Diversity In Theatre

Recently film and TV studios have been hopping on the diversity bandwagon, but Chicago has been the hub of theatrical diversity for far longer than it’s recent resurgence in the media. The Chicago theater scene is raved for being diverse and inclusive, but this idea of Chicago theater as diverse comes from smaller storefront theaters like Albany Park Theater Project, while bigger theaters like The Goodman use tokenism, work with complete all white or all minority casts, or split directly down the middle and have half and half.

Albany Park Theater Project is a theater performance group located in a very diverse part of Chicago. While looking through their website, I found their mission statement which states, “We are Albany Park Theater Project, a multiethnic, youth theater ensemble that inspires people to envision a more just and beautiful world. We are dedicated to art, to youth, and a vision of social justice” (Albany Park Theater Project). The term social justice is a very vague term and, in my opinion, when it comes to theatre, a vision of social justice would include diversity in the cast and in the works that are put on. Albany Park Theater Project, through their website, blog, youtube channel, and other reviews, has shown a wide variety of these elements as evidence to back up the claims made in their mission statement.

When you look up the word diversity, “the inclusion of different types of people (such as people of different races or cultures) in a group or organization” (“Diversity”) is what appears. A diverse show is one that includes more than just one token ethnic character or simply one ethnic group, but incorporates multiple types of people to show a world that reflects our own. The Washington Post posted an article that tackles the growing diversity in television and points out how the main character in a show called Master of None “lives in a city that looks like New York — and not the surreal white New York of ‘Friends,’ or the equally surreal black New York of ‘The Cosby Show,’ or the diverse but crime-ridden New York of ‘Law & Order: SVU.’ Instead, it’s the real one, or at least the comfortably middle-class real one, where people work with, befriend and date people of all stripes” (Ramanathan). The audience watched “Friends” and loved it because the classic TV show was entertaining, but looked past the fact that it has an all white, reoccurring, cast. The same goes for the other two shows mentioned, but the problem with “Friends” and “The Cosby Show” is that they went too far towards either end of the diversity spectrum. “Law & Order: SVU,” included diversity, but showed the stereotypical views of each ethnic group which did more to discourage inclusion towards people of different ethnic backgrounds rather than encourage it. The idea of true diversity is inclusive of everyone and does not simply show tokenism or stereotypes in an attempt to be “diverse.”

When looking through Albany Park Theater Project’s website, the first thing I went to was their mission statement page. On that page was a short video that showed clips from their 2013 production of “Home/ Land” at the Goodman Theater, which show kids of different ethnicities discussing difficult topics like immigration, parents being taken away from their kids, and mass shootings of minorities. From that video alone, I see that their mission statement as a company has not simply changed given recent issues along the same line, but see that they have valued inclusivity and the sharing of stories long before illegal immigration came into the public light. Not only do they have diversity among their cast, but the works that they put on are written and told by people who have experienced the injustices occurring in the play. In fact, a faculty member Isaac Gomez, who works at The Theatre School, has written plays for Albany Park. On their blog, their most recent post is about the play “Ofrenda” written by Isaac Gomez and directed by Stephanie Paul and Maggie Popadiak. I that a photo of the cast (shown above) is the largest photo on the page, which includes a variety of ethnicities and backgrounds. Albany Park’s mission statement emphasized “a multiethnic, youth theater ensemble that inspires people to envision a more just and beautiful world” (Albany Park Theater Project), this photo supports their claims of a multiethnic and youth ensemble. When I started looking into the themes of “Ofrenda” to see if it encourages telling stories that aren’t often told, I found a description in a Chicago Tribune article written by Kerry Reid titled “‘Ofrenda’: Themes of ‘home’ and ‘offering’ get the distinctive Albany Park Theatre treatment”. Reid describes “Ofrenda” as “a wide array of stories generated within the ensemble and collected in the community, collaborated with an outside playwright… The voices we meet in this narrative collage feel distinct, not filtered through a sole authorial voice” (Reid). The stories the communities and cast members tell are not often heard, and through Albany Park Theater Project actors and community members can share important stories that can inspire audiences to “envision a more just and beautiful world” (Albany Park Theater Project).

Albany Park Theater Project saw a need for diversity in theater culture in their area and a need to share stories theatre goers might not be exposed to. They make ethical and emotional appeals to readers to garner support their mission. Through this company they have been able to provide a safe space for youths of all ethnicities and backgrounds to come together and let their voices and stories be heard. Alumni from Albany Park Theater Project have often gone off to be public speakers and actors supporting the same idea of spreading important stories that would otherwise go unheard.

The Goodman Theater is Chicago’s oldest theater and began as a professional theater in 1925. Due to The Great Depression, maintaining a professional theater became too expensive and the Goodman Theater became the Goodman School of Drama. Slowly professional actors came back as guest artists and adjunct teachers and by 1969 the Goodman returned to its professional theatre title while also keeping the Goodman School of Drama. With this return to professionalism, the student actors began children’s theater productions that “played to large audiences for half a century and helped generations of Chicagoans become lifelong theatregoers” (Gray 217) Most theaters don’t last more than 7 years, it is remarkable that the Gooman has lasted almost 100 years to date and had such an impact on the theater scene in Chicago. Goodman set the stage for other theater companies to follow and encourage programs for youth actors and work with what the audience expressed interest in. The Goodman Theatre’s mission statement was longer than most and included mentions of multiple awards, once you got through all that you get to their real mission, “By dedicating itself to three guiding principles—quality, diversity and community—Goodman Theatre seeks to be the premier cultural organization in Chicago, providing productions and programs that make an essential contribution to the quality of life in our city” (Goodman Theatre). Contrary to Albany Park’s mission statement, the Goodman Theatre’s statement is specific in it’s goals. Despite including diversity in their statement, it is not something they advertise nor stick to in reality.

When going through the Goodman Theatre’s website some key differences between their’s and Albany Park’s websites is the lack of photo advertisement and lack of diversity within those photos. A fact sheet under the “Financials” tab on the “About” page has a breakdown of Goodman’s three guiding principles. The description of “diversity” states, “We are committed to making cultural diversity, aesthetic range, risk-taking and freedom of expression the fabric of the institution” (Goodman Theatre). When looking at the website, the first thing seen is images of the four upcoming shows, two of which include actual photos of actors where only one of the three actors shown is a woman of color. (Shown right) All other pictures on the websites opening page are graphically designed photos showing none of the people working on the projects or events advertised. Goodman appears to use tokenism as a smokescreen for being diverse. Tokenism is “the policy or practice of making only a symbolic effort (as to desegregate)” (Tokenism) or the practice of making only a symbolic effort to be inclusive toward people of minority groups, and in terms of theater, by recruiting a small number of people from underrepresented groups in order to give the appearance of racial or sexual equality within the company. Their claim to aesthetic range as a “fabric of the institution” (Goodman Theatre) is a false claim and is tokenism not diversity. Continuing through the tabs along the top bar, all the photos that are shown are a majority white people with a few people of color or different ethnicities mixed in. It also appears that the photos are snapshots from different shows or events rather than for example women in a meeting shown for the “Women’s Board” link. From what is seen on their website there is not much follow through on their diversity statement. Further down on the fact sheet are statistics about their patrons, “According to audience surveys, patrons are, overall, about 19% people of color, while single ticket purchasers are about 26% people of color” (Goodman Theatre). Not only is their website not inclusive and representative, but the audiences who attend their shows are not reflected through this lack of representation.

When an outsider thinks of Chicago theater, their mind goes to the big name companies like Goodman, Steppenwolf, etc. and they view them as inclusive and the base of Chicago’s diverse theater scene. In reality it is the smaller companies such as Albany Park, Free Street, and more that are the true heart of Chicago’s inclusive and all-encompassing theater atmosphere. Bigger theater’s such as the Goodman use tokenism in an attempt to appear diverse and keep their more liberal patrons. While truly diverse theater’s such as Albany Park Theater Project cater to the other 64% of patrons not attending larger company productions.

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The American Dream, today

It’s no exaggeration to say that just about every American has at least heard of the term – the American Dream since this concept has always been a popular and dominant theme in United States society. It is the center of the national culture and reflects people’s optimism about equality between individuals. In this report, I will analyze the ideology of the American Dream and its meaning in society presently.

As Sally Edelstein (2013) stated in her article that the seed of the American Dream was planted during the dark days of the Great Depression when a nation that had once been viewed as the land of opportunity was now mired, and germinated at the New York World’s Fair of 1939. The seed was nurtured and cultivated during the sacrifices and deprivations of World War II. By 1945 when the war ended, it was ready to be harvested and it would blossom into full bloom in the Post War years and beyond. It is difficult to define exactly the American Dream because it can be subjective and may mean different things to different people. Generally, the American Dream is usually understood as the perspective that all people are created equally with the right to life, liberty, and the pursuit of happiness. It is a set of principles basing on the notion that each person has the right to seek for prosperity and happiness, regardless of where or into what circumstances they were born, meaning that anyone can become financially successful and socially upwardly mobile through sacrifice, risk-taking, and hard work, rather than by chances. This concept has long become the driving force for many U.S. citizens, motivating them to work hard toward creating a better life for their families and themselves.

The person often receives credit for first popularizing this term was the historian James Truslow Adams (Patrick J. Kiger, 2011). According to Adams, he explained the American Dream in his best-selling book in 1931 “The Epic of America” as it is not a dream of motorcars and high wages merely, but a dream of an equal society in which each man or woman could be able to reach their achievement and be recognized by others for what they are, regardless of their circumstances of birth or position. However, the root of the American Dream could be much deeper. The tenets of this term were stated, even though not directly in the Declaration of Independence,

“We hold these truths to be self-evident, that all men are created equal, that they are endowed by their Creator with certain unalienable Rights, that among these are Life, Liberty, and the pursuit of Happiness.”

In the past, the American Dream was only for white people and used to have some basic ideas such as owning a home, a safe and secure neighborhood, or having a business that makes a profit and contributes to the national economy. When someone seems to have it all, including a well-paying job they love, a loving family they can provide for, a home they are proud of and can afford, and extra money to enjoy vacations and the other events that make life enjoyable, even if they aren’t wealthy, they are said to be living the American dream. However, nowadays, there are many different opinions in people’s perspectives when they have to talk about the American Dream as the meaning of the term has been changing over the past many years throughout history, depending on the context. On the one hand, some people believe that the American Dream means land of opportunity where anyone can become rich, successful, and respected if he or she works hard. For example, many immigrants migrate to the United States because the place has many big firms and multinational companies which can provide a variety of jobs and more chances of success in comparison with that in their home country. Another memorable event was on November 4, 2008, Senator Barack Obama of Illinois defeated Senator John McCain of Arizona to become the 44th U.S. president as well as the first African American in history to be elected to the White House. On the other hand, many see the American Dream as freedom and equal rights since they can do whatever they are passionate about without being judged. For instance, in general, the United States has very relaxed federal gun control laws in comparison with other developed nations such as Canada, Switzerland, and Japan — a mix of wealthy countries with similar and varying cultural backgrounds.

In this day and age, many citizens are now of the view that there is a need for a new definition of this dream which should also take into consideration the modern needs of the citizens as well as the core beliefs on which the US was founded. The American Dream which was more accessible to attain back in the days, however, had transformed, especially in the 21st century as economic inequality has increased over the years. Although it is still possible for people to live a happy and lucrative lifestyle through their perseverance, the lives of many average middle-class Americans and immigrants still have countless difficulties due to the lack of improvement in social mobility in society, making the American Dream seemed less attainable. The federal treasury is in danger, and the government, as well as policymakers, do not show any commensurate solution to the problems. This results in some people no longer believing in the American Dream and it is just an expectation.

Nowadays, with changing governments and overhauling global conditions, new virtues have been included in the American Dream as well as the meaning of this ideal has changed to aim different things to different generations. However, the concept of the American dream is still the very soul of the American nation, which is the ultimate idea that any citizen could have the right to pursue their notion of happiness, to follow their dreams, and achieve upward mobility or success if they put in the hard work. This ultimate idea is undoubtedly part of the American ethos, and likely always will be. As the world is changing every day, the American Dream will continue to evolve in response to the alteration and influence of the national economy with entrepreneurship and individual ambition, infusing a motivated perception to anyone trying to be successful in the United States.

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Closing of Indian Embassy at Kabul – Is it Really Questionable?: online essay help

The Government has decided to pull out its entire staff from the Indian Embassy in Kabul, Afghanistan. This act of India has raised several questions from the experts and the analysts. It has been discussed that all the major powers, including Russia, China, and Iran, are present there and are maintaining their task; why not we? It should be better to have stayed there and help our citizens instead of leaving them in distress. India has also been advised to keep a consular of CE at its airport, similar to America. In the news, it has also been in the news that the Taliban has requested India to remain and also assured its safety. These are some of the significant factors that influenced India to leave its embassy in Kabul.

Position of India in Afghanistan:

Firstly, India is not one of the superpowers, especially when it comes to Afghanistan. India has never followed any national-based or any independent policy towards this particular Country. It is also true with any previous government of India. In short, India is not a significant player related to this Country like the USA. All we have done is to support what the Government of Kabul(whether Hamid Karzai or Ashraf Ghani) and America to what they have to do in the Country. It is entirely wrong to put all the eggs in Ghani’s basket; it means he can be considered suitable for sustaining the authority to maintain any developing country. But he cannot be perfectly said to be a good administrator. India has successfully invested nearly $3 billion worth of small and medium projects in the Country. It has also earned the goodwill of the citizens of Afghanistan through this. Still, it never got any prominent role and right to consult in the political matters of Afghanistan neither any negations from the stakeholders.

In short, India never got any significant role in matters related to this Country. Indian Government has been criticized for not establishing contacts with the Taliban. But as per media reports, they were engaged with the Taliban, but it was too late, and talk was little. It was essential to talk at the greater level with the Taliban as other superpowers such as Russia and China did. Even Iran, which is a Shia-majority country, was engaged with the Taliban. America, too, started to talk with the Taliban without any hesitation, ignoring that it’s a terrorist group that has killed over 2,500 American soldiers since 2001.

India did not want to upset Ashraf Ghani and could not talk to the Taliban as they refused to talk with the Indian Government. However, engaging does not mean endorsing, which Vivek Katiju said as an Ambassador. He further said that it is a severe lapse as we have to talk to people we consider distasteful, whether they are Pakistan, China or the Taliban. It is also the fact that nearly everyone is afraid of the gun-toting fighters of the Taliban, and it is pretty risky to talk or deal with them. The Government has even cancelled all the issued visas, which indicates rendering of consular assistance.

Even if the Taliban approaches the Indian Government and asks not to shut the Indian embassy in Kabul, what will be their reliability and proof will be that they will stay on their words? Also, India does not have any means to force or control them. If it was the USA in such a case, they could easily cause massive harm to their troops.

What About Other Groups:

Taliban is not the only reason why India has quit its Embassy in Kabul. The presence of other groups such as Lashkar-e-Taiba, the Jaish-e-state in Khorasan (ISIS k, or ISK) is also threatening. In reports, these groups have given thousands of fighters to the Taliban in their Jihad to fight with the foreign powers. So they can be an equal and potential threat to India like the Taliban. But, on the other hand, the Taliban has also demonstrated its suicide bombing activities on 26 August that has killed nearly 13 military persons of the USA and a more significant number of Afghans. If such a scenario happens with a single Indian, there would have been a severe outcry.

The Approach of Foreign Policy:

One can easily criticize the Indian Government for some foreign policies, such as aligning closely with the US. This has made Russia unhappy, and due to which it started maintaining its relationship with one of our major enemy China. Giving importance to Quad(a group containing India, Japan, Australia, and the US) is also one of the questionable decisions to ask for. The formation of the Quad is the American manoeuvre so that it can contain China. It is clearly an anti-china arrangement in which India’s involvement was not much crucial.

Finally, it can be said that the closing of the Indian embassy in Kabul is not at all a questionable decision as all the above parameters indicate that the Indian Government would not have survived happily at this place.

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Racism in America (speech)

Have you ever been considered less than human or regarded as a possession or object based off of something you have no control over? Unfortunately, many people in America can honestly say that they have, which is entirely unacceptable in today’s world. Hello! I’m Sophia. I’ve been researching the topic of racism in America for the past few weeks and I’m excited to share what I’ve learned. Ever since America was founded, racism has been heavily present in our society, and that is something that needs to change as soon as possible. I’m going to be going over topics like civil rights, influential figures in black history, and the impact that modern anti-racist organizations have had in today’s world.

There has always been a fight for racial equality in America. Ever since the first Americans settled on the East Coast and kicked Native Americans off the land they’d had for centuries, there was a fight. And even now, hundreds of years later, we still see that fight in action – through our actions, through our words, and through amazing people. From the Emancipation Proclamation to the Civil Rights Acts of 1964 and 1968 to the Black Lives Matter movement in 2020, people have not stopped fighting for their God-given rights to life.

Now, there are several important figures I’d like to mention who were catalysts for racial equality movements. First, and probably the most well-known, Martin Luther King, Jr. He was a civil rights activist who certainly changed our world for the better. He was assassinated on his own hotel room balcony, April 4, 1968. Next, George Floyd. He was one of the main reasons for the resurgence of the Black Lives Matter movement in mid-2020. He was suffocated to death under the knee of a police officer, May 25, 2020. Lastly, Tamir Rice. He was a twelve-year-old boy from Cleveland, Ohio carrying a toy gun. He was shot on sight by a police officer who felt “threatened”, November 22, 2014. Do any of these deaths seem justified to you? They shouldn’t, because they aren’t. And these are far from the only examples of people whose lives were needlessly taken from them because of their race.

Fortunately, there is a positive side to this story. The Black Lives Matter movement is an organization founded in 2013 shortly after the shooting of seventeen-year-old Trayvon Martin. The group is committed to fighting to end racially charged police brutality and trying to make the world a safer place for black youth. Their message particularly took off in mid-2020 after the murder of George Floyd, and they used that momentum to bring light to other police brutality killings and emanding justice for these needless deaths: names such as Breonna Taylor, Ahmaud Arbery, and Elijah McClain to list a few. Their impact extends far beyond just the 2020 resurgence, though. Today, nearly a year after the death of George Floyd, that message is still being taught, learned, and shared all over the US and the rest of the world.

I hope you enjoyed my speech. I also hope you come away from it with some more knowledge about racism and injustice in America, the people who helped shape our modern views on civil rights, and what we are doing to raise awareness for these things. Remember: racism hasn’t gone away, and it likely won’t for a long time, unless we as a country do something to make it better. Thank you!

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The Effectiveness of Civil Disobedience in the Modern World: college application essay help

Law is the fundamental pillar of government, and it is a social construct that defines the boundaries of society. Although it protects the rights of the people, like all things created by humans, the law is not always perfect. Clarence Darrow, a famous American lawyer in the 1900s, once said, “As long as the world shall last there will be wrongs, and if no man objected and no man rebelled, those wrongs would last forever.” For centuries, civil disobedience has been a way for people to resist injustice and inspire change. Inequality, discrimination, and prejudice have been sources of protest because of the unjust laws that preyed upon minorities. As the world continues to evolve, humanity must adjust its laws based on the ever-changing demands of society. In the modern world, civil disobedience remains an effective way for people to voice their opinions on problems such as; data privacy, climate change and gun-control, along with economic disparity to ensure that the law remains fair and moral as the world changes.

Data privacy is a concern for people all over the world because of the amount of information that is collected through government surveillance. Edward Snowden, a former contractor in the National Security Agency (NSA), became known as a whistle-blower when he leaked thousands of documents proving how government agencies are abusing their authority by collecting personal information (“Edward Snowden, Whistle-Blower”). In 2013, he proved that phone calls, emails, and most online activity were actively being monitored by the NSA without the consent of millions of people. In violation of the Espionage Act, Snowden faced multiple criminal charges in the United States but sojourned in Moscow, Russia to avoid punishment for his actions. Furthermore, at an interview in Hong Kong with Glenn Greenwald, Snowden remarked,

“I do not want to live in a world where everything I do and say is recorded. That is not something I am willing to support or live under… I would rather be without a state than without a voice” (qtd. in Francis).

Snowden’s efforts have brought the insidious and unconstitutional actions of organizations like the NSA to the public eye. As a result, ongoing debates on how to ensure the protection of personal information are an important source of contention for new legislation. For example, when companies like Facebook or Google became involved in data privacy scandals, Snowden’s actions brought attention to new legislation such as the General Data Protection Regulation. Many of Snowden’s supporters praise him for trying to bring justice. However, others deem him as a traitor because of his ignorance of national security. Nevertheless, his acts of civil disobedience have brought positive change to society by alerting the world about the dangers of data theft. Although Snowden’s actions broke federal laws, not all forms of civil disobedience have to go to such extreme lengths.

Young activists are taking a stand against world issues like climate change and gun control. For instance, Greta Thunberg, an 18-year-old Swedish activist, has provided a voice for many recent generations, and was the youngest person to be named Time magazine’s Person of the Year in 2019. Her fight against climate change began with a simple act of civil disobedience in the summer of 2018. She “sat alone each Friday outside the Swedish parliament, quietly protesting with a handmade sign that read: Skolstrejk for Klimatet. School strike for climate” (Dennis). Thunberg has garnered the attention of millions of people by leading marches and giving speeches in over 123 countries around the world. In addition, she has established an immense social media following, engaged in debates with former President Trump and Russian President Vladimir Putin, and received a nomination for the Nobel Peace Prize. World leaders cannot ignore the impacts of carbon emissions, fossil fuels, and pollution on the Earth. Likewise, there are several other young leaders taking initiative for the betterment of society.

One example is Emma González, a 21-year-old student activist, who led an anti-gun rally in Fort Lauderdale three days after a school shooting at Marjory Stoneman Douglas High. Many students, parents, and teachers continue to suffer from the lasting effects of these traumatic experiences. She believes that people cannot afford to let these mass shootings become another forgotten tragedy, but they must be prevented altogether. At the anti-gun rally, González took a stance on the gun control debate:

Politicians who sit in their gilded House and Senate seats funded by the NRA telling us nothing could have been done to prevent this, we call BS. They say tougher gun laws do not decrease gun violence. We call BS. They say a good guy with a gun stops a bad guy with a gun. We call BS. They say guns are just tools like knives and are as dangerous as cars. We call BS. They say no laws could have prevented the hundreds of senseless tragedies that have occurred. We call BS. That us kids don’t know what we’re talking about, that we’re too young to understand how the government works. We call BS. (qtd. in Pires)

González and other gun-control activists achieved success when many state legislators enacted 50 laws throughout many states to restrict the access of guns. Ergo, nonviolent rallies have demonstrated that they have the power to inspire others, establish legitimate change, and shift opinions on ethical issues. On the other hand, once violence is introduced, protests can get out of hand resulting in people getting injured or even killed.

Additionally, around late 2018, a movement called the yellow vests swept across France. The supporters of the movement mostly consist of middle-to-low class citizens who barely were able to cover food, rent, utilities, and clothing expenses. When the French government raised the gas tax, these protestors turned their anger towards the government and called for taking French President Emmanuel Macron out of office. The main controversy around these protests include the use of violence by the government in response to these demonstrations. In fact, according to the French Ministry of Interior, by the end of 2019, 11 people had died while 1,900 peaceful protestors and 1,200 law enforcement officers were injured (McAuley).

In December 2019, Jean-Marc Michaud participated in a demonstration near the Place du Parlement to protest economic inequality, but he was seriously injured when a rubber ball fired by the police damaged his right eye. Michaud responded by saying, “The government claims that we are looters and violent protesters, but so many of us are just peaceful civilians… The government isn’t listening to us, and now they are trying to silence us with repression in the streets” (qtd. in Peltier). As French police officers resorted to violence to quell these demonstrations, a nationwide outcry fueled the yellow vest movement even further.

Despite the movement slowing down in 2020 due to the pandemic, many French supporters are far from giving up, and they believe that they still have the power to cause change. Already a group of yellow vests are planning to have a few candidates participate in the European Parliament elections. A French polling and market research firm estimated that 7.5 percent of the population would be willing to vote for yellow vest political candidates, and 40 percent sympathize with the movement in some way (McAuley). Therefore, dissatisfied French citizens are continuing to fight against the government to achieve justice for citizens facing economic hardship.

For years to come, civil disobedience is a potent method for people to fight against injustices such as data theft, environmental destruction, policies on gun-control, and economic inequality.

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The Fight for Equality in “Battle Royal”: writing essay help

“Battle Royal” challenges equality throughout the narrator’s speech. People need to be shown equality because in this short story, the blacks were seriously injured when the whites made them go to boxing matches and they were tased/electrocuted when they took the money the whites left for them. The author Ralph Ellison shows in “Battle Royal” that there is an issue between race and the people need equality and social responsibility, so both races can be equal with one another.

The thesis shows the way that people need equality, so the blacks and whites can respect one another. The whites state, “We mean to do right by you, but you’ve got to know your place at times” (Ellison 11). This explains the way the whites are showing equality towards the narrator and soon it might happen to all of the blacks.

The short story shows symbolism with the dancing blonde woman, boxing match, blindfolds, the coins, and the speech. The “speech” symbolizes social responsibility between the white and black races. For example, the narrator of this story is wanting to read the speech about the way that people need to treat one another, but the whites did not listen to the speech until the end. The boxing match, the coins, and the blindfolds symbolize the suffering of the blacks. The boxing match symbolizes the way the blacks were in pain and suffering, while the whites were being comfortable and enjoyed watching the suffering of the blacks. The blindfold symbolizes the way the blacks suffered by getting knocked out in the boxing match.The narrator says, “Blindfolded, I could not control my motions” (Ellison 5). This discusses the fact that the narrator is blindfolded and he cannot control his mind and his display of knowledge for the speech. The coins symbolize greed by the whites. The whites gave the coins to the blacks, who are in need of money. But once they held a hand on the coins, they will be electrocuted. The dancing blonde woman symbolizes that the blacks cannot marry a white woman because there was a law that prevented interracial marriage, which is known as the “Loving vs Virginia” law case that prevented marriage from blacks and whites, according to the story’s historical content. The blonde woman has an American flag tattooed on her belly which symbolizes the way blacks were prevented from intermarriage between races in America. The narrator states “and yet to stroke where below the small American flag tattooed upon her belly her thighs formed a capital V”(Ellison 3). This explains where the American flag tattoo is located on her body and it relates to how the dancing blonde woman can be symbolized and the way she is a way to be used as the American dream.

The race experience explains that the whites treat all the blacks as animals by putting them in boxing matches and the whites were being forceful and brutal to the blacks by yelling to them and forcing them to punch one another. It shows how violent the boxing match really is, “In one comer I glimpsed a boy violently punching the air and heard him scream in pain as he smashed his hand against a ring post” (Ellison 6). Another race experience in this short story is that this story discusses mostly about the dancing blonde woman. The reason that this shows race experience is that this woman is trying to make all the white men be in love with her and they feared looking, were not disgusted so the narrator wants to read the speech and it is not about how people should treat one another. The short story discusses the way that blacks cannot be in an interracial marriage because it is a law for them not to break according to the culture that they are living in.

The background of this short short story discusses the historical content between the Reconstruction era to Jim Crow law era. The reason that the story occurred during the Reconstruction era is that the grandfather is discussing to his grandson about the way he was being in a relationship with the whites during the Reconstruction era and he was treated horribly by the whites being brutal to him. The prologue of this story discusses grandpa about his experience with the whites during the Reconstruction era: “I never told you, but our life is a war and I have been a traitor all my born days, a spy in the enemy’s country ever since I give up my gun in the Reconstruction” (Ellison 1). Afterwards, it continued around the Jim Crow law, when the whites were in contempt with the blacks, who are in suffering at boxing matches, shootings, fist fighting, or anything that the whites find that is considered violence. This quote explains how the blacks suffered in the boxing match as the whites were being soothed in this short story: “The harder we fought the more threatening the men became” (Ellison 6). This explains as the blacks are fighting one another they are suffering by being abused brutally. Another part of the quote, “the more threatening the men became” explains the men as the whites were making the blacks threatening one another as a form their race’s entertainment (Ellison 6).

In the short story, the narrator’s experience is calm in the beginning of the short story, then his experience was abhorrent, atrocious, gruesome, and cruel in the plot of the story, and his experience was then calm again. This promise the grandfather tells to the narrator of the story: “On his deathbed he called my father to him and said, “Son, after I’m gone I want you to keep up the good fight”” (Ellison 1). This shows an explanation about the narrator’s grandfather giving him a promise that he discussed that he had a lot of trouble with his lifetime despite the fact of his race experience between the whites and blacks and he does not want it to happen to anyone, especially his grandson. Throughout the events of the narrator’s experience is that he is in a bad experience because he is in a boxing match and he may be afraid to go in the boxing match. During the boxing match, the narrator is fearful in this short story, when he is set in a boxing match: “I stumbled like a baby or a drunken man” (Ellison 5). So, the narrator decided to make a speech similar to what Martin Luther King Junior did with his “I Have a Dream” speech.

The narrator creates the speech, so the whites to listen about the way they are needing to get along with the blacks, because the speech can make them understand equality. They did not listen until the end. Then, the experience of the narrator seems to be exciting because he seems excited when he is reading the speech and the whites are listening to every word of this essay. Once he was done with his speech, the whites had given him a scholarship to college, congratulating him for his way to be helpful to the people that were living in all of America. This quote explains one of the things that was used in this speech: “When ever I uttered a word of three or more syllables a group of voices yelled at me to repeat it” (Ellison 10). This quote says when the narrator is reading the essay, the whites were yelling at him to repeat because they want to listen to what he is saying for this essay so they want to know what he is talking about and they might end their conflict with the whites and blacks once he finishes his speech.

In “Battle Royal”, equality is discussed for the whites and the blacks and why they are in an opposite relationship with each other. The analysis says that the blacks and whites need to be in a fair relationship. Equality should matter because this short story explains why the blacks and whites should be equal with one another and the blacks are wanting to stop being threatened by the whites.

2019-2-15-1550252529

Issues faced by society – gun violence, racism and religion

When our reality becomes so unsightly, we tend to deny the outcomes because we are ashamed to see the mess we have made. Reality has become too hard to accept because the issues in our nation have brought us to not be able to agree to disagree with our opinions. In today’s society, we find ourselves never being able to talk about issues that affect us negatively, but rather starting something chaotic because we get so caught up in our own points of view—but in our communities, we should come together and address these problems, such as gun violence, racism, and religion, as best as we could, so they can get fixed and not continue to grow. But our biggest question right now, is how? How do we get everyone to understand and listen to one another?

As we get into our most sensitive topics of today’s issues, one of our biggest problems is not taking into consideration what others have already been through. The word racism has been flourishing in the media for what we can consider, too long. African Americans have been dealing with racial profiling, attacks, teasing, and death because of their skin color. In an article shared from CNN, explains that “a white student at Yale called police because a black student was napping in a dorm building.” (Yan) When a small issue like this happens to someone, it is hard to believe that there is room for the slightest change. Aside from someone you catch on the street saying something disrespectful, our president, Trump “appears to be unifying America — unifying Americans in their denial. The more racist Mr. Trump sounds, the more Trump country denies his racism, and the more his opponents look away from their own racism to brand Trump country as racist. (Kendi) Making it more difficult for us to see our faults as a nation. Rachel Godsil, a researcher apart of an organization who helps reduce discrimination explains, “There are enormous health consequences to those experiencing these everyday harms… because of the constancy of this stress.” For those who have never experienced such a thing cannot relate to what these people go through. Racism is a never-ending cycle that has to be addressed before we have more people suffering this pain that brings us this rage that no one can understand.

People do not seem to realize how closely each of these issues relate to one another. We reached the era where nearly 40,000 people have died from guns in the United States. In an article it states, “this is the highest than any other since at least 1968, according to new data from the Center for Disease Control and Prevention.” (Mervosh) Which I believe will dramatically continue to grow. “Pro-gun advocates see guns as our best defense against armed criminals. Anti-gun advocates see the wide availability of guns as a greater threat than criminal violence. The issue seems to come down to what you fear more: criminals or guns.” (Gutting) Coming into the problem of, who is right, and who is wrong? People believe that the ones who should be allowed to carry a gun be certified, but even the ones who are supposed to be “protecting” us from the criminals, are the ones shooting us for no reason. So, when we come down to think of where we can come together and think of a solution, that is where most of us fail to agree to disagree.

As case numbers go up from unjustified police shootings, to mass killings, it brings us to a difficult decision whether guns should be allowed at all or not. After the school shooting in Parkland, Florida, “House of Representatives held its first hearing on gun violence in eight years.” (Collins) Where it was thought to make it harder for people to purchase guns without well done background checks. “Senator Murphy believes the endless rejection of any gun legislation looks like a kind of “moral green light” to potential killers: “I truly believe these young men who have something very dark happening in their minds watch our silence and interpret it as an endorsement.” Meaning, if we keep these guns that is a way of lessening our crime rate for the next following years. People feel safe with guns but when will it be okay to own one without abusing your right to own one? We have heard these stories of people using their gun way too often it’s no surprise anymore.

Religion is an issue that ties to many problems emotionally. Not so long ago, our president, Donald Trump has brought attention to whether the government will continue to fund planned parenthood. Aside from planned parenthood being one of the top places specifically where young women go to have an abortion, they allow you to get a screening for any STI, plan B pills, birth control pills, and most importantly, where they get access to health care services. The biggest problem with why they do not want to keep funding is because of the abortion service. There has been discussion on “Pro-life or pro-choice.” Watson, author of Scarlet A: The Ethics, Law, and Politics of Ordinary Abortion states, “We should be able to acknowledge the complexity of private decision making, without threatening the right of private decision making.” Meaning, us as a community should find ways in which we can accept what is going on without having to do things like, defund because we are not happy with a decision. For example, in an article published in 1989, Lucy Killea, who was running for California State Senate, put in her campaign that she supports the right to abortion. Bishop Leo T. Maher later wrote her saying she could no longer receive communion. Looking at this example from years ago, and now seeing that Trump is defunding Planned Parenthood shows that throughout the years, nothing exactly changes. The people who agree with Trump, who in a study from Mary Rezac, showed that 47% of Catholics are pro-life, will continue to support his ideas but what about the other half? Where do they fall in this discussion? Abortion is up to the women, her body, her choice and if we cannot find a way to talk about how these issues are affecting us, the government will not fund what is helping these girls who get pregnant.

Another growing issue within religion is the number count of r**es within the Vatican. People see the church as a sacred place to go for a time of help or to praise our savior, Jesus Christ, but recently they have found the priests, the ones we should trust, have been r**ing the altar servers. Pope Francis took the issue into his own hands, and people were not satisfied with the outcome of his speech. Before he can even finish what was being said, the ones who were victims of such abuse were expressing their anger and failure to address the problem. This brings out attention to the issue that we in reality, need. Without people expressing how they feel, how will anyone know it needs to be done? Victims need to come together and express what happened to them so justice can be done. Anna Barrett Doyle states, “As the world’s Catholics cry out for concrete change, the pope instead provides tepid promises, all of which we’ve heard before.” This becomes an issue when trying to solve problems because as soon as we get the idea that something will happen and it doesn’t, that starts even bigger problems like riots and controversial articles. As a community we fail at trying to express our feelings towards an issue. When one encounters someone with the opposing view, we tend to find ourselves loss of words when they don’t agree with what we believe. If we do not get to the root of the problem, the problem will never be able to go away. Pope Francis believes he is making a change, but he is only making it more difficult for Roman Catholics to believe what is really going on within the church.

In result, we have found that one of our biggest issues as a nation is coming together and seeing our most troublesome issues embellish when we least expect. If we do not try to come together and resolve these problems, we will never see the end of racism, gun violence, or our biggest issues in religion. We are always going to be so caught up in our own point of view that no matter how we try to end the controversy, it will continue to grow right in front of our eyes. We need to be willing to agree to disagree to even begin to address these problems. Most of these issues correlate with one another, so if we begin to eliminate as time progresses, these issues shouldn’t be as big as a problem as they are today. We are in a time of need for help. We need to keep working together.

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Historical design development and impacts of new and emerging technologies: college essay help online

The origins of 3D printing trace back further than you might expect. In 1860 the photo-sculpture method was explored by Francois Wilhelm when he captured an object in 3 dimensions using cameras surrounding the subject and in 1892 Blanther proposed a layering method of producing topographical maps. Fast forward to 1972 Mastubara of Mitsubishi motors proposed photo-hardened materials (photopolymers) to be used to produce layered parts.

The 3D printer came about in the 1980’s. In the early 1980’s, Dr. Hideo Kodama, a Japanese researcher first invented the innovative layer approach to stereolithography through using a single-beam ultraviolet light laser to set photosensitive polymers. This was used as a means for rapid prototyping. Unfortunately, Dr. Kodama didn’t fulfil the application for a full patent due to a funding issue. In 1984, a group of French researchers, Jean-Claude André, Alain le Méhauté and Olivier de Witte came together to file a patent for the stereolithography process. Witte realisation was that when 2 lasers cross each other, a monomer liquid can become a solid polymer, the basic principle of the 3D printer. However, the application for their patent was abandoned by their French technology company due to a lack of proper funding.

Later in 1984, Charles (Chuck) Hull filed his patent for the process. He patented it as a method of consecutive thinly printed layers using UV light which pointed at a vat filled with a liquid photopolymer. This method bonded one polymer to the next with the help of CAM/CAD software to guide the path until a desired 3D object was produced. Stereolithography was such revolutionary innovation as it allowed designers to create ideas using digital data programs that could be uploaded to the printer to produce a tangible object. Hull’s patent was granted in 1986. Following this success, Hull co-founded the world’s first 3D printing company, called 3D Systems, to further commercialise it. This process of stereolithography established the basis of all 3D printing we know today. In 1987, they released their first commercial product the SLA-1 and is now classified as a transformative impact in engineering and manufacturing. Fused deposition modelling (FDM) process, another type of 3D printing processes, was developed by Scott Crump in 1989. Crump then founded the company Stratasys also in 1989, which is a global leader in 3D printers and 3D printer systems. In 2009, the company’s FDM printing patent expired, which offered the market FDM 3D printers, usually referred to as fused filament fabrication (FFF) for companies other than Stratasys 3D printers and open to public domain. Another key development was the RepRap Project (Replicating Rapid Prototyper) established in 2004 by UK Adrian Bowyer who established an open source project aimed to build a 3D printer that can print most of its own components and then could share with people all around the world.

The new millennium saw several success stories using the 3D printer in exciting medical innovations such as the first working kidney in 2000, the first prosthetic limb in 2008, the first prosthetic jaw in 2012 and in 2014 it was used to help reconstruct the face of a motorcyclist after a serious road injury. Testing of bio materials for regenerative medicine using a patient’s cell allowing 3D printing of small body parts (like ears and noses) have also increased media attention.

In recent years 3D printing has been able to assist with disaster relief. US not for profit ‘Field Ready’, were able to print spare parts such as pipe fittings to help repair broken pipelines after the severe earthquake in Nepal in 2015. A Japanese 3D printed drone was designed for search and rescue missions for disaster hit areas. 3D printed houses have similarly been used in disaster relief situations and now also a possible option for low income housing. In 2014 in China, a giant cement 3D printer was used to print 10 houses in just one day.

In the field of fashion 3D printing has opened the possibilities to expand beyond the traditional boundaries of design, allowing fashion designer to turn challenging design concepts into reality. From traditional production methods designers are now able to 3D print their own garments as one such young textile designer Danit Peleg with the first fashion collection 3D printed at home in 2014.

While there have been many positive developments as cited above, the first 3D printed gun in 2013 by Cody Wilson and the uploading of the blueprint for same has posed many questions as to where this might end.

Factors affecting success

Despite the 3D printer having been in existence since the early 1980’s its commercial viability and success has really only gained momentum over the past decade or so. This can be attributed mostly to timing, IP, pricing and market demand. In 2013 Obama’s State of the Union address claimed that the 3D printer had “the potential to revolutionize the way we make almost everything”. Faced with the rise of China’s dominance in manufacturing, there has been increased pressure for countries to produce products more efficiently and cost effectively. Manufacturers have been forced to explore the possibilities offered by new technologies to try to maintain their competitive edge. For example, the U.S Government’s investment in NAMII (National Additive Manufacturing Innovation Institute) as an incubator for 3D printing technology and the commitment of companies such as General Electric, United Technologies Corporation, Hewlett-Packard, 3M, Boeing, Stratasys, MIT and 3D Systems in investing in innovations using 3D printing helped promote this success. A window of opportunity was also created with the lapsing of certain patents around 2009 and subsequently there was a decline in litigation cases coupled with licensing activity showing steady growth. Pricing was also a key factor. At first 3D printers were not only expensive to produce but were also expensive to purchase and run. 3D printer prices have dropped (about 90% since 2009), from over $10,000 to less than $1,000 and this has also created a larger reach in the market for a more consumer friendly 3D printer that was a cost- effective option. So not only did larger companies have access to this technology, but basis this new affordability, more entrepreneurs and people with an appetite for experimentation have had a chance to explore new applications of 3D printing across different platforms and given the market’s increased demand for customisation these factors have all worked to give the 3D printer the status it enjoys today.

