Relationship Between Socioeconomic Status And Students’ Academic Performance

Literature review

According to the study of (Mendoza et al., 2016) Socioeconomic status plays an important role in education. Not having financial resources brought consequences for the students. In study of (Villamor n.d) she determined the effects of socioeconomic factors (SES) and the level of self-efficacy in relation to the academic performance of high school students. Her findings find out that there was a significant correlation between the respondents’ SES based on annual family income and their academic performance. Her conclusion stated that the grade 7 students’ socioeconomic status based on annual family income was a predictor of their academic performance. Furthermore, her findings support the notion that poverty is relative, and that its presence or absence has no bearing on students’ academic performance.

(Jabar et al., 2020) They study the influence of socioeconomic status on parental involvement among Filipino parents. Their survey offers four major findings. To start with, the parents generally are more associated with parental involvement at home than in school. Second, parents in higher income showed parental association both at home and in school. Nonetheless, a different picture appeared when taking into consideration the subject assessment of parents about their living condition. Those families who believed themselves to be extremely poor showed parental involvement at home and in school than those who viewed themselves to be better off economically. Third, parental involvement in school was moderately higher among CCT (4ps) part parents than their non CCT (4ps) counterparts. Fourth, regression analysis distinguishes membership in CCT (4ps) as a predictor of parental involvement. Their study concludes that financial resources from work or the CCT program could facilitate parental involvement in children’s education, particularly among parents from relatively high-income household and low- income families. Their paper suggests that more research be done into the effects of income disparity on parental involvement among low-income parents.

(Agullana et al., 2017) Examined the relationship between senior high school students’ academic performance and their socioeconomic factors in candon national high school. Finding of their study stated that family income, ethnic tribe, parents’ educational attainment, religion, home residence, and family size have significant correlation with senior high school performance however, each factor has different predicting value. Meanwhile parents’ education do not correlate at all. Conclusion of their study stated that the student’s parents’ occupation do not have significance as long as their occupation provide them with the enough financial income that will sustain the schooling of their children. Senior high school student’s parents based on their educational attainment that they have on how they are going to value the education or academic achievement of their children. Recommendation of their study stated that regardless of educational background parents shall have proper orientation on the importance or value of education to their children so that the students can feel at ease knowing that their parents are supporting them in their schooling. Moreover, parents must also have to be well aware enough of their children’s academic needs so they can provide necessary learning tools for their schooling. Furthermore, the school as, as a human institution can improve students’ academic performance by providing a proper educational of teaching them regardless of their socioeconomic status.

(Villanueva et al., 2020) study investigate about the relationship between socioeconomic status (SES) and students’ academic performance during the lockdown period in the Philippines. Viewed by the lens of human capital theory guided by Gary Becker (1964) the study revealed two ways for a family to invest in their child’s educational experience: 1.) Through financial support such as resources, and 2.) Through parents’ participation and involvement, in turn these two factors will have an impact on the child’s academic performance. Their study also ‘found out that while it is indirect, socioeconomic factors such as parental support and accessibility to resources both affected the students’ electronic learning. The outcome of the statistic shows that, despite the availability of resources, other agents have an impact on students’ e-Learning; these agents can be comfort of having stable internet connection, the right amount or devices, personal study place or as suggested by the theory through parental involvement. There are still unresolved issue needed to address for future researcher. Even if students claimed themselves as coming from middle class families, there is insufficient data to support their SES. Moreover, it is strongly advised that another quantitative study be conducted with a large number of respondents from other schools.


What should the USA do about illegal immigrants?: essay help online free

The United States of America built its foundation through immigrants. We have formed a country where opportunities are possible. Illegal immigrants should be given an opportunity to become legal citizens of the United States of America because they provide an opportunity to create jobs for other people, most immigrants have higher motivation to excel in a land of opportunities, and the United States was built on immigrants. Everyone should be given the benefit of the doubt in order to have a new life in the land of opportunities.

To continue, illegal immigrants should be given an opportunity to create jobs for other people. “Immigration fuels the economy. When immigrants enter the labor force, they increase the productive capacity of the economy and raise GDP. Their incomes rise, but so do those of natives.” (Orrenius 2). Where there is a need of workers at an industry, immigrants tend to flow in that direction. This then results in the continuation of the labor market. Illegal immigrants are usually looked down upon due to the absence of their citizenship in this country. Our history shows us that we this country originated from immigrants. A group of people arrived on the Mayflower in order to escape from the suffocation of their oppressor. There are varying factors of why an individual would immigrate to another country. Contributing factors that may affect this cause of migration to another country such as an oppressive government, low economic stability, education, and maybe free of religion and speech.

Most immigrants have an increased amount of motivation in order to succeed in a land of opportunities. Those who are less fortunate than others tend to work twice as hard rather than the ones who are financially stable and fortunate. “Immigrants are about 16 percent of the labor force, yet represent 49 percent of the labor force without a high school diploma, 25 percent of all doctorates, and 35 percent of doctorates in science, math, computer science, and engineering.” (Furchtgott-Roth 4). Overtime, the rise of immigration is greatly linked to innovative actions due to the major interest in the STEM occupations. Immigrants who arrive with a college degree move towards jobs that are more technical and scientific that does not require a huge amount of communication. Frank Sharry, the executive director of America’s Voice, a liberal advocacy group stated:

Immigration is integral to the nation’s economic growth. The inflow of labor supply has helped the United States avoid the problems facing other economies that have stagnated as a result of unfavorable demographics, particularly the effects of an aging workforce and reduced consumption by older residents. In addition, the infusion of human capital by high-skilled immigrants has boosted the nation’s capacity for innovation,entrepreneurship, and technological change (Edsall 1).

Although immigrants increase the economy by causing to be more efficient and productive, there also downsides to immigration. It is discovered that the wages of competitive workers decrease in amount. The new labor inflow disrupts the initial transition period as the economy is adjusting to these changes; which disrupts the wages of competitive workers. Due to the low prices of the goods immigration produce, consumers benefit from these services. Some might even acknowledge that immigrants will overcrowd the United States because it is possible if they flow in the country at an increased rate. For the newly-arrived immigrants, they all had one attribute in common; they may not have a strong communication with others. English is commonly used as the basic communication in the United States, however, these immigrants may not know how to speak. In turn, they may be employed in jobs where communications are not required, such as labor in agricultural fields or construction.

Several historical time periods have shown positive results in the United States. For instance, the Industrial Revolution called for immigrants to work in factories and farms. This era was the birth of mega-cities; which would then create more jobs for people in need of one.

Without immigration there would be no innovation. When Congress established the national origin quotas with the law passed as he Immigration Act of 1924 that year, it gave immigrants “immigration visas to just 2 percent of the total number of people of each nationality in the United States as of the 1890 national census. It excluded all immigrants from Asia. People were anxious because of World War I and heartily supported limits on immigration. By 1970, immigration had fallen to a low of 4.7 percent of the population” (Amadeo 1). However, the immigration policy was then altered in 1965 where quotas were were no longer about nationality. Alternatively, it was preferred for the ones who have special skills and those who had families in the United States. There was an increase percentage of immigration from Latin America and Asia.

Furthermore, the recent of events that took place when the DACA Program (Deferred Action for Childhood Arrivals) was revoked received an outrage across the nation. There are approximately 780,000 dreamers waiting for their fate from Congress. A part of these people are children who have lived in the United States most of their lives. Some may even recognize the United States as their home. There are those who grew up in American soil their whole lives.

They have made innumerable friends, family, and even coworkers. There could also be those who have started their own career already. If their deportation does happen to occur, it is possible that a dreamer may even feel abandonment from a country where one has been most comfortable in. The dreamers who arrived at the United States as children are those who did not make the choice. It may have been their parents who yearned for a better life for their children’s future.

Why are immigrant children being threatened to be deported for an action that they had no control over.

Also, several contributing factors could have prevented illegal immigrants from becoming legal. There are numerous guidelines to follow when becoming a legal citizen in the United States. The applicant should be at least 18 years of age during the application process. He should have been continually residing for five years in an establishment and also present within the United States. The location and where one resides affects the application for citizenship.

Depending on the individual’s current circumstance, the time range could be from a year to several years. Illegal immigrants who arrived at the United States with a work visa will eventually end in the upcoming months, rendering them to be vulnerable to deportation. Some circumstances, such as a death in the family could alter the time frame of an individual becoming legal.

In addition, countries have a higher percentage of becoming a citizen. For instance, in Canada eighty five percent of immigrants were eligible to become citizens. Canada incorporates its immigrants to their advantage for innovative resources. Community organizations are used in order to help aid the community of immigrants. “In 2010-11, the Canadian federal government spent about $1600 on each newcomer – a big contrast to the paltry $2.23 spent by the U.S.

Department of Homeland Security” (Bloemraad 2). When one becomes a full citizen, their benefits increase greatly. From income supports to protections for the disabled. It is unfortunate that the United States provides relief to refugees from oppressive countries and political persecution. However, there is a limit when allowing these refugees to enter the United States.

Comparing both refugees and illegal immigrants, these refugees would eventually be granted for citizenship. Their children will benefit from this because it would be easier for them to be integrated in schools and society. The United States emphasize its efforts on border control.

Time and effort is spent on restricting undocumented people:

To continue, immigrants are less likely to cause problems in American soil.

“There are 1.9 million immigrants convicted of a crime. Less than half (820,000) are in the country illegally. Of those, 300,000 have felony convictions” (Amadeo 2).

This indicated that most immigrants arrived to another country for the purpose of a new life, a new beginning. They did not arrive to add more conflicts in their lives. Their journey to United States could have been a rough or an easy one. What makes today’s immigrants any less different than the immigrants from the late nineteenth century. The only difference between these two time periods were the different nationalities. During the nineteenth century, many people arrived from Europe such as Italy, Germany, and even Canada. They mainly became tailors, shopkeepers, and stonemasons where they were needed by the United States at that time. Today’s immigrants are mostly Hispanic or Middle Eastern.


Same-sex marriage (Christian perspective)

The topic of equal rights is one that fits perfectly with the issue of same-sex marriage. Discrimination is still surprisingly common in today’s society and a group that is noticeably being discriminated against are homosexuals. Equal rights go straight back to the Constitution and the human rights that every person should be entitled to. The Fourteenth Amendment guarantees the right to marry and it was determined that it was unconstitutional to deny that right. After this decision by the Supreme Court in 2015, same-sex marriage became legal in all 50 United States. In the book, Same-Sex Marriage and the Constitution by Evan Gerstmann, the author utilizes facts from the Constitution that prove homosexuals should have the same human rights as everyone else. Gerstmann points out that a fear of allowing same-sex marriage would be opening the door to also allowing polygamy. This fear has been proven as an underlying issue in allowing same-sex marriage as a law. He states that although these concerns are valid, “Multiple marriages raise several legitimate state concerns that same-sex marriages do not. First and foremost, legalizing polygamy, unlike legalizing same-sex marriage, would profoundly alter the legal structure of every couple’s marriage” (Gerstmann, 2017, p.110). Gerstmann voids all linkage to polygamy and same-sex marriage removing the idea that same-sex marriage would lead to other consequences. When remembering Christian ethics and the emphasis of utilitarianism, everyone should count equally. In the book, Exploring Christian Ethics by Kyle Fedler, Fedler elaborates on utilitarianism through a Christian perspective. “Everyone counts- and everyone counts equally…All stress the importance of treating the poor and powerless as equal to the rich and influential. Utilitarianism says that we do not place our own well-being over that of our neighbor or even our enemy” (Fedler, 2006, p.31). In our society today, homosexuals are treated as the powerless and are looking for guidance through the legal system to rise above discrimination. Equal rights should be enough to end the debate about whether or not same-sex marriage should be allowed, but it does not. Same-sex marriage continues to divide society and especially Christian churches over this controversy, even though as Christians, every single person should be treated the same no matter what.

It is pronounced that Christian ethics should be implemented in politics. Without an ethical guide to governing issues, human rights are usually overlooked. This pertains to various subjects like immigration and the war. This also can pertain directly to homosexuals and same-sex marriage. Politics and societal issues need to be based on virtuous behavior. It is a key to Christian ethics and Fedler notes that “To be a truly good person, it is not enough that one simply do the right things; one must also feel the right way and do the right things with the right motives and intentions” (Fedler, 2006, p.33). The character that Fedler touches on is a character that should be visible when handling every issue in society, whether it is large or small. In the book, Same-Sex Marriage and Religious Liberty by Anthony R. Picarello, Picarello connects marriage to its relationship with religion, law, and the state. “In a pluralistic constitutional democracy, citizens owe each other the duties of civility and mutual respect concerning the forms of argument they make” (Picarello, 2008, p.185). There should not be dividing issues in Christianity. It is okay to note that some people have different stances on same-sex marriage, however, by practicing being a truly good person, differences should be accepted. Picarello continues to explain this issue by comparing the two sides of the issue, “When the competing claims are to religious liberty and sexual liberty, people feel even more free to protect only the liberty they rely on for themselves” (Picarello, 2008, p.190). A viewpoint on a subject should not determine how one should or should not be treated. Displaying the right intentions and motives means not claiming someone does not deserve the same liberty as oneself just because they do not share the same view.

People claim that God had certain purposes for marriage and it was not to have same-sex marriage be an option. The idea of same-sex marriage is still an obscure subject people lack versatility when regarding the other side of the argument. People need to be open about changing their stance on same-sex marriages. In the Book, The Bible’s Yes to Same-Sex Marriage and an Evangelical’s Change of Heart by Mark Achtemeier, Achtemeier starts off by explaining how he once was a conservative church activist who worked hard to trying to conserve the traditional way of life. He went as far as publishing an article to keep homosexuals from serving in positions in the church. Through years of guidance through the Bible, Achtemeier has come to the bearing of wishing entirely that every couple gets to experience God’s blessings through marriage. Achtemeier makes the point that historical texts often translate differently on our modern society. “Once we take into account the assumptions of the ancient, male-dominated culture in which the passage was written, we can see how it confirms God’s intentions for marriage to help us grow into the divine image of God’s love for us” (Achtemeier, 2014, p.51). God’s wish for us with marriage is that it connects people together in a way that grows into connecting them to Him and the church. Often when Scripture is speaking of marriage, it is for acknowledging the potential for acting as a creation of God because love is a center for Him in teachings. Achtemeier continues speaking of this idea throughout his book, “God’s desire for our sexuality is that it becomes joyous, comforting, satisfying physical expression of all the love, passion, and mutual desire that connects partners who are learning to give themselves completely to each other in the image of Christ” (Achtemeier, 2014, p.121). If a couple wants to live through Christ with their relationship, He would not reject them and their love. This is a valuable interpretation to bear in mind when questioning whether or not we as people should accept this concept. He would accept all forms of love, so we should as well.

Same-sex marriage is a constant battle for some people. When discrimination is present, violence and fear often follow. In the book, Same-Sex Marriage, Context, and Lesbian Identity: Wedded but Not Always a Wife by Julie Whitlow and Patricia Ould, two authors write about the sad truths that many homosexuals face when in a same-sex marriage. “Daily life for most gays and lesbians still includes the constant weighing of if and when to disclose one’s sexual orientation and martial status to others. The consequences include possible rejection or reproach from others who are intolerant and potentially violent” (Ould & Whitlow, 2015, p.28). This constant battle creates a violent trend that should not be present. Scripture often claims that violence is never the answer, “The Lord tests the righteous and the wicked, And the one who loves violence His soul hates” (Psalm 11:5 New American Standard Bible). If a claim is that God does not approve of same-sex marriage, then violence would never be the answer since He is very clear that violence is not acceptable. However, same-sex marriage does not defy what makes someone a good Christian with purely good character.

The topic of same-sex marriage has become exceedingly popular in today’s society. With various parades and marches occurring all over the world, people who want to participate in same-sex marriage are tired of being rejected. In the book, The Battle Over Marriage: Gay Rights Activism Through the Media by Leigh Moscowitz, Moscowitz addresses the trends that have occurred in history with gay activism that has been captured through media. A view she touches on is the idea of hierarchies with this disputed topic. Social hierarchies are considered to be a destruction to our society. “Confronting this shifting social landscape where categories of sexual identity were repeatedly scrutinized and traditional moral hierarchies regulating sexuality were challenged” (Moscowitz, 2013, p.19-20). In Christian ethics, the principle of equality is a key criterion. Liberation theology can be a guide when dealing with the oppression of men and women. In Christianity, there should be no individualist concepts. This idea can translate over to same-sex marriage. The notion of heterosexuals only being the individuals allowed to have the privilege of marriage is an individualist concept. It is clear to see this type of thinking does not work with any situation in today’s society and it is frowned

It is often rewarding to look directly towards Scripture when reasoning with controversial topics. We read Scripture with the presumption that the Bible says same-sex marriage should not occur and that creates judgment in peoples’ mind that it is unlawful. Reading Scripture should occur without bias and this is a concept driven from Christian ethics. Fedler mentions that, “Many Christians contend that it is more important to find the principle behind the command or law, rather than apply the commandment directly” (Fedler, 2006, p.57). When the removal of biased thinking and the act of continually applying Scripture literally, a broader outlook on various issues can be obtained. Christians who say no to same-sex marriage should be questioned on their reading of Scripture faithfully. Reading Scripture gives guidance on how to treat other humans’ beings. Whether someone wants to be in a same-sex marriage, that is their choice and discrimination is not justified. A popular Scripture comes from Romans “Owe nothing to anyone except to love one another; for he who loves his neighbor has fulfilled the law” (Romans 13:8 New American Standard Bible). This Scripture asserts that no matter the other laws that are present, if one loves their neighbor, then they are following God’s commands. This is important to remember when it seems for some people that same-sex marriage is breaking what they believe is correct, one should still love them endlessly.

Considering that same-sex marriage is an immense controversial topic, there are various criticisms against the matter. Making it legal in the United States and pushing it to be accepted among religion has created an uproar. In the book, What’s Wrong with Same-Sex Marriage by D. James Kennedy and Jerry Newcombe, the threats of same-sex marriage are explained and the top twelve reasons of why we should be opposed of same-sex marriage are outlined. One of the major points the authors make is that people who speak out for homosexuals are Scripture twisting. “It’s disheartening to witness the rising of this so called “Christian” gay movement. It isn’t enough for them to choose their unnatural lifestyle, they want to retain the blessings of the church. So they fool themselves into thinking that somehow God accepts them just as they are – in their unpleasant sin” (Kennedy & Newcombe, 2004, p.75). However, this thinking does not follow how God wants us to live as His children and serve Him. An insight to the opinion Kennedy and Newcombe obtains can come from the book, Christians at the Border, by Daniel Carroll. Carroll wrote this book about how God wants us to accept those with different cultural identities into our homes and hearts. He uses Hispanic immigrants, but homosexuals fall under the category of individuals that are outside of the normal cultural identity as well. “He reaches out to the poor, the sick, women, sinners of all kinds, gentiles, and Samaritans. In light of this truth, a fundamental question must be asked. Does what Jesus did and said have any relevance for Christians today?… Or in addition to our personal salvation, is his life a model for all time of how to live a life that pleases God and reflects his character on earth” (Carroll, 2008, p.115-116)? When recalling how Christian ethics emphasize loving your neighbor and displaying virtuous character, it seems unjust to break down a group of people who are just trying to find their own power in this world. Denying a group of people happiness would not reflect God’s character on earth.


Political change in Britain: online essay help

One very unique thing about the United Kingdom is its reliance on tradition, and it’s ability to remain stable through it all. Though this tradition is a monarchy, limitation of the power of the king began early to avoid one individual gaining absolute power. Today, democracy is accepted as a basic and vital part of their government. Not including the Catholic and Protestant conflicts in Northern Ireland, citizens accept a separation of church and state relationship where the church does not interfere with the authority of the government. Ironically, the country that influenced the development of constitutional democracies, has no constitution. Instead the law of the land is a collection of documents, statutes, and political practices that have evolved over time. There are two important documents that are central to the British “constitution”. The first is the Magna Carta, a document sign by King John agreeing to consult nobles before he made important political decisions, especially those regarding taxes. The Magna Carta forms the basis of limited government that places restrictions on the power of monarchs. The second important document is the Bill of Rights. This document is not like the to American Bill of Rights, because it lists rights retained by Parliament, not by individual citizens. Other characteristics of the political culture include noblesse oblige and social class. Although the influence of social class on political attitudes is not as strong as it has been in the past, a very important tradition in British politics is noblesse oblige, the duty of the upper classes to take responsibility for the welfare of the lower classes. The custom dates to feudal times when lords protected their serfs and their land in return for labor. Today, noblesse oblige is reflected in the general willingness of the British to accept a welfare state.

During the 1980s, Margaret Thatcher’s government brought this willingness into question by cutting social services significantly. However, some of these services have been restored in recent years. Political and Economic Change in Britain has always been characterized by its gradual nature. Gradualism in turn established strong traditions. This process helps to explain the transition in policy-making power from the king to Parliament. There was a gradual acceptance of a “House of Lords,” and as commercialism created towns and a new middle class, eventually the establishment of a “House of Commons.” Both were created through evolution, not revolution. Of course, there are important “marker events” that demonstrate the growing power of Parliament the signing of the Magna Carta, the English Civil War, and the Glorious Revolution but the process was gradual and set strong traditions as it developed.

Despite the overall pattern of gradualism, Britain’s political system has had to adjust to internal economic changes, as well as international crises. Some sources of change have been the Industrial Revolution, imperialistic aspirations, the two world wars of the 20th century, and the economic crisis of the 1970s. These events have had significant consequences for Britain’s political system.

Margaret Thatcher blamed the weakened economy on the socialist policies set in place by the government after World War II. Her policies were further influenced by a distinct movement left by the Labour Party that gave a great deal of power to labor unions. In response, she privatized business and industry, cut back on social welfare programs, strengthened national defense, got tough with the labor unions, and returned to market force controls on the economy. She was a controversial prime minister for eleven years. Her supporters believed her to be the capable and firm “Iron Lady”, but her critics felt that her policies made economic problems worse and that her personality further divided the country. Thatcher resigned office in 1990 when other Conservative Party leaders challenged her leadership.

After the jolts of the economic crisis of the 1970s and Margaret Thatcher’s firm redirection of the political system to the right, moderation again became characteristic of political change in Britain. Thatcher’s hand-picked successor, John Major, at first followed her policies, but later moderating them by abolishing Thatcher’s poll tax, reconciling with the European Union, and slowing social cutbacks and privatization. The Conservative Party retained the majority in the 1993 parliamentary elections, but only by a very slim margin. Then, in 1997, Labour’s gradual return in the center was rewarded with the election of Tony Blair, who promised to create a “New Labour” Party and rule in a “third way” a centrist alternative to the old Labour Party on the left and the Conservative Party on the right. In many ways, Britain is a homogeneous culture. English is spoken by virtually all British citizens, and only about 5% of Britain’s population of 60 million are ethnic minorities. The major social cleavages that shape the way the political system works are based on multi-national identities, social class distinctions, and the Protestant/Catholic split in Northern Ireland. In recent years some critics believe that new tensions are developing regarding Muslim minorities. The “United Kingdom” evolved from four different nations: England, Wales, Scotland, and part of Ireland. England consists of the southern 2/3 of the island, and until the 16th century, did not rule any of the other lands. By the 18th century, England ruled the entire island, and became known as “Great Britain.” In the early 20th century, Northern Ireland was added, creating the “United Kingdom.” These old kingdoms still have strong national identities that greatly impact the British political system.

Distinctions between rich and poor have always been important in Britain, with the most important distinction today being between working and middle class people. The two classes are not easily divided by income, but psychologically and subjectively, the gulf between them is still wide. German sociologist Ralf Dahrendorf explains the divide in terms of solidarity, particularly among the working class. The sense is that keeping the old job and living in the old neighborhood the sense of family and friends is more important than individual success.

More evidence in the division of class can be seen in the education system. Public schools were originally intended to train boys for “public life” in the military, civil service, or politics. They are expensive, and they have educated young people to continue after their parents as members of the ruling elite. A large number of Britain’s elite have gone to “public” boarding. Middle classes commonly attend private grammar schools, where students wear uniforms but do not live in. The most important portal to the elite classes is through Oxford and Cambridge Universities, or Oxbridge. Since World War II, more scholarships have been available to Oxbridge, so that more working and middle class youths may attend the elite schools. Also, the number of other universities has grown, so that higher education is more widespread than before. Still, university attendance in Britain is much lower than in other industrialized democracies.

Because of tight immigration restrictions in the past, most ethnic minorities are young, with about half of the population under the age of 25. The growth in percentages of minorities has grown despite the restrictions that were placed on further immigration during the Thatcher administration of the 1980s. Immigration restrictions are currently under debate, but the Labour government has allowed the restrictions to remain in place. Britain has often been accused of adjusting poorly to their new ethnic population. Reports abound of unequal treatment by the police and physical and verbal harassment by citizens. Today there is some evidence that whites are leaving London to settle in surrounding suburban areas, resulting in a higher percentage of minority population living in London. Despite this segregation, the mixed race population appears to be increasing, with the census of 2001 offering for the first time in British history a category for mixed race people.

Not surprisingly, British newspapers reflect social class divisions. They are sharply divided between quality news and comment that appeals to the middle and upper class, and mass circulation tabloids that carry sensational news. Radio and television came to life during the collective consensus era, so originally they were monopolized by the British Broadcasting Corporation (BBC). The BBC sought to educate citizens, and it was usually respectful of government officials. Commercial television was introduced in the 1950s, and now there are five stations that compete, as well as cable. A variety of radio stations also exist. Despite the competition from private companies, the government strictly regulates the BBC and the commercial stations. For example, no advertisements may be sold to politicians, parties, or political causes.


America’s role in climate change through meat production


To fully address the concern of America’s role in attributing to climate change through producing meat there must be a clear understanding of how America got to this point by looking at a brief history of the process. After the Civil War there was a jump in population and immigration rates and the growth of urban cities like, New York. New jobs in the city that were not farming caused a need for a solution to feeding the growing population fast. The railroad was invented and this allowed for quicker transportation and the old times of cowboys herding cattle in the West soon came to a close (History of the Animal Science Industry). There was no need to raise cattle where it was to be consumed and so there came to be concentrated farming areas. This sets the stage for the big businesses of mass meat production to develop and flourish. The transport of meat over large distances became a feasible task that American people came to rely on. Furthermore, the new technology of refrigeration only added to the convenience. “Refrigeration in box cars allowed shipping of carcasses to population centers.” (History of the Animal Science Industry) Refrigeration is another way that helped the meat industry grow to what it is today. It allowed mass transportation of meat over long distances without the worry of it going bad. Through a long line of these inventions and innovations came a whole world of trouble concerning the environment that no one predicted. Big businesses left the small local farms in the shadows. The government has a large role in supporting the big meat industry businesses and so it feels that “so many acts are intended to get rid of small farms.”(Edible) Small farmers are struggling in today’s mass production age. The uncontrollable expansion of the big meat industry is proven by small farms struggling immensely everyday. The big businesses only add to the mass production of meat in the least effective and most destructive ways in regards to the environment like contributing the the Greenhouse Gas emissions, major deforestation, and the water supply becoming lower and polluting. This directly impacts the creation of big factories that contribute to climate change.

Greenhouse Gas Emissions:

The meat industry’s impact on Greenhouse Gas Emissions is by far the most detrimental aspect to climate change. GHG emissions are most widely associated with livestock farming for meat production as the main contributor to the worsening state of our climate. “The global increase in methane and nitrous oxide in the atmosphere is caused primarily by agriculture. Of global anthropogenic emissions in 2005, agriculture accounted for ≈60% of nitrous oxide and ≈50% of methane.” (The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition) Cows are the main producers of methane because of their unique bodily functions. They digest foods differently causing methane to be released in their feces and when they flatulate. When cattle is concentrated and the feces is not disposed of properly the toxic gases go into our atmosphere in increasing amounts. Therefore, raising cattle for the meat industry is a problem that is changing our natural environment in a fatalistic way. “Livestock, especially ruminants such as cattle, produce methane (CH4) as part of their normal digestive processes. This process is called enteric fermentation, and it represents almost one third of the emissions from the Agriculture economic sector.” (EPA) The EPA specifies the process of of cows contributing to these gases. With America being one of the lead countries in producing beef this leads to the conclusion that the path of the meat industry today is only going to add to the issue of climate change today. Soon the Greenhouse Gas Emissions will be irreversible and so it is important to recognize this issue as urgent. N2O is one of the gases that contribute to the greenhouse gases as well. “Agricultural soils are the largest anthropogenic source of N2O emissions in the United States, accounting for approximately 73.9 percent of N2O emissions in 2017 and 4.1 percent of total emissions in the United States in 2017.” (EPA) This puts into perspective that even the soil that is needed to raise agriculture is largely contributing to climate change and changing the atmosphere. Carbon is stored in the soil and eventually, when it reacts from the agricultural handling of it like plowing, it causes the carbon to rise to the atmosphere. There are so many ways and pieces of evidence that make it patent that raising livestock is one of the biggest problems that need to be dealt with to manage global warming and climate changing.

Water Pollution/Shortage:

The meat industry contributing to climate change directly causes glacier and ice sheets warming shown by the increase of water levels in direct cause of ice sheets melting because of global warming and polluting the bodies of water. One way that raising of livestock impacts the water supply in America is the ineffective ways of disposing of the manure of the animals. “Manure is a valuable resource for promoting soil fertility, but the volume of waste generated by IFAP operations often overwhelms the capacity of nearby cropland to absorb it, leaving the excess to contaminate drinking water and waterways.” (Johns Hopkins) Manure can be used in effective ways which, is important to remember if we want to make an effort to raise livestock in effective ways but, the ways it is being used now is just mostly harmful. Concentrated manure, as mentioned above, causes a release in toxic gases into the atmosphere which goes into the natural bodies of water. Water is an essential part of earth and human life and now it is contaminated and affecting natural water sources and the occupying living organisms. Concentrated manure is byproduct of big meat industries that hold large amounts of livestock together in one place. This makes it difficult to find ways to deal with and dispose of the manure in ways that will not harm the environment. Water is essential to the production of meat and in large quantities. “By some estimates, between 1,600 and 2,500 gallons of water are needed to produce one pound of feedlot beef. Globally, an estimated 27 percent of the water “footprint” of humanity is attributable to meat and dairy production.” (Johns Hopkins) This statistic exhibits a small portion of how much water is being used to keep the meat industry alive. With the decreasing of water supplies this is simply speeding up the process of the impending droughts and water shortages. Water is not a renewable resource and the inefficiency of conserving water has impacted climate change with global warming already causing water supplies to drop. The warming of the climate which, Greenhouse Emissions contributes to, is causing fresh water sources to deplete. It all connects and leads to the same conclusion of the meat industry only adding to worsening state of the climate. The increase in the temperatures causes the need for water to rise for both animals and humans to survive and along with the demand growing, water is evaporating faster with changes in precipitation (NEEF). Livestock raising will begin to need more water to keep it going and it is predicted that the decrease in fresh water supplies due to climate change will cause a competition of obtaining water-the most essential part of living. Climate change caused by the meat industry is impacting water in so many ways that will only increase the demand of water which, will cause even more detrimental problems that could pave the way to extinction of living organisms.


Deforestation is the clearing of forests and plants usually for the reason of using the land in different ways. More cleared land means more room for livestock to be raised and fed and as a result, the big businesses thrive. Deforestation is key to raising livestock since there is room to house so many animals while watching over them. So much land is needed to support the meat industry and the lack of forests directly causes more carbon dioxide to stay in the atmosphere. “The single biggest direct cause of tropical deforestation is conversion to cropland and pasture, mostly for subsistence, which is growing crops or raising livestock to meet daily needs.” (NASA) Meeting daily needs of meat consumption has caused the U.S. to not strategize correctly in how these lands are being used. The carbon dioxide increasing in the atmosphere is changing the climate in the worst ways. The lack of plants and trees make it difficult for CO2 to properly be taken in by plants thus causing issues with our atmosphere like global warming and pollution.

Deforestation, mainly caused by raising livestock, proves how the meat industry has gone overboard and has to be restricted as soon as possible to try reversing climate change. The land being converted to cropland is usually to feed the livestock as well. The waste of natural resources is uncanny. Carbon dioxide warming the climate directly impacts the water levels and the change weather patterns that we see today. Unpredicted weather is becoming normal and deforestation is a cause to it increasing. Americans have come to a point where convenience when it comes to food is essential. The increase of American fast food chains that specialize in meat like Burger King are direct contributors to the deforestation epidemic. The Rainforest Action Network started to boycott the mass cattle raising in rainforests because of how these natural habitats were being mindlessly cleared all to make cheap meat available to the public and they began by boycotting Burger King, an American fast food chain.(Deforestation, Cattle, and Fast Food). Our population today has grown accustomed to the fast life that demands food to be quick and a big staple of the American diet is meat. With this trend we can only expect more negative consequences in relation to climate change. Deforestation directly changes ecosystems which changes the the climate.

What about the growing of plants?:

One can argue that we should not focus completely on the meat industry causing climate change because the farming of vegetable and fruit crops also contributes to climate change. Although this could be true to a certain extent, if we look at the ways these crops would be farmed, there is more than sufficient evidence to back up the fact the increase in farming of plants can actually decrease or even reverse climate change and global warming. It is also extremely more effective and efficient. Based on The Humane Party, plant-based agriculture produces approximately “1.5 trillion more pounds of product than animal-based agriculture.” The farming of plants use a lot less land as well, “plant-based agriculture utilizes 115 million acres less than animal-based agriculture.” (The Humane Party) This shows how much more effective plant-based agriculture is in conserving natural resources. It decreases the amount of deforestation needed, it does not produce manure, and the plants take in CO2 from the atmosphere which reverses the climate change.


Resistance of integration in America

Despite some Americans’ accepting and welcoming attitude, many Americans had a difficult time accommodating to the idea of integration. Due to the countless years of discrimination and dehumanization against minority races, Caucasian citizens of the states struggled to remain cordial and friendly towards their new equals. The two class system American society created caused the Caucasians to believe they were superior to the minority races due to their lighter skin tone. This ultimately caused Caucasians to relentlessly fight for their title of superior, even though integration was inevitable. Although the tensions between the races spread all throughout America, the issue of resistance was clearly more evident in communities in the South compared to the North. As displayed in the Civil War, the Southern states had continuously opposed any government actions to permit rights to African Americans, even after slavery had been abolished for decades. When integration began spreading, Southerners desperately tried to resist the transition and refused to respect or tolerate the members of the Black race considering they deemed themselves superior. During The Civil Rights Movement, many southern Americans struggled to acclimate to integration as a result of the normalization of discriminating African Americans that had transpired for several decades prior to the 1960s. This struggle resulted in both positive and negative effects on society that have continued to affect African Americans for many years after the movement has come to an end. The toxic societal norms of this era ultimately led to the resistance that some Americans portrayed when segregation began spreading around the states, especially in the South. Even to this day African Americans continue to find adversity being accepted by individuals of the white race as a result of the tremendous societal corruption between races dating back for centuries.

Prior to the Civil Rights movement, segregation had been a dilemma America had been facing for several years, and had become the country’s overall normal standards. It had taken white American citizens centuries to realize the equality of all races, which was especially disregarded during the early times of slavery. Most early settlers were depicted to believe the Africans were beneath them, “British settlers regarded Africans as ‘black’—a term symbolizing darkness and evil, and themselves as ‘white’—which symbolized purity or divinity. Cultural chauvinism also placed Africans at a disadvantage: The British regarded themselves as Christian and ‘civilized,’ while Africans were ‘heathen’ and ‘barbarian.’ Moreover, as Africans assumed increasing responsibility for menial labor in the colonies, British settlers came to associate such work with Africans.” (Crowther 802). The depicted words and phrases white settlers would use against the Africans and other minorities first began the shift in status between the different races. Since the majority of civilized people in America were from Central Europe, they were primarily caucasian, and therefore started to degrade any non-whites, such as Africans and the Native Americans that originally lived in North America. This harsh attitude was only the beginning of a tedious journey of discrimination for American minorities. Although the early settlers were capturing Africans as slaves to work for them, the behavior had changed only slightly approaching the 20th century. White people were still considered superior, but the status of the discriminated minorities had only improved by barely a sliver over all this time. Even though slavery was abolished by the 1890s, new laws were introduced to discriminate African-Americans, “The 1890’s were especially harsh for African Americans, as repressive new Jim Crow Laws were passed. These laws resulted in the segregation of every societal institution in the South. The U.S. Supreme Court endorsed legal segregation with Plessy v. Ferguson in 1896. In this decision the Court upheld the constitutionality of permitting public carriers, in this case the railroads, to remand African Americans to a separate section of the train or separate cars, away from white passengers.” (Jewell 27). During this time period, African Americans that had been set free from slavery now were faced with even more discriminations in their everyday life. Passing the Jim Crow Laws was another way to secure white supremacy in America now that slavery had been abolished and deemed illegal. Even though these laws were mostly endorsed in the Southern states, African Americans in the Northern states were not completely accepted into society and were still heavily discriminated. The harsh societal conditions revolving around segregation had punished American minorities for centuries, which ultimately resulted in the Civil Rights Movement fighting for equal rights for every race.

The Civil Rights Movement was sparked by many African Americans and those who supported equal rights, and had caused controversy all throughout America during this era. During the integration of schools, Americans were forced to integrate their society as a whole, “As construed by the Supreme Court, the equal protection clause required not simply that further efforts at official segregation cease, but that local school districts actively undertake the difficult task of transforming segregated schools into integrated ones. Federal district courts, the lowest level of courts in the federal judicial system, were charged with initial attempts to accomplish desegregation. In pursuit of this goal, the Supreme Court found that federal courts need not remain color-blind in fashioning remedies for segregated school districts.” (Hall 303). Americans soon realized they would have to adapt to new societal circumstances than they had to in the past. For several centuries, white citizens held a self-given title of superiority and believed any other races were beneath them and were not near equal to them. It was not until these minorities started realizing their power, that they demanded to obtain equal rights to the white caucasians who had done them harm for all their lives. Since white Americans were acclimated to the normal status of being superior, they resisted this societal change due to the support of the African Americans for equal rights. Even though the Northern states were already more accepting than the Southern states, African Americans in the North still received negative and discriminatory attitudes from Caucasians. The South had attempted endless schemes to try to derail or avoid integration, “In early 1959 Governor J. Lindsey Almond, Jr., stated that all efforts to maintain segregation had been “exhausted” and some integration would soon be “inevitable.” The state repealed its compulsory-attendance laws, arguing it could not force students to attend integrated schools, and funds for tuition grants to private schools were increased. Efforts to resist the integration of Virginia’s student population continued at the beginning of the 1959-1960 school year. However, black students slowly worked their way into the public schools and the program of ‘massive resistance’ gradually broke down.” (‘Desegregating Education’ 127) The resistance of many Southern states resulted in inevitable integration, even though they tried to ignore and avoid it. The white Southerners had to now acclimate to a new society where everyone was equal, rather than the past where they were the superior race. Even though the majority of America wanted to resist the integration, some of the Caucasian citizens were very accepting and understanding of African Americans, after seeing first hand their harsh discrimination. The resistance of desegregation not only existed in the South, but some of these resisting tactics were used in several Northern states as well. The South was primarily more racist and prejudice towards the African Americans and minorities surrounding them, and refused to think of them as equal to themselves. The overall resistance of integration spread throughout America during the Civil Rights movement due to the bigotry and discriminatory attitude many citizens had towards African Americans.

Overall, the resistance America showed towards integration during the Civil Rights Movement clearly has had long-term effects on society that have been demonstrated throughout history. The contributions made by African Americans in their struggle for civil rights have served as a catalyst for other groups also attempting to overturn discrimination. Other disenfranchised groups who have challenged social inequities include American Indians, women, people with disabilities, and the elderly. Throughout the decades of the 1970’s, 1980’s, and 1990’s many of the gains that African Americans registered during the 1950’s and 1960’s have been challenged as unconstitutional, and labeled by some as reverse discrimination.” (Jewell 28). It is evident that the events of integration made an enormous impact on society, as well as inspired other minorities to fight for their own rights. The resistance America showed towards integration was only one obstacle African Americans had to surpass to reach their freedom and be seen as equal. This demonstrates how other groups can realize that whatever is stopping them is only an obstacle, and they can fight for what they believe is right. The Civil Rights Movement was dedicated on providing equality for all races, but there was several bumps in the road that these individuals had to experience before they reached their goal. This impacted society positively and provided a beacon of hope to those who were still being oppressed. There was so much hope and excitement spreading from the integration laws, that some people forget about the negative effects that came out of this experience. “Affirmative action, according to the official government definition, involved action to overcome past or present barriers to equal opportunity. Establishing quotas of minority members or women to be hired or admitted to educational programs, or creating “set-asides,” positions reserved for minority members or women, were two of the most obvious ways of overcoming such barriers, but these met with challenges by white males, who charged that they were suffering from reverse discrimination” (Bankston 219). After integration spread, there were some negative effects despite it being a step forward for society. For example, reverse discrimination is likely a similarity to the resistance shown by Caucasians during the spread of desegregation. When white Americans resisted desegregation, they were fighting to remain as the superior race which was an advantage, similar to when white people have used reverse discrimination, they are most likely trying to use it to their advantage. Reverse racism has been used by some white people to try to blame minorities for discriminating them, as if they are too good to receive the same hate and negative behavior that they give to the minorities. The desegregation of America heavily impacted society in the long run, both positively and negatively after the Civil Rights Movement.

To conclude, the American society went through intense and drastic changes during the Civil Rights Movement, which most Caucasian Americans resisted due to their past ideals and beliefs. Even though it is hard to acclimate to a society far different than what you’re used to, the resistance of integration in America was extremely damaging to the accepting and welcoming society that African Americans hoped to be an equal part of. America has come very far since the Civil Rights Movement, and thankfully have become much more accepting of minorities and have successfully integrated them into our society. Unfortunately, even in 2019 there are still many forms of racism and discrimination in America towards the minorities we have been equal to for over fifty years. This discrimination is portrayed today in police brutality, immigration controversy, stereotypes, and other more general aspects. This resistance is not nearly as strong as how it was during desegregation in the 1960s, but still remains a huge problem in today’s society. My grandmother sadly is not here with us today, but I know if she was she would be extremely disappointed in America and our society to see all of this hate and racism still causing a problem. It is very disheartening to know that many people who fought for their rights to be equal are still partially fighting to be accepted by all after these many years. I may not have witnessed the same prejudice that my grandma did during the Civil Rights Movement, but there is still so much hate in front of me on the news, social media, and in real life that all prove that the resistance against integration is still evident in today’s society.


Impact of tobacco crop on America and its economy: writing essay help

There’s nothing that boosted America economically in its beginnings more than tobacco. It was the driving factor of immigration to the New World, as its riches promised financial security or, to many, land and freedom. It turned a profit in the new world through direct sales of the crop itself, and also demand for more labor and land. Without the introduction of the cash crop, it is unlikely that America would have had the rapid growth it did, giving them the strength to become its own nation and eventually a global power.

The New World was advertised as a paradise in England. They did their bests to paint the land across the water as a place of new beginnings, financial opportunities, and gold. Unfortunately, in the beginning, Virginia did not have those to offer, namely the last one. Colonizers searched for ways to make money in the rough, new environment. They tried various industries, including ones such as glassblowing, vineyard cultivation, and silkworm farming. The many failures lead to the Virginia Company of London beginning in 1618 to encourage different attempts at new industries in the colony, but soon they found their match. Tobacco, an addictive product made of the leaves of a tobacco plant, was introduced to the British when they stole it off of Spanish merchant ships. Back then, although many people didn’t care for the smoke, tobacco was a popular substance for snuff and there were still many people who believed it was beneficial. In 1571, a Spanish doctor claimed that tobacco was a cure for 36 different health problems. Once it began being grown in the colony, it didn’t take off right away. This tobacco was taken from the native Indians, who had already grown their own form of it in America. Those who bought it from England claimed that it hit too harshly, and they much preferred the tobacco being grown in the West Indies. John Rolfe, an early English settler, fixed this issue by importing tobacco seeds directly from the West Indies. These new seeds were a huge success and by 1630, tobacco became the leading cash crop of Virginia and over a million and a half pounds of it was being exported from Jamestown every year.

The economic impact that the cash crop had on America was massive. Not only was it being shipped out in tons for cash, but it also helped the economy in other ways. Tobacco is a plant that is rough on its environment. It takes away large amounts of nutrients from the soil and because of this, it can’t be planted on the same spot of land repeatedly without a drastic decrease in quality or inability to grow at all. In order to prevent this overproduction, the General Assembly began limiting settlers to only 1,500 plants at a time. Farmers were forced into a system of planting it for three seasons in a row, and then letting the land regrow naturally for another three years before planting it again. This process meant that farmers now needed double the amount of land in order to maintain steady yields. Virginians began seeking approval from the General Assembly to reach further into America to take more farm land and by 1648, tobacco land had spread all the way out to above the York River. Another problem that arose from tobacco was that fact that it was very labor intensive and required a lot of people to farm it. The settlers solved this problem by introducing indentured servants. These were often people who were very poor or in jail in England and were brought to the New World. Their boat fares were paid for in exchange for usually 4-7 years of work on a tobacco plantation. This relatively cheap labor allowed Virginia to rapidly increase the rate at which they were exporting tobacco, overall growing the economy even more. The plant’s growth continued to spread out as the American colonies expanded, but in the 1680s, prices dropped. Before this, tobacco exports were often sold directly to English merchants, allowing planters to turn a profit right away, but now this was no longer an option due to the low demand. They now had to turn to commission agents, who would keep the tobacco until it sold and then would pay the farmer then, while also taking a chunk of the profit.

While tobacco’s impact on colonial America had obvious positive effects, today the plant serves as a menace. Tobacco use is the single largest preventable cause of death and disease in the United States, killing more than 480,000 Americans every year. It’s impact as a driver of the United States economy decreased throughout the years as new science and technologies discovered the dangers behind it, such as in 1826 when the highly addictive substance nicotine was discovered and 1836 when Samuel Green discovered that smoking too much of it can have fatal consequences. The CDC estimates that tobacco smoking costs the United States more than $300 billion dollars a year, $170 billion of that involving direct medical care and $156 billion of it in loss of productivity from the drastic loss of health in those who smoke it.

Despite the dramatic change of pace and public opinion of tobacco, it still had a massive impact on America’s economy. Both positive and negative effects have come from its presence in the United States, particularly in colonial times. Without it, America would probably not be where it is today.


How did immigration to Portugal affect the Portuguese economy? (draft)

In recent years in Portugal, the economy has fluctuated greatly and this is due to the increase in immigration. Since portugal introduced the golden visa program in 2012, there has been a great increase in immigration as foreigners especially from Brazil and China. This research question better extends the idea of people being attracted to the EU citizenship which they can obtain after 6 years with golden visa program.

Portugal has always been a country that has welcomed all types of immigrants from all over the globe. The first recent mass immigration was in 1974 after the 1974 revolution that overthrew the portuguese dictator, António Salazar, and his government. The retornados was the name the was given to all the immigrants that fled to Portugal from old Portuguese colonies such as Angola, Mozambique, and São Tomé e Principe. This was a great way for Portugal to welcome the new government as in the years leading up to April of 1974 there was a significant decrease in population in Portugal due to the mass migration of Portuguese people to countries such as France and Germany. The second most recent mass immigration increase in Portugal was when the Golden Visa program was introduced in 2012. This is a program which allows immigrants from all over the globe to obtain a residence visa in Portugal by buying property over 500,000 euros or over 350,000 if the property is older than 30 years old. After 6 years, one can obtain citizenship from portugal which allows them visa free entry to 174 countries.

Answering this question is important because the immigration in Portugal, especially in Lisbon, is affecting the portuguese people. The housing market has increased massively and portuguese people are having to move out from major cities in order to find cheaper property. The city is also transforming with a much more international culture and this is affecting the Portuguese culture. It is important to understand this massive immigration really helps the economy or not.

This question is a great way to understand not only how the portuguese economy is affected by immigration, but also how any other international economy is affected by immigration, because in a sense all economies work the same way. Through this question one will be able to conclude that the immigration has a great effect on the economy. Immigrants bring money and they bring new ideas which all affect the economy. Once an immigrant trades in a country, they become automatically part of that countries economy. Since the economy is affected by everyone, hence the reason that the economy is greatly affected by the immigration.

The recent growth in immigration in Portugal has had both positive and negative effects on the economy due to the Golden Visa program and the increase in labour force.

In 1974, Retornados was the first mass immigration of portugal that had a major increase in the labour force and a huge effect on the economy.

JSTOR- The Impact of 1970s Repatriates from Africa on the Portuguese Labor Market

“The Portuguese government set up a generous resettlement program for the retornados.”

“Portugal’s population grew by 5% in both 1974 and 1975 and by another 2% in 1976.”

The Labour force in Portugal grew roughly 10% over the period of 3 years.

Over the period of 1974-1977 the labour force had a massive increase, and this directly influenced the economy. Portugal was at a time of depression and the economy was at it lowest since it was recovering from a dictatorship regime. The mass immigration of returning long time emigrants was a b oost to the economy as they were willing to do the jobs that the portuguese people didn’t want to do.

These conclusions help support how does the immigration support the economy and influence it. The 1974 Retornados was the first example of mass immigration in Portugal in recent years. This helps understand the research question because although, the most effective change in the economy due to immigration was in recent years, the retornados has also affected the economy since 1974 and it is still impacting the Portuguese labour force today.


NOTE: This does not have to be one paragraph but may, instead, be a series of smaller paragraphs.


What is the first argument I will make to support my thesis?

The biggest reason why Portugal had to start implementing economic strategies in order to attract external wealth and economic growth was dues to the huge economic recession in 2007, that resulted in the worst Portuguese crisis in recent years. When the golden visa program was implemented in 2012, the economy saw a drastic growth overall.


Which resources will support me in making this argument? List the titles of the resources you are using.

Gale: A New Sickman of Europe; The Portuguese Economy.

Book: Sustainability and the City


Which specific quotes will I use from these resources?

“LOOK at any table of European economic data and Portugal stands out. GDP growth last year, at 1.3%, was the lowest not just in the European Union but in all of Europe.”

“Portugal was the first country threatened with sanctions by the European Commission for breaching the euro zone’s stability and growth pact, which sets ceilings for euro members’ budget deficits.”


What conclusions and inferences can I make from these resources?

In 2007 the government of Portugal was really struggling to bring the GDP down below the EU established and set ceiling of 3%.

This was a direct impact of the Portuguese socialiste prime minister, José Socrates who was thought to be stealing from the government and in a sense his ideas was what really recessed the economy.

During his time as the prime minister, Socrates raised the VAT in the country from 19% to 21% and also raised the minimum retirement age from 60 to 65. This caused chaos among the labour force which decreased and also took the streets in protest especially those in the public sector.

Researchers say that the difference between Portugal and Its neighbor Spain in 2007 was that Spain’s economy has been extremely boosted by the rise in immigration which only started coming into Portugal in 2012-2015

In portugal the housing prices increased 22.3% between 2012 and 2015. I n lisbon the prices of the housing market upscaled a massive 105.9% between 2012 and 2015.

In lisbon, in the year of 2015 there was a total of 2,199 sales registered that in total, it was worth over 709 million euros.

The golden visa program is a program that encourages non-european citizens to invest at least 500 thousand euros in Portugal, generally in real estate property. This allows then to obtain the residence permit which they can change to citizenship after 5 years.

According to one of the most trustworthy consulting firms, Cushman and Wakefield the average price per square meter in Lisbon was 3000 euros at the end of 2015.

Meanwhile the supply of houses for the permanent portuguese resident in Lisbon’s historic center dropped in order to make way for the new incoming foreigners and tourist apartments.


How do these conclusions specifically develop an answer to my research question?

With this argument we can clearly see how the economy was in 2007 until 2012, and how it was due to the portuguese prime minister at the time. With the argument we can also conclude that there was a drastic change in the economy in terms of growth and especially with the housing market as it was hugely affected by the golden visa program in 2012.


NOTE: This does not have to be one paragraph but may, instead, be a series of smaller paragraphs.


What is the first argument I will make to support my thesis?

Although there was a lot of immigration in Portugal in recent years that affected the economy and the housing market, the chinese immigration was what had the biggest impact. Since the golden visa program was implemented, the chinese have seen it as a opportunity to invest. The chinese people are attracted to foreign housing in portugal for a number of reasons.


Which resources will support me in making this argument? List the titles of the resources you are using.

“Third Countries Migration and the Immigrant Investor Programs in the EU – the Case of the Chinese Immigrants in Portugal.


Which specific quotes will I use from these resources?

“The Golden residence permit program is valid for one year with the possibility to renew the„Golden visa“ for two more periods of two years. After five years of temporary residence, one is eligible to apply for a permanent residence permit.”

“Non-Habitual residence regime provides a flat income tax rate of 20% for qualifying employment and self-employment income, and a tax exemption for different foreign-source income. To be considered as a tax resident, applicants must remain in Portugal for more than 183 days during the relevant fiscal year or have a dwelling in Portugal on December 31 of that year, with the intention of holding it as a habitual residence.”


What conclusions and inferences can I make from these resources?

The golden visa program is a program that encourages non-european citizens to invest at least 500 thousand euros in Portugal, generally in real estate property. This allows then to obtain the residence permit which they can change to citizenship after 5 years.

The main reason why these immigrants apply for the golden visa program is because they can get a residence visa which allows them to roam free through europe.

The residents with the golden visa only have to be physically in portugal for a period of 7 days per year.

One of the main reasons why the chinese want to apply with the golden visa is because the chinese passports are only eligible to travel to 25 countries visa free, while on the other hand the portuguese passport can travel to 170 countries visa free.

The second reason why the chinese are so keen in buying property in Portugal is because since China is such an unstable country politically, the top 1% want to have a back up plan in case of chaos in China and will have somewhere to go live.

The third reason is that in portugal, there is a regime which is the Non-Habitual residence regime which is when one has property in Portugal but resides outside of the country for a period longer than 183 days per year. This regime is eligible for the investor to only pay 20% of the flat bases taxes over the property.

There is also the reason of the clean air. China is a country known to have great pollution in the major cities. This is a huge opportunities to have somewhere to go where they can get fresh air and enjoy the nature which is something that doesn’t exist in China.


How do these conclusions specifically develop an answer to my research question?

This is a direct impact on the research question as the point supports with evidence exactly how the economy has been impacted by the chinese immigration. It is no secret that the biggest immigration in Portugal was dies to the chinese. To this day they are still buying and selling property and this has caused the portuguese economy to grow massively.


The Weimar Republic: college application essay help

The Weimar Republic (1918–1933) of Germany was established as the new liberal constitutional monarchy after World War I (1914–1918) to replace the German Empire (1871–1918), and it fulfilled the wishes and demands of multiple groups—including the German people, the Allied Powers, and the German military class. However, this system of democracy was not the success it was expected to be, mainly because the republic’s development required a stable international context, which wasn’t available due to the fluctuating world economy and paradigm shifts in European and world politics that arose with the aftermath of the war. Robert Roswell Palmer—in A History Of The Modern World—says that the Weimar Republic “arose because the victorious enemy demanded it, because the German people craved peace, because they wished to avoid forcible revolution, and because the old German military class, to save its face and its future strength, wished at least temporarily to be excused” (Palmer, 680). These demands—which had broader goals and visions for the new settlement—were brought together into one consolidated vision.

The fall of the Weimar Republic was proof that the state’s political instability and the conflicts that resulted from it also endangered and negatively affected the stability of the settlement itself. The republic was a sudden change for Germany and a stark contrast from the system of government that presided over the nation before World War I. The German Empire—the imperial state that existed from the time of Germany’s unification in 1871 to the abdication of Kaiser Wilhelm II (1859–1941) in 1918—was a federal monarchy, whereas the Weimar Republic was a representative democracy. Although the German Empire was “the strongest and most obvious of the new structures which armed power had reared” (Palmer, 657), it eventually collapsed due to the events and turnout of World War I as well as the decline in authority as demonstrated by the incompetent leadership of Chancellor Theobald von Bethmann Hollweg (1856–1921).

Because of the conflicts between the various political groups—the Communists and Social Democrats on the left; the Democratic party, the Catholic Center Party, and the People’s Party in the center; and the German Nationalist Party and the National Socialist Party (the group that would later form the Nazis) on the right—after the war, different parties at the time had different goals and visions for what the new settlement would look like, and the Weimar Republic emerged as the most convenient compromise that allowed the war to end and a new German state to emerge. Liberals, democrats, and socialists had been demanding peace and democratization for the German Empire towards the end of the war, and General Erich Ludendorff (1865–1937) realized that “the German cause was hopeless” and he hoped that “a new government be formed in Berlin, reflecting the majority in the Reichstag, on democratic parliamentary principles” (Palmer, 680). This epiphany led to the calling for immediate peace negotiations, which Ludendorff and his associates hoped would provide them with more time to regroup and launch another offensive on the Allies (Palmer, 680). Later, Prince Maximilian of Baden (1867–1929) led a cabinet that ended the Bismarckian alliance system and eventually got Kaiser Wilhelm II to abdicate the throne. Palmer, in discussing the founding of the republic that followed his abdication, wrote, “The fall of the empire in Germany, with the consequent adoption of the republic, did not arise from any basic discontent, deep revolutionary action, or change of sentiment in the German people. It was an episode of the war” (Palmer, 680).

Returning to Palmer’s explanation of the republic’s founding, we can see that it was actually a compromise between the people, the Allied Powers, the military, and both the old and new systems of government. With all these groups and political views involved, there was no easy solution that could cater to everyone’s wants and needs. The Weimar Republic obviously did not end up how it was intended to be and resulted in a collapse, but it was a huge step for Germany since a new type of government was established for the first time. However, as much of a step Germany’s democratization, the Weimar Republic ultimately failed—which was representative of the tenuousness that many post-war democracies possessed because of the instability created after the war.

The Treaty of Versailles presented at the Paris Peace Conference in 1919 prescribed agreements that Germany would have to fulfill as the aggressor (and loser) in the war. These agreements included accepting the war guilt clause and paying for all of the losses and damages sustained by other nations involved in World War I. However, if Germany were to pay off these debts adding to 132 billion marks, the international economy and its balance would be thrown off; the failure of the Allies to recognize that the international market could become unstable suggests that the victorious parties only cared about getting their money and was either negligent of this possibility or didn’t care about international stability (Palmer, 690). Germany, trying to make reparations, offered to send their people to make repairs and rebuild nations, but the Allied Powers insisted on receiving monetary payments because they wanted to keep jobs in their country for their citizens (Palmer, 690). “The Treaty of Versailles was designed to put an end to the German menace,” Palmer writes. “It was not a successful treaty.” (Palmer, 693) From what Palmer wrote about the terms and drafting of the treaty, it can be inferred that no nation intended to follow the terms set forth, and no one really expected Germany to fully live up to the consequences (Palmer, 693). This shows the redundancy and uselessness of the treaty; it was simply an agreement to end the war, and the terms and conditions it set forth for Germany were just meant to weaken them—which the French especially wanted.

Although Germany did not pay off their debts completely, they still ended up in an economic crisis that directly led to the fall of the Weimar Republic. Between 1921 and 1923, a hyperinflation of the German Papiermark (the currency of the Weimar Republic) created significant economic and political instability throughout the nation. This phenomenon started mainly because of Germany’s failure to fulfill one of their payments, which resulted in the occupation of the Ruhr industrial area by France and Belgium in 1923 and created a “disabling effect” on the German economy. The United States, an Allied Power that had little interest in collecting reparations from Germany, decided that they would help Germany with their financial struggles so that they could secure a payment of over $10 billion from the Allies, which they had loaned to the European forces over the course of World War I. The Dawes Plan was proposed in 1923 by the Reparation Commission of the United States. Led by Charles G. Dawes, the team offered the plan as a solution to Germany’s economic hardships. Over the next few years, American banks made significant efforts to loan the Germans money so that they could pay off their debts to the Allies, and in return, America would get their repayment.

The Great Depression of 1929, one of the most important events of American history, had an unimaginable impact on Germany’s economy. The nation, reliant on loans from the United States, was suddenly cut short of the money they needed to pay off their debts. To make matters even worse, the United States pressed Britain and France to pay off their own debts, who then pressured Germany into paying off their debts to them. This chain of events ultimately caused an economic depression that affected the international market. According to The Holocaust Encyclopedia provided by the United States Holocaust Memorial Museum, “[t]he German government faced the classic dilemma: cut government spending in an attempt to balance the budget or increase it in an attempt to jumpstart the economy.” Chancellor of the Weimar Republic at the time, Heinrich Brüning (1885–1970) decided to go with the first option, which was “the deeply unpopular option.” This decision marked one of the many turning points in the quick collapse of the Weimar Empire.

Only fifteen years after its founding, the Weimar Republic fell due to its many economic hardships and political struggles. Was this collapse inevitable, or was it merely a result of the conditions that emerged after the war? From the perspective of someone from the 21st-century, it seems as though the Nazi events and Holocaust that followed the collapse of the Weimar Republic could not have been avoided. It seems that the National Socialist German Workers’ Party would have gained traction at some point in time whether or not the Weimar Republic existed. With the republic in place, it made it easier for the party to take advantage of the failures and struggles of the settlement; however, without the republic, the German economy was still bound to lose stability after a while because of the reparations they were forced to pay. It can be concluded, therefore, that the Weimar Republic was a catalyst for the process of transitioning from a strong pre-war empire to a modernized post-war nation.

Less than two decades after World War I and the founding of Germany’s new Weimar Republic, Adolf Hitler (1889–1945) seized power in the German government as the new chancellor by taking advantage of the economic and political confusion that resulted from the Great Depression and international economic depression. It could be argued that if the German settlement had not been such a failure, Hitler’s regime would not have been able to gain as much popularity as it did; the Nazis were so popular because they were able to appeal to all groups and appeared to have solutions for all of Germany’s problems (“Nazi Rise to Power”). According to an article on BBC about the rise of the Nazis, the party appealed to each of the groups by proposing different solutions: (a) the Socialists were promised that farmers would be given their land, pensions would improve, and public industries would be owned by the states; (b) the Nationalists were assured that all German-speaking people would be unified under one state, the Treaty of Versailles would be abandoned, and there would be new, special laws for foreigners; (c) racists were guaranteed that immigration would be discontinued and Jews would not be granted German citizenship; (d) fascists were told that a strong central government would hold power and newspapers would be controlled; (e) the middle class was promised remilitarization and business contracts as well as protection from communists; and (f) the lower class and unemployed were assured that more jobs would become available and wages would be increased. Hitler, an experienced speaker, knew exactly how to act and what to say to the Germans to persuade them that the Nazis could solve their problems. With Hitler’s appointment to the position in 1933, the events of World War II were set in motion, and the world would change forever.

As we can see in this case study of the Weimar Republic and its economics and political systems, democracy was not as successful as it should have been, in part because the Weimar Republic lacked international and domestic stability. For a nation to implement a completely new system of government, they need to grow and develop in an environment where they aren’t paying off debts and suddenly being forced to democratize. World War I, having enormous impacts on the economies and politics of multiple nations, created an unstable setting that would lead to devastating events like the Great Depression, and this instability was one of the main factors in the collapse of the Weimar Republic. Although Germany’s democratization and implementation of the federal monarchy contributed greatly to democracy as a whole, there were too many negative impacts and events that reversed its successes and set back the progress that had been made.


Philip Larkin’s The Less Deceived (1955): writing essay help

Although Britain had emerged from World War Two as victorious, the cost of this victory became increasingly apparent in the years that followed. Labour’s success in the 1945 General Election resulted in a series of social and political reforms which tapped into a national desire for change, with the establishment of the National Health Service in 1948 and widespread nationalisation of industry. However, these changes were not sufficient to combat the devastating economic and ideological effects of World War Two. As Mark Jackson summarises,

When the Second World War ended in 1945, British people, like those of many other nations, were struggling to reconcile themselves to the appalling consequences of war: over 450,000 British soldiers and civilians had been killed and many more severely wounded; families and communities had been destroyed; cities and homes had been reduced to rubble; and welfare services were struggling to cope with the burden of physical and psychological illness, not only amongst members of the armed forces but also amongst civilian populations.

As Jackson suggests, in these immediate post-war years, the national outlook of England was dominated by a profound sense of disillusionment and despair.

Philip Larkin’s The Less Deceived (1955) is fundamentally concerned with these conditions of post-war society. For example, the title, a subversion of Ophelia’s declaration in Hamlet that ‘I was the more deceived’ (III. i. 120) immediately suggests a determination to resist illusion in this difficult post-war period; ‘an attitude of wary suspiciousness and worldly scepticism’, as Andrew Swarbrick notes. An important aspect of this ‘worldly scepticism’ and Larkin’s suspicious approach to post-war society is the poet’s continued engagement with Romanticism. Throughout these poems, Larkin uses Romantic imagery as a vehicle to press against the social and political conditions of post-war England, subverting these often idealistic concepts of transformation and transcendence to explore a cultural condition of disillusionment and despair.

Michael O’Neill has evidenced the way in which the Romantic metaphor of air enables ‘twentieth century poets to enter into sustaining dialogue with the great Romantic poets’ especially regarding the issues of transformation and transcendence. Instead of an affirmative vision of these tropes, the Romantic metaphor of air in Larkin’s ‘Triple Time’ (1954) becomes a symbol of ‘worldly scepticism’ as the speaker bemoans

This empty street, this sky to blandness scoured,

This air, a little indistinct with autumn

Like a reflection, constitute the present —

A time traditionally soured,

A time unrecommended by event. (1-5).

Though Larkin’s engagement with the metaphor of air is shadowed by Percy B. Shelley’s ‘Ode to the West Wind’ (1820), each of these poets use this symbol in very different ways. Whereas Shelley’s idealistic ‘wild West Wind, thou breath of Autumn’s being’ (1) is an agent of transformative process and change, Larkin’s ‘air, a little indistinct with autumn’ subverts this metaphor to become a symbol of his speaker’s own disenchantment with post-war England. This change from the driving rhythms of Shelley’s alliterative line to Larkin’s limp syntax of indifference especially enacts this deflation of Romantic ideals and the resulting sense of ‘worldly scepticism’. The jarring repetition of ‘time’ and Larkin’s selection of ‘bells’, which ironically fails to chime with the corresponding rhyme of ‘else’ (6), also articulates this disillusionment regarding a ‘time traditionally soured, | A time unrecommended by event’.

‘Wires’ (1953) is also primarily concerned with this national outlook and has been repeatedly labelled as an allegory for the social and political conditions of post-war society. Larkin’s speaker describes how

The widest prairies have electric fences,

For though old cattle know they must not stray

Young steers are always scenting purer water

Not here but anywhere. Beyond the wires

Leads them to blunder up against the wires

Whose muscle-shredding violence gives no quarter.

Young steers become old cattle from that day,

Electric limits to their widest senses. (1-8).

The continued rationing and economic restrictions which dominated the late 1940s and early 1950s are easy to locate within the form and imagery of the poem. Larkin’s ABCD DCBA rhyme scheme is particularly suggestive of enclosure and the enjambment between the first and second stanza, which offers the hope of finding purer waters ‘Beyond the wires’, only ‘Leads them to blunder up against the wires’ once more. Although ‘Wires’ is not itself engaged with the themes and tropes of Romanticism, this sense of relentless frustration at a lack of freedom and restriction prefigures the distinctly Romantic desire to transcend these social conditions in ‘Here’ (1961), from The Whitsun Weddings (1964).

Though published almost a decade later, The Whitsun Weddings is also concerned with these challenging conditions of post-war society, as England struggled to come to terms with the full-ranging political and social effects of World War Two. Since the publication of The Less Deceived, the restrictions and rationing explored in ‘Wires’ had been lifted and the country’s economy had shown significant signs of recovery. However, despite this newfound relative “affluence” for some, a different set of problems began to emerge during this period. For example, with an unprecedented rise in immigration, urbanisation and growing concerns over the topic of political consensus, the issues of cultural cohesion, integration and social inequality were widespread in post-war society, as evidenced throughout The Whitsun Weddings. This issue of class tensions and a sense of what Jason Harding refers to as the ‘social alienation’ of the period, is also reflected in the wider literature of this era such as in the works of “The Angry Young Men”, a group of writers with which Larkin has literary and personal links.

Philip Larkin’s ‘Here’ is clearly situated within the post-war context of this collection, as the poem opens with a journey through this landscape

Swerving east, from rich industrial shadows

And traffic all night north; swerving through fields

Too thin and thistled to be called meadows,

And now and then a harsh-named halt, that shields

Workmen at dawn; swerving to solitude. (1-5).

Following this opening verbal participle, the first sections of ‘Here’ are dominated by its restless syntax, the repeated conjunctions and a resulting sense of overwhelming enumeration. Larkin repeats these techniques throughout the poem in order to consolidate this effect. For example, the syndetic listing of the numerous aspects of post-war society is complemented by the breathless enjambment in the poem’s third stanza, which describes

A cut-price crowd, urban yet simple, dwelling

Where only salesmen and relations come

Within a terminate and fishy-smelling

Pastoral of ships up streets, the slave museum,

Tattoo-shops, consulates, grim head-scarfed wives. (17-21).

Michael O’Neill has argued that the concept of ‘difference’ and the poet’s ‘troubled recognition of this’ is central to Larkin’s poetic method in The Whitsun Weddings. In ‘Here’, this ‘troubled recognition’ of ‘difference’ is evident in the speaker’s exhausting attempts to summarise and reconcile the disparate nature of post-war society with its ‘cut-price crowd’, ‘meadows’ and ‘industrial shadows’. In doing so, Larkin gives expression to the growing concerns over these issues of cultural cohesion and social inequality.

These concerns are shadowed by Larkin’s reference to ‘the slave museum’ which subtly raises issues of freedom and prosperity, linking back to the themes of The Less Deceived and ‘Wires’, in particular. This issue is particularly pertinent to the ‘residents from raw estates’ (12) and that ‘cut-price crowd’, the presumably working-class individuals of the poem. At the linguistic level, Larkin’s use of consonance creates a sense of uniformity and repetition associated with these individuals, which perhaps gestures towards the monotonous realities of working-class life and this issue of restrictive freedoms. Equally, this jarring repetition of sound may also represent a dismissive view of this class, suggesting their exclusion and resulting sense of ‘social alienation’, as voiced in the literature of “The Angry Young Men”. Either way, as the collection’s opening poem, ‘Here’ offers a troubling snapshot of the progression of post-war society, even into the 1950s and 60s, and gestures towards the difficulty of Larkin’s task in gathering and reconciling these differences in The Whitsun Weddings. Moreover, these issues of freedom, suggested by the reference to ‘the slave museum’, create an alarming parallel with a poem such as ‘Wires’ and raises further questions surrounding ideas of progression, development and disillusionment in post-war society.

With its central concerns of liberty and transformation, it is unsurprising that the final movements of ‘Here’ turn to Romanticism and this notion of transcendence. In these closing lines, Larkin’s speaker asserts that

[…] Here silence stands

Like heat. Here leaves unnoticed thicken,

Hidden weeds flower, neglected waters quicken,

Luminously-peopled air ascends;

And past the poppies bluish neutral distance

Ends the land suddenly beyond a beach

Of shapes and shingle. Here is unfenced existence:

Facing the sun, untalkative, out of reach. (25-32).

The ‘Luminously-peopled air’ and ‘bluish neutral distance’ of sea and sky, subtly registers these notions of transcendence, linking to Michael O’Neill’s Romantic metaphor of air. Larkin’s acceleration of language and syntax in these closing lines therefore lifts readers ‘beyond’ these troubling conditions of post-war society and momentarily into the exhilarating realm of transcendence. However, unlike Wordsworth’s and Shelley’s view of individual transcendence, the language and syntax of Larkin’s closing lines in ‘Here’ are of integration and community. For example, O’Neill explains how ‘cutting across all these differences’ explored throughout the poem is the repeated use of ‘here’, a word which has an odd, slightly disconcerting effect in the poem; it implies that everywhere is ‘here’ for somebody, a recognition that blurs any clear-cut sense of distinctions between localities.

Larkin’s repetition of the emphatic ‘Here’ in this realm of transcendence therefore carries with it, these disparate communities and individuals of post-war England into this glorious ‘unfenced existence’. Andrew Swarbrick’s notion of the ‘accumulative syntax’ explored throughout the poem can also be considered in relation to this ‘accumulative’ transcendental vision. This ‘existence’, which so explicitly recalls the ‘electric fences’ and hopeless attempts to move ‘Beyond’ the ‘Wires’, articulates the speaker’s communal desire for a society in which such restrictions, inequalities and differences are no longer present. Larkin therefore engages with, and extends, this Romantic legacy, in his communal vision of transcendence ‘beyond’ the restrictive conditions of post-war society.

Unfortunately, this ongoing sense of ‘worldly scepticism’ means that, despite the pause created by the colon of ‘unfenced existence:’, this vision of transcendence cannot be truthfully sustained. As such, the broken syntax of this final line ‘Facing the sun, untalkative, out of reach’ painfully enacts the speaker’s failing grip on this transcendental, communal vision and the inevitable return to reality. Stephen Regan explains how

Given that there can be no final or permanent sense of release, the ultimate direction of the poem is not forward (since it can only gesture towards transcendence) but back, with renewed awareness of the extremes of isolation, into the communities it left behind.

This failure of transcendence not only heightens this longing but, as Regan suggests, it also illuminates the pathos of this return to a desperate society struggling with issues of cultural cohesion and faltering progression. In ‘Here’ therefore, Larkin presses against the themes and tropes of Romanticism in order to deepen the understanding of, and sense of sympathy for, this post-war society of disillusionment and despair.

The 1960s and early 70s, the period with which High Windows is concerned, is often characterised by a return to ‘idealism’ and hope. Technological advances, newfound sexual liberation and the emergence of the first generation free from conscription has led to an array of idealising, cultural narratives concerning the 1960s, in particular. For instance, depictions of the “Swinging Sixties” are often marked by the radiance of music, fashion and youthful exuberance.


Modern liberal countries and immigration

The rise of modern liberalism in the 21st century became a catalyst for the amplification of globalism. The mass influx of migrants throughout western Europe has made immigration a major issue in European politics. Yet, because each country adheres to a distinct set of ideologies and policies in regards to how they interact with migrants, having an international solution is impossible. For example, the United Kingdom follows a multiculturalist approach, while France vouches for assimilation. Additionally, there are countries such as Germany that fall somewhere in between the two. Both systems are systematically different which leads to vastly different consequences. For example, the definition of freedom in education is interpreted in a very different manner between such countries. However, they do share one major similarity; both multiculturalism and assimilation fail to develop a common identity which leads to violence and seclusion.

National identity has always been a key point in European policy-making. Choosing between multiculturalism and assimilation is primarily an effort to protect such an aspect of society. For example, although nationalism is encouraged in Britain, migrants are not expected to give up their culture, religion or language. That is because “liberal states have multiculturalism, because they have given up on the idea of assimilating their members beyond basic procedural commitments” (Joppke 449). In stark contrast, the French identity is protected and immigrants must assimilate into their culture, secularity, and language. Although assimilation has changed over time, the “final goal was still absorption into the dominant culture” (Castles 268). Lastly, Germany is one of the only European countries that embrace aspects of both systems. For example, after World War II, Germany enabled the migration of “guest-workers” into their country. Such migrants were “to be temporarily incorporated into certain aspects of society (above all the labor market) but denied access to others (especially citizenship and political participation)” (Castle 266). The German identity was now directly correlated to one’s citizenship and political participation regardless of one’s time, experiences, and family in such a country.

Modern liberal countries still use antiquated principles to define a country’s identity. The belief of Jus sanguinis (right of blood) and Jus soli (right of the soil) are still the most influential ideas regarding citizenship. For that reason, both multiculturalism and assimilation fail at developing a national identity. In fact, since multiculturalism divides the population into cultural “boxes” instead of uniting the population, it only emphasizes their differences. Additionally, politicians “tend to assume minorities’ true loyalty is to their faith or ethnic communities” (Malik 16). The purely political relationship created between the state and minority communities creates a sense of hostility and distrust between them. Furthermore, many minority groups in England fear reaching out to the government, as multicultural policies have made other minority groups their opponents and therefore enemies. For example, in the late 1970s, Ugandan Asians were allocated public-sector housing which led to “racial hostility […] at a time where 10,000 people on the city’s housing waiting list […] fear of physical attacks also deterred many from seeking council accommodation” (Marett 7). Germany, on the other hand, uses their multicultural policies to avoid calling immigrants their equals. This was especially clear with the introduction of the Gastarbeiter system (guest-workers) as migrants were allowed access to the labor system, but not granted citizenship. Consequently, the emergence of parallel communities arose in Germany. The Turkish community was especially ignored even though many of them consider Germany their true home. The national identity that Germany has constructed forces Turkish individuals to feel like outsiders. In fact, “out of the three million people of Turkish origin in Germany today, only some 800,000 have managed to acquire citizenship” (Malik 22). Lastly, assimilation in France not only leads to seclusion for minorities, but it also causes violent revolts. Such struggle dates back to the colonial and post-colonial relationship between “secular” France and “Muslim” Algeria. The French state has not allowed proper sociopolitical integration to occur due to the historical tendency of labeling north African communities as Muslims instead of “true” French citizens. Such mislabeling has led to a series of revolts in France. For example, in October of 2005, “a series of riots broke out in the suburbs of Paris […] sparked by the death of two young men being chased by the police [they] had become increasingly angry at the police presence in their neighborhoods and frustrated by the lack of opportunity and stifling conditions [caused by the] “xenophobic rhetoric of conservative politicians” (Fellag 5). As such, although multiculturalism and assimilation are entirely different political systems, the negative consequences that arise from them are quite similar. The state’s inability to create a uniting national identity forces an individual to revolt against the government.

The importance of education in liberal democracies is crucial in the development of children and teenagers. Yet, in an increasingly globalized world, the importance and purpose of education can be unclear; especially, in determining what freedom is in the classroom. The United Kingdom emphasizes the importance of a multicultural society by allowing citizens and immigrants to preserve their cultural identity. Yet, in their public-school system, many disregard such policies and teach only what they believe fits with their national identity. For example, Maureen Stone is a school teacher in Leicester who said that “supplementary education should be devoted to basic skills and not to education in different cultures” (Rex 8). The undermining of globalization in her statement suggests that learning and appreciating different cultures is irrelevant for children in the United Kingdom. Therefore, the extent to which they can exercise their cultural identities in the classroom is highly questioned. Students are allowed to exercise freedom of religion in the classroom yet, many of them are unable to study different cultures, ideologies, and mindsets that may go against traditional British values. However, they are not the only European country that struggles with the concept of freedom. In Germany, their multicultural policies allow freedom of religion to occur. Yet, all public schools in Germany have “compulsory religious education […] which has to be paid for by the state” (Muehlhoff 439). The separation of Church and state in Germany is not as drastic as other European countries and therefore, Christianity is still part of the curriculum. Although students can opt out of taking such class, a public school in Cologne last year, punished a child named Paul for doing homework during this class even though the law allows children to have “free time” if they wish to not partake in such course. This case is not uncommon either, in fact, there’s “10, 12 cases [like Paul’s] each year, different cases, some which stretch over years […] it begins in primary schools and continues into the secondary level” (Isenson 13). Therefore, although the law explicitly allows freedom of religion to take place in school, students are still being punished by their professors. France however, has a very distinct set of laws against religion in public schools. The definition of freedom of religion doesn’t fit well with their secular state. For example, “in October 1989 three teenage girls, two of Moroccan and one of Tunisian descent, were suspended from school because they refused to take off their head scarves” (Lucassen 171). Their inability to freely wear such clothing goes against any multicultural policy in both Germany and the UK. As such, these countries have major ideological differences in regards to how they deal with freedom in education. The United Kingdom allows students to practice their religion freely at schools but they refuse to study all globalization has to offer. Germany has compulsory Christianity classes in every public school which can lead to segregation for individuals who don’t wish to comply. Lastly, France doesn’t allow freedom of religion to take place in their secular state as religious practices such as the hijab are banned in public schools.

The inclination to justify the political system in every state has led to the development of obstructive conservative ideals. Globalization is now an essential and natural aspect of every society in the world. Therefore, systems such as multiculturalism and assimilation need to be reevaluated and improved. Their inability to produce a national identity will create more violence and parallel communities in European countries. Additionally, although their ideologies regarding freedom are undeniably different, the United Kingdom, France, and Germany have not created a positive, accepting environment for minorities in their communities. Embracing, learning and encouraging diversity in a modern liberal state is the foundation for a united group of citizens.


Leisure and the Industrial Revolution: custom essay help

In a country that values production and is future-oriented, the hectic life of a citizen of the United States is seen as normal and is actually valued by family, employers, friends, and everyday people. However, in other cultures, such as Mediterranean and Arab countries, importance is placed on self-reflection and regulation. Not every waking moment of the day is filled to the brim with work and chores. In fact, life in other cultures is typically oriented around the family; work and monetary success are not indicators of one’s fortune, value, and happiness. During the early days of colonial America, the family was also the center of life, although hard work and grit were still valued. Success equaled survival, and it was necessary for Americans to work for their basic needs. As America progressed and began to industrialize, the components of family life and values changed. While survival still meant hard work, the components of that work were different. Although daily work schedules changed according to the times, with the rise of the middle class through the 19th century, there was a natural increase in leisure time and corresponding activities. In the early half of the 19th century, leisure time remained consistent of that before the beginning of the Industrial Revolution, and in the latter half of the 19th century leisure time greatly increased as the Industrial Revolution came to its height.

The Industrial Revolution, which occurred from the eighteenth to nineteenth centuries, was a period amid which dominatingly agrarian, provincial social orders in Europe and America become modernized and moved towards urban lifestyles. Preceding the Industrial Revolution, which started in Britain in the late 1700s, and production of tools, textiles, and necessary household items was regularly done in individuals’ homes, utilizing hand instruments or fundamental machines. Industrialization denoted a move to a fueled economy, predominantly driven by the use of specialized machines, manufacturing plants and large scale production. The iron and material ventures, alongside the advancement of the steam motor, assumed focal jobs in the Industrial Revolution, which likewise observed improved frameworks of transportation, correspondence, and banking. While industrialization achieved an expanded volume and assortment of made merchandise and an improved way of life for a few, it additionally brought about regularly horrid business and living conditions for poor people and common laborers. Prior to the coming of the Industrial Revolution, the vast majority lived in little, provincial networks where their day was developed around cultivating. Life for the normal individual was troublesome, as livelihoods were pitiful, and malnourishment and sickness were normal. Citizens, mainly farmers, manufactured most of their own supplies and food, dress, furnishings, and instruments.

The first phase of the Industrial Revolution is signified as the advancement from an agricultural economy to an industrial economy. This change, or rather phase, of the revolution, took place in the United States between the 1790s and 1830s. The first industrial mill in the United States was opened by Samuel Slater, and according to most, signified the start of the Industrial Revolution in America. Samuel Slater’s mill was similar to those used in Great Britain, just as much of the revolution was modeled from Britain and England. Slater’s technology was considerably more efficient than the old methods in which cotton thread could be spun into yarn. While he introduced a vital new technology to the United States, the economic takeoff of the Industrial Revolution required several other elements before it would transform American life. Another key to the rapidly changing economy of the early Industrial Revolution were new organizational strategies to increase productivity. This had begun with the “outwork system” whereby small parts of a larger production process were carried out in numerous individual homes. This organizational reform was especially important for shoe and boot making. However, the chief organizational breakthrough of the Industrial Revolution was the “factory system”, where work was performed on a large scale in a single centralized location. The rise of wage labor at the heart of the Industrial Revolution also exploited working people in new ways. The first strike among textile workers protesting wage and factory conditions occurred in 1824 and even the model mills of Lowell faced large strikes in the 1830s.

The first phase of the Industrial Revolution changed leisure time and activities in many ways. Since the Industrial Revolution was so new at the end of the 18th century, there were initially no laws to regulate new industries. For example, no laws prevented businesses from hiring seven-year-old children to work full time in coal mines or factories. No laws regulated what factories could do with their biohazard waste. Free-market capitalism meant that the government had no role in regulating the new industries or planning services for new towns. And those who controlled the government liked it that way—only a small minority of people, the wealthiest, could actively participate in politics and economic ventures. So during the first phase of the Industrial Revolution, between 1790 and 1850, American society became an example of what happens in a country when free-market capitalism has no constraints. The working class—who made up 80% of society—had little or no bargaining power with their new employers. Since the population was increasing in Great Britain at the same time that landowners were enclosing common village lands, people from the countryside flocked to the towns and the new factories to get work. This resulted in a very high unemployment rate for workers in the first phases of the Industrial Revolution. As a result, the new factory owners could set the terms of work because there were far more unskilled laborers and those who had few skills and would take any job. Desperate for work, the migrants to the new industrial towns had no bargaining power to demand higher wages, fairer work hours, or better working conditions. Worse still, since only wealthy people in Great Britain were eligible to vote, workers could not use the democratic political system to fight for rights and reforms. In 1799 and 1800, the British Parliament passed the Combination Acts, which made it illegal for workers to unionize, or combine, as a group to ask for better working conditions. For the first generation of workers—from the 1790s to the 1840s—working conditions were very tough, and sometimes tragic. Most laborers worked 10 to 14 hours a day, six days a week, with no paid vacation or holidays. Life in the factory was most challenging for the first generation of industrial workers who still remembered the slower and more flexible pace of country life. Factory employers demanded a complete change of pace and discipline from farm life. Workers could no longer easily communicate with their peers and friends, as they would have done while working in the country. They could not return to the village during harvest time to help their families unless they wanted to lose their jobs. Instead, they were no longer their own bosses; foremen and overseers supervised a new working culture to ensure that workers’ actions were focused and efficient. In the first sixty years or so of the Industrial Revolution, working-class people had little time or opportunity for recreation. Workers spent all the light of day at work and came home with little energy, space, or light to play sports or games. The new industrial pace and factory system were at odds with the old traditional festivals which dotted the village holiday calendar. Plus, local governments actively sought to ban traditional festivals in the cities. In the new working-class neighborhoods, people did not share the same traditional sense of a village community. The first phase of the industrial revolution clearly lacked proper leadership and regulation, which severely limited men and women of all ages, making leisurely activities impossible but for the rich.

The second Industrial Revolution, also known as the American Industrial Revolution, brought about significant change in the lives of the working class. After the 1850s, however, recreation improved along with the rise of an emerging the middle class. Music halls sprouted up in big cities. Sports such as rugby and cricket became popular. Football became a professional sport in 1885. By the end of the 19th century, cities had become the places with opportunities for sport and entertainment that they are today. Soon massive immigration from England, Britain, and other countries took place. This process of urbanization stimulated the booming new industries by concentrating on workers and factories together. New industrial cities became sources of wealth for the nation. Aristocrats born into their lives of wealth and privilege, and low-income commoners born in the working classes. n this new middle class, families became a sanctuary from stressful industrial life. The home remained separate from work and took on the role of emotional support, where women of the house created a moral and spiritual safe harbor away from the rough-and-tumble industrial world outside. Most middle-class adult women were discouraged from working outside the home. They could afford to send their children to school. As children became more of an economic burden, and better health care decreased infant mortality, middle-class women gave birth to fewer children. This new lifestyle was promoted by the massive immigration into urban cities of the United States. With more workers, there began to be reform movements which made industrial life much safer, and soon weekends became established. actions began to be regularly offered to workers, although they were usually unpaid ones. The monotony of specialized industrial work and the crowding of urban expansion also created a desire in the worker to have leisure time away from his or her job and away from the bustle of the city. The Progressive movement was another factor which contributed to the increased value of leisure time for workers, as their health and well-being received more attention. Within cities, people attended vaudeville shows, which would feature a multitude of acts. Motion pictures also served as entertainment during leisure time for urban audiences. After the Civil War, the popularity of sports as leisure activities grew as people began to see the importance of exercise to health. While initially only the wealthy could partake of most sporting events, the opening of publicly available gymnasiums, courts, and fields allowed the working and middle classes to participate also. Athletic clubs such as the New York Athletic Club were organized and the YMCAs began to institute sports programs. These programs mostly focused on track and field events, instituted by communities of Scottish and English descent, and gymnastics, heavily influenced by German athletics. Gymnasiums, which featured exercises using Indian clubs, wooden rings, and dumbbells, were opened in many Eastern Cities. By the end of the second phase of the Industrial Revolution, there were many activities that were extremely popular among all citizens. These activities included biking, basketball, swimming, baseball, fairs, expositions, and many other affairs. The second phase of the Industrial Revolution clearly impacted the leisure of many citizens, a much bigger increase compared to the first phase of the Industrial Revolution

Societal values have changed drastically through global and American history. Today, hard-work and determination are required in order to be successful in the United States, however, the circumstances in which that success is achieved has changed for the better. Leisure of American citizens before and after the Industrial Revolution greatly increased as a result of reformation movements and family values.


Write an argument in favour of the border wall (US/Mexico)

Many criminals, possibly unknown to the U.S. Government, are able to freely come into this country through the U.S.- Mexican border, bringing in drugs as well as participating in others crimes such as human trafficking, etc. For a great deal of this chaos to end, the Mexican border wall should be built. It should also be built because of the good it will do for the American economy, lowering of the U.S. crime rates, and for the American people in general. The wall will improve the economy by providing more job opportunities for the American people already in the U.S. living here lawfully. The wall will also combat drug smugglers and criminals that enter through the border every day through unguarded areas. Building a wall can counter these criminals from entering our country. Lastly, the wall will help the American people not only feel safer, but actually be safer. People coming across our border who are not registered are illegal aliens and we do not know who they are. The best way to secure the American people from these criminals is to build a wall. The wall is a necessity for it is the Government’s duty to protect those who cannot protect themselves against criminals who could enter this country through the areas of the border that are unprotected.

