers (Savio Beers & Lee, 2009).

‘For some adolescent parents, participation in a religious community programs may provide the significant social support and serve as a protective factor’ (Savio Beers & Lee, 2009). This directly stresses the point that without the support of family, community, and church with the support of the father the adolescent teen mother can suffer mental issues, poverty issues, and marriage problems.

We addressed the many issues that teen mothers have to face, so now I would like to address the teen father in our society. What are their concerns on becoming a teen father, and how do they view their role as father where their masculinity is concerned? While most of the research done on teen pregnancy and parenting mainly focusing on the mother, the father is invisible.

Interviewed were 26 young teen fathers in the mid-western American towns. The in depth survey of three themes of gender discord focused on teen father narratives, which took on responsibility, sex, being a man, this is the direct viewpoint of the invisible teen father. What they feel about getting a teen girl pregnant and what responsibility they take in the pregnancy if any. How they relate to getting a teen pregnant and how that affects his identity as a man and their masculinity.

‘Gendered assumptions regarding pregnancy and contraception’specifically that women are in charge of preventing pregnancy and they have the belief that male sexuality is uncontrollable; and that use of love and intimacy talk (Weber, J. B., 2013). The teen fathers that took the questionnaire did not blame themselves for getting the teen girl pregnant. They see the teen’s pregnancy as her problem.

Studies suggest that teen fathers are more likely to be of a minority race. He has a mother who had a baby as a teen; his parents have a minimal education. His parents do not have high expectations of him finishing school; all of these factors result in the likelihood that makes him a candidate to becoming a teenage father. ‘The research states that the teen fathers go to school fewer years less than non-teenage fathers (Fletcher & Wolfe, 2011).

‘Evidence shows that men who have children before marriage leave school earlier and have worse labor markets outcomes’ (Fletcher & Wolfe, 2011). ‘Data was used only on young men who reported a pregnancy as an adolescent’ (Fletcher & Wolfe, 2011). It affects his completion of high school.

It also affects his ability to take care of the teen mother & baby, which causes him to drop out of school early. Statistically, ‘teen fathers work more hours and earn more money following the birth of a child then his non-parent counterparts’ (Fletcher & Wolfe, 2011). Teen fatherhood results in the teen father getting married early or co-habitation with the teen mother.

In conclusion, teen pregnancy is a social problem in the United States both teens will have to suffer in their education, grow up before their time, take on adult responsibilities, and suffer financial problems to take care of the child. Which ultimately falls on the parents of the teens, society or the welfare system in which the teen mother becomes a social statistic or shall I say a number.

Teen pregnancy as of 2014 have been on the decline in the United States and increased in other states, however a positive support system for both teens is minimal at best. Socially as communities, churches and government we have to take an active role in education of abstaining from sex, talking to the teens about sex, and protecting themselves against pregnancy.

[supanova_question]

Reconnaissance attacks in IPv6 networks my assignment essay help london

2.1.1 Reconnaissance attacks in IPv6 networks

The 1st larger attack in IPv6 is usually a reconnaissance attack. An attacker try reconnaissance attacks to get some confidential information about the victim network that can be misused by the attacker in further attacks. For this he uses active methods, such as scanning techniques or data mining strategies. To start, an intruder begins to ping the victim network to determine the IP addresses currently used in the victim network. After getting some of the accessible system, he starts to scan the port to find out any open port in the desired system. The size of subnet is bigger than that of the in IPv4 networks. To perform a scan for the whole subnet an attacker should make 264 probes and that???s impossible. With this fact, IPv6 networks are much more resistant to reconnaissance attacks than IPv4 networks. Unfortunately, there are some addresses which are multicast address in IPv6 networks that help an intruder to identify and attack some resources in the target network.

2.1.2 Security threats related to IPv6 routing headers

As per IPv6 protocol specification, all of the IPv6 nodes must be able to process routing headers. In fact, routing headers can be used to avoid access controls based on destination addresses. Such action can cause security effects. It may be happen that an attacker sends a packet to a publicly accessible address with a routing header containing a ???forbidden??? address on the victim network. In such matter the publicly accessible host will forward the packet to the destination address stated in the routing header even though that destination is already filtered before as a forbidden address. By spoofing packet source addresses an intruder can easily perform denial of service attack with use of any publicly accessible host for redirecting attack packets.

2.1.3 Fragmentation related security threats

As per IPv6 protocol specification, packet fragmentation by the intermediate nodes is not permitted. Since in IPv6 network based on ICMPv6 messages, the usage of the path MTU discovery method is a duty, packet fragmentation is only allowed at the source node.1280 octets is the minimal size of the MTU for IPv6 network. The packets with size less than 1280 octets to be discarded unless it???s the last packet in the flow as per security reasons. With use of fragmentation, an attacker can get that port numbers not found in the first fragment and thus they bypass security monitoring devices expecting to find transport layer protocol data in the very first fragment. An attacker will send a huge amount of small fragments and create an overload of reconstruction buffers on the victim system which resulted to the system crash. To prevent system from such attacks it???s necessary to bound the total number of fragments and their permissible arrival rate.

[supanova_question]

WMBA 6000-13 Topic: Course Evaluation compare and contrast essay help

WMBA 6000-13

Topic: Course Evaluation

Date: March 2, 2014

Based on the assigned readings for this course (Dynamic Leadership), I have read an enormous amount of information about the different categories of leaders and leadership styles. Today’s leaders are different from the leaders of twenty to fifty years ago. In the past leaders gave commands and they controlled the actions of others. Today leaders are willing to involve others in their decision making and they are more open to new possibilities.

A good leader has a vision for their organization and they know how to align and engage employees in order to promote collaboration. The successful leader knows how to lead by using superior values, principles and goals that fit the organization’s values, principles and goals. Also these leaders know that leadership is not made from authority, it’s made from trust and followership. Coleman, J., Gulati, & Segovia, W.O. (2012)

I am impressed most by the characteristics of the authentic leader because they know how to develop themselves; they use formal and informal support networks to get honest feedback in order to drive long-term results. Authentic leaders build support teams to help them stay on course and counsel them in times of uncertainty. George, B., Sims, P., Mclean, A.N. & Mayer D. (2007)

In addition, I found the Leadership Code to be important because it provides structure and guidance and helps one to be a better leader by not emphasizing one element of leadership over another. Some focus on the importance of vision for the future; others on executing in the present; others on personal charisma and character; others on engaging people’; and others on building long-term organization. The code represents about 60 to 70 percent of what makes an effective leader. Ulrich, D., Smallwood, N., Sweetman, K. (2008)

The information that I acquired from this course will help me to pursue the goal of owning a beauty supply business. Another goal that I can add to my action plan is to include not only wigs and welted hair, but I will add hair, skin and nail products to my inventory. A future goal will be to add handbags and accessories as well.

After completing my short-term goal of finishing my MBA, I can take the knowledge from this course along with my values, ethics and principles to help me to manage employees and operate a successful business. Annie Smith (March 2, 20

Coleman, J. G. (2012). Educating young leaders. Passion and Purpose , 197-202.

George, B. S. (2007). Discovering your authentic leadership. Harvard Business Review , 129-138.

Lyons, R. (2012). Dean of Haas of School of Business University of California, Berkely. It’s made from followership. (J. G. Cole, Interviewer) Coleman, J., Gulati, D., & Segovia, W.O.

Ulrich, D. S. (2008). Five rules of leadership. In The leadership code five rules to lead by. Defining Leadership Code , 1-24.

[supanova_question]

Family presence during CPR (cardiopulmonary resuscitation) english essay help

In a pre-hospital setting, there are few moments that are as intense as the events that take place when trying to save a life. Family presence during these resuscitation efforts has become an important and controversial issue in health care settings. Family presence during cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) is a relatively new issue in healthcare. Before the advent of modern medicine, family members were often present at the deathbed of their loved ones. A dying person’s last moments were most often controlled by his or her family in the home rather than by medical personnel (Trueman, History of Medicine). Today, families are demanding permission to witness resuscitation events. Members of the emergency medical services are split on this issue, noting benefits but also potentially negative consequences to family presence during resuscitation efforts.

A new study has found that family members who observed resuscitation efforts were significantly less likely to experience symptoms of post-traumatic stress, anxiety and depression than family members that did not. The results, published in an online article in The New England Journal of Medicine, entitled ‘Family Presence during Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation,’ were the same regardless of the survival of the patient. The study involved 570 people in France whose family members were treated by emergency medical personnel at home. These EMS teams were unique in that they were comprised of a physician, a nurse trained in emergency medicine, and two emergency medical technicians. The study found that the presence of relatives did not affect the results of CPR, nor did it increase the stress levels of the emergency medical teams. Having family present also did not result in any legal claims after the incidents occured. While the unique limitations of the study warrant consideration, the results show a definite benefit in having families stay during CPR (Jabre Family Presence).

Historically, although parents of children have been allowed to be present for various reasons, relatives of adult patients have not. As medical practices change to increasingly involve family in the care of patients, growing numbers of emergency medical practitioners say that giving relatives the option of watching CPR can be a good idea. Several national organizations, including The American Heart Association, have revised their policies to call for giving family members the option of being present during CPR (AHA Guidelines for CPR). Witnessing CPR, say some emergency medical experts and family members, can take the mystery out of what could be a potentially terrifying experience. It can provide reassurance to family members that everything is being done to save their loved ones. It also can offer closure for relatives wanting to be with their family members until the last minute (Kirkland Lasting Benefit). Another benefit is that it shows people why reviving someone in cardiac arrest is much less likely than people assume from watching it being done on television (Ledermann Family Presence During). Family members who can truly understand what it means to ‘do everything possible’ can go on to make more informed decisions about end-of-life care for themselves or their families.

There are three perspectives on this issue- that of the emergency medical personnel providing care, the family, and the patients. The resistance on the part of the medical community to family presence during CPR stems from several different concerns. The most common concern among these is that family members, when faced with overwhelming fear, stress and grief, could disrupt or delay active CPR. Another concern raised by emergency medical personnel is that the realities of CPR may simply be too traumatic for loved ones, causing them to suffer more than they potentially would have if they had never witnessed the event. Some families share this view, citing the potential for extreme distress as a main reason for not wanting to witness resuscitation (Grice Study examining attitudes). Many emergency medical personnel also fear an increased risk of liability and litigation with family members present in the room (Fullbrook the Presence of Family). The worry is that errors can occur, inappropriate comments may be made, and the actions of the personnel involved may be misinterpreted. In an already tense situation, the awareness of the family could increase the anxiety of the personnel and create a greater potential for mistakes.

Another complication that arises from having families present during resuscitation attempts is that of patient confidentiality. The patient’s right to privacy should not be circumvented with implied consent. There is always the possibility that medical information previously unknown to the family may be revealed in the chaos of resuscitation. In addition, patient dignity, whether physical or otherwise, may become compromised (Fullbrook the Presence of Family). Beyond moral considerations, legal concerns regarding revealing patient information are real. This could become an even larger issue if there is no one available to screen witnesses, which could result in unrelated people gaining access to personal information. Eventually, a breach in confidentiality can lead to a breach in the confidence that the public has gained in pre-hospital emergency care.

Family presence during CPR in a pre-hospital setting remains a highly debatable topic. This could be largely due to the fact that the needs of the emergency medical providers and the rights of the patients can be at odds with the wishes of the family members. Although there are several possible reasons why family presence is not being welcomed into daily practice, one of the major reasons could be the lack of formal written policies that define the roles of families and providers placed into this situation. Bringing family members into a situation where CPR is being performed on a loved one should not happen haphazardly. It should happen with careful concern and support for everyone involved. Policies and protocols, defined by experienced personnel, can provide legal and emotional support. They can also potentially help ease anxiety by defining expectations and placing responsibility in the hands of people who are experienced enough to know how to handle the situation appropriately. The policies and protocols should address the basic needs of all people involved. Five basic needs should be addressed:

1. The number of people allowed to be present

2. Which relatives should be allowed to be present (age, relationship, etc.)

3. The role of the family members present and what is expected of them.

4. The place where the family should remain during the duration of CPR.

5. The formal wishes of the patient- written as a directive like a living will.

An important component of this is available, trained staff that can prepare the family members for what they will witness, support them through the event, and then direct them after the event’s conclusion.

The American Heart Association states that the goals of cardiopulmonary resuscitation are, ‘to preserve life, restore health, relieve suffering, limit disability, and respect the individual’s decisions rights and privacy’ (AHA Guidelines for CPR). The practice of offering family members the opportunity to be present during CPR is a controversial ethical issue in emergency medical services. While the results of the study published on this topic in The New England Journal of Medicine clearly show no negative side effects from having families present during resuscitation attempts, the limitations of the study lend to the need for more research before it could be universally accepted.

[supanova_question]

Respondeat Superior essay help fairfax

Legal claims that derive from a situation where there are claims of negligence can sometimes involve an entity other than the neglectful parties. In certain circumstances employers are fully responsible for their employees, and the tasks they perform during working hours. During the course of this paper, the doctrine of respondeat superior will be defined and explained. Two case studies in which the doctrine was applied will also be analyzed to determine if it was applied correctly.

Respondeat superior is a legal theory that holds employers responsible for any negligent or harmful act performed by an employee during the commission of their employment duties (Thornton, 2010). The Maryland Supreme Court in 1951 was the first court to utilize respondeat superior in a court case involving a question of employer liability (Burns, 2011). This doctrine is important as it holds employers liable in court cases where one of its employees does harm to an individual. Vicarious liability and indirect liability are two base concepts that make-up respondeat superior (Thornton, 2010). Respondeat superior shows that the employer did not have to be responsible for the employee???s negligent behavior, in the form of improper training or instruction to perform harmful acts, in order for the employer to be held legally responsible.

In the case of Valle v. City of Houston, the police force was sued for excessive force and an illegal search in an attempt to remove an individual from his parent???s home (Nicholl & Kelly, 2012). The situation stemmed from a man, Omar Esparza, barricading himself in his parent???s home and refusing to come out (p. 285). After a long police standoff, the SWAT team was ordered to forcefully enter the home and remove Mr. Esparza (p. 285). The SWAT team utilized taser gun and bean bag ammunition in an attempt to subdue Mr. Esparza after they felt he posed a physical threat by wielding a hammer, but as those attempts failed the suspect was fatally wounded when an officer fired his weapon (p. 286). Shortly after the incident the mother was allowed into the home, and she reported no visible evidence that her son was possession of a hammer (p. 286). The court found that the city was not liable for damages under the theory of respondeat superior, because the order to remove the individual from the home was not made by an individual deemed as a decision-maker by the city (p. 286).

From the outside, this case seems to fit the theory of respondeat superior. As the employer, the city should be held responsible for the actions of its employees. The police, serving as the city???s employees acted in a manner that was unnecessary for the situation and in conflict of their training (p. 286). However, the court sided with the City of Houston because the chain of command was not followed in regards to the use of force (p. 286). The end result is a case where an individual made a decision that was not his to make; that ultimately cost a man his life.

[supanova_question]

Introduction To Finance Essay Help Cheap

INTRODUCTION TO FINANCE: Finance is the integral part of business. The economic development of any country, depends upon the ‘existence of a well- organized financial system. It is the financial system, which supplies the necessary financial input for the production of goods and services, which in turn promotes the well-being, and standard of people of the country. Finance, and function of finance are the part of the economic activity. Finance is the essential, need for all type of organization viz., small, medium, large-scale industries, and agriculture and service sector. Over the 60 years of independence, the availability of finance, has been made easy through functioning of commercial banks, development banks and primary markets. But all these services and instruments are associated, with different types of costs. Hence, it had become a necessity to make use of such sources not only to recover the cost but also to increase, the wealth of investors. Contrary to this, the new economic reforms created a challenging, environment in the economy. This calls for effective utilization of funds, to yield the pre-determined returns of a firm’s success and its survival, depends upon how efficiently it is able to generate funds, as and when needed. Finance, holds the key to all activities. The Sanskrit says, ‘Arthasachivah’ which means, ‘Finance’ reigns supreme’, speaks volume for the significance of the function, of finance in any organization. According to Paul G. Hassings..,

‘Finance is the management of the monetary, affairs of a company. It includes determining what has to be paid for the money of the best terms available, and devoting the available funds to the best uses’.

‘Finance’ guides and regulates, investment decisions and expenditures. The expenditure decision may pertain, to recurring expenditure or they may be about capital budgeting. To get the best out of the available funds, is major task of finance. The finance manager, has to perform this task most efficiently if he is to be successful. The finance function, does not draw any distinction between the private sector and the public sector. It is important, even indispensable to the both sectors, even the government treats finance as a, signpost to control a measure what it has achieved or propose to achieve. It may be rightly, considered as the sinew of any business activity, and that is how its importance is recognized in any branch of science. Every business activity requires financial support, because financial viability, is the center theme of any business preposition. This point of view is well brought out by Mr. A.L. KINGSHOTT, who states.

‘Finance is the common denominator for a vast range of corporate objectives, and the major part ,of any corporate plan must be expressed in financial terms’.

Financial decision, must be viewed in the light of financial viability of its financial outcomes. It is difficult to conceive a policy decision, which does not have financial implications. Moreover, business activities are not mutually exclusive; there dependence on each other, and can be measured only in terms of finance. Any economic transaction, consists of buying and selling, which implies money transactions, but it may not involve immediate payment of money, as there may be credit terms involved. In any transaction therefore, whether it is buying or selling, the payment of money, at present or in future, is involved.

FINANCIAL STATEMENTS

An organization communicates, its financial information to the users through financial statements and reports. Financial statement contains summarized information of the organizations – financial affairs, organized in a systematic form. These statements comprises of the income statements or profit and loss account and the position statements or the balance sheet.

To give a full view of the financial affairs, of the undertaking it is also necessary to include statement of retained earnings, a statement of changes , in the financial position and a few schedules such as schedules of fixed assets, and schedule of debtors.

Income Statement: The profit and loss account set out income as well as expenses of the same period and after matching the two, the difference that is net profit or net loss, is shown as the difference between the two sides of the account. Thus, the earning capacity and the potential of the organizations are reflected by its profit and loss account.

Balance Sheet: Also known as the position statement, displays all the total resources of a business and the owners, creditors equity in these resources. It indicates the statement of affairs of the business at a particular moment of time and thus, its nature.

Profit and Loss Appropriation account: Also known as statement of retained earnings, is generally a part of the profit and loss account. It shows, how the profit of the business for the accounting period is appropriated, towards reserve and dividend and how much of the same is carried forward, as retained earnings

Fund Flow Statement: Also known as the statement of changes in financial position, summarizes the changes in the assets, liabilities and owners’ equity between two balance sheet dates. Thus, it is a statement of flows, i.e. it means the changes have been taken in the financial position of the firm of two balance sheet dates. It summarizes the sources, and uses of the funds obtained.

FINANCIAL ANALYSIS

Financial analysis, is the process of identifying the financial strength and weakness of the firm by properly establishing, relationships between the items of the balance sheet and profit and loss account. The purpose of financial analysis is, to disclose the information available in the financial statements so as to judge the profitability, and financial health of the organization.

The first task of the financial analyst is to select the information relevant to the decisions under consideration from the total information available in the financial statement. Secondly, to arrange the information in a way that would highlight the significant relationships.

Finally, to interpret and draw inferences, and conclusions. In brief, financial analysis, is the process if selection, relation and evaluation of profitability and financial soundness and health of the organization.

TECHNIQUES OF FINANCIAL STATEMENT

A financial analyst, analyses the financial statement by selecting the appropriate techniques according to purpose of the analysis. Financial statements may be analyzed by means of any of the following techniques:

‘ Comparative Statement analysis.

‘ Common Size Statement analysis.

‘ Trend analysis.

‘ Ratio analysis.

‘ Fund Flow Statement.

‘ Cash Flow Statement.

‘ Cost Volume Profit analysis.

COMPARATIVE ANALYSIS

Comparative Analysis means, comparison of two or more comparable alternatives, processes, products, qualifications, sets of data’s, systems, etc. In accounting, for example, changes in a financial statement’s items over, several accounting periods could be presented together to detect the emerging trends in the, firm’s operations and results.

Comparative Analysis is performed by professionals, who prepare reports using financial tools and techniques that make use of information taken from financial statements and the other reports. These reports are usually, presented to top management as one of their base in making business decision.

These decisions include the following:-

‘ Continue or discontinue in its main operation or part of its business;

‘ Make or purchase certain materials, in the manufacture of its product;

‘ Acquire or rent/lease certain, machineries and equipment in the production of its goods;

‘ Issue stocks or negotiate for a bank loan, to increase its working capital;

‘ Make decisions regarding investing and lending capital;

‘ Other decisions that allow management to make an, informed selection on various alternatives in the conduct of its business.

Comparative analysis often assesses the firm’s:-

1. Profitability ‘ Firm’s ability, to earn income and sustain growth in both short-term and long-term. A company’s degree of profitability, is usually based on the income statement, which reports on the company’s results of operations

2. Solvency ‘ Firm’s ability to pay of its obligation to creditors and third parties in the long term.

3. Liquidity – its ability to maintain a positive cash flow, while satisfying immediate obligations.

4. Stability- the firm’s ability is to remain in business in the long run, without having to sustain significant losses, in the conduct of its business. Assessing a company’s stability requires the use of the income statements and the balance sheet, as well as other, financial and non-financial indicators.

Methods of Comparative Analysis

Comparative analysts often compare on the basis of following things:

‘ Past Performance – Across historical time periods, for the same firm (the last 5 years for example),

‘ Future Performance – Using historical figures and certain, mathematical and statistical techniques, including present and future values, This extrapolation method is the main source, of errors in financial analysis as past statistics can be the poor predictors of future prospects.

‘ Comparative Performance – Comparison between the similar firms.

Comparing financial ratios is merely one way of conducting, financial analysis. Financial ratios face several theoretical challenges:

‘ They say little about the firm’s prospects, in an absolute sense. Their insights about, relative performance, require a reference point from other time periods or any similar firms.

‘ One ratio, holds little meaning. As indicators, ratios can be logically interpreted in at least two ways. One can be partially overcome this problem by combining several related ratios, to paint a more comprehensive and exact picture of the firm’s performance.

‘ Seasonal factors, may prevent year-end values from being representative. A ratio’s values may be distorted as the account balances will change from the beginning to the end of an , accounting period. Use average values, for such accounts, whenever it is possible.

‘ Financial ratios, are no more objective than the accounting methods employed. Changes in accounting policies, or choices can yield drastically different ratio values.

Financial analysts, can also use percentage analysis which involves reducing a series of the figures as a percentage of some base amounts. For example, a group of items can be expressed, as a percentage of net income. When proportionate changes in the same figure, over a given time period expressed as a percentage is known as horizontal analysis. Vertical or common-size analysis, reduces all items on a statement to a ‘common size’ as a percentage of some base value, which assists in the comparability with other companies of different sizes. As a result, all Income Statement items are divided by Sales, and all the other Balance Sheet items are divided by Total Assets.

Another method is, comparative analysis. This provides a better way to determine trends. Comparative analysis, presents the same information for two or more time periods and is, presented side-by-side to allow for easy analysis.

BALANCE SHEET BASICS

In financial accounting, the balance sheet or statement of financial position is a summary of the financial balances, of a sole proprietorship, a business partnership or a company. Assets, liabilities and ownership equity, are listed as of a specific date, such as to the end of its financial year. A balance sheet is often described as a “snapshot of a company’s financial condition”. The balance sheet is the only statement which applies to a single point at time of a business’ calendar year. Understanding balance sheet, is very important because it gives an idea of the financial strength of a company at any given point of time.

The various components of balance sheet are as follows:-

‘ Assets: – Anything tangible or intangible that is capable, of being owned or controlled to produce value and that is, held to have positive economic value is considered as an asset.

‘ Gross block: – The total value of all the assets that a company own’s and value is determined by the amount ,it cost to acquire these assets. It is inclusive of depreciation, that is to be charged on each asset.

‘ Net block: – If the gross block is less accumulated depreciation on assets. Net block is actually what; the asset is worth to the company.

‘ Capital Work-In-Progress: – sometimes, at the end of the financial year, there is some construction or installation going-on in the company. Which is not complete, such installation is recorded in the books as: capital work in progress because it is asset for the business.

‘ Investments: – If the company has made some, investments out of its free cash, it is recorded, under the head investments.

‘ Inventory: -The raw materials, work-in-process goods and completely finished goods that are considered to be the portion of a business assets which are ready or will be ready for sale.

‘ Receivables: – include the debtor’s of the company, i.e., it includes all those accounts which are to give money back to the company.

‘ Other Current Assets: – include all the assets, which can be converted into cash, within a very short period of time like cash in bank etc.

‘ Liabilities:- In financial accounting, a liability is defined as an obligation of an entity, arising from past transactions or events, the settlement of which may result in the transfer or use of assets, provision of services, or other yielding of economic benefits in the future.

‘ Share Capital: – Share capital or issued capital refers to as the portion of a company’s equity that has been obtained by trading stock, to a shareholder for cash or an equivalent item of capital value. Share capital usually comprises the nominal values of all shares issued, and less those repurchased by the company. It includes both ordinary shares and preference shares. If the market value of shares is greater than their nominal value (value at par), the shares are said to be at a premium, which is also called as share premium.

‘ Reserves and surpluses: – Amount appropriated out of earned surplus, retained earnings for future plan or unforeseen expenditure. It includes, the free reserves of the company which are built out of the genuine profits of the company. Together they are known as net worth of the company.

‘ Total debt: – It includes the long term and short debt of the company. Long term is for a longer duration, usually for a period more than 3 years like debentures. Short term debt, is for a lesser duration, usually for less than a year like bank finance for the working capital.

‘ Creditors: – They are those entities to which the company owes’s money.

‘ Other Liabilities and Provisions: – It includes, all the liabilities that do not fall under any of the above head and various provisions made.

PROFIT AND LOSS STATEMENT

Profit and Loss Statement which is also known as the Income Statement is a company’s financial statement that indicates how the revenue, which is money received from the sale of products and services, before expenses are taken out, also known as the “top line” is transformed into the net income, which is the result after all revenues and expenses have been accounted for, also known as the “bottom line”. It displays, the revenues recognized for a specific period, and the cost and expenses charged against all these revenues, including write-offs (e.g., depreciation and the amortization of various assets) and taxes. The purpose of the income statement is to show manager’s and investors whether the company made or lost money, during the period being reported.

Items in Profit & Loss Statement

Operating Expenses

‘ Revenue: -Cash inflows, or other enhancements of assets of an entity during a period from delivering, or producing goods, rendering services, or other activities that constitute the entity’s ongoing, major operations. It is usually presented as the sales minus sales discounts, returns, and allowances.

‘ Expenses: – Cash outflows, or other using-up of assets or incurrence of liabilities during a period, from delivering or producing goods, rendering services, or carrying out other activities that constitute, the entity’s ongoing major operations.

‘ General and Administrative Expenses: -Represent expenses, to manage the business; which includes salaries of officers/executives, legal and professional fees, utilities, insurance, depreciation of office building and the equipment, office rents, office supplies, etc.).

‘ Selling Expenses: -It represents, expenses needed to sell products which include salaries of sales people, commissions, and travel expenses, advertising, freight, shipping, depreciation of sales store buildings and equipment, etc.

‘ R & D Expenses: -Investigative activities, that a business chooses to conduct with intention of making a discovery that can either lead to the development of a new products or procedures, or in the improvement of existing products or procedures.

‘ Depreciation/Amortization: -It is the charge, with respect to fixed assets / intangible assets that have been capitalized, on the balance sheet for a specific accounting period. It is a systematic and rational allocation of cost, rather than the recognition of market value decrement.

Non-operating Expenses

‘ Other Revenues or Gains: -They are, revenues and gains from other than primary business activities (e.g. rent, income from patents). It also includes unusual gains, that are either unusual or infrequent, but not both (e.g. gain from sale of securities or gain from disposal of fixed assets).

‘ Other expenses or losses: – Expenses or losses which are not related to primary business operations, (e.g. foreign exchange loss).

‘ Finance costs ‘ It is the cost of borrowing from various creditors (e.g. interest expenses, bank charges).