Role of agencies

There have been many agencies which have played a significant role in the innovation of the 3D printer particularly given the potentially huge benefits 3D printing has on manufacturing. NASA (National American Space Agency) has developed The Zero G 3D printer which manufactured the first 3D printed object in space and was active in lodging patents since 2009. The US Government recognised the upside of this phenomenon and funded the establishment of National Additive Manufacturing Innovation Institute in 2012 (also referred to America Makes) which is an initiative to try and promote the application of 3D printer across different disciplines. Big industrials such as GE (General Electrics) with its new ‘Multi Modal” facility in India and its fuel nozzle and BAE (British Aerospace) utilising 3D printed metal parts in its fighter jets both are pushing the boundaries. Other smaller yet still significant players are Bureau Services such as Shapeways and iMaterialise which have offered companies access to a wider customer by being able to harness a central service with printers located around the world and within a few days able to receive their 3D printed part in the post. With regards to IP, one of the main legislative challenges about 3D printing is that its users are able to copy almost any object, with or without the authorization of those who hold rights to that object. This makes it hard to regulate and govern the legal rights and ownership to the copyrights or patents. 3D printing is challenging the government and patent agencies to transform the way in which they monitor and control issues of surrounding ownership as well as IP infringements.

Entrepreneurial activity

We need entrepreneurs in the world as it is their creative, innovative, daring and out of the box thinking that has been so vital to evolution of ideas. Entrepreneurial activity has been significant to 3D printer design taking it beyond the realm of its initial purpose for rapid prototyping. Entrepreneurial activity has assisted with the acceleration and dissemination of ideas and in this respect, there have been some truly unique and ground-breaking applications on both a local and an international scale having enormous impacts socially, economically and environmentally. Initially the 3D printer used plastic, but this has now expanded to include finished items made from ceramic, metal, resin, concrete, silver, gold, stainless steel, food and bio material. The breadth of ideas range from prosthetics, dental implants, internal organs, customisation of jewellery, cake decorations to being able to 3D print cars, houses and spare parts. For example, Adidas and Parley for the Oceans, an organisation dedicated to reducing plastic wastage in the ocean, have collaborated to create a 3D printed sneaker made from plastic recycled from the ocean. Without entrepreneurs pushing the boundaries, 3D printing would not have had the transformative impact on our world today.

2019-2-26-1551177198

Mass shootings – changes needed to gun regulation

On April 20, 1999 a massacre took place at Columbine High School in Jefferson County Colorado. The two teen shooters Dylan Klebold and Eric Harris killed 13 people and wounded over 20 others. After, the two perpetrators turned the guns on themselves ending their own lives. At the time this was the worst high school shooting in US history. This event induced a governmental on school safety and gun control.

Following the shootings, a large amount of schools decreed zero tolerance policies. For those cases which regarded threatening behavior and violence on school grounds. This tragedy brought light to the importance of identifying risk factors for youth violence, as well as the need for the development and enactment of programs based on the early detection of these risk factors and prevention of school violence.

Researchers from the University of Northern Colorado have been examining the changes that schools have made since 1999 to prevent future incidents like Columbine. Surveys were sent out asking schools about mental health services and violence prevention programs before and after the event. The surveys showed the help after the shooting had increased by a large amount. A 20% increase in schools with crisis plans. 10% increase in group counseling. 9% of more schools had a crisis plan. 7% more schools offered social skills training. A larger number of schools not only increased their counseling but also school security. About 63% of schools had more advanced mechanism. 40% instilled stricter discipline. 17% started doing locker searches. 13% increased mental health providers.

Though this will make a big difference it’s not enough. Regardless of these changes many mental health professionals needed to be available in schools. Mainly to put together conflict resolution programs with students and parents. Sadly lack of funds were a major issue and the availability of people to help out. Thankfully many changes have been made in public high schools all over the US since the tragedy. Less is known about individual high schools across the states but as a whole safety has increased. Furthermore preventing youth violence is not only a responsibility of the school but also parents and students.

A large number of risk factors for the violence has been identified as history of aggression, history or mental illness, substance use, abusive childhood, bullying, depression, bad parenting, and violence in the media. Many places have been exposed to risk factors and early warning signs from the APA which expands on reasoning for the violence.

Not only have schools changed their ways of responding to situations like these but law enforcement as well. “Before the Columbine schooling no one knew what the term active shooter mean” (James Gagliano FBI) “Within 13 minutes of the first 911 call, Klebold and Harris fatally shot 12 students and a teacher and wounded 23 other people before killing themselves with gunshot wounds to the head. SWAT teams entered the school 47 minutes after the gunfire erupted. An exhaustive FBI review of the police response at Columbine led to more rapid response strategy during active shooter situations.” After this the responding officers learned they would have to set up a secure perimeter around the crime scene before moving on the suspect. “The tactic, known in law enforcement circles as rapid deployment involving the first officer at the scene, began in earnest after the Columbine shooting.” (CNN)

A fine training program has helped the enforcements lower the threat. “The lessons learned from Columbine led the US Justice Department and other federal agencies to partially fund an active shooter program known as Advanced Law Enforcement Rapid Response Training, or ALERRT, Schweit wrote.

The training, which was developed by the San Marcos, Texas, Police Department and the Hays County, Texas, Sheriff’s Department and adopted by Texas State University in San Marcos, includes a 16-hour course that “prepares first responders to isolate, distract and end the threat when an active shooter is engaged,” ( Schweit)

“Another key lesson of Columbine: We need to prepare students and teachers better for an emergency. The Columbine shooters caught their high school unprepared. We’re less naïve now. Most kids and their teachers are now drilled on lockdowns and evacuations. Police departments have up-to-date floor plans and alarm codes.”

“No one can say for sure why Klebold and Harris committed such a horrific crime. Many people have come up with theories including being picked on in school, violent video games , violent movies, music, racism , Goth, problematic parents, depression, and more.

It is hard to pinpoint one trigger that started these two boys on a murderous rampage. They worked hard to fool all those around them for over a year. Surprisingly, about a month before the event, the Klebold family took a four-day road trip to the University of Arizona, where Dylan had been accepted for the following year. During the trip, the Klebold’s didn’t notice anything strange or unusual about Dylan. Counselors and others also didn’t notice anything unusual.

Looking back, there were telltale hints and clues that something was seriously wrong. Videotapes, journals, guns, and bombs in their rooms would have been easily found if the parents had looked. Harris had made a website with hateful epithets that could have been followed up on.

The Columbine Massacre changed the way society looked at children and at schools. Violence was no longer just an after-school, inner-city occurrence. It could happen anywhere”.

Even though this tragic event struck the community in such an extensive way there is still no end to these tragedies. There have been more than a dozen more shootings and we still haven’t learned our lesson till this day we still have no gun control and no sense of urgency toward this matter examples such as

2007 Virginia Tech University, Blacksburg, Va. — 33 deaths
2012 Sandy Hook Elementary School, Newtown, Conn. — 27 deaths
2018 Marjory Stoneman Douglas High School, Parkland, Fla. — 17 deaths
2015 Umpqua Community College, Roseburg, Ore. — 10 deaths
2018 Santa Fe High School, Santa Fe, Tex. — 10 deaths
2005 Red Lake Senior High School, Red Lake, Minn. — 7 deaths
2012 Oikos University, Oakland, Calif. — 7 deaths
2006 West Nickel Mines School, Bart Township, Penn. — 6 deaths
2008 Northern Illinois University, Dekalb, Ill. — 6 deaths
2014 Marysville Pilchuck High School, Marysville, Wa. — 5 deaths

After columbine you would imagine that things couldn’t get worse. In the 19 years since Columbine rocked America to its core, the country has seen so many more mass shootings that the attack isn’t even among the 10 deadliest mass shootings in modern US history.

“Three of the five deadliest shootings have occurred in just the last year and a half. Let alone school shootings the lack of gun control has brought upon us”

The Harvest Music Festival: 58 killed
Pulse nightclub: 49 killed
First Baptist Church in Sutherland Springs: 26 killed
Luby’s Cafeteria: 23 killed

This list can go on and on. This is where I have issue with both the NRA and our Federal, State and Local Governments. The NRA has made too many concessions and given away too many freedoms in order to effect a compromise. They continue to do this. I feel there needs to be a Criminal Background Check, and a Medical History Background Check to confirm whether someone that is a danger to society or mentally ill or unstable are not able to purchase firearms. Meaning they have not been diagnosed with Paranoid Schizophrenia, or any other mental illness that requires drugs to maintain their “normal”. The problem seen in the states is first and foremost the culture around guns and gun ownership. What could be of some use to start to change that is tighter gun restrictions on who can own a gun and who can buy ammo etc. Some say that it’s easy to get a gun illegally which is true BUT most mass shootings seem to happen when a unstable person has easy access to guns. That is the major problem. I am not in support of banning guns necessarily but there is something to be said for countries that have. The statistics show where there are tighter restrictions on guns such as Canada and the UK there are less shootings and gun crimes in general. So my conclusion in not to ban all guns, or to make harsher punishments for people that commit gun crimes in order to deter future criminals; My point is mainly to say the government and other agencies need to help change the culture around guns and make it harder for people to get guns, especially automatic rifles and pistols. If everyone has guns there will be more gun violence not the other way. The logic behind the saying “the only thing that will stop a bad man with a gun is a good man with a gun” is simply not correct. This could be argued all day but I want to end on that note. The culture needs to change. Change has to be made in order to make progress we have to do better with who we let bear these weapons.

2019-2-26-1551198753

Gun Control – The Unforeseen Dangers of Unchecked Firearms

To say that guns are dangerous and need to be controlled is putting our situation mildly. Every year, 36,000 Americans die from guns, that is nearly 100 people killed every day (America’s Background Check 2019). The American situation is dire, with the need for reform on gun control increasing everyday. School shootings, gun related homicides, and gun related suicides can all be reduced or avoided with the help of more complex legislation. The second amendment needs to be amended as militias are not relevant anymore, and therefore, making it constitutional to pass advanced legislation to have more comprehensive background checks and restrict the American public from buying assault rifles.

Gun control has been an incredibly controversial topic for years, with many affected from gun violence every year and the need to be protected in one’s own home, many have clashing opinions. These opposing viewpoints have created many organizations that are for and against gun control. These organizations include the Brady Campaign which fights for more comprehensive background and checks and the National Rifle Association which want to keep the second amendment the way it is. These values have spawned many arguments about the pros and cons of guns, and if they need to be taken away from the hands of civilians. As stated earlier, many people are affected by gun violence, with mass shootings becoming one of the ultimate causes of fear. On December 14th, 2012, A shooter opened fire inside Sandy Hook elementary school. Adam Lanza, the shooter, fatally shot 20 children and adults. The police investigated what could have caused this to happen, as it turned out, Lanza had several mental health issues (Sandy Hook Elementary 2012). He also had access to these deadly weapons and mixed with his mental health, he become disturbed enough to become a shooter. Gun control activists say that this is why we need to restrict the sales of guns, meanwhile, pro gun activists say that this is why we need more guns to protect people from shooters.

The second amendment is a vastly outdated part of our constitution, as it merely states, “A well regulated Militia, being necessary to the security of a free State…”. In 1791, when this amendment became part of the Bill of Rights, there was no guaranteed safety by federal officials. People were forced to protect themselves from foreign and local threats. Yet, we now have organized police forces and a very powerful military, ensuring our safety from many perils. However, most militias do provide a sense of security for some local neighborhoods and families. Many patrol the Mexico-America border, stopping illegal immigrants from crossing (Bauer 2016). Yet, since militias are made up of private citizens, the government does not sanction their actions or beliefs. In fact, many of these groups are anti-government. A powerful and influential militia organization the Three Percenters warned, “all politics in this country now is just dress rehearsal for civil war” (Nuckols 2013). Such a rhetoric has been embraced by many other Militias, with many calling for training against government threats. These militias are afraid that the American government will/have been invaded by foreigners and will force them to give away all of their firearms. It is argued that the second amendment was created to keep the government from becoming tyrannical and dangerous. Although such an argument is very hard to make, considering the United States military is much more advanced and better equipped. Some of these militias have more discreet goals, such as instilling fear in the hearts and minds of immigrants. For example, three Kansas militia men were convicted of plotting to bomb a mosque and the homes of Somali immigrants. Luckily, they were thwarted by another member of their group who ended up telling authorities about the planned attack (Kansas militia men 2019). These groups do keep some people feeling safe and protected, yet, they instill fear in those who do, in fact, believe that these groups are legitimate in their goals and claims.

Complex legislature and revision to the second amendment would prove to keep Americans much safer than they already are. Among these emendations would be more complex and universal background checks. As stated by the Brady Campaign, “97% of Americans support an expanded background check system” (America’s Background Check 2019). A major error in our background check system is the private sale gap loophole. Private sellers do not need to use background checks, in fact, 1 in 5 guns are sold by private sellers, avoiding background checks completely (America’s Background Check 2019). Such a loophole can put american in serious danger, and closing this loophole would be welcomed by the majority of America. Currently, the Brady Campaign is fighting to keep Americans safe, but is met with resistance from groups such as the National Rifle Association (NRA).

Assault rifles in the hands of untrained, unprepared civilians is a fatal mistake for America. Assault rifles are fun to shoot for some, yet, many of the same guns are used by the United States military (Cook, Goss 2014). Such powerful weapons must be kept away from the untrained hands of the American public. Assault rifles, used by the military, are created to inflict the most amount of casualties the fastest. While many are not automatic and only fire one bullet every time the trigger is pulled, they are still incredibly dangerous (The Gun Control Debate 2019). Compared to various pistols and handguns, these assault rifles have much more power and many have additions, such as silencers, that can be added onto them. Such weapons include the AR15, a deadly variation of the military’s M16. The M16 is a common gun used by the United States government, meanwhile the AR15 is the civilian version. This gun is a semi-automatic weapon, however, it is legal to add a “bump stock”, effectively turning a semi-automatic weapon into an automatic assault rifle. In fact, in 1994 president Bill Clinton signed an assault rifle ban, which prohibited guns such as the AR15. In the following years, the amount of mass shootings did drop, however, they did not end (Myre 2018). Unfortunately, the ban expired in 2004, allowing the American public to buy these weapons of mass destruction again.

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The ‘International’, the ‘Global’ and the ‘Planetary’: essay help free

What are the key differences between the ‘International’, the ‘Global’ and the ‘Planetary’? Why are these important?

Introduction

The “International”, the “Global”, and the “Planetary” represent the stages of evolution of the discipline of International Relations, which was shaped by theories diverging on “the relationship between agency, process, and social structure” (Wendt, 1992, p422). This essay will attempt to identify, critique and reflect upon the most fundamental differences between the three. I identified their key differences to be: the conceptualisations of the international arena, types of politics, driving motivation behind their politics, types of actors, quality of dynamics, identities and interests, and security. In the subsequent sections, I will critically expose each of these concepts in the framework of the “International”, the “Global”, and the “Planetary”, and speculate on their relevance.

The International Paradigm

The discipline of International Relations, also known as IR, has always been divided by many theories on how to theorise the world, and whether or not elements such as history, philosophy, morals and politics played a significant role in it. The many theories which scatter across IR give to the aforementioned elements different grounds of importance, or no importance at all. In the realm of the discipline of IR, Realism is the Queen theory. The other approaches mostly had the merit of adding elements which the discipline acquired and assimilated through its evolution over the centuries. Nonetheless, the school of thought of Realism is the theory which provided the discipline with its foundation, structure and precise conceptualisation of the actors who rule the discipline of International Relations.

Realism states that the ground stage on which the international actors interact is within a timeless sphere of anarchy, in which States base their relations on Realpolitik, power politics. As a result, the quality of the elapsing exchanges is permeated by overbearingness and selfishness, prevarication of interests of the “stronger” State upon the “weaker” State, distrust, disloyalty, and so on. IR, according to Realism, conceptualises the international arena within Realpolitik, which means applying the original concept of Realpolitik to the international system. Realpolitik is a concept which was coined in Germany in the Nineteenth Century to indicate the pursuit of pragmatic politics, without taking much into account morals and ethics when making a policy decision. Applying the concept of Realpolitik to the international arena meant conceptualising an international system of relations which is more concerned with the pursuit of pragmatic objectives, of selfish politics which would benefit the single State who is pursuing it, rather than the international system. Therefore, the quality of the exchanges happening between States, in turn, did not offer fertile soil for the establishment of international cooperation between States or leagues of States.

It is an international system founded on, and functioning through, power politics. Because of the assumption that Anarchy governs the international system, the only possible actor who is strong enough to survive and interact with the system to pursue and defend its interests, is the State. Therefore, there is only space for State-based politics and the conception of the “International” is an inter-State system exclusively. This is the State-based paradigm of International Relations, and, as the only actors in the international system, they are depicted as rational and autonomous, acting in a static, and consequences-less anarchy. States come into the international arena already equipped with an identity and a set of interests. Therefore, a conception of pre-made identities and interests characterises the international arena, and the only objective of their interactions is power, to gain more and to protect what amount of power one has.

The Origins of The Discipline

To genuinely comprehend the discipline of IR and its mission, one must dive into its origins and subsequent evolution. Different philosophical beliefs and paradigms oppositely approached international relations through conceptualisations of study, politics, dynamics and instruments. IR finds its roots in historical, theoretical, philosophical, political frameworks which, once combined, coined the discipline, whose development culminated with its sudden fall after the end of the Cold War.

To further explain the historical, theoretical, philosophical, political origins of my previous statement I will refer to the work of International Relations scholar, Martin Wight, who was a professor at the London School of Economics.

Wight started studying International Relations when the discipline was gaining momentum and celebrity status in the United States in the 1950s, under the denomination of “A Theory of International Relations”. The scientific or behaviourist movement of the United States developed the belief that if you were to study behaviours attentively enough, one could explain the events that have intersected the faiths of countries in the past, present, and even predict future political intersections between States. This belief gave birth to Modern International Relations, as a rejection of “old” Realist views on the matters of International Politics. Therefore, this wave of Neo-Realism tried to move past the “obsolete methodology of existing general works about International Relations, especially those of Realist writers such as E. H. Carr, George F. Kennan and Hans Morgenthau, which formed the staple academic diet of the time” (Bull, 1976, p 103).

It is imperative to take in mind the element of history if one wants to genuinely understand why the theory of Neo-Realism, which undoubtedly represents an oversimplified framework of the exchanges between States, gained such relevance. This view on International Relations was developed right after the end of World War II, in a post-war world that had lost many things to a conflict which many, if not most, deemed useless, and, above all, evitable. Even the mere idea of a discipline which could avoid the repeating of such events, through the detailed analysis of everyday political events and politicians national and international behaviours, was sufficient justification or motivation for a world that had starved many years for hope.

Wight argued that “it is no accident that international relations have never been the subject of any great theoretical work, that there is “a kind of disharmony between international theory and diplomatic practice, a kind of recalcitrance of international politics to being theorised about” (Bull, 1976, p 114). Therefore, in an effort to alleviate this disharmony, he developed his vision to contribute to the debate, and he based it on the commingling of history, philosophy, morals, and politics. Wight “saw the Theory of International Relations […] as a study in political philosophy or political speculation pursued by way of an examination of the main traditions of thought about International Relations in the past” (Bull, 1976, p 103).

He initially decided to divide it into three main categories, each one representing a great thinker of the past. Later on, he identified a possible fourth category, the Inverted Revolutionists, based on a pacifist current inspired by Christianism, Leo Tolstoy and Mahatma Gandhi.

The three main categories are the Machiavellians, from Niccolò Machiavelli’s ideals; Grotians, from Hugo Grotius’s; and the Kantians’, from the work of Immanuel Kant. Each one of them ideated their interpretations on the conception of human nature, the critical units of analysis of the international system, its dynamics and instruments, and the definition of political space and its characteristics.

Machiavelli theorised that the human nature is only driven by self-interest and permeated with greediness. He identified that the critical unit of analysis for understanding the international arena is the recognition of its state of anarchy, which is dominated by dynamics of warfare, power, security and gathering of resources. The political space, exactly like the human nature, is filled only with self-interest and no morality. Machiavelli provided the base on which Realist theories laid their foundations.

Grotius, unlike Machiavelli and the subsequent most fervent Realists, considers the human a rational being who operates within the State, which subsequently engages in international relations in an international system which, like men, runs on rationality. Everything about Grotius’s theory is permeated with rationality, and the quality of the dynamics of the international arena is a reflection of such. Indeed, he believed that the dynamics of the international arena are ruled by diplomacy, negotiations, institutions and norms because the political space is dominated by institutions and by order. Grotius represents moderation and the voice of reason for the successful establishment of an international system based on rationality and cooperation, not on violence and distrust like the system painted by Machiavelli in his most famous works, The Prince and Discourses in the First Decade of Titus Livy. Grotius speculates on the doctrine of an international system based on a society of states working together towards common goals, he dreams of an international society, in direct opposition with the sharp, realist concept of national societies above all. It is “the idea […] that international politics is not just a matter of relations between states, but also a matter of so-called “transnational” relations among the individuals and groups that states compose” (Bull, 1976, p112).

Kant theories that the human nature is good, peaceful, a supporter of solidarity and cooperation. He believed in a global community and in an ideal man who would contribute to its flourishment. The dynamics revolve around policies for cooperation, international trade and exchange, and they would eventually enable the development of a political space represented by a cosmopolitan society. In one of his works, “Perpetual Peace: A Philosophical Sketch”, he goes as far as developing a plan for governments of the world to follow to establish peace for the world, because peace has to come above all. He dreams of a political space which is characterised by the emancipation from State and by an international confederation and the disruption of geographical boundaries.

Moreover, Wight believed that “the truth about international politics had to be sought not in any one of these patterns of thought but in the debate among them” (Bull, 1976, p 110). Machiavelli’s theory is also most notoriously known as Realism. Grotius represents Rationalism, and Kant is Revolutionism, and each one is a founding brick of the discipline of International Relations. Each theory went through transformative changes over the decades. For example, Machiavelli’s Realism turned into Neo-Realism in the 1970s and 1980s and turned into Modernist or Positivist in the 1990s. Grotius’s Rationalism found a new key of interpretation in the English School, between the 1940s and 1960s. Kant’s Revolutionism went from Idealism in the 1920s – 1930s to Neo-Liberalism and Neo-Institutionalism in 1970s and 1980s .

The State-Based Approach to Security

I end this excursus on the origins of the discipline of international relations here, and I catch this occasion to list another key aspect which sets the International paradigm apart from the global and the planetary. And it is its State-based approach to security, which meant that only the State was in charge of taking the necessary measurements aimed at safety, preservation and survival of a country. This implied a severe limit at the protection of one’s nation because “weak” nations did not possess a force of power tantamount to the one of a “strong” country. Therefore, a “weak” state was in the thrall of the anarchic international system, and if a nation wanted to exercise its power to gain more resources, it could attack it, without an international community which would defend it or even dissuade a predator country from invading it.

Methodological Nationalism

The theory of Methodological Nationalism offered a base to understand and organise the life and cycles of IR. It provided the discipline with a source of legitimacy. “Methodological Nationalism […] equates societies with nation-state societies, and sees states and their governments as the cornerstones of social-scientific analysis. It assumes that humanity is naturally divided into a limited number of nations, which internally organise themselves as nation-states and externally set boundaries to distinguish themselves from other nation-states” (Beck, 2003, p 453). It’s the perfect theory to justify the Realist approach to IR. It combined realist accents with the belief that there is only one-world World, everything else merely points at other ways to look at the same one-world world. Methodological nationalism is founded on six core beliefs: a plurality of Societies; Societies are subordinated to the Nation-State; States run on territorial “State-constructed” boundaries (Beck, 2003, p454); State and Society both determinate themselves through a circular belief: the nation is creator and protector of Society’s plethora of rights, and the individuals of the Society organize themselves in movements to influence the actions of the Nation-State, which, in turn, also legitimises the State again; “both States and Societies are located within the dichotomy of national and international” (Beck, 2003, p454); the state is the provider of social order and provides the scholars of multiple disciplines with the data about the country necessary to them. (Beck, 2003). Moreover, the core elements of this theory engage in constant activities which result in continuous determination and further legitimisation of one and the other, without leaving any room for the introduction of new elements.

The Decline of legitimacy of the Discipline

The international paradigm of the discipline experienced a major setback after the end of the Cold War, which left everyone baffled. Also, it left everyone unprepared for the events which followed it. The discipline of IR lost credibility as a predictor of events because all of the academics and IR contemporary theorists indeed failed at predicting one of the most history-shaping events of last century. Moreover, even the assumptions of State-based politics faltered, especially after the terrorist attack on the Twin Towers of September 11th, 2001. The discipline was built upon the framework of conceiving the world from the point of view of a State, indeed a State-based approach, preferably a white, Western one.

The end of the Cold War put into question the sounding of the reasoning behind the discipline, and the terrorist attack struck the final hit. It forced scholars, and politicians alike, to recognise the existence of worlds beyond the “Western World”. I am not here to speculate on whether or not the terrorist attack would have happened if the united states had not imposed their ways in the Middle East for years on end. But I am here to point out that the terrorist attack lifted the veil and it made it impossible for the discipline to ever go back to its original frameworks.

I believe that, at this Realist stage, the discipline used to run on such limited territorial lines that its failure had always been around the corner. Proof of this is that it only took a major event such as the abrupt end of the Cold War for it to crumble and for the scholars to put its frameworks into question altogether. Nonetheless, I do believe that the ultimate cause for the failure of the discipline has to be found on the terrorist attack, which slashed the core beliefs of many, terrorised an entire world, and scarred a whole generation forever. The fear that came afterwards paralysed the world for a moment. Somehow, the introduction of an undefinable enemy turned the discipline of IR on its head. State-based politics, as flawed as they were, were easily graspable and easily manageable: they played alongside the rules of an accepted framework. But 9/11? What was that? Under what category would it fall in the limited structures “allowed” by the discipline? A terrorist attack from an undefinable actor was inconceivable; it did not fit even in the corner of the discipline. The discipline was lacking something. The discipline was wrong.

A Critique of IR, and The Rise of the Global

Eventually, what were the core beliefs of the discipline of International Relations, turned out to be their very own self-limiting beliefs which did not allow the discipline to evolve with time into a comprehensive and complete discipline which provides an adequate understanding of the world and the exchanges which elapse within it.

“The fact that worlds of power politics are socially constructed […] does not guarantee they are malleable”, which is one of the flaws which contributed to the fall of IR, and “through practice agents are continuously producing and reproducing (the same) identities and interests. (Wendt, 1992, p411).

It’s a discipline based on seeing, experiences and conceptualising the world from a State-based only perspective, which results into the provision of a partial and meagre framework of understanding of the exchanges occurring in the world. It is a very limited perspective which lent a voice only to the white, Western Elite.

At the break of the new century, people started looking for other outlooks to replace entirely the failure that the “International” represented. In this time of international (relations) crisis, talks about what will come to be known as the ‘Global’ sprung everywhere. They will bring into the conversation a mixture of concepts which classical IR theories did not cover: Constructivism, gender issues, the need for Morals, Critical Discourses, Post-colonialism, and subsequently, the rise of the Anthropocene.

The Main Paradigms of the “Global”: Social Constructivism and Critical Thinking

“The cosmopolitan perspective dismisses the either-or principle of realism: either the State exists, albeit only as an essential core, or it does not exist at all; either there is national sovereignty – a zero-sum game between national and international competence – or there is no sovereignty at all. From a cosmopolitan perspective, “Realism” is a kind of political irrealism because it neglects the possibility and reality of a second “Great Transformation” of the global power game” (Beck, 2003, p457).

These words from Ulrich Beck, one of the most significant theorists of the Global, summarise the stark contraposition between the “International” and the “Global”. In the 1990s, debates about the Global came in to dismantle the limiting beliefs at the core of the discipline, which flawed for its lack of inclusiveness and overbearingness. The arrival of the global represented the fall of the exclusive domain of binary Left and Right politics as well.

The opening of the discipline of IR to a Global Era brings a new opportunity to engage with the world from a non-State-based position, through the development of many, pluriversal approaches: Constructivist, Critical and Cosmopolitan approaches. The Global Era represents a commingling of these new approaches, and the final result portrays how “the cosmopolitan perspective opens up negotiation spaces and strategies which the national viewpoint precludes. […] The negotiation space the cosmopolitan viewpoint opens up contradicts the absence of alternatives.” (Beck,2003, p466).

They introduce new ways of seeing and thinking about politics, global interests, and global concerns. The Global aims at creating a universal vision to build a liberal and global community, in which the States are not the centre of IR speculation anymore. The international arena is also positively shaken up by the appearance of new international actors which are not states: it’s the rise of the global civil society and Non-Governmental Agencies (Kaldor, 2003). Moreover, through the development of new international dynamics, Nation-States become the product, not the subjects, of the international arena (Jackson, 1990; Krasner, 1999).

Two paradigms of thought especially shaped this evolutionary period of IR: the social constructive/liberal and the critical/deconstructive.

The maintenance of the inter-State system, alongside the rise in popularity of theories of Global sovereignty, characterise the new international order. The emergence of the Global requires a new understanding of the mechanisms of the international arena because “It is the collective meanings that constitute the structures which organise our actions” (Wendt, 1992, p397). Therefore, with the evolutionary passage towards a new stage of the discipline of IR, scholars and citizens alike require a new framework of concepts. Social Constructivism achieves just that by providing a sociological understanding of interactions which challenge previous IR thinking. Alexander Wendt, a leading Constructivist theorist, explains how Constructivists believe that the international system and its frameworks are socials constructs, not beliefs that should be taken as “a given” (Wendt, 1992). Therefore, the significance of everything regarding IR comes “out of interaction” (Wendt, 1992, p403). According to Realism, States come into the international arena already equipped with an identity and a set of interests. Alexander Wendt, in direct opposition to Realism, speculates on “how knowledgeable practices constitute subjects”, and how Constructivism can contribute to “identity and interest formation” (Wendt, 1992, p394). They elaborate on the idea that the creation of an identity and set of interests happen through the elapsing exchanges between States in the international arena. “Actors acquire identities by participating in such collective meanings” (Wendt, 1992, p397). Therefore, actors do not enter the international arena with pre-formed identities, but they create one during their contacts with other states. And the same goes for their interests, which are formed while experiences these exchanges. Different exchanges will show how countries can have a variegated set of interests, depending on the circumstances (Wendt, 1992). Therefore, identities and interests are not a given, and their establishment happens during the socialisation process.

The paradigm of the Critical thinking supported the rise of the global because it opened the door for the emancipation of security from the state-based approach. (Booth, 1991). Critical theorists, alongside Constructivists, discuss the treatment of human security and how the obstacles to human security are constructed. The particular interests of States are a barrier to a universalist liberal approach to global rights and justice. Instead, supporters of Foucauldian critics see the rise of the global as a negative shift. The pursuit of global liberal “governmentality” and “biopolitics” are a negative aspiration for the security of States, which will end up having to rely on the international community. “The undermining of the politics of state-based representation and the globalisation of regulatory power has become the starting assumption for the postructuralist “scaling up” of Foucault in critiques of global governmentality” (Chandler, 2009, p536). Lemke (2001) shows how Foucault used concepts regarding governmentality in a way closer to realism than constructivism, which indicates a critique of the doctrine and its “obsession” with subjectification.

Another fundamental difference of the Global, in opposition with the International, is highlighted attention on Morals and Ethics, which have to have a more profound impact on the decisions of the Nation-State. Indeed, the rise of humanitarian aid actions and acts of global cooperation are proof of that. The global perspective introduces a new critical theory of social inequalities which shines a light on the need to provide aid to nations, minorities or whoever is in considerable need (Beck, 2003). Beck (2003) critics how the original IR used methodological nationalism to remove from its agenda the tackling of global inequalities. “Thus, the bigger blind spots – and sources of error- of methodological nationalism linked to research on inequality will only be recognisable by means of a systemic switch from the national to the cosmopolitan perspective. It is only within the framework of such a new critical theory of social inequality that the fundamental asymmetry of inequality perception […] can be unravelled” (Beck, 2003, p459). Nonetheless, he highlights also how the shift to a global perspective is still not enough to put a real fight against inequalities. Until “there is no global jurisdiction and reporting institution to survey global inequalities, these will remain disintegrated into a motley pattern of national-state inequalities” (Beck, 2003, p461).

International cooperation also brings a Decentring of State-based approaches to security, which in turn, produces more equilibrium and guarantees more safety to “weak” nations. The global brings about the creation of a “cooperative security system, in which states identify positively with one another so that the security of each is perceived as the responsibility of all” (Wendt, 1992, p400).

A Critique of Methodological Nationalism

Globalisation theorists deeply criticise Methodological Nationalism, a stream of thought which profoundly shaped the direction of the original discipline of IR, through the definition of its narrow frameworks. Ulrich Beck, one of the most famous theorists of the cosmopolitan approach, offers a brilliant critique of it. Methodological nationalism only manages to produce a continuous cycle of self-limiting beliefs which do not allow room for adaptation to new contemporary challenges. It is tiring and continuous contraposition between them or us, north or south, weak or strong. Its concepts are not appropriate anymore in the rise of the global age. He calls for a “paradigmatic reconstruction and redefinition of social science from a national to a cosmopolitan perspective [which] can be understood as […] a broadening of horizons for social science research” (Beck, 2003, p456). “Social science must be re-established as a transnational science of the reality of denationalisation, transnationalisation, and “re-ethnification” in a global age – and this is on the levels of concepts. Theories, and methodologies as well as organizationally. This entails a re-examination of the fundamental concepts of “modern society” (Beck, 2003, p458).

The cosmopolitan age requires a redefinition of the understanding of sovereignty in both the national and international context (Beck, 2003). Therefore, he states that “traditional conceptualisations of terms and the construction of borders between the “national” and the “international”, domestic and foreign politics, or Society and the State are less and less appropriate to tackling the challenges linked to the global age” (Beck, 2003, p456). Therefore, the main focus on the debate of globalisation has to be “on gaining a new cosmopolitan perspective on the global power field, pushing new actors and actors’ networks, power potentials, strategies. And forms of organisation of debonded politics into the field of vision” (Beck, 2003, p 467). Nonetheless, Beck (2003), stresses the importance of not mistaking the critique of this theory for the end of the nation-state theory: nation-state will always exist or will evolve into a new concept close to a possible transnational states theory.

The new Era of Planetary Politics of the Anthropocene

From the 2010s, discussions about a new concept called Anthropocene replaced the Global, which had declined in popularity because the translation of the global theories into reality did not appear to focus on achieving global forms of liberal governments anymore, nor did its original aim seemed to carry a positive connotation anymore. Furthermore, “the lack of strategic engagement […] (was) fundamental to the appeal of the Global Ideology” (Chandler, 2009, p540). Therefore, the rise of depreciative theories of the global made the world of scholars look for another direction. The crisis of the global did not produce a return to the past of IR, but rather a perspective of the problematics of IR.

The rise of the Anthropocene is strictly connected with the development of theories on pluriversalism, multiple universes. Blaney and Tickner (2017) discuss how an ontological turn of IR could exorcise “singular world logics introduced by colonial modernity” and allow the discipline to interact with the conception of pluriversalism. By studying on various sources, they develop “the potentials of a politics of ontology for unmaking the colonial universe, cultivating the pluriverse, and crafting a de-colonial science.” (Blaney and Tickner, 2017, p293). They suggest the presence of alternative world realities, which could produce “multiple and hybrid “reals”” (Blaney and Tickner, 2017, p295).

Both Global and Planetary do not see the world in terms of State-based theories of strategy and interests. Therefore, there is no intern-national theory. The predominant discussions of these two theories are about the how we understand and see the world beyond the strict assumptions of the discipline of IR.

Bruno Latour (1993) goes as far as to say that the modern society is stuck in “great divides”, mainly in the frameworks of nature/culture, human/non-human, facts/values, mind/body. These separations allow Western society “to claim to represent a singular reality in a unified science untainted by political interest, power or culture. […] Nature and culture are not discrete categories but intertwined in a multiplicity of hybrid assemblages […] modernity’s particular mode of representing reality is not universally shared. […] many communities do not sharply distinguish humans and other entities, so that animals, plants, and spirits are as much “people” (with consciousness, culture and language) as “we” are” (Blaney and Ticker, 2017, p296). The western societies start paying attention the profoundly original ways of seeing the world, which come from cultures that they had ignored. From them they take new eyes to look at the world: they discern how human activities never separated themselves from the earth’s ecosystem. It is the explosion of a real global conscience with the birth a planetary community, who is aware of the environment and the consequences of humanity’s actions on the planet. This also brought the awareness of agencies that had always been ignored by western society in the international arena: the equal presence of Human and non-human actors; nature declined in many agencies: water, air, etc., and cosmos.

The Planetary is aware that humankind with its actions has changed the planet we live in: the ecosystem, flora and fauna. And the planetary politics have started addressing these problems and, thanks to the rise of a planetary sense of community, governments of many countries have started doing something about it.

The era of the Anthropocene in IR is still relatively new; therefore, there is not as much debate about is as there has been for the International and the Global, but it is visible how planetary seems to have taken away the biggest concern of original IR, which is the gain of power. The race for power which has theorised the first conception of the discipline has come very close to destroying our world and the most recent “update” on IR now works on how to “fix” the unfixable. Planetary politics can be regarded as the least optimistic era of our history, and the only stream of thought which has offered a possible way to save our planet comes from the cultures the western society had tried to crash and integrate within it for centuries.

Conclusion

I will conclude by stating that identifying the key differences between the international, global and planetary is crucial because they show the development of the frameworks within which humankind moved and evolved, over the centuries, the conflicts and the scientific developments. Therefore, these differences provide the world with a reflection of the changing times and the world’s rejection of a one-world World, hegemony and lack of representation of multiple identities, interests, and beliefs. We have only recently entered the phase of planetary politics, although 8 years in IR provide a discreet amount of material; therefore, it is too soon to speculate on whether or not the attempts operated by the Anthropocene of preserving our planet will be fruitful, but it is definitely an improvement from the “International” paradigm of IR.

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2018-4-12-1523522615

Organisational Behaviour: An Analysis Of A Team-Based Approach To Working In The Case Of Phil Jones

Abstract

The aim of this essay is to discuss at length and critically evaluate group and team development and behavioural theories in practice, with reference to the case study concerning Phil Jones and his Gulf Project Team, within Engineering Co, evaluating if a team based approach to work is effective within organisations. It firstly establishes to what extent Phil Jones’ analysis of his group’s current situation is accurate, referring Tuckman and Jensen’s stages of group development in evaluating this. Then it discusses the possible interventions that could be made by Phil to allow his team to get back on track, and reach the performing stage of team development. It is then noted that a possible intervention that could assist the team in reaching this stage is to become a virtual team. The potential issues facing virtual teams are then evaluated, and are contrasted with the issues faced by Phil Jones’ team, with possible solutions offered to issues facing such virtual teams and virtual team leaders, allowing them to reach the performing stage. Finally this essay critically analyses the strengths and weaknesses of a team-based approach to work as a whole, drawing from Phils Jones’ case, a range of literature, and anecdotal experience to conclude that the use of a team-based approach to work can be an effective way of working, through the use of strong e-leadership skills and technology to manage teams virtually.

Introduction

In contemporary society a team-based approach to working is becoming evermore common (Callanhan, 2004), and has become prominent among project teams in the engineering industry (Schaffer et al, 2012). Hence it is unsurprising that a project team; a group of individuals whom come together for an individual task, disbanding after its conclusion (Poel, Stoker and Van der Zee, 2014), is used in Phil Jones’ case for the Gulf Project within Engineering Co. Despite the high popularity of a team-based approach to project work, it is debatable if such approaches are the most efficient way of working, due to the myriad of issues which can arise amongst a team due to poor leadership, leading to them struggling to perform. However when teams succeed the benefits of a team-based approach to project work are reaped (Terry, 1999). Hence through an analysis of group and team development, discussion of interventions made to aid team development, and an evaluation of the strengths and weaknesses of a team-based approach, with reference to Phil Jones’ case, it can be established if a team-based approach to project work is effective within organisations in modern society.

Tuckman and Jensen’s Stages of Group Development in the Case of Phil Jones

Initially Phil Jones lacked the training to deal with people issues amongst the group and lead his team. Initially it must be noted that teams and groups are defined differently. A group consists of a number of individuals all of whom accomplish their tasks independently, which have a similar purpose (Gilley and Kerno Jr, 2010). Smith (1967) also gives the description of a group saying that it is two or more individuals who collaborate, share common objectives and norms and have a communal identity. Although different researchers, both give a similar description of a group in that individuals still have common goals. The definition of a team is very similar to a group, however; a group may not be a team but a team may be a group. Hence these terms cannot be used interchangeably. Baldwin et al (2008) defined a team as a group of individuals who have a great amount intercommunication and interdependence, sharing equal responsibility in their appointed objective. The clear difference between a group and a team is therefore the higher level of interdependence and equal responsibility a team has in achieving their objective.