The wall is completely misunderstood to the average American. People sometimes believe that it will be some massive stone wall, complete with guns at the top, denying entry to anyone who may want to immigrate to this country. Although, at times it may sound and feel that the border wall would look like that, it most definitely will not. The wall is really just a figure of speech for what the American people really want, which is better security, fewer drugs and the crime associated with them, and a better way to defend against the illegal entry of some of these criminals. The wall also needs to be built in order to help stop the opioid crisis, minimize the impact of Mexican drug cartels, and the unlawful money flowing out of our country and into cartel members pockets. The wall needs to be built there is simply no way around it.

Opponents of the wall say that it simply will not work. Yuma, Arizona as well as Naco, Arizona are prime examples that walls do work as well as being very effective. “In Naco, Arizona for 10 years. We didn’t have physical barriers in Naco, and illegal immigration and drug smuggling was absolutely out of control” (Remarks on). Naco was besieged by illegal immigrants as well as an influx in drugs in the area. Officials built a wall and the flood of crime in both Naco and Yuma dropped significantly. Brandon Judd, President of the National Border Patrol Council, says, “We built those walls… and illegal immigration dropped exponentially. Anywhere that you look, where we have built walls, they have worked. They have been an absolute necessity for Border Patrol agents in securing the border” (Remarks on). The wall can improve people’s lives as well as give them new business ventures, all while protecting them at the same time. Yuma, Arizona and Naco, Arizona “serves as a prime example of home investments in personnel, technology, and a wall can turn a tide against a flood of illegal immigration” (Elaine).

Some opposed to a border wall might think that the wall is a complete waste of resources as well as representative of a discriminatory monument for all of the world to see. They view Donald Trump is extremely discriminatory and racist as he has insulted the Mexican people with phrases like “Bad Hombres” and referring them as “Illegals”. They believe he is trying to deport millions of innocent people so he can make his middle and upper class voters feel more secure and content which could result in more votes for himself in the upcoming 2020 election. They cite that the wall should not be built because “building walls has rarely has achieved its intended effect, and may result in wasted resources and lost opportunities for the United States” (Phil’s Why). Trump and the Republican party think that many illegal immigrants are a cartel or gang member here to commit crimes and or deal drugs drugs on the streets. Trump promotes the idea that every illegal alien has crossed some territory over the border that is completely unguarded even though that is not the case at all. “As many as half of unauthorized immigrants in the United States are people who overstay their visas, not border crossers” (Phil’s Why). Thus, they believe that the border wall will not achieve its intended goal, resulting in millions of dollars being wasted as well as endangering the U.S. economy.

This argument is completely false, because the wall, if imposed correctly, can be a huge economic booster for the United States. A wall can provide many initial jobs to build it and then additional jobs to help maintain it. As stated, the wall can be “a bold ambitious, forward-looking plan to massively increase jogs, wages, incomes, and opportunities for the people of our country’’ (Kolhatkar).

One of the greatest threats to the American people at the moment is unfortunately the opioid crisis. People sometimes say that much of the opioids coming into this country are arriving through seaports and airports, but in reality “90% of heroin in the US comes through its southern border’’ (Remarks After). These drugs are being sneaked through tunnels, unguarded areas, and high population areas, making it nearly impossible to track down and catch the drug dealers. “Ignoring this crisis diminishes the Americans and migrants who have fallen victim to the crimes committed by illegal aliens, or are harmed because of illegal drugs flowing across the border” (Border Tour). American people can be easily harmed and exploited by drug traffickers as these people enable and make deadly drugs readily available to people with serious addictions. “Criminal organizations operate sophisticated drug and human trafficking networks and smuggling operation on both sides of the southern border, contributing to a significant increase in violent crime and US deaths from dangerous drug” (Border Security). By just being in the U.S., illegal aliens can endanger the country and its citizens. Thus, the U.S. can be very limited in what it can do when an illegal alien commits murder or manslaughter as they may have no jurisdiction over the person. This is a problem that has to be stopped and only a wall can fix that.

“Ranchers shared stories about the day to day reality of illegal aliens using their land as drug and human trafficking routes” (Border Tour). These people are using hard working taxpayers property to make millions of dollars while using land that is not even theirs. Human trafficking is a crime that is an unfortunate reality that can occur on the U.S. – Mexican border. Human trafficking is the buying and selling of people, mainly women and young children, to be used as slaves or even raped or tortured for entertainment. These criminals are kidnapping mainly women from all ages, and boys or girls to be sold around the world for profit. These cartels are so dangerous that “Bystanders, people who refused to join cartels, migrants, journalists and government officials have all been killed” (Phil’s This).

The amount of people in this country illegally is astounding. “ every day, nearly 2,000 people are apprehended or stopped to come into our country… Last year alone, 17,000 individuals with previous criminal records were apprehended attempting to come across our southern border” (Remarks After). These 17,000 were just the people who were actually caught, and for all the government knows, there could be twice or three times as many people in the country who haven’t been caught. These people are sometimes thought to be refugees although they are the opposite, as refugees are people fleeing a country because of discrimination or war, of which there is neither in Mexico. Although these aliens may be extremely poor and are trying to have a better life in America, they are going about it the wrong way. The people that are here illegally do not pay taxes because the government does not know of their existence. They also can take jobs from American citizens and Legal Aliens who have earned the right to have the jobs over illegals. “In 2017, 3700 known or suspected terrorists tried to enter into the country through the Southern border”(Remarks). Even though not all people crossing the border illegally are dangerous, many of them are here for illegal activities and not just looking for jobs.

Right now there is “about 650 miles of the 1,900 mile-long border are already fenced” (Border Wall). These people just walk right over the border without any documentation. A common opposing question regarding the border wall is, “Since the Canada-America border is just as open if not more open than the Mexico-America border, why not build a wall there?” This question can be easily deflected because the standard of living between Canada and the US is much more comparable, and there are many less occurences of drug and human trafficking on this border. Right now more than 50% of the border is unguarded and literally just inviting criminals to invade our country.

The border wall must be built to provide safety to our legal residents, to protect our way of life, to help control the flood of drugs and associated crimes and to protect the many law enforcement professionals working in that region of the U.S. The wall is a necessity for America that should have been constructed many years ago as many Presidents and past administrations, both Democratic and Republican, have failed to do what is right for this country and its citizens.


The American Dream, today

It’s no exaggeration to say that just about every American has at least heard of the term – the American Dream since this concept has always been a popular and dominant theme in United States society. It is the center of the national culture and reflects people’s optimism about equality between individuals. In this report, I will analyze the ideology of the American Dream and its meaning in society presently.

As Sally Edelstein (2013) stated in her article that the seed of the American Dream was planted during the dark days of the Great Depression when a nation that had once been viewed as the land of opportunity was now mired, and germinated at the New York World’s Fair of 1939. The seed was nurtured and cultivated during the sacrifices and deprivations of World War II. By 1945 when the war ended, it was ready to be harvested and it would blossom into full bloom in the Post War years and beyond. It is difficult to define exactly the American Dream because it can be subjective and may mean different things to different people. Generally, the American Dream is usually understood as the perspective that all people are created equally with the right to life, liberty, and the pursuit of happiness. It is a set of principles basing on the notion that each person has the right to seek for prosperity and happiness, regardless of where or into what circumstances they were born, meaning that anyone can become financially successful and socially upwardly mobile through sacrifice, risk-taking, and hard work, rather than by chances. This concept has long become the driving force for many U.S. citizens, motivating them to work hard toward creating a better life for their families and themselves.

The person often receives credit for first popularizing this term was the historian James Truslow Adams (Patrick J. Kiger, 2011). According to Adams, he explained the American Dream in his best-selling book in 1931 “The Epic of America” as it is not a dream of motorcars and high wages merely, but a dream of an equal society in which each man or woman could be able to reach their achievement and be recognized by others for what they are, regardless of their circumstances of birth or position. However, the root of the American Dream could be much deeper. The tenets of this term were stated, even though not directly in the Declaration of Independence,

“We hold these truths to be self-evident, that all men are created equal, that they are endowed by their Creator with certain unalienable Rights, that among these are Life, Liberty, and the pursuit of Happiness.”

In the past, the American Dream was only for white people and used to have some basic ideas such as owning a home, a safe and secure neighborhood, or having a business that makes a profit and contributes to the national economy. When someone seems to have it all, including a well-paying job they love, a loving family they can provide for, a home they are proud of and can afford, and extra money to enjoy vacations and the other events that make life enjoyable, even if they aren’t wealthy, they are said to be living the American dream. However, nowadays, there are many different opinions in people’s perspectives when they have to talk about the American Dream as the meaning of the term has been changing over the past many years throughout history, depending on the context. On the one hand, some people believe that the American Dream means land of opportunity where anyone can become rich, successful, and respected if he or she works hard. For example, many immigrants migrate to the United States because the place has many big firms and multinational companies which can provide a variety of jobs and more chances of success in comparison with that in their home country. Another memorable event was on November 4, 2008, Senator Barack Obama of Illinois defeated Senator John McCain of Arizona to become the 44th U.S. president as well as the first African American in history to be elected to the White House. On the other hand, many see the American Dream as freedom and equal rights since they can do whatever they are passionate about without being judged. For instance, in general, the United States has very relaxed federal gun control laws in comparison with other developed nations such as Canada, Switzerland, and Japan — a mix of wealthy countries with similar and varying cultural backgrounds.

In this day and age, many citizens are now of the view that there is a need for a new definition of this dream which should also take into consideration the modern needs of the citizens as well as the core beliefs on which the US was founded. The American Dream which was more accessible to attain back in the days, however, had transformed, especially in the 21st century as economic inequality has increased over the years. Although it is still possible for people to live a happy and lucrative lifestyle through their perseverance, the lives of many average middle-class Americans and immigrants still have countless difficulties due to the lack of improvement in social mobility in society, making the American Dream seemed less attainable. The federal treasury is in danger, and the government, as well as policymakers, do not show any commensurate solution to the problems. This results in some people no longer believing in the American Dream and it is just an expectation.

Nowadays, with changing governments and overhauling global conditions, new virtues have been included in the American Dream as well as the meaning of this ideal has changed to aim different things to different generations. However, the concept of the American dream is still the very soul of the American nation, which is the ultimate idea that any citizen could have the right to pursue their notion of happiness, to follow their dreams, and achieve upward mobility or success if they put in the hard work. This ultimate idea is undoubtedly part of the American ethos, and likely always will be. As the world is changing every day, the American Dream will continue to evolve in response to the alteration and influence of the national economy with entrepreneurship and individual ambition, infusing a motivated perception to anyone trying to be successful in the United States.


Closing of Indian Embassy at Kabul – Is it Really Questionable?: online essay help

The Government has decided to pull out its entire staff from the Indian Embassy in Kabul, Afghanistan. This act of India has raised several questions from the experts and the analysts. It has been discussed that all the major powers, including Russia, China, and Iran, are present there and are maintaining their task; why not we? It should be better to have stayed there and help our citizens instead of leaving them in distress. India has also been advised to keep a consular of CE at its airport, similar to America. In the news, it has also been in the news that the Taliban has requested India to remain and also assured its safety. These are some of the significant factors that influenced India to leave its embassy in Kabul.

Position of India in Afghanistan:

Firstly, India is not one of the superpowers, especially when it comes to Afghanistan. India has never followed any national-based or any independent policy towards this particular Country. It is also true with any previous government of India. In short, India is not a significant player related to this Country like the USA. All we have done is to support what the Government of Kabul(whether Hamid Karzai or Ashraf Ghani) and America to what they have to do in the Country. It is entirely wrong to put all the eggs in Ghani’s basket; it means he can be considered suitable for sustaining the authority to maintain any developing country. But he cannot be perfectly said to be a good administrator. India has successfully invested nearly $3 billion worth of small and medium projects in the Country. It has also earned the goodwill of the citizens of Afghanistan through this. Still, it never got any prominent role and right to consult in the political matters of Afghanistan neither any negations from the stakeholders.

In short, India never got any significant role in matters related to this Country. Indian Government has been criticized for not establishing contacts with the Taliban. But as per media reports, they were engaged with the Taliban, but it was too late, and talk was little. It was essential to talk at the greater level with the Taliban as other superpowers such as Russia and China did. Even Iran, which is a Shia-majority country, was engaged with the Taliban. America, too, started to talk with the Taliban without any hesitation, ignoring that it’s a terrorist group that has killed over 2,500 American soldiers since 2001.

India did not want to upset Ashraf Ghani and could not talk to the Taliban as they refused to talk with the Indian Government. However, engaging does not mean endorsing, which Vivek Katiju said as an Ambassador. He further said that it is a severe lapse as we have to talk to people we consider distasteful, whether they are Pakistan, China or the Taliban. It is also the fact that nearly everyone is afraid of the gun-toting fighters of the Taliban, and it is pretty risky to talk or deal with them. The Government has even cancelled all the issued visas, which indicates rendering of consular assistance.

Even if the Taliban approaches the Indian Government and asks not to shut the Indian embassy in Kabul, what will be their reliability and proof will be that they will stay on their words? Also, India does not have any means to force or control them. If it was the USA in such a case, they could easily cause massive harm to their troops.

What About Other Groups:

Taliban is not the only reason why India has quit its Embassy in Kabul. The presence of other groups such as Lashkar-e-Taiba, the Jaish-e-state in Khorasan (ISIS k, or ISK) is also threatening. In reports, these groups have given thousands of fighters to the Taliban in their Jihad to fight with the foreign powers. So they can be an equal and potential threat to India like the Taliban. But, on the other hand, the Taliban has also demonstrated its suicide bombing activities on 26 August that has killed nearly 13 military persons of the USA and a more significant number of Afghans. If such a scenario happens with a single Indian, there would have been a severe outcry.

The Approach of Foreign Policy:

One can easily criticize the Indian Government for some foreign policies, such as aligning closely with the US. This has made Russia unhappy, and due to which it started maintaining its relationship with one of our major enemy China. Giving importance to Quad(a group containing India, Japan, Australia, and the US) is also one of the questionable decisions to ask for. The formation of the Quad is the American manoeuvre so that it can contain China. It is clearly an anti-china arrangement in which India’s involvement was not much crucial.

Finally, it can be said that the closing of the Indian embassy in Kabul is not at all a questionable decision as all the above parameters indicate that the Indian Government would not have survived happily at this place.


Racism in America (speech)

Have you ever been considered less than human or regarded as a possession or object based off of something you have no control over? Unfortunately, many people in America can honestly say that they have, which is entirely unacceptable in today’s world. Hello! I’m Sophia. I’ve been researching the topic of racism in America for the past few weeks and I’m excited to share what I’ve learned. Ever since America was founded, racism has been heavily present in our society, and that is something that needs to change as soon as possible. I’m going to be going over topics like civil rights, influential figures in black history, and the impact that modern anti-racist organizations have had in today’s world.

There has always been a fight for racial equality in America. Ever since the first Americans settled on the East Coast and kicked Native Americans off the land they’d had for centuries, there was a fight. And even now, hundreds of years later, we still see that fight in action – through our actions, through our words, and through amazing people. From the Emancipation Proclamation to the Civil Rights Acts of 1964 and 1968 to the Black Lives Matter movement in 2020, people have not stopped fighting for their God-given rights to life.

Now, there are several important figures I’d like to mention who were catalysts for racial equality movements. First, and probably the most well-known, Martin Luther King, Jr. He was a civil rights activist who certainly changed our world for the better. He was assassinated on his own hotel room balcony, April 4, 1968. Next, George Floyd. He was one of the main reasons for the resurgence of the Black Lives Matter movement in mid-2020. He was suffocated to death under the knee of a police officer, May 25, 2020. Lastly, Tamir Rice. He was a twelve-year-old boy from Cleveland, Ohio carrying a toy gun. He was shot on sight by a police officer who felt “threatened”, November 22, 2014. Do any of these deaths seem justified to you? They shouldn’t, because they aren’t. And these are far from the only examples of people whose lives were needlessly taken from them because of their race.

Fortunately, there is a positive side to this story. The Black Lives Matter movement is an organization founded in 2013 shortly after the shooting of seventeen-year-old Trayvon Martin. The group is committed to fighting to end racially charged police brutality and trying to make the world a safer place for black youth. Their message particularly took off in mid-2020 after the murder of George Floyd, and they used that momentum to bring light to other police brutality killings and emanding justice for these needless deaths: names such as Breonna Taylor, Ahmaud Arbery, and Elijah McClain to list a few. Their impact extends far beyond just the 2020 resurgence, though. Today, nearly a year after the death of George Floyd, that message is still being taught, learned, and shared all over the US and the rest of the world.

I hope you enjoyed my speech. I also hope you come away from it with some more knowledge about racism and injustice in America, the people who helped shape our modern views on civil rights, and what we are doing to raise awareness for these things. Remember: racism hasn’t gone away, and it likely won’t for a long time, unless we as a country do something to make it better. Thank you!


The Effectiveness of Civil Disobedience in the Modern World: college application essay help

Law is the fundamental pillar of government, and it is a social construct that defines the boundaries of society. Although it protects the rights of the people, like all things created by humans, the law is not always perfect. Clarence Darrow, a famous American lawyer in the 1900s, once said, “As long as the world shall last there will be wrongs, and if no man objected and no man rebelled, those wrongs would last forever.” For centuries, civil disobedience has been a way for people to resist injustice and inspire change. Inequality, discrimination, and prejudice have been sources of protest because of the unjust laws that preyed upon minorities. As the world continues to evolve, humanity must adjust its laws based on the ever-changing demands of society. In the modern world, civil disobedience remains an effective way for people to voice their opinions on problems such as; data privacy, climate change and gun-control, along with economic disparity to ensure that the law remains fair and moral as the world changes.

Data privacy is a concern for people all over the world because of the amount of information that is collected through government surveillance. Edward Snowden, a former contractor in the National Security Agency (NSA), became known as a whistle-blower when he leaked thousands of documents proving how government agencies are abusing their authority by collecting personal information (“Edward Snowden, Whistle-Blower”). In 2013, he proved that phone calls, emails, and most online activity were actively being monitored by the NSA without the consent of millions of people. In violation of the Espionage Act, Snowden faced multiple criminal charges in the United States but sojourned in Moscow, Russia to avoid punishment for his actions. Furthermore, at an interview in Hong Kong with Glenn Greenwald, Snowden remarked,

“I do not want to live in a world where everything I do and say is recorded. That is not something I am willing to support or live under… I would rather be without a state than without a voice” (qtd. in Francis).

Snowden’s efforts have brought the insidious and unconstitutional actions of organizations like the NSA to the public eye. As a result, ongoing debates on how to ensure the protection of personal information are an important source of contention for new legislation. For example, when companies like Facebook or Google became involved in data privacy scandals, Snowden’s actions brought attention to new legislation such as the General Data Protection Regulation. Many of Snowden’s supporters praise him for trying to bring justice. However, others deem him as a traitor because of his ignorance of national security. Nevertheless, his acts of civil disobedience have brought positive change to society by alerting the world about the dangers of data theft. Although Snowden’s actions broke federal laws, not all forms of civil disobedience have to go to such extreme lengths.

Young activists are taking a stand against world issues like climate change and gun control. For instance, Greta Thunberg, an 18-year-old Swedish activist, has provided a voice for many recent generations, and was the youngest person to be named Time magazine’s Person of the Year in 2019. Her fight against climate change began with a simple act of civil disobedience in the summer of 2018. She “sat alone each Friday outside the Swedish parliament, quietly protesting with a handmade sign that read: Skolstrejk for Klimatet. School strike for climate” (Dennis). Thunberg has garnered the attention of millions of people by leading marches and giving speeches in over 123 countries around the world. In addition, she has established an immense social media following, engaged in debates with former President Trump and Russian President Vladimir Putin, and received a nomination for the Nobel Peace Prize. World leaders cannot ignore the impacts of carbon emissions, fossil fuels, and pollution on the Earth. Likewise, there are several other young leaders taking initiative for the betterment of society.

One example is Emma González, a 21-year-old student activist, who led an anti-gun rally in Fort Lauderdale three days after a school shooting at Marjory Stoneman Douglas High. Many students, parents, and teachers continue to suffer from the lasting effects of these traumatic experiences. She believes that people cannot afford to let these mass shootings become another forgotten tragedy, but they must be prevented altogether. At the anti-gun rally, González took a stance on the gun control debate:

Politicians who sit in their gilded House and Senate seats funded by the NRA telling us nothing could have been done to prevent this, we call BS. They say tougher gun laws do not decrease gun violence. We call BS. They say a good guy with a gun stops a bad guy with a gun. We call BS. They say guns are just tools like knives and are as dangerous as cars. We call BS. They say no laws could have prevented the hundreds of senseless tragedies that have occurred. We call BS. That us kids don’t know what we’re talking about, that we’re too young to understand how the government works. We call BS. (qtd. in Pires)

González and other gun-control activists achieved success when many state legislators enacted 50 laws throughout many states to restrict the access of guns. Ergo, nonviolent rallies have demonstrated that they have the power to inspire others, establish legitimate change, and shift opinions on ethical issues. On the other hand, once violence is introduced, protests can get out of hand resulting in people getting injured or even killed.

Additionally, around late 2018, a movement called the yellow vests swept across France. The supporters of the movement mostly consist of middle-to-low class citizens who barely were able to cover food, rent, utilities, and clothing expenses. When the French government raised the gas tax, these protestors turned their anger towards the government and called for taking French President Emmanuel Macron out of office. The main controversy around these protests include the use of violence by the government in response to these demonstrations. In fact, according to the French Ministry of Interior, by the end of 2019, 11 people had died while 1,900 peaceful protestors and 1,200 law enforcement officers were injured (McAuley).

In December 2019, Jean-Marc Michaud participated in a demonstration near the Place du Parlement to protest economic inequality, but he was seriously injured when a rubber ball fired by the police damaged his right eye. Michaud responded by saying, “The government claims that we are looters and violent protesters, but so many of us are just peaceful civilians… The government isn’t listening to us, and now they are trying to silence us with repression in the streets” (qtd. in Peltier). As French police officers resorted to violence to quell these demonstrations, a nationwide outcry fueled the yellow vest movement even further.

Despite the movement slowing down in 2020 due to the pandemic, many French supporters are far from giving up, and they believe that they still have the power to cause change. Already a group of yellow vests are planning to have a few candidates participate in the European Parliament elections. A French polling and market research firm estimated that 7.5 percent of the population would be willing to vote for yellow vest political candidates, and 40 percent sympathize with the movement in some way (McAuley). Therefore, dissatisfied French citizens are continuing to fight against the government to achieve justice for citizens facing economic hardship.

For years to come, civil disobedience is a potent method for people to fight against injustices such as data theft, environmental destruction, policies on gun-control, and economic inequality.


The Fight for Equality in “Battle Royal”: writing essay help

“Battle Royal” challenges equality throughout the narrator’s speech. People need to be shown equality because in this short story, the blacks were seriously injured when the whites made them go to boxing matches and they were tased/electrocuted when they took the money the whites left for them. The author Ralph Ellison shows in “Battle Royal” that there is an issue between race and the people need equality and social responsibility, so both races can be equal with one another.

The thesis shows the way that people need equality, so the blacks and whites can respect one another. The whites state, “We mean to do right by you, but you’ve got to know your place at times” (Ellison 11). This explains the way the whites are showing equality towards the narrator and soon it might happen to all of the blacks.

The short story shows symbolism with the dancing blonde woman, boxing match, blindfolds, the coins, and the speech. The “speech” symbolizes social responsibility between the white and black races. For example, the narrator of this story is wanting to read the speech about the way that people need to treat one another, but the whites did not listen to the speech until the end. The boxing match, the coins, and the blindfolds symbolize the suffering of the blacks. The boxing match symbolizes the way the blacks were in pain and suffering, while the whites were being comfortable and enjoyed watching the suffering of the blacks. The blindfold symbolizes the way the blacks suffered by getting knocked out in the boxing match.The narrator says, “Blindfolded, I could not control my motions” (Ellison 5). This discusses the fact that the narrator is blindfolded and he cannot control his mind and his display of knowledge for the speech. The coins symbolize greed by the whites. The whites gave the coins to the blacks, who are in need of money. But once they held a hand on the coins, they will be electrocuted. The dancing blonde woman symbolizes that the blacks cannot marry a white woman because there was a law that prevented interracial marriage, which is known as the “Loving vs Virginia” law case that prevented marriage from blacks and whites, according to the story’s historical content. The blonde woman has an American flag tattooed on her belly which symbolizes the way blacks were prevented from intermarriage between races in America. The narrator states “and yet to stroke where below the small American flag tattooed upon her belly her thighs formed a capital V”(Ellison 3). This explains where the American flag tattoo is located on her body and it relates to how the dancing blonde woman can be symbolized and the way she is a way to be used as the American dream.

The race experience explains that the whites treat all the blacks as animals by putting them in boxing matches and the whites were being forceful and brutal to the blacks by yelling to them and forcing them to punch one another. It shows how violent the boxing match really is, “In one comer I glimpsed a boy violently punching the air and heard him scream in pain as he smashed his hand against a ring post” (Ellison 6). Another race experience in this short story is that this story discusses mostly about the dancing blonde woman. The reason that this shows race experience is that this woman is trying to make all the white men be in love with her and they feared looking, were not disgusted so the narrator wants to read the speech and it is not about how people should treat one another. The short story discusses the way that blacks cannot be in an interracial marriage because it is a law for them not to break according to the culture that they are living in.

The background of this short short story discusses the historical content between the Reconstruction era to Jim Crow law era. The reason that the story occurred during the Reconstruction era is that the grandfather is discussing to his grandson about the way he was being in a relationship with the whites during the Reconstruction era and he was treated horribly by the whites being brutal to him. The prologue of this story discusses grandpa about his experience with the whites during the Reconstruction era: “I never told you, but our life is a war and I have been a traitor all my born days, a spy in the enemy’s country ever since I give up my gun in the Reconstruction” (Ellison 1). Afterwards, it continued around the Jim Crow law, when the whites were in contempt with the blacks, who are in suffering at boxing matches, shootings, fist fighting, or anything that the whites find that is considered violence. This quote explains how the blacks suffered in the boxing match as the whites were being soothed in this short story: “The harder we fought the more threatening the men became” (Ellison 6). This explains as the blacks are fighting one another they are suffering by being abused brutally. Another part of the quote, “the more threatening the men became” explains the men as the whites were making the blacks threatening one another as a form their race’s entertainment (Ellison 6).

In the short story, the narrator’s experience is calm in the beginning of the short story, then his experience was abhorrent, atrocious, gruesome, and cruel in the plot of the story, and his experience was then calm again. This promise the grandfather tells to the narrator of the story: “On his deathbed he called my father to him and said, “Son, after I’m gone I want you to keep up the good fight”” (Ellison 1). This shows an explanation about the narrator’s grandfather giving him a promise that he discussed that he had a lot of trouble with his lifetime despite the fact of his race experience between the whites and blacks and he does not want it to happen to anyone, especially his grandson. Throughout the events of the narrator’s experience is that he is in a bad experience because he is in a boxing match and he may be afraid to go in the boxing match. During the boxing match, the narrator is fearful in this short story, when he is set in a boxing match: “I stumbled like a baby or a drunken man” (Ellison 5). So, the narrator decided to make a speech similar to what Martin Luther King Junior did with his “I Have a Dream” speech.

The narrator creates the speech, so the whites to listen about the way they are needing to get along with the blacks, because the speech can make them understand equality. They did not listen until the end. Then, the experience of the narrator seems to be exciting because he seems excited when he is reading the speech and the whites are listening to every word of this essay. Once he was done with his speech, the whites had given him a scholarship to college, congratulating him for his way to be helpful to the people that were living in all of America. This quote explains one of the things that was used in this speech: “When ever I uttered a word of three or more syllables a group of voices yelled at me to repeat it” (Ellison 10). This quote says when the narrator is reading the essay, the whites were yelling at him to repeat because they want to listen to what he is saying for this essay so they want to know what he is talking about and they might end their conflict with the whites and blacks once he finishes his speech.

In “Battle Royal”, equality is discussed for the whites and the blacks and why they are in an opposite relationship with each other. The analysis says that the blacks and whites need to be in a fair relationship. Equality should matter because this short story explains why the blacks and whites should be equal with one another and the blacks are wanting to stop being threatened by the whites.


Issues faced by society – gun violence, racism and religion

When our reality becomes so unsightly, we tend to deny the outcomes because we are ashamed to see the mess we have made. Reality has become too hard to accept because the issues in our nation have brought us to not be able to agree to disagree with our opinions. In today’s society, we find ourselves never being able to talk about issues that affect us negatively, but rather starting something chaotic because we get so caught up in our own points of view—but in our communities, we should come together and address these problems, such as gun violence, racism, and religion, as best as we could, so they can get fixed and not continue to grow. But our biggest question right now, is how? How do we get everyone to understand and listen to one another?

As we get into our most sensitive topics of today’s issues, one of our biggest problems is not taking into consideration what others have already been through. The word racism has been flourishing in the media for what we can consider, too long. African Americans have been dealing with racial profiling, attacks, teasing, and death because of their skin color. In an article shared from CNN, explains that “a white student at Yale called police because a black student was napping in a dorm building.” (Yan) When a small issue like this happens to someone, it is hard to believe that there is room for the slightest change. Aside from someone you catch on the street saying something disrespectful, our president, Trump “appears to be unifying America — unifying Americans in their denial. The more racist Mr. Trump sounds, the more Trump country denies his racism, and the more his opponents look away from their own racism to brand Trump country as racist. (Kendi) Making it more difficult for us to see our faults as a nation. Rachel Godsil, a researcher apart of an organization who helps reduce discrimination explains, “There are enormous health consequences to those experiencing these everyday harms… because of the constancy of this stress.” For those who have never experienced such a thing cannot relate to what these people go through. Racism is a never-ending cycle that has to be addressed before we have more people suffering this pain that brings us this rage that no one can understand.

People do not seem to realize how closely each of these issues relate to one another. We reached the era where nearly 40,000 people have died from guns in the United States. In an article it states, “this is the highest than any other since at least 1968, according to new data from the Center for Disease Control and Prevention.” (Mervosh) Which I believe will dramatically continue to grow. “Pro-gun advocates see guns as our best defense against armed criminals. Anti-gun advocates see the wide availability of guns as a greater threat than criminal violence. The issue seems to come down to what you fear more: criminals or guns.” (Gutting) Coming into the problem of, who is right, and who is wrong? People believe that the ones who should be allowed to carry a gun be certified, but even the ones who are supposed to be “protecting” us from the criminals, are the ones shooting us for no reason. So, when we come down to think of where we can come together and think of a solution, that is where most of us fail to agree to disagree.

As case numbers go up from unjustified police shootings, to mass killings, it brings us to a difficult decision whether guns should be allowed at all or not. After the school shooting in Parkland, Florida, “House of Representatives held its first hearing on gun violence in eight years.” (Collins) Where it was thought to make it harder for people to purchase guns without well done background checks. “Senator Murphy believes the endless rejection of any gun legislation looks like a kind of “moral green light” to potential killers: “I truly believe these young men who have something very dark happening in their minds watch our silence and interpret it as an endorsement.” Meaning, if we keep these guns that is a way of lessening our crime rate for the next following years. People feel safe with guns but when will it be okay to own one without abusing your right to own one? We have heard these stories of people using their gun way too often it’s no surprise anymore.

Religion is an issue that ties to many problems emotionally. Not so long ago, our president, Donald Trump has brought attention to whether the government will continue to fund planned parenthood. Aside from planned parenthood being one of the top places specifically where young women go to have an abortion, they allow you to get a screening for any STI, plan B pills, birth control pills, and most importantly, where they get access to health care services. The biggest problem with why they do not want to keep funding is because of the abortion service. There has been discussion on “Pro-life or pro-choice.” Watson, author of Scarlet A: The Ethics, Law, and Politics of Ordinary Abortion states, “We should be able to acknowledge the complexity of private decision making, without threatening the right of private decision making.” Meaning, us as a community should find ways in which we can accept what is going on without having to do things like, defund because we are not happy with a decision. For example, in an article published in 1989, Lucy Killea, who was running for California State Senate, put in her campaign that she supports the right to abortion. Bishop Leo T. Maher later wrote her saying she could no longer receive communion. Looking at this example from years ago, and now seeing that Trump is defunding Planned Parenthood shows that throughout the years, nothing exactly changes. The people who agree with Trump, who in a study from Mary Rezac, showed that 47% of Catholics are pro-life, will continue to support his ideas but what about the other half? Where do they fall in this discussion? Abortion is up to the women, her body, her choice and if we cannot find a way to talk about how these issues are affecting us, the government will not fund what is helping these girls who get pregnant.

Another growing issue within religion is the number count of r**es within the Vatican. People see the church as a sacred place to go for a time of help or to praise our savior, Jesus Christ, but recently they have found the priests, the ones we should trust, have been r**ing the altar servers. Pope Francis took the issue into his own hands, and people were not satisfied with the outcome of his speech. Before he can even finish what was being said, the ones who were victims of such abuse were expressing their anger and failure to address the problem. This brings out attention to the issue that we in reality, need. Without people expressing how they feel, how will anyone know it needs to be done? Victims need to come together and express what happened to them so justice can be done. Anna Barrett Doyle states, “As the world’s Catholics cry out for concrete change, the pope instead provides tepid promises, all of which we’ve heard before.” This becomes an issue when trying to solve problems because as soon as we get the idea that something will happen and it doesn’t, that starts even bigger problems like riots and controversial articles. As a community we fail at trying to express our feelings towards an issue. When one encounters someone with the opposing view, we tend to find ourselves loss of words when they don’t agree with what we believe. If we do not get to the root of the problem, the problem will never be able to go away. Pope Francis believes he is making a change, but he is only making it more difficult for Roman Catholics to believe what is really going on within the church.

In result, we have found that one of our biggest issues as a nation is coming together and seeing our most troublesome issues embellish when we least expect. If we do not try to come together and resolve these problems, we will never see the end of racism, gun violence, or our biggest issues in religion. We are always going to be so caught up in our own point of view that no matter how we try to end the controversy, it will continue to grow right in front of our eyes. We need to be willing to agree to disagree to even begin to address these problems. Most of these issues correlate with one another, so if we begin to eliminate as time progresses, these issues shouldn’t be as big as a problem as they are today. We are in a time of need for help. We need to keep working together.


Historical design development and impacts of new and emerging technologies: college essay help online

The origins of 3D printing trace back further than you might expect. In 1860 the photo-sculpture method was explored by Francois Wilhelm when he captured an object in 3 dimensions using cameras surrounding the subject and in 1892 Blanther proposed a layering method of producing topographical maps. Fast forward to 1972 Mastubara of Mitsubishi motors proposed photo-hardened materials (photopolymers) to be used to produce layered parts.

The 3D printer came about in the 1980’s. In the early 1980’s, Dr. Hideo Kodama, a Japanese researcher first invented the innovative layer approach to stereolithography through using a single-beam ultraviolet light laser to set photosensitive polymers. This was used as a means for rapid prototyping. Unfortunately, Dr. Kodama didn’t fulfil the application for a full patent due to a funding issue. In 1984, a group of French researchers, Jean-Claude André, Alain le Méhauté and Olivier de Witte came together to file a patent for the stereolithography process. Witte realisation was that when 2 lasers cross each other, a monomer liquid can become a solid polymer, the basic principle of the 3D printer. However, the application for their patent was abandoned by their French technology company due to a lack of proper funding.

Later in 1984, Charles (Chuck) Hull filed his patent for the process. He patented it as a method of consecutive thinly printed layers using UV light which pointed at a vat filled with a liquid photopolymer. This method bonded one polymer to the next with the help of CAM/CAD software to guide the path until a desired 3D object was produced. Stereolithography was such revolutionary innovation as it allowed designers to create ideas using digital data programs that could be uploaded to the printer to produce a tangible object. Hull’s patent was granted in 1986. Following this success, Hull co-founded the world’s first 3D printing company, called 3D Systems, to further commercialise it. This process of stereolithography established the basis of all 3D printing we know today. In 1987, they released their first commercial product the SLA-1 and is now classified as a transformative impact in engineering and manufacturing. Fused deposition modelling (FDM) process, another type of 3D printing processes, was developed by Scott Crump in 1989. Crump then founded the company Stratasys also in 1989, which is a global leader in 3D printers and 3D printer systems. In 2009, the company’s FDM printing patent expired, which offered the market FDM 3D printers, usually referred to as fused filament fabrication (FFF) for companies other than Stratasys 3D printers and open to public domain. Another key development was the RepRap Project (Replicating Rapid Prototyper) established in 2004 by UK Adrian Bowyer who established an open source project aimed to build a 3D printer that can print most of its own components and then could share with people all around the world.

The new millennium saw several success stories using the 3D printer in exciting medical innovations such as the first working kidney in 2000, the first prosthetic limb in 2008, the first prosthetic jaw in 2012 and in 2014 it was used to help reconstruct the face of a motorcyclist after a serious road injury. Testing of bio materials for regenerative medicine using a patient’s cell allowing 3D printing of small body parts (like ears and noses) have also increased media attention.

In recent years 3D printing has been able to assist with disaster relief. US not for profit ‘Field Ready’, were able to print spare parts such as pipe fittings to help repair broken pipelines after the severe earthquake in Nepal in 2015. A Japanese 3D printed drone was designed for search and rescue missions for disaster hit areas. 3D printed houses have similarly been used in disaster relief situations and now also a possible option for low income housing. In 2014 in China, a giant cement 3D printer was used to print 10 houses in just one day.

In the field of fashion 3D printing has opened the possibilities to expand beyond the traditional boundaries of design, allowing fashion designer to turn challenging design concepts into reality. From traditional production methods designers are now able to 3D print their own garments as one such young textile designer Danit Peleg with the first fashion collection 3D printed at home in 2014.

While there have been many positive developments as cited above, the first 3D printed gun in 2013 by Cody Wilson and the uploading of the blueprint for same has posed many questions as to where this might end.

Factors affecting success

Despite the 3D printer having been in existence since the early 1980’s its commercial viability and success has really only gained momentum over the past decade or so. This can be attributed mostly to timing, IP, pricing and market demand. In 2013 Obama’s State of the Union address claimed that the 3D printer had “the potential to revolutionize the way we make almost everything”. Faced with the rise of China’s dominance in manufacturing, there has been increased pressure for countries to produce products more efficiently and cost effectively. Manufacturers have been forced to explore the possibilities offered by new technologies to try to maintain their competitive edge. For example, the U.S Government’s investment in NAMII (National Additive Manufacturing Innovation Institute) as an incubator for 3D printing technology and the commitment of companies such as General Electric, United Technologies Corporation, Hewlett-Packard, 3M, Boeing, Stratasys, MIT and 3D Systems in investing in innovations using 3D printing helped promote this success. A window of opportunity was also created with the lapsing of certain patents around 2009 and subsequently there was a decline in litigation cases coupled with licensing activity showing steady growth. Pricing was also a key factor. At first 3D printers were not only expensive to produce but were also expensive to purchase and run. 3D printer prices have dropped (about 90% since 2009), from over $10,000 to less than $1,000 and this has also created a larger reach in the market for a more consumer friendly 3D printer that was a cost- effective option. So not only did larger companies have access to this technology, but basis this new affordability, more entrepreneurs and people with an appetite for experimentation have had a chance to explore new applications of 3D printing across different platforms and given the market’s increased demand for customisation these factors have all worked to give the 3D printer the status it enjoys today.

Role of agencies

There have been many agencies which have played a significant role in the innovation of the 3D printer particularly given the potentially huge benefits 3D printing has on manufacturing. NASA (National American Space Agency) has developed The Zero G 3D printer which manufactured the first 3D printed object in space and was active in lodging patents since 2009. The US Government recognised the upside of this phenomenon and funded the establishment of National Additive Manufacturing Innovation Institute in 2012 (also referred to America Makes) which is an initiative to try and promote the application of 3D printer across different disciplines. Big industrials such as GE (General Electrics) with its new ‘Multi Modal” facility in India and its fuel nozzle and BAE (British Aerospace) utilising 3D printed metal parts in its fighter jets both are pushing the boundaries. Other smaller yet still significant players are Bureau Services such as Shapeways and iMaterialise which have offered companies access to a wider customer by being able to harness a central service with printers located around the world and within a few days able to receive their 3D printed part in the post. With regards to IP, one of the main legislative challenges about 3D printing is that its users are able to copy almost any object, with or without the authorization of those who hold rights to that object. This makes it hard to regulate and govern the legal rights and ownership to the copyrights or patents. 3D printing is challenging the government and patent agencies to transform the way in which they monitor and control issues of surrounding ownership as well as IP infringements.

Entrepreneurial activity

We need entrepreneurs in the world as it is their creative, innovative, daring and out of the box thinking that has been so vital to evolution of ideas. Entrepreneurial activity has been significant to 3D printer design taking it beyond the realm of its initial purpose for rapid prototyping. Entrepreneurial activity has assisted with the acceleration and dissemination of ideas and in this respect, there have been some truly unique and ground-breaking applications on both a local and an international scale having enormous impacts socially, economically and environmentally. Initially the 3D printer used plastic, but this has now expanded to include finished items made from ceramic, metal, resin, concrete, silver, gold, stainless steel, food and bio material. The breadth of ideas range from prosthetics, dental implants, internal organs, customisation of jewellery, cake decorations to being able to 3D print cars, houses and spare parts. For example, Adidas and Parley for the Oceans, an organisation dedicated to reducing plastic wastage in the ocean, have collaborated to create a 3D printed sneaker made from plastic recycled from the ocean. Without entrepreneurs pushing the boundaries, 3D printing would not have had the transformative impact on our world today.


Mass shootings – changes needed to gun regulation

On April 20, 1999 a massacre took place at Columbine High School in Jefferson County Colorado. The two teen shooters Dylan Klebold and Eric Harris killed 13 people and wounded over 20 others. After, the two perpetrators turned the guns on themselves ending their own lives. At the time this was the worst high school shooting in US history. This event induced a governmental on school safety and gun control.

Following the shootings, a large amount of schools decreed zero tolerance policies. For those cases which regarded threatening behavior and violence on school grounds. This tragedy brought light to the importance of identifying risk factors for youth violence, as well as the need for the development and enactment of programs based on the early detection of these risk factors and prevention of school violence.

Researchers from the University of Northern Colorado have been examining the changes that schools have made since 1999 to prevent future incidents like Columbine. Surveys were sent out asking schools about mental health services and violence prevention programs before and after the event. The surveys showed the help after the shooting had increased by a large amount. A 20% increase in schools with crisis plans. 10% increase in group counseling. 9% of more schools had a crisis plan. 7% more schools offered social skills training. A larger number of schools not only increased their counseling but also school security. About 63% of schools had more advanced mechanism. 40% instilled stricter discipline. 17% started doing locker searches. 13% increased mental health providers.

Though this will make a big difference it’s not enough. Regardless of these changes many mental health professionals needed to be available in schools. Mainly to put together conflict resolution programs with students and parents. Sadly lack of funds were a major issue and the availability of people to help out. Thankfully many changes have been made in public high schools all over the US since the tragedy. Less is known about individual high schools across the states but as a whole safety has increased. Furthermore preventing youth violence is not only a responsibility of the school but also parents and students.

A large number of risk factors for the violence has been identified as history of aggression, history or mental illness, substance use, abusive childhood, bullying, depression, bad parenting, and violence in the media. Many places have been exposed to risk factors and early warning signs from the APA which expands on reasoning for the violence.

Not only have schools changed their ways of responding to situations like these but law enforcement as well. “Before the Columbine schooling no one knew what the term active shooter mean” (James Gagliano FBI) “Within 13 minutes of the first 911 call, Klebold and Harris fatally shot 12 students and a teacher and wounded 23 other people before killing themselves with gunshot wounds to the head. SWAT teams entered the school 47 minutes after the gunfire erupted. An exhaustive FBI review of the police response at Columbine led to more rapid response strategy during active shooter situations.” After this the responding officers learned they would have to set up a secure perimeter around the crime scene before moving on the suspect. “The tactic, known in law enforcement circles as rapid deployment involving the first officer at the scene, began in earnest after the Columbine shooting.” (CNN)

A fine training program has helped the enforcements lower the threat. “The lessons learned from Columbine led the US Justice Department and other federal agencies to partially fund an active shooter program known as Advanced Law Enforcement Rapid Response Training, or ALERRT, Schweit wrote.

The training, which was developed by the San Marcos, Texas, Police Department and the Hays County, Texas, Sheriff’s Department and adopted by Texas State University in San Marcos, includes a 16-hour course that “prepares first responders to isolate, distract and end the threat when an active shooter is engaged,” ( Schweit)

“Another key lesson of Columbine: We need to prepare students and teachers better for an emergency. The Columbine shooters caught their high school unprepared. We’re less naïve now. Most kids and their teachers are now drilled on lockdowns and evacuations. Police departments have up-to-date floor plans and alarm codes.”

“No one can say for sure why Klebold and Harris committed such a horrific crime. Many people have come up with theories including being picked on in school, violent video games , violent movies, music, racism , Goth, problematic parents, depression, and more.

It is hard to pinpoint one trigger that started these two boys on a murderous rampage. They worked hard to fool all those around them for over a year. Surprisingly, about a month before the event, the Klebold family took a four-day road trip to the University of Arizona, where Dylan had been accepted for the following year. During the trip, the Klebold’s didn’t notice anything strange or unusual about Dylan. Counselors and others also didn’t notice anything unusual.

Looking back, there were telltale hints and clues that something was seriously wrong. Videotapes, journals, guns, and bombs in their rooms would have been easily found if the parents had looked. Harris had made a website with hateful epithets that could have been followed up on.

The Columbine Massacre changed the way society looked at children and at schools. Violence was no longer just an after-school, inner-city occurrence. It could happen anywhere”.

Even though this tragic event struck the community in such an extensive way there is still no end to these tragedies. There have been more than a dozen more shootings and we still haven’t learned our lesson till this day we still have no gun control and no sense of urgency toward this matter examples such as

2007 Virginia Tech University, Blacksburg, Va. — 33 deaths
2012 Sandy Hook Elementary School, Newtown, Conn. — 27 deaths
2018 Marjory Stoneman Douglas High School, Parkland, Fla. — 17 deaths
2015 Umpqua Community College, Roseburg, Ore. — 10 deaths
2018 Santa Fe High School, Santa Fe, Tex. — 10 deaths
2005 Red Lake Senior High School, Red Lake, Minn. — 7 deaths
2012 Oikos University, Oakland, Calif. — 7 deaths
2006 West Nickel Mines School, Bart Township, Penn. — 6 deaths
2008 Northern Illinois University, Dekalb, Ill. — 6 deaths
2014 Marysville Pilchuck High School, Marysville, Wa. — 5 deaths

After columbine you would imagine that things couldn’t get worse. In the 19 years since Columbine rocked America to its core, the country has seen so many more mass shootings that the attack isn’t even among the 10 deadliest mass shootings in modern US history.

“Three of the five deadliest shootings have occurred in just the last year and a half. Let alone school shootings the lack of gun control has brought upon us”

The Harvest Music Festival: 58 killed
Pulse nightclub: 49 killed
First Baptist Church in Sutherland Springs: 26 killed
Luby’s Cafeteria: 23 killed

This list can go on and on. This is where I have issue with both the NRA and our Federal, State and Local Governments. The NRA has made too many concessions and given away too many freedoms in order to effect a compromise. They continue to do this. I feel there needs to be a Criminal Background Check, and a Medical History Background Check to confirm whether someone that is a danger to society or mentally ill or unstable are not able to purchase firearms. Meaning they have not been diagnosed with Paranoid Schizophrenia, or any other mental illness that requires drugs to maintain their “normal”. The problem seen in the states is first and foremost the culture around guns and gun ownership. What could be of some use to start to change that is tighter gun restrictions on who can own a gun and who can buy ammo etc. Some say that it’s easy to get a gun illegally which is true BUT most mass shootings seem to happen when a unstable person has easy access to guns. That is the major problem. I am not in support of banning guns necessarily but there is something to be said for countries that have. The statistics show where there are tighter restrictions on guns such as Canada and the UK there are less shootings and gun crimes in general. So my conclusion in not to ban all guns, or to make harsher punishments for people that commit gun crimes in order to deter future criminals; My point is mainly to say the government and other agencies need to help change the culture around guns and make it harder for people to get guns, especially automatic rifles and pistols. If everyone has guns there will be more gun violence not the other way. The logic behind the saying “the only thing that will stop a bad man with a gun is a good man with a gun” is simply not correct. This could be argued all day but I want to end on that note. The culture needs to change. Change has to be made in order to make progress we have to do better with who we let bear these weapons.


Gun Control – The Unforeseen Dangers of Unchecked Firearms

To say that guns are dangerous and need to be controlled is putting our situation mildly. Every year, 36,000 Americans die from guns, that is nearly 100 people killed every day (America’s Background Check 2019). The American situation is dire, with the need for reform on gun control increasing everyday. School shootings, gun related homicides, and gun related suicides can all be reduced or avoided with the help of more complex legislation. The second amendment needs to be amended as militias are not relevant anymore, and therefore, making it constitutional to pass advanced legislation to have more comprehensive background checks and restrict the American public from buying assault rifles.

Gun control has been an incredibly controversial topic for years, with many affected from gun violence every year and the need to be protected in one’s own home, many have clashing opinions. These opposing viewpoints have created many organizations that are for and against gun control. These organizations include the Brady Campaign which fights for more comprehensive background and checks and the National Rifle Association which want to keep the second amendment the way it is. These values have spawned many arguments about the pros and cons of guns, and if they need to be taken away from the hands of civilians. As stated earlier, many people are affected by gun violence, with mass shootings becoming one of the ultimate causes of fear. On December 14th, 2012, A shooter opened fire inside Sandy Hook elementary school. Adam Lanza, the shooter, fatally shot 20 children and adults. The police investigated what could have caused this to happen, as it turned out, Lanza had several mental health issues (Sandy Hook Elementary 2012). He also had access to these deadly weapons and mixed with his mental health, he become disturbed enough to become a shooter. Gun control activists say that this is why we need to restrict the sales of guns, meanwhile, pro gun activists say that this is why we need more guns to protect people from shooters.

The second amendment is a vastly outdated part of our constitution, as it merely states, “A well regulated Militia, being necessary to the security of a free State…”. In 1791, when this amendment became part of the Bill of Rights, there was no guaranteed safety by federal officials. People were forced to protect themselves from foreign and local threats. Yet, we now have organized police forces and a very powerful military, ensuring our safety from many perils. However, most militias do provide a sense of security for some local neighborhoods and families. Many patrol the Mexico-America border, stopping illegal immigrants from crossing (Bauer 2016). Yet, since militias are made up of private citizens, the government does not sanction their actions or beliefs. In fact, many of these groups are anti-government. A powerful and influential militia organization the Three Percenters warned, “all politics in this country now is just dress rehearsal for civil war” (Nuckols 2013). Such a rhetoric has been embraced by many other Militias, with many calling for training against government threats. These militias are afraid that the American government will/have been invaded by foreigners and will force them to give away all of their firearms. It is argued that the second amendment was created to keep the government from becoming tyrannical and dangerous. Although such an argument is very hard to make, considering the United States military is much more advanced and better equipped. Some of these militias have more discreet goals, such as instilling fear in the hearts and minds of immigrants. For example, three Kansas militia men were convicted of plotting to bomb a mosque and the homes of Somali immigrants. Luckily, they were thwarted by another member of their group who ended up telling authorities about the planned attack (Kansas militia men 2019). These groups do keep some people feeling safe and protected, yet, they instill fear in those who do, in fact, believe that these groups are legitimate in their goals and claims.

Complex legislature and revision to the second amendment would prove to keep Americans much safer than they already are. Among these emendations would be more complex and universal background checks. As stated by the Brady Campaign, “97% of Americans support an expanded background check system” (America’s Background Check 2019). A major error in our background check system is the private sale gap loophole. Private sellers do not need to use background checks, in fact, 1 in 5 guns are sold by private sellers, avoiding background checks completely (America’s Background Check 2019). Such a loophole can put american in serious danger, and closing this loophole would be welcomed by the majority of America. Currently, the Brady Campaign is fighting to keep Americans safe, but is met with resistance from groups such as the National Rifle Association (NRA).

Assault rifles in the hands of untrained, unprepared civilians is a fatal mistake for America. Assault rifles are fun to shoot for some, yet, many of the same guns are used by the United States military (Cook, Goss 2014). Such powerful weapons must be kept away from the untrained hands of the American public. Assault rifles, used by the military, are created to inflict the most amount of casualties the fastest. While many are not automatic and only fire one bullet every time the trigger is pulled, they are still incredibly dangerous (The Gun Control Debate 2019). Compared to various pistols and handguns, these assault rifles have much more power and many have additions, such as silencers, that can be added onto them. Such weapons include the AR15, a deadly variation of the military’s M16. The M16 is a common gun used by the United States government, meanwhile the AR15 is the civilian version. This gun is a semi-automatic weapon, however, it is legal to add a “bump stock”, effectively turning a semi-automatic weapon into an automatic assault rifle. In fact, in 1994 president Bill Clinton signed an assault rifle ban, which prohibited guns such as the AR15. In the following years, the amount of mass shootings did drop, however, they did not end (Myre 2018). Unfortunately, the ban expired in 2004, allowing the American public to buy these weapons of mass destruction again.


The ‘International’, the ‘Global’ and the ‘Planetary’: essay help free

What are the key differences between the ‘International’, the ‘Global’ and the ‘Planetary’? Why are these important?


The “International”, the “Global”, and the “Planetary” represent the stages of evolution of the discipline of International Relations, which was shaped by theories diverging on “the relationship between agency, process, and social structure” (Wendt, 1992, p422). This essay will attempt to identify, critique and reflect upon the most fundamental differences between the three. I identified their key differences to be: the conceptualisations of the international arena, types of politics, driving motivation behind their politics, types of actors, quality of dynamics, identities and interests, and security. In the subsequent sections, I will critically expose each of these concepts in the framework of the “International”, the “Global”, and the “Planetary”, and speculate on their relevance.

The International Paradigm

The discipline of International Relations, also known as IR, has always been divided by many theories on how to theorise the world, and whether or not elements such as history, philosophy, morals and politics played a significant role in it. The many theories which scatter across IR give to the aforementioned elements different grounds of importance, or no importance at all. In the realm of the discipline of IR, Realism is the Queen theory. The other approaches mostly had the merit of adding elements which the discipline acquired and assimilated through its evolution over the centuries. Nonetheless, the school of thought of Realism is the theory which provided the discipline with its foundation, structure and precise conceptualisation of the actors who rule the discipline of International Relations.

Realism states that the ground stage on which the international actors interact is within a timeless sphere of anarchy, in which States base their relations on Realpolitik, power politics. As a result, the quality of the elapsing exchanges is permeated by overbearingness and selfishness, prevarication of interests of the “stronger” State upon the “weaker” State, distrust, disloyalty, and so on. IR, according to Realism, conceptualises the international arena within Realpolitik, which means applying the original concept of Realpolitik to the international system. Realpolitik is a concept which was coined in Germany in the Nineteenth Century to indicate the pursuit of pragmatic politics, without taking much into account morals and ethics when making a policy decision. Applying the concept of Realpolitik to the international arena meant conceptualising an international system of relations which is more concerned with the pursuit of pragmatic objectives, of selfish politics which would benefit the single State who is pursuing it, rather than the international system. Therefore, the quality of the exchanges happening between States, in turn, did not offer fertile soil for the establishment of international cooperation between States or leagues of States.

It is an international system founded on, and functioning through, power politics. Because of the assumption that Anarchy governs the international system, the only possible actor who is strong enough to survive and interact with the system to pursue and defend its interests, is the State. Therefore, there is only space for State-based politics and the conception of the “International” is an inter-State system exclusively. This is the State-based paradigm of International Relations, and, as the only actors in the international system, they are depicted as rational and autonomous, acting in a static, and consequences-less anarchy. States come into the international arena already equipped with an identity and a set of interests. Therefore, a conception of pre-made identities and interests characterises the international arena, and the only objective of their interactions is power, to gain more and to protect what amount of power one has.

The Origins of The Discipline

To genuinely comprehend the discipline of IR and its mission, one must dive into its origins and subsequent evolution. Different philosophical beliefs and paradigms oppositely approached international relations through conceptualisations of study, politics, dynamics and instruments. IR finds its roots in historical, theoretical, philosophical, political frameworks which, once combined, coined the discipline, whose development culminated with its sudden fall after the end of the Cold War.

To further explain the historical, theoretical, philosophical, political origins of my previous statement I will refer to the work of International Relations scholar, Martin Wight, who was a professor at the London School of Economics.

Wight started studying International Relations when the discipline was gaining momentum and celebrity status in the United States in the 1950s, under the denomination of “A Theory of International Relations”. The scientific or behaviourist movement of the United States developed the belief that if you were to study behaviours attentively enough, one could explain the events that have intersected the faiths of countries in the past, present, and even predict future political intersections between States. This belief gave birth to Modern International Relations, as a rejection of “old” Realist views on the matters of International Politics. Therefore, this wave of Neo-Realism tried to move past the “obsolete methodology of existing general works about International Relations, especially those of Realist writers such as E. H. Carr, George F. Kennan and Hans Morgenthau, which formed the staple academic diet of the time” (Bull, 1976, p 103).

It is imperative to take in mind the element of history if one wants to genuinely understand why the theory of Neo-Realism, which undoubtedly represents an oversimplified framework of the exchanges between States, gained such relevance. This view on International Relations was developed right after the end of World War II, in a post-war world that had lost many things to a conflict which many, if not most, deemed useless, and, above all, evitable. Even the mere idea of a discipline which could avoid the repeating of such events, through the detailed analysis of everyday political events and politicians national and international behaviours, was sufficient justification or motivation for a world that had starved many years for hope.

Wight argued that “it is no accident that international relations have never been the subject of any great theoretical work, that there is “a kind of disharmony between international theory and diplomatic practice, a kind of recalcitrance of international politics to being theorised about” (Bull, 1976, p 114). Therefore, in an effort to alleviate this disharmony, he developed his vision to contribute to the debate, and he based it on the commingling of history, philosophy, morals, and politics. Wight “saw the Theory of International Relations […] as a study in political philosophy or political speculation pursued by way of an examination of the main traditions of thought about International Relations in the past” (Bull, 1976, p 103).

He initially decided to divide it into three main categories, each one representing a great thinker of the past. Later on, he identified a possible fourth category, the Inverted Revolutionists, based on a pacifist current inspired by Christianism, Leo Tolstoy and Mahatma Gandhi.

The three main categories are the Machiavellians, from Niccolò Machiavelli’s ideals; Grotians, from Hugo Grotius’s; and the Kantians’, from the work of Immanuel Kant. Each one of them ideated their interpretations on the conception of human nature, the critical units of analysis of the international system, its dynamics and instruments, and the definition of political space and its characteristics.

Machiavelli theorised that the human nature is only driven by self-interest and permeated with greediness. He identified that the critical unit of analysis for understanding the international arena is the recognition of its state of anarchy, which is dominated by dynamics of warfare, power, security and gathering of resources. The political space, exactly like the human nature, is filled only with self-interest and no morality. Machiavelli provided the base on which Realist theories laid their foundations.

Grotius, unlike Machiavelli and the subsequent most fervent Realists, considers the human a rational being who operates within the State, which subsequently engages in international relations in an international system which, like men, runs on rationality. Everything about Grotius’s theory is permeated with rationality, and the quality of the dynamics of the international arena is a reflection of such. Indeed, he believed that the dynamics of the international arena are ruled by diplomacy, negotiations, institutions and norms because the political space is dominated by institutions and by order. Grotius represents moderation and the voice of reason for the successful establishment of an international system based on rationality and cooperation, not on violence and distrust like the system painted by Machiavelli in his most famous works, The Prince and Discourses in the First Decade of Titus Livy. Grotius speculates on the doctrine of an international system based on a society of states working together towards common goals, he dreams of an international society, in direct opposition with the sharp, realist concept of national societies above all. It is “the idea […] that international politics is not just a matter of relations between states, but also a matter of so-called “transnational” relations among the individuals and groups that states compose” (Bull, 1976, p112).

Kant theories that the human nature is good, peaceful, a supporter of solidarity and cooperation. He believed in a global community and in an ideal man who would contribute to its flourishment. The dynamics revolve around policies for cooperation, international trade and exchange, and they would eventually enable the development of a political space represented by a cosmopolitan society. In one of his works, “Perpetual Peace: A Philosophical Sketch”, he goes as far as developing a plan for governments of the world to follow to establish peace for the world, because peace has to come above all. He dreams of a political space which is characterised by the emancipation from State and by an international confederation and the disruption of geographical boundaries.

Moreover, Wight believed that “the truth about international politics had to be sought not in any one of these patterns of thought but in the debate among them” (Bull, 1976, p 110). Machiavelli’s theory is also most notoriously known as Realism. Grotius represents Rationalism, and Kant is Revolutionism, and each one is a founding brick of the discipline of International Relations. Each theory went through transformative changes over the decades. For example, Machiavelli’s Realism turned into Neo-Realism in the 1970s and 1980s and turned into Modernist or Positivist in the 1990s. Grotius’s Rationalism found a new key of interpretation in the English School, between the 1940s and 1960s. Kant’s Revolutionism went from Idealism in the 1920s – 1930s to Neo-Liberalism and Neo-Institutionalism in 1970s and 1980s .

The State-Based Approach to Security

I end this excursus on the origins of the discipline of international relations here, and I catch this occasion to list another key aspect which sets the International paradigm apart from the global and the planetary. And it is its State-based approach to security, which meant that only the State was in charge of taking the necessary measurements aimed at safety, preservation and survival of a country. This implied a severe limit at the protection of one’s nation because “weak” nations did not possess a force of power tantamount to the one of a “strong” country. Therefore, a “weak” state was in the thrall of the anarchic international system, and if a nation wanted to exercise its power to gain more resources, it could attack it, without an international community which would defend it or even dissuade a predator country from invading it.

Methodological Nationalism

The theory of Methodological Nationalism offered a base to understand and organise the life and cycles of IR. It provided the discipline with a source of legitimacy. “Methodological Nationalism […] equates societies with nation-state societies, and sees states and their governments as the cornerstones of social-scientific analysis. It assumes that humanity is naturally divided into a limited number of nations, which internally organise themselves as nation-states and externally set boundaries to distinguish themselves from other nation-states” (Beck, 2003, p 453). It’s the perfect theory to justify the Realist approach to IR. It combined realist accents with the belief that there is only one-world World, everything else merely points at other ways to look at the same one-world world. Methodological nationalism is founded on six core beliefs: a plurality of Societies; Societies are subordinated to the Nation-State; States run on territorial “State-constructed” boundaries (Beck, 2003, p454); State and Society both determinate themselves through a circular belief: the nation is creator and protector of Society’s plethora of rights, and the individuals of the Society organize themselves in movements to influence the actions of the Nation-State, which, in turn, also legitimises the State again; “both States and Societies are located within the dichotomy of national and international” (Beck, 2003, p454); the state is the provider of social order and provides the scholars of multiple disciplines with the data about the country necessary to them. (Beck, 2003). Moreover, the core elements of this theory engage in constant activities which result in continuous determination and further legitimisation of one and the other, without leaving any room for the introduction of new elements.

The Decline of legitimacy of the Discipline

The international paradigm of the discipline experienced a major setback after the end of the Cold War, which left everyone baffled. Also, it left everyone unprepared for the events which followed it. The discipline of IR lost credibility as a predictor of events because all of the academics and IR contemporary theorists indeed failed at predicting one of the most history-shaping events of last century. Moreover, even the assumptions of State-based politics faltered, especially after the terrorist attack on the Twin Towers of September 11th, 2001. The discipline was built upon the framework of conceiving the world from the point of view of a State, indeed a State-based approach, preferably a white, Western one.

The end of the Cold War put into question the sounding of the reasoning behind the discipline, and the terrorist attack struck the final hit. It forced scholars, and politicians alike, to recognise the existence of worlds beyond the “Western World”. I am not here to speculate on whether or not the terrorist attack would have happened if the united states had not imposed their ways in the Middle East for years on end. But I am here to point out that the terrorist attack lifted the veil and it made it impossible for the discipline to ever go back to its original frameworks.

I believe that, at this Realist stage, the discipline used to run on such limited territorial lines that its failure had always been around the corner. Proof of this is that it only took a major event such as the abrupt end of the Cold War for it to crumble and for the scholars to put its frameworks into question altogether. Nonetheless, I do believe that the ultimate cause for the failure of the discipline has to be found on the terrorist attack, which slashed the core beliefs of many, terrorised an entire world, and scarred a whole generation forever. The fear that came afterwards paralysed the world for a moment. Somehow, the introduction of an undefinable enemy turned the discipline of IR on its head. State-based politics, as flawed as they were, were easily graspable and easily manageable: they played alongside the rules of an accepted framework. But 9/11? What was that? Under what category would it fall in the limited structures “allowed” by the discipline? A terrorist attack from an undefinable actor was inconceivable; it did not fit even in the corner of the discipline. The discipline was lacking something. The discipline was wrong.

A Critique of IR, and The Rise of the Global

Eventually, what were the core beliefs of the discipline of International Relations, turned out to be their very own self-limiting beliefs which did not allow the discipline to evolve with time into a comprehensive and complete discipline which provides an adequate understanding of the world and the exchanges which elapse within it.

“The fact that worlds of power politics are socially constructed […] does not guarantee they are malleable”, which is one of the flaws which contributed to the fall of IR, and “through practice agents are continuously producing and reproducing (the same) identities and interests. (Wendt, 1992, p411).

It’s a discipline based on seeing, experiences and conceptualising the world from a State-based only perspective, which results into the provision of a partial and meagre framework of understanding of the exchanges occurring in the world. It is a very limited perspective which lent a voice only to the white, Western Elite.

At the break of the new century, people started looking for other outlooks to replace entirely the failure that the “International” represented. In this time of international (relations) crisis, talks about what will come to be known as the ‘Global’ sprung everywhere. They will bring into the conversation a mixture of concepts which classical IR theories did not cover: Constructivism, gender issues, the need for Morals, Critical Discourses, Post-colonialism, and subsequently, the rise of the Anthropocene.

The Main Paradigms of the “Global”: Social Constructivism and Critical Thinking

“The cosmopolitan perspective dismisses the either-or principle of realism: either the State exists, albeit only as an essential core, or it does not exist at all; either there is national sovereignty – a zero-sum game between national and international competence – or there is no sovereignty at all. From a cosmopolitan perspective, “Realism” is a kind of political irrealism because it neglects the possibility and reality of a second “Great Transformation” of the global power game” (Beck, 2003, p457).

These words from Ulrich Beck, one of the most significant theorists of the Global, summarise the stark contraposition between the “International” and the “Global”. In the 1990s, debates about the Global came in to dismantle the limiting beliefs at the core of the discipline, which flawed for its lack of inclusiveness and overbearingness. The arrival of the global represented the fall of the exclusive domain of binary Left and Right politics as well.

The opening of the discipline of IR to a Global Era brings a new opportunity to engage with the world from a non-State-based position, through the development of many, pluriversal approaches: Constructivist, Critical and Cosmopolitan approaches. The Global Era represents a commingling of these new approaches, and the final result portrays how “the cosmopolitan perspective opens up negotiation spaces and strategies which the national viewpoint precludes. […] The negotiation space the cosmopolitan viewpoint opens up contradicts the absence of alternatives.” (Beck,2003, p466).

They introduce new ways of seeing and thinking about politics, global interests, and global concerns. The Global aims at creating a universal vision to build a liberal and global community, in which the States are not the centre of IR speculation anymore. The international arena is also positively shaken up by the appearance of new international actors which are not states: it’s the rise of the global civil society and Non-Governmental Agencies (Kaldor, 2003). Moreover, through the development of new international dynamics, Nation-States become the product, not the subjects, of the international arena (Jackson, 1990; Krasner, 1999).

Two paradigms of thought especially shaped this evolutionary period of IR: the social constructive/liberal and the critical/deconstructive.

The maintenance of the inter-State system, alongside the rise in popularity of theories of Global sovereignty, characterise the new international order. The emergence of the Global requires a new understanding of the mechanisms of the international arena because “It is the collective meanings that constitute the structures which organise our actions” (Wendt, 1992, p397). Therefore, with the evolutionary passage towards a new stage of the discipline of IR, scholars and citizens alike require a new framework of concepts. Social Constructivism achieves just that by providing a sociological understanding of interactions which challenge previous IR thinking. Alexander Wendt, a leading Constructivist theorist, explains how Constructivists believe that the international system and its frameworks are socials constructs, not beliefs that should be taken as “a given” (Wendt, 1992). Therefore, the significance of everything regarding IR comes “out of interaction” (Wendt, 1992, p403). According to Realism, States come into the international arena already equipped with an identity and a set of interests. Alexander Wendt, in direct opposition to Realism, speculates on “how knowledgeable practices constitute subjects”, and how Constructivism can contribute to “identity and interest formation” (Wendt, 1992, p394). They elaborate on the idea that the creation of an identity and set of interests happen through the elapsing exchanges between States in the international arena. “Actors acquire identities by participating in such collective meanings” (Wendt, 1992, p397). Therefore, actors do not enter the international arena with pre-formed identities, but they create one during their contacts with other states. And the same goes for their interests, which are formed while experiences these exchanges. Different exchanges will show how countries can have a variegated set of interests, depending on the circumstances (Wendt, 1992). Therefore, identities and interests are not a given, and their establishment happens during the socialisation process.

The paradigm of the Critical thinking supported the rise of the global because it opened the door for the emancipation of security from the state-based approach. (Booth, 1991). Critical theorists, alongside Constructivists, discuss the treatment of human security and how the obstacles to human security are constructed. The particular interests of States are a barrier to a universalist liberal approach to global rights and justice. Instead, supporters of Foucauldian critics see the rise of the global as a negative shift. The pursuit of global liberal “governmentality” and “biopolitics” are a negative aspiration for the security of States, which will end up having to rely on the international community. “The undermining of the politics of state-based representation and the globalisation of regulatory power has become the starting assumption for the postructuralist “scaling up” of Foucault in critiques of global governmentality” (Chandler, 2009, p536). Lemke (2001) shows how Foucault used concepts regarding governmentality in a way closer to realism than constructivism, which indicates a critique of the doctrine and its “obsession” with subjectification.

Another fundamental difference of the Global, in opposition with the International, is highlighted attention on Morals and Ethics, which have to have a more profound impact on the decisions of the Nation-State. Indeed, the rise of humanitarian aid actions and acts of global cooperation are proof of that. The global perspective introduces a new critical theory of social inequalities which shines a light on the need to provide aid to nations, minorities or whoever is in considerable need (Beck, 2003). Beck (2003) critics how the original IR used methodological nationalism to remove from its agenda the tackling of global inequalities. “Thus, the bigger blind spots – and sources of error- of methodological nationalism linked to research on inequality will only be recognisable by means of a systemic switch from the national to the cosmopolitan perspective. It is only within the framework of such a new critical theory of social inequality that the fundamental asymmetry of inequality perception […] can be unravelled” (Beck, 2003, p459). Nonetheless, he highlights also how the shift to a global perspective is still not enough to put a real fight against inequalities. Until “there is no global jurisdiction and reporting institution to survey global inequalities, these will remain disintegrated into a motley pattern of national-state inequalities” (Beck, 2003, p461).

International cooperation also brings a Decentring of State-based approaches to security, which in turn, produces more equilibrium and guarantees more safety to “weak” nations. The global brings about the creation of a “cooperative security system, in which states identify positively with one another so that the security of each is perceived as the responsibility of all” (Wendt, 1992, p400).

A Critique of Methodological Nationalism

Globalisation theorists deeply criticise Methodological Nationalism, a stream of thought which profoundly shaped the direction of the original discipline of IR, through the definition of its narrow frameworks. Ulrich Beck, one of the most famous theorists of the cosmopolitan approach, offers a brilliant critique of it. Methodological nationalism only manages to produce a continuous cycle of self-limiting beliefs which do not allow room for adaptation to new contemporary challenges. It is tiring and continuous contraposition between them or us, north or south, weak or strong. Its concepts are not appropriate anymore in the rise of the global age. He calls for a “paradigmatic reconstruction and redefinition of social science from a national to a cosmopolitan perspective [which] can be understood as […] a broadening of horizons for social science research” (Beck, 2003, p456). “Social science must be re-established as a transnational science of the reality of denationalisation, transnationalisation, and “re-ethnification” in a global age – and this is on the levels of concepts. Theories, and methodologies as well as organizationally. This entails a re-examination of the fundamental concepts of “modern society” (Beck, 2003, p458).

The cosmopolitan age requires a redefinition of the understanding of sovereignty in both the national and international context (Beck, 2003). Therefore, he states that “traditional conceptualisations of terms and the construction of borders between the “national” and the “international”, domestic and foreign politics, or Society and the State are less and less appropriate to tackling the challenges linked to the global age” (Beck, 2003, p456). Therefore, the main focus on the debate of globalisation has to be “on gaining a new cosmopolitan perspective on the global power field, pushing new actors and actors’ networks, power potentials, strategies. And forms of organisation of debonded politics into the field of vision” (Beck, 2003, p 467). Nonetheless, Beck (2003), stresses the importance of not mistaking the critique of this theory for the end of the nation-state theory: nation-state will always exist or will evolve into a new concept close to a possible transnational states theory.

The new Era of Planetary Politics of the Anthropocene

From the 2010s, discussions about a new concept called Anthropocene replaced the Global, which had declined in popularity because the translation of the global theories into reality did not appear to focus on achieving global forms of liberal governments anymore, nor did its original aim seemed to carry a positive connotation anymore. Furthermore, “the lack of strategic engagement […] (was) fundamental to the appeal of the Global Ideology” (Chandler, 2009, p540). Therefore, the rise of depreciative theories of the global made the world of scholars look for another direction. The crisis of the global did not produce a return to the past of IR, but rather a perspective of the problematics of IR.

The rise of the Anthropocene is strictly connected with the development of theories on pluriversalism, multiple universes. Blaney and Tickner (2017) discuss how an ontological turn of IR could exorcise “singular world logics introduced by colonial modernity” and allow the discipline to interact with the conception of pluriversalism. By studying on various sources, they develop “the potentials of a politics of ontology for unmaking the colonial universe, cultivating the pluriverse, and crafting a de-colonial science.” (Blaney and Tickner, 2017, p293). They suggest the presence of alternative world realities, which could produce “multiple and hybrid “reals”” (Blaney and Tickner, 2017, p295).

Both Global and Planetary do not see the world in terms of State-based theories of strategy and interests. Therefore, there is no intern-national theory. The predominant discussions of these two theories are about the how we understand and see the world beyond the strict assumptions of the discipline of IR.

Bruno Latour (1993) goes as far as to say that the modern society is stuck in “great divides”, mainly in the frameworks of nature/culture, human/non-human, facts/values, mind/body. These separations allow Western society “to claim to represent a singular reality in a unified science untainted by political interest, power or culture. […] Nature and culture are not discrete categories but intertwined in a multiplicity of hybrid assemblages […] modernity’s particular mode of representing reality is not universally shared. […] many communities do not sharply distinguish humans and other entities, so that animals, plants, and spirits are as much “people” (with consciousness, culture and language) as “we” are” (Blaney and Ticker, 2017, p296). The western societies start paying attention the profoundly original ways of seeing the world, which come from cultures that they had ignored. From them they take new eyes to look at the world: they discern how human activities never separated themselves from the earth’s ecosystem. It is the explosion of a real global conscience with the birth a planetary community, who is aware of the environment and the consequences of humanity’s actions on the planet. This also brought the awareness of agencies that had always been ignored by western society in the international arena: the equal presence of Human and non-human actors; nature declined in many agencies: water, air, etc., and cosmos.

The Planetary is aware that humankind with its actions has changed the planet we live in: the ecosystem, flora and fauna. And the planetary politics have started addressing these problems and, thanks to the rise of a planetary sense of community, governments of many countries have started doing something about it.

The era of the Anthropocene in IR is still relatively new; therefore, there is not as much debate about is as there has been for the International and the Global, but it is visible how planetary seems to have taken away the biggest concern of original IR, which is the gain of power. The race for power which has theorised the first conception of the discipline has come very close to destroying our world and the most recent “update” on IR now works on how to “fix” the unfixable. Planetary politics can be regarded as the least optimistic era of our history, and the only stream of thought which has offered a possible way to save our planet comes from the cultures the western society had tried to crash and integrate within it for centuries.


I will conclude by stating that identifying the key differences between the international, global and planetary is crucial because they show the development of the frameworks within which humankind moved and evolved, over the centuries, the conflicts and the scientific developments. Therefore, these differences provide the world with a reflection of the changing times and the world’s rejection of a one-world World, hegemony and lack of representation of multiple identities, interests, and beliefs. We have only recently entered the phase of planetary politics, although 8 years in IR provide a discreet amount of material; therefore, it is too soon to speculate on whether or not the attempts operated by the Anthropocene of preserving our planet will be fruitful, but it is definitely an improvement from the “International” paradigm of IR.


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Organisational Behaviour: An Analysis Of A Team-Based Approach To Working In The Case Of Phil Jones


The aim of this essay is to discuss at length and critically evaluate group and team development and behavioural theories in practice, with reference to the case study concerning Phil Jones and his Gulf Project Team, within Engineering Co, evaluating if a team based approach to work is effective within organisations. It firstly establishes to what extent Phil Jones’ analysis of his group’s current situation is accurate, referring Tuckman and Jensen’s stages of group development in evaluating this. Then it discusses the possible interventions that could be made by Phil to allow his team to get back on track, and reach the performing stage of team development. It is then noted that a possible intervention that could assist the team in reaching this stage is to become a virtual team. The potential issues facing virtual teams are then evaluated, and are contrasted with the issues faced by Phil Jones’ team, with possible solutions offered to issues facing such virtual teams and virtual team leaders, allowing them to reach the performing stage. Finally this essay critically analyses the strengths and weaknesses of a team-based approach to work as a whole, drawing from Phils Jones’ case, a range of literature, and anecdotal experience to conclude that the use of a team-based approach to work can be an effective way of working, through the use of strong e-leadership skills and technology to manage teams virtually.


In contemporary society a team-based approach to working is becoming evermore common (Callanhan, 2004), and has become prominent among project teams in the engineering industry (Schaffer et al, 2012). Hence it is unsurprising that a project team; a group of individuals whom come together for an individual task, disbanding after its conclusion (Poel, Stoker and Van der Zee, 2014), is used in Phil Jones’ case for the Gulf Project within Engineering Co. Despite the high popularity of a team-based approach to project work, it is debatable if such approaches are the most efficient way of working, due to the myriad of issues which can arise amongst a team due to poor leadership, leading to them struggling to perform. However when teams succeed the benefits of a team-based approach to project work are reaped (Terry, 1999). Hence through an analysis of group and team development, discussion of interventions made to aid team development, and an evaluation of the strengths and weaknesses of a team-based approach, with reference to Phil Jones’ case, it can be established if a team-based approach to project work is effective within organisations in modern society.

Tuckman and Jensen’s Stages of Group Development in the Case of Phil Jones

Initially Phil Jones lacked the training to deal with people issues amongst the group and lead his team. Initially it must be noted that teams and groups are defined differently. A group consists of a number of individuals all of whom accomplish their tasks independently, which have a similar purpose (Gilley and Kerno Jr, 2010). Smith (1967) also gives the description of a group saying that it is two or more individuals who collaborate, share common objectives and norms and have a communal identity. Although different researchers, both give a similar description of a group in that individuals still have common goals. The definition of a team is very similar to a group, however; a group may not be a team but a team may be a group. Hence these terms cannot be used interchangeably. Baldwin et al (2008) defined a team as a group of individuals who have a great amount intercommunication and interdependence, sharing equal responsibility in their appointed objective. The clear difference between a group and a team is therefore the higher level of interdependence and equal responsibility a team has in achieving their objective.

To remedy his teams’ issues, to make them stop working as a group and start working as a team, Phil read about the stages of group development (Tuckman 1965). Tuckman and Jensen (1977), defined five group development stages, the initial two of which are; forming (Tuckman 1965); when team members get to know each other; unlikely to disagree with their teammates to avoid conflict at an early stage, and storming; defined by Bonebright (2009), as involving disagreements; with frictions in the group as the individual roles and tasks of team members can be unclear, leading to work moving slower than anticipated and team tensions. Phil concluded his group was stuck at the storming stage, and struggled to see how to resolve conflict and reach stages three, four and five defined by Tuckman and Jensen (1977) as; norming; where group members understand their roles and goals, feeling belonging among the team; storming; where the group works effectively as one, building on each others strengths and weaknesses, and finally adjourning; where the group completes their project, evaluates and disbands.

Using Tuckman and Jensen’s 1977 stages of group development conclusively Phil’s diagnosis of the situation is correct, as there are similarities between the storming stage of group development and Phil’s teams position. The case study exemplifies the transition of the team from the forming stage to the storming stage. Phil generated competition within the team, as in his opinion a team needs disagreements to achieve creative innovative ideas. Phil’s point of view is that teams need some debate, as this is what happens among teams in the storming stage, in order to reach the norming stage. Instead of this, the team ended up with more issues than accomplishments, getting stuck in the storming stage, resulting in Phil having to deal with more disputes between team members than project developments. This is common; according to Gersick (1988) many teams end up being stuck in the storming stage, never moving onto the performing stage due to poor management of disputes by leaders like Phil. Hence the project is falling behind due to the lack of clarity of instruction regarding team members roles from Phil as a leader, leading to multiple members completing the same work, resulting in a waste of capital and time. Fapohunda (2013) claims clarity is one of the main elements that concerns team members at storming stage, stating it is often the cause of all disputes regarding roles within in the team. This suggests that due to poor leadership from Phil through misguided attempts to bring the group together through conflict, to gain a sense of belonging as found in the norming stage, interventions are needed to overcome mistakes made by Phil to get out of the storming stage.

Hackman’s Team Leadership Mistakes In the Case Of Phil Jones

Hackman’s work (1998) is used to show the common mistakes made with teams, all of which are a common feature in the Gulf Project Team at Engineering Co. One of the obvious mistakes defined by Hackman (1998) and displayed by Phil Jones is attempting to build a team by managing them as individuals, encouraging members to lack communication with each other, hampering the norming stages characteristic of team spirit. In Phil’s team this is difficult to avoid, as the physical distance of the members placed in different locations hampers any attempt from Phil to motivate members not only communicate with him; the only member to have physically met everyone, but to communicate with each other to gain a sense of team belonging. This leads to another mistake featured in Hackman’s 1998 work, exemplified by The Gulf Project Team; a lack of agreement regarding roles, authority, and boundaries for all team members. This issue is also difficult to avoid within Phil’s team, as it is harder for the team to agree on limitations, delegation and boundaries if they can’t physically meet and work things out, suggesting that distance has again hampered the teams communication and sense of belonging. This exemplifies a further mistake made on Phil’s part featured in Hackman’s 1998 work; a clear lack of planning and execution of tasks. To resolve this Phil must show organisational skill, delegating work effectively, to stop time being wasted through duplicated work, fracturing the teams’ sense of belonging further.

The final mistake shown by Phil Jones featured in Hackman’s 1998 work, is assuming all the members of the ‘team’ have the necessary skills to work together, despite being a diverse group from multiple cultural backgrounds, who are unknown to each other. Phil shows poor leadership regarding his cultural awareness surrounding his authority and responsibility in decision-making, and is naïve, being “sure everything would somehow have fallen into place as at first people appeared to be committed to the project and the team”. The forming stage is crucial to team development. By distancing himself from this stage, encouraging team conflict over team belonging despite members’ diversity in the teams’ early stages, he has created a fractured team. He must rectify this; as workplace diversity is becoming increasingly important in society (Parham and Muller, 2008). Phil must not see this as an issue to progress, and accept today’s workforce is diversified. Instead of taking a Laissez-Faire approach, he must look to use this as an advantage, working to integrate cultures to produce the end result.

Phil is correct that his team is still in the storming stage of Tuckman’s stages development; hence he must address such mistakes. Phil must show leadership in the initial stages of getting the team back on track ensuring that until the team is norming it does not control itself, accepting delegation and clarity of roles and working practice. Once the team has a better understanding of each other he can allow them more freedom, as Matsudaira (2016) states “being a good leader means allowing the people around you to be experts in their domains”. Hence through understanding his team members and delegating efficiently Phil can get the best out of everyone, by drawing on motivation theories using social identity to get the best out of the team, giving each member a task suited to their skills they can be proud of. Lewis (2011) states social identity “refers to the desire of individuals to strive to maintain some perceived distinctiveness”. Hence if through interventions all dispersed group members can be motivated to take pride in the work through motivational leadership and a feeling of belonging through their role in the team, there will be no duplication of work and less conflict. Hence a key intervention Phil Jones could use to remedy all such issues and allow team to perform, and hence work as a team efficiently is the use of a virtual team.

The Use Of Virtual Project Teams To Reach The Performing Group Development Stage

A virtual team is defined as “a group of people who interact through interdependent tasks guided by common purpose and work across space, time, and organizational boundaries with links strengthened by information, communication, and transport technologies” (Gassman and Von Zedtwitz, 2003 p.244). Hence though leading a team in person is difficult (Lilian 2014), virtual project team leaders face greater issues. Kayworth and Leidner (2002) found virtual project teams face similar issues to traditional teams, more strongly in virtual settings, coupled with challenges linked to dispersion of members, high reliance on technology and strong communication. Consequently specific leadership strategies are needed. The strategy utilized by managers of virtual teams is e-leadership, defined as “a social influence process, mediated by advanced information technologies, to produce a change in attitudes, feelings, thinking, behaviour and/or performance with individuals, groups or organisations” (Avolio, Kahai and Dodge, 2001 p.617). Hence e-leaders utilize technology to resolve virtual team issues by influencing team behaviour, as the goals of leadership; motivation, vision, determination and innovation (Spicker, 2012) are unchanged, however the mediums implemented to resolve issues are vastly different in virtual project teams.

The initial issue e-leaders face when managing a virtual project team is distance. Distance in a virtual team is established by geography, time zone, and familiarity among team members. In Phil’s case, geography and time zone impeded the team’s success, as though cultural differences were the reason why Phil was the key communicator in the team, to some extent the issue of coordinating an appropriate time for group communication due to differing time zones hampered simultaneous work, proving detrimental in motivating the team to communicate with each other individually. Studies show this assumption. Cummings (2011) found differing work hours caused by time zones burdens team members and leaders. Such levels of dispersion of team members as in Phil’s case can hinder team members familiarity with each other, as he is the only person on the team to have communicated with all team members, reducing social familiarity, which is important to how teams operate (Zaccaro and Bader, 2002). To remedy this e-leaders can address distance by responding quickly to distance specific issues regarding deadlines, then finding a good time to use virtual meeting software, enhancing feelings of closeness through diverse technologies, achieving team performance and greater organisational values. Hence in Phil’s case making the team virtual would be positive in this aspect, as the use of technology would aid the team’s success as schedules and deadlines could easily be accessed by all. Furthermore greater feeling of closeness among team members through the use of virtual meetings could be made, allowing team members to contact each other directly, rather than through Phil.

Though physical distance can be remedied through this, cultural diversity regarding national culture, and values caused by dispersion requires other strategies to be taken. Diversity can be problematic as like in Phil’s case cultural expectations regarding work ethic, work execution and job roles can vary regionally (Burnelle, 2012), causing friction, misunderstandings and fractured communication in the team, with further difficulties when there is a language barrier. E-leaders can solve issues related to cultural diversity by designing team-building sessions through technological mediums to ensure team members understand each other’s cultural differences. They can also address ambiguous online communications, ensuring no misunderstandings. Furthermore promoting a sense of belonging in a virtual team keeps members engaged and stops feelings of isolation from the rest of the team, reducing in and out groups (Leonard, 2011). Therefore through accommodating diversity through teambuilding and technology Phil would be best making his project team virtual as it reduces cultural frictions, and improves members sense of belonging.

Though diversity can cause communication errors within a virtual team, such errors can also be caused by technological breakdowns and, as in Phil’s case; a lack of clarity given by leaders regarding the roles and behavioural expectations of team members, leading to work being completed incorrectly. Hence if the qualities of effective communication; “quantity, frequency and accuracy of information exchange” (Gallenkamp et al 2011, p.8) are unfulfilled, communication breakdowns occur, causing frictions and hampering the team’s success as in Phil’s team. Communication is difficult in a virtual team, as face-to-face communication is omitted from most communicative mediums, potentially deterring emphasis on certain points. The lack of face-to-face contact may cause interactions to lose social or contextual information (Purvanova and Bono, 2009), such as a member’s higher professional status, or higher level of expertise on a subject. Hence to resolve such issues, e-leaders must ensure it becomes habit to team members to maintain continuous contact with each other, and analysing communications to ensure clarity is given regarding roles and expectations. Video-chat technologies can mediate this issue. Hence by making his team virtual Phil could resolve his teams and his own communicative issues.

Hence by improving communication e-leaders create social belonging within a virtual team, eventually creating trust. Trust is important within virtual teams as it motivates individual members to fulfil their role, building dependability (Uber Grosse, 2002). If trust is not achieved conflicts and low group satisfaction occur, deterring the team’s chance of success, as in Phil’s case. E-leaders can create trust through video-chats and electronic meeting systems, promoting communication, joint-efforts and a shared understanding of team issues. Hence through motivating his team to communicate effectively and hence building trust through technological mediums, over-coming distance and diversity, Phil could bring his team to performing stage as a virtual team, by becoming an e-leader. Therefore the use of project teams can be effective within modern society, should a virtual team be used due to recent technological innovations.