‘ Income tax expense: – It is the sum of the amount payable to tax authorities for the current reporting period (current tax liabilities/ tax payable) and the amount of deferred tax liabilities (or assets).

Irregular Items

They are reported separately, because this way the user can better predict future cash flows. Irregular items most likely may not appear in next year. These are reported as net of taxes.

‘ Extraordinary items: -They are both, unusual (abnormal) and infrequent, for example, unexpected natural disaster, expropriation, prohibitions, under new regulations. [Note: natural disaster, might not qualify depending on location (e.g. frost damage would not qualify in Canada, but would in the tropics).

‘ Changes in accounting principles: -For example, deciding to depreciate, an investment property that has previously not been depreciated. However, changes in the estimates (e.g. estimated useful life of fixed assets) do not qualify.

‘ Discontinued operations: -These are the most common type of irregular items. Shifting business location, stopping production temporarily, or changes due to technological improvement, do not qualify as discontinued operations.

1.2 SPECIFIC INTRODUCTION

RETAIL BACKGROUND OF INDUSTRY

The Indian retail industry, is divided into organized and unorganized sectors. Organized retailing, refers to trading activities undertaken by licensed retailers, that is, those who are registered for sales tax, income tax, etc. These include the corporate-backed, hypermarkets and retail chains, and also the privately owned large retail businesses. Unorganized retailing, on the other hand, refers to the traditional formats of the low-cost retailing, for example, the local kirana shops, owner manned general stores, paan/beedi shops, convenience stores, hand-cart and pavement vendors, etc. India’s retail sector is wearing new clothes and with a three-year compounded annual growth rate of 46.64 per cent, retail is the fastest growing sector, in the Indian economy. Traditional markets, are making way for new formats such as departmental stores, hypermarkets, supermarkets and specialist stores. Western-style malls, have begun appearing in metros and second-rung cities alike, introducing the Indian consumer, to annul paralleled shopping experience. The Indian retail sector, is highly fragmented with 97 per cent of its business being run by the unorganized retailers, like the traditional family run stores and corner stores. The organized retail however is at a very nascent stage, though attempts are being made to increase its proportion to 9-10 per cent by the year 2015 bringing in huge opportunities for prospective new players. This sector is the largest source of employment after agriculture, and has deep penetration, into rural India generating more than 10 percent of India’s GDP.

The last few years witnessed immense growth by this sector, the key drivers being

the Changing consumer profile and demographics, increase in the number of international brands, available in the Indian market, economic implications of the Government increasing urbanization, credit availability, improvement in the infrastructure, increasing investments in technology, and real estate building a world class shopping environment for the consumers. In order to keep pace with the increasing demand, there has been, a hectic activity in terms of entry of international labels, expansion plans, and focus on technology, operations and processes .This has led, to more complex relationships involving suppliers, third party distributors and retailers, which can be dealt, with the help of an efficient supply chain. A proper supply chain will help to meet the competition head-on, manage stock availability; supplier relations, new value-added services, cost cutting and most importantly reduce the wastage levels in fresh produce.

Large Indian players: like Reliance Ambani’s, K.Rahejas, Bharti AirTel, ITC and many others are making significant investments, in this sector leading to emergence of big retailers who can bargain with suppliers to reap, economies of scale. Hence, discounting is becoming, an accepted practice. Proper infrastructure is a pre-requisite in retailing, which would help to modernize India and facilitate rapid economic growth. This would ,help in efficient delivery of goods and value-added services to the consumer making a higher, contribution to the GDP. International retailers see India as the last retailing, frontier left as the China’s retail sector is, becoming saturated. However, the Indian Government restrictions on the FDI are creating, ripples among the international players like Walmart, Tesco and many other, retail giants struggling to enter Indian markets. As of now the Government has, allowed only 51 per cent FDI in the sector to ‘one-brand’ shops like Nike, Reebok, etc. However, other international players are taking alternative routes to enter ,the Indian retail market indirectly via strategic licensing agreement, franchisee, agreement and cash and carry wholesale trading (since 100 per cent FDI is allowed, in wholesale trading).

RETAIL INDUSTRY

India has one of the largest numbers, of retail outlets in the world of the 12 million retail outlets present in the, country, nearly 5 million sell food and related products. Though the market has, been dominated by unorganized players, the entry of domestic and international, organized players is set to change the scenario.

Organized retail segment has been ,growing at a blistering pace, exceeding all previous estimates. According to a, study by Deloitte Haskins and Sells, organized retail has increased its share, from 8 percent of total retail sales in 20012 to 10 percent in 2013. The, fastest growing segments have been the wholesale cash and carry stores, (150 percent) followed by supermarkets (100 percent) and hyper markets, (75-80 percent). Further, it estimates the organized segment to account for 25 per cent of the total sales by 2014.

India retail industry is the, largest industry in India, with an employment of around 8% and contributing, to over 10% of the country’s GDP. Retail industry in India is expected to rise, 25% yearly being driven by strong income growth, changing lifestyles, and, favorable demographic patterns.

It is expected that by, 2016 modern retail industry in India will be worth US$ 200-225 billion. India, retail industry is one of the fastest growing industries with revenue expected, in 2014 to amount US$350 billion and is increasing at a rate of 5% yearly. A ,further increase of 7-8% is expected in the industry of retail in India by growth in ,consumerism in urban areas, rising incomes, and a steep rise in rural consumption. It has further been predicted that the retailing industry in India will, amount to US$ 21.5 billion by 2015 from the current size of US$ 7.5 billion.

Shopping, in India has witnessed a revolution with the change in the consumer buying, behavior and the whole format of shopping also altering.

Industry, of retail in India which has become modern can be seen from the fact that there, are multi-stored malls, huge shopping centers, and sprawling complexes ,which offer food, shopping, and entertainment al under the same roof.

India retail, industry is expanding itself most aggressively; as a result a great demand for, real estate is being created. Indian retailers preferred means of expansion is ,to expand to other regions and to increase the number of their outlets in a city,. India retail industry is progressing well and for this to continue retailers as well, as the Indian government will have to make a combined effort.

Retail sector, one, of India’s largest industries, has presently emerged as one of the most dynamic, and fast paced industries of our times with several players entering the market.

India is being, seen as a potential goldmine for retail investors from over the world. India, gets 2nd position according to AT Kearney’s annual Global Retail Development, Index (GRDI). India earned $511 billion in the year of 2012 and drawing both, local as well as global players. Organized retail accounts still less than 5% of the, market is expected to grow at CAGR of 40%, from $20 billion in 2007 to $107, billion by 2013 and to $1.3 trillion by 2018, at a CAGR of 10%. India has one, of the largest numbers of retail outlets in the world. One of the 12 million retail, outlets, present in the country, nearly 5 million sell food and related products. Though, the market has been dominated by unorganized player, the entry of domestic, and international organized players is set to change the scenario.

As the contemporary, retail sector in India is reflected in sprawling shopping centers, multiplex- malls, and huge complexes offer shopping, entertainment and food all under one roof, the concept of shopping has altered in terms of format and consumer buying behavior, ushering in a revolution in shopping in India. This has also contributed to large, scale investments in real estate sector with major national and global players, investing in developing the infrastructure and construction of the retailing, business.

The retailing configuration, in India is fast developing as shopping malls are increasingly becoming familiar, in large cities. When it comes to development of retail space specially the malls, the Tier, II cities are no longer behind in the race. If development plans till 2007 is studied, it shows the projection of 220 shopping malls, with 139 malls in metros and the, remaining 81 in the Tier II cities. The government of states like Delhi and, National Capital Region (NCR) are very upbeat about permitting the use of, land for commercial development thus increasing the availability of land for, retail space; thus making NCR render to 50% of the malls in India.

Wal-Mart, the world’s largest retail, chain, recently joined Bharti to operate within India. Some MNC giants already, serving from the past couple of years like SPAR group, Carrefour, Marks &, Spencer, Metro. Local retailers such as Future group, RGP group and Reliance, have all taken an early lead due to their aggressive expansion plans.

The outlook for private consumption, has become more negative and customers are becoming more cautious. The retail, sector is concentrated. Indian retail chains are meeting the stiff competition, through increased efficiency, centralizing purchases, forming international, alliances and expanding operations.

INDIAN RETAIL INDUSTRY- ITS GROWTH, CHALLENGES AND OPPURTUNITIES.

As the contemporary retail, sector in India is reflected in sprawling shopping centers, multiplex- malls, and huge complexes offer shopping, entertainment and food all under one roof, the concept, of shopping has altered in terms of format and consumer buying behavior, ushering, in a revolution in shopping in India. This has also contributed to large- scale, investment in real estate sector with major national and global players investing, in developing the infrastructure and construction of relating business.

The trends that are driving the growth of retail sector in India are:

‘ Low share of organized ,retailing

‘ Falling real estate, prices

‘ Increase in disposal, income and customer aspiration

‘ Increase in expenditure, for luxury items

Another credible factor in the, prospects of retail sector in India is the increase in the young working, population. In India, hefty pay packets, nuclear families in urban areas, along, with increasing working- women and emerging opportunities in the service sector. These key factors have been the growth drivers of the organized retail, sector in India which now boast of retailing almost all the preferences of, life- Apparel & Accessories, Appliances, Electronics, Cosmetics and Toiletries, Home & Office Products. With this the retail sector in India is witnessing, rejuvenation as traditional markets make way for new formats such as departmental, stores , hypermarkets, supermarkets and specially stores.

The retailing, configuration in India is fast developing as shopping malls are increasingly, becoming familiar in large cities. When it comes to development of retail space, specially the malls, the Tier II cities are no longer behind in the race. If development, plans till 2007 is studied it shows the projection of 220 shopping malls, with 139, malls in metros and the remaining 81 in the Tier II cities. The government of, states like Delhi and national capital region (NCR) are very upbeat about, permitting the use of land for commercial development, thus increasing, the availability of land for retail space; thus making NCR render to 50% of the, malls in India.

The Indian Retail Scene

India, is the country having the most unorganized retail market. Traditionally it is a, family’s livelihood, with their shop in the front and house at the back, while they, run the retail business. More than 99% retailers, function in less than 500 square feet of shopping space. Global retail consultants, KSA Techno park have estimated that organized retailing in India is expected to ,touch Rs 35,000 crore in the year 2013-14. The Indian retail sector is estimated at ,around Rs 90,000 crore, of which the organized sector accounts for a mere, 2 percent indicating a huge potential market opportunities that is lying in the ,waiting for the customer savvy organized retailer.

Purchasing power of Indian urban consumer is ,growing and branded merchandise in categories like Apparels, cosmetics, Shoes, Watches, are slowly ,becoming lifestyle products that are widely accepted by the urban Indian. consumer. Indian retailers need to advantage of this growth and aiming to grow, diversify and introduced new formats have to pay more attention to the brand, building process. The emphasis here is on retail as a brand rather than retailers, selling brands. The focus should be on branding the retail business itself. In their, preparation to face fierce competitive pressure, Indian retailers must come to, recognize the value of building their own stores as brands to reinforce their, marketing positioning, to communicate quality as well as value for money. The Indian, retail scene has witnessed too many players in a short time, crowding several, categories without looking at their core competencies, or having as well, thought out branding strategy.

Strategies, Trends and Opportunities

Retailing in India is gradually inching its way toward, becoming the next boom industry. The whole concept of shopping has altered, in terms of format and consumer buying behavior, ushering in a revolution in, shopping in India. Modern retail has entered India as seen in sprawling shopping, ce

[supanova_question]

Research design argumentative essay help online

2.7 RESEARCH DESIGN USED :

The conception of research design plan is the critical step in the research process. The design ,of the study constitutes the blue print for the collection, measurement and analysis of data. In other words the research design is a conceptual structure with in which,h research is conducted.

2.8 DATA COLLECTION METHODS :

Primary Data: – Primary data are those data which are collected for the first time, and thus hap,pen to be original in character. It is extracted with the help of discussions co,nducted with senior managers with respect to factors affecting the performance.,

Secondary Data: – Secondary data are those data which are already collected by someone else ,and which have already passed through the statistical process. These data are g,athered by Books, Lectures, Notes, and Official Websites etc.

The study make,s extensive use of secondary data. ‘Secondary data are those which have already,y been passed through the statistical process’. The data which is pre-essential for ,this study relating to comparative analysis of Balance Sheet and PROFIT AND L,OSS A/c was based on secondary source of data. This data will be collected fro,m materials provided by Rakshitas Pvt. Ltd., discussions conducted with store m,anagers and some essential

Financial Accounts books.

2.9 LIMITATIONS :,

‘ Data provided is very limited due to the subjectivity of it being highly confidential.,

‘ The data taken for interpretation is for a limited period.

‘ Assumptions, are to be taken into consideration while doing analysis and interpretation, of data.

‘ Due to limited, information, depth analysis could not be made.

2.10 RESEARCH MEASURE TOOLS :

Various financial techniques and statistical tools are used to measure the data used in the study. Column graphs, pie chart etc. is used to highlight the statistical inference,s. The study cannot be completed without balance sheet and profit and loss a/c. ,Therefore three years balance sheet and profit & loss a/c has been taken out for ma,king proper research.

2.11 ANALYSIS OF DATA :

The data collected is secondary, and it’s compiled, classified, tabulated and then analyzed u,sing financial techniques and statistical tools. Graphs and charts are used to hig,hlight the statistics. Based on this data and analysis, inferences are drawn accor,dingly.

2.12 OVER VIEW OF THE CHAPTER :

The Project I,s Presented in the following chapter :-

CHAPTER 1 : INTRODUCTION

This chapter includes introduction to finance, theorectical back ground for the study of the ,various performance, introduction to finance, definition of retail industry and di,fferent type of industry.

CHAPTER 2 : DESIGN OF THE STUDY

This chapter I,ncludes the projects introduction of the subject background, statement of the, problem, objectives of the study, scope of the study, need and purpose of study,, research methodology, research design, data collection method primary and seco,ndary data, limitations, research measure tools and analysis of data.,

CHA,PTER 3 : PROFILE OF THE COMPANY

This c,hapter contains the profile of the company, its origin and background, board of directors, number of branches and organization structure.

CHAP,TER 4 : DATA ANALYSIS AND INTERPRETATION

This ch,apter consists of Table, Graphs, Analysis and Interpretation based on the question,nairies.

CHAPT,ER 5 : SUMMARY OF FINDINGS, CONCULSIONS AND RECOM,MENDATIONS

This chap,ter includes findings based on objectives of the study, conclusion drawn from the f,indings and recommendations given from the analysis.

Chapter:-3

PROFILE OF THE ORGANIZATION

COMPANY PROFILE

RAKSHITAS PVT.LTD.

Rakshitas business con,cept is to offer a broad and varied range of apparels that allows customers to fin,d their own personal style to choose from more than 150 remiums national and int,ernational brands.

Rakshitas is aimed at everyone in the family with an interest in modern basics, fashion, quality and affo,rdable pricing. Customers should always be able to find clothes and accessories ,at Rakshitas for every occasion. The collections are extensive and new arrivals, being launched week after week in each of the 4 floors spread across 20,000 s,q. ft. for Men, Women, Kids and Teen’s casual wear, formal wear, denim wea,r, ethnic and Kancheevaram silks etc. The range and collections are supplemen,ted by matching costume jewellery, premium international watches, perfumes, ,lingerie’s.

Mission

Our mission is to achieve excelle,nce in the products and services we offer, in the methods we employ and in the res,ult we produce.

Products

Menswear: menswear,r means clothing for men. Rakshitas provide various brands for menswear which ,includes formal shirts, casual shirts, trousers, jeans etc. of several variety of int,ernational as well as national brands, for example: -levis, pepe jeans, killer, lee, w,rangler etc.

Women’s wear: Women’s wear means ,clothing for women. Rakshitas provides the best options for women’s apparel rang,ing from skirts to ethnic, casuals as well as formals.

Kids wear: Kids wear are meant only for kids or children ranging below age of 12 years. Rakshitas provides awesome collection for kids which include children formal wear, kurtas, shirt,s etc.

Party wear: Party wear dresses are meant for wearing in parties, functions, special occasions etc. Rakshitas provides variety ranges of party wear which includes lehngas, wedding dresses, traditional indian dress etc.

[supanova_question]

Control and organisational behaviour (pengendalian dan perilaku organisasi) global history essay help

PENGENDALIAN DAN PERILAKU ORGANISASI

PERILAKU ORGANISASI

Untuk membuat dasar yang nantinya dapat digunakan manajemen dalam menyusun system pengendalian manajemen, maka kita perlu mengetahui lebih dalam mengenai perilaku organisasi. Berikut ini adalah beberapa penjelasan mengenai teori akuntansi sebagai bentuk pemahaman terhadap organisasi.

Definisi Organisasi

Secara umum, organisasi diartikan sebagai sekumpulan orang yang melakukan kerjasama demi mencapai tujuan ‘ tujuan yang telah ditentukan bersama. Organisasi tercipta ketika orang ‘ orang bergabung dan melakukan sesuatu untuk berbagai tujuan dan organisasi dapat mencakup segala aspek dalam kehidupan. Organisasi dapat bersifat formal dan informal. Pekerjaan di dalam suatu organisasi dapat dibagi ‘ bagi dan dikoordinasi sesuai dengan kebutuhan dan keahlian tiap ‘tiap anggota organisasinya untuk mencapai tujuan organisasi tersebut. Suatu organisasi haruslah going concern, dalam arti organisasi tersebut diasumsikan akan hidup selamanya.

Teori Perilaku Organisasi (Theory of Organization Behaviour)

Ada beberapa teori yang menjelaskan mengenai mengapa dan bagaimana orang ‘ orang berperilaku dalam organisasi. Berikut ada dua penjelasan mengenai teori tersebut :

1. Teori jenjang kebutuhan

Teori ini menjelaskan bahwa setiap manusia memiliki kebutuhan yang banyak dan harus dipenuhi dan kebutuhan serta keinginan tersebut tersusun secara rapih, sehingga apabila ada satu kebutuhan terpenuhi maka setelah itu ia akan berusaha memenuhi kebutuhannnya yang lebih tinggi. Dalam teori ini tersirat bahwa system pengendalian manajemen juga didasarkan pada kebutuhan manusia yang terkoordinasi dan dilakukan sesuai dengan tujuan organisasi.

2. Teori motivasi pencapaian

Teori ini lebih mengacu pada perilaku atasan atau manajer dalam perannya saat berorganisasi. Untuk mencapai keberhasilan dan mendapat sebuah kekuasaan, maka manajer tersebut juga perlu memiliki keinginan yang kuat agar dapat menghasilkan prestasi dalam organisasi.

TEORI ORGANISASI

Pengetahuan yang dalam mengenai organisasi sangatlah diperlukan oleh para pelaku organisasi dalam pelaksanaan system pengendalian manajemen organisasi tersebut. Para pelaku organisasi harus benar ‘ benar mengetahui semua poin dalam organisasi termasuk sejarah organisasi, tujuan organisasi, bagaimana perilaku para pelakunya hingga reaksi organisasi tersebut terhadap lingkungan.

Tak berbeda dengan teori perilaku akuntansi, dalam teori organisasi juga terdapat banyak teori yang membahas mengenai organisasi. Dan disini akan dibahas mengenai dua teori juga tentang organisasi, yaitu :

1. Teori Organisasi yang Berorientasi ke Dalam

Banyak organisasi dianggap indepen dan tidak terlalu memperhatikan lingkungan luar oleh beberapa teori. Teori organisasi yang berorientasi ke dalam ini banyak dijadikan dasar oleh sebagian besar system pengendalian manajemen dalam suatu organisasi hal tersebut didasarkan karena dalam teori ini mencakup tanggung jawab dalam pengambilan keputusan yang berlaku menurut proyek ‘ proyek, program ‘ program serta komponen ‘ komponen fungsionalnya.

2. Teori Organisasi yang Berorientasi ke Luar

Teori ini adalah teori kebalikan dari teori sebelumnya yaitu teori organisasi yang berorientasi ke dalam. Teori ini beranggapan bahwa suatu organisasi selalu berhubungan dengan lingkungan di sekitarnya. Ada dua jenis organisasi yang menganut teori organisasi yang berorientasi keluar ini, yaitu :

– Organisasi system umum terbuka

– Organisasi system manajemen

TIPE ORGANISASI

Ada tiga jenis atau tipe organisasi, yaitu :

1. Organisasi Fungsional

Dalam tipe organisasi ini, penekanan lebih ditujukan kepada manajer yang sangat harus bertanggung jawab terhadap suatu fungsi tertentu, seperti fungsi produksi, fungsi pemasaran dan fungsi lainnya yang diterapkan dalam organisasi tersebut. Fungsi ‘ fungsi tersebut dapat dihimpun oleh fungsi yang lebih tinggi dalam organisasi itu juga. Organisasi ini berpotensi membuat efisiensi perusahaan yang lebih baik karena menggunakan masukan ‘ masukan dari manajerial yang lebih tinggi.

2. Organisasi Divisi

Dalam organisasi ini, semua manajer harus bertanggung jawab terhadap hamper keseluruhan fungsi dalam proses produksi serta distribusi lini pada organisasi tersebut. Orientasi organisasi divisi lebih terbuka yang berarti lebih menekankan bahwa para manajer harus peka terhadap pengaruh ‘ pengaruh yang dating dari luar yang mungkin dapat mempengaruhi kinerja organisasi.

3. Organisasi Matriks

Ada dua struktur organisasi dalam organisasi matriks, yaitu ditata berdasarkan fungsi dan ditata berdasarkan program. Pada organisasi matriks, para manajer bertanggung jawab penuh atas profitabilitas dari lini produk organisasi tersebut dimana proses produksi dilakukan oleh unit ‘ unit organisasi fungsional.

Teori Kemungkinan (Contingency Theory)

Untuk mengendalikan suatu manajemen menggunakan tiga macam pendekatan, antara lain :

1. Pendekatan tradisional

Pendekatan ini menekankan pada perencanaan, pendekatan dan pengendalian.

2. Pendekatan system

Pendekatan ini menekankan padapenggunaan sumber daya manusia sebagai pertimbangan dalam pengambilan keputusan.

3. Pendekatan perilaku

Pendekatan ini menekankan pada pengendalian manusia termasuk di dalamnya motivasi dan prediksi.

PERILAKU MANAJEMEN

Organisasi dan sistemnya yang rumit akan mempengaruhi perilaku manusia menjadi rumit pula.

Konsep Fundamental

Agar suatu organisasi ‘terkendali’ maka para anggota organisasi harus mengetahui dengan baik apa sebenarnya yang diinginkan oleh manajemen. Untuk merealisasikan hal tersebut, dapat menggunakan banyak informasi yang telah disediakan oleh manajemen organisasi seperti anggaran hingga kebijakan organisasi. Tujuan organisasi dibuat oleh para manajer senior dan dilaksanakan oleh manajer operasional untuk selanjutnya para manajer senior menerapkan system pengendalian manajemen untuk mengontrol organisasi tersebut.

Persepsi Tujuan

Para manajer operasional harus benar ‘ benar mengetahui apa tujuan organisasi. Para manajer operasional tersebut dapat secara mudah mendapatkan informasi ‘ informasi yang mereka butuhkan dari berbagai sumber baik dari dokumen maupun percakapan informal saja. System pengendalian manajemen yang efektif dapat menguatkan kepastian suatu perusahaan.

Organisasi Informal

Adanya organisasi informal di dalam organisasi formal sering menyebabkan adanya salah persepsi mengenai tindakan yang diharapkan. Hubungan pada organisasi informal tidak tercantum di dalam bagan organisasi, padahal hal tersebut cukup penting untuk pemahaman system pengendalian organisasi tersebut.

Motivasi

Reaksi pada pelaku organisasi terutama manajemen terhadap organisasi dapat berbeda tergantung pada motivasinya. Motivasi dapat bermacam ‘ macam, misalnya kenaikan gaji, promosi, pujian dan lain ‘ lain. Motivasi timbul dari dalam pribadi masing ‘ masing, tetapi motivasi dapat dipengaruhi oleh rangsangan dari lingkungan sekitarnya.

Keselarasan Tujuan (Goal Congruence)

Setiap manusia memiliki tujuan pribadi, begitu juga dengan organisasi yang juga memiliki tujuan bersama. Salah satu tugas penting system pengendalian adalah menyelaraskan kedua tujuan tersebut serta mencapainya demi mendapatkan kepuasan bersama. Semakin kuat hubungan antara tujuan pribadi dan tujuan organisasi, maka ssistem pengendalian organisasi tersebut akan semakin kuat juga.

Kerjasama dan Konflik

Suatu organisasi tidak akan berjalan dengan baik apabila para anggotanya tidak bekerjasama dengan baik secara terkoordinasi, untuk itu di dalam organisasi sangat dibutuhkan kerjasama yang terkoordinir dan selaras. Selain itu, organisasi juga harus menjaga koordinasi dan keselarasan tersebut agar tidak terjadi konflik yang dapat mengganggu kinerja organisasi. Konflik tersebut dapat terjadi karena berbagai alasan, salah satunya adalah dengan adanya persaingan didalam organisasi tersebut.

Iklim Organisasi (Organizational Climate)

Secara singkat, iklim organisasi dapat diartikan sebagai hasil kombinasi dari struktur formal dan struktur informal pada suatu organisasi. Dan menurut pemahaman saya iklim organisasi merupakan suasana di dalam organisasi dimana tiap pelaku organisasi di dalam organisasi saling membantu, saling menilai, dan memahami antara satu dengan yang lain. Iklim organisasi ikut mengambil bagian penting dalam organisasi. Keduanya saling mempengaruhi satu sama lain.

Tipe Pengendalian

Pelaku pengendalian Sumber arah pengendalian Macam ‘ macam Pengendalian

Ukuran prestasi dan tingkah laku Isyarat untuk tindak koreksi Imbalan untuk prestasi Hukuman untuk kegagalan

Organisasi formal Rencana organisasi, strategi, tanggapan atas persaingan Anggaran, biaya standar, target penjualan penyimpangan Penghargaan manajemen, insentif uang, promosi Minta penjelasan

Kelompok informal Keterikatan bersama cita’cita kelompok Norma-norma kelompok penyimpangan Pengakuan rekan, keanggotaan, kepemimpinan Ejekan, pengasingan, permusuhan

Perorangan Tujuan pribadi, aspirasi Harapan pribadi, target antara Dugaan akan kegagalan di masa yang akan dating, target tak tercapai Kepuasan karena ‘terkendali’ kegembiraan Merasa gagal

Sumber : Disarikan dari Gene W. Dalton dan Paul R. Lawrence, Motivation and Control in Organizations (Homewood, III. : Richard D. Irwin, 1971). Hak Cipta 1971 oleh Richard D. Irwin Inc.

Variasi dalam Pengendalian

Hakekat system pengendalian manajemen dibedakan menurut sifat pekerjaan, macam organisasi, lingkungan daan peran manajer. Berikut adalah tiga dimensi yang perlu diperhatikan dalam penggunaan dan pengembangan system pengendalian manajemen :

1. Besar keleluasaan manajemen

2. Besar interdependensi

3. Rentang waktu pelaksanaan

FUNGSI KONTROLER

Kontroler dapat diartikan sebagai petinggi atau pejabat yang bertanggung jawab atas apa yang telah direncanakan oleh organisasi dan bagaimana pengoperasiannya. Tanggung jawab para kontroler berbeda ‘ beda di tiap organisasi bahkan di tiap divisinya. Tanggung jawab kontroler didasarkan pada posisinya masing ‘ masing. Tanggung jawab tersebut dilaksanakan secara langsung. Selain tanggung jawab dalam perencanaan dan pengoperasian tersebut, berikut ini adalah fungsi lain dari kontroler :

a. Menyiapkan laporan kepada pihak pemerintah serta pihak ‘ pihak luar lainnya.

b. Mempersiapkan pengembalian pajak.

c. Mempersiapkan dan melakukan analisa terhadap laporan prestasi keuangan.

d. Membantu para manajer dengan cara melakukan analisa sertab menafsirkan laporan ‘ laporan tersebut.

e. Menggunakan prosedur pemeriksaan intern dan pengendalian akuntansi, memastikan validitas informasi, menetapkan usaha perlindungan yangcukup terhadap berbagai penyimpangan serta melakukan pemeriksaan operasional.

f. Melakukan pengembangan kepada orang ‘ orang yang ia pimpin serta berperan langsung dalam penambahan pengetahuan mengenai fungsi kontroler

g. Mengadakan manajemen kas, asuransi serta kegiatan ‘ kegiatan lainnya demi pengamanan kekayaan perusahaan.