To remedy his teams’ issues, to make them stop working as a group and start working as a team, Phil read about the stages of group development (Tuckman 1965). Tuckman and Jensen (1977), defined five group development stages, the initial two of which are; forming (Tuckman 1965); when team members get to know each other; unlikely to disagree with their teammates to avoid conflict at an early stage, and storming; defined by Bonebright (2009), as involving disagreements; with frictions in the group as the individual roles and tasks of team members can be unclear, leading to work moving slower than anticipated and team tensions. Phil concluded his group was stuck at the storming stage, and struggled to see how to resolve conflict and reach stages three, four and five defined by Tuckman and Jensen (1977) as; norming; where group members understand their roles and goals, feeling belonging among the team; storming; where the group works effectively as one, building on each others strengths and weaknesses, and finally adjourning; where the group completes their project, evaluates and disbands.

Using Tuckman and Jensen’s 1977 stages of group development conclusively Phil’s diagnosis of the situation is correct, as there are similarities between the storming stage of group development and Phil’s teams position. The case study exemplifies the transition of the team from the forming stage to the storming stage. Phil generated competition within the team, as in his opinion a team needs disagreements to achieve creative innovative ideas. Phil’s point of view is that teams need some debate, as this is what happens among teams in the storming stage, in order to reach the norming stage. Instead of this, the team ended up with more issues than accomplishments, getting stuck in the storming stage, resulting in Phil having to deal with more disputes between team members than project developments. This is common; according to Gersick (1988) many teams end up being stuck in the storming stage, never moving onto the performing stage due to poor management of disputes by leaders like Phil. Hence the project is falling behind due to the lack of clarity of instruction regarding team members roles from Phil as a leader, leading to multiple members completing the same work, resulting in a waste of capital and time. Fapohunda (2013) claims clarity is one of the main elements that concerns team members at storming stage, stating it is often the cause of all disputes regarding roles within in the team. This suggests that due to poor leadership from Phil through misguided attempts to bring the group together through conflict, to gain a sense of belonging as found in the norming stage, interventions are needed to overcome mistakes made by Phil to get out of the storming stage.

Hackman’s Team Leadership Mistakes In the Case Of Phil Jones

Hackman’s work (1998) is used to show the common mistakes made with teams, all of which are a common feature in the Gulf Project Team at Engineering Co. One of the obvious mistakes defined by Hackman (1998) and displayed by Phil Jones is attempting to build a team by managing them as individuals, encouraging members to lack communication with each other, hampering the norming stages characteristic of team spirit. In Phil’s team this is difficult to avoid, as the physical distance of the members placed in different locations hampers any attempt from Phil to motivate members not only communicate with him; the only member to have physically met everyone, but to communicate with each other to gain a sense of team belonging. This leads to another mistake featured in Hackman’s 1998 work, exemplified by The Gulf Project Team; a lack of agreement regarding roles, authority, and boundaries for all team members. This issue is also difficult to avoid within Phil’s team, as it is harder for the team to agree on limitations, delegation and boundaries if they can’t physically meet and work things out, suggesting that distance has again hampered the teams communication and sense of belonging. This exemplifies a further mistake made on Phil’s part featured in Hackman’s 1998 work; a clear lack of planning and execution of tasks. To resolve this Phil must show organisational skill, delegating work effectively, to stop time being wasted through duplicated work, fracturing the teams’ sense of belonging further.

The final mistake shown by Phil Jones featured in Hackman’s 1998 work, is assuming all the members of the ‘team’ have the necessary skills to work together, despite being a diverse group from multiple cultural backgrounds, who are unknown to each other. Phil shows poor leadership regarding his cultural awareness surrounding his authority and responsibility in decision-making, and is naïve, being “sure everything would somehow have fallen into place as at first people appeared to be committed to the project and the team”. The forming stage is crucial to team development. By distancing himself from this stage, encouraging team conflict over team belonging despite members’ diversity in the teams’ early stages, he has created a fractured team. He must rectify this; as workplace diversity is becoming increasingly important in society (Parham and Muller, 2008). Phil must not see this as an issue to progress, and accept today’s workforce is diversified. Instead of taking a Laissez-Faire approach, he must look to use this as an advantage, working to integrate cultures to produce the end result.

Phil is correct that his team is still in the storming stage of Tuckman’s stages development; hence he must address such mistakes. Phil must show leadership in the initial stages of getting the team back on track ensuring that until the team is norming it does not control itself, accepting delegation and clarity of roles and working practice. Once the team has a better understanding of each other he can allow them more freedom, as Matsudaira (2016) states “being a good leader means allowing the people around you to be experts in their domains”. Hence through understanding his team members and delegating efficiently Phil can get the best out of everyone, by drawing on motivation theories using social identity to get the best out of the team, giving each member a task suited to their skills they can be proud of. Lewis (2011) states social identity “refers to the desire of individuals to strive to maintain some perceived distinctiveness”. Hence if through interventions all dispersed group members can be motivated to take pride in the work through motivational leadership and a feeling of belonging through their role in the team, there will be no duplication of work and less conflict. Hence a key intervention Phil Jones could use to remedy all such issues and allow team to perform, and hence work as a team efficiently is the use of a virtual team.

The Use Of Virtual Project Teams To Reach The Performing Group Development Stage

A virtual team is defined as “a group of people who interact through interdependent tasks guided by common purpose and work across space, time, and organizational boundaries with links strengthened by information, communication, and transport technologies” (Gassman and Von Zedtwitz, 2003 p.244). Hence though leading a team in person is difficult (Lilian 2014), virtual project team leaders face greater issues. Kayworth and Leidner (2002) found virtual project teams face similar issues to traditional teams, more strongly in virtual settings, coupled with challenges linked to dispersion of members, high reliance on technology and strong communication. Consequently specific leadership strategies are needed. The strategy utilized by managers of virtual teams is e-leadership, defined as “a social influence process, mediated by advanced information technologies, to produce a change in attitudes, feelings, thinking, behaviour and/or performance with individuals, groups or organisations” (Avolio, Kahai and Dodge, 2001 p.617). Hence e-leaders utilize technology to resolve virtual team issues by influencing team behaviour, as the goals of leadership; motivation, vision, determination and innovation (Spicker, 2012) are unchanged, however the mediums implemented to resolve issues are vastly different in virtual project teams.

The initial issue e-leaders face when managing a virtual project team is distance. Distance in a virtual team is established by geography, time zone, and familiarity among team members. In Phil’s case, geography and time zone impeded the team’s success, as though cultural differences were the reason why Phil was the key communicator in the team, to some extent the issue of coordinating an appropriate time for group communication due to differing time zones hampered simultaneous work, proving detrimental in motivating the team to communicate with each other individually. Studies show this assumption. Cummings (2011) found differing work hours caused by time zones burdens team members and leaders. Such levels of dispersion of team members as in Phil’s case can hinder team members familiarity with each other, as he is the only person on the team to have communicated with all team members, reducing social familiarity, which is important to how teams operate (Zaccaro and Bader, 2002). To remedy this e-leaders can address distance by responding quickly to distance specific issues regarding deadlines, then finding a good time to use virtual meeting software, enhancing feelings of closeness through diverse technologies, achieving team performance and greater organisational values. Hence in Phil’s case making the team virtual would be positive in this aspect, as the use of technology would aid the team’s success as schedules and deadlines could easily be accessed by all. Furthermore greater feeling of closeness among team members through the use of virtual meetings could be made, allowing team members to contact each other directly, rather than through Phil.

Though physical distance can be remedied through this, cultural diversity regarding national culture, and values caused by dispersion requires other strategies to be taken. Diversity can be problematic as like in Phil’s case cultural expectations regarding work ethic, work execution and job roles can vary regionally (Burnelle, 2012), causing friction, misunderstandings and fractured communication in the team, with further difficulties when there is a language barrier. E-leaders can solve issues related to cultural diversity by designing team-building sessions through technological mediums to ensure team members understand each other’s cultural differences. They can also address ambiguous online communications, ensuring no misunderstandings. Furthermore promoting a sense of belonging in a virtual team keeps members engaged and stops feelings of isolation from the rest of the team, reducing in and out groups (Leonard, 2011). Therefore through accommodating diversity through teambuilding and technology Phil would be best making his project team virtual as it reduces cultural frictions, and improves members sense of belonging.

Though diversity can cause communication errors within a virtual team, such errors can also be caused by technological breakdowns and, as in Phil’s case; a lack of clarity given by leaders regarding the roles and behavioural expectations of team members, leading to work being completed incorrectly. Hence if the qualities of effective communication; “quantity, frequency and accuracy of information exchange” (Gallenkamp et al 2011, p.8) are unfulfilled, communication breakdowns occur, causing frictions and hampering the team’s success as in Phil’s team. Communication is difficult in a virtual team, as face-to-face communication is omitted from most communicative mediums, potentially deterring emphasis on certain points. The lack of face-to-face contact may cause interactions to lose social or contextual information (Purvanova and Bono, 2009), such as a member’s higher professional status, or higher level of expertise on a subject. Hence to resolve such issues, e-leaders must ensure it becomes habit to team members to maintain continuous contact with each other, and analysing communications to ensure clarity is given regarding roles and expectations. Video-chat technologies can mediate this issue. Hence by making his team virtual Phil could resolve his teams and his own communicative issues.

Hence by improving communication e-leaders create social belonging within a virtual team, eventually creating trust. Trust is important within virtual teams as it motivates individual members to fulfil their role, building dependability (Uber Grosse, 2002). If trust is not achieved conflicts and low group satisfaction occur, deterring the team’s chance of success, as in Phil’s case. E-leaders can create trust through video-chats and electronic meeting systems, promoting communication, joint-efforts and a shared understanding of team issues. Hence through motivating his team to communicate effectively and hence building trust through technological mediums, over-coming distance and diversity, Phil could bring his team to performing stage as a virtual team, by becoming an e-leader. Therefore the use of project teams can be effective within modern society, should a virtual team be used due to recent technological innovations.

Strengths and Weaknesses Of A Team Based Approach to Work

However even when using a virtual team there are strengths and weaknesses of a team based approach to work, within a group of individuals. Some may say a team-based approach to work is far more effective than accomplishing a complex task individually. This is because several people can divide the work up, decreasing individual workload and providing many different ideas to cope with the complexity of a task. Wageman (1997) stated several viewpoints are more suitable when the task is complicated. This is also supported by Klein (2005) stating multiple people are required to carry out a task if the workload is extravagant. Working in a team on a complex task also increases levels of creativity when completing a task. Amabile, et al. (1996) states teamwork increases creativity, as members all have different and diverse backgrounds, combined with the fact that members’ ideas are challenged by others within the team to reach common goals. Furthermore Moreland (2006) explains that working in a team will increase the ability of members’ to specifically remember and recall important project information to reach common goals. This is because members of a group are aware of each other and remember different pieces of information better than other members would. If a member forgets a piece of information another may remember and be able to recall it due to goal interdependence. The degree of goal interdependence will have a significant impact on all members of a team. If there is a high level of objective interdependence, this will enhance team members’ execution of current tasks (Emans, et al., 2001). The authors believe that a high degree of goal interdependence promotes cooperation amongst group members, hence improving performance when carrying out projects. Furthermore Emans, et al. (2001) states that this greater execution of interdependent tasks is positively correlated to group members job satisfaction.

However using a team is not always the most efficient method to complete a task, as each member of the team has a different perspective. Therefore, in team discussions, each team member will have different perceptions, which makes decision time-consuming. Hinsz, et al. (2003) noted how teams are very contemplative in operation; hence their time to make a decision is very slow; whereas an individual’s decision-making process is much faster. Cognitive thinking is also impeded due to the way people communicate in teams (Cooke, et al., 2013). Diehl and Stroebe (1987) elaborated saying that communication of ideas and knowledge interrupts cognitive thinking by preventing other team members from creating ideas. This is so as one person in a team talks at a time, hence planting their idea first and mitigating others thoughts. Members also suffer from being able to challenge a group decision once it is already being carried out. Hence even if the decision is working out poorly, group individuals will generally fail at proposing alternative strategies. Hinsz (2015) stated that teams cause members to lose their own self-awareness and even if a member has knowledge that a team decision is incorrect, or working ineffectively they will not query it.

One of the most substantial disadvantages of working in a team is social loafing. Usually one member of a large team tends to exert much less effort than the rest of the team. This not only causes frustration in other members, but also reduces the quality of the project. Harkins, et al. (1979) found that in larger groups the average performance of each person decreased, with the explanation that some individuals felt like they could slack whilst remaining undetected using the group. However now more than ever it is difficult for individuals not to be called out on ‘social loafing’ in a group, if a project team is managed effectively through technology. With the innovation of cloud based constantly editable software such as Google Docs, e-leaders such as Phil Jones can continuously check on the pace of work uploaded by his team members, ensuring work is completed accurately, creativley and at an appropriate pace to ensure deadlines are met, and furthermore giving such leaders the ability to know which individual team members are doing the majority of the work, allowing social loafers to be pulled up through virtual devices.

Conclusions

Conclusively a team-based approach to work though popular, can be inefficient if team leaders fail to assert their authority and leadership skills in early group formation ad storming stages, hindering their team from reaching the performing group development stage as defined by Tuckman and Jensen’s stages of group development. However should interventions be put in place such as a virtual team, teams can overcome the variety of social and communicative challenges that can face a failing dispersed team as defined by Hackman’s work, and as exemplified in The Gulf Project Team. Hence virtual teams can allow teams to perform effectively, with a review of literature concluding the use of a team-based approach to project work is effective within organisations in modern society, due to recent technological advances.

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Construction of identity and images of the communion in post-colonial Indonesia: college essay help online

Coexist with colonist; Construction of identity and images of the communion in post-colonial Indonesia.

Subject area, aims and objectives

Subject Area

Britain, Dutch and Japan are the three empires which politically colonised Indonesia for more than 100 years. After gaining their independence in 1945, Indonesia began constructing their identity to state their power and gain recognition from other countries. However, during the transition period, there are possibilities that the formation of identity may produce by doing assimilation with former colonist country by adjusting and adapting the existing colonist identity legacy. The relationship during colonial period between the individual and socio-cultural space is as follows shaped in a dual hybrid position, a hybrid that represents the identity of Indonesian communion.

This research would like to examine the visual representation of Indonesian communion. The visual identity used by the state such as the national emblem, currency design, military crest, and maps–which the latest considered as Western imperial’s science and technology gifts– is a construction of the national identity through the symbolism which represents Indonesia’s in international circumstance.

Aims

Examining the identity formation and transition in pre and post-colonial Indonesia (a decade between 1940– 1950), which may generate some insight about how the hybrid of two visual identities–Indonesia’s and Colonist–coexist and later build the images of the communion in Indonesian minds.
Utilizing graphic design studies to excavate the complexity of identity construction during the postcolonial period which cannot be understood by conventional history narrative.

Objectives

Examine and exploring the founded sources idea, and learn the method of combining the visual identification such as in symbols, colour or visual style which considered share universal visual language and mutual value for both sides.
Deconstruct how the product such as technology and science perceived and accepted by the natives and later adapted it as their identity. (Such as Map)
Experimenting and do iterative process with deconstruction method.
Examine the tools used by the government to certifies the identity and nationality during decades of transition. (contemporary: Passport)
Identify how national identity intertwined and influence with personal details (such as ID Card, Passport) which developed the image as a part of the community.

Historical context

Postcolonial History

The research begins with the studies and history of postcolonialism, which commonly understand as an aftermath of Western colonialism or various form of imperialism, both represented in the historical period or state of affair. However, some argue that, etymologically, postcolonialism frequently misunderstood as a temporal concept; the time after colonialism has ceased, or the time following the politically determined Independence Day on which a country breaks away from its governance by another state. Gilbert and Tompkins (1996) suggested that a theory of post-colonialism must, then, respond to more than the merely chronological construction of post-independence, and to more than just the discursive experience of imperialism. The postcolonial theory thus establishes intellectual spaces for subaltern peoples to speak for themselves, in their voices, and thus produce cultural discourses of philosophy, language, society and economy, balancing the imbalanced us-and-them binary power-relationship between the colonist and the colonial subjects.

The Postcolonialism studies indicate a possible future of overcoming colonialism, anticipating the potential new forms of the global empire and new forms of domination and subordination (Encyclopædia Britannica, 2018).

Postcolonial Theory

Postcolonialism aimed at destabilising these theories (intellectual and linguistic, social and economic) employing which colonialists “perceive”, “understand”, and “know” the world. The postcolonial theory thus establishes intellectual spaces for subaltern peoples to speak for themselves, in their voices, and thus produce cultural discourses of philosophy, language, society and economy, balancing the imbalanced us-and-them binary power-relationship between the colonist and the colonial subjects.

Postcolonial Identity

Decolonized people develop a postcolonial identity that based on interactions between different identities (cultural, national, and ethnic as well as gender and class-based) which are committed varying degrees of social power by the colonial society. In postcolonial literature, the anti-conquest narrative analyses the identity politics that are the social and cultural perspectives of the subaltern colonial subjects—their creative resistance to the culture of the coloniser. How such cultural resistance complicated the establishment of a colonial society; how the colonisers developed their postcolonial identity; and how neocolonialism actively employs the Us-and-Them binary social relation to view the non-Western world as inhabited by The Other.

However, postcolonial theory is somehow problematic. John Lye (1997) argues that while the theory deals with the reading and writing of literature written in previously or currently colonised countries, or literature written in colonising countries which deals with colonisation or colonised peoples. The post-colonial theory focuses particularly on;

The way in which literature by the colonising culture distorts the experience and realities, and inscribes the inferiority, of the colonised people
literature by colonised peoples which attempts to articulate their identity and reclaim their past in the face of that past’s certain otherness.

It can also deal with the way in which literature in colonising countries appropriates the language, images, scenes, traditions and so forth of colonised countries.

Marxist Scholar Vivek Chibber (2013) express that postcolonial theory will remember for its revival of cultural essentialism and its acting as an endorsement of orientalism, rather than being an antidote to it. It is essentialized cultures, painting them as fixed and static categories and presents the difference between East and West as unbridgeable. On his book Postcolonial Theory and the Specter of Capital, Chibber focusing mainly on the strain of postcolonial theory known as subaltern studies. He makes a strong case for why we can — and must — conceptualise the non-Western world through the same analytical lens that we use to understand developments in the West.

Contemporary Context

Nina Katchadourian

Hand-held Subway, Geographic Pathologies, Finland’s Longest Road, Finland’s Unnamed Islands, Head of Spain. 1996-2008.

Various work from Nina Katchadourian which exploring the cartographic works. She deconstruct an existing maps and atlas of New York subway system, Finland’s highway, Spanish paper road map to create a new possibility of creating meaning and generates a new ways of seeing things.

Meta Haven Sealand Identity Project

Meta Haven collaborate on the Sealand Identity Project, which was to conceive a national identity for the Principality of Sealand, which is a self-proclaimed nation on a former war platform near the coast of the UK.

Sealand Identity Project was really a combination of this idea of sovereignty, self-proclaimed nationhood, in combination with this flawed entrepreneurial dream of starting an offshore business onboard Sealand.

Theoretical Context

Critical Theory

History of Politics and Identity

Jonathan Friedman (1994) points out there were two aspects of the relation between social identification and the making of history. The first concerned the relationship between the social conditions of identity formation and the production of culturally viable past. The second introduced so-called scientific constructions of other people’s past into the same frame argument.

On the Journal of the Society for Cultural Anthropology, Friedman (1992, p.41) acknowledges that history and discourse about the making of history are positional, that is, it is dependent upon where one located in social reality, within society, and within the global process. The idea is even applicable to the present discourse, which in no way represents an attempt to stand in some objective truth-sphere above or outside of the goings-on of the world. Objective history, just as any other history, is produced in a definitive context and is a particular kind of project.

Besides, he suggested that the discourse of history as well as of myth is simultaneously a discourse of identity; it consists of attributing a meaningful past to a structural present. Objective history produced in the context of a particular kind of selfhood, one that based on a radical separation of the subject from any particular identity, and which objectifies and textualises reality.

Imagined Community

A country which merely liberated from their former colonist would be struggling in defining their own political identity and build their image of communion. As they build the identity on the top of the ruins of existing colonist structure, it would be unavoidable to eradicate their former identity. Even the previous one is arguably an already hybrid of different cultures. However, it was understood that images of the communion were built not only taking the references from the community itself, but also construct by external influence. Benedict Anderson’s theory regarding the identity of a community would be very fit to depict the condition of emerging, newly independent nation.

Anderson (1983, p.6) defines the nation as, “an imagined political community – and imagined as both inherently limited and sovereign…It is imagined because the members of even the smallest nation will never know most of their fellow-members, meet them, or even hear of them, yet in the minds of each lives the image of their communion”. Anderson sees the nation as a social construct, an “imagined community” in which members feel a commonality with others, feel a “horizontal” comradeship with each other even though they may not know them. It could be said that the lasting appeal and political resilience of nationalism of newly independence nation affirm the strength of patriotic feeling and the enormous sacrifices people have made on behalf of their nation.

In the chapter “The Origins of National Consciousness”, where he argues that the convergence of capitalism, printing, and the diversity of vernacular languages led to the birth of national consciousness. Popular nationalism threatened to exclude the European monarchies from the new imagined communities, as the dynasties had dubious and often conflicting national credentials. They responded with what Anderson terms “official nationalism,” a Machiavellian appropriation of nationalist ideas to secure dynastic legitimacy and suppress ethnolinguistic subject groups within their realms. In the European colonial empires, official nationalism served as a tool of the imperial administration.

Census, Map, Museum.

In the more specific topic, Anderson introduces three institutions of powers– Census, Map, Museum–that profoundly shaped the way in which the colonial state imagined its dominion and the legitimacy of its ancestry. As the research emphasises on more pragmatic visual based identity, the writer considered it would be more fruitful on profoundly examining the Map topic. However, the assumption made after thoughtfully deal with the capacity of the author, which couldn’t afford further research on Census and Museum.

It could be said that the Mercatorian map, which brought in by the European colonisers via print, was beginning to shape the imagination of Southeast Asians, including Indonesia (Anderson, 1983, p. 247) Regarding most communication theories anti-common sense, a map is a scientific abstraction of reality. A map merely represents something which already exists objectively “there”. Anderson (1983) points out, “In the history, I have described, this relationship was reversed. A map anticipated spatial reality, not vice versa. In other words, a map was a model for, rather than a model of, what it purported to represent… It had become a real instrument to concretise projections on the earth’s surface… The discourse of mapping was the paradigm which both administrative and military operations worked within and served”

Map as a Logo

As an administrative and military tool, maps acknowledge the ability as the second avatar of one nation or empire, the map-as-logo. Its origins were reasonably innocent— the practice of the imperial states of colouring their colonies on maps with an imperial dye. British colonies were usually pink-red. French purple-blue, Dutch yellow-brown, and so on. (Anderson, 1983, p. 250) The map becomes a pure sign, no longer compass to the world. As the map then entered an infinite reproducible series, available for transfer to posters, official seals, letterheads, magazine which made them instantly recognisable and visible–the logo-map penetrated deep into the popular imagination, forming a powerful emblem for the anticolonial nationalism.

One of the most known examples of this process is what happened on the island of New Guinea. Dutch Empire settlement in Indonesia was made on the island of New Guinea and succeed to incorporate it into Netherland Indies in 1901 and made it in time for Dutch logoization. Dutch colonial logo-maps sped across in the colony, showing a West New Guinea with nothing to its East, unconsciously reinforced the developing imagined ties among Indonesian nationalist. Even Indonesian nationalist was struggling and made as a national sacred site in the national imagining, they never actually saw New Guinea with their own eyes until the 1960s.

Anderson (1983, p. 251) then relates that “the prestige of the colonial state was accordingly, now intimately, linked to that of its homeland superior.” As more and, more Europeans were being born in Southeast Asia, and being tempted to make it their home. The old sacred sites were to be incorporated into the map of the colony, and their ancient prestige (which, if this had disappeared, as it often had, the state would attempt to revive) draped around the mappers.

The “warp” of this thinking was a totalizing classificatory grid, which could be applied with unlimited flexibility to anything under the state’s real or contemplated control: peoples, regions, religions, languages, products, monuments, and so forth. The effect of the grid was always to be able to say of anything that it was this, not that; it belonged here, not there.

Parallel Theory

Cartography

To provide a profound understanding of Map and its influence on the construction of national identity, the writers realised that the study of cartography is one of the best ways to explain it. While map in the previous point bears the capacity to become a witness of powers, the map also can produce their language. Polish-American philosopher Alfred Korzybski’s theory of general semantics states that; human knowledge is limited by our physical being as well as the structure of language. Though the human experience of reality is limited, yet increasingly see the world through more maps, bigger maps of more data, and more maps of bigger data.

Huffman and Matthews (2014) endorse that, “Cartographers have always been storytellers. This metaphor works well for thematic maps, but topographic or reference maps also tell stories: of the landscape, of the settlement, and of the shape of the natural and human-modified world that surrounds us… Cartographers take data and wrestle it before applying some graphical treatment that provides the narrative. They codify the story in a visual language that they hope speaks to people.”

While cartography has the ability to promoted scientific objectivity over artistic representation and vice versa, the scientific objectivity did not always go the actual representation, a metaphor involved in this work, such map does not always mean the territory. Like any other tools that generate knowledge, maps are informative, but they also can be deceptive, even threatening. At one time or another, it probably safe to say that all of us have been misled by a map designed to hide something the mapmaker did not want us to know, or drawn in such a way that we jump to false conclusions from it.

H. J. de Blij (1996, p. xi-xii) points out that Map crosses the line between information and advocacy. In which later he added that in the world of changing political and strategic relationships and devolving nation-sites, maps become propaganda tools. Some national government even go so far as to commit cartographic aggression, mapping parts of neighbouring countries as their own. Turkish Cypriots, Sri Lankan Tamils, Crimean Russians publish maps that proclaim their political aspirations, fuelling nationalism that spell disaster for the state system.

When the research go further in finding the capability and possibility of a map in manipulating or altering the fact, the research leads to an exciting book written by Dr Mark Monmonier, How to Lie with Maps. In this book, Monmonier (1996, p.2) acknowledges that in showing how to lie with maps, he want to make readers aware that maps–like speeches and paintings–are authored collections of information and also are subject to distortions arising from ignorance, greed, ideological blindness, or malice. The idea seems uncomfortable and uneasy to accepted as it lot of sense of offensiveness. However, he provides a stunning yet straightforward analogy. He offers the idea of the relationship of Map and Scale and its capability on defining the truth.

He took the example as follows; the square inch on the large-scale map could show inch on the ground in far greater detail than the square inch on the small-scale map. Both maps would have to suppress some details, but the designer of the 1:10,000,000-scale map must be far more selective than the cartographer producing the 1:10,000-scale map. In the sense that all maps tell white lies about the planet, the small-scale map has a smaller capacity for truth than large-scale maps.

That is the softball of how maps tell lies, then what about the other possible one? Such as Maps for political propaganda. A good propagandist knows how to shape opinion by manipulating maps. Political persuasion often concerns territorial claims, nationalities, national pride, borders, strategic position, conquests, attacks, troop movements, defences, spheres of influence, regional inequality, and other geographic phenomena conveniently portrayed cartographically. (Monmonier, 1996, p. 87).

People trust maps, and intriguing maps attract the eye as well as connote authority. The map is a perfect symbol of the state and an intellectual weapon–in disputes over territory. Naïve citizens willingly accept as a truth map based on a biased and sometimes crooked selection of facts.

Maps as Symbols of Power and Nationhood

The string of newly independent states formed after World War II, such as Indonesia, revived the national atlas as a symbol of nationhood. In the service of the state, maps and atlases play dual roles. Monmonier (1996, p.89) research confirmed that although a few countries in western Europe and North America had state-sponsored national atlases in the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries, these served mainly as reference works and symbols of scientific achievement. However, between 1940 and 1980 the number of national atlases increased from fewer than twenty to more than eighty, as former colonies turned to cartography as a tool of both economic development and political identity.

Even tiny maps on postages stamps can broadcast political propaganda. Postage stamps bearing maps are useful propaganda tools for developing nations and ambitious revolutionary movements. In mail interest, it is useful to keep aspirations alive domestically and to suggest national unity and determination internationally. Postage stamps maps afford a small but numerous means for asserting territorial claims (Monmonier, 1996, p. 91). The war claims between India, Pakistan and China offer us an excellent example of this. Official government tourist maps show Kashmir as a part of India, on the other hand as a part of Pakistan. In reality, India controls the southern part of the state of Kashmir, Pakistan controls the northwestern part, and China controls three sections along the eastern margin. The other example is the Ligitan and Sipadan dispute. It was a territorial dispute between Indonesia and Malaysia over two islands in the Celebes Sea, namely Ligitan and Sipadan. The dispute began in 1969 as Malaysia put them on their official passport and tourism map. Thus it was mostly resolved by the International Court of Justice (ICJ) in 2002, which opined that both of the islands belonged to Malaysia as British Empire, their former colonist, has already settled administrative work since 1930 on both islands.

The latest example given probably slightly capture how the state intervenes-wars, colonialism and national planning intertwined on mapping activities. However, these activities of the major powers not confined to their colonial territories, the very existence of which had left them with global rather than local strategic preoccupations. On Maps and Air Photographs, Dickinson (1979, p. 48) states that; stimulated by various motives, among which the discovery of potentially exploitable areas and resources and the complete delineation of boundaries against possible counter-claimants are two obvious ones, most European nations with colonial possessions carried out various surveys in them often very actively. At first, both the maps themselves and the bodies that produced them were slightly varied.

Methodology

The initial stage of the research would emphasize on experimental design, as this approach is a careful balancing of several features including “power”, generalizability, various forms of “validity”, practicality and cost. A thoughtful balancing of these features in advance will result in an experiment with the best chance of providing useful evidence to modify the current state of knowledge in a particular design field. The goal is to actively design an experiment that has the best chance to produce meaningful, defensible evidence, rather than hoping that proper statistical analysis may be able to correct for defects after the fact.

In the realm of experimenting, the deconstructive method would be the fittest one to tackle the question and inquiry of this research. It is a strategy of critical form-making which performed across a range of artefacts and practices, both historical and contemporary. Deconstruction was born to uncover the meaning of a literary work by studying the way its form and content communicate essential humanistic messages.

Lupton and Miller (1994) argue that deconstruction offer the mode of questioning through and about the technologies, formal devices, social institutions, and founding metaphors of representation. That deconstruction belongs to both history and theory. In Derrida’s theory, deconstruction asks how representation inhabits reality. How does the external image of things get inside their inner essence? How does the surface get under the skin?

While examining the construction of the identity of the communion, it is important to trace its source, find the authenticity and telling of a story viewed as a passive record of events. The research foresees to gain a vast amount of result and new insight by studying the meaning of a sign and its relationship to other signs in a system. This principle is the basis of structuralism, an approach to language which focuses on the patterns or structures that generate meaning rather than on the “content” of a given code or custom (Lupton, E. and Miller, J. A., 1994)

How does the theory relate to the practical experimentation?

By experimenting with deconstruction would benefit the research in doing widespread disruption, founded on a challenged and remodelled idea of what existing idea/design can do and bring.

What is the theory for?

As a platform on the iterative process. The fundamental principle of deconstruction and how deconstructive method work help to maintain the system while doing experiment and records thought for future transmissions.

What process of experimentation will be used?

Experimenting by deconstructing existing visual material and try a different approach to generate the possible outcome and utilise the basis of structuralism, an approach to language which focuses on the patterns or structures that generate meaning rather than on the “content” of a given code or custom.

How the project recorded and keep track of what have been done.

Documentation by photograph, video, scanned artefact and scheduled digital/printed publication.

Visual evidence

1st Iteration on deconstruction method: Deconstruction of Indonesia’s National Emblem.
2nd Iteration on deconstruction method: The study of Colonized and Colonist Map.

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Niccolo Machiavelli’s The Prince – leadership and power: essay help site:edu

Niccolo Machiavelli’s, The Prince, is one of the most controversial books of its time. Because of its contents, Machiavelli is seen by many as symbol for evil and vice. The book was thought to be so abhorrent that it was banned by the Catholic church, and harshly critiqued by many of Machiavelli’s contemporaries. The Sixteenth Century treatise was meant as an advice book for princes on how to gain power and maintain it, but the methods he proposed for achieving these aims were unsavory to many. In the years following its publication, The Prince, horrified and shocked the general populace due to its challenging of the current view that a leader had to be virtuous and moral, asserting that it was better for a leader to be feared than loved, challenging the idea that a ruler gained his power from divine right alone, and its proposition that a ruler might employ unethical actions to secure his position and better his country.

One of the first of things that Machiavelli tried to do in his treatise is to separate ethics from princes. While, many of his contemporaries believed that a successful prince would be one filled with the usual virtues, like honor, purity, and integrity, Machiavelli threw this idea out a window. He did not believe that being simply having the “right” value system would grant a leader power and security. In fact, he argued that often, being tied down by such morals would be counterproductive to one maintaining their position. Moreover, “if a ruler wishes to reach his highest goals he will not always find it rational to be morale” (Skinner 42).

So, what characteristics did Machiavelli think would actually make a strong leader? His ideal prince is one who is cunning and ruthless. Machiavelli believed that, “a ruler who wishes to maintain his power must be prepared to act immorally when this becomes necessary” (26). A ruler should also not be worried about being miserly, for overall this will help rather than hurt his control (Mansfield). If a prince is too generous his people will also become accustomed to such generosity and be angered when it is not forthcoming, and in the long run he will have to tax his people to make up for what he has given away. Such ideas went directly against the Christian and humanist ideas about morality in Machiavelli’s time.

Another major point of interest that Machiavelli discussed throughout The Prince was the concept of fortune and its role in a princes rule. He believed that it was of the utmost importance that a prince try to win fortune to his side as best he can. Here again, Machiavelli differentiates from his predecessors. Many past philosophers believed that fortune would smile upon a ruler who was just and virtuous. Machiavelli disagreed with such notions. Morales had nothing to do with pleasing fortune. Instead, it was the more violent and ambitious ruler, who would seize the moment, that would have a better chance of winning fortune (Spencer). Machiavelli went so far as to compare fortune to a woman and stated that, “If you want to control her, it is necessary to treat her roughly” (87).

While Machiavelli did not think it was in a prince’s best interest to always be kind and good, he did note the importance of his subjects thinking him to be so. It is very hard to hold control a region, in which the people believe their ruler to be completely immoral. However, they may put up with questionable actions of a ruler if once in a while he does something that appears to be in their best interest. The crueler a ruler is the more crucial it is to appear to the public as being the opposite. Once the people are convinced of a ruler being virtuous, he will be able to get away with the most unscrupulous behavior.

Most people would consider it essential for a ruler to keep his promises and appear trustworthy, maintaining a good relationship with his subjects, not Machiavelli. Sometimes it is not realistic for a ruler to be able to make good on every promise. It may even be better for the people in the long run if he does not. A prince should not have qualms about breaking his word, “plausible reasons can always be found for such failure to keep promises” (Machiavelli 62). Moreover, if a prince prides himself on always keeping his word the people will always expect this. When unfortunate circumstances force him to deviate from what he swore to do, the people will be outraged, whereas if they expect promises to be broken it will not garner as much anger.

Another stable argument of Machiavelli’s book is the power of fear. Machiavelli believes fear is one of the best way to keep subjects in line. Fear is strongest of all the emotions and will give a ruler the most control. Striving for the people’s love is not as fruitful, due to mankind’s fickle nature. Andrew Curry of the Washington Post notes that for Machiavelli, “ Man’s weak nature was a constant as unchanging as the bright sun that rose above his beloved Tuscan hills.” A leader who relies on love to gain loyalty from his subjects, will find his people nowhere to be found when hard times come. Men tend to what they think is best for them, and due to this they will changes sides quickly. They will adopt a new prince quickly and shed their old one if they believe it will be prosperous for them. However, if the subjects greatly fear their leader they are more likely to obey him. If they believe their ruler to be lax they will think they can get away with some disobedience, but if a prince has made it clear that the consequences will be great they will hesitate (Machiavelli .

One of the main ways Machiavelli demonstrates the power of fear, is through generals and their handling of the troops under them. He praises the Carthaginian general, Hannibal, for his ability to lead such a large army of various peoples with little discord or trouble among his troops. Despite going through many lands unknown to his soldiers, and enduring times of trial, Hannibal was able to keep his soldiers in order because of their respect and fear of him (Machiavelli 60). How did Hannibal make his troops fear him? Through great cruelty, which made him the perfect Machiavellian leader. It was this cruelty that was key of his success according to Machiavelli. He argued that, “if he had not been so cruel, his other qualities would not have been sufficient to achieve that affect” (60).

Scipio was another general of the same period as Hannibal. Like Hannibal he was a brilliant military mind, and one of the greatest leaders of the era. Unlike Hannibal however, he did not exercise brutality with his troops to keep them in check. Whereas Hannibal’s troops would have never dreamed of revolting, for fear of the consequences, Scipio did lose control over his soldiers at fort Sucro, in Spain. Machiavelli harshly critiqued Scipio for this mutiny and no one else. It was Scipio’s easiness with his soldiers that had caused them to grow rebellious. Had he have been more severe in his command they would have been better disciplined (Machiavelli 60). Machiavelli praises Hannibal’s cruelty, while condemning Scipio’s friendliness with his soldiers.

Another aspect of the power of fear, which Machiavelli touched on was with the capturing of new regions. Under most circumstances successfully maintaining control over a newly vanquished city, and keeping its citizens in check can be quite difficult. However, in cases where subduing a city takes great force and bloodshed it will actually be much easier to keep. Most would think the opposite to be true, but Machiavelli argues that those who have been defeated will be to imitated to revolt, due to knowing what the conquerors are capable of (Mansfield). Machiavelli has complete faith in the power of fear. Essentially he believes that a prince should not be concerned about being excessively brutal when trying to defeat the defenders of a town, because in the long run it may actually help him keep dominances over said town. With advice like this, advising one to be cruel, it is no surprise that Machiavelli’s contemporaries were so shocked by his treatise (Spenser).

All of Machiavelli’s pondering about fear begs the question how far should a ruler go to be feared by his people? Machiavelli does acknowledge that there is a lined that can be crossed. A prince must strive to be feared without being completely hated by his subjects (Machiavelli 59) . It is fine for a leader to exercise extreme ruthlessness for the greater good as long as he is able to redeem himself in the eyes of the people. At a certain point, if pushed too far, a prince’s subject’s fear of their ruler will turn to anger and they will grow unruly. Therefore it is important for a prince to be calculated with his cruelty, and not just unnecessarily brutal.

A major issue during Machiavelli’s time was that of Divine right to rule. Essentially, king’s could justify their rule by it supposedly being God’s will, and they had to answer only to him. Only those chosen by God could rule. Machiavelli did not fully agree with this doctrine. He thought that almost anyone should have the right to rule as long as they were cunning enough to do so. Machiavelli cares most about leaders being competent. The foxes and lions should rise above the lambs. That is the best way for country to be assured of gaining strong leaders. With divine right there is no guarantee that a prince will be capable of ruling, and do what is best for his people. In his own region of Florence Machiavelli wanted a ruler who was effective, not one that was supposedly endowed by the creator. All of the advice given in the book is a challenge against divine right, as it shows how someone may gain power by his own actions and not divine right.

Machiavelli’s key argument against any sort of right to rule is that it is power alone that guarantees a prince his control. “a Machiavellian perspective directly attacks the notion of any grounding for authority independent of the sheer possession of power. For Machiavelli, people are compelled to obey purely in deference to the superior power of the state” (Nederman). Simply having the right virtues, divine right, or any other quantifiers of rule do not matter if one does not have true power. A prince’s subjects will stay in line if they know he has great power over them, but not always so if he his relying on their respect of his “divine right” alone.

One of the main themes running throughout all of Machiavelli’s advice seems to be that the ends always justify the means. Now even though Machiavelli never directly states this, he comes very close, and despite his advice being a bit more nuance than that simple phrase, it is not out of line to say that it represents his key ideas on princeship. Machiavelli was one of the first pessimistic realists of his time, and he based his advice on the negative side of humanity. He argued that a prince’s subjects will not always do the moral thing and so a prince should not either. Instead, he should take what actions he believes to be best for securing his rule and his province. Sacrificing a few is a necessary evil if it guarantees the safety of many (Machiavelli 58).

Machiavelli base much of his advice on the topic on real life rulers of his time. History.com points this out saying, “Machiavelli’s guide to power was revolutionary in that it described how powerful people succeeded—as he saw it—rather than as one imagined a leader should operate.” While his contemporaries where dreaming up the qualities of an ideal leader, Machiavelli believed he was giving a guide based on those he had seen be successful. Almost all of the leaders Machiavelli studied, he found to have exercised cruelty and brutality. Mansfield says thus of Machiavelli’s points on necessary evil, “The amoral interpretation fastens on Machiavelli’s frequent resort to “necessity” in order to excuse actions that might otherwise be condemned as immoral.”