Strengths and Weaknesses Of A Team Based Approach to Work

However even when using a virtual team there are strengths and weaknesses of a team based approach to work, within a group of individuals. Some may say a team-based approach to work is far more effective than accomplishing a complex task individually. This is because several people can divide the work up, decreasing individual workload and providing many different ideas to cope with the complexity of a task. Wageman (1997) stated several viewpoints are more suitable when the task is complicated. This is also supported by Klein (2005) stating multiple people are required to carry out a task if the workload is extravagant. Working in a team on a complex task also increases levels of creativity when completing a task. Amabile, et al. (1996) states teamwork increases creativity, as members all have different and diverse backgrounds, combined with the fact that members’ ideas are challenged by others within the team to reach common goals. Furthermore Moreland (2006) explains that working in a team will increase the ability of members’ to specifically remember and recall important project information to reach common goals. This is because members of a group are aware of each other and remember different pieces of information better than other members would. If a member forgets a piece of information another may remember and be able to recall it due to goal interdependence. The degree of goal interdependence will have a significant impact on all members of a team. If there is a high level of objective interdependence, this will enhance team members’ execution of current tasks (Emans, et al., 2001). The authors believe that a high degree of goal interdependence promotes cooperation amongst group members, hence improving performance when carrying out projects. Furthermore Emans, et al. (2001) states that this greater execution of interdependent tasks is positively correlated to group members job satisfaction.

However using a team is not always the most efficient method to complete a task, as each member of the team has a different perspective. Therefore, in team discussions, each team member will have different perceptions, which makes decision time-consuming. Hinsz, et al. (2003) noted how teams are very contemplative in operation; hence their time to make a decision is very slow; whereas an individual’s decision-making process is much faster. Cognitive thinking is also impeded due to the way people communicate in teams (Cooke, et al., 2013). Diehl and Stroebe (1987) elaborated saying that communication of ideas and knowledge interrupts cognitive thinking by preventing other team members from creating ideas. This is so as one person in a team talks at a time, hence planting their idea first and mitigating others thoughts. Members also suffer from being able to challenge a group decision once it is already being carried out. Hence even if the decision is working out poorly, group individuals will generally fail at proposing alternative strategies. Hinsz (2015) stated that teams cause members to lose their own self-awareness and even if a member has knowledge that a team decision is incorrect, or working ineffectively they will not query it.

One of the most substantial disadvantages of working in a team is social loafing. Usually one member of a large team tends to exert much less effort than the rest of the team. This not only causes frustration in other members, but also reduces the quality of the project. Harkins, et al. (1979) found that in larger groups the average performance of each person decreased, with the explanation that some individuals felt like they could slack whilst remaining undetected using the group. However now more than ever it is difficult for individuals not to be called out on ‘social loafing’ in a group, if a project team is managed effectively through technology. With the innovation of cloud based constantly editable software such as Google Docs, e-leaders such as Phil Jones can continuously check on the pace of work uploaded by his team members, ensuring work is completed accurately, creativley and at an appropriate pace to ensure deadlines are met, and furthermore giving such leaders the ability to know which individual team members are doing the majority of the work, allowing social loafers to be pulled up through virtual devices.


Conclusively a team-based approach to work though popular, can be inefficient if team leaders fail to assert their authority and leadership skills in early group formation ad storming stages, hindering their team from reaching the performing group development stage as defined by Tuckman and Jensen’s stages of group development. However should interventions be put in place such as a virtual team, teams can overcome the variety of social and communicative challenges that can face a failing dispersed team as defined by Hackman’s work, and as exemplified in The Gulf Project Team. Hence virtual teams can allow teams to perform effectively, with a review of literature concluding the use of a team-based approach to project work is effective within organisations in modern society, due to recent technological advances.


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Construction of identity and images of the communion in post-colonial Indonesia: college essay help online

Coexist with colonist; Construction of identity and images of the communion in post-colonial Indonesia.

Subject area, aims and objectives

Subject Area

Britain, Dutch and Japan are the three empires which politically colonised Indonesia for more than 100 years. After gaining their independence in 1945, Indonesia began constructing their identity to state their power and gain recognition from other countries. However, during the transition period, there are possibilities that the formation of identity may produce by doing assimilation with former colonist country by adjusting and adapting the existing colonist identity legacy. The relationship during colonial period between the individual and socio-cultural space is as follows shaped in a dual hybrid position, a hybrid that represents the identity of Indonesian communion.

This research would like to examine the visual representation of Indonesian communion. The visual identity used by the state such as the national emblem, currency design, military crest, and maps–which the latest considered as Western imperial’s science and technology gifts– is a construction of the national identity through the symbolism which represents Indonesia’s in international circumstance.


Examining the identity formation and transition in pre and post-colonial Indonesia (a decade between 1940– 1950), which may generate some insight about how the hybrid of two visual identities–Indonesia’s and Colonist–coexist and later build the images of the communion in Indonesian minds.
Utilizing graphic design studies to excavate the complexity of identity construction during the postcolonial period which cannot be understood by conventional history narrative.


Examine and exploring the founded sources idea, and learn the method of combining the visual identification such as in symbols, colour or visual style which considered share universal visual language and mutual value for both sides.
Deconstruct how the product such as technology and science perceived and accepted by the natives and later adapted it as their identity. (Such as Map)
Experimenting and do iterative process with deconstruction method.
Examine the tools used by the government to certifies the identity and nationality during decades of transition. (contemporary: Passport)
Identify how national identity intertwined and influence with personal details (such as ID Card, Passport) which developed the image as a part of the community.

Historical context

Postcolonial History

The research begins with the studies and history of postcolonialism, which commonly understand as an aftermath of Western colonialism or various form of imperialism, both represented in the historical period or state of affair. However, some argue that, etymologically, postcolonialism frequently misunderstood as a temporal concept; the time after colonialism has ceased, or the time following the politically determined Independence Day on which a country breaks away from its governance by another state. Gilbert and Tompkins (1996) suggested that a theory of post-colonialism must, then, respond to more than the merely chronological construction of post-independence, and to more than just the discursive experience of imperialism. The postcolonial theory thus establishes intellectual spaces for subaltern peoples to speak for themselves, in their voices, and thus produce cultural discourses of philosophy, language, society and economy, balancing the imbalanced us-and-them binary power-relationship between the colonist and the colonial subjects.

The Postcolonialism studies indicate a possible future of overcoming colonialism, anticipating the potential new forms of the global empire and new forms of domination and subordination (Encyclopædia Britannica, 2018).

Postcolonial Theory

Postcolonialism aimed at destabilising these theories (intellectual and linguistic, social and economic) employing which colonialists “perceive”, “understand”, and “know” the world. The postcolonial theory thus establishes intellectual spaces for subaltern peoples to speak for themselves, in their voices, and thus produce cultural discourses of philosophy, language, society and economy, balancing the imbalanced us-and-them binary power-relationship between the colonist and the colonial subjects.

Postcolonial Identity

Decolonized people develop a postcolonial identity that based on interactions between different identities (cultural, national, and ethnic as well as gender and class-based) which are committed varying degrees of social power by the colonial society. In postcolonial literature, the anti-conquest narrative analyses the identity politics that are the social and cultural perspectives of the subaltern colonial subjects—their creative resistance to the culture of the coloniser. How such cultural resistance complicated the establishment of a colonial society; how the colonisers developed their postcolonial identity; and how neocolonialism actively employs the Us-and-Them binary social relation to view the non-Western world as inhabited by The Other.

However, postcolonial theory is somehow problematic. John Lye (1997) argues that while the theory deals with the reading and writing of literature written in previously or currently colonised countries, or literature written in colonising countries which deals with colonisation or colonised peoples. The post-colonial theory focuses particularly on;

The way in which literature by the colonising culture distorts the experience and realities, and inscribes the inferiority, of the colonised people
literature by colonised peoples which attempts to articulate their identity and reclaim their past in the face of that past’s certain otherness.

It can also deal with the way in which literature in colonising countries appropriates the language, images, scenes, traditions and so forth of colonised countries.

Marxist Scholar Vivek Chibber (2013) express that postcolonial theory will remember for its revival of cultural essentialism and its acting as an endorsement of orientalism, rather than being an antidote to it. It is essentialized cultures, painting them as fixed and static categories and presents the difference between East and West as unbridgeable. On his book Postcolonial Theory and the Specter of Capital, Chibber focusing mainly on the strain of postcolonial theory known as subaltern studies. He makes a strong case for why we can — and must — conceptualise the non-Western world through the same analytical lens that we use to understand developments in the West.

Contemporary Context

Nina Katchadourian

Hand-held Subway, Geographic Pathologies, Finland’s Longest Road, Finland’s Unnamed Islands, Head of Spain. 1996-2008.

Various work from Nina Katchadourian which exploring the cartographic works. She deconstruct an existing maps and atlas of New York subway system, Finland’s highway, Spanish paper road map to create a new possibility of creating meaning and generates a new ways of seeing things.

Meta Haven Sealand Identity Project

Meta Haven collaborate on the Sealand Identity Project, which was to conceive a national identity for the Principality of Sealand, which is a self-proclaimed nation on a former war platform near the coast of the UK.

Sealand Identity Project was really a combination of this idea of sovereignty, self-proclaimed nationhood, in combination with this flawed entrepreneurial dream of starting an offshore business onboard Sealand.

Theoretical Context

Critical Theory

History of Politics and Identity

Jonathan Friedman (1994) points out there were two aspects of the relation between social identification and the making of history. The first concerned the relationship between the social conditions of identity formation and the production of culturally viable past. The second introduced so-called scientific constructions of other people’s past into the same frame argument.

On the Journal of the Society for Cultural Anthropology, Friedman (1992, p.41) acknowledges that history and discourse about the making of history are positional, that is, it is dependent upon where one located in social reality, within society, and within the global process. The idea is even applicable to the present discourse, which in no way represents an attempt to stand in some objective truth-sphere above or outside of the goings-on of the world. Objective history, just as any other history, is produced in a definitive context and is a particular kind of project.

Besides, he suggested that the discourse of history as well as of myth is simultaneously a discourse of identity; it consists of attributing a meaningful past to a structural present. Objective history produced in the context of a particular kind of selfhood, one that based on a radical separation of the subject from any particular identity, and which objectifies and textualises reality.

Imagined Community

A country which merely liberated from their former colonist would be struggling in defining their own political identity and build their image of communion. As they build the identity on the top of the ruins of existing colonist structure, it would be unavoidable to eradicate their former identity. Even the previous one is arguably an already hybrid of different cultures. However, it was understood that images of the communion were built not only taking the references from the community itself, but also construct by external influence. Benedict Anderson’s theory regarding the identity of a community would be very fit to depict the condition of emerging, newly independent nation.

Anderson (1983, p.6) defines the nation as, “an imagined political community – and imagined as both inherently limited and sovereign…It is imagined because the members of even the smallest nation will never know most of their fellow-members, meet them, or even hear of them, yet in the minds of each lives the image of their communion”. Anderson sees the nation as a social construct, an “imagined community” in which members feel a commonality with others, feel a “horizontal” comradeship with each other even though they may not know them. It could be said that the lasting appeal and political resilience of nationalism of newly independence nation affirm the strength of patriotic feeling and the enormous sacrifices people have made on behalf of their nation.

In the chapter “The Origins of National Consciousness”, where he argues that the convergence of capitalism, printing, and the diversity of vernacular languages led to the birth of national consciousness. Popular nationalism threatened to exclude the European monarchies from the new imagined communities, as the dynasties had dubious and often conflicting national credentials. They responded with what Anderson terms “official nationalism,” a Machiavellian appropriation of nationalist ideas to secure dynastic legitimacy and suppress ethnolinguistic subject groups within their realms. In the European colonial empires, official nationalism served as a tool of the imperial administration.

Census, Map, Museum.

In the more specific topic, Anderson introduces three institutions of powers– Census, Map, Museum–that profoundly shaped the way in which the colonial state imagined its dominion and the legitimacy of its ancestry. As the research emphasises on more pragmatic visual based identity, the writer considered it would be more fruitful on profoundly examining the Map topic. However, the assumption made after thoughtfully deal with the capacity of the author, which couldn’t afford further research on Census and Museum.

It could be said that the Mercatorian map, which brought in by the European colonisers via print, was beginning to shape the imagination of Southeast Asians, including Indonesia (Anderson, 1983, p. 247) Regarding most communication theories anti-common sense, a map is a scientific abstraction of reality. A map merely represents something which already exists objectively “there”. Anderson (1983) points out, “In the history, I have described, this relationship was reversed. A map anticipated spatial reality, not vice versa. In other words, a map was a model for, rather than a model of, what it purported to represent… It had become a real instrument to concretise projections on the earth’s surface… The discourse of mapping was the paradigm which both administrative and military operations worked within and served”

Map as a Logo

As an administrative and military tool, maps acknowledge the ability as the second avatar of one nation or empire, the map-as-logo. Its origins were reasonably innocent— the practice of the imperial states of colouring their colonies on maps with an imperial dye. British colonies were usually pink-red. French purple-blue, Dutch yellow-brown, and so on. (Anderson, 1983, p. 250) The map becomes a pure sign, no longer compass to the world. As the map then entered an infinite reproducible series, available for transfer to posters, official seals, letterheads, magazine which made them instantly recognisable and visible–the logo-map penetrated deep into the popular imagination, forming a powerful emblem for the anticolonial nationalism.

One of the most known examples of this process is what happened on the island of New Guinea. Dutch Empire settlement in Indonesia was made on the island of New Guinea and succeed to incorporate it into Netherland Indies in 1901 and made it in time for Dutch logoization. Dutch colonial logo-maps sped across in the colony, showing a West New Guinea with nothing to its East, unconsciously reinforced the developing imagined ties among Indonesian nationalist. Even Indonesian nationalist was struggling and made as a national sacred site in the national imagining, they never actually saw New Guinea with their own eyes until the 1960s.

Anderson (1983, p. 251) then relates that “the prestige of the colonial state was accordingly, now intimately, linked to that of its homeland superior.” As more and, more Europeans were being born in Southeast Asia, and being tempted to make it their home. The old sacred sites were to be incorporated into the map of the colony, and their ancient prestige (which, if this had disappeared, as it often had, the state would attempt to revive) draped around the mappers.

The “warp” of this thinking was a totalizing classificatory grid, which could be applied with unlimited flexibility to anything under the state’s real or contemplated control: peoples, regions, religions, languages, products, monuments, and so forth. The effect of the grid was always to be able to say of anything that it was this, not that; it belonged here, not there.

Parallel Theory


To provide a profound understanding of Map and its influence on the construction of national identity, the writers realised that the study of cartography is one of the best ways to explain it. While map in the previous point bears the capacity to become a witness of powers, the map also can produce their language. Polish-American philosopher Alfred Korzybski’s theory of general semantics states that; human knowledge is limited by our physical being as well as the structure of language. Though the human experience of reality is limited, yet increasingly see the world through more maps, bigger maps of more data, and more maps of bigger data.

Huffman and Matthews (2014) endorse that, “Cartographers have always been storytellers. This metaphor works well for thematic maps, but topographic or reference maps also tell stories: of the landscape, of the settlement, and of the shape of the natural and human-modified world that surrounds us… Cartographers take data and wrestle it before applying some graphical treatment that provides the narrative. They codify the story in a visual language that they hope speaks to people.”

While cartography has the ability to promoted scientific objectivity over artistic representation and vice versa, the scientific objectivity did not always go the actual representation, a metaphor involved in this work, such map does not always mean the territory. Like any other tools that generate knowledge, maps are informative, but they also can be deceptive, even threatening. At one time or another, it probably safe to say that all of us have been misled by a map designed to hide something the mapmaker did not want us to know, or drawn in such a way that we jump to false conclusions from it.

H. J. de Blij (1996, p. xi-xii) points out that Map crosses the line between information and advocacy. In which later he added that in the world of changing political and strategic relationships and devolving nation-sites, maps become propaganda tools. Some national government even go so far as to commit cartographic aggression, mapping parts of neighbouring countries as their own. Turkish Cypriots, Sri Lankan Tamils, Crimean Russians publish maps that proclaim their political aspirations, fuelling nationalism that spell disaster for the state system.

When the research go further in finding the capability and possibility of a map in manipulating or altering the fact, the research leads to an exciting book written by Dr Mark Monmonier, How to Lie with Maps. In this book, Monmonier (1996, p.2) acknowledges that in showing how to lie with maps, he want to make readers aware that maps–like speeches and paintings–are authored collections of information and also are subject to distortions arising from ignorance, greed, ideological blindness, or malice. The idea seems uncomfortable and uneasy to accepted as it lot of sense of offensiveness. However, he provides a stunning yet straightforward analogy. He offers the idea of the relationship of Map and Scale and its capability on defining the truth.

He took the example as follows; the square inch on the large-scale map could show inch on the ground in far greater detail than the square inch on the small-scale map. Both maps would have to suppress some details, but the designer of the 1:10,000,000-scale map must be far more selective than the cartographer producing the 1:10,000-scale map. In the sense that all maps tell white lies about the planet, the small-scale map has a smaller capacity for truth than large-scale maps.

That is the softball of how maps tell lies, then what about the other possible one? Such as Maps for political propaganda. A good propagandist knows how to shape opinion by manipulating maps. Political persuasion often concerns territorial claims, nationalities, national pride, borders, strategic position, conquests, attacks, troop movements, defences, spheres of influence, regional inequality, and other geographic phenomena conveniently portrayed cartographically. (Monmonier, 1996, p. 87).

People trust maps, and intriguing maps attract the eye as well as connote authority. The map is a perfect symbol of the state and an intellectual weapon–in disputes over territory. Naïve citizens willingly accept as a truth map based on a biased and sometimes crooked selection of facts.

Maps as Symbols of Power and Nationhood

The string of newly independent states formed after World War II, such as Indonesia, revived the national atlas as a symbol of nationhood. In the service of the state, maps and atlases play dual roles. Monmonier (1996, p.89) research confirmed that although a few countries in western Europe and North America had state-sponsored national atlases in the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries, these served mainly as reference works and symbols of scientific achievement. However, between 1940 and 1980 the number of national atlases increased from fewer than twenty to more than eighty, as former colonies turned to cartography as a tool of both economic development and political identity.

Even tiny maps on postages stamps can broadcast political propaganda. Postage stamps bearing maps are useful propaganda tools for developing nations and ambitious revolutionary movements. In mail interest, it is useful to keep aspirations alive domestically and to suggest national unity and determination internationally. Postage stamps maps afford a small but numerous means for asserting territorial claims (Monmonier, 1996, p. 91). The war claims between India, Pakistan and China offer us an excellent example of this. Official government tourist maps show Kashmir as a part of India, on the other hand as a part of Pakistan. In reality, India controls the southern part of the state of Kashmir, Pakistan controls the northwestern part, and China controls three sections along the eastern margin. The other example is the Ligitan and Sipadan dispute. It was a territorial dispute between Indonesia and Malaysia over two islands in the Celebes Sea, namely Ligitan and Sipadan. The dispute began in 1969 as Malaysia put them on their official passport and tourism map. Thus it was mostly resolved by the International Court of Justice (ICJ) in 2002, which opined that both of the islands belonged to Malaysia as British Empire, their former colonist, has already settled administrative work since 1930 on both islands.

The latest example given probably slightly capture how the state intervenes-wars, colonialism and national planning intertwined on mapping activities. However, these activities of the major powers not confined to their colonial territories, the very existence of which had left them with global rather than local strategic preoccupations. On Maps and Air Photographs, Dickinson (1979, p. 48) states that; stimulated by various motives, among which the discovery of potentially exploitable areas and resources and the complete delineation of boundaries against possible counter-claimants are two obvious ones, most European nations with colonial possessions carried out various surveys in them often very actively. At first, both the maps themselves and the bodies that produced them were slightly varied.


The initial stage of the research would emphasize on experimental design, as this approach is a careful balancing of several features including “power”, generalizability, various forms of “validity”, practicality and cost. A thoughtful balancing of these features in advance will result in an experiment with the best chance of providing useful evidence to modify the current state of knowledge in a particular design field. The goal is to actively design an experiment that has the best chance to produce meaningful, defensible evidence, rather than hoping that proper statistical analysis may be able to correct for defects after the fact.

In the realm of experimenting, the deconstructive method would be the fittest one to tackle the question and inquiry of this research. It is a strategy of critical form-making which performed across a range of artefacts and practices, both historical and contemporary. Deconstruction was born to uncover the meaning of a literary work by studying the way its form and content communicate essential humanistic messages.

Lupton and Miller (1994) argue that deconstruction offer the mode of questioning through and about the technologies, formal devices, social institutions, and founding metaphors of representation. That deconstruction belongs to both history and theory. In Derrida’s theory, deconstruction asks how representation inhabits reality. How does the external image of things get inside their inner essence? How does the surface get under the skin?

While examining the construction of the identity of the communion, it is important to trace its source, find the authenticity and telling of a story viewed as a passive record of events. The research foresees to gain a vast amount of result and new insight by studying the meaning of a sign and its relationship to other signs in a system. This principle is the basis of structuralism, an approach to language which focuses on the patterns or structures that generate meaning rather than on the “content” of a given code or custom (Lupton, E. and Miller, J. A., 1994)

How does the theory relate to the practical experimentation?

By experimenting with deconstruction would benefit the research in doing widespread disruption, founded on a challenged and remodelled idea of what existing idea/design can do and bring.

What is the theory for?

As a platform on the iterative process. The fundamental principle of deconstruction and how deconstructive method work help to maintain the system while doing experiment and records thought for future transmissions.

What process of experimentation will be used?

Experimenting by deconstructing existing visual material and try a different approach to generate the possible outcome and utilise the basis of structuralism, an approach to language which focuses on the patterns or structures that generate meaning rather than on the “content” of a given code or custom.

How the project recorded and keep track of what have been done.

Documentation by photograph, video, scanned artefact and scheduled digital/printed publication.

Visual evidence

1st Iteration on deconstruction method: Deconstruction of Indonesia’s National Emblem.
2nd Iteration on deconstruction method: The study of Colonized and Colonist Map.


Niccolo Machiavelli’s The Prince – leadership and power: essay help site:edu

Niccolo Machiavelli’s, The Prince, is one of the most controversial books of its time. Because of its contents, Machiavelli is seen by many as symbol for evil and vice. The book was thought to be so abhorrent that it was banned by the Catholic church, and harshly critiqued by many of Machiavelli’s contemporaries. The Sixteenth Century treatise was meant as an advice book for princes on how to gain power and maintain it, but the methods he proposed for achieving these aims were unsavory to many. In the years following its publication, The Prince, horrified and shocked the general populace due to its challenging of the current view that a leader had to be virtuous and moral, asserting that it was better for a leader to be feared than loved, challenging the idea that a ruler gained his power from divine right alone, and its proposition that a ruler might employ unethical actions to secure his position and better his country.

One of the first of things that Machiavelli tried to do in his treatise is to separate ethics from princes. While, many of his contemporaries believed that a successful prince would be one filled with the usual virtues, like honor, purity, and integrity, Machiavelli threw this idea out a window. He did not believe that being simply having the “right” value system would grant a leader power and security. In fact, he argued that often, being tied down by such morals would be counterproductive to one maintaining their position. Moreover, “if a ruler wishes to reach his highest goals he will not always find it rational to be morale” (Skinner 42).

So, what characteristics did Machiavelli think would actually make a strong leader? His ideal prince is one who is cunning and ruthless. Machiavelli believed that, “a ruler who wishes to maintain his power must be prepared to act immorally when this becomes necessary” (26). A ruler should also not be worried about being miserly, for overall this will help rather than hurt his control (Mansfield). If a prince is too generous his people will also become accustomed to such generosity and be angered when it is not forthcoming, and in the long run he will have to tax his people to make up for what he has given away. Such ideas went directly against the Christian and humanist ideas about morality in Machiavelli’s time.

Another major point of interest that Machiavelli discussed throughout The Prince was the concept of fortune and its role in a princes rule. He believed that it was of the utmost importance that a prince try to win fortune to his side as best he can. Here again, Machiavelli differentiates from his predecessors. Many past philosophers believed that fortune would smile upon a ruler who was just and virtuous. Machiavelli disagreed with such notions. Morales had nothing to do with pleasing fortune. Instead, it was the more violent and ambitious ruler, who would seize the moment, that would have a better chance of winning fortune (Spencer). Machiavelli went so far as to compare fortune to a woman and stated that, “If you want to control her, it is necessary to treat her roughly” (87).

While Machiavelli did not think it was in a prince’s best interest to always be kind and good, he did note the importance of his subjects thinking him to be so. It is very hard to hold control a region, in which the people believe their ruler to be completely immoral. However, they may put up with questionable actions of a ruler if once in a while he does something that appears to be in their best interest. The crueler a ruler is the more crucial it is to appear to the public as being the opposite. Once the people are convinced of a ruler being virtuous, he will be able to get away with the most unscrupulous behavior.

Most people would consider it essential for a ruler to keep his promises and appear trustworthy, maintaining a good relationship with his subjects, not Machiavelli. Sometimes it is not realistic for a ruler to be able to make good on every promise. It may even be better for the people in the long run if he does not. A prince should not have qualms about breaking his word, “plausible reasons can always be found for such failure to keep promises” (Machiavelli 62). Moreover, if a prince prides himself on always keeping his word the people will always expect this. When unfortunate circumstances force him to deviate from what he swore to do, the people will be outraged, whereas if they expect promises to be broken it will not garner as much anger.

Another stable argument of Machiavelli’s book is the power of fear. Machiavelli believes fear is one of the best way to keep subjects in line. Fear is strongest of all the emotions and will give a ruler the most control. Striving for the people’s love is not as fruitful, due to mankind’s fickle nature. Andrew Curry of the Washington Post notes that for Machiavelli, “ Man’s weak nature was a constant as unchanging as the bright sun that rose above his beloved Tuscan hills.” A leader who relies on love to gain loyalty from his subjects, will find his people nowhere to be found when hard times come. Men tend to what they think is best for them, and due to this they will changes sides quickly. They will adopt a new prince quickly and shed their old one if they believe it will be prosperous for them. However, if the subjects greatly fear their leader they are more likely to obey him. If they believe their ruler to be lax they will think they can get away with some disobedience, but if a prince has made it clear that the consequences will be great they will hesitate (Machiavelli .

One of the main ways Machiavelli demonstrates the power of fear, is through generals and their handling of the troops under them. He praises the Carthaginian general, Hannibal, for his ability to lead such a large army of various peoples with little discord or trouble among his troops. Despite going through many lands unknown to his soldiers, and enduring times of trial, Hannibal was able to keep his soldiers in order because of their respect and fear of him (Machiavelli 60). How did Hannibal make his troops fear him? Through great cruelty, which made him the perfect Machiavellian leader. It was this cruelty that was key of his success according to Machiavelli. He argued that, “if he had not been so cruel, his other qualities would not have been sufficient to achieve that affect” (60).

Scipio was another general of the same period as Hannibal. Like Hannibal he was a brilliant military mind, and one of the greatest leaders of the era. Unlike Hannibal however, he did not exercise brutality with his troops to keep them in check. Whereas Hannibal’s troops would have never dreamed of revolting, for fear of the consequences, Scipio did lose control over his soldiers at fort Sucro, in Spain. Machiavelli harshly critiqued Scipio for this mutiny and no one else. It was Scipio’s easiness with his soldiers that had caused them to grow rebellious. Had he have been more severe in his command they would have been better disciplined (Machiavelli 60). Machiavelli praises Hannibal’s cruelty, while condemning Scipio’s friendliness with his soldiers.

Another aspect of the power of fear, which Machiavelli touched on was with the capturing of new regions. Under most circumstances successfully maintaining control over a newly vanquished city, and keeping its citizens in check can be quite difficult. However, in cases where subduing a city takes great force and bloodshed it will actually be much easier to keep. Most would think the opposite to be true, but Machiavelli argues that those who have been defeated will be to imitated to revolt, due to knowing what the conquerors are capable of (Mansfield). Machiavelli has complete faith in the power of fear. Essentially he believes that a prince should not be concerned about being excessively brutal when trying to defeat the defenders of a town, because in the long run it may actually help him keep dominances over said town. With advice like this, advising one to be cruel, it is no surprise that Machiavelli’s contemporaries were so shocked by his treatise (Spenser).

All of Machiavelli’s pondering about fear begs the question how far should a ruler go to be feared by his people? Machiavelli does acknowledge that there is a lined that can be crossed. A prince must strive to be feared without being completely hated by his subjects (Machiavelli 59) . It is fine for a leader to exercise extreme ruthlessness for the greater good as long as he is able to redeem himself in the eyes of the people. At a certain point, if pushed too far, a prince’s subject’s fear of their ruler will turn to anger and they will grow unruly. Therefore it is important for a prince to be calculated with his cruelty, and not just unnecessarily brutal.

A major issue during Machiavelli’s time was that of Divine right to rule. Essentially, king’s could justify their rule by it supposedly being God’s will, and they had to answer only to him. Only those chosen by God could rule. Machiavelli did not fully agree with this doctrine. He thought that almost anyone should have the right to rule as long as they were cunning enough to do so. Machiavelli cares most about leaders being competent. The foxes and lions should rise above the lambs. That is the best way for country to be assured of gaining strong leaders. With divine right there is no guarantee that a prince will be capable of ruling, and do what is best for his people. In his own region of Florence Machiavelli wanted a ruler who was effective, not one that was supposedly endowed by the creator. All of the advice given in the book is a challenge against divine right, as it shows how someone may gain power by his own actions and not divine right.

Machiavelli’s key argument against any sort of right to rule is that it is power alone that guarantees a prince his control. “a Machiavellian perspective directly attacks the notion of any grounding for authority independent of the sheer possession of power. For Machiavelli, people are compelled to obey purely in deference to the superior power of the state” (Nederman). Simply having the right virtues, divine right, or any other quantifiers of rule do not matter if one does not have true power. A prince’s subjects will stay in line if they know he has great power over them, but not always so if he his relying on their respect of his “divine right” alone.

One of the main themes running throughout all of Machiavelli’s advice seems to be that the ends always justify the means. Now even though Machiavelli never directly states this, he comes very close, and despite his advice being a bit more nuance than that simple phrase, it is not out of line to say that it represents his key ideas on princeship. Machiavelli was one of the first pessimistic realists of his time, and he based his advice on the negative side of humanity. He argued that a prince’s subjects will not always do the moral thing and so a prince should not either. Instead, he should take what actions he believes to be best for securing his rule and his province. Sacrificing a few is a necessary evil if it guarantees the safety of many (Machiavelli 58).

Machiavelli base much of his advice on the topic on real life rulers of his time. points this out saying, “Machiavelli’s guide to power was revolutionary in that it described how powerful people succeeded—as he saw it—rather than as one imagined a leader should operate.” While his contemporaries where dreaming up the qualities of an ideal leader, Machiavelli believed he was giving a guide based on those he had seen be successful. Almost all of the leaders Machiavelli studied, he found to have exercised cruelty and brutality. Mansfield says thus of Machiavelli’s points on necessary evil, “The amoral interpretation fastens on Machiavelli’s frequent resort to “necessity” in order to excuse actions that might otherwise be condemned as immoral.”

One of the main ruler’s who Machiavelli based much of his advice on was Cesare Borgia. Borgia was the perfect Machiavellian leader. He was, “a crude, brutal and cunning prince of the Papal States” ( Editors). He lived in a chaotic time, and the entirety of his rule was face with challenges and uncertainty. Machiavelli admired his ability to handle the problems of his times with such decisive ferocity. He embodied all the traits the Machiavelli was advising the readers of his book to adopt.

Cesare was a man with many enemies and part of his genius lay in his ability to get rid of them. Where others would hesitate to move against powerful men, Borgia did not. He would kill remorselessly if he thought it would help him maintain his land. One of the main examples Machiavelli used to point out Borgia’s cunning, was his luring of the Orsini leaders to the town of Senigallia. He lured them with lavish gifts and lulled them into a false sense of security, promising treaties of peace, but once they had delivered themselves into his hands he killed them (Machiavelli 25). Machiavelli praised this exploit thinking it an exceptionally clever deception.

Borgia also proved his competence as a leader to Machiavelli in his handling of the land he inherited from his father, Pope Alexander VI. The people dwelling there were disorderly and defiant. They had not been well disciplined by their previous ruler, and were not used to really having to obey a leader. Borgia set out to right this wrong. He put an utterly ruthless man, Remirro de Orco, in charge of the area (Machiavelli 26). Many rulers would have told Orco to use caution when dealing with the subjects of the region. He should slowly begin to discipline them so that they would grow use to it over time. However, Borgia did the exact opposite. He gave his new governor complete control to be as severe and merciless as he saw necessary. He new that the cruelty the people would endure under de Orco would be for the better down the road as there would be more order and less lawbreakers.

Even the he knew that it was necessary to use brutality when dealing with his newly acquired land, Borgia did not plan on taking the blame for that cruelty. de Orco’s harsh regime had served to bring discipline to the region, but Cesare Borgia was not blind to the growing anger in those who were suffering under it. Here, in Machiavelli’s mind, Borgia showed his true genius and heartlessness. He killed de Orco and displayed his body in a town, successfully wining the favor of his subjects and getting rid of a possible rival. It Borgia who had put de Orco in charge in the first place, knowing fully well that he was a cruel man, and told him to be a harsh ruler, but the people seemed to forget this and saw Borgia as a hero for killing their oppressor. Those subjects who still had a dislike for Borgia, where too terrified by the execution to cause any discord (Machiavelli 26). So Borgia was able to make his people both love and fear, Machiavelli’s ideal situation. It is clear that much of Machiavelli’s arguments for doing immoral things comes from him having observed Borgia and his callous methods.

Borgia may have been brilliant in the handling of his lands and his enemies, but it was not his own cleverness that gained him his territory in the Romagna. Instead it was the cunning of his father, Pope Alexander IV. Alexander wanted to give his son a state in Italy to help him grow more powerful and, hopefully, eventually make him into a great ruler. However, he knew that he would not be able to do this through peaceful negations, as there were too many other factions who would have been opposed to it. Instead, the Pope would have to use force to size a state. First he sought out to make the states of Italy unstable, by aiding a French invasion of Milan. Doing this helped cause chaos, and the French gave the Pope troops to conquer the Romagna with. The Pope was able his transfer the newly captured states to his son (Machiavelli 24). These actions by the Pope where highly immoral; he helped sow ruin in his own country of Italy to gain a province for Cesare to rule, and he misused the power given to him by his position as Pope to do so. However, Machiavelli praises his ability to take actions that are deemed unethical by society to attain success.

In one chapter of his treatise, Machiavelli addresses those who gained the power from evil deeds. The first example he gives is of Agathocles, of Syracuse. Agathocles is the epitome of doing whatever it takes to get what you want. He was a mere ordinary man, but by his own actions he was able to rise to a position of power in the city of Syracuse. Wanting to become the king of Syracuse he began scheming how this could be accomplished. Eventually he was able to execute a successful coup, and have all his soldiers kill any opposers. He was dishonorable, a murderer, and a traitor, but he did achieve what he set out to do. Machiavelli does point out that these methods wont exactly win someone glory and fame, or at least not the positive kind, but he did commend Agathocles ability to gain power. He also mentions that Agathocles used evil “well” since he had to use it at all (Machiavelli 30-33). Statements like this, that a murdering traitor used evil admirably, are what make Machiavelli’s writing so controversial.

Machiavelli did not stop with Agathocles, he also gave an example more current with the time of a similar situation. Oliverotto of Fermo. Oliverotto had the same cunning and ambition as Agathocles. He too wanted to become the ruler of his hometown Fermo. So, with his mentor he conspired to overthrow the current ruler, his own uncle, Giovanni Fogliani. Oliverotto used his relation to Fogliani to lure him into a trap where he assassinated him, as well as the other leaders of Fermo. With no one else in his way he took control of the region. His immoral actions would have been condemned by most, but Machiavelli’s main issue seems to be that he was not able to keep the power that he gained, as he was killed himself later on. Oliverotto did not use evil well as Agathocles did (Machiavelli 32-32).

Few books have the ability to stir up as much controversy as The Prince. With it Machiavelli tried to set a new example how a prince should act and think, but one that would be found troubling by many in the decades that followed its publication. Its readers would shun it, ban it, mock it, and even go so far as to say that it was satire, because surely there was no way that Machiavelli had actually meant what he wrote. The main cause of all animosity towards the book, came from Machiavelli’s attempt to separate ethics from politics. In the treatise he argued that princes need not be virtuous, and that fear was a great tool to be used to control one’s subjects, better even than love. Furthermore, the book challenged divine right, which put at odds with the churches of the time, and lastly, it promoted the idea of using scrupulous methods to gain power. It is the combination of these four arguments, that were so against the current ideologies of the sixteenth century, that caused many to look at the book with disgust, and the reason why Machiavelli became known as an embodiment of evil.


Organizational change – responding to internal drivers

Organizational change in any business organisation is predominantly influenced by two forces called internal drivers and external drivers. Both can cause favourable as well as unfavourable impacts on organisational change. However, this essay will argue that it is more beneficial for the organisations to introduce changes based on its internal drivers because they are within the organisation and control of the management in bringing the change. Where as the external drivers are beyond the control of the organisation.

In this intensely competitive and globalised world ( Mdletye, Coetzee and Ukpere 2014) of business and management organisational change is very critical and indispensable for numerous competitive advantages. Therefore, companies of all kinds must either initiate change or if not face the natural death (Kotter and Cohen 2008). Hence, although change is task fraught with complexity and challenge (Graetz et al. 2011, p.2) it has become the inevitable phenomena for the successful survival of organization in this modern world.

Organisational change is the continuous process of renewing the firm direction, structure, capabilities, operations, systems and processes to meet the ever-changing needs of external and internal customers (Soosay and Sloan 2005 p.10). It is the movement of an organization away from its present state of status quo (Smith 2005) toward some desired future state to increase its effectiveness (Lunenburg 2010). Nevertheless, as most researchers have found out that, in reality, adopting new changes in the organisation is very difficult and doubtful of success (Robbins 2003 and Raftery 2009 as cited in Beshtawi and Jaaron,2014; p.129) and often land up with failure (Olaghere,n.d p.1; Gilaninia, Ganjinia and Mahdikhanmahaleh 2013). Therefore, in this increasingly uncertain and risky environment (Zhou, Tse and Li, 2006, p.248) it is very crucial to know how to adapt and change according to the environment and to change successfully has become a critical and timeless challenge for any organization ( Feldman, 2004; Pettigrew et al., 2001; Piderit, 2000) for continuous survival and success.

Organisational Change in an organisation is influenced dominantly by two factors called internal factors or internal drivers and external factors or external drivers (Esparcia and Argente (n.d) and Olaghere n.d, p.1).These factors are responsible for triggering the change in the system, policies, product, structures, services, management, performance among many other areas in the organisation (Senior 2002) (as cited in McGuire and Hutchings 2006). Ivancevich and Matteson (2002) consider technology, economic forces and socio-political and legal factors as important external drivers that cause organisational change. However, they argue that these external drivers of change are beyond management’s control and cause a significant impact compelling the organisation to adjust internal processes and systems (McGuire and Hutchings 2006). Conversely, internal drivers are those forces existed within the organisation that influence changes. They are system, structure, management style, leadership, resources, processes, products of the organisation (Esparcia and Argente, n.d).

However, internal factors are more critical to driving organisational change. Ivancevich and Matteson (2002) maintain that human resource issues and process considerations are the most common forces for change within the organisation. They argue that internal factors are generally within the control of management, although sometimes be more difficult to recognise and diagnose than external factors (McGuire and Hutchings 2006).

The external factors are more diversified and intractable compare to internal drivers (Yu and Zhang, 2010, p.3). The internal divers of change are easily influenced by external environments like politics, economy, technology, legal and society.

The external factors helps to determine the opportunities and threats that the company would face, but the internal factors help the company to identify its strengths and weaknesses (Ibrahim and Primiana, 2015, p.285) . Marcus (2005) (as cited in Ibrahim and Primiana, 2015, p.285) noted that organisations should be aware of its strengths and weaknesses and analyzed the extent to which companies can accommodate the opportunities and threats existed in its the external environment.

Anderson and Anderson (n.d) asserted that the most common reason for the failure of managing change with the organizations is the inadequate attention to the less tangible, yet very important, internal drivers such as culture, leader and employee behaviour and their mindset. So, it is very much evident the benefits of concentrating of internal drivers rather than external drivers. This is supported by Kotter and Cohen (2008; p.61) that managers must instigate change by creating the sense of urgency by touching the emotions of employees instead of reasons based on facts and figures. This is possible only through change in internal factors of business enterprise.

Many scholars have consented that internal factors are the key determinants of an organization’s performance (Kinyua-Njuguna, Munyok and Kibera 2014, p. 289) as they provide enabling environment to achieve its goals and objectives. Internal environmental forces provide strengths and weaknesses to the business (Tolbert & Hall, 2009) (cited in (Kinyua-Njuguna, Munyok and Kiber 2014, p.) Fr example, from their study on the effect of internal drivers on community-based HIV and AIDS organizations in Nairobi County, Kenya, Kinyua-Njuguna, Munyok and Kiber (2014) found out that the internal drivers such as organisational structure, strategy, skills, staff, shared values as well as systems helping the organisation to achieve their objective. As a result enhanced the employee performance.

The Resource-based view (RBV) theory, propounded by Penrose (1959) ( as cited in Kute & Upadhyay, 2014,p.68) supported that organizations can gain competitive advantage by concentrating on their internal factors such as abilities, skills, knowledge, capabilities and competencies with reference to technological changes. This is because of strengths and weakness in these areas can be managed and thus the need of enhancing these qualities within the employees can be determined and can be enhanced through continuous organizational learning culture. Furthermore, the following factors such as mission and goals, leadership quality, organisational structure, human resources, technology capacity, organisation culture, employees behaviours and attitude, and organisational performance has to be considered while introducing change in the organisation.

Organisation Vison, Mision, Goals and objectives

Every business organisation is being guided by its mission, goals and objectives pertaining to development philosophy and direction, planning, prioritizing programs, policies, management, organisational structures and everyday responsibilities (Emeka and Eyuche 2014). In nutshell the performance of the company depends on the mission, goals and objectives. Therefore, change in these domains would compel the firm to undertake organisational change to achieve their mission and objectives.


Leadership is one of the very important internal factors in an organisation change (Lunenburg 2010). The leaders have the important role in maintaining the measure of control over the environment of the organisation (McGuire and Hutchings 2006, p.197). The sixteenth century political scientist, Niccolo Machiavelli, stressed that the leader’s vision and future plans are critical in determining the shape and structure of the organisation (McGuire and Hutchings 2006, p.198). According to the organisational change models Cummings and Worley (1993) further recognizes that any change can be implemented successfully only by strong leadership who can garner commitment and readiness to change within the employees through shared vision and strategies to achieve the proposed new change and outcome. The way the managers or leaders establish the internal working structure and systems has influence on the performance of the organisation (Kinyua-Njuguna, Munyok and Kiber 2014, p.285).It means the structures and systems should be very favourable for the employees to work collaboratively everyday towards the shared goals of the organisation. Conversely, poor leadership and management would result in the failure of enterprise in the implementation of change processes and risking the orgainsation to disastrous consequences (Shiamwama, Ombayo and Mukolwe 2014, p.148). Effective leaders help organisations to surpass any internal obstacles and bring changes through envisioning the desired goals and objectives, energizing the employees, and enabling the resources and conditions (Zhou, Tse and Li 2006, p.253) which are paramount to overcome any external inhibitors of change and improve performance.

For instance, Steve Jobs, the founder of APPLE Computers, was eased out of the business because of poor management. He later went back into the business and was absorbed as a mere employee just to tap his original idea (Cole, 2004). in (Shiamwama, Ombayo and Mukolwe (2014)

Organisation Structure

Change in organizational structure involves redefining and regulating the organizational roles and relations by expanding or reducing audition, determining the decision making authority, selecting decentralised or central management type, regulating communication channels within the organisation ( İkinci, S.S.2014,p.123).It is another internal factor that act as driver of change. It is the way how jobs are allocated, coordinated and supervised through the system that facilitates communication and efficient work processes among the employees in the organisation (Elsaid, Okasha and Abdelghaly, 2013, p.1). In fact the successful execution and implementation of any plans and programs depends on it. The flat bureaucratic structure with decentralised decision-making system and horizontal reporting system among the teams and various managers are more preferred by the employees (Ohlson, 2007).This fosters faster and effective decision and action thus enhancing the efficiency and productivity of the employees and organisation as whole. The tall hierarchical system of organisation characterised by long bureaucratic steps to follow in execution and communication is rather a hindrance to the effectiveness of the performance (p.23). Decentralised administrative structures and processes thus enable a firm to better meet the new environmental conditions and effectively handle environmental turbulence (Damanpour and Evan, 1984)

Human resources

Human resource in the organisation consists of the knowledge, skills, competencies, attitude and behaviours the workers possess ( İkinci, S.S.2014, p.123). Nurturing theses aspect of human resources will lead to personal growth and development which can alter an individual’s perceptions of organisational change, reducing the level of resistance (Bovey and Hede, 2001, p.546). It is the very critical asset that helps organisation to gain competitive advantage (Husso and Nybakk, nd, p.9).This is because they have the capacity to operate all the activities and in turn help to achieve the aims and objective (Mdletye, Coetzee, and Ukpere (2014) which otherwise would not be able to function at all. The researchers emphasized that human resource is the most important aspect, indeed the backbone of every organization and it is also the main source of resource for the effective function of the organization ( Wanza and Nkuraru,2016; p.192) and main strategic resource to gain sustainable competitive advantage in this age of globalization(Kute & Upadhyay, 2014). For example, the management’s emphasis on the human resource management such as employing highly skilled and educated people, providing professional training and encouraging learning from advanced technologies and skills made the employees more competent to achieve Huawei’s internationalization process more successful ( Yu and Zhang, 2010, p.23) .

Organisational culture

Organisational culture is defined as the values, beliefs, norms, customs and behaviours that guide the employees towards the common goals (Awadh & Saad, 2013,) and that set the rule of decision making processes, structure and power (Wambugu, 2014, p. 80). Wambugu (2014) further noted that organisational culture empower the employees to do thing which deemed right and rewarding both at personal and organisational level. According to Wanza and Nkuraru ( 2016, p.195) and Awadh & Saad, (2013, p.168 ) organisational culture has strong bearing on the performance of the employees which is considered as the backbone of development of the organisation. The culture established as system in the organisation enhances employees’ commitment thus improves their input eventually achieving the desired productivity and profitability (Wanza and Nkuraru, 2016, p.193). They concluded from their research that a strong organizational culture acts as the source of synergy and momentum for teamwork and uplift employee performance (p.197).Thus it is worthy of developing organizational culture for sustainable future. For example, one of the internal factor that drive Huawei Technologies Company, a very small local IT company of China, to very successful internationalisation was the corporate culture, such as team work, adaptation, learning and customer-oriented service, being embedded in the behaviours of the Huawei’s employees ( Yu and Zhang, 2010, p.23)

Innovation culture

Innovation is the main strategy to adapt to change, overcome organisational weaknesses, and add value to organization’s products and services in the ever-changing business environment (Sund 2008, p. 2). Being entrepreneurial with creativity and innovation helps organisation to gain competitive advantage (Ireland et al. 2003). Abdelgawad et al. (2013) proposed that entrepreneurial capability is instrumental for realizing a firm’s game-changing strategies for sustainable success in future. For example, Google, Amazon and Apple companies were once just start-ups grown to attract global market through their innovation (EBRD, 2014; p.1). Internal organizational drivers such as resources, experimentation, collaboration, administrative support play a significant role during this innovation process (Agolla and Van-Lill, 2013). So, establishing innovative culture in an organisation will drive the organisation towards favorable and successful change.

Attitude and Commitment

Most of the researches have shown that employees need to develop their attitude and behaviours for successful organizational performance (Bernerth, 2004). Therefore, it is indispensable for the organizational managers to develop and nurture employees’ commitment towards embracing change by bringing positive change in their attitude and behaviour. However, Anderson and Anderson (n.d) stressed that employees’ mindset, which is the root cause of one’s feelings, decisions and actions, has to be changed to bring organizational change. When introducing change people aspect is more critical than just about changes in systems and processes. Rather it is about people believing in change and wanting it to happen (Soosay and Sloan (2005 p.4). Since organisational change requires the participation of people, those involved must first undergo personal change for the success of organisational change (Evans, 1994).

Organisation Performance as drivers

Both the present and past performance are also drivers of organisational change. Some earlier researchers have pointed out that poor performance, that creates the gap between managerial aspirations and achievements, is an extra impetus for the firms to improve further (Greve, 1998; Tushman and Romanelli, 1985). On the other hand some researchers argue that successful companies continuously draw motivation from their success to improve and perform better for sustainable future, especially they face an uncertain environments ( Feldman, 2004; Tsoukas and Chia, 2002).in (Zhou, Tse and Li, 2006). The better a firm performs, the more likely it will invest in new product development and technology advancement to achieve a sustainable competitive advantage (Zhou, Tse and Li, 2006; p.251). As Brown and Eisenhardt (1997) observe, many successful firms, such as Intel, 3M, Hewlett-Packard, and Gillette, have undertaken constant, rapid changes, particularly in their new product development. For example companies like Apple, Microsoft and Samsung companies have undergone continuous rapid changes in development of new product.


The main purpose of this essay was to prove the advantages of responding to internal drivers than to external drivers while introducing change in the organisation. From this study it was found out that internal drivers are within the organisation that has direct impact on its everyday performance. Therefore, they are within the control and management capacity of the organization. If the internal performance, system, culture and resources of an organisation are excellent it is certain that any obstacles posed from the external environments can be nullified leading to very successful organizational change. Whereas external drivers are existed in the external environment of the firm and those are beyond the control and reach of the organisation. Yet, they can affect the internal functions of the organisation causing instability. Hence the external drivers are not to be undermined rather internal drivers must be activated towards meeting change in line with external drivers.


The Classical World: essay help online

The Classical Era, which flourished from the 8th century BC to the 5th century AD, saw the birth and spread of Greco-Roman ideas. These ideas became the basis for western civilization and laid a foundation of culture that has remained as relevant now as it was in ancient times. Ancient Greece, and later Ancient Rome, cemented their own ideals in the universal consciousness as the cultural standard to which all later societies were held to, and continue to shape contemporary perspective on art, architecture, and government, and other facets of modern society. Despite the core differences of modern and classical times and the centuries that have passed since, the knowledge and perspectives passed down by the Ancient Greeks and Romans remain an essential part of contemporary society and culture, while inspiring western civilization’s greatest accomplishments.

The cultural impact of Ancient Greece and Rome begins most tangibly with the Renaissance, a movement beginning in Florence and spanning through the 14th and 17th centuries. This period is seen as a revival of classical antiquity, with Renaissance scholars, artists, philosophers, and writers attempting to emulate what they considered to be a “golden age,” taking inspiration directly from their Greco-Roman forefathers, with their presence increasingly regarded as an intellectual heritage to be mined for contemporary use. The Florentine author Niccolò Machiavelli, for example, described his nightly retreats into his library in these memorable words:

“At the door I take off my muddy everyday clothes. I dress myself as though I were about to appear before a royal court as a Florentine envoy. Then decently attired I enter the antique courts of the great men of antiquity. They receive me with friendship; from them I derive the nourishment which alone is mine and for which I was born. Without false shame I talk with them and ask them the causes of the actions; and their humanity is so great they answer me. For four long and happy hours I lose myself in them. I forget all my troubles; I am not afraid of poverty or death. I transform myself entirely in their likeness.”

Francesco Petrarca, commonly anglicized as Petrarch, was a scholar who rediscovered the letters of Cicero, a Roman statesman, orator, lawyer and philosopher and one of Rome’s greatest orators and prose stylists. This rediscovery is considered to have initiated the Renaissance, as scholars became interested in learning how the ancients developed their human faculties, powers, and culture, and in turn attempted to apply their findings to their contemporary societies. Through this discovery, Petrarch became the “Father of Renaissance humanism,” humanism being a Renaissance cultural movement that turned away from medieval scholasticism and revived interest in ancient Greek and Roman thought. Petrarch firmly believed that classical writings were not just relevant to his own age but saw in them moral guidance that could reform humanity, a key principle of Renaissance Humanism. The humanists of the Renaissance believed that their mission was to revive the high Roman style of writing pure and eloquent Latin. When that flourished, they believed, art would as well.

The republican elites of Florence and Venice and the ruling families of Milan, Ferrara, and Urbino hired humanists to teach their children classical morality and to write elegant, classical letters, histories, and propaganda. Eventually, the humanism inspired by the study of the Greco-Roman world would bleed into the Catholic Church, a formidable and almost omnipotent deity of the Middle Ages. In the course of the fifteenth century, the humanists convinced most of the popes that the papacy needed their skills. Sophisticated classical scholars were hired to write official correspondence and propaganda to create an image of the popes as powerful, enlightened, modern rulers of the Church and to apply their scholarly tools to the church’s needs, including writing a more classical form of the Mass. Scholars wrote Latin letters and histories on behalf of the popes, and they even tinkered with the church’s traditional liturgy, trying to make prayers and hymns attractively classical. Humanist secretaries and popes wrote dazzling Latin. Though humanism, and therefore classical thinking, never truly permeated the Catholic Church fully, there was an influence of Ancient Greece and Rome on the Church and its leaders.

An easier and far more blatant appreciation of classical antiquity was seen clearly in the art and architecture of the Renaissance. Contrapposto, a sculptural scheme which was revived during the Renaissance, was originated by the Ancient Greeks. It is used when the standing human figure is poised in such a way that the weight rests on one leg (called the engaged leg), freeing the other leg, which is bent at the knee. With the weight shift, the hips, shoulders, and head tilt, suggesting relaxation with the subtle internal organic movement that denotes life. The Greeks invented this formula in the early 5th century BC as an alternative to the stiffly static pose—in which the weight is distributed equally on both legs—that had dominated Greek figure sculpture in earlier periods. Italian Renaissance artists such as Donatello and Andrea del Verrocchio revived the classical formula, giving it the name contrapposto, which suggests the action and reaction of the various parts of the figure, and enriching the conception by scientific anatomical study.

Donatello borrowed from the ancients with his bronze sculpture of David, the biblical hero known for defeating Goliath. Donatello’s David was the first freestanding bronze cast statue of the Renaissance era as well as the first nude sculpture of a male since the classical sculptures of ancient Greece. In Middle Ages, nudity was not used in art except in certain moral contexts, such as the depiction of Adam and Eve, or the sending of souls off to hell.  In the classical world, nudity was often used in a different, majestic context, such as with figures who were gods, heroes, or athletes.  Here, Donatello seems to be calling to mind the type of heroic nudity of antiquity, since David is depicted at a triumphal point in the biblical narrative of his victory over Goliath. In any case, Donatello’s David is a classic work of Renaissance sculpture, given its Judaeo-Christian subject matter modeled on a classical sculptural type.

Another artwork inspired heavily by ancient antiquity would be Botticelli’s painting titled, Birth of Venus. The theme of the Birth of Venus was taken from the writings of the ancient poet, Homer.  According to the traditional account, after Venus was born, she rode on a seashell and sea foam to the island of Cythera.  In the painting, Venus is prominently depicted in the center, born out of the foam as she rides to shore.  On the left, the figure of Zephyrus carries the nymph Chloris (alternatively identified as “Aura”) as he blows the wind to guide Venus. On shore, a figure who has been identified as Pomona, or as the goddess of Spring, waits for Venus with mantle in hand.  The mantle billows in the wind from Zephyrus’ mouth.The story of the Birth of Venus is well described below by a Homeric hymn but its relevance to the painting is disputed as the poem was only published, by the Greek refugee Demetrios Chalcondyles, in Florence in 1488 (five years after the painting was completed as a wedding gift for Lorenzo di Pierfrancesco de’ Medici in 1483).

Of august gold-wreathed and beautiful

Aphrodite I shall sing to whose domain

belong the battlements of all sea-loved

Cyprus where, blown by the moist breath

of  Zephyros, she was carried over the waves

of the resounding sea on soft foam.

The gold-filleted Horae happily welcomed her

and clothed her with heavenly raiment.

The model for Venus in this painting has traditionally been associated with Simonetta Vespucci – who had been a muse for Botticelli,  and was seen as the model for female beauty throughout Florence – especially for the Medici family for whom this painting had been created. There is added credence to this suggestion from the fact that she was born in the Ligurian fishing village of  PortoVenere – called Port of Venus because there was a little Temple to Venus there from 1st Century BC.

The other model for the pose of Venus in the painting was possibly the Medici Venus, a first century BC statue depicting Aphrodite in a Venus pudica pose. It is actually a marble copy of an original bronze Greek sculpture that Botticelli would have had an opportunity to study whilst visiting the sculpture school or the Platonic Academy which flourished at the family home of the Medici in Florence.

The demand for this type of scene, of course, was humanism, which was alive and well in the court of Lorenzo d’Medici in the 1480s.  Here, Renaissance humanism was open not only to the use of a pagan sculpture as a model, but also a pagan narrative for the subject matter, and although the Birth of Venus is not a work which employed Renaissance perspectival innovations, the elegance of the classical subject matter was something that would have intrigued wealthy Florentines who patronized this type of work.

The discovery of particular texts had enormous implications on Renaissance architecture. For example, with the discovery of the works of Vitruvius, an architect at the time of Augustus, there was an explosion of interest in ancient building. Vitruvius wrote an extremely important volume, De architectura libri decem (Ten books on architecture), where he introduced three principles to architecture: Firmatis  (durability), Utilitas (utility), and Venustatis (beauty). Vitruvius talked about ancient buildings in a very significant way, not only in terms of practicality, but in an abstract way which emphasized what the buildings represented in both art and society. Similarly to how ancient texts could be applied to the values and aesthetics of contemporary Italians in the 15th century, so could ancient buildings be reduced to an essence, or a set of principles and ideals, that could be applied to the needs of 15th-century Italians, despite their differences from 1st-century Romans.

In particular, we can see in the career of Leon Battista Alberti, who was born in 1404 and died in 1472, how these ideas could be distilled into a set of principles that could apply to the conditions of the Italian world. Alberti wrote De re aedificatoria, or On Building. His work can be considered highly derivative, but Alberti’s purpose was quite different: to take an ancient text and apply it to the needs of his own time. Not only did he write a theoretical treatise on architecture, but he then went out and built buildings. In particular, in Florence, he designed the facade of the Palazzo Rucellai from 1452 to 1470, in which, again, the Vitruvian orders appear and in which the ideas of ancient building are made useful to a Florentine palace for a wealthy merchant.

In the more modern world, there is a wealth of Greco-Roman influence over the inception of the United States of America and its government. For example, the men who inspired the American Revolution and wrote the American Constitution were heavily influenced by the classical Greek and Roman world. The American founding fathers were well educated individuals, and they all had significant experience with ancient Greek and Roman authors since childhood. Historian Bernard Bailyn states, “knowledge of classical authors was universal among colonists with any degree of education.” Thomas Jefferson, writer of the Declaration of Independence, was taught Greek and Latin from the age of nine, and Benjamin Franklin received instruction in Latin at grammar school and became proficient in both Latin and Greek later in life. In Franklin’s Autobiography, frequent references are made to classical western figures, such as Cicero and Cato. James Madison learned Greek and Latin as a child, and “immersed himself in the histories of Greece and Rome.”

With classical schooling such an integral part of the founding fathers’ education, America’s first political leaders studied the works of the great Greek Philosophers, including Plato and Aristotle. Polybius, a less celebrated but still influential thinker, also left his mark upon the American framers of the Constitution. Through Polybius, the founding fathers were introduced to the Roman Republic as the “mixed government” described by Plato and Aristotle. They used Greek philosophy and the model of Roman Republican government in order to form a new nation based on ancient principles.

Philosophers from classical Greece proposed the separation of powers in government, an idea that the American founders adopted for their new nation. In addition, The Roman Republic  (509-27 BC) served as a direct model of government for the writers of the constitution.  Greek and Roman political thought was critical in shaping the government of the United States of America.

Plato writes that that a strong state should contain elements of both democracy and tyranny, so that the state has a mixed government. His political philosophy, particularly his idea of a “mixed” constitution, would have far reaching effects among later philosophers. His mixed government would ultimately be brought to life in the American Constitution.

Aristotle believed that a mixed government, like the one described by Plato, would halt the decline of government into anarchy. In Aristotle’s mixed constitution, defined in his work The Politics, there were to be three branches of government: “All constitutions have three elements, concerning which the good lawgiver has to regard what is expedient for each constitution…There is one element which deliberates about public affairs [“legislative” branch]; secondly, that concerned with the magistrates [“executive” branch]…and thirdly that which has judicial power.”

This three-tiered mixed government of Aristotle would ultimately find its way into the Constitution. Aristotle also established the principle that the rulers of a state should be subject to the same laws as the rest of the populace; to Aristotle, the rule of law is better than the authority of “even the best man.” This concept of a “ruling official subject to the law” is an integral idea to modern government, where all political figures are supposed to be subject to the same legal code as the average citizen.

In addition to the foundation of government inspired by the ancient world, the influence of classical antiquity can be seen in some of America’s most iconic architecture. Prevalent between about 1780 and 1830, Federal style drew inspiration from the Greco-Romans. The influence of Ancient Greek architecture is apparent in the use of columns and colonnades. Thomas Jefferson was an architect during the Federal period, and he designed not only his own home, Monticello, but the campus of the University of Virginia in Charlottesville in this style.

Greek Revival architecture also became widespread in the U.S., and in the middle of the 19th century it became known as the national style, as it was used extensively in houses and smaller public buildings of that time. This style generally featured the Doric Order in larger buildings, and simpler Doric columns topped with a small pediment (without a frieze) in houses. The first major public building built in this style was the Second Bank of the United States, built in Philadelphia between 1819 and 1824, though most famous is the Lincoln Memorial, its exterior echoing that of the Parthenon.

The heritage of the classical world has been one which later societies have taken and made relevant to their own contemporary aesthetics, visions, and ambitions. From the Renaissance to the formation of the United States, Greco-Roman ideals have paved the way and inspired art, architecture, and civic duty, all the while remaining the standard for which culture strains to meet. Despite its antiquity, the classical world has remained both relevant, adaptable, and innovative, inspiring some of western civilization’s greatest feats.


Power dynamics in psychotherapy – reflective literature review

Choice of topic

On receiving the assessment paperwork for my client, I felt overwhelmed and challenged by her status, and that she had previously worked with my placement director. My first reaction, was that I would not be good enough for her as a trainee.

When discussing my responses with my supervisor, she helped me to identify where this had come from, and the skills and knowledge that I had would be beneficial to this client.

To build up a working alliance, Finlay (2016), p.15, with this client, who I will refer to as Kirsty, (not her real name), the progress was slow, and I became very aware of my own counter- transferential feelings. There were areas of her narrative which I felt really in contact with.

Conducting the search

An on-line search Google scholar, using terms like, ‘The Dance of Power’ which returned results of 51, 200,000. Further searches were conducted which brought back similar figures

I then altered the search criteria to ‘The Dance of the Counter-transferential Phenomena’ which brought back 34 Items and this search was done via Wiley on-line Library. This appeared more manageable, and a further search via the same library with a different search term, ‘Undoing Trauma’ brought back just one result. This still was not what I was looking for, so I chose to remain with the search criteria of power within the therapeutic relationship.

So, within the literature, Webster’s dictionary defines power as; ‘the ability to act’ and ‘the capacity to produce and effect’ and ‘the possession of control, authority or influence over others’

Proctor (2017) states how she defines power as being related to how society is formed, and groups of people, who differ from the ‘norm’ have less access to power. These groups could be women, disabled, Black minority ethnic (BME) or working-class people, gay or lesbians. Male or females, young or old.

She suggests that these groups could be oppressed members of society who may have experienced violence or intimidation and who have little experience of power within the relationship.

The history of power within the therapeutic relationship dates to Machiavelli in the 16th century and Hobbes in the 17th century as cited by Proctor, (2017). These two theorists had different views when talking about power. It was not until the twentieth century that Hobbes view of a modernist theory was favoured. Clegg (1989) Hobbes theory of power influenced the basis of thinking around power from a modernist and structural viewpoint.

The modernists view.

This was a new form of expression that was developed in the nineteenth and twentieth centuries. This was the era when counselling and psychotherapy developed. McLeod (2009) p. 37

The Structural Theories.

These theories lie within the context of modernism and take a single point of view, that is concrete and belongs to a person. It is assumed that power is an experience that can be found in the form of economic, social, physical, or psychological capacity. For instance, Day (2010) cites Robert Dahl (1957) as, “A has the power over B to the extent that he can get B to do something that B would not otherwise do”.

These theories have emphasised the controlling, oppressive and negative angle of power. These structural theories have been critiqued as it assumes that the power is always ‘power over’ another.

Lukes, (1974) argued that it is the ability of one person, to get another, to do something that (s)he might not otherwise do. He argues that this power is a result of conflict between actors to determine who wins and who loses.

However, Arendt, (1963) saw power as being related to people joining together and making unbreakable promises. Arendt observed a difference between ‘power’ within relationships and ‘authority’ that is given to an individual because of their role. Hindess, (1996) suggests that this moves power towards a relational process and relying on the consent of others.

Post-Modern Theories

Elias, (1978) suggests that power is not something a person owns, but it is a trait of human relationships. This view is supported by Lukes, (1974). Elias further suggests that power relations are formed in relationship and that it is a result of living together and interdependence. This phenomenon is like a game of tug of war; a trial of strength between two sides pulling against each other. Oxford English Reference Dictionary (1996), p. 1548


Foucault suggested that power follows the concepts of Nietzsche in that knowledge and thought, theories and discourses are penetrated by values, Daudi, 1986 as cited by Proctor 2017. This approach formed the basis of Foucault’s work. He sees this power relationship as not responding to others, but on their actions. Thus, it is an action upon an action. Day, (2010).

This view of power suggests that power is inherent in all relationships so it both enables and limits actions, thereby helping individuals to broaden their boundaries, Hayward, (1998)

From this perspective, “Power is everywhere…because it comes from everywhere”. Foucault (1980). Power is involved in all social interactions, because ideas operate behind all language and action. Lukes (1974).

Foucault focused on how power was used in society, such as sexuality, (1976), madness, (1967) or criminality, (1977). He looked at the aims of those involved and the tactics they used to achieve those aims and the counter actions of others to achieve the same objective. In his deconstruction of the power within these institutions, he defines ‘disciplinary power’. He defines this as “comprising a whole set of instruments, techniques, procedures, levels of application, targets”. Foucault, (1977), p.215. He emphasised the ‘struggle’ that occurs between individuals and groups in society as the discord is taken up in response to the behaviours of others. Day, (2010) suggests power operates systematically within a society not from above.

Perspectives of Power in the Psychotherapy Relationship

Whilst searching the literature, I struggled to find any published research. Where references have been uncovered, these have been philosophical or theoretical perspectives on the subject; or individual accounts of personal and professional experience. Sanders, c (2017), Totton,(2009), Amitay, (2017), Lazarus, (2015).

Positions of Power

From the literature, there appears to be four philosophical positions:

Power as a destructive and oppressive force in the psychotherapy relationship;
The psychotherapy Relationship as a process of liberation and empowerment of the client.
Power as a relational, inter-subjective process in the psychotherapy relationship; and
The denial of the existence of power in the psychotherapy relationship.

At the end of the 1980’s, the central thoughts about how the imbalances between the therapist and client can result in oppressive and destructive outcomes for clients. The following debates concentrated on the abuse of sexual boundaries and forms of discrimination and prejudice against minority groups. Bates, (2006); Lago, (2006); Masson, (1989); Smail, 1995. The way the psychotherapeutic relationship exists between the client and therapist means that there is a potential for abusive relationships in the dialogue between the client and therapist. Spinelli, (1994). This reflects a structural position on power, Day, (2010), Proctor, (2017). So, the therapist in these circumstances, has ‘power over’ the client which renders them ‘powerless’ and vulnerable.

Within the literature, Masson (1989), describes power in the therapy room as having destructive elements and that the therapy could be a form of abuse. Another form of destructive power, could be therapist abusing the client by disrespecting the sexual boundaries, Chesler, (1972), Sonne and Pope, (1991) and Gabbard, (1996).

It is suggested that these destructive ways can operate at an unconscious level thus leaving the client vulnerable to past, negative experiences. Herman, (1992) believes that it is important for the therapist to avoid using their ‘power over’ Proctor, (2017), p. 13 the client for their own needs or to direct the client’s life decisions. Day, (2010).

The British Association for Counselling and Psychotherapy, (BACP) state that under their Ethical Framework, the counsellor has a commitment to avoid harm towards the client, (2015).

It is assumed from this point of view that power is dangerous and destructive to those who are powerless. Often power is viewed from an ethical or moral basis, looking at what is right or wrong. In simple terms, power is either ‘good’ or ‘bad’. Furggeri, (1992). This view assumes that is a possession, that is in limited supply and this then forms a structural perspective of power. The client is seen as powerless and the therapist powerful. It could be argued that this is an extreme form of domination and repression. Thus, power is viewed as monolithic, unitary and unidirectional. Procter, (2002)

Psychotherapy as Empowerment for the Client.

An alternative perspective of power is seen as positive with the therapist power being good. Psychotherapy is an empowering process for the client and thus enables the client’s autonomy. This line of argument is seen in humanistic literature, feminist literature. Brown, (1994). The British Psychological Society’s (BPS), 2009 division of counselling psychology, states explicitly that it works to ‘empower the client’.

Carl Rogers was one of the first proponents of this. Rogers suggested that the therapist’s role was to avoid power over the client and also refrain from making decisions for them. Rogers supported the client’s autonomy and how they achieved this. So, the decisions are made by the client for themselves. Rogers, (1978)

Bozarth, (1998) argues that the crux of this theory is that the therapist does not intervene. Natiello, (1990), states, “…. Offers a morality of power as well as a methodology for arriving at that morality”. (p 268). She maintains that the person-centred approach offers the client the opportunity to claim his or her own personal power rather than being reliant on the power of others.

Similarly, Freud theories of psychoanalysis argue for the analysist to use their power of rational authority to free the mind of the client.

Fromm, (1956) argues that over the duration of therapy, the client frees and cures themselves from an attachment to irrational authority. Benjamin,(1995) challenged Freud’s position states “ Already idealised for his knowledge and power – his power to know her – the analyst is now internalised in the relationship of knowledge as power over self, a practice in the domination of self whose meaning Foucault (1980) has made unforgettably problematic” p. 154

Frosh, (1987) states that object relations, like psychoanalysis, sets itself up in the feeing of a person’s psyche. He argues that its objectives are to free the client from fixations created by ‘bad’ experiences and to promote internalisation of the more nurturing possibilities experienced in the relationship with the therapist.

This assumes the client is powerless and vulnerable and the therapist has the power to empower the client. Client’s therefore are viewed as powerless. This could be seen as a structural position where power is either ‘good’ or ‘bad’ and one either has it or not. A moral argument could be where one form of power is ‘right’ and others are ‘wrong’.

A Relationship of Mutuality

The psychotherapeutic relationship is viewed as one of mutuality. Aron, (1996) views this as involving mutual generation of data, mutual regulation of the relationship, mutual recognition of the others autonomy and openness on the part of the therapist as to their client’s impact upon them. Aron argues that power is dynamic that is constantly struggled with in therapy and therefore needs ‘to be continually examined, articulated and worked through’, p151. He suggests that therapists need to question their decisions with regards to ethics as well as questioning their authority and domination in the relationship, referenced in Proctor, (2002) p 133.

Frosh, (1987) believes that the objectives for therapy is to allow the client to explore the power in therapy as it copies and reminds the client of internalised introjects from their formative years. He suggests that an approach which is politicised and recognises the reality of social structures. He argues that part of the difficulties relating to change is that people need to identify, re-experience and re-frame these introjects to help to give them a new meaning in their life. Totton, (2000) argues that it is the therapist’s role to help the client find another genuine and authentic psycho- political position. The relational position, therefore sees the power dynamics as being central in the therapeutic relationship. It is suggested that power is aligned to knowledge and neither the client or the therapist can ‘know’. Thus, it is thought that it is present in all relationships rather than being a possession of the client or therapist. It is therefore unavoidable and potentially both positive and negative. Proctor, (2002) it could be argued that this view, might undermine the role of structural differences in power in society reducing it to an intersubjective process.

Concluding thoughts of the literature

Relational perspectives in psychotherapy have started to think about ‘power’ as dynamic and inevitable. Proctor, (2017). However, despite this recognition of power, the discourse on the power dynamics in psychotherapy has remained at a philosophical level. Much of the literature can be seen as a critique of other psychological therapy or it attempts to show how therapists can misuse the power differential with their clients. The question to be explored and researched further would be how psychotherapists experience the phenomenon of power with their client’s and how it can be worked with in a clinical setting.


Report On My Internship (GenSight)

1. Introduction

The internship is a great opportunity for students offered by an organization to gain practical experience and knowledge in an Industry. This report is designed for the purpose of presenting my overall placement experience of the company, in which I completed, was placed and worked. There are two sections in this report.

The first section of the report presents background information about the company. It includes the historical background of the company, type of business, in which it deals, and the business goals of the company. In addition to this, the report will present key details related to the department, in which I have worked. In addition to this, the report is effective to understand the organizational structure of the company, functions of the department and the objectives. Apart from this, the report will facilitate knowledge about placement role or job description.

The second section of this report will emphasize on a critical review of different tasks and activities performed by me during the job. Further, it will facilitate details of knowledge or technical skills gained by me throughout the year. It will also focus on the evaluation of other skills and knowledge gained by me like knowledge of organizational politics, time management, teamwork, the excellence of communication, etc. Moreover, this report will provide the positive and negative experiences of me while working on the job. It will focus on evaluating how my course program has helped me to prepare for placement. Finally, the report will present details about the experience and practical knowledge gained by me for my course program and for my career.

1.1 Introduction to Company

The GenSight Limited was incorporated as on 8 January 2002 as a private limited company. The company number of GenSight Limited is 2888584 (Gov UK, 2019). The co-founders of this company are David Munt and Michael Menard. As per the registration, the nature of business of this company (as per the records of Companies House, UK) is business and domestic software development.

GenSight Limited is the name of the company, in which I got placed and started work. The GenSight Limited is a computer software company that is situated at Hampton, UK. The company has achieved a leadership position in terms of web-based solutions. This company is well known in the industry for its support to promote the innovation process in mid-size and large size business enterprises. The clients of customers of GenSight Limited are leading global enterprises across the world (Gen Sight, 2018). GenSight clients

Coca Cola,
Johnson & Johnson,
Westing House Nuclear,
Glaxo Smith Kline or GSK.

This company provides its services in different sectors such as technology or science sector, industrial products, and the consumer products sector. The core focus of this company is on the complete process of bringing in a new product into the market. There are different types of strategic processes that are performed by GenSight Limited for meeting its business goals. GenSight Limited facilitates full-service solutions to clients (Bloomberg, 2018). Example of these activities of processes such as:

Strategic planning
Resource management
Portfolio management
Product development
Research & development
Idea management.

The main product of GenSight Limited is providing integrated solutions to different clients according to their need including end to end, top to bottom and it covers the entire process (GenSight, 2018). GenSight Limited also provides its services for product or project portfolio management software is given in the form of sales & marketing processes, new product development, research & development, capital projects, process improvement, six sigma analysis, and the IT (i.e. information technology) governance. As per the reviews of clients, The GenSight Limited provides highly advanced portfolio analytics functionality (Gen Sight, 2018). From the review of the integrated solution, one can understand that cross-functional working system in the industry has improved significantly.

1.2 Description of Department

I have worked in the development department of GenSight. In general, organization structure can be defined as the system, which provides flow or communication of different organizational decisions into different departments of the organization and performance progress is reported to the top management of an organization. The organization structure of GenSight is functional. Under this structure, different departments are developed in the organization according to the function to be performed (Khalid and Noor, 2013). Example of different departments such as:

Professional services,
Product development,
Product consultancy,
Sales & marketing,
Technical support.

The function of the department, in which I worked, performs the functions of development of computer applications or software for different clients according to the provided specifications and instructions. Development department frequently meeting with higher level directors who worked with strategic planning executives to enhance the key marketing strategies to increase the business.

The main objective of this department was Developing new GenSight Web Application from Old GenSight Windows Application as well as maintenance of existing web application. The consultants talk to the clients and gather requirements, which are then handed over to the development manager. Using the Azure DevOps software, he prioritizes the requirements, based on the discussion he had with consultants. Tasks are assigned based on the priority of the task, as well as the seniority of the developer. Apart from this, version control is used to ensure that the work is not lost, and we have a clear history of the code changes that have been made over time.

1.3 Description of the Placement Role or Job Description

The job title for this job is Software Developer Intern. On this job, there will be a probation period of three months. One of the major terms of this employment contract was that the notice of termination of the contract can be given by either side for a notice period of one week (Mader-Clark, 2013). Duties or responsibilities are assigned by the company, should be performed by the intern with honesty and good faith. It is highly important for the person to always work in the best interest of the company. It was also a major directive of the employment contract that the employee will be accountable to Andrew Farmilo and is required to report directly to him unless otherwise the additional instructions are received from managing director of the company.

As per the employment contract, the normal working hours for this job will be 37.5 hours each week. At the same time, the timing for each working day is specified as 9:00 am to 5:30 pm. In addition to this, the working days for every employee will be Monday to Friday. The lunchtime of 1 hour on each working day will be given to the employed employees as well as there may be reasonable and normal flexibility in the working hours according to need of the job and agreed with the company. In case, if the company withdraws prior employment agreement due to any reason, the employee will have right to adjust its working time by half an hour in its regular start and finish time (Mader-Clark, 2013). Due to this adjustment, there will be no change in the tenure (i.e. one hour) of the lunchtime. Apart from this, the hired candidates will also need to work for additional hours at the time of need for their job or duties. There will be no payment for overtime unless the company has agreed to pay.

2. Internship Activities

In general, internship activities play a vital role in the generation of learning in an individual. The active participation in internship activities enables a person to stay able to perform the assigned roles and duties in an effective and efficient manner. There are different internship activities performed by me during the probation period in the Company. My journey of internship started in the month of September 2018. I have completed the company induction program, which helped me to enhance my knowledge about the background of the company and its work culture. The development manager Andrew has helped me to understand the usage of GenSight application. In addition to this, I also learned the company architecture.

As part of my internship activities, I have also completed the training program of Kendo Control that is used for the development of new web application. In addition to this, I learned the conversion of window client application into a web application. This way, I come to know Kendo Telerik control is very important for web application development furthermore my career progression. In the subsequent months, I have learned the different kinds of variable configuration, usage of GenSight formulas and different sources related to the formula. At this time, I created the matrix of settings for all formulas for the purpose of handling the complex logic. The Big Data LDN Event of London was also a major internship activity for me that enhanced my learning and knowledge. In the month of November 2018, I visited the Big Data LDN an Event in London with my colleagues. This event has contributed to my learning in terms of real-time AI or artificial intelligence, storage and maintenance of complex data on the cloud, etc. I worked on GenSight main project and performed the tests of GenSight application through the usage of test scripts for PFT document. As a result of this, I have effectively resolved the issues related to uploading, downloading and calculations. My contributions to the development of GenSight’s enterprise software has been primarily based on requests by a recent client including Baxter, SUNCORP, Johnson & Johnson. In addition to this, the other activities were also given to me like working on the test web application, the requested tasks and to ensure that everything is running in a smooth manner.

2.1 Review of Tasks Performed and Analysis of Technical and Other Skills Gained

There are different areas of experience of me while working in the GenSight. Example of these areas of experience includes product development, report writing, planning and the presentation to the client. I have attended different events like Big Data LDN London and Christmas Event in the company. These both events have helped me to learn different things like teamwork, technical knowledge, etc. I have started working in the company in the month of September 2018. There are different activities that were scheduled for this month.

Meeting with colleagues,
Setting up the computer with the use of my first name and last name [email protected],
Introduction to the codes of GenSight,
Generating knowledge about standards and architecture of GenSight,
Kendo Telerik control training,
Variable and iForms Configuration.

I have completed the induction program of GenSight in 4 hours. As a result of this, I have generated understanding about the background of the company as well as the foundation of the company. I have come to know that the company has many clients. It follows the standard rules and regulations while running the business. From participation in the meeting, I have experienced that the staff of the company is very friendly and supportive to new and existing employees. With the help of development manager Andrew, I have seen the GenSight application and the technologies used by the company in this application.

Next, I have focused on the development and understanding of GenSight Architecture. This software was built in Microsoft technologies. I understand the application insights for the purpose of real-time demos and web-meetings. After this, I have started the training of Kendo Telerik Control that was provided by the company. Kendo Control is considered for web-based applications. In addition, the development manager of this company has started assigning different tasks to me on variable configuration, and reports configuration using Kendo Telerik Control.

In the month of October, I have actively performed individual tasks, which contributed positively to my learning. Initially, I have performed different tasks with the use of Microsoft technology in MVC. I created new controllers and views as well as executed different reusable codes for formulas. The reusable code can be defined as the function that can be used on different pages for the same logic. In the current month, I also performed independent tasks that are related to the GenSight Variable Configuration and created the matrix of settings for all formulas for the handling of the complex logic. On completion of October 2018, I have experienced new learning in terms of Kendo Telerik, MVC and the GenSight Variables and iForms, besides I took annual leave of two weeks, due to which I worked less in this month.

In the month of November 2018, I and my colleagues attended the Big Data LDN event in the city of London. Different data analytics companies were present in this event such as ThoughtSpot, Confluent, Tableau, TIBCO. Additionally, I actively involved in the conferences and seminars given by these companies on real-time AI (Artificial Intelligence). The other topics were also covered like storage and maintenance of complex data on the cloud. All the learning gained by us was presented in the GenSight in the month of December 2018. I also developed different setting configurations like reports, project settings, stage gate, address modifiers, and GenSight time intervals.

In addition to this, I also complete the test of GenSight Application with the use of test scripts. This test was performed through the PFT (Project Financial Tool) document. I have encountered and resolved more issues like calculations, downloading and uploading. Moreover, provided support to junior developers with regards to different doubts related to kendo Telerik Control. I enjoyed a lot this month because I went to conferences with my co-workers, experienced improvement in different skills and knowledge like PFT testing and GenSight settings configuration.

In the month of December 2018, I have experienced learning of different types of skills such as usage of code compression and the code refactoring technique. I have also learned other skills such as project settings configuration and iForms. After completion of this month, I am confident that I can use the Kendo Telerik for all controls. It is so because the loading process of this application is very fast. There is higher confidence that is developed in me about the usage of kendo Telerik controls in applications. Example of these tasks and learning activities involve JavaScript functions, GenSight rules, added rule variable settings, new views, and controllers, etc. I developed different settings configurations during training in December 2018 such as creating reports for different iForms, audit history, Address settings, etc. Apart from this, I have learned that code refactorization can be defined as the systematic process of restructuring the existing codes without changing the existing behavior of the application.

Like this, I have developed different types of learning by performing different tasks and activities in January 2019. In this month, I also attended the webinar meeting with Kendo UI Telerik R1 2019 Release. I experienced the new learning in terms of dealing with deadlines, and multitasking. By the end of January 2019, I am confident that I will use the Kendo Telerik controls for fixing any browser compatibility issues for the iForm layout. In this month, I have also performed the tasks like rewriting codes of controllers and views for purpose of making it easy to read and understand for other developers without changing the existing web pages and business logic. As a result of this, I have come to know that now the codes are consistent with other views and controllers. This month was very exciting for me because I had a made few changes on the main GenSight application for a real client, the name of which is SUNCORP client.

By the end of February 2019, I have learned different skills and knowledge such as presentation skills, self-reliance, and interpersonal skills. I also experienced improvement in different skills such as GenSight iForms and report configuration. In February month, I have performed different tasks such as enhanced loading HTML page and the appearance of web app changes. I have experienced working on different tasks related to a demo of the application such as discussion with non-developers, making understand the other developers that how I have structured the code, explaining the code factorization with examples and presentation of new GenSight web application. February month of 2019 has proved to be highly beneficial for me. As a result of active participation in different learning activities in February 2019, I had come to know that the technical demo is helpful to explain the actual goals or purpose of using the code. In addition to this, it also helps to understand code formation with different examples about how I achieved the requested time in very less time through the usage of the same logic and functions in different places.

In the month of March 2019, I have performed different tasks and activities and gained different skills including documentation. As mentioned earlier I performed Gensight application financial test through PFT in November 2018. I have experienced working on PFT (Project Financial Tool) to test the uploaded SKU’s data displayed as expected in the application for Jonson & Jonson client, I found an issue when changing the “ship-to-trade date” column in the document and the error was “the following SKU’s need to set up to a valid ship-to-trade date”. In addition to this, completed the requested tasks related to iForm chart editor settings such as chart axis and series. I was also experiencing to reviewing and approve the junior developer’s code. The development manager had set up several meeting to explain the reports, dynamic documents, and main project code behind logics. Apart from this, I actively participated in every meeting with the development manager and co-worker’s discussion on upcoming changes in the web application. Generally, the development manager will do the documentation and gives detailed information about each setting in the task subsequently, it is my responsibility to do documentation as well as development.

In the month of April 2019, as part of the training and work experience, I have performed different tasks and activities. As mentioned earlier my work is individual, in addition to this working at GenSight from this month onwards, it is a challenging task because preparing the document for each setting as well as development. In this month, I actively participated in the web presence with the company support team. The main aim of the web presentation was to understand the database level knowledge as well as update the client changes in the database. Furthermore, it is more beneficial to the developers because they will concentrate on the company upgrades or new development. This has not only consolidated my knowledge of GenSight’s database but has also given the support team a working knowledge of SQL, allowing them to make changes to the data in the database. My work on stored procedures has allowed consultants and developers to re-use queries. Apart from this, I spent most of the time working on the main project (GenSight), changes suggested by a support team of Baxter. In addition to this, the other tasks were also performed like completed the iFrom chart editor settings as well as new views created. I have performed all my duties and responsibilities in a well-organized manner.

2.2 Analysis of Positive and Negative Experience

I have distinct types of positive experience from working at GenSight. The discussion with the development manager on complex tasks and the knowledge shared by him was a positive experience for me. The friendly nature of all staff of GenSight group was also a positive experience for me. I highly liked the work-in delivery as well as workplace culture in the company. I extremely enjoyed helping junior developers. Solo working was also a positive experience for me while working in the company. It is so because everyone in the organization is friendly and helpful towards their colleagues and subordinates. Furthermore, the management of the company is supportive of the new persons in an organization by helping them about latest training programs and events that are going to take place in the city or surrounding regions. They help the newly joined manpower like me to know about the exact procedure that needs to be adopted for getting registered for the event. It had a great opportunity to understand the code-behind logic of main GenSight application and ownership of the current web application. They are also ready for financial support if anyone is in the situation of financial assistance. This type of work culture of the company has influenced me in a positive manner.

At the same time, there are different types of tasks and activities, which were a negative experience for me. It was a negative experience for me that I was not in direct interpersonal communication with the vendors. Due to this kind of issue, the development activities get delayed. This can hamper the timely completion of a web application project.


Importance of Enterprise resource planning in manufacturing companies: college admission essay help


In our course throughout this semester, we learned about the importance of operations in several industries and how the management decisions related to the whole operational processes could affect the efficiency of the company. More particularly we learned how the operational decisions making are linked to all the functional departments of a company. From this perspective, we decided to learn more about a software that is able to link all the resources inside an enterprise and direct the operations of the firm toward the company strategy. That system was the Enterprise Resources Planning (ERP).

The aim of this paper is to describe, comment and analyze the importance of ERP in the manufacturing companies. We based our discussion on a case study retrieved from that was conducted by Ignatio Madanhirea and Charles Mbohwa “Enterprise resource planning (ERP) in improving operational efficiency”.

This paper concentrates on the benefits of ERP in manufacturing firms and how the adoption of ERP will return positively on the manufacturing processes and on the profit of the company. The purpose of this analysis is to see if the ERP worth the cost when listing all the benefits that ERP offers to businesses. Our conclusion shows that ERP is essential to manufacturing companies for all the advantages it includes. Moreover, by studying the costs that can ERP software eliminate, and by having customized ERP software available in different pricing schemes that varies upon the size of the business and the operations executed, a company can indicate that implementing ERP worth the cost.

I. Introduction

Operations management as defined in all management books is the process of converting labor and materials into goods or services. According to an article published by The Business Development Bank of Canada (2019), they stated that operational efficiency is fully achieved once the whole route of operations that includes people and the work process is combined with technology. In order to make the company more profitable, the management should at first follow an assessment of the current efficiency at the business, second, cut costs and reduce waste, third managers should plan production process and last this should lead to increasing the output. Improving operational efficiency is a big challenge that requires hard work and good planning not to forget the effect of technological resources that make all the process more efficient. To achieve their business goals and have an optimal performance level, many organizations implemented a new technological system (Gartner, 2012). The integration of all information flow between each department in an organization will reflect positively on the overall performance and communication between all company members (Tallon PP, 2011; Goodhue, et al. 2009). The enterprise resource planning (ERP) is defined by Gartner as the method to control and plan all resources in an organization and the ability to deliver integrated information processes that serves all departments in this organization. ERP software is playing a big role in giving a competitive advantage to companies adopting it. By adopting an ERP software operational manufacturing processes are improved through optimizing inventory management, formulate the demand of customers, improve human resources, simplify and restructure the relationship between customers and suppliers, automate processes in order to save costs and improve employee productivity (Craze, 2017). Most manufacturing business costs fall into three categories: materials, labor, and overhead generated from the complex processes that manufacturing industry is facing in our today business environment.

Accordingly, to meet such a challenge of reducing cost, many manufacturing companies followed the new innovation of ERP solution that includes all aspects of the production process from initial quotations to invoicing. According to the business automation specialists USA (2013), ERP systems reduce manufacturing cost by 20% that implies improving operational efficiency.