Hubungan dengan Organisasi Lini

Kontroler juga memiliki hak untuk membuat kebijakan ‘ kebijakan dalam organisasi. Namun keputusan ‘ keputusan tersebut merupakan realisasi pelaksanaan kebijakan ‘ kebijakan yang telah dibuat oleh manajer lini. Dengan kata lain, terdapat keselarasan antara kedua belah pihak. Hal tersebut tentunya sangat baik untuk menjaga kelancaran jalannya organisasi tersebut.

Kontroler Divisi

Kebanyakan perusahaan atau organisasi membagi organisasinya tersebut menjadi beberapa divisi yang dikepalai oleh seorang manajer. Manajer divisi tentu juga memiliki kontroler divisi. Dalam hal ini, kontroler divisi harus patuh kepada manajer divisi dan juga kontroler perusahaan yang terkadang beda kepentingannya. Penilaian prestasi terhadap kontroler divisi dapat dilakukan dengan menilai beberapa poin, antara lain :

– Laporan akuntansi dan keuangan

– Pengetahuan mengenai operasi divisi

– Sasaran dan pelaksanaan kepatuhan terhadap kebijakan

– Kontribusi manajemen

– Pengetahuan terhadap akuntansi

– Kejujuran dan profesionalisme

– Kemauan bekerjasama

– Organisasi dan staf

– Inisiatif dan semangat

HUBUNGAN LINI-STAF

Seorang manajer divisi dapat dikatakan tidak memiliki staf maupun asisten pribadi. Manajer tersebut mendapatkan bantuan dari :

1. Tenaga yang ditugaskan untuk membantunya dari staf umum, insinyur serta petugas pembelian

2. Staf pusat yang dapat dimintai bantuan kapan saja sebanyak mungkin.

HUBUNGAN MANAJER DIVISI ‘ KONTROLER

Untuk mencapai kesuksesan organisasi dalam hubungannya dengan manajer divisi, maka organisasi perlu membina kerjasama yang baik dan solid di tiap ‘ tiap manajemen. Berikut merupakan beberapa factor yang dapat mempengaruhi hubungan baik adalah :

1. System akuntansi yang seragam dan terpusat

2. Sasaran ‘ saasaran keuangan yang telah ditetapkan sebelumnya untuk tiap ‘ tiap divisi.

(Pertumbuhan penjualan serta besar laba penjualan)

3. Pembagian laba antara kontroler dan manajer

SISTEM AKUNTANSI

Selain memiliki tanggung jawab dalam perencanaan dan pengoperasian organisasi, divisi kontroler juga memiliki kewenangan atas system akuntansi yang akan digunakan oleh organisasi tersebut termasuk di dalamnya menetapkan cara dan jenis pos ‘ pos yang harus mereka awasi. Sistem akuntansi dijadikan dasar dalam penyusunan laporan keuangan beserta analisisnya.

SASARAN ‘ SASARAN DIVISI

Seperti yang telah disebutkan pada bagian sebelumnya, perusahaan atau organisasi memiliki sasaran keuangan, yaitu pertumbuhan penjualan dan tingkat laba. Tingkat laba dalam organisasi atau perusahaan ditetapkan sebaga persentase penjualan. Berikut ini adalah beberapa factor penentu target laba penjualan :

1. Kemungkinan pematenan produk

2. Besar laba atas investasi yang diinginkan

3. Besar laba industry bersangkutan

4. Besar laba investasi bersangkutan

[supanova_question]

Business notes: Creative problem solving essay help writer

1 Unit 1 – Creative problem solving

1.1 Introduction

A business leader is expected to identify problems, implement solutions and find business opportunities. To do so, they must learn to plan, analyse situations, identify and solve problems (or potential problems), make decisions, and set realistic and attainable goals for the business/unit. These are the fundamental thinking/creative requirements for leadership, and these set direction to a successful future. Without this critical competence, you will have to rely on others to do your thinking for you, or you will simply have to learn to nurture your creative thinking skills which will help you on your journey towards successful business.

Creative thinking forms part of this continuous problem solving process, and is the fundamental basis for facilitating in the development of solutions, new initiatives, products or services. In an entrepreneurial context, the end result of this process should be directly linked to a feasible opportunity in the market environment.

Quote – What lies behind us and what lies before us, are tiny matters, compared to what lies within us. – William Morrow

The creative problem solving process consists of the following four steps:

‘ Problem analysis

‘ Solution analysis

‘ Decision analysis

‘ Solution implementation

1.2 The process

The creative problem solving process consists of an important core process, namely the idea generation process see figure 1. This is an important step, especially if you need to come up with creative ideas for products, services, and processes, to solve a consumer problem. The idea generation process consists of the following four steps:

‘ Step 1 – Generating ideas

‘ Step 2 – Developing ideas into a concept

‘ Step 3 – Converting a concept into a tangible or intangible product

‘ Step 4 – Finally protecting the tangible or intangible product

Figure 1 – The process of creative thinking (idea generation)

Initially you need to understand the problem and find the root cause of the problem. Many techniques are available to find the causes of problems, you can use the 5 Why technique in this case, if you are familiar with it. The more advanced courses will describe how to use the major problem identification techniques, but this course will focus on the idea generation process.

1.3 Where to start

In the entrepreneurial phase, the best way to start the idea generation process is when you are required to come up with a new product or service, to identify a potential consumer problem. Initially, focus on identifying problems in the area of your expertise (your knowledge base).

If you have no knowledge of the problem, the product development stage could be a challenge for you.

You will learn in the next section that not all problems are opportunities, and entrepreneurs should be careful as to how they approach this stage, when generating ideas in trying to identify a new product or service.

1.4 Problem versus opportunity

In most cases, the idea-generation phase in the creative problem solving process is neglected. Individuals normally identify a problem or an opportunity (which may seem like an opportunity, but is actually just an idea), and then develop a new product in line with the new assumed idea or opportunity. It is therefore important to distinguish between an idea and an opportunity. Resources may be wasted if a mere idea is incorrectly perceived as an opportunity.

Any opportunity is initially problem based (e.g. a coffee shop in a destination where there is a lack thereof, this creates several problem situations and potentially feasible opportunities for the entrepreneur). The creative thinking (idea generation process) involved, is the means to solving these problems, and bring forth solutions to the market problems, which create further opportunities.

1.4.1 Difference between problem and opportunity

There is, however, a critical difference between a problem and opportunity. Consider the following:

‘ Is it an idea or an opportunity to develop a high speed train between two major cities which are not far from each other? Some may say it is a great idea, but when you need to pay R200 a day to make use of it, it is simply not an opportunity. Only a few people would make use of the service, resulting in a negative impact on the market.

‘ If it is possible to transport people between the two cities for a lower cost, say R10, it would possibly be a more feasible opportunity.

Here is a good example of an opportunity – Around the turn of the twentieth century, a shoe manufacturer sent a representative to Africa, to open up a market in the undeveloped area in that continent. After exploring the culture for a month, the rep sent a telegram to the home office shouting,

‘Disaster! Disaster! These people do not wear shoes. Bring me home immediately!’

A short time later, another shoe company sent their agent to Africa for the same purpose. A month later his home office also received a telegram:

‘Opportunity! Opportunity! These people do not wear shoes! Triple production immediately!’

Quote – Every situation contains the potential for disastrous problems or unprecedented success. The event is what we perceive it to be. Unknown

Now the question arises: How do I distinguish between an idea and an opportunity? Looking at above examples, every problem is not an opportunity, and it really depends at how you are looking at the problem. If you see a viable opportunity in a problem then you are looking at the problem with a different perception than most people (the glass is half full or half empty). From a business perspective all opportunities are not necessarily a viable opportunity, the market determines the available opportunities. Without the knowledge to interpret the market conditions, you could miss it totally in terms of your opportunity analysis.

Table 1 shows the different industries in South Africa, the level of entrepreneurial activity, and how the same opportunity differs in each of these market areas.

1.4.2 The global entrepreneurship monitor

The Global Entrepreneurship Monitor ‘ specifically identified the entrepreneurial activity in the various industries of South Africa. It can be generalized to state that an industry with a high level of entrepreneurial activity, gives away more business opportunities (e.g. manufacturing, retail, hotel, restaurant and business services), while one with a lower level will indicate far less opportunities (e.g. agriculture, forestry, hunting, fishing, finance, insurance, real estate and health, education and social services).

If we analyse just one ‘high-opportunity’ industry, for instance manufacturing, it may be an opportunity today to manufacture a final product, and export it to an international market. A ‘low-opportunity’ industry, for instance insurance (especially in the market entry phase), may be negative as having an extremely high crime rate and insurance companies have to pay out claims at an alarming rate. It is also evident that low-opportunity industries may create feasible opportunities.

An entrepreneur should therefore be wary of following a fad, (latest trend) and exploiting assumed opportunities in a ‘popular’ industry.

Percentage of Entrepreneurs

ISIC Category Start-ups New Firms Total

Agriculture, forestry, hunting, fishing 1,3 2,6 1,6

Mining, construction 9,7 5,0 4,1

Manufacturing 14,3 19,1 13,8

Transport, communications, utilities 9,8 0,7 8,0

Wholesale, motor vehicle sales, repairs 6,0 6,5 6,3

Retail, hotel, restaurant 40,8 47,7 43,5

Finance, insurance, real estate 0,3 5,2 1,4

Business services 10,1 7,9 9,4

Health, education, social services 2,6 0,7 2,3

Consumer services 11,0 3,5 9,7

Source: Driver. Wood, Segal & Herrington, 2001

Table 1 – The percentage of entrepreneurs in the different industries in South-Africa

1.4.3 What is an opportunity?

What exactly is an opportunity and how does an entrepreneur exploit a feasible opportunity? According to Hesrich & Peters (2002), an opportunity is the process whereby the entrepreneur assesses whether a certain product, service or process, will yield the necessary earnings based on the resource inputs that are required to manufacture and market it.

The nature of opportunities needs to be assessed – thus, what leads to the existence of an opportunity? The following factors may result in an opportunity:

‘ General and specific problems faced by consumers

‘ Market shifts

‘ Government regulations

‘ Competition

There are two equally important criteria in the assessment of an opportunity. Firstly, the size of the market – will the number of customers reward the input and energy required, to create and deliver the product?

Secondly, the length in terms of the frame of the opportunity (window of opportunity). For example, is the demand for this product only a short fashionable phenomenon or is it based on sustainable business, or how long will it take before someone else (a competitor), to grab the opportunity?

These two aspects should also link directly to the personal skills and competence of the entrepreneur. For example, entrepreneurs with no skills or interest in information technology will not necessarily achieve their personal goals. They should rather venture into an opportunity which suits their experience and personality.

1.4.4 Transform opportunity into a business

Table 2 shows how the development of a business plan links to the identification and evaluation of opportunities, the determination of the resources required and the eventual management of the enterprise. All of these factors play a significant role in the correct assessment of the business opportunity.

This means that the business plan must explain in sufficient detail how the business will exploit the situation, to transform the opportunity, into solving a problem for the consumer, which generates extraordinary profits for the people involved.

Identify and evaluate the opportunity Develop the business plan Determine the resources needed Manage the enterprise

Creation and length of opportunity

Real and perceived value of opportunity

Risk and returns of opportunity

Opportunity versus skills and goals

Competitive situation Title page

Table of contents

Executive summary

Description of business

Description of industry

Marketing plan

Financial plan

Production plan

Organisational plan

Operational plan

Summary

Appendices Existing resources of the entrepreneur

Resource gap and available supplies

Access to needed resources Management style

Key variables for success

Identification of problems and potential problems

Implementation of control systems

Source: Hisrich, R.D. & Peters, M.P. 2002: 40. Entrepreneurship. Boston: Irwin/McGraw-Hill.

Table 2 – Link between Opportunity and business plan

1.5 Instruction

Exit and resume to your current page.

[supanova_question]

The importance of employee engagement in an organization write essay help

1.4 Literature Review

Mark Kilsby and Stephen Beyer (1996) ‘ Engagement and Interaction : A comparison between supported employment and acts’. This research study was conducted with the help of interaction and commitment patterns of 13 supported employees and 38 regular adult training center attainders of the organization. Direct observation was used as method of data collection, within the 13 employment sites and a representative sample of ATC organized activities. Because of the higher level of task specific dialogue between individuals and the service of the organization it is found that there is more of social interaction in ACT. Interaction of employees with public within office hours was the cause for this as per the study conducted.

Douglas R. May, Richard L, Gilson and Lynn M . Harter (2004) ‘The Psychological Conditions Of Meaningfulness ,Safety And Availability And The Engagement Of The Human Spirit At Work’. This shows the study about a U.S western company which explored the determinants and mediated the effects of tree psychological conditions they are meaningful, safe and available. The above studies shoes that all the three factors (meaningfulness, safety and availability) have a positive relation with the engagement of an employee in the organization. In other words they are completely associated with the psychological safety where as loyalty to co worker norms and self- consciousness are negatively related.

Despoina Xanthopaolou, Arnold B, Bakker, Evangelia Demerouti and Wilmar B.Schaufeli (2009) ‘Work Engagement And Financial Returns : A Diary Study On The Role Of The Job And Personal Resources’. The above study shows that how daily fluctuations in job can affect the level of personal resource , financial returns and work engagement. Different level of analysis revealed that day level job resources had an effect on work engagement through the day level personal resources. When there was a control for the general level of personal resources and organizational engagement Day level work engagement showed a positive way towards day level training, which in turn showed the financial returns.

Dan-Shang Wang and Chia ‘Chun Hsieh (2013) ‘The Effect Of Authentic Leadership On Employee Trust And Employee Engagement’ they have examined the genuine leadership on employee engagement through employee trust. They have collected data from 386 employees from top 1000 manufacturing companies and top 500 service companies in Taiwan. Hierarchical multiple regression was used to test the hypothesis on the employees. Later on the results shows that the consistency between the supervisors , words and actions as well as their moral perceptions are optimistically related to employee engagement , when only supervisors are consist between the words and actions in positively related employment trust. The study shows how employee engagement had a positive trust on employee. Employee trust has a partial link between authentic leadership and employee engagement.

Benjamin J.C, Yuan and Michael B.H. Lin (2012) ‘Transforming Employee Engagement Into Long-Term Customer Relationships: Evidence From Information Technology Salespeople In Taiwan’. This article shows that when information sales people in Taiwan have perceived more transformational leadership and they were more expected to show increased development in work engagement. Over a period of time it was found that increased development in work engagement influenced the increased customer relationship. It showed how employee engagement is indirectly co related with customer relationship.

Xander M.Bezuijen, Karen Van Dam, Peter T . Van Den Berg and Henk Thierry (2010) ‘How Leaders Stimulate Employee Learning : A Leader ‘ Member Exchange Approach’. This study investigated how the three factors as such as leader member exchange, goal setting, and feedback are related to employee engagement in the learning activities. Here, two different mechanisms were proposed , first one a mediating mechanism telling that leader member exchange shows specific leader behavior. The second one is it as a moderating mechanism , holding that leader member exchange will strengthen the effect of leader behavior from 7 organizations a sample of 1112 employees was taken , to measure the leader member exchange approach. 233 of the direct leaders answered that they find difficulty in rating employee engagement in learning activities.

Maureen F.Dollard and Arnold B. Bakker (2010) ‘Psychosocial Safety Climate As A Precursor To Conducive Work Environment , Psychological Health Problems , And Employee Engagement’. This article shows the gap between work psychology and psychosocial working condition. Where we construct a psychosocial working condition PSC. It explains how PSC influences the senior management in psychological working conditions and in psychological health and engagement. They use the job demand and resources as a frame work and uses a multi level thinking into their explanation

James R.Jones (2009) ‘Comparative Effects On Race/Ethnicity And Employee Engagement On Withdrawal Behavior’. This study have added knowledge on the basis of effects on employee attachment. In addition to that it provides more evidence on looking at all types of employees as a single entity which can lead to false results.

Shane Crabb ( 2011) ‘The Use Of Coaching Principles To Foster Employee Engagement’. The above article focuses on the human condition that leads to the happiness of fulfillment and flourishing of employee engagement. Where positive psychology results in so many questions from traditional psychological approaches .Which have mean to focus on a different model of human functioning with healing people fail. In another way positive psychology takes additional holistic approach to human life. Seeing the positive and negative aspects of context when establishing what is right , working and good of people.

Roberta A . Neault and Deidre A .Pickerel (2011) ‘Career Engagement : Bridging Career Counseling And Employee engagement’ . this article is showing that employee counselors helps individuals in maximizing their career engagement at any career stage of an individual. When you facilitate career engagement it contributes to employee engagement which employee are looking for. They even encourages others to use the career engagement and employee engagement models as vehicles to combine the employers to interest in engagement counselors to create interest in supporting the development of employee an motivate them to work.

2.1 Title: A Cross Sectional Study Of Employee Engagement In Apollo Hospitals.

2.2 Objectives:

1. To determine the level of Employee Engagement in Apollo Hospitals.

2. To identify the factors of Employee Engagement.

3. To analyze and suggest strategies for improvement.

2.3 Research Methodology:

I had adopted descriptive research design for the purpose of this

Survey on employee engagement. The primary data was collected from the 100 employees conveniently selected from Apollo Hospitals Bangalore, through structured questionnaire.

2.4 Limitations:

1) The survey was carried out for a sample sized of 100 working staff only.

2) Findings and suggestion of this research are applicable only to Apollo Hospitals.

3) As an fact finding study advanced statistical tools or analysis are not used.

Table 1.1 Weighted Average on Opportunities for growth

X 1 2 3 4 5

I have adequate opportunities for professional growth in this organization. (X1) 10 20 32 19 19

I receive the training I need to do my job well.(X2) 2 52 22 16 08

My manager is actively interested in my professional development and advancement.(X3) 32 21 12 18 17

My manager encourages and supports my development (X4) 08 10 40 18 24

I am encouraged to learn from my mistakes (X5) 52 23 16 04 05

My work is challenging, stimulating, and rewarding(X6) 28 14 33 16 09

X1 ?? XI X2 ?? X2 X3 ?? X3 X4 ?? X4 X5 ?? X5 X6 ?? X6

10 50 2 10 32 160 08 40 52 260 28 140

20 80 52 208 21 84 10 40 23 92 14 56

32 96 22 66 12 36 40 120 16 48 33 99

19 38 16 32 18 36 18 36 04 08 16 32

19 19 08 08 17 17 24 24 05 05 09 09

TOTAL 283 TOTAL 324 TOTAL 333 TOTAL 260 TOTAL 413 TOTAL 336

Table 1.2 Calculation Of Weighted Average on Opportunities for growth

283/100 2.83 324/100 3.24 333/100 3.33 260/100 2.60 413/100 4.13 336/100 3.36

RANKED 6 RANKED 4 RANKED 3 RANKED 5 RANKED 1 RANKED 2

Table 1.3 Showing The Rank Of Each Component of Opportunities for growth

INFERENCE

The above table shows that the employees are encouraged to learn from their mistakes that is 4.15 out of 5.the work is stimulating rewarding and challenging is ranked 2nd.the manager is actively interested in employees professional growth is

ranked 3rd.the level of opportunity for professional growth shows the least ranking.

Table 1.4: Showing Adequate Opportunities/ Professional growth

STRONGLY AGREED AGREED NEUTRAL DISAGREE STRONGLY DISAGREE TOTAL

10 20 32 19 19 100

Chart 1.1: Showing Adequate Opportunities/ Professional growth

Interpretation:

32% of the employees from the given population says that they have a neutral opportunity to grow where as 10 % stands in the outstanding category and 20% of them in good category. An equal no of employees disagree to the fact in the other hand that is 19% of the given population.

STRONGLY AGREED AGREED NEUTRAL DISAGREE STRONGLY DISAGREE TOTAL

2 52 22 16 8 100

Table 1.5: Showing Training

Chart 1.2: Showing Training

Interpretation:

In the given sample 52% of the employees agrees to the fact that they receive good training in order to do their job efficiently and 2% strongly agrees. where 22 % is neutral to the situation given.16 % of them do not get proper training they required to do their jobs and 8 % strongly disagree to it. It is clear that the organization is giving a proper training to employees to make their work effective.

Table 1.6: Showing Professional Development And Advancement

STRONGLY AGREED AGREED NEUTRAL DISAGREE STRONGLY DISAGREE TOTAL

32 21 12 18 17 100

Chart 1.3: Showing Professional Development And Advancement

Interpretation:

Most of the employees agree that their manager takes attention in their professional development steps. 32 % to 25 of the employees from the given sample have strongly agreed and agreed to it respectively. whereas 12 % is neutral to it . but 18% to 17% disagrees and says that they are not taken care in respective of their advancement in profession.

Table 1.7: Showing Encouragement And Support

STRONGLY AGREED AGREED NEUTRAL DISAGREE STRONGLY DISAGREE TOTAL

8 10 40 18 24 100

Chart 1.4: Showing Encouragement And Support

Interpretation:

From the above graph its clear that 40% of the employees neither agree or disagree that management encourage them or support them. 8% to 10% agrees that they have been supported by the management . but 18 % to 24 % disagree to the fact that management supports them .

Table 1.8: Showing Challenges, Stimulation And Reward

STRONGLY AGREED AGREED NEUTRAL DISAGREE STRONGLY DISAGREE TOTAL

52 23 16 4 5 100

Chart 1.5: Showing Challenges, Stimulation And Reward

Interpretation:

More than half , 52% of the employees states that they have a challenging stimulating and rewarding work. A very few of them disagree to it 4 % to 5% . and 23 % of them agrees t it there is a majority of people agreeing to it.

Table 1.9: Showing Encouragement

STRONGLY AGREED AGREED NEUTRAL DISAGREE STRONGLY DISAGREE TOTAL

28 14 33 16 9 100

Chart 1.6: Showing Encouragement

Interpretation:

There is a 28% of people agreeing to it. And 16 % to 9 % disagreeing to the fact that they are not encouraged to learn from their mistakes .

Table 1.10: Showing Weighted Average on Work/Life Balance; Stress and Work Pace

X 1 2 3 4 5

My manager understands the benefits of maintaining a balance between work and personal life. (X1) 02 13 08 48 29

My job does not cause unreasonable amounts of stress in my life. (X2) 30 13 08 48 29

The amount of work I am asked to do is reasonable. (X3) 40 20 12 14 14

I am able to satisfy both my job and family/personal responsibilities. (X4) 27 12 08 09 44

X1 ?? X1 X2 ?? X2 X3 ?? X3 X4 ?? X4

02 10 30 150 40 200 27 135

13 52 13 52 20 80 12 48

08 24 08 24 12 48 08 24

48 96 48 96 14 28 09 18

29 29 29 29 14 14 44 44

TOTAL 211 TOTAL 351 TOTAL 370 TOTAL 269

Table 1.11: Showing Calculation Of Weighted Average on Work/Life Balance; Stress and Work Pace

Table 1.12: Showing The Rank Of Each Component of Work/Life Balance; Stress And Work Pace

211/100 2.11 351/100 3.51 370/100 3.7 269/100 2.69

RANKED 4 RANKED 1 RANKED 2 RANKED 3

INFERRENCE

By analysing the given data using weighted average method that the level of stress reduced in the employees is 3.51 out of 4 , and the amount of work the employee is asked to do is 3.7. the employee is able to balance between family and personal responsibility is 2.69 . the managers understanding in the benefits and maintaining balance between work and personal life should be taken care because it is got only 2.11 which have least rank

STRONGLY AGREED AGREED NEUTRAL DISAGREE STRONGLY DISAGREE TOTAL

2 13 8 48 29 100

Table 1.13: Showing Work/Life Balance; Stress And Work Pace Balance Between Work And Personal Life

Chart 1.7: Showing Work/Life Balance; Stress And Work Pace Balance Between Work And Personal Life

Interpretation:

Only 2% of the employees says that there is a balance between work life and personal life. 13% of them agrees to it and 8% is neutral to it.but 48% of the sample disagrees and 29 % of them strongly disagrees to it.

Table 1.14: Showing Stress Level In Employees Life

STRONGLY AGREED AGREED NEUTRAL DISAGREE STRONGLY DISAGREE TOTAL

30 13 8 48 29 100

Chart 1.8: Showing Stress Level In Employees Life

Interpretation:

30% of the employees strongly agrees that the job doesn’t cause much stress where 13% of them agrees and 8% is neutral to it. But 48%of them disagree nd 29% strongly disagrees and states that job causes stress in their life.

Table 1.15: Showing Amount Of Work Asked To Do

STRONGLY AGREED AGREED NEUTRAL DISAGREE STRONGLY DISAGREE TOTAL

40 20 12 14 14 100

Chart 1.9: Showing Amount Of Work Asked To Do

Interpretation:

40% of them strongly agrees that they have sufficient amount of work and they do not feel any stress where 20 % of them agrees. 12% of the sample is neutral.14% of them disagrees they don’t have suffient amount of work or they are overloaded with the work given.

Table 1.16: Showing Satisfying Family / Personal Responsibilities

STRONGLY AGREED AGREED NEUTRAL DISAGREE STRONGLY DISAGREE TOTAL

40 20 12 14 14 100

Chart 1.10: Showing Satisfying Family / Personal Responsibilities

Interpretation:

44% of them strongly disagree that they are not able to complete their job, family and personal responsibilities. 27 % to 12 % agrees to it and 8% is neutral to that. It shows that employees are not satisfied with the amount of work given to them.

Table 1.17: Showing Weighted Average on Personal Expression / Diversity

X 1 2 3 4 5

My ideas and opinions count at work. (X1) 03 18 19 32 28

I am comfortable sharing my opinions at work. (X2) 10 08 28 42 12

We work to attract, develop, and retain people with diverse backgrounds. (X3) 10 13 09 56 12

Senior management is genuinely interested in employee opinions and ideas. (X4) 24 23 36 07 10

People with different ideas are valued in this organization. (X5) 20 18 40 13 09

Table 1.18: Calculation Of Weighted Average on Personal Expression / Diversity

X1 ?? X1 X2 ?? X2 X3 ?? X3 X4 ?? X4 X5 ?? X5

3 15 10 50 10 50 24 120 20 100

18 72 08 32 13 52 23 92 18 72

19 57 28 84 09 27 36 108 40 120

32 64 42 84 56 112 07 14 13 26

28 26 12 12 12 12 10 10 09 09

TOTAL 234 TOTAL 262 TOTAL 253 TOTAL 344 TOTAL 327

234/100 2.34 262/100 2.62 253/100 2.53 344/100 3.44 327/100 3.27

RANKED 5 RANKED 3 RANKED 4 RANKED 1 RANKED 2

Table 1.19: Showing The Rank Of Each Component of Personal Expression / Diversity

INFERRENCE

By analysing the above table it shows that senior management is interested in personal opinions which shows the rank 1. And people with different ideas are valued in the organisation are considered 3.27 out of 5. Employees are free to share their ideas 2.62. the employees work in such a manner to attract and retain others 2.53 ,which has got the 4th rank. Ideas counted at work has got the least rank where they have to work on that part.

Table 1.20: Showing Idea And Opinion Count

STRONGLY AGREED AGREED NEUTRAL DISAGREE STRONGLY DISAGREE TOTAL

3 18 19 32 28 100

Chart 1.11: : Showing Idea And Opinion Count

Interpretation:

Only 3% of the employees agree that the management listens to their ideas and opinions. 18% of them agree to it as well. 19 % is neutral to the situation. Whereas there is a huge no of the sample size that is32% to 28% who is disagreeing to it. Their opinions and ideas are not taken seriously by the management.