One of the main ruler’s who Machiavelli based much of his advice on was Cesare Borgia. Borgia was the perfect Machiavellian leader. He was, “a crude, brutal and cunning prince of the Papal States” (History.com Editors). He lived in a chaotic time, and the entirety of his rule was face with challenges and uncertainty. Machiavelli admired his ability to handle the problems of his times with such decisive ferocity. He embodied all the traits the Machiavelli was advising the readers of his book to adopt.

Cesare was a man with many enemies and part of his genius lay in his ability to get rid of them. Where others would hesitate to move against powerful men, Borgia did not. He would kill remorselessly if he thought it would help him maintain his land. One of the main examples Machiavelli used to point out Borgia’s cunning, was his luring of the Orsini leaders to the town of Senigallia. He lured them with lavish gifts and lulled them into a false sense of security, promising treaties of peace, but once they had delivered themselves into his hands he killed them (Machiavelli 25). Machiavelli praised this exploit thinking it an exceptionally clever deception.

Borgia also proved his competence as a leader to Machiavelli in his handling of the land he inherited from his father, Pope Alexander VI. The people dwelling there were disorderly and defiant. They had not been well disciplined by their previous ruler, and were not used to really having to obey a leader. Borgia set out to right this wrong. He put an utterly ruthless man, Remirro de Orco, in charge of the area (Machiavelli 26). Many rulers would have told Orco to use caution when dealing with the subjects of the region. He should slowly begin to discipline them so that they would grow use to it over time. However, Borgia did the exact opposite. He gave his new governor complete control to be as severe and merciless as he saw necessary. He new that the cruelty the people would endure under de Orco would be for the better down the road as there would be more order and less lawbreakers.

Even the he knew that it was necessary to use brutality when dealing with his newly acquired land, Borgia did not plan on taking the blame for that cruelty. de Orco’s harsh regime had served to bring discipline to the region, but Cesare Borgia was not blind to the growing anger in those who were suffering under it. Here, in Machiavelli’s mind, Borgia showed his true genius and heartlessness. He killed de Orco and displayed his body in a town, successfully wining the favor of his subjects and getting rid of a possible rival. It Borgia who had put de Orco in charge in the first place, knowing fully well that he was a cruel man, and told him to be a harsh ruler, but the people seemed to forget this and saw Borgia as a hero for killing their oppressor. Those subjects who still had a dislike for Borgia, where too terrified by the execution to cause any discord (Machiavelli 26). So Borgia was able to make his people both love and fear, Machiavelli’s ideal situation. It is clear that much of Machiavelli’s arguments for doing immoral things comes from him having observed Borgia and his callous methods.

Borgia may have been brilliant in the handling of his lands and his enemies, but it was not his own cleverness that gained him his territory in the Romagna. Instead it was the cunning of his father, Pope Alexander IV. Alexander wanted to give his son a state in Italy to help him grow more powerful and, hopefully, eventually make him into a great ruler. However, he knew that he would not be able to do this through peaceful negations, as there were too many other factions who would have been opposed to it. Instead, the Pope would have to use force to size a state. First he sought out to make the states of Italy unstable, by aiding a French invasion of Milan. Doing this helped cause chaos, and the French gave the Pope troops to conquer the Romagna with. The Pope was able his transfer the newly captured states to his son (Machiavelli 24). These actions by the Pope where highly immoral; he helped sow ruin in his own country of Italy to gain a province for Cesare to rule, and he misused the power given to him by his position as Pope to do so. However, Machiavelli praises his ability to take actions that are deemed unethical by society to attain success.

In one chapter of his treatise, Machiavelli addresses those who gained the power from evil deeds. The first example he gives is of Agathocles, of Syracuse. Agathocles is the epitome of doing whatever it takes to get what you want. He was a mere ordinary man, but by his own actions he was able to rise to a position of power in the city of Syracuse. Wanting to become the king of Syracuse he began scheming how this could be accomplished. Eventually he was able to execute a successful coup, and have all his soldiers kill any opposers. He was dishonorable, a murderer, and a traitor, but he did achieve what he set out to do. Machiavelli does point out that these methods wont exactly win someone glory and fame, or at least not the positive kind, but he did commend Agathocles ability to gain power. He also mentions that Agathocles used evil “well” since he had to use it at all (Machiavelli 30-33). Statements like this, that a murdering traitor used evil admirably, are what make Machiavelli’s writing so controversial.

Machiavelli did not stop with Agathocles, he also gave an example more current with the time of a similar situation. Oliverotto of Fermo. Oliverotto had the same cunning and ambition as Agathocles. He too wanted to become the ruler of his hometown Fermo. So, with his mentor he conspired to overthrow the current ruler, his own uncle, Giovanni Fogliani. Oliverotto used his relation to Fogliani to lure him into a trap where he assassinated him, as well as the other leaders of Fermo. With no one else in his way he took control of the region. His immoral actions would have been condemned by most, but Machiavelli’s main issue seems to be that he was not able to keep the power that he gained, as he was killed himself later on. Oliverotto did not use evil well as Agathocles did (Machiavelli 32-32).

Few books have the ability to stir up as much controversy as The Prince. With it Machiavelli tried to set a new example how a prince should act and think, but one that would be found troubling by many in the decades that followed its publication. Its readers would shun it, ban it, mock it, and even go so far as to say that it was satire, because surely there was no way that Machiavelli had actually meant what he wrote. The main cause of all animosity towards the book, came from Machiavelli’s attempt to separate ethics from politics. In the treatise he argued that princes need not be virtuous, and that fear was a great tool to be used to control one’s subjects, better even than love. Furthermore, the book challenged divine right, which put at odds with the churches of the time, and lastly, it promoted the idea of using scrupulous methods to gain power. It is the combination of these four arguments, that were so against the current ideologies of the sixteenth century, that caused many to look at the book with disgust, and the reason why Machiavelli became known as an embodiment of evil.

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Organizational change – responding to internal drivers

Organizational change in any business organisation is predominantly influenced by two forces called internal drivers and external drivers. Both can cause favourable as well as unfavourable impacts on organisational change. However, this essay will argue that it is more beneficial for the organisations to introduce changes based on its internal drivers because they are within the organisation and control of the management in bringing the change. Where as the external drivers are beyond the control of the organisation.

In this intensely competitive and globalised world ( Mdletye, Coetzee and Ukpere 2014) of business and management organisational change is very critical and indispensable for numerous competitive advantages. Therefore, companies of all kinds must either initiate change or if not face the natural death (Kotter and Cohen 2008). Hence, although change is task fraught with complexity and challenge (Graetz et al. 2011, p.2) it has become the inevitable phenomena for the successful survival of organization in this modern world.

Organisational change is the continuous process of renewing the firm direction, structure, capabilities, operations, systems and processes to meet the ever-changing needs of external and internal customers (Soosay and Sloan 2005 p.10). It is the movement of an organization away from its present state of status quo (Smith 2005) toward some desired future state to increase its effectiveness (Lunenburg 2010). Nevertheless, as most researchers have found out that, in reality, adopting new changes in the organisation is very difficult and doubtful of success (Robbins 2003 and Raftery 2009 as cited in Beshtawi and Jaaron,2014; p.129) and often land up with failure (Olaghere,n.d p.1; Gilaninia, Ganjinia and Mahdikhanmahaleh 2013). Therefore, in this increasingly uncertain and risky environment (Zhou, Tse and Li, 2006, p.248) it is very crucial to know how to adapt and change according to the environment and to change successfully has become a critical and timeless challenge for any organization ( Feldman, 2004; Pettigrew et al., 2001; Piderit, 2000) for continuous survival and success.

Organisational Change in an organisation is influenced dominantly by two factors called internal factors or internal drivers and external factors or external drivers (Esparcia and Argente (n.d) and Olaghere n.d, p.1).These factors are responsible for triggering the change in the system, policies, product, structures, services, management, performance among many other areas in the organisation (Senior 2002) (as cited in McGuire and Hutchings 2006). Ivancevich and Matteson (2002) consider technology, economic forces and socio-political and legal factors as important external drivers that cause organisational change. However, they argue that these external drivers of change are beyond management’s control and cause a significant impact compelling the organisation to adjust internal processes and systems (McGuire and Hutchings 2006). Conversely, internal drivers are those forces existed within the organisation that influence changes. They are system, structure, management style, leadership, resources, processes, products of the organisation (Esparcia and Argente, n.d).

However, internal factors are more critical to driving organisational change. Ivancevich and Matteson (2002) maintain that human resource issues and process considerations are the most common forces for change within the organisation. They argue that internal factors are generally within the control of management, although sometimes be more difficult to recognise and diagnose than external factors (McGuire and Hutchings 2006).

The external factors are more diversified and intractable compare to internal drivers (Yu and Zhang, 2010, p.3). The internal divers of change are easily influenced by external environments like politics, economy, technology, legal and society.

The external factors helps to determine the opportunities and threats that the company would face, but the internal factors help the company to identify its strengths and weaknesses (Ibrahim and Primiana, 2015, p.285) . Marcus (2005) (as cited in Ibrahim and Primiana, 2015, p.285) noted that organisations should be aware of its strengths and weaknesses and analyzed the extent to which companies can accommodate the opportunities and threats existed in its the external environment.

Anderson and Anderson (n.d) asserted that the most common reason for the failure of managing change with the organizations is the inadequate attention to the less tangible, yet very important, internal drivers such as culture, leader and employee behaviour and their mindset. So, it is very much evident the benefits of concentrating of internal drivers rather than external drivers. This is supported by Kotter and Cohen (2008; p.61) that managers must instigate change by creating the sense of urgency by touching the emotions of employees instead of reasons based on facts and figures. This is possible only through change in internal factors of business enterprise.

Many scholars have consented that internal factors are the key determinants of an organization’s performance (Kinyua-Njuguna, Munyok and Kibera 2014, p. 289) as they provide enabling environment to achieve its goals and objectives. Internal environmental forces provide strengths and weaknesses to the business (Tolbert & Hall, 2009) (cited in (Kinyua-Njuguna, Munyok and Kiber 2014, p.) Fr example, from their study on the effect of internal drivers on community-based HIV and AIDS organizations in Nairobi County, Kenya, Kinyua-Njuguna, Munyok and Kiber (2014) found out that the internal drivers such as organisational structure, strategy, skills, staff, shared values as well as systems helping the organisation to achieve their objective. As a result enhanced the employee performance.

The Resource-based view (RBV) theory, propounded by Penrose (1959) ( as cited in Kute & Upadhyay, 2014,p.68) supported that organizations can gain competitive advantage by concentrating on their internal factors such as abilities, skills, knowledge, capabilities and competencies with reference to technological changes. This is because of strengths and weakness in these areas can be managed and thus the need of enhancing these qualities within the employees can be determined and can be enhanced through continuous organizational learning culture. Furthermore, the following factors such as mission and goals, leadership quality, organisational structure, human resources, technology capacity, organisation culture, employees behaviours and attitude, and organisational performance has to be considered while introducing change in the organisation.

Organisation Vison, Mision, Goals and objectives

Every business organisation is being guided by its mission, goals and objectives pertaining to development philosophy and direction, planning, prioritizing programs, policies, management, organisational structures and everyday responsibilities (Emeka and Eyuche 2014). In nutshell the performance of the company depends on the mission, goals and objectives. Therefore, change in these domains would compel the firm to undertake organisational change to achieve their mission and objectives.

Leadership

Leadership is one of the very important internal factors in an organisation change (Lunenburg 2010). The leaders have the important role in maintaining the measure of control over the environment of the organisation (McGuire and Hutchings 2006, p.197). The sixteenth century political scientist, Niccolo Machiavelli, stressed that the leader’s vision and future plans are critical in determining the shape and structure of the organisation (McGuire and Hutchings 2006, p.198). According to the organisational change models Cummings and Worley (1993) further recognizes that any change can be implemented successfully only by strong leadership who can garner commitment and readiness to change within the employees through shared vision and strategies to achieve the proposed new change and outcome. The way the managers or leaders establish the internal working structure and systems has influence on the performance of the organisation (Kinyua-Njuguna, Munyok and Kiber 2014, p.285).It means the structures and systems should be very favourable for the employees to work collaboratively everyday towards the shared goals of the organisation. Conversely, poor leadership and management would result in the failure of enterprise in the implementation of change processes and risking the orgainsation to disastrous consequences (Shiamwama, Ombayo and Mukolwe 2014, p.148). Effective leaders help organisations to surpass any internal obstacles and bring changes through envisioning the desired goals and objectives, energizing the employees, and enabling the resources and conditions (Zhou, Tse and Li 2006, p.253) which are paramount to overcome any external inhibitors of change and improve performance.

For instance, Steve Jobs, the founder of APPLE Computers, was eased out of the business because of poor management. He later went back into the business and was absorbed as a mere employee just to tap his original idea (Cole, 2004). in (Shiamwama, Ombayo and Mukolwe (2014)

Organisation Structure

Change in organizational structure involves redefining and regulating the organizational roles and relations by expanding or reducing audition, determining the decision making authority, selecting decentralised or central management type, regulating communication channels within the organisation ( İkinci, S.S.2014,p.123).It is another internal factor that act as driver of change. It is the way how jobs are allocated, coordinated and supervised through the system that facilitates communication and efficient work processes among the employees in the organisation (Elsaid, Okasha and Abdelghaly, 2013, p.1). In fact the successful execution and implementation of any plans and programs depends on it. The flat bureaucratic structure with decentralised decision-making system and horizontal reporting system among the teams and various managers are more preferred by the employees (Ohlson, 2007).This fosters faster and effective decision and action thus enhancing the efficiency and productivity of the employees and organisation as whole. The tall hierarchical system of organisation characterised by long bureaucratic steps to follow in execution and communication is rather a hindrance to the effectiveness of the performance (p.23). Decentralised administrative structures and processes thus enable a firm to better meet the new environmental conditions and effectively handle environmental turbulence (Damanpour and Evan, 1984)

Human resources

Human resource in the organisation consists of the knowledge, skills, competencies, attitude and behaviours the workers possess ( İkinci, S.S.2014, p.123). Nurturing theses aspect of human resources will lead to personal growth and development which can alter an individual’s perceptions of organisational change, reducing the level of resistance (Bovey and Hede, 2001, p.546). It is the very critical asset that helps organisation to gain competitive advantage (Husso and Nybakk, nd, p.9).This is because they have the capacity to operate all the activities and in turn help to achieve the aims and objective (Mdletye, Coetzee, and Ukpere (2014) which otherwise would not be able to function at all. The researchers emphasized that human resource is the most important aspect, indeed the backbone of every organization and it is also the main source of resource for the effective function of the organization ( Wanza and Nkuraru,2016; p.192) and main strategic resource to gain sustainable competitive advantage in this age of globalization(Kute & Upadhyay, 2014). For example, the management’s emphasis on the human resource management such as employing highly skilled and educated people, providing professional training and encouraging learning from advanced technologies and skills made the employees more competent to achieve Huawei’s internationalization process more successful ( Yu and Zhang, 2010, p.23) .

Organisational culture

Organisational culture is defined as the values, beliefs, norms, customs and behaviours that guide the employees towards the common goals (Awadh & Saad, 2013,) and that set the rule of decision making processes, structure and power (Wambugu, 2014, p. 80). Wambugu (2014) further noted that organisational culture empower the employees to do thing which deemed right and rewarding both at personal and organisational level. According to Wanza and Nkuraru ( 2016, p.195) and Awadh & Saad, (2013, p.168 ) organisational culture has strong bearing on the performance of the employees which is considered as the backbone of development of the organisation. The culture established as system in the organisation enhances employees’ commitment thus improves their input eventually achieving the desired productivity and profitability (Wanza and Nkuraru, 2016, p.193). They concluded from their research that a strong organizational culture acts as the source of synergy and momentum for teamwork and uplift employee performance (p.197).Thus it is worthy of developing organizational culture for sustainable future. For example, one of the internal factor that drive Huawei Technologies Company, a very small local IT company of China, to very successful internationalisation was the corporate culture, such as team work, adaptation, learning and customer-oriented service, being embedded in the behaviours of the Huawei’s employees ( Yu and Zhang, 2010, p.23)

Innovation culture

Innovation is the main strategy to adapt to change, overcome organisational weaknesses, and add value to organization’s products and services in the ever-changing business environment (Sund 2008, p. 2). Being entrepreneurial with creativity and innovation helps organisation to gain competitive advantage (Ireland et al. 2003). Abdelgawad et al. (2013) proposed that entrepreneurial capability is instrumental for realizing a firm’s game-changing strategies for sustainable success in future. For example, Google, Amazon and Apple companies were once just start-ups grown to attract global market through their innovation (EBRD, 2014; p.1). Internal organizational drivers such as resources, experimentation, collaboration, administrative support play a significant role during this innovation process (Agolla and Van-Lill, 2013). So, establishing innovative culture in an organisation will drive the organisation towards favorable and successful change.

Attitude and Commitment

Most of the researches have shown that employees need to develop their attitude and behaviours for successful organizational performance (Bernerth, 2004). Therefore, it is indispensable for the organizational managers to develop and nurture employees’ commitment towards embracing change by bringing positive change in their attitude and behaviour. However, Anderson and Anderson (n.d) stressed that employees’ mindset, which is the root cause of one’s feelings, decisions and actions, has to be changed to bring organizational change. When introducing change people aspect is more critical than just about changes in systems and processes. Rather it is about people believing in change and wanting it to happen (Soosay and Sloan (2005 p.4). Since organisational change requires the participation of people, those involved must first undergo personal change for the success of organisational change (Evans, 1994).

Organisation Performance as drivers

Both the present and past performance are also drivers of organisational change. Some earlier researchers have pointed out that poor performance, that creates the gap between managerial aspirations and achievements, is an extra impetus for the firms to improve further (Greve, 1998; Tushman and Romanelli, 1985). On the other hand some researchers argue that successful companies continuously draw motivation from their success to improve and perform better for sustainable future, especially they face an uncertain environments ( Feldman, 2004; Tsoukas and Chia, 2002).in (Zhou, Tse and Li, 2006). The better a firm performs, the more likely it will invest in new product development and technology advancement to achieve a sustainable competitive advantage (Zhou, Tse and Li, 2006; p.251). As Brown and Eisenhardt (1997) observe, many successful firms, such as Intel, 3M, Hewlett-Packard, and Gillette, have undertaken constant, rapid changes, particularly in their new product development. For example companies like Apple, Microsoft and Samsung companies have undergone continuous rapid changes in development of new product.

Conclusion

The main purpose of this essay was to prove the advantages of responding to internal drivers than to external drivers while introducing change in the organisation. From this study it was found out that internal drivers are within the organisation that has direct impact on its everyday performance. Therefore, they are within the control and management capacity of the organization. If the internal performance, system, culture and resources of an organisation are excellent it is certain that any obstacles posed from the external environments can be nullified leading to very successful organizational change. Whereas external drivers are existed in the external environment of the firm and those are beyond the control and reach of the organisation. Yet, they can affect the internal functions of the organisation causing instability. Hence the external drivers are not to be undermined rather internal drivers must be activated towards meeting change in line with external drivers.

2016-11-25-1480063659

The Classical World: essay help online

The Classical Era, which flourished from the 8th century BC to the 5th century AD, saw the birth and spread of Greco-Roman ideas. These ideas became the basis for western civilization and laid a foundation of culture that has remained as relevant now as it was in ancient times. Ancient Greece, and later Ancient Rome, cemented their own ideals in the universal consciousness as the cultural standard to which all later societies were held to, and continue to shape contemporary perspective on art, architecture, and government, and other facets of modern society. Despite the core differences of modern and classical times and the centuries that have passed since, the knowledge and perspectives passed down by the Ancient Greeks and Romans remain an essential part of contemporary society and culture, while inspiring western civilization’s greatest accomplishments.

The cultural impact of Ancient Greece and Rome begins most tangibly with the Renaissance, a movement beginning in Florence and spanning through the 14th and 17th centuries. This period is seen as a revival of classical antiquity, with Renaissance scholars, artists, philosophers, and writers attempting to emulate what they considered to be a “golden age,” taking inspiration directly from their Greco-Roman forefathers, with their presence increasingly regarded as an intellectual heritage to be mined for contemporary use. The Florentine author Niccolò Machiavelli, for example, described his nightly retreats into his library in these memorable words:

“At the door I take off my muddy everyday clothes. I dress myself as though I were about to appear before a royal court as a Florentine envoy. Then decently attired I enter the antique courts of the great men of antiquity. They receive me with friendship; from them I derive the nourishment which alone is mine and for which I was born. Without false shame I talk with them and ask them the causes of the actions; and their humanity is so great they answer me. For four long and happy hours I lose myself in them. I forget all my troubles; I am not afraid of poverty or death. I transform myself entirely in their likeness.”

Francesco Petrarca, commonly anglicized as Petrarch, was a scholar who rediscovered the letters of Cicero, a Roman statesman, orator, lawyer and philosopher and one of Rome’s greatest orators and prose stylists. This rediscovery is considered to have initiated the Renaissance, as scholars became interested in learning how the ancients developed their human faculties, powers, and culture, and in turn attempted to apply their findings to their contemporary societies. Through this discovery, Petrarch became the “Father of Renaissance humanism,” humanism being a Renaissance cultural movement that turned away from medieval scholasticism and revived interest in ancient Greek and Roman thought. Petrarch firmly believed that classical writings were not just relevant to his own age but saw in them moral guidance that could reform humanity, a key principle of Renaissance Humanism. The humanists of the Renaissance believed that their mission was to revive the high Roman style of writing pure and eloquent Latin. When that flourished, they believed, art would as well.

The republican elites of Florence and Venice and the ruling families of Milan, Ferrara, and Urbino hired humanists to teach their children classical morality and to write elegant, classical letters, histories, and propaganda. Eventually, the humanism inspired by the study of the Greco-Roman world would bleed into the Catholic Church, a formidable and almost omnipotent deity of the Middle Ages. In the course of the fifteenth century, the humanists convinced most of the popes that the papacy needed their skills. Sophisticated classical scholars were hired to write official correspondence and propaganda to create an image of the popes as powerful, enlightened, modern rulers of the Church and to apply their scholarly tools to the church’s needs, including writing a more classical form of the Mass. Scholars wrote Latin letters and histories on behalf of the popes, and they even tinkered with the church’s traditional liturgy, trying to make prayers and hymns attractively classical. Humanist secretaries and popes wrote dazzling Latin. Though humanism, and therefore classical thinking, never truly permeated the Catholic Church fully, there was an influence of Ancient Greece and Rome on the Church and its leaders.

An easier and far more blatant appreciation of classical antiquity was seen clearly in the art and architecture of the Renaissance. Contrapposto, a sculptural scheme which was revived during the Renaissance, was originated by the Ancient Greeks. It is used when the standing human figure is poised in such a way that the weight rests on one leg (called the engaged leg), freeing the other leg, which is bent at the knee. With the weight shift, the hips, shoulders, and head tilt, suggesting relaxation with the subtle internal organic movement that denotes life. The Greeks invented this formula in the early 5th century BC as an alternative to the stiffly static pose—in which the weight is distributed equally on both legs—that had dominated Greek figure sculpture in earlier periods. Italian Renaissance artists such as Donatello and Andrea del Verrocchio revived the classical formula, giving it the name contrapposto, which suggests the action and reaction of the various parts of the figure, and enriching the conception by scientific anatomical study.

Donatello borrowed from the ancients with his bronze sculpture of David, the biblical hero known for defeating Goliath. Donatello’s David was the first freestanding bronze cast statue of the Renaissance era as well as the first nude sculpture of a male since the classical sculptures of ancient Greece. In Middle Ages, nudity was not used in art except in certain moral contexts, such as the depiction of Adam and Eve, or the sending of souls off to hell.  In the classical world, nudity was often used in a different, majestic context, such as with figures who were gods, heroes, or athletes.  Here, Donatello seems to be calling to mind the type of heroic nudity of antiquity, since David is depicted at a triumphal point in the biblical narrative of his victory over Goliath. In any case, Donatello’s David is a classic work of Renaissance sculpture, given its Judaeo-Christian subject matter modeled on a classical sculptural type.

Another artwork inspired heavily by ancient antiquity would be Botticelli’s painting titled, Birth of Venus. The theme of the Birth of Venus was taken from the writings of the ancient poet, Homer.  According to the traditional account, after Venus was born, she rode on a seashell and sea foam to the island of Cythera.  In the painting, Venus is prominently depicted in the center, born out of the foam as she rides to shore.  On the left, the figure of Zephyrus carries the nymph Chloris (alternatively identified as “Aura”) as he blows the wind to guide Venus. On shore, a figure who has been identified as Pomona, or as the goddess of Spring, waits for Venus with mantle in hand.  The mantle billows in the wind from Zephyrus’ mouth.The story of the Birth of Venus is well described below by a Homeric hymn but its relevance to the painting is disputed as the poem was only published, by the Greek refugee Demetrios Chalcondyles, in Florence in 1488 (five years after the painting was completed as a wedding gift for Lorenzo di Pierfrancesco de’ Medici in 1483).

Of august gold-wreathed and beautiful

Aphrodite I shall sing to whose domain

belong the battlements of all sea-loved

Cyprus where, blown by the moist breath

of  Zephyros, she was carried over the waves

of the resounding sea on soft foam.

The gold-filleted Horae happily welcomed her

and clothed her with heavenly raiment.

The model for Venus in this painting has traditionally been associated with Simonetta Vespucci – who had been a muse for Botticelli,  and was seen as the model for female beauty throughout Florence – especially for the Medici family for whom this painting had been created. There is added credence to this suggestion from the fact that she was born in the Ligurian fishing village of  PortoVenere – called Port of Venus because there was a little Temple to Venus there from 1st Century BC.

The other model for the pose of Venus in the painting was possibly the Medici Venus, a first century BC statue depicting Aphrodite in a Venus pudica pose. It is actually a marble copy of an original bronze Greek sculpture that Botticelli would have had an opportunity to study whilst visiting the sculpture school or the Platonic Academy which flourished at the family home of the Medici in Florence.

The demand for this type of scene, of course, was humanism, which was alive and well in the court of Lorenzo d’Medici in the 1480s.  Here, Renaissance humanism was open not only to the use of a pagan sculpture as a model, but also a pagan narrative for the subject matter, and although the Birth of Venus is not a work which employed Renaissance perspectival innovations, the elegance of the classical subject matter was something that would have intrigued wealthy Florentines who patronized this type of work.

The discovery of particular texts had enormous implications on Renaissance architecture. For example, with the discovery of the works of Vitruvius, an architect at the time of Augustus, there was an explosion of interest in ancient building. Vitruvius wrote an extremely important volume, De architectura libri decem (Ten books on architecture), where he introduced three principles to architecture: Firmatis  (durability), Utilitas (utility), and Venustatis (beauty). Vitruvius talked about ancient buildings in a very significant way, not only in terms of practicality, but in an abstract way which emphasized what the buildings represented in both art and society. Similarly to how ancient texts could be applied to the values and aesthetics of contemporary Italians in the 15th century, so could ancient buildings be reduced to an essence, or a set of principles and ideals, that could be applied to the needs of 15th-century Italians, despite their differences from 1st-century Romans.

In particular, we can see in the career of Leon Battista Alberti, who was born in 1404 and died in 1472, how these ideas could be distilled into a set of principles that could apply to the conditions of the Italian world. Alberti wrote De re aedificatoria, or On Building. His work can be considered highly derivative, but Alberti’s purpose was quite different: to take an ancient text and apply it to the needs of his own time. Not only did he write a theoretical treatise on architecture, but he then went out and built buildings. In particular, in Florence, he designed the facade of the Palazzo Rucellai from 1452 to 1470, in which, again, the Vitruvian orders appear and in which the ideas of ancient building are made useful to a Florentine palace for a wealthy merchant.

In the more modern world, there is a wealth of Greco-Roman influence over the inception of the United States of America and its government. For example, the men who inspired the American Revolution and wrote the American Constitution were heavily influenced by the classical Greek and Roman world. The American founding fathers were well educated individuals, and they all had significant experience with ancient Greek and Roman authors since childhood. Historian Bernard Bailyn states, “knowledge of classical authors was universal among colonists with any degree of education.” Thomas Jefferson, writer of the Declaration of Independence, was taught Greek and Latin from the age of nine, and Benjamin Franklin received instruction in Latin at grammar school and became proficient in both Latin and Greek later in life. In Franklin’s Autobiography, frequent references are made to classical western figures, such as Cicero and Cato. James Madison learned Greek and Latin as a child, and “immersed himself in the histories of Greece and Rome.”

With classical schooling such an integral part of the founding fathers’ education, America’s first political leaders studied the works of the great Greek Philosophers, including Plato and Aristotle. Polybius, a less celebrated but still influential thinker, also left his mark upon the American framers of the Constitution. Through Polybius, the founding fathers were introduced to the Roman Republic as the “mixed government” described by Plato and Aristotle. They used Greek philosophy and the model of Roman Republican government in order to form a new nation based on ancient principles.

Philosophers from classical Greece proposed the separation of powers in government, an idea that the American founders adopted for their new nation. In addition, The Roman Republic  (509-27 BC) served as a direct model of government for the writers of the constitution.  Greek and Roman political thought was critical in shaping the government of the United States of America.

Plato writes that that a strong state should contain elements of both democracy and tyranny, so that the state has a mixed government. His political philosophy, particularly his idea of a “mixed” constitution, would have far reaching effects among later philosophers. His mixed government would ultimately be brought to life in the American Constitution.

Aristotle believed that a mixed government, like the one described by Plato, would halt the decline of government into anarchy. In Aristotle’s mixed constitution, defined in his work The Politics, there were to be three branches of government: “All constitutions have three elements, concerning which the good lawgiver has to regard what is expedient for each constitution…There is one element which deliberates about public affairs [“legislative” branch]; secondly, that concerned with the magistrates [“executive” branch]…and thirdly that which has judicial power.”

This three-tiered mixed government of Aristotle would ultimately find its way into the Constitution. Aristotle also established the principle that the rulers of a state should be subject to the same laws as the rest of the populace; to Aristotle, the rule of law is better than the authority of “even the best man.” This concept of a “ruling official subject to the law” is an integral idea to modern government, where all political figures are supposed to be subject to the same legal code as the average citizen.

In addition to the foundation of government inspired by the ancient world, the influence of classical antiquity can be seen in some of America’s most iconic architecture. Prevalent between about 1780 and 1830, Federal style drew inspiration from the Greco-Romans. The influence of Ancient Greek architecture is apparent in the use of columns and colonnades. Thomas Jefferson was an architect during the Federal period, and he designed not only his own home, Monticello, but the campus of the University of Virginia in Charlottesville in this style.

Greek Revival architecture also became widespread in the U.S., and in the middle of the 19th century it became known as the national style, as it was used extensively in houses and smaller public buildings of that time. This style generally featured the Doric Order in larger buildings, and simpler Doric columns topped with a small pediment (without a frieze) in houses. The first major public building built in this style was the Second Bank of the United States, built in Philadelphia between 1819 and 1824, though most famous is the Lincoln Memorial, its exterior echoing that of the Parthenon.

The heritage of the classical world has been one which later societies have taken and made relevant to their own contemporary aesthetics, visions, and ambitions. From the Renaissance to the formation of the United States, Greco-Roman ideals have paved the way and inspired art, architecture, and civic duty, all the while remaining the standard for which culture strains to meet. Despite its antiquity, the classical world has remained both relevant, adaptable, and innovative, inspiring some of western civilization’s greatest feats.

2018-12-4-1543886056

Power dynamics in psychotherapy – reflective literature review

Choice of topic

On receiving the assessment paperwork for my client, I felt overwhelmed and challenged by her status, and that she had previously worked with my placement director. My first reaction, was that I would not be good enough for her as a trainee.

When discussing my responses with my supervisor, she helped me to identify where this had come from, and the skills and knowledge that I had would be beneficial to this client.

To build up a working alliance, Finlay (2016), p.15, with this client, who I will refer to as Kirsty, (not her real name), the progress was slow, and I became very aware of my own counter- transferential feelings. There were areas of her narrative which I felt really in contact with.

Conducting the search

An on-line search Google scholar, using terms like, ‘The Dance of Power’ which returned results of 51, 200,000. Further searches were conducted which brought back similar figures

I then altered the search criteria to ‘The Dance of the Counter-transferential Phenomena’ which brought back 34 Items and this search was done via Wiley on-line Library. This appeared more manageable, and a further search via the same library with a different search term, ‘Undoing Trauma’ brought back just one result. This still was not what I was looking for, so I chose to remain with the search criteria of power within the therapeutic relationship.

So, within the literature, Webster’s dictionary defines power as; ‘the ability to act’ and ‘the capacity to produce and effect’ and ‘the possession of control, authority or influence over others’

Proctor (2017) states how she defines power as being related to how society is formed, and groups of people, who differ from the ‘norm’ have less access to power. These groups could be women, disabled, Black minority ethnic (BME) or working-class people, gay or lesbians. Male or females, young or old.

She suggests that these groups could be oppressed members of society who may have experienced violence or intimidation and who have little experience of power within the relationship.

The history of power within the therapeutic relationship dates to Machiavelli in the 16th century and Hobbes in the 17th century as cited by Proctor, (2017). These two theorists had different views when talking about power. It was not until the twentieth century that Hobbes view of a modernist theory was favoured. Clegg (1989) Hobbes theory of power influenced the basis of thinking around power from a modernist and structural viewpoint.

The modernists view.

This was a new form of expression that was developed in the nineteenth and twentieth centuries. This was the era when counselling and psychotherapy developed. McLeod (2009) p. 37

The Structural Theories.

These theories lie within the context of modernism and take a single point of view, that is concrete and belongs to a person. It is assumed that power is an experience that can be found in the form of economic, social, physical, or psychological capacity. For instance, Day (2010) cites Robert Dahl (1957) as, “A has the power over B to the extent that he can get B to do something that B would not otherwise do”.

These theories have emphasised the controlling, oppressive and negative angle of power. These structural theories have been critiqued as it assumes that the power is always ‘power over’ another.

Lukes, (1974) argued that it is the ability of one person, to get another, to do something that (s)he might not otherwise do. He argues that this power is a result of conflict between actors to determine who wins and who loses.

However, Arendt, (1963) saw power as being related to people joining together and making unbreakable promises. Arendt observed a difference between ‘power’ within relationships and ‘authority’ that is given to an individual because of their role. Hindess, (1996) suggests that this moves power towards a relational process and relying on the consent of others.

Post-Modern Theories

Elias, (1978) suggests that power is not something a person owns, but it is a trait of human relationships. This view is supported by Lukes, (1974). Elias further suggests that power relations are formed in relationship and that it is a result of living together and interdependence. This phenomenon is like a game of tug of war; a trial of strength between two sides pulling against each other. Oxford English Reference Dictionary (1996), p. 1548

Foucault

Foucault suggested that power follows the concepts of Nietzsche in that knowledge and thought, theories and discourses are penetrated by values, Daudi, 1986 as cited by Proctor 2017. This approach formed the basis of Foucault’s work. He sees this power relationship as not responding to others, but on their actions. Thus, it is an action upon an action. Day, (2010).

This view of power suggests that power is inherent in all relationships so it both enables and limits actions, thereby helping individuals to broaden their boundaries, Hayward, (1998)

From this perspective, “Power is everywhere…because it comes from everywhere”. Foucault (1980). Power is involved in all social interactions, because ideas operate behind all language and action. Lukes (1974).

Foucault focused on how power was used in society, such as sexuality, (1976), madness, (1967) or criminality, (1977). He looked at the aims of those involved and the tactics they used to achieve those aims and the counter actions of others to achieve the same objective. In his deconstruction of the power within these institutions, he defines ‘disciplinary power’. He defines this as “comprising a whole set of instruments, techniques, procedures, levels of application, targets”. Foucault, (1977), p.215. He emphasised the ‘struggle’ that occurs between individuals and groups in society as the discord is taken up in response to the behaviours of others. Day, (2010) suggests power operates systematically within a society not from above.

Perspectives of Power in the Psychotherapy Relationship

Whilst searching the literature, I struggled to find any published research. Where references have been uncovered, these have been philosophical or theoretical perspectives on the subject; or individual accounts of personal and professional experience. Sanders, c (2017), Totton,(2009), Amitay, (2017), Lazarus, (2015).

Positions of Power

From the literature, there appears to be four philosophical positions:

Power as a destructive and oppressive force in the psychotherapy relationship;
The psychotherapy Relationship as a process of liberation and empowerment of the client.
Power as a relational, inter-subjective process in the psychotherapy relationship; and
The denial of the existence of power in the psychotherapy relationship.

At the end of the 1980’s, the central thoughts about how the imbalances between the therapist and client can result in oppressive and destructive outcomes for clients. The following debates concentrated on the abuse of sexual boundaries and forms of discrimination and prejudice against minority groups. Bates, (2006); Lago, (2006); Masson, (1989); Smail, 1995. The way the psychotherapeutic relationship exists between the client and therapist means that there is a potential for abusive relationships in the dialogue between the client and therapist. Spinelli, (1994). This reflects a structural position on power, Day, (2010), Proctor, (2017). So, the therapist in these circumstances, has ‘power over’ the client which renders them ‘powerless’ and vulnerable.

Within the literature, Masson (1989), describes power in the therapy room as having destructive elements and that the therapy could be a form of abuse. Another form of destructive power, could be therapist abusing the client by disrespecting the sexual boundaries, Chesler, (1972), Sonne and Pope, (1991) and Gabbard, (1996).

It is suggested that these destructive ways can operate at an unconscious level thus leaving the client vulnerable to past, negative experiences. Herman, (1992) believes that it is important for the therapist to avoid using their ‘power over’ Proctor, (2017), p. 13 the client for their own needs or to direct the client’s life decisions. Day, (2010).

The British Association for Counselling and Psychotherapy, (BACP) state that under their Ethical Framework, the counsellor has a commitment to avoid harm towards the client, (2015).

It is assumed from this point of view that power is dangerous and destructive to those who are powerless. Often power is viewed from an ethical or moral basis, looking at what is right or wrong. In simple terms, power is either ‘good’ or ‘bad’. Furggeri, (1992). This view assumes that is a possession, that is in limited supply and this then forms a structural perspective of power. The client is seen as powerless and the therapist powerful. It could be argued that this is an extreme form of domination and repression. Thus, power is viewed as monolithic, unitary and unidirectional. Procter, (2002)

Psychotherapy as Empowerment for the Client.

An alternative perspective of power is seen as positive with the therapist power being good. Psychotherapy is an empowering process for the client and thus enables the client’s autonomy. This line of argument is seen in humanistic literature, feminist literature. Brown, (1994). The British Psychological Society’s (BPS), 2009 division of counselling psychology, states explicitly that it works to ‘empower the client’.

Carl Rogers was one of the first proponents of this. Rogers suggested that the therapist’s role was to avoid power over the client and also refrain from making decisions for them. Rogers supported the client’s autonomy and how they achieved this. So, the decisions are made by the client for themselves. Rogers, (1978)

Bozarth, (1998) argues that the crux of this theory is that the therapist does not intervene. Natiello, (1990), states, “…. Offers a morality of power as well as a methodology for arriving at that morality”. (p 268). She maintains that the person-centred approach offers the client the opportunity to claim his or her own personal power rather than being reliant on the power of others.

Similarly, Freud theories of psychoanalysis argue for the analysist to use their power of rational authority to free the mind of the client.

Fromm, (1956) argues that over the duration of therapy, the client frees and cures themselves from an attachment to irrational authority. Benjamin,(1995) challenged Freud’s position states “ Already idealised for his knowledge and power – his power to know her – the analyst is now internalised in the relationship of knowledge as power over self, a practice in the domination of self whose meaning Foucault (1980) has made unforgettably problematic” p. 154

Frosh, (1987) states that object relations, like psychoanalysis, sets itself up in the feeing of a person’s psyche. He argues that its objectives are to free the client from fixations created by ‘bad’ experiences and to promote internalisation of the more nurturing possibilities experienced in the relationship with the therapist.

This assumes the client is powerless and vulnerable and the therapist has the power to empower the client. Client’s therefore are viewed as powerless. This could be seen as a structural position where power is either ‘good’ or ‘bad’ and one either has it or not. A moral argument could be where one form of power is ‘right’ and others are ‘wrong’.

A Relationship of Mutuality

The psychotherapeutic relationship is viewed as one of mutuality. Aron, (1996) views this as involving mutual generation of data, mutual regulation of the relationship, mutual recognition of the others autonomy and openness on the part of the therapist as to their client’s impact upon them. Aron argues that power is dynamic that is constantly struggled with in therapy and therefore needs ‘to be continually examined, articulated and worked through’, p151. He suggests that therapists need to question their decisions with regards to ethics as well as questioning their authority and domination in the relationship, referenced in Proctor, (2002) p 133.