Moreover, cost control, good communication, training, qualified labor, maintaining good quality, knowledge sharing and improving customer services improve operational efficiency. Firms adopt ERP system because this software takes into consideration most of the functional departments inside an organization since it covers all modules inside the organization such as production planning module, purchasing module, inventory control module, sales & marketing module, financial module, human resources (HR) module, Customer relationship module, and Supply Chain management module. Many companies or small businesses find it very costly and needs a lot of work to implement ERP software and train all employees in order to integrate all data flow in one system and be able to generate useful reports. Panorama consulting solutions USA is the world’s most trusted independent digital transformation and ERP systems experts, in its research conducted in 2017 to study the ERP implementation and satisfaction rate among industries, it shows that most companies implement an ERP system to increase business efficiency. And 93% of those companies enhanced their business processes to better operate.

Hence studying the ERP effect on operational efficiency is an important topic to conclude if implementing ERP software worth the cost.

II. Literature review

1. Enterprise resources planning (ERP)

Enterprise resources planning (ERP) as defined by Gartner is a database that gathers all information from functional departments inside an organization, integrates this information and delivers useful reports. To ensure the best performance level many organization implemented ERP systems that led to improving productivity, lower cost, and increase efficiency among all the functional departments (Nwankpa et al. 2015). The ERP system integrates data recorded from every operational department and makes it accessible to users of the system. This process will facilitate the transmission of information between departments to keep all members updated with the latest figures in order to make fast and accurate decisions regarding all processes inside the firm. Companies in every industry find many advantages in applying ERP systems from operational, managerial, strategic, technological and organizational aspects. Big companies invest big amounts in implementing ERP systems for the benefits and advantages these systems include. Even small to medium enterprises (SMEs) invest in such systems because of the globalization and the rapid growth of businesses. Although ERP systems organize the information and processes inside an organization, yet the challenge is in the user usage of ERP. Moreover, the ultimate objectives in adopting an ERP system is achieved when the end user accept and embrace the technology (Nwankpa.J, 2015). If the users find difficulties in using the system, they will refrain from using it or they will not record all the data on the system or access data in the system. The role of upper management is very important in this case. As much as the management provides employees with all necessary training and support to work on such systems, employees will accept these systems and will find it helpful to use for the benefits of their tasks that will result in developing their internal and external operational processes.

Besides, having all the advantages in implementing an ERP system in organizations, the cost of the software, the maintenance, and the customization requests remain the crucial financial decision that a company has to make after evaluating the cost versus the benefits. Even though the costs could be very high, the satisfaction of ERP adoption and the efficiency in the operational processes could be very beneficial in many companies.

2. Operational efficiency and manufacturing companies

According to a presentation published by Nestle Company in May 2016, operational efficiency is achieved through driving excellence in safety, quality throughout the entire value chain, eliminating waste from the value chain, delivering the right product at the right time, strong performance on environmental indicators, and technology in operations. Every company is required to evaluate its operational performance to design a program in order to enhance the efficiency in its functional departments (Böttcher et al., 2016). Top challenges of operations managers are maintaining the right inventory levels, ensuring quality, maximizing production, eliminate waste, eliminate the bottleneck, establishing technological systems, challenging the global competition and optimizing processes efficiency. An efficient manufacturing sector will help in generating more profits, increasing sales and having a sustainable economic growth (Asaleye et al., 2018). The problem in several manufacturing companies is that they focus on productivity and forget about efficiency.

According to Bohn the Vice President of Industry Cloud at SAP (2017), the most important sections to closely control and focus on in the manufacturing companies in order to generate more revenues are: focusing on the after sale service revenue, using a unique technological applications to motivate customer to share their experience and submit new, enhancing cross-industry information sharing related to the asset to increase the operational efficiency, starting to charge customers per usage of the service that is known as pay-per-use business models, buying new, customized, easy, and technological machines and systems to increase manufacturing agility and providing better services, applying artificial intelligence in company software and machine systems for a better manufacturing planning and scheduling. All these trends are hard to achieve if the company didn’t implement the existing software and technologies available in the market that are able to move the whole operational process from the old fashion to the new structure and practices in operations.

Furthermore, manufacturing resource planning (MRP) and Enterprise Resources Planning (ERP) are the most used software in manufacturing companies. MRP helps streamline the manufacturing process through production planning, scheduling, and inventory control. As for ERP, it is a software that integrates the functional departments of a business, such as sales, purchasing, accounting, Human Resource, customer support, CRM and inventory. It’s an integrated system of the company cross-functional departments as opposed to individual software designed specifically for the business process. By automating the critical workflow toward the company’s strategy, time will be reduced and human errors are decreased significantly thus eliminating costs (Peatfield, 2019). ERP systems take into consideration the importance of the supply chain in the manufacturing industry. The main concerns in a manufacturing industry are to always be on time for their customers, to never have an inventory shortage, to always track price fluctuation and pick the best purchasing price among all suppliers, to identify bottlenecks, to improve the delivery lead time and to maintain quality; all of these are achieved through a well-chosen ERP system that is implemented at the company that will lead to a better productivity and high customer satisfaction.

III. Assessment and evaluation

For a business to have competitiveness in today’s dynamic and complex world, cross-functional decision making and integration of organizational data are required. In this respect, we found a case study titled “Enterprise resource planning (ERP) in improving operational efficiency” to base our analysis with regard to the benefits of ERP in manufacturing companies and to discuss if it worth the cost of implementation.

1. Article Summary

Different operational, managerial and technological challenges are being faced by many organizations in developing countries, including the South African company considered in this research work that manufactures linen and uniform for the hospitality industry in Cape Town, South Africa.

In this article ERP was defined as an efficient information system which improves business competitiveness through cost reduction & better logistics, stating that it’s a method for effective planning and controlling of resources needed to manufacture and deliver products and services, achieved through a software which supports the integration of all organizational information, and considers each transaction as part of the interlinked processes that make up a business.

Composed of many modules, ERP increases operational transparency through a standard interface. The basic modules are identified as follow: ERP production module, ERP purchasing module, ERP inventory control module, ERP sales module, ERP marketing module, ERP financial module, and ERP human resources module; the role of these modules is to optimize the utilization of capacity, automate the processes for suppliers identification and price negotiation, facilitate processes for maintaining appropriate inventory level, order placements, scheduling & shipping, generate marketing leads & identify new trends, gather financial data and generate financial reports, and maintain employee database. The management at this company found that to be able to successfully implement the suitable ERP software, it is better to start with the Business process reengineering (BPR) in order to redesign of organizational processes to achieve improvement in service, speed, and cost. The role of ERP now is to consolidate the process adjustment with a software package using one integrated system, which helps manage all departments, ease day to day business, and increase profits. For that purpose, the managers designed an ERP flow chart to represent the flow of tasks according to the departments’ level. To meet the most of the benefits of an ERP and improve quality, efficiency, process flow and lead times, an External consultant was assigned to follow the process, assist and train employees, solve problems and monitor the implementation stage. In order to mathematically measure the operational efficiency, four ratios were periodically calculated: capacity, utilization, efficiency and, load percentage. The assessment was based on existing information and direct observation of the processes operating in the Design section, Pattern making section, Cutting section, production, and Technical Services section at the company. Productivity was recorded for analysis to develop a trend for a specific period. The main challenges of the company were to deliver on time, improve the capacity requirements planning because they were losing customers since they fail to meet demands and the delays in the processes due to the increase in capacity once the demand increase. Add to this, the untrained workers that were employed, the quantum of paperwork that travels between departments that delay fast decision making, the poor quality control that lacks technology for fast and accurate monitoring. Moreover, the labor cost was extremely high for the reason that at every time demand increases the actual staffs were unable to fulfill the orders, thus the HR department starts to hire new contracts workers.

Consequently, the recommendations for the ERP implementation stage at this company were: having updated technological PCs compatible with the ERP software, adding many computers with high capacity at different sectional departments in order to get fast decision making, train employees and management on Oracle software to get the utmost outcomes, capacity at the linen section has to be adjusted upward and add 4 full-time workers, as for the uniform section hire 1 more worker to meet existing load.

By implementing the ERP software, the company will be able to eliminate waste, defects, manage inventory and control labor and the work in progress through eliminating lead time.

This implementation would improve organizational competitiveness and would enhance communication and cooperation of all departments resulting in operational and employee efficiency since data could now be updated instantly resulting in minimization of waste resources.

2. Evaluation:

This article investigates the benefits of implementing ERP software in a South African company that manufactures linen and uniforms for the hospitality industry.

The company was unable to meet delivery dates and was seeking a permanent solution through proper implementation of ERP which was designed to reduce work in progress and working capital through the integration of firm’s activities and proper communication and collaboration between functional units. On the other hand, reduction of product cycle time was achieved by minimizing delays, coordination machine maintenance with production operations and optimizing space aiming to efficiently utilize available resources.

Hence, ERP software is a useful and very important tool for many organizations, through all the benefits that are following the implementation process from the operational, administrative and managerial section. Figure 1, shows all the benefits that a company can get from ERP adoption.

Figure 1: The Summarization of ERP benefits

Source: Sadrzadehrafiei et al., (2013). The Benefits of Enterprise Resource Planning (ERP) System Implementation in Dry Food Packaging Industry.)

However, there are also challenges that might cause failure when implementing ERP software. Failures could result from insufficient budget allocated to the implementation of ERP, poor planning, humble involvement of employees and un-entered data due to no enough training, squeezed deadlines by the upper management that make the project unachievable or the misfit of the ERP software with the business strategy, the type and the size of the business (Alhayek, 2017).

That’s why it is wise to look at the initial capital spent on the system since it could be very costly to some organization and the success of the implementation depends on many variables such as the skills and experience of the employees, communication between departments also plays an important role, the resistance in sharing information could reduce the efficiency of the software. Not to forget that the system can be difficult for the users if the company staff and managers are not well trained. All these obstacles in the ERP implementation stage could increase the costs generated from this project.

Running over budget is crucial for a company but does it indicates poor operational efficiency when implementing ERP?

In reference to the survey published in 2013 by Panorama USA where over 50% of projects experienced cost overruns and around 50% of respondents did not recover their costs. The same survey was conducted in 2017 and it shows that 74% of respondents overrun the budget that was allocated for the ERP software. This issue of exceeding the budget allocated for an ERP does not indicate the operational efficiency and companies’ satisfaction rate however in the same research in 2017, 78% of respondents found it beneficial for their business to adopt ERP software. Therefore, exceeding the budget assigned for ERP software may be the cause of several internal issues and boundaries that should be investigated and solved in order to adhere to the budget allocated.

IV. Conclusion and recommendations

Enterprise resources planning (ERP) is a tool that helps organizations to organize and plan their resources. It gives the firm the whole picture of the workflow and facilitates the communication and the cooperation between departments. The first consideration when planning to implement ERP software is to give the company the necessary time to change and get ready for the implementation to occur. Internal issues and boundaries should be examined and resolved before the implementation phase starts in order to prepare everyone inside the organization to accept the change and the benefits return that is expected.

For that reason, our recommendation for every manufacturing company is to think about implementing ERP software for all the benefits it includes. The management should not rush the project because it will lead to failure. For instance, when Hershey’s management in 1999 squeezed the deadline and forced everyone to finish the implementation and go live in 2.5years instead of 4 years, they faced a failure that costs the company a drop in its stock price of 35% and a drop in earnings by 18%. On the other hand, this implementation is a particular project for every organization, that’s why the firm should study all its aspects and what are the work types that should be mostly taken into consideration before and during the implementation phase.

Through all the different sizes of ERP software available in the market and the customization function offered with the different pricing schemes, allow us to say that the benefits of ERP worth the cost.


Colloids and their Preparation

1: Introduction

Thomas Graham in 1861 studied the ability of those dissolved substances capable to diffuse into water across a permeable membrane. He observed that crystalline substances likeC6H12O6, CH4N2O, and NaCl passed through themembrane, while others like glue, gelatin and gum arabic did not. The former he called crystalloids and the latter colloids (Greek, kolla= glue ;eidos= like). He thought that the difference in the behavior of ‘crystalloids’ and ‘colloids’ was because of the particle size. Later on it was realised that any sort of substance, despite of its nature, could be transformed into a colloid by sub-classifying it intoatoms or molecules of colloidal size.


A colloid is a matter in which one substance of minutely scattered insoluble particles is draped throughout another substance. Sometimes the scattered substance itself is called the colloid. [1] In a true solution as sugar or salt in H2O, the solute particles are spreaded in the solvent as alone molecules or ions. Thus the diameter of the scattered particles ranges from 1Å to 10 Å. [2] A colloid is a mixture that has particles range of between 1 and 1000 nm in diameter, besides are still able to remain evenly distributed throughout the solution. [3] 3:Types

As we have seen in the above lines, a colloidal system is made of 2stages. The substance classified as the colloidal particles is the Dispersed phase. The other continuous phase in which the colloidal particles are dispersed is the Dispersion medium. E.g., for a colloidal solution of Cu in H2O, Cu particles formed the dispersed phase and water the dispersion medium. As mentioned above, a colloidal system is made of a dispersed phase and the dispersion medium. B/c either the dispersed phase or the dispersion medium can be a gas, liquid or solid, there are 8 sorts of colloidal systems possible. A colloidal dispersion of one gas in other is not possible since the 2 gases would give a same molecular mixture. In this chapter we will condemn our study strictly to the colloidal systems which consist of a solid substance dissolved in a liquid. These are often referred to as Sols or Colloidal solution. The colloidal solutions in H2O as the dispersion medium are termed Hydrosols or Aquasols. When the dispersions medium is alcohol or benzene, the sols are referred to as Alcosolsand Benzosols respectively 4:LYOPHILIC AND LYOPHOBIC SOLS OR COLLOIDS[4]

Sols are colloidal systems in which a solid is dipped in a liquid.

These can be sub-classified into 2classes :

(a) Lyophilic sols (solvent-loving)

(b) Lyophobic sols (solvent-hating)

Lyophilic sols are those in which the scattered phase exhibits a definite affinity for the mediumor the solvent.

The examples of lyophilic sols are dispersions of starch, gum, and protein in water.

Lyophobic sols are those in which the dispersed phase has no attraction for the medium or thesolvent.

The examples of lyophobic sols are dispersion of Au, Fe2O3 and S in H2O. The affinity or attraction of the sol particles for the medium, in a lyophilic sol, is due to hydrogen bonding with H2O. If the dispersed phase is a protein (as in egg) hydrogen bonding takes place between H2O molecules and the amino groups ( –NH–, –NH2) of the protein molecule. In spreading starch in H2O, hydrogen bonding occurs between H2O molecules and the – OH groups of the starch molecule. There are no similar forces of attraction when S or Au is mixed in water.

5:CHARACTERISTICS OF LYOPHILIC AND LYOPHOBIC SOLS[5] Some features of lyophilic and lyophobic sols are as follows (1) Ease of preparation

Lyophilic sols can be obtained easily by mixing the material (starch, protein) with an appropriate solvent. The macro molecules of the material are of colloidal size and these at once pass into the colloidal form on account of interconnection with the solvent.

Lyophobic sols are not getting able by simply mixing the solid material with the solvent.

(2) Charge on particles

Particles of a hydrophilic sol may have either small or no charge at all Particles of a hydrophobic sol carry +ve or -ve charge which gives them stability.

(3) Solvation

Hydrophilic sol particles are generally solvated. That is, they are bounded by an adsorbed layer of the dispersion medium which does not allow them to come, gather and coagulate. E.g. Hydration of gelatin .

There is no solvation of the hydrophobic sol particles for want of interaction with the medium.

(4) Viscosity

Lyophilic sols are thick as the particle size goes up due to solvation, and the proportion of free medium goes down. Warm solutions of the dispersed stage on cooling set to a gel E.g., preparation Of table jelly.

Viscosity of hydrophobic sol is almost the same as of the dispersion medium itself.

(5) Precipitation

Lyophilic sols are precipitated (or coagulated) only by high concentration of the electrolytes when the sol particles are mixed.

Lyophobic sols are precipitated even by low concentration of electrolytes, the protective layer being not present.

(6) Reversibility

The dispersed phase of lyophilic sols when distinguished by coagulation or by evaporation of the medium, can be changed again into the colloidal form just on dissolving with the dispersion medium. Therefore this type of sols are designated as Reversible sols.

On the other hand, the lyophobic sols once precipitated cannot be changed again merely by mixing With dispersion medium. These are, therefore, called Irreversible sols.

(7) Tyndall effect Due to relatively tiny particle size, lyophilic sols do not scatter light and show no Tyndall effect.

Lyophobic sol particles are big enough to exhibit tyndall effect.

(8) Migration in electronic field

Lyophilic sol particles (proteins) migrate to anode or cathode, or not at all, when placed in electric field.

Lyophobic sol particles move either to anode or cathode, according as they carry -ve or +ve charge.


Lyophilic sols may be prepared by simply warming the solid with the liquid dispersion mediumE.g., starch with H2O. On the other hand, lyophobic sols have to be prepared by special methods.

These methods fall into 2categories :

(1) Dispersion Methods in which biggermacro-sized particles are split down to colloidal size.

(2) Gathering Methods in which colloidal size particles are made up by gathering single ions or molecules.


In these methods, material in excess is dispersed in other medium.

(1) Mechanical dispersion By Using Colloid Mill

The solid along with the liquid dispersion medium is supplied into a Colloid mill. The mill containing two steel plates almost touching each other and rotating in anti directions with great speed. The solid particles are ground down to colloidal size and are then vanished in the liquid to give the sol.

Colloidal graphite’ (a lubricant) and printing inks are made by this method.Now a days, mercury sol has been manufactured by shattering a layer of mercury into sol particles inH2O by means of US(ultra sonic) vibration..

(2) Bredig’s Arc Method

It is used for making hydrosols of metals e.g., Ag, Au and Pt. An arc is struck in mid of the two metal electrodes held close together underde-ionized water. The H2O is kept cold by occupying the container in ice/water bath and a trace of alkali (KOH) is added. The high heat of the spark across the electrodes evaporates some of the metal and the haze condenses under H2O. Thus the atoms of the metal present in the hazes aggregate to form colloidal particles in H2O. Since the metal has been basically converted into sol particles (via metal vapour), thismethod has been treated as of dispersion.

Non-metal sols can be made by suspending coarse particles of the substance in the dispersionmedium and striking an arc between iron electrodes.

(3) By Peptization

Some newly precipitated ionic solids are dispersed into colloidal solution in H2O by thecombination of small quantities of electrolytes, eventually those containing a same ion. The pptsadsorbs the common ions and electrically charged particles then break from the precipitate as colloidalparticles.

The diffusal of a precipitated material into colloidal solution by the action of an electrolyte in solution, is termed peptization. The electrolyte used is called a peptizing agent.

Peptization is the alter of coagulation of a sol.

Examples of preparation of sols by peptization

(1) Silver chloride, Ag+Cl–, can be converted into a sol by combining hydrochloric acid (Cl– being common ion.)

(2) Ferric hydroxide, Fe(OH)3, give a sol by adding ferric chloride (Fe3+ being common ion).


These methods consists of chemical reactions or change of solvent whereby the atoms or molecules of the diffusal phase appearing 1st, coalesce to form colloidal particles.

The states (temperature, concentration, etc.) used are such as permit the making of sol particles but stops the particles becoming too huge and forming ppt. The ions which aren’t required (spectator ions) present in the sol are eradicated by dialysis as these ions may finally coagulate the sol.

The more chief methods for preparing hydrophobic sols are as follows : (1) Double Decomposition

An (As2S3) sol is prepared by passing a slow stream of H2S gas through a cold solution of (As2O3). This will prolong till the yellow colour of the sol gets max intensity.

As2O3 + 3H2S ⎯⎯→As2S3 (sol) + 3H2O

Too much H2S (electrolyte) is erased by passing in a stream of H2 gas.

(2) Reduction

Silver sols and gold sols can be achieved by the reaction of dilute solutions of AgNO3 or AuCl2 with organic reducing agents like tannic acid or methanal (HCHO) AgNO3 + tannic acid ⎯⎯→Ag sol

AuCl3 + tannic acid ⎯⎯→Au sol

(3) Oxidation

A sol of S is produced by passing H2S into a solution of SO2.

2H2S + SO2 ⎯⎯→2H2O + S↓

In qualitative analysis, S sol is frequently encountered when H2S is passed through the solution to make ppt of group 2 metals if an oxidizing agent (Chromate or ferric ions) happen to be present. It can be removed by boiling (to coagulate the sulphur) and filtering through two filter papers folded together.

(4) Hydrolysis

Sols of the hydroxides of Fe, Cr and Al are readily produced by the hydrolysis of salts of the respective metals. In order to obtain a red sol of Fe(OH)3, a few drops of 30% FeCl3 solution is added to a large volume of nearly boiling water and mixed with a glass rod.

FeCl3 + 3H2O ⎯⎯→Fe(OH)3 + 3HCl

red sol

(5) Change of Solvent

When a solution of Sor resin in C2H5OH is added to an excess of H2O, the S or resin sol is formed owing to goes down in solubility. The matter is present in molecular state in C2H5OH but on transference to water, the molecules precipitate out to form colloidal particles.


In the methods of preparation as mentioned above, the obtained sol frequently contains besides colloidal particles appreciable amounts of electrolytes. To get the pure sol, these electrolytes have to beerased. This purification of sols can be achieved by 3methods : (a) Dialysis

(b) Electrodialysis

(c) Ultrafiltration


Animal membranes (bladder) or those made of parchment paper and cellophane sheet, have very fine holes. These holes allow ions (or small molecules) to pass through but not the large colloidal particles. When a sol containing vanished ions (electrolyte) or molecules is placed in a bag of permeable membrane immersed in pure water, the ions spread through the membrane. By using a continuous flow of fresh water, the concentration of the electrolyte which is not inside the membrane becomes almost zero. Thus diffusion of the ions into pure H2O remains brisk all the time. In this way, practically all the electrolyte present in the sol can be erased effortlessly.

The phenomena of erasing ions (or molecules) from a sol by spreading through a permeable membrane is called Dialysis. The device used for dialysis is called a Dialyser.

Example.A Fe(OH)3 sol (red) form by the hydrolysis of FeCl3 will be dissolved with someHCl acid. If the impure sol is placed in the dialysis bag for small time, the outside water will give a white ppt with AgNO3. After a bit of long time, it will be found that almost the whole of HCl acid has been erased and the pure red sol is left in the dialyser bag.


In this operation, dialysis is carried under the influence of electric field (Fig. 22.8). Potential is forced between the metal screens giving support to the membranes. This speeds up the transfer of ions to the opposite electrode. Hence dialysis is accelerated. Evidently electrodialysis is notmeant for nonelectrolyte impurities like sugar and urea.


Sols pass through a simple filter paper, Its holes aretoo huge to maintain the colloidal particles. However, if thefilter paper is infused with collodion or a regeneratedcellulose such as cellophane or visking, the hole size ismuch minute. Such a modified filter paper is called anultrafilter.The dissociation of the sol particles from the liquidmedium and electrolytes by filtration with the help of an ultrafilteris called ultrafiltration.

Ultrafiltration is a steady process. Gas pressure (orsuction) has to be forced to speed it up. The colloidal particles are left on the ultrafilter in the form of slime. Theslime can be mixed into fresh medium to get back the puresol. By the help of graded ultrafilters, the technique ofultrafiltration can be employed to separate sol particles ofvarious sizes.


A true colloidal solution is stable. Its particles don,t ever coalesce and separate out. The stability of sols is because of 2factors : (1) Presence of like charge on sol particles

The dispersed particles of a hydrophobic sol contains a like electrical charge (all +ve or all -ve) on their surface. Since same charges repel each other, the particles push away from each other and resist joining together. However, when an electrolyte is mixed to a hydrophobic sol, theparticles are discharged and ppt formed.

(2) Presence of Solvent layer around sol particle

The lyophilic sols are stable for 2 reasons. Their particles possess a charge and in additionhave a layer of the solvent bound on the surface. E.g, a sol particle of gelatin has a -vecharge and a water layer envelopes it. When NaCl is mixed with colloidal solution of gelatin,its particles are not precipitated. The H2O layer around the gelatin particle doesn,t permit the Na+ ions to run into it and discharge the particle. The gelatin sol isn,t precipitated by mixing ofNaCl solution. actually, lyophilic sols are more stable than lyophobic sols.


The molecules of substances as soaps and artificial detergents are tinier than the colloidalparticles. Whereas in concentrated solutions these molecules form aggregates of colloidal size.Substances whose molecules combines spontaneously in a given solvent to form particles of colloidaldimensions are Associated or Association Colloids.

The colloidal aggregates of soap or detergent molecules formed in the solvent are referred to asmicelles.

Explanation.Soap or detergent molecule ionises in water to form an anion and Na ion.Thus sodium stearate (a typical soap) furnishes stearate anion and sodium ion in aqueoussolution.

C17H35COO– Na+ ⎯⎯→C17H35COO– + Na+

Sodium stearate Stearate ion

As many as seventy stearate ions aggregate to form a micelle of colloidal size. The stearate ion has along hydrocarbon chain (17 carbons) with a polar —COO– group at 1 end. The zigzag hydrocarbontail is given by a wavy line and the polar head by a hollow circle. In the micelle formation, the tails being insoluble in H2O are directed to the centre, while the soluble polar heads are on the surface in contact with H2OThe charge on the micelle because of the polar heads accountsfor the stability of the particle.

Cleansing Action of Soaps and Detergents

The cleansing action of soap is due to

(1) Solubilisation of grease into the micelle

(2) Emulsification of grease


In relatively strong solution the soap (or detergent) anions directlyform a micelle. The hydrocarbon tails are in the inner side of the micelle and COO– ions on the surface.The grease stain is then absorbed into the interior of the micelle which behaves like liquid hydrocarbons. As the stain is removed from the fabric, the dirt particles sticking to the stain are alsoerased.


As already discussed the soap or detergent molecules are ionised in H2O. Theanions are made of oil-soluble hydrocarbon tails and water-soluble polar heads. Thus soap anionhas a long hydrocarbon tail with a polar head, —COO–. When soap solution is amixedwith a fabric, the tails of the soap anions are fixed into the grease stain. The polar heads started from the greasesurface and form a charged layer around it. Thus by mutual repulsions the grease droplets are suspended in H2O. The emulsified grease stains are cleaned away with soap solution.


These are liquid-liquid colloidal systems. In other words, an emulsion is adispersion of finely divided liquid droplets in another liquid.

Generally 1 of the 2 liquids is H2Oand the other, which is immiscible with H2O, isdesignated as oil. Either liquid can make the dispersed phase.

Types of Emulsions

There are 2 types of emulsions.

(a) Oil-in-Water type (O/W type)

(b) Water-in-Oil type (W/O type)

Examples of Emulsions

(1) Milk is an emulsion of O/W type. Tiny droplets of liquid fat are added in H2O.

(2) Stiff greases are emulsions of W/O type, H2O being dispersed in lubricating oil.

Preparation of Emulsions

The dispersal of a liquid in the form of anemulsion is called emulsification. This can bedone by agitating a tiny amount of 1liquid with the bulk of the other. It is better achieved by passing a mixture of the 2liquid through a colloid mill known ashomogenizer.The emulsions can simply be obtain byshakingthe 2 liquids are unstable. The droplets ofthe dispersed phase coalesce and make a separate layer. To have a stable emulsion, tinyamount of a 3rd substance called theEmulsifier or Emulsifying agent is addedduring the preparation. This is usually a soap,synthetic detergent, or a hydrophilic colloid.

Role of Emulsifier

The emulsifier concentrates at the interface and decreases surface tension on the side of 1liquid which rolls into droplets. Soap, E.g., is made of a long hydrocarbon tail (oil soluble)with a polar head —COO–Na+ (water soluble). In O/W type emulsion the tail is pegged into the oildroplet, while the head prolongs into H2O. Thus the soap acts as go-between and the emulsifieddroplets are not permitted to coalesce.

Properties of Emulsions

(1) Demulsification.

Emulsions can be broken or ‘demulsified’ to get the constituent liquids byheating, freezing, centrifuging, or by addition of appreciable amounts of electrolytes. They are alsobroken by destroying the emulsifying agent. For example, an oil-water emulsion stabilized by soap isbroken by addition of a strong acid. The acid converts soap into insoluble free fatty acids.

(2) Dilution.

Emulsions can be diluted with any amount of the dispersion medium. On the other hand the dispersed liquid when mixed with it will at once form a separate layer. This property ofemulsions is used to detect the type of a given emulsion 11:GELS[11]

A gel is actually a jelly-like colloidal system inwhich a liquid is dissolved in a solid medium.E.g., when a warm sol of gelatin is cooled,it lays to a semisolid mass which is a gel. This operation of a gel making is known as Gelation.Explanation.Gelation may be consider aspartial coagulation of a sol. The coagulating solparticles first combine to make long thread-likechains. These chains are then interconnected to forma solid framework. The liquid dispersion mediumgets locked in the spaces of this framework.

The resulting semisolid porous mass has a gel likestructure. A sponge absorbed in water is example of gel structure.

Two sorts of Gels

(a) Elastic gels are those which contains elastic properties. They convert their form onapplying force and change back to original shape when the force is eraased. Gelatin, starch and soaps areillustrations of substances which make elastic gels.Elastic gels are formed by cooling highly concentrated lyophilic sols. The bondings or links between themolecules (particles) are due to electrical attraction and are not hard.

(b) Non-elastic gels are those which are harde.g., silica gel. These are formed by appropriatechemical action. Thus silica gel is made by adding concentrated HCl acid to sodiumsilicate solution of the accurate concentration. The resulting molecules of silicic acid polymerise to make silica gel. It has a network connected by covalent bonds which give a strong and hard structure.

Properties of Gels

(1) Hydration.

A fully dehydrated elastic gel can be reproduced by addition of H2O. But once a nonelastic gel is freed from moisture, addition of H2O will not bring about gelation.

(2) Swelling.

Partially dehydrate elastic gels imbibe H2O when dipped in the solvent. This causes increase in the volume of the gel and process is called Swelling.

(3) Syneresis.

Many inorganic gels on standing reduce in size which is achieved by exudationof solvent. This process is called Syneresis.

(4) Thixotropy.

Some gels are semisolid when at rest but revert to liquid sol on agitation. This reversible sol-gel conversion is referred to as Thixotropy. Iron oxide and silver oxide gels exhibit this property. The modern thixotropic paints are also an example.


Some Examples of Colloids are as follows

Dispersion Medium Dispersed Phase Type of Colloid Example Solid Solid Solid sol Ruby glass

Solid Liquid Solid emulsion/gel Pearl, cheese

Solid Gas Solid foam Lava, pumice

Liquid Solid Sol Paints, cell fluids

Liquid Liquid Emulsion Milk, oil in water

Liquid Gas Foam Soap suds, whipped cream

Gas Solid Aerosol Smoke

Gas Liquid Aerosol Fog, mist


Colloids play an essential role in our daily life and industry. A knowledge of colloid chemistry isimportant to understand some of the different natural phenomena around us. Colloids make up some of our modern products. some of the important applications of colloids are as follows.

(1) Foods

Many of our foods are colloidal in nature. Milk is an emulsion of butterfat in H2O secured by a protein, casein. Salad dressing, gelatin deserts, fruit jellies and whipped cream are other examples.

Ice cream is a dispersion of ice in cream. Bread is a dispersion of air in baked dough.

(2) Medicines

Colloidal medicines being finely divided, are more useful and are easily absorbed in oursystem. Halibut-liver oil and cod-liver that we take are, actually, the emulsions of the respective oils in wH2O. Many ointments for application to skin consist of physiologically active parts mixedin oil and made into an emulsion with H2O. Antibiotics such as penicillin and streptomycin areformed in colloidal form suitable for injections.

(3) Non-drip or thixotropic paints

All paints are colloidal dispersions of solid pigments in a liquid medium. The modern nondrip orthixotropic paints also contain long-chain polymers. At rest, the chains of molecules are coiled andentrap much dispersion medium. Thus the paint is a semisolid gel structure. When shearing stress isapplied with a paint brush, the coiled molecules straighten and the entrapped medium is released. Assoon as the brush is removed, the liquid paint reverts to the semisolid form. This renders the paint‘non-drip’.

(4) Electrical precipitation of smoke

The smoke coming from industrial plants is a colloidal dispersion of solid particles (carbon, arsenic compounds, cement dust) in air. It is a nuisance and damges the atmosphere. So,beforepermitingthe smoke to escape into air, it is treated by Cottrell PrecipitatorThe smoke is let past a series of sharp points charged to a high potential (20,000 to 70,000 V). Thepoints discharge high velocity electrons that ionise molecules in air. Smoke particles adsorb these+ve ions and become charged. The charged particles are attracted to the oppositely chargedelectrodes and forms ppt. The gases that leave theCottrell precipitator are thus freed fromsmoke. In addition, valuable materials may be secured from the precipitated smoke. For example,arsenic oxide is mainly recovered from the smelter smoke by this method.

(5) Clarification of Municipal water

The municipal water obtained from natural sources often consists ofcolloidal particles. The phenomenaof coagulation is used to eradicae these. The sol particles carry a -ve charge. When aluminiumsulphate(alum) is added to H2O, a gelatinous precipitate of hydrated aluminium hydroxide (floc) isproduced Al3+ + 3H2O ⎯⎯→Al(OH)3 + 3H+

Al(OH)3+ + 4H2O + H+ ⎯⎯→Al(OH)3(H2O)4


+vely charged flocattracts to it -tive sol particles which are coagulated. The flocalong with the suspended matter comes down, leaving the H2O clear (6) Formation of Delta

The river water consists of colloidal particles of sand and clay which carry -ve charge. Thesea water, on the other hand, contains cations ions such as Na+, Mg2+, Ca2+. As the river water meets sea water, these ions discharge the sand or clay particles which formsppt as delta.

(7) Artificial Kidney machine

The human kidneys cleans the blood by dialysis through natural membranes. The toxic waste products such as urea and uric acid pass through the membranes, while colloidal-sized particles ofblood proteins (haemoglobin) are retained. Kidney failure, therefore, leads to death due to accumulation of poisonous waste products in blood . Now-a-days, the patient’s blood can be cleansed by shuntingit into an ‘artificial kidney machine’. Here the impure blood is form to pass through a series ofcellophane tubes surrounded by a washing solution in H2O. The toxic waste chemicals (urea, uricacid) diffuse across the tube walls into the washing solution. The cleaned blood is changed back to thepatient. The use of artificial kidney machine saves the life of 1000 of persons each year.

(8) Adsorption indicators

These indicators function by preferentialadsorption of ions onto sol particles. Fluorescein(Na+Fl) is an example of adsorption indicatorwhich is used for the titration of NaCl solution against AgNO3 solution.When AgNO3 solution is run into asolution of NaCl containing a littlefluorescein, a white precipitate of AgNO3 is first produced. At the end-point, the whiteprecipitate chnges sharply pink.


The indicator fluorescein is adye (Na+Fl–) which gives coloured anion Fl– inaqueous solution. The white precipitate of AgCl formed by running AgNO3 solution intoNaCl solution is partially colloidal in nature.

(a) Before the end-point,

Cl– ions are inexcess. The AgCl sol particles adsorb these ionsand become -vely charged. The -veAgCl/Cl– particles cannot adsorb the colouredfluorescein anions (Fl–) due to electrostatic repulsion. Thus the precipitate remains white.

(b) After the end-point,

Ag+ ions become in excess. AgCl sol particles adsorb these andacquire +ve charge. The +veAgCl/Ag+ particles now attract the coloured fluorescein anions(Fl–) and turn rose-red.

Thus the end-point is marked by white precipitate changing to pink.

(9) Blue colour of the sky

This is an function of Tyndall consequence. The higher ambiance contains colloidal dirt or frost particles discrete in atmosphere. As the sun energy enters the air (Fig. 22.33) these hit the colloidal particles. The particles soak up daylight and disperse glow of blue color (4600–5100Å). The light that is occurrence at earth’s surface is considerably reddened due to the removal of most of the blue light in the higher air.

14: References

[1] :

[2] : essentials of physical chemistry ArunBahl , BsBahl , G.D. Tuli , S.Chand [3] : [4] : [5] : [6] : [7] : [8] : [9] : [10] :

[11] :

[12] : [13] : 2016-3-14-1457969076

Sphingolipids: essay help site:edu


In this project is the effect of cholesterol at ceramide converting in sphingomyeline, glucosylceramide, ceramide 1-fosfaat and sphingosine in SK-N-AS and HeLa cells discovered. Those sphingolipids are found in mammalian cell membranes are involved in a variety of different functions like first/second messengers, membrane lipid rafts, and in a lot of different signalling pathways (See figure 2)

Cholesterol is also an important part of the mammalian cell membrane. It is involved in maintenance and stability of the membrane and in synthase of important molecules like vitamin D and steroid hormones. Cholesterol is synthesised by the liver but is also a present in some nutrition. Cholesterol and sphingomyelin have a high affinity for each other, because of van der Waals interactions. Recent studies show the effect of cholesterol at sphingomyelin synthase. SMase activity showed a strongly negative correlation between SMase activity and the Cholesterol/Protein ratio.

Two types of tumour cells will be tested SK-N- AS which are from a patient with neuroblastoma. And HeLa cells which are from a patient with cervical carcinoma. When sphingolipid metabolism is dysregulated, sphingolipid metabolism is associated with the pathogenesis and development of various types of cancers. Sphingosine 1-fosfaat is influencing cell growth in neuroblastoma cells. Sphingomyeline is influencing cell growth in cervical carcinoma cells.


Ceramide is converting into other sphingolipids like sphingomyelin, sphingoceramide and sphingosine. It is known that sphingomyelin synthase is affected by cholesterol. In this project the effect of cholesterol at the converting of ceramide in sphingomyelin, sphingoceramide and sphingosine in SKNAS and HELA cells is examined. Cholesterol in the cells will be decreased by exposing cells to methyl-beta-cyclodextrin and will be increased by exposing cells to cholesterol-methyl-beta-cyclodextrin inclusion complexes. Ceramide will be coloured with C6-NBD. With thin-layer chromatography can be analysed in which sphingolipids ceramide is converted. With protein-analyses can be determined the amount of cells each wells so the samples can be compared to each other.

Main question what is the effect of cholesterol at converting ceramide in sphingomyelin, glucosylceramide, ceramide 1-phosphate and sphingosine in SKNAS and HELA cells?

Hypothesis: Sphingomyelin synthase will be influenced by cholesterol. More cholesterol means more sphingomyelin. Cholesterol has no effect at the synthase of other sphingolipids. HeLa cells are more influenced by cholesterol than SK-N-AS cells.


The sphingolipids are named by J.L.W.Thudichum in 1884, because of their mysteriousness and because Thudichum was a fan of the sphinx from Greek mythology, he named it after the sphinx.

Sphingolipids are a form of lipids (fat like molecules often but not exclusively seen in cell membranes) which are characterized by their backbone, consisting of eighteen carbon amino alcohol bases. They are synthesized in the Endoplasmic reticulum from non-sphingolipid precursors. This family of lipids play an important role in membrane biology and is involved in various different cell signalling pathways. (Gault CR, 2010)

The three prime lipid classes (glycerolipids, sphingolipids and sterols) in animal cells membranes are widely known. But most don’t realize how many combinations there are in the fundamental structure in each lipid class, which is relevant in the specialization of the lipid. There were scientist who believed sphingolipids mainly existed to keep the cell membrane stable, but some studies have elevated these sphingolipids to play a meaningful part in some biological mechanisms. Furthermore there are 10^9 lipid molecules in a small animal cell. This begs the question what exactly are the functions of sphingolipids?

Pretty much all membrane lipids are amphipathic (which means they are both hydrophilic and hydrophobic) The hydrophilic region is made up of phosphate groups, sugar residues, and/or hydroxyl groups. And the hydrophobic part consist of a long-chain base (sphingoid base) which can have two or even three hydroxyl groups. (Anthony, 2004)

Figure 1: structure of some sphingolipids, in blue only one kind of sphingoid base (sphingosine),in red only one kind of fatty acid (palmitic acid). (Anthony, 2004)

Functions of sphingolipids

Sphingolipids are known to act as both first and second messengers in several signalling pathways. First messengers are extracellular factors like hormones or neurotransmitters that can trigger biological effects in the cell like growth immune responses etc. Second messengers are intracellular signalling molecules released by the cell to trigger biological effects such as proliferation, differentiation etc. (figure 2)

Figure 2: Different participation of sphingolipids in cell biology signalling. (Obeid, 2008)

They also play an important role in the membrane lipid rafts. These are plasma membranes containing combinations of glycosphingolipids and protein receptors organized in glycolipoprotein microdomains. Which function as centres for protein sorting and signal transduction. In these rafts sphingomyelin levels are increased by about half in comparison to plasma membranes. (Pike, 2009)

Metabolic pathway of sphingolipids

In the sphingolipid metabolic pathway ceramide is at the centre of it all being synthesized from the molecules palmitate and serine (de novo which means newly made from simple molecules), which reduces to form 3-keto-dihydrosphingosine, which reduces to dihydrosphingosine, dihydrosphingosine is acetylated trough dihydro-ceramide synthase (CerS), and becomes dihydroceramide, followed by desaturase into finally ceramide.

It can also form by sphingomyelinase of dihydrosphingomyelin to dihydroceramide followed by desaturase to ceramide, and by sphingomyelinase of sphingomyelin to ceramide. This last one can go both ways ceramide can become sphingomyelin through sphingomyelin synthase (SMS).

It can form through glucosylceramidase (GCase) from glucosylceramide, and again both ways through glucosylceramide synthase (GCS).

Ceramide can form from ceramide 1-phospate with phosphatase and back again through a specific ceramide kinase (CK).

And lastly it can form from sphingosine 1-phosphate through sphingosine-1-phosphate phosphatase (SPPase) it becomes sphingosine which in turn becomes ceramide with ceramide synthase (CerS)

Figure 3: Sphingolipids metabolism with their related enzymes. (Obeid, 2008)


Ceramide is one of the plainest sphingolipid as seen in figure 1 it is only composed of a sphingosine and a fatty acid. It has been suggested that the fatty acid can largely decide the function and pathway of this type of sphingolipid. Which fatty acid is N-acylated to the long chain-base is being decided through various genes so they are responsible for several distinct ceramide groups. The distribution of these genes to various tissues suggests some tissues need precise behaviour from these ceramide. The main pattern of these ceramide may be portrayed, but some factors are still unclear of these sphingolipids, like how the specific enzymes are regulated and how many separate enzymes can influence the same pathway.

Ceramide is synthesized in the endoplasmic reticulum, it uses the cells own components like vesicular transport but also different transport methods to move from the endoplasmic reticulum to the golgi apparatus. It uses these methods because it can’t move through the cytosol by itself since it has hydrophobic properties. (Anthony, 2004)

How can ceramide synthesis be qualified?

Ceramide synthesis can be qualified by using NBD C6-Ceramide (6-((N-(7-Nitrobenz-2-Oxa-1,3-Diazol-4-yl)amino)hexanoyl)Sphingosine) which will emit a green fluorescence. Its absorption maxima is 466nm and its emitting maxima is 536nm. There are several experiments to qualify ceramide synthesis like:

TLC, (thin layer chromatography)
HPLC, (High-performance liquid chromatography)
Mass spectrometry, (Cremesti, 2000)


Glucosylceramide is a more complex sphingolipid, it has a carbohydrate head group which is attached to the 1-hydroxy group of ceramide. The most simple glucosylceramide are galactosylceramide and glucosylceramide. At which galactosylceramide has a glucose group, and glucosylceramide a galactose group. From these glucosylceramide more complex sphingolipids can be synthesized through adding additional glycose sub-units. (Obeid, 2008)

Ceramide 1-fosfaat

Ceramide-1-phosphate is formed from ceramide by a specific ceramide kinase (CK) as stated in ‘What is the metabolic pathway of sphingolipids?’. Thus far the single enzyme known to produce Ceramide-1-phosphate in mammalian cells is CK.

This ceramide is involved in the mitogenesis (induction of mitosis) of certain cells, as well as having antiapoptic effects. Ceramide-1-phosphate is involved in inflammatory reactions also. The effects of Ceramide-1-phosphate are mostly active in intracellular compartments. (G”mez-Mundoz, 2010)


Sphingomyelin is named by the myelin sheets around nerve cells. Sphingomyelin is mostly found in myelin sheets, but is also found in other cell membranes. The only phospholipid which is also a sphingolipid is sphingomyelin. One of the important nerve cell membrane components is sphingomyelin. Sphingomyelin synthase(SMS) catalyses the transfer of phosphoryl choline from phosphatidylcholine to a ceramide. SMS1 and SMS2 are the human SMS genes.

The SMS1 gene is find in the trans-Golgi apparatus is encoded. the SMS 2 gene is associated with the plasma membrane.

Figure 4. synthase and degradation of sphingomyelin by the enzymes sphingomyelin synthase(SMS) and sphingomyelinase (ASMase/SMase)

Sphingomyelinase causes the release of ceramide and phosphocholine. Sphingomyelin is converted to ceramide because of this reaction. Sphingomyelinase is also called ASMase or aSMase because sphingomyelinase functions at acidic pH.

The synthase of sphingomyelinase is seen in figure 4. (King(pHd), 2016)

Sphingomyelin has a few different functions. Myelin sheets around nerve cells has a lot of sphingomyelins. This suggests their function as insulator of nerve fibers. (Voet, Voet, & Pratt, 2008) Sphingomyelin is also found in the plasma membranes of other cells. Sphingomyelin is in the plasma membrane also important for entering iron into cells. Sphingomyelin has also a function in the activity of some membrane-bound proteins including a certain receptors and ion channels. The most important sphingolipid in the nucleus is sphingomyelin because it is involved in chromatin dynamics. (Christie, 2014)


The initiation of sphingosine synthesis takes places via condensation of serine and palmitoyl-CoA. This reaction is catalysed by the enzyme serine palmitodyltransferase(SPT). Hereby is 3-ketosphinganine(3-ketodihydrosphingosine) formed. SPT contains two main subunits. SPTLC1 and SPTLC2. The isoform of SPTLC2L isoform is also called SPTLC3. SPTLC1 is found in active SPT enzymes. Some tissues contains SPTLC2 subunits, and other contains SPTLC3 subunits. LC means Long-Chain subunit. 3-ketosphinganine is converted into sphinganine (dihydrosphingosine) by 3-ketosphinganine reductase. Sphinganine is converted into dihydroceramide by the enzyme ceramide synthase. Dihydroceramide is converted into ceramide by the enzyme dihydroceramide.

Through the action of ceramide synthases and ceramidases, sphingosine has a function as substrate for ceramide synthesis, and ceramide has a function as substrate for sphingosine synthesis. (King(pHd), 2016)

The synthase of sphingosine is shown in figure 5

Figure 5. the synthase of sphingosine. The initiation of sphingosinesynthese starts with condensation of serine and palmitoyl-CoA. The synthase continuous by the help of 3-ketosphinganine reductase, ceramide synthase, dihydroceramide desaturase and ceramidase. (King(pHd), 2016)

Sphingosine is converted into sphingosine 1-phosphaat via sphingosine kinase. Sphingosine 1-phosphaat can be converted in sphingosine via different phosphatases.

Sphingosine 1-phosphate (S1P) is released to the extracellular space. After that, it binds to specific receptors on the plasma membrane of target cells. S1P has important roles in differentiation, migration and cell proliferation. (Tsuyoshi Nishia, 2013) Because of its role in cell differentiation, S1P also has a role in cell differentiation in cancer cells.

SK-N-AS and HeLa cells

In this experiment two types tumour cells are tested. SK-N-AS cells are originally from a female patient with neuroblastoma from the metastasis of the bone marrow. (Aldrich, 2016) Neuroblastoma is a tumour cancer which is mostly located in the nerve tissue of the adrenal gland but is also found in nerve tissues in other body parts. Approximately 15 percent of all childhood cancer deaths is caused by neuroblastoma. (Mehrdad Rahmaniyan, 2012)

When sphingolipid metabolism is dysregulated, sphingolipid metabolism is associated with the pathogenesis and development of various types of cancers.

In neuroblastoma cells and tissues is sphingosine kinase 2 is highly expressed. Spingosine-1-phosphaat(SIP) is the product of sphingosine kinase 2. Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) expression is induced by spingosine-1-phosphaat. VEGF is a factor who is regulating the process of angiogenesis. Angiogenesis is an essential factor for metastasis and tumour growth. VEGF expression is induced via HIF-1-” independent pathway. Spingosine-1-phosphate receptor 2(S1P2) correlates with VEGF mRNA expression. This suggest that the VEGF/S1P/S1P2 pathway may promote neuroblastoma growth. (Mehrdad Rahmaniyan, 2012)

HeLa cells are originally from a 31 year old female with cervical carcinoma. (Aldrich s. , 2016) Sphingomyelin synthase 1 and sphingomyelin synthase 2 are co-expressed and function as golgi-and plasma membrane-associated SM synthase in hum cervia carcinoma cells. RNA interference-mediated decrease of sphingomyelin synthase-1 and sphingomyelin synthase-2 caused sphingomyelin production, accumulation of ceramide and a block in cell growth. (Fikadu Geta Tafesse, 2007)


All human cells have plasma membranes. The fundamental structure is the phospholipid bilayer. Exist the phospholipid bilayer, the plasma membrane consists lipids and proteins. Another essential compound of mammalian plasma membranes is cholesterol.

Cholesterol is responsible for maintenance of cell structure and maintaining the stability and the stiffness of the plasma membrane. 30% of the cell membranes exits of cholesterol. (Groningen Biomolecular Sciences and Biotechnology Institute en het Zernike Institute for Advanced Materials van de Rijksuniversiteit Groningen, 2014)

Cholesterol is also a precursor of compounds as vitamin D, steroid hormones and bile acid Cholesterol has four rings in its structure as seen in figure 6.

Cholesterol is synthesized in the liver by mammalians self, but is also a part of some food. The cholesterol in the diet, is mostly find in eggs, meat, cheese and other dairy products. Normally 30-60% of the cholesterol in the western diet(approximately 500 mg) is absorbed by the gut. Cholesterol is a lipid molecule so it is poorly soluble in water. Lipoproteins transport cholesterol between organs and tissues. The sterol ring of cholesterol cannot be metabolized by humans, it is excreted as bile acids or as free cholesterol. Approximately 50% of the cholesterol eliminated from the body through faeces each day is excreted as bile acids and the remainder as the product of bacterial reduction of free cholesterol in the gut. The two sources of cholesterol reach cells in different ways. The intracellular free cholesterol can be newly synthesized within the cell but can also be derived from lipoproteins. the exogenous cholesterol can only be derived from lipoproteins.


Cells are taken up the exogenous(dietary) cholesterol in lipoproteins. Cholesterol is an element of lipoproteins. Lipoproteins transport fats in the body and consist of cholesterol, triglycerides, proteins and phospholipids. There are five different types of lipoproteins: Very Low Density Lipoproteins (VLDL), Low Density Lipoproteins (LDL), Intermediate Density Lipoproteins (IDL), High Density Lipoproteins (HDL) and chylomicrons. (Dominiczak, 2009)

The types of lipoproteins vary in density, apolipoprotein composition and in the amounts of phospholipids, cholesteryl esters, triglycerides, proteins and free cholesterol. The differences are seen in table 1.

chylomicron VLDL IDL LDL HDL

Density (g/ml) <0.95 0.950’1.006 1.006’1.019 1.019’1.063 1.063’1.210

Components (% dry weight)

protein 2 7 15 20 40’55

triglycerides 83 50 31 10 8

free cholesterol 2 7 7 8 4

cholesteryl esters 3 12 23 42 12’20

phospholipids 7 20 22 22 22

Apoprotein composition A-I, A-II,

B-48, C-I,

C-II, C-III B-100, C-I,


E B-100, C-I,


E B-100 A-I, A-II,

C-I, C-II,


Table 1. (Christopher K Mathews, 2000)


Chylomicrons consists approximately of proteins(1-2%), cholesterol(1-3%) phospholipids(6-12%) and triglycerides(85-92%). (Hussain, 2000) Their function is transport of fats absorbed by the intestinal epithelial cells by the lymphatic system and the blood to the rest of the body. Dietary fats are digested and have a role in forming the chylomicrons’ triglycerides, free cholesterol and cholesteryl esters. (Thompson, 2015)

Very low density lipoproteins(VLDL) and intermediate density lipoproteins(IDL)

The synthase of VLDL’s is placed in the liver. VLDL transports triacylglycerol to the tissue cells. Triacylglycerol’s are synthesized in the liver. VLDL is hydrolase by lipoprotein lipase on the same way as chylomicrons. VLDL is now called IDL. IDL will be hydrolyzed and transformed into LDL or will be taken up by the liver.

Low density lipoproteins(LDL)

Apolipoprotein B100 is the only apolipoprotein of LDL and binds lipoprotein particles to LDL-specific receptors. VLDL and IDL have also apolipoprotein B100 but they also contain other apolipoproteins. cholesterol in LDL is converted to steroid hormones or is used as structural component of cell membranes.

High density lipoproteins(HDL)

The excess of cholesterol in cells is removed and is returned to the liver. HDL has an important role in this process. The cholesterol which has entered the liver is metabolized to salts and bile acids and eliminated by the intestine. HDL and LDL contain together the balance of cholesterol in the body. (Thompson, 2015)

Cholesterol is converted to cholesteryl esters by HDL. This converting takes place by the enzyme LCAT which is activated by apoA-1 in HDL. Cholesteryl esters are transferred to VLDL and LDL by the apo-D protein in HDL. Apo-CII and apo-E proteins are transferred to chylomicrons and other LDL’s. Afterwards apo-E is recognised by the liver, so the remnants of lipoproteins and cholesterol can be converted to bile acids and will be excreted into the duodenum. (Dominiczak, 2009) (Mathews, 2000) (Zamora, 2016)

Decreasing of cholesterol levels

LDL enters the vascular wall very easy. The immune system takes up the lipoproteins, which get overloaded with lipids. The lipoproteins change into foam cells. When foam cells die, they release the accumulated lipids. Those lipids form pools within the vascular wall. As a result plaques arise in the vascular walls. This is called arteriosclerosis. (Dominiczak, 2009) Arteriosclerosis can lead to brain and hart infarcts and transient ischemic attacks(TIA). (slagaderverkalking, 2016)

People with too much cholesterol in their blood, can use medication to decrease the amounts of cholesterol. There are different types of medication to decrease cholesterol in the blood. Statins are medication to decrease cholesterol synthesis by the liver. Less LDL in the blood, decrease the risk of arteriosclerosis. In the experiment the effect of cholesterol at the ceramide converting in SK-N-AS and HeLa will be tested. Statins are not an effective way to decrease cholesterol in SKNAS and HeLa cells, because statins only affect the cholesterol synthase in the liver. To decrease cholesterol in SK-N-AS and HeLA cells , cells are exposed to methyl-beta-cyclodextrin. To increase cellular cholesterol SK-N-AS and HeLa cells, cells are exposed to cholesterol-methyl-beta-cyclodextrin inclusion complexes.

The effect of cholesterol at sphingomyelin synthase

Because of van der Waals interactions, Sphingomyelin and cholesterol a high affinity for each other. They are mostly located together in ‘rafts’ of sub-domains of membranes. There is evidence that sphingomyelin controls the distribution of cholesterol in cells. (Christie, 2014) In a study supplied by M.N. Nikolova-Karakashian, H. Petkova, K.S. Koumanov from the Bulgarian academy of sciences in Sophia, the link between cholesterol and sphingomyeline synthase in rat liver plasma membranes is discovered. It is proved that the SMase activity showed a strongly negative correlation between SMase activity and the Cholesterol/Protein ratio. The enzymes PC:Cer-Pch and PE: Cer-Pet transferase are sphingomyelin synthesising enzymes. Those enzymes were stimulated by increasing cholesterol in feeding. Those results support the link between cholesterol and sphingomyelin synthase. (M.N. Nikolova-Karakashian, 1992)


Sphingolipids are a part of the cell membrane. They have among others a role in cell differentiation and cell growth. Ceramide can be converted into other sphingolipids like sphingosine, sphingomyelin, glucosylceramide and ceramide 1-fosfate. Sphingosine 1-fosfaat affects cell growth in neuroblastoma cells(SK-N-AS). Sphingomyelin affects cell growth in cervical carcinoma cells(HeLa).

Cholesterol and sphingomyelin have a high affinity for each other, because of van der Waals interactions. Recent studies show the effect of cholesterol at sphingomyelin synthase. SMase activity showed a strongly negative correlation between SMase activity and the Cholesterol/Protein ratio. In the practical part of this research, the effect of cholesterol at the ceramide converting in other sphingolipids is discovered.


Recent studies showed the effect of cholesterol at sphingomyelin synthase. The cells used in this study are liver cells of a rat. It is not completely sure if the effect of cholesterol at sphingomyelin synthase is the same in SK-N-AS and HeLa cells. If the practical part of this project shows the same results as this study, we still don’t know if the effect works at the same way, or that just the end results are the same


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Hussain, M. M. (2000). A proposed model for the assembly of chylomicrons. doi:10.1016/S0021-9150(99)00397-4

King(pHd), M. W. (2016, mei 11). Synthesis of Sphingosine and the Ceramides. Retrieved from

M.N. Nikolova-Karakashian, H. P. (1992). Influence of cholesterol on sphingomyelin metabolism and hemileaflet fluidity of rat liver plasma membranes. elsevier, 153-159.
Mathews, v. H. (2000). biochemistry. Oregon, United States : Prentice Hall. Retrieved from Oregon state, online course biochemistry:

Mehrdad Rahmaniyan, A. Q. (2012). bioactive sphingolipids in neuroblastoma,. South Carolina, US: Division of Pediatric Hematology Oncology.
Obeid, Y. (2008). principles of bioactive lipid signalling: lessons from sphingolipids. Nature Reviews, 12. Retrieved from pubmed:
Pike, L. J. (2009). the challenge of lipid rafts. Retrieved from pubmed:

slagaderverkalking. (2016, september). Retrieved from hartstichting:
Thompson, T. E. (2015, August). Classification and formation. Retrieved from Encyclopedia Britannica, school and library subscribers:
Tsuyoshi Nishia, b. e. (2013, august 4). Molecular and physiological functions of sphingosine 1-phosphate transporters. Retrieved from
Voet, D. J., Voet, J. G., & Pratt, C. W. (2008). principles of biochemistry. Wiley.
Zamora, A. (2016). Lipoproteins. Good cholesterol(HDL and Bad cholesterol(LDL). Retrieved from scientific psychic:

Appendix 1. ‘ Plan of action

The Main question is: What is the effect of cholesterol at converting ceramide in sphingomyelin, glucosylceramide, ceramide-1 phosphate and sphingosine in SKNAS and HELA cells?

The cell lines SKNAS and HELA will be used. which are both genetically unmodified.

Several to be determined concentrations of cholesterol will be tested on these cells, after which ceramide, sphingomyelin, glucosylceramide, ceramide-1 phosphate and sphingosine in these cells will be qualified with TLC (thin layer chromatography), and fluorescence microscopy. Protein determination will also be used to determine whether the amount of cells per well will be accurate.

The cells will be depleted and saturated using Methyl-B-Cyclodextrin wihout cholesterol and with cholesterol respectively.

The sphingolipids: ceramide, sphingomyelin, glucosylceramide, ceramide-1 phosphate and sphingosine will be made fluorescence by NBD C6-Ceramide (6-((N-(7-Nitrobenz-2-Oxa-1,3-Diazol-4-yl)amino)hexanoyl)Sphingosine).

Needed protocols:


Goal: -Starting the experiment with the right kind/amount of cells and wells with the right medium.

Principle: Cells need nutrition and favourable conditions to grow.


Goal: -By adding c6NBD-ceramide the lipids will be fluorescent so they can be qualified.

Principle:c6NBD-ceramide will be green fluorescent after being excited by 466 nm.

3-PROTOCOL ‘ Experimental,

‘The rate of sphingomyelin synthesis de novo is influenced by the level of cholesterol in cultured human skin ‘broblasts’ (adding cholesterol)

Goal: -Adding and removing cholesterol from the SKNAS and HeLa cell lines.

Principle: Methyl-B-cyclodextrin has a central cavity in which cholesterol can be incapsulated.


Goal: -Seeing the cells through an fluorescence microscope ‘ Getting the cells out their wells and into Eppendorf vials.

Principle:c6NBD-ceramide will be green fluorescent after being excited by 466 nm.


Goal: -Determine how much proteins are in each well, so qualification can be accurately adjusted to the amount of cells.

Principle: -Each cell has a certain amount of proteins so if one well has 20% less proteins than the other wells it most likely had 20% less cells as well.


Goal:-Getting the lipids in the cell membranes loose.

Principle:-Sonication uses sound energy to agitate particles in a solution.


Goal: -Extract the lipids from the homogenized solution

Principle:- Dichloromethane is widely used as an organic solvent, after centrifugation it will go to the bottom with all lipids.


Goal: Separating the different sphingolipids.

Principle: The separate lipids each have different solubility in the solvent and different attraction to the stationary phase, so they will travel at different speeds and therefor separate.


Goal:-Viewing the lipid bands on the TLC plate.

Principle:c6NBD-ceramide will be green fluorescent after being excited by 466 nm.


Goal:-Getting a more accurate reading on the amount of NBD-labelled lipids.

Principle:-The lipids are separated on the TLC plate so if you scrape it off and measure it using a plate reader it will give the amount of fluorescence and so information on the individual amount of NBD-labelled lipids.

Design of experiment:

Day 1.1: Washing cells with Methyl-B-Cyclodextrin (Depleting cells of cholesterol)

Day 1.2: Adding NBD C6-Ceramide (Colouring sphingolipids)

Day 1.3: Adding cholesterol using Methyl-B-Cyclodextrin+Cholesterol (saturating cells with cholesterol)

Day 2?.1: Harvesting cultured cells , fluorescence microscopy

Day 2?.2: Disruption and homogenization of cells

Day 2?.3: Two-phase lipid extraction

Day 2?.4: Total protein quantification

Day 3?.1: Lipid separation by Thin layer chromatography

Day 3?.2: Plate imaging of TLC plate

Day 3?.3: Extraction of NBD-labeled lipids from the TLC plate ‘ fluorescence measurement

Tabel 1: Cholesterol concentrations in SKNAS and HeLa cell lines (duplo)

Cholesterol (ug) untreated Only washed x x x x

1SKNAS(ml) 2 2 2 2 2 2

2SKNAS(ml) 2 2 2 2 2 2

3HeLa(ml) 2 2 2 2 2 2

4HeLa(ml) 2 2 2 2 2 2

Requirements materials and equipment per protocol:


tissue culture cabinet
phosphate buffered saline (PBS)
trypsin-EDTA solution
DMEM (5% FCS), including penicillin/streptomycin
sterile blue-capped 15 ml tubes
p1000 pipette
sterile 1000 ”l pipette tips
sterile 25 cm2 cell culture flasks
phase contrast microscope


Cell culture facilities (flow cabinet, incubator, sterile pipettes etc.)
Phosphate buffered saline (PBS)
DMEM (5% FCS) (including penicillin/streptomycin)
1 mM stock solution of C6-NBD-ceramide in ethanol Preparations by students
Cultured cells in 25 cm2 flasks at 40 to 70% confluence. (HeLa,SKNAS)


Methyl-B-cyclodextrin (10 mg)
Cholesterol (25 mg)
50 ml tube (6)
Medium DMEM+p/s+MEM-NEAA+fbs 10% (60 ml)


phosphate-buffered saline (PBS)
icebox with ice
cell scraper
15 ml tubes
2 ml vials
Eppendorf centrifuge with cooling unit


bicinchoninic acid solution (BCA)
4% (w/v) copper (II) sulphate solution
bovine serum albumin (BSA) solution (1 mg/ml)
BioRad model 680 spectrophotometric plate reader


sonifier (Hielscher UP100H)
Ice box with ice
Pre-cooled phosphate-buffered saline (PBS)


p1000 pipette
Eppendorf centrifuge
sample concentrator
nitrogen (10 liter bottle), including an adjustable pressure reducer
waste tank for organic solvents
dichloromethane (DCM)
methanol (MeOH)
DCM/MeOH (1:2 by vol.)
Millipore water (MQ)


TLC tank (including lid)
filter paper
glass cylinder with measuring units
dichloromethane (CH2Cl2)
methanol (CH3OH)
25% ammonia (NH4OH)
glass TLC plates (20 x 10 cm kieselgel 60) – Merck # 1.95626.0001
soft carbon pencil (4B)
p20 and p200 pipettes
extra fine p20 tips
hair dryer
UV tray
iodine grains
liquid waste tank for halogen-containing organic solvents.
Solvent mix: dichloromethane (CH2Cl2) / methanol (CH3OH) / 25% ammonia (NH4OH) (60:25:1, by volume). Preparations (by students)


BioRad ChemiDoc XRS+ Molecular Imager station


Soft carbon pencil (4B)
1.5 ml Eppendorf vials
Aluminum foil
Curved surgical blades + holders
Black flat-bottom microtiter plates
70% ethanol

Splits within the women’s suffrage movement


The women’s suffrage movement and the abolitionists used to work together towards the same goal: suffrage and enfranchisement, or in other words full citizenship. But after the Civil war there was a split both within the women’s movement and between the abolitionists and the woman’s suffrage movement. Part of the women’s movement gave up their support of black suffrage and the other part kept supporting black suffrage. But mostly, both movements now pursued their own interests, often at cost of the other. A big part of the women’s movement became increasingly racist. This essay will focus on this split within the women’s movement; why it happened, who was involved, and what the consequences were.

This essay is based on secondary literature and will contain several perspectives on the event that is described. Alma Lutz and Lois Banner give us the perspectives of the ladies involved, Garth Pauley shows W.E.B Du Bois’ vision on women’s suffrage and the alienation of the black men and the white women’s suffragists movement, and Philip Cohen sheds a light on the influence of nationalism on the women’s movement.

The thesis that I adopted was that the women’s suffrage movement changed their stance on black suffrage mostly because of envy and spite. When African Americans were granted full citizenship (including voting rights) the women’s movement was disappointed and angry for being left behind. They had always supported the abolitionist movement. But were now ignored and left behind. So this essay will be focussing on this premise and will try to determine if this assumption is true or not. So the main questions that are being answered are: what was the cause of the split? What did the split mean? And what were the consequences?

The first part will focus on the problem with the actual conflict and thus the cause of the split within the movement. The second part of this essay focusses on specific examples of women that changed their stance on black suffrage. These examples are the cases of Susan B. Anthony and Elizabeth C. Stanton, both women that were important within the Women’s Suffrage Movement and both women they became openly racist after the Civil War. The third chapter will focus on the consequences of this split within the movement.

The Conflict

In the article written by Garth E. Pauley the author talks about W.E.B. Du Bois vision on women’s suffrage. This is an interesting vision on the issue because it shows the other side of the story, and it also gives a nicely summarized explanation as to what occurred in these tumultuous times. According to Du Bois (not to be confused with E.C. Dubois) blacks and white suffragettes initially struggled together to win vote. But when it became clear that only African American men would be enfranchised, many white suffragists spoke out against the Fourteenth and Fifteenth amendments. White suffragists argued that the absence of women’s suffrage prevented them from supporting the amendments, and many white suffragists used racist arguments to support their claim. These arguments cut to the bone of the black suffragists and made clear that the principled collaboration between black and white had been a facade all along, and it was suggested that the collaboration had always been about political advantage and not about principle. 1

The conflict surrounding the Fourteenth Amendment (which was passed in 1868) was one of the first incidents that divided black men and white suffragists, because it included the word ‘male’ meaning that women were now officially excluded from this enfranchisement. The Woman’s Rights Association had only just morphed into the American Equal Rights Association (AERA), but tensions within the organization were already rising. Wendell Phillips and Theodore Tilton suggested turning away from woman suffrage for the moment. This was met with outrage by Susan B. Anthony and Elizabeth Cady Stanton. Other women’s suffrage advocates accepted the Fourteenth Amendment with the idea that both blacks and woman suffrage were important but that the nation would only accept one reform at a time. Stanton and Anthony’s ideas about women’s suffrage alienated many African Americans, including the important black leader Frederick Douglass. He had been a strong supporter of women’s rights but he believed in the priority of black suffrage and worried that if African Americans did not take this chance during this crucial hour, they might not get it again. 2

Although the conflict between black men and white suffragists started with the Fourteenth amendment the real division occurred during the debate about the Fifteenth Amendment (that was passed in 1870). This Amendment prohibited discrimination in voting rights of citizens on the base of race, colour or previous condition of servitude.3 Again women were excluded from the attained privileges. The debate about the Fifteenth Amendment divided suffragists into three parties: Those who thought it unwise to try to add women’s suffrage (mostly including the old, original abolitionists). Those who thought every effort should be made to try to include women, but if this was impossible the amendment should still pass (this group included people like Lucy Stone and Henry Blackwell), and those who thought that if the amendment did not include women it should not be passed (this group was headed by Stanton and Anthony). The peak of the conflict was reached at the AERA meeting May 1869 where Stanton made racist comments and stated that she did not believe ‘in allowing ignorant negroes and foreigners to make laws for her to obey’.4 Other white suffragists like Lucy Stone and Julia Ward did accept Fifteenth Amendment. At the end of the meeting the AERA split into two parties: the ‘National Woman Suffrage Association (NWSA) that focused on woman suffrage and refused to support the Fifteenth Amendment if it did not extend the vote to women. And the American Woman Suffrage Association (AWSA) that was in favour of universal suffrage. These members were prepared to (temporarily) support black suffrage while there was an opportunity for success. 5 Around this time many white suffragists accepted an ideology of white supremacy.

According to Kraditor three developments led to the women’s movement support of racist ideas: The first development is that more racist women joined the movement when it became more popular. The second development according to Kraditor is that many abolitionists of the old guard accepted the new ideology and came to the conclusion that black suffrage and women’s suffrage were entirely unrelated things. And finally the Southern white women began to build suffrage movement on the idea that women’s suffrage would ensure white supremacy in the South, this movement focused on ‘strategies of expediency’ and many members were willing to accept the accompanying racist views if this meant enfranchisement of women.6 Even Susan B. Anthony, who had been a fervent opponent of racism, was willing to go along with this movement’s ‘Southern Strategy’. She was willing to tolerate racism if it meant gaining the right to vote and became increasingly more racist as time went by.7

To sum up the two primary causes of the alienation between blacks and white suffragists were the conflict surrounding the ‘Negro’s Hour’, the struggle for universal suffrage that resulted in suffrage only for black males, and the ‘Southern Strategy’, the decision by many white suffragists to ignore the race issue to win Southern support for their cause, which led to racist arguments by many of the white suffragists.8

In his article Philip N. Cohen talks about the fact that the women’s suffrage movement underwent a shift in it’s core ideas. Before and during the Civil War women’s suffrage and abolitionism went hand in hand. African Americans and suffragettes were both fighting for the same thing; equality and the right to vote. The women’s rights activists collected signatures for the Thirteenth Amendment to abolish slavery. Their beliefs stressed the equality of men and women and challenged the general idea of separate gender spheres. After the 1860’s this idea lost its appeal in the suffrage movement and by the 1880’s the new ideology was based on women’s distinctive nature and special roll in social reform based on differences. This was later known as ‘essentialism’. This new philosophy stressed the the differences between men and women. This difference was, according to the suffragists, essential to “counter-act the excels of masculinity that is found in unjust and unequal laws”.9 This form of essentialism sacrificed any principle (most importantly, suffrage for former slaves) to attain voting rights for white women. There was also still a part of the movement that still held on to the principal of Natural Rights. This part of the movement still identified more closely with abolitionism and more frequently included non-white women. 10

Women’s and blacks’ voting rights were pitted against each other more and more often. An increasing number of states accepted black suffrage, but the women’s movement made no progress. After the Fourteenth Amendment was accepted the number of abolitionist feminist greatly declined. This Amendment granted explicit rights to black men, which meant that the white women’s demands were ignored. This dealt a crucial blow to the natural rights perspective in the women’s movement. Prominent members of the women’s movement, like Elizabeth Cady Stanton, had planned for the white women to follow the black men in the gaining of rights. But this didn’t happen, so Stanton and other suffragettes denounced the Fourteenth Amendment as a ‘desecration’. 11 This fallout revealed that the alliance between abolitionism and suffragists had mostly been tactical. The women’s movement mostly turned its back on the abolitionists and the new suffrage arguments contained a strong theme of race antagonism. 12

Buechler follows the career of Elizabeth Boynton Harbert. She was a leader during the period of transition from equality to diffence-based arguments. One of the changes that took place was that the women’s movement changed the wording of its arguments. ‘The beneficiary of women’s suffrage was less often construed as women themselves and more often couched in abstract terms like society, the nation, the race, and civilization’.13 Voting rights would serve not only the interests of women but would serve the urgent needs of the nation as a whole. Women’s votes represented ‘loyalty, virtue, wealth, and education’ this was needed ‘to outweigh the incoming tide of poverty, ignorance, and vice that threatens our very existence as a nation,’14 According to Stanton allowing black men to vote elevated the ‘lowest orders of manhood’ over the ‘highest classes of women’. Susan B. Anthony agreed with her, arguing that ; intelligence, justice and morality are to have precedence in the Government and therefore the question of ‘woman’ should be brought up first and that of the negro last’.15

In the most extreme form, the NASWA (National American Woman Suffrage Association) called for a restriction of black suffrage. This shift from the notion of inherent natural rights for women and against blacks rights is essential. Because not only do white women exclude black women from the movement, but white women’s suffrage organizations now actively pursued a nationalist gender alliance. The women’s movement now sought unity with white men (and their nation) rather than non-white women and men.16 Stanton placed the women’s movement within the historical pattern of white Republican egalitarianism that was paired with exclusion of non-whites from the ‘national family’, when she referred to white women as ‘women of the Republic’ in 1866.17

According to Paula Giddings the shift in the women’s suffrage movement during the post-Reconstruction era was mostly due to practicality. There was an upcoming trend towards restricting black voting rights and the women’s movement mostly went along with it. This shift created a space in which white women sought to justify who should have the vote and why, rather than emphasize a truly universal suffrage.18 At the same time E. Dubois argues that the Fifteenth Amendment brought a nationalist edge to the suffragists argumentation because it transferred control over the right of suffrage from the state to the national level. Therefore suffragists had to make their case one of national importance.19 The women’s movement found out that enfranchising blacks would only promise them partial (Republican) support and a smaller advantage than enfranchising the woman. This would ‘uplift the nation at its very heart, the family’.20 This trend that moved toward essentialist feminism, that focused only on women’s suffrage and was deliberately more nationalistic, shaped the white women’s movement as a force of nation building. The women’s movement advocated that national domination could not be complete or successful without the voting citizenship of white women.21

Buechler considers the fact that in late nineteenth century the women’s suffrage movement’s arguments ‘reinforced rather than challenged dominant notions about sex and gender’ a paradox.22 But that this reinforcement of some aspects of dominant gender relationships at that moment served as a strategy to serve the interests of the very specific women that led the suffrage movement. This form of essentialist feminism focused on the complementary partnership between white men and white women rather than emphasizing the conflict on the issue of black suffrage. This strategy was undeniably useful to the women who pursued it, but in the long run it may have undermined the struggles for gender equality.23 So what we see here is a strategic shift of ideology to benefit the white women’s suffrage movement. This shift sacrificed any other form of principle to obtain voting rights for women, which meant a split between the women’s rights movement and the black suffrage movement.

Eleanor Flexner adds to the discussion that Stanton believed that accepting the Fourteenth Amendment would set woman suffrage back a full century. The indignation of Anthony and Stanton knew no bounds. Stanton warned that the Republicans’ advocacy of manhood suffrage would culminate fearful outrages on womanhood, especially in the southern states. Flexner also adds that Stanton and Anthony thought that what was often called ‘the Negro Hour’ could also be the women’s hour and that both ladies were afraid that this opportunity might not recur in a lifetime. According to Stanton and Anthony it would have been so easy to include the word ‘sex’ in the Fifteenth Amendment, but Flexner argues that they failed to see that such a step was still far ahead of practical political possibilities as the debate about women’s suffrage had not yet been around long enough to make any practical changes. The division within the suffrage movement was, according to Flexner, unfortunate but inevitable during the 1870’s and the 1880’s as this was a period of intense economic development and change during which social forces polarized in midst of widespread unrest. This break would continue until one of the trends, respectability or radicalism, became the dominant form. In the meantime there would still be victories and the area of politics would eventually be breached. 24

Susan B. Anthony and Elizabeth Cady Stanton

Elizabeth Cady Stanton was born in the Burned Over district of New York, this had been a centre of reform activities for a long time. Her family connections and lively intellectual curiosity made her a participant in these movements.25 As an activist Stanton was first and foremost a feminist. She became an anti- slavery activist only when the Civil War broke out. This was in contrast with other important women’s rights activists like Lucy Stone and Antoinette Brown, whose abolitionism came before their feminism and this would remain their main commitment. Her feminism was strengthened by her love for speculation which led her to a search of the underlying principles of human and social behaviour. 26

According to Clara Bewick Colby the women’s movement took a definite form of specific and organized demands in Stanton. Her personality ‘won for the woman’s cause the ear of the world’, and Colby claims that ‘it is not too much to claim that the condition of all women has been modified, improved, or given new trend because of the movement which Stanton was the embodied will and purpose’. 27

Susan B. Anthony thought striving for liberty and for a democratic way of life was a noble tradition and followed in this tradition. She devoted her life to the establishment of equal rights that according to her had to be expressed in the laws of a true republic. She recognized an extreme violation of this principle of equal rights in black slavery and the legal bondage of women so she became an active, courageous, and effective antislavery crusader and one of the most important civil and political rights activists for women. She saw the woman’s struggle for freedom from these legal restrictions as an important phase in the development of American democracy. To her this struggle was not a battle of the sexes, but a battle that anyone would fight for civil and political rights. While her goals for women were only partly realised by the time she died, she was still a crucial factor in the acceptance of her federal suffrage amendment and also in the worldwide recognition of human rights. 28

Throughout her career the origins of Stanton’s ideas lay in both her extensive reading and her own experience. Her ideas were intertwined with her autobiography; her life was her primary source of ideas, and this in turn influenced her actions. The essential lines of her thought were fully developed by the 1860s and these remained the same until the last two decades of her life. Her dedication to feminist individualism was a constant theme, as was her belief in the efficiency of education and the superior value of coeducation over single-sex education. She never abandoned her support of woman suffrage or her belief that reform in marital relationships was the key to human progress.29

Before and during the Civil War Susan B. Anthony was one of the most important people within the abolitionist movement. She was actively involved in the abolitionist movement. She held antislavery meetings, made speeches and distributed leaflets whenever and wherever possible and thus seemed to care a great deal about the cause of black suffrage and equality. 30 Although she was actively involved in the abolitionist movement, she did not forget women. She called attention to the fact that the nation had never been a true republic because the ballot was exclusively in the hands of the ‘free white male’. She asked for a government ‘of the people’, men and women, white and black, with Negro suffrage and woman suffrage as basic requirements. This speech was met with great enthusiasm by the Republicans. This enthusiasm was so great that the Republicans urged her to prepare it for publication but they suggested that she delete the passage on woman suffrage. For Anthony, this was the first indication that Republicans might balk at the idea of enfranchising women. Both Elizabeth Cady Stanton and Anthony had come to expect that the ballot of women’s enfranchisement would be given as a reward. Because the contribution of women to the winning of the war had been so great that Republicans were indebted to the women for creating the sentiment for the third amendment. But it became more and more obvious that politicians were shying away from woman suffrage. This filled Anthony with great despair, for she firmly believed that women who had been asking for full citizenship for seventeen years deserved to be a higher priority than the Negro. Stanton agreed with Anthony on this point. To them black suffrage without women’s suffrage was unthinkable and an unbearable humiliation. They thought that women were better qualified for the ballot than the majority of the black people who were illiterate because of the years of slavery and thereby an easy prey for unscrupulous politicians. They argued that enfranchising blacks that if there had to be a limitation on suffrage it should be on the base of literacy, not on the basis of sex. 31

Throughout the entire country, people were thinking about the Constitution as had not happened since the Bill of Rights. There were several amendments up for discussions, rebel states were being reintroduced into the Union with entirely new constitutions and Northern constitutions were being revised. According to Anthony this was the perfect time to proclaim equal rights for all. This was to be the woman’s hour.32

But with the introduction of the Fourteenth Amendment came a great disappointment. Anthony found that the House of Representatives had written the word ‘male’ into the new resolution as one of the qualifications of voters. Anthony and Stanton agreed in their discussion that they needed to create an overwhelming demand for woman suffrage in this crucial time. The women set to work to gather as many of the activists as possible, which was a challenge because they had scattered over the years. Several agreed with Anthony that Congress had to be petitioned immediately to enfranchise women either before or at the same time that blacks were granted the right to vote. Anthony quickly found out that by pressing for woman suffrage, she was estranging many abolitionists. But Anthony and Stanton were determined that a petition for women’s suffrage go to Congress, so they went ahead undeterred. 33

Anthony came to realise that the two powerful Republicans, Senator Sumner (the senator of Massachusetts) and Thaddeus Stevens, were going to devote themselves to blacks suffrage completely, even though both of them were friendly to women’s suffrage. This meant that the extension of Sumner and Stevens’ party would follow them which meant the women’s movement could not expect help from any lesser party members. Therefore the only alternative was to appeal to the Democrats and maybe an occasional recalcitrant Republican and Anthony would have nothing stand in her way. Anthony found several supporters within the Democratic party that wanted to present her petitions. The reasons varied. Some saw justice in the demands of the women’s movement, others thought white women should have precedence over blacks, and some saw support of women’s suffrage as a way to spite the Republicans. During 1866 petitions for woman suffrage with several thousands of signatures were presented by Democrats and some irregular Republicans. This collaboration could then be seen as a success for the women’s movement. Still this did not end in significant progress. 34

Both women followed Theodore Tilton (a popular newspaper editor at the height of his popularity) in the idea to merge the American Antislavery Society and the women’s rights group and form an American Equal Rights Association that would fight for woman and black suffrage. He suggested it be led by the well-known abolitionist (and early ally of Anthony) Wendell Philips. Anthony trusted that both men would handle the process, not even suspecting that they would ever oppose their ideas. But Anthony and Stanton did not have to wait long for their wake up call. During a meeting with Wendell Philips and Theodore Tilton about a plan for their campaign, Wendell Philips declared that ‘the time was ripe for striking the word “white” out of the constitution, but not the word “male”’. He went on that the question of striking out the word “male” was present in the association as an intellectual theory, but it was not seen as a practical thing to be accomplished by this convention. Anthony was outraged by this as she was completely unprepared for this attitude on Wendell Tilton’s part. She stated that she would rather ‘cut off my right hand than ask for the ballot for the black man and not for woman’ and swept out of the office. Stanton stayed to try to heal the split, but to no avail. When Anthony returned tot the Stanton home they both vowed then and there that they would devote themselves with all their might and main to woman suffrage and tot that alone. 35


Suzanne Marilley argues that to succeed the suffragists had to ‘adapt goals for social change to the reform options available in the American political system’ and ‘put the reforms in appealing packages.’ This was, according to Marilley, only possible the movement agreed to disagree about all issues besides suffrage; they had to make the vote their single issue. This single issue approach allowed ‘the formation of a coalition that included prohibitionists, racists, anti-child labour reformers, Republicans, and Democrats but left the suffragists in control’.36 Without such coalition, which gained the support of states like Texas, Tennessee and Arkansas, the Nineteenth Amendment (granting voting rights to women) would have probably never been ratified. 37

Buechler does not appear to agree with this idea. According to him this form of essentialist feminism focused on the complementary partnership between white men and white women rather than emphasizing the conflict on the issue of black suffrage. Buechler says this strategy was undeniably useful tot the women who pursued it, but in the long run it may have undermined the struggles for gender equality. Unfortunately this point is not further elaborated in the article, but its suggested that Buechler thought that this new strategy hindered further progress rather than help it like Marilley suggested. Cohen seems to mostly agree with Marilley (although maybe not to the same extent). This could be concluded from the fact that he sees the shift in ideology as a strategic move to gain white followers.

Among other conclusions, Cohen concludes that by the use of difference-based feminism the suffrage leaders allowed movement to make a more credibly nationalist claim. This made feminism an acceptable part of a national movement and ideology. This approach helped convince male politicians and voters that white women’s votes would serve the nation by complementing rather than challenging men’s role. Cohen calls this “gender alliance building’. He emphasizes that although this alliance advanced white women’s suffrage, it also contributed to the oppression of non-white women and men who were excluded from the alliance and it reinforced women’s separate and subordinate role in political rights by emphasizing the separate spheres. Cohen concludes that by acting in their own interests (and working against non-white women) white women may benefit from alliances with white men, but women of other groups will still be victims of the white women’s dominance if they continue to accept the claims that white women serve the good of all women (which evidently is not the case).38

W.E.B. Du Bois thought that woman suffrage would not have any real benefits for African Americans as a race or for black women, but he still supported it. Du Bois mostly talks about the direct consequences of the conflict within the women’s rights movement that resulted in the alienation of the black men and the white women, whom had previously worked together.

This change in ideology also had several direct consequences. Like the direct alienation of African Americans from the women’s movement, the nationalistic edge the suffrage movement got, the higher exclusivity of the women’s movement and of course the acceptance and increase of racism within the movement. Racism also increased within the movement because the new ideology attracted a new, more racist, type of woman to the movement. Which then again led to an increase of racist ideas. Though one might say that this change of belief created a stronger unity within the white community in the South.

There are also debatable consequences. It is hard to say for certain, but it is highly likely that this split in the movement and the new ideology had consequences for racism in the United States. And it is possible that because of this change in ideology racism lasted longer than it could have had the woman suffragists not turned their back on black suffrage.


The thesis originally adopted was that the women’s suffrage movement changed their stance on black suffrage mostly because of envy and spite. The research showed that there definitely was an undertone of anger present within the movement. This can be found in the recollection of Susan B. Anthony and Elizabeth Cady Stanton’s experiences. It was obvious that both ladies were extremely angry and disappointed when neither the Fourteenth or the Fifteenth Amendment enfranchised women. So in that light the thesis was correct. But there is also another part of the story.

Cohen showed that this was not just a reaction but a choice. Both Stanton and Anthony were prepared to do whatever was necessary to get woman’s suffrage. The women’s movement shifted from idea of the enfranchisement of all as equals to ‘essentialism’. This philosophy stressed the differences between men and women and was according to the suffragists essential to counter act excels of masculinity. This form of essentialism also sacrificed any principle to attain voting rights for whit women and was meant to form an alliance with the white male population instead of the black population. It emphasized nationalism and white supremacy.

Gidding says the shift was also due to practicality. There was an upcoming trend towards restricting the rights of black people and women’s movement went along with it to get on the good side of the white male population. The shift could also be explained (like Du Bois says) by the fact that the Fifteenth Amendment made suffrage the responsibility of the nation instead of the state. The women’s movement responded by making their movement more nationalistic. This is an argument in favour of the conscious choice of changing the women’s movement’s ideology. Buechler also agrees with the fact that the reinforcement of the dominant gender rules and the abstraction from black suffrage was a strategic move to benefit the white women’s suffrage movement.

Du Bois informed us that the primary causes of the alienation between blacks and white suffragists were the conflict surrounding the ‘Negro’s Hour’ and the ‘Southern Strategy’ and gave a different perspective on the matter and repeated that the ‘Southern Strategy’ of ignoring race issues was mostly due to frustration with the exclusion of women from Fourteenth and Fifteenth Amendment. Which is mostly an argument in favour of the feelings of resentment that the suffragists felt.

In the chapter that looks in to Susan B. Anthony and Elizabeth Cady Stanton’s point of view. It becomes clear that both women were certainly angry and disappointed. So much that they agree to do whatever was necessary to attain women’s suffrage. So it can be concluded that feelings of hate and resentment certainly had a place in the split of the women’s movement and the change in the ideology. But as previously stated, and this argument is supported by most of the material that was used, the shift in ideology was mostly a conscious effort to get the white male voters on their side and it was a practical solutions. Like they said: ‘by any means necessary’.

As a final note I have to add that my research is, of course, limited. I did not have access to all the material I wanted to use, because it unfortunately wasn’t available to me. Further research into this subject would be welcome to dive further into the subject, give a wider view of the events that took place and the reasons behind it, and could do more research on the subject of the consequences of the change in ideology for the black population.


Banner, L. W. Elizabeth Cady Stanton : a radical for woman’s rights (Boston,1980)
Buechler, S.M., The Transformation of the Woman Suffrage Movement: The Case of Illinois, 1850- 1920 (New Brusnwick, 1986)
Buhle, M.J., and P. Buhle. The Concise History of Woman Suffrage: Selections from the Classic Work of Stanton, Anthony, Gage, and Harper (Urbana, 1978)
Cohen, P.N., ‘Nationalism and Suffrage: Gender Struggle in Nation-Building America’, Signs, Vol. 21, (1996) p. 707-727
(Speech before the Jidciary Committee of the New York Senate, May 1867, Stanton Papers, Manuscripts Divisian, Library of Congress; Cohen, ‘Nationalism and Suffrage’)
Cott, N.F., The Grounding of Modern Feminism (New Haven, 1987)
Dubois, E.C. Feminism and Suffrage: The Emergence of an Independent Women’s Movement in America, 1848-1869 (London, 1947)
Feimster, C.N., Southern Horrors (Cambridge, 2009)
Kraditor, A. S., The ideas of the woman suffrage movement, 1890-1920 (New York, 1965)
Lutz, A., Susan B. Anthony: Rebel, Crusader, Humanitarian, (Boston, 1959)
Marilley, S., ‘Towards a New Strategy for the ERA: Some Lessons from the American Woman Suffrage Movement’ Women and Politics, 9(4) 23-42
Norton, M.B. and R.M. Alexander, eds. Major Problems in American Women’s History. (D.C. Heath and Company, Lexington, MA, 1996).
Pauley, G.E.,’WEB Du Bois on Woman Suffrage: A critical analysis of his writings’, Journal of black Studies, Volume 30, No. 3, p. 383-419


Gender Differences in Using Language, Dialect Variation And Children Genders in Language Acquisition


Does gender difference influence the language? Firstly, the language must be defined in order to answer the question. People do not care how the language works, how it affects our relationships, that is, people do not notice the power of language. It is an indispensable means of communication for people and language is used as a means of mutual communication between people. “Language is defined as an advanced system of voices that allows each community to be transferred to others by the help of common rules shaped by their own characteristics in terms of emotion, thought and desire: sound, form and meaning” (Korkmaz, p. 2). It is sometimes a living thing that shows some improvement in various reasons due to its own internal structure.