Table 1.21: Showing Level Comfort in Sharing Opinions

STRONGLY AGREED AGREED NEUTRAL DISAGREE STRONGLY DISAGREE TOTAL

10 8 28 42 12 100

Chart 1.12 : Showing Level Comfort in Sharing Opinions

Interpretation:

The conducted shows that onl10% to 8% employees are comfortable in sharing their problems with the upper management. Rest of the sample that is 42% is disagreeing that they are not comfortable in sharing their ideas or problems.12% of them strongly disagrees.

Table 1.22: Showing The Work They Do Is To Attract , Develop And Retain

STRONGLY AGREED AGREED NEUTRAL DISAGREE STRONGLY DISAGREE TOTAL

10 13 9 56 12 100

Chart 1.13: Showing The Work They Do Is To Attract , Develop And Retain

Interpretation:

56% of the employees disagrees that they don’t work to attract ,develop or retain customers. Where 10% to 13% agrees to the statement . a little sample size of 12% strongly disagrees to the statement .

Table 1.23: Showing Senior Management Interest In Employee Opinion And Ideas

STRONGLY AGREED AGREED NEUTRAL DISAGREE STRONGLY DISAGREE TOTAL

24 23 26 7 10 100

Chart 1.14: Showing Senior Management Interest In Employee Opinion And Ideas

Interpretation

The management shows interest in taking employees ideas and opinions.24% of them agrees and 23% of the strongly agrees to the statement. A huge sample ,36% id neutral to the statement. But a little sample, 7% to 10% disagrees to the statement.

Table 1.24: Showing People With Different Ideas Are Valued

STRONGLY AGREED AGREED NEUTRAL DISAGREE STRONGLY DISAGREE TOTAL

20 18 40 13 9 100

Chart 1.15: Showing People With Different Ideas Are Valued

Interpretation:

20% to 18% of the employees agree that people with different ideas are well accepted in the organization. 40% to the employees are neutral to the statement. 13 % to 9% of the sample disagrees to the statement on the other hand.

Table 1.25: Showing Weighted Average On Compensation

X 1 2 3 4 5

I am paid fairly for the work I do. (X1) 19 42 12 25 2

My salary is competitive with similar jobs I might find elsewhere.(X2) 32 12 28 23 5

My benefits are comparable to those offered by other organizations.(X3) 8 29 28 32 3

I understand my benefit plan. (X4) 42 15 19 9 15

I am satisfied with my benefit package. (X5) 58 12 11 6 13

Table 1.26: Calculation Of Weighted Average On Compensation

X1 vX1 X2 ?? X2 X3 ?? X3 X4 ?? X4 X5 ?? X5

19 95 32 160 08 40 42 210 58 290

42 168 12 48 29 116 15 60 12 48

12 36 28 84 28 84 19 57 11 33

25 50 23 46 32 64 09 18 06 12

02 02 05 05 03 03 15 15 13 13

TOTAL 351 TOTAL 343 TOTAL 307 TOTAL 360 TOTAL 396

Table 1.27: Showing The Rank Of Each Component Of Compensation

351/100 3.51 343/100 3.43 307/100 3.07 360/100 3.60 396/100 3.96

RANKED 3 RANKED 4 RANKED 5 RANKED 2 RANKED 1

INFERENCES

The above table shows that the employees are satisfied with the benefit package they are given 3.96 out of 5.the employees understand their plan is 3.60. the fair pay is ranked 3rd.the employees salary is competitive with others is ranked 4th. The salary is not comparable with salary with others which has been ranked the least, rank 5.

Table 1.28: showing Fair Pay

STRONGLY AGREED AGREED NEUTRAL DISAGREE STRONGLY DISAGREE TOTAL

19 42 12 25 2 100

Chart 1.16: Showing Fair Pay

Interpretation:

19% to 42% of the Employees agree that they are paid fairly according to the amount of work they do. But 25% to 2% of the sample size disagrees to the statement. And 12% is neutral to it.

Table 1.29: Showing Salary Competitiveness

STRONGLY AGREED AGREED NEUTRAL DISAGREE STRONGLY DISAGREE TOTAL

32 12 28 23 5 100

Chart 1.17: Showing Salary Competitiveness

Interpretation:

32% of the employees agrees that they get a competitive salary when compared to other organizations with same designation. 12% of them strongly agrees to it .28% of them are neutral to the statement. 23% to 5% is disagrees to the statement in the other hand.

Table 1.30: Showing Comparability Of Benefits

STRONGLY AGREED AGREED NEUTRAL DISAGREE STRONGLY DISAGREE TOTAL

8 29 28 32 3 100

Chart 1.18: Showing Comparability Of Benefits

Interpretation:

There is balance, 29% of the employees agrees and 32 % of them strongly disagrees that they have a comparable benefits.28% of them are neutral in the other hand.

Table 1.31: Showing Understanding Of Benefit Plan

STRONGLY AGREED AGREED NEUTRAL DISAGREE STRONGLY DISAGREE TOTAL

42 15 19 9 15 100

Chart 1.19: Showing Understanding Of Benefit Plan

Interpretation:

42% of the employees agrees that they understand their benefit plan. 15% strongly agrees ,where 19% is neutral.9% to 15% disagrees to the fact and says they don’t understand the benefit plans they are given.

Table 1.32: Showing Satisfaction With Benefit Package

STRONGLY AGREED AGREED NEUTRAL DISAGREE STRONGLY DISAGREE TOTAL

58 12 11 6 13 100

Chart 1.20: Showing Satisfaction With Benefit Package

Interpretation:

58% of them are satisfied with their benefit package. 12% strongly agrees. Whereas little sample of 6% to 13% disagrees to the statement. Or they are not happy with their benefit package.11% is neutral to it.

Summary of Findings

‘ Most of the employee’s ability state the opinion firmly and positively is better than acceptable standards.

‘ Majority of the employee’s ability in exercising the professional duties without assistance is better than acceptable standard.

‘ The Emotional Stamina of the majority of the employees is better than acceptable standard.

‘ Majority of the Employee’s Ability to work co-operatively and collaboratively to achieve common goal is better than acceptable.

‘ Majority of the employees Ability to effectively guide a group through an appropriate process to help to achieve their desired outcomes is better than acceptable standard.

‘ Majority of the employee’s ability to clarify and establish with a group roles and responsibilities, common goal and plan to achieve them and group behavioural is outstanding.

‘ Majority of the employees Ability to deal with multiple issues and details, alertness and learning capacity is better than acceptable standard.

‘ Majority of the employee’s ability to see and think beyond the obvious and formulate original solution is better than acceptable standards.

‘ Majority of the employee’s ability to present ideas, concept, plan and procedure clearly to the target group is better than acceptable standard.

‘ Concern for excellence of the majority of the employee’s is better than acceptable standard.

‘ Majority of the employee’s Aware of what is going on in the workplace and responds in a suitable manner to situations as they is better than acceptable.

‘ The understanding between the top level and employees are in good terms.

‘ Employees do understand their benefits and opportunities given by the organisation.

‘ The employees are paid fairly according to the work done.

‘ Freedom of sharing new ideas and opinions are welcomed in the organisation.

‘ The employees are able to make a balance between personnel and work life. which reduces the amount of stress in them.

‘ The organisation encourages the employee to learn from their mistakes.

‘ Recommendations

‘ In this organization employee engagement study must be regularly done in order to check the level of employee effectiveness.

‘ Since many of the employees are performing different jobs to what they were doing at the time of their joining they need training to perform the new work allotted them.

‘ Different sources of employee engagement tactics must be encouraged in employees.

‘ The top management should support the lower level employees since it is considered a major hurdle in effective employee engagement and the employees must also be made aware of importance of engagement at work system

‘ The employees should be then and there motivated for work.

‘ The understanding between management and employees should be increased.

‘ Level of stress in work should be reduced.

‘ Better benefit package should be given to the employees.

Conclusion

In the report we have discussed the importance of employee engagement in an organization and how it affects the efficiency of work and productivity. Employment counselors should help individuals to maximize their career engagement at any stage of their career. Basically employee engagement should be a buzz word for the employee engagement and a positive attitude held by the employees towards the organization. Employee engagement is gaining its importance and popularity in work places and its impact in many ways. It emphasis on the importance of employee engagement in a organization, an organization should thus give more importance for its employees than any other variable as they are the powerful contributors to a company’s competitiveness. Thus it shows that employee engagement should be a continues process for learning, improvement, measurement and action of an employee.

[supanova_question]

The limitations of the Chit Acts easy essay help

1.1 BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY

The financial system assumes strategically a very important role in channelling the funds from surplus units to deficit units. The financial system here refers to the group of institutions, markets and instruments which helps in formation of capital and thus accelerates to the pace of economic development.

The base of this study stems from the fact that there exists a gap between gross capital formation and gross domestic savings in India. So, there exists the need to augment the growth rate of voluntary domestic savings. This goal can be realized by widening and strengthening the working of different financial intermediaries which will result in mobilizing savings from various income level categories. .It is in this context that the role of the Non-Banking Financial Intermediaries like Chit Finance should be appreciated in supplementing the functions of the Banking Institutions.

Chit funds are Chit funds are the Indian equivalent of the Rotating Savings and Credit Associations (ROSCA). ROSCAs are famous in many parts of the world and is seen as an instrument to ‘save and borrow’ simultaneously. ROSCAs basically started as a way to help in fulfilling the needs of the low-income households as it enables the people to convert their small savings into lump sums. The concept of chit funds originated more than 1000 years ago. Initially it was in the form of an informal association of traders and households within communities, wherein the members contributed some money in return for an accumulated sum at the end of the tenure. Participation in Chit funds was mainly for the purpose of purchasing some property or, in other words, for ‘consumption’ purposes. However, in recent times, there have been tremendous alterations in the constitution and functioning of Chit funds. A significant difference between Chit Funds and ROSCAs are that in most places ROSCAs are user-owned and organized informally, but chit funds have been formally institutionalized in India. (Chit Funds-An innovative access to finance for low income households, 2009)

1.1.1 WHAT DO WE MEAN BY CHIT FUNDS?

Chit fund is a savings-cum-borrowing instrument. The basic aim of this instrument is to pool small amount of savings by all the members which is then managed by a foreman. The foreman has the responsibility to act as a trustee-cum-supervisors for the process of collection and allotment of the pooled amount.

Chit funds represent a traditional form of saving-cum-credit institution evolved before the bank system was introduced in rural India. There are many who avail themselves of this avenue for saving for a reasonable return.

1.1 NEED AND RATIONALE OF THE STUDY

Despite the growth of a wide range of savings avenues and the widespread network of banks and other financial institutions, it has been found that Chit scheme still forms an important part in the asset portfolio of many households and firms in India and especially in South India including Karnataka. Also, the review of literature shows that there are only a few studies on Chit Finance. Therefore, the need to conduct the study stems from the requirement to understand Chit Funds in Bangalore.

1.2 NEED TO CONDUCT THE STUDY

The research titled ‘A Study on Chit Funds in Bangalore to understand the behaviour and financial needs of the chit fund members as well as to identify the important predictors of regular participation in chit funds’ The study estimates the net returns and interest rate on Chit funds. This study tries to point out the limitations of the Chit Acts and suggests feasible recommendations for improving the working of such institutions.

.3.2 STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM

‘A Study on Chit Funds in Bangalore to understand the behaviour and financial needs of the chit fund members as well as to identify the important predictors of regular participation in chit funds’.

VARIABLES UNDER INVESTIGATION

1. Age

2. Occupation

3. Monthly income

4. Gender

5. Bank loan

6. Regular participation in chit fund

7. Membership in multiple chit schemes

8. Cause for participating in multiple schemes

9. Preferred avenue of saving

10. Preferred source of finance

11. Safety

12. Better service

13. Flexibility

14. Timely Payment

15. Low commission

16. Personal contact

17. Unregistered chit funds membership

18. Cause for participating in unregistered chit funds

19. Cause for not participating in unregistered chit fund

3.5 OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDY

3.5.1 OBJECTIVE(PRIMARY)

1. To understand the behaviour and financial needs of the chit fund members.

2. To identify the important predictors behind chit fund participation

3.5.2 OHER OBJECTIVES OF RESEARCH

1. To estimate interest rates in registered chit funds.

2. To compare the relative ratings of Chit subscribers towards registered and unregistered chit funds on

3. To estimate the return on Chit Funds.

3.6 HYPOTHESIS

There are two types of statistical hypotheses.

1. Null hypothesis

2. Alternative hypothesis.

Hypothesis 1:

H0: There is no significant relation between gender and cause for participation in chit fund.

H1: There is significant relation between gender and cause for participation in chit fund.

Hypothesis 2:

H0: There is no significant relation between occupation and cause for participation in chit fund.

H1: There is significant relation between occupation and cause for participation in chit fund.

Hypothesis 3:

H0: There is no significant relation between age and causes for participation in chit fund

H1: There is significant relation between age and cause for participation in chit fund

Hypothesis 4:

H0: There is no significant relation between monthly income and cause for participation in chit fund

H1: There is significant relation between monthly income and cause for participation in chit fund

Hypothesis 5:

H0: There is no significant relation between gender and causes for bidding in chit fund

H1: There is significant relation between gender and cause for bidding in chit fund

Hypothesis 6:

H0: There is no significant relation between occupation and cause for bidding in chit fund

H1: There is significant relation between occupation and cause for bidding in chit fund

Hypothesis 7:

H0: There is no significant relation between age and cause for bidding in chit fund

H1: There is significant relation between age and cause for bidding in chit fund

Hypothesis 8:

H0: There is no significant relation between monthly income and cause for bidding in chit fund

H1: There is significant relation between monthly income and cause for bidding in chit fund

Hypothesis 9:

H0: There is no significant relation between gender and cause for saving in chit fund

H1: There is significant relation between gender and cause for saving in chit fund

Hypothesis 10:

H0: There is no significant relation between occupation and cause for saving in chit fund.

H1: There is significant relation between occupation and cause for saving in chit fund.

Hypothesis 11:

H0: There is no significant relation between age and cause for saving in chit fund

H1: There is significant relation between age and cause for saving in chit fund

Hypothesis 12:

H0: There is no significant relation between having bank loan and membership in multiple chit schemes.

H1: There is significant relation between having bank loan and membership in multiple chit schemes.

Hypothesis 13:

H0: There is no significant relation between monthly income and participation in unregistered chit funds

H1: There is significant relation between monthly income and participation in unregistered chit funds

Hypothesis 14 :

H0: There is no significant relation between causes to prefer chit fund over bank and having bank loan.

H1: There is significant relation between causes to prefer chit fund over bank and having bank loan.

Hypothesis 15:

H0: Presence of safety, flexibility, timely payment, low commission, better service, personal contact, having a bank loan are no significant predictors of regular participation in chit fund.

H1: Presence of safety, flexibility, timely payment, low commission, better service, personal contact ,having a bank loan,are significant predictors of regular participation in chit fund.

.

3.8 SAMPLING METHOD

Members of four registered chit fund companies in Bangalore. The four registered chit fund companies were selected due to the large size of their subscriber base.

3.8.3 SIZE OF SAMPLE

150 respondents

3.9 MECHANISM OF STUDY

3.9.1 PRIMARY RESEARCH

Questions relating to behaviour and financial pattern will be found out through questionnares

3.9.2 SECONDARY RESEARCH

‘ Reports on chit fund industry

OVERVIEW OF INDIAN CHIT FUND INDUSTRY

4.1.1 NUMBER OF REGISTERED CHIT FUND COMPANIES:

According to the Ministry of Corporate Affairs, as on 31st December, 2013:

Volume of registered chit companies: 5412

Volume of chit companies in Karnataka: 703

Number of chit fund companies in Bangalore: 315

UNREGISTERED CHIT FUND INDUSTRY

Although unregistered chits are an informal source of finance but still they are a significant part of the chit fund industry. Though they are more easily accessible as compared to registered chit funds.

4.3 PURPOSE OF THE STUDY

The study titled ‘A Study on Chit Funds in Bangalore to understand the behaviour and financial needs of the chit fund members as well as to identify the important predictors of regular participation in chit funds’ attempt in The study estimates the net returns and interest rate on Chit funds. This study also examines the limitations of the Chit Acts and suggests suitable recommendations for improving the functioning of such institutions.

4.4 LIMITATION OF STUDY

‘ Unwillingness of the members to share their income and financial details made the task of data collection somewhat difficult.

‘ Collecting data became difficult since I don’t know the regional languages.

5.2 ANALYSIS OF DATA

The analysis is done on the primary data collected from 150 chit funds members in Bangalore

TESTING OF HYPOTHESES

5.4.1 Hypothesis 1:

H0: There is no significant relation between gender and cause for participation in chit fund.

H1: There is significant relation between gender and cause for participation in chit fund.

Chi-Square Tests

Value df Asymp. Sig. (2-sided)

Pearson Chi-Square 31.070a 16 .013

Likelihood Ratio 35.945 16 .003

Linear-by-Linear Association 8.809 1 .003

N of Valid Cases 150

a. 1 cells (10.0%) have expected count less than 5. The minimum expected count is .30.

Symmetric Measures

Value Approx. Sig.

Nominal by Nominal Phi .455 .013

Cramer’s V .228 .013

N of Valid Cases 150

a. Not assuming the null hypothesis.

b. Using the asymptotic standard error assuming the null hypothesis.

INTERPRETATION:

The value of chi-square=31.070 was p=.013, less than 0.05.

We can see that the strength of association between the variables is moderate (Phi and Cramer’s V -0.455).

Therefore, the research hypothesis that differences in ’cause to participate in chit funds’ are related to differences in ‘age” is supported by this analysis. This means that different age groups of the chit fund members have different reasons of participating in chit funds. As can be seen from the table above that those who belong to ’36-45 years’ have saving as the predominant reason to participate whereas members of other age groups do not have any dominant reason to participate.

5.4.2 Hypothesis 2:

Hypothesis 2:

H0: There is no significant relation between occupation and cause for participation in chit fund.

H1: There is significant relation between occupation and cause for participation in chit fund.

Hypothesis 3:

. Hypothesis 3:

H0: There is no significant relation between age and causes for participation in chit fund

H1: There is significant relation between age and cause for participation in chit fund

Chi-Square Tests

Value df Asymp. Sig. (2-sided)

Pearson Chi-Square 10.018a 4 .040

Likelihood Ratio 10.478 4 .033

Linear-by-Linear Association 6.876 1 .009

N of Valid Cases 150

Symmetric Measures

Value Approx. Sig.

Nominal by Nominal Phi .258 .040

Cramer’s V .258 .040

N of Valid Cases 150

a. Not assuming the null hypothesis.

a. Using the asymptotic standard error assuming the null hypothesis.

INTERPRETATION:

The value of chi-square=10.018 was p=.040, less than 0.05.

.We can see that the strength of association between the variables is weak (0.258)

Therefore, the research hypothesis that differences in ’cause to participate in chit funds’ are related to differences in ‘gender” is supported by this analysis. This means that males and females have different reasons of participating in chit funds. As it can be seen that males participate in chit funds for business and personal consumption purposes apart from saving whereas women predominantly participate to save.

5.4

Hypothesis 4:

H0: There is no significant relation between monthly income and cause for participation in chit fund

H1: There is significant relation between monthly income and cause for participation in chit fund

Chi-Square Tests

Value df Asymp. Sig. (2-sided)

Pearson Chi-Square 82.176a 12 .000

Likelihood Ratio 97.665 12 .000

Linear-by-Linear Association 15.696 1 .000

N of Valid Cases 150

Symmetric Measures

Value Approx. Sig.

Nominal by Nominal Phi .740 .000

Cramer’s V .427 .000

N of Valid Cases 150

INTERPRETATION:

We can see that the strength of association between the variables is strong (0.740)

Therefore, the research hypothesis that differences in ‘reason to participate in chit funds’ are related to differences in ‘occupation” is supported by this analysis. It can be seen that the self-employed members mainly participate to avail for business reasons whereas salaried employee participate mainly for personal consumption purposes.

Hypothesis 5:

Hypothesis 5:

H0: There is no significant relation between gender and causes for bidding in chit fund

H1: There is significant relation between gender and cause for bidding in chit fund

Chi-Square Tests

Value df Asymp. Sig. (2-sided)

Pearson Chi-Square 66.691a 20 .000

Likelihood Ratio 43.579 20 .002

Linear-by-Linear Association 4.804 1 .028

N of Valid Cases 150

a. 1 cell (10.0%) has expected count less than 5. The minimum expected count is .07.

Symmetric Measures

Value Approx. Sig.

Nominal by Nominal Phi .667 .000

Cramer’s V .333 .000

N of Valid Cases 150

a. Not assuming the null hypothesis.

b. Using the asymptotic standard error assuming the null hypothesis.

INTERPRETATION:

The (chi-square=66.691) was p=.000, less than 0.05.

We can see that the strength of association between the variables is moderately strong (0.667)

Therefore, the research hypothesis that differences in ’cause to bid in chit funds’ are related to differences in ‘age” is supported by this analysis. It can be seen that the members of age group’36-45 years’ are more interested in bidding for business related purposes where members of other age groups bid mainly for emergency needs.

5.4.6 Hypothesis 6:

. Hypothesis 6:

H0: There is no significant relation between occupation and cause for bidding in chit fund

H1: There is significant relation between occupation and cause for bidding in chit fund

Chi-Square Tests

Value df Asymp. Sig. (2-sided)

Pearson Chi-Square 7.167a 5 .209

Likelihood Ratio 7.885 5 .163

Linear-by-Linear Association 1.120 1 .290

N of Valid Cases 150

a. 5 cells (41.7%) have expected count less than 5. The minimum expected count is .81.

Symmetric Measures

Value Approx. Sig.

Nominal by Nominal Phi .219 .209

Cramer’s V .219 .209

N of Valid Cases 150

a. Not assuming the null hypothesis.

b. Using the asymptotic standard error assuming the null hypothesis.

INTERPRETATION:

The probability of the chi-square test statistic (chi-square=7.167) was p=.209, more than the alpha level of significance of 0.05.

Therefore, the research hypothesis that differences in ‘reason to bid in chit funds’ are related to differences in ‘gender” is not supported by this analysis.

5.4.7 Hypothesis 7:

Hypothesis 7:

H0: There is no significant relation between age and cause for bidding in chit fund

H1: There is significant relation between age and cause for bidding in chit fund

Chi-Square Tests

Value df Asymp. Sig. (2-sided)

Pearson Chi-Square 180.915a 15 .000

Likelihood Ratio 160.460 15 .000

Linear-by-Linear Association 28.379 1 .000

N of Valid Cases 150

a. 1 cell (10.0%) has expected count less than 5. The minimum expected count is .13.

Symmetric Measures

Value Approx. Sig.

Nominal by Nominal Phi 1.098 .000

Cramer’s V .634 .000

N of Valid Cases 150

INTERPRETATION:

The (chi-square=180.915) was p=.000, less than 0.05.

We can see that the strength of association between the variables is extremely strong (1.098)

Therefore, the research hypothesis that differences in’ are related to differences in ‘occupation” is supported by this analysis. It can be clearly seen that self-employed people bid in chit scheme mostly for business purposes, salaried people for emergency needs and housewives for household purposes.

5.4.8 Hypothesis 8:

Hypothesis 8:

H0: There is no significant relation between monthly income and cause for bidding in chit fund

H1: There is significant relation between monthly income and cause for bidding in chit fund

Chi-Square Tests

Value df Asymp. Sig. (2-sided)

Pearson Chi-Square 123.331a 35 .000

Likelihood Ratio 106.298 35 .000

Linear-by-Linear Association 4.957 1 .026

N of Valid Cases 150

INTERPRETATION:

The probability of the chi-square test statistic (chi-square=123.331) was p=.000, less than the alpha level of significance of 0.05.

We can see that the strength of association between the variables is extremely strong (.907)

Therefore, the research hypothesis that differences in ‘reason to bid in chit funds’ are related to differences in ‘income” is supported by this analysis. It can be clearly seen that low income members bid mostly for consumption reasons whereas higher income members bid for business related and emergency purposes.

SUMMARY:

Reason to bid in chit fund has the strongest association with the occupation of the chit fund members as the probability of the chi-square test statistic (chi-square=180.915) was p=.000 and the strength of association between the variables is extremely strong (1.098).

5.4.

Hypothesis 9:

H0: There is no significant relation between gender and cause for saving in chit fund

H1: There is significant relation between gender and cause for saving in chit fund

Chi-Square Tests

Value df Asymp. Sig. (2-sided)

Pearson Chi-Square 21.702a 16 .153

Likelihood Ratio 23.775 16 .095

Linear-by-Linear Association 2.397 1 .122

N of Valid Cases 150

INTERPRETATION:

The chi-square=123.331) was p=.153, more than 0.05. Therefore, the research hypothesis that differences in ’cause to save in chit funds’ are related to differences in ‘age” is not supported by this analysis.

5.4.10 Hypothesis 10:

H0: There is no significant relation between occupation and cause for saving in chit fund.

H1: There is significant relation between occupation and cause for saving in chit fund.

Chi-Square Tests

Value df Asymp. Sig. (2-sided)

Pearson Chi-Square 20.510a 4 .000

Likelihood Ratio 29.038 4 .000

Linear-by-Linear Association 7.062 1 .008

N of Valid Cases 150

a. 1 cell (10.0%) has expected count less than 5. The minimum expected count is .81.

Symmetric Measures

Value Approx. Sig.

Nominal by Nominal Phi .370 .000

Cramer’s V .370 .000

N of Valid Cases 150

a. Not assuming the null hypothesis.

b. Using the asymptotic standard error assuming the null hypothesis.

INTERPRETATION:

The chi-square=20.510) was p=.000, less than 0.05.

We can see that the strength of association between the variables is weak (.370).Therefore, the research hypothesis that differences in ’cause to save in chit funds’ are related to differences in ‘gender” is supported by this analysis.

5.4.11 Hypothesis 11:

Hypothesis 11:

H0: There is no significant relation between age and cause for saving in chit fund

H1: There is significant relation between age and cause for saving in chit fund

Chi-Square Tests

Value df Asymp. Sig. (2-sided)

Pearson Chi-Square 67.261a 12 .000

Likelihood Ratio 60.380 12 .000

Linear-by-Linear Association 9.507 1 .002

N of Valid Cases 150

a. 1 cell (10.0%) has expected count less than 5. The minimum expected count is .13.

Symmetric Measures

Value Approx. Sig.

Nominal by Nominal Phi .670 .000

Cramer’s V .387 .000

N of Valid Cases 150

INTERPRETATION:

The chi-square=67.261 was p=.000, less than 0.05.

We can see that the strength of association between the variables is moderately strong(.670).Therefore, the research hypothesis that differences in ‘reason to cause in chit funds’ are related to differences in ‘occupation” is supported by this analysis. Salaried people save their money in chit fund with no particular purpose. But self-employed people are equally interested in saving for house purchase as well as for general purpose.

SUMMARY:

chit fund is most closely associated with occupation of the chit fund members as it has the highest value of chi-square statistic and Phi coefficient.

5.4.12 Hypothesis 12:

Hypothesis 12:

H0: There is no significant relation between having bank loan and membership in multiple chit schemes.

H1: There is significant relation between having bank loan and membership in multiple chit schemes.

Chi-Square Tests

Value df Asymp. Sig. (2-sided)

Pearson Chi-Square 56.697a 3 .000

Likelihood Ratio 67.900 3 .000

Linear-by-Linear Association 36.400 1 .000

N of Valid Cases 150

INTERPRETATION:

The probability of the chi-square test statistic (chi-square=56.697) was p=.000, less than the alpha level of significance of 0.05.

We can see that the strength of association between the variables is strong (.615).

Therefore, the research hypothesis that differences in ‘membership in multiple chit schemes are related to differences in ‘having currently bank loan” is supported by this analysis. It is clearly evident that those members currently having bank loan have invested in only one chit scheme whereas those members who do not have availed bank loan have invested in more than one chit schemes.

5.4.13 Hypothesis 13:

Hypothesis 13:

H0: There is no significant relation between monthly income and participation in unregistered chit funds

H1: There is significant relation between monthly income and participation in unregistered chit funds

.