Frosh, (1987) believes that the objectives for therapy is to allow the client to explore the power in therapy as it copies and reminds the client of internalised introjects from their formative years. He suggests that an approach which is politicised and recognises the reality of social structures. He argues that part of the difficulties relating to change is that people need to identify, re-experience and re-frame these introjects to help to give them a new meaning in their life. Totton, (2000) argues that it is the therapist’s role to help the client find another genuine and authentic psycho- political position. The relational position, therefore sees the power dynamics as being central in the therapeutic relationship. It is suggested that power is aligned to knowledge and neither the client or the therapist can ‘know’. Thus, it is thought that it is present in all relationships rather than being a possession of the client or therapist. It is therefore unavoidable and potentially both positive and negative. Proctor, (2002) it could be argued that this view, might undermine the role of structural differences in power in society reducing it to an intersubjective process.

Concluding thoughts of the literature

Relational perspectives in psychotherapy have started to think about ‘power’ as dynamic and inevitable. Proctor, (2017). However, despite this recognition of power, the discourse on the power dynamics in psychotherapy has remained at a philosophical level. Much of the literature can be seen as a critique of other psychological therapy or it attempts to show how therapists can misuse the power differential with their clients. The question to be explored and researched further would be how psychotherapists experience the phenomenon of power with their client’s and how it can be worked with in a clinical setting.

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Religion In Italy

Religion comprises of a set of beliefs, feelings, and practices that show the relationship between human beings and their higher power. Each religion has their own given set of principles followed by a community of believers. Apart from principles, the believers might go through rites and interdictions while following laws from sacred books distinguishing them from each other. Italy is a culturally diverse country though it is characterized by analogous population with the majority being Christians and speaking Italian. The country’s constitution provides for freedom of religion. However, the country does not have a state religion. Analyzing the various religious activities in the Italian history, it is evident that religion has had an immense impact on the nation’s literature, social institutions, education, charitable activities, and dress code.

While Roman Catholic Church is widely recognized as an influential religious group in modern times, its string affiliation with the early Italian region did not reflect such close ties between the Christian religion and the Italian peninsula (Ormieres 307). Christianity was viewed as similar to Judaism, which the Romans found to be conflicting with their own polytheistic beliefs. Gaius Suetonius, one of the most well-known equestrians of the ancient roman era, claimed that the Christian religion gained recognition during Emperor Nero’s reign and having ‘mischievous’ beliefs (Hemming & Nicola 197). In the year 64 AD, the Great Fire of Rome exacerbated the antagonism that existed between the Romans and other religious groups in near the Empire. The Great Fire led to mass prosecutions of Christians. Christians perceived the Hellenistic practices of the Romans as unholy, particularly their monism that denied the core fundaments of Christian religion, the concept of heaven.

The heavy persecution of Christians led to the rise of apologists who defended the faith. Christians were facing prosecution for more than the Great Fire, with apostles being used as scapegoats for plagues and failures in harvests. Consequently, this led to the emergence of Roman nationals who subscribed to the polytheistic faith, but aimed to defend the Christians. This was achieved by putting the tenets of the Christian faith into philosophical contexts that allowed the Romans to sympathize with Christians. The Christian suffering sparked the philosophical debate on religion which would culminate in the Great Schism. From this initial struggle of the Christian faith to take hold in a largely polytheistic region, it is evident that the principle of enduring suffering found within Christian teachings has affected the Italian culture by transforming the previously barbaric practices of the Romans into the communal and family-oriented nature of religious Italian nationals.

The religion in Italy has also influenced Italian art and literature, making it one the most culturally rich areas during the Renaissance period. Many renown Italian artists such as Michelangelo and Da Vinci, as well as literary experts such as Dante Alighieri have helped to craft the current perception of religious concepts (Hemming & Nicola 197). The Divine Comedy, written by Dante Alighieri, is one of the most famous religious texts second to the Bible and the Koran. ‘Inferno’, one of the sections of the book, details the writer’s descent into hell. In fact, in the Florentine Cathedral there is even a mural of the levels of Hell from Dante’s book, which is quite interesting to see inside a magnificent chapel. Also, works such as Michelangelo’s Sistine Chapel have been inspired by religious stories such as creation and had such a tremendous effect on art in general that it spawned an entire generation of art in the same style.

Italian renaissance art has been noted to include some of the most famous works of art in world history. Pieces such as the Sistine Chapel paintings by Michelangelo and the Virgin on the Rocks by Leonardo Da Vinci are all inspired by religious stories such as the creation of Adam and Eve and the Virgin Mary (Hemming & Nicola 197). These paintings were done in a highly specific style, which marked the common artistic practices of that era, which in conjunction with the religious overtones, were the main characteristics of renaissance style art. Older European religions such as Grecian mythology, however, also played a role in renaissance art, with the Christian paintings and murals sharing portraits with pagan gods such as Apollo which were used to represent virtues, rather than the actual objects or entities (Ormieres 307). Therefore, Leonardo Da Vinci’s paintings were not religious despite bearing heavy Christian overtones. Christianity simply provided the figures who represented his subject. In the same way, the symbol for purity, for example, resembles the calm faces of the Virgin and the angels in Italian renaissance paintings. It was fascinating to see the true prevalence that religion had on these artists during the Renaissance, and how even the most abstract of paintings could somehow relate back to religion.

Literature in the Middle Ages was also heavily influenced by religion, whose influence reverberated over the modern visualizations of religious concepts. The Divine Comedy by Dante Alighieri is one famous example of literature based on the Christian religion (Ormieres 307). It tells the story of a person who goes through the afterlife as described in the Bible in three distinct sections of the book. One of the sections, called ‘Purgatorio’ describes the writer’s experience in purgatory, while the other sections, ‘Inferno and ‘Paradiso’, explain his experiences in hell and heaven respectively (Garnsey & Saller 49). The encounters of Dante as recorded in the Divine Comedy are the basis for a large amount of the mental concepts we hold of the afterlife. The arrangement of hell in circles which get worse as the person’s sins get more severe was introduced by Dante and has become the religious basis through which we perceive damnation. Dante’s Inferno is a book read across the United States in many literature classes, so to understand the history behind the life of the author, and to truly see where Dante got his inspiration was amazing. The influence his stories had on the community are certainly shown throughout not only religious sites, but throughout the city of Florence in general.

Renaissance philosophy in Italy has also been inspired by religion, making the humanistic movement draw some of its principles from Biblical figures (Hemming & Nicola 197). Some common philosophical principles, such as evil, are rooted in Christianity. This problem, brought up by St. Augustine, attempted to answer the question of why God allows evil to exist despite His nature as perpetually good. St. Augustine’s observation of the heavy prosecution of Christians despite their undying faith led him to question where evil might come from (Garnsey & Saller 49). His questions led to his philosophy on free will as the cause of evil, a view which has been shared by many succeeding philosophers. The religious inspirations of St. Augustine’s philosophy are also in use today as the same thought process is still applied in answering the problem of evil.

The Renaissance Era, which bases its roots in Florence, also contributed significantly to the spread of scientific knowledge through the use of Latin. Around the thirteenth century, when Italian minds such as Niccolo Machiavelli were still alive, there was little literature published in Italian vernacular. Dante’s ‘Inferno’, is an example of literature written vernacular, which is why it was called a comedy (Garnsey & Saller 49). Typically, literature was written in Latin, which termed it a tragedy. Latin was more popular as a formal language through its use in translating the Bible in a single language that was legible throughout most parts of Europe (Ormières 307). The need for spiritual reading raised the level of literacy, which paved the way for the spread of scientific knowledge, which was also written in Latin. Religion, therefore, played a part in the rise of literacy and the spread of knowledge.

Major changes were realized in Italy after Spanish succession wars with independent Italian states gaining majorly from this. However, this period was a difficult one in the internal history of the Roman Catholic Church. The Austrian administration ensured peace and prosperity especially in the states of Lombardy and Tuscany especially with reforms being targeted at improving sectors such as taxation, agriculture and education. Areas outside the Papal states underwent repression of monasteries, clerical privileges were done away with while most of the church property underwent secularization (Casanova 124). This showed the adversity of the enlightenment policy and the effect it had on the government. Meanwhile, French philosophers were spreading their ideas in Italy as national form of patriotism began to develop.

By the time the French revolution began, the Enlightenment had already spread from France to Italy through Freemasonry. Meanwhile the church was undergoing a major structural quandary. This was due to the extermination of its economic privileges and most of the church property taken. The workers of Pio Lanteri, St. Thomas and St. Alphonsus fought this new system which was making progress. The second French invasion made a group of patriots support the Italian republic (Casanova 130). Between 1814 and 1815 the Congress of Vienna was held finally returning Italy to its former position. The Pope had his powers back with the church being handed back its prior privileges.

The Vatican council later on went on to define the papal entitlement of dominion and infallibility. The states of the church at this time were lost therefore ending the popes political power. During the 19th century, the church showed its superiority by fighting caustic structural and doctrinal elements and making changes to the suit their situation. During the Italian unification, two major developments occurred in church (Casanova 138). First the religious congregation increased in numbers. Secondly, there was development of modern catholic movements. Between 1815 and 1915 more than three hundred religious groups of women were formed in Italy. Many more existed for men. These people dedicated their time and energy to the church through giving services such as education, giving to charity, social services or missionary ventures.

Majority of non-state schools are owned by the catholic church. According to the Italian constitution, entities and private persons have the right to establish schools and institutions of education at no cost to the state. With over seventy five percent of private schools in the past twenty years, the law has provided a specific guarantee of autonomy and freedom to Roman Catholic Schools. With majority of parents having strong religious backgrounds, the likeliness of them having higher educational expectations for their children is high (Baker & Joseph 1630). The beliefs of the catholic church on education and its strong influence in its spread throughout the world has influenced its application in different cultures.

The cultural values being followed by a religious society is important in creating the conducive environment for academic success for young adults. Religious societies have the tendency of investing in formation of ethics built around different disciplines such as medicine, math and technology (Baker & Joseph 1628). The indirect contribution of religious norms and the direct influence of a student’s religious beliefs have the effect of promoting academic achievement. This concept was extremely interesting to learn about since often times religion and the topic of science do not always go well together. Yet throughout Florence specifically, there were so many scientific discoveries during the Renaissance, it seems almost impossible not pairing the two together in some form.

Most religions are based on principles that aim for a better human life. With doctrines such as selflessness and generosity being taught in religions such as Christianity, most members in these faiths tend to take part in charitable endeavors. It has been established that people aligned towards a given religion tend to give more of their resources and time towards charity as compared to their counterparts who do not belong to any religion affiliation. Even in non- religious endeavors, religious people tend to participate more actively in charitable activities.

Religion as a whole, can also have a positive effect on relationships. The practice of religion has been proven to stabilize and increase the quality of relationships. The doctrines of most religion are based on fundamental human values taught to believers. The believers tend to follow these doctrines to the later hence ensuring formation of healthy relationships. According to past research, it was found that husbands who frequently attended church services had happier wives who appreciated the amount of time and appreciation their husbands provided. Also, participation in religious activities tend to culminate a warm, expressive, and active form of parenting. religious parents have a better chance of enjoying healthy relationships with their children.

Active participation in religious activities has a mirror effect of reducing unwanted behaviors. Most religious beliefs shun both minor and major forms of crimes therefore controlling crime by a large margin almost rivaling government institutions. Participation in activities such as drug abuse are reduced significantly with more contact with religious doctrines.

The Schism of 1054 is the most talked about event of the religion in Italy. It symbolized the last split between the churches of the East and West of Italy led by Michael Cerularius and Pope Leo IX respectively (Cox 55). The two sides had bickered from the 5th mainly driven by political significance and jealousy. In the 11th century, the differences between the two sides were irreconcilable. Both the pope and the patriarch expelled the opposing party. It was a landmark year in Christian history. Talks to lift the excommunications placed did not succeed until 1965 (Cox 55). Through the schism, many religions were able to spring up like Protestants. Settling the schism encouraged Muslims, Jews, and other small religious groups to find shelter in Italy. The diversification of religion was only possible through the schism of 1054. The change in religions was a marker for other various changes that Italy saw in the following years.

Italian fashion has always had a sense of class, maturity, and order. This can be traced back to the Catholic strict dress codes that had to be upheld while in the holy grounds. The Vatican City has stood for years and is respected all over Italy. In places like St. Peters Basilica, an individual should be fully dressed; no shoulders, back, and knees should be exposed. This forces the short skirts, dresses in shoulder cut-outs and men shorts out of the places of worship. It is a tradition that has been upheld by all churchgoers. In some places there are even guards at the door who will force people out of line if they are dressed “inappropriately.” However, these rules do not apply to grounds outside the church. In the streets, individuals wear t-shirts and jeans which makes it very easy for tourists to blend in. Modern Italian born designers such as Armani, Versace, and Prada all draw inspiration from their upbringing (Reinach 171). Their styles vary depending on where they were born. The classiness of Italian fashion is reflected by the fact that it has three cities included in the fashion capitals. Italians always dress to fit the occasion.

To no surprise, most Italian holidays are Christian based. There are some Christian holidays that are celebrated globally. For instance Easter Monday, Good Friday, and Christmas. In Italy, it is mandatory for cities and towns to partake in feasts to honor their patron saint, depending on their city. Rome, for example, celebrates the festival of St. Peter and St. Paul on the 29th day of June. All businesses are closed just like any other public holiday to allow people to take part in the feast. There are religious formalities involved that aim to remind people of the work that the two apostles did and to continue the unity of the Catholic faith. Families make up the majority of the crowds during these holidays. An impression of the importance of the institution of marriage in religion is observed widely in Italy.

Marriages are considered a sacred ceremony in the modern Italian culture. During weddings, people wear gowns, well-tailored suits and the church is appropriately prepared as well. There is usually a big feast that follows because it is a celebration of the union of two souls. A well-founded marriage leads to a healthy family. Religious institutions offer a lot of guidance before and after marriage. This facilitation is in an effort to pass on teachings of the church on marriage and family (Van Die 1). Teachings in the Bible point to the family being a pivotal entity in the functioning of the society. Italians also value the importance of family, which is also evident by the amount of family owned businesses throughout the country. Families will share what they have with each other. The parents, especially the fathers, are authoritative figures in a home. The elderly are well taken care of and respected by all. Children learn these life lessons through the family but vital lessons are also obtained through the church.

Families introduce their children to the church at a young age to undergo religious rites of passage. Baptism is the most widely practiced religious initiation act in Italy. In Catholic churches, Children undergo catechism. They learn and practice the ways of the Catholic Church. By the end of it all, they are able to recite a variety of prayers, learn about important events of the church and are able to practice acts of respect while in the church. Religious institutions teach children the true way of life from a spiritual perspective. Through these activities, churches create a platform for children to socialize and relate with people. As someone who has grown up in a much smaller, less practiced religion, the practicing of Catholicism brought about any questions. The intricate detailing in cathedrals, the intense altars, and the amazing paintings captivate anyone who walks in.

Perhaps the most emphasized teaching in the bible is the story of creation. Children have conditioned from an early age that a man marries a woman. When they were born they had a mother and a father and when they are taken to church they learn about Adam and Eve. Religious leaders stand by the religious teachings and discourage same-sex marriages. The views of the lesbian, gays, bisexual and transgender (LGBT) have little to no say in a church set up (Harrison, Brian and Michelson 1418). The religious values instilled in the nation from a young age discourage the friendliness of Italy towards this group of individuals. This may be the reason why Italy has amongst the highest number of homophobic incidences in the world. Though the church is trying to repress the LGBT, the modern society around the world has already accepted this particular group. Italy will soon have to accept these people for who they are and teach their children that they are free to exercise their right to live a life of their choice. Despite the fact this issue is not something seen on a day to day basis, the strictness of this church compared to churches in Nashville is definitely different and creates a different atmosphere.

Religion has had a great influence on many varying aspects of the society. For instance, the Roman Catholic Church was influential in a number of issues in Italy including having political powers vested upon it. Religion has had a major input in influencing different works of art with artist such as Da Vinci being heavily influenced in their works by religious factors. Also, literature has had contribution from religion with concepts borrowed from religious stories. There are many different ways in which religion has influenced the Italian culture, and therefore created a different feeling than the United States. As a country that is more lenient towards liberal views and not as rooted in faith, it was amazing exploring a Catholic country. The roles religion has played in not only many historical events, but the lives of many famous artists and scientists, can be seen daily when walking through the streets of Italy.

Works Cited

Baker, Joseph O., and Andrew L. Whitehead. “Gendering (non) religion: Politics, education, and gender gaps in secularity in the United States.” Social Forces 94.4 (2015): 1623-1645.
Casanova, José. “Globalizing Catholicism and the return to a “universal” church.” Transnational religion and fading states. Routledge, 2018. 121-143.
Cox, Anna M. “THE GREAT SCHISM: The Great Divide of the West, the East and Christianity.” Int’l J. Soc. Sci. Stud. 6 (2018): 55.
Garnsey, Peter, and Richard Saller. The Roman Empire: economy, society and culture. Univ of California Press, (2014): 49-57.
Harrison, Brian F., and Melissa R. Michelson. “God and marriage: The impact of religious identity priming on attitudes toward same‐sex marriage.” Social Science Quarterly 96.5 (2015): 1411-1423.
Hemming, Peter J., and Nicola Madge. “Young people, non-religion and citizenship: insights from the Youth on Religion Study.” Young 26.3 (2018): 197-214.
Ormières, Jean-Louis. “Religion Italian Style. Continuities and Changes in a Catholic Country.” (2015): 307-309.
Reinach, Simona Segre. “Fashion Museums and Fashion Exhibitions in Italy: New Perspectives in Italian Fashion Studies.” Fashion Curating: Critical Practice in the Museum and Beyond (2017): 171.
Van Die, Marguerite. “Review of Tine Van Osselaer, Patrick Pasture (eds.) Christian Homes. Religion, Family and Domesticity in the 19th and 20th Centuries, Leuven; Leuven University Press, 2014, 227 pp., ISBN 978-94-62-70018-5.” (2017).

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Niccolo Machiavelli’s The Prince – leadership and power: essay help site:edu

Niccolo Machiavelli’s, The Prince, is one of the most controversial books of its time. Because of its contents, Machiavelli is seen by many as symbol for evil and vice. The book was thought to be so abhorrent that it was banned by the Catholic church, and harshly critiqued by many of Machiavelli’s contemporaries. The Sixteenth Century treatise was meant as an advice book for princes on how to gain power and maintain it, but the methods he proposed for achieving these aims were unsavory to many. In the years following its publication, The Prince, horrified and shocked the general populace due to its challenging of the current view that a leader had to be virtuous and moral, asserting that it was better for a leader to be feared than loved, challenging the idea that a ruler gained his power from divine right alone, and its proposition that a ruler might employ unethical actions to secure his position and better his country.

One of the first of things that Machiavelli tried to do in his treatise is to separate ethics from princes. While, many of his contemporaries believed that a successful prince would be one filled with the usual virtues, like honor, purity, and integrity, Machiavelli threw this idea out a window. He did not believe that being simply having the “right” value system would grant a leader power and security. In fact, he argued that often, being tied down by such morals would be counterproductive to one maintaining their position. Moreover, “if a ruler wishes to reach his highest goals he will not always find it rational to be morale” (Skinner 42).

So, what characteristics did Machiavelli think would actually make a strong leader? His ideal prince is one who is cunning and ruthless. Machiavelli believed that, “a ruler who wishes to maintain his power must be prepared to act immorally when this becomes necessary” (26). A ruler should also not be worried about being miserly, for overall this will help rather than hurt his control (Mansfield). If a prince is too generous his people will also become accustomed to such generosity and be angered when it is not forthcoming, and in the long run he will have to tax his people to make up for what he has given away. Such ideas went directly against the Christian and humanist ideas about morality in Machiavelli’s time.

Another major point of interest that Machiavelli discussed throughout The Prince was the concept of fortune and its role in a princes rule. He believed that it was of the utmost importance that a prince try to win fortune to his side as best he can. Here again, Machiavelli differentiates from his predecessors. Many past philosophers believed that fortune would smile upon a ruler who was just and virtuous. Machiavelli disagreed with such notions. Morales had nothing to do with pleasing fortune. Instead, it was the more violent and ambitious ruler, who would seize the moment, that would have a better chance of winning fortune (Spencer). Machiavelli went so far as to compare fortune to a woman and stated that, “If you want to control her, it is necessary to treat her roughly” (87).

While Machiavelli did not think it was in a prince’s best interest to always be kind and good, he did note the importance of his subjects thinking him to be so. It is very hard to hold control a region, in which the people believe their ruler to be completely immoral. However, they may put up with questionable actions of a ruler if once in a while he does something that appears to be in their best interest. The crueler a ruler is the more crucial it is to appear to the public as being the opposite. Once the people are convinced of a ruler being virtuous, he will be able to get away with the most unscrupulous behavior.

Most people would consider it essential for a ruler to keep his promises and appear trustworthy, maintaining a good relationship with his subjects, not Machiavelli. Sometimes it is not realistic for a ruler to be able to make good on every promise. It may even be better for the people in the long run if he does not. A prince should not have qualms about breaking his word, “plausible reasons can always be found for such failure to keep promises” (Machiavelli 62). Moreover, if a prince prides himself on always keeping his word the people will always expect this. When unfortunate circumstances force him to deviate from what he swore to do, the people will be outraged, whereas if they expect promises to be broken it will not garner as much anger.

Another stable argument of Machiavelli’s book is the power of fear. Machiavelli believes fear is one of the best way to keep subjects in line. Fear is strongest of all the emotions and will give a ruler the most control. Striving for the people’s love is not as fruitful, due to mankind’s fickle nature. Andrew Curry of the Washington Post notes that for Machiavelli, “ Man’s weak nature was a constant as unchanging as the bright sun that rose above his beloved Tuscan hills.” A leader who relies on love to gain loyalty from his subjects, will find his people nowhere to be found when hard times come. Men tend to what they think is best for them, and due to this they will changes sides quickly. They will adopt a new prince quickly and shed their old one if they believe it will be prosperous for them. However, if the subjects greatly fear their leader they are more likely to obey him. If they believe their ruler to be lax they will think they can get away with some disobedience, but if a prince has made it clear that the consequences will be great they will hesitate (Machiavelli .

One of the main ways Machiavelli demonstrates the power of fear, is through generals and their handling of the troops under them. He praises the Carthaginian general, Hannibal, for his ability to lead such a large army of various peoples with little discord or trouble among his troops. Despite going through many lands unknown to his soldiers, and enduring times of trial, Hannibal was able to keep his soldiers in order because of their respect and fear of him (Machiavelli 60). How did Hannibal make his troops fear him? Through great cruelty, which made him the perfect Machiavellian leader. It was this cruelty that was key of his success according to Machiavelli. He argued that, “if he had not been so cruel, his other qualities would not have been sufficient to achieve that affect” (60).

Scipio was another general of the same period as Hannibal. Like Hannibal he was a brilliant military mind, and one of the greatest leaders of the era. Unlike Hannibal however, he did not exercise brutality with his troops to keep them in check. Whereas Hannibal’s troops would have never dreamed of revolting, for fear of the consequences, Scipio did lose control over his soldiers at fort Sucro, in Spain. Machiavelli harshly critiqued Scipio for this mutiny and no one else. It was Scipio’s easiness with his soldiers that had caused them to grow rebellious. Had he have been more severe in his command they would have been better disciplined (Machiavelli 60). Machiavelli praises Hannibal’s cruelty, while condemning Scipio’s friendliness with his soldiers.

Another aspect of the power of fear, which Machiavelli touched on was with the capturing of new regions. Under most circumstances successfully maintaining control over a newly vanquished city, and keeping its citizens in check can be quite difficult. However, in cases where subduing a city takes great force and bloodshed it will actually be much easier to keep. Most would think the opposite to be true, but Machiavelli argues that those who have been defeated will be to imitated to revolt, due to knowing what the conquerors are capable of (Mansfield). Machiavelli has complete faith in the power of fear. Essentially he believes that a prince should not be concerned about being excessively brutal when trying to defeat the defenders of a town, because in the long run it may actually help him keep dominances over said town. With advice like this, advising one to be cruel, it is no surprise that Machiavelli’s contemporaries were so shocked by his treatise (Spenser).

All of Machiavelli’s pondering about fear begs the question how far should a ruler go to be feared by his people? Machiavelli does acknowledge that there is a lined that can be crossed. A prince must strive to be feared without being completely hated by his subjects (Machiavelli 59) . It is fine for a leader to exercise extreme ruthlessness for the greater good as long as he is able to redeem himself in the eyes of the people. At a certain point, if pushed too far, a prince’s subject’s fear of their ruler will turn to anger and they will grow unruly. Therefore it is important for a prince to be calculated with his cruelty, and not just unnecessarily brutal.

A major issue during Machiavelli’s time was that of Divine right to rule. Essentially, king’s could justify their rule by it supposedly being God’s will, and they had to answer only to him. Only those chosen by God could rule. Machiavelli did not fully agree with this doctrine. He thought that almost anyone should have the right to rule as long as they were cunning enough to do so. Machiavelli cares most about leaders being competent. The foxes and lions should rise above the lambs. That is the best way for country to be assured of gaining strong leaders. With divine right there is no guarantee that a prince will be capable of ruling, and do what is best for his people. In his own region of Florence Machiavelli wanted a ruler who was effective, not one that was supposedly endowed by the creator. All of the advice given in the book is a challenge against divine right, as it shows how someone may gain power by his own actions and not divine right.

Machiavelli’s key argument against any sort of right to rule is that it is power alone that guarantees a prince his control. “a Machiavellian perspective directly attacks the notion of any grounding for authority independent of the sheer possession of power. For Machiavelli, people are compelled to obey purely in deference to the superior power of the state” (Nederman). Simply having the right virtues, divine right, or any other quantifiers of rule do not matter if one does not have true power. A prince’s subjects will stay in line if they know he has great power over them, but not always so if he his relying on their respect of his “divine right” alone.

One of the main themes running throughout all of Machiavelli’s advice seems to be that the ends always justify the means. Now even though Machiavelli never directly states this, he comes very close, and despite his advice being a bit more nuance than that simple phrase, it is not out of line to say that it represents his key ideas on princeship. Machiavelli was one of the first pessimistic realists of his time, and he based his advice on the negative side of humanity. He argued that a prince’s subjects will not always do the moral thing and so a prince should not either. Instead, he should take what actions he believes to be best for securing his rule and his province. Sacrificing a few is a necessary evil if it guarantees the safety of many (Machiavelli 58).

Machiavelli base much of his advice on the topic on real life rulers of his time. History.com points this out saying, “Machiavelli’s guide to power was revolutionary in that it described how powerful people succeeded—as he saw it—rather than as one imagined a leader should operate.” While his contemporaries where dreaming up the qualities of an ideal leader, Machiavelli believed he was giving a guide based on those he had seen be successful. Almost all of the leaders Machiavelli studied, he found to have exercised cruelty and brutality. Mansfield says thus of Machiavelli’s points on necessary evil, “The amoral interpretation fastens on Machiavelli’s frequent resort to “necessity” in order to excuse actions that might otherwise be condemned as immoral.”

One of the main ruler’s who Machiavelli based much of his advice on was Cesare Borgia. Borgia was the perfect Machiavellian leader. He was, “a crude, brutal and cunning prince of the Papal States” (History.com Editors). He lived in a chaotic time, and the entirety of his rule was face with challenges and uncertainty. Machiavelli admired his ability to handle the problems of his times with such decisive ferocity. He embodied all the traits the Machiavelli was advising the readers of his book to adopt.

Cesare was a man with many enemies and part of his genius lay in his ability to get rid of them. Where others would hesitate to move against powerful men, Borgia did not. He would kill remorselessly if he thought it would help him maintain his land. One of the main examples Machiavelli used to point out Borgia’s cunning, was his luring of the Orsini leaders to the town of Senigallia. He lured them with lavish gifts and lulled them into a false sense of security, promising treaties of peace, but once they had delivered themselves into his hands he killed them (Machiavelli 25). Machiavelli praised this exploit thinking it an exceptionally clever deception.

Borgia also proved his competence as a leader to Machiavelli in his handling of the land he inherited from his father, Pope Alexander VI. The people dwelling there were disorderly and defiant. They had not been well disciplined by their previous ruler, and were not used to really having to obey a leader. Borgia set out to right this wrong. He put an utterly ruthless man, Remirro de Orco, in charge of the area (Machiavelli 26). Many rulers would have told Orco to use caution when dealing with the subjects of the region. He should slowly begin to discipline them so that they would grow use to it over time. However, Borgia did the exact opposite. He gave his new governor complete control to be as severe and merciless as he saw necessary. He new that the cruelty the people would endure under de Orco would be for the better down the road as there would be more order and less lawbreakers.

Even the he knew that it was necessary to use brutality when dealing with his newly acquired land, Borgia did not plan on taking the blame for that cruelty. de Orco’s harsh regime had served to bring discipline to the region, but Cesare Borgia was not blind to the growing anger in those who were suffering under it. Here, in Machiavelli’s mind, Borgia showed his true genius and heartlessness. He killed de Orco and displayed his body in a town, successfully wining the favor of his subjects and getting rid of a possible rival. It Borgia who had put de Orco in charge in the first place, knowing fully well that he was a cruel man, and told him to be a harsh ruler, but the people seemed to forget this and saw Borgia as a hero for killing their oppressor. Those subjects who still had a dislike for Borgia, where too terrified by the execution to cause any discord (Machiavelli 26). So Borgia was able to make his people both love and fear, Machiavelli’s ideal situation. It is clear that much of Machiavelli’s arguments for doing immoral things comes from him having observed Borgia and his callous methods.

Borgia may have been brilliant in the handling of his lands and his enemies, but it was not his own cleverness that gained him his territory in the Romagna. Instead it was the cunning of his father, Pope Alexander IV. Alexander wanted to give his son a state in Italy to help him grow more powerful and, hopefully, eventually make him into a great ruler. However, he knew that he would not be able to do this through peaceful negations, as there were too many other factions who would have been opposed to it. Instead, the Pope would have to use force to size a state. First he sought out to make the states of Italy unstable, by aiding a French invasion of Milan. Doing this helped cause chaos, and the French gave the Pope troops to conquer the Romagna with. The Pope was able his transfer the newly captured states to his son (Machiavelli 24). These actions by the Pope where highly immoral; he helped sow ruin in his own country of Italy to gain a province for Cesare to rule, and he misused the power given to him by his position as Pope to do so. However, Machiavelli praises his ability to take actions that are deemed unethical by society to attain success.

In one chapter of his treatise, Machiavelli addresses those who gained the power from evil deeds. The first example he gives is of Agathocles, of Syracuse. Agathocles is the epitome of doing whatever it takes to get what you want. He was a mere ordinary man, but by his own actions he was able to rise to a position of power in the city of Syracuse. Wanting to become the king of Syracuse he began scheming how this could be accomplished. Eventually he was able to execute a successful coup, and have all his soldiers kill any opposers. He was dishonorable, a murderer, and a traitor, but he did achieve what he set out to do. Machiavelli does point out that these methods wont exactly win someone glory and fame, or at least not the positive kind, but he did commend Agathocles ability to gain power. He also mentions that Agathocles used evil “well” since he had to use it at all (Machiavelli 30-33). Statements like this, that a murdering traitor used evil admirably, are what make Machiavelli’s writing so controversial.

Machiavelli did not stop with Agathocles, he also gave an example more current with the time of a similar situation. Oliverotto of Fermo. Oliverotto had the same cunning and ambition as Agathocles. He too wanted to become the ruler of his hometown Fermo. So, with his mentor he conspired to overthrow the current ruler, his own uncle, Giovanni Fogliani. Oliverotto used his relation to Fogliani to lure him into a trap where he assassinated him, as well as the other leaders of Fermo. With no one else in his way he took control of the region. His immoral actions would have been condemned by most, but Machiavelli’s main issue seems to be that he was not able to keep the power that he gained, as he was killed himself later on. Oliverotto did not use evil well as Agathocles did (Machiavelli 32-32).

Few books have the ability to stir up as much controversy as The Prince. With it Machiavelli tried to set a new example how a prince should act and think, but one that would be found troubling by many in the decades that followed its publication. Its readers would shun it, ban it, mock it, and even go so far as to say that it was satire, because surely there was no way that Machiavelli had actually meant what he wrote. The main cause of all animosity towards the book, came from Machiavelli’s attempt to separate ethics from politics. In the treatise he argued that princes need not be virtuous, and that fear was a great tool to be used to control one’s subjects, better even than love. Furthermore, the book challenged divine right, which put at odds with the churches of the time, and lastly, it promoted the idea of using scrupulous methods to gain power. It is the combination of these four arguments, that were so against the current ideologies of the sixteenth century, that caused many to look at the book with disgust, and the reason why Machiavelli became known as an embodiment of evil.

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Organizational change – responding to internal drivers

Organizational change in any business organisation is predominantly influenced by two forces called internal drivers and external drivers. Both can cause favourable as well as unfavourable impacts on organisational change. However, this essay will argue that it is more beneficial for the organisations to introduce changes based on its internal drivers because they are within the organisation and control of the management in bringing the change. Where as the external drivers are beyond the control of the organisation.

In this intensely competitive and globalised world ( Mdletye, Coetzee and Ukpere 2014) of business and management organisational change is very critical and indispensable for numerous competitive advantages. Therefore, companies of all kinds must either initiate change or if not face the natural death (Kotter and Cohen 2008). Hence, although change is task fraught with complexity and challenge (Graetz et al. 2011, p.2) it has become the inevitable phenomena for the successful survival of organization in this modern world.

Organisational change is the continuous process of renewing the firm direction, structure, capabilities, operations, systems and processes to meet the ever-changing needs of external and internal customers (Soosay and Sloan 2005 p.10). It is the movement of an organization away from its present state of status quo (Smith 2005) toward some desired future state to increase its effectiveness (Lunenburg 2010). Nevertheless, as most researchers have found out that, in reality, adopting new changes in the organisation is very difficult and doubtful of success (Robbins 2003 and Raftery 2009 as cited in Beshtawi and Jaaron,2014; p.129) and often land up with failure (Olaghere,n.d p.1; Gilaninia, Ganjinia and Mahdikhanmahaleh 2013). Therefore, in this increasingly uncertain and risky environment (Zhou, Tse and Li, 2006, p.248) it is very crucial to know how to adapt and change according to the environment and to change successfully has become a critical and timeless challenge for any organization ( Feldman, 2004; Pettigrew et al., 2001; Piderit, 2000) for continuous survival and success.

Organisational Change in an organisation is influenced dominantly by two factors called internal factors or internal drivers and external factors or external drivers (Esparcia and Argente (n.d) and Olaghere n.d, p.1).These factors are responsible for triggering the change in the system, policies, product, structures, services, management, performance among many other areas in the organisation (Senior 2002) (as cited in McGuire and Hutchings 2006). Ivancevich and Matteson (2002) consider technology, economic forces and socio-political and legal factors as important external drivers that cause organisational change. However, they argue that these external drivers of change are beyond management’s control and cause a significant impact compelling the organisation to adjust internal processes and systems (McGuire and Hutchings 2006). Conversely, internal drivers are those forces existed within the organisation that influence changes. They are system, structure, management style, leadership, resources, processes, products of the organisation (Esparcia and Argente, n.d).

However, internal factors are more critical to driving organisational change. Ivancevich and Matteson (2002) maintain that human resource issues and process considerations are the most common forces for change within the organisation. They argue that internal factors are generally within the control of management, although sometimes be more difficult to recognise and diagnose than external factors (McGuire and Hutchings 2006).

The external factors are more diversified and intractable compare to internal drivers (Yu and Zhang, 2010, p.3). The internal divers of change are easily influenced by external environments like politics, economy, technology, legal and society.

The external factors helps to determine the opportunities and threats that the company would face, but the internal factors help the company to identify its strengths and weaknesses (Ibrahim and Primiana, 2015, p.285) . Marcus (2005) (as cited in Ibrahim and Primiana, 2015, p.285) noted that organisations should be aware of its strengths and weaknesses and analyzed the extent to which companies can accommodate the opportunities and threats existed in its the external environment.

Anderson and Anderson (n.d) asserted that the most common reason for the failure of managing change with the organizations is the inadequate attention to the less tangible, yet very important, internal drivers such as culture, leader and employee behaviour and their mindset. So, it is very much evident the benefits of concentrating of internal drivers rather than external drivers. This is supported by Kotter and Cohen (2008; p.61) that managers must instigate change by creating the sense of urgency by touching the emotions of employees instead of reasons based on facts and figures. This is possible only through change in internal factors of business enterprise.

Many scholars have consented that internal factors are the key determinants of an organization’s performance (Kinyua-Njuguna, Munyok and Kibera 2014, p. 289) as they provide enabling environment to achieve its goals and objectives. Internal environmental forces provide strengths and weaknesses to the business (Tolbert & Hall, 2009) (cited in (Kinyua-Njuguna, Munyok and Kiber 2014, p.) Fr example, from their study on the effect of internal drivers on community-based HIV and AIDS organizations in Nairobi County, Kenya, Kinyua-Njuguna, Munyok and Kiber (2014) found out that the internal drivers such as organisational structure, strategy, skills, staff, shared values as well as systems helping the organisation to achieve their objective. As a result enhanced the employee performance.

The Resource-based view (RBV) theory, propounded by Penrose (1959) ( as cited in Kute & Upadhyay, 2014,p.68) supported that organizations can gain competitive advantage by concentrating on their internal factors such as abilities, skills, knowledge, capabilities and competencies with reference to technological changes. This is because of strengths and weakness in these areas can be managed and thus the need of enhancing these qualities within the employees can be determined and can be enhanced through continuous organizational learning culture. Furthermore, the following factors such as mission and goals, leadership quality, organisational structure, human resources, technology capacity, organisation culture, employees behaviours and attitude, and organisational performance has to be considered while introducing change in the organisation.

Organisation Vison, Mision, Goals and objectives

Every business organisation is being guided by its mission, goals and objectives pertaining to development philosophy and direction, planning, prioritizing programs, policies, management, organisational structures and everyday responsibilities (Emeka and Eyuche 2014). In nutshell the performance of the company depends on the mission, goals and objectives. Therefore, change in these domains would compel the firm to undertake organisational change to achieve their mission and objectives.

Leadership

Leadership is one of the very important internal factors in an organisation change (Lunenburg 2010). The leaders have the important role in maintaining the measure of control over the environment of the organisation (McGuire and Hutchings 2006, p.197). The sixteenth century political scientist, Niccolo Machiavelli, stressed that the leader’s vision and future plans are critical in determining the shape and structure of the organisation (McGuire and Hutchings 2006, p.198). According to the organisational change models Cummings and Worley (1993) further recognizes that any change can be implemented successfully only by strong leadership who can garner commitment and readiness to change within the employees through shared vision and strategies to achieve the proposed new change and outcome. The way the managers or leaders establish the internal working structure and systems has influence on the performance of the organisation (Kinyua-Njuguna, Munyok and Kiber 2014, p.285).It means the structures and systems should be very favourable for the employees to work collaboratively everyday towards the shared goals of the organisation. Conversely, poor leadership and management would result in the failure of enterprise in the implementation of change processes and risking the orgainsation to disastrous consequences (Shiamwama, Ombayo and Mukolwe 2014, p.148). Effective leaders help organisations to surpass any internal obstacles and bring changes through envisioning the desired goals and objectives, energizing the employees, and enabling the resources and conditions (Zhou, Tse and Li 2006, p.253) which are paramount to overcome any external inhibitors of change and improve performance.

For instance, Steve Jobs, the founder of APPLE Computers, was eased out of the business because of poor management. He later went back into the business and was absorbed as a mere employee just to tap his original idea (Cole, 2004). in (Shiamwama, Ombayo and Mukolwe (2014)

Organisation Structure

Change in organizational structure involves redefining and regulating the organizational roles and relations by expanding or reducing audition, determining the decision making authority, selecting decentralised or central management type, regulating communication channels within the organisation ( İkinci, S.S.2014,p.123).It is another internal factor that act as driver of change. It is the way how jobs are allocated, coordinated and supervised through the system that facilitates communication and efficient work processes among the employees in the organisation (Elsaid, Okasha and Abdelghaly, 2013, p.1). In fact the successful execution and implementation of any plans and programs depends on it. The flat bureaucratic structure with decentralised decision-making system and horizontal reporting system among the teams and various managers are more preferred by the employees (Ohlson, 2007).This fosters faster and effective decision and action thus enhancing the efficiency and productivity of the employees and organisation as whole. The tall hierarchical system of organisation characterised by long bureaucratic steps to follow in execution and communication is rather a hindrance to the effectiveness of the performance (p.23). Decentralised administrative structures and processes thus enable a firm to better meet the new environmental conditions and effectively handle environmental turbulence (Damanpour and Evan, 1984)

Human resources

Human resource in the organisation consists of the knowledge, skills, competencies, attitude and behaviours the workers possess ( İkinci, S.S.2014, p.123). Nurturing theses aspect of human resources will lead to personal growth and development which can alter an individual’s perceptions of organisational change, reducing the level of resistance (Bovey and Hede, 2001, p.546). It is the very critical asset that helps organisation to gain competitive advantage (Husso and Nybakk, nd, p.9).This is because they have the capacity to operate all the activities and in turn help to achieve the aims and objective (Mdletye, Coetzee, and Ukpere (2014) which otherwise would not be able to function at all. The researchers emphasized that human resource is the most important aspect, indeed the backbone of every organization and it is also the main source of resource for the effective function of the organization ( Wanza and Nkuraru,2016; p.192) and main strategic resource to gain sustainable competitive advantage in this age of globalization(Kute & Upadhyay, 2014). For example, the management’s emphasis on the human resource management such as employing highly skilled and educated people, providing professional training and encouraging learning from advanced technologies and skills made the employees more competent to achieve Huawei’s internationalization process more successful ( Yu and Zhang, 2010, p.23) .