In sociolinguistics, gender differences have an important place because men and women are two concepts that are cited together with sociolinguistics. As the male and female languages are different from each other, their language formations will also show differences. The difference in the use of language by men and women can be attributed to the physical structure of their formation. However, some researchers have also found that this information is opposite. “It has been seen that there is no connection between the physical or other characteristics of the person or objects to whom this name refers in a language examination to a name” (Konig, 1992, p. 25). “Lyons ‘species have many bases indicating that gender classification is based on a ‘ natural ‘ meaning, but it is not sexual and Wardhaugh says that “those who discriminate are those who use language, and that there is no such thing as sexuality on the ground” (Konig, 1992, p. 25). The purpose of this study is to question whether gender differences can affect the language used and whether both physical and social factors can change dialect variation.

“Men usually have to undertake more pressure than women in life and the differences in job skills may be explained in great part through differences in the ways by which they are raised” (Xia, 2013, p. 1485).Women are more effective in controlling communication than men in communication with men, and sometimes women can influence communication not only by using language but also by body language. “Within the social sciences, an increasing consensus of findings suggests that men, relative to women, tend to use language more for the instrumental purpose of conveying information; women are more likely to use verbal interaction for social purposes with verbal communication serving as an end in itself” (Newman, Groom, Handelman, & Pennebaker, 2008, p. 212).The importance of this study is to increase awareness language learners’ gender differences in using language, dialect variation and children genders in language acquisition.


a. Gender Differences in Using Language

All societies have diversity in language use. It is a fact that most people, both women and men, who use language vary in their opinion. The variability in language use of even a person in daily life and in formal life may reduce the possibility of non-diversity between women and men’s conversations. Socialization patterns, the environments in which people live, and even the difference in political opinion can be affect women’ and men’ speaking styles (Louazani, 2015). In this study, the using language of some men and women will be examined together with some researches.

“At a discourse level , men are more likely to use familiar forms of address even where reel status of speakers suggest that a formal, impersonal tone is more appropriate and the women are more likely to initiative conversations, they succeed less often because males less willing to co-operate . In tag questions, women lead to use tag questions more frequent; men are more likely to use commands when women use them more likely to be interrogatives” (Louazani, 2015, p. 25).

Some stereotypes of male and female speech.

Stereotypes of male speech:

Use deeper voices/ lower in pitch.
Swear and use taboo language.
More assertive in group interaction (interruptions, few tag question).
Topics are « traditional » male topics like business, politics, economics.
Use non-standard speech, even middle class.
Use explicit commands (gimme the pliers).

Stereotypes of female speech:

Minimal responses: mhm, yeah, mmmmm.
Talk more than men.
Use more tag questions.
Use more interrogatives.
Use more hedges (sort of, kind of).
Use more super polite speech: would you please

(Louazani, 2015, p. 26).

Although the roles of women are seen as traditionalized housewives, they are more informed than many areas men and can be considered to have used language more precisely because of their interrogative personality (Newman, Groom, Handelman, & Pennebaker, 2008). It is also stated that as the majority of primary school teachers are women, they play a leading role in standardizing language norms in society. The differences in the daily speech of the people were investigated and the information on the gender differences in language was further clarified. “Mirroring phrase-level findings of tentativeness in female language, women have been found to use more intensive adverbs, more conjunctions such as ‘but’, and more modal auxiliary verbs such as could that place question marks of some kind over a statement unlike women, men have been found to swear more, use longer words, use more articles, and use more references to location” (Newman, Groom, Handelman, & Pennebaker, 2008).

Differences intonation

Intonation can determine people’s communicative goals, intonation can be independent of the speaker to help explain what is desired, and it can be more effective in conveying the message that is desired to be conveyed through toning. “Women often like to speak in a high-pitch voice because of physiological reason, but scientists point out that this also associates with women’s ‘timidity’ and ‘emotional instability’ ” (Xia, 2013, p. 1485). Men, unlike women, may not use more determined and curious tones.

“Example: Husband: When will dinner be ready?

Wife: Around six o’clock..

The wife is the only one who knows the answer, but she answers her husband with a high rise tone, which has the meaning “will that do”. This kind of intonation suggests women’s gentility and docility. The husband will surely feel his wife’s respect.” (Xia, 2013, p. 1485). In table 1, the data of researches are presented to the reader.

Table1. The pitch data of stressed syllable, nuclear pitch accent of female and male samples.” (Jiang, 2011, p. 975).


type Stressed


(F) Pitch


(F) Stressed


(M) Pitch



1-Decl 7.433 11.147 3.275 2.218

2-dec-q. 9.539 14.509 5.767 6.310


no-q. 10.544 13.224 8.539 4.381

4-wh-q 10.415 13.650 7.025 4.396

5-excl. 9.638 12.718 7.336 4.160

F=Female; M=Male

Some researchers have also pointed out that when the women do not trust what they say, and when they feel more emotional, the tone of voice can fall, and men can also be sure that their tone is lower than they are. Also the difference between men and women at the pitch of the tone of voice is obvious in Table 1.

Differences in Manners

Women are more emotional in their speech, so women use more polite words with other speakers. Because of their kindness in their conversations, words such as ‘please’, ‘sorry’ etc. are used more often by women (Xia, 2013). “Besides this, women also show that they are reserved when they talk and the following table is based on the research of Zimmerman and West on the interruptions men and women made in a conversation” (Xia, 2013, p. 1487). It is stated that men and women talk more than men in the difference of speech.

Table 2. Interruptions during the conversation

Male female Total

interruptions 46 2 48

It is seen that, contrary to expectations in this study, men are more impatient than women because of their desire to speak themselves in the conversation, and that men are more interruptive than women when speaking both men and women. In addition, it is seen that women are not disturb others during the conversation and that women encouraged other speakers to talk.

Differences in Vocabulary

It has been noticed that women use different words in order to show their feelings differently from men’s point of view. “We can notice that men and women tend to choose different words to show their feelings, for example, when a woman is frightened, she usually shouts out, “I am frightened to death”! If you hear a man says this, you’ll think he is a coward and womanish” (Xia, 2013, p. 1486). These differences were examined in the selection of color words, the use of adverbs, adjectives, diminutives and pronouns.

Color Words

“There is special feminine vocabulary in English that men may not, dare not or will not use and women are good at using color words that were borrowed from French to describe things, such as mauve, lavender aquamarine, azure and magenta, etc., but most men do not use them” (Xia, 2013, p. 1486).

Women often use language more elegantly than using their own language and differences in language use are revealed.


“In everyday life, people can notice that women like to use many adjective, such as adorable, charming, lovely, fantastic, heavenly, but men seldom use them. When a woman leaves a restaurant, she will say “It’s a gorgeous meal.” If a man wants to express the same idea, he may only say, “It’s a good meal.” Using more adjectives to describe things and their feelings can show that women are more sensitive to the environment and more likely to express their emotions with words, which makes women’s language more interesting than men’s sometimes” (Xia, 2013, p. 1486).

Men do not tire themselves to explain indirectly, so instead of using elaborate adjectives like women, they use the language more simply, clear and fluently.


“There are also differences in the use of adverbs between men and women. Women tend to use such adverbs like awfully, pretty, terribly, vastly, quite, so; men like to use very, utterly, really and In 1992, Jespersen found that women use more so than men do, such as, “It was so interesting” is often uttered by a woman” (Xia, 2013, p. 1486).

Small details can be exaggerated by using adverbs while describing events in language use by women.


“Women like to use words that have the meaning of ‘small’, such as bookie, hanky. They also like to use words that show affections, such as dearie, sweetie. If a man often uses these words, people will think that he may have psychological problem or he is not manly. Furthermore, women like to use words that show politeness, such as please, thanks, and they use more euphemism, but “slang” is considered to be men’s preference. From the study people can see that men and women have their own vocabulary choices in achieving emphatic effects. Though in the area of vocabulary, many of the studies have focused on English, we cannot deny that sex differences in word choice exist in various other languages. People need to learn to make these distinctions in their childhood” (Xia, 2013, p. 1486).

With the instinctive attitudes of women, women are given the knowledge that men are strict and clear when they use words such as my dear, sweetheart (Xia, 2013).

b. Dialect Variation

“All known societies classify people at birth as “male” or “female” according to the anatomical distinctions indicating their potential reproductive role, but this is in practice a social classification, relating biological sex to a wider set of social practices, norms, and relations” (Dunn, 2013, p. 2).

Even though the actions of talking and dressing are thought to be individual, contrary to this, the society is shaped by the effects on the individual. In addition, even a small group in workplace and the people ,who is living in the same country, are able to direct people’ way of speaking, which is called dialect. “The term ‘dialect’ is used in the variationalist tradition to refer to systematic linguistic variation statistically associated with a sociolinguistic parameter, and as such can be difficult to delimit” (Dunn, 2013, p. 2). It cannot be said that there is a restriction about dialect, because it can be influenced even by people’s socio-cultural considerations.

“It is well known that gender interacts with other social variables that affect phonology, including regional and ethnic dialects and gender-correlated differences in the production of prestige forms and innovative forms of speech have been reported frequently in the sociolinguistics literature” (Clopper, Corney, & Pisoni, 2005).

The use of different languages by women and men can also be seen as the reason for the formation of various kinds of dialects. “It is useful to emphasize the importance of social gender rather than biological sex in the use of different languages and also it is social gender that the vocabulary that both genders can use is intrinsic to female or male speech” (Demir, 2010, p. 102). Twenty years ago, in some villages of Alanya in Turkey, where dialect research was done, women were calling their husbands even their younger brothers to call them “big brother”, and the brides were hesitant to pronounce their father’s name directly.

According to ancient customs and traditions, women regard men as more important than themselves, and respect their inability to say even their name. That is why there are gender differences on the ground. When women come together, they talk differently, and small communities create divergence in the use of language. Men are more relax to use language than women (Demir, 2010).

“The importance of biological sex in communication systems extends beyond humans too, for example, in many bird species the songs of males and females are distinct. Furthermore, it is not uncommon for birdsong to be transmitted through social learning, leading to vocal repertoires which are differentiated by geographical region – referred to as regional dialects” (Dunn, 2013, p. 2).

That is to say, it should not be regarded as simply a difference in language acquisition or language use. Language can be affected by everything.

“In an extensive review, Labov summarized the observed production differences with the three principles shown below.

Women use more prestige forms than men, and, conversely, men use more nonstandard forms than women.

Women favor incoming prestige forms in changes from above, which are defined as involving forms associated with a high level of social consciousness.

Women also tend to lead in changes from below, which involve variation that has not become stereotyped or associated with particular social groups. However, in a minority of cases such as diphthong centralization on Martha’s Vineyard, men can lead in changes from below” (Clopper, Corney, & Pisoni, 2005).

Dialects are more determined by women because the first language formation of children begins when they are with family members. While the family is the first teacher, the first tutorial in the family is none other than the mother. After children start to go to school with their first steps in life, which is the first place of children meet with language communities.

” … boys’ acquisition of the men’s dialect accompanies social and ritual recognition of their entering the men’s world. This probably contributes to the historical instability of gender dialects, as the interruption of traditional social practices may also interrupt men’s dialect acquisition. A number of descriptions of gender dialects explicitly mention that in quoted speech the gender dialect of the person quoted may be used, even where this is otherwise not the gender dialect used by the speaker” (Dunn, 2013, p. 4).

The use of language by men and women can be completely different, depending on what the women and men are in. The actual formation of the dialect can also be affected by gender differences.

Gender dialects can also be lexical changes. In other words, it is possible for men and women to pronounce the same word differently. The meaning of word is unchanged, and this change can only affect the writing of the word. “For example, certain nouns in Awetí which are vowel initial in the women’s dialect are pronounced with initial n- in the men’s dialect. There are also cases where men’s and women’s lexemes have no obvious etymological relationship” (Dunn, 2013, p. 6). In short, the language of men and women reflects different uses, even in dictionary, with different appendices.

In a research conducted that the language is found as the dialect of Yanyuwa and also in Yanyuwa the gender differences are very apparent. Below the data presented about this research.

“The Yanyuwa language (Pama-Nyungan) of northern Australia has a complex and well-described gender dialect distinction. The main difference between the dialects is in syntactic categories and their morphological marking: The female dialect distinguishes two noun classes, ‘male’ and ‘masculine’, where the male dialect only has one. In the female dialect ‘male’ and ‘masculine’ noun classes are indicated by different prefixes see Table 3” (Dunn, 2013, p. 10).

Table3. Noun class prefixes in the female dialect of Yanyuwa

Noun Class nominative Non-nominative

Male Nya- Nyu-

Masculine ∅ ji-

“In the male dialect these correspond to a single noun class, marked by different prefixes in non-nominative cases and by zero in the nominative (see Table 4), like the women’s masculine-class and the women’s dialect also makes more distinctions in third-person pronouns than the men’s dialect. These distinctions are highlighted see Table 5” (Dunn, 2013, p. 10).

Table4. Noun class prefixed in the male dialect of Yanyuwa

Noun class Nominative Non-nominative

male/masculine ∅ ki-

Table5. Third-person pronouns in male and female Yanyuwa dialects

women’s dialect men’s dialect

he yiwa yiwa

she anda anda

it alhi anda

“The Yanyuwa language was no longer being transmitted at the time that the gender dialects were documented, so we only have speakers’ reminiscences of how language acculturation happened rather than direct observations, … all children acquire the women’s dialect first from their caretakers. In Yanyuwa society, boys underwent formal initiation at the age of ten, after which they were expected to speak men’s dialect, and rebuked if they spoke the women’s dialect by mistake and older speakers could use the inappropriate gender dialect for various kinds of humorous or rhetorical effect” (Dunn, 2013, p. 11).

c. Children Genders in Language Acquisition

It is difficult for people to understand when they are newborn babies whether they are girls or boys. In other words, when babies are born, they are introduced to the concept of gender not by themselves but by the consciousness of their parents, and babies are traditionally introduced with blue hats for babies who are girls with this concept and babies who are boys. This means that different objects and ornaments are used in certain cultures to specify the gender of the babies clear. “In addition to the visual, color-coding sign, another early attribution of gender is the linguistic event of naming the baby. Moreover, from early childhood girls and boys are interpreted differently, and interacted with differently and people usually behave more gently with baby-girls and more playfully with baby-boys” (Savickienė & Kalėdaitė, 2007, p. 285). That is, the characteristics given to infants by masculinity and femininity can be made either by name, toys or through clothes.

Girls are more often treated with polite attitudes, such as toy dolls, while boys are more likely to be warned than girls because they can play their own games quietly like cotton, while boys like to play with balls, cars and even toy guns and need to play these toys they are the mobilizations that they can make to consume energy.

“As for linguistic aspects, there is enough evidence to claim that girls are usually more advanced in language development than boys (it is obvious, though, that individual differences exist). Girls begin to talk earlier; they articulate better and acquire a more extensive vocabulary than boys of the same age. Studies of verbal ability have shown that girls and women surpass boys and men in verbal fluency, correct language usage, sentence complexity, grammatical structure, spelling, and articulation” (Savickienė & Kalėdaitė, 2007, p. 286).

The capacity of each child is different like every individual, and the talk times of the children in the same family can be different. Girls can learn to talk faster than boys, but this may be inherited but there isn’t certainty about inherited.

“A language may have two or more such classes or genders. For a noun to belong to a particular declension class often implies that it also belongs to a particular gender. The classification very often corresponds to a real world distinction of sex. Correlations of this sort are, however, never perfect; that is, membership in a particular gender is most often a matter of arbitrary stipulation” (Savickienė & Kalėdaitė, 2007, p. 286).

Meanings of the names can vary according to the gender, but it is a change that depends on the enjoyment of the people to give gender characteristics.

“Research shows that children are capable of distinguishing differences in biological sex at around the age of 2; 62. The category of gender becomes an issue in the process of language acquisition when a child finds out that sex is an inherent property and does not change even if clothes are changed” (Savickienė & Kalėdaitė, 2007, p. 287).

In this period, babies can recognize which gender group they belong to and can make themselves a member of the group they belong to.

“In a study involving Lithuanian children, the researcher suggested that genders of children have little effect on language acquisition. Most researchers claim that during the early stages of language acquisition it is problematic for a child to distinguish between genders because the category of gender is a problematic issue in itself. In data, words which have distinct formal gender markers already appear in early recordings, at 1; 7. The frequency of nouns marked masculine or feminine is displayed in Table 6 and Table 7” (Savickienė & Kalėdaitė, 2007).

Table6.The distribution of masculine and feminine nouns in Rūta’s speech (1; 7–2; 5)” (Savickienė & Kalėdaitė, 2007, p. 288).

1; 7 1; 8 1; 9 1;10 1;11 2; 0 2; 1 2; 2 2; 3 2; 4 2; 5 Total Total

FEM 18 131 426 387 310 396 359 369 337 422 374 3529 40%

MASC 18 167 469 698 454 479 528 622 622 643 487 5187 60%

(“4 Rūta is a first-born and only child of a middle-class family living in Vilnius. Her speech was recorded in natural everyday situations by her mother, a philologist. Recordings were made three or four times per week; they lasted about fifteen minutes each. For the present study we have chosen to analyse Rūta’s speech covering the period from 1; 7 to 2; 6. The corpus consists of 35 hours of recordings. The recorded speech was transcribed by the girl’s mother according to the requirements of CHILDES, or Child Language Data Exchange System

5 Monika is also a first-born and only child of a middle-class family living in Kaunas. The corpus consists of diary remarks and almost 45 hours of recordings (transcribed and only partly coded according to CHILDES; therefore, we were not able to provide the statistical data) (Savickienė & Kalėdaitė, 2007, p. 288)”.

“Table7.The distribution of masculine and feminine nouns in Mother’s speech (1;7 –2; 5)” (Savickienė & Kalėdaitė, 2007, p. 289).

1; 7 1; 8 1; 9 1;10 1;11 2; 0 2; 1 2; 2 2; 3 2; 4 2; 5 Total Total

FEM 68 282 789 707 308 553 408 410 436 387 477 4825 45%

MASC 100 391 827 1096 458 583 430 529 561 500 452 5927 55%

“The data show that masculine and feminine nouns in Rūta’s speech appear in equal numbers only during the 1; 7 period (see Table 6). Starting with 1; 8 and up to the period of 2;6 masculine nouns are more frequent. The same tendency is noticed in Mother’s speech: during the entire period of observation masculine nouns are more common than feminine nouns. The 1; 10 period is exceptional in this respect: masculine nouns are especially dominant, and the same tendency is observed in Rūta’s speech” (Savickienė & Kalėdaitė, 2007, p. 289).

This work can be explained by the language change of Ruta because Ruta has more masculine language features in this study.

“The correct usage of feminine nouns during the early period of language acquisition in Rūta’s case could be explained within the framework of a hypothesis which relates the early and unproblematic acquisition of certain grammatical categories (e.g. of gender or case) to the child’s gender” (Savickienė & Kalėdaitė, 2007, p. 289).

It is important to note that girls are more likely to be in official use than men.


As a conclusion, the effects of language and gender on each other have been researched when the language and gender issues are both intriguing and open to research. The subject of language and gender, which is a subject of interest in this study, has been researched. Language and gender are the subjects of sociolinguistic. The word meaning of the language is given and it is emphasized that the concept of language is transferred from culture to culture. In the research on the effect of gender difference on language, the idea that gender difference is the influence on the language and the ideas that there is no effect are presented to the readers. It has been stated that the changes in language use are influenced by social factors because women and men use languages in different areas. In other words, it is emphasized that the person who uses the language in the first place has an influence on the usage of the language, even the political thought, regardless of gender.

In a study, some stereotyped examples were given for the physiology and formation of male and female language use. It is presented that women’s voice tone is higher than men’s voice tone because of women’s frankness. It is presented that men’s level of voice tone is of interest to men’s confidence and that low voice tone is a determinant of the height of self-confidence. In a test conducted against the stereotypical beliefs that women are always interrupted in men’s, men have been shown to be more interrupted than women. In the use of color words, adjectives and pronouns, it is stated that women use more ornate language and men prefer to use simple, clear and understandable language.

Moreover, William Labov summarized the explanation of the matter in relation to the accent. It is emphasized that in all the cases studied in this explanation, women have different language uses than men and that gender effect is due to different dialect usage.

In the Yanyuwa language (Pama-Nyungan) of northern Australia, ıt has been shown through research that the difference in the language is more clearly recognizable, and it has been shown that there is a difference in usage in males, where the difference is less in females than in males. The Yanyuwa dialect is not investigable at present and the dialect difference is emphasized by making observations about it (Dunn, 2013).

Additionally, ıt is presented in a research that the influence of the sex of the children in the acquisition of language is very little. In Lithuanian, a single word for children’s language acquisition is asked of girls and boys and it is understood that there is little difference in the learning and even pronunciation of the word.

Finally, research on gender and language concepts has been conducted in this study and it has been determined through researches and observations that the effects of gender discrimination on language use. It has also been reported that even in the use of dialects, the difference in gender causes different words to be produced and that there is dialectal difference in this number. In other researches, it is seen that the concept of gender is not as effective as adults in children who learned a different language from the mother tongue, and the study is concluded by reaching the knowledge that the concept of gender may be effective in younger children.

For further studies it is suggested that the experiments conducted for such studies should be investigated with more current data, and the gender difference in the human brain should be reported in the field of language use. It is advisable to conduct extensive field search so that more information about the language can be found and the effects of the language on the language, not the gender, can be investigated.


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Xia, X. (2013). Gender Differences in Using Language. Theory and Practice in Language Studies, 3(8), 1485-1489.


Emergence of Augmented reality (AR) and Virtual reality (VR): college admission essay help


Augmented and virtual reality have been used widely in Science, Technology, Engineering and Mathematics. These technologies promise to change our lives unlike any other. While VR replaces your vision, AR adds reality to it. From learning new skills to being able to meet people virtually but with an immerse experience with the help of 3D graphics. AR/VR has made humans witness what once used to be impossible. AR and VR have numerous uses and huge benefits in the real world. Moreover, due to the onset of these technologies, the exploitation of real world objects in training has reduced by a reasonable percentage. This research paper mentions detailed information about AR/VR systems, requirements to build such systems, and their applications. Then, it presents the tools and software used for recreating realistic environments and a comparison between different types of AR and VR systems. After that, we optimize the road map for selecting an appropriate system according to the field of applications. Moreover, we discuss how AR and VR affect the human brain and produce simulations. Finally, the conclusion incorporates the future and scope of these technologies while covering their increasing usage in the medical industry.

Keywords – Virtual Reality, Augmented Reality, Immersion, Virtual Training, Simulation, AR/VR systems.


Until recently, Augmented reality (AR) and Virtual reality (VR) technologies have served primarily as an inspiration for focus writers and special effects teams. After a long drought, in the 1990s these technologies have now become bigger than ever. Computer generated 3D environments allow the users to enter and interact with alternate realities. Virtual Reality (VR) and Augmented reality (AR) is a popular name for an absorbing, interactive experience in which a person perceives a synthetic environment by means of a special human-computer interface. The users are able to immerse themselves to varying degrees in the computer’s artificial world.

AR/ VR have become one of the main technologies to be discussed regarding their applications, usage, and their different types that can achieve huge benefits in the real world. The VR considered as full visualization environment using appropriate computer technologies whereas AR is used to add a more realistic experience to it. In most of the learning environment, VR becomes possible for many learners or trainees to simulate the real world. The benefits of this technology often start with computer graphics and continue for long times.

Nowadays, Augmented and Virtual reality is widely used in the tourism industry in collaboration with the photography and videography industries. This enables users to experience the magical destinations before actually visiting. Such immersion technologies include additional sensations, movements (for example a  roller coaster simulator) and feeling (for example if the user is sprayed with water) and also the sense of smell. Further in this research paper we will discover and discuss in depth, the numerous benefits of AR and VR.



The reign of virtual realities started in the year 1965. Jaron Lanier, the founder of VPL technologies was the one to introduce the term virtual reality with a research paper titled, ‘THE ULTIMATE DISPLAY’. Later it became more acknowledged by the public as a medical toy comprising, a helmet, gloves etc. The emergence of VR can be highlighted by the following:

A. The Sensorama (1975, Morton Heilig)

The Sensorama consisted of multiple sensors, that could make a chromatic film that previously recorded to be augmented by clear sound, smell, wind and other senses. Sensorama made people experience interactive cinema. Fig 1, shows the Sensorama machine.

B. The Ultimate Display (1965, Ivan Sutherland)

The Ultimate display, was an attempt to combine interactive graphics with sound, smell and force feedback to imitate the real world. It suggests using a Head Mounted display as a window for VR. The Ultimate Display, creates an illusion that you are in a room where a computer can control the existence of matter. Fig 2, shows the Ultimate Display.

C. The Sword of Damocles

The Sword of Damocles is neither system nor the early concept of the VR. It considered as the first hardware of VR. The first Head Mounted Display (HMD) constructed by Sutherland. It contains sounds as stereo updated due to the position and navigation of the user. It is the implementation of the ultimate display.

Fig 2, The Ultimate Display

D. GROPE (1971, University of North Carolina)

GROPE is a “prototype of a force-feedback system”. It allows users to feel a simulated computer force. Grope consists of a simple glove with a specific structure to give sensible feedback with “mechanically complex exoskeletal hand masters”. It aimed at combining both haptic and a visual display and was used by chemists for a drug-enzyme docking procedure. Fig 3, shows the GROPE system.

Fig 1. The Sensorama Machine

Fig 3, GROPE Force Feedback Display

E. VIDEOPLACE (1971, Myron Krueger)

It is a virtual or conceptual environment with no real existence. The VIDEOPLACE, controls the relationship of the images of users and the places in a graphics scene. The imagination shadow of users in VIDEOPLACE system is determined by the camera that posted on a screen. Such systems, enable users to interact with other participant objects.

A VIDEOPLACE consists of two adjacent rooms and the camera captures the gestures, each participant can be seen by the other in both the rooms. Fig 4, shows the working of videoplace.

F. VIVED (created in 1984)

VIVED is an abbreviation of “Virtual Visual Environment Display” that was created at NASA Ames. It consists of a stereoscopic monochrome HMD. It was created to enable people to describe their own digital world for other people to see it as a 3D space. Fig 5, shows an example of VIVED.


Fig 5, VIVED

G. VPL (Data Glove created in 1985 and the Eyephone HMD created in 1988)

VLP is a company who manufactures and created Data Glove and Eyephone HMD as the first commercially available hardware of VR for the public. The Data Glove was used as an input device. The Eyephone is a head mounted display used to provide a feeling of immersion.

H. BOOM (created in 1989, Fake Space Labs)

Binocular Omni-Orientation Monitor (BOOM) is “a small box containing two CRT monitors that can be viewed through the eye holes.” In the system of BOOM, the user can take the small box with his/her eye movements, move it through virtual environments and keep track of the box by the eye orientation Fig. 6 shows the BOOM machine.

I. Virtual Wind Tunnel (created in 1990)

Virtual Wind Tunnel developed to allow the monitoring and investigation of flow fields included with BOOM and Data Glove. The Virtual Wind Tunnel is developed at NASA Aimes [3]. Fig. 8 shows an example of the Virtual Wind Tunnel. This type of VR helps scientists to utilize a Data Glove to input and manipulate “the streams of virtual smoke in the airflow around a digital model of an airplane or space shuttle. Moving around (using a BOOM display technology) they can watch and analyze the dynamic behavior of air flow and easily find the areas of instability”.

Fig 6, Binocular Omni-Oriented Monitor (BOOM).

J. CAVE ( 1992)

CAVE is a scientific virtualization system. The user wears a LCD shutter based glasses in order to experience the simulation. It consists of three walls and one door as the fourth wall. Projectors are used on all the flat wallas which allows the user to get a better sense of full immersion.


The term Augmented reality was coined by a Boeing researcher named ‘Tom Caudell’ in the late 1990s. He was asked to create a replacement for Boeing’s current system of large plywood boards with wiring instructions for each aircraft being built. Caudell and his co-worker David Mizell proposed a head-mounted display for construction workers that superimposed the position of cables through the eyewear and projected them onto multipurpose, reusable boards. Instead of having to use different boards for each aircraft, the custom wiring instructions could instead be worn by the workers themselves. The emergence of Augmented Reality has been highlighted as follows:

A. Virtual Fixtures (created in 1992, USAF armstrong Labs)

Because 3D graphics were too slow in the early 1990s to present a photorealistic and spatially-registered augmented reality, Virtual Fixtures used two real physical robots, controlled by a full upper-body exoskeleton worn by the user. To create the immersive experience for the user, a unique optics configuration was employed that involved a pair of binocular magnifiers aligned so that the user’s view of the robot arms were brought forward so as to appear registered in the exact location of the user’s real physical arms. Fig 7, shows the virtual fixture.

B. Hybrid Synthetic vision system (created in 1998)

In 1998, NASA created a hybrid vision system of their X-38 spacecraft. The system leveraged AR technology to assist in providing a better navigation during flight training. Fig 8, shows the mock-up of the map data displayed on a pilot’s screen.

Fig 7, Virtual Fixtures

Fig 8, AR component displayed map data on the pilot’s screen.

C. The AR Game (created in 2000)

AR Quake launched – the first AR game. As well as a head-mounted display, players had to wear a backpack containing a computer & gyroscopes.

D. AR Tennis ( created in 2005)

The early 2000s saw the debut of augmented reality apps for smart phones. One of the first was AR Tennis – a two-player AR game developed for Nokia phones. AR Tennis is the first example of a face to face collaborative AR application developed for mobile phones. In this application two players sit across a table from each other with a piece of paper between them with a set of AR Tool Kit markers drawn on it. Computer vision techniques are used to track the phone position relative to the tracking markers. When the player points the phone camera at the markers they see a virtual tennis court overlaid on live video of the real world. Fig 9, shows the AR Tennis Court.

Fig 9, AR Tennis Court

E. Pokemon Go (created in 2016, Nintendo and Niantic)

Niantic and Nintendo launched Pokemon Go – the hugely popular location-based AR game that put AR on the mainstream map. In the case of Pokémon Go, players traverse the physical world following a digital map, searching for cartoon creatures that surface at random. People look through their smartphone cameras to find Pokémon. When an animated creature appears, they toss Pokéballs at it until it is subdued.

Fig 10, Augmented reality in Pokemon go.


Hospitality and Medical Marijuana

Currently there are 28 states and Washington DC that have legal medical marijuana available. This is more than half of the United States. Even with the majority, employment law and the hospitality industry do not have much guidelines to help pave the way in legal terms. With marijuana, illegal federally and legal at the state level it causes a surplus of confusion. Much of the reason is that there are not very many case laws to reference on both the employment and business side of the industry. There are many questions industry professionals have. Here are a few: Are employers legally able to terminate employees based on positive test results? Do employees with disabilities have different protections? How are employees under federal contract governed? What protections do guests and customers have? Does the ADA cover patients as guest?

Whether an employer may legally fire you for failing an employee drug test because you used medical marijuana, depends on whether or not your state has passed a medical marijuana law with employment discrimination protections. In Delaware, like other states that have similar legislation, the Medical Marijuana Act decriminalizes the use of medical marijuana in an attempt “to protect patients with debilitating medical conditions, as well as their physicians and providers, from arrest and prosecution, criminal and other penalties, and property forfeiture if such patients engage in the medical use of marijuana.” Similar to only a few statutes, the Act includes provisions that provide additional protections to employees. The Act prevents employers from discriminating against an employee “in hiring, termination, or any term or condition of employment, or otherwise penalizing a person” for his “status as a cardholder” or because of a “positive drug test for marijuana components or metabolites.” In majority of the states an employer can impose discipline including termination for a positive marijuana drug test.

While the Americans with Disabilities Act of 1990 protects most employees with serious medical conditions from discrimination, it doesn’t protect their use of medical marijuana. Again, depending on your states statutes very few jurisdictions offer explicit protections for patients. The minority provide protections where employers are prohibited from discriminating against an employee who has tested positive for marijuana and is a registered medical marijuana patient, if he or she doesn’t have a “safety sensitive” job, such as heavy-machinery operator or airline pilot.

One of the few cases involving medical marijuana is James v. City of Costa Mesa, the Ninth Circuit held that the ADA does not protect individuals who claim discrimination against them because of medical marijuana use. The court reasoned that the ADA excludes from coverage disabilities based on illegal drug use. Because marijuana is illegal under federal law, medical marijuana use is not covered under the ADA, even if state has legalized the medical use of marijuana. While it is not unlawful to discriminate against an applicant or employee based on their marijuana use, it is still unlawful to discriminate against an applicant or employee for an underlying disability. Employers should use caution in handling these situations to minimize risk that any adverse employment decisions were based on knowledge of illegal marijuana use and not on knowledge of an underlying disability.

Employees under federal government contract such as employees of federal agencies or employees of private business that have federal licenses and regulations. Casinos for one in Nevada the Gaming Control Board issued an industry notice telling gaming license holders — and even prospective license applicants — to stay far away from medical marijuana. Under federal law, distribution, possession and sale of the drug is a crime. The Control Board based its ruling on federal law. For all the aspiring and current spies, diplomats and F.B.I. agents living in states that have liberalized marijuana laws, the federal government has a stern warning: Federal laws outlaw its use — and rules that make it a firing offense for government workers — have remained rigid. Recruiters for federal agencies are arriving on university campuses with a sobering message that marijuana use will not be tolerated.

In addition to employee use of marijuana businesses are also concerned about the use by guest. The simplest approach for innkeepers is to treat marijuana users like tobacco users. If tobacco is prohibited in guest rooms and in public areas so is marijuana. If a guest’s actions, such as smoking marijuana disrupts other guest, the situation should be treated as any other disturbance. Ask the patron to cease the disruptive behavior and if they do not comply contact the authorities and evict them. With new legislation, each business should familiarize them with the statutes of their state. There are no specifics until more case law present itself. In Colorado, it is up to the discretion of the hotel if it allows marijuana smoke to be consumed in their smoking rooms. Denver city laws prohibit marijuana consumption on hotel balconies if visible from any public place.

There is no consensus on how to handle medical marijuana and the ADA at hotels. This is due to there being no know “case law” on this issue. The issue has not presented itself to hoteliers on a wide scale. To avoid any potential law suits, try to place any marijuana users in smoking rooms when available. If you are a completely “nonsmoking” hotel, the marijuana user should be treated as a cigarette smoker. They must leave the building and be accommodated in s designated area. They should be treated no differently than a tobacco user. If they do smoke in the room and you have the proper notification and signage you may charge them the normal hotel smoking fee. When convenient adding medical marijuana to these signage’s is recommended.

State laws currently provide greater protections to marijuana users. Although, those that have considered such issues in court were generally found in favor of an employer’s right to act against an employee who tests positive for marijuana. Majority of employees who work in a state with the world’s most powerful medical marijuana laws will have to choose between using medical marijuana and work. Also, remember every hotel has the right to ask a guest who is smoking marijuana to stop. Unless they have a legitimate prescription from a licensed physician. If the guest cannot provide the paper work you can prevent them from doing so. If they refuse you may get the authorities involved. Hopefully in the near future there will be more case law on medical marijuana and its roll in employment, business and the ADA throughout the hospitality industry.


Human rights in Great Britain: essay help free

The first assessment for Care in Contemporary Society is to carry out research into Human Rights in Great Britain. The research to carry out included; providing a timeline of important progress within the Human Rights Legislation, stating the critical principles in the operation of the Human Rights approach and explaining the usefulness of supporting a Human Rights access to care. Human Rights are the basic rights which everyone is entitled to no matter where they are from, what religion they believe in or who they are. Human Rights apply to all to ensure everyone is treated equally. Human Rights has been a building process for many years as many laws have been put in place to ensure everyone is treated equally however not everyone follows the laws. This had to be changed with fighting for Human Rights which is still a growing process.

A timeline of important process in Human Rights Legislation:

The Representation of the People Act 1918: This was the beginning of the female suffrage in Great Britain. However, this did not give all women the right to vote, meaning only women who owned property who were 30 and older were given the right to vote. Whereas males who are 21 and older were given the right to vote therefore women were still at a disadvantage with their voting rights. 10 years later (1928) all women were given equal rights to vote to men.

Human rights commission – The Universal Declaration of Human Rights 1948: This is the first worldwide Human Rights agreement which includes all legal and cultures backgrounds from all over the world. The Universal Declaration is outlined as “The foremost statement of the rights and freedoms of all human begins” This had been acknowledged through The General Assembly of the United Nations in 1948. This legislation was agreed upon after the horrendous events of world war two to ensure everyone was entitled to the basic Human Rights.


Human rights act 1998: This act states that

“Human rights are based on important principles like dignity, fairness, respect and equality. They protect you in your everyday life regardless of who you are, where you live and how you chose to live your life.”


This means that the human rights act is put in place to ensure all humans are treated equally no matter what. Examples of human rights include:

The right to freedom of religion and belief
The right to respect for private and family life
Your right to a fair trial

Equality and human rights commission 2007 – This commission in Scotland is fighting against discrimination. The commission states that everyone should be “treated fairly and with dignity” [] However discrimination still manages to take place, although having this commission in place allows those who are being discriminated against to be able to fight for their Human Rights.

Stating the critical principles in the operation of the Human Rights approach:

The Human Rights path is about ensuring people know and declare their rights. Everyone must be aware that a person is held responsible for ensuring the rights of an individual are provided and met. A Human Rights approach states that not only people who use the service should have their rights in place and provided with but the other individuals around e.g. A family coming into a hotel, the family should know and be able to declare their rights however the staff in the hotel have also got their rights.

The panel principles are the critical principles which are required in the operation of the Human Rights approach:

Participation – Everyone is able to cooperate in any changes that could influence their Human Rights.
Accountability – To ensure successful observation and to also ensure that breaking or failing to observe a law agreement will lead to being solved.
Non- discrimination and equality – All forms of discrimination should be abolished.
Empowerment – Everyone should be aware of their rights.
Legality – Everyone should be aware that rights are legally kept in force.

The usefulness of supporting a Human Rights access to care:

The usefulness of supporting a Human Rights access to care is important as it may be harder for people in care to always be up to date and know their rights. For example, People with dementia have the exact same human rights as every other person in this world however due to the illness they face many obstacles to realise every right they are entitled too. A group of Scottish parliament organisations representing the interests of people with dementia are brought together and work towards supporting people with dementia to ensure their rights are recognised and respected. Dementia over time causes the individual’s capacity to make choices in their everyday life’s. For example, someone with Dementia may need someone to support them with their banking. However, for this it has to be someone the individual trusts so that the individual’s rights are not broken. Therefore, it is important to adopt a Human Rights approach to care to ensure the safety and right to personal and private life.


Overall Human Rights are important for everyone to ensure each and every individual is treated equally and fairly. The fight for Human Rights has been going on for an extremely long time and the fight to destroy the Human Rights which are not being put in place for every individual. Therefore, in years to come everyone should have their Human Rights set in place.

Reference sheet:

United Nations – Universal Declaration of Human Rights [online] Available at: [Accessed on 17th October 2016]
About the commission in Scotland [online] Available at: [Accessed on 17th October 2016]
Votes for Victorian Women [online]: Available at: [Accessed on 17th October 2016]
Human Rights [online] Available at: [Accessed on 17th October 2016]
Scottish Human Rights Commission [online] Available at: [Accessed on 20th October 2016]
Care about Rights- What is a Human Right Approach? [online] Available at: [Accessed on 20th October 2016]
Developing the over-arching principles and NCS. What is meant by a “Human Rights Based Approach?” [online] [Accessed on 20th October 2016]
Charter or Rights for people with Dementia and their careers in Scotland [online] Available at: [Accessed on 21st October 2016]


TG/Travel UK organisational structure: online essay help

“The term organizational structure refers to the formal configuration between individuals and groups regarding the allocation of tasks, responsibilities, and authority within the organization” (Galbraith, 1987, Greenberg, 2011).

TG has a divisional organisational structure that is further split into functional structures. This is based on the assumption that Travel UK is an example that represents the remaining parts of TG in terms of structure. Travel UK has divisions (Airline, Commercial and Customer Operations) which have individual functional departments assigned to them. Divisional structures are organised by products or locations rather than functions (sales, finance, etc.). Divisional structures are decentralised, giving authority to the managers of the individual divisions to allow for well informed decisions to be made by the specialised manager overseeing the division (Fouraker and Stopford, 1968). Large organisations face complex issues due to global markets, multiple interdependent business activities and cooperation with other organisations. These factors require for complex decisions to be taken quickly. (Mihm, Loch, Wilkinson, and Huberman, 2010). This, combined with the rules and processes in place at Travel UK to guide managers in making such decisions objectively form a relatively secure foundation for TG’s volatile environments it is operating in. The divisional structure allows quick adjustment to factors impacting the operation. “Many corporations have developed and organisational structure consisting of relatively autonomous business units to achieve clear focus of skills and effort towards different markets, plus clear accountability of managers” (Hewitt, 2003) providing further evidence for the divisional structure being the most appropriate for globally operating TG. Another advantage is that the divisional structure’s autonomous nature tests and trains the division heads’ capabilities which enables the development of General Managers (Fouraker, Stopford, 1968). A disadvantage of this structure is that knowledge can be contained within each unit limiting the sharing of expertise among the organisation (Steiger, Hammou, Galib, 2014). Each operational division having its own sphere of competence make it likely for this to be the case within TG.

Each division within TG/Travel UK has its own business support units divided by function (sales, HR, etc). Functional structures give each local business unit direct access to areas of expertise but this type of structure can foster a ‘silo mentality’ in which all the departments work for themselves and do not communicate with each other (Connor, McFadden and McLean 2012). TG has made the decision to merge some functions where duplication existed. According to Mintzberg, many other organisations have made the decision to accept functional duplication to make the divisions less dependant on one another (Steiger, Hammou, Galib, 2014) which gives greater market robustness compared to the shared services model (merged functional departments).

TG’s structure is also impacted by employee relations (ER) aspects. “ER is the process of managing both the individual and the group in terms of contracts, regulations and collective behaviour…” (Purcell, 2012). This includes the differences in conditions of employment among and within TG’s business units due to mergers with other organisations. One of the main reasons for unsuccessful mergers is poor integration. One of the motivations to harmonise conditions of employment following mergers (vertical integration) is that work of the same value needs to be compensated in a similar way in accordance with the Equality Act 2010. Not harmonising terms of conditions of employment may increase the risk of legal claims under equally pay, discrimination and employment protection laws (Suff, Reilly, 2007). Towers and Perrin (2003) explain that “disparate benefits and compensation policies need to be integrated to align the company’s employees with the senior management teams business objectives”. The delay of aligning terms and conditions of employment may result in increased staff turnover (Suff, Reilly, 2007). Mergers provide an opportunity to revise practices and policies. Not revising such policies and practices can have a negative impact on organisational capability (PWC, 2016). If following a merger, ways of working are different, it can create frustration and anxiety leading to additional turnover (Stafford, Miles, 2013). Further complexity to this issue is added by the the different conditions of employment and working practices exist not only in job descriptions but also in agreements that have been negotiated by the trade unions with TG. Such differences are described as “monumentally difficult problems” as they are covered under the UK’s Transfer of Undertakings (Protection of Employment) Regulations 2006 (TUPE) and “involve some forceful negotiating from any unions” (Levinson, 2014). TUPE is designed to to protect employment rights for workers who are being taken over by a different organisation. Not following the process can incur compensation and legal fees as in the case of the Ministry of Defence which paid £5,000,000 in an out of court settlement to 1,600 Unite (union) members) (Stevens, 2014).

Changing such practices would therefore be complicated due to the seemingly inadequate cooperation between TG and with the trade unions. Whilst the organisation holds monthly joint consultative meetings with the unions, the relationship between them appears to be strained. This is evident in Travel UK’s fear of strikes when making changes to the cabin crew hours and working practices. An example of the impact that a general lack of trust between the unions and organisations can have is the one of British Airways and the union Unite in the years of 2010/2011. In 18 months the cabin crew went on strike four times over issues such as working conditions, redundancies and benefits resulting in revenue loss and customer complaints (BBC, 2011).

TG’s current divisional structure is is only appropriate for the future if TG eliminates all factors that could hinder it from reaching its strategic goals. Some of them are:

Customer satisfaction: The strained relationship with the trade unions can result in reoccurring industrial action which can delay or stop services causing customer complaints.
Profit: The underlying fear of strikes and differences in terms and conditions of employment create an environment in which TG cannot react quickly to changes needed to remain profitable.
Staff engagement: The fractured conditions of employment and working practices among its business units can have a negative impact on engagement levels.
Sustainability: Different work practices among the organisation make it difficult to reach a common goal.

If these barriers are not removed, the structure of TG is not appropriate for the future. This statement is supported by the CIPD’s 18 key points for high performance and high commitment in workplaces. Two of them are outlined as commitment to single status for all employees as well l has holiday harmonisation (Tamkin,2004); both of which are currently not met within TG.


Importance of Human Rights approach to care

The Lunacy Commission was set up following the 1845 Lunacy Act. This Government appointed group of lawyers and doctors oversaw the conditions of the asylums in England and Wales. Appointed commissioners would visit the hospitals twice a year their main objective was to ensure that the hospitals ran safely and efficiently particularly in regards to treatments. The reports raised concerns particularly with Patients being certified insane, suicide prevention and excessive force when restraining/subduing those in the asylum. The report highlighted that a good amount of furniture had been provided for the use of inmates.

The government took over the building of asylums eliminating private enterprise.

The government passed legislation to regulate activities in 1845 and 1853 Hospitals were also registered for the first time. In 1890 the Lunacy act of 1890 was passed in response to public concerns that some patients were being wrongfully detained particularly women who had very little rights, women who were wealthy could fall victim to financial abuse through private arrangements her husband could have his wife certified insane and locked away clearing the way for himself to inherit any financial benefits. Although great strides were made protecting the rights of inmate’s privacy was minimal there was usually 50 inmates to any one ward, privacy was minimal, unit wings were closed to patients with each ward/wing being placed under lock and key.

1961 is considered as the year attitudes towards for institutionalized mental healthcare was changing. Enoch Powell had been appointed health secretary in 1960 and was given the task of reforming the nations crumbling health services, including the Mental Hospitals. During the conservative party conference in March 1961, Powell criticized the asylums.

He spoke of the transition to community based care, the horror that asylums inflicted on patients, Enoch Powell proposed a radical vision towards community health care, not only reducing costs to the state (Powell envisioned 15,000 fewer psychiatrists) and reducing psychiatric beds by 50%. Powell’s next point was regarding those he described as the ‘sub-normal’, and the requirement to assess their needs and develop a more concise understanding of the issues faced in managing and caring for those individuals. Powell also advocated community services and better co-operation between local authorities and medical staff. Powell believed that services should be more flexibility in regards to the services offered and the services should be more person-centered fitting the services to suit the induvial needs and rights.

Under the 1990 National Health Service and Community Care Act any adult aged 18 or over who is eligible for and requires services from their local authority have the right to have their needs assessed and be fully involved in the arrangement of services advocates also can play a vital role in ensuring their opinion is respected, and any plan is implemented to enable individuals to live as independently as possible the community care act of 1990 emphasized the importance enabling and tailoring support and services around the needs of individuals. Assessments are reviewed every year, unless there is change of circumstances or the individual or local authority feel another review would be beneficial.

Importance of Human Rights approach to care

The human rights approach within care allows support workers to “realize the potential” of service users, highlighting the importance holistic care and taking a holistic approach to care it emphasizes the importance of taking someone’s emotional, physical, spiritual needs of an individual. Although a support worker may care for the physical needs of a patient due to any physical disability, such as assisting with washing or preparing meals a human rights approach advocates the importance of taking into consideration dietary requirements such as the individual being a vegetarian or observing religious traditions such as a Muslim or Jewish service user not consuming pork. The service provider would also not discriminate against any service user because of their religion, sexual orientation or any criminal convictions. This allows services to feel comfortable with services available and can raise complaints or seek support without fear of reprisals or intimation, this not only promotes the individual’s dignity but also their human rights.

Underlying principles of Human Rights

The underlying principles of human rights particularly in relation to care can be broken down into the acronym PANEL.

Participation: Service users should as far as possible participate in the review of their care especially when their needs are being assessed and services are being allocated to offer the appropriate support that the individual requires.
Accountability: Services are held accountable by governmental appointed agencies such the care inspectorate in Scotland Set up by Scottish Government, and accountable to ministers, they ensure assure and protect everyone that uses these services. Using the person-centered approach to care and having a holistic view of care allows the service users understand what is expected of them when they receive support and services.
Non-Discrimination: The service provider would also not discriminate against any service user because of their religion, sexual orientation or any criminal convictions.
Empowerment: Services should empower the individual to make their own choices, such as how they dress, plan activities that suit their individual tastes and choices emphasizing individuality and choices.
Legality: Service providers/Employees follow the law and strictly enforce the recommendations ensuring the safety of service users and employees are strictly adhered to reporting any cases of assault, abuse or offences.

My Practice’s Human Rights approach

Enablement: I assist the service user to make and achieve their goals but they don’t do it for them they encourage them to fulfil them themselves with the support needed. It is important that the care worker works in partnership with a range of integrated services, such as occupational therapist, to assist in meeting the service user’s needs. I will try to uphold the service user’s independence and encourage them to achieve their goals. I ensure that I encourage the service user whilst supporting them rather than doing it for them.

Non-Discrimination: Service users have the right to live in an environment free from harassment and discrimination so it is important that the care worker considers all factors so that all their spiritual, cultural and religious needs are met. Service users have the right to complain without being discriminated against if they have not received the care that they are entitled to or if they have been discriminated against. I aim to treat the service user with equality and diversity. I will ensure that I do not discriminate against any of the service users and I will embrace the diversity of the service user’s disabilities, sexual orientation and religious beliefs and focus on their induvial needs rather than their lifestyle.


How did Watergate deepen the mistrust in the office of the President?: essay help

On August 9, 1974, 37th President of the United States of America Richard Nixon resigned from his executive post. Nixon was and still is, the only US President to ever resign. The Watergate Scandal had brought Nixon’s second term to an abrupt end and diminished of retaining some form of respectability and honor among not only Americans, but citizens of the World. Although the questions about Watergate still remain. One in particular is had the Watergate scandal exposed a logical problem requiring structural resolutions, or was it the unfortunate combination of a poor president and his unethical advisors? Essentially, how did Watergate deepen the mistrust established in the office of the President and in what ways did this affect America.

Statistically, Americans are profoundly unhappy with their government. While the majority of Americans feel proud to be American; in the 1990s, never more than 40% of Americans said that they trusted their government most of the time or just about always (McKay, Houghton, & Wroe, 2002, p.20). A evident majority think that politicians do not act in the best interest of the people, and believe that government is controlled by investments from corporation. During the Watergate scandal, Americans had been shocked by the crimes of the Nixon Presidency. Investigations by the press and congress had exposed previously unimaginable levels of corruption and conspiracy in the executive branch. Following Watergate, the publics faith in government had been shaken, since the assassination of President John F. Kennedy, the trust placed in government had been in decline. The assassination had stolen the remainder of President Kennedy’s life and deprived him of a impartial, balanced historical judgement. Watergate had done the same to Nixon, and taken the same opportunity for a fair assessment from him, although Nixon himself had pushed it to happen. In order to fully assess how Watergate damaged the trust placed in President Nixon, his whole Presidency needs to be evaluated; domestic policy, foreign policy, if Watergate was really to blame for this mistrust, or was the mistrust already there and Watergate had just agitated it.

In Monica Crowley’s 1996 book Nixon off the Record, President Nixon brings up some points for consideration which not only challenge Watergate, but question it’s actual Impact of the scandal. ‘As President, until Watergate, my approval polls were never really below 50%. Neither were Eisenhower’s’ (Crowley, 1996, p.115). The significance of this is that Nixon refers himself to Eisenhower, one of the highest regarded Presidents in modern history. Nixon’s Domestic policy involves not only his own policies but the policies of who came before him; President Lyndon B. Johnson’s Great Society was a war on Poverty and both, racial injustice and gender inequality. Some of the policies were carried-on by Johnson, as part of President Kennedy’s New Frontier Legacy. The Civil Rights Bill that JFK promised to sign was passed into law. The Civil Rights Act banned discrimination based on race and gender in employment and ending segregation in all public facilities. Yet, African Americans all over the country were still denied the right to Protection from law enforcement, access to public facilities, and fair financial prospects. Nixon saw this as unjust abuse of the system, calling it both unfair to African American’s and a waste of human resources which would benefit America’s development. Johnson also signed the Economic Opportunity Act of 1964; The law that created the Office of Economic Opportunity aimed at attacking the roots of American poverty. Although this was dismantled under Nixon and Ford, which allocated poverty programs to other government departments. Johnson’s popularity had dropped due to Vietnam; members of his own party were seeking the nomination for President and in March 1968, he announced to the people of the United States that he would not seek a second term. Despite criticism, under LBJ the Great Society did impact many of the poorer Americans the program was aimed at. The total number of Americans living in poverty fell from 26 percent (1967) to 16 percent (2012), Government action is literally the only reason we have less poverty in 2012 than we did in 1967 (Matthews, 2016). The Great Society was however, deemed ahead of its time, combining both the this and the Vietnam war created massive budget deficits and thus, as Howard Zinn neatly puts it, Johnson’s War on Poverty in the 60s became a Victim of the War in Vietnam (Zinn, 2005, p.601). Nixon’s major economical objective was to decrease inflation, by doing so he had to effectively end the Vietnam War. This he did not do, in fact, he expanded it despite announcing on December 8th 1969 that the war was soon to end due to ‘a conclusion as a result of the plan that we have instituted’ (, 2009). While ending the war was not something Nixon could do instantly, the U.S. economy continued to helplessly fluctuate during 1970, this in turn resulted to a very poor performance from the Republican party in the midterm elections – The Democrats held major seats and was heavily in control throughout Nixon’s presidency.

His Presidency was not completely shadowed by Watergate, although it has stained his Legacy, looking beneath the surface of Nixon’s Administration, his domestic policy clearly impacted America’s poorest; Total domestic spending by the federal government rose from 10.3 % of the gross national to 13.7% in the six years he was President. Granted a portion of the increased domestic spending under Nixon was due to the delay in starting Great Society initiatives, but a lot of it was due to Nixon’s own plans. The New Federalism agenda, essentially pointed out that all others before Nixon had failed to impact, let alone solve both social and growing urban problems. His new federalism has been credited as a highlight of his presidency, “Nixon’s New Federalism provided incentives for the poor to work” (Nathan, 1996). Despite his efforts, Nixon could not take away the feeling from the American People that the American Dream was failing following the Assassination of all the Major Civil Rights figures. John F. Kennedy, Martin Luther King, Malcom X, and Robert F. Kennedy all within the space of 5 years. Upon this, the process of desegregation was also taking place in many southern states, which created an immense amount on tension between minority groups and whites. Although Nixon was for desegregation, many traditional Right Wing Republicans in the southern states would have felt very different about this matter and thus, alienated by the Nixon administration.

Some have the opinion that it wasn’t so much Nixon that created or perpetuated this aura of Mistrust in his office, as it was the Government Agencies that served him. It is believed that a number of federal services contributed to this mistrust, The CIA was secretive and faceless in a sense but the FBI took on a more public role, taking credit for their actions and influencing the press, on numerous occasions. FBI Director J. Edgar Hoover morphed the FBI into what Richard Gid Powers called ‘ one of the greatest publicity generating machines the country has ever seen’ (Powers, 1983, p.95). Americans having a favourable opinion of the FBI fell from 84% (1965) to 52% (1973). This fell again to 37% in 1975. On top of this, The FBI’s creditability was also damaged by Watergate. L. Patrick Gray, Nixon’s nominee after Hoover died, destroyed critical Watergate evidence. The Watergate investigation had revealed that all too often Nixon had used the FBI for political purpose. Kathryn S. Olmsted narrates how federal agencies abused their privilege; Watergate did what the Bay of Pigs had not; ‘it had undermined the consensus of trust in Washington which was a truer source of the agency’ s strength than it’s legal charter’ (Olmsted, 1996, p.15) – it showed that ‘national security’ claims could and would cover up activities which were nothing but illegal. In brief, Nixon’s New federalism was not new, throughout his political career he opposed Big Government programmes and had fought to restore more power to state and local level establishments. President Nixon did achieve a number of things, the restoration of power to lower level government and away from federal jurisdiction, is one example. A number of critics argue that although his domestic policy benefited minorities, the poor and women, his new Federalism, failed to surpass his administration as he fought a losing battle to preserve his presidency following Watergate.

Foreign Policy is where Nixon’s Presidency becomes more believable to have caused mistrust in his office. During his time in office, he and certain federal agencies covered up a number of major mistakes created by the government. The Tonkin Incident is essentially where it began for Nixon, on 2 August 1964, United States claimed that North Vietnamese forces had twice attacked American destroyers in the Gulf of Tonkin. Known today as the Gulf of Tonkin Incident, this lead to open war between North Vietnam and the United States. It furthermore foreshadowed the major escalation of the Vietnam War in South Vietnam. This incident brought Congressional support for the Gulf of Tonkin Resolution, passed unanimously in the house, and with only two opposing votes in the senate. This gave Johnson the power to take military action as he saw fit in Southeast Asia. By 1968, There were more than 500,000 American Troops in south Vietnam (Zinn, 2005, p.477). This Resolution was applicable to Nixon when he was sworn into office. Nixon soon introduced U.S. troop withdrawals but also authorized invasions into Laos and Cambodia. Nixon announced the ground invasion to the American public on April 30, 1970. He expanded the Vietnam war in a time that called for its end, this led to widespread protests across America, and his popularity among younger American’s plummeted after this. Not only was there disturbances from this, it was considered a military failure, Congress resolved that Nixon could not, and should not use American troops in extending the war without congressional approval. Historian Harry Howe Ransom states, ‘[Nothing in public hearings] suggests that Congress intended to create, or knew it was creating, an agency for paramilitary operations’ when accepting the Gulf of Tonkin Resolution (Howe Ransom, 1975, p.155-156). Suggesting that it was Nixon’s own doing that created this mistrust when concerning the Vietnam War. Although, Nixon was not to blame for the entry into the Vietnam war, LBJ took adavantage of an compliant Congress quietly to increase American involvement In vietnam, and so without telling the people what he was doing. LBJ’s time in office, then, saw the emergence of ‘Presidential Imperialism’.

Nixon also introduced new trends in diplomatic international relations for America. Nixon argued that the communist world had two rival powers — the Soviet Union and China. Nixon and close advisor Henry Kissinger exploited the relationship between the two to benefit America. During the 1970s, Soviet Premier Leonid Brezhnev agreed to import American wheat into the Soviet Union. Creating trade and improving the economy. Nixon surprised the nation when he announced that he would travel to Communist China in February 1972, and meet with Mao Zedong. Following this visit, the United States dropped its opposition to Chinese entry in the United Nations and groundwork was laid for diplomatic relations. Just as anticipated, this caused concern from the Soviet Union. Nixon hoped to establish a Détente, in May 1972, he made an equally significant visit to Moscow to support a nuclear arms agreement. The United States and the Soviet Union pledged to constraint the number of intercontinental ballistic missiles each would manufacture. It does seem that Nixon and Kissinger were playing with fire, simultaneously establishing relationships with both China and the USSR, but ultimately, it was a tactical move from the duo. From a foreign policy opinion, it was wise to establish foundations for a diplomatic relationship. However, in terms of domestic policy, the American people were mortified, Nixon had built his reputation as an anti-communist supporter, following this it could easily be seen as nothing more than horrible irony; it was believed that Nixon was inspiring Left-wing enthusiasts to form and act on these international relations. Furthermore, President Nixon is responsible for the My Lai Massacre cover up. On March 16th 1968, a squad of Us soldiers mercilessly killed between 200 and 500 unarmed civilians at My Lai, a small village near the north coast of Southern Vietnam. My Lai was successfully covered up by US commanding officials in Vietnam for well over a year. Nixon, even prior to Watergate was the main culprit in yet another crime, in this case a crime of humanity, one that could have led to his impeachment. In hindsight it is now apparent that the President initiated the corruptive actions against the trials of those found guilty at My Lai – so that no US solider would be convicted of War Crimes (, 2010).

Finally, we reach the crown Jewel of Nixon’s presidency; Watergate. Just as Clinton is associated with Lewinsky, Kennedy with Oswald, Lincoln with Slavery, Obama with Bin Laden and Nixon with Watergate. Nixon in his second term became ruthless with his domestic opponents, he withheld grants and funding appropriated by congress, he often sought to withhold information from congress; Nixon was denied an injunction to prevent the publication of the Pentagon Papers and then later during the Watergate crisis, was forced to release tapes of recording from the White House (Mervin, 1992, p.99). On top of this, he allowed secret missions to spy on his political opponents, this included tapping phones and harassing the liberal brookings institution. This is how the Watergate scandal occurred – initiated by a break-in at the democratic party’s headquarters and followed by a presidential cover up. Eventually bringing to resign in 1974, before he could be prosecuted. The severity of Watergate has been played down in the aftermath of it all, Nixon himself justified it in the worse possible way, that no one in government made financial profit from Watergate (Crowley, 1996, p.215), in this case, Nixon compares his behaviour to previous presidents such as JFK and even, Presidents after him like Clinton. He is very critical of both Executives as he feels Kennedy was just as corrupt during the Bay of Pigs affair. Principally, JFK had not been in effect long enough for anything to take place. The Cuban Missile Crisis was corrupted by Kennedy’s Administration, and the released transcripts were sanitized and passages removed – very similar to what Nixon had done with the Watergate tapes. Clinton, was also a sore topic for Nixon as he had been able to get away with Whitewater. In later years, Nixon felt that he was unfair penalised for Watergate as Clinton was able to evade the repercussions of Whitewater. ‘ Watergate was wrong; Whitewater is wrong. I Paid the price; clinton should pay the price. Our people shouldn’t let this issue go down. They shouldn’t let it sink.’ (Crowley, 1996, p. 219). This was a reference to those who wouldn’t let Nixon forget Watergate and what he had caused. Nixons final comment on Clinton were to have whitewater pursued and Clinton held responsible to what extent was necessary – it would be easy to see how Nixon resented Clinton for his indiscretions, many of which he was able to evade the consquences. Watergate had shattered the liberal consensus, Americans had learned of the covert operations and dirty tricks that their secret warriors had carried out at the height of the Cold War. Following this, the American people had learned about the murderous plots, drug testing, and harrassment of dissesedents that had been carried out in their name. They had been taught a very diluted version of the World. The intelligence investigations forced Americans to face difficult questions regarding the competence of their intelligence agencies, the Executive office of Government, and the tensions between secrecy and democracy. The many inquiries asked them to doubt the decency of Americans they believed to be heroes such as J.Edgar Hoover and John F. Kennedy- and whether their nation truly adhered to it’s professed ideals. It can ultimately be determined that the failures of the American political system-true or false, have undermine trust in the American people.

In conclusion, At the beginning of Nixon’s Presidency it is likely that events in every single Presidency would have added to the suspicion of that Office, Watergate would have had an significant impact on American trust in government. Most Americans are more likely to include factors like Vietnam and Watergate when regarding Nixon as both fit well into the decline of trust, and increasingly negative perceptions of American Political leaders. However, it would be an unfair to put too much emphasis on the incompetence and dishonesty of various presidents and members of congress. Many believed that Ford would restore faith in the Office of President, and trust in the government. Ford was everything Nixon wasn’t: Honest and Open and he received an 71% approval rating shortly after he was sworn into office. – However, in his inaugural address, incoming President Gerald R. Ford declared, “Our long national nightmare is over.” A month later, he granted Richard Nixon a full pardon, by doing this Ford damaged the American optimism, and had shown that he had more loyalty to Nixon and his Party than to the American People. This increased the growing trend of cynicism about the office of the President even after Nixon.


Sexual harrassment of women at the workplace


Sexual harassment of women at workplace is a type of violence against women on the basis of their gender. It violates a woman’s self esteem, self-respect and dignity and takes away her basic human as well as Constitutional rights. Sexual Harassment is not a new phenomenon and speedily changing workplace equations have brought this hidden reality to the surface. Sexual Harassment at the workplace has become ubiquitous in every part of the world and India is no exception to the same.

Like any other sex based crime Sexual harassment of the women is about power relationships, domination and control. It is not what most people commonly tend to think like verbal comments, inappropriate touch or sexual assault. It has myriad ways and forms. Moreover its new forms or variables are being introduced every other day in this dynamic technological era. It may include derogatory looks, gestures, indecent proposals, writings or display of sexually graphic pictures, sms or mms, comments about ones dressings, body or behavior and any other unwelcome or objectionable remark or inappropriate conduct.

The ultimate aim of the makers of the Constitution of India was to have a welfare state and an egalitarian society projecting the aims and aspirations of the people of India. The Preamble, Article 14, Article 15, Article 16, Article 19, Article 21, Directive Principles of State Policy and many other Articles have secured social justice for the women thus preventing sexual crimes.

Before ‘The Sexual Harassment of Women at Workplace (Prevention, Prohibition and Redressal) Act 2013 came into force, legislation such as Indian penal Code,1860, The Code of Criminal Procedure,1973, The Indian Evidence Act,1872 have provided protection to women. Also various international conventions to which India has been a signatory and has ratified have filled up the gap until 2013.

The recent Sexual Harassment Act has its roots in the ghastly rxxe of a community worker Bhawari Devi in rural Rajasthan. This incident and the humiliation that followed made the apathy of the system evident. Several women’s groups filed a Public Interest Litigation in the Supreme Court based on which the Vishakha Guidelines were formulated to prohibit the sexual harassment of women at the workplace. Various other judicial pronouncements also paved a way for the formulation of legislation of 2013.

Sexual Harassment is often about inferiority of women. The victim is often confused, embarrassed or scared. She may be clueless about with whom to share with the experience and whom to confide in. Sexual harassment at the workplace may have serious consequences on the physical and mental well-being of the women. It may also degenerate to their gravest form that is rxxe.

There should be proper grievance mechanism at the workplaces to deal with this issue. Also the accused shall be punished without having any regard to their status or position in at the workplace. There should be committees comprising especially of women members to make the victims feel comfortable. Reporting of The incidents should be encouraged and those who dare to speak up must be protected from the wrath of the employers. The employed women cannot be at the whim and fancy of their male employer. The incidents of Sexual Harassment at the workplace are a stigma on our Constitution. If it is not prevented, our constitutional ideals of gender equality and social justice will never be realized.


Sexual harassment can have a number of serious consequences for both the victim and his or her co-workers. The effects of sexual harassment vary from person to person and are often dependent on the severity and duration of the harassment. For many victims of sexual harassment, the aftermath may be more damaging than the original harassment. Effects can vary from external effects, such as retaliation, backlash, or victim blaming to internal effects, such as depression, anxiety, or feelings of shame and/or betrayal. Depending on the victim’s experience, these effects can vary from mild to severe.

The rationale behind taking this topic for the dissertation is to throw light on the various aspects of the law relating to sexual harassment thereby helping women to achieve their rights better. Also one of the reasons behind choosing this topic for the dissertation is also to make the employer aware of his liability. Lastly our Constitution has granted us certain fundamental rights and it includes gender equality and social justice. There is a strong relationship between these fundamental rights and the prohibition of sexual harassment at the workplace as sexual harassment is a form of power relationship which treats women inferior.


Sexual harassment at the workplace results from the misuse of power and not from sexual attraction. The legal scholars and jurists have emphasized that the instant conduct is objectionable as it does not only interfere with the personal life of the victim but also throws a pall on the victims’ abilities.

The victims of sexual harassment may be both men as well as women. This study particularly aims at the sexual harassment of women at the workplace.

The scope of this study is to pave way for the prevention of sexual harassment at the workplace and to make women aware of their rights and complaint mechanisms. Many women are ignorant about the laws which protect them from this kind of harassment. Also many employers shrug off their responsibility to help fight sexual harassment at the workplace. This study aims to discuss the constitutional provisions as well as legislation and employers liability in eradicating sexual harassment at the workplace.


The law to check sexual harassment at workplace which prescribes strict punishment, including termination of service, for the the guilty and similar penalties in case of a frivolous complaint has come into effect from Monday.

The women and child development (WCD) ministry had come under attack for delay in implementing the Sexual Harassment of Women at Workplace (Prevention, Prohibition and Redressal) Act, 2013 which was brought in after the outrage over the December 16 gang rxxe case, despite the fact that it had received Presidential assent on April 22, 2013. Before this Act came into force there was no special law for sexual harassment at the workplace. Some legislations like Indian Penal Code, Criminal Procedure Code etc dealt with this problem.

After the horrifying gang rxxe of Bhawari Devi Vishakha guidelines were formulated to fill the gap. In the year 2013 the Act came into force. Thus this study will help to study how the laws have evolved.


Like all other historical manifestations of violence, Sexual Harassment is embedded in the socio economic and political context of power relations. It is produced within class, caste and social relations in which male power dominates. It is a sex based discrimination which is dangerous to the well being of the woman. It imposes less favourable conditions upon them. This research tries to build a link between “Every incident of sexual harassment of women at workplace results in violation of the fundamental rights of women and it is the employer’s liability to protect these fundamental rights”.

Research Methodology

Research is a systematic attempt to push back the bonds of comprehension and seek beyond the horizons of our knowledge, some truth or reality. Since the scope of the study is to establish a link between the fundamental rights and a right against sexual harassment at the workplace. The research Methodology chosen will be doctrinal and will seek to elaborate all aspects and get deep knowledge.

The study material will be collected through library visits , various books, periodicals, articles published etc. The technology like computer Cds etc will also be used to obtain and maintain information. Reliable Internet resources will also be used to a limited extent.

Survey of existing literature

The researcher would like to analyze and survey on the various books available on sexual harassment at the workplace, Indian Constitution and various books on the rights of women and their protection.

Aims and Objectives

The main Aims and Objectives to undertake this research can be listed as follows-

● To outline the relationship between fundamental rights and the right against sexual harassment at the workplace.

● To make women aware that right against sexual harassment at the workplace.

is their fundamental and constitutional right.

● To make women aware of the laws and the policies for sexual harassment at the workplace.

● To highlight the liability of the employer to keep the sexual harassment at the workplace in check as protection of women against the sexual harassment is a constitutional and fundamental right.

● To search solutions for the persisting problem of sexual harassment at the workplace.

● To understand the evolution of laws against sexual harassment at the workplace.

● To study the legal facets in protection of the rights of the women.

● To study the theme of legislations and laws which are enacted to prevent sexual harassment at the workplace


Sexual harassment at the workplace is a serious and ever increasing problem in India. India already has one of the lowest ratios of working women in the world. It would be disastrous if companies, unclear about sexual harassment, take the easy way out by simply rejecting women in favour of men.

It is the liability of the employer to make use of the constitutional articles and the new legislation to protect women against the sexual harassment at the workplace. Sexual harassment in the workplace is one of the most complicated areas of employment law. It is also one of the areas that has recently received the most press. Sexual harassment in the workplace often goes hand-in-hand with other illegal acts, like gender discrimination.


The Research project is divided into the following 10 chapters for better understanding. The chapters are further divided into subpoints so that the material collected and the study done can be compartmentalized into chapters and sub-chapters. This chapterisation will be able to give a better idea and a better insight into the project. The chapters are systematically numbered and placed one after the other.

Chapter – I – Introduction

Though the Constitutional Commitments of the Nation to women were translated through various planning processes, legislations, policies and programs over the last six decades, a situational analysis of social and economic status of women does not reflect satisfactory achievements in any of the important human development indicators. This chapter will highlight the vulnerable group and how the sexual harassment at the workplace speaks to power relationships and victimization than it does to sex itself. Also how sexual harassment is a form of sexual discrimination and subordination.

Chapter – II – Extent and Types of Sexual harassment

This chapter will enumerate the extent of sexual harassment at the workplace specially in India. It will also speak about the types of sexual harassment at the workplace which includes 1) Quid Pro Quo i.e “this for that” which means the employer or the superior at work makes tangible job related consequences such as promises of promotion, higher pay etc. upon obtaining sexual favours from an employee and 2) Hostile Work Environment which means an abusive working environment.

Chapter – III – Analysis of Statistical Data

In this chapter statistical data will be collected from reliable sources. The data will be analyzed and proper conclusions will be arrived at. This chapter will show the numbers and may show the gravity of the problem.

Chapter – IV – Vishakha Guidelines

Till Vishakha guidelines there was no civil or penal laws in India to protect women from sexual harassment at the workplace. The brutal gangrxxe of Bhawari Devi gave rise to Vishakha Guidelines which filled up the vacuum. This chapter will cover up the historical background behind Vishakha guidelines and important features of the same. Vishakha Guidelines began a new era in the legislations for c

Chapter – V – Judicial pronouncements

The issue of sexual harassment at the workplace is such a complex issues that a simple understanding of it is a tedious and tardy process. Therefore the best way to understand it is to see the trends in the history of the precedents of the Courts. The famous cases of Vishakha, Rupan Deol Bajaj, Shehnaz Mudhbalkhal, Medha Kotwal Lele’s Case will be covered in this chapter. Also recent cases of Tarun Tejpal and Justice AK Ganguly will be studied in detail. This chapter will trace the judicial inclination of the decisions.

Chapter – V I – Legal Framework in India-The Constitution

The Constitution of India gives equal protection to men and women. Gender equality is one of the ideals enshrined in our Constitution. The Constitution has even positively discriminated in favor of women. In this chapter various Articles in the Constitution will be discussed which include Art 14, Art 15, Art. 21 and many other Articles which ensure protection to women. The Constitution is the mother of all Laws and hence all other legislations have emanated from this. Thus this chapter will be important as it will cover how Constitutional ideals and Fundamental Rights enshrined in it have given rise to various laws protecting women.

Chapter – VII – Legal framework in India- Criminal, Labour and other laws

The Sexual Harassment of Women at Workplace (Prevention, Prohibition and Redressal) Act, 2013 has come into force in 2013. Before this various other criminal and other laws protected women from sexual harassment at the workplace.

Thus in this chapter all these other laws which have sourced the formation of the Act of 2013 will be discussed in detail. Also how the Constitution and these other laws have aided the formation of the Act of 2013 will be discussed.

Chapter – VIII – The Liability of the Employer

This is one of the important chapters as it will discuss how the Employer must take care to prevent the occurrences of the incidents of sexual harassment at the workplace in his institution. Also it will depict how the Employer can make use of the laws and the Act of 2013 to ensure that the incidents do not occur and if the incidents occur then how does one tackle with it, legally and otherwise.

The Employer should create a healthy environment at the workplace and the accused should be made subject to the laws irrespective of their positions in the institutions.

Chapter – IX – An Analysis of the Act

In this chapter, The Sexual Harassment of the Women at the Workplace (Prevention, Prohibition and Redressal ) Act,2013 will be discussed in detail. Its objectives , Comp;aint procedures, Inquiry, compensation, Punishments etc, such features will be enumerated. The Act is the most important tool for battling sexual harassment at the workplace. Thus this chapter will show how this Act can be best used to the benefit of the women at the workplace.

This Act is a result of lot of struggle and wait. This Act should be used in such a manner that it will prevent as well as eradicate sexual harassment at the workplace.

Chapter – X – sexual harassment at the workplace- International Scenario

India has been a signatory and has ratified many international conventions which give special rights and protection to the women. Its obligatory on India’s part to ensure that women are protected equally. In this chapter various international conventions like CEDAW etc will be discussed in detail.

Also this chapter will discuss how these international enactments have acted as a source for the legislations in India.

Chapter –X I – Sexual Harassment at the Workplace prevention policies

This Chapter will enumerate how the prevention policies must be formulated and how the policies must be best used to prevent sexual harassment at the workplace.

Chapter – XII – Conclusion

This chapter will contain conclusions drawn upon the findings of the research. The conclusion is the most important part of the research as it sums up the hwole of the research and gives a good insight into it.

The protection of the rights of the women in India has always been upheld by the Indian Constitution and Law makers. Women are given a place of dignity in all the legislations. Since in India women were suppressed since the ancient times, Legislators took special care to involve and protect women in the mainstream world.

The conclusion at this stage can be derived that women in India are protected by Constitutional and Fundamental rights. The other legislations have their source from the constitution. Thus it is a Constitutional mandate to protect women from the sexual harassment at the workplace.

It is the duty and responsibility of the employer to uphold the rights of the women in his or her institution. Also the recent Act of 2013 must be implemented properly.

Chapter – XIII – Suggestions

This chapter will contain the suggestions for the victims as well as the employer. It will also contain suggestion for prevention policies and duties of the employer. The suggestions will include how one can strike the balance between constitutional rights and rights of women.


Structure and issues of race within the international system/relations

“The problem of the twentieth century is the problem of the color line.” (Du Bois, n.d.)

Race has been at the epicenter of everything and it propagated throughout centuries in several forms; forms such as economics, geography, education, health and also, socio-politics. This essay discusses and explains the structure and issues of race within the international system/relations; its evolution and development, how it impacts nations and its populations, and nonetheless the elements of race and colonialism in structures of power; followed by the formation of the successful and long-lasting Eurocentric modern capitalism, which is still present in society and acts as a pattern of global hegemon (LeMelle, 1972).

As a definition of a grouping of humans by analyzing their characteristics, either physical or ethnic (, 2018), or a contribution to and a product of stratification (LeMelle, 1972), race has conditioned and influenced many people on the globe, including its governance and leadership. From a socio-constructed conception (, 2018) to a major and predominant constraint in the global order and politics, the ‘race’ denotation itself evolved, building a hierarchy between civilians and nations across the world: White vs Black, Asian and other ethnic groups (BAME). This division led to a different approach of how human beings perceived themselves, strengthening aspects such as levels of development, civilization values, history, religion, culture and traditions, physical features, garments and mainly, color (Jacques, 2003).

Race portrayed and still portrays a significant role in the world order; With its hierarchy status more than solidified – claiming whites as the dominant class and non-whites as the subordinates-, it easily breads racism, discrimination, inequality, and conflict too, perpetuating the ideology of a ‘White Man’s World’ (LeMelle, 1972).

This expression was implemented and widely spread by Europeans with the intent to classify and divide populations according to their ethnicity and backgrounds. With voyages of discovery, colonialism, slavery, and imperialism perceived as great sources of income and prosperity, it became easier for Europeans to strive with their sense of white supremacy and go beyond borders to achieve these hateful and money-driven causes (LeMelle, 1972). Even though, colonialism and slavery are over per se the disparity amongst people, in modern society, is overwhelmingly large (Nkrumah, 1965); race is a structure that conditions and influences the power and actions of actors in the international realm and, in fact, remains beneficial for the Transatlantic couple, the EU and the US. It is then obvious that South American, Asian and African civilizations were reduced solely to their post-colonial and inferior identities and that the conception of a modern and civilized Europe still lingers powerful and wealthy, alienating others from their participation in historical, cultural and financial donations onto the international system (SHILLIAM, 2011).

So how can this term have a credible structure of correlation and such an effect on the international system as we know it? The three antecedents, mentioned priorly, generated a meaningful advantage to the Transatlantic couple in regards to the rest of the globe – Big decision makers with IGOs such as UN, WTO, IMF, NATO or World Bank; leaders of renown institutions such as banks, universities and hospitals; predominant winners of warfare in events like WWI, WII and Cold War; huge influencers in aspects of culture, law, democracy, science, technology, engineering, religion and immigration and responsible for the rise of capitalism and the role on globalization too. The Transatlantic couple is then easily seen as the global hegemon and the face of the international system without any accountability that their strength and mighty development was built on the back and discreditation of the BAME population ().

What also perpetuates widely the state of devaluation that the non-white nations currently find themselves in is the lack of international opportunity and mobility, poverty and debt crisis, uneven development rates with a rapid population growth to a bad wealth distribution, disproportionate citizenship status, high migration flow (LeMelle,1972), neo-colonialism and dependency on Western states, unbalanced of life chances and success by race and by state/region, and a white privileged global society.


Effects the murder of Stephen Lawrence on policing procedures: custom essay help

This essay will analyse the effects the murder of Stephen Lawrence, which lead to the Macpherson report had on changes in police procedures and policy; especially concerning ethnic communities. The report itself includes seventy proposals of recommendation to tackle racism in the police force; with the race relations legislation being an important policy to improving procedures as well as an investigation into the Metropolitan police force for institutional racism and the failures regarding procedure surrounding the Stephen Lawrence case (The Guardian, 1999).

The murder of eighteen-year-old Stephen Lawrence occurred 22nd April 1993 where the young man was stabbed resulting in his death; although, it was not until January 2012 that two individuals were found guilty of his murder (BBC, 2018). The Macpherson report that followed the murder outlined changes in practice this included the “abolishment of the double jeopardy rule”; before this law was abolished an individual could not be tried again for a crime they had previously been found not guilty for, this was a vital change in policy as it led to the conviction of the individuals found guilty of Stephen Lawrence’s murder (The Guardian, 2013). This proposes a positive effect on policing procedures as cases succeeding the Stephen Lawrence case may have not achieved a conviction had the double jeopardy rule not of been abolished. This is evident in the ‘Babes in The Woods’ murder as this change in policy had a positive effect on policing procedures as the police were able to use new forensic evidence thirty-two years later to convict the murderer of the two young victims (BBC, 2018).

Bowling and Phillips (2002, cited in Newburn, 2017, p.854) suggested that the recommendations that were outlined in the Macpherson report led “to the most extensive programme of reform in the history of the relationship between the police and ethnic minority communities.” This suggests a positive effect of the Macpherson report as due to some of the changes in policy and police procedures actioned by the recommendations outlined has meant that the police have begun to regain the trust of ethnic minority communities; which will support police practice in the future.

The 2009 Home Affairs committee report written ten years after the Macpherson publication highlights if and how the seventy improvement proposals outlined in the report had been met at time of publication; the Home Affairs report highlighted that Dwayne Brooks suggested an important area for progression was the “introduction of appropriately trained family liason officers in critical incident” (Parliament, 2009). The report highlights that this key improvement in police procedure surrounding appropriate training for family liason officers to deal with critical incidents has improved family liason officer’s ability to be able to ‘maintain relationships with families’, whilst obtaining necessary evidence and improving confidence in the police within the black community (Parliament, 2009). Thus, suggesting that this change in policing procedure and policy, due to the Macpherson report, has had a positive effect, especially within the ethnic community. The report also highlights that this change in policing procedure and policy has positively affected homicide detection rates which the report indicated at 90%, which is “the highest of any large city in the world” (Parliament,2009).

However, there are still issues surrounding police procedures especially within ethnic minority communities, in which the Macpherson report improvements may not have positively been actioned. This can be seen in the stop and search rates; policing statistics published by the government for the time period of 2016/2017 suggests that the ratio for white individuals stopped and searched was 4:1000 whereas the ratio for black individuals was 29:1000 (Gov, 2018). Thus, suggesting that police are stopping more black individuals that white, which may still suggest an element of institutional racism in the way police conduct this procedure.

The prison reform trust also highlights an over representation of Black minority ethnic groups (BMES) in prisons with the supporting evidence of the Lammy review, the reform trust suggests that there is a clear correlation between the ethnicity of an individual and custodial sentences being issued (Prison reform trust, 2019). Thus, suggesting discrimination in police procedures and the court system. Therefore, this may suggest that the Macpherson reports improvements have not positively been actioned in some elements of the criminal justice system.

In conclusion, where the recommendations have been put into place and are actively being worked upon, the Macpherson report has provided positive effects on police procedures and policy. However, evidence such as the stop and search statistics shows that there are still issues in policing procedures and policy that need to be addressed.


Boohoo marketing and communication (PESTEL, SWOT)

This report will focus on a three-year Marketing Strategy Plan for Boohoo and a one-year Communication Plan to explore what improvement Boohoo can make across their shopping experience, their site and their social media to drive sales in the UK market.


Primary research

For my primary research I made a questionnaire on Survey Monkey to find out customer experience with brand Boohoo. The sample of people used in the primary research ranged from the ages of 16 – 25 who are the main consumers Boohoo targets. Secondary research was carried out through websites such as WGSN.

Brand History

Boohoo is a UK online fashion retailer. It was founded in 2006 by Mahmud Kamani and Carol Kane. The brand specifies in its own brand fashion clothing selling over 36,000 products, including accessories, clothing, footwear and health and beauty. Boohoo also run BoohooMAN, NastyGal and PrettyLittleThing and are all targeted at 16-24 year olds.

Mission statement

Here at boohoo we are very proud of our brand and what we have achieved. Day to day we live by four key values that help us to continue to succeed and are at the heart of everything we do. This is our PACT, the values that seal the deal for boohoo..

The key issues boohoo face are that there are many retailers out there are all very similar including Miss Guided and Pretty Little Thing.

Maco/micro trends

Macro Trends

Political factors

Wage legislation – minimum wage and overtime
Work week regulations in retail
Product labelling
Taxation – tax rates and incentives
Mandatory employee benefits

Economic factors

Exchange rates
Labour costs
Economic growth rate
Unemployment rate
Interest rates
Inflation rates
Education level in the economy

Social factors

Class structure/hierarchy
Power structure in the society
Leisure interests
Attitudes (health, environmental consciousness)
Demographics and skill level of the population

Technological factors

Recent technological developments by Boohoo competitors
Impact on cost structure in Retail industry
Rate of technological diffusion
Technology’s impact on product offering

Environmental factors

Climate change
Air and water pollution regulation in Retail Industry
Waste management in consumer services sector

Legal factors

Data protection
Employment law
Health and safety law
Discrimination law



Strong distribution network – Boohoo have built a trustworthy distribution network which is able to reach most of its potential market
New markets – Boohoo has been entering new markets and making success of them such as BoohooMAN and PrettyLittleThing. The development has helped Boohoo build a new revenue.
Good returns on capital expenditure – Boohoo have made good returns on capital expenditure by making new revenue streams.
Reliable suppliers – Boohoo has a strong reliable supplier of raw material therefore enabling the company to overcome any supply chain holdups


Investments in new technologies – The scale of expansion and geographies that Boohoo are planning to expand into, they will need to put more money into technology as the investment In technologies is not at balance with the vision of the company.
The profitability ratio and net contribution % of Boohoo are below the industry average.
Global competition such as Missguided, Topshop, Asos and H&M
No flagship stores


Opening up of new markets because of government agreement – the approval of new technology standard and government free trade agreement has provided Boohoo an opportunity to enter a new emerging market
Lower inflation rate – the low inflation rate brings more stability in the market and enable credit at lower interest to Boohoo customers
New technology gives Boohoo an opportunity to maintain its loyal customers with great service and lure new customers through other value positioned plans.
Continue using celebrity endorsements
Creating an online chat on their website that allows customers to receive 24-hour help.


Poor quality products compared to Boohoo competitors
Increased competition within the industry
Technological developments by competitors – new technological developments by competitors pose a threat towards Boohoo as customers attracted to this new technology can be lost to competitors which will decrease Boohoo overall market share.

Competitor analysis

The retail industry face a strong competition as Boohoo have many competitors such as ASOS, Missguided, New Look and H&M. A way that most consumers experiment all different trends with different brands is to choose cheaper retailers which in this case would be Boohoo.


Why do employees leave organisations? / Can a business force an employee to retire?: college essay help

Some of the reasons employees leave organisations are due to poor culture, poor work life balance, need for greater flexibility, poor management vs employee relationship, lack of communication, poor pay, no room for growth and poor working conditions, However, employees will stay with an organisation if there is a good work life balance, a sense of reward, good benefits packages, competitive salaries, fun environment to work, recognition and a financial need.

Peter Cheese, chief executive of the Chartered Institute of Personnel and Development, said: “It definitely takes time to get a new employee up to speed. It depends on the nature of the job; on one end of the spectrum, somewhere like McDonald’s can get new employees up to speed very quickly. On the other hand, there is a business development person in a professional development organisation where you’ve got to spend quite some time understanding the network and building connections to the client base and so forth, then three to six months is probably fairly typical” (Replacing Staff Cost)

It’s important to understand the reasons why employees wish to leave an organisation as there are costs associated with a dysfunctional employee turnover, these costs may not only be financial but can also be Intrinsic and reputational. Intrinsic knowledge loss is difficult to measure, but would be a loss either way, if an employee brought clients to the business or has built fantastic relationship with clients whilst employed, that employee leaving the business would be detrimental. Reputational can cost the business immensely, if an organisation doesn’t treat their employees or ex-employees well and this becomes knowledgeable, it can be hard for the organisation to attract good talent and clients. According to an article in the telegraph (Financial) Financial costs in replacing staff can cost up to £4billion a year, that’s an average of £30k per person.

One method for retaining talent in an organisation is to ensure there is an open and inclusive culture which promotes communication. One way of doing this could be to ensure language used by the senior team inclusive of HR is as Lucy Adams say “human”. (Human) Adams surmises that often when we use jargon the company can end up creating a distance between themselves and the employee; whereas if we converse in a human approach using everyday language, we have the opportunity to create a more cohesive working team, where employees can feel involved in dialogue which could leader to greater engagement but encouraging a more human approach.