Chi-Square Tests

Value df Asymp. Sig. (2-sided)

Pearson Chi-Square 96.660a 7 .000

Likelihood Ratio 85.378 7 .000

Linear-by-Linear Association 59.577 1 .000

N of Valid Cases 150

a. 1 cell(10.0%) has expected count less than 5. The minimum expected count is 1.08.

INTERPRETATION:

The chi-square=96.660 was p=.000, less than 0.05.

We can see that the strength of association between the variables is extremely strong (.803).

Therefore, the research hypothesis that differences in ‘participation in unregistered chit funds’ are related to differences in ‘income” is supported by this analysis. It is clearly evident that mostly low- income members have participated in unregistered funds. This is because the registered funds have become expensive due to the increase in their operational cost as a result of stringent regulations.

5.2.14 Hypothesis 14 :

H0: There is no significant relation between causes to prefer chit fund over bank and having bank loan.

H1: There is significant relation between causes to prefer chit fund over bank and having bank loan

Chi-Square Tests

Value df Asymp. Sig. (2-sided)

Pearson Chi-Square 28.049a 5 .000

Likelihood Ratio 31.806 5 .000

Linear-by-Linear Association 2.967 1 .085

N of Valid Cases 150

a. 2 cells (15.0%) have expected count less than 5. The minimum expected count is 1.79.

Symmetric Measures

Value Approx. Sig.

Nominal by Nominal Phi .432 .000

Cramer’s V .432 .000

N of Valid Cases 150

INTERPRETATION:

The probability of the chi-square test statistic (chi-square=28.049) was p=.000, less than the alpha level of significance of 0.05.

We can see that the strength of association between the variables is moderate (.432).

Therefore, the research hypothesis that differences in ’cause to prefer chit fund over bank’ are related to differences in ‘having bank loan” is supported by this analysis. It is clearly evident that members who have bank loan have preferred chit fund over bank mainly due to better dividends. But those who do not have bank loan prefer chit fund over bank mainly due to better service in terms of more personalized service.)

5.2..15 Hypothesis 15: To identify significant predictors of regular participation in chit funds using Binary Logistic Regression

Hypothesis 15:

H0: Presence of safety, flexibility, timely payment, low commission, better service, personal contact, having a bank loan are no significant predictors of regular participation in chit fund.

H1: Presence of safety, flexibility, timely payment, low commission, better service, personal contact ,having a bank loan,are significant predictors of regular participation in chit fund.

Variables in the Equation

B S.E. Wald df Sig. Exp(B)

Step 0 Constant -1.046 .186 31.574 1 .000 .351

Model Summary

Step -2 Log likelihood Cox & Snell R Square Nagelkerke R Square

1 37.170a .533 .576

a. Estimation terminated at iteration number 6 because parameter estimates changed by less than .001.

Variables in the Equation

B S.E. Wald df Sig. Exp(B)

Step 1a bank_loan(1) 1.068 1.265 14.715 1 .000 11.720

reason_2 2.286 4 .683

reason_2(1) 1.336 1.077 1.540 1 .215 3.805

reason_2(2) .134 2.239 .004 1 .952 1.143

reason_2(3) -.559 1.896 .087 1 .768 .572

reason_2(4) .731 1.347 .294 1 .588 2.076

reason_3 4.874 5 .431

reason_3(1) 1.188 .924 1.652 1 .199 3.279

reason_3(2) 1.661 2.048 .658 1 .417 5.263

reason_3(3) -1.654 1.228 1.813 1 .178 .191

reason_3(4) .404 1.192 .115 1 .735 1.497

reason_3(5) -17.379 20.722 .000 1 .700 .000

reason_4 .355 4 .986

reason_4(1) -1.047 1.850 .320 1 .571 .351

reason_4(2) -.839 1.979 .180 1 .672 .432

reason_4(3) -.932 1.637 .324 1 .569 .394

reason_4(4) 3.519 4.199 .000 1 .600 3.746

reason_5 8.553 5 .128

reason_5(1) -.254 1.768 .021 1 .886 .776

reason_5(2) -19.245 9.890 .000 1 .999 .000

reason_5(3) 1.420 1.338 1.126 1 .289 4.136

reason_5(4) -.747 1.306 .327 1 .567 .474

reason_5(5) .561 1.342 .174 1 .676 1.752

B S.E. Wald df Sig. Exp(B)

Step 1a Safety -.075 .320 4.377 1 .011 0.928

Flexi -.178 .426 3.337 1 .021 0.837

commision -.185 .188 1.868 1 .026 0.831

payment -.267 .178 1.657 1 .097 0.766

service -.859 .412 1.348 1 .083 0.424

personal -1.122 .163 .996 1 .079 0.329

Constant 3.058 2.440 1.571 1 .010 21.291

a. Variable(s) entered on step 1: : bank_loan, reason_2, reason_3, reason_4, reason_5.imp1, imp2, imp3, imp4, imp5, imp6.

INTERPRETATION:

‘ -2 Log Likelihood statistic is 37.170. This statistic how poorly the model predicts the decisions — the smaller the statistic the better the model. Since, 37.170 is a relatively small number therefore, this model is able to predict the decisions in a better way.

‘ Here Cox & Snell R Square statistic indicates that 53.3% of the variation in the regular participation in chit funds is explained by the logistic model.

‘ In our case Nagelkerke R Square is 0.576, indicating a moderate relationship of 57.6 % between the predictors and the prediction.

‘ If it is less than .05 then, we will reject the null hypothesis and accept the alternative hypothesis.

‘ In this case, we can see that bank loan, safety, flexibility and low commission have contributed signi’cantly to the prediction of regular participation in chit funds but other variables are not significant predictors of regular participation in chit funds.

‘ Since only bank loan has p=.000, therefore we can say that bank loan is the most significant predictor

among other significant predictors. This is followed by safety (p=.011), flexibility (p=.021) and low commission (p=.026).

‘ Here, the EXP (B) bank loan is 11.727. Hence when bank loan is availed by one unit (one person) the odds ratio is 11 times as large and therefore people are 11 more times likely not to regularly participate in chit funds.

‘ Here, the EXP (B) with safety is .928. Hence when safety is increased by one percent the odds ratio is .928 times as large and therefore people are .928 more times likely to regularly participate in chit funds.

‘ Here, the EXP (B) flexibility is 837. Hence when flexibility is increased by one percent the odds ratio is .928 times as large and therefore people are .837 more times likely to regularly participate in chit funds.

‘ Here, the EXP (B) low commission is .831. Hence when flexibility is increased by one percent the odds ratio is .928 times as large and therefore people are .831 more times likely to regularly participate in chit funds.

SUMMARY

Bank loan is the most significant predictor of regular participation in chit funds. This is followed by safety, flexibility and low commission.

Instalment no No of months remaining Monthly subscription Prize amount PV of monthly subscription(PV of outlow at 10%) PV of Prize amount(PV of inflow at 10%) Net Present Value(PV of inflow – PV of outflow)

1 24 2000 50000 2000 50000 10444.9

2 23 1500 35000 1488.1 34723.1 -4832.0

3 22 1500 35000 1476.4 34448.4 -5106.7

4 21 1500 35000 1464.7 34175.9 -5379.2

5 20 1500 35000 1453.1 33905.5 -5649.6

6 19 1500 35000 1441.6 33637.3 -5917.8

7 18 1500 35000 1430.2 33371.2 -6183.9

8 17 1500 35000 1418.9 33107.2 -6447.9

9 16 1620 38000 1520.3 35660.6 -3894.5

10 15 1620 38000 1508.2 35378.5 -4176.6

11 14 1700 40000 1570.2 36945.9 -2609.2

12 13 1700 40000 1557.8 36653.6 -2901.5

13 12 1780 42000 1618.2 38181.8 -1373.3

14 11 1780 42000 1605.4 37879.8 -1675.3

15 10 1780 42000 1592.7 37580.1 -1975.0

16 9 1860 44000 1651.1 39058.2 -496.9

17 8 1860 44000 1638.0 38749.2 -805.9

18 7 1860 44000 1625.1 38442.6 -1112.5

19 6 1940 46000 1681.6 39872.1 317.0

20 5 1940 46000 1668.3 39556.6 1.5

21 4 1940 46000 1655.1 39243.7 -311.4

22 3 1940 46000 1642.0 38933.2 -621.8

23 2 1940 46000 1629.0 38625.2 -929.8

24 1 1940 46000 1616.1 38319.7 -1235.4

25 0 1940 46000 1603.3 38016.5 -1538.6

39555.1 934465.9 -54411.4

[supanova_question]

Merit goods essay help fairfax

Merit goods are goods which will be under-provided by the market, therefore they will be under-consumed. They are thought by the governments to be good for the populations and so the governments want them to be consumed to a great extent. They increase the private and social benefits and cause the social benefit be higher than the private one. The best examples of them, apart from all the public goods, can be the education, health care, sports facilities and the opera.

Although the majority of the merit goods is provided by the private sectors, not all the people can afford buying them, therefore they will be under-consumed. That is why the government is needed to destroy the market failure increasing the supply and consequently raising the consumption.

To explain the reasons for government to provide the merit goods, I need to apply some examples of them. The first one can be the education. It is significant for the governments to provide it so that the society would be well-educated. Governments determine the period of education required for people (the compulsory education) to maintain the proper level of education of the society. The governments find education an important aspect that should be available for everyone as it cause the whole country to have better both economic growth and economic development.

Considering another example such as health care, the situation is quite similar. The governments want to provide the population with it because they care about the high states of health of society in their country. To gain these, the countries need to have high quality of health care. Governments often offer people unpaid programs consisting of preventative medical examination which contribute to maintain the high number of healthy people. This is also connected with the problems of the labour market. The healthier people are, the more efficient their work is, the greater revenue firms have and countries are more developed because of taxations.

Other examples like sport facilities or the opera are meant for people to become physically and culturally developed but their availability is not as important as in the case of the previous examples. That is why they are not as much provided by the governments as the rest of the merit goods.

Although most of the merit goods provided by the governments are free, the fact is that they are paid through the taxes that the societies pay. The number of the merit goods of particular types that the governments provide or subsidize depends on the necessity of them. If they are provided, the societies’ benefits get higher and so is the public treasury of the countries.

[supanova_question]

Research proposal: The effect of pregnancy on the adolescent pregnant teen & father college admission essay help houston tx

Abstract: The purpose for this research paper is to address the adolescent pregnant teen & father and the effects a pregnancy has on both of their lives during and after her pregnancy. How the teens need the support of the family, community, church, and the school system. I will also address the teen father mostly disregarded in any aspect of the teen’s pregnancy and how this affects him, and how both teens need support in our society. How we can address the social problem of teen pregnancy from all avenues.

‘Three issues that have an impact on the pregnant adolescent are discussed education, identity development, and maternal support’ (Turnage & Pharris, 2013). My research focuses on adolescent pregnant teen women 19 years old and younger. It will also reflect the problems of the teen pregnant adolescents journeying thru the process of becoming a teen mother, finishing high school, developing her own identity and the maternal support she gets from her mother during her transition from pregnant teen to motherhood.

‘Several issues that differently influence the pregnant teen is individually based on the female’s chronological age’ (Turnage & Pharris, 2013). ‘For the pregnant adolescent, her pregnancy supersedes high school graduation as the benchmark for her being viewed as an adult’ (Turnage & Pharris, 2013). ‘Failure to graduate high school is associated with poor social and educational outcomes for teen mothers and their children’ (Turnage & Pharris, 2013).

‘While the pregnant adolescent is defining who she is as a person she experiences a transition to the new identity of mother’ (Turnage & Pharris, 2013). ‘During her pregnancy the adolescent’s mother is seen as the primary source of support that contributes to a positive self-image and can assist her in the adapting to the role of parent’ (Turnage & Pharris, 2013).

My research paper will also show how important it is to support the teen during and after pregnancy. It addresses the need for the teen mothers to finish high school, and find her identity. How important it is to have the support system of her mother and family to achieve all of these things. Without these support systems, the pregnant adolescent could end up in poverty, no social skills, homeless and a host of other social problems for her and her baby.

Addressed and examined is teen motherhood and its long-term mental and physical health of the teen mother’ (Patel & Sen, 2012). They used a (PCS) health survey known as SF-12 NLSY79 a study that compared two major comparisons groups of which only teens who experienced teen pregnancy and girls who did not experience teen pregnancy. On average the survey for teen mothers was on average 50.89.

The study to access the health outcome of ‘two major comparison groups, which consisted of women who were only experienced teen pregnancy & women who were having unprotected sexual relation as a teen but did not become pregnant ‘ (Patel & Sen, 2012). Estimated is that teen mothers are more likely to have poor health later in life in the study of all the comparison groups.

Along with support, they desperately need help taking care of an infant as a teen; they need a support system to take notice of how they are managing their health & well-being so that they can be a successful teen parent. In addition, being a teen parent can affect the mother’s mentally as the pressure of being new teen mom can be stressful.

The teen mothers who marry after they give birth to their children statistics state that 30 % of them will not remain in their marriages into their 40’s. This result comes from teen adolescents in a single parent home raising their child. This can put a strain on the teen adolescent because she will financially have to seek support from her family or enter into the welfare system and suffer mental health issues.

‘Adolescent teen mothers identify social support with, parenting and emotional support primary emanating from family members, particularly their own mothers, as well as from the father of the baby (Savio Beers & Lee, 2009)’. ‘Older sisters may play an important role in the support network for adolescent mothers, the supportive sister relationships decrease depressive and anxiety-related symptoms in adolescent mothers (Savio Beers & Lee, 2009).

‘For some adolescent parents, participation in a religious community programs may provide the significant social support and serve as a protective factor’ (Savio Beers & Lee, 2009). This directly stresses the point that without the support of family, community, and church with the support of the father the adolescent teen mother can suffer mental issues, poverty issues, and marriage problems.

We addressed the many issues that teen mothers have to face, so now I would like to address the teen father in our society. What are their concerns on becoming a teen father, and how do they view their role as father where their masculinity is concerned? While most of the research done on teen pregnancy and parenting mainly focusing on the mother, the father is invisible.

Interviewed were 26 young teen fathers in the mid-western American towns. The in depth survey of three themes of gender discord focused on teen father narratives, which took on responsibility, sex, being a man, this is the direct viewpoint of the invisible teen father. What they feel about getting a teen girl pregnant and what responsibility they take in the pregnancy if any. How they relate to getting a teen pregnant and how that affects his identity as a man and their masculinity.

‘Gendered assumptions regarding pregnancy and contraception’specifically that women are in charge of preventing pregnancy and they have the belief that male sexuality is uncontrollable; and that use of love and intimacy talk (Weber, J. B., 2013). The teen fathers that took the questionnaire did not blame themselves for getting the teen girl pregnant. They see the teen’s pregnancy as her problem.

Studies suggest that teen fathers are more likely to be of a minority race. He has a mother who had a baby as a teen; his parents have a minimal education. His parents do not have high expectations of him finishing school; all of these factors result in the likelihood that makes him a candidate to becoming a teenage father. ‘The research states that the teen fathers go to school fewer years less than non-teenage fathers (Fletcher & Wolfe, 2011).

‘Evidence shows that men who have children before marriage leave school earlier and have worse labor markets outcomes’ (Fletcher & Wolfe, 2011). ‘Data was used only on young men who reported a pregnancy as an adolescent’ (Fletcher & Wolfe, 2011). It affects his completion of high school.

It also affects his ability to take care of the teen mother & baby, which causes him to drop out of school early. Statistically, ‘teen fathers work more hours and earn more money following the birth of a child then his non-parent counterparts’ (Fletcher & Wolfe, 2011). Teen fatherhood results in the teen father getting married early or co-habitation with the teen mother.

In conclusion, teen pregnancy is a social problem in the United States both teens will have to suffer in their education, grow up before their time, take on adult responsibilities, and suffer financial problems to take care of the child. Which ultimately falls on the parents of the teens, society or the welfare system in which the teen mother becomes a social statistic or shall I say a number.

Teen pregnancy as of 2014 have been on the decline in the United States and increased in other states, however a positive support system for both teens is minimal at best. Socially as communities, churches and government we have to take an active role in education of abstaining from sex, talking to the teens about sex, and protecting themselves against pregnancy.

[supanova_question]

Reconnaissance attacks in IPv6 networks essay help fairfax

2.1.1 Reconnaissance attacks in IPv6 networks

The 1st larger attack in IPv6 is usually a reconnaissance attack. An attacker try reconnaissance attacks to get some confidential information about the victim network that can be misused by the attacker in further attacks. For this he uses active methods, such as scanning techniques or data mining strategies. To start, an intruder begins to ping the victim network to determine the IP addresses currently used in the victim network. After getting some of the accessible system, he starts to scan the port to find out any open port in the desired system. The size of subnet is bigger than that of the in IPv4 networks. To perform a scan for the whole subnet an attacker should make 264 probes and that???s impossible. With this fact, IPv6 networks are much more resistant to reconnaissance attacks than IPv4 networks. Unfortunately, there are some addresses which are multicast address in IPv6 networks that help an intruder to identify and attack some resources in the target network.

2.1.2 Security threats related to IPv6 routing headers

As per IPv6 protocol specification, all of the IPv6 nodes must be able to process routing headers. In fact, routing headers can be used to avoid access controls based on destination addresses. Such action can cause security effects. It may be happen that an attacker sends a packet to a publicly accessible address with a routing header containing a ???forbidden??? address on the victim network. In such matter the publicly accessible host will forward the packet to the destination address stated in the routing header even though that destination is already filtered before as a forbidden address. By spoofing packet source addresses an intruder can easily perform denial of service attack with use of any publicly accessible host for redirecting attack packets.

2.1.3 Fragmentation related security threats

As per IPv6 protocol specification, packet fragmentation by the intermediate nodes is not permitted. Since in IPv6 network based on ICMPv6 messages, the usage of the path MTU discovery method is a duty, packet fragmentation is only allowed at the source node.1280 octets is the minimal size of the MTU for IPv6 network. The packets with size less than 1280 octets to be discarded unless it???s the last packet in the flow as per security reasons. With use of fragmentation, an attacker can get that port numbers not found in the first fragment and thus they bypass security monitoring devices expecting to find transport layer protocol data in the very first fragment. An attacker will send a huge amount of small fragments and create an overload of reconstruction buffers on the victim system which resulted to the system crash. To prevent system from such attacks it???s necessary to bound the total number of fragments and their permissible arrival rate.

[supanova_question]

WMBA 6000-13 Topic: Course Evaluation essay help websites

WMBA 6000-13

Topic: Course Evaluation

Date: March 2, 2014

Based on the assigned readings for this course (Dynamic Leadership), I have read an enormous amount of information about the different categories of leaders and leadership styles. Today’s leaders are different from the leaders of twenty to fifty years ago. In the past leaders gave commands and they controlled the actions of others. Today leaders are willing to involve others in their decision making and they are more open to new possibilities.

A good leader has a vision for their organization and they know how to align and engage employees in order to promote collaboration. The successful leader knows how to lead by using superior values, principles and goals that fit the organization’s values, principles and goals. Also these leaders know that leadership is not made from authority, it’s made from trust and followership. Coleman, J., Gulati, & Segovia, W.O. (2012)

I am impressed most by the characteristics of the authentic leader because they know how to develop themselves; they use formal and informal support networks to get honest feedback in order to drive long-term results. Authentic leaders build support teams to help them stay on course and counsel them in times of uncertainty. George, B., Sims, P., Mclean, A.N. & Mayer D. (2007)

In addition, I found the Leadership Code to be important because it provides structure and guidance and helps one to be a better leader by not emphasizing one element of leadership over another. Some focus on the importance of vision for the future; others on executing in the present; others on personal charisma and character; others on engaging people’; and others on building long-term organization. The code represents about 60 to 70 percent of what makes an effective leader. Ulrich, D., Smallwood, N., Sweetman, K. (2008)

The information that I acquired from this course will help me to pursue the goal of owning a beauty supply business. Another goal that I can add to my action plan is to include not only wigs and welted hair, but I will add hair, skin and nail products to my inventory. A future goal will be to add handbags and accessories as well.

After completing my short-term goal of finishing my MBA, I can take the knowledge from this course along with my values, ethics and principles to help me to manage employees and operate a successful business. Annie Smith (March 2, 20

Coleman, J. G. (2012). Educating young leaders. Passion and Purpose , 197-202.

George, B. S. (2007). Discovering your authentic leadership. Harvard Business Review , 129-138.

Lyons, R. (2012). Dean of Haas of School of Business University of California, Berkely. It’s made from followership. (J. G. Cole, Interviewer) Coleman, J., Gulati, D., & Segovia, W.O.

Ulrich, D. S. (2008). Five rules of leadership. In The leadership code five rules to lead by. Defining Leadership Code , 1-24.

[supanova_question]

Family presence during CPR (cardiopulmonary resuscitation) essay help online

In a pre-hospital setting, there are few moments that are as intense as the events that take place when trying to save a life. Family presence during these resuscitation efforts has become an important and controversial issue in health care settings. Family presence during cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) is a relatively new issue in healthcare. Before the advent of modern medicine, family members were often present at the deathbed of their loved ones. A dying person’s last moments were most often controlled by his or her family in the home rather than by medical personnel (Trueman, History of Medicine). Today, families are demanding permission to witness resuscitation events. Members of the emergency medical services are split on this issue, noting benefits but also potentially negative consequences to family presence during resuscitation efforts.

A new study has found that family members who observed resuscitation efforts were significantly less likely to experience symptoms of post-traumatic stress, anxiety and depression than family members that did not. The results, published in an online article in The New England Journal of Medicine, entitled ‘Family Presence during Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation,’ were the same regardless of the survival of the patient. The study involved 570 people in France whose family members were treated by emergency medical personnel at home. These EMS teams were unique in that they were comprised of a physician, a nurse trained in emergency medicine, and two emergency medical technicians. The study found that the presence of relatives did not affect the results of CPR, nor did it increase the stress levels of the emergency medical teams. Having family present also did not result in any legal claims after the incidents occured. While the unique limitations of the study warrant consideration, the results show a definite benefit in having families stay during CPR (Jabre Family Presence).

Historically, although parents of children have been allowed to be present for various reasons, relatives of adult patients have not. As medical practices change to increasingly involve family in the care of patients, growing numbers of emergency medical practitioners say that giving relatives the option of watching CPR can be a good idea. Several national organizations, including The American Heart Association, have revised their policies to call for giving family members the option of being present during CPR (AHA Guidelines for CPR). Witnessing CPR, say some emergency medical experts and family members, can take the mystery out of what could be a potentially terrifying experience. It can provide reassurance to family members that everything is being done to save their loved ones. It also can offer closure for relatives wanting to be with their family members until the last minute (Kirkland Lasting Benefit). Another benefit is that it shows people why reviving someone in cardiac arrest is much less likely than people assume from watching it being done on television (Ledermann Family Presence During). Family members who can truly understand what it means to ‘do everything possible’ can go on to make more informed decisions about end-of-life care for themselves or their families.

There are three perspectives on this issue- that of the emergency medical personnel providing care, the family, and the patients. The resistance on the part of the medical community to family presence during CPR stems from several different concerns. The most common concern among these is that family members, when faced with overwhelming fear, stress and grief, could disrupt or delay active CPR. Another concern raised by emergency medical personnel is that the realities of CPR may simply be too traumatic for loved ones, causing them to suffer more than they potentially would have if they had never witnessed the event. Some families share this view, citing the potential for extreme distress as a main reason for not wanting to witness resuscitation (Grice Study examining attitudes). Many emergency medical personnel also fear an increased risk of liability and litigation with family members present in the room (Fullbrook the Presence of Family). The worry is that errors can occur, inappropriate comments may be made, and the actions of the personnel involved may be misinterpreted. In an already tense situation, the awareness of the family could increase the anxiety of the personnel and create a greater potential for mistakes.

Another complication that arises from having families present during resuscitation attempts is that of patient confidentiality. The patient’s right to privacy should not be circumvented with implied consent. There is always the possibility that medical information previously unknown to the family may be revealed in the chaos of resuscitation. In addition, patient dignity, whether physical or otherwise, may become compromised (Fullbrook the Presence of Family). Beyond moral considerations, legal concerns regarding revealing patient information are real. This could become an even larger issue if there is no one available to screen witnesses, which could result in unrelated people gaining access to personal information. Eventually, a breach in confidentiality can lead to a breach in the confidence that the public has gained in pre-hospital emergency care.

Family presence during CPR in a pre-hospital setting remains a highly debatable topic. This could be largely due to the fact that the needs of the emergency medical providers and the rights of the patients can be at odds with the wishes of the family members. Although there are several possible reasons why family presence is not being welcomed into daily practice, one of the major reasons could be the lack of formal written policies that define the roles of families and providers placed into this situation. Bringing family members into a situation where CPR is being performed on a loved one should not happen haphazardly. It should happen with careful concern and support for everyone involved. Policies and protocols, defined by experienced personnel, can provide legal and emotional support. They can also potentially help ease anxiety by defining expectations and placing responsibility in the hands of people who are experienced enough to know how to handle the situation appropriately. The policies and protocols should address the basic needs of all people involved. Five basic needs should be addressed:

1. The number of people allowed to be present

2. Which relatives should be allowed to be present (age, relationship, etc.)

3. The role of the family members present and what is expected of them.

4. The place where the family should remain during the duration of CPR.

5. The formal wishes of the patient- written as a directive like a living will.

An important component of this is available, trained staff that can prepare the family members for what they will witness, support them through the event, and then direct them after the event’s conclusion.

The American Heart Association states that the goals of cardiopulmonary resuscitation are, ‘to preserve life, restore health, relieve suffering, limit disability, and respect the individual’s decisions rights and privacy’ (AHA Guidelines for CPR). The practice of offering family members the opportunity to be present during CPR is a controversial ethical issue in emergency medical services. While the results of the study published on this topic in The New England Journal of Medicine clearly show no negative side effects from having families present during resuscitation attempts, the limitations of the study lend to the need for more research before it could be universally accepted.

[supanova_question]

Respondeat Superior college admission essay help houston tx

Legal claims that derive from a situation where there are claims of negligence can sometimes involve an entity other than the neglectful parties. In certain circumstances employers are fully responsible for their employees, and the tasks they perform during working hours. During the course of this paper, the doctrine of respondeat superior will be defined and explained. Two case studies in which the doctrine was applied will also be analyzed to determine if it was applied correctly.

Respondeat superior is a legal theory that holds employers responsible for any negligent or harmful act performed by an employee during the commission of their employment duties (Thornton, 2010). The Maryland Supreme Court in 1951 was the first court to utilize respondeat superior in a court case involving a question of employer liability (Burns, 2011). This doctrine is important as it holds employers liable in court cases where one of its employees does harm to an individual. Vicarious liability and indirect liability are two base concepts that make-up respondeat superior (Thornton, 2010). Respondeat superior shows that the employer did not have to be responsible for the employee???s negligent behavior, in the form of improper training or instruction to perform harmful acts, in order for the employer to be held legally responsible.

In the case of Valle v. City of Houston, the police force was sued for excessive force and an illegal search in an attempt to remove an individual from his parent???s home (Nicholl & Kelly, 2012). The situation stemmed from a man, Omar Esparza, barricading himself in his parent???s home and refusing to come out (p. 285). After a long police standoff, the SWAT team was ordered to forcefully enter the home and remove Mr. Esparza (p. 285). The SWAT team utilized taser gun and bean bag ammunition in an attempt to subdue Mr. Esparza after they felt he posed a physical threat by wielding a hammer, but as those attempts failed the suspect was fatally wounded when an officer fired his weapon (p. 286). Shortly after the incident the mother was allowed into the home, and she reported no visible evidence that her son was possession of a hammer (p. 286). The court found that the city was not liable for damages under the theory of respondeat superior, because the order to remove the individual from the home was not made by an individual deemed as a decision-maker by the city (p. 286).