Organisational culture

Organisational culture is defined as the values, beliefs, norms, customs and behaviours that guide the employees towards the common goals (Awadh & Saad, 2013,) and that set the rule of decision making processes, structure and power (Wambugu, 2014, p. 80). Wambugu (2014) further noted that organisational culture empower the employees to do thing which deemed right and rewarding both at personal and organisational level. According to Wanza and Nkuraru ( 2016, p.195) and Awadh & Saad, (2013, p.168 ) organisational culture has strong bearing on the performance of the employees which is considered as the backbone of development of the organisation. The culture established as system in the organisation enhances employees’ commitment thus improves their input eventually achieving the desired productivity and profitability (Wanza and Nkuraru, 2016, p.193). They concluded from their research that a strong organizational culture acts as the source of synergy and momentum for teamwork and uplift employee performance (p.197).Thus it is worthy of developing organizational culture for sustainable future. For example, one of the internal factor that drive Huawei Technologies Company, a very small local IT company of China, to very successful internationalisation was the corporate culture, such as team work, adaptation, learning and customer-oriented service, being embedded in the behaviours of the Huawei’s employees ( Yu and Zhang, 2010, p.23)

Innovation culture

Innovation is the main strategy to adapt to change, overcome organisational weaknesses, and add value to organization’s products and services in the ever-changing business environment (Sund 2008, p. 2). Being entrepreneurial with creativity and innovation helps organisation to gain competitive advantage (Ireland et al. 2003). Abdelgawad et al. (2013) proposed that entrepreneurial capability is instrumental for realizing a firm’s game-changing strategies for sustainable success in future. For example, Google, Amazon and Apple companies were once just start-ups grown to attract global market through their innovation (EBRD, 2014; p.1). Internal organizational drivers such as resources, experimentation, collaboration, administrative support play a significant role during this innovation process (Agolla and Van-Lill, 2013). So, establishing innovative culture in an organisation will drive the organisation towards favorable and successful change.

Attitude and Commitment

Most of the researches have shown that employees need to develop their attitude and behaviours for successful organizational performance (Bernerth, 2004). Therefore, it is indispensable for the organizational managers to develop and nurture employees’ commitment towards embracing change by bringing positive change in their attitude and behaviour. However, Anderson and Anderson (n.d) stressed that employees’ mindset, which is the root cause of one’s feelings, decisions and actions, has to be changed to bring organizational change. When introducing change people aspect is more critical than just about changes in systems and processes. Rather it is about people believing in change and wanting it to happen (Soosay and Sloan (2005 p.4). Since organisational change requires the participation of people, those involved must first undergo personal change for the success of organisational change (Evans, 1994).

Organisation Performance as drivers

Both the present and past performance are also drivers of organisational change. Some earlier researchers have pointed out that poor performance, that creates the gap between managerial aspirations and achievements, is an extra impetus for the firms to improve further (Greve, 1998; Tushman and Romanelli, 1985). On the other hand some researchers argue that successful companies continuously draw motivation from their success to improve and perform better for sustainable future, especially they face an uncertain environments ( Feldman, 2004; Tsoukas and Chia, 2002).in (Zhou, Tse and Li, 2006). The better a firm performs, the more likely it will invest in new product development and technology advancement to achieve a sustainable competitive advantage (Zhou, Tse and Li, 2006; p.251). As Brown and Eisenhardt (1997) observe, many successful firms, such as Intel, 3M, Hewlett-Packard, and Gillette, have undertaken constant, rapid changes, particularly in their new product development. For example companies like Apple, Microsoft and Samsung companies have undergone continuous rapid changes in development of new product.

Conclusion

The main purpose of this essay was to prove the advantages of responding to internal drivers than to external drivers while introducing change in the organisation. From this study it was found out that internal drivers are within the organisation that has direct impact on its everyday performance. Therefore, they are within the control and management capacity of the organization. If the internal performance, system, culture and resources of an organisation are excellent it is certain that any obstacles posed from the external environments can be nullified leading to very successful organizational change. Whereas external drivers are existed in the external environment of the firm and those are beyond the control and reach of the organisation. Yet, they can affect the internal functions of the organisation causing instability. Hence the external drivers are not to be undermined rather internal drivers must be activated towards meeting change in line with external drivers.

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The Classical World: essay help online

The Classical Era, which flourished from the 8th century BC to the 5th century AD, saw the birth and spread of Greco-Roman ideas. These ideas became the basis for western civilization and laid a foundation of culture that has remained as relevant now as it was in ancient times. Ancient Greece, and later Ancient Rome, cemented their own ideals in the universal consciousness as the cultural standard to which all later societies were held to, and continue to shape contemporary perspective on art, architecture, and government, and other facets of modern society. Despite the core differences of modern and classical times and the centuries that have passed since, the knowledge and perspectives passed down by the Ancient Greeks and Romans remain an essential part of contemporary society and culture, while inspiring western civilization’s greatest accomplishments.

The cultural impact of Ancient Greece and Rome begins most tangibly with the Renaissance, a movement beginning in Florence and spanning through the 14th and 17th centuries. This period is seen as a revival of classical antiquity, with Renaissance scholars, artists, philosophers, and writers attempting to emulate what they considered to be a “golden age,” taking inspiration directly from their Greco-Roman forefathers, with their presence increasingly regarded as an intellectual heritage to be mined for contemporary use. The Florentine author Niccolò Machiavelli, for example, described his nightly retreats into his library in these memorable words:

“At the door I take off my muddy everyday clothes. I dress myself as though I were about to appear before a royal court as a Florentine envoy. Then decently attired I enter the antique courts of the great men of antiquity. They receive me with friendship; from them I derive the nourishment which alone is mine and for which I was born. Without false shame I talk with them and ask them the causes of the actions; and their humanity is so great they answer me. For four long and happy hours I lose myself in them. I forget all my troubles; I am not afraid of poverty or death. I transform myself entirely in their likeness.”

Francesco Petrarca, commonly anglicized as Petrarch, was a scholar who rediscovered the letters of Cicero, a Roman statesman, orator, lawyer and philosopher and one of Rome’s greatest orators and prose stylists. This rediscovery is considered to have initiated the Renaissance, as scholars became interested in learning how the ancients developed their human faculties, powers, and culture, and in turn attempted to apply their findings to their contemporary societies. Through this discovery, Petrarch became the “Father of Renaissance humanism,” humanism being a Renaissance cultural movement that turned away from medieval scholasticism and revived interest in ancient Greek and Roman thought. Petrarch firmly believed that classical writings were not just relevant to his own age but saw in them moral guidance that could reform humanity, a key principle of Renaissance Humanism. The humanists of the Renaissance believed that their mission was to revive the high Roman style of writing pure and eloquent Latin. When that flourished, they believed, art would as well.

The republican elites of Florence and Venice and the ruling families of Milan, Ferrara, and Urbino hired humanists to teach their children classical morality and to write elegant, classical letters, histories, and propaganda. Eventually, the humanism inspired by the study of the Greco-Roman world would bleed into the Catholic Church, a formidable and almost omnipotent deity of the Middle Ages. In the course of the fifteenth century, the humanists convinced most of the popes that the papacy needed their skills. Sophisticated classical scholars were hired to write official correspondence and propaganda to create an image of the popes as powerful, enlightened, modern rulers of the Church and to apply their scholarly tools to the church’s needs, including writing a more classical form of the Mass. Scholars wrote Latin letters and histories on behalf of the popes, and they even tinkered with the church’s traditional liturgy, trying to make prayers and hymns attractively classical. Humanist secretaries and popes wrote dazzling Latin. Though humanism, and therefore classical thinking, never truly permeated the Catholic Church fully, there was an influence of Ancient Greece and Rome on the Church and its leaders.

An easier and far more blatant appreciation of classical antiquity was seen clearly in the art and architecture of the Renaissance. Contrapposto, a sculptural scheme which was revived during the Renaissance, was originated by the Ancient Greeks. It is used when the standing human figure is poised in such a way that the weight rests on one leg (called the engaged leg), freeing the other leg, which is bent at the knee. With the weight shift, the hips, shoulders, and head tilt, suggesting relaxation with the subtle internal organic movement that denotes life. The Greeks invented this formula in the early 5th century BC as an alternative to the stiffly static pose—in which the weight is distributed equally on both legs—that had dominated Greek figure sculpture in earlier periods. Italian Renaissance artists such as Donatello and Andrea del Verrocchio revived the classical formula, giving it the name contrapposto, which suggests the action and reaction of the various parts of the figure, and enriching the conception by scientific anatomical study.

Donatello borrowed from the ancients with his bronze sculpture of David, the biblical hero known for defeating Goliath. Donatello’s David was the first freestanding bronze cast statue of the Renaissance era as well as the first nude sculpture of a male since the classical sculptures of ancient Greece. In Middle Ages, nudity was not used in art except in certain moral contexts, such as the depiction of Adam and Eve, or the sending of souls off to hell.  In the classical world, nudity was often used in a different, majestic context, such as with figures who were gods, heroes, or athletes.  Here, Donatello seems to be calling to mind the type of heroic nudity of antiquity, since David is depicted at a triumphal point in the biblical narrative of his victory over Goliath. In any case, Donatello’s David is a classic work of Renaissance sculpture, given its Judaeo-Christian subject matter modeled on a classical sculptural type.

Another artwork inspired heavily by ancient antiquity would be Botticelli’s painting titled, Birth of Venus. The theme of the Birth of Venus was taken from the writings of the ancient poet, Homer.  According to the traditional account, after Venus was born, she rode on a seashell and sea foam to the island of Cythera.  In the painting, Venus is prominently depicted in the center, born out of the foam as she rides to shore.  On the left, the figure of Zephyrus carries the nymph Chloris (alternatively identified as “Aura”) as he blows the wind to guide Venus. On shore, a figure who has been identified as Pomona, or as the goddess of Spring, waits for Venus with mantle in hand.  The mantle billows in the wind from Zephyrus’ mouth.The story of the Birth of Venus is well described below by a Homeric hymn but its relevance to the painting is disputed as the poem was only published, by the Greek refugee Demetrios Chalcondyles, in Florence in 1488 (five years after the painting was completed as a wedding gift for Lorenzo di Pierfrancesco de’ Medici in 1483).

Of august gold-wreathed and beautiful

Aphrodite I shall sing to whose domain

belong the battlements of all sea-loved

Cyprus where, blown by the moist breath

of  Zephyros, she was carried over the waves

of the resounding sea on soft foam.

The gold-filleted Horae happily welcomed her

and clothed her with heavenly raiment.

The model for Venus in this painting has traditionally been associated with Simonetta Vespucci – who had been a muse for Botticelli,  and was seen as the model for female beauty throughout Florence – especially for the Medici family for whom this painting had been created. There is added credence to this suggestion from the fact that she was born in the Ligurian fishing village of  PortoVenere – called Port of Venus because there was a little Temple to Venus there from 1st Century BC.

The other model for the pose of Venus in the painting was possibly the Medici Venus, a first century BC statue depicting Aphrodite in a Venus pudica pose. It is actually a marble copy of an original bronze Greek sculpture that Botticelli would have had an opportunity to study whilst visiting the sculpture school or the Platonic Academy which flourished at the family home of the Medici in Florence.

The demand for this type of scene, of course, was humanism, which was alive and well in the court of Lorenzo d’Medici in the 1480s.  Here, Renaissance humanism was open not only to the use of a pagan sculpture as a model, but also a pagan narrative for the subject matter, and although the Birth of Venus is not a work which employed Renaissance perspectival innovations, the elegance of the classical subject matter was something that would have intrigued wealthy Florentines who patronized this type of work.

The discovery of particular texts had enormous implications on Renaissance architecture. For example, with the discovery of the works of Vitruvius, an architect at the time of Augustus, there was an explosion of interest in ancient building. Vitruvius wrote an extremely important volume, De architectura libri decem (Ten books on architecture), where he introduced three principles to architecture: Firmatis  (durability), Utilitas (utility), and Venustatis (beauty). Vitruvius talked about ancient buildings in a very significant way, not only in terms of practicality, but in an abstract way which emphasized what the buildings represented in both art and society. Similarly to how ancient texts could be applied to the values and aesthetics of contemporary Italians in the 15th century, so could ancient buildings be reduced to an essence, or a set of principles and ideals, that could be applied to the needs of 15th-century Italians, despite their differences from 1st-century Romans.

In particular, we can see in the career of Leon Battista Alberti, who was born in 1404 and died in 1472, how these ideas could be distilled into a set of principles that could apply to the conditions of the Italian world. Alberti wrote De re aedificatoria, or On Building. His work can be considered highly derivative, but Alberti’s purpose was quite different: to take an ancient text and apply it to the needs of his own time. Not only did he write a theoretical treatise on architecture, but he then went out and built buildings. In particular, in Florence, he designed the facade of the Palazzo Rucellai from 1452 to 1470, in which, again, the Vitruvian orders appear and in which the ideas of ancient building are made useful to a Florentine palace for a wealthy merchant.

In the more modern world, there is a wealth of Greco-Roman influence over the inception of the United States of America and its government. For example, the men who inspired the American Revolution and wrote the American Constitution were heavily influenced by the classical Greek and Roman world. The American founding fathers were well educated individuals, and they all had significant experience with ancient Greek and Roman authors since childhood. Historian Bernard Bailyn states, “knowledge of classical authors was universal among colonists with any degree of education.” Thomas Jefferson, writer of the Declaration of Independence, was taught Greek and Latin from the age of nine, and Benjamin Franklin received instruction in Latin at grammar school and became proficient in both Latin and Greek later in life. In Franklin’s Autobiography, frequent references are made to classical western figures, such as Cicero and Cato. James Madison learned Greek and Latin as a child, and “immersed himself in the histories of Greece and Rome.”

With classical schooling such an integral part of the founding fathers’ education, America’s first political leaders studied the works of the great Greek Philosophers, including Plato and Aristotle. Polybius, a less celebrated but still influential thinker, also left his mark upon the American framers of the Constitution. Through Polybius, the founding fathers were introduced to the Roman Republic as the “mixed government” described by Plato and Aristotle. They used Greek philosophy and the model of Roman Republican government in order to form a new nation based on ancient principles.

Philosophers from classical Greece proposed the separation of powers in government, an idea that the American founders adopted for their new nation. In addition, The Roman Republic  (509-27 BC) served as a direct model of government for the writers of the constitution.  Greek and Roman political thought was critical in shaping the government of the United States of America.

Plato writes that that a strong state should contain elements of both democracy and tyranny, so that the state has a mixed government. His political philosophy, particularly his idea of a “mixed” constitution, would have far reaching effects among later philosophers. His mixed government would ultimately be brought to life in the American Constitution.

Aristotle believed that a mixed government, like the one described by Plato, would halt the decline of government into anarchy. In Aristotle’s mixed constitution, defined in his work The Politics, there were to be three branches of government: “All constitutions have three elements, concerning which the good lawgiver has to regard what is expedient for each constitution…There is one element which deliberates about public affairs [“legislative” branch]; secondly, that concerned with the magistrates [“executive” branch]…and thirdly that which has judicial power.”

This three-tiered mixed government of Aristotle would ultimately find its way into the Constitution. Aristotle also established the principle that the rulers of a state should be subject to the same laws as the rest of the populace; to Aristotle, the rule of law is better than the authority of “even the best man.” This concept of a “ruling official subject to the law” is an integral idea to modern government, where all political figures are supposed to be subject to the same legal code as the average citizen.

In addition to the foundation of government inspired by the ancient world, the influence of classical antiquity can be seen in some of America’s most iconic architecture. Prevalent between about 1780 and 1830, Federal style drew inspiration from the Greco-Romans. The influence of Ancient Greek architecture is apparent in the use of columns and colonnades. Thomas Jefferson was an architect during the Federal period, and he designed not only his own home, Monticello, but the campus of the University of Virginia in Charlottesville in this style.

Greek Revival architecture also became widespread in the U.S., and in the middle of the 19th century it became known as the national style, as it was used extensively in houses and smaller public buildings of that time. This style generally featured the Doric Order in larger buildings, and simpler Doric columns topped with a small pediment (without a frieze) in houses. The first major public building built in this style was the Second Bank of the United States, built in Philadelphia between 1819 and 1824, though most famous is the Lincoln Memorial, its exterior echoing that of the Parthenon.

The heritage of the classical world has been one which later societies have taken and made relevant to their own contemporary aesthetics, visions, and ambitions. From the Renaissance to the formation of the United States, Greco-Roman ideals have paved the way and inspired art, architecture, and civic duty, all the while remaining the standard for which culture strains to meet. Despite its antiquity, the classical world has remained both relevant, adaptable, and innovative, inspiring some of western civilization’s greatest feats.

2018-12-4-1543886056

Power dynamics in psychotherapy – reflective literature review

Choice of topic

On receiving the assessment paperwork for my client, I felt overwhelmed and challenged by her status, and that she had previously worked with my placement director. My first reaction, was that I would not be good enough for her as a trainee.

When discussing my responses with my supervisor, she helped me to identify where this had come from, and the skills and knowledge that I had would be beneficial to this client.

To build up a working alliance, Finlay (2016), p.15, with this client, who I will refer to as Kirsty, (not her real name), the progress was slow, and I became very aware of my own counter- transferential feelings. There were areas of her narrative which I felt really in contact with.

Conducting the search

An on-line search Google scholar, using terms like, ‘The Dance of Power’ which returned results of 51, 200,000. Further searches were conducted which brought back similar figures

I then altered the search criteria to ‘The Dance of the Counter-transferential Phenomena’ which brought back 34 Items and this search was done via Wiley on-line Library. This appeared more manageable, and a further search via the same library with a different search term, ‘Undoing Trauma’ brought back just one result. This still was not what I was looking for, so I chose to remain with the search criteria of power within the therapeutic relationship.

So, within the literature, Webster’s dictionary defines power as; ‘the ability to act’ and ‘the capacity to produce and effect’ and ‘the possession of control, authority or influence over others’

Proctor (2017) states how she defines power as being related to how society is formed, and groups of people, who differ from the ‘norm’ have less access to power. These groups could be women, disabled, Black minority ethnic (BME) or working-class people, gay or lesbians. Male or females, young or old.

She suggests that these groups could be oppressed members of society who may have experienced violence or intimidation and who have little experience of power within the relationship.

The history of power within the therapeutic relationship dates to Machiavelli in the 16th century and Hobbes in the 17th century as cited by Proctor, (2017). These two theorists had different views when talking about power. It was not until the twentieth century that Hobbes view of a modernist theory was favoured. Clegg (1989) Hobbes theory of power influenced the basis of thinking around power from a modernist and structural viewpoint.

The modernists view.

This was a new form of expression that was developed in the nineteenth and twentieth centuries. This was the era when counselling and psychotherapy developed. McLeod (2009) p. 37

The Structural Theories.

These theories lie within the context of modernism and take a single point of view, that is concrete and belongs to a person. It is assumed that power is an experience that can be found in the form of economic, social, physical, or psychological capacity. For instance, Day (2010) cites Robert Dahl (1957) as, “A has the power over B to the extent that he can get B to do something that B would not otherwise do”.

These theories have emphasised the controlling, oppressive and negative angle of power. These structural theories have been critiqued as it assumes that the power is always ‘power over’ another.

Lukes, (1974) argued that it is the ability of one person, to get another, to do something that (s)he might not otherwise do. He argues that this power is a result of conflict between actors to determine who wins and who loses.

However, Arendt, (1963) saw power as being related to people joining together and making unbreakable promises. Arendt observed a difference between ‘power’ within relationships and ‘authority’ that is given to an individual because of their role. Hindess, (1996) suggests that this moves power towards a relational process and relying on the consent of others.

Post-Modern Theories

Elias, (1978) suggests that power is not something a person owns, but it is a trait of human relationships. This view is supported by Lukes, (1974). Elias further suggests that power relations are formed in relationship and that it is a result of living together and interdependence. This phenomenon is like a game of tug of war; a trial of strength between two sides pulling against each other. Oxford English Reference Dictionary (1996), p. 1548

Foucault

Foucault suggested that power follows the concepts of Nietzsche in that knowledge and thought, theories and discourses are penetrated by values, Daudi, 1986 as cited by Proctor 2017. This approach formed the basis of Foucault’s work. He sees this power relationship as not responding to others, but on their actions. Thus, it is an action upon an action. Day, (2010).

This view of power suggests that power is inherent in all relationships so it both enables and limits actions, thereby helping individuals to broaden their boundaries, Hayward, (1998)

From this perspective, “Power is everywhere…because it comes from everywhere”. Foucault (1980). Power is involved in all social interactions, because ideas operate behind all language and action. Lukes (1974).

Foucault focused on how power was used in society, such as sexuality, (1976), madness, (1967) or criminality, (1977). He looked at the aims of those involved and the tactics they used to achieve those aims and the counter actions of others to achieve the same objective. In his deconstruction of the power within these institutions, he defines ‘disciplinary power’. He defines this as “comprising a whole set of instruments, techniques, procedures, levels of application, targets”. Foucault, (1977), p.215. He emphasised the ‘struggle’ that occurs between individuals and groups in society as the discord is taken up in response to the behaviours of others. Day, (2010) suggests power operates systematically within a society not from above.

Perspectives of Power in the Psychotherapy Relationship

Whilst searching the literature, I struggled to find any published research. Where references have been uncovered, these have been philosophical or theoretical perspectives on the subject; or individual accounts of personal and professional experience. Sanders, c (2017), Totton,(2009), Amitay, (2017), Lazarus, (2015).

Positions of Power

From the literature, there appears to be four philosophical positions:

Power as a destructive and oppressive force in the psychotherapy relationship;
The psychotherapy Relationship as a process of liberation and empowerment of the client.
Power as a relational, inter-subjective process in the psychotherapy relationship; and
The denial of the existence of power in the psychotherapy relationship.

At the end of the 1980’s, the central thoughts about how the imbalances between the therapist and client can result in oppressive and destructive outcomes for clients. The following debates concentrated on the abuse of sexual boundaries and forms of discrimination and prejudice against minority groups. Bates, (2006); Lago, (2006); Masson, (1989); Smail, 1995. The way the psychotherapeutic relationship exists between the client and therapist means that there is a potential for abusive relationships in the dialogue between the client and therapist. Spinelli, (1994). This reflects a structural position on power, Day, (2010), Proctor, (2017). So, the therapist in these circumstances, has ‘power over’ the client which renders them ‘powerless’ and vulnerable.

Within the literature, Masson (1989), describes power in the therapy room as having destructive elements and that the therapy could be a form of abuse. Another form of destructive power, could be therapist abusing the client by disrespecting the sexual boundaries, Chesler, (1972), Sonne and Pope, (1991) and Gabbard, (1996).

It is suggested that these destructive ways can operate at an unconscious level thus leaving the client vulnerable to past, negative experiences. Herman, (1992) believes that it is important for the therapist to avoid using their ‘power over’ Proctor, (2017), p. 13 the client for their own needs or to direct the client’s life decisions. Day, (2010).

The British Association for Counselling and Psychotherapy, (BACP) state that under their Ethical Framework, the counsellor has a commitment to avoid harm towards the client, (2015).

It is assumed from this point of view that power is dangerous and destructive to those who are powerless. Often power is viewed from an ethical or moral basis, looking at what is right or wrong. In simple terms, power is either ‘good’ or ‘bad’. Furggeri, (1992). This view assumes that is a possession, that is in limited supply and this then forms a structural perspective of power. The client is seen as powerless and the therapist powerful. It could be argued that this is an extreme form of domination and repression. Thus, power is viewed as monolithic, unitary and unidirectional. Procter, (2002)

Psychotherapy as Empowerment for the Client.

An alternative perspective of power is seen as positive with the therapist power being good. Psychotherapy is an empowering process for the client and thus enables the client’s autonomy. This line of argument is seen in humanistic literature, feminist literature. Brown, (1994). The British Psychological Society’s (BPS), 2009 division of counselling psychology, states explicitly that it works to ‘empower the client’.

Carl Rogers was one of the first proponents of this. Rogers suggested that the therapist’s role was to avoid power over the client and also refrain from making decisions for them. Rogers supported the client’s autonomy and how they achieved this. So, the decisions are made by the client for themselves. Rogers, (1978)

Bozarth, (1998) argues that the crux of this theory is that the therapist does not intervene. Natiello, (1990), states, “…. Offers a morality of power as well as a methodology for arriving at that morality”. (p 268). She maintains that the person-centred approach offers the client the opportunity to claim his or her own personal power rather than being reliant on the power of others.

Similarly, Freud theories of psychoanalysis argue for the analysist to use their power of rational authority to free the mind of the client.

Fromm, (1956) argues that over the duration of therapy, the client frees and cures themselves from an attachment to irrational authority. Benjamin,(1995) challenged Freud’s position states “ Already idealised for his knowledge and power – his power to know her – the analyst is now internalised in the relationship of knowledge as power over self, a practice in the domination of self whose meaning Foucault (1980) has made unforgettably problematic” p. 154

Frosh, (1987) states that object relations, like psychoanalysis, sets itself up in the feeing of a person’s psyche. He argues that its objectives are to free the client from fixations created by ‘bad’ experiences and to promote internalisation of the more nurturing possibilities experienced in the relationship with the therapist.

This assumes the client is powerless and vulnerable and the therapist has the power to empower the client. Client’s therefore are viewed as powerless. This could be seen as a structural position where power is either ‘good’ or ‘bad’ and one either has it or not. A moral argument could be where one form of power is ‘right’ and others are ‘wrong’.

A Relationship of Mutuality

The psychotherapeutic relationship is viewed as one of mutuality. Aron, (1996) views this as involving mutual generation of data, mutual regulation of the relationship, mutual recognition of the others autonomy and openness on the part of the therapist as to their client’s impact upon them. Aron argues that power is dynamic that is constantly struggled with in therapy and therefore needs ‘to be continually examined, articulated and worked through’, p151. He suggests that therapists need to question their decisions with regards to ethics as well as questioning their authority and domination in the relationship, referenced in Proctor, (2002) p 133.

Frosh, (1987) believes that the objectives for therapy is to allow the client to explore the power in therapy as it copies and reminds the client of internalised introjects from their formative years. He suggests that an approach which is politicised and recognises the reality of social structures. He argues that part of the difficulties relating to change is that people need to identify, re-experience and re-frame these introjects to help to give them a new meaning in their life. Totton, (2000) argues that it is the therapist’s role to help the client find another genuine and authentic psycho- political position. The relational position, therefore sees the power dynamics as being central in the therapeutic relationship. It is suggested that power is aligned to knowledge and neither the client or the therapist can ‘know’. Thus, it is thought that it is present in all relationships rather than being a possession of the client or therapist. It is therefore unavoidable and potentially both positive and negative. Proctor, (2002) it could be argued that this view, might undermine the role of structural differences in power in society reducing it to an intersubjective process.

Concluding thoughts of the literature

Relational perspectives in psychotherapy have started to think about ‘power’ as dynamic and inevitable. Proctor, (2017). However, despite this recognition of power, the discourse on the power dynamics in psychotherapy has remained at a philosophical level. Much of the literature can be seen as a critique of other psychological therapy or it attempts to show how therapists can misuse the power differential with their clients. The question to be explored and researched further would be how psychotherapists experience the phenomenon of power with their client’s and how it can be worked with in a clinical setting.

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Buyer Behaviour Report: The Consumer Decision Making Process As It Relates To A Consumer Who Is Replacing Their Laptop.

1. Introduction.

Understanding consumer behaviour is essential to succeed in business. As Solomon et al. (2013) stresses, businesses exist to satisfy consumer’s needs. By identifying and understanding the factors that influences their customers, firms have the opportunity to develop a more efficient strategy, marketing message and advertising campaigns that is more in line with the needs and ways of thinking of their target consumers (Perreau, 2015).

The targeted consumer has been identified as a recent retiree who is in her early 60s. This customer has just broken her laptop which was given to her as a gift from her daughter, four years ago and is looking for a replacement. As she is not in tune with the latest technology developments and vast option available for her, she does not know which option will best suit her. Additionally due to this she would prefer a device with simplicity, ease of use but also longevity.

This report will examine the decision making process in depth, analysing elements such as; characteristics that affect this consumer behaviour, types of buying decisions, component of decision making process and conclude with marketing recommendations.

The next section of this report will outline the different characteristics that affect consumer’s behaviour.

2. The Characteristics that Affect Consumer Behaviour.

‘ Figure 1, shows the factors influencing consumer behavior. There are four different factors all which play a crucial role in determining the action of consumers. It is important that marketers understand these affecting characteristics as they can determine the difference between buying or not.

Figure 1, Factors influencing consumer behaviour. (Data collected 11am on 9th March 2015.)

Source: Blogspot.com (2015)

1. Social factors.

‘ As the target customer is an elderly woman in her early 60s, her family and friends will play a major role in influencing which technological device and brand she would consider (Mason and Beardon, 1978). Especially as this consumer does not have the same level of knowledge, ownership and interest in technology. Davis (2013) report shows seniors in similar situations tends to rely on younger generations for advice, education and help in this area as they would have grew up exposed to this era.

2. Personal factors.

‘ As this consumer is in her early 60s, she has no interest in the latest stylish brands and expensive designs but just wants a simple and manageable device that will serve the basic functions of a laptop. A laptop that is easy to use is particular important for this customer as women over the age of 55 are particularly influenced by the ease of use of a technology product (83% vs. 70% of senior men), (Davis,2013)

‘ Price wise, she is looking for something of reasonable price, as she is now a retiree and is planning on paying for this purchase with her personal savings, her budget is ??400.

‘ As technology devices are long term investments the buyer requires something that will be great quality and of great longevity.

‘ It appears that a segment of seniors also value the quality of their purchasing journey from start to finish. Three fifths (60%) of over-55s who are influenced by the level of after-sales service also value the length of guarantee, whilst 41% of this group also care about the level of customer service in-store (vs. 17% of all seniors). (Davis,2013)

3. Psychological factors.

‘ This consumer’s previous experience with a functional laptop has influence how she know views laptops in comparisons to desktops, as she finds the portable device is handy to carry around the house and bring along when traveling to visit her children.

3. The Types of Consumer Buying Decisions.

‘ Consumers buying decisions behaviour can vary depending on the type of goods involved and the factors associated with the particular product. Figure 2 shows the four different categories and how they are each classified. Depending on how involved the consumer is with the purchase and how significant the difference is between the brands available, a buying decision can be classified as complex, variety-seeking, dissonance-reducing and habitual.

Figure 2 Four types of buying decision behavior. (Data collected 11am on 9th March 2015.)

.

Source: Launchengineering.com (2015)

‘ The purchasing of a laptop can be classified as a complex buying behaviour. This is due to the fact that the product is expensive and the consumer will need to be highly involved with the purchase. As there is a wide range of options available with significant differences among each brand, this purchasing decision will take a long time especially because the consumer has much to learn regarding the product category. There is also a high risk associated with this purchase as she particularly wants a product with simplicity but with great quality and longevity. Kjell (1977).

‘ The fact that this is a long term investment and will be costly indicates that the consumer will have to be highly involved with the buying decision. She will be required to spend an extensive period of time evaluating the different options available which according to keynote market report (2014) of the UK market, is a vast range including personal computers, laptops, notebooks and tablets computers.

‘ As mention before, this product will be costly and price being the biggest influence for consumers of all ages when it comes to purchasing technology products, with 84% saying it is one of their main considerations (86% of over-55s), more attention and effort will have to be paid before making any purchasing decision, in order to ensure it will be money spent efficiently. (Davies,2013)

‘ The purchasing of televisions, household appliances such as washing machine and a car would also involve a complex buying behaviour decision. In the state of buying a new television as watching TV is still an extremely popular activity amongst most seniors with 92% of seniors compared to 85% of the younger generations more likely to have a television within their household, they would therefore equally invest their time and money in the purchasing decision as it is an enjoyable hobby for them. (Davies,2013)

4. The Components of the Decision-Making Process.

1. Problem recognition.

‘ This is the first stage when the buyer recognises a problem or need. The need can be triggered by internal or external stimuli. Internal stimuli arises from an individual’s average need while external need arises from the environment in which we live in. (Armstrong and Kotler, 2013). This consumer’s need began when her old laptop broke down and as a result she decided it was time for her to replace it.

2. Information Research.

‘ As the potential buyer interest as been triggered by the breakdown of her laptop she now has a drive to search for and gather information about the possible products that could replace it. This stage is usually one of the longest processes as information can be gathered from a range of different sources. It is also an extremely important stage as this is when the consumer’s opinion formulation often begins.

‘ Research shows that over twice as many seniors rely on younger generations for advice, education and help with technology. This is certainly the case for this customer as she is not familiar with the advancement in technology she starts with her personal source which is usually the most effective and influential and draws on the opinions and experiences of younger friends and family members. (Davis, 2013)

‘ However most of her personal source would have gather much of their own knowledge from commercial sources such as advertisement, online sources and salespersons which information about the product were provided from the company’s market.

‘ Public source will also have an influence as the elderly rely more heavily on newspaper, television and salespersons for marketing information than other generation grouping (Martin, 2013).

3. Information Evaluation.

‘ After gathering relevant information the next step is to evaluate the various alternatives available in the market. Figure 3, shows the current desktops and laptops in the market and each brand’s personality ranking.

‘ The consumer will try to choose the best option available, while taking into consideration her need, taste and budget. This consumer particularly required a device that is of ease of use but can still perform all basic roles of a laptop. An affordable option is also vital as she is now a retiree but will be using her savings for this purchase. She also wanted a reliable brand that will be durable and last the upcoming years.

Figure 3 Desktops and laptops brand’s personality.

Source: Mintel (2014)

4. Purchase Decision.

‘ After the brand evaluation stage, the intention to buy a specific brand will be made in this stage. This could generally be the buyer most preferred brand but two factors can come in between these processes, the attitude of others and an unexpected situational factor.

‘ This buyer has made a decision to go with the brand Hewlett-Packard, a highly used brand which has also earned the strongest amount of commitment from over-55s, who trust it and much prefer it to newer brands (Munson, 2014)

‘ She found the ‘HP 15-r101na Laptop’ most suited to her as the laptop cost a reasonable price of ??299 while still meeting all her desired needs.

5. Post purchase Evaluation

‘ This is the final stage and occurs after the product has been the purchased and the customer analysis whether the product was useful and fulfilled his/her needs.

‘ This customer was highly satisfied with her overall experience when purchasing her new HP laptop. The staff at Argos provided her with excellent service and they were very friendly and informative throughout the whole purchase process, offering her with great advice and deals.

‘ She has also received a two year laptop warranty from the manufacturer, which has given her a great sense of relief and security.

‘ Additionally she is greatly satisfied with the specific laptop she chose to buy; she has found it easy to manoeuvre and is currently enjoying using it. She feels pleased with her purchase.

5. Marketing Recommendations.

Based on the analysis on the factors that affect consumer behaviour, the types of buying decisions and the components of the decision making process the following suggestions and recommendations can be made:

‘ Manufacturers should focus on producing excellent quality products for their consumer, as all consumers regardless of their demographics expect products of high quality especially when it comes to long term investment. Additionally the manufacturer should work on building products that offer simple functionality that will be favoured by many in this particular market.

‘ As price is the biggest influence for consumers of all ages when it comes to purchasing technology products, manufacturer should work on providing the most competitive price. Marketers can then emphasise this affordable price and provide additional deals in order to attract potential consumer and assist in gaining an overall bigger share in the market.

‘ Marketer’s that tailor products for this market should aim to highlight specification features in order to up sell their devices, whilst ensuring they avoid using too much ‘jargon’ that will alienate the buyers, as this particular market is not familiar with the current technology terms.

‘ Marketers should make use of reference group as these sources have proved to be the most influential. A direct focus should be made on friends and family in their advertising strategies and personal selling strategies, educating these groups more about what the brand can offer them.

‘ Products and features that are complicated by nature could be more attractive to seniors if walk-through demonstrations are offered in-store or available as part of after-sales service schemes. This will also help build a great relationship with their consumers as seniors are more concerned than younger generation with their overall sales experience as well as peace of mind.

‘ As the length of product guarantees is one thing that really matters to this age group, with 35% of seniors saying it influences their purchasing decisions, compared with just 23% of under-55s, I would also recommend marketers to extend their warranty period in order to persuade the consumers to purchase their products. (Davis, 2013)

6. Conclusion.

In summary this report has identified that there are different characteristics that can affect consumer behaviour and it is extremely crucial that marketers try to understand this in order to successfully meet these processes with utmost effectiveness and ensure sales.

In the state of complex buying behaviour when buyers are highly involved with the purchasing decision, marketers will find advantage of this process if they provide the buyer with relevant, concise but sufficient information about their brand, as it will greatly assist consumers while gaining sales.

The senior market tends to be of different demographics to the younger generations and because of this marketers should not neglect them but pay attention to their particular desires and needs when purchasing goods in order to win their sales.

7. List of References.

Armstrong G. and Kotler P., (2013) Marketing an Introduction. 11th Global edn. Pearson Education.

Blogspot.com (2015) 5 March, 2015. Available at http://1.bp.blogspot.com/-z9S6aasnBbQ/UkRjZaSfrAI/AAAAAAAAABk/m1QcrVyFp-Q/s1600/buying_customer_factors.gif [Accessed: 5 March, 2015].

Davis P. (2013) Technology and the Over 55s. Mintel. [Online] Available at: http://academic.mintel.com.ezproxy.herts.ac.uk/display/650142/?highlight#hit1 [Accessed: 10 March, 2015].

Keynote (2011) Computer Hardware Market Report. Keynote. Available at: https://uhvpn.herts.ac.uk/market-intelligence/view/product/10455/computer-hardware/chapter/1/,DanaInfo=www.keynote.co.uk+executive_summary

[Accessed: 10 March, 2015].

Kjell G., (1977) Industrial Marketing Management, Vol. 6 Issue 6, p439-445. 7p. 1 Black and White Photograph, 3 Charts. Business Source Complete [Online] Available at: http://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&db=bth&AN=7335216&site=bsi-live [Accessed: 7 March, 2015].

Launchenginnering.com (2015) 5 March, 2015. Available at http://www.launchengineering.com/images/Typesofbuyingbehavior.jpg [Accessed: 5 March, 2015].

Mason, J. B., and Beardon, W. O. (1978), Profiling the Shopping Behavior of Elderly Consumers The Gerontologist, 18, 454-461. [Online] Available at: http://www.acrwebsite.org/search/view-conference-proceedings.aspx?Id=5885 [Accessed: 7 March, 2015].

Munson R. (2014) Desktop and Laptop Computers ‘UK. Mintel. [Online] Available at: https://uhvpn.herts.ac.uk/display/679757/,DanaInfo=academic.mintel.com+

[Accessed: 12 March, 2015].

Solomon, M., Bennett R., and Josephine P. (2013) Consumer Behaviour [Online] Available at: https://books.google.co.uk/books?hl=en&lr=&id=ajDiBAAAQBAJ&oi=fnd&pg=PP1&dq=why+marketers+should+understand+consumer+behaviour+&ots=ewRRQx3hHI&sig=Wi4NrOPn1MHETuHl9tnysdO5AfA&redir_esc=y#v=onepage&q=whymarketersshouldunderstandconsumerbehaviour&f=false

[Accessed: 25 February, 2015].

Towle, J. G. and Martin, C. R. (1976), “The Elderly Consumer: One Segment of Many?” in The Elderly Consumer, ed. F. E. Waddell, Columbia, MD: The Human Ecology Centre, Antioch College, pp. 232-242. [Online] Available at: http://www.acrwebsite.org/search/view-conference-proceedings.aspx?Id=5885

[Accessed: 7 March, 2015].

Perreau F. (2015) The Consumer Factor. [Online] Available at: http://theconsumerfactor.com/en/4-factors-influencing-consumer-behavior/

[Accessed: 25 February, 2015].

BigLift Shipping

BigLift Shipping, member of the Spliethoff group is one of the world’s leading heavy lift ship management companies, specialised in worldwide ocean transportation of heavy lift and project cargoes, with a history dating back to 1973. BigLift strives for innovation, excellence and operational reliability, adhering to high Health, Safety, Environment and Quality standards and operating to strict time schedules.’A great variety of heavy and over-sized cargoes for long-standing clients in the oil & gas, mining and power generating industries, is carried worldwide by a modern fleet of 15 specialised heavy lift vessels. All the vessels we manage are equipped with their own gear with lifting capacities up to 1,800 [mt] and some have a ro-ro capability for loads as high as 2,500 [mt].