Of course, “jargon” has come about due to both a cultural need for some departments such as HR to retain a professional and non-committal distance. For example, if HR as an advisory agent apologised directly for offence caused to an employee, there could be ramifications later through allegations of admittance in sensitive situations.

Therefore, it’s vital that when encouraging engagement though treating employees as humans and not numbers that due consideration is provided to the wider ramifications of a change in language and method of communication should also be considered such as platform, surveys and daily briefings.

Another method employed by businesses is the approach of ensuring employees receive a greater work life balance. This can be done through several mediums:

Flexible Working (statutory and company culture)
Seeing the individual a whole
Introduction of TOIL – for additional hours worked
Implementing training for time management, According to HR Review (Poor TM) its “One of the biggest causes of stress in the workplace is poor time management”
Increased leave benefits (holiday, paternity, maternity) Maternity for example According to Glass door (Women) Accenture pay, 9 months full pay

Such promotions can clearly be open to abuse and this can be a possible downside.


Under the Equality Act 2010 [Equ Act2010], The Advisory, Conciliation and Arbitration Service (Acas) stated that when managing retirement [Retirement], older workers can voluntarily retire at a time they choose and draw any occupational pension they are entitled to. However, employers cannot force employees to retire or set a retirement age unless it can be objectively justified as what the law terms ‘a proportionate means of achieving a legitimate aim – [Please see appendix 8], Acas have said that a direct question such as ‘when are you retiring’ should be avoiding, instead open ended questions such as ‘where they see them selves in a few years and there contribution to the organisation, this could be done during a performance development review. An employee can change their mind at anytime about retiring until they have handed in their formal notice

An employer cannot compulsorily retire an employee, as this would leave the employer open to a complaint of unfair dismissal.When managing a dismissal, ACAS states [Dismissal 2019 ] its always best to try and resolve any issues informally first.

According the Employment Rights Act 1996 [ERA 1996] employees have the right not to be unfairly dismissed, companies need to set out clear rules and procedures and act consistently when handling disciplinary procedures and to ensure employees and managers understand the procedures and rules.

One of the following reasons along with a fair procedure, an employee can be fairly dismissed; capability (including the inability to perform competently) redundancy, conduct or behaviour, breach of a statutory restriction (such as employing someone illegally) or some other substantial reason (such as a restructure that is not a redundancy).

Before holding a disciplinary hearing, an investigation should be carried out and the employee given any evidence in time to prepare for the meeting, the employee should also be given the opportunity to bring a trade union rep or a colleague, although they can’t answer any questions, they can ask them.

The employee should be given opportunity to share their side of the situation and challenge evidence.

If the disciplinary is based on performance, the employee should be given support and training and an opportunity to improve, Companies should not sack employees for a first offence unless its gross misconduct and a penalty should reflect the seriousness of the act, staff can usually appeal against Verbal, written 1st and final warnings.

If an Employee has been with the company less than two years, they do not have unfair dismissal rights, with exceptions around discrimination and equality.

CIPD tells us that [redundancy CIPD] redundancy is a special form of dismissal which happens when an employer needs to reduce the size of its workforce. An employee is dismissed for redundancy if the following conditions are satisfied:

the employer has ceased, or intends to cease, continuing the business, or
the requirements for employees to perform work of a specific type, or to conduct it at the location in which they are employed, has ceased or diminished, or is expected to do so.

If there is a genuine redundancy, employers that follow the correct procedure will be liable for:

a redundancy payment, and
notice period payment.

Employers don’t follow the correct procedure may be liable for unfair dismissal claims or protective awards. Redundancy legislation is complex and is covered by statute and case law, with both determining employers’ obligations and employees’ rights.


Should we fight against tort reform?: essay help site:edu

The controversy around tort reform has turned into a two-sided debate between citizens and corporates. With the examination of various cases in recent years, it is clear that the effects of tort reform have proven to be negative for both sides. This issue continues to exist today, as public relations and legislature show a clear difference in opinion. In the event that tort reform occurs, victims and plaintiffs will be prevented from being fully replenished from the harm and negativity that they suffered, making this process of the civil justice system unfair.

In the justice system, there are two forms of law: criminal law, and civil law. The most well known form of law is probably criminal law. Criminal law is where the government (prosecutor) fights a defendant regarding a crime that may or may not have been committed. Contrary to this, civil law has a plaintiff and a defendant who fight over a tort. As stated in the dictionary, a tort is “a wrongful act or an infringement of a right (other than under contract) leading to civil legal liability”. In hindsence, a tort correlates to that of a crime in a criminal case.

Tort reform refers to the passing legislature or when a court issues a ruling that limits in some way the rights of an injured person to seek compensation from the person who caused the accident (“The Problems…Reform”). Tort reform also includes subtopics such as public relations campaign, caps on damages, judicial elections, and mandatory arbitration. Lawmakers across the United States have been heavily involved with tort reform since the 1950s, and it has only grown in popularity since then. Ex-president George W. Bush urged Congress to make reform in 2005 and brought tort reform to the table like no other president.

The damages that are often referred to in civil lawsuits are economic damages and non-economic damages. An economic damage is any cost that is a result of the defendant’s actions. For example, medical bills or money to repair things. Non-economic damages refer to emotional stress, post-traumatic stress disorder, and other impacts not related to money. A cap on damages “limits the amount of non-economic damage compensation that can be awarded to a plaintiff” (US Legal Inc).

Caps on damages are the most common practice of tort reform. In New Mexico, Susan Seibert says that she was hospitalized for more than nine months because of a doctor messing up during her gynecological procedure. After suing, she was supposed to receive $2.6 million in damages, which was then reduced to $600,000 because of a cap on damages. Seibert still suffers from excessive amounts of debt as a result of not being given the proper amount of money that she deserved. Caps on damages highly impacts the plaintiffs in a case. As priorly mentioned, plaintiffs sue because they need money in order to fully recover from the hardship in which they endured as a result of the defendants actions.

A type of tort reform that is not as well known is specialized medical courts. Currently, all medical malpractice courts have juries that have little to no background regarding medical information. This has been working very well because it means that an unbiased verdict is decided. However, the organization Common Good is trying to pass the creation of special medical courts. In this, the jury and judge will be trained medical professionals who will deeply evaluate the case. Advocates for this court feel that people will be better compensated for what they really deserve. However, the majority of the opinions on this court are against the idea of ths. The most concluded opinion of those who oppose this new system believe that it would put the patients at a disadvantage. It is more likely that the trained medical judges and juries will side with the doctor/surgeon/defendant than siding with the plaintiff. They believe that the most fair and efficient way to judge medical malpractice cases would be to use the existing civil justice system. One of the most famous medical malpractice cases involving Dana Carvey was ended in a settlement, but could have been much worse for Carvery if the judge and jury had been medical professionals. Carvey was receiving a double bypass and had a surgeon that operated on the wrong artery. In the event that this case went to a medical court, it is easily predictable that the verdict would have been that the doctor made a “just” mistake. The jury would have said that this mistake was nothing that was easily preventable, and it was something that could have been assumed as a risk going into the surgery. However, this case did not go to court, rather, it ended in a $7.5 million settlement.

Another form of tort reform is mandatory arbitration. Mandatory arbitration, as said in the article, “Mandatory Arbitration Agreements in Employment Contracts”, is “a contract clause that prevents a conflict from going to a judicial court”. This has affected many employers who have experienced sexual harassment, stealing of wages, racial discrimination, and more. Often times, “employees signed so-called mandatory arbitration agreements that are the new normal in American workplaces” (Campbell). These agreements are found under stacks of thousands of papers that have to be signed throughout the hiring process. The manager will force the new employee to sign these documents. Most of the time, these documents will not be called “Mandatory Arbitration Agreement”, rather, they could be called legalese names like “Alternative Dispute Resolution Agreement” (Campbell). “Between employee and employer, this means that any conflict must be solved through arbitration” (“Mandatory Arbitration Agreements in Employment Contracts”). When a conflict is solved through arbitration, “neutral arbiters” go through the evidence that the company/client present, and those arbiters decide what they think the just outcome should be, whether that is money, loss of a job, and more. This decision is known to be called the arbitration award.

A place where the effects of mandatory arbitration can be seen is the #MeToo movement. With the rise of this moment, more and more women have been coming out about their experiences with sexual harassment in the workplace. These women are then encouraged to fight against their harasser. Ultimately, many of these woman find out that they are not allowed to sue because of the mandatory arbitration agreements that they signed during the process of being hired into the job. In fact, Debra S. Katz wrote an article for The Washington Post called “30 million women can’t sue their employer over harassment”, proving how widespread the issue is. Evidently, this form of tort reform ruins the lives of over 30 million people annually. These woman could be suffering from post traumatic stress disorder, truma, and more from their experiences with sexual harassment. In the event that this form of tort reform is not banished, more and more woman will be suffering from mandatory arbitration.

By limiting the amount of money and reparations that a defendant will have to pay a plaintiff, tort reforms benefit major corporations. However, on the opposite side of this, the plaintiff suffers extremely from these limitations. In many cases, a plaintiff will be suing because they need the money to recover fully from the event that took place. For example, in the documentary “Hot Coffee”, many tort cases were discussed. Throughout the cases, there were occurrences in which the plaintiff suffered from the current regulations regarding caps, mandatory arbitration, and more. Tort reform would further exacerbate the negatives of modern day civil court cases.

Groups such as the American Tort Reform Association (ATRA) and Citizens Against Law Abuse (CALA) have also been active in fighting for tort reform. Along with these suspicions, other issues with tort reform such as the fairness behind caps on damages have exposed inequity in the civil justice system. Supporters of tort reform have been rallying for a common goal: to limit the ability of citizens to take advantage of the litigation process to protect businesses and companies.

Victims and plaintiffs will be prevented from receiving the reparations that they deserve as a result of hardship, negativity, and suffrage from the defendant’s actions in the event that tort reform occurs. Caps on damages, special medical malpractice courts, and mandatory arbitration are just a few of the negative impacts that tort reform will allow. Victims and plaintiffs sue the defendant to be able to receive the full compensation that they deserve. It is hard enough as it is to fight against these major corporations, and tort reform would further exacerbate that. Americans have the right to a fair trial, and the implication of tort reform would take away that constitutionally given right. It is essential that Americans continue to fight against tort reform, as you never know if you may become the next victim.


Chinese suppression of Hong Kong

Would you fight for democracy? Its core principles are the beating heart of our society: providing us with representation, civil rights and freedom — empowering our nation to be just and egalitarian. However, whilst we cherish our flourishing democracy, we have blatantly ignored one of the most portentous democratic crises of our time. The protests in Hong Kong. Sparked by a proposed bill allowing extradition to mainland China, the protests have ignited the city’s desire for freedom, democracy and autonomy; and they have blazed into a broad pro-democracy movement, opposing Beijing’s callous and covert campaign to suppress legal rights in Hong Kong. But the spontaneity fueling these protests is fizzling out, as minor concessions fracture the leaderless movement. Without external assistance, this revolutionary campaign could come to nothing. Now, we, the West, must support protesters to fulfill our legal and moral obligations, and to safeguard other societies from the oppression Hong Kongers are suffering. The Chinese suppression of Hong Kong must be stopped.

Of all China’s crimes, its flagrant disregard for Hong Kong’s constitution is the most alarming. When Hong Kong was returned to China in 1997, the British and Chinese governments signed the Sino-Brititish Joint Declaration, allowing Hong Kong “a high degree of autonomy, except in foreign and defence affairs” until 2047. This is allegedly achieved through the “one country, two systems” model, currently implemented in Hong Kong. Nevertheless, the Chinese government — especially since Xi Jinpin seized power in 2013 — is relentlessly continuing to erode legal rights in our former colony. For instance, in 2016, four pro-democracy lawmakers — despite being democratically elected — were disqualified from office. Amid the controversy surrounding the ruling lurked Beijing, using its invisible hand to crush the opposition posed by the lawmakers. However, it is China’s perversion of Hong Kong’s constitution, the Basic Law, that has the most pronounced and crippling effect upon the city. The Basic Law requires Hong Kong’s leader to be chosen “by universal suffrage upon nomination by a broadly representative nominating committee”; but this is strikingly disparate to reality. Less than seven percent of the electoral register are allowed to vote for representatives in the Election Committee — who actually choose Hong Kong’s leader — and no elections are held for vast swathes of seats, which are thus dominated by pro-Beijing officials. Is this really “universal suffrage”? Or a “broadly representative” committee? This “pseudo-democracy” is unquestionably a blatant violation of our agreement with China. If we continue to ignore the subversion of the fundamental constitution holding Hong Kong together, China’s grasp over a supposedly “autonomous” city will only strengthen. It is our legal duty to hold Beijing to account for these heinous contraventions of both Hong Kong’s constitution and the Joint Declaration — which China purports to uphold. Such despicable and brazen actions, whatever the pretence, cannot be allowed to continue.

The encroachment of their fundamental human rights is yet another travesty. Over the past few years, the Chinese government has been furtively extending its control over Hong Kong. Once, Hong Kongers enjoyed numerous freedoms and rights; now, they silently suffer. Beijing has an increasingly pervasive presence in Hong Kong, and, emboldened by a lack of opposition, it is beginning to repress anti-chinese views. For example, five booksellers, associated with one Hong Kong publishing house, disappeared in late 2015. The reason? The publishing house was printing a book — which is legal in Hong Kong — regarding the love-life of the Chinese president Xi Jinpin. None of the five men were guilty; all five men later appeared in custody in mainland China. One man even confessed on state television, obviously under duress, to an obscure crime he “committed” over a decade ago. This has cast a climate of paranoia over the city, which is already forcing artists to self-censor for fear of Chinese retaliation; if left unchecked, this erosion of free speech and expression will only worsen. Hong Kongers now live with uncertainty as to whether their views are “right” or “wrong”; is this morally acceptable to us? Such obvious infringements of rights to free speech are clear contraventions of the core human rights of people in Hong Kong. Furthermore, this crisis has escalated with the protests, entangling violence in the political confrontations. Police have indiscriminately used force to suppress both peaceful and violent protesters, with Amnesty International reporting “Hongkongers’ human rights situation has violations on almost every front”. The Chinese government is certainly behind the police’s ruthless response to protesters, manipulating its pawns in Hong Kong to quell dissent. This use of force cannot be tolerated; it is a barefaced oppression of a people who simply desire freedom, rights and democracy and it contradicts every principle that our society is founded upon. If we continue abdicating responsibility for holding Beijing to account, who knows how far this crisis will deteriorate? Beijing’s oppression of Hong Kongers’ human rights will not disappear. Britain — as a UN member, former sovereignty of Hong Kong and advocate for human rights — must make a stand with the protesters, who embody the principles of our country in its former colony.

Moreover, if we do not respond to these atrocities, tyrants elsewhere will only be emboldened to further strengthen their regimes. Oligarchs, autocrats and dictators are prevalent in our world today, with millions of people oppressed by totalitarian states. For instance, in India, the Hindu nationalist government, headed by Narendra Modi, unequivocally tyrannize the people of Kashmir: severing connections to the internet, unlawfully detaining thousands of people and reportedly torturing dissidents. The sheer depravity of these atrocities is abhorrent. And the West’s reaction to these barbarities? We have lauded and extolled Modi as, in the words then-president Barack Obama, “India’s reformer in chief”, apathetic to the outrages enacted by his government. This exemplifies our seeming lack of concern for other authoritarian regimes around the world: from our passivity towards the Saudi Arabian royal family’s oppressive oligarchy to our unconcern about the devilish dictatorship of President Erdoğan in Turkey. Our hypocrisy is irrefutable; this needs to change. The struggle in Hong Kong is a critical turning point in our battle against such totalitarian states. If we remain complacent, China will thwart the pro-democracy movement and Beijing will continue to subjugate Hong Kong unabashed. Consequently, tyrants worldwide will be emboldened to tighten their iron fists, furthering the repression of their peoples. But, if we support the protesters, we can institute a true democracy in Hong Kong. Thus, we will set a precedent for future democracies facing such turbulent struggles in totalitarian states, establishing an enduring stance for Western democracies to defend. But to achieve this, we must act decisively and immediately to politically pressure Beijing to make concessions, in order to create a truly autonomous Hong Kong.

Of course, the Chinese government is trying to excuse their actions. They claim to be merely maintaining order in a city of their country, while Western powers fuel protests in Hong Kong. Such fabrications from Chinese spin-doctors are obviously propaganda. There is absolutely no evidence to corroborate their claim of “foreign agents” sparking violence in Hong Kong. And, whilst some protesters are employing aggressive tactics, their actions are justified: peaceful protests in the past, such as the Umbrella Movement of 2014, yielded no meaningful change. Protesters are being forced to violence by Beijing, who are stubborn to propose any meaningful reforms.

Now, we face a decision, one which will have profound and far-reaching repercussions for all of humanity. Do we ignore the egregious crimes of the Chinese government, and in our complacency embolden tyrants worldwide? Or do we fight? Hong Kongers are enduring restricted freedoms, persecution and a perversion of their constitution; we must oppose this oppression resolutely. Is it our duty to support the protesters? Or, is democracy not worth fighting for?


Occurrence and prevalence of zoonoses in urban wildlife: essay help online free

A zoonosis is a disease that can be transmitted from animals to humans. Zoonoses in companion animals are known and described extensively. A lot of research has already been done, Rijks et al (2015) for example lists the 15 diseases of prime public health relevance, economical importance or both (Rijks(1)). Sterneberg-van der Maaten et al (2015) composed a list of the 15 priority zoonotic pathogens, which includes the rabies virus, Echinococcus granulosus, Toxocara canis/cati and Bartonella henselae (Sterneberg-van der Maaten(2)).

Although the research is extensive the knowledge about zoonoses and hygiene instruction of owners, health professionals and other related professions, like pet shop employees, is low. According to Van Dam et al (2016) (3)77% of the pet shop employees does not know what a zoonosis is and just 40% of the pet shops has a protocol for hygiene and disease prevention. 27% of the pet shops and asylums give instruction to their clients about zoonoses. It may therefore be assumed that the majority of the public is unaware of the health risks involving companion animals like cats and dogs. Veterinarians give information about responsible pet ownership and the risks when the pet owner visits the clinic (Van dam(3), Overgaauw (4)). In other words, dissemination obtained from research has not occurred effectively.

However, urban areas are not only populated with domestic animals. There is also a variety of non- domesticated animals living in close vicinity of domesticated animals and the human population, the so-called the urban wildlife. Urban wildlife is defined as any animal that has not been domesticated or tamed and lives or thrives in an urban environment (freedictionary(5)). Just like companion animals, urban wildlife carries pathogen that are zoonotic, for example Echinococcus multilocularis. This is a parasite that can be transmitted from foxes to humans. Another example is the rabies virus, which is transmitted by hedgehogs and bats. Some zoonotic diseases can be transmitted to humans from different animals. Q-fever occurs in mice, foxes, rabbits and sometimes even in companion animals.

There is little knowledge about the risk factors that influence the transmission of zoonoses in urban areas (Mackenstedt(6)). This is mostly due to the lack of active surveillance of carrier animals. This surveillance requires fieldwork, which is expensive and time-consuming. Often there is no immediate result for public-health authorities. This is why surveillance often is initiated during or after an epidemic (Heyman(7)). Meredith et al (2015) mentioned that due to the unavailability of a reliable serological test, for many species it is not yet know what the contribution is to the transmission to human (Meredith(8)).

The general public living in urban areas is largely unaware of the diseases transmitted from the urban wildlife that is present in their living area (Himsworth(9)), (Heyman(7)), (Dobay(10)), (Meredith(8)). Since all these diseases can also be a risk for the public health and the public may need to be informed of these risks.

The aim of this study is to determine the occurrence and prevalence of zoonoses in urban wildlife. To do this, the ecological structure of an European city will be investigated first, to determine wildlife living in the urban areas. Secondly, an overview of the most common and important zoonoses in companion animals will be discussed. Followed by zoonoses in urban wildlife.

2. Literature review

2.1 Ecological structure of the city

Humans and animals live closely together in cities. Both companion animals and urban wildlife share the environment with humans. Companion animals are important to human society. They perform working roles (dogs for hearing of visually impaired people) and they play a role in human health and childhood development (Day(11)).

A distinction can be made between animals that live in the inner city and animals that live in the outskirts of the city. The animals that live in the majority of the European inner cities are: brown rats, house mice, bats, rabbits and different species of birds. Those living outside of the stone inner city are other species of mice, hedgehogs, foxes and moles (Auke Brouwer(12)). In order to create safe passage for this particular group of animals, ecological structures are created. The structure also includes wet passageways for amphibia and snakes and dry passageways like underground tunnels, special bridges and cattle grids (Spier M(13)).

A disadvantage of human and animals living in close vicinity of each other is the possibility of transmitting diseases (Auke Brouwer(12)). Diseases can be transmitted from animals to humans in different ways. A few examples are: through eating infected food, inhalation of aerosols, via vectors or fecal-oral contact (WUR(14)). The most relevant ways of transmission for this review are: indirect physical contact (e.g. contact with contaminated surface), direct physical contact (touching an infected person or animal), through skin lesions, fecal-oral transmission and airborne transmission (aerosols). In the following section an overview of significant zoonoses of companion animals will be described. This information will enable a comparison with urban wildlife zoonoses later in this review.

2.2 Zoonoses of cats and dogs

There are many animals living in European cities. Both companion animals and urban wildlife. 55- 59% of the Dutch households has one or more companion animals (van Dam(3)). This includes approximately 2 million dogs and 3 million cats (RIVM(15)). In all of Europe live approximately 61 million dogs and 66 million cats. Owning a pet has many advantages, but companion animals are also able to transmit diseases to humans (Day(11)). In the following section significant zoonoses for companion animals will be described.

A. Bartonellosis (cat scratch disease)

Bartonellosis is an infection by Bartonella henselae or B. clarridgeiae. Most infections in cats are thought to be subclinical. If disease does occur, the symptoms are mild and self-limiting, characterized by lethargy, fever, gingivitis, uveitis and nonspecific neurological signs (Weese JS(16)). The seroprevalence in cats is 81% (barmettler(17)).

Humans get infected by scratches or bites and sometimes by infected fleas and ticks. In the vast majority of cases, the infection is also mild and self-limiting. The clinical signs in humans include development of a papule at the site of inoculation, followed by regional lymphadenopathy and mild fever, generalized myalgia and malaise. This usually resolves spontaneously over a period of weeks to months (Weese JS(16)).

Few cases of human bartonella occur in The Netherlands. Based on laboratory diagnosis done by the RIVM, the bacteria causes 2 cases per 100.000 humans each year. However, this could be ten times higher, since the disease is mild and self-limiting most of the time, so most people do not visit a health care professional (RIVM(18)).

B. Leptospirosis

This disease is caused by the bacteria Leptospira interrogans. According to Weese et al (2002) leptospirosis is the most widespread zoonotic disease in the world. The bacteria can infect a wide range of animals (Weese(16)).

Leptospirosis is in dogs and cats a relatively small zoonosis. It is not know exactly how many dogs are infected annually subclinically or asymptomatically, but according to Houwers et al (2009), each year around 10 cases occur in The Netherlands (Houwers(19)). RIVM states that each year 0,2 cases per 100.000 humans occur (RIVM(20)).

Infection in dogs is called Weill’s disease. Clinical signs can be peracute, acute, subacute and chronic. A peracute infection usually results in in sudden death with few clinical signs. Dogs with an acute infection are icteric, have diarrhea, vomit and may experience peripheral vascular collapse. The subacute form is generally manifested as fever, vomiting, anorexia, polydipsia, dehydration and in some cases severe renal disease can develop. Symptoms of a chronical infections are: fever of unknown origin, unexplained renal failure, or hepatic disease and anterior uveitis. The majority of infections in dogs are subclinical or chronic. In cats clinical disease is infrequent (Weese(16)).

According to Barmettler et al (2011), the risk of transmission of Leptospira from dogs to humans is just theoretical. All tested humans were exposed to infected dogs, but all were seronegative to the bacteria (Barmettler(17)).

The same bacteria that causes leptospirosis in dogs is responsible for the disease in rats, namely Leptospira interrogans. This bacteria is considered the most widespread zoonotic pathogen in the world and rats are the most common source of human infection, especially in urban areas (Himsworth(21)). According to the author, the bacteria asymptomatically colonizes the rat kidney and the rats shed the bacteria via the urine (Himsworth(9)). Bacteria can survive outside the rats for some time, especially in a warm and humid environment (RIVM(20)).

People become infected through contact with urine, or through contact with contaminated soil or water (Himsworth (21)). The Leptospira-bacteria can enter the body via the mucous or open wounds (Oomen(22)). The symptoms and severity of disease can be highly variable, ranging from asymptomatic to sepsis and death. Common complaints are: headache, nausea, myalgia and vomiting. Moreover, neurologic, cardiac, respiratory, ocular and gastrointestinal manifestations can occur (Weese JS(16)).

The prevalence in rats differs between cities and even between locations in the same city. Himsworth (2013) states that in Vancouver 11% of the tested rats was positive for Leptospira (Himsworth(9)). Another study by Easterbrook (2007) found 65,3% of all tested rats in Baltimore to be positive for the bacteria (Easterbrook(23)). Krojgaard (2009) found a prevalence between 48% and 89% in different location in Copenhagen (Krojgaard(24)).

C. Dermatophytosis (ringworm)

Dermatophytosis is a fungal dermatologic disease, caused by Microsporum spp. or Trichophyton spp. It causes disease in a variety of animals (Weese(16)). According to Kraemer (2012), the dermatophytes that occur in rabbits are Trichophyton mentagrophytes and Microsporum canis. Although the former is more common(Kraemer(25)).

Dermatophytes live in keratin layers of the skin and cause ringworm. They depend on human or animal infection for survival. Infection occurs through direct contact between dermatophyte arthrospores and keratinocytes/hairs. Transmission through indirect contact also occurs, for example through toiletries, furniture or clothes (Donnelly(26), RIVM(18)). Animals (especially cats) can transmit M. canis infection while remaining asymptomatic (Weese JS(16)).

The symptoms in both animals and humans can vary from mild or subclinical to severe lesions similar to pemphigus foliaceus (itching, alopecia and blistering). The skin lesions develop 1-3 weeks after infection(Weese JS). Healthy, intact skin cannot be infected, but only mild damage is required to make the skin susceptible to infection. No living tissue is invaded, only the keratinized stratum corneum is colonized. However, the fungus does induce an allergic and inflammatory eczematous response in the host (Donelly(26), RIVM(18)).

Dermatophytosis is not commonly occurring in humans. RIVM states that each year, 3000 per 100.000 humans get infected. Children between the age of 4 and 7 are the most susceptible to the fungal infection. In cats and dogs, the prevalence of M. canis is much higher: 23,3% according to Seebacher(27). The prevalence in rabbits is 3.3% (d’Ovidio(28)).

D. Echinococcosis

Echinococcus granulosus can be transmitted from dogs to humans. Dogs are the definitive hosts, while herbivores or humans are the intermediate hosts. Dogs can become infected by eating infected organs, for example from sheep, pigs and cattle (RIVM(29)) . The intermediate hosts develop a hydatid cyst with protoscoleces after ingesting eggs produced and excreted by definitive hosts. The protoscoleces evaginate in the small intestine and attach there(MacPherson(30)).

In most parts of Europe, Echinococcus granulosus occurs occasionally. However, in Spain, Italy, Greece, Romania and Bulgaria the bacteria is highly endemic.

Animals, either as definitive or as intermediate hosts, rarely show symptoms.

Humans, on the other hand, can show symptoms, depending on the size and site of the cyst and the growth rate. The disease can become life-threatening if a cyst in lungs or liver bursts. In that case a possible complication is an anaphylactic shock (RIVM(29)).

In the Netherlands, echinoccosis rarely occurs in humans. Between 1978 and 1991, 191 new patients were diagnosed, but it is not known how many of these were new cases. The risk of infection is higher in the case of bad hygiene and living closely together with dogs (RIVM(29)). In a study done by Fotiou et al (2012) the prevalence of Echinococcus granulosus is 1,1% (Fotiou(31)). The prevalence in dogs is much higher: 10,6% according to Barmettler et al (17).

E. Toxocariasis

Toxocariasis is caused by Toxocara canis or Toxocara cati. Toxocara is present in the intestine of 32% of all tested dogs, 39% of tested cats and 16%-26% of tested red foxes (Luty(32), LETKOVÁ(33)). In dogs younger than 6 weeks the prevalence can be up to 80% (Kantere) and in kittens of 4-6 months old it can be 64% (Luty(32)). The host becomes infected by swallowing the parasites embryonated eggs (Kantere(34)).

Dogs and red foxes are the definitive host of T. canis, cats of T. cati (Luty(32)). Humans are paratenic hosts. After ingestion, the larvae hatch in the intestine and migrate all over the body via blood vessels (visceral larva migrans). In young animals the migrations occurs via the lungs and trachea. After swallowing, the larvae mature in the intestinal tract.

In paratenic hosts and adult dogs that have some degree of acquired immunity, the larvae undergo somatic migration. There they remain as somatic larvae in the tissues. If dogs eat a Toxocara-infected paratenic host, larvae will be released and develop to adult worms in the intestinal tract (MacPherson(30)).

Humans can be infected by oral ingestion of infective eggs from contaminated soil, from unwashed hands or consumption of raw vegetables (MacPherson(30)).

The clinical symptoms in animals depend on the age of the animal and number, location and stage of development of worms. After birth, puppies can suffer from pneumonia because of tracheal migration and die in 2-3 days. 2-3 weeks after birth, puppies can show emaciation and digestive disturbance because of mature worms in the intestine and stomach. Clinical signs are: diarrhea, constipation, coughing, nasal discharge and vomiting.

Clinical symptoms in adult dogs are rare(MacPherson(30)).

In most human cases following infection by small numbers of larvae, the disease occurs without symptoms. Mostly children do get infected. VLM is mainly diagnosed in children of 1-7 years old. The symptoms can be general malaise, fever, abdominal complaints, wheezing or coughing. Severe clinical symptoms are mainly found in children of 1-3 years old.

Most of the larvae seem to be distributed to the brain and can cause neurological disease. Larvae do not migrate continuously. They rest periodically, and during such periods they induce an immunologically mediated inflammatory response (MacPherson(30)).

The prevalence in children is much lower than in adults, respectively 7% and 20%. The risk of infection with Toxocara spp. increases with bad hygiene (Overgaauw(36)). In the external environment, the eggs survive for months and consequently toxocariasis represents a significant public health risk (Kantere(34)) . High rates of soil contamination with toxocara eggs are demonstrated in parks, playgrounds, sandpits and other public places. Direct contact with infected dogs is not considered as a potential risk for human infection, because embryonation to the stage of infectivity requires a minimum of 3 weeks (MacPherson(30)).

F. Toxoplasmosis

Toxoplasmosis is caused by the protozoa Toxoplasma gondii. Cats are the definitive hosts and other animals and humans act as intermediate hosts. Infected cats excrete oocysts in the feces. These oocysts end up in the environment, where they are ingested by intermediate hosts (direct or indirect via food or water). In the intermediate hosts the protozoa migrates until it gets stuck. It is then encapsulated and stays at that place. If cats eat infected intermediate hosts they become infected.

Animals rarely show symptoms, although some young cats get diarrhea, encephalitis, hepatitis and pneumonia.

In most humans, infection is asymptomatic. Pregnant women can transmit the protozoa through the placenta and infect the unborn child. The symptoms in the child depend on the stage of pregnancy. An infection in early stages leads to severe deviations and in many cases to abortion. If the infection occurs in a later stage, premature birth is seen and symptoms of an infectious disease (fever, rash, icterus, anemia and an enlarged spleen or liver). Although, in most cases the symptoms start after birth. Most damage is done in the eyes (RIVM(37)).

Based on data of the RIVM and Overgaauw (1996) the disease that is most commonly transmitted to humans is toxoplasmosis. The prevalence was 40,5% in 1996. This number is reduced in the last few decades and Jones (2009) states that in 2009 the prevalence was 24,6% (Jones(38)). The prevalence rises with age, being 17,5% in humans younger than 20 years, and 70% in humans of 65 years and older. There is no increased risk of getting an infection if humans have a cat as a pet (RIVM(37)). Birgisdottir et al (2006) studied the prevalence in cats in Sweden, Estonia and Iceland. They found a prevalence of 54,9% , 23% and 9,8%, respectively in Estonia, Sweden and Iceland (Birgisdottir(39)).

G. Q-fever

The aetiological agent of Q-fever is the bacteria Coxiella burnetti. The bacteria has a very wide host range, including ruminants, birds and mammals such as small rodents, dogs, cats and horses. Accordingly, there is a complex reservoir system (Meredith(8)).

The extracellular form of the bacteria is very resistant, therefore it can be persistent in the environment for several weeks. It can also be spread by the wind, so direct contact with animals is not required for infection. Coxiella burnetti is found in both humans and animals in the blood, lungs, spleen, liver and during pregnancy in large quantities in the placenta and mammary glands. It is shed in urine and feces and during pregnancy in the milk (Meredith(8)).

Humans that live close to animals (like in the city) have a higher risk to get infected, since the mode of transmission is aerogenic or direct contact. The bacteria is excreted through the urine feces, placenta or amnionic fluid. After drying, it is aerogenically spread (RIVM(40)). Acute infection is characterized by atypical pneumonia and hepatitis and in some cases transient bacteraemia. The bacteria then haematogenously spreads, which results in an infection in the liver, spleen, bone marrow, reproductive tract and other organs. This is followed by the formation of granulomatous lesions in the liver and bone marrow and development of an endocarditis involving the aortic and mitral valve (Woldehiwet(41)).

On the other hand, there is little information about the clinical signs of Q fever in animals, but variable degrees of granulomatous hepatitis, pneumonia, or bronchopneumonia have been reported in mice (Woldehiwet(41)). In pregnant animals, abortion or low foetal birth weight can occur (Meredith(8), Woldehiwet(41)).

The prevalence in the overall human population in Europe is not high (2,7 %), but in risk groups like veterinarians, the prevalence can be as high as 83% (RIVM(40)).

Meredith et al, have developed a modified indirect ELISA kit adapted for use in multiple species. They tested the prevalence of C. burnetii in wild rodents (band vole, field vole and wood mouse), red foxes and domestic cats in the United Kingdom. The prevalence in the rodents was overall 17,3%. In cats it was 61.5% and in foxes 41,2% (Meredith(8)). In rabbits, the prevalence was 32,3% (González-Barrio(42)).

H. Pasteurellosis

Pasteurellosis is caused by Pasteurella multocida. This is a coccobacillus found in the oral, nasal and respiratory cavities of many species of animals (dog, cats, rabbits, etc). It is one of the most prevalent commensal and opportunistic pathogens in domestic and wild animals (Wilson(43), Giordano(44)). Human infections are associated with animal exposure, usually after animal bites or scratches (Giordano(44)). Kissing or licking of skin abrasions or mucosal surfaces of animals can also lead to infection. Transmission between animals is through direct contact with nasal secretions. (Wilson(43)).

In both animals and humans Pasteurella multocida causes chronic or acute infections that can lead to significant morbidity with symptoms of pneumonia, atrophic rhinitis, cellulitis, abscesses, dermonecrosis, meningitis and/or hemorrhagic septicaemia. In animals the mortality is significant, but not in human. This is probably due to the immediate prophylactic treatment of animal bite wounds with antibiotics. (Wilson(43))

Disease in animals appears as a chronic infection in nasal cavity, paranasal sinuses, middle ears, lacrimal and thoracic ducts of the lymph system and lungs. Primary infections with respiratory viruses or Mycoplasma species predisposes to a Pasteurella infection (Wilson(43)).

The incidence in humans is 0,19 cases per 100.000 humans (Nseir(45)). The prevalence in dogs and cats is 25-42% (Mohan(46)). The only known prevalence in rabbits is a 29,8% in laboratory animal facilities (Kawamoto(47)).

The majority of the human population lives in cities. As a result of this, in some countries the urban landscape encompasses more than half of the land surface. This leaves little space for the wildlife species living in the country. Some species are nowadays found more in urban areas than in their native environment. They have adapted to the urban ecosystems. This is a positive aspect for biodiversity in the cities. On the other hand, just like companion animals, this urban wildlife can transmit disease to humans (Dearborn(49)). In the following section, significant zoonoses of urban wildlife will be described.

A. Zoonoses of rats

The following zoonoses occur urban rats: Leptospirosis (see 2.2B) and rat bite fever.

Rat bite fever

The rat bite fever is caused by Streptobacillus moniliformis or S. minis(Chafe(50)). These bacteria are part of the normal oropharyncheal flora of the rat and it is thought to be present in rat populations worldwide.

Since the bacteria are part of the normal flora, the rats are not susceptible to the bacteria. In people, on the other hand, the bacteria can cause rat bite fever. The transmission occurs through the bite of an infected rat and through ingestion of contaminated food. The latter causes Haverhill fever.

The clinical symptoms are fever, chills, headache, vomiting, polyarthritis and skin rash. In Haverhill fever pharyngitis and vomiting may be more pronounced. If not treated, S. moniliformis infection can progress to septicemia with a mortality rate of 7-13% (Himsworth(21)).

The prevalence of Streptobacillus spp. in rats is 25% (Gaastra(51)). According to Trucksis et al (2016), rat bite fever is very rare in humans. Only a few cases each year occur (Trucksis(52)).

B. Zoonoses of mice

The zoonotical diseases that occur in mice are: hanta viruses, lymphocytic choriomeningitis, tularemia and Q-fever (see 2.2 G).

Hanta viruses

There are different types of hanta viruses, each carried by a specific rodent host species. In Europe, three types occur: Puumala virus(PUUV), carried by bank vole; Dobrava virus(DOBV), carried by yellow-necked mouse; Saaremaa virus(SAAV), carried by the striped field mouse (Heyman(7)). SAAV has been found in Estonia, Russia, South-Eastern Finland, Germany, Denmark, Slovenia and Slovakia. PUUV is very common in Finland, Northern Sweden, Estonia, the Ardennes Forest Region, parts of Germany, Slovenia and in parts of European Russia. DOBV has been found in The Balkans, Russia, Germany, Estonia and Slovakia (Heyman(7)).

Hantaviruses are transmitted via direct and indirect contact. Infective particles fare secreted in feces, urine and saliva (Kallio(53)).

The disease is asymptomatic in mice (Himsworth(21)). Humans on the other hand do get symptoms. All types of the Hanta virus cause hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome (HFRS), but they differ in severity. HFRS is characterized by acute onset, fever, headache, abdominal pains, backache, temporary renal insufficiency and thrombocytopenia. In DOBV the extent of hemorrhages, requirement for dialysis treatment, hypotension and case-fatality rates are much higher than in PUUV or SAAV. Mortality is very low (approximately 0.1%)(Heyman(7)).

Hanta viruses are an endemic zoonosis in Europe. Tens of thousands of people get infected each year (Heyman(7)). The prevalence in mice is 9,5% (Sadkowska(54)).

Lymphocytic choriomeningitis

Lymphocytic choriomeningitis is a viral disease, caused by an arena virus (Cahfe(50)). The natural reservoirs of arenaviruses are rodent species. They are asymptomatically infected (Oldstone(55)).

In humans the disease is characterized by varying signs, from inapparent infection to the acute, fatal meningoencephalitis. The transmission of the disease is through mice bites and material contaminated with excretions and secretions of infected mice (Cahfe(50)).

The virus causes little or no toxicity to the infected cells. The disease- and associated cell and tissue injury- are caused mostly by activity of the hosts immune system. The antiviral response produces factors that act against the infected cells and damage them. Another factor is the displacement of cellular molecules that are normally attached to cellular receptors by viral proteins. This could result in conformational changes, which causes the cell membrane to become fragile and interfere with normal signalling events (Oldstone(55)).

The prevalence of lymphocytic choriomeningitis in human is 1,1 %(Lledó(56). In mice, the prevalence is 2,4% (Forbes(57)).


Tularemia is caused by the bacterium Franscisella tularensis. Only few animal outbreaks have been reported and so far only one outbreak in wildlife has been closely monitored(Dobay(10)). The bacteria can infect a large number of animal species. Outbreaks among mammals and human are rare. However, outbreaks can occur when the source of infection is widely spread and/or many people or animals are exposed. Outbreaks are difficult to monitor and trace, because mostly wild rodents and lagomorphs are affected (Dobay(10)).

People get infected in five ways: ingestion, direct contact with a contaminated source, inhalation, arthropod intermediates and animal bites. In animals the route of transmission is not yet known. The research of Dobay et al(2015) suggests that tularemia can cause sever outbreaks in small rodents such as house mice. The outbreak is self-exhausting in approximately three months, so no treatment is needed (Dobay(10)).

Tularemia is a potentially lethal disease. There are different clinical manifestations, depending on the route of infection. The ulceroglandular form is the most common and occurs after handling contaminated sources. The oropharyngeal form can be caused by ingestion of contaminated food or water. The pulmonary, typhoidal, glandular and ocular forms occur less frequently (Dobay(10)), Anda(58)).

In humans the symptoms of the glandular and ulceroglandular form are cervical, occipital, axillary or inguinal lymphadenopathy. The symptoms of pneumonic tularemia are fever, cough and shortness of breath (Weber(59)). Clinical manifestation of the oropharyngeal form include adenopathies on the elbow/ armpit/both, cutaneous lesions, fever, malaise, chills and shivering, painful sore throat with swollen tonsils and enlarged cervical lymph nodes (Sahn(60), Anda(58)).

The clinical features in animals are unspecific and the pathological effects vary substantially between different animal species and geographical locations. The disease can be very acute (for example in highly susceptible species like mice), with development of sepsis, liver and spleen enlargement and pinpoint white foci in the affected organs. The subacute form can be found in moderately susceptible species like hares. The symptoms are granulomatous lesions in lungs, pericardium and kidneys.

Infected animals are usually easy to catch, moribund or even dead (Maurin(61)).

Rossow et al (2015) states that the prevalence in humans is 2% (Rossow(62)). Highest prevalence found in small mammals during outbreak in Central Europe is 3,9% (Gurycová(63)).

C. Zoonoses of foxes

The zoonosis that can be transmitted from foxes to human are Q-fever (see 2.2G), toxocariasis (see 2.2E) and echinococcus multilocularis.

Echinococcus multilocularis

This is considered one of the most serious parasitic zoonosis in Europe. The red foxes are the main definitive hosts. The natural intermediate host are voles, but a lot of animals can act as accidental hosts, for example monkeys, human, pigs and dogs. The larval stage of Echinococcus multilocularis causes Alveolar echinococcosis (AE). The infection is widely distributed in foxes, with a prevalence of 70% in some areas. RIVM states that the prevalence in The Netherlands is 10-13%. The prevalence in humans differs throughout Europe, and has to do with the prevalence in foxes. If the prevalence in foxes is high, the prevalence in human increases. However, there has not been reported a prevalence higher than 0,81 per 100.000 inhabitants (RIVM(29)). Foxes living in urban areas pose a threat to the public health and there is concern that that risk may rise due to the suspected geographical spread of the parasite (Conraths(64)).

In foxes the helminth colonizes the intestines, but it does not cause disease. In intermediate hosts and accidental hosts cysts are formed after oral intake of eggs excreted by foxes, which causes AE. The size, site and growth rate of the larval stage determine the symptoms. Most of the time, infection starts in the liver, causing local deviations. The larvae grow invasively to other organs and blood vessels. It can take five to fifteen years before clear symptoms show (RIVM(29)). In human AE is a very rare disease, but incidences have increased in recent years.

D. Zoonoses of rabbits

The zoonoses that can be transmitted from rabbits to human are: Pasteurellosis (see 2.2H), tularemia (see 2.3B), Q fever (see 2.2G), dermatophytosis (see 2.2C) and cryptosporidiosis.


Cryptosporidium is a protozoa. It is considered the most important zoonotic pathogen causing diarrhea in humans and animals. In rabbits, Cryptosporidium cuniculus (rabbit genotype) is the most common genotype (Zhang(65)). Two large studies have been done in rabbits, they showed a prevalence between 0,0% and 0,9% in rabbits (Robinson(66)).

The risks of cryptosporidiosis for the public health from wildlife are poorly understood. No studies of the host range and biological features of the Cryptosporidium rabbit genotype were identified. However human-infectious Cryptosporidium (including Cryptosporidium parvum) have caused experimental infections in rabbits and there is some evidence that his occurs naturally (Robinson(66)).

In human and neonatal animals, the pathogen causes gastroenteritis, chronic diarrhea or even severe diarrhea (Zhang(65), Robinson(66)). In >98% of these cases, the disease is caused by C. hominis or C. parvum, but recently, the rabbit genotype has emerged as a human pathogen. Little is known yet about this genotype, because only a few cases in humans were reported (Robinson(66)). Since little isolates have been found in humans and little is known about human infection with Cryptosporidium rabbit genotype, Robinson et al (2008) assumed this genotype is insignificant to public health and further investigation is needed (Robinson(67)).

E. Zoonoses of hedgehogs

Hedgehogs pose a risk for a number of potential zoonotic disease, for example microbial infections like Salmonella spp, Yersinia pseudotuberculosis, Mycobacterium marinum and dermatophytosis.


Salmonellosis is the most important zoonotic disease in hedgehogs. The prevalence of Salmonella in hedgehogs is 18,9%. The infection can either be asymptomatic or symptomatic. The hedgehogs that do show symptoms can display anorexia, diarrhea and weight loss. Humans get infected through ingestion of the bacteria, after handling the hedgehog or contact with feces (Riley(68)).

The Salmonella serotypes that are associated with hedgehogs are S. tilene and S. typhimurium (Woodward(69), Riley(68)).

Clinical manifestations in human (mainly adults) of both serotypes involve self-limiting gastroenteritis (including headache, malaise, nausea, fever, vomiting, abdominal pain and diarrhea (Woodward(69))), but bacteriamia, localized and endovascular infections may also occur (Crum Cianflone(70)). Infection with S. typhimurium and S. tilene is rare in humans, approximately 0,057 per 100.000 inhabitants (CDC(71))

Yersinia pseudotuberculosis.

No clinical symptoms for Yersinia pseudotuberculosis infection in hedgehogs are described in the literature. However, this bacteria causes a gastroenteritis in humans, characterized by a self-limiting mesenteric lymphadenitis, which mimics appendicitis. Complications can occur, which include erythema nodosum and reactive arthritis (Riley(68)). Since only Riley et al (2005) reported a case concerning Y. pseudotuberculosis, no information in available yet about the prevalence in hedgehogs or humans, or about the route of transmission. Although Riley et al (2005) claim that the zoonosis in commonly occurring (Riley(68)).

Myobacterium marinum

Mycobacterium marinum infection is not common in hedgehogs. The bacteria causes systemic myocbacteriosis. The porte d’entrée of the bacteria is through a wound or abrasion in the skin and the bacteria spreads systemically through the lymphatic system. This is also the way in which hedgehogs transmit the bacteria to human; the spines of the hedgehog can cause wounds and the bacteria can enter. Symptoms in human consist of clusters of papules or superficial nodules and can be painful. (Riley(68)). No information is reported regarding the prevalence of the bacteria in hedgehogs or humans.


Dermatophytosis has been seen in hedgehogs. The most isolated dermatophyte is Trichophyton mentagrophytes var. erinacei. Microsporum spp. have also been reported. Lesions in the hedgehog are similar to those in other species: nonpruritic , dry, scaly skin with bald patches and spine loss. Hedgehogs can also be asymptomatic carriers, and that is a risk for potential zoonotic transmission (Riley(68)).

In human, Trichophyton mentagrophytes var. erinacei causes a local rash with pustules at the edges and an intensely irritating and thickened area in centre of the lesion. This usually resolves spontaneously after 2-3 weeks (Riley(68)).

Few cases of Trichophyton mentagrophytes var. erinacei have been reported (Pierard-Franchimont(72), Schauder(73), Keymer(74)), but no prevalence is known for humans and hedgehogs.

F. Zoonoses of bats

According to Calisher et al (2009) bat viruses that are proven to cause highly pathogenic disease in human are rabies virus and related lyssaviruses, Nipah and Hendra viruses, and SARS-CoV-like virus (Calisher(75)). Only the former is relevant for this review, since Nipah and Hendra do not occur in Europe (Munir(76)) and SARS is not directly transmitted to human (Hu(77)).

Rabies virus and related lyssaviruses

The rabies virus is present in the saliva of infected animals. Accordingly, the virus is transmitted from mammals to human through a bite (Calisher(75)).

Symptoms are equal in animals and humans. The disease starts with a prodromal stage. Symptoms are non-specific, and consist of fever, itching and pain near the site of the bite wound.

Subsequently follows the furious stage. Clinical features are hydrophobia (violent inspiratory muscle spasms, hyperextension and anxiety after attempts to drink), hallucinations, fear, aggression, cardiac tachyarrhythmias, paralysis and coma.

The final stage is the paralytic stage. It is characterized by ascending paralysis and loss of tendon reflexes, sphincter dysfunction, bulbar/respiratory paralysis, sensory symptoms, fever, sweating, gooseflesh and fasciculation.

Untreaded, the disease is fatal in approximately five days after showing the first symptoms (Warrell(78)).

Lyssaviruses from bats are related to the rabies virus. There are seven lyssavirus genotypes. Some of these cause disease in human, similar to rabies. Others, on the other hand, do not cause disease. Although it is still unclear, transmission is thought to be through bites (Calisher(75)).

Since 1977 4 cases of human rabies coming from a bat bite have been reported in The Netherlands. In bats living there, the prevalence is 7% (RIVM).


Sickle-cell conditions


Hemoglobin is present in erythrocytes and is important for normal oxygen delivery to tissues. Hemoglobinopathies are disorders affecting the structure, function or production of hemoglobin.

Different hemoglobins are produced during embryonic, fetal and adult life. Each consists of a tetramer of globin polypeptide chains: a pair of ”-like chains 141 amino acids long and a pair of ”-like chains 146 amino acids long. The major adult hemoglobin, HbA has the structure ”2”2. HbF (”2”2) predominates during most of gestation and HbA2 (”2”2) is the minor adult hemoglobin.

Each globin chain surrounds a single heme moiety, consisting of a protoporphyrin IX ring complexed with a single iron atom in the ferrous state (Fe2+). Each heme moiety can bind a single oxygen molecule; a molecule of hemoglobin can transport up to four oxygen molecules as each hemoglobin contains four heme moieties.

The amino acid sequences of various globins are highly homologous to one another and each has a highly helical secondary structure. Their globular tertiary structures cause the exterior surfaces to be rich in polar (hydrophilic) amino acids that enhance solubility and the interior to be lined with nonpolar groups, forming a hydrophobic pocket into which heme is inserted Numerous tight interactions (i.e.,”1”1 contacts) hold the ” and ” chains together. The complete tetramer is held together by interfaces (i.e., ”1”2 contacts) between the ”-like chain of one dimer and the non-” chain of the other dimer. The hemoglobin tetramer is highly soluble, but individual globin chains are insoluble. (Unpaired globin precipitates, forming inclusions that damage the cell and can trigger apoptosis. Normal globin chain synthesis is balanced so that each newly synthesized ” or non-” globin chain will have an available partner with which to pair.)


Solubility and reversible oxygen binding are the two important functions which were deranged in hemoglobinopathies. Both depend mostly on the hydrophilic surface amino acids, the hydrophobic amino acids lining the heme pocket, a key histidine in the F helix and the amino acids forming the ”1”1 and ”1”2 contact points. Mutations in these strategic regions alter oxygen affinity or solubility.

Principal function of Hb is to transport oxygen and delivery to tissue which is represented most appropriately by oxygen dissociation curve (ODC).

Fig: The well-known sigmoid shape of the oxygen dissociation curve (ODC), which reflects the allosteric properties of haemoglobin.

Hemoglobin binds with O2 efficiently at the partial pressure of oxygen (Po2) of the alveolus, retains it in the circulation and releases it to tissues at the Po2 of tissue capillary beds. The shape of the curve is due to co-operativity between the four haem molecules. When one takes up oxygen, the affinity for oxygen of the remaining haems of the tetramer increases dramatically. This is because haemoglobin can exist in two configurations – deoxy (T) and oxy (R). The T form has a lower affinity than the R form for ligands such as oxygen.

Oxygen affinity is controlled by several factors. The Bohr effect (e.g. oxygen affinity is decreased with increasing CO2 tension) is the ability of hemoglobin to deliver more oxygen to tissues at low Ph. The major small molecule that alters oxygen affinity in humans is 2,3-bisphosphoglycerate (2,3-BPG; formerly 2,3-DPG) which lowers oxygen affinity when bound to hemoglobin. HbA has a reasonably high affinity for 2,3-BPG. HbF does not bind 2,3-BPG, so it tends to have a higher oxygen affinity in vivo. Increased levels of DPG, with an associated decrease in P50 (partial pressure at which haemoglobin is 50 per cent saturated), occur in anaemia, alkalosis, hyperphosphataemia, hypoxic states and in association with a number of red cell enzyme deficiencies.

Thus proper oxygen transport depends on the tetrameric structure of the proteins, the proper arrangement of hydrophilic and hydrophobic amino acids and interaction with protons or 2,3-BPG.


The human hemoglobins are encoded in two tightly linked gene clusters; the ”-like globin genes are clustered on chromosome 16, and the ”-like genes on chromosome 11. The ”-like cluster consists of two ”-globin genes and a single copy of the ” gene. The non-” gene cluster consists of a single ” gene, the G” and A” fetal globin genes, and the adult ” and ” genes. The ”-like cluster consists of two ”-globin genes and a single copy of the ” gene. The non-” gene cluster consists of a single ” gene, the G” and A” fetal globin genes, and the adult ” and ” genes.


Red cells first appearing at about 6 weeks after conception contain the embryonic hemoglobins Hb Portland (”2”2), Hb Gower I (”2”2) and Hb Gower II (”2”2). At 10’11 weeks, fetal hemoglobin (HbF; ”2”2) becomes predominant and synthesis of adult hemoglobin (HbA; ”2”2) occurs at about 38 weeks. Fetuses and newborns therefore require ”-globin but not ”-globin for normal gestation. Small amounts of HbF are produced during postnatal life. A few red cell clones called F cells are progeny of a small pool of immature committed erythroid precursors (BFU-e) that retain the ability to produce HbF. Profound erythroid stresses, such as severe hemolytic anemias, bone marrow transplantation, or cancer chemotherapy, cause more of the F-potent BFU-e to be recruited. HbF levels thus tend to rise in some patients with sickle cell anemia or thalassemia. This phenomenon probably explains the ability of hydroxyurea to increase levels of HbF in adult and agents such as butyrate and histone deacetylase inhibitors can also activate fetal globin genes partially after birth.


Hemoglobinopathies are disorders affecting the structure, function or production of hemoglobin. These conditions are usually inherited and range in severity from asymptomatic laboratory abnormalities to death in utero. Different forms may present as hemolytic anemia, erythrocytosis, cyanosis or vaso-occlusive stigmata.

Structural hemoglobinopathies occur when mutations alter the amino acid sequence of a globin chain, altering the physiologic properties of the variant hemoglobins and producing the characteristic clinical abnormalities. The most clinically relevant variant hemoglobins polymerize abnormally as in sickle cell anemia or exhibit altered solubility or oxygen-binding affinity.

Thalassemia syndromes arise from mutations that impair production or translation of globin mRNA leading to deficient globin chain biosynthesis. Clinical abnormalities are attributable to the inadequate supply of hemoglobin and imbalances in the production of individual globin chains, leading to premature destruction of erythroblasts and RBC. Thalassemic hemoglobin

variants combine features of thalassemia (e.g., abnormal globin biosynthesis) and of structural hemoglobinopathies (e.g., an abnormal amino acid sequence).

Hereditary persistence of fetal hemoglobin (HPFH) is characterized by synthesis of high levels of fetal hemoglobin in adult life. Acquired hemoglobinopathies include modifications of the hemoglobin molecule by toxins (e.g., acquired methemoglobinemia) and clonal abnormalities of hemoglobin synthesis (e.g., high levels of HbF production in preleukemia and ” thalassemia in myeloproliferative disorders).

There are five major classes of hemoglobinopathies.

Classification of hemoglobinopathies:


1 Structural hemoglobinopathies’hemoglobins with altered amino acid sequences that result in deranged function or altered physical or chemical properties

A. Abnormal hemoglobin polymerization’HbS, hemoglobin sickling

B. Altered O2 affinity

1. High affinity’polycythemia

2. Low affinity’cyanosis, pseudoanemia

C. Hemoglobins that oxidize readily

1. Unstable hemoglobins’hemolytic anemia, jaundice

2. M hemoglobins’methemoglobinemia, cyanosis

2 Thalassemias’defective biosynthesis of globin chains

A. ” Thalassemias

B. ” Thalassemias

C. ”, ”, ” Thalassemias

3 Thalassemic hemoglobin variants’structurally abnormal Hb associated with coinherited thalassemic phenotype

A. HbE

B. Hb Constant Spring

C. Hb Lepore

4 Hereditary persistence of fetal hemoglobin’persistence of high levels of HbF into adult life

5 Acquired hemoglobinopathies

A. Methemoglobin due to toxic exposures

B. Sulfhemoglobin due to toxic exposures

C. Carboxyhemoglobin

D. HbH in erythroleukemia

E. Elevated HbF in states of erythroid stress and bone marrow dysplasia



This genetic disorder is due to the mutation of a single nucleotide, from a GAG to GTG codon on the coding strand, which is transcribed from the template strand into a GUG codon. Based on genetic code, GAG codon translates to glutamic acid while GUG codon translates to valine amino acid at position 6. This is normally a benign mutation, causing no apparent effects on the secondary, tertiary, or quaternary structures of hemoglobin in conditions of normal oxygen concentration. But under conditions of low oxygen concentration, the deoxy form of hemoglobin exposes a hydrophobic patch on the protein between the E and F helices. The hydrophobic side chain of the valine residue at position 6 of the beta chain in hemoglobin is able to associate with the hydrophobic patch, causing hemoglobin S molecules to aggregate and form fibrous precipitates. It also exhibits changes in solubility and molecular stability.

These properties are responsible for the profound clinical expressions of the sickling syndromes.

HbSS disease or sickle cell anemia (the most common form) – Homozygote for the S globin with usually a severe or moderately severe phenotype and with the shortest survival
HbS/”0 thalassemia – Double heterozygote for HbS and b-0 thalassemia; clinically indistinguishable from sickle cell anemia (SCA)
HbS/”+ thalassemia – Mild-to-moderate severity with variability in different ethnicities
HbSC disease – Double heterozygote for HbS and HbC characterized by moderate clinical severity
HbS/hereditary persistence of fetal Hb (S/HPHP) – Very mild or asymptomatic phenotype
HbS/HbE syndrome – Very rare with a phenotype usually similar to HbS/b+ thalassemia
Rare combinations of HbS with other abnormal hemoglobins such as HbD Los Angeles, G-Philadelphia and HbO Arab

Sickle-cell conditions have an autosomal recessive pattern of inheritance from parents. The types of hemoglobin a person makes in the red blood cells depends on what hemoglobin genes are inherited from her or his parents. If one parent has sickle-cell anaemia and the other has sickle-cell trait, then the child has a 50% chance of having sickle-cell disease and a 50% chance of having sickle-cell trait. When both parents have sickle-cell trait, a child has a 25% chance of sickle-cell disease, 25% do not carry any sickle-cell alleles, and 50% have the heterozygous condition.

The allele responsible for sickle-cell anemia can be found on the short arm of chromosome 11, more specifically 11p15.5. A person who receives the defective gene from both father and mother develops the disease; a person who receives one defective and one healthy allele remains healthy, but can pass on the disease and is known as a carrier or heterozygote. Several sickle syndromes occur as the result of inheritance of HbS from one parent and another hemoglobinopathy, such as ” thalassemia or HbC (”2”2 6 Glu’Lys), from the other parent. The prototype disease, sickle cell anemia, is the homozygous state for HbS.


The sickle cell syndromes are caused by mutation in the ”-globin gene that changes the sixth amino acid from glutamic acid to valine. HbS (”2”2 6 Glu’Val) polymerizes reversibly when deoxygenated to form a gelatinous network of fibrous polymers that stiffen the RBC membrane, increase viscosity, and cause dehydration due to potassium leakage and calcium influx. These changes also produce the sickle shape. The loss of red blood cell elasticity is central to the pathophysiology of sickle-cell disease. Sickled cells lose the flexibility needed to traverse small capillaries. They possess altered ‘sticky’ membranes that are abnormally adherent to the endothelium of small venules.

Repeated episodes of sickling damage the cell membrane and decrease the cell’s elasticity. These cells fail to return to normal shape when normal oxygen tension is restored. As a consequence, these rigid blood cells are unable to deform as they pass through narrow capillaries, leading to vessel occlusion and ischaemia.

These abnormalities stimulate unpredictable episodes of microvascular vasoocclusion and premature RBC destruction (hemolytic anemia). The rigid adherent cells clog small capillaries and venules, causing tissue ischemia, acute pain, and gradual end-organ damage. This venoocclusive component usually influences the clinical course.

The actual anaemia of the illness is caused by hemolysis which occurs because the spleen destroys the abnormal RBCs detecting the altered shape of red cells. Although the bone marrow attempts to compensate by creating new red cells, it does not match the rate of destruction. Healthy red blood cells typically function for 90’120 days, but sickled cells only last 10’20 days.

Clinical Manifestations of Sickle Cell Anemia:

Patients with sickling syndromes suffer from hemolytic anemia, with hematocrits from 15 to 30%, and significant reticulocytosis. Anemia was once thought to exert protective effects against vasoocclusion by reducing blood viscosity. The role of adhesive reticulocytes in vasoocclusion might account for these paradoxical effects.

Granulocytosis is common. The white count can fluctuate substantially and unpredictably during and between painful crises, infectious episodes, and other intercurrent illnesses.

Vasoocclusion causes protean manifestations and cause episodes of ischemic pain (i.e., painful crises) and ischemic malfunction or frank infarction in the spleen, central nervous system, bones, joints, liver, kidneys and lungs.

Syndromes cause by sickle hemoglobinopathy:

Painful crises: Intermittent episodes of vasoocclusion in connective and musculoskeletal structures produce ischemia manifested by acute pain and tenderness, fever, tachycardia and anxiety. These episodes are recurrent and it is the most common clinical manifestation of sickle cell anemia. Their frequency and severity vary greatly. Pain can develop almost anywhere in the body and may last from a few hours to 2 weeks.

Repeated crises requiring hospitalization (>3 episodes per year) correlate with reduced survival in adult life, suggesting that these episodes are associated with accumulation of chronic end-organ damage. Provocative factors include infection, fever, excessive exercise, anxiety, abrupt changes in temperature, hypoxia, or hypertonic dyes.

Acute chest syndrome: Distinctive manifestation characterized by chest pain, tachypnea, fever, cough, and arterial oxygen desaturation. It can mimic pneumonia, pulmonary emboli, bone marrow infarction and embolism, myocardial ischemia, or lung infarction. Acute chest syndrome is thought to reflect in situ sickling within the lung, producing pain and temporary pulmonary dysfunction. Pulmonary infarction and pneumonia are the most common underlying or concomitant conditions in patients with this syndrome. Repeated episodes of acute chest pain correlate with reduced survival. Acutely, reduction in arterial oxygen saturation is especially ominous because it promotes sickling on a massive scale. Chronic acute or subacute pulmonary crises lead to pulmonary hypertension and cor pulmonale, an increasingly common cause of death in patients.

Aplastic crisis: A serious complication is the aplastic crisis. This is caused by infection with Parvovirus B-19 (B19V). This virus causes fifth disease, a normally benign childhood disorder associated with fever, malaise, and a mild rash. This virus infects RBC progenitors in bone marrow, resulting in impaired cell division for a few days. Healthy people experience, at most, a slight drop in hematocrit, since the half-life of normal erythrocytes in the circulation is 40-60 days. In people with SCD however, the RBC lifespan is greatly shortened (usually 10-20 days), and a very rapid drop in Hb occurs. The condition is self-limited, with bone marrow recovery occurring in 7-10 days, followed by brisk reticulocytosis.

CNS sickle vasculopathy: Chronic subacute central nervous system damage in the absence of an overt stroke is a distressingly common phenomenon beginning in early childhood. Stroke is especially common in children and may reoccur, but is less common in adults and is often hemorrhagic. Stroke affects 30% of children and 11% of patients by 20 years. It is usually ischemic in children and hemorrhagic in adults.

Modern functional imaging techniques have indicated circulatory dysfunction of the CNS; these changes correlate with display of cognitive and behavioral abnormalities in children and young adults. It is important to be aware of these changes because they can complicate clinical management or be misinterpreted as ‘difficult patient’ behaviors.

Splenic sequestration crisis: The spleen enlarges in the latter part of the first year of life in children with SCD. Occasionally, the spleen undergoes a sudden very painful enlargement due to pooling of large numbers of sickled cells. This phenomenon is known as splenic sequestration crisis. Over time, the spleen becomes fibrotic and shrinks causing autosplenectomy. In cases of SC trait, the spleenomegaly may persist upto adulthood due to ongoing hemolysis under the influence of persistent fetal hemoglobin.

Acute venous obstruction of the spleen a rare occurrence in early childhood, may require emergency transfusion and/or splenectomy to prevent trapping of the entire arterial output in the obstructed spleen. Repeated microinfarction can destroy tissues having microvascular beds, thus, splenic function is frequently lost within the first 18’36 months of life, causing susceptibility to infection, particularly by pneumococci.

Infections: Life-threatening bacterial infections are a major cause of morbidity and mortality in patients with SCD. Recurrent vaso-occlusion induces splenic infarctions and consequent autosplenectomy, predisposing to severe infections with encapsulated organisms (eg, Haemophilus influenzae, Streptococcus pneumoniae).

Cholelithiasis: Cholelithiasis is common in children with SCD as chronic hemolysis with hyperbilirubinemia is associated with the formation of bile stones. Cholelithiasis may be asymptomatic or result in acute cholecystitis, requiring surgical intervention. The liver may also become involved. Cholecystitis or common bile duct obstruction can occur. Child with cholecystitis presents with right upper quadrant pain, especially if associated with fatty food. Common bile duct blockage suspected when a child presents with right upper quadrant pain and dramatically elevated conjugated hyperbilirubinemia.

Leg ulcers: Leg ulcers are a chronic painful problem. They result from minor injury to the area around the malleoli. Because of relatively poor circulation, compounded by sickling and microinfarcts, healing is delayed and infection occurs frequently.

Eye manifestation: Occlusion of retinal vessels can produce hemorrhage, neovascularization, and eventual detachments.

Renal manifestation: Renal menifestations include impaired urinary concentrating ability, defects of urinary acidification, defects of potassium excretion and progressive decrease in glome”rular filtration rate with advancing age. Recurrent hematuria, proteinuria, renal papillary necrosis and end-stage renal disease (ESRD) are all well recognized.

Renal papillary necrosis invariably produces isosthenuria. More widespread renal necrosis leads to renal failure in adults, a common late cause of death.

Bone manifestation: Bone and joint ischemia can lead to aseptic necrosis, common in the femoral or humeral heads; chronic arthropathy; and unusual susceptibility to osteomyelitis, which may be caused by organisms, such as Salmonella, rarely encountered in other settings.

-The hand-foot syndrome is caused by painful infarcts of the digits and dactylitis.

Pregnancy in SCD: Pregnancy represents a special area of concern. The high rate of fetal loss is due to spontaneous abortion. Placenta previa and abruption are common due to hypoxia and placental infarction. At birth, the infant often is premature or has low birth weight.

Other features: Particularly painful complication in males is priapism, due to infarction of the penile venous outflow tracts; permanent impotence may also occur. Chronic lower leg ulcers probably arise from ischemia and superinfection in the distal circulation.

Sickle cell syndromes are remarkable for their clinical heterogeneity. Some patients remain virtually asymptomatic into or even through adult life, while others suffer repeated crises requiring hospitalization from early childhood. Patients with sickle thalassemia and sickle-HbE tend to have similar, slightly milder symptoms, perhaps because of the bad effects of production of other hemoglobins within the RBC.

Clinical Manifestations of Sickle Cell Trait:

Sickle cell trait is often asymptomatic. Anemia and painful crises are rare. An uncommon but highly distinctive symptom is painless hematuria often occurring in adolescent males, probably due to papillary necrosis. Isosthenuria is a more common manifestation of the same process. Sloughing of papillae with urethral obstruction has been also seen, due to massive sickling or sudden death due to exposure to high altitudes or extremes of exercise and dehydration.

Pulmonary hypertension in sickle hemoglobinopathy:

In recent years, PAH a proliferative vascular disease of the lung, has been recognized as a major complication and an independent correlate with death among adults with SCD. Pulmonary hypertension is defined as a mean pulmonary artery pressure >25mmHg, and includes pulmonary artery hypertension, pulmonary venous hypertension or a combination of both. The etiology is multifactorial, including hemolysis, hypoxemia, thromboembolism, chronic high CO, and chronic liver disease. Clinical presentation is characterized by symptoms of dyspnea, chest pain, and syncope. It is important to note that high cardiac output can also elevate pulmonary artery pressure adding to the complex and multifactorial pathophysiology of PHT in sickle cell disease. Thus, if left untreated, the disease carries a high mortality rate, with the most common cause of death being decompensated right heart failure.

Prevalance and prognosis:

Echocardiographic screening studies have suggested that the prevalence of hemoglobinopathy-associated PAH is much higher than previously known. In SCD, approximately one-third of adult patients have an elevated tricuspid regurgitant jet velocity (TRV) of 2.5 m/s or higher, a threshold that correlates in right heart catheterization studies to a pulmonary artery systolic pressure of at least 30 mm Hg. Even though this threshold represents quite mild pulmonary hypertension, SCD patients with TRV above this threshold have a 9- to 10- fold higher risk for early mortality than those with a lower TRV. It appears that the baseline compromised oxygen delivery and co-morbid organ dysfunction of SCD diminishes the physiological reserve to tolerate even modest pulmonary arterial pressures.


Different hemolytic anemias seem to involve common mechanisms for development of PAH. These processes probably include hemolysis, causing endothelial dysfunction, oxidative and inflammatory stress, chronic hypoxemia, chronic thromboembolism, chronic liver disease, iron overload, and asplenia.

Hemolysis results in the release of hemoglobin into plasma, where it reacts and consumes nitric oxide (NO) causing a state of resistance to NO-dependent vasodilatory effects. Hemolysis also causes the release of arginase into plasma, which decreases the concentration of arginine, substrate for the synthesis of NO. Other effects associated with hemolysis that can contribute to the pathogenesis of pulmonary hypertension are increased cellular expression of endothelin, production of free radicals, platelet activation, and increased expression of endothelial adhesion mediating molecules.

Previous studies suggest that splenectomy (surgical or functional) is a risk factor for the development of pulmonary hypertension, especially in patients with hemolytic anemias. It is speculated that the loss of the spleen increases the circulation of platelet mediators and senescent erythrocytes that result in platelet activation (promoting endothelial adhesion and thrombosis in the pulmonary vascular bed), and possibly stimulates the increase in the intravascular hemolysis rate.

Vasoconstriction, vascular proliferation, thrombosis, and inflammation appear to underlie the development of PAH. In long-standing PH, intimal proliferation and fibrosis, medial hypertrophy, and in situ thrombosis characterize the pathologic findings in the pulmonary vasculature. Vascular remodeling at earlier stages may be confined to the small pulmonary arteries. As the disease advances, intimal proliferation and pathologic remodeling progress, resulting in decreased compliance and increased elastance of the pulmonary vasculature.

The outcome is a progressive increase in the right ventricular afterload or total pulmonary vascular resistance (PVR) and, thus, right ventricular work.

Chronic pulmonary involvement due to repeated episodes of acute thoracic syndrome can lead to pulmonary fibrosis and chronic hypoxemia, which can eventually lead to the development of pulmonary hypertension.

Coagulation disorders, such as low levels of protein C, low levels of protein S, high levels of D-dimers and increased activity of the tissue factor, occur in patients with sickle cell anemia.This hypercoagulable state can cause thrombosis in situ or pulmonary thromboembolism, which occurs in patients with sickle cell anemia and other hemolytic anemias.

Clinical manifestations:

On examination, there may be evidence of right ventricular failure with elevated jugular venous pressure, lower extremity edema, and ascites. The cardiovascular examination may reveal an accentuated P2 component of the second heart sound, a right-sided S3 or S4, and a holosystolic tricuspid regurgitant murmur. It is also important to seek signs of the diseases that are often concurrent with PH: clubbing may be seen in some chronic lung diseases, sclerodactyly and telangiectasia may signify scleroderma, and crackles and systemic hypertension may be clues to left-sided systolic or diastolic heart failure.

Diagnostic evaluation:

The diagnosis of pulmonary hypertension in patients with sickle cell anemia is typically difficult. Dyspnea on exertion, the symptom most typically associated with pulmonary hypertension, is also very common in anemic patients. Other disorders with similar symptomatology, such as left heart failure or pulmonary fibrosis, frequently occur in patients with sickle cell anemia. Patients with pulmonary hypertension are often older, have higher systemic blood pressure, more severe hemolytic anemia, lower peripheral oxygen saturation, worse renal function, impaired liver function and a higher number of red blood cell transfusions than do patients with sickle cell anemia and normal pulmonary pressure.

The diagnostic evaluation of patients with hemoglobinopathies and suspected of having pulmonary hypertension should follow the same guidelines established for the investigation of patients with other causes of pulmonary hypertension.

Echocardiography: Echocardiography is important for the diagnosis of PAH and often essential for determining the cause. All forms of PAH may demonstrate a hypertrophied and dilated right ventricle with elevated estimated pulmonary artery systolic pressure. Important additional information can be obtained about specific etiologies such as valvular disease, left ventricular systolic and diastolic function, intracardiac shunts, and other cardiac diseases.

An echocardiogram is a screening test, whereas invasive hemodynamic monitoring is the gold standard for diagnosis and assessment of disease severity.

Pulmonary artery (PA) systolic pressure (PASP) can be estimated by Doppler echocardiography, utilizing the tricuspid regurgitant velocity (TRV). Increased TRV is estimated to be present in approximately one-third of adults with SCD and is associated with early mortality. In the more severe cases, increased TRV is associated with histopathologic changes similar to atherosclerosis such as plexogenic changes and hyperplasia of the pulmonary arterial intima and media.

The cardiopulmonary exercise test (CPET): This test may help to identify a true physiologic limitation as well as differentiate between cardiac and pulmonary causes of dyspnea but test can only be performed if patient has reasonable functional capacity. If this test is normal, there is no indication for a right heart catheterization.

Right Heart Catheterization: If patient has cardiovascular limitation to exercise, a right heart catheterization should be inserted. Right heart catheterization with pulmonary vasodilator testing remains the gold standard both to establish the diagnosis of PH and to enable selection of appropriate medical therapy. The definition of precapillary PH or PAH requires (1) an increased mean pulmonary artery pressure (mPAP ’25 mmHg); (2) a pulmonary capillary wedge pressure (PCWP), left atrial pressure, or left ventricular end-diastolic pressure ’15 mmHg; and (3) PVR >3 Wood units. Postcapillary PH is differentiated from precapillary PH by a PCWP of ’15 mmHg; this is further differentiated into passive, based on a transpulmonary gradient <12 mmHg, or reactive, based on a transpulmonary gradient >12 mmHg and an increased PVR. In either case, the CO may be normal or reduced. If the echocardiogram or cardiopulmonary exercise test (CPET) suggests PH and the diagnosis is confirmed by catheterization.

Chest imaging and lung function tests: These are essential because lung disease is an important cause of PH. A sign of PH that may be evident on chest x-ray include enlargement of the central pulmonary arteries associated with ‘vascular pruning,’ a relative paucity of peripheral vessels. Cardiomegaly, with specific evidence of right atrial and ventricular enlargement may present. The chest x-ray may also demonstrate significant interstitial lung disease or suggest hyperinflation from obstructive lung disease, which may be the underlying cause or contributor to the development of PH.

High-resolution computed tomography (CT): Classic findings of PH on CT include those found on chest x-ray: enlarged pulmonary arteries, peripheral pruning of the small vessels, and enlarged right ventricle and atrium. High-resolution CT may also show signs of venous congestion including centrilobular ground-glass infiltrate and thickened septal lines. In the absence of left heart disease, these findings suggest pulmonary veno-occlusive disease, a rare cause of PAH that can be quite challenging to diagnose.

CT angiograms: Commonly used to evaluate acute thromboembolic disease and have demonstrated excellent sensitivity and specificity for that purpose.

Ventilation-perfusion Ratio: Scanning done for screening because of its high sensitivity and its role in qualifying patients for surgical intervention. Negative ratio virtually rules out CTEPH, some cases may be missed through the use of CT angiograms.

Pulmonary function test: Isolated reduction in DLco is the classic finding in PAH, results of pulmonary function tests may also suggest restrictive or obstructive lung diseases as the cause of dyspnea or PH.

Evaluation of symptoms and functional capacity (6 Min walk test): Although the 6-minute walk test has not been validated in patients with hemoglobinopathies, preliminary data suggest that this test correlates well with maximal oxygen uptake and with the severity of pulmonary hypertension in patients with sickle cell anemia. In addition, in these patients, the distance covered on the 6-minute walk test significantly improves with the treatment of pulmonary hypertension, which suggests that it can be used in this population.


Disorders of lipoprotein metabolism are known as ‘dyslipidemias.’ Dyslipidemias are generally characterized clinically by increased plasma levels of cholesterol, triglycerides, or both, accompanied by reduced levels of HDL cholesterol. Mostly all patients with dyslipidemia are at increased risk for ASCVD, the primary reason for making the diagnosis, as intervention may reduce this risk. Patients with elevated levels of triglycerides may be at risk for acute pancreatitis and require intervention to reduce this risk.

Hundreds of proteins affect lipoprotein metabolism and may interact to produce dyslipidemia in an individual patient, there are a limited number of discrete ‘nodes’ that regulate lipoprotein metabolism. These include:

(1) assembly and secretion of triglyceriderich VLDLs by the liver;

(2) lipolysis of triglyceride-rich lipoproteins by LPL;

(3) receptor-mediated uptake of apoB-containing lipoproteins by the liver;

(4) cellular cholesterol metabolism in the hepatocyte and the enterocyte; and

(5) neutral lipid transfer and phospholipid hydrolysis in the plasma.

Hypocholesterolemia and, to a lesser extent, hypertriglyceridemia have been documented in SCD cohorts worldwide for over 40 years, yet the mechanistic basis and physiological ramifications of these altered lipid levels have yet to be fully elucidated. Cholesterol (TC, HDL-C and LDL-C) levels decreased and triglyceride levels increased in relation to severity of anemia. While not true for cholesterol levels, triglyceride levels show a strong correlation with markers of severity of hemolysis, endothelial activation, and pulmonary hypertension.

Decreased TC and LDL-C in SCD has been documented in virtually every study that examined lipids in SCD adults (el-Hazmi, et al 1987, el-Hazmi, et al 1995, Marzouki and Khoja 2003, Sasaki, et al 1983, Shores, et al 2003, Stone, et al 1990, Westerman 1975),

with slightly more variable results in SCD children. Although it might be hypothesized that SCD hypocholesterolemia results from increased cholesterol utilization during the increased erythropoiesis of SCD, cholesterol is largely conserved through the enterohepatic circulation, at least in healthy individuals, and biogenesis of new RBC membranes would likely use recycled cholesterol from the hemolyzed RBCs. Westerman demonstrated that hypocholesterolemia was not due merely to increased RBC synthesis by showing that it is present in both hemolytic and non-hemolytic anemia (Westerman 1975). He also reports that serum cholesterol was proportional to the hematocrit, suggesting serum cholesterol may be in equilibrium with the cholesterol reservoir of the total red cell mass (Westerman 1975). Consistent with such equilibration, tritiated cholesterol incorporated into sickled erythrocytes is rapidly exchanged with plasma lipoproteins (Ngogang, et al 1989). Thus, low plasma cholesterol appears to be a consequence of anemia itself rather than increased RBC production (Westerman 1975).

Total cholesterol, in particular LDL-C, has a well-established role in atherosclerosis. The low levels of LDL-C in SCD are consistent with the low levels of total cholesterol and the virtual absence of atherosclerosis among SCD patients. Decreased HDL-C in SCD has also been documented in some previous studies(Sasaki, et al 1983, Stone, et al 1990). As in lipid studies for other disorders in which HDL-C is variably low, potential reasons for inconsistencies between studies include differences in age, diet, weight, smoking, gender, small sample sizes, different ranges of disease severity, and other diseases and treatments (Choy and Sattar 2009, Gotto A 2003). Decreased HDL-C and apoA-I is a known risk factor for endothelial dysfunction in the general population and in SCD, a potential contributor in SCD to PH, although the latter effect size might be small (Yuditskaya, et al 2009).

In addition, triglyceride levels have been reported to increase during crisis. Why is increased triglyceride but not cholesterol in serum associated with vascular dysfunction and pulmonary hypertension? Studies in atherosclerosis have firmly established that lipolysis of oxidized LDL in particular results in vascular dysfunction. Lipolysis of triglycerides present in triglyceride-rich lipoproteins releases neutral and oxidized free fatty acids that induce endothelial cell inflammation (Wang, et al 2009). Many oxidized fatty acids are more damaging to the endothelium than their non-oxidized precursors; for example, 13-hydroxy octadecadienoic acid (13-HODE) is a more potent inducer of ROS activity in HAECs than linoleate, the nonoxidized precursor of 13-HODE(Wang, et al 2009). Lipolytic generation of arachidonic acid, eicosanoids, and inflammatory molecules leading to vascular dysfunction is a well-established phenomenon (Boyanovsky and Webb 2009). Although LDL-C levels are decreased in SCD patients, LDL from SCD patients is

more susceptible to oxidation and cytotoxicity to endothelium (Belcher, et al 1999) and an unfavorable plasma fatty acid composition has been associated with clinical severity of SCD (Ren, et al 2006). Lipolysis of phospholipids in lipoproteins or cell membranes by secretory phospholipase A2 (sPLA2) family members releases similarly harmful fatty acids, particularly in an oxidative environment (Boyanovsky and Webb 2009 ) and in fact selective PLA2 inhibitors are currently under development as potential therapeutic agents for atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease(Rosenson 2009). Finally, sPLA2 activity has been linked to lung disease in SCD. sPLA2 is elevated in acute chest syndrome of SCD and in conjunction with fever preliminarily appears to be a good biomarker for diagnosis, prediction and prevention of acute chest syndrome(Styles, et al 2000). The deleterious effects of phospholipid hydrolysis on lung vasculature predicts similar deleterious effects of triglyceride hydrolysis, particularly in the oxidatively stressed environment of SCD.

Elevated triglycerides have been documented in autoimmune inflammatory diseases with increased risk of vascular dysfunction and pulmonary hypertension, including systemic lupus erythematosus, scleroderma, rheumatoid arthritis, and mixed connective tissue diseases(Choy and Sattar 2009, Galie, et al 2005). In fact, triglyceride concentration is a stronger predictor of stroke than LDL-C or TC(Amarenco and Labreuche 2009). Even in healthy control subjects, a high-fat meal induces oxidative stress and inflammation, resulting in endothelial dysfunction and vasoconstriction(O’Keefe, et al 2008). Perhaps having high levels of plasma triglycerides promotes vascular dysfunction, with the clinical outcome of vasculopathy mainly in the coronary and cerebral arteries in the general population, and with more targeting to the pulmonary vascular bed in SCD and autoimmune diseases.

The mechanisms leading to hypocholesterolemia and hypertriglyceridemia in plasma or serum of SCD patients are not completely understood. In normal individuals, triglyceride levels are determined to a significant degree by body weight, diet and physical exercise, as well as concurrent diabetes. Diet and physical exercise very likely impact body weight and triglyceride levels in SCD patients also. These findings indicate that standard risk factors for high triglycerides are also relevant to SCD patients. Mechanisms of SCD-specific risk factors for elevated plasma triglycerides are not as clear. RBCs do not have de novo lipid synthesis (Kuypers 2008). In SCD the rate of triglyceride synthesis from glycerol is elevated up to 4-fold in sickled reticulocytes (Lane, et al 1976), but SCD patients have defects in post absorptive plasma homeostasis of fatty acids (Buchowski, et al 2007). Lipoproteins and albumin in plasma can contribute fatty acids to red blood cells for incorporation into membrane phospholipids (Kuypers 2008), but RBC membranes are not triglyceride-rich and contributions of RBCs to plasma triglyceride levels have not been described. Interestingly, chronic intermittent or stable hypoxia just by exposure to high altitudes, with no underlying disease, is sufficient to increase triglyceride levels in healthy subjects (Siques, et al 2007). Thus, it has also been suggested that hypoxia in SCD may contribute at least partially to the observed increase in serum triglyceride. Finally, there is a known link of low cholesterol and increased triglycerides that occurs in any primate acute phase response, such as infection and inflammation (Khovidhunkit, et al 2004). Perhaps because of their chronic hemolysis, SCD patients have a low level of acute phase response, which is also consistent with the other inflammatory markers. Further studies are required to elucidate the mechanisms leading to hypocholesterolemia and hypertriglyceridemia in SCD.

Pulmonary hypertension is a disease of the vasculature that shows many similarities with the vascular dysfunction that occurs in coronary atherosclerosis (Kato and Gladwin 2008). The similarities and differences are: They both have proliferative vascular smooth muscle cells ‘ just in different vascular beds. They both have an impaired nitric oxide axis, increased oxidant stress, and vascular dysfunction. Most importantly, serum triglyceride levels, previously linked to vascular dysfunction, are definitely shown to correlate with NT-proBNP and TRV and thus, with pulmonary hypertension. Moreover, triglyceride levels are predictive of TRV independent of systolic blood pressure, low transferrin or increased lactate dehydrogenase.

PAH in SCD is also characterized by oxidant stress but in SCD patients plasma total cholesterol (TC) and low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) are low. There have been some reports of low HDL cholesterol (HDL-C)17,18 and increased triglyceride in SCD patients ‘ features widely recognized as important contributory factors in cardiovascular disease. These findings and the therapeutic potential to modulate serum lipids with several commonly used drugs prompted us to investigate in greater detail the serum lipid profile in patients with sickle hemoglobinopathy (SH) coming to our hospital and its possible relationship to vasculopathic complications such as PAH.


Gender and Caste – The Cry for Identity of Women


‘Bodies are just not biological phenomena but a complex social creation onto which meanings have been variously composed and imposed according to time and space’. These social creations differentiate the two biological personalities into Man and Woman and meanings to their qualities are imposed on the basis of gender which defines them as He and She.

The question then arises a woman ‘ who is she? According to me, a woman is the one who is empowered, enlightened, enthusiastic and energetic. A woman is all about sharing. She is an exceptional personality who encourages and embraces. If a woman is considered to be a mark of patience and courage then why even today there is a lack of identity in her personality. She is subordinated to man and often discriminated on gender basis.

The entire life of a woman revolves around the patriarchal existence as she is dominated by her father in the childhood, in the other phase of her life she is dominated by her husband and in the later phase by her son, which gives no space to her own independence.

The psychological and physical identity of a woman is defined through the role and control of men: the terrible trait of father-husband-son. The boundary of women is always restrained by male dominance. Gender discrimination is not only a historical concept but it still has its existence in the contemporary Indian Society.

Indian society in every part of its existence experiences the ferocious gender conflict which is everyday projected in the daily newspapers, news channels or even walking on the streets of Indian society. The horror of patriarchal domination exists in every corner of the Indian society. The role of Indian women has always been declining over the centuries.

Turning the pages of history, in the pre-Aryan India God was female and life was being represented in the form of mother Earth. People worshipped the mother Goddess for fertility symbols. The Shakti cult of Hinduism says women as the source and embodiment of cosmic power and energy. Woman power can also be shown through Goddess Durga who lured her husband Shiva from asceticism.

The religious and social condition abruptly changed when the Aryan Brahmins eliminated the Shakti cult and power was given in the hands of male group. They considered the male deities as the husbands of the female goddess providing the dominance in the hands of the male. Marriage was involvement of male control over female sexuality. Even the identity of mother goddess was dominated by the male gods. As Mrinal Pande writes, ‘to control women, it becomes necessary to control the womb and so Hinduism, Judaism, Islam and Christianity have all Stipulated, at one time or another, that the whole area of reproductive activity must be firmly monitored by law and lawmakers’ .

The issue of identity crisis for a woman

The identity of a woman is erased as she becomes a mere reproductive machine ruled and dominated by male laws. From the time she takes birth she is taught that one day, she has to get married and go to her husband’s house. Neither thus she belongs to her own house nor to her husband’s house leaving a mark on her identity. The Vedic times, however proved to be a boon in the lives of women as they enjoyed freedom of choice in aspect of husbands and could marry at mature age. Widows could remarry and women could divorce.

The segregation of women continued to raise the same question of identity as in the Chandogya Upanishad, a religious text of the pre-Buddhist era, contains a prayer of spiritual aspirants which says ‘May I never, ever, enter that reddish, white, toothless, slippery and slimy yoni of the woman’. During this time control over women included reclusion and exclusion and they were even denied education. Women and shudras were treated as the minority class in the society. Rights and privileges given to women were cancelled and girls were married at a very early age. Caste structure also played a great role as women were now discriminated within their own caste on gender basis.

According to Liddle, women were controlled under two aspects: firstly, they were disinherited from ancestral property, economy and were expected to remain under the domestic sphere known as purdah. The second aspect was the control of men over female sexuality. The death rituals of the family members were performed by the sons and no daughter had the right to fire their parent funeral.