From the outside, this case seems to fit the theory of respondeat superior. As the employer, the city should be held responsible for the actions of its employees. The police, serving as the city???s employees acted in a manner that was unnecessary for the situation and in conflict of their training (p. 286). However, the court sided with the City of Houston because the chain of command was not followed in regards to the use of force (p. 286). The end result is a case where an individual made a decision that was not his to make; that ultimately cost a man his life.

[supanova_question]

Research: Islam And Girls' Education Essay Help Cheap

Girl’s education is more important than boy’s education.
Islam emphasizes girl’s education clearly in the Holy Quran and Hadith.
District level educational functionaries, and head teachers termed it satisfactory. The respondents claimed that, they became successful in enrolling girls at school, but regular attendance is difficult or impossible and do not complete the full cycle of basic education.
All respondents agreed that moderate type of gender bias exists in certain areas towards girl’s education. They were of the opinion that parents’ belonged to rural area and ST community usually engage their daughters in domestic work.
Majority of parents and VLC members were not satisfied with the performance of department of school education. They were of the view that their daughters were suffering in schools due to inappropriate curriculum, boring teaching methods, additional burden of work at home, poorly developed or maintained buildings or inadequate basic facilities at school.
Majority of parents, girl students and VLC members quoted that Shortage of teachers, lack of good motivated teachers, particularly experienced teachers and unacceptable behaviour of some teachers and head teachers are also the causes of girl illiteracy.
Parents and VLC members quoted poverty, unavailability and untimely provision of stationary and uniforms as one of the main reasons for not sending their girl children to schools. Other reasons quoted by VLC members, head teachers and district level education functionaries were nomadic way of life of Gujjar and Bakerwal community and lack of schools nearby.
Parents and VLC members especially living in hilly areas also highlighted that their daughter have to travel long distances to attend schools.
Parents and VLC members put allegations that teachers remained absent or came late. Teachers were not interested in teaching.
Head teachers and teachers indicated that they had not been exposed to gender sensitive teacher training.
Teachers, head teachers and other community members shared different examples which show the different ideas about the girl’s education. The major issues were relating to access of basic education, equity-related issues and issues relating to poor quality of girls education.
The parents and VLC members complained about the large corruption in education department from top to bottom.
Teachers and head teacher complained about lack of opportunities for professional growth and VLC members raised their voice against non availability of funds for schools.
According to head teachers, teachers and other community members the main causes of girls drop out from schools were poverty, domestic work and lack of physical facilities at schools.
According to head teachers, teachers and VLC members the reasons for girl’s dropout are lack of a school nearby, a school far from home compounds the already existing hindrances such as fear of harassment, eve teasing and other safety related issues.
The VLC members also shared different examples from their contexts, which showed that parents of girls remain under pressure.
The community members were not happy with the performance of teachers in schools.
District education department had lack of staff to reach all schools. There is shortage of staff in the department. Due to shortage of manpower schools are suffering.
All the respondents agreed that government, local bodies and NGO,s are playing positive role in educating girls and whereas, they were moderately satisfied with the existing intervention schemes. But they recommended there should be some for interventions schemes so that every girl should get benefit.
District level education functionaries, head teachers and teacher agreed the intervention schemes played positive role in overcoming the barriers to girls’ education. Whereas, VLC members, girl students and parents were of the opinion that existing interventions are not sufficient to tackle all the barriers of girls’ education.
The entire respondents were of the opinion that there came a positive improvement in attendance, enrollment and retention of girls.
There was general agreement that the cost of education, poor school environments, the weak position of women in society, conflict, and social exclusion are the issues and challenges for girls education.
Girl’s education can be improved by raising additional resources and directing them to where the need is greatest. It requires adequate funding, well trained teachers, a school environment that promotes girls’ learning, and a social environment that values educated girls and women.
All respondent agree that girl education can be improved by the removal of school fees, free textbooks and school uniforms, construction of schools closer to communities to lower transport costs and travel time.

[supanova_question]

Business notes: Creative problem solving free essay help online

1 Unit 1 – Creative problem solving

1.1 Introduction

A business leader is expected to identify problems, implement solutions and find business opportunities. To do so, they must learn to plan, analyse situations, identify and solve problems (or potential problems), make decisions, and set realistic and attainable goals for the business/unit. These are the fundamental thinking/creative requirements for leadership, and these set direction to a successful future. Without this critical competence, you will have to rely on others to do your thinking for you, or you will simply have to learn to nurture your creative thinking skills which will help you on your journey towards successful business.

Creative thinking forms part of this continuous problem solving process, and is the fundamental basis for facilitating in the development of solutions, new initiatives, products or services. In an entrepreneurial context, the end result of this process should be directly linked to a feasible opportunity in the market environment.

Quote – What lies behind us and what lies before us, are tiny matters, compared to what lies within us. – William Morrow

The creative problem solving process consists of the following four steps:

‘ Problem analysis

‘ Solution analysis

‘ Decision analysis

‘ Solution implementation

1.2 The process

The creative problem solving process consists of an important core process, namely the idea generation process see figure 1. This is an important step, especially if you need to come up with creative ideas for products, services, and processes, to solve a consumer problem. The idea generation process consists of the following four steps:

‘ Step 1 – Generating ideas

‘ Step 2 – Developing ideas into a concept

‘ Step 3 – Converting a concept into a tangible or intangible product

‘ Step 4 – Finally protecting the tangible or intangible product

Figure 1 – The process of creative thinking (idea generation)

Initially you need to understand the problem and find the root cause of the problem. Many techniques are available to find the causes of problems, you can use the 5 Why technique in this case, if you are familiar with it. The more advanced courses will describe how to use the major problem identification techniques, but this course will focus on the idea generation process.

1.3 Where to start

In the entrepreneurial phase, the best way to start the idea generation process is when you are required to come up with a new product or service, to identify a potential consumer problem. Initially, focus on identifying problems in the area of your expertise (your knowledge base).

If you have no knowledge of the problem, the product development stage could be a challenge for you.

You will learn in the next section that not all problems are opportunities, and entrepreneurs should be careful as to how they approach this stage, when generating ideas in trying to identify a new product or service.

1.4 Problem versus opportunity

In most cases, the idea-generation phase in the creative problem solving process is neglected. Individuals normally identify a problem or an opportunity (which may seem like an opportunity, but is actually just an idea), and then develop a new product in line with the new assumed idea or opportunity. It is therefore important to distinguish between an idea and an opportunity. Resources may be wasted if a mere idea is incorrectly perceived as an opportunity.

Any opportunity is initially problem based (e.g. a coffee shop in a destination where there is a lack thereof, this creates several problem situations and potentially feasible opportunities for the entrepreneur). The creative thinking (idea generation process) involved, is the means to solving these problems, and bring forth solutions to the market problems, which create further opportunities.

1.4.1 Difference between problem and opportunity

There is, however, a critical difference between a problem and opportunity. Consider the following:

‘ Is it an idea or an opportunity to develop a high speed train between two major cities which are not far from each other? Some may say it is a great idea, but when you need to pay R200 a day to make use of it, it is simply not an opportunity. Only a few people would make use of the service, resulting in a negative impact on the market.

‘ If it is possible to transport people between the two cities for a lower cost, say R10, it would possibly be a more feasible opportunity.

Here is a good example of an opportunity – Around the turn of the twentieth century, a shoe manufacturer sent a representative to Africa, to open up a market in the undeveloped area in that continent. After exploring the culture for a month, the rep sent a telegram to the home office shouting,

‘Disaster! Disaster! These people do not wear shoes. Bring me home immediately!’

A short time later, another shoe company sent their agent to Africa for the same purpose. A month later his home office also received a telegram:

‘Opportunity! Opportunity! These people do not wear shoes! Triple production immediately!’

Quote – Every situation contains the potential for disastrous problems or unprecedented success. The event is what we perceive it to be. Unknown

Now the question arises: How do I distinguish between an idea and an opportunity? Looking at above examples, every problem is not an opportunity, and it really depends at how you are looking at the problem. If you see a viable opportunity in a problem then you are looking at the problem with a different perception than most people (the glass is half full or half empty). From a business perspective all opportunities are not necessarily a viable opportunity, the market determines the available opportunities. Without the knowledge to interpret the market conditions, you could miss it totally in terms of your opportunity analysis.

Table 1 shows the different industries in South Africa, the level of entrepreneurial activity, and how the same opportunity differs in each of these market areas.

1.4.2 The global entrepreneurship monitor

The Global Entrepreneurship Monitor ‘ specifically identified the entrepreneurial activity in the various industries of South Africa. It can be generalized to state that an industry with a high level of entrepreneurial activity, gives away more business opportunities (e.g. manufacturing, retail, hotel, restaurant and business services), while one with a lower level will indicate far less opportunities (e.g. agriculture, forestry, hunting, fishing, finance, insurance, real estate and health, education and social services).

If we analyse just one ‘high-opportunity’ industry, for instance manufacturing, it may be an opportunity today to manufacture a final product, and export it to an international market. A ‘low-opportunity’ industry, for instance insurance (especially in the market entry phase), may be negative as having an extremely high crime rate and insurance companies have to pay out claims at an alarming rate. It is also evident that low-opportunity industries may create feasible opportunities.

An entrepreneur should therefore be wary of following a fad, (latest trend) and exploiting assumed opportunities in a ‘popular’ industry.

Percentage of Entrepreneurs

ISIC Category Start-ups New Firms Total

Agriculture, forestry, hunting, fishing 1,3 2,6 1,6

Mining, construction 9,7 5,0 4,1

Manufacturing 14,3 19,1 13,8

Transport, communications, utilities 9,8 0,7 8,0

Wholesale, motor vehicle sales, repairs 6,0 6,5 6,3

Retail, hotel, restaurant 40,8 47,7 43,5

Finance, insurance, real estate 0,3 5,2 1,4

Business services 10,1 7,9 9,4

Health, education, social services 2,6 0,7 2,3

Consumer services 11,0 3,5 9,7

Source: Driver. Wood, Segal & Herrington, 2001

Table 1 – The percentage of entrepreneurs in the different industries in South-Africa

1.4.3 What is an opportunity?

What exactly is an opportunity and how does an entrepreneur exploit a feasible opportunity? According to Hesrich & Peters (2002), an opportunity is the process whereby the entrepreneur assesses whether a certain product, service or process, will yield the necessary earnings based on the resource inputs that are required to manufacture and market it.

The nature of opportunities needs to be assessed – thus, what leads to the existence of an opportunity? The following factors may result in an opportunity:

‘ General and specific problems faced by consumers

‘ Market shifts

‘ Government regulations

‘ Competition

There are two equally important criteria in the assessment of an opportunity. Firstly, the size of the market – will the number of customers reward the input and energy required, to create and deliver the product?

Secondly, the length in terms of the frame of the opportunity (window of opportunity). For example, is the demand for this product only a short fashionable phenomenon or is it based on sustainable business, or how long will it take before someone else (a competitor), to grab the opportunity?

These two aspects should also link directly to the personal skills and competence of the entrepreneur. For example, entrepreneurs with no skills or interest in information technology will not necessarily achieve their personal goals. They should rather venture into an opportunity which suits their experience and personality.

1.4.4 Transform opportunity into a business

Table 2 shows how the development of a business plan links to the identification and evaluation of opportunities, the determination of the resources required and the eventual management of the enterprise. All of these factors play a significant role in the correct assessment of the business opportunity.

This means that the business plan must explain in sufficient detail how the business will exploit the situation, to transform the opportunity, into solving a problem for the consumer, which generates extraordinary profits for the people involved.

Identify and evaluate the opportunity Develop the business plan Determine the resources needed Manage the enterprise

Creation and length of opportunity

Real and perceived value of opportunity

Risk and returns of opportunity

Opportunity versus skills and goals

Competitive situation Title page

Table of contents

Executive summary

Description of business

Description of industry

Marketing plan

Financial plan

Production plan

Organisational plan

Operational plan

Summary

Appendices Existing resources of the entrepreneur

Resource gap and available supplies

Access to needed resources Management style

Key variables for success

Identification of problems and potential problems

Implementation of control systems

Source: Hisrich, R.D. & Peters, M.P. 2002: 40. Entrepreneurship. Boston: Irwin/McGraw-Hill.

Table 2 – Link between Opportunity and business plan

1.5 Instruction

Exit and resume to your current page.

[supanova_question]

The importance of employee engagement in an organization assignment help sydney

1.4 Literature Review

Mark Kilsby and Stephen Beyer (1996) ‘ Engagement and Interaction : A comparison between supported employment and acts’. This research study was conducted with the help of interaction and commitment patterns of 13 supported employees and 38 regular adult training center attainders of the organization. Direct observation was used as method of data collection, within the 13 employment sites and a representative sample of ATC organized activities. Because of the higher level of task specific dialogue between individuals and the service of the organization it is found that there is more of social interaction in ACT. Interaction of employees with public within office hours was the cause for this as per the study conducted.

Douglas R. May, Richard L, Gilson and Lynn M . Harter (2004) ‘The Psychological Conditions Of Meaningfulness ,Safety And Availability And The Engagement Of The Human Spirit At Work’. This shows the study about a U.S western company which explored the determinants and mediated the effects of tree psychological conditions they are meaningful, safe and available. The above studies shoes that all the three factors (meaningfulness, safety and availability) have a positive relation with the engagement of an employee in the organization. In other words they are completely associated with the psychological safety where as loyalty to co worker norms and self- consciousness are negatively related.

Despoina Xanthopaolou, Arnold B, Bakker, Evangelia Demerouti and Wilmar B.Schaufeli (2009) ‘Work Engagement And Financial Returns : A Diary Study On The Role Of The Job And Personal Resources’. The above study shows that how daily fluctuations in job can affect the level of personal resource , financial returns and work engagement. Different level of analysis revealed that day level job resources had an effect on work engagement through the day level personal resources. When there was a control for the general level of personal resources and organizational engagement Day level work engagement showed a positive way towards day level training, which in turn showed the financial returns.

Dan-Shang Wang and Chia ‘Chun Hsieh (2013) ‘The Effect Of Authentic Leadership On Employee Trust And Employee Engagement’ they have examined the genuine leadership on employee engagement through employee trust. They have collected data from 386 employees from top 1000 manufacturing companies and top 500 service companies in Taiwan. Hierarchical multiple regression was used to test the hypothesis on the employees. Later on the results shows that the consistency between the supervisors , words and actions as well as their moral perceptions are optimistically related to employee engagement , when only supervisors are consist between the words and actions in positively related employment trust. The study shows how employee engagement had a positive trust on employee. Employee trust has a partial link between authentic leadership and employee engagement.

Benjamin J.C, Yuan and Michael B.H. Lin (2012) ‘Transforming Employee Engagement Into Long-Term Customer Relationships: Evidence From Information Technology Salespeople In Taiwan’. This article shows that when information sales people in Taiwan have perceived more transformational leadership and they were more expected to show increased development in work engagement. Over a period of time it was found that increased development in work engagement influenced the increased customer relationship. It showed how employee engagement is indirectly co related with customer relationship.

Xander M.Bezuijen, Karen Van Dam, Peter T . Van Den Berg and Henk Thierry (2010) ‘How Leaders Stimulate Employee Learning : A Leader ‘ Member Exchange Approach’. This study investigated how the three factors as such as leader member exchange, goal setting, and feedback are related to employee engagement in the learning activities. Here, two different mechanisms were proposed , first one a mediating mechanism telling that leader member exchange shows specific leader behavior. The second one is it as a moderating mechanism , holding that leader member exchange will strengthen the effect of leader behavior from 7 organizations a sample of 1112 employees was taken , to measure the leader member exchange approach. 233 of the direct leaders answered that they find difficulty in rating employee engagement in learning activities.

Maureen F.Dollard and Arnold B. Bakker (2010) ‘Psychosocial Safety Climate As A Precursor To Conducive Work Environment , Psychological Health Problems , And Employee Engagement’. This article shows the gap between work psychology and psychosocial working condition. Where we construct a psychosocial working condition PSC. It explains how PSC influences the senior management in psychological working conditions and in psychological health and engagement. They use the job demand and resources as a frame work and uses a multi level thinking into their explanation

James R.Jones (2009) ‘Comparative Effects On Race/Ethnicity And Employee Engagement On Withdrawal Behavior’. This study have added knowledge on the basis of effects on employee attachment. In addition to that it provides more evidence on looking at all types of employees as a single entity which can lead to false results.

Shane Crabb ( 2011) ‘The Use Of Coaching Principles To Foster Employee Engagement’. The above article focuses on the human condition that leads to the happiness of fulfillment and flourishing of employee engagement. Where positive psychology results in so many questions from traditional psychological approaches .Which have mean to focus on a different model of human functioning with healing people fail. In another way positive psychology takes additional holistic approach to human life. Seeing the positive and negative aspects of context when establishing what is right , working and good of people.

Roberta A . Neault and Deidre A .Pickerel (2011) ‘Career Engagement : Bridging Career Counseling And Employee engagement’ . this article is showing that employee counselors helps individuals in maximizing their career engagement at any career stage of an individual. When you facilitate career engagement it contributes to employee engagement which employee are looking for. They even encourages others to use the career engagement and employee engagement models as vehicles to combine the employers to interest in engagement counselors to create interest in supporting the development of employee an motivate them to work.

2.1 Title: A Cross Sectional Study Of Employee Engagement In Apollo Hospitals.

2.2 Objectives:

1. To determine the level of Employee Engagement in Apollo Hospitals.

2. To identify the factors of Employee Engagement.

3. To analyze and suggest strategies for improvement.

2.3 Research Methodology:

I had adopted descriptive research design for the purpose of this

Survey on employee engagement. The primary data was collected from the 100 employees conveniently selected from Apollo Hospitals Bangalore, through structured questionnaire.

2.4 Limitations:

1) The survey was carried out for a sample sized of 100 working staff only.

2) Findings and suggestion of this research are applicable only to Apollo Hospitals.

3) As an fact finding study advanced statistical tools or analysis are not used.

Table 1.1 Weighted Average on Opportunities for growth

X 1 2 3 4 5

I have adequate opportunities for professional growth in this organization. (X1) 10 20 32 19 19

I receive the training I need to do my job well.(X2) 2 52 22 16 08

My manager is actively interested in my professional development and advancement.(X3) 32 21 12 18 17

My manager encourages and supports my development (X4) 08 10 40 18 24

I am encouraged to learn from my mistakes (X5) 52 23 16 04 05

My work is challenging, stimulating, and rewarding(X6) 28 14 33 16 09

X1 ?? XI X2 ?? X2 X3 ?? X3 X4 ?? X4 X5 ?? X5 X6 ?? X6

10 50 2 10 32 160 08 40 52 260 28 140

20 80 52 208 21 84 10 40 23 92 14 56

32 96 22 66 12 36 40 120 16 48 33 99

19 38 16 32 18 36 18 36 04 08 16 32

19 19 08 08 17 17 24 24 05 05 09 09

TOTAL 283 TOTAL 324 TOTAL 333 TOTAL 260 TOTAL 413 TOTAL 336

Table 1.2 Calculation Of Weighted Average on Opportunities for growth

283/100 2.83 324/100 3.24 333/100 3.33 260/100 2.60 413/100 4.13 336/100 3.36

RANKED 6 RANKED 4 RANKED 3 RANKED 5 RANKED 1 RANKED 2

Table 1.3 Showing The Rank Of Each Component of Opportunities for growth

INFERENCE

The above table shows that the employees are encouraged to learn from their mistakes that is 4.15 out of 5.the work is stimulating rewarding and challenging is ranked 2nd.the manager is actively interested in employees professional growth is

ranked 3rd.the level of opportunity for professional growth shows the least ranking.

Table 1.4: Showing Adequate Opportunities/ Professional growth

STRONGLY AGREED AGREED NEUTRAL DISAGREE STRONGLY DISAGREE TOTAL

10 20 32 19 19 100

Chart 1.1: Showing Adequate Opportunities/ Professional growth

Interpretation:

32% of the employees from the given population says that they have a neutral opportunity to grow where as 10 % stands in the outstanding category and 20% of them in good category. An equal no of employees disagree to the fact in the other hand that is 19% of the given population.

STRONGLY AGREED AGREED NEUTRAL DISAGREE STRONGLY DISAGREE TOTAL

2 52 22 16 8 100

Table 1.5: Showing Training

Chart 1.2: Showing Training

Interpretation:

In the given sample 52% of the employees agrees to the fact that they receive good training in order to do their job efficiently and 2% strongly agrees. where 22 % is neutral to the situation given.16 % of them do not get proper training they required to do their jobs and 8 % strongly disagree to it. It is clear that the organization is giving a proper training to employees to make their work effective.

Table 1.6: Showing Professional Development And Advancement

STRONGLY AGREED AGREED NEUTRAL DISAGREE STRONGLY DISAGREE TOTAL

32 21 12 18 17 100

Chart 1.3: Showing Professional Development And Advancement

Interpretation:

Most of the employees agree that their manager takes attention in their professional development steps. 32 % to 25 of the employees from the given sample have strongly agreed and agreed to it respectively. whereas 12 % is neutral to it . but 18% to 17% disagrees and says that they are not taken care in respective of their advancement in profession.

Table 1.7: Showing Encouragement And Support

STRONGLY AGREED AGREED NEUTRAL DISAGREE STRONGLY DISAGREE TOTAL

8 10 40 18 24 100

Chart 1.4: Showing Encouragement And Support

Interpretation:

From the above graph its clear that 40% of the employees neither agree or disagree that management encourage them or support them. 8% to 10% agrees that they have been supported by the management . but 18 % to 24 % disagree to the fact that management supports them .

Table 1.8: Showing Challenges, Stimulation And Reward

STRONGLY AGREED AGREED NEUTRAL DISAGREE STRONGLY DISAGREE TOTAL

52 23 16 4 5 100

Chart 1.5: Showing Challenges, Stimulation And Reward

Interpretation:

More than half , 52% of the employees states that they have a challenging stimulating and rewarding work. A very few of them disagree to it 4 % to 5% . and 23 % of them agrees t it there is a majority of people agreeing to it.

Table 1.9: Showing Encouragement

STRONGLY AGREED AGREED NEUTRAL DISAGREE STRONGLY DISAGREE TOTAL

28 14 33 16 9 100

Chart 1.6: Showing Encouragement

Interpretation:

There is a 28% of people agreeing to it. And 16 % to 9 % disagreeing to the fact that they are not encouraged to learn from their mistakes .

Table 1.10: Showing Weighted Average on Work/Life Balance; Stress and Work Pace

X 1 2 3 4 5

My manager understands the benefits of maintaining a balance between work and personal life. (X1) 02 13 08 48 29

My job does not cause unreasonable amounts of stress in my life. (X2) 30 13 08 48 29

The amount of work I am asked to do is reasonable. (X3) 40 20 12 14 14

I am able to satisfy both my job and family/personal responsibilities. (X4) 27 12 08 09 44

X1 ?? X1 X2 ?? X2 X3 ?? X3 X4 ?? X4

02 10 30 150 40 200 27 135

13 52 13 52 20 80 12 48

08 24 08 24 12 48 08 24

48 96 48 96 14 28 09 18

29 29 29 29 14 14 44 44

TOTAL 211 TOTAL 351 TOTAL 370 TOTAL 269

Table 1.11: Showing Calculation Of Weighted Average on Work/Life Balance; Stress and Work Pace

Table 1.12: Showing The Rank Of Each Component of Work/Life Balance; Stress And Work Pace

211/100 2.11 351/100 3.51 370/100 3.7 269/100 2.69

RANKED 4 RANKED 1 RANKED 2 RANKED 3

INFERRENCE

By analysing the given data using weighted average method that the level of stress reduced in the employees is 3.51 out of 4 , and the amount of work the employee is asked to do is 3.7. the employee is able to balance between family and personal responsibility is 2.69 . the managers understanding in the benefits and maintaining balance between work and personal life should be taken care because it is got only 2.11 which have least rank

STRONGLY AGREED AGREED NEUTRAL DISAGREE STRONGLY DISAGREE TOTAL

2 13 8 48 29 100

Table 1.13: Showing Work/Life Balance; Stress And Work Pace Balance Between Work And Personal Life

Chart 1.7: Showing Work/Life Balance; Stress And Work Pace Balance Between Work And Personal Life

Interpretation:

Only 2% of the employees says that there is a balance between work life and personal life. 13% of them agrees to it and 8% is neutral to it.but 48% of the sample disagrees and 29 % of them strongly disagrees to it.

Table 1.14: Showing Stress Level In Employees Life

STRONGLY AGREED AGREED NEUTRAL DISAGREE STRONGLY DISAGREE TOTAL

30 13 8 48 29 100

Chart 1.8: Showing Stress Level In Employees Life

Interpretation:

30% of the employees strongly agrees that the job doesn’t cause much stress where 13% of them agrees and 8% is neutral to it. But 48%of them disagree nd 29% strongly disagrees and states that job causes stress in their life.

Table 1.15: Showing Amount Of Work Asked To Do

STRONGLY AGREED AGREED NEUTRAL DISAGREE STRONGLY DISAGREE TOTAL

40 20 12 14 14 100

Chart 1.9: Showing Amount Of Work Asked To Do

Interpretation:

40% of them strongly agrees that they have sufficient amount of work and they do not feel any stress where 20 % of them agrees. 12% of the sample is neutral.14% of them disagrees they don’t have suffient amount of work or they are overloaded with the work given.

Table 1.16: Showing Satisfying Family / Personal Responsibilities

STRONGLY AGREED AGREED NEUTRAL DISAGREE STRONGLY DISAGREE TOTAL

40 20 12 14 14 100

Chart 1.10: Showing Satisfying Family / Personal Responsibilities

Interpretation:

44% of them strongly disagree that they are not able to complete their job, family and personal responsibilities. 27 % to 12 % agrees to it and 8% is neutral to that. It shows that employees are not satisfied with the amount of work given to them.

Table 1.17: Showing Weighted Average on Personal Expression / Diversity

X 1 2 3 4 5

My ideas and opinions count at work. (X1) 03 18 19 32 28

I am comfortable sharing my opinions at work. (X2) 10 08 28 42 12

We work to attract, develop, and retain people with diverse backgrounds. (X3) 10 13 09 56 12

Senior management is genuinely interested in employee opinions and ideas. (X4) 24 23 36 07 10

People with different ideas are valued in this organization. (X5) 20 18 40 13 09

Table 1.18: Calculation Of Weighted Average on Personal Expression / Diversity

X1 ?? X1 X2 ?? X2 X3 ?? X3 X4 ?? X4 X5 ?? X5

3 15 10 50 10 50 24 120 20 100

18 72 08 32 13 52 23 92 18 72

19 57 28 84 09 27 36 108 40 120

32 64 42 84 56 112 07 14 13 26

28 26 12 12 12 12 10 10 09 09

TOTAL 234 TOTAL 262 TOTAL 253 TOTAL 344 TOTAL 327

234/100 2.34 262/100 2.62 253/100 2.53 344/100 3.44 327/100 3.27

RANKED 5 RANKED 3 RANKED 4 RANKED 1 RANKED 2

Table 1.19: Showing The Rank Of Each Component of Personal Expression / Diversity

INFERRENCE

By analysing the above table it shows that senior management is interested in personal opinions which shows the rank 1. And people with different ideas are valued in the organisation are considered 3.27 out of 5. Employees are free to share their ideas 2.62. the employees work in such a manner to attract and retain others 2.53 ,which has got the 4th rank. Ideas counted at work has got the least rank where they have to work on that part.

Table 1.20: Showing Idea And Opinion Count

STRONGLY AGREED AGREED NEUTRAL DISAGREE STRONGLY DISAGREE TOTAL

3 18 19 32 28 100

Chart 1.11: : Showing Idea And Opinion Count

Interpretation:

Only 3% of the employees agree that the management listens to their ideas and opinions. 18% of them agree to it as well. 19 % is neutral to the situation. Whereas there is a huge no of the sample size that is32% to 28% who is disagreeing to it. Their opinions and ideas are not taken seriously by the management.

Table 1.21: Showing Level Comfort in Sharing Opinions

STRONGLY AGREED AGREED NEUTRAL DISAGREE STRONGLY DISAGREE TOTAL

10 8 28 42 12 100

Chart 1.12 : Showing Level Comfort in Sharing Opinions

Interpretation:

The conducted shows that onl10% to 8% employees are comfortable in sharing their problems with the upper management. Rest of the sample that is 42% is disagreeing that they are not comfortable in sharing their ideas or problems.12% of them strongly disagrees.