A team of dedicated, highly skilled professionals, with years of experience and the mindset to think creatively, enables us to offer innovative and safe solutions for clients’ technically and logistically complex requirements. Careful planning, engineering, coordination and supervision to ensure safe transportation are all in a day’s work. (Biglift, 2015)

Rotterdam Mainport University of Applied Sciences

Rotterdam Mainport University (RMU) is the result of a joint venture between the STC Group and the Hogeschool Rotterdam. Using the hands-on experience from professional practice is essential in all programmes and it enables us to adequately respond to the needs arising in professional practice in the biggest port in Europe. RMU offers bachelor’s degrees in Mainport related topics such as:

Transport and Logistics,

Ship building and

Chemical Process Engineering.

Contractor

Daan van den Wildenberg. Graduate student Bachelor Shipbuilding / Maritime Technology.

Problem definition

Background

Prior to the actual transportation of heavy cargo, BigLift’s Engineering department carefully analyses the ship’s structural integrity with regard to dynamic loads for sea-going conditions. Usually the current practice is to make a simplification of the actual load cases that occur, for which BigLift has developed and uses an in-house Excel-based engineering toolbox. Specifically for tanktop loading BigLift’s current approach is limited and should be revised to a more sophisticated method to calculate stress levels in the tanktop structure.

Problem description

Currently for tanktop strength checks BigLift makes an Excel-based buckling analysis of plate fields that directly support cargo. But in this approach BigLift neglects any shear forces and bending moments transferred to the surrounding plate fields, stiffeners and main girders in the tanktop structure. This approach is not a correct representation of the actual situation and might be conservative as all energy is absorbed by the supporting plate field only.

This incorrect modelling and loss of accuracy in the actual approach could be partially solved by using FEM in structural assessments. This allows to analyse the structure as a 3D model, instead of the 2D model as plate field in the actual approach. Since no full-scale stress and deflection benchmark measurement dataset is available, FEM-modelling is expected to give the most realistic results for structural assessments.

The described problems of incorrect modelling and loss of accuracy mainly apply to tanktop load cases.

Objective

BigLift is interested in gaining a better insight in the limitations in application of the actual Excel-based approach and the differences in outcome compared to FEM-modelling. A new methodology based on FEM should be developed for structural assessments. This should primarily be aimed at tanktop structural assessments.

This in-depth FEM-based methodology evaluates stress and buckling effects of an arbitrary load at a location and its surroundings on a tanktop structure, taking into account multiple criteria such as buckling, shear and bending stresses. For more general use this methodology could be integrate a FEMAP model and analysis in an Excel-based GUI.

The main objective can be achieved with the following sub-tasks:

Analysing the current buckling calculations of BigLift of several load cases

Modelling the tanktop construction of the Happy D in FEMAP

Modelling a previously existing load case in FEMAP

Comparing the results of FEMAP with the original calculations currently used by BigLift Shipping (e.g. comparing stress results in plate fields that have direct and non-direct contact with the load)

Setting the parameters in Excel for a load case as input

Programming the link between Excel and FEMAP for import and export of load cases and their results

Research questions

These research questions will be used as support for the sub-tasks.

Which method is currently used by BigLift Shipping?

How can FEM be used to calculate the stresses near the location of a load and its surroundings in the tanktop structure?

Which differences are there between the results from a previous existing load in FEMAP and the current Excel sheet?

Which parameters are necessary for setting up an Excel-based model with the integrated FEM calculation?

Approach

To achieve the main objective of this research, a well thought approach is necessary. The approach is divided in the following:

Problem investigation, current work method

Understanding the current Excel calculations sheets

Reviewing the Excel sheet with the theory of plate buckling

Analysing the load case

Analysing the cargo item on it stowage plan

Analysing the Excel calculations for this load case

Design a FEM methodology for careful analyses of the load case in three steps

Step 1: Modelling a similar buckling case as BigLift uses for the Excel calculation. This is only one plate simply supported on all edges. Comparing the results from the two different methods

Step 2: Modelling a number of stiffed panels with a load applied. Comparing the results with step 1

Step 3: Modelling the complete tanktop structure with the existing load case. Analyse the results with the previous steps

Evaluation of the difference between the current work method and the FEM method

Evaluation of the current Excel calculations and the results from FEMAP

Conclusion which method is more accurate and sophisticated

Preconditions

All the dimensions and load cases are based on the ship ‘Happy D-Type’. In order for careful analyses of the complete tanktop structure during a load, the tanktop model must be accurate according on the design of the ship. The model will be based on the drawings provided by BigLift Shipping of the hull structure. The shape of the load will be based on the drawings provided by the client for this particular voyage. The stowage plan is leading for the support of the cargo on the tanktop. The modelling and calculation will be done in FEMAP, a program from Siemens. After modelling and calculation the results need to be compared with the current buckling calculation of BigLift. This comprising is important for determine which method is more sophisticated.

Load case

The load case for this research is cargo item (a LNG tank) shipped from Aviles ‘ Onslow. This tank is part of a LNG Plant in Onslow Australia. This plant is currently under construction and part of the Wheatstone project. The Wheatstone project will include an onshore facility located 12 kilometres west of Onslow. The foundation project includes two LNG trains with a combined capacity of 8.9 million tonnes per annum (Chevron, 2015).

The cargo item that’s calculated for buckling on the tanktop is a 170.6 [mt] LNG tank with a length of 39.89 [m], with of 8 [m] and 7 [m] high. The tank will be supported by two saddles which are located according to the stowage plan in Appendix I.

Buckling calculation

Theory

The tanktop of a ship is basically a stiffened plate structure. The plating is supported by longitudinal stiffeners. But when the structure is subjected to compressive loads, the behaviour is quite different than under tensile loads. The structure under tensile stress may cause cracks, while compressive stress will result in buckling of the structure. Almost every part in the structure of a ship are sometimes loaded with compressive loads, therefore it is important to analyse the buckling stresses that occur during sea-going conditions, or in this case when adding heavy loads on a tanktop. In Figure 1: Example of plate buckling form is an example show of plate buckling behaviour (Okumoto, Takeda, Mano, & Okada, 2009).

Figure 1: Example of plate buckling form

For practical design purposes BigLift’s approach only checks a plate field without any stiffeners or other construction. Within this approach BigLift assumed that all the energy, forces and stresses only occur in the plate that’s calculated on buckling. BigLift’s method which is explained in 5.2 is based on the equation of Euler. The complete derivation of the Euler buckling formula is descripted in (Okumoto et al., 2009)

These calculations are according to the basic equations of plate buckling with various boundary conditions and different loading combinations.

Buckling calculations are based on the Euler equation of buckling. (Okumoto et al., 2009)

??_E= (k ‘ ??^2 ‘E)/(12 (1- ??^2 ) ) ‘ (t/b)^2 ( 1 )

The formulas given below is equally applicable to either vertically or horizontally stiffened main supporting members, or members utilizing a combination of both systems. (Taggart, Architects, & Engineers, 1980)

(f_c/f_crc )^2+(f_s/f_crs )^2 ‘1.0 ( 2 )

Where

f_c = Calculated maximum compressive stress due to axial compression and bending.

f_s = Calculated average shear stress.

f_crc = Critical buckling stress corresponding to axial compression and bending loads.

f_crs = Critical buckling stress corresponding to pure shear loading.

The critical buckling stresses, f_crc and f_crs may be approximated as follows (Taggart et al., 1980):

f_crc=f_t ( 3 )

f_crs= f_t”3 ( 4 )

Where

f_t= f_e “when ” f_e'(f_y ‘0.75) ( 5 )

f_t= f_y ‘ (1- (3f_y)/(16f_e )) “when ” f_e'(f_y >0.75) ( 6 )

f_e= 1.88 ‘ ’10’^6 ‘ (t/b)^2 ‘k=[kg/’cm’^2] ( 7 )

f_y = Specified minimum yield point of the material or 72 [%] of the specified minimum ultimate strength whichever is less.

t = Thickness of the web plate reduced by 10 [%] as an allowance for corrosion.

b = Depth of plate panel.

K is a function of different types of loading, aspect ratio and boundary conditions. BigLift is using the following conditions for their buckling analyses.

Figure 2: Load condition Compression and Bending

K corresponding to axial Compression and Bending:

Where a’b ‘1.0=4 ( 8 )

Where a’b 0.75 “then ” f_t= ??_y )'[1- ((3??_y)'(16f_e ))] ( 17 )

In this load case the is f_e'(??_y >0.75 )so f_t is calculated according to equation ( 17 ). These results are used for calculate f_crc:

f_crs= f_t ( 18 )

Then the Compression area is calculated:

A_s= (a+b) ‘t ( 19 )

The force that is actual causing the Compression and Bending is calculated as:

Q=q ‘b ( 20 )

This force is a distributed load on the structure that’s been analysed. Dividing equations ( 20 ) an ( 21 ) gives the stress that occurs.

f_s= Q’A_s ( 21 )

Shear Calculation

The K factor for shear is different than for Compression and Bending. The K factor for Shear needs to be determinate as following:

“If ” a’b >1 “then ” K= ‘3’ [5.34+4 ‘(b’a) ‘^2 ] ( 22 )

“If ” a’b 0.75 “then ” f_t= ??_y )'[1- ((3??_y)'(16f_e ))] ( 26 )

In this load case the is f_e'(??_y >0.75 )so f_t is calculated according to equation ( 26 ). These results are used for calculate f_crc:

f_crs= f_t”3 ( 27 )

Then the shear area is calculated:

A_s=minimum of 2a ‘t or 2b ‘t ( 28 )

The force that is actual causing the shear stress is calculated as:

Q=q ‘b ( 29 )

This force is a distributed load on the structure that’s been analysed. Dividing equations ( 28 ) an ( 29 ) gives the stress that occurs.

f_s= Q’A_s ( 30 )

Conclusion:

In this section the combined calculations of Compression and Bending and Shear are calculating if buckling occurs.

“No Buckling when: ” (f_c’f_crc )^2+'(f_s’f_crs ) ‘^2 1.00 ( 32 )

Finite Element Method

The Finite Element Method (FEM) is a numerical solution of equations (matrixes). In FEM a construction is divided in a finite number of elements. Every element is connected with each other, these connections are called nodes. With the use of matrix equations, it’s possible to calculate the displacement, forces and stresses of these nodes in certain load cases. By using FEM software it’s possible to divide the model in small nodes. Then the program calculates the displacement of every node, which will result in a very careful analysis.

For the complete derivation of the Finite Element Method (Hofman, 1994).

Chapter 5 describes the current buckling calculation according the equation of Euler. But it neglects the surrounding structure and the method. Therefore a more accurate analysis of the complete tanktop structure is necessary. The choice for these analyses is based on the Finite Element Method.

FEM-based tanktop model

In the FEM-based tanktop analyses the model will be exposed on several loads. The analysis that’s been used is the ‘NX Nastran Static and Buckling’. This analysis calculates the model on the static stresses that occur during the load case and on buckling as well. The program calculates a so called: ‘Eigenvalue’, for the buckling situation. This Eigenvalue is a factor for the number of times that the current load could be multiplied before the construction succumbs under buckling.

Step 1

For analysing a similar calculation as BigLift uses in the Excel-sheets, it’s necessary for modelling a plate in FEMAP with the same conditions as used in the Excel calculation. The FEM-calculation reviews the construction based on the mesh. A mesh is an assembly of element. If the elements are small the calculation is more accurate, but it will also result in longer calculation time. For these analyses the mesh size of 50 [mm] by 50 [mm] is used.

Conditions:

Material Steel – [-]

Load Force per Area on Surface 2 [N/mm2]

Constrains Fixed on the Shell – [-]

Analyses NX Nastran Static and Buckling – [-]

Mesh size – 50 [mm]

This will result in several stresses as result from compressing and bending, shear and of course buckling.

The results of this analyses is shown in figure 212

Step 2

Since the FEM analysing of buckling situations is relative new for BigLift Shipping, verifying the results is difficult. Therefore splitting the modelling and analysing was necessary to insure the accuracies of the model. So after verifying that the previous step resulted in a good analyse, the model could be expanded. So stiffeners and other girders where added and the nodes where connected to each other. This resulted in a very basic and local construction of the tanktop. The footprint of the saddle was added as load case. Different values of the load where added to insure the accuracies of the model in different situations.

Conditions:

Material Steel – [-]

Load Force per Area on Surface 2 [N/mm2]

Constrains Fixed on the Shell – [-]

Analyses NX Nastran Static and Buckling – [-]

Mesh size – 50 [mm]

The results of these analyses are shown in figure 221

Step 3

After step 2, the construction of the tanktop is expended. The construction is modelled from frame 52 till frame 58. This is the construction, which according the Distribution calculation sheet of BigLift Shipping, is exposed at the most forces and stresses during sea-going conditions. The footprint of the load case is modelled as a surface with a very high Young’s modules. BigLift Shipping assumes in there calculation that the load is infinitely rigid. With this assumption the relation between the cargo and the construction of the vessel can be ignored. In this final step the analyses calculates the complete construction that’s been modelled. With this step it’s also possible to review the construction that acutely is exposed on the stresses.

Conditions:

Material Steel – [-]

Load Force per Area on Surface 2 [N/mm2]

Constrains Fixed on the Shell – [-]

Analyses NX Nastran Static and Buckling – [-]

Mesh size – 50 [mm]

Analysing calculation results

Implementation

Conclusion

Recommendations

Bibliography

Books

Asmus, K. (2001). Bijzondere Aspecten van de sterkte van Scheepsconstructies.

Hofman, G. E. (1994). Eindige elementen methode: HB Uitgevers.

Lambe, T. W., & Whitman, R. V. (1969). Soil Mechanics: Wiley.

Lewis, E. V. Principles of Naval Architecture (Second Revision), Volume I – Stability and Strength: Society of Naval Architects and Marine Engineers (SNAME).

Okumoto, Y., Takeda, Y., Mano, M., & Okada, T. (2009). Strength Evaluation. In Y. Okumoto, Y. Takeda, M. Mano & T. Okada (Eds.), Design of Ship Hull Structures (pp. 33-80): Springer Berlin Heidelberg.

Taggart, R., Architects, S. o. N., & Engineers, M. (1980). Ship design and construction: Society of Naval Architects and Marine Engineers.

Internet

Biglift. (2015). from http://www.bigliftshipping.com

Chevron. (2015). Wheatstone project. Retrieved 04-03-2015, from http://www.chevronaustralia.com/our-businesses/wheatstone

Rules and Regulations

Rules for Ships, Det Norske Veritas ?? Ch. 1 Sec. 1 (Det Norske Veritas 2009).

Internet Addiction in the Students of Fiji School Of Nursing and Its Impact on Academic Performances: online essay help

1. Introduction

1.1 Background

The world is advancing every day and with that advancement comes along new trends, inventories and creations that has been incorporated into the lifestyles of many people. One of the most astonishing creation of mankind has been the internet. Internet usage as increased drastically in the recent years. Internet is widely used for work, communication, shopping, entertainment and information. However, despite the benefits, the vast increase in internet usage has led to internet addiction in many people. Kim et al (2004), describes internet addiction as a compulsive need to spend a lot of time on the internet to the point where a person’s relationships, work and health suffers. Internet addiction is not only prevalent in developed countries such as South Korea, Japan and USA, where the technology and internet is readily available but also in developing countries such as Malaysia, India, China and even some Pacific Island countries where people recognizing the works of internet, possibly considering it to be a daily lifestyle necessity (Lee et al, 2014). Majority people in the developed countries have access to internet, young old, rich or poor, are frequently online, therefore internet addiction rates in developed countries are higher than developing countries (Wellman & Hogan, 2004). Internet addiction is likely to be present in our society as the number and size of internet uses are increasing per day, however the use of internet is influenced by the socio-economical gap because the poorer folks are not increasing their usage rate in comparison to the wealthier folks (Wellman & Hogan, 2004). It has been known that young adults, mostly college or university students are more likely to go online, then any other population. It has become common amongst the students to be Googling or Facebooking like it’s a daily activity such as eating or sleeping. Young (1996), has stated that addiction to internet is similar to being addicted to drugs, alcohol which ultimately result in academic, social and occupational impairment. The students with internet addiction tend to face severe academic performances since the amount of study time is spent on ‘surfing irrelevant websites, using social media and online gaming’ (Kandell, 1998).

1.2 Problem Statement

Internet addiction may be a new concept for the local societies but that does not mean it is not present. College or university life is known to bring in serious challenges in the lives of many students. Undergoing all these challenges makes the students exposed to the environment influences and one of them being internet addiction. According Mercola (2014), internet addiction or internet use disorder may not yet be defined as a mental disorder under the Statistical Manual of Mental Health Disorders (DSM-5), however many researchers have argued that Internet addiction may be a contributing factor towards or be a borderline addictive disorder. Various countries such as Korea, China and Taiwan has recognize the threat internet addiction brings about as a public health problem and are trying to address the problem (Lee et al, 2014). The purpose of this research is to investigate the existence of internet addictions among the local population of college students, particularly students of Fiji School of Nursing and to explore the relationship of internet addiction and its impact on the academic life of the students. Another reason is that people should be aware of the psychological impairment that is caused by internet addiction especially among the college students.

1.3 Literature Review

According to Byun et al (2008), internet addiction in any individual is assessed through five dimensions, compulsive use, withdrawal, tolerance, interpersonal and health problems, and time management issues. The researchers (Byun et al, 2008) discovered that there is relationship of internet addiction with interpersonal skills and personality and intelligence. It was stated that as an individual’s internet usage or internet addiction increases, then there would be an attention deficit, hyperactivity and impulsiveness increase. The Meta- analysis (Byun et al, 2008) discovered that increasing network capabilities contributes to social isolation and functional impairment of daily activities.

Moving on, Yen et al (2007) states that one of the causes of internet addiction is a result of family factors. Since families play a large role in adolescent development and socialization, family factors are one of the major risk factors for internet addiction. In a quantitative study conducted by Yen et al (2007), it was demonstrated that the negative attitude or behaviours of the families, such as parent- adolescent conflict, lower family function, alcohol use of siblings and abuse, all contribute toward internet addiction in adolescents. This research suggested that internet addiction may be a form of problematic behaviour and ineffective discipline and supervision and poor intrafamily relationships aid in the initiation of problematic behaviours.

On the other hand, Fu et al (2010), recognize internet addiction as a social problem where the people of younger ages are considered to be less self-regulated, coordinated or focused therefore they become more susceptible to media influences so easily. this study (Fu et al,2010) also states that out of 511 participants(students) from 439 households in Japan, 38% of them aged 16 ‘ 24 are categorized to be internet addicted.

One argument placed by Fu et al (2006) is that female students are likely to be addicted to internet. This statement is however, contradicted by Young (1996), Yen et al (2007), Liu & Kuo (2007) and Niemz et al (2005) stating that male students are more likely to be internet addicted. Niemz et al (2005) and Young (1996) state that internet addiction rate is higher in the males as they use internet to fuel their addictions of online gaming, gambling and pornography and unlike females, male find difficulty in admitting that they are facing problems.

Moving on to consequences of internet addiction. In an overview of internet addiction, Murali & George (2006) state that internet addiction affect many aspects of an individual’s life is through interpersonal, social, occupational, psychological and physical aspects. The negative impacts are known to be on the family and social life as the internet addicts tend to neglect regular family, social activities and interests. Also internet addiction also contributes to poor performances in schools and colleges. Psychosocial consequences include loneness, frustration, depression and suicidal tendencies. (Murali & George, 2006)

Further on, the main negative effect of internet addiction of college students lies on the academic performance. According to Akhter (2013), the academic problems by internet addiction include decline in study habits, significant drop in grades, missing classes, being placed on academic probation and poor management of extracurricular activities. Akhter (2013) suggested that university students are considered to be high risk groups of internet addicts because of their available free time, with no parent supervision and a need to escape the tough university life. Akhter (2013) used Young’s internet addiction test to conduct a survey on the undergraduates of National University of science and technology in Pakistan and concluded that 1 in every 10 university student is internet addicted and out of the internet addicted students, 65% of them are likely to fail or drop out of school.

Moving on, another research conducted by Anderson (2001) on college students concluded that excessive internet use of students results in sleep problems and reducing everyday activities which lead to academic failure. From the survey Anderson (2001) discovered that the average time a student is online in a day is for 100 minutes. She also stated that out of all the participants, 16% were confirmed with internet addiction and the total amount of time these students spend online was more 400 minutes. Even Young (1996) states that internet availability does not improve the academic performance of students and 58% of students’ participants in this researched showed signs of decline in study habits and low grades due to internet addiction and out of those participants 43% failed their annual examination.

2. Objectives and Aim

Aims: To find out about the impact of internet addiction on academic performances of the students of Fiji School of Nursing.

Objectives:

‘ To find out the factors associated with the internet addiction in students.

‘ To find out about the direct and indirect impacts of internet addiction on the students.

3. Methodology

3.1 Study type

The study type for this research is a descriptive quantitative study that will be carried out in Fiji School of Nursing. A quantitative study approach will assist in quantifying the relationship internet addiction has with the academic performance of the students. A descriptive study will aid in describing the actual relationship within the variables, and in this case with internet addiction and academic performance. The reason for choosing this study type is that the source of data chosen is questionnaires, as it will make it more effective in gathering data. Questionnaires is the best option for data collection as the students can complete the questions in their free time rather than trying to make time out for interview and such. Another reason questionnaire are best suited for this study is that the focus group of this study is based on a limited number of students.

Study design

This is a prospective cross- sectional study to clarify how internet addiction affects academic performances of students. The reason for choosing a prospective study is because it is an easier and efficient method of gathering data. Prospective study will aid in looking out for the occurrence of internet addiction among the students over a certain period of time and are able to observe the impact of internet addiction on the academic performance of the students. For choosing cross-sectional study, data will be collected from the students of Fiji School of Nursing at one given time and this will be used as the overall picture of the population.

Variables

Some of the variables that the study may include will be:

– The demographical data of students will be: age, gender, and ethnicity

– The number of students that use internet daily.

– The availability of technology to use internet: laptops, tablets, phone, school ICT.

– The number of cases of internet addiction among the students of Fiji school of Nursing.

– The academic performance/ grades of the students of Fiji school of nursing.

– The amount of time students spend studying in a day.

– The amount of data (estimation) a student uses in a month for internet usage.

3.2 Sampling

This study will be carried out in Fiji School of Nursing in Tamavua, Suva, Fiji Islands. A sample of undergraduate students from all the three years, students from each year, year one, year two and year three, of the said school will be recruited in the study. The participants are to be recruited voluntary, with both verbal and written consent given. For this research, stratified sampling technique is being used because from all of the student population of Fiji school of Nursing, year 1, 2, and 3 will be divided into two groups, group one (A) is consistent of students who have access to internet on a daily basis e.g. students with internet phones, laptops and tables. Group two (B) is consistent of students who do not have continuous access to internet on daily basis e.g. students who do not have smartphone or laptops. The questionnaires will be demonstrated amongst only group one (A), the students with access to internet on daily basis.

Inclusion Criteria: Students of Fiji School of Nursing who use internet daily through their internet phones, laptops, tablets or either through school library or ITC (Group A).

Exclusion Criteria: Students who do not use internet daily through smartphones, laptops, tablets, school library or ITC (Group B).

3.3 Plan for data collection

A structured and pre-tested questionnaire will be prepared and distributed among all the three year level of students of Fiji School of Nursing who fall under group one (A) category, those having access to internet on daily basis. The questionnaires will be based on the student’s lifestyle revolving around internet, how often the students use internet, through what means, how often do the students study and does internet usage clashes with their study time and what effect does daily usage of internet have on their grades. The data will be collected from April to June 2015. Informed consent, both oral and written will be taken from the students during the distribution of the questionnaires. The questionnaire will be typed and printed in English and a sample questionnaire will be attached in the annex of the proposal.

3.4 Plan for data processing and analysis

The data will be collected from the structured questionnaire distributes to the students and the questionnaires will be analyze using the Statistical Package for the Social Science (SPSS) for Windows version 21.0 software. SPSS is a programming statistical analysis that is used for managing, analyzing and presenting data.

Confidentiality will be maintained throughout the research, where all the personal data of the participants will be only accessible to the researchers only. The data will be analyzed numerically and quantified. The words will be transformed into quantitative categories through the process of coding. Then the numbers will be analyzed statistically to determine, for instance, the percentage of students facing academic problems due to internet addiction.

3.5 Ethical Consideration.

The ethical approval for carrying out this research will be obtained from the local research committee. Approval will be first send to the Department of research Committee of Fiji school of Nursing and then it will be send to the College of Health Research Ethics Committee and then forwarded to the Fiji National Research Ethics Review Committee. Once the approval for this research is given, a written permission will be asked from the head of School, Fiji School of Nursing, to seek permission to start data collection in the school.

Written and verbal consent will also be gathered from the participants upon distribution of questionnaires. Confidentiality will be maintain and the participants will be assured that no personal data such as name and address will be An information sheet will be given with the consent form, explaining what the research is about, what they are actually asked to participate in, what are the risks for participation and how they got selected to participate the research.

4. Work Plan

Activity M O N T H

March April May June July Aug Sept Oct Nov Dec

Submission of research proposal to DRC

Submission to CHREC

Data collection

Data analysis

Report writing

Dissemination seminar

5. Budget

Expenses Total

1. Data collection and data entry-Research assistant F$80.00

2. Supplies- priniting questionnaires, stationaries, packaging box, F$80.00

3. Telecommunications F$10.00

4. Transport Allownace F$30.00

5. Data Analysis F$80.00

6. Publication F$100.00

Grand Total F$380.00

6. Plan for administration, monitoring, and utilization of results

The work plan will be strictly followed in order to complete the research, data collection and data analysis at the given time. The expenses will be kept within the budget and time and resources will be used wisely. The results will be presented in numeric and percentage form. The results will be presented through bar graphs, pie charts and line graphs. The final report with recommendations will be submitted to the Ministry of Health to the following departments:

‘ Research office, Ministry of Health

‘ Local and Pacific Regional Health research conference

‘ Tutors and students of the Fiji school of Nursing

‘ Presentation in Local Health research conference and symposium

Reference List

Akhter, N. (2013). Relationship between Internet Addiction and Academic Performance among University Undergraduates. Academic Journals, 8(19), 1793-1796. Retrieved from http://www.academicjournals.org/article/article1382342222_Akhter.pdf.

Anderson, K. (2001). Internet Use Among College Students: An Exploratory study. Journal of American Health, 50(1), 20-28. Retrieved from http://faculty.mwsu.edu/psychology/dave.carlston/WritinginPsychology/Internet/2/i5.pdf.

Byun, S., Ruffini, C., Mills, J. E., Douglas, A. C., Niang, M., Stepchenkova, S., Lee, S. K., … Blanton, M. (2009). Internet Addiction: Metasynthesis of 1996’2006 Quantitative Research. CYBERPSYCHOLOGY & BEHAVIOR, 12(2), 203-207. Retrieved from file:///C:/Users/NishantSharma/Downloads/InternetAddictionMetaAnalysis-cpb.2008.0102.pdf.

Fu, K., Chan. W. C,. Wong. C. W. P, & Yip. P.W (2010). Internet addiction: prevalence, discriminant validity and correlates among adolescents in Hong Kong. The British Journal of Psychiatry, 196(6), 486-492. Retrieved on 8315 from http://bjp.rcpsych.org/content/196/6/486.full-text.pdf+html.

KANDELL, J. J. (1998). Internet Addiction on Campus: The Vulnerability of College Students. Cyber Psychology & Behavior, 1(1), 11-17. Retrieved on, 8315 from http://online.liebertpub.com/doi/abs/10.1089/cpb.1998.1.11.

Kim H. S, Chae K. C, Rhim Y. J, Shin Y. M. (2004). Familial Characteristics of Internet Overuse Adolescents. . Korean Association of Medical Journal Editors, 43(6), 733-739. Retrieved on 5315 from http://www.koreamed.org/SearchBasic.php?RID=0055JKNA/2004.43.6.733&DT=1.

Lee, J. Y., Shin, K. M., Cho, S., & Shin, Y. M. (2014). Psychosocial Risk Factors Associated with Internet Addiction in Korea. Psychiatry Investigation, 11(4), 380-386. Retrieved on 8315 from http://synapse.koreamed.org/DOIx.php?id=10.4306/pi.2014.11.4.380.

LIU, C., & KUO, F. (2007). A Study of Internet Addiction through the Lens of the Interpersonal Theory. CYBERPSYCHOLOGY & BEHAVIOR, 10(6), 801-804. Retrieved from http://www.encognitive.com/files/AStudyofInternetAddictionthroughtheLensoftheInterpersonalTheory.pdf.

Mercola. (2014). Internet Addiction is the New Mental Health Disorder. Retrieved March 6, 2015, from http://articles.mercola.com/sites/articles/archive/2012/11/24/internet-addiction.aspx – See more at: http://reffor.us/index.php#sthash.4IuikrZG.dpuf

Murali, V., & George, S. (2006). Lost online: an overview of internet addiction. Advances in Psychiatric Treatment, 13(1), 24-30. Retrieved on 5315 from http://apt.rcpsych.org/content/13/1/24#sec-5.

NIEMZ, K., GRIFFITHS, M., & BANYARD, P. (2005). Prevalence of Pathological Internet Use among University Students and Correlations with Self-Esteem, the General Health Questionnaire (GHQ), and Disinhibition. Cyber Psychology & Behavior, 8(6), 562-568. Retrieved from file:///C:/Users/NishantSharma/Downloads/PathologicalInternetUse_cpb.2005.8.pdf.

Wellman, B., & Hogan, B. (2004). The Immanent Internet. NetLab, Retrieved from, on 8315 http://groups.chass.utoronto.ca/netlab/wp-content/uploads/2012/05/The-Immanent-Internet.pdf.

YEN, J., YEN, C., CHEN, C., CHEN, S., & KO, C. (2007). Family Factors of Internet Addiction and Substance Use Experience in Taiwanese Adolescents. CYBERPSYCHOLOGY & BEHAVIOR, 10(3), 323-329. Retrieved on 8315 from http://ntur.lib.ntu.edu.tw/bitstream/246246/173340/1/16.pdf.

Young K. S. (1996). Internet addiction: the emergence of a new clinical disorder. CyberPsychology & Behavior. 1(3), 237-244. Retrieved on 8315 from, http://www.chabad4israel.org/tznius4israel/newdisorder.pdf

Annex

Questionnaires: Internet Addiction in Students of FSN and its Impact on Academic Achievements

age:

sex: m f

personal status:

student: yes: no:

if yes, what are you studying?

1. How many hours do you spend for surfing in one week?

2. How often do you find that you stay online longer than you intended?

3. How often do you neglect school work to spend more time online?

4. How often do others in your life complain to you about the amount of time

you spend online?

5. How often do your grades or school work suffer because of the amount of

time you spend online?

6. How often do you become defensive or secretive when anyone asks you what

you do online?

7. How often do you block out disturbing thoughts about your life with soothing

thoughts of the Internet?

8. How often do you find yourself anticipating when you will go online again?

9. How often do you fear that life without the Internet would be boring, empty,

and joyless?

10. How often do you snap, yell, or act annoyed if someone bothers you while

you are online?

11. How often do you lose sleep due to late-night log-ins?

12. How often do you try to cut down the amount of time you spend online and

fail?

13. How often do you try to hide how long you’ve been online?

14. How often do you choose to spend more time online over going out with

others?

15. How often do you feel depressed, moody, or nervous when you are off-line,

which goes away once you are back online?

Multicultural competence

In the modern context today, demographic changes are becoming more prominent across the globe and this phenomenon suggests that multicultural counseling is inevitable. Hence, the importance of counselors’ multicultural competence, which refers to the ability to interact effectively to individuals that are culturally of socioeconomically different, cannot be overstated. For this instance, counselor would have to be multicultural competent in order to effectively communicate to client that comes from different culture. With that in mind, this essay I will further discuss the relevance of multicultural competence on the effectiveness of multicultural counseling.

Due to the increasing diversity of culture in the society, individuals seeking help from counselors could show up with various cultural backgrounds. In order to adapt to this arising situation, counselors are required to have an understanding of various way that culture could have an impact on the counseling relationship. For example, a male counselor might be casually greeting his client, who happens to be a female Muslim, with a handshake. Unaware of the Muslims’ cultural background where in males are not permitted to touch or give a handshake to the opposite gender, the counselor is actually performing a forbidden action. This lack of sensitivity to individuals’ cultural background can cause serious consequences, such as, individuals’ refusal to participate, which in turn hinder the development of counseling relationship (Ahmed, Wilson, Henriksen Jr., & Jones, 2011). Therefore, I believe that the counselors’ role have evolved with the diversity of culture, requiring them to be more cultural wary and provide multicultural guidance, in other words, being multicultural competent.

To further elaborate, multicultural competent is the fluency in more than one culture or specifically, whichever culture that the individual is currently in. Moreover, Sue and Sue (2012) defined multicultural competent counselor with three main dimensions. Firstly, being multicultural competence mean to be actively aware of their own assumption about behaviors, values or biases. Secondly, multicultural competence counselor attempts to understand from the perspective of a culturally different client. Lastly, multicultural counselors actively develop and practice intervention strategy when guiding client with different cultural background. All in all, being multicultural competence enables counselor to realize that standard counseling method might not be beneficial to client with different cultural background and also understand that culture is not to be hold accountable for clients’ problem.

However, despite being multicultural competent, cultural groups are not discrete, instead, cultural groups are overlapping. In today’s multicultural context, individuals ultimately acculturate to different culture, which results in a blurring difference between each individual. Furthermore, even if it were possible to classify every client into different subgroup, it would be an insurmountable task to be prepared for every possible client. Therefore, instead of emphasizing on the clients’ differences, Patterson (2004) suggested to employ a universal system that known as the person-centered approach. With reference from the person-centered approach, counselors’ role remains the same, as to assist and guide their client to reach goals and objective, however their focus have been shifted from having proper skill set or technique, being knowledgeable, informative and focuses more on genuinity, empathetic and shows unconditional positive regard (Raskin, Rogers, & Witty, 2008).

Even though it may be impossible to classify every client into a specific subgroup, multicultural training has shown to decrease implicit racial prejudice and increase cultural self-awareness (Castillo, Brossart, Reyes, Conoley, & Phoummarath, 2007). By increasing cultural self-awareness and acknowledging how culture could affect the process of counseling, this will enable the counselor to develop an empathic understanding towards their client. Moreover, by reducing racial prejudice, counselors refrain from judging clients based on their own values or cultural beliefs and also help clients reach goals and objectives without imposing their personal cultural values on clients. Whereas a typical counselor without multicultural competent are seen to be less empathic, lack of cultural-specific knowledge and may even seen as having racial stereotypes or biases (Chang & Berk, 2009). This feeling of mistrust towards the counselor would eventually lead to an undermined counselors’ credibility, which can have an impact on the counseling relationship.

In conclusion, with the numerous studies’ findings, I believe that multicultural competence could improve the effectiveness of counseling. As the society becomes more interconnected through the globalization process, multicultural competent counseling become increasingly important to address the issue that may surface from an array of cultural background. Although it may be difficult to identify which cultural group a particular client belongs to in order to practice specific intervention, being multicultural competent have shown to be generally increasing the effectiveness of counseling by decreasing implicit prejudice and increasing counselors’ self-awareness of personals’ values and clients’ values. Furthermore, focusing on the knowledge and skill set of the counselor, encourage counselor to be more problem-focused rather than emotion-focused, which might cause client to feel that the solution provided were not tailored to their specific life context. Therefore, despite the contrary, counselor who are multicultural competent would still yield benefits in the society today.

Young peoples' perceptions of smoking: college essay help near me

The world Health Organization (WHO 2014) recognises that engaging in risk behaviours, puts you at greater exposure of mortality and morbidity. A risk behaviour has been defined as something that intentionally or unintentionally puts that person at greater risk to themselves, of injury or disease. This essay will look at the risk of smoking in young people, including the health implications, epidemiology and prevalence. An age range of 12-21 year olds will be used when identifying literature. There will be a primary focus on policies and guidance for health improvement in Scotland. In addition legislation and reports from the whole of the UK will support the discussion of health improvement in young people. It will aim to analyse literature to try to determine the reasons why young people smoke, and also consider the rise in social media and electronic cigarettes. Furthermore, it will explore the context of care within schools and the community, and discuss health inequalities. Additionally, this essay will Identify and critique a recent Health improvement Campaign video, aimed at young people. The content and design of the video will be discussed in detail, to analyse the appropriateness for the target age group. Throughout the critique, it will make reference to underpinning models of behaviour change, and health improvement within Scotland and the UK.

Health improvement is at the forefront of Scotland’s current policies and aims. The mission is to build a healthier Scotland, focus on inequalities and develop actions that will improve the overall population health (NHS Scotland 2014a). Policies aim to support everyone in Scotland to live healthier and longer lives, delivered by quality healthcare. The government has set aside national approaches to target underlying causes of poor health, such as smoking (The Scottish Government 2010). The Scottish government recognises that smoking is still one of the leading causes of preventable deaths. It aims to make Scotland a smoke free generation, by targeting health promotion towards young people, in an effort to reduce poor health in later life (The Scottish Government 2008).

In Scotland, a quarter of all deaths are smoking related, with 56,000 people being admitted to hospital each year from smoking related illnesses (ASH 2014). This figure continues to put substantial strain on our national health service (ScotPHO 2012). Smoking increases the risk of Cancers, heart attacks, and stokes. It also worsens and prolongs conditions such as asthma and respiratory diseases (NHS 2013). Early exposure to harmful toxins in tobacco puts you at a greater risk of related cancers. Young smokers are also prone to short and long term respiratory conditions such as wheezing, coughing and phlegm. Girls, in particular, who start smoking at a younger age are 79% more likely to develop bronchitis or emphysema in later life, compared to those who began smoking in adult life (Home Office 2002). The total annual cost of treating smoking related illnesses in Scotland is estimated at around ??409 million. Consequently, one of the NHS Scotland’s heat targets for 2013/2014 was to deliver at least 80,000 successful quits before march 2014 (Gov 2014 Scotland Heat Targets).

A young person is classified by the World health organisation (WHO 2015) and the NHS as those ranging from ages 10 and 24 years old (NHS Health Scotland 2014c). Around 15,000 young people in Scotland start smoking each year (NHS health Scotland 2014b). Although this figure is high, the proportion of young people who have ever smoked, has dropped dramatically by half in the last decade. There has been an improved reduction from 42% of young people in 2003 smoking, to 22% in 2013 (ASH 2014). Evidence has shown that the younger a person begins to smoke, the more likely they are to continue during adulthood. This puts them at increased risk or morbidity and mortality in later life (RCP 2010). It has been discussed that risk behaviours can set life patterns, and similarly have long lasting negative future effects on the persons health and wellbeing (WHO 2015). Most smokers begin smoking before the age of 18, which is why health improvement in young people, is of high importance in the UK (The Information Centre 2006). The UK laws have changed considerably within the last decade in an effort to reduce smoking. In 2007, the legal age a person could purchase tobacco products was increased from the age of 16 to 18 years old (The Secretary of State for Health 2007). One year prior the UK parliament introduced the smoking ban, which prohibited smoking in any public premise (The Secretary of State for Health 2006). The main focus of this legislation, was the protection and health of young people. Early intervention is said to be one of the key areas in reducing mortality and morbidity for young people (Department of health 2013).

More recently, the government have highlighted new concerns about the rise in popularity of electronic cigarettes. There are fears that electronic cigarettes could normalise smoking, thus backtracking on the efforts of the past decade to de-normalise it (Britton and Bogdanovica 2014). There is a real debate on whether electronic cigarettes appeal to young people. Electronic cigarettes come in a variety of exciting flavours such as bubblegum and banana and are marketed in colourful and fun packages, that may be appealing to young people (Public health England 2015). Statistically, however, it has been shown that young people’s use of electronic cigarettes is primarily confined to those who are already experimenting with regular cigarettes (Office For National Statistics 2012). Electronic cigarette use is found to be rare amongst young people who have never smoked before (Ash 2014).