A stifling patriarchal shadow hangs over the lives of ladies all through India. From all areas, ranks and classes of society, ladies are casualty of its oppressive, controlling impacts. Those subjected to the heaviest weight of separation are from the Dalit or “Planned Castes”, referred to in less liberal vote based times as the “Untouchables”. The name may have been banned however pervasive negative mentalities of psyche stay, as do the amazing levels of misuse and subjugation experienced by Dalit ladies. They encounter different levels of segregation and misuse, a lot of which is primitive, debasing, horrifyingly vicious and absolutely obtuse. The divisive position framework ‘ in operation all through India, “Old” and “New” ‘ together with biased sexual orientation demeanors, sits at the heart of the colossal human rights manhandle experienced by Dalit or “outcaste” ladies.

The lower positions are isolated from different individuals from the group, precluded from eating with “higher” standings, from utilizing town wells and lakes, entering town sanctuaries and higher rank houses, wearing shoes or notwithstanding holding umbrellas before higher stations; they are compelled to sit alone and use distinctive porcelain in eateries, restricted from cycling a bike inside their town and are made to cover their dead in a different cemetery. They every now and again confront ousting from their territory by higher “overwhelming” stations, compelling them to live on the edges of towns frequently on fruitless area.

This plenty of preference add up to politically-sanctioned racial segregation, and the time has come ‘ long past due ‘ that the “popularity based” legislature of India authorized existing enactment and cleansed the nation of the guiltiness of position and sexual orientation based separation and abuse.

The strategic maneuver of patriarchy soaks each range of Indian culture and offers ascend to an assortment of unfair practices, for example, female child murder, victimization young ladies and shares related passing. It is a noteworthy reason for misuse and manhandle of ladies, with a lot of sexual brutality being executed by men in positions of force. These reach from higher position men damaging lower rank ladies, particularly Dalit; policemen abusing ladies from poor family units; and military men mishandling Dalit and Adivasi ladies in rebellion states, for example, Kashmir, Chhattisgarh, Jharkhand, Orissa and Manipur. Security faculty are ensured by the generally condemned Armed Forces Special Powers Act, which gifts exemption to police and individuals from the military completing criminal demonstrations of assault and to be sure murder; it was proclaimed by the British in 1942 as a crisis measure, to stifle the Quit India Movement. It is an unreasonable law, which needs canceling.

In December 2012 the intolerable posse assault and mutilation of a 23-year-old paramedical understudy in New Delhi, who consequently kicked the bucket from her wounds, collected overall media consideration, putting a transient focus on the risks, persecution and shocking treatment ladies in India confront each day. Assault is endemic in the nation. With most instances of assault going unreported and numerous being released by police, the genuine figure could be 10 times this. The ladies most at danger of misuse are Dalit: the NCRB gauges that more than four Dalit-ladies are assaulted each day in India. An UN study uncovers that “the lion’s share of Dalit ladies report having confronted one or more episodes of verbal misuse (62.4 for every penny), physical attack (54.8 for each penny), inappropriate behavior and strike (46.8 for each penny), aggressive behavior at home (43.0 for every penny) and assault (23.2 for every penny)”. They are subjected to “assault, attack, seizing, snatching, crime physical and mental torment, shameless movement and sexual misuse.”

The UN found that extensive numbers were deterred from looking for equity: in 17 for each penny of occasions of savagery (counting assault) casualties were blocked from reporting the wrongdoing by the police; in more than 25 for each penny of cases the group ceased ladies recording grumblings; and in more than 40 for each penny ladies “did not endeavor to get legitimate or group solutions for the brutality basically out of apprehension of the culprits or social disrespect if (sexual) viciousness was uncovered”. In just 1 for every penny of recorded cases were the culprits sentenced. What “takes after episodes of viciousness”, the UN found, is “a resonating hush”. The impact with regards to Dalit ladies particularly, however not solely, “is the creation and upkeep of a society of brutality, quiet and exemption”.

Class discrimination faced by women of contemporary time

The Indian constitution clarifies the “rule of non-separation on the premise of rank or sexual orientation”. It promises the “privilege to life and to security of life”. Article 46 particularly “shields Dalit from social unfairness and all types of abuse”. Add to this the imperative Scheduled Castes and Tribes (Prevention of Atrocities) Act of 1989, and an around outfitted administrative armed force is framed. Notwithstanding, in view of “low levels of execution”, the UN expresses, “the procurements that secure ladies’ rights must be viewed as vacant of importance”. It is a commonplace Indian story: legal impassion (and cost, absence of access to lawful representation, interminable formality and obstructive staff), police defilement, and government arrangement, in addition to media lack of interest bringing on the significant hindrances to equity and the perception and implementation of the law.

Not at all like white collar class young ladies, Dalit assault casualties (whose numbers are developing) once in a while get the consideration of the rank/class-cognizant urban-driven media, whose essential concern is to advance a Bollywood gleaming, open-for-business picture of the nation.

A 20-year-old Dalit lady from the Santali tribal gathering in West Bengal was group assaulted, supposedly “on the requests of town senior citizens who questioned her relationship (which had been going ahead in mystery for a long time) with a man from an adjacent town in the Bird hum locale”. The savage occurrence happened while, as indicated by a BBC report, the man went to the lady’s home’ with the proposition of marriage, villagers spotted him and sorted out a kangaroo court. Amid the “procedures” the couple were made to sit with situation is anything but hopeful’ the headman of the lady’s town fined the couple 25,000 rupees (400 US dollars; GBP 240) for “the wrongdoing of experiencing passionate feelings for. The man paid, however the lady’s family were not able pay. Subsequently, the “headman” and 12 of his companions more than once assaulted her. Brutality, abuse and prohibition are utilized to keep Dalit ladies in a position of subordination and to keep up the patriarchal grasp on force all through Indian culture.

The urban areas are unsafe spots for ladies, yet it is in the farmland, where a great many people live (70 for each penny) that the best levels of misuse happen. Numerous living in country zones live in amazing neediness (800 million individuals in India live on under 2.50 dollars a day), with practically no entrance to medicinal services, poor instruction and horrifying or non-existent sanitation. It is a world separated from law based Delhi, or Westernized Mumbai: water, power, majority rule government and the tenet of law are yet to venture into the lives of the ladies in India’s towns, which home, Mahatma Gandhi broadly proclaimed, to the spirit of the nation.

Nothing unexpected, then, that following two many years of monetary development, India winds up moping 136th (of 186 nations) in the (sex fairness balanced) United Nations Human Development record’ Harsh thoughts of sexual orientation imbalance

Indian culture is isolated in numerous ways: position/class, sexual orientation, riches and neediness, and religion. Dug in patriarchy and sex divisions, which esteem young men over young ladies and keep men and ladies and young men and young ladies separated, join with tyke marriage to add to the formation of a general public in which sexual misuse and abuse of ladies, especially Dalit ladies, is an adequate piece of ordinary life.

Sociologically and mentally molded into division, schoolchildren separate themselves along sex lines; in numerous territories ladies sit on one side of transports, men another; unique ladies just carriages have been introduced on the Delhi and Mumbai metro, acquainted with shield ladies from inappropriate behavior or “eve teasing” as it is conversationally known. Such wellbeing measures, while being invited by ladies and ladies’ gatherings, don’t manage the basic reasons for misuse, and as it were may promote kindle them.

Assault, sexual brutality, attack and provocation are overflowing, at the same time, with the special case maybe of the Bollywood Mumbai set, sex is a forbidden subject. A survey by India Today directed in 2011 found that 25 for every penny of individuals had no complaint to sex before marriage, giving it’s not in their family.

Sociological partition energizes sex divisions, bolsters biased generalizations and feeds sexual constraint, which numerous ladies’ association trust represents the high rate of sexual viciousness. A recent report, did by the International Center for Research on Women, of men’s mentalities in India towards ladies created some startling measurements: one in four conceded having “utilized sexual brutality (against an accomplice or against any lady)”, one in five reported utilizing “sexual savagery against a stable [female] accomplice”. Half of men would prefer not to see sexual orientation correspondence, 80 for each penny respect evolving nappies, nourishing and washing youngsters to be “ladies’ work”, and a minor 16 for every penny have influence in family obligations. Added to these repressing states of mind of psyche, homophobia is the standard, with 92 for every penny admitting they would be embarrassed to have a gay companion, or even be in the region of a gay man.

With everything taken into account, India is cursed by an inventory of Victorian sex generalizations, fuelled by a position framework intended to oppress, which trap both men and ladies into molded cells of detachment where ruinous thoughts of sex are permitted to age, bringing about blasts of sexual brutality, misuse and man handle. Investigations of position have started to draw in with issues of rights, assets, and acknowledgment/representation, showing the degree to which position must be perceived as key to the account of India’s political advancement. For instance, researchers are getting to be progressively mindful of the degree to which radical masterminds.

Ambedkar, Periyar, and Phule requested the acknowledgment of histories of misuse, custom derision, and political disappointment as constituting the lives of the lower-ranks, even all things considered histories additionally framed the loaded past from which get away was looked for.

Researchers have indicated Mandal as the developmental minute in the “new” national governmental issues of station, particularly for having radicalized dalitbahujans in the politically critical states of the Hindi belt. Hence Mandal may be an advantageous, despite the fact that overdetermined vantage-indicate from which break down the state’s conflicting and incapable interest in the talk of lower-rank qualification, tossing open to examination the political practices and philosophies that enliven parliamentary vote based system in India as a recorded arrangement.

Tharu and Niranjana (1996) have noticed the perceivability of station also, sexual orientation issues in the post-Mandal connection and depict it as a opposing arrangement. Case in point, there were battles by upper-station ladies to challenge reservations by comprehension them as concessions, and the extensive scale investment of school going ladies in the counter Mandal tumult with a specific end goal to claim meet treatment instead of reservations in battles for sexual orientation equality. On the other hand, lower-position male declaration regularly focused on uppercaste ladies, making an uncertain problem for upper-rank women’s activists who had been professional Mandal. The relationship between standing and sexual orientation never appeared to be more cumbersome. The interest for bookings for ladies (and for further reservations for dalit ladies and ladies from the Backward Class and Other Backward Communities) can likewise be seen as an outgrowth of a restored endeavor to address rank and sex issues from inside the landscape of governmental issues. It may likewise demonstrate the inadequacy of concentrating exclusively on sexual orientation in assembling a measurable “arrangement” to the political issue of perceivability and representation.

Rising out of the 33 for each penny bookings for ladies in nearby Panchayat, and plainly inconsistent with the Mandal dissents that compared reservations with ideas of inadequacy, the late requests for reservations is a stamped move far from the verifiable doubt of bookings for ladies. As Mary John has contended, ladies’ powerlessness must be seen with regards to the political removals t h at imprint the emergence of minorities before the state.

The subject of political representation and the plan of gendered defenselessness are associated issues. As I have contended in my exposition incorporated into this volume, such defenselessness is the characteristic of the gendered subject’s peculiarity. It is that type of harmed presence that brings her inside the edge of political readability as various’yet qualified’for general types of review. All things considered, it is basic to political talks of rights and acknowledgment.

Political requests for bookings for ladies’and for lowercaste ladies’supplement academic endeavors to comprehend the profound cleavages between ladies of various positions that contemporary occasions, for example, Mandal or the Hindutva development have uncovered. In investigating the difficulties postured by Mandal to ruling originations of mainstream selfhood, Vivek Dhareshwar indicated conversions between perusing for and recouping the nearness of position as a hushed open talk in contemporary India, and comparable practices by women’s activists who had investigated the unacknowledged weight of gendered personality.

Dhareshwar recommended that scholars of station and scholars of sex may consider elective affinities in their strategies for examination, and deliberately grasp their trashed personalities (position, sexual orientation) with a specific end goal to attract open thoughtfulness regarding them as political characters. Dhareshwar contended this would demonstrate the degree to which secularism had been kept up as another type of upper-rank benefit, the extravagance of overlooking standing, rather than the requests for social equity by dalitbahujans who were requesting an open affirmation of such benefit.

Women and dalit considered the same

Untouchability and Dalit Ladies’ Oppression,” that “It remains a matter of reflection that the individuals who have been effectively required with arranging ladies experience troubles that are no place tended to in a hypothetical writing whose foundational standards are gotten from a sprinkling of standardizing hypotheses of rights, liberal political hypothesis, a not well educated left governmental issues and all the more as of late, every so often, even a well meaning convention of’entitlements.’ Malik in impact requests that how we are comprehend dalit ladies’ defenselessness.

Rank relations are implanted in dalit ladies’ significantly unequal access to assets of essential survival, for example, water and sanitation offices, and in addition to instructive foundations, open spots, and destinations of religious love. Then again, the material impoverishment of dalits and their political disappointment propagate the typical structures of untouchability, which legitimates upper-station sexual access to dalit ladies. Station relations are likewise changing, and new types of viciousness in autonomous India that objective images of dalit freedom such as the defilement of the statues of dalit pioneers, endeavor to counteract dalits’ socio-political progression by dispossessing land, or deny dalits of their political rights are gone for dalits’ apparent social versatility. These fresher types of brutality are regularly supplemented by the sexual harrassment and attack of dalit ladies, indicating the rank and gendered types of helplessness that dalit ladies experience.

As Gabriele Dietrich notes in her exposition “Dalit Movements and Women’s Movements,”* dalit ladies have been focuses of upper-position savagery. In the meantime, dalit ladies have likewise worked as the “property” of dalit men. Lowercaste men are likewise occupied with an unpredictable arrangement of dreams of requital that include the sexual infringement of upper-station ladies in striking back for their weakening by rank society. The risky organization of dalit ladies as sexual property in both occurrences overdetermines dalit ladies’ character in wording exclusively of their sexual accessibility.

Young ladies: Household Servants

At the point when a kid is conceived in most creating nations, companions and relatives shout congrats. A child implies protection. He will acquire his dad’s property and land a position to bolster the family. At the point when a young lady is conceived, the response is altogether different. A few ladies sob when they discover their infant is a young lady on the grounds that, to them, a girl is simply one more cost. Her place is in the home, not in the realm of men. In some parts of India, it’s conventional to welcome a family with an infant young lady by saying, “The worker of your family has been conceived.”

A young lady can’t resist the urge to feel second rate when everything around her advises her that she is worth not exactly a kid. Her character is fashioned when her family and society confine her chances and proclaim her to be inferior.

A blend of amazing neediness and profound inclinations against ladies makes a callous cycle of separation that keeps young ladies in creating nations from satisfying their maximum capacity. It additionally abandons them helpless against extreme physical and psychological mistreatment. These “hirelings of the family” come to acknowledge that life will never be any diverse.

Most prominent Obstacles Affecting Girls

Oppression young ladies and ladies in the creating scene is an overwhelming reality. It results in a huge number of individual tragedies, which signify lost potential for whole nations. Contemplates show there is an immediate connection between a nation’s disposition toward ladies and its encouraging socially and financially. The status of ladies is fundamental to the strength of a general public. On the off chance that one section endures, so does the entirety.

Grievously, female kids are most exposed against the injury of sexual orientation separation. The accompanying impediments are stark case of what young ladies overall face. However, the uplifting news is that new eras of young ladies speak to the most encouraging wellspring of progress for ladies’and men’in the creating scene today.


In creating nations, the introduction of a young lady causes awesome change for poor families. At the point when there is scarcely enough nourishment to survive, any tyke puts a strain on a family’s assets. Be that as it may, the financial channel of a little girl feels considerably more serious, particularly in areas where endowment is drilled.

Endowment is merchandise and cash a lady of the hour’s family pays to the spouse’s family. Initially planned to help with marriage costs, share came to be seen as installment to the man of the hour’s family to take on the weight of another lady. In a few nations, endowments are indulgent, costing years of wages, and regularly tossing a lady’s family into obligation. The settlement hone makes the possibility of having a young lady considerably more offensive to poor families. It likewise puts young ladies in threat: another lady is helpless before her in-laws if they choose her settlement is too little. UNICEF gauges that around 5,000 Indian ladies are executed in settlement related occurrences every year.


The creating scene is brimming with neediness stricken families who see their girls as a monetary problem. That state of mind has brought about the across the board disregard of child young ladies in Africa, Asia, and South America. In numerous groups, it’s a standard practice to breastfeed young ladies for a shorter time than young men so ladies can attempt to get pregnant again with a kid at the earliest opportunity. Subsequently, young ladies pass up a great opportunity for nurturing nourishment amid an essential window of their advancement, which hinder their development and debilitates their imperviousness to sickness.

Measurements demonstrate that the disregard proceeds as they grow up. Young ladies get less sustenance, medicinal services and less inoculations generally than young men. Very little changes as they get to be ladies. Convention calls for ladies to eat last, regularly decreased to picking over the scraps from the men and young men.

Child murder and Sex-Selective Abortion

In compelling cases, guardians settle on the terrible decision to end their infant young lady’s life. One lady named Lakshmi from Tamil Nadu, a ruined area of India, nourished her child sap from an oleander bramble blended with castor oil until the young lady seeped from the nose and kicked the bucket. “A little girl is dependably liabilities. By what method would I be able to raise a second?” said Lakshmi to disclose why she finished her child’s life. “Rather than her affliction the way I do, I thought it was ideal to dispose of her.”

Sex-specific premature births are much more regular than child murders in India. They are developing always visit as innovation makes it straightforward and shabby to decide an embryo’s sex. In Jaipur, a Western Indian city of 2 million individuals, 3,500 sex-decided premature births are completed each year. The sex proportion crosswise over India has dropped to an unnatural low of 927 females to 1,000 guys because of child murder and sex-based premature births.

China has its own particular long legacy of female child murder. In the most recent two decades, the administration’s notorious one-kid strategy has debilitated the nation’s reputation considerably more. By confining family unit size to restrict the populace, the approach gives guardians only one opportunity to create a desired child before being compelled to pay overwhelming fines for extra youngsters. In 1997, the World Health Organization proclaimed, “‘ more than 50 million ladies were evaluated to miss in China as a result of the standardized slaughtering and disregard of young ladies because of Beijing’s populace control program.” The Chinese government says that sex-specific premature birth is one noteworthy clarification for the amazing number of Chinese young ladies who have just vanished from the populace in the most recent 20 years.


Indeed, even after outset, the risk of physical mischief takes after young ladies for the duration of their lives. Ladies in each general public are helpless against misuse. Be that as it may, the danger is more extreme for young ladies and ladies who live in social orders where ladies’ rights mean for all intents and purposes nothing. Moms who do not have their own particular rights have little assurance to offer their girls, a great deal less themselves, from male relatives and other power figures. The recurrence of assault and vicious assaults against ladies in the creating scene is disturbing. Forty-five percent of Ethiopian ladies say that they have been struck in their lifetimes. In 1998, 48 percent of Palestinian ladies confessed to being manhandled by a personal accomplice inside the previous year.

In some societies, the physical and mental injury of assault is aggravated by an extra shame. In societies that keep up strict sexual codes for ladies, if a lady ventures too far out’by picking her own significant other, being a tease in broad daylight, or looking for separation from an injurious accomplice’she has conveyed disrespect to her family and must be restrained. Regularly, teach implies execution. Families submit “honor killings” to rescue their notoriety polluted by defiant ladies.

Shockingly, this “insubordination” incorporates assault. In 1999, a 16-year-old rationally disabled young lady in Pakistan who had been assaulted was brought before her tribe’s legal guidance. Despite the fact that she was the casualty and her aggressor had been captured, the guidance chose she had conveyed disgrace to the tribe and requested her open execution. This case, which got a ton of reputation at the time, is not uncommon. Three ladies succumb to respect killings in Pakistan consistently’including casualties of assault. In zones of Asia, the Middle East, and even Europe, all obligation regarding sexual wrongdoing falls, as a matter of course, to ladies.


For the young ladies who get away from these pitfalls and grow up moderately securely, day by day life is still unfathomably hard. School may be a possibility for a couple of years, however most young ladies are hauled out at age 9 or 10 when they’re sufficiently helpful to work throughout the day at home. Nine million a bigger number of young ladies than young men pass up a major opportunity for school each year, as indicated by UNICEF. While their siblings keep on going to classes or seek after their leisure activities and play, they join the ladies to do the main part of the housework.

Housework in creating nations comprises of persistent, troublesome physical work. A young lady is prone to work from before dawn until the light depletes away. She strolls unshod long separations a few times each day conveying overwhelming pails of water, undoubtedly contaminated, just to keep her family alive. She cleans, grinds corn, accumulates fuel, tends to the fields, washes her more youthful kin, and gets ready suppers until she takes a seat to her own after every one of the men in the family have eaten. Most families can’t manage the cost of current machines, so her undertakings must be finished by hand’squashing corn into dinner with substantial rocks, cleaning clothing against harsh stones, plying bread and cooking gruel over a rankling open flame. There is no time left in the day to figure out how to peruse and compose or to play with companions. She falls depleted every night, prepared to get up the following morning to begin another long workday.

The greater part of this work is performed without acknowledgment or prize. UN measurements demonstrate that despite the fact that ladies create a large portion of the world’s sustenance, they possess just 1 percent of its farmland. In most African and Asian nations, ladies’ work isn’t viewed as genuine work. Should a lady accept an occupation, she is relied upon to keep up every one of her obligations at home notwithstanding her new ones, with no additional assistance. Ladies’ work goes neglected, despite the fact that it is urgent to the survival of every family.

Sex Trafficking

A few families choose it’s more lucrative to send their girls to a close-by town or city to land positions that more often than not include hard work and little pay. That urgent requirement for money leaves young ladies simple prey to sex traffickers, especially in Southeast Asia, where universal tourism pigs out the illicit business. In Thailand, the sex exchange has swelled without register with a primary part of the national economy. Families in little towns along the Chinese fringe are consistently drawn nearer by scouts called “close relatives” who request their girls in return for a long time’s wages. Most Thai agriculturists win just $150 a year. The offer can be excessively enticing, making it impossible to can’t.


Would it be moral to legalise Euthanasia in the UK?: essay help online

The word ‘morality’ seems to be used in both descriptive and normative meanings. More particularly, the term “morality” can be used either (Stanford Encyclopaedia of Philosophy

1. descriptively: referring to codes of conduct advocated by a society or a sub-group (e.g. a religion or social group), or adopted by an individual to justify their own beliefs,


2. normatively: describing codes of conduct that in specified conditions, should be accepted by all rational members of the group being considered.

Examination of ethical theories applied to Euthanasia

Thomas Aquinas’ natural law considered that morally beneficial actions and the goodness of those actions is assessed against eternal law as a reference point. Eternal law, in his view, is a higher authority and the process of reasoning defines the differences between right and wrong. Natural law thinking is not just concerned with focussed aspects, but considers the whole person and their infinite future. Aquinas would have linked this to God’s predetermined plan for that individual and heaven. The morality of Catholic belief is heavily influenced by natural law. Primary precepts should be considered when considering issues involving euthanasia particularly important key precepts to do good and oppose evil and to preserve life upholding the sanctity of life. Divine law set out in the Bible states that we are created in God’s image and held together by God from our time in the womb. The Catholic Church’s teachings on euthanasia maintain that euthanasia is wrong (Pastoral Constitution, Gaudium et Spes no. 27, 1965) as life is sacred and God-given. (Declaration on Euthanasia 1980). This view can be seen to be just as strongly held and applied today in the very recent case of Alfie Evans where papal intervention in the case was significant and public. Terminating life through euthanasia goes against divine law. Ending life and the possibility of that life bringing love into the world or love coming into the world in response to the person euthanised is wrong. To take a life by euthanasia, according to catholic belief, rejects God’s plan for that individual to live their life. Suicide or intentionally ending life is an equal wrong to murder and as such is to be considered rejection is God’s loving plan (Declaration on euthanasia, 1.3, 1980).

The Catholic Church interprets natural law to mean euthanasia is wrong and that those involved in it are committing a wrongful and sinful act. Whilst the objectives of euthanasia may appear to be good in that they seek to ease suffering and pain they are in fact failing to recognise the greater good of the sanctity of life within God is greater plan and include people other and the person suffering and eternal life in heaven

The conclusions of natural law consider the position of life in general and not just the ending of a single life. An example would be that if euthanasia is lawful older people could become fearful of admission to hospital in case they were drawn into euthanasia. It could also lead to people being attracted to euthanasia at times when they were depressed. This can be seen to attack the principles of living well together in society as good people could be hurt. It also makes some predictions on the slippery slope and floodgates type arguments about hypothetical situations. Euthanasia therefore clearly undermines some primary precepts.

Catholicism accepts the disproportionately onerous treatment is not appropriate towards the end of a person’s life and gives a moral obligation not to strenuously keep a person alive at all costs. An example of this would be the terminally ill cancer patient deciding not to accept further chemotherapy or radiotherapy which could extend their life, but at great cost to quality of that remaining life. Natural law does not seem to prevent them from making these kinds of choices.

There is a doctrine of double effect an example being palliative care with the relief of pain and distress as the objective might have a secondary effect of ending life earlier than if more active treatment options had been pursued. The motivation is not to kill, but rather to ease pain and distress. An example of this is when an individual doctor’s decision to increase opiate drug dosage to the point where respiratory arrest occurs almost inevitably but at all times the intended motivation is the easing of pain and distress. This has on various occasions been upheld as being legally and morally acceptable by the courts and medical watchdogs such as the GMC (General Medical Council).

The catechism of the Catholic Church accepts this and view such decisions as best made by the patient if competent and able and if not by those legally and professionally entitled to act for the individual concerned.

There are other circumstances when the person involved in the process might not be the same type of person as is assumed by natural law. For example, someone with severe brain damage and in a persistent coma or “brain-dead”. In these situations, they may not possess the defining characteristics of a person. This could form justification for euthanasia. The doctors or relatives caring for such a patient may have conflicts of conscience by being unable to show compassion to another and thereby prolong suffering, not only of the patient, but of those surrounding them.

In his book Morals and Medicine published in 1954, Fletcher, the president of the euthanasia Society of America argued that there were no absolute standards of morality in medical treatment and that good ethics demand consideration of patient’s condition and the situation surrounding it.

Fletcher Situation Ethics avoids legalistic consideration of moral decisions. It is anchored only actual situations and specifically in unconditional love for the care of others. When considering euthanasia with this approach it will always “depend upon the situation”.

From the view point of an absolutist, morality is innate from birth. It can be argued that natural law does not change as a result of personal opinions; remaining never changed. Natural law is a positive view with regard to morality as it can be seen to allow people from ranging backgrounds, classes and situations to have sustainable moral laws to follow.

Religious believers also follow the principles of Natural Law as the underlying theology of the law argues the idea that morality remains the same and never changes with an individual’s personal opinions or decisions. Christianity as a religion, has great support amongst its religious believers for there being a natural law of morality. Christian understanding behind this concept has been largely shown to have come as a result of Thomas Aquinas- following his teaching of the close connection of faith and reason being closely related arguments for there being a natural law of morality.

Natural Law has been shown over time to have compelling arguments, one of which being its all-inclusiveness and fixed stature- a contrast to the relative approach to morality. Natural law is objective and is consequently abiding and eternal. It is considered to be within us/innate and is seen to occur as a mixture of faith and reason to go on the form an intelligent and rational being who is faithful in belief of God. Natural law is a part of human nature, commencing from the beginning of our lives when we gain our sense of right and wrong.

However, there are also many disadvantages of natural law with regard to resolving moral problems. They can include, the fact that they are not always self-evident (proving). We are unable to confirm whether there is only one global purpose for humanity. It can be argued that even if humanity had a purpose for its existence, this purpose cannot be seen as self-evident. The perception of natural beings and things is forced to change over generations due to different perceptions, with forms of different times being more fitting with the present culture. It can therefore be argued that absolute morality is changed and altered by cultural beliefs of right and wrong. Some things later on in time being perceived as wrong, leading on to believe that defining what is natural is almost impossible as moral decisions are ever changing. The thought of actuality being better that potentiality, cannot easily transfer to practical ethics. The future holds many potential outcomes, however some of these potential outcomes are ‘wrong’. (Hodder Education, 2016)

Natural law being the best way to resolve moral problems holds a strong argument, however its strict formation means that there is some confusion as to what is right and wrong in certain situations. These views are instead formed by society- not always following the natural law of morality. Darwin’s Theory of Evolution put forward in On The Origin of the Species in 1859, challenged natural law as he put forward the notion that living things strive for survival (survival of the fittest) and supporting his theory of evolution by natural selection. It can be argued that moral problems being solved by natural law may be possible, but not necessarily the best solution.

For many years, euthanasia has been a controversial debate across the globe with different people taking opposing sides and arguing in support of their opinions. Ideally, it is the act of allowing an individual to die in a painless manner by suppressing their medication. Often, these are classified in different forms such as voluntary, involuntary and non-voluntary. However, the legal system has been actively involved in this debate. A major concern put forward is that legalizing any form of euthanasia may lead to slippery slope principle, which holds that permission of anything comparatively harmless today, may begin a trend that results in unacceptable practices. Although one of the popular stands argues voluntary euthanasia is morally acceptable while non-voluntary euthanasia is always wrong, the legal constitution has been split in their decisions in various instances. (Oxford for OCR Religious Studies, 2016)

Voluntary euthanasia is defined by the killing of an individual upon their approval through various ways. The arguments that voluntary euthanasia is morally acceptable are drawn from the expressed desires of a patient. As far as the respect for an individual’s decision does not harm other people, then it is morally correct. Since individuals have the right to make personal choices about their lives, their decisions on how they should die should also be respected. Most, importantly, at times, it remains the only option of assuring the well-being of the patient especially if they are suffering incessant and severe pain. Despite these claims, several cases have emerged, but the court has continued to refuse to uphold the morality of euthanasia irrespective of a victim’s consent. One of these is the case of Diane Pretty who suffered from motor neuron disease. Since she was afraid of dying by choking/aspiration, a common end of life event experienced by many motor neurone disease victims. She sought to have legal assurance that her husband would be free from the threat of prosecution if he assisted her to end her life. Her case went through the Court of Appeal, The House of Lords (the Supreme Court in today’s system) and the European Court of Human Rights. However, due to the concerns raised under the slippery slope principle, the judges denied her request, and she lost the case.

There have been many legal and legislative battles attempting to change the law to support voluntary Euthanasia in varying circumstances. Between 2002 and 2006 Lord Joel Joffe (a Patron of the Dignity in Dying organisation) fought to change the law in the UK to support assisted dying. His first Assisted Dying (Patient) Bill continued to the stage of a second reading (June 2003) however surpassed the time limit to progress to the committee stage. However, Joffe persisted and in 2004 restated his plight with the Assisted Dying for the Terminally Ill Bill which progressed further to the earlier bill to make it to the committee stage in 2006. The committee stated: “In the event that another bill of this nature should be introduced into Parliament, it should, following a formal Second Reading, be sent to a committee of the whole House for examination”. However, unfortunately in May 2006 an amendment at the Second reading lead to the collapse of the bill. This was a surprise to Joffe, with the majority of the select committee on board with the bill. In addition to this calls for a statute supporting voluntary euthanasia have increased and this can be evidenced by the significant numbers of people in recent years travelling to Switzerland where physician assisted suicide is legal under permitted circumstances. Lord Joffe expressed these thoughts in an article written for the campaign for Dignity In Dying cause in 2014 shortly before his death in 2017 in support of Lord Falconer’s Assisted Dying Bill which was a Bill which proposed to permit the “terminally ill, mentally competent adults to have an assisted death after being approved by doctors” (Falconer’s Assisted Dying Bill, Dignity in Dying, 2014). The journey of this bill was followed by the following referenced documentary.

The BBC documentary ‘How to Die: Simon’s Choice’ followed the decline of Simon Binner from motor neurone disease and his subsequent plight for an assisted death. The documentary followed his journey to Switzerland for a legal assisted death and documented the reactions of his surrounding family. During filming of the documentary, a legal bill was being debated in parliament proposing to legalise assisted dying in the United Kingdom. The bill proposed a new law (The Lord Falconers Assisted Dying Bill) which would allow a person to request a lethal injection if they had less that six months left to live, this raised a myriad of issues including precisely defining a life term whereby one has more or less that six months left to live. The Archbishop of Canterbury, Justin Welby urged MP’s to reject the bill stating that Britain would be crossing a ‘legal and ethical Rubicon’ if parliament were to vote to allow the terminally ill to actively be assisted to die at home in the UK under medical supervision. The leaders of the British Jewish, Muslim, Sikh and Christian religious communities wrote a joint open letter to all members of the British parliament urging them to oppose the bill to legalise assisted dying. (The Guardian, 2015). After announcing his death on LinkedIn, Simon Binner died at an assisted dying clinic in Switzerland. The passing of this bill may have been the only way of helping Simon Binner in his home country, although assisted dying was ruled to be unlawful. (Deacon, 2016)

The result of the private members bill, originally proposed by Rob Marris (a Labour MP from Wolverhampton) ended in defeat in 330 MPs against and 118 MPs in favour. (The Financial Times, 2015)

The 1961 Suicide Act (Legislation, 1961) decriminalised suicide, however it didn’t make it morally licit. It outlines that a person who aids, abets, counsels or procures suicide of another/attempt by another to commit suicide shall be liable to be sentenced to a prison term of up to 14 years. It also provided for the situation of a defendant on trial on indictment for murder/manslaughter it is proved that the accused aided, abetted, counselled or procured the suicide of the person in question, the jury could find them guilty of that offence as an alternative verdict.

Many took that the view that the law supports principle of autonomy, but the act was used to reinforce the sanctity of life principle by criminalising any form of assisted suicide. Although the act doesn’t hold the position that all life is equally valuable, there have been cases when allowing a person to die would be the better solution.

In the case of non-voluntary euthanasia, patients are often incapable of giving their approval for death to be induced. It mostly occurs if a patient is either very young, mentally retarded, has an extreme brain damage, or is in a coma. Opponents argue that human life should be respected and in this case, it is even worse because the victim’s wishes are not factored when making decisions to end their life. As a result, it becomes morally wrong irrespective of the conditions that they face. In such a case, all parties involved should wait for a natural death while at the same time according the patient the best palliative medical attention possible. The case of Terri Schiavo who was suffering from bulimia and with an extremely damaged brain falls under this argument. The ruling of the court allowing the request of her husband to have her life terminated triggered heated debates with some arguing that it was wrong while others saw it as a relief since she had spent more than half of her life unresponsive.

I completed primary research in order to support my findings as to whether it would be moral or not to legalise Euthanasia in the UK. With regard to the having an understanding of the correct definition of Euthanasia nine out of ten people who took part in the questionnaire selected the correct definition of physician-assisted suicide being “The voluntary termination of one’s life by administration of a lethal substance with the direct or indirect assistance of a physician” (Medicanet, 2017). The one person who selected the wrong definition believed it to be “The involuntary termination of one’s own life by administration of a lethal substance with the direct or indirect assistance of a physician. The third definition on the questionnaire stated that physician assisted suicide was “The voluntary termination of one’s own life by committing suicide without the help of others”- this definition is the ‘obvious’ incorrect answer and no participant in the questionnaire selected this answer.

The morality of the young should be followed. From the results of my primary research completed by a selected youth audience seventy percent were in agreement that people should have the right to choose when they die. However only twenty percent of this targeted audience were in agreement that they would assist a friend or family member in helping them die. This drop in support can be supported by the fear that prosecution brings of a possible fourteen year imprisonment for assisting in a person’s death.

The effect of the Debbie Purdy case (2009), was that guidelines were established by the Director of Public Prosecutions in England and Wales (Dying or assisted dying isn’t illegal in Scotland however there is no legal way to medically access it). These guidelines were established according to the Director of Public Prosecutions to “clarify what his position is as to the factors that he regards as relevant for and against prosecution” (DID Prosecution Policy, 2010). The guidance policy outlines ‘more likely’ factors as to when prosecution should take place; for prosecution of an assistor the policy outlined that if they had a history of violent behaviour, didn’t know the person, received a financial gain from the act or acted as a medical professional then they were more likely to face prosecution. However despite these factors the policy stated that police and prosecutors of the case should examine any financial gain with a ‘common sense’ approach as many financially benefit from the loss of a loved one, however the fact that they were a close relative being relieved of pain for example should be a larger factor behind assisting someone to die, to be considered in case of prosecution.

Arguments that state voluntary euthanasia is morally right while involuntary euthanasia is wrong, remains as being one of the most controversial issues even in the modern society. It is even more significant because even the legal systems remain split in their ruling in the various cases such as those cited. Based on the slippery slope argument, care should be taken when determining what is morally right and wrong because of the sanctity of human life. Many consider that the law has led to considerable confusion and that one way of developing the present situation is to create a new Act which permitting physician assisted dying, with the proposal stating that there should be a bill to “enable a competent adult who is suffering unbearably as a result of a terminal illness to receive medical assistance to die at his own considered/persistent request… to make provision for a person suffering from a terminal illness to receive pain relief medication” (Assisted Dying for the Terminally ill Bill, 2004).

There is a major moral objection to voluntary euthanasia under the reasoning of the “slippery slope” argument: the fear that what begins as legitimate reasons to assist in a person’s death will also permit death in other illegal circumstances.

In a Letter addressed to The Times newspaper (24/8/04), John Haldane and Alasdair MacIntyre along with other academics, lawyers and philosophers, suggested that any supporters of the Bill change from making the condition one of actual unbearable suffering from terminal illness to merely the fear, discomfort and loss of dignity which terminal illness might bring. In addition, there is an issue of if quality of life is grounds for euthanasia from those who request it therefore it must be open to those who don’t request it or are unable to request it therefore presenting the issue of a slippery slope. Also in the letter addressed to The Times, the esteemed academics referenced Euthanasia in the Netherlands where it is legal. The purpose of this was to infer that many people have dies against their desire due to safeguarding issues. (Hodder Education, 2016)

In conclusion, upon considering different morality arguments on both sides of the debate, I concluded that the two forms of morality (Natural Law and Situation Ethics) would give two opposing responses in relation to the question.

From the viewpoint of a deontologist who would be guided by natural law, duty and obligation arguably from a religion would lead a society to decide that it would be wrong to legalise Euthanasia. However, from the viewpoint of a situational ethicist whose viewpoint would be changeable depending on the independent situation could support the plight to legalise Voluntary Euthanasia in the UK under guidelines to account for differing situations.

After completing my Primary and Secondary Research, considering the passage of many unsuccessful bills put through parliament to legalise euthanasia and many case studies including the moving account of Simon Binner’s fight to die, my own view rests on the side of a situational ethicist who would believe that depending to the independent situation people should be able to have the right to die in their own country by legalising voluntary euthanasia, rather than being forced to travel abroad to access a legal form of voluntary euthanasia and risk their loved ones being prosecuted on their return to the UK for assisting them.

The slippery slope argument does not help those in particular individual situations and it must surely be wrong to shy away from making difficult decisions on the grounds that an individual should sustain prolonged suffering in order to protect society from the possible extended over use of any legalisation. In practice over the past half century some sort of euthanasia has been going on in the UK when doctors give obvious over-dosage of opiates in terminal cases, but have been shielded from the legal consequences by an almost fictional notion that as long as the motivation was to ease and control pain then the inevitable consequence of respiratory arrest (respiratory suppression is a side effect of morphine type drugs), then the action was lawful.

Discredited and now defunct Liverpool Care Pathway for the Dying Patient (LCP) was an administrative tool used as an attempt to assist UK healthcare professionals to manage the care pathway and deciding palliative care options for patients at the very end of life. As with many such tick the-box-exercises individual discretion is restricted in an attempt to standardise practice nationally (Wales was excluded from the LPA). The biggest problem with the LPA (which attracted much adverse media attention and public concern in 2012) was that most patients or their families were not consulted when they were placed on the pathway. It had options for withdrawing active treatment whilst managing distressing symptoms actively. However, removing intravenous hydration/feeding by regarding it as active treatment would inevitably lead to death in a relatively short period of time making the decision to place a patient on the LPA because they were at the end of life a self-fulfilling prophesy. (Liverpool Care Pathway)

There is a chilling consideration of cost of provision of “just in case” boxes at approximately £25 in the last part of this lengthy document should be part of the process of considering what to advise professionals may seem alarming to some. However there is a moral factor in the financial implications of unnecessarily prolonging human life. Should the greater good be considered when deciding to actively permit formal pathways to euthanasia or to take steps to prohibit it (the crimes of murder or assisting suicide). In the recent highly publicised case of Alfie Evans enormous financial resources were used to keep a child with a terminal degenerative neurological disease alive on a paediatric intensive care unit at Alder Hay hospital in Liverpool for around a year. In deciding to do this it is inevitable that those resources were unavailable to treat others who might have gone on to survive and live a life. Huge sums of money were spent both on medical resources and lawyers. The case became a highly media publicised circus resulting in ugly threats made against medical staff at the hospital concerned. There was international intervention in the case by the Vatican and Italy (granting of Italian nationality to the child). Whist the emotional turmoil of the parents was tragic and the case very sad was it moral that their own beliefs and lack of understanding of the medical issues involved should lead to such a diversion of resources and such terrible effects on those caring for the boy?

(NICE (National Institute of Clinical Excellence) guidelines, 2015)

The General Medical Council (GMC) governs the licensing and professional conduct of doctors in the UK. They have produced guidance for doctors regarding the medical role at the end of life Treatment and care towards the end of life: good practice in decision making. It gives comprehensive advice on some of the fundamental issues dealing with the end of life treatment and it covers issues such as living wills (where withdrawal of treatment requests can be set out in writing and in advance). These are binding both professionally, but as ever there are some caveats regarding withdrawal of life prolonging treatment.

It also sets out presumptions of a duty to prolong life and of a patient’s capacity to make decisions along established legal and ethical viewpoints. I particular it is stated that “decisions concerning life prolonging treatments must not be motivated by a desire to bring about a patient’s death” (Good Medical Practice, GMC Guidance to Doctors, 2014)

Formally the Hippocratic Oath was sworn by all doctors and set out a sound basis for moral decision making and professional conduct. In modern translation from the original ancient Greek it states with regard to medical treatment that a doctor should never treat “….. with a view to injury and wrong-doing. Neither will [a doctor] administer a poison to anybody when asked to do so, nor will [a doctor] suggest such a course. Doctors in the UK do not swear the oath today, but most of its principles are internationally accepted except perhaps in the controversial areas surrounding abortion and end of life care.

(Hippocratic Oath, Medicanet)

In conclusion, upon considering different morality arguments on both sides of the debate, I concluded that the two forms of morality (Natural Law and Situation Ethics) would give two opposing responses in relation to the question.

From the viewpoint of a deontologist who would be guided by natural law, duty and obligation arguably from a religion would lead a society to decide that it would be wrong to legalise Euthanasia. However, from the viewpoint of a situational ethicist whose viewpoint would be changeable depending on the independent situation could support the plight to legalise Voluntary Euthanasia in the UK under guidelines to account for differing situations.

After completing my Primary and Secondary Research, considering the passage of many unsuccessful bills put through parliament to legalise euthanasia and many case studies including the moving account of Simon Binner’s fight to die, my own view rests on the side of a situational ethicist who would believe that depending to the independent situation people should be able to have the right to die in their own country by legalising voluntary euthanasia, rather than being forced to travel abroad to access a legal form of voluntary euthanasia and risk their loved ones being prosecuted on their return to the UK for assisting them.

At the end of the day, much of the management of the end of life of patients is not determined by the stipulations laid out by committees in lengthy documents, but by the individual treatment decisions made by individual doctors and nurses who are almost always acting in the best interests of patients and their families. The methodology of accelerating the inevitable event by medication or withdrawal of treatment is almost impossible to standardise across a hospital or local community care setup, let alone a country. It may be a better way to continue the practice of centuries and let the morality and conscience of the treating professions determine what happens and keep the formal moral, religious and legal factors involved in such areas in the shadows.


Has the cost of R & D impacted vaccine development for Covid-19?


This report will be investigating and trying to answer the question of: ‘To what extent have the cost requirements of R&D, structure of the industry and government subsidy affected firms in the pharmaceutical industry in developing vaccines for Covid-19?’. The past two years have been very unpredictable for the pharmaceutical industry regarding the breakout of the COVID-19 pandemic. Despite the fact that the pharmaceutical industry has made major contributions to human wellbeing with regards to the reduction of suffering and ill health for over a century, the industry still remains one of the least trusted industries based on public opinions. It is even often compared to the nuclear industry in terms of trustworthiness. Despite being one of the riskiest industries to invest money into, governments have subsidised billions into the production of the COVID-19 vaccines. Regardless of the fact of the associated risks that come with pharmaceuticals, a big part of the public still thinks pharmaceuticals should continue to be produced and developed in order to provide the correct treatment to those with existing health issues (Taylor, 2015). This along with further aspects affecting the requirements of R&D, structure of the industry and government subsidy and how these have affected firms in the pharmaceutical industry with regards to the development of the COVID-19 vaccines will be discussed further in the report.

The Costs of R&D

Back in 2019, $83 billion was spent on R&D. That figure alone is roughly 10 times greater than what the industry spent on R&D in the 1980s. Most of this amount was dedicated to testing and discovering new drugs and clinical testing with regards to safety of the drug. In 2019 drug companies dedicated a quarter of their annual income to R&D which is also an increase of almost double since the early 2000s.

(Pharmaceutical R&D Expenditure Shows Significant Growth, 2019)

Usually the amount spent on R&D of a new drug by drug companies is based on the financial return they expect to make, any policies influencing the supply and demand for drugs and the cost of developing these drugs.

Most drugs that have been approved recently have been specialty drugs. These are drugs that typically treat issues such as complex, chronic or rare conditions and can require patient monitoring. However, specialty drugs are very expensive to develop, pricey for the customer and hard to remake (Research and Development in the Pharmaceutical Industry, 2021).

Government subsidies for the COVID-19 vaccines

There are two main ways in which a federal government can have a direct impact in supporting vaccine development. This is either done by making a promise to purchase a successful vaccine in advance once the firm has successfully achieved its specified goal with the vaccine, or they can cover any costs associated with the R&D of the vaccine.

(Which Companies Received The Most Covid-19 Vaccine R&D Funding?, 2021)

The Department of Health and Human Services in the month of May 2020, launched ‘Operation Warp Speed’. This was a collaborative project in which the FDA, the Department of Defence, the National Institutes of Health and the Centre for Disease Control and Prevention all worked together to provide funding for the COVID-19 vaccine development. Through ‘Operation Warp Speed’, more than $19 billion was provided in funding by the federal government to help seven different private pharmaceutical manufacturers in the development and research of COVID-19 vaccines. A further five out of seven of those went on to accept further funding in order to help these companies boost the production capabilities of the vaccines. Later a sixth company accepted funding in order to help boost the production of another company’s vaccines as they received authorization for emergency use. Then six of the seven also made a deal for an advance purchase. Two of these companies received additional funding as they sold more doses than they expected to during the advance purchase agreements, in order for them to develop even more vaccines to distribute. Due to the simultaneous execution of combining numerous stages of development that in normal cases would be developed in consecutive order, it allowed pharmaceutical manufacturers to reach their end goal and manufacture vaccines at a rate a lot higher than normal when it comes to vaccines. This was done due to the urgency of a solution to the COVID-19 pandemic, as it was starting to cause public uproar and panic amongst nations. As soon as the first COVID-19 diagnoses was made in the US, two vaccines were already at Phase III clinical trials, and this is immensely quick, as it would usually take around a few years of research in order to reach Phase III in clinical trials for a vaccine. The World Health Organisation claims that there were already over 200 COVID-19 vaccine development candidates in the time period of February 2021 (Research and Development in the Pharmaceutical Industry, 2021).

(Research and Development in the Pharmaceutical Industry, 2021)

The image above shows what vaccines were at which stage of development during what time period. This shows the urgency that was there in order to develop and produce these vaccines to fight the outbreak of the coronavirus. Without these government subsidies, firms would have been nowhere near completing the research and development needed in order to produce numerous COVID-19 vaccines. This shows the importance that government subsidies have on the pharmaceutical industry and the development of new drugs and vaccines.

Impact of the structure of the pharmaceutical industry on vaccine development

When it came to the development of the COVID-19 vaccines, many different names in the pharmaceutical industry took part. Now as far as the majority of society is concerned, the pharmaceutical industry is just a small group of large multinational corporations such as GlaxoSmithKline, Novartis, AstraZeneca, Pfizer and Roche. These are frowned upon by the public as they are stereotyped to be the ‘Big Pharma’ and so they can be misleading. Many people have their if’s and doubts about these big multinational corporations especially when they have such an influence on their health and the drugs they develop. It becomes hard for the public to rely and trust these companies because at the end of the day it is their health that they are trusting these companies with. So therefore it is logical that a lot of people will have had and still do have their suspicions about the COVID-19 vaccines developed by a handful of these companies. If you were to ask someone whether or not they have ever heard of companies like Mylan or Teva, they would probably have no clue about them even though Teva is the world’s 11th biggest pharmaceutical company and probably produces the medicine that these people take on a regular basis. The fact that over 90% of pharmaceutical companies are basically almost invisible to the general public obviously means that when it does become known to the public who has manufactured a medicine they are considering taking, for example the Pfizer vaccine, people are going to be careful and suspicious about taking this vaccine as they have probably never heard of the company Pfizer before. All this, despite it being that these companies are responsible for producing a majority of the medicines that everyone takes.

Most new drugs that are produced never even make it onto the market as the drug is found to not work or to have serious side effects, making it unethical to use on patients. However, the small percentage of drugs that do make it onto the market are patented, meaning that the original manufacturer only holds temporary rights to sell the product. Once this has expired, the pharmaceutical is free to sell and manufacture by anyone, meaning it is now a generic pharmaceutical (Taylor, 2015).

This again does not help research pharmaceutical companies, as their developments which are now out of patent, are just being sold by generic pharmaceutical companies where everyone goes to buy their pharmaceuticals. This means generic pharmaceutical companies basically never have a failed product and the research companies are barely able to create a successful product to make it out onto the market. This again causes the public to not even know that the majority of drugs they buy come from these research companies and are not originally procured by the generic pharmaceutical company they buy them from.

As seen with the COVID-19 vaccines, this caused a lot of uncertainty and distress amongst the public as most people had never even heard of companies like ‘Pfizer’ or ‘AstraZeneca’. This in turn made it more difficult for pharmaceutical companies to successfully manufacture and sell their vaccine, prolonging the whole vaccination process.

Due to this structure of the pharmaceutical industry, it has affected firms greatly in their ability to successfully and reliably manufacture vaccines against COVID-19.


Looking at the three factors combined: cost requirements of R&D, structure of the industry and government subsidy, it is clear that these have all had a great impact in the development of the COVID-19 vaccines. The costs associated with R&D in the development of the COVID-19 vaccines, essentially determines how successful the vaccines would be and whether or not they would have enough to first of all do the needed research and then to finally produce and sell them. Without the large number of costs that go into the development of vaccines and other drugs, the COVID-19 vaccines will have never been able to be manufactured and sold. This will have left the world in even more panic and uproar than it was/is. If this would’ve happened, it can easily have a ripple effect on economies, social factors and maybe even potentially other factors such as environmental factors.

One of the biggest impacts on the successful manufacturing and sale of the vaccines was to do with the structure of the industry. With big research pharmaceutical companies putting in all the work and effort to develop these COVID-19 vaccines but with most of the general public not ever even having heard of them before, it made it very hard for pharmaceutical companies to come across as reliable. People didn’t trust the vaccines as they had never heard of the company who developed it, such as Pfizer. This caused debate and protest against these vaccines, making it harder for companies to produce and successfully sell their vaccines to the public who were in need of them and demanded them. This was due to one major flaw in the pharmaceutical industry, which is the fact that companies such as Pfizer and AstraZeneca are kept under the rug and are barely even known by the public as all their products are just taken and sold on by generic pharmaceutical companies where people can buy them from. It also has to do with the fact that research pharmaceutical companies specialise in advanced drugs and not in more generic drugs which are more likely to be successful as they are easier to develop. So naturally the lack of successful products produced will reflect negatively on these companies although the one product they do successfully produce will also be frowned upon due to its previously non viable products.

Then finally, probably the second or joint most important factor is government subsidies. It is quite clear that without the correct government funding and without ‘Operation Warp Speed’ we’d still be in the process of trying to develop even the first COVID-19 vaccine as there will have been nowhere near enough funding for the R&D of the vaccines. This would’ve resulted in the death rate of coronavirus infections to spike, and will have probably put the economy on a complete standstill putting a large number of people out of work. All of this has numerous ripple effects, as just the one issue of loss of work could spike the poverty rate immensely, leaving economies broken. So overall, these three factors have had a huge impact on firms in the pharmaceutical industry in developing the COVID-19 vaccines.


Gender in Design: essay help free

Gender has always had a dominant place in design. Kirkham and Attfield in their 1996 book, The Gendered Object, set out that in their view that there are attributable genders which seem to be unconsciously attached to some objects as the norm. Making the distinction between how gender is viewed in modern day design compared to twenty plus years ago is now radically different in that there is now recognition of this normalization. Having international companies recognise this change and adapt their brands and companies to relate to this modern day approach influences designers like myself to keep up to date and affect my own work.

When designing there is Gender system some people tend to follow very strictly, the system is a guide that works with values that reveals the gender formation in mankind. In the gender system you have binary opposition which takes action in colour, size, feeling and shape, for example pink/blue, small/large, smooth/rough and organic/geometric. Without even thinking the words give off synonyms of male or female without even putting them in context. Gender’s definition is traditionally Male or Female but modern day brands are challenging and pushing these established boundaries. They don’t think they should be restrictive or prescriptive as they have been in the past. Kirkham and Attfield challenge this by comparing perceptions in the early twentieth century illustrating that the societal norms were the opposite to what we are now made to believe by gender norms. A good example of this is the crude binary opposition implicit in ‘pink for a little girl and blue for a boy’ was only established in the 1930’s; babies and parents managed perfectly well without such colour coding before then. Today through marketing and product targeting these ‘definitions’ are even more widely used in the design and marketing of children clothes and objects than a few years ago. Importantly, such binary oppositions also influence those who purchase objects, and, in this case, facilitate the pleasures of many adults take in seeing small humans visibly marked as gendered beings. This is now being further challenged by the demands for non-binary identification.

This initial point made by Kirkham and Attfield in 1996 is still valid. Even though the designers and brands are in essence guilty of forms of discrimination by falling in line with using the established gender norms, they do it because it’s what their consumers want and how they see development of business and creation of profit, because these stereotypical ‘Norms’ are seen to be Normal, acceptable and sub-consciously recognisable. “Thus we sometimes fail to appreciate the effects that particular notions of femininity and masculinity have on the conception, design, advertising, purchase, giving and uses of objects, as well as on their critical and popular reception”. (Kirkham and Attfield. 1996. The Gendered Object, p. 1).

With the help of the product language, gendered toys and clothes appear from an early age. The products are sorted as being ‘for girls’ and ‘for boys’ in the store as identified by Ehrnberger, Rasanen, Ilstedt, in 2012 in the article ‘Visualising Gender Norms in Design. International Journal of Design’. Product language is mostly used in the branding aspect of design, how a product or object is portrayed, it’s not only what the written language says. Product language relates to how the object is being showcased and portrayed through colours, shapes and patterns. A modern example of this is the branding for a Yorkie chocolate bar. Their slogan was publicly known as being gender bias towards mens. ‘Not for girls’, there is no hiding the fact that the language the company are using is being targeted at men because they are promoting a brand that is strong, chunky and ‘hard’ in an unsophisticated way which all have connotations of being ‘male’ and actually arguably as ‘alpha male’ to make it more attractive to men. Their chosen colours also suggest this with using navy blue, dark purple, yellow and red which are bold and is typically a ‘male’ generated pallette. Another example would be the advertisement of tissues. Tissues no matter where you buy them do the exact same thing irrespective of gender so why are some tissues being targeted at woman and some at men, could it be that this gender targeting be avoiding neutrality helps sell more tissues.

Product Language is very gender specific when it comes to clothing brands and toys for kids. “Girls should wear princess dresses, play with dolls and toy housework products, while boys should wear dark clothes with prints of skulls or dinosaurs, and should play with war toys and construction kits”. (Ehrnberger, Rasanen, Ilstedt, 2012. Visualising Gender Norms in Design. International Journal of Design). When branding things for children having the separation between girl and boy is extremely common, using language like ‘action’ which has male connotations or ‘princess’ which has female connotations appeals to the consumer because they are relatable words to them and to their children as well. In modern society most people find it difficult not to identify blue for boys and pink for girls especially from newborns. If you were to walk into any department store/ toy store or any store that caters to children you will see the separation between genders no matter if it is clothes to toys or anything in between. The separation is so obvious through the colour branding used. Girl side, pink, yellow, lilac are used, soft bright happy colours being used on toy babies and dolls to hats and scarfs. Conversely on the boys side blue, green and black, bold, dark, more primary colours being used for trucks to a pair of trousers.

Some companies have begun to notice how detrimental the separation is developing into and how it could possibly create a hold in advancing and opening up our society, example being John Lewis Partnership.

John Lewis is a massive department store, that has been in business for nearly fifty years. In 2017 they decided to scrap the girls section and boys sections for the clothing range in their store, and name it ‘Childs wear’ a gender neutral name. Allowing them to design clothing that allows children to wear whatever they want without being told ‘no, that is a boys top you can’t wear that because you’re a girl’ or vice versa. Caroline Bettis, head of children’s wear at John Lewis, said: “We do not want to reinforce gender stereotypes within our John Lewis collections and instead want to provide greater choice and variety to our customers, so that the parent or child can choose what they would like to wear”. Possibly the only issue with this stance is the price point, John Lewis is typically known for being a higher priced, high street store which means it isn’t accessible for everyone to shop there. Campaign group Let Clothes be Clothes commented on this “Higher-end, independent clothing retailers have been more pro-active at creating gender-neutral collections, but we hope unisex ranges will filter down to all price points. We still see many of the supermarkets, for example, using stereotypical slogans on their clothing,” (

Having a very well-known brand make this move should only enforce, encourage and inspire others to join in with the development. This change is a bold way of using Product language, even though it’s not for just one specific thing its advertising and marketing as well, meaning it is a whole rebrand of company, by not using gender specific words it takes away the automatic stereotypes you get when buying anything for children.

Equality is the state of being equal, be it in status, rights or opportunities, so when it comes to design why does this attribute get forgotten about. This isn’t a feminist rant, gender equality is affected in both male and females in the design world, when designing, everything should be equal and fair to both sexes. “Gender equality and equity in design is often highlighted, but it often results in producing designs that highlight the differences between men and women, although both the needs and characteristics vary more between individuals than between genders” (Hyde 2005). Hyde’s point is still contemporary and relevant, having gender equality in design is very important, but gender isn’t the sole issue, things can be designed for a specific gender but even if you are female you might not relate to the gender specific clothes for your sex. Design is to make and create something for someone or thing, not just gender. “Post- feminism argues that in an increasingly fragmented and diverse world, defining one’s identity as male or female is irrelevant, and can be detrimental”. (

Recently many more up and coming independent brands and companies have been launching Unisex clothing brands for a multiple of years, most have been doing it and pushing the movement well before the topic of gender equality in design got into mainstream media as an issue. One company pushing out gender norms is Toogood London and another is GFW, Gender Free World. Gender Free World is a company that was created by a group of people who all think on the same wavelength when it comes to equality in gender. In fact their ‘Mission Statement’ sets this out as a core ethos (which incidently is obviously an influence on John Lewis when you look at the transferability of the phraseology) “GFW Clothing was founded in 2015 (part of Gender Free World Ltd) by a consortium of like-minded individuals who passionately believe that what we have in our pants has disproportionately restricted the access to choice of clothing on the high street and online.” Lisa Honan is the cofounder of GFW, her main reason for starting a company like this was through ‘sheer frustration’ due to the lack of options for her taste and style on the market, with this she has shopped in male and female departments but never found anything fitted either especially if she was going for a male piece of clothing. During an interview with Honan by Saner she commented that the men’s shirts didn’t fit her because she had a woman’s body and iIt got her thinking, ‘ why is there a man’s aisle and a woman’s aisle, and why do you have to make that choice?’. She saw that you’re not able to make many purchases without being forced to define your own gender and this is reinforcing the separation between genders in fashion, if she feels this way many others must too, and they do or there wouldn’t be such a potential big business opportunity for it.

In my design practice of Communication Design, gender plays a huge role. Be it from colour choices, to certain typefaces being used, most work Communication designers need to create and produce, will either be to represent a brand or to actually brand a company, so when choosing options, potential gender stereotyping should come into consideration. The points mentioned above, showing how using the gender system, product language, gender norms and having equality and equity in design, reinforces graphic designers in a cautionary manner not to not fall down any pit holes when designing.

Designing doesn’t mean simply male or female, designing means to create and produce ‘something’ for ‘someone’ no matter their identifiable or chosen gender. If they are a company producing products targeted specifically at men and after a robust design concept examination I felt that using blue would enhance their brand and awareness to their target demographic then blue would be used, in just the same way using pink for them if it works for the customer, then put simply it works.

To conclude, exploring the key points of gender in the design world, only showcases the many issues there are.


The stigma surrounding mental illness: essay help free

Mental illness is defined as a health problem resulting from complex interactions between an individual’s mind, body and environment which can significantly affect their behavior, actions and thought processes. A variety of mental illnesses exist, impacting the body and mind differently, whilst affecting the individual’s mental, social and physical wellbeing to varying degrees. A range of psychological treatments have been developed in order to assist people living with mental illness, however social stigma can prevent individuals from successfully engaging with these treatments. Social or public stigma is characterized by discriminatory behavior and prejudicial attitudes towards people with mental health problems resulting from the psychiatric label they possess (Link, Cullen, Struening & Shrout, 1989). The stigma surrounding labelling oneself with a mental illness causes individuals to hesitate in regards to seeking help as well as resistance to treatment options. Stigma and its effects can vary depending on demographic factors including age, gender, occupation and community. There are many strategies in place to attempt to reduce stigma levels which focus on educating people and changing their attitudes towards mental health.

Prejudice, discrimination and ignorance surrounding mental illnesses results in a public stigma which has a variety of negative social effects towards individuals with mental health problems (Thornicroft et al 2007). An understanding of how stigma can be gained through the Attribution Model which identifies four steps involved in the formation of a stigma (Link & Phelan, 2001). The first step in the formation of a stigma is ‘labelling’, whereby key traits are recognized as portraying a significant difference. The next step is ‘stereotyping’ whereby these differences are defined as undesirable characteristics followed by ‘Separating’ which makes a distinction between ‘normal’ people versus the stereotyped group. Stereotypes surrounding mental illnesses have been developing for centuries, with early beliefs being that individuals suffering from mental health problems were possessed by demons or spirits. ‘Explanations’ such as these, promoted discrimination within the community, preventing individuals from admitting any mental health problems due to a fear of retribution (Swanson, Holzer, Ganju & Jono, 1990). The final step in the Attribution model described by Link and Phelan is ‘Status Loss’ which leads to the devaluing and rejection of individuals in the labelled group (Link & Phelan, 2001). An individual’s desire to avoid the implications of public stigma causes them to avoid or drop out of treatment for fear of being associated with negative stereotypes (Corrigan, Druss and Perlick, 2001). One of the main stereotypes surrounding mental illness, especially depression, and Post Traumatic Stress Disorder is that people with these illnesses are dangerous and unpredictable (Wang & Lai, 2008). Wang and Lai carried out a survey whereby 45% of participants considered people with depression as dangerous, however these results maybe subject to some reporting bias, yet a general inference can be made. Another survey found that a large proportion of people also confirmed that they were less likely to employ someone with mental health problems (Reavley & Jorm, 2011). This study highlights how public stigma can affect employment opportunities, consequently creating a greater barrier for anyone who would benefit from seeking treatment.

Certain types of stigma are unique and consequently more severe to certain groups within society. Approximately 22 soldiers or veterans commit suicide every day in the United States due to Post Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) and depression. A study was performed surveying soldiers and found that out of all the people who met the criteria for a mental illness, only 38% would be interested in receiving help and only 23-30% actually ended up receiving professional help (Hoge et al, 2004). There is an enormous stigma surrounding mental illness within the military, due to their high values in mental fortitude, strength, endurance and self sufficiency (Staff, 2004). A soldier who admits to having mental health problems is deemed as not adhering to these values thus appearing weak or dependent, therefore placing a greater pressure on the individual to deny or hide any mental illness. Another contributor to soldiers avoiding treatment is a fear of social exclusion as it is common in military culture for some personnel to socially distance themselves from soldiers with mental health problems (Britt et al, 2007). This exclusion is due to the stereotype that mental health problems make a soldier unreliable, dangerous and unstable. Surprisingly, individuals with mental health problems who seek treatment are deemed more emotionally unstable than those who do not, thus the stigma surrounding therapy creates a barrier for individuals to start or continue their treatment (Porath, 2002). Furthermore, soldiers are also faced with the fear that seeking treatment will negatively affect their career, both in and out of the military, with 46 percent of employers considering PTSD as an obstacle when hiring veterans in a 2010 survey (Ousley, 2012). The stigma associated with mental illness in the military is extremely detrimental to the soldiers’ wellbeing as it prevents them from seeking or successfully engaging in the treatment for mental illnesses which have tragic consequences.

Adolescents and young adults with mental illness have the lowest rate for seeking professional help and treatment, despite the high occurrence of mental health problems. (Rickwood, Deane & Wilson, 2007). Adolescents’ lack of willingness to seek help and treatment for mental health problems is catalyzed by the anticipation of negative responses from family, friends and school staff. (Chandra & Minkovitz, 2006). A Queensland study of people aged 15–24 years showed that 39% of the males and 22% of the females reported that they would not request help for emotional or distressing problems (Donald, Dower, Lucke & Raphael, 2000). A 2010 survey of adolescents with mental health problems found that 46% described experiencing feelings of distrust, avoidance, pity and prejudice from family members. This portrays how negative family responses and attitudes impact an individual by creating a significant barrier to seeking help (Moses, 2010). Similarly, a study on adolescent depression also noted that teenagers who felt more stigmatized, particularly within the family, were less likely to seek treatment (Meredith et al., 2009). Furthermore, adolescents with unsupportive parents would struggle to pay expenses for treatment and transportation, further preventing successful treatment of the illness. Unfortunately, the generation of stigma is not unique to just family members, adolescents also report having felt discriminated by peers and even school staff (Moses, 2010). The main step to seeking help and engaging in treatment for mental illness is to acknowledge that there is a problem and to be comfortable enough to disclose this information to another person (Rickwood et al, 2005). However, in another 2010 study of adolescents, many expressed fear of being bullied by peers, subsequently leading to secrecy and shame (Kranke et al., 2010). The role of public stigma in generating this shame and denial is significant and thus can be defined as a factor in preventing adolescents from seeking support for their mental health problems. A 2001 study testing the relationship between adherence to medication (in this case, antidepressants) and perceived stigma levels determined that individuals who accepted the antidepressants were found to have lower perceived stigma levels (Sirey et al, 2001). This empirical data clearly illustrates the correlation between public stigma levels and an individual’s engagement in treatment, thus inferring that stigma remains a barrier for treatment. Public stigma can therefore be defined as a causative factor in the majority of adolescents not seeking support or treatment for their mental health problems.

One of the main strategies performed by society to assist in the reduction of the public stigma surrounding mental illness is education. Educating people about the common misconceptions of mental health challenges the inaccurate stereotypes and substitutes them with factual information (Corrigan et al., 2012). There is sufficient proof that people who have more information about mental health problems are less stigmatizing than people who are misinformed about them (Corrigan & Penn, 1999). The low cost and far-reaching nature are beneficial aspects of the educational approach. Educational approaches are often carried out on adolescents as it is believed that by educating children about mental illness, stigma can be prevented from emerging in adulthood (Corrigan et al., 2012). A 2001 study testing the effect of education on 152 students found that levels of stigmatization were lessened following the implementation of the strategy (Corrigan et al, 2001). However, it was also determined that by combining a contact based approach with the educational strategy would yield the highest levels of stigma reduction. Studies have also shown that a short educational program can be effective at reducing individuals’ negative attitudes toward mental illness and increases their knowledge on the issue (Corrigan & O’Shaughnessy, 2007). The effect of an educational strategy varies depending on what type of information is being communicated towards people. The information provided should deliver realistic descriptions of mental health problems and their causes as well as emphasizing the benefits of treatment. By delivering accurate information to people, the negative stereotypes surrounding mental illness can be decreased and the publics views on the controllability and treatment of psychological problems can be altered (Britt et al, 2007). Educational approaches mainly focus on improving knowledge and attitudes surrounding mental illness and do not focus directly on changing behavior. Therefore, a link cannot be clearly made as to whether educating people actually reduces discrimination. Although this remains a major limitation in today’s society, educating people at an early age can ensure that in the future discrimination and stigmatization will decrease. Reducing the negative attitudes surrounding mental illness can encourage those suffering from mental health problems to seek help. Providing individuals with correct information regarding the mechanisms and benefits of treatment, such as psychotherapy or drugs like antidepressants, increases their own mental health literacy and therefore increases the likelihood of seeking treatment (Jorm and Korten, 1997). People who are educated about mental health problems are less likely to believe or generate stigma surrounding mental illnesses and therefore contribute to reducing stigma which in turn will increase levels of successful treatment for themselves or other individuals.

The public stigma surrounding mental health problems is defined by negative attitudes, prejudice and discrimination. This negativity in society is very debilitating towards any individual suffering from mental illness and creates a barrier for seeking out help and engaging in successful treatment. The negative consequences of public stigma for individuals is to be excluded, not considered for a job or for friends and family to become socially distant. By educating people about the causes, symptoms and treatment of mental illnesses, stigma can be reduced as misinformation is usually a key factor in the promotion of harmful stereotypes. An individual will more likely engage in successful treatment if they are accepting of their illness and if stigma is reduced.


Frederick Douglass, Malcolm X and Ida Wells

Civil Rights are “the rights to full legal, social, and economic equality” . Following the American Civil War, slavery was officially abolished December 6th, 1865 in the United States of America (US). The Fourteenth and Fifteenth Amendments established a legal framework for political equality for African Americans; many thought that this would lead to equality between white and blacks however this was not the case. Despite slavery’s abolition Jim Crow racial segregation in the South meant that blacks would be denied political rights and freedoms and they would continue to live in poverty and inequality. It took nearly 100 years of campaigning until the Civil Rights and Voting Rights Acts were passed, making it illegal to discriminate based on race, colour, religion, sex or national origin and ensuring minority voting rights. Martin Luther King was prominent in the Modern Civil Rights Movement (CRM), playing a key role in legislative and social change. His assassination in 1968 marked the end of a distinguished life helping millions of African Americans across the US. The contribution played by black activists including political Frederick Douglass, militant Malcolm X and journalist Ida Wells throughout the period will be examined from a political, social and economic, perspective. When comparing their significance to that of King, consideration must be given to the time in which activists were operating and to prevailing social attitudes. Although King was undeniably significant it was the combined efforts of all the black activists and the mass protest movement in the mid-20th century that eventually led to African Americans gaining civil rights.

The significance of King’s role is explored through Clayborne Carson’s, ‘The Papers of Martin Luther King’ (Appendix 1). Carson, a historian at Stanford University, suggests that “the black movement would probably have achieved its major legislative victory without King’s leadership” Carson does not believe King was pivotal in gaining civil rights, but that he quickened the process. The mass public support shown in the March on Washington, 1963, suggests that Carson is correct in arguing that the movement would have continued its course without King. However, it was King’s oratory skill in his ‘I have a Dream’ speech that was most significant. Carson suggests key events would still have taken place without King. “King did not initiate…” the Montgomery bus boycott rather Rosa Parks did. His analysis of the idea of a ‘mass movement’ furthers his argument of King’s less significant role. Carson suggests that ‘mass activism’ in the South resulted from socio-political forces rather than ‘the actions of a single leader’. King’s leadership was not vital to the movement gaining support and legislative change would have occurred regardless. The source’s tone is critical of his significance but passive in the dismissal of King’s role. Phrases such as “without King” are used to diminish him in a less aggressive manner. Carson, a civil rights historian with a PhD from UCLA has written books and documentaries including ‘Eyes on the Prize’ and so is qualified to judge. The source was published in 1992 in conjunction with King’s wife, Coretta, who took over as head of the CRM after King’s assassination and extended its role to include women’s rights and LGBT rights. Although this may make him subjective, he attacks King’s role suggesting he presents a balanced view. Carson produced his work two decades after the movement and three decades before the ‘Black Lives Matter’ marches of the 21st century, and so was less politically motivated in his interpretation. The purpose of his work was to edit and publish the papers of King on behalf of The King Institute to show King’s life and the CRM he inspired. Overall, Carson argues that King had significance in quickening the process of gaining civil rights however he believes that without his leadership, the campaigning would have taken a similar course and that US mass activism was the main driving force.

In his book ‘Martin Luther King Jr.’ (Appendix 2) historian Peter Ling argues, like Carson, that King was not important to the movement but differs suggesting it was other activists who brought success and not mass activism. Ling believes that ‘without the activities of the movement’ King might just have been another ‘Baptist preacher who spoke well.’ It can be inferred that Ling believes King was not vital to the CRM and was just a good orator.

Ling’s reference to activist Ella Baker 1903-86 who ‘complained that “the movement made Martin, not Martin the Movement”’ suggests the King’s political career was of more importance to him than the goal of civil rights. Baker told King she disapproved of his being hero worshipped and others argued that he was ‘taking too many bows and enjoying them’. Baker promoted activists working together, as seen through her influence in the Student Nonviolent Coordinating Committee (SNCC). Clearly many believed King was not the only individual to have an impact on the movement, and so Ling’s argument that multiple activists were significant is further highlighted.

Finally, Ling argues that ‘others besides King set the pace for the Civil Rights Movement’ which explicitly shows how other activists working for the movement were the true heroes, they orchestrated events and activities yet it was King that benefitted. However King himself suggested that he was willing to use successful tactics suggested by others. The work of activists such as Philip Randolph who organise the 1963 March highlights how individuals played a greater role in moving the CRM forward than King. The tone attacks King using words such as ‘criticisms’ to diminish King’s role. Ling says that he has ‘sympathy’ for Miss Baker showing his positive tone towards other activists.

Ling was born in the UK studying History at Royal Holloway College and a MA in American Studies, Institute United States Studies, London. This gives Ling an international perspective, making him less subjective as he has no political motivations nevertheless this makes his interpretation limited in that he has no primary knowledge of civil rights in the US. The book was published in 2002 consequently this gives Ling hindsight making his judgment more accurate and less subjective as he is no longer affected by King’s influence. Similarly, his knowledge of American history and the CRM makes his work accurate. Unlike Carson who was a black activist and attended the 1963 March, White Ling was born in 1956 and was not involved with the CRM and so will have a less accurate interpretation. A further limitation is his selectivity; he gives no attention to the successes of King, including his inspiring ‘I had a dream speech’. As a result, it is not a balanced interpretation and thus its value is limited.

Overall, although weaker than Carson’s interpretation, Ling does give an argument that is of value when understanding King’s significance. Both revisionists, the two historians agree that King was not the most significant reason to gaining civil rights however differ on who or what they see as more important. Carson argues that mass activism was vital in success whereas Ling believes it to be other activists.

A popular pastor in the Baptist Church, King was the leader of the CRM when it gained black rights successes in the 1960s. He demonstrated the power of the church and NAACP in the pursuit of civil rights His oratory skills ensured many blacks and whites attended the protests and increased support. He understood the power of the media in getting his message to a wide audience and in putting pressure on the US government. The Birmingham campaign 1963, where peaceful protestors including children were violently attacked by police and his inspirational ‘Letter from Birmingham Jail’ that King wrote were heavily publicised. US society gradually sympathised with the black ‘victims’. Winning the Nobel Peace Prize gained the movement further international recognition. King’s leadership was instrumental in the political achievements of the CRM, inspiring the grassroots activism needed to apply enough pressure on government, which behind the scenes activists like Baker had worked tirelessly to build. Nevertheless there had been a generation of activists who played their parts often through the church publicising the movement, achieving early legislative victories and helping to kick-start the modern CRM and the idea of nonviolent civil disobedience. King’s significance is that he was the figurehead of the movement at the time when civil rights were eventually given.

Pioneering activist Frederick Douglass 1818-95 had political significance to the CRM holding federal positions which enabled him to influence government and Presidents throughout the Reconstruction era. He is often called the ‘father of the civil rights movement’. Douglass held several prominent roles including US Marshall for DC. He was the first black to hold high office in government and in 1872 the first African American nominated for US Vice President particularly significant as blacks’ involvement in politics was severely restricted at the time. Like King he was a brilliant orator, lecturing on civil rights in the US and abroad. When compared to King Douglass was significant in the CRM. He promoted equality for blacks and whites, although unlike King he did not ultimately achieve black civil rights this was because he was confined by the era that he lived.

The contribution of W.E.B Du Bois 1868-1963 was significant as he laid the foundations for future black activists, including King, to build. In 1909 he established The National Association for the Advancement of Coloured People (NAACP) the most important 20th century black organisation other than the church. King became a member of NAACP and used it to organise the bus boycott and other mass protests. As a result, the importance of Du Bois to the CRM is that King’s success depended on NAACP therefore Du Bois is of similar significance, if not more so than King in pursuing black civil rights.

Ray Stanard Baker’s article in 1908 for The American Magazine speaks of Du Bois’ enthusiastic attitude to the CRM, his intelligence and knowledge of African Americans. (Appendix 3) The quotation of Du Bois at the end of the extract reads “Do not submit! agitate, object, fight,” showing he was not passive but preaching messages of rebellion. The article describes him with vocabulary such as “critical” and “impatient” showing his radical passionate side. Baker also states Du Bois’ contrasting opinions compared to Booker T Washington one of his contemporary black activists. This is evident when it says “his answer was the exact reverse of Washington’s” demonstrating how he was different to the passive, ‘education for all’ Washington. Du Bois valued education, but believed in educating an elite few, the ‘talented tenth’ who could strive for rapid political change. The tone is positive towards Du Bois praising him for being a ferocious character dedicated to achieving civil rights. Through phrases such as “his struggles and his aspirations” this dedicated and praising tone is developed. The American Magazine founded in 1906 was an investigative US paper. Many contributors to the magazine were ‘muckraking’ journalists meaning that they were reformists who attacked societal views and traditions. As a result, the magazine would be subjective, favouring radical Du Bois’, challenging the Jim Crow South and appealing to its radical target audience. The purpose of the source was to confront the racism in the US and so would be political motivated making it subjective regarding civil rights. However some evidence suggests that Du Bois was not radical, his Paris Exposition in 1900 showed the world real African Americans. Socially he made a major contribution to black pride contributing to the black unity felt during the Harlem Renaissance. The Renaissance popularised black culture and so was a turning point in the movement, in the years after the CRM grew in popularity and became a national issue. Finally, the source refers to his intelligence and educational prowess; he carried out economic studies for the US Government and was educated at Harvard and abroad. As a result, it can be inferred that Du Bois rose to prominence and made a significant contribution to the movement due to his intelligence and his understanding of US society and African American culture. One of the founders of the NAACP his significance in attracting grassroots activists and uniting black people was vital. The NAACP leader Roy Wilkins at the March on Washington highlighted his contribution following his death the day before, and said, “his was the voice that was calling you to gather here today in this cause.” Wilkins is suggesting that Du Bois had started the process which had led to the March.

Rosa Parks 1913-2005 and Charles Houston 1895-1950 were NAACP activists who benefitted from the work of Du Bois and achieved significant political success in the CRM. Parks the “Mother of the Freedom Movement.” was the spark that ignited the modern CRM by protesting on a segregated bus. Following her refusal to move to the black area she was arrested. Parks, King and NAACP members staged a yearlong bus boycott in Montgomery. Had it not been for Parks, King may never have had the opportunity to rise to prominence or had mass support for the movement and so her activism was key in shaping King. Lawyer Houston helped defend black Americans, breaking down the deep rooted discriminative and segregation laws in the South. It was his ground-breaking use of sociological theories that formed the basis of the Brown v. the Board of Education 1954 that ended segregation in schools. Although compared to King, Houston is less prominent; his work was significant in reducing black discrimination gaining him the nickname ‘The man who killed Jim Crow ‘. Nonetheless had Du Bois’ NAACP not existed, Parks and Houston would never have had an organisation to support them in their fight, likewise King would never have gained the mass support for civil rights.

Trade unionist Philip Randolph 1890-1979 brought about important political changes. His pioneering use of nonviolent confrontation had a significant impact on the CRM and was widely used throughout 1950’s and 60’s. Randolph had become a prominent civil rights spokesman after organising the Brotherhood of Sleeping Car Porters in 1925, the first black majority union. Mass unemployment after the US Depression led to civil rights becoming a political issue and US trade unions supported equal rights and black membership grew. Randolph was striving for political change that would bring equality. Aware of his influence in 1941 he threatened a protest march which pressured President Roosevelt into issuing Executive Order 8802 an important early employment civil rights victory. There was a shift in the direction of the movement focussing on the military because after the Second World War black soldiers felt disenfranchised and became the ‘foot soldiers of the CRM’ fighting for equality in these mass protests. Randolph led peaceful protests which resulted in President Truman issuing Executive Order 9981 desegregating of the Armed Forces showing his key political significance. Significantly this legislation was a catalyst leading to further desegregation laws. His contribution to the CRM, support of King’s leadership and masterminding of the 1963 March made his significance equal to King’s.

King realised that US society needed to change and inspired by Ghandi he too used non-violent mass protest to bring about change, including the Greensboro Sit-ins to de-segregate lunch counters. Similarly activist Booker T Washington 1856-1915 significantly improved the lives of thousands of southern blacks who were poorly educated and trapped in poverty following Reconstruction through his pioneering work in black education. He founded the Tuskegee Institute. In his book ‘Up from Slavery: An Autobiography’ (Appendix 4) he suggests that gaining civil rights would be difficult and slow, but all blacks should work on improving themselves through education and hard work to peacefully push the movement forward. He says that “the according of the full exercise of political rights” will not be an “overnight gourdvine affair” and that a black should “deport himself modestly in regard of political claim”. Inferring that Washington wanted peaceful protest and acknowledged the time it would take to gain equality, making his philosophy like King’s. Washington’s belief in using education to gain the skills to improve lives and fight for equality is evident through the Tuskegee Institute which educated 2000 blacks a year.

The tone of the source is peaceful, calling for justice in the South. Washington uses words such as “modestly” in an attempt for peace and “exact justice” to show how he believes in equal political rights for all. The reliability of the source is mixed. Washington is subjective as he wants his autobiography to be read, understood and supported. The intended audience would have been anyone in the US, particularly blacks whom Washington wanted to inspire to protest and white politicians who would advance civil rights. The source is accurate, it was written in 1901, during the Jim Crow South. Washington would have been politically motivated in his autobiography; demanding legislative change to give blacks civil rights. There would have also been an educational factor that contributed to his writing, his Tuskegee Institute and educational philosophy, having a deep impact on his autobiography.

The source shows how and why the unequal South should no longer be segregated. Undoubtedly significant, as his reputation grew he became an important public speaker and is considered to have been a leading spokesman for black people and issues like King. An excellent role model a former slave who influenced statesmen he was the first black to dine with the President (Roosevelt) at the White House showing blacks they could achieve anything. Activist Du Bois described him as “the one recognised spokesman of his 10 million fellows … the most striking thing in the history of the American Negro”. Although not as decisive in gaining civil rights as King, Washington was important in preparing blacks for urban and working life but also empowering the next generation of activists.

Inspired by Washington the charismatic Jamaican radical activist Marcus Garvey 1880-1940 arrived in the US in 1916. Garvey had a social significance to the movement striving to better the lives of US blacks. He rose to prominence during the ‘Great Migration’ when poor southern blacks were moving to the industrial North, making Southern race problems into national ones. He founded the Universal Negro Improvement Association (UNIA) which had over 2,000,000 members in 1920. He appealed to discontented First World War black soldiers who had returned home to violent racial discrimination. The importance of the First World War was paramount in enabling Garvey to gain the vast support he did in the 1920s. Garvey published a newspaper, the Negro World which spread his ideas about education and Pan-Africanism, the political union of all people of African descent. Garvey like King gained a greater audience for the CRM, in 1920 he led an international convention in Liberty Hall, and 50,000 parade through Harlem. Garvey inspired later activists such as King.


Reflective essay on use of learning theories in the classroom: college application essay help

Over recent years teaching theories have been more common in the class room, all in the hope of supporting students and been able to further their knowledge by understanding their abilities and what they need to develop. As a teacher it is important to embed teaching and learning theories in the class room, therefore as teachers we can teach the students to their individual needs.

Throughout my research I will be looking in to the key differences of two different theories by comparing two theories used in class rooms today. I will also be critically analysing what the role of the teacher is in the life-long learning sector, by analysing the professional and legislative frameworks, as well as looking for a deeper understanding into classroom management, and why it is used and how to manage different class room environments, such as managing inclusion and how it is supported throughout different methods.

Overall, I will be linking this to my own teaching, at A Mind Apart (A Mind Apart, 2019). Furthermore, I will have the ability to understand about interaction within the classroom and why communication between fellow teachers and students is important.

The role of the teacher is known for been the forefront of knowledge. Therefore, this suggest that the role of the teacher is to pass their knowledge on to their students, known as a ‘chalk and talk’ approach, although this approach is outdated and there are various ways we now teach in the classroom. Walker believes that, ‘the modern teacher is facilitator: a person who assists students to learn for themselves’ (Reece & Walker 2002) I for one cannot say I fully believe in this approach, as all students have individual learning needs, and some may need more help than others. As the teacher, it is important to know the full capability of your learners, therefore lessons can be structure to the learner’s need. It is important for the lessons to involve active learning and discussions, these will help keep the students engaged and motivated during class. Furthermore, it is important to not only know what you want the students the be learning, but it is just as important that you know as the teacher, what you are teaching; it is important to be prepared and be fully involved in your own lesson, before you go in to any class, as a teacher I make my students my priority, therefore, I leave any personal issues outside the door so I am able to give my students the best learning environment they could possibly have; not only is it important to do this but keep updated on your subject specialism, I always double check my knowledge of my subject regularly, I find following this structure my lesson will normally run at a smooth pace.

Taking in to consideration the students I teach are vulnerable there may be minor interruptions. It is not only important that you as the teacher leave your issues at the door, but to make sure the room is free from distractions, most young adults have a lot of situations which are they find hard to deal with, which means you as the teacher are not only there to educate but to make the environment safe and relaxing for your students to enjoy learning. As teachers we not only have the responsibility of making sure the teaching takes place, but we also have the responsibilities of exams, qualifications and Ofsted; and as a teacher in the life-long learning sector it is also vital that you evaluate not only your learner’s knowledge, but you evaluate yourself as a teacher, therefore, you are able to improve your teaching strategies and keep up to date.

When assessing yourself and your students it is important not to wait until the end of a term to do this and evaluate throughout the whole term. Small assessments are a good way of doing this, it doesn’t always have to be a paper examination, you can equally you can do a quiz, ask questions, use various fun games, or even use online games such as Kahoot to help your students regain their knowledge. This will not only help you as a teacher understand your students’ abilities, but it will also help your students know what they need to work on for next term.

Alongside the already listed roles and responsibilities of being a teacher in the life-long learning sector, Ann gravels explains that,

‘Your main role as a teacher should be to teach your students in a way that actively involves and engages your students during every session’ (Gravells, 2011, p.9.)

Gravels passion is solely based on helping new teachers, gain the knowledge and information they need to become successful in the lifelong learning sector. Gravels’ has achieved this by writing various text books on the lifelong learning sector. Gravels’ states in her book ‘Preparing to teach in the lifelong learning sector’, (Gravells, 2011) the importance of the 13 legislation acts. Although I find each of them equally important as each other, I am going to mention the ones I am most likely to use during my teacher training with A Mind Apart.

Safeguarding vulnerable groups act (2006) – Working with young vulnerable adults, I find this act is the one I am most likely to use during my time with A Mind Apart. In summary, the Act explains the following: ‘The ISA will make all decisions about who should be barred from working with children and vulnerable adults.’ (, 2019)
The Equality act (2010) – As I will be working with different sex, race and disabilities in any teaching job which I encounter, I believe The Equality act (2010) is fundamental to mention. The Equality act 2010 covers discrimination under one legalisation.
Code of professional practice (2008) – This act covers all aspects of the activities we as teachers in the lifelong learning sector may encounter. Based around seven behaviours which are: Professional practice, professional integrity, respect, reasonable care, criminal offence disclosure, and reasonability during institute investigations.

(Gravells, 2011)

Although, all acts are equally important, those are the few acts I would find myself using regularly. I have listed the others below:

Children act (2004)
Copyright designs and patents act (1988)
Data protection act (1998)
Education and skills act (2008)
Freedom of information act (2000)
Health and safety at work act (1974)
Human rights act (1998)
Protection of children act (POCA) (1999)
The Further education teachers’ qualification regulations (2007)

(Gravells, 2011)

Teaching theories are much more common in classrooms today, however there are three main teaching theories which us as teachers are known for using in the classroom daily. Experiments show that we find the following theories work the best: behaviourism, cognitive constructivist, and social constructivist, taking these theories into consideration I will look at comparing skinners behaviourist theory and taking a look at Maslow (1987) ‘Hierarchy Of Needs’ which was introduced in 1954, and how I could use these theories in my teaching as a drama teacher in the life-long learning sector.

Firstly, looking in to behaviourism is mostly described as the teacher questioning and the student responds the way you want them to. Behaviourism is a theory, which in a way can take control of how the student acts/behaves, if used to its full advantage. Keith Pritchard (Language and Learning, 2019) describes behaviourism as ‘A theory of learning focusing on observable behaviours and discounting any mental activity. Learning is defined simply as the acquisition of a new behaviour.’ (E-Learning and the Science of Instruction, 2019).