Table 1.22: Showing The Work They Do Is To Attract , Develop And Retain

STRONGLY AGREED AGREED NEUTRAL DISAGREE STRONGLY DISAGREE TOTAL

10 13 9 56 12 100

Chart 1.13: Showing The Work They Do Is To Attract , Develop And Retain

Interpretation:

56% of the employees disagrees that they don’t work to attract ,develop or retain customers. Where 10% to 13% agrees to the statement . a little sample size of 12% strongly disagrees to the statement .

Table 1.23: Showing Senior Management Interest In Employee Opinion And Ideas

STRONGLY AGREED AGREED NEUTRAL DISAGREE STRONGLY DISAGREE TOTAL

24 23 26 7 10 100

Chart 1.14: Showing Senior Management Interest In Employee Opinion And Ideas

Interpretation

The management shows interest in taking employees ideas and opinions.24% of them agrees and 23% of the strongly agrees to the statement. A huge sample ,36% id neutral to the statement. But a little sample, 7% to 10% disagrees to the statement.

Table 1.24: Showing People With Different Ideas Are Valued

STRONGLY AGREED AGREED NEUTRAL DISAGREE STRONGLY DISAGREE TOTAL

20 18 40 13 9 100

Chart 1.15: Showing People With Different Ideas Are Valued

Interpretation:

20% to 18% of the employees agree that people with different ideas are well accepted in the organization. 40% to the employees are neutral to the statement. 13 % to 9% of the sample disagrees to the statement on the other hand.

Table 1.25: Showing Weighted Average On Compensation

X 1 2 3 4 5

I am paid fairly for the work I do. (X1) 19 42 12 25 2

My salary is competitive with similar jobs I might find elsewhere.(X2) 32 12 28 23 5

My benefits are comparable to those offered by other organizations.(X3) 8 29 28 32 3

I understand my benefit plan. (X4) 42 15 19 9 15

I am satisfied with my benefit package. (X5) 58 12 11 6 13

Table 1.26: Calculation Of Weighted Average On Compensation

X1 vX1 X2 ?? X2 X3 ?? X3 X4 ?? X4 X5 ?? X5

19 95 32 160 08 40 42 210 58 290

42 168 12 48 29 116 15 60 12 48

12 36 28 84 28 84 19 57 11 33

25 50 23 46 32 64 09 18 06 12

02 02 05 05 03 03 15 15 13 13

TOTAL 351 TOTAL 343 TOTAL 307 TOTAL 360 TOTAL 396

Table 1.27: Showing The Rank Of Each Component Of Compensation

351/100 3.51 343/100 3.43 307/100 3.07 360/100 3.60 396/100 3.96

RANKED 3 RANKED 4 RANKED 5 RANKED 2 RANKED 1

INFERENCES

The above table shows that the employees are satisfied with the benefit package they are given 3.96 out of 5.the employees understand their plan is 3.60. the fair pay is ranked 3rd.the employees salary is competitive with others is ranked 4th. The salary is not comparable with salary with others which has been ranked the least, rank 5.

Table 1.28: showing Fair Pay

STRONGLY AGREED AGREED NEUTRAL DISAGREE STRONGLY DISAGREE TOTAL

19 42 12 25 2 100

Chart 1.16: Showing Fair Pay

Interpretation:

19% to 42% of the Employees agree that they are paid fairly according to the amount of work they do. But 25% to 2% of the sample size disagrees to the statement. And 12% is neutral to it.

Table 1.29: Showing Salary Competitiveness

STRONGLY AGREED AGREED NEUTRAL DISAGREE STRONGLY DISAGREE TOTAL

32 12 28 23 5 100

Chart 1.17: Showing Salary Competitiveness

Interpretation:

32% of the employees agrees that they get a competitive salary when compared to other organizations with same designation. 12% of them strongly agrees to it .28% of them are neutral to the statement. 23% to 5% is disagrees to the statement in the other hand.

Table 1.30: Showing Comparability Of Benefits

STRONGLY AGREED AGREED NEUTRAL DISAGREE STRONGLY DISAGREE TOTAL

8 29 28 32 3 100

Chart 1.18: Showing Comparability Of Benefits

Interpretation:

There is balance, 29% of the employees agrees and 32 % of them strongly disagrees that they have a comparable benefits.28% of them are neutral in the other hand.

Table 1.31: Showing Understanding Of Benefit Plan

STRONGLY AGREED AGREED NEUTRAL DISAGREE STRONGLY DISAGREE TOTAL

42 15 19 9 15 100

Chart 1.19: Showing Understanding Of Benefit Plan

Interpretation:

42% of the employees agrees that they understand their benefit plan. 15% strongly agrees ,where 19% is neutral.9% to 15% disagrees to the fact and says they don’t understand the benefit plans they are given.

Table 1.32: Showing Satisfaction With Benefit Package

STRONGLY AGREED AGREED NEUTRAL DISAGREE STRONGLY DISAGREE TOTAL

58 12 11 6 13 100

Chart 1.20: Showing Satisfaction With Benefit Package

Interpretation:

58% of them are satisfied with their benefit package. 12% strongly agrees. Whereas little sample of 6% to 13% disagrees to the statement. Or they are not happy with their benefit package.11% is neutral to it.

Summary of Findings

‘ Most of the employee’s ability state the opinion firmly and positively is better than acceptable standards.

‘ Majority of the employee’s ability in exercising the professional duties without assistance is better than acceptable standard.

‘ The Emotional Stamina of the majority of the employees is better than acceptable standard.

‘ Majority of the Employee’s Ability to work co-operatively and collaboratively to achieve common goal is better than acceptable.

‘ Majority of the employees Ability to effectively guide a group through an appropriate process to help to achieve their desired outcomes is better than acceptable standard.

‘ Majority of the employee’s ability to clarify and establish with a group roles and responsibilities, common goal and plan to achieve them and group behavioural is outstanding.

‘ Majority of the employees Ability to deal with multiple issues and details, alertness and learning capacity is better than acceptable standard.

‘ Majority of the employee’s ability to see and think beyond the obvious and formulate original solution is better than acceptable standards.

‘ Majority of the employee’s ability to present ideas, concept, plan and procedure clearly to the target group is better than acceptable standard.

‘ Concern for excellence of the majority of the employee’s is better than acceptable standard.

‘ Majority of the employee’s Aware of what is going on in the workplace and responds in a suitable manner to situations as they is better than acceptable.

‘ The understanding between the top level and employees are in good terms.

‘ Employees do understand their benefits and opportunities given by the organisation.

‘ The employees are paid fairly according to the work done.

‘ Freedom of sharing new ideas and opinions are welcomed in the organisation.

‘ The employees are able to make a balance between personnel and work life. which reduces the amount of stress in them.

‘ The organisation encourages the employee to learn from their mistakes.

‘ Recommendations

‘ In this organization employee engagement study must be regularly done in order to check the level of employee effectiveness.

‘ Since many of the employees are performing different jobs to what they were doing at the time of their joining they need training to perform the new work allotted them.

‘ Different sources of employee engagement tactics must be encouraged in employees.

‘ The top management should support the lower level employees since it is considered a major hurdle in effective employee engagement and the employees must also be made aware of importance of engagement at work system

‘ The employees should be then and there motivated for work.

‘ The understanding between management and employees should be increased.

‘ Level of stress in work should be reduced.

‘ Better benefit package should be given to the employees.

Conclusion

In the report we have discussed the importance of employee engagement in an organization and how it affects the efficiency of work and productivity. Employment counselors should help individuals to maximize their career engagement at any stage of their career. Basically employee engagement should be a buzz word for the employee engagement and a positive attitude held by the employees towards the organization. Employee engagement is gaining its importance and popularity in work places and its impact in many ways. It emphasis on the importance of employee engagement in a organization, an organization should thus give more importance for its employees than any other variable as they are the powerful contributors to a company’s competitiveness. Thus it shows that employee engagement should be a continues process for learning, improvement, measurement and action of an employee.

[supanova_question]

The limitations of the Chit Acts aqa unit 5 biology synoptic essay help

1.1 BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY

The financial system assumes strategically a very important role in channelling the funds from surplus units to deficit units. The financial system here refers to the group of institutions, markets and instruments which helps in formation of capital and thus accelerates to the pace of economic development.

The base of this study stems from the fact that there exists a gap between gross capital formation and gross domestic savings in India. So, there exists the need to augment the growth rate of voluntary domestic savings. This goal can be realized by widening and strengthening the working of different financial intermediaries which will result in mobilizing savings from various income level categories. .It is in this context that the role of the Non-Banking Financial Intermediaries like Chit Finance should be appreciated in supplementing the functions of the Banking Institutions.

Chit funds are Chit funds are the Indian equivalent of the Rotating Savings and Credit Associations (ROSCA). ROSCAs are famous in many parts of the world and is seen as an instrument to ‘save and borrow’ simultaneously. ROSCAs basically started as a way to help in fulfilling the needs of the low-income households as it enables the people to convert their small savings into lump sums. The concept of chit funds originated more than 1000 years ago. Initially it was in the form of an informal association of traders and households within communities, wherein the members contributed some money in return for an accumulated sum at the end of the tenure. Participation in Chit funds was mainly for the purpose of purchasing some property or, in other words, for ‘consumption’ purposes. However, in recent times, there have been tremendous alterations in the constitution and functioning of Chit funds. A significant difference between Chit Funds and ROSCAs are that in most places ROSCAs are user-owned and organized informally, but chit funds have been formally institutionalized in India. (Chit Funds-An innovative access to finance for low income households, 2009)

1.1.1 WHAT DO WE MEAN BY CHIT FUNDS?

Chit fund is a savings-cum-borrowing instrument. The basic aim of this instrument is to pool small amount of savings by all the members which is then managed by a foreman. The foreman has the responsibility to act as a trustee-cum-supervisors for the process of collection and allotment of the pooled amount.

Chit funds represent a traditional form of saving-cum-credit institution evolved before the bank system was introduced in rural India. There are many who avail themselves of this avenue for saving for a reasonable return.

1.1 NEED AND RATIONALE OF THE STUDY

Despite the growth of a wide range of savings avenues and the widespread network of banks and other financial institutions, it has been found that Chit scheme still forms an important part in the asset portfolio of many households and firms in India and especially in South India including Karnataka. Also, the review of literature shows that there are only a few studies on Chit Finance. Therefore, the need to conduct the study stems from the requirement to understand Chit Funds in Bangalore.

1.2 NEED TO CONDUCT THE STUDY

The research titled ‘A Study on Chit Funds in Bangalore to understand the behaviour and financial needs of the chit fund members as well as to identify the important predictors of regular participation in chit funds’ The study estimates the net returns and interest rate on Chit funds. This study tries to point out the limitations of the Chit Acts and suggests feasible recommendations for improving the working of such institutions.

.3.2 STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM

‘A Study on Chit Funds in Bangalore to understand the behaviour and financial needs of the chit fund members as well as to identify the important predictors of regular participation in chit funds’.

VARIABLES UNDER INVESTIGATION

1. Age

2. Occupation

3. Monthly income

4. Gender

5. Bank loan

6. Regular participation in chit fund

7. Membership in multiple chit schemes

8. Cause for participating in multiple schemes

9. Preferred avenue of saving

10. Preferred source of finance

11. Safety

12. Better service

13. Flexibility

14. Timely Payment

15. Low commission

16. Personal contact

17. Unregistered chit funds membership

18. Cause for participating in unregistered chit funds

19. Cause for not participating in unregistered chit fund

3.5 OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDY

3.5.1 OBJECTIVE(PRIMARY)

1. To understand the behaviour and financial needs of the chit fund members.

2. To identify the important predictors behind chit fund participation

3.5.2 OHER OBJECTIVES OF RESEARCH

1. To estimate interest rates in registered chit funds.

2. To compare the relative ratings of Chit subscribers towards registered and unregistered chit funds on

3. To estimate the return on Chit Funds.

3.6 HYPOTHESIS

There are two types of statistical hypotheses.

1. Null hypothesis

2. Alternative hypothesis.

Hypothesis 1:

H0: There is no significant relation between gender and cause for participation in chit fund.

H1: There is significant relation between gender and cause for participation in chit fund.

Hypothesis 2:

H0: There is no significant relation between occupation and cause for participation in chit fund.

H1: There is significant relation between occupation and cause for participation in chit fund.

Hypothesis 3:

H0: There is no significant relation between age and causes for participation in chit fund

H1: There is significant relation between age and cause for participation in chit fund

Hypothesis 4:

H0: There is no significant relation between monthly income and cause for participation in chit fund

H1: There is significant relation between monthly income and cause for participation in chit fund

Hypothesis 5:

H0: There is no significant relation between gender and causes for bidding in chit fund

H1: There is significant relation between gender and cause for bidding in chit fund

Hypothesis 6:

H0: There is no significant relation between occupation and cause for bidding in chit fund

H1: There is significant relation between occupation and cause for bidding in chit fund

Hypothesis 7:

H0: There is no significant relation between age and cause for bidding in chit fund

H1: There is significant relation between age and cause for bidding in chit fund

Hypothesis 8:

H0: There is no significant relation between monthly income and cause for bidding in chit fund

H1: There is significant relation between monthly income and cause for bidding in chit fund

Hypothesis 9:

H0: There is no significant relation between gender and cause for saving in chit fund

H1: There is significant relation between gender and cause for saving in chit fund

Hypothesis 10:

H0: There is no significant relation between occupation and cause for saving in chit fund.

H1: There is significant relation between occupation and cause for saving in chit fund.

Hypothesis 11:

H0: There is no significant relation between age and cause for saving in chit fund

H1: There is significant relation between age and cause for saving in chit fund

Hypothesis 12:

H0: There is no significant relation between having bank loan and membership in multiple chit schemes.

H1: There is significant relation between having bank loan and membership in multiple chit schemes.

Hypothesis 13:

H0: There is no significant relation between monthly income and participation in unregistered chit funds

H1: There is significant relation between monthly income and participation in unregistered chit funds

Hypothesis 14 :

H0: There is no significant relation between causes to prefer chit fund over bank and having bank loan.

H1: There is significant relation between causes to prefer chit fund over bank and having bank loan.

Hypothesis 15:

H0: Presence of safety, flexibility, timely payment, low commission, better service, personal contact, having a bank loan are no significant predictors of regular participation in chit fund.

H1: Presence of safety, flexibility, timely payment, low commission, better service, personal contact ,having a bank loan,are significant predictors of regular participation in chit fund.

.

3.8 SAMPLING METHOD

Members of four registered chit fund companies in Bangalore. The four registered chit fund companies were selected due to the large size of their subscriber base.

3.8.3 SIZE OF SAMPLE

150 respondents

3.9 MECHANISM OF STUDY

3.9.1 PRIMARY RESEARCH

Questions relating to behaviour and financial pattern will be found out through questionnares

3.9.2 SECONDARY RESEARCH

‘ Reports on chit fund industry

OVERVIEW OF INDIAN CHIT FUND INDUSTRY

4.1.1 NUMBER OF REGISTERED CHIT FUND COMPANIES:

According to the Ministry of Corporate Affairs, as on 31st December, 2013:

Volume of registered chit companies: 5412

Volume of chit companies in Karnataka: 703

Number of chit fund companies in Bangalore: 315

UNREGISTERED CHIT FUND INDUSTRY

Although unregistered chits are an informal source of finance but still they are a significant part of the chit fund industry. Though they are more easily accessible as compared to registered chit funds.

4.3 PURPOSE OF THE STUDY

The study titled ‘A Study on Chit Funds in Bangalore to understand the behaviour and financial needs of the chit fund members as well as to identify the important predictors of regular participation in chit funds’ attempt in The study estimates the net returns and interest rate on Chit funds. This study also examines the limitations of the Chit Acts and suggests suitable recommendations for improving the functioning of such institutions.

4.4 LIMITATION OF STUDY

‘ Unwillingness of the members to share their income and financial details made the task of data collection somewhat difficult.

‘ Collecting data became difficult since I don’t know the regional languages.

5.2 ANALYSIS OF DATA

The analysis is done on the primary data collected from 150 chit funds members in Bangalore

TESTING OF HYPOTHESES

5.4.1 Hypothesis 1:

H0: There is no significant relation between gender and cause for participation in chit fund.

H1: There is significant relation between gender and cause for participation in chit fund.

Chi-Square Tests

Value df Asymp. Sig. (2-sided)

Pearson Chi-Square 31.070a 16 .013

Likelihood Ratio 35.945 16 .003

Linear-by-Linear Association 8.809 1 .003

N of Valid Cases 150

a. 1 cells (10.0%) have expected count less than 5. The minimum expected count is .30.

Symmetric Measures

Value Approx. Sig.

Nominal by Nominal Phi .455 .013

Cramer’s V .228 .013

N of Valid Cases 150

a. Not assuming the null hypothesis.

b. Using the asymptotic standard error assuming the null hypothesis.

INTERPRETATION:

The value of chi-square=31.070 was p=.013, less than 0.05.

We can see that the strength of association between the variables is moderate (Phi and Cramer’s V -0.455).

Therefore, the research hypothesis that differences in ’cause to participate in chit funds’ are related to differences in ‘age” is supported by this analysis. This means that different age groups of the chit fund members have different reasons of participating in chit funds. As can be seen from the table above that those who belong to ’36-45 years’ have saving as the predominant reason to participate whereas members of other age groups do not have any dominant reason to participate.

5.4.2 Hypothesis 2:

Hypothesis 2:

H0: There is no significant relation between occupation and cause for participation in chit fund.

H1: There is significant relation between occupation and cause for participation in chit fund.

Hypothesis 3:

. Hypothesis 3:

H0: There is no significant relation between age and causes for participation in chit fund

H1: There is significant relation between age and cause for participation in chit fund

Chi-Square Tests

Value df Asymp. Sig. (2-sided)

Pearson Chi-Square 10.018a 4 .040

Likelihood Ratio 10.478 4 .033

Linear-by-Linear Association 6.876 1 .009

N of Valid Cases 150

Symmetric Measures

Value Approx. Sig.

Nominal by Nominal Phi .258 .040

Cramer’s V .258 .040

N of Valid Cases 150

a. Not assuming the null hypothesis.

a. Using the asymptotic standard error assuming the null hypothesis.

INTERPRETATION:

The value of chi-square=10.018 was p=.040, less than 0.05.

.We can see that the strength of association between the variables is weak (0.258)

Therefore, the research hypothesis that differences in ’cause to participate in chit funds’ are related to differences in ‘gender” is supported by this analysis. This means that males and females have different reasons of participating in chit funds. As it can be seen that males participate in chit funds for business and personal consumption purposes apart from saving whereas women predominantly participate to save.

5.4

Hypothesis 4:

H0: There is no significant relation between monthly income and cause for participation in chit fund

H1: There is significant relation between monthly income and cause for participation in chit fund

Chi-Square Tests

Value df Asymp. Sig. (2-sided)

Pearson Chi-Square 82.176a 12 .000

Likelihood Ratio 97.665 12 .000

Linear-by-Linear Association 15.696 1 .000

N of Valid Cases 150

Symmetric Measures

Value Approx. Sig.

Nominal by Nominal Phi .740 .000

Cramer’s V .427 .000

N of Valid Cases 150

INTERPRETATION:

We can see that the strength of association between the variables is strong (0.740)

Therefore, the research hypothesis that differences in ‘reason to participate in chit funds’ are related to differences in ‘occupation” is supported by this analysis. It can be seen that the self-employed members mainly participate to avail for business reasons whereas salaried employee participate mainly for personal consumption purposes.

Hypothesis 5:

Hypothesis 5:

H0: There is no significant relation between gender and causes for bidding in chit fund

H1: There is significant relation between gender and cause for bidding in chit fund

Chi-Square Tests

Value df Asymp. Sig. (2-sided)

Pearson Chi-Square 66.691a 20 .000

Likelihood Ratio 43.579 20 .002

Linear-by-Linear Association 4.804 1 .028

N of Valid Cases 150

a. 1 cell (10.0%) has expected count less than 5. The minimum expected count is .07.

Symmetric Measures

Value Approx. Sig.

Nominal by Nominal Phi .667 .000

Cramer’s V .333 .000

N of Valid Cases 150

a. Not assuming the null hypothesis.

b. Using the asymptotic standard error assuming the null hypothesis.

INTERPRETATION:

The (chi-square=66.691) was p=.000, less than 0.05.

We can see that the strength of association between the variables is moderately strong (0.667)

Therefore, the research hypothesis that differences in ’cause to bid in chit funds’ are related to differences in ‘age” is supported by this analysis. It can be seen that the members of age group’36-45 years’ are more interested in bidding for business related purposes where members of other age groups bid mainly for emergency needs.

5.4.6 Hypothesis 6:

. Hypothesis 6:

H0: There is no significant relation between occupation and cause for bidding in chit fund

H1: There is significant relation between occupation and cause for bidding in chit fund

Chi-Square Tests

Value df Asymp. Sig. (2-sided)

Pearson Chi-Square 7.167a 5 .209

Likelihood Ratio 7.885 5 .163

Linear-by-Linear Association 1.120 1 .290

N of Valid Cases 150

a. 5 cells (41.7%) have expected count less than 5. The minimum expected count is .81.

Symmetric Measures

Value Approx. Sig.

Nominal by Nominal Phi .219 .209

Cramer’s V .219 .209

N of Valid Cases 150

a. Not assuming the null hypothesis.

b. Using the asymptotic standard error assuming the null hypothesis.

INTERPRETATION:

The probability of the chi-square test statistic (chi-square=7.167) was p=.209, more than the alpha level of significance of 0.05.

Therefore, the research hypothesis that differences in ‘reason to bid in chit funds’ are related to differences in ‘gender” is not supported by this analysis.

5.4.7 Hypothesis 7:

Hypothesis 7:

H0: There is no significant relation between age and cause for bidding in chit fund

H1: There is significant relation between age and cause for bidding in chit fund

Chi-Square Tests

Value df Asymp. Sig. (2-sided)

Pearson Chi-Square 180.915a 15 .000

Likelihood Ratio 160.460 15 .000

Linear-by-Linear Association 28.379 1 .000

N of Valid Cases 150

a. 1 cell (10.0%) has expected count less than 5. The minimum expected count is .13.

Symmetric Measures

Value Approx. Sig.

Nominal by Nominal Phi 1.098 .000

Cramer’s V .634 .000

N of Valid Cases 150

INTERPRETATION:

The (chi-square=180.915) was p=.000, less than 0.05.

We can see that the strength of association between the variables is extremely strong (1.098)

Therefore, the research hypothesis that differences in’ are related to differences in ‘occupation” is supported by this analysis. It can be clearly seen that self-employed people bid in chit scheme mostly for business purposes, salaried people for emergency needs and housewives for household purposes.

5.4.8 Hypothesis 8:

Hypothesis 8:

H0: There is no significant relation between monthly income and cause for bidding in chit fund

H1: There is significant relation between monthly income and cause for bidding in chit fund

Chi-Square Tests

Value df Asymp. Sig. (2-sided)

Pearson Chi-Square 123.331a 35 .000

Likelihood Ratio 106.298 35 .000

Linear-by-Linear Association 4.957 1 .026

N of Valid Cases 150

INTERPRETATION:

The probability of the chi-square test statistic (chi-square=123.331) was p=.000, less than the alpha level of significance of 0.05.

We can see that the strength of association between the variables is extremely strong (.907)

Therefore, the research hypothesis that differences in ‘reason to bid in chit funds’ are related to differences in ‘income” is supported by this analysis. It can be clearly seen that low income members bid mostly for consumption reasons whereas higher income members bid for business related and emergency purposes.

SUMMARY:

Reason to bid in chit fund has the strongest association with the occupation of the chit fund members as the probability of the chi-square test statistic (chi-square=180.915) was p=.000 and the strength of association between the variables is extremely strong (1.098).

5.4.

Hypothesis 9:

H0: There is no significant relation between gender and cause for saving in chit fund

H1: There is significant relation between gender and cause for saving in chit fund

Chi-Square Tests

Value df Asymp. Sig. (2-sided)

Pearson Chi-Square 21.702a 16 .153

Likelihood Ratio 23.775 16 .095

Linear-by-Linear Association 2.397 1 .122

N of Valid Cases 150

INTERPRETATION:

The chi-square=123.331) was p=.153, more than 0.05. Therefore, the research hypothesis that differences in ’cause to save in chit funds’ are related to differences in ‘age” is not supported by this analysis.

5.4.10 Hypothesis 10:

H0: There is no significant relation between occupation and cause for saving in chit fund.

H1: There is significant relation between occupation and cause for saving in chit fund.

Chi-Square Tests

Value df Asymp. Sig. (2-sided)

Pearson Chi-Square 20.510a 4 .000

Likelihood Ratio 29.038 4 .000

Linear-by-Linear Association 7.062 1 .008

N of Valid Cases 150

a. 1 cell (10.0%) has expected count less than 5. The minimum expected count is .81.

Symmetric Measures

Value Approx. Sig.

Nominal by Nominal Phi .370 .000

Cramer’s V .370 .000

N of Valid Cases 150

a. Not assuming the null hypothesis.

b. Using the asymptotic standard error assuming the null hypothesis.

INTERPRETATION:

The chi-square=20.510) was p=.000, less than 0.05.

We can see that the strength of association between the variables is weak (.370).Therefore, the research hypothesis that differences in ’cause to save in chit funds’ are related to differences in ‘gender” is supported by this analysis.

5.4.11 Hypothesis 11:

Hypothesis 11:

H0: There is no significant relation between age and cause for saving in chit fund

H1: There is significant relation between age and cause for saving in chit fund

Chi-Square Tests

Value df Asymp. Sig. (2-sided)

Pearson Chi-Square 67.261a 12 .000

Likelihood Ratio 60.380 12 .000

Linear-by-Linear Association 9.507 1 .002

N of Valid Cases 150

a. 1 cell (10.0%) has expected count less than 5. The minimum expected count is .13.

Symmetric Measures

Value Approx. Sig.

Nominal by Nominal Phi .670 .000

Cramer’s V .387 .000

N of Valid Cases 150

INTERPRETATION:

The chi-square=67.261 was p=.000, less than 0.05.

We can see that the strength of association between the variables is moderately strong(.670).Therefore, the research hypothesis that differences in ‘reason to cause in chit funds’ are related to differences in ‘occupation” is supported by this analysis. Salaried people save their money in chit fund with no particular purpose. But self-employed people are equally interested in saving for house purchase as well as for general purpose.

SUMMARY:

chit fund is most closely associated with occupation of the chit fund members as it has the highest value of chi-square statistic and Phi coefficient.

5.4.12 Hypothesis 12:

Hypothesis 12:

H0: There is no significant relation between having bank loan and membership in multiple chit schemes.

H1: There is significant relation between having bank loan and membership in multiple chit schemes.

Chi-Square Tests

Value df Asymp. Sig. (2-sided)

Pearson Chi-Square 56.697a 3 .000

Likelihood Ratio 67.900 3 .000

Linear-by-Linear Association 36.400 1 .000

N of Valid Cases 150

INTERPRETATION:

The probability of the chi-square test statistic (chi-square=56.697) was p=.000, less than the alpha level of significance of 0.05.

We can see that the strength of association between the variables is strong (.615).

Therefore, the research hypothesis that differences in ‘membership in multiple chit schemes are related to differences in ‘having currently bank loan” is supported by this analysis. It is clearly evident that those members currently having bank loan have invested in only one chit scheme whereas those members who do not have availed bank loan have invested in more than one chit schemes.

5.4.13 Hypothesis 13:

Hypothesis 13:

H0: There is no significant relation between monthly income and participation in unregistered chit funds

H1: There is significant relation between monthly income and participation in unregistered chit funds

.

Chi-Square Tests

Value df Asymp. Sig. (2-sided)

Pearson Chi-Square 96.660a 7 .000

Likelihood Ratio 85.378 7 .000

Linear-by-Linear Association 59.577 1 .000

N of Valid Cases 150

a. 1 cell(10.0%) has expected count less than 5. The minimum expected count is 1.08.

INTERPRETATION:

The chi-square=96.660 was p=.000, less than 0.05.

We can see that the strength of association between the variables is extremely strong (.803).

Therefore, the research hypothesis that differences in ‘participation in unregistered chit funds’ are related to differences in ‘income” is supported by this analysis. It is clearly evident that mostly low- income members have participated in unregistered funds. This is because the registered funds have become expensive due to the increase in their operational cost as a result of stringent regulations.

5.2.14 Hypothesis 14 :

H0: There is no significant relation between causes to prefer chit fund over bank and having bank loan.

H1: There is significant relation between causes to prefer chit fund over bank and having bank loan

Chi-Square Tests

Value df Asymp. Sig. (2-sided)

Pearson Chi-Square 28.049a 5 .000

Likelihood Ratio 31.806 5 .000

Linear-by-Linear Association 2.967 1 .085

N of Valid Cases 150

a. 2 cells (15.0%) have expected count less than 5. The minimum expected count is 1.79.

Symmetric Measures

Value Approx. Sig.

Nominal by Nominal Phi .432 .000

Cramer’s V .432 .000

N of Valid Cases 150

INTERPRETATION:

The probability of the chi-square test statistic (chi-square=28.049) was p=.000, less than the alpha level of significance of 0.05.

We can see that the strength of association between the variables is moderate (.432).

Therefore, the research hypothesis that differences in ’cause to prefer chit fund over bank’ are related to differences in ‘having bank loan” is supported by this analysis. It is clearly evident that members who have bank loan have preferred chit fund over bank mainly due to better dividends. But those who do not have bank loan prefer chit fund over bank mainly due to better service in terms of more personalized service.)

5.2..15 Hypothesis 15: To identify significant predictors of regular participation in chit funds using Binary Logistic Regression

Hypothesis 15:

H0: Presence of safety, flexibility, timely payment, low commission, better service, personal contact, having a bank loan are no significant predictors of regular participation in chit fund.

H1: Presence of safety, flexibility, timely payment, low commission, better service, personal contact ,having a bank loan,are significant predictors of regular participation in chit fund.

Variables in the Equation

B S.E. Wald df Sig. Exp(B)

Step 0 Constant -1.046 .186 31.574 1 .000 .351

Model Summary

Step -2 Log likelihood Cox & Snell R Square Nagelkerke R Square

1 37.170a .533 .576

a. Estimation terminated at iteration number 6 because parameter estimates changed by less than .001.

Variables in the Equation

B S.E. Wald df Sig. Exp(B)

Step 1a bank_loan(1) 1.068 1.265 14.715 1 .000 11.720

reason_2 2.286 4 .683

reason_2(1) 1.336 1.077 1.540 1 .215 3.805

reason_2(2) .134 2.239 .004 1 .952 1.143

reason_2(3) -.559 1.896 .087 1 .768 .572

reason_2(4) .731 1.347 .294 1 .588 2.076

reason_3 4.874 5 .431

reason_3(1) 1.188 .924 1.652 1 .199 3.279

reason_3(2) 1.661 2.048 .658 1 .417 5.263

reason_3(3) -1.654 1.228 1.813 1 .178 .191

reason_3(4) .404 1.192 .115 1 .735 1.497

reason_3(5) -17.379 20.722 .000 1 .700 .000

reason_4 .355 4 .986

reason_4(1) -1.047 1.850 .320 1 .571 .351

reason_4(2) -.839 1.979 .180 1 .672 .432

reason_4(3) -.932 1.637 .324 1 .569 .394

reason_4(4) 3.519 4.199 .000 1 .600 3.746

reason_5 8.553 5 .128

reason_5(1) -.254 1.768 .021 1 .886 .776

reason_5(2) -19.245 9.890 .000 1 .999 .000

reason_5(3) 1.420 1.338 1.126 1 .289 4.136

reason_5(4) -.747 1.306 .327 1 .567 .474

reason_5(5) .561 1.342 .174 1 .676 1.752

B S.E. Wald df Sig. Exp(B)

Step 1a Safety -.075 .320 4.377 1 .011 0.928

Flexi -.178 .426 3.337 1 .021 0.837

commision -.185 .188 1.868 1 .026 0.831

payment -.267 .178 1.657 1 .097 0.766

service -.859 .412 1.348 1 .083 0.424

personal -1.122 .163 .996 1 .079 0.329

Constant 3.058 2.440 1.571 1 .010 21.291

a. Variable(s) entered on step 1: : bank_loan, reason_2, reason_3, reason_4, reason_5.imp1, imp2, imp3, imp4, imp5, imp6.

INTERPRETATION:

‘ -2 Log Likelihood statistic is 37.170. This statistic how poorly the model predicts the decisions — the smaller the statistic the better the model. Since, 37.170 is a relatively small number therefore, this model is able to predict the decisions in a better way.

‘ Here Cox & Snell R Square statistic indicates that 53.3% of the variation in the regular participation in chit funds is explained by the logistic model.

‘ In our case Nagelkerke R Square is 0.576, indicating a moderate relationship of 57.6 % between the predictors and the prediction.

‘ If it is less than .05 then, we will reject the null hypothesis and accept the alternative hypothesis.

‘ In this case, we can see that bank loan, safety, flexibility and low commission have contributed signi’cantly to the prediction of regular participation in chit funds but other variables are not significant predictors of regular participation in chit funds.

‘ Since only bank loan has p=.000, therefore we can say that bank loan is the most significant predictor

among other significant predictors. This is followed by safety (p=.011), flexibility (p=.021) and low commission (p=.026).

‘ Here, the EXP (B) bank loan is 11.727. Hence when bank loan is availed by one unit (one person) the odds ratio is 11 times as large and therefore people are 11 more times likely not to regularly participate in chit funds.

‘ Here, the EXP (B) with safety is .928. Hence when safety is increased by one percent the odds ratio is .928 times as large and therefore people are .928 more times likely to regularly participate in chit funds.

‘ Here, the EXP (B) flexibility is 837. Hence when flexibility is increased by one percent the odds ratio is .928 times as large and therefore people are .837 more times likely to regularly participate in chit funds.

‘ Here, the EXP (B) low commission is .831. Hence when flexibility is increased by one percent the odds ratio is .928 times as large and therefore people are .831 more times likely to regularly participate in chit funds.

SUMMARY

Bank loan is the most significant predictor of regular participation in chit funds. This is followed by safety, flexibility and low commission.

Instalment no No of months remaining Monthly subscription Prize amount PV of monthly subscription(PV of outlow at 10%) PV of Prize amount(PV of inflow at 10%) Net Present Value(PV of inflow – PV of outflow)

1 24 2000 50000 2000 50000 10444.9

2 23 1500 35000 1488.1 34723.1 -4832.0

3 22 1500 35000 1476.4 34448.4 -5106.7

4 21 1500 35000 1464.7 34175.9 -5379.2

5 20 1500 35000 1453.1 33905.5 -5649.6

6 19 1500 35000 1441.6 33637.3 -5917.8

7 18 1500 35000 1430.2 33371.2 -6183.9

8 17 1500 35000 1418.9 33107.2 -6447.9

9 16 1620 38000 1520.3 35660.6 -3894.5

10 15 1620 38000 1508.2 35378.5 -4176.6

11 14 1700 40000 1570.2 36945.9 -2609.2

12 13 1700 40000 1557.8 36653.6 -2901.5

13 12 1780 42000 1618.2 38181.8 -1373.3

14 11 1780 42000 1605.4 37879.8 -1675.3

15 10 1780 42000 1592.7 37580.1 -1975.0

16 9 1860 44000 1651.1 39058.2 -496.9

17 8 1860 44000 1638.0 38749.2 -805.9

18 7 1860 44000 1625.1 38442.6 -1112.5

19 6 1940 46000 1681.6 39872.1 317.0

20 5 1940 46000 1668.3 39556.6 1.5

21 4 1940 46000 1655.1 39243.7 -311.4

22 3 1940 46000 1642.0 38933.2 -621.8

23 2 1940 46000 1629.0 38625.2 -929.8

24 1 1940 46000 1616.1 38319.7 -1235.4

25 0 1940 46000 1603.3 38016.5 -1538.6

39555.1 934465.9 -54411.4

[supanova_question]

Merit goods common app essay help

Merit goods are goods which will be under-provided by the market, therefore they will be under-consumed. They are thought by the governments to be good for the populations and so the governments want them to be consumed to a great extent. They increase the private and social benefits and cause the social benefit be higher than the private one. The best examples of them, apart from all the public goods, can be the education, health care, sports facilities and the opera.

Although the majority of the merit goods is provided by the private sectors, not all the people can afford buying them, therefore they will be under-consumed. That is why the government is needed to destroy the market failure increasing the supply and consequently raising the consumption.

To explain the reasons for government to provide the merit goods, I need to apply some examples of them. The first one can be the education. It is significant for the governments to provide it so that the society would be well-educated. Governments determine the period of education required for people (the compulsory education) to maintain the proper level of education of the society. The governments find education an important aspect that should be available for everyone as it cause the whole country to have better both economic growth and economic development.

Considering another example such as health care, the situation is quite similar. The governments want to provide the population with it because they care about the high states of health of society in their country. To gain these, the countries need to have high quality of health care. Governments often offer people unpaid programs consisting of preventative medical examination which contribute to maintain the high number of healthy people. This is also connected with the problems of the labour market. The healthier people are, the more efficient their work is, the greater revenue firms have and countries are more developed because of taxations.

Other examples like sport facilities or the opera are meant for people to become physically and culturally developed but their availability is not as important as in the case of the previous examples. That is why they are not as much provided by the governments as the rest of the merit goods.

Although most of the merit goods provided by the governments are free, the fact is that they are paid through the taxes that the societies pay. The number of the merit goods of particular types that the governments provide or subsidize depends on the necessity of them. If they are provided, the societies’ benefits get higher and so is the public treasury of the countries.

[supanova_question]

Research proposal: The effect of pregnancy on the adolescent pregnant teen & father medical school essay help

Abstract: The purpose for this research paper is to address the adolescent pregnant teen & father and the effects a pregnancy has on both of their lives during and after her pregnancy. How the teens need the support of the family, community, church, and the school system. I will also address the teen father mostly disregarded in any aspect of the teen’s pregnancy and how this affects him, and how both teens need support in our society. How we can address the social problem of teen pregnancy from all avenues.

‘Three issues that have an impact on the pregnant adolescent are discussed education, identity development, and maternal support’ (Turnage & Pharris, 2013). My research focuses on adolescent pregnant teen women 19 years old and younger. It will also reflect the problems of the teen pregnant adolescents journeying thru the process of becoming a teen mother, finishing high school, developing her own identity and the maternal support she gets from her mother during her transition from pregnant teen to motherhood.

‘Several issues that differently influence the pregnant teen is individually based on the female’s chronological age’ (Turnage & Pharris, 2013). ‘For the pregnant adolescent, her pregnancy supersedes high school graduation as the benchmark for her being viewed as an adult’ (Turnage & Pharris, 2013). ‘Failure to graduate high school is associated with poor social and educational outcomes for teen mothers and their children’ (Turnage & Pharris, 2013).

‘While the pregnant adolescent is defining who she is as a person she experiences a transition to the new identity of mother’ (Turnage & Pharris, 2013). ‘During her pregnancy the adolescent’s mother is seen as the primary source of support that contributes to a positive self-image and can assist her in the adapting to the role of parent’ (Turnage & Pharris, 2013).

My research paper will also show how important it is to support the teen during and after pregnancy. It addresses the need for the teen mothers to finish high school, and find her identity. How important it is to have the support system of her mother and family to achieve all of these things. Without these support systems, the pregnant adolescent could end up in poverty, no social skills, homeless and a host of other social problems for her and her baby.

Addressed and examined is teen motherhood and its long-term mental and physical health of the teen mother’ (Patel & Sen, 2012). They used a (PCS) health survey known as SF-12 NLSY79 a study that compared two major comparisons groups of which only teens who experienced teen pregnancy and girls who did not experience teen pregnancy. On average the survey for teen mothers was on average 50.89.

The study to access the health outcome of ‘two major comparison groups, which consisted of women who were only experienced teen pregnancy & women who were having unprotected sexual relation as a teen but did not become pregnant ‘ (Patel & Sen, 2012). Estimated is that teen mothers are more likely to have poor health later in life in the study of all the comparison groups.

Along with support, they desperately need help taking care of an infant as a teen; they need a support system to take notice of how they are managing their health & well-being so that they can be a successful teen parent. In addition, being a teen parent can affect the mother’s mentally as the pressure of being new teen mom can be stressful.

The teen mothers who marry after they give birth to their children statistics state that 30 % of them will not remain in their marriages into their 40’s. This result comes from teen adolescents in a single parent home raising their child. This can put a strain on the teen adolescent because she will financially have to seek support from her family or enter into the welfare system and suffer mental health issues.

‘Adolescent teen mothers identify social support with, parenting and emotional support primary emanating from family members, particularly their own mothers, as well as from the father of the baby (Savio Beers & Lee, 2009)’. ‘Older sisters may play an important role in the support network for adolescent mothers, the supportive sister relationships decrease depressive and anxiety-related symptoms in adolescent mothers (Savio Beers & Lee, 2009).

‘For some adolescent parents, participation in a religious community programs may provide the significant social support and serve as a protective factor’ (Savio Beers & Lee, 2009). This directly stresses the point that without the support of family, community, and church with the support of the father the adolescent teen mother can suffer mental issues, poverty issues, and marriage problems.

We addressed the many issues that teen mothers have to face, so now I would like to address the teen father in our society. What are their concerns on becoming a teen father, and how do they view their role as father where their masculinity is concerned? While most of the research done on teen pregnancy and parenting mainly focusing on the mother, the father is invisible.

Interviewed were 26 young teen fathers in the mid-western American towns. The in depth survey of three themes of gender discord focused on teen father narratives, which took on responsibility, sex, being a man, this is the direct viewpoint of the invisible teen father. What they feel about getting a teen girl pregnant and what responsibility they take in the pregnancy if any. How they relate to getting a teen pregnant and how that affects his identity as a man and their masculinity.

‘Gendered assumptions regarding pregnancy and contraception’specifically that women are in charge of preventing pregnancy and they have the belief that male sexuality is uncontrollable; and that use of love and intimacy talk (Weber, J. B., 2013). The teen fathers that took the questionnaire did not blame themselves for getting the teen girl pregnant. They see the teen’s pregnancy as her problem.

Studies suggest that teen fathers are more likely to be of a minority race. He has a mother who had a baby as a teen; his parents have a minimal education. His parents do not have high expectations of him finishing school; all of these factors result in the likelihood that makes him a candidate to becoming a teenage father. ‘The research states that the teen fathers go to school fewer years less than non-teenage fathers (Fletcher & Wolfe, 2011).

‘Evidence shows that men who have children before marriage leave school earlier and have worse labor markets outcomes’ (Fletcher & Wolfe, 2011). ‘Data was used only on young men who reported a pregnancy as an adolescent’ (Fletcher & Wolfe, 2011). It affects his completion of high school.

It also affects his ability to take care of the teen mother & baby, which causes him to drop out of school early. Statistically, ‘teen fathers work more hours and earn more money following the birth of a child then his non-parent counterparts’ (Fletcher & Wolfe, 2011). Teen fatherhood results in the teen father getting married early or co-habitation with the teen mother.

In conclusion, teen pregnancy is a social problem in the United States both teens will have to suffer in their education, grow up before their time, take on adult responsibilities, and suffer financial problems to take care of the child. Which ultimately falls on the parents of the teens, society or the welfare system in which the teen mother becomes a social statistic or shall I say a number.

Teen pregnancy as of 2014 have been on the decline in the United States and increased in other states, however a positive support system for both teens is minimal at best. Socially as communities, churches and government we have to take an active role in education of abstaining from sex, talking to the teens about sex, and protecting themselves against pregnancy.

[supanova_question]

Reconnaissance attacks in IPv6 networks essay help writer

2.1.1 Reconnaissance attacks in IPv6 networks

The 1st larger attack in IPv6 is usually a reconnaissance attack. An attacker try reconnaissance attacks to get some confidential information about the victim network that can be misused by the attacker in further attacks. For this he uses active methods, such as scanning techniques or data mining strategies. To start, an intruder begins to ping the victim network to determine the IP addresses currently used in the victim network. After getting some of the accessible system, he starts to scan the port to find out any open port in the desired system. The size of subnet is bigger than that of the in IPv4 networks. To perform a scan for the whole subnet an attacker should make 264 probes and that???s impossible. With this fact, IPv6 networks are much more resistant to reconnaissance attacks than IPv4 networks. Unfortunately, there are some addresses which are multicast address in IPv6 networks that help an intruder to identify and attack some resources in the target network.

2.1.2 Security threats related to IPv6 routing headers

As per IPv6 protocol specification, all of the IPv6 nodes must be able to process routing headers. In fact, routing headers can be used to avoid access controls based on destination addresses. Such action can cause security effects. It may be happen that an attacker sends a packet to a publicly accessible address with a routing header containing a ???forbidden??? address on the victim network. In such matter the publicly accessible host will forward the packet to the destination address stated in the routing header even though that destination is already filtered before as a forbidden address. By spoofing packet source addresses an intruder can easily perform denial of service attack with use of any publicly accessible host for redirecting attack packets.

2.1.3 Fragmentation related security threats

As per IPv6 protocol specification, packet fragmentation by the intermediate nodes is not permitted. Since in IPv6 network based on ICMPv6 messages, the usage of the path MTU discovery method is a duty, packet fragmentation is only allowed at the source node.1280 octets is the minimal size of the MTU for IPv6 network. The packets with size less than 1280 octets to be discarded unless it???s the last packet in the flow as per security reasons. With use of fragmentation, an attacker can get that port numbers not found in the first fragment and thus they bypass security monitoring devices expecting to find transport layer protocol data in the very first fragment. An attacker will send a huge amount of small fragments and create an overload of reconstruction buffers on the victim system which resulted to the system crash. To prevent system from such attacks it???s necessary to bound the total number of fragments and their permissible arrival rate.

[supanova_question]

WMBA 6000-13 Topic: Course Evaluation a level english language essay help

WMBA 6000-13

Topic: Course Evaluation

Date: March 2, 2014

Based on the assigned readings for this course (Dynamic Leadership), I have read an enormous amount of information about the different categories of leaders and leadership styles. Today’s leaders are different from the leaders of twenty to fifty years ago. In the past leaders gave commands and they controlled the actions of others. Today leaders are willing to involve others in their decision making and they are more open to new possibilities.

A good leader has a vision for their organization and they know how to align and engage employees in order to promote collaboration. The successful leader knows how to lead by using superior values, principles and goals that fit the organization’s values, principles and goals. Also these leaders know that leadership is not made from authority, it’s made from trust and followership. Coleman, J., Gulati, & Segovia, W.O. (2012)

I am impressed most by the characteristics of the authentic leader because they know how to develop themselves; they use formal and informal support networks to get honest feedback in order to drive long-term results. Authentic leaders build support teams to help them stay on course and counsel them in times of uncertainty. George, B., Sims, P., Mclean, A.N. & Mayer D. (2007)

In addition, I found the Leadership Code to be important because it provides structure and guidance and helps one to be a better leader by not emphasizing one element of leadership over another. Some focus on the importance of vision for the future; others on executing in the present; others on personal charisma and character; others on engaging people’; and others on building long-term organization. The code represents about 60 to 70 percent of what makes an effective leader. Ulrich, D., Smallwood, N., Sweetman, K. (2008)

The information that I acquired from this course will help me to pursue the goal of owning a beauty supply business. Another goal that I can add to my action plan is to include not only wigs and welted hair, but I will add hair, skin and nail products to my inventory. A future goal will be to add handbags and accessories as well.

After completing my short-term goal of finishing my MBA, I can take the knowledge from this course along with my values, ethics and principles to help me to manage employees and operate a successful business. Annie Smith (March 2, 20

Coleman, J. G. (2012). Educating young leaders. Passion and Purpose , 197-202.

George, B. S. (2007). Discovering your authentic leadership. Harvard Business Review , 129-138.

Lyons, R. (2012). Dean of Haas of School of Business University of California, Berkely. It’s made from followership. (J. G. Cole, Interviewer) Coleman, J., Gulati, D., & Segovia, W.O.

Ulrich, D. S. (2008). Five rules of leadership. In The leadership code five rules to lead by. Defining Leadership Code , 1-24.

[supanova_question]

Family presence during CPR (cardiopulmonary resuscitation) law essay help

In a pre-hospital setting, there are few moments that are as intense as the events that take place when trying to save a life. Family presence during these resuscitation efforts has become an important and controversial issue in health care settings. Family presence during cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) is a relatively new issue in healthcare. Before the advent of modern medicine, family members were often present at the deathbed of their loved ones. A dying person’s last moments were most often controlled by his or her family in the home rather than by medical personnel (Trueman, History of Medicine). Today, families are demanding permission to witness resuscitation events. Members of the emergency medical services are split on this issue, noting benefits but also potentially negative consequences to family presence during resuscitation efforts.

A new study has found that family members who observed resuscitation efforts were significantly less likely to experience symptoms of post-traumatic stress, anxiety and depression than family members that did not. The results, published in an online article in The New England Journal of Medicine, entitled ‘Family Presence during Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation,’ were the same regardless of the survival of the patient. The study involved 570 people in France whose family members were treated by emergency medical personnel at home. These EMS teams were unique in that they were comprised of a physician, a nurse trained in emergency medicine, and two emergency medical technicians. The study found that the presence of relatives did not affect the results of CPR, nor did it increase the stress levels of the emergency medical teams. Having family present also did not result in any legal claims after the incidents occured. While the unique limitations of the study warrant consideration, the results show a definite benefit in having families stay during CPR (Jabre Family Presence).

Historically, although parents of children have been allowed to be present for various reasons, relatives of adult patients have not. As medical practices change to increasingly involve family in the care of patients, growing numbers of emergency medical practitioners say that giving relatives the option of watching CPR can be a good idea. Several national organizations, including The American Heart Association, have revised their policies to call for giving family members the option of being present during CPR (AHA Guidelines for CPR). Witnessing CPR, say some emergency medical experts and family members, can take the mystery out of what could be a potentially terrifying experience. It can provide reassurance to family members that everything is being done to save their loved ones. It also can offer closure for relatives wanting to be with their family members until the last minute (Kirkland Lasting Benefit). Another benefit is that it shows people why reviving someone in cardiac arrest is much less likely than people assume from watching it being done on television (Ledermann Family Presence During). Family members who can truly understand what it means to ‘do everything possible’ can go on to make more informed decisions about end-of-life care for themselves or their families.

There are three perspectives on this issue- that of the emergency medical personnel providing care, the family, and the patients. The resistance on the part of the medical community to family presence during CPR stems from several different concerns. The most common concern among these is that family members, when faced with overwhelming fear, stress and grief, could disrupt or delay active CPR. Another concern raised by emergency medical personnel is that the realities of CPR may simply be too traumatic for loved ones, causing them to suffer more than they potentially would have if they had never witnessed the event. Some families share this view, citing the potential for extreme distress as a main reason for not wanting to witness resuscitation (Grice Study examining attitudes). Many emergency medical personnel also fear an increased risk of liability and litigation with family members present in the room (Fullbrook the Presence of Family). The worry is that errors can occur, inappropriate comments may be made, and the actions of the personnel involved may be misinterpreted. In an already tense situation, the awareness of the family could increase the anxiety of the personnel and create a greater potential for mistakes.

Another complication that arises from having families present during resuscitation attempts is that of patient confidentiality. The patient’s right to privacy should not be circumvented with implied consent. There is always the possibility that medical information previously unknown to the family may be revealed in the chaos of resuscitation. In addition, patient dignity, whether physical or otherwise, may become compromised (Fullbrook the Presence of Family). Beyond moral considerations, legal concerns regarding revealing patient information are real. This could become an even larger issue if there is no one available to screen witnesses, which could result in unrelated people gaining access to personal information. Eventually, a breach in confidentiality can lead to a breach in the confidence that the public has gained in pre-hospital emergency care.

Family presence during CPR in a pre-hospital setting remains a highly debatable topic. This could be largely due to the fact that the needs of the emergency medical providers and the rights of the patients can be at odds with the wishes of the family members. Although there are several possible reasons why family presence is not being welcomed into daily practice, one of the major reasons could be the lack of formal written policies that define the roles of families and providers placed into this situation. Bringing family members into a situation where CPR is being performed on a loved one should not happen haphazardly. It should happen with careful concern and support for everyone involved. Policies and protocols, defined by experienced personnel, can provide legal and emotional support. They can also potentially help ease anxiety by defining expectations and placing responsibility in the hands of people who are experienced enough to know how to handle the situation appropriately. The policies and protocols should address the basic needs of all people involved. Five basic needs should be addressed:

1. The number of people allowed to be present

2. Which relatives should be allowed to be present (age, relationship, etc.)

3. The role of the family members present and what is expected of them.

4. The place where the family should remain during the duration of CPR.

5. The formal wishes of the patient- written as a directive like a living will.

An important component of this is available, trained staff that can prepare the family members for what they will witness, support them through the event, and then direct them after the event’s conclusion.

The American Heart Association states that the goals of cardiopulmonary resuscitation are, ‘to preserve life, restore health, relieve suffering, limit disability, and respect the individual’s decisions rights and privacy’ (AHA Guidelines for CPR). The practice of offering family members the opportunity to be present during CPR is a controversial ethical issue in emergency medical services. While the results of the study published on this topic in The New England Journal of Medicine clearly show no negative side effects from having families present during resuscitation attempts, the limitations of the study lend to the need for more research before it could be universally accepted.

[supanova_question]

Respondeat Superior essay help cheap

Legal claims that derive from a situation where there are claims of negligence can sometimes involve an entity other than the neglectful parties. In certain circumstances employers are fully responsible for their employees, and the tasks they perform during working hours. During the course of this paper, the doctrine of respondeat superior will be defined and explained. Two case studies in which the doctrine was applied will also be analyzed to determine if it was applied correctly.

Respondeat superior is a legal theory that holds employers responsible for any negligent or harmful act performed by an employee during the commission of their employment duties (Thornton, 2010). The Maryland Supreme Court in 1951 was the first court to utilize respondeat superior in a court case involving a question of employer liability (Burns, 2011). This doctrine is important as it holds employers liable in court cases where one of its employees does harm to an individual. Vicarious liability and indirect liability are two base concepts that make-up respondeat superior (Thornton, 2010). Respondeat superior shows that the employer did not have to be responsible for the employee???s negligent behavior, in the form of improper training or instruction to perform harmful acts, in order for the employer to be held legally responsible.

In the case of Valle v. City of Houston, the police force was sued for excessive force and an illegal search in an attempt to remove an individual from his parent???s home (Nicholl & Kelly, 2012). The situation stemmed from a man, Omar Esparza, barricading himself in his parent???s home and refusing to come out (p. 285). After a long police standoff, the SWAT team was ordered to forcefully enter the home and remove Mr. Esparza (p. 285). The SWAT team utilized taser gun and bean bag ammunition in an attempt to subdue Mr. Esparza after they felt he posed a physical threat by wielding a hammer, but as those attempts failed the suspect was fatally wounded when an officer fired his weapon (p. 286). Shortly after the incident the mother was allowed into the home, and she reported no visible evidence that her son was possession of a hammer (p. 286). The court found that the city was not liable for damages under the theory of respondeat superior, because the order to remove the individual from the home was not made by an individual deemed as a decision-maker by the city (p. 286).

From the outside, this case seems to fit the theory of respondeat superior. As the employer, the city should be held responsible for the actions of its employees. The police, serving as the city???s employees acted in a manner that was unnecessary for the situation and in conflict of their training (p. 286). However, the court sided with the City of Houston because the chain of command was not followed in regards to the use of force (p. 286). The end result is a case where an individual made a decision that was not his to make; that ultimately cost a man his life.

[supanova_question]