An example of how behaviourism works, is best demonstrated through the work of Ivan Pavlov (Encyclopaedia Britannica, 2019) Pavlov was a physiologist during the start of the twentieth century and used a method called ‘conditioning’, (Encyclopaedia Britannica, 2019) which is a lot like the behaviourism theory. During Pavlov’s experiment, he ‘conditioned’ the dogs to make them salivate when they heard a bell ring, as soon as the dogs hear the bell, they associate it with getting fed. As a result of this the dogs were behaving exactly how Pavlov wanted them to behave, therefore they had successfully been ‘conditioned’. (Encyclopaedia Britannica, 2019)

During Pavlov’s conditioning experiment there are four main stages in the process of classical conditioning, these include,

Acquisition, which is the initial learning;
Extinction, meaning the dogs in Pavlov’s experiment may not respond, if no food is presented to them;
Generalisation, after learning a response, the dog may now respond to other stimuli, with no further training. For example: if a child falls off a bike, a injures their self, they may be frightened to get back on to the bike again. And lastly,
Discrimination, which is the opposite of generalisation, for example the dog will not respond in the same way to another stimulus as they did the first one.

Pritchard states ‘It Involves reinforcing a behaviour by rewarding it’ which is what Pavlov’s dog experiment does. Although rewarding behaviour can be good, it can also be negative, such as bad behaviour can be discouraged by punishment. The key aspects of conditioning are as follows: Reinforcement, Positive reinforcement, Negative reinforcement, and shaping. (Encyclopaedia Britannica, 2019)

Behaviourism is one of the learning theories I use in my teaching today, working at A Mind Apart, (A Mind Apart, 2019) I work with challenging young people. The A Mind Apart organisation, a performing arts foundation especially targeted at vulnerable and challenging young people, to help better their lives; hence, on the off chance that I use the behaviourism theory it will admirably inspire the students to do better. Using behaviourism with respect to the standard of improvement and reaction, behaviourism is driven by the teacher and is responsible for how the student will carry on and how it is finished. This theory came around in the early twentieth century and concentrated how individuals behave; with respect to the work I do at A Mind Apart, as a trainee performing arts teacher, I can identify with behaviourism limitlessly, every Thursday, when my 2 hour class is finished, I at that point take 5 minutes out of my lesson to award a ‘Star of the week’ It is an incredible method to urge students to carry on the way they have been, if behaving and influence them to endeavour towards something ion the future. Furthermore, I have discovered that this theory can function admirably in any expert subject and not just performing arts. The behaviourism theory is straightforward as it depends just on detectable conduct and portrays a few widespread laws of conduct. It’s positive and negative support strategies can be extremely effective. The students who we teach in general at A Mind Apart, are destined to come to us with emotional well-being issues, which is the reason most of the time these students find that it is hard to focus, or even learn in a school environment; we are there to give a comprehensive learning environment and utilize the time we have with them, so they can move forward at their own pace and take a leap at their scholarly aptitudes and socialising in the future when they leave us, to move on to college or even jobs, our work with them will also help them meet new individuals, and gain new useful knowledge by using behaviourism teaching theory. Despite the fact some of them may struggle with obstacles during their lives; although it is not always easy to manipulate someone in to thinking or behaving the way you do or want them to, with time, and persistence I have found that this theory can work. It is known that…

‘Positive reinforcement or rewards can include verbal feedback such as ‘That’s great, you’ve produced that document without any errors’ or ‘You’re certainly getting on well with that task’ through to more tangible rewards such as a certificate at the end’… (Information List of topics Assessment Becoming a teacher Continuing Professional Development (CPD) Embedding maths et al., 2019)

Gagne (, 2019) was an American educational psychologist best known for his nine levels of learning; Regarding Gagne’s nine levels of learning, (, 2019) I have done something in depth research, in just a couple of his nine levels of learning therefore I will be able to understand the levels and how his theory link to behaviourism.

Create an attention-grabbing introduction.
Inform learner about the objectives.
Stimulate recall of prior knowledge.
Create goal-centred eLearning content.
Provide online guidance.
Practice makes perfect.
Offer timely feedback.
Assess early and often.
Enhance transfer of knowledge by tying it into real world situations and applications.

(, 2019)

Informing the learner of the objectives, is the one level I can relate to the most during my lessons, I find it important in many ways why you as the teacher, should let your students know what they are going to be learning during that specific lesson. This will help them have a better understanding throughout the lesson, as even more engage them from the very start. Linking it to behaviourism during my lessons, I tell my students what I want from them that lesson, and what I expect them, with their individual needs, to be learning or have learnt by the end of lesson. If I believe learning has taking place during my lesson, I will reward them with a game of their choice at the end of the lesson. In their mind they understand they must do as they are asked by the teacher, or the reward to play a game at the end of lesson, will be forfeited. As studies show, during Pavlov’s (E-Learning and the Science of Instruction, 2019) dog experiment that this theory does work, it can take a lot of work. I have built a great relationship with my students, and most of the time they are willing to work to the best of their ability.

Although Skinners’ (E-Learning and the Science of Instruction, 2019) behaviourist theory is based around manipulation, Maslow’s ‘Hierarchy Of Needs’ (Very well Mind, 2019) believes that behaviour and the way people act is based upon childhood events, therefore it is not always easy to manipulate in to the way you think, as they may have had a completely different upbringing, which will determine how they act. Maslow (Very well Mind, 2019) feels, if you remove the obstacles that stop the person from achieving, then they will have a better chance to achieve their goals; Maslow argues that there are five different needs which must be met in order to achieve this. The highest level of needs is self-actualisation which means the person must take full reasonability for their self, Maslow believes that people can go through to the highest levels, if they are in an education which can produce growth. Below is the table of Maslow’s ‘Hierarchy of needs’ (Very well Mind, 2019)

(Information List of topics Assessment Becoming a teacher Continuing Professional Development (CPD) Embedding maths et al., 2019)

In an explanation the table lets you know your learners needs throughout different levels, during their time in your learning environment, all learners may be at different levels, but should be able to progress on to the next one when they feel comfortable to do so. There may be knockbacks which your learners as individuals will face, but is the needs that will motivate the learning, although you may find that not all learners want to progress through the levels of learning at that moment in time, for example, if your learner if happy with the progress they have achieved so far and are content with life, they may find they want to stay at that certain level.

It is important to use the levels to encourage your learners by working up the table.

Stage 1 of the table is the physiological need – are your learners comfortable in the environment you are providing, are they hungry or thirsty? Your learners may even be tired; taking all these factors in to consideration, these may stop learning taking place. Therefore, it is important to meet all your learners’ physiological needs.

Moving up the table to safety and security – make your learners feel safe in an environment where they can relax, feel at ease. Are your learners worried about anything in particular? If so, can you help them overcome their worries.

Recognition – do your learners feel like they are part of the group? It is important to help those who don’t feel that they are part of the group bond with others. Help your learners belong and make them feel welcome. One recognition is in place your learners will then start to build their self-esteem, are they learning something useful, although your subject specialism may be second to none, it is important that your passion and drive shines through your teaching; overall this will result in the highest level: Self actualisation, are your learners achieving what they want to do? Make the sessions interesting and your learners will remember more about the subject in question. (Very well Mind, 2019)

Furthermore, classroom management comes in to force with any learning theory you use whilst teaching. Classroom management is made up of various techniques and skills that we as teacher utilize. Most of today’s classroom management systems are highly effective as they increase student success. As I am now a trainee teacher, I understand that classroom management can be difficult at times, therefore I am always researching different methods on how to manage my class. Although I don’t believe entirely that this comes from just methods, but if your pupils respect you as a teacher, and they understand what you expect of them whilst in your class, you should be able to manage the class fine; relating this with my placement at A Mind Apart, my students know what I expect of them and from that my classroom management is normally good…following this there are a few classroom management techniques I tend to follow:

Demonstrating the behaviour, you want to see – eye contact whilst talking, phones away in bags/coats, listen when been spoken to and be respectful of each other, these are all good codes of conduct to follow, and they are my main rules whilst in the classroom.
Celebrating hard work or achievements – When I think a student has done well, we as a group will celebrate their achievement, whether It be in education or out, a celebration always helps with classroom management.
Make your session engaging and motivating – This is something all us trainee teachers find difficult within our first year, as I have found out personally from the first couple of months, I have learnt to get to know your learners, understand what they like to do, and what activity’s keep them engaged.
Build strong relationships – I believe having a good relationship with your students is one of the key factors to managing a class room. It is important to build trust with your students, make them feel safe and let them know they are in a friendly environment.

When it comes to been in a classroom environment, not all students will adhere to this, therefore they may require a difference kind of structure to feel included. A key example of this is students with physical disabilities, you may need to adjust the tables or even move them out the way, you could also adjust the seating so a student may be able to see more clearly if they have hearing problems maybe write more down on the board, or even give them a sheet at the start of the lesson, which lets them know what you will be discussing and any further information they may need to know, not only do you need to take physical disabilities in to consideration but it is also important to cater for those who have behavioural problems, it is important to adjust the space to make your students feel safe whilst in your lesson.

Managing your class also means that sometimes you may have to adjust your teaching methods to suit all in your class and understand that it is important to incorporate cultural values. Whilst in the classroom, or even giving out home work you may need to take in to consideration that some students, especially those with learning difficulties, may take longer to do work, or even need additional help.


Research has given me a new insight into how many learning theories, teaching strategies and classroom management strategies there are, there are books and websites which help you achieve all the things you need to be able to do in your classroom. Looking back over this essay I looked in to the two learning theories that I am most likely to use.


Synchronous and asynchronous remote learning during the Covid-19 pandemic

Student’s Motivation and Engagement

Motivation plays an important role in student engagement. Saeed and Zyngier (2012) contend that in order to assess student motivation, researchers should also have to examine engagement in and as part of learning. This manifests that there is a relationship between student motivation and engagement. As support to this relationship, Hufton, Elliot, and Illushin (2002) believe that high levels of engagement show high levels of motivation. In other words, when the levels of motivation of students are high that is when their levels of engagement are also high.

Moreover, Dörnyei (2020) suggests that the concept of motivation is closely associated with engagement, and with this he asserted that motivation must be ensured in order to achieve student engagement. He further offered that any instructional design should aim to keep students engaged, regardless of the learning context, may it be traditional or e-learning. In addition, Lewis et al (2014) reveal that within the online educational environment, students can be motivated by delivering an engaging student-centered experience consistently.

In the context of Student-Teacher Dialectical Framework embedded with Self-Determination Theory, Reeve, J. (2012) reveal three newly discovered functions of student engagement. First, is that engagement bridges students’ motivation to highly valued outcomes. Second, is that student engagement affects the future quality of learning environment especially in the flow of instruction, the external events it has, and the teacher’s motivating style. Third, is that student engagement changes motivation, which means that engagement cause changes in motivation in the future. This highlights that student motivation is both a cause and a consequence. This assertion that engagement can cause changes motivation is embedded on the idea that students can take actions to meet their own psychological needs and enhance the quality of their motivation. Further, Reeve, J. (2012) asserts that students can be and are architects of their own motivation, at least to the extent that they can be architects of their own course-related behavioral, emotional, cognitive, and agentic engagement.

Synchronous and Asynchronous Learning

The COVID-19 pandemic brought a great disaster on the education system around the world. Schools have struggled due to the situation in which led them to cessation of classes for an extended period of time and other restrictive measures that later on impede the continuance of face-to face classes. In consequence, there is a massive change towards the educational system around the world while educational institutions strive and put their best efforts to resolve the situation. Many schools had addressed the risks and challenges in continuing education amidst the crisis by shifting conventional or traditional learning into distance learning. Distance learning is a form of education through the support of technology that is conducted beyond physical space and time (Papadopulou, 2020). Distance learning is an online education that provides opportunities towards educational advancement and learning development among learners worldwide. In order to sustain the educational goal of our country, distance learning is a new way of providing quality education as much as possible among public and private institutions especially to those pursing in higher education. The instructional delivery in considering distance education can be through synchronous or asynchronous mode of learning, in which students can engage and continually attain quality education despite of the pandemic situation.

Based on the definition of Easy LMS Company (2020), synchronous learning refers to a learning event in which a group of participants is engaged in learning at the same time (e.g., zoom meeting, web conference, real- time class) while asynchronous learning refers to the opposite, in which the instructor, the learner, and other participants are not engaged in the learning process at the same time. Thus, there is no real-time interaction with other people (e.g., pre-recorded discussions, self- paced learning, discussion boards). According to article issued by University of Waterloo (2020), synchronous learning is a form of learning that is live presentation which allows the students to ask questions while asynchronous can be a recorded presentation that allows students to have time in reflecting before asking questions. Synchronous learning is a typical meeting of students in a virtual setting and there is a class discussion where everybody can participate actively. Asynchronous learning is the utilization of learning platform or portal where the teachers or instructors can post and update lessons or activities and student can work at their own pace. These types of class instruction are commonly observed in these times and students have their own preferences when it comes to what best works for them.

In comparing both of the types of learning, it is valuable to know the advantages and disadvantages in order to see how it will really be an impact towards students. Wintemute (2021) discussed synchronous learning has greater engagement and direct communication is present, but it requires strong internet connection. On the other hand, asynchronous learning is advantageous in schedule flexibility and more accessible, yet it is less immersive and the challenges in procrastination, socialization and distraction are present. Students in synchronous learning tend to adapt the changes of learning with classmates in a virtual setting while asynchronous learning introduced a new setting where students can choose when to study.

In the middle of the crisis, asynchronous learning can be more favorable than synchronous because most of us are struggling in this pandemic. One of the principal advantages of asynchronous online learning is that it offers more flexibility, allowing learners to set their own schedule and work at their own pace (Anthony and Thomas, 2020). In contrast, synchronous learning allows students to feel connected in a virtual world and it can give them assurance of not being isolated amidst studying lessons because they can have a live interactions and exchange of ideas and other valuable inputs for the class to understand the lessons well by the help of teachers. The main advantages of synchronous learning are that instructors can explain specific concepts when students are struggling and students can also get immediate answers about their concerns in the process of learning (Hughes, 2014). In the article of Delgado (2020), the advantages and disadvantages will not be effective if they do not have a pedagogical methodology considering the technology and its optimization. Furthermore, the quality of learning depends on good planning and design by reviewing and evaluating each type of learning modality.


Motivating students has been a key challenge facing instructors in the contexts of online learning (Zhao et. al 2016). In which motivation is one of the bases of the student to do well in their studies. When students are motivated, the outcome is a good mark. In short, motivation is a way to pushed them study more to get high grades. According to Zhao (2016) motivation in an online learning environment revealed that there are learning motivation differences among students from different cultural backgrounds. Motivation is described as “the degree of people’s choices and the degree of effort they will put forth” (Keller, 1983). Learning is closely linked to motivation because it is an active process that necessitates intentional and deliberate effort. Educators must build a learning atmosphere in which students are highly encouraged to participate both actively and productively in learning activities if they want to get the most out of school (Stipek, 2002). John Keller (1987) in his study revealed that attention and motivation will not be maintained unless the learner believes the teaching and learning are relevant. According to Zhao (2016), a strong interest in a topic will lead to mastery goals and intrinsic motivation.

Engagement can be perceived with the interaction between students and teachers in online classes. Student engagement, according to Fredericks et al. (2004), is a meta-construct that includes behavioral, affective, and mental involvement. Despite the fact that there is a broad body of literature on behavioral (i.e., time on task), emotional (i.e., interest and value), and cognitive engagement (i.e., self-regulation and learning strategies), what sets engagement apart is its capacity as a multifaceted strategy. While there is substantial research on behavioral (i.e., time on task), emotional (i.e., interest and value), and cognitive engagement (i.e., self-regulation and learning strategies what distinguishes engagement is its ability as a multidimensional or “meta”-construct that encompasses all three dimensions.

Motivation plays an important role in student engagement. Saeed and Zyngier (2012) contend that in order to assess student motivation, researchers should also have to examine engagement in and as part of learning.

Lewis et al (2014) reveal that within the online educational environment, students can be motivated by delivering an engaging student-centered experience consistently.

In the context of Student-Teacher Dialectical Framework embedded with Self-Determination Theory, Reeve, J. (2012) reveal three newly discovered functions of student engagement. First, is that engagement bridges students’ motivation to highly valued outcomes. Second, is that student engagement affects the future quality of learning environment especially in the flow of instruction, the external events it has, and the teacher’s motivating style. Third, is that student engagement changes motivation, which means that engagement cause changes in motivation in the future. Distance learning is an online education that provides opportunities towards educational advancement and learning development among learners worldwide. In order to sustain the educational goal of our country, distance learning is a new way of providing quality education as much as possible among public and private institutions especially to those pursing in higher education. The instructional delivery in considering distance education can be through synchronous or asynchronous mode of learning, in which students can engage and continually attain quality education despite of the pandemic situation.

According to article issued by University of Waterloo (2020), synchronous learning is a form of learning that is live presentation which allows the students to ask questions while asynchronous can be a recorded presentation that allows students to have time in reflecting before asking questions. Synchronous learning is a typical meeting of students in a virtual setting and there is a class discussion where everybody can participate actively. Asynchronous learning is the utilization of learning platform or portal where the teachers or instructors can post and update lessons or activities and student can work at their own pace. These types of class instruction are commonly observed in these times and students have their own preferences when it comes to what best works for them.

In comparing both of the types of learning, it is valuable to know the advantages and disadvantages in order to see how it will really be an impact towards students. Wintemute (2021) discussed synchronous learning has greater engagement and direct communication is present, but it requires strong internet connection. On the other hand, asynchronous learning is advantageous in schedule flexibility and more accessible, yet it is less immersive and the challenges in procrastination, socialization and distraction are present.

In the middle of the crisis, asynchronous learning can be more favorable than synchronous because most of us are struggling in this pandemic. One of the principal advantages of asynchronous online learning is that it offers more flexibility, allowing learners to set their own schedule and work at their own pace (Anthony and Thomas, 2020). In contrast, synchronous learning allows students to feel connected in a virtual world and it can give them assurance of not being isolated amidst studying lessons because they can have a live interactions and exchange of ideas and other valuable inputs for the class to understand the lessons well by the help of teachers.


‘Peak Oil’ – what are the solutions?

The ability to harness energy sources and put them towards a productive use has played a crucial role in economic development worldwide. Easily accessible oil helped to fuel continued expansion in the 20th century. Agricultural production was transformed by motorised farm equipment and petroleum-based fertilisers and pesticides. Cars, trucks and airplanes powered by oil products revolutionised the transportation of people and goods. Oil provides fuel for home heating, electricity production, and to power industrial and agricultural equipment. It also provides the source material for the construction of plastics, many fertilisers and pesticides and many industrial chemicals and materials. It is now difficult to find any product that does not require the use of oil at some point in the production process.

Oil has several advantages over other fossil fuels: it is easily transportable and energy-dense, and when refined it is suitable for a wide variety of uses. Considering the important role that oil plays in our economy, if persistent shortages were to emerge, the economic implications could be enormous. However, there is no consensus as to how seriously the treat of oil resources depletion should be taken. Some warn of a colossal societal collapse in the not-too-distant future, while others argue that technological progress will allow us to shift away from oil before resource depletion becomes an issue.

How much of a problem oil depletion poses depends on the amount of oil that remains accessible at reasonable cost, and how quickly the development of alternatives allows the demand for oil to be reduced. This is what the term ‘peak oil’ means the point of when the demand for oil outstrips the availability. Demand and supply each evolve over time following a pattern that is based in historical data, while supply is also constrained by resource availability. There is no mechanism for market on its own to address concerns about climate change. However, if policies are put in place to price the costs of climate change into the price of fossil fuel consumption, then this should trigger market incentives that should lead efficiently to the desired emission reductions.

A while ago the media was filed with stories about peak oil and it was even in an episode of the Simpsons. Peak oil in basic term means that the point we have used all the easy to extract oil and are only left with the hard to reach which in term is expensive to refine. There is still a huge amount of debate amongst geologist and Petro- industries experts about how much oil is left in the ground. However, since then the idea of a near-term peak in the world oil supplies has been discredited. The term that is now used is Peak Oil demand, the idea is that because of the proliferation of electric cars and other sources of energy means that demand for oil will reach a maximum and start to decline and indeed consumptions levels in some parts of the world have already begun to stagnate.

The other theory that has been produce is that with supply beginning to exceed demand there is not enough investment going into future oil exploration and development. Without this investment production will decline but production is not declining due to supply problems just that we are moving into an age of oil abundance and the decline in oil production seen if because of other factors. There has been an explosion of popular literature recently predicting that oil production will peak soon, and that oil shortages will force us into major lifestyle changes in the near future- a good example of this is Heinberg (2003). The point at which oil production reaches a peak and begins to decline permanently has been referred to as ‘Peak Oil’. Predictions for when this will occur range from 2007 and 2025 (Hirsch 2005)

The Hirsch Report of 2005 concluded that it would take a modern industrial nation such as the UK or the United States at least a full decade to prepare for peak oil. Since 2005 there has been some movement towards solar and wind power together with more electric cars but nothing that deals with the scale of the problem. This has been compounded by Trump coming to power in the United States and deciding to throw the energy transition into reverse, discouraging alternative energy and expanding subsidies for fossil fuels.

What is happening how

Many factors are reported in news reports to cause changes in oil prices: supply disruptions from wars and other political factors, from hurricanes or from other random events; changes in demand expectations based on economic reports, financial market events or even weather in areas where heating oil is used; changes in the value of the dollar; reports of inventory levels, etc. these are all factors that will affect the supply and demand for oil, but they often influence the price of oil before they have any direct impact on the current supply or demand for crude oil. Last year, the main forces pushing the oil market higher were the agreement by OPEC and its partners to lower production and the growth of global demand. This year, an array of factors are pressuring the oil markets: the US sanctions that threaten to cut Iranian oil production from Venezuela. Moreover, there are supply disruptions in Libya, the Canadian tar sands, Norway and Nigeria that add to the uncertainties as does erratic policymaking in Washington, complete with threats to sell off part of the US strategic reserve and a weaker dollar. Goldman Sachs continues to expect that Brent Crude prices could retest $80 a barrel this year, but probably only late in 2018. “production disruptions and large supply shifts driven by US political decisions are the drivers of this new volatility, with demand remaining robust so far” Brent Crude is expected to trade in the $70-$80 a barrel range in the immediate future.


Saudi Arabia-and Russia-had started to raise production even before the 22 June 2018 meeting with OPEC that sought to address the shrinking global oil supply and rising prices. OPEC had over-complying with the cuts agreed to at the November 2016 meeting thanks to additional cuts from Saudi Arabia and Venezuela. The June 2018 22nd meeting decided to increase production to more closely reflect the production cut agreement. After the meeting, Saudi Arabia pledged a “measurable” supply boost but gave no specific numbers. Tehran’s oil minister warned his Saudi Arabian counterpart that the June 22nd revision to the OPEC supply pact do not give member countries the right to raise oil production above their targets. The Saudis, Russia and several of the Gulf Arab States increased production in June but seem reluctant to expand much further. During the summer months, the Saudis always need to burn more raw crude in their power station to combat the very high temperatures of their summer.

US Shale oil production

According to the EIA’s latest drilling productivity Report, US unconventional oil production is projected to rise by 143,000 b/d in August to 7.470 billion b/d. The Permian Basin is seen as far outdistancing other shale basins in monthly growth in August, at 73,000 b/d to 3,406 million b/d. However, drilled but uncompleted (DUC) wells in the Permian rose 164 in June to 3,368, one of the largest builds in recent months. Total US DUCs rose by 193 to 7,943 in June. US energy companies last week cut oil rigs the most in a week since March as the rate of growth had slowed over the past month or so with recent declines in crude prices. Included with other optimistic forecast for US shale oil was the caveat that the DUC production figures are sketchy as current information is difficult for the EIA to obtain with little specific data being provided to Washington by E&Ps or midstream operators. Given all the publicity surrounding constraints on moving oil from the Permian to market, the EIA admits that it “may overestimate production due to constraints.”

The Middle East and North Africa


Iran’s supreme leader, Ayatollah Ali Khamenei, called on state bodies to support the government of president Hassan Rouhani in fighting US economic sanctions. The likely return of US economic sanctions has triggered a rapid fall of Iran’s currency and protests by bazaar traders usually loyal Islamist rulers, and a public outcry over alleged price gouging and profiteering. The speech to member of Rouhani’s cabinet is clearly aimed at the conservative elements in the government who have been critical of the President and his policies of cooperation with the West and a call for unity in a time that seems likely to be one of great economic hardship spread to more than 80 Iranian cities and towns. At least 25 people died in the unrest, the most significant expression of public corruption, but the protest took on a rare political dimension, with growing number of people calling on supreme leader Khamenei to step down. Although there is much debate over the effectiveness of the impending US sanctions, some analysts are saying that Iran’s oil exports could fall by as much as two-thirds by the end of the year putting oil markets under massive strain amid supply outages elsewhere in the world. Some of the worst-case scenarios are forecasting a drop to only 700,000 b/d with most of Tehran’s exports going to China, and smaller chares going to India, Turkey and other buyers with waivers. China, the biggest importer of Iranian oil at 650,000 b/d according to Reuters trade flow data, is likely to ignore US sanctions.


Iraq’s future is again in trouble as protests erupt across the country. These protests began in southern Iraq after the government was accused of doing nothing to alleviate a deepening unemployment crisis, water and electricity shortages and rampant corruption. The demonstrations are spreading to major population centers including Najaf and Amirah, and now discontent is stirring in Baghdad. The government has been quick to promise more funding and investment in the development of chronically underdeveloped cities, but this has done little to quell public anger. Iraqis have heard these promises countless times before, and with a water and energy crisis striking in the middle of scorching summer heat, people are less inclined to believe what their government says. The civil unrest had begun to diminish in southern Iraq, leaving the country’s oil sector shaken but secure-though protesters have vowed to return. Operations at several oil fields have been affected as international oil companies and service companies have temporality withdrawn staff from some areas that saw protests. The government claims that the production and exporting oil has remained steady during the protests. With Iran refusing to provide for Iraq’s electricity needs, Baghdad has now also turned to Saudi Arabia to see if its southern Arab neighbor can help alleviate the crises it faces.

Saudi Arabia

The IPO has been touted for the past two years as the centerpiece of an ambitious economic reform program driven by crown prince Mohammed bin Salman to diversify the Saudi economy beyond oil. Saudi Arabia expects its crude exports to drop by roughly 100,000 b/d in August as the kingdom tries to ensure it does not push oil into the market beyond its customers’ needs.


Reopened its eastern oil ports and started to ramp up production from 650,000 to 700,000 and is expected to rise further after shipments resume at eastern ports that re-opened after a political standoff.


China’s economy expanded by 6.7 percent its slowest pace since 2016. The pace of annual expansion announced is still above the government’s target of “about 6.5 percent” growth for the year, but the slowdown comes as Beijing’s trade war with the US adds to headwinds from slowing domestic demand. The gross domestic product had grown at 6.8 percent in the previous three quarters. Higher oil prices play a role in the slowing of demand, but the main factor is higher taxes on independent Chinese refiners, which is already cutting into the refining margins and profits of the ‘teapots’ who have grown over the past three years to account fir around fifth of China’s total crude imports. Under the stricter tax regulations and reporting mechanisms effective 1 March, however, the teapots now can’t avoid paying a consumption tax on refined oil products sales- as they did in the past three years- and their refining operations are becoming less profitable.


Russia oil production rose by around 100,000 b/d from May. From July 1-15 the country’s average oil output was 11.215 million b/d an increase of 245,000 b/d from May’s production. Amid growing speculation that President Trump will attempt to weaken US sanctions on Russia’s oil sector, US congressional leaders are pushing legislation to strengthen sanctions on Russian export pipelines and joint ventures with Russian oil and natural gas companies. Ukraine and Russia said they would hold further European Union-mediated talks on supplying Europe with Russian gas, in a key first step towards renewing Ukraine’s gas transit contract that expires at the end of next year.


Venezuela’s Oil Minister Manuel Quevedo has been talking about plans to raise the country’s crude oil production in the second half of the year. However, no one else thinks or claims that Venezuela could soon reverse its steep production decline which has seen it losing more than 40,000 b/d of oil production every month for several months now. According to OPEC’s secondary sources in the latest Monthly Oil Market Report, Venezuela’s crude oil production dropped in June by 47,500 b/d from May, to average 1.340 million b/d in June. During a collapsing regime, widespread hunger, and medical shortages, President Nicolas Maduro continues to grant generous oil subsidies to Cuba. It is believed that Venezuela continues to supply Cuba with around 55,000 barrels of oil per day, costing the nation around $1.2 billion per year.

Alternatives to Oil

In its search for secure, sustainable and affordable supplies of energy, the world is turning its attention to unconventional energy resources. Shale gas is one of them. It has turned upside down the North-American gas markets and is making significant strides in other regions. The emergence of shale gas as a potentially major energy source can have serious strategic implications for geopolitics and the energy industry.

Uranium and Nuclear

The nuclear industry has a relatively short history: the first nuclear reactor was commissioned in 2945. Uranium is the main source of fuel for nuclear reactors. Worldwide output of uranium has recently been on the rise after a long period of declining production caused by uranium resources have grown by 12.5% since 2008 and they are sufficient for over 100 years of supply based on current requirements.

Total nuclear electricity production has been growing during the past two decades and reached an annual output of about 2,600TWh by mid-2000s, although the three major nuclear accidents have slowed down or even reversed its growth in some countries. The nuclear share of total global electricity production reached its peak of 17% by the late 1980s, but since then it has been falling and dropped to 13.5% in 2012. In absolute terms, the nuclear output remains broadly at the same level as before, but its relative share in power generation has decreased, mainly due to Fukushima nuclear accident.

Japan used to be one of the countries with high share of nuclear (30%) in its electricity mix and high production volumes. Today, Japan has only two of its 54 reactors in operation. The rising costs of nuclear installations and lengthy approval times required for new construction have had an impact on the nuclear industry. The slowdown has not been global, as new countries, primarily in the rapidly developing economies in the Middle East and Asia, are going ahead with their plans to establish a nuclear industry.

Hydro Power

Hydro power provides a significant amount of energy throughout the world and is present in more than 100 countries, contributing approximately 15% of the global electricity production. The top 5 largest markets for hydro power in terms of capacity are Brazil, Canada, China, Russia and the United States of America. China significantly exceeds the other, representing 24% of global installed capacity. In several other countries, hydro power accounts for over 50% of all electricity generation, including Iceland, Nepal and Mozambique for example. During 2012, an estimated 27-30GW of new hydro power and 2-3GW of pumped storage capacity was commissioned.

In many cases, the growth in hydro power was facilitated by the lavish renewable energy support policies and CO2 penalties. Over the past two decade the total global installed hydro power capacity has increased by 55%, while the actual generation by 21%. Since the last survey, the global installed hydro power capacity has increased by 8%, but the total electricity produced dropped by 14%, mainly due to water shortages.

Solar PV

Solar energy is the most abundant energy resource and it is available for use in its direct (solar radiation) and indirect (wind, biomass, hydro, ocean etc.) forms. About 60% of the total energy emitted by the sun reaches the Earth’s surface. Even if only 0.1% of this energy could be converted at an efficiency of 10%, it would be four times larger than the total world’s electricity generating capacity of about 5,000GW. The statistics about solar PV installations are patchy and inconsistent. The table below presents the values for 2011 but comparable values for 1993 are not available.

The use of solar energy is growing strongly around the world, in part due to the rapidly declining solar panel manufacturing costs. For instance, between 2008-2011 PV capacity has increased in the USA from 1,168MW to 5,171MW, and in Germany from 5,877MW to 25,039MW. The anticipated changes in national and regional legislation regarding support for renewables is likely to moderate this growth.


The rapid consumption of fossil fuels has contributed to environmental damage, the use of these fuels including oil releases chemicals that contribute to smog, acid rain, mercury contamination and carbon dioxide emissions from fossil fuel consumption are the main drivers of climate change, the effects of which are likely to become more and more severe as temperature rise. The depletion of oil and other fossil resources leaves less available to future generations and increases the likelihood of price spikes if demand outpaces supply.

One of the most intriguing conclusions from this idea is that this new “age of abundance” could alter behavior from oil producers. In the past some countries (notably OPEC members) restrained output husbanding resources for the future, betting that scarcity would increase the value of their holdings over time. However, if a peak in demand looms just over the horizon, oil producers could rush to maximize their production in order to get as much value for their reserves while they can. Saudi oil minister Sheikh Ahmed Zaki Yamani was famously quoted as saying, “the Stone Age didn’t end for lack of stone, and the oil age will end long before the world runs out of oil.” This quote reflects the view that the development of new technologies will lead to a shift away from oil consumption before oil resources are fully depleted. Nine of the ten recessions between 1946 and 2005 were preceded by spikes in oil prices and the latest recession followed the same pattern.

Extending the life of oil fields, let alone investing in new ones, will require large volumes of capital, but that might be met with skepticism from wary investors when demand begins to peak. It will be difficult to attract investment to a shrinking industry, particularly if margins continued to get squeezed. Peak demand should be an alarming prospect for OPEC, Russia and the other major oil producing countries. Basically, any and all oil producers who will find themselves fighting more aggressively for a shrinking market.

The precise data at which oil demand hits a high point and then enters into decline has been the subject of much debate, and a topic that has attracted a lot of interest just in the last few years. Consumption levels in some parts of the world have already begun to stagnate, and more and more automakers have begun to ratchet up their plans for electric vehicles. But the exact date the world will hit peak demand misses the whole point. The focus shouldn’t be on the date at which oil demand peaks, but rather the fact that the peak is coming. In other words, oil will be less important when it comes to fueling the global transportation system, which will have far-reaching consequences for oil producers and consumers alike. The implications of a looming peak in oil consumptions are massive. Without an economic transformation, or at least serious diversification, oil-producing nations that depend on oil revenues for both economic growth and to finance public spending, face an uncertain future.


Water purification and addition of nutrients as disaster relief: college application essay help

1. Introduction

1.1 Natural Disasters

Natural disasters are naturally occurring events that threaten human lives and causes damage to property. Examples of natural disasters include hurricanes, tsunamis, earthquakes, volcanic eruptions, typhoons, droughts, tropical cyclones and floods. (Pask, R., et al (2013)). They are inevitable and oftentimes, can cause calamitous implications such as water contamination and malnutrition, especially to developing countries like the Philippines, which is particularly prone to typhoons and earthquakes. (Figure 1)

Figure 1 The global distribution of natural disaster risk (The United Nations University World Risk Index 2014)

1.1.1 Impacts of Natural Disaster

The globe faces impacts of natural disasters on human lives and economy on an astronomical scale. According to a 2014 report by the United Nations, since 1994, 4.4 billion people have been affected by disasters, which claimed 1.3 million lives and cost US$2 trillion in economic losses. Developing countries are more likely to suffer a greater impact from natural disasters than developed countries as natural disasters affect the number of people living below the poverty line, and increase their numbers by more than 50 percent in some cases. Moreover, it is expected that by 2030, up to 325 million extremely poor people will live in the 49 most hazard-prone countries. (Child Fund International. (2013, June 2)) Hence, it necessitates the need for disaster relief to save the lives of those affected, especially those in developing countries such as the Philippines.

1.1.2 Lack of access to clean water

After a natural disaster strikes, severe implications such as water contamination occurs.

Besides, natural disasters know no national borders of socioeconomic status. (Malam, 2012) For example, Hurricane Katrina, which struck New Orleans, a developed city, destroyed 1,200 water systems, and 50% of existing treatment plants needed rebuilding afterwards. (Copeland, 2005) This led to the citizens of New Orleans having a shortage of drinking water. Furthermore, after the 7.0 magnitude earthquake that struck Haiti, a developing country, in 2012, there was no plumbing left underneath Port-Au-Prince, and many of the water tanks and toilets were destroyed. (Valcárcel, 2010) These are just some of the many scenarios of can bring about water scarcity.

The lack of preparedness to prevent the destruction caused by the natural disaster and the lack of readiness to respond claims to be the two major reasons for the catastrophic results of natural disasters. (Malam, 2012) Hence, the aftermath of destroyed water systems and a lack of water affect all geographical locations regardless of its socioeconomic status.

1.2 Disaster relief

Disaster relief organisations such as The American Red Cross help countries that are recovering from natural disasters by providing these countries with the basic necessities.

After a disaster, the Red Cross works with community partners to provide hot meals, snacks and water to shelters or from Red Cross emergency response vehicles in affected neighborhoods. (Disaster Relief Services | Disaster Assistance | Red Cross.)

The International Committee of the Red Cross/Red Crescent (ICRC) reported that its staff had set up mobile water treatment units. These were used to distribute water to around 28,000 people in towns along the southern and eastern coasts of the island of Samar, and to other badly-hit areas including Basey, Marabut and Guiuan. (Pardon Our Interruption. (n.d.))

Figure 2: Children seeking help after a disaster(Pardon Our Interruption. (n.d.))

Figure 3: Massive Coastal Destruction from Typhoon Haiyan (Pardon Our Interruption. (n.d.))

1.3 Target audience: Tacloban, Leyte, The Philippines

As seen in figures 4 and 5, Tacloban is the provincial capital of Leyte, a province in the Visayas region in the Philippines. It is the most populated region in the Eastern Visayas region, with a total population of 242,089 people as of August 2015. (Census of Population, 2015)

Figure 4: Location of Tacloban in the Philippines (Google Maps)

Figure 5: Location of Tacloban in the Eastern Visayas region (Google Maps)

Due to its location on the Pacific Ring of Fire (Figure 6), more than 20 typhoons (Lowe, 2016) occur in the Philippines each year.

Figure 6: The Philippines’ position on the Pacific Ring of Fire (Mindoro Resources Ltd., 2004)

In 2013, Tacloban was struck by Super Typhoon Haiyan, locally known as ‘Yolanda’. The Philippine Star, a local digital news organisation, reported more than 30,000 deaths from that disaster alone. (Avila, 2014) Tacloban is in shambles after Typhoon Haiyan and requires much aid to restore the affected area, especially when the death toll is a whopping five figure amount.

1.4 Existing measures and their gaps

Initially, there was a slow response of the government to the disaster. For the first three days after the typhoon hit, there was no running water and dead bodies were found in wells. In desperation for water to drink, some even smashed pipes of the Leyte Metropolitan Water District. However, even when drinking water was restored, it was contaminated with coliform. Many people thus became ill and one baby died of diarrhoea. (Dizon, 2014)

Long response-time by the government, (Gap 1) and further consequences were borne by the restoration of water brought (Gap 2). The productivity of people was affected and hence there is an urgent need for a better solution to the problem of late restoration of clean water.

1.5 Reasons for Choice of Topic

There is high severity since ingestion of contaminated water is the leading cause of infant mortality and illness in children (International Action, n.d.) and more than 50% of the population is undernourished. (World Food Programme, 2016). Much support and humanitarian aid has been given by organisations such as World Food Programme and The Water Project, yet more efforts are needed to lower the death rates, thus showing the persistency. It is also an urgent issue as malnourishment mostly leads to death and the children’s lives are threatened.

Furthermore, 8 out of 10 of the world’s cities most at risk to natural disasters are in the Philippines. (Reference to Figure _)Thus, the magnitude is huge as there is high frequency of natural disasters. While people are still recovering from the previous one, another hit them, thus worsening the already severe situation.

Figure _ Top 5 Countries of World Risk Index of Natural Disasters 2016 (Source: UN)

WWF CEO Jose Maria Lorenzo Tan said that “on-site desalination or purification” would be a cheaper and better solution to the lack of water than shipping in bottled water for a long period of time. (Dizon, 2014) Instead of relying on external humanitarian aid, which might incur a higher amount of debt as to relying on oneself for water, this can cushion the high expenses of rebuilding their country. Hence, there is a need for a water purification plant that provides potable water immediately when a natural disaster strikes. The plant will also have to provide cheap and affordable water until water systems are restored back to normal.

Living and growing up in Singapore, we have never experienced natural disasters first hand. We can only imagine the catastrophic destruction and suffering that accompanies natural disasters. With “Epione Solar Still” (named after the greek goddess of the Soothing of Pain), we hope to be able to help many Filipinos access clean and drinkable water, especially children who clearly do not deserve to experience such tragedy and suffering.

1.6 Case study: Disaster relief in Japan

Located at the Pacific Ring of Fire, Japan is vulnerable to natural disasters such as earthquakes, tsunami, volcanic eruptions, typhoons, floods and mudslides due to its geographical location and natural conditions. (Japan Times, 2016)

In 2011, an extremely high 9.0 magnitude earthquake hit Fukushima, causing a tsunami that destroyed the northeast coast and killed 19,000 people. It was the worst-hit earthquake in Japan in history, and it damaged the Fukushima plant and caused nuclear leakage, leading to contaminated water which currently exceeds 760,000 tonnes. (The Telegraph, 2016) The earthquake and tsunami caused a nuclear power plant to fail, and radiation to leak into the ocean and escape into the atmosphere. Many evacuees have still not returned to their homes, and, as of January 2014, the Fukushima nuclear plant still poses a threat, according to status reports by the International Atomic Energy Agency. (Natural Disasters & Pollution | Education – Seattle PI. (n.d.))

Disaster Relief

In the case of major disasters, the Japan International Cooperation Agency (JICA) deploys Japan Disaster Relief (JDR) teams, consisting of the rescue, medical, expert and infectious disease response teams and also the Self-Defence Force (SDF) to provide relief aid to affected countries. It provides emergency relief supplies such as blankets, tents and water purifiers and some are also stockpiled as reserved supplies in places closer to disastrous areas in case disasters strike there and emergency disaster relief is needed. (JICA)

For example during the Kumamoto earthquake in 2016, 1,600 soldiers had joined the relief and rescue efforts. Troops were delivering blankets and adult diapers to those in shelters. With water service cut off in some areas, residents were hauling water from local offices to their homes to flush toilets. (Japan hit by 7.3-magnitude earthquake | World news | The Guardian. (2016, April 16))

Solution to Fukushima water contamination

Facilities are used to treat contaminated water. The main one is the Multi-nuclide Removal Facility (ALPS) (Figure _), which could remove most radioactive materials except Tritium. (TEPCO, n.d)

Figure _: Structure of Multi-nuclide Removal Facility (ALPS) (TEPCO, n.d)

1.7 Impacts of Case Study

The treatment of contaminated water is very effective as more than 80% of contaminated water stored in tanks has been decontaminated and more than 90% of radioactive materials has been removed during the process of decontamination by April 2015. (METI, 2014)

1.8 Lessons Learnt

Destruction caused by natural disasters results in a lack of access to clean and drinkable water (L1)

Advancements in water purification technology can help provide potable water for the masses. (L2)

Natural disasters weaken immune systems, people are more vulnerable to the diseases (L3)

1.9 Source of inspiration

Suny Clean Water’s solar still, is made with cheap material alternatives, which would help to provide more affordable water for underprivileged countries.

A fibre-rich paper is coated with carbon black(a cheap powder left over after the incomplete combustion of oil or tar) and layered over each section of a block of polystyrene foam which is cut into 25 equal sections. The foam floats on the untreated water, acting as an insulating barrier to prevent sunlight from heating up too much of the water below. Then, the paper wicks water upward, wetting the entire top surface of each section. This causes a clear acrylic housing to sit atop the styrofoam. (Figure _)

Figure _: How fibre-rich paper coated with carbon black is adapted into the solar still. (Sunlight-powered purifier could clean water for the impoverished | Science | AAAS. (2017, February 2)

It is estimated that the materials needed to build it cost roughly $1.60 per square meter, compared with $200 per square meter for commercially available systems that rely on expensive lenses to concentrate the sun’s rays to expedite evaporation.

1.10 Application of Lessons Learnt

Gaps in current measures

Learning points

Applications to project

Key features in proposal

Developing countries lack the technology / resources to treat their water and provide basic necessities to their people.

Advanced technology can provide potable water readily. (L2)

Need for technology to purify contaminated water.

Solar Distillation Plant

Even with purification of water, problem of malnutrition which is worsened by natural disasters, is still unsolved.

Solution to provide vitamins to young children to boost immunity and lower vulnerability to diseases and illnesses. (L3)

Need for nutrient-rich water.

Nutrients infused into water using concept of osmosis.

Even with the help of external organisations, less than 50% of households have access to safe water.

Clean water is still inaccessible to some people. (L1)

Increase accessibility to water.

Evaporate seawater (abundant around Phillipines) in solar still. (short-term solution)

Figure _: Table of application of lessons learnt

2. Project Aim and Objectives

2.1 Aim

Taking into account the loopholes that exist in current measures adopted to improve water purification to reduce water pollution and malnutrition in Ilocos Norte, our project proposes a solution to provide Filipinos with clean water by creating an ingenious product, the Epione Solar Still. The product makes use of natural occurrences (evaporation of water), and adapts and incorporates the technology and mechanism behind the kidney dialysis machine to provide Filipinos with nutrient-enriched water without polluting their environment. The product will be located near water bodies where seawater is abundant to act as a source of clean water to the Filipinos.

2.2 Objectives of Project

To operationalise our aim, our objectives are to:

Design “Epione Solar Still”

Conduct interviews with:

Masoud Arfand, from Department of Mechanical Engineering, Najafabad Branch, Islamic Azad University to determine the projected percentage of water that Epione Solar Still can produce and the number of people it can provide for.

Qiaoqiang Gan, electrical engineer from Sunny Clean Water (his team innovated the technology of using fibre-rich paper is coated with carbon black to make process of water purification using the soalr still faster and more cost-friendly) to determine amount of time Epione Solar Still needed to produce sufficient water needed to support Fillipinos in Tacloban, Leyte as Epione Solar Still is a short-term disaster relief solution.

Dr Nathan Feldman, Co-Founder of HopeGel, of EB Performance, LLC to determine significant impact of nutrients-infused water to boost immunity of victims of natural disaster. (Project Medishare, n.d)

Review the mechanism and efficiency of using a solar still to source clean and nutrient-rich water for Filipinos.

3. Project Proposal

Investment into purification of water contamination in the form of disaster relief, which can provide Filipinos with nutrients to boost their immunity in times of disaster and limit the number of deaths that occur due to the consumption of contaminated water during a crisis.

3.1 Overview of Project

Our group proposes to build a solar distillation plant (Figure _) within a safe semi-underground bunker. The bunker will contain a generator to power certain parts of the plant. Then, seawater will be fed into the still via underground pipes from the sea surrounding the southern part of Tacloban. The purified water produced by the distillation process will be infused with nutrients to boost the immunity of disaster victims once consumed. Hence, not only will our distillation plant be able to produce potable water, it will also be nutritious so as to boost victims’ immunity in times of natural calamities. Potable water will then be distributed in drums and shared among Filipinos using .

Figure _: Mechanism of our solar distillation plant, Epione Solar Still

3.2 Phase 1: Water Purification System

3.2.1 Water extraction from the sea

Still is located near the sea where seawater is abundant. Seawater is extracted from low-flow open sea (Figure _) and then pumped into our solar still.

Figure _: Intake structure of seawater (Seven Seas Water Corporation, n.d.)

3.2.2 Purification of Seawater

Solar energy heats up the water in the solar still. The water evaporates, and condenses on the cooler glass surface of the ceiling of the still. Pure droplets of water slide down the glass and into the collecting basin, where nutrients will diffuse into the water.

Figure 6: Mechanism of Epione Solar Still

3.3 Phase 2: Nutrient Infuser

Using the concept of reverse osmosis (Figure _), a semi permeable membrane separates the nutrients and newly purified water, allowing the vitamins and minerals to diffuse into the condensed water. The nutrient-infused water will be able to provide nourishment, thus making the victims of natural disaster less vulnerable and susceptible to illnesses and diseases due to a stronger immune system. This will help the Filipinos in Tacloban, Leyte quickly get back on their feet after a natural disaster and minimise the death toll as much as possible after a natural disaster befalls.

Figure _: How does reverse osmosis work (Water Filter System Guide, n.d.)

Nutrient / Mineral


Upper Tolerable Limit (The highest amount that can be consumed without health risks)

Vitamin A

Helps to form and maintain healthy teeth, bones, soft tissue, mucus membranes and skin.

10,000 IU/day

Vitamin B3 (Niacin)

Helps maintain healthy skin and nerves

Has cholesterol-lowering effects

35 mg/day

Vitamin C

(Ascorbic acid, an antioxidant)

Promotes healthy teeth and gums.

Helps the body absorb iron and maintain healthy tissue.

Promotes wound healing.

2,000 mg/day

Vitamin D

(Also known as “sunshine vitamin”, made by the body after being in the sun).

Helps body absorb calcium.

Helps maintain proper blood levels of calcium and phosphorus

1,000 micrograms/day (4,000 IU)

Vitamin E

(Also known as tocopherol, an antioxidant)

Plays a role in formation of red blood cells.

1,500 IU/day

Figure _: Table of functions and amount of nutrients that will be diffused into our Epione water. (WebMD, LLC, 2016)

3.4 Phase 3: Distribution of water to households in Tacloban, Leyte

Potable water will be collected into drums (Figure _) of 100 litres in capacity each, which would suffice 50 people since the average intake of water is 2 litres per person per day. These drums will then be distributed to the tent cities in Tacloban, Leyte, our targeted area, should a natural disaster befall. Thus, locals will get potable water within their reach, which is extremely crucial for their survival in times of natural calamities.

Figure _: Rain barrels will be used to store the purified and nutrient-infused water (Your Easy Garden, n.d.)

3.5 Stakeholders

3.5.1 The HopeGel Project

HopeGel is a nutrient and calorie-dense protein gel designed to aid children suffering from malnutrition caused by severe food insecurity brought upon by draughts (Glenroy Inc., 2014). HopeGel has been distributed in Haiti where malnutrition is the number one cause of death among children under five mainly due to the high frequency of natural disasters that has caused much destruction to the now impoverished state of Haiti. (Figure _) The implementation of Epione Solar Still by this company helps it achieve its objective to address the global issue of severe acute malnutrition in children as most victims of natural disasters lack the nourishment they need (HopeGel, n.d.)

Figure _: HopeGel, a packaged nutrient and calorie-dense protein gel (Butschli, HopeGel, n.d.)

3.5.2 Action Against Hunger (AAH)

Action Against Hunger is a relief organisation that develops and carries out programme for countries in need regarding nutrition, health, water and food security (Action Against Hunger, n.d) (Figure _). AAH also provides programs to be better prepared for disasters which aims to anticipate and prevent humanitarian crisis (GlobalCorps, n.d.) With 40 years of expertise, helping 14.9 million people across more than 45 countries, AAH is no stranger to humanitarian crises. The implementation of Epione Solar Still by this company helps it achieve its aim of saving lives by extending help to Fillipinos in Tacloban, Leyte suffering from deprivation of a basic need due to water contamination caused by disaster relief through purifying and infusing nutrients into seawater.

Figure _: Aims and Missions of Action Against Hunger (AACH, n.d.)


Analyse the use of ICTS in a humanitarian emergency


The intention of writing this essay is to analyse the use of ICTS in a humanitarian emergency. The specific case study we have discuss in this essay is Multi-level functionality of social media in the aftermath of the Great East Japan Earthquake written by Jung, J., and Moro, M. 2014. This report emphasis on the benefits of social media networks like twitter and face book can be used to spread and gather important information in emergency situations rather than solely utilised as a social network platform. ICTs has changed the way humans gather information during the disasters and social media specially twitter became important source of information in these disasters.

Literature Review

The case studies of using ICTs in a humanitarian emergency can have either technically rational perspective or socially embedded perspective. Technically rational perspective means what to do and how to achieve the given purpose, it is a prescription for design and action. Socially embedded means it focuses on the particular case and process of work is affected by the culture, area and human nature. In this article, we have examined different humanitarian disasters cases in which ICTS played a vital role to see if author consider technically rational perspective or socially embedded perspective.

In the article “Learning from crisis: Lessons in human and information infrastructure from the World Trade Centre response” by (Dawes, Cresswell et al. 2004) author adopts technical/rational perspective. 9/11 was very big incident and no one was ready to deal with this size of attack but as soon as it happened procedure start changing rapidly. Government, NGO and disaster response unit start learning and made new prescription, which can be used universally and in any size of disaster. For example, the main communication structure was damaged which was supplied by Verizon there were different communication suppliers suppling their services but they all were using the physical infrastructure supplied by Verizon. So VOIP was used for communication between government officials and in EOC building. There were three main areas where the problems were found and then new procedure adopt in the response of disaster. The three main areas were technology, information and inter layered relationships between the Ngo’s, Government and the private sector. (Dawes, Cresswell et al. 2004).

In the article “Challenges in humanitarian information management and exchange: Evidence from Haiti,” (Altay, Labonte 2014) author adopts socially embedded perspective. Haiti earthquake was one of the big disaster killing 500000 people and displacing at least 2 million. Around 2000 organisation went in for help but there was no coordination between NGO`s and government for the humanitarian response. Organisation didn’t consider local knowledge they assumed that there is no data available. All the organisations had different standards and ways to do work so no one followed any prescription. Technical aspect of HIME (humanitarian information management and exchange) wasn’t working because all the members of humanitarian relief work wasn’t sharing any humanitarian information. (Altay, Labonte 2014)

In the article, Information systems innovation in the humanitarian sector,” Information Technologies and International Development” (Tusiime, Byrne 2011) author adopts socially embedded perspective. Local staff was hired. They didn’t have any former experience or knowledge to work with such a technology, which slow down the process of implementing new technology. Staff wanted to learn and use new system but the changes were done on such a high pace that made staff overworked and stress, which made them loose the interest in the innovation. The management decided to use COMPAS as a new system without realizing that it’s not completing functional and it still have lots of issues but they still went ahead with it. When staff start using and found the problems and not enough technical support was supplied then they didn’t have any choice and they went back to old way of doing things (Tusiime, Byrne 2011). The whole process was effected by how the work is done in specific area and people behaviours.

In the article “Multi-level functionality of social media in the aftermath of the Great East Japan Earthquake,” (Jung, Moro 2014) author adopts technically rational perspective. In any future humanitarian disaster situation, social media can be used as an effective source of communication method conjunction with mass media. After the disaster twitter was used more as a spreading and gathering information source instead of using as social media platform.

In the article “Information flow impediments in disaster relief supply chains,” Journal of the Association for Information Systems,10(8), pp. 637-660.(Day, Junglas et al. 2009) author proposed development of IS for information sharing based on hurricane Katrina. Author adopted TR perspective because need of IS development for information flow within and outside of organisation is essential. This developed IS will help to manage complex supply chain management. Supply chain management in disaster situation is challenging as compare to traditional supply chain management. Supply chain management IS should be able to cater all types of dynamic information, suggested Day, Juglas and Silva (2009).

Case study Description:

On the 11 march 2011 at the scale of 9.00 magnitude hit north-eastern part of japan. This was followed by tsunami. Thousands of people lost their lives and infrastructure was completely damaged in that area (Jung, Moro 2014). Tsunami wiped off two towns of the maps and the costal maps had to be redrawn (Acar, Muraki 2011). On the same day of earth quake cooling system in nuclear reactor no 1 in Fukushima failed because of that nuclear accident Japanese government issued nuclear emergency. On the evening of the earthquake Japanese government issued evacuation order for 3 km area around reactor (Jung, Moro 2014). On March 12 hydrogen explosion occurred in the nuclear reactor because of failed cooling system which is followed by another explosion after 2 days on March 14. The area of evacuation was 3 km in the start but was increased to 20 km so avoid any nuclear radiation. This was one of the big nuclear disaster for the country so it was hard for the government to access the scale of the disaster. As the government officials, didn’t came across this kind situation before and couldn’t estimate the damage occurred because of incident. Government officials were adding more confusion in people with their unreliable information. They declare the accident level as 5 on the international nuclear scale but later they changed it to 7 which was highest on international nuclear scale. Media reporting was also confusing the public. The combination of contradicting information from government and media increase the level of confusion in the public. In the case of disaster Mass media is always the main source of information normally they discontinue their normal transmission and focus on the disaster. Their most of the airtime is devoted for the disaster so they can keep the people update about the situation. Normally mass media provides very reliable information in humanitarian disaster situation but in the case of japan disaster media was contradicting each other news e.g. international media was contradicting the news from local media as well as local government so people start losing faith in the mass media and start relying on different source to get information. Second reason was that the mass media was traditional way of gathering information and because of changes in technology people start using mobile phone and internet. Third main reason people start looking to get the information from different mean because the infrastructure for mass media was damage and lot of people cannot access the services of Television, so they start depending on video streaming sites e.g. ustream and YouTube. People start using twitter on big scale to spread and gather news. There was 30 percent of users increased on twitter within first week of disaster and 60 percent of twitter user thinks that it was useful for gather or spread information.

Case Study Analysis:

Twitter is one of the social media platform and micro blogging website, you can have 140 character in one tweet. It is different from other social media plate form because any one can follow you and they don’t need your authorization. Only register member can tweet but to read a message registration is not required. The author of “Multi-level functionality of social media in the aftermath of the Great East Japan Earthquake,” (Jung, Moro 2014) discuss about the five functionalities of twitter by the help of conceptual model of multi-level social media. The following figure describes the five primary function model in twitter very clearly.

Fig No 1 Source: (Jung, Moro 2014)

The five functionality was derived on survey and review of selected twitter timelines.

The first function was having tweets between individual it’s also known as interpersonal communication with others. It is micro level of conceptual model, in this level people from country and outside of a country were connecting other people who were is the affected area. The most of tweets were for checking safety of people that they are safe after the disaster, to inform your love ones if you were at affected area and needs any help or to inform people that you are safe. In the first three days high percentage of tweets were from micro level communication channel.

The second function was having communication channel for local organisation, local government and local media. It is meso level of conceptual model in this communication channel local governments open new accounts and re activate accounts which wasn’t used for a while to keep their local residents informed, the follower of twitter accounts increased very fast. People have understand the importance of social media and benefits of it after the disaster when the infrastructure was damaged and they were having electricity cut out but they were still able to get the information about the disasters and tsunami warnings. Local government and local media used twitter accounts to give different alerts and news e.g. the alert of tsunami was issued on twitter and after tsunami the reports of damage was released on twitter. Local media open new twitters channels and kept people informed about situation. Different organisation e.g. embassies of different countries used twitter to keep their nationals informed about situation about disaster and this was best way of communication between embassies and their nationals. Nationals can even let their embassy that they are struck in affected area and they need any help because they can be in very vulnerable situation as they are not in their country.

The third function was having communication of Mass media which is known as Macro level. Mass media used social platform to broadcast their news because the infrastructure was damage and people in effected area couldn’t access their broadcast. There were some people who were not in the country so they couldn’t access the local mass media news on television so they watching news on video streaming website as the demand increased most of mass media open the accounts on social media to fulfil the requirements. They start broadcasting their news on video streaming websites like YouTube, Ustream. Mass media was giving news updates several times a day on twitter as well and lot of people who were reading it also was retweeting them so information was spreading on very high speed.

The fourth function was information sharing and gathering which is known as cross level. Individual used social media to get the information about earthquake, tsunami and nuclear accident. When someone try to find information they come across the tweets which were for micro level, meso level and macro level. This level is great use when you are looking for help and you want to know different people opinions if they were in that situation what would they have done. The research done on the twitter time line proofs that on the day of earthquake people were tweeting regarding the shelters available and information about transport (Jung, Moro 2014).

The fifth function was direct channels between individuals and the mass media, government and the public. This is also consider as cross level. In this level individual could inform government and mass media about the situation of effected area because of disaster there were some places where government and mass media couldn’t reach, so they didn’t know the situation. Mayor of Minami-soma city which was 25 miles away from Fukushima used you tube to tell the government the threat of radiation to his city, the video went viral and Japanese government have international pressure to evacuate the city. (Jung, Moro 2014)


There was gradually change in use of social media to use a communication tool instead of social media platform in event of disaster. The multi-level functionality is one of the important characteristic which connects it very well with existing media. This is complete prescription which can be used in and after any kind of disaster. Social media can be used with other media as an effective communication methods to prepare for emergency in any future disaster situation.

Twitter played a big role in the communication in the disaster in japan. It was used to spread information, gather information about earthquake, tsunami and nuclear reactor accident. It was used to help request, issue warning about earthquake, tsunami and nuclear reactor accident. It was also used for condolences. Twitter has lot of benefits but it has some drawbacks which has to be rectify. The biggest issue in tweets are unreliability, anyone can tweet any information and there is no check and balance on it, only the person who do that tweet is responsible for the authentic information. There is no control on false information and it spreads so fast that it can create anxiety in people because of contradicted information e.g. if the false information about the range of radiation was released by individual and retweets by other individual who didn’t had any knowledge about the effect of radiation and nuclear accident it would had caused a panic in people. In the case of disaster, it is very important that reliable and right information is released.

Information system can play vital role in humanitarian disasters in all aspects. It can be used in the better communication, it can be used to improve the efficiency and accountability of the organisation. The data will be available widely in the organisation so it can have monitoring on the finances. It helps to coordinate different operation in organisations e.g. transport, supply chain management, logistics, finance and monitoring.

Social media has played a significant role in communicating, disseminating and storing data related to disasters. There is a need of control of that information being spread over the social media since not all type of information is authentic or verified.

IS based tools needs to be developed for disaster management in order to get best result from varied range of data extracted from social media and take necessary action for the wellbeing of people in disaster area.

The outcome of using purpose built IS, will be supportive in making decisions to develop strategy to deal with the situation. Disaster management team will be able to analyse the data in order to train the team for a disaster situation.


Renewable energy in the UK: essay help

The 2014 IPCC report stated that anthropogenic emissions of greenhouse gases have led to unprecedented levels of carbon dioxide, methane and nitrous oxide in the environment. The report also stated that the effect of greenhouse gases is extremely likely to have caused the global warming we have witnessed since the 20th century.

The 2018 IPCC report set new targets, aiming to limit climate change to a maximum of 1.5°C. To reach this, we will need zero CO₂ emissions by the year 2050. Previous IPCC targets of 2°C change allowed us until roughly 2070 to reach zero emissions. This means government policies will have to be reassessed and current progress reviewed in order to confirm whether or not the UK is capable of reaching zero emissions by 2050 on our current plan.

Electricity Generation

Fossil fuels are natural fuels formed from the remains of prehistoric plant and animal life. Fossil fuels (coal, oil and gas) are crucial in any look at climate change as when burned they release both carbon dioxide (a greenhouse gas) and energy. Hence, in order to reach the IPCC targets the UK needs to drastically reduce its usage of fossil fuels, either through improving efficiency or by using other methods of energy generation.

Whilst coal is a cheap energy source used to generate approximately 40% of the world’s electricity , it’s arguably the most damaging to the environment as coal releases more energy into the atmosphere in relation to energy produced than any other fuel source. Coal power stations generate electricity by burning coal in a combustion chamber and using the heat energy to transform water to steam which turns the propeller-like blades within the turbine. A generator (consisting of tightly-wound metal coils) is mounted at one end of the turbine and when rotated at a high velocity through a magnetic field, generates electricity. However the UK has made great claims to fully eradiate the use of coal in electricity generation by 2025. These claims are well substantiated by the UK’s rapid decline in coal use. In 2015 coal accounted for 22% of electricity generated in the UK, this was down to only 2% by the second quarter of 2017 and in April 2018 the UK even managed to go 72 hours powered without coal.

Natural gas became a staple of British electrical generation in the 1990s, when the Conservative Party got into power and privatised the electrical supply industry. The “Dash for gas” was triggered by legal changes within the UK and EU allowing for greater freedom to use gas in electricity generation.

Whilst natural gas emits less CO₂ than coal, it emits far more methane. Methane doesn’t remain in the atmosphere as long but it traps heat to a far greater extent. According to the World Energy Council methane emissions trap 25 times more heat than CO₂ over a 100 year timeframe.

Natural gas produces electrical energy in a gas turbine. Natural gas is mixed with the hot air and burned in a combustor. The hot gas then pushes turbine blades and as in coal plant, the turbine is attached to a generator, creating electricity. Gas turbines are hugely popular as they are a cheap source of energy generation and they can quickly be powered up to respond to surges in electrical demand.

Combined Cycle Gas Turbines (CCGT) are an even better source of electrical generation. Whilst traditional gas turbines are cheap and fast-reacting, they only have an efficiency of approximately 30%. Combined cycle turbines, however, are gas turbines used in combination with steam turbines giving an efficiency of between 50 and 60%. The hot exhaust from the gas turbine is used to create steam which rotates turbine blades and a generator in a steam turbine. This allows for greater thermal efficiency.

Nuclear energy is a potential way forward as no CO₂ is emitted by Nuclear power plants. Nuclear plants aim to capture the energy released by atoms undergoing nuclear fission. In nuclear fission, nuclei absorb neutrons as they collide thus making an unstable nucleus. The unstable nucleus will then split into fission products of smaller mass and emit two or three high speed neutrons which can then collide with more nuclei, making them unstable thus creating a chain reaction. The heat energy produced by splitting the atom is first converted can be used to produce steam which will be used by a turbine generator to produce electricity.

Currently, 21% of electricity generated in the UK comes from nuclear energy. In the 1990s, 25% of electricity came from nuclear energy but gradually old plants have been retired. By 2025, UK nuclear power could half. This is due to a multitude of reasons. Firstly, nuclear fuel is expensive in comparison to gas and coal. Secondly, nuclear waste is extremely radioactive and so must be dealt with properly. Also, in light of tragedies such as Chernobyl and Fukushima, much of the British public expressed concerns surrounding Nuclear energy with the Scottish government refusing to open more plants

In order to lower our CO₂ emissions it is crucial we also utilise renewable energy. The UK currently gets very little of its energy from renewable sources but almost all future plans place a huge emphasis on renewables.

The UK has great wind energy potential as the nation is the windiest country in the EU with 40% of the total wind that blows across the EU.

Wind turbines are straightforward machinery; the wind turns the turbine blades around a rotor which is connected to the main shaft which spins a generator, creating electricity. In 2017, onshore wind generated enough energy to power 7.25 million homes a year and generated 9% of the UK’s electricity. However, despite the clear benefits of clean, renewable energy, wind energy is not without its problems. Firstly, it is an intermittent supply – the turbine will not generate energy when there is no wind. Also it has been opposed by members of the public for affecting the look of the countryside and bird fatalities. These problems are magnified by the current conservative government’s stance on wind energy who wish to limit onshore wind farm development despite public opposition to this “ban”.

Heating and Transport

Currently it is estimated a third of carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions in the UK are accounted for in the heating sector. 50% of all heat emissions in the UK exist for domestic use, consequently making it the main source of CO2 emissions in the heating sector. Around 98% of domestic heating is used for space and water heating. The government has sought to reduce the emissions from domestic heating alone by issuing a series of regulations on new boilers. Regulations state as of 1st April 2005 all new installations and replacements of boilers are required to be condensing boilers. As well as CO2 emissions being much lower, condensing boilers are around 15-30% more efficient than older gas boilers. Reducing heat demand has also been an approach taken to reduce emissions. For instance, building standards in the UK have set higher levels of required thermal insulations of both domestic and non-domestic buildings when refurbishing and carrying out new projects. These policies are key to ensure that both homes are buildings in industry are as efficient as possible when it comes to conserving heat.

Although progress is being made in terms of improving current CO2 reducing systems, the potential for significant CO2 reductions rely upon low carbon technologies. Highly efficient technologies such as the residential heat pump and biomass boilers have the potential to be carbon neutral sources of heat and in doing so could massively reduce CO2 emissions for domestic use . However, finding the best route to a decarbonised future in the heating industry relies upon more than just which technology has the lowest carbon footprint. For instance, intermittent technologies such as solar thermal collectors cannot provide a sufficient level of heat in the winter and require a back-up source of heat making them a less desirable source of heat . Cost is also a major factor in consumer preference. For most consumers, a boiler is the cheapest option for heating. This provides a problem for low carbon technologies which tend to have significantly higher upfront costs . In response to the cost associated with these technologies, the government has introduced policies such as the ‘Renewable Heat Incentive’ which aims to alleviate the expense through paying consumers for each unit of heat produced by low carbon technologies. Around 30% of the heating sector is allocated for industry use, making it the second largest cause of CO2 in this sector . Currently, combined heat and power (CHP) is the main process used to make industrial heat use more efficient and has shown CO2 reductions of up to 30%. Although this is a substantial reduction in CO2, alternative technology has the potential to deliver even higher reductions. For example, the process of carbon capture storage (CCS), has the potential to reduce CO2 emissions by up to 90% . However, CCS is a complex procedure which would require a substantial amount of funding and as a result is not currently implemented for industrial use in the UK.

Although heating is a significant contribution to CO2 emissions in the UK, there is also much needed progress elsewhere. In 2017 it was estimated that 34% of all carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions in the UK were caused by transport and is widely thought to be the sector in which least progress is being made, with only seeing a 2% reduction in CO2 emissions since 1990. Road transport contributes the highest proportion of emissions, more specifically petrol and diesel cars. Despite average CO2 emissions of new vehicles declining, the carbon footprint of the transport industry continues to increase due to the larger number of vehicles in the UK.

In terms of progress, CO2 emissions of new cars in 2017 were estimated to be 33.1% lower than the early 2000s. Although efficiencies are improving, more must be done if we are to conform to the targets set from the Climate Change Act 2008. A combination of decarbonising transport and implementing government legislation is vital to have the potential to meet these demands. New technology such as battery electric vehicles (BEV’s) have the potential to create significant reductions in the transport industry. As a result, a report from the committee of climate change suggests that 60% of all sales of new cars and vans should be ultra-low emission by 2030. However, the likeliness of achieving this is hindered by the constraints of new technologies. For instance, low emission vehicles are likely to have significantly higher costs and lack consumer awareness. This reinforces the need of government support in projecting new technologies and cleaner fuels. To support the development and uptake of low carbon vehicles the government has committed £32 million for the funding of charging infrastructure of BEV’s from 2015-2020 and a further £140 million has been allocated to the ‘low carbon vehicle innovation platform’ which strives to advance the development and research of low emission vehicles. Progress has also been made to make these vehicles more cost competitive through being exempt from taxes such as Vehicle Excise Duty and providing incentives such as plug in grants of up to £3,500. Aside from passenger cars, improvements are also being made to emissions of public transport. The average low emission bus in London could reduce its CO2 emissions by up to 26 tonnes per year subsequently acquiring the governments support in England of the ‘Green Bus Fund’.


In 2017, renewables accounted for a record 29.3% of the UK’s energy generation. This is a vast improvement on previous years and suggests the UK is on track to meet the new IPCC targets although a lot of work still needs to be done. Government policies do need to be reassessed in light of the new targets however. Scotland should reassess its nuclear policy as this might be a necessary stepping stone in reduced emissions until renewables are able to fully power the nation and the UK government needs to reassess its allocation of funding as investment in clean energy is on a current downward trajectory.

Although progress has been made to reduce CO2 emissions in the heat and transport sector, emissions throughout the UK remain much higher than desired. The committee of climate change report to parliament (2015), calls for the widespread electrification of heating and transport by 2030 to help prevent a 1.5 degree rise in global temperature. This is likely to pose as a major challenge and will require a significant increase in electricity generation capacities in conjunction with greater policy intervention to encourage the uptake of low carbon technologies. Although the likelihood of all consumers switching to alternative technologies are sparse, if the government continues to tighten regulations surrounding fossil fuelled technologies whilst the heat and transport industry continue to develop old and new systems to become more efficient this should see significant CO2 reductions in the future.


Is Nuclear Power a viable source of energy?: college application essay help

6th Form Economics project:

Nuclear power, the energy of the future of the 1950s, is now starting to feel like the past. Around 450 nuclear reactors worldwide currently generate 11% of the world electricity, or approximately 2500 TWh in a year, just under the total nuclear power generated globally in 2001 and only 500 TWh more than in 1991. The number of operating reactors worldwide has seen the same stagnation, with an increase of only 31 since 1989, or an annual growth of only 0.23% compared to 12.9% from 1959 to 1989. Most reactors, especially in Europe and North America, where built before the 90s and the average age of reactors worldwide is just over 28 years. Large scale nuclear accidents such as Chernobyl in 1986 or, much more recently, Fukushima in 2011 have negatively impacted public support for nuclear power and helped cause this decline, but the weight of evidence has increasingly suggested that nuclear is safer than most other energy sources and has an incredibly low carbon footprint, causing the argument against nuclear to shift from concerns about safety and the environment to questions about the economic viability of nuclear power. The crucial question that remains is therefore about how well nuclear power can compete against renewables to produce the low carbon energy required to tackle global warming.

The costs of most renewable energy sources have been falling rapidly and increasingly able to outcompete nuclear power as a low carbon option and even fossil fuels in some places; photovoltaic panels, for example, have halved in price from 2008 to 2014. Worse still for nuclear power, it seems that while costs of renewable energy have been falling, plans for new nuclear plants have been plagued with delays and additional costs: in the UK, Hinkley Point C power station is set to cost £20.3bn, making it the world’s most expensive power station, and significant issues in the design have raised questions as to whether the plant will be completed by 2025, it’s current goal. In France, the Flamanville 3 reactor is now predicted to cost three times its original budget and several delays have pushed the start up date, originally set for 2012, to 2020. The story is the same in the US, where delays and extra costs have plagued the construction of the Vogtle 3 and 4 reactors which are now due to be complete by 2020-21, 4 years over their original target. Nuclear power seemingly cannot deliver the cheap, carbon free energy it promised and is being outperformed by renewable energy sources such as solar and wind.

The crucial and recurring issue with nuclear power is that it requires huge upfront costs, especially when plants are built individually, and can only provide revenue years after the start of construction. This means that investment into nuclear is risky, long term and cannot be done well on a small scale, though new technologies such as SMRs (Small Modular Reactors) may change this in the coming decades, making it a much bigger gamble. Improvements in other technologies over the period of time a nuclear plant is built means that is often better for private firms, who are less likely to be able to afford large scale programs enabling significant cost reductions or a lower debt to equity ration in their capital structure, to invest in more easily scalable and shorter term energy sources, especially with subsidies favouring renewables in many developed countries. All of this points to the fundamental flaw of nuclear: that it requires going all the way. Small scale nuclear programs that are funded mostly with debt, that have high discount rates and low capacity factors as they are switched off frequently will invariably have a very high Levelised Cost of Energy (LCOE) as nuclear is so capital intensive.

That said, the reverse is true as well. Nuclear plants have very low operating costs, almost no external costs and the cost of decommissioning a plant are only a small portion of the initial capital cost, even with a low discount rate such as 3%, due to the long lifespan of a nuclear plant and the fact that many can be extended. Operating costs include fuel costs, which are extremely low for nuclear, costing only 0.0049 USD per kWh, and non-fuel operation and maintenance costs which are barely higher at 0.0137 USD per kWh. This includes waste disposal, a frequently cited political issue that has no longer been relevant technically for decades as waste can be reused relatively well and stored on site safely at very low costs simply because the quantity of fuel used and therefore waste produced is so small. The fuel, uranium is abundant and technology enabling uranium to be extracted from sea water would give access to a 60,000 year supply at present rates of consumption so costs from ‘resource depletion’ are also small. Finally, external costs represent a very small proportion of running costs: the highest estimates for health costs and potential accident are at 5€/MWh and 4€/MWh respectively, though some estimates fall to only 0.3€/MWh for potential accidents when past records are adjusted to try and factor in improvements in safety standards; though these vary significantly due to the fact that the total number of reactors is very small.

Nuclear power therefore remains still one of the cheapest ways to produce electricity in the right circumstances and many LCOE (Levelised Cost of Energy) estimates, which are designed to factor in all costs over the life time of a unit to give a more accurate representation of the costs of different types of energy, though they usually omit system costs, point to nuclear as a cheaper energy source than almost all renewables and most fossil fuels at low discount rates.

LCOE costs taken from ‘Projected Costs of Generating Electricity 2015 Edition’ and system costs taken from ‘Nuclear Energy and Renewables (NEA, 2012)’ have been combined by the World Nuclear association to give LCOE for four countries to compare the costs of nuclear to other energy sources. A discount rate of 7% is used, the study applies a $30/t CO2 price on fossil fuel use and uses 2013 US$ values and exchange rates. It is important to bear in mind that LCOE estimates vary widely as many assume different circumstances and they are very difficult to calculate, but it is clear from the graph that nuclear power is more than still viable; being the cheapest source in three of the four countries and third cheapest in the fourth behind onshore wind and gas.


Decision making during the Fukushima disaster


On March 11, 2011 a tsunami struck the east coast of Japan, which resulted in a disaster at the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant. During the day commencing the natural disaster many decisions were made with regards to managing the crisis. This paper will examine these decisions made during the crisis. The Governmental Politics Model, a model designed by Allison and Zelikow (1999), will be adopted to analyse the events. Therefore, the research question of this paper is: To what extent does the Governmental Politics Model explain the decisions made during the Fukushima disaster.

First, this paper will lay the theoretical basis for an analysis. The Governmental Politics Model and all crucial concepts within it are discussed. Then a conscription of the Fukushima case will follow. Since the reader is expected to already have general knowledge regarding the Fukushima Nuclear disaster the case description will be very brief. With the theoretical framework and case study a basis for the analysis is laid. The analysis will look into the decisions government and Tokyo Electric Power Company (TEPCO) officials made during the crisis.


Allison and Zelikow designed three theories to understand the outcomes of bureaucracies and decision making in the aftermath of the Cuban Missile Crisis in 1962. The first theory to be designed was the Rational Actor Model. This model focusses on the ‘logic of consequences’ and has a basic assumption of rational actions of a unitary actor. The second theory designed by Allison and Zelikow is the Organizational Behavioural Model. This model focusses on the ‘logic of appropriateness’ and has a main assumption of loosely connected allied organizations (Broekema, 2019).

The third model thought of by Allison and Zelikow is the Governmental Politics Model (GPM). This model reviews the importance of power in decision-making. According to the GPM decision making has not to do with rational/unitary actors or organizational output but everything with a bargaining game. This means that governments make decisions in other ways, according to the GPM there are four aspects to this. These aspects are: the choices of one, the results of minor games and of central games and foul-ups (Allison & Zelikow, 1999).

The following concepts are essential in the GPM. First, it is important to note that power in government is shared. Different institutions have independent bases and, therefore, power is shared. Second, persuasion is an important factor in the GPM. The power to persuade differentiates power from authority. Third, bargaining according to the process is identified, this means there is a structure in the bargaining processes. Fourth, power equals impact on outcome is mentioned in the Essence of Decision making. This means that there is a difference between what can be done and what is actually done, and what is actually done has to do with the power involved in the process. Lastly, intranational and international relations are of great importance to the GPM. These relations are intertwined and involve a vast set if international and domestic actors (Allison & Zelikow, 1999).

Not only the five previous concepts are relevant for the GPM. The GPM is inherently based on group decisions, in this type of decision making Allison and Zelikow identify seven factors. The first factor is a positive one, group decisions, when met by certain requirements create better decisions. Secondly, the agency problem is identified, this problem includes information asymmetric and the fact that actors are competing over different goals. Third, it is important to identify the actors in the ‘game’. This means that one has to find out who participates in the bargaining process. Fourth, problems with different types of decisions are outlined. Fifth, framing issues and agenda setting is an important factor in the GPM. Sixth, group decisions are not necessarily positive, they can lead to groupthink easily. This is a negative consequence and means that no other opinions are considered. Last, the difficulties in collective actions is outlined by Allison and Zelikow. This has to do with the fact that the GPM does not consider unitary actors but different organizations (Allison & Zelikow, 1999).

Besides the concepts mentioned above the GPM consists of a concise paradigm too. This paradigm is essential for the analysis of the Fukushima case. The paradigm exists of six main points. The first main point is the fact that decisions are the result of politics, this is the GPM and once again stresses the fact that decisions are the result of bargaining. Second, as said before, it is important to identify the players of the political ‘game’. Furthermore, one has to identify their preferences and goals and what kind of impact they can have on the final decision. Once this is analysed, one has to look at what the actual game is that is played. The action channels and rules of the game can be determined. Third, the ‘dominant inference pattern’ once again goes back to the fact that the decisions are the result of bargaining, but this point makes clear that differences and misunderstandings have to be taken into account. Fourth, Allison and Zelikow identify ‘general propositions’ this term includes all concepts examined in the second paragraph of the theory section of this paper. Fifth, specific propositions are looked at, these specify to decisions on the use of force and military action. Last, is the importance of evidence. When examining crisis decision making documented timelines and for example, minutes or other account are of great importance (Allison & Zelikow, 1999).


In the definition of Prins and Van den Berg (2018) the Fukushima Daiichi disaster can be regarded as a safety case, this is because it was an unintentional event that caused harm to humans.

The crisis was initiated by an earthquake of 9.0 on the Richter scale which was followed by a tsunami, which waves reached a height of 10 meters. Due to the earthquake all external power lines, which are needed for cooling the fuel rods, were disconnected. Countermeasures for this issue were in place, however, the water walls were unable to protect the nuclear plant from flooding. This caused the countermeasures, the diesel generators, to be inadequate (Kushida, 2016).

Due to the lack of electricity, the nuclear fuel rods were not cooled, therefore, a ‘race for electricity’ started. Eventually the essential decision to inject sea water was made. Moreover, the situation inside the reactors was unknown. Meltdowns in reactors 1 and 2 already occurred. Because of explosions risks the decision to vent the reactors was made. However, hydrogen explosions materialized in reactors 1,2 and 4. This in turn led to the exposure of radiation to the environment. To counter the disperse of radiation the decision to inject sea water to the reactors was made (Kushida, 2016).


This analysis will look into the decision or decisions to inject seawater in the damaged reactors. First, a timeline of the decisions will be outlined to further build on the case study above. Then the events and decisions made will be paralleled to the GPM paradigm with the six main points as described in the theory.

The need to inject sea water arose after the first stages as described in the case study passed. According to Kushida government officials and political leaders began voicing the necessity of injecting the water at 6:00 p.m., the day after the earthquake, on March 12. It would according to these officials have one very positive outcome, namely, the cooling of the reactors and the fuel pool. However, the use of sea water might have negative consequences too. It would ruin the reactors because of the salt in the sea water and it would produce vast amounts of contaminated water which would be hard to contain (Kushida, 2016). TEPCO experienced many difficulties with cooling the reactors, as is described in the case study, because of the lack of electricity. However, they were averse to injecting sea water into the reactors since this would ruin them. Still, after the first hydrogen explosion occurred in reactor one TEPCO plant workers started the injection of sea water in this specific reactor (Holt et al., 2012). A day later, on March 13, sea water injection started in reactor 3. On the 14th of March, seawater injection started in reactor 2 (Holt et al., 2012).

When looking at the decisions made by the government or TEPCO plant workers it is crucial to consider the chain of decision making by TEPCO leadership too. TEPCO leadership was in the first instance not very positive towards injecting seawater because of the earlier mentioned disadvantages, the plant would become unusable in the future and vast amounts of contaminated water would be created. Therefore, the government had to issue an order to TEPCO to start injecting seawater. They did so at 8:00 p.m. on 12 March. However, Yoshida, the Fukushima Daiichi Plant Manager already started injecting seawater at 7:00 p.m. (Kushida, 2016).

As one can already see different interests were at play and the outcome of the eventual decision can well be a political resultant. Therefore, it is crucial to examine the chain of decisions through the GPM paradigm. The first factor of this paradigm concerns decisions as a result of bargaining, this can clearly be seen in the decision to inject seawater. TEPCO leadership initially was not a proponent of this method, however, after government officials ordered them to execute the injection they had no choice. Second, according to the theory, it is important to identify the players of the ‘game’ and their goals. In this instance these divisions are easily identifiable, three different players can be pointed out. The different players are the government, TEPCO leadership and Yoshida, the plant manager. The Government has as a goal to keep their citizens safe during the crisis, TEPCO wanted to maintain the reactor as long as possible, whereas, Yoshida wanted to contain the crisis. This shows there were conflicting goals in that sense.

To further apply the GPM to the decision to inject seawater one can review the comprehensive ‘general proposition’. In this part miscommunication is a very relevant factor. Miscommunication was certainly a big issue in the decision to inject seawater. As said before Yoshida, already started injecting seawater before he received approval from his chiefs. One might even wonder whether or not there was a misunderstanding of the crisis by TEPCO leadership because of the fact that they hesitated to inject seawater necessary to cool the reactors. It can be argued that this hesitation constitutes a great deal of misunderstanding of the crisis since there was no plant to be saved anymore at the time the decision was made.

The fifth and sixth aspect of the GPM paradigm are less relevant to the decisions made. This is because ‘specific proposition’ refers to the use of force, which was not an option in dealing with the Fukushima crisis. The Japanese Self-Defence forces were dispatched to the plant; however, this was to provide electricity (Kushida, 2016). Furthermore, the sixth aspect, evidence is not as important in this case since many scholars, researchers and investigators have written to a great extent about what happened during the Fukushima crisis, more than sufficient information is available.

The political and bargaining game in the decision to inject seawater into the reactors is clearly visible. The different actors in the game had different goals, however, eventually the government won this game and the decision to inject seawater was made. Even before that the plant manager already to inject seawater because the situation was too dire.


This essay reviewed decision making during the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant disaster on the 11th of March 2011. More specifically the decision to inject seawater into the reactors to cool them was scrutinized. This was done by using the Governmental Politics Model. The decision to inject seawater into the reactors was a result of a bargaining game and different actors with different objectives played the decision-making ‘game’.


Tackling misinformation on social media: college essay help online

As the world of social media expands, the ratio of miscommunication rises as more organisations hop on the bandwagon of utilising the digital realm to their advantage. Twitter, Facebook, Instagram, online forums and other websites become the pinnacle of news gathering for many individuals. Information becomes easily accessible to all walks of life meaning that people are becoming more integrated about real life issues. Consumers absorb and take information in as easy as ever before which proves to be equally advantageous and disadvantageous. But, There is an evident boundary in which the differentiation of misleading and truthful information is hard to cross without research on the topic. The accuracy of public information is highly questionable which could easily lead to problems. Despite there being a debate about source credibility in any platform, there are ways to tackle the issue through “expertise/competence (i. e., the degree to which a perceiver believes a sender to know the truth), trustworthiness (i. e., the degree to which a perceiver believes a sender will tell the truth as he or she knows it), and goodwill”. (Cronkhite & Liska (1976)) Which is why it has become critical for this to be accurate, ethical and reliable for the consumers. Verifying information is important regardless of the type of social media outlet. This essay will be highlighting the importance of why information need to fit this criteria.

By putting out credible information it prevents and reduces misconception, convoluted meanings and inconsistent facts which reduce the likeliness of issues surfacing. This in turn saves time for the consumer and the producer. The presence of risk raises the issue of how much of this information should be consumed by the public. The perception of source credibility becomes an important concept to analyse within social media, especially in terms of crisis where rationality reduces and the latter often just take the first thing that is seen. With the increasing amount of information available through newer channels, the idea of releasing information from professionals of the topic devolve away from the producers and onto consumers. (Haas & Wearden, 2003) Many of the public is unaware that this information is prone to bias and selective information sharing which could communicate the actual facts much differently. One such example is the incident of Tokyo Electric Power Co.’s Fukushima No.1 nuclear power plant in 2011, where the plant experienced triple meltdowns. There is a misconception floating around that the food exported from Fukushima is too contaminated with radioactive substances making them unhealthy and unfit to eat. But the truth is that this isn’t the case when strict screening reveals that the contamination is below the government standard to pose a threat. ( Since then, products shipped from Fukushima have dropped considerably in prices and have not recovered since 2011 forcing retailers into bankruptcy. ( But thanks to the use of social media and organisations releasing information out into the public, Fukushima was able to raise funds and receive help from other countries. For example the U.S. sending $100,000 and China sending emergency supplies as assistance. ( This would have been impossible to achieve without the use of sharing credible, reliable and ethical information regarding the country and social media support spotlighting the incident.

Accurate, ethical and reliable information open the pathway for producers to secure a relationship with the consumers which can be used to strengthen their own businesses and expand their industries further whilst gaining support from the public. The idea is to have a healthy relationship without the air of uneasiness where monetary gains and social earnings increase. Social media playing a pivotal role in deciding the route the relationship falls in. But, When done incorrectly, organisations can become unsuccessful when they know little to nothing about the change of dynamics in consumers and behaviour in the digital landscape. Consumer informedness means that consumers are well informed about products or services available with precision influencing their willingness in decisions. This increase in consumer informedness can instigate change in consumer behaviour. ( In the absence of accurate, ethical and reliable information, people and organisations will make terrible decisions with no hesitation. Which leads to losses and steps backwards. As Saul Eslake ( says, “they will be unable to help or persuade others to make better decisions; and no-one will be able to ascertain whether the decisions made by particular individuals or organisations were the best ones that could have been made at the time”. Recently, a YouTuber named Shawn Dawson made a video that sparked controversy to the company ‘Chuck E. Cheese’ for their pizzas slices that do not look like they belong to the whole pizza. He created a theory that part of the pizzas may have been reheated or recycled from other tables. In response Chuck E. Cheese responded in multiple media outlets to debunk the theory, “These claims are unequivocally false. We prep the dough daily for our made to order pizzas, which means they’re not always perfectly round, but they are still great tasting.” ( It is worth bringing up that no information other than pictures back up the claim that they reused the pizza. The food company has also gone far to create a video showing the pizza preparation. To back as the support, ex-employees spoke up and shared their own side of the story to debunk the theory further. It’s these quick responses that saved what could have caused a small downfall in sale for the Chuck E. Cheese company. ( This event highlights the importance on the release of information that can fall in favour to whoever utilises it correctly and the effectiveness of credible information that should be taken to heart. Credible information is good and bad especially when it has the support of others whether online or real life. The assumption or guess when there is no information available to base from is called a ‘heuristic value’ which is seen associated with information that has no credibility.

Mass media have been a dominant source of finding informatio