Although statistically the UK and Scotland have shown that smoking in young people seems to be on the decline, it is still clear that a sizable minority of young people still continue to start smoking (Ash 2014). In order to try to campaign for a smoke free nation, it is important to understand the reasons behind why young people smoke. It has been noted that young people are susceptible to what is attractive and risky. Like following fashion, media and the internet, young people want to be in with the crowd. Where you live plays a big role, alongside if your parents or friends smoke. To add to this, positive tobacco advertisement pave the wave for young people to see smoking at exciting and relatively normal (BMA Board of Science 2008). A recent report (Amos et al 2009) summarized their findings on the key reasons young people smoke. These included individual beliefs and self image, social factors such as parents or friends smoking, community factors and ease of access to tobacco. Gough et al (2009) conducted a focus group study. The study invited 87 males and females, aged between 16 and 24 years to talk about reasons for smoking. Although a relatively small study, the focus group found that young people understood smoking to be a rational decision. Although the young people had a very clear awareness of health issues, the majority did not link smoking in young age and health as something to be worried, about until they are ‘older’ (Gough Et al 2009). A larger study in Romania found strong peer influence, alongside lower self-efficiency to be the primary reason for smoking in 13 to 14 year olds (Lotrean 2012). The age range of 13 to 14 year old was not sufficient enough to make a valid argument for the term young people. The latter two of these studies also did not delve much into the connections of youth smoking, being associated with social deprivation. There still continues to still be a strong association of smoking alongside health inequalities. In Scotland it was found that smoking in the most deprived areas equated to 36% of the figures, with only 10% in the least deprived areas (ASH Scotland 2014). Health inequalities is at the heart of public health improvement. The overall health of the public seems to be improving, yet the inequalities of health have worsened and the gap has increased (Health development agency 2005). Other levels of influences noted were price, marketing and promotion, self esteem and values and beliefs (Edwards 2010). A person’s values and beliefs can also play a role in health behaviours.

When looking at health improvement in young people, it is important that everyone working in national and local government, healthcare, social care, and the school and education system all contribute (Department of Health 2012). It has been recognised that school plays a vital role in the education and promotion of young people’s health, to build knowledge of personal wellbeing . School nurses play an important role in health promotion and health education, and can be incredibly valuable members of staff for early intervention. It has been suggested that school nurses, may have a lifelong impact on a young person’s health in adulthood, through early intervention (RCN 2012).Current guidelines dictate that every school must have a no smoking policy. These policies should be widely available, and be visible all over the school so that young people are aware. Schools and school nurses should also support smoking cessation information in partnership with NHS services, and offer help, information and health education to young people on smoking (NICE 2010). However A systematic review of school interventions to stop young people smoking, found no significant effect of interventions in schools to discourage smoking. There was however positive data for interventions which taught young people how to be socially competent, and resist social influences. The strength of this study is the size of the systematic review, which included 134 studies and 428,293 participants. Two authors independently reviewed the data in order to compare and contrast the evidence. On the contrary bias may have been introduced at low level due to the high variability of outcome measures that were used. The trial looked at the age range of five to 18, which only addressed some of the focused age range of youths aged 12-20 (Thomas et al 2013).

Another systematic review and meta-analysis found strong associations between parental and sibling smoking, as a factor for Young people’s uptake of smoking themselves. The analyses confirmed that when young people are exposed to smoke in the household, the chances of them starting smoking themselves are significantly increased (Leonardi-Bee et al 2011). It can be debated therefore that education on health promotion should also start at home, and in communities. The earlier the interventions the more effective it is in preventing health damaging behaviours. Actions need to be taken into a social, environmental and economic level, as well as legislative factors (NICE 2007).

Current UK guidelines advise using a range of strategies to change young people’s perceptions of smoking, and promote health improvement. Resources include posters, leaflets, campaigns and creating new opportunities from arising social media. All of which in an effort to alert young people of the dangers of smoking (NICE 2010). In November 2014 Cancer Research UK launched a UK-wide campaign via YouTube. The video urges young people to use social media, to protest against the tobacco industry (Cancer research 2014). The YouTube video features UK recognised Olympic gold medallist Nicola Adams, and music star wretch 32. The video tells the tobacco industry that young people are no longer puppets on a string and will not be contributing to their industry profits, which make more than coca cola, McDonalds and Microsoft combined. It invites young people to take a ‘selfie’ giving two fingers up to the tobacco industry and post it via twitter and Facebook. The campaign is also supported by UK tobacco control agency ASH. As of March 2015 the YouTube video has received almost a quarter of a million views in just 4 months.

We are currently in a new digital age where social media, and technology are part of daily life for young people. If the government are serious about reaching out to young people they need to step into the new social media and technology world of young people, and fully embrace it (nicholson 2014). The YouTube video by Cancer research aims to get to the very heart of young people, by doing just that. This resource is accessible and approachable for young people, as users can view in privacy, watch on their mobile phones or with friends. The language in the video is very focused on connecting with young people. The video uses words such as “selfie”, “coca cola”, “McDonalds” and “Hashtag”. These are modern words and brands that most young people will recognise. The video is also empowering and revolutionary with inspiring words such as “connected”, “informed” and “talk back”, thus creating a positive message that our generation is smarter, and makes better choices. “Be a part of it” is a phrase near the end, which creates a feeling of wanting to be part of something, and in a group. Recent social media statistics for the UK (Social Media Today 2014) show Facebook now has 31.5 million users, and Twitter has 15 million users. Social media can provide health promotion opportunities for patients, and be used as a communication tool for nurses. Social media can be incredibly powerful), however as professional nurses we must also adhere to professional boundaries (Farrelly 2014) such as NMC guidance for misuse of the internet (NMC 2009).

In order to change risk behaviours, it has been noted that Key elements for success include using resources that are targeted and tailored to the specific age and gender. Similarly alternative choices to risk behaviours should be given, rather than just simply telling an individual to do something (Health Development Agency 2004). The video is encouraging to young people, as the content has connotations of choice.

The YouTube video is unlike current leaflets and posters promoting anti-smoking messages to young people. Instead of listing shock tactics and diseases associated with smoking, it is instead focusing on trying to make smoking sound ridiculous from a financial point of view. It does this by expressing how much money the tobacco industry makes. The characters in the video are relatable, with varying genders and accents. This broadens the appeal of the campaign, instead of focusing on just one target group. The video also asks viewers to upload a picture of themselves to social media, giving the fingers up to the tobacco industry and using the hashtag #smokethis. This appeals to young people, who use social media nowadays as a way of spreading messages and connecting to others. A leaflet or poster may not have the same effect, as there is no social interaction. A twitter or Facebook post, however, can be shared and viewed worldwide. This enables young people to feel like they have a voice and a sense of empowerment. Social media is powerful. Although the video is about promoting anti-smoking, it may also be accessible for young people to share worldwide in negative forms. The hashtag #smokethis has recently been used showing young people uploading photos of themselves smoking both cigarettes and cannabis, in rebellion.

The world health organisation identified key underlying principles of health promotion in their Health for All and Health 21 movements (WHO 1999). These included equity, empowerment, participation, co-operation and primary care. The #Smokethis campaign encompassed both empowerment and participation. The video encourages participation by social media, and empowerment by standing up for something. A new revised health improvement model by Tannahil (2005) suggests that one of the biggest factors in health promotion is social and economic factors. The video encompasses both by showing how much money is wasted on the tobacco industry. It is also relevant to his earlier model of health improvement where he mentions the importance of health education and prevention. This video is very much preventative, in that it is trying to prevent the uptake of young smokers.

Cancer research have been clever in taking a new social media approach. In 2010, (Jepson et al 2010) did a study. They found that although some evidence suggests that media interventions may be effective in reducing the uptake of smoking in young people, the overall evidence was not strong. It would be interesting to see the findings of a more recent study, given the rise of social media in the last 5 years.

The main theme of the video is to try to recruit 100,000 young people to not start smoking this year. It is estimated that in the whole of the UK, 207,000 young people start smoking each year (Hopkinson 2013). Given this figure, if it were possible to half the amount of young people who start smoking each year, it would have a dramatic impact on the relevance for clinical practice. Not only would it decrease the amount of admissions in GP practices for symptoms such as coughing and wheezing, it would also have an incredible effect on later life hospital admissions such as heart disease, stokes and cancers.

The only negative about this video is that there is also the possibility for young people to share pictures of themselves smoking online, as a rebellious stance. This may influence the views of other young people. Is it still does not address the issue of health inequalities and community factors either, which remains an issue in the background as a reason for smoking. It has been well documented by the 1980 The Black Report to show that those in a lower social class have a higher risk of illness and premature death than those in a higher class. Rates of substance abuse are also higher (Department of Health 1980). As well as health promotion online and UK campaigns, there still needs to be community, social, school and family interventions to tackle those who are less deprived. An example is a study by Bond et all (2011), in which they found residents in disadvantaged areas of Glasgow had higher rates of smoking, and less likelihood of quitting smoking. The study found that area with better housing had better rates of quitting suggesting that your environment plays a key part in your health.

As a whole, the Cancer Research video is inventive, modern and appropriate for the target age range. It is easily accessible and creates discussion and the opportunity to be involved in something. Mass media campaigns can promote health improvement. However, there still needs to be approaches such as family, community and school interventions to address health inequalities and social circumstances affecting behaviour. The statistics have shown a steady decline in young people smoking, which is encouraging. The UK is currently in the process of introducing plain packaging on all tobacco products, in a further effort to discourage people from smoking (Barber and Conway 2015).

Statistically the UK and Scotland show that each year, fewer young people begin smoking. Despite the efforts of the government, legislation and regulations may not always discourage young people from smoking. As the UK prepares for further legislation to introduce plain tobacco packaging, it is evident that it is becoming increasing more difficult for young people to access tobacco. It is indisputable however that social factors, peer pressure and health inequalities continue to be an underlying cause of risk behaviours. There is also some contrasting literature on whether health promotion in schools can discourage young people smoking. Despite this, best practice would suggest early intervention is better than no intervention. Social media is on the rise and is quickly becoming a daily habit for young people. They use is to connect, talk, share and interact. It is constantly changing and requires healthcare professionals to be up to date on it. More recent studies would be beneficial to determine the effect of health improvement interventions via YouTube and Facebook. It could potentially become one of the biggest communication tools, for nurses in future practice when looking to get the heart of young people.

A Report on E-Commerce Industry: essay help site:edu

A Study on Indian E-Commerce Industry

Executive Summary

Following report has been made on the ‘Indian E-commerce Industry’. All the data has been collected from the internet, research papers and surveys. The e-commerce is one of the biggest things that have taken the Indian business by storm. It is creating an entire new economy, which has a huge potential and is fundamentally changing the way businesses are done. It has advantages for both buyers as well as sellers and this win-win situation is at the core of its phenomenal rise. Rising incomes and a greater variety of goods and services that can be bought over the internet is making buying online more attractive and convenient for consumers all over the country.

The report gives information on different aspects of the Indian E-commerce industry. For simplicity it is divided into various chapters.

Chapter 1 ‘ Introduces to the Indian E-commerce industry and defines its importance to the economy. The objective of the study is set in this chapter.

Chapter 2 – Briefs about the Global and Indian scenario. Comparison of U.S and Indian E-commerce

Chapter 3 ‘ Provides a brief insight into the Structure of the industry with the HHI index the Chapter 4 ‘ Has the macro environmental analysis of E-Commerce industry which includes the PESTEL analysis.

Chapter 5 – Briefs the Competitive analysis using Porters 5 Forces.

Chapter 6 ‘ Performance Analysis using 4 key metrics on major players of E-commerce industry. Also included the Internet users traffic comparison on top 10 e-commerce sites in India.

A Study on Indian E-Commerce Industry

7

CHAPTER 1

INTRODUCTION

A Study on Indian E-Commerce Industry

8

1.1 Introduction

Since from few years, Growth of internet has changed the world in terms of expectations of

the consumer and consumer behaviour. Online websites for product purchasing concentrate

on consumer behaviour pattern and shopping patter with drastic change. Company are now a

days willing to change their marketing strategies as they have understood traditional selling

practices won’t work with changing technology world.

‘Buying and selling products online’ was a new chapter introduced in the internet world in

year 1991. Ebay.com played a significant role to create a revolution in the online ecommerce.

Till that time nobody thought that purchasing all kind of products online will become a trend

in world and India will share a good part of success. In the late 1990’s, ReddifShopping.com

and Ebay.com gave a first-hand experience for Indians towards E-retail.

Initially when it use to come for weekly shopping of groceries, clothes, shoes and cosmetics,

majority of the people preferred to get into their cars and drive to the supermarket to get the

groceries, shops or malls for other basic products. Now it is becoming common news that

people even buy their groceries online in India.

1.2 Business Model of E-commerce Industry

A Study on Indian E-Commerce Industry

9

Deals Websites

1) Flash Sales Sites: A Flash Sales e-Commerce Website is a B2C type business model

where the website sells the products directly to the end customers. They normally

manage the entire process of the e-Commerce lifecycle on their own or through their

partners and the consumer make the payment directly to the business owning and

managing the website. The consumers take the benefit of huge discounts, which at

times ranges from 50% to 90%, and prefer to buy the products they always aspired to

own. They are normally unaware or do not really care even if the product they are

buying from such websites are obsolete or no longer in fashion.

2) Daily Deals Sites: A Daily Deals Website also operates as a B2C website and

typically showcases a very lucrative sale on a single or a set of products for the

customers. Unlike the Flash Sales website, such a deal is time bound (usually for a

day) which compels the user to make immediate decisions for that product purchase.

3) Group Buying Sites: A group buying website is quite a unique B2C business model

where the website invites the buyers to buy the products / services at a discounted or

at a wholesale price. Like the Daily Deals site, the products advertised on the group

buying sites are also time bound, but usually not limited to a day.

Online Subscriptions

An online subscription website works in a similar manner like an offline subscription

for any kind of service. Such websites showcase the entire catalogue of subscription

options for the users to choose from and subscribe online.

E-Retailing

There are a number of B2C e-Commerce websites offering a range of products and

services to customers across different brands and categories. Such websites buy the

products from the brands or their distributors and sell to the end customer on market

competitive prices. Though their modus operandi is same like a flash sales website,

but their business objective is to offer the latest products to the end customers online

at the best possible prices.

A Study on Indian E-Commerce Industry

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Marketplace

Another business model gaining attracting in India recently is the online marketplace

model which enables the buyers get in touch with the sellers and makes a transaction.

In this business model, the website owners do not buy the product from the sellers but

act as mediators to facilitate the entire e-commerce transaction. They do assist the

sellers in various services like payment collection, logistics, etc. but do not prefer to

hold inventory in their own warehouse.

1) C2C Marketplace

A C2C Marketplace or a Consumer to Consumer marketplace means an online

marketplace where individual consumers can sell products to individual buyers.

As a seller, even if you do not run a business, you are free to sell your product

through such marketplace to the end customers.

2) B2C Marketplace

A B2C Marketplace or a Business to Consumer marketplace means an online

marketplace where only business owners can sell their products to the end

customer. The process is more or less the same like that of a C2C Marketplace

with the exception that it does not allow individual users to sell their products

A Study on Indian E-Commerce Industry

11

online. Best example of this kind of a website would be SnapDeal.com which has

now become a B2C Marketplace.

3) B2B Marketplace

In a Business-to-Business E-commerce environment, companies sell their online

goods to other companies without being engaged in sales to consumers. B2B web

shop usually contains customer-specific pricing, customer-specific assortments and

customer-specific discounts. Indiamart.com and TATA groups tatab2b.com are few

popular sites in India.

A Study on Indian E-Commerce Industry

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Exclusive Brand Stores

This is the latest business model of its kind recently started in India. In this business

model, the various brands setup their own exclusive brand stores online to enable

consumers buy directly from the brand. A few examples of brands operating through

an Exclusive Online Brand Store are Lenovo, Canon, Timex, Sennheiser, HP,

Samsung, Mobilestore.com etc.

1.3 Role of Internet in E-Commerce

Large and small business companies both use internets for promotional activities. Some of

the advantages of E-Commerce are:-

1. Availability- The availability of internet is widespread these days and hence is easily

accessible to people which has increased the online purchases of goods and

commodities.

2. Open to All- Internet open page allows everyone to access and transact from any

global location. Moreover it provides an extension of product choice to the customers

which in turn is not possible at local retail stores, etc .

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3. Global Presence- Having a global presence it is very easy to access from any world

location just by having a laptop and an internet connection. All such happenings have

encouraged E-Commerce as any commodity is just a step away from oneself.

4. Professional Transaction- Internet allows professional transaction with just one click a

professionalism that consists of decision making.

5. Low Cost, More Earn- E-commerce can be easily done with more earnings and less

expenses. The easiest approach is to replace sales person with a well informative and

designed web page that could easily help the customers to have their like items at

their doorsteps with a click of a mouse.

1.4 Changes due to online shopping in India

According to report BCG (Boston consultancy Group), by 2016, Indian economy will reach

$10.8 trillion. In global chart India’s rank is 8th. India ranks top in services and china occupies

top position in goods in terms of export through internet. As of now, June 2014, India has

user base of about 250.2 million. It is estimated that by 2024-26, e-commerce market in India

will be $260 billion.

At an Exponential rate, E-commerce is growing in India. According to recent online retailing

report by Forrester, twenty eight percentage of growth is experienced by every retailer year

after year in 2012. As per the study digital consumers spend alomostaround$1.46 billion on

cyber cafes. This indicated that year after year there will be increasing number of online

users. Consumer behaviour is one of the biggest reasons of e-commerce boom in India.

Major reasons for online shopping growth in India

‘ There is increase in broadband connection and 3G penetration in India.

‘ Much wider range of products are available then what is available in brick and mortar

retailers.

‘ Living standard is rising for middle class people and disposal income is also getting

high.

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‘ Online products are usually available at discount which is less than the products

available in normal shops.

‘ Lack of time and busy lifestyle for offline shopping.

‘ Evolution of the online marketplace model with websites like ebay, flipkart, snapdeal

etc.

‘ Takes less time for purchasing as there is no need to stand in the queues which usually

done in offline shopping.

1.5 Advantages of E-Commerce

‘ With E-Commerce as an alternative shopping is no longer a barrier for the customers

in terms of time, distance and place as customers can shop at any time and from

anywhere they prefer to.

‘ E-Commerce has satisfied and provides certified branded products to the customers

that even typical Indian customers are ready to buy products such as clothes, shoes,

etc. without even touching or trying them for fitness.

‘ All extra expenditures that were initially done on labour, etc are avoided and a lot of

funds get saved.

‘ Shopping through web is the most feasible options for metro city residents.

‘ Transaction time has reduced.

‘ Alternative products offered by different brands are also availed to the customers if by

chance the current product in a particular brand is unavailable.

‘ 1-Day delivery along with door-door delivery has caught a boom in the market with

the evolution of E-Commerce.

1.6 Disadvantages of E-Commerce

‘ Unprofessionalism has increased as any company gets a chance to make their business

portal out of trust or belief.

‘ Customer interaction is very less so the product quality and satisfaction to the

customer remains a matter for concern.

‘ Hackers and crackers are day in and day out searching for a chance to hack into

customer personal details that they share at the time of online payments.

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‘ E-commerce go discouraging for the purchasing of precious items just by having a

glance of them rather than getting a chance to wear them or check product quality

such as jewellery etc.

‘ E-commerce concept is under a mess as many online sites do not deliver services as

promised at the time of placing the order.

‘ Authenticity for the product is untrustworthy.

1.7 OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDY

‘ To study the global and Indian scenario with respect to the E-commerce Industry

‘ To study the structure of the Indian E-commerce industry

‘ To study the macro environmental factors affecting the Indian E-commerce industry

‘ To analyze the industry using Porters 5 Forces

‘ To study the performance of major players in the industry

‘ To compare the U.S and Indian E-commerce industry

‘ To study the future opportunities and prospective growth in the industry

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CHAPTER 2

GLOBAL AND INDIAN

SCENARIO

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2.1 Status of the global e-commerce industry

Middle class in many of the developing countries, including India, is rapidly embracing

online shopping. However, India falls behind not only US, China and Australia in terms of

Internet density, but also countries like Sri Lanka and Pakistan. Sri Lanka has an internet

penetration of 15 percent. Better internet connectivity and the presence of an internet-savvy

customer segment have led to growth of e-commerce in Sri Lanka with an existing market

size of USD 2 billion. Pakistan, with an internet penetration of 15 percent has an existing

market size of consumer e-commerce of USD 4 billion. Incidentally FDI in inventory-based

consumer ecommerce is allowed in both these countries. (IAMAI-KPMG report, September

2013).

A.T. Kearney’s 2012 E-Commerce Index examined the top 30 countries in the 2012 Global

Retail Development Index’ (GRDI). Using 18 infrastructure, regulatory, and retail-specific

variables, the Index ranks the top 10 countries by their e-commerce potential.

Following are some other major findings of the Index:

i) China occupies first place in the Index. The G8 countries (Japan, United States, United

Kingdom, Germany, France, Canada, Russia, and Italy) all fall within the Top 15.

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ii) Developing countries feature prominently in the Index. Developing countries hold 10 of

the 30 spots, including first-placed China. These markets have been able to shortcut the

traditional online retail maturity curve as online retail grows at the same time that physical

retail becomes more organized. Consumers in these markets are fast adopting behaviors

similar to those in more developed countries.

iii) Several “small gems” are making an impact. The rankings include 10 countries with

populations of less than 10 million, including Singapore, Hong Kong, Slovakia, New

Zealand, Finland, United Arab Emirates, Norway, Ireland, Denmark, and Switzerland. These

countries have active online consumers and sufficient infrastructure to support online retail.

iv) India is not ranked. India, the world’s second most populous country at 1.2 billion, does

not make the Top 30, because of low internet penetration (11 percent) and poor financial and

logistical infrastructure compared to other countries.

It is seen that countries making in the top list of the table of e-commerce have required

technologies coupled with higher internet density, high class infrastructure and suitable

regulatory framework. India needs to work on these areas to realize true potential of ecommerce

business in the country.

2.2 Comparison of E-Commerce in US and India

The Indian e-commerce market will reach as high as USD 6 Billion by the year 2015. This

implies that if we compare the e-commerce market with the statistics from the year 2014,

there is a substantial growth of 70%. It is evident that India is slowly becoming like the US in

the area of e-commerce.

It is stated that India has started doing well in the market of e-commerce because of the

growing number of people who have access to mobile Internet. Broadband usage has

increased by about three times in the last two years (2013 & 2014).

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2.2.1 Cash on Delivery (COD) system in India

Cash on Delivery is an Indian thing. US consumers mainly transact online using Credit Cards

or through PayPal. Indians are known to be price sensitive. Even though with heavy

discounting e-retailers are trying to lure them to buy online, consumers are still wary of

making prepaid orders.

The situation is different in US. Even though the discounting games continue, users generally

go with prepayment. This is also because the penetration of credit cards and electronic

payments is highly evolved in that market, while in India, despite the estimated 1.252 billion

strong population of India, only 18.8 million credit cards existed in the country, with

approximately 331 million debit cards till last year. The popularity of CoD is directly

dependent on the trust issues consumers have on the online retailers.

2.2.2 Offers and excitement created among customers

The trend of mega online shopping festivals started in the West. From offline trends of

Macy’s Day parade and Black Friday to taking these festivals online, and creating further

new trends like Cyber Monday.

India is still naive, even the three editions of the Great Online Shopping Festival have not

been able to make the impact they were expected to. The festive season of Diwali is a time

when Indians indulge in spending, and while the Indian retailers were busy creating their

respective versions of ‘mega sales’, US based Amazon was the first to step on this

opportunity with ‘Diwali Dhamaka Sale’. Also, the consumer shopping behaviour is different

in the two countries.

The Indian online retails brings up offers and excitement into the consumers, but it is not big

like how it is in US.

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2.2.3 Type of Product that People Buy Online.

Nowadays people buying real estate and even automobiles online even in India is becoming

common. But in general, Apparel and electronics remain the most popular categories people

buy online, and the same is seen in the US as well. These two categories dominate both the

markets.

An area where India is lacking is online grocery retail. Grocery retail and logistics is highly

evolved in US. In India, it was a taboo, and wasn’t touched for a long time even though the

sentiment was strong. Players are emerging now in this segment, with start-up’s like

BigBasket, LocalBanya etc. and mature players like Reliance Fresh taking the lead.

The local Indian ‘banya’ is still stronger than online stores. The unorganised retail in India is

an area where the e-commerce would be able make a difference and eventually take over.

2.2.4 Logistics and Regulations

The logistics infrastructure is still not up to the mark in India. While India Post is doing a

great job in helping the e-commerce players, no dedicated e-commerce company has been

able to scale up its operations to reach all the postal codes. The penetration of internet in

India is 18% as against 87% in US, is a big hindrance.

When it comes to technology, site crashes, issues in ERP systems etc. are commonly heard

things in India. Whereas in US, the technology is very strong.

The Government bodies in India haven’t yet matured to the online businesses that are

operational. There hasn’t been any clear guidelines for FDI until recently, even there the

Government has decided to treat both online and offline retail alike. Some of the other online

marketplace keeps running into warehousing policy issues. The heavy discounting is another

questionable area, since the Government has clear guidelines for Maximum Retail Price,

there is no lower bar set.

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CHAPTER 3

STRUCTURE OF THE

INDUSRTY

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3.1 HERFINDAHL – HIRSCHMAN INDEX

A commonly accepted measure of market concentration. It is calculated by squaring the

market share of each firm competing in a market, and then summing the resulting numbers.

The HHI number can range from close to zero to 10,000.

The HHI is expressed as: HHI = S1^2 + S2^2 + S3^2 + … + Sn^2 (where Sn is the market

share of the Ith firm) the closer a market is to being a monopoly, the higher the market’s

concentration (and the lower its competition).

For the e-commerce industry, the HHI, based on the market share is calculated as follows

Company Sales(in cr) market

share

HHI index

Flipkart 2846.13 53.89683186 2904.868484

Jabong 202 3.82525044 14.63254093

Myntra 441.58 8.362148958 69.92553519

Snapdeal 830 15.7176132 247.0433646

Amazon 168.99 3.20014392 10.24092111

Ebay 107 2.02624652 4.105674961

naptol 460 8.710966349 75.88093474

Yebhi 120 2.272426004 5.163919944

Yepme 80 1.514950669 2.295075531

bewakoof 25 0.473422084 0.22412847

total sales 5280.7 100 3334.38058

>1800

Highly

concentrated

Source: capitaline.com

The HHI can have a theoretical value ranging from close to zero to 10,000. If there exists

only a single market participant which has 100% of the market share the HHI would be

10,000. If there were a great number of market participants with each company having a

market share of almost 0% then the HHI could be close to zero.

‘ When the HHI value is less than 100, the market is highly competitive.

‘ When the HHI value is between 100 and 1000, the market is said to be not concentrated.

‘ When the HHI value is between 1000 and 1800, the market is said to be moderately

concentrated.

‘ When the HHI value is above 1800, the market is said to be highly concentrated.

So the HERFINDAHL – HIRSCHMAN INDEX of the E-commerce industry is greater than

1800. Hence it is highly concentrated.

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CHAPTER 4

COMPITITIVE ANALYSIS

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4.1 PORTER’S FIVE FORCE ANALYSIS

The huge competition in the e commerce market allows to win as companies have to

keep their prices in check to attract buyers.

Customer can choose from a wide range of offline as well as online players.

Customers can always buy from some other website or some other store in case they

are not satisfied with any one player

Buyers in this industry are customers who purchase products online. Since this

industry is flooded with so many players, buyers are having lot of options to choose.

Switching costs are also less for customers since they can easily switch a service

from one online retail company to other one. Same products will be displayed in

several online retail websites. So, product differentiation is almost low. So, all these

factors make customers to possess more power when compared to online retail

companies.

Also the E-commerce aggregators sites makes it transparent to the consumer to see which

site offers the product in the least price

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4.1.1 Bargaining Power of Buyers

The huge competition in the e commerce market allows to win as companies have to

keep their prices in check to attract buyers.

Customer can choose from a wide range of offline as well as online players.

Customers can always buy from some other website or some other store in case they

are not satisfied with any one player

Buyers in this industry are customers who purchase products online. Since this

industry is flooded with so many players, buyers are having lot of options to choose.

Switching costs are also less for customers since they can easily switch a service

from one online retail company to other one. Same products will be displayed in

several online retail websites. So, product differentiation is almost low. So, all these

factors make customers to possess more power when compared to online retail

companies.

Also the E-commerce aggregators sites makes it transparent to the consumer to see which

site offers the product in the least price

4.1.2 Bargaining Power of suppliers

Tens of millions of sellers list their products on ecommerce marketplaces; hence

their individual bargaining power is limited.

However, sellers can also list their products on multiple platforms and sites,

including Amazon, Etsy.com and various international e-commerce sites. Hence, if

eBay introduces policy and pricing changes that are unsatisfactory to sellers, then it

could result in lower number of product listings on its marketplace.

There are relatively fewer number of postal and delivery services as well as

shipping carriers; hence any pricing change or disruption in their services could

hamper eBay’s ability to deliver products on time. Hence, these carriers hold some

bargaining power.

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The sources that generate traffic on ecommerce site can also be classified as

suppliers. Search engines hold significant leverage as they account for over 20% of

traffic on eBay if we account for both organic and paid search (according to Similar

Web estimates). Changes in Google SEO (search engine algorithm) have a negative

impact on traffic. eBay’ seller marketplace model leads to large amounts of

unstructured data on the site, which is detrimental to its SEO efforts.

Additionally, several referring sites such as slickdeals.net, dealnews.com and social

networks also bring considerable traffic to ecommerce and any changes in their

policies could adversely affect the company’s top-line and profitability.

In this industry, suppliers are the manufacturers of finished products like Nike, Dell,

Apple etc. Online retail companies sell various products ranging from books to

computer accessories to apparels to footwear. Since there are many suppliers for any

particular category, they can’t show power on online retail companies. For example,

if you take computers category, there are many suppliers like Dell, Apple, Lenovo,

and Toshiba who wants to sell their products through these online retail companies.

So, they won’t be having power to control the online retail companies. Online

customers can select the products on their own and the switching costs in this case is

zero. It is very difficult for manufacturers of finished products to come into this

industry because of challenges in Logistics. Online retail industry is important to

suppliers because it acts as one of the channel to sell the products. Now, with most

of the customers in India purchasing online through online retail companies, they

can’t afford to lose this channel. So, they can’t dictate terms with online retail

companies. So, in this industry the supplier power is low.

4.1.3 Competitive Rivalry within the Industry

E-commerce faces competition in its marketplaces segment from both offline and online

players. Customers can buy products from a wide range of retailers, distributors,

auctioneers, directories, search engines, etc and hence the competition is intense.

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Various factors such as price, product selection and services influence the purchasing

decision of customers. E-commerce companies frequently engage in price-based

competition to woo buyers, which limits their ability to raise prices.

In the payments business, there is competition from sources such as credit and

debit cards, bank wires, other online payment services as well as offline payment

mechanisms including cash, check, money order or mobile phones.

Considering the entry of newer players such as Apple Pay and Alibaba, the

competition is expected to heighten in the online payments space.

Competition is very high in this industry with so many players like Flip kart,

Myntra, Jabong, Snap deal, Amazon, India plaza, Homeshop18 etc.

4.1.4 Threat of New Entrants

Given the nature of the business, there is always a threat of new entrants as it is

relatively less costly to enter the market and setup operations. There is no additional

cost incurred to set up any physical stores and locations. In addition, traditional

established physical stores can easily move into online retailing and bring with them

their substantial consumer base. These stores such as Target or Wal-Mart, already enjoy

economies of scale, have recognizable brands and a strong supply chain. So they do

pose strong competition to Amazon.

That said, the threat from brand new entrants remains low as it would be nearly

impossible for a new company to match the cost advantages, economies of scale and

variety of offering as Amazon.com. These advantages will deter most brand new

entrants to the market.

Substantial Economies of Scale

Ecommerce like Amazon works with over 10,000 vendors and boasts an impressive 75

percent repeat purchasers. Its market capitalization is substantially ahead of its nearest

competitors.

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First Mover Advantage

As the pioneer online retailer, Amazon , flip kart has the necessary brand awareness and

credibility as a strong reliable presence in the market.

Massive product Variety

Way beyond a bookstore now, Amazon.com , Flipkart provides any type of product

there is in its online stores. This means that there is a strong supplier base relationship

that cannot be replicated. In addition, as a bookseller and a provider of other

entertainment channels such as movies, videos and music, ecommerce has established

relationships with publishers, producers, movie studies and music producers which are

not easy to form and replicate.

The e-commerce market is characterized by low barriers to entry. It is relatively easy

for newer players to enter the market and start selling products. Having said that, it’s

difficult for newer players to gain brand recognition and attain high ranking on search

engines.

Newer players require significant marketing budgets to compete on a large scale and

this restricts entry of newer players to an extent.

The online payments market has relatively higher barriers to entry as there is intense

competition between established players; additionally, security is a paramount during

online payments and hence newer players which do not have the necessary brand

recognition will find it difficult to attract new customers.

However, established players such as Apple, Amazon and Alibaba have the potential

to make a dent in PayPal’s strong market position.

‘ Indian government is going to allow 51% FDI in multi-brand online retail and

100% FDI in single brand online retail sooner or later. So, this means foreign

companies can come and start their own online retail companies.

‘ There are very less barriers to entry like less amount of money required to start a

business, less amount of infrastructure required to start business. All you need is

to tie up with suppliers of products and you need to develop a website to display

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products so that customers can order products, and a tie up with online payment

gateway provider like bill desk.

‘ Industry is also going to grow at a rapid rate. It is going to touch 76 billion $ by

2021. Industry is going to experience an exponential growth rate. So, obviously no

one wants to miss this big opportunity.

4.1.5 Threat of substitute products

The threat of substitutes for ecommerce is high. The unique characteristic Amazon has is

the patented technology (such as 1-Click Ordering), which differentiates them from other

possible substitutes. However, there are many alternatives providing the same products

and services, which could reduce Amazon’s competitive advantage. Therefore, Amazon

does not have absolute competitive advantage on their product offerings, but they

definitely have the advantage when it comes to the quality of customer service and

convenience provided.

There is no technology that can substitute the Internet so far in the market. Even, analog

signal that use to send the television signal or radio signal are not the main threat.

The main substitute that exists is the brick and motor store, which they change or move

their place to be on the Internet. Therefore, the e-commerce industry has low threat of

substitutions. When we compare relative quality, relative price of product that he/she

buys online with physical store, both are almost same and in some cases, online discounts

will be available which makes customers to buy products online.

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Porters 5 Force Model of E-Commerce Industry

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CHAPTER 5

MACRO ENVIORNMENTAL

ANALYSIS

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PESTLE ANALYSIS

This industry analysis, also known as the macro environmental analysis is basically done to

determine the conditions in which the industry is operating in. The analysis of these factors

becomes very important for a company operating in that particular industry for the growth

and sustenance.

5.1 POLITICAL AND LEGAL FACTORS:

E-commerce has introduced many changes in the Indian consumers and customers. However,

e-commerce in India has also given rise to many disputes by the consumers purchasing the

products from e-commerce websites. In fact, many e-commerce websites are not following

Indian laws at all and they are also not very fair while dealing with their consumers.

Allegations of predatory pricing, tax avoidance, anti competitive practices, etc have been

levelled against big e-commerce players of India. As a result, disputes are common in India

that is not satisfactorily redressed. This reduces the confidence in the e-commerce segment

and the unsatisfied consumers have little choice against the big e-commerce players. At a

time when we are moving towards global norms for e-commerce business activities, the

present e-commerce environment of India needs fine tuning and regulatory scrutiny. In fact,

India is exploring the possibility of regulation of e-commerce through either Telecom

Regulatory Authority of India (TRAI) or through different Ministries/Departments of Central

Government in a collective manner.

It is obvious that e-commerce related issues are not easy to manage. E-commerce disputes

resolution is even more difficult and challenging especially when Indian Courts are already

overburdened with court cases. Of course, establishment of e-courts in India and use of online

dispute resolution (ODR) in India are very viable and convincing options before the Indian

Government.

Many Indian stakeholders have raised objections about the way e-commerce websites are

operating in India. These websites are providing deep discounts that have been labeled as

predatory by offline traders and businesses. Further, Myntra, Flipkart, Amazon, Uber, etc

have already been questioned by the regulatory authorities of India for violating Indian laws.

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5.1.1 NEED FOR HUMORIZED TAXATION LAWS:

Laws regulating ecommerce in India are still evolving and lack clarity. Favorable regulatory

environment would be key towards unleashing the potential of ecommerce and help in

efficiency in operations, creation of jobs, growth of the industry, and investments in back-end

infrastructure. Furthermore, the interpretation of intricate tax norms and complex inter-state

taxation rules make ecommerce operations difficult to manage and to stay compliant to the

laws. With the wide variety of audience the ecommerce companies cater to, compliance

becomes a serious concern. Companies will need to have strong anti-corruption programs for

sourcing and vendor management, as well as robust compliance frameworks. It is important

for the E-Commerce companies to keep a check at every stage and adhere to the relevant

laws, so as to avoid fines.Myntra, Flipkart and many more e-commerce websites are under

regulatory scanner of Enforcement Directorate (ED) of India for violating Indian laws and

policies. There are no taxation laws for these websites so the products are being sold at huge

discounts in these sites. Some of the major causes not keeping taxation laws over ecommerce

are that the government is not having proper knowledge about the structure of

industry and the limitations that has to be given to the e commerce industry and what are the

rights that should be given to them for selling the product Security of the information

provided during the online transaction is a major concern. Under section 43A of the I T Act

the ‘Reasonable practices and procedures and sensitive personal data or information Rules,

2011’ have been proposed, which provide a framework for the protection of data in India

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5.2 ECONOMIC FACTORS:

Mass usage of internet:

The usage of internet is increasing rapidly in INDIA, it is said that India is said to be the 3rd

largest internet population country after USA and CHINA. Current India internet users are

205 millions .The total no of users are expected to be 330-370 millions in just 3 years. The

internet usage in cities has been increased rapidly.

Increased aspiration levels and availability

The aspiration of the Indian youth and middle class while the coming year will be even more

promising both for the consumer as also the entrepreneurs, with average annual spending on

online purchases projected to increase by 67 per cent to Rs 10,000 from Rs 6,000 per person.

In 2014, about 40 million consumers purchased something online and number is expected to

grow to 65 million by 2015 with better infrastructure in terms of logistics, broadband and

Internet ready devices will be fuelling the demand in ecommerce. The smart phones and

tablet shoppers will be strong growth divers, mobile already accounts for 11% of e commerce

sales, and its share will jump to 25% by 2017. Computer and consumer’s electronics as well

as app

eral and accessories account for the bulk of India retail ecommerce sales will contribute 42%

of its sales.

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Liberal policies (FDI in Retail and Insurance)

The E-commerce Association of India (ECAI) is looking for a positive response from the

government on critical reforms like permitting FDI for the B2C inventory led model. This has

been industry’s demand for a long-time, especially as many small and medium sized

ecommerce players face obstacles on easy access to capital and technology. The industry has

been hoping that the government would at least review a partial opening of the sector to FDI.

In 2015 budget the FDI has been increased to 51 %. So there is a positive response from the

international e commerce industry that is trying to enter into India. Even allibaba.com is also

trying to enter into India with the help of snapdeal.com. But on the other side the small e

commerce companies are finding it difficult because may face difficulty in the future when

the MNC e commerce companies enter India.

Supply chain and the productivity growth

The most important impact of ecommerce is maintained supply chain and the productivity of

the products. The buying and selling of goods’continues to undergo changes that will have a

profound impact on the way companies manage their supply chains. Simply put, e-commerce

has altered the practice, timing, and technology of business-to-business and business-toconsumer

commerce. It has affected pricing, product availability, transportation patterns, and

consumer behavior in developed economy in India. Business-to-business electronic

commerce accounts for the vast majority of total e-commerce sales and plays a leading role in

supply chain network. In 2014, approximately 21 percent of manufacturing sales and 14.6

percent of wholesales are done in India.

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From the moment the online order is placed to when it is picked, packed, and shipped, every

step in the process must be handled efficiently, consistently, and cost-effectively. In ecommerce,

the distribution center provides much of the customer experience. Simply

delivering the goods is no longer an adequate mission for the fulfillment center’customer

satisfaction has to be a critical priority. The typical e-commerce consumer expects a wide

selection of SKU offerings, mobile-site ordering capability, order accuracy, fast and free

delivery, and free returns. Understanding how online consumers shop and purchase across

channels is critical to the success of online fulfillment. More consumers are browsing the

Internet for features and selection, testing products at brick-and-mortar stores, acquiring

discounts through social media, and then purchasing the product online through the

convenience of their mobile device. Some retailers,’including those that also sell through

catalogs’have been in the direct-to-consumer marketplace for some time. These companies

have fulfillment facilities established and information technologies in place to manage orders

with speed and efficiency, doing it well and profitably. But to many distribution executives,

online fulfillment poses a significant challenge to their existing knowledge, experience, and

resources.

5.3 SOCIAL FACTORS:

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Better comfort level and trust in online shopping:

‘ Consumers feel easy to access the ecommerce sites 24×7 support. Customer can do

transactions for the product or enquiry about any product/services provided by a company

anytime, anywhere from any location. Here 24×7 refers to 24 hours of each seven days of a

week.

‘ E-Commerce application provides user more options and quicker delivery of products.

‘ E-Commerce application provides user more options to compare and select the cheaper and

better option.

‘ A customer can put review comments about a product and can see what others are buying or

see the review comments of other customers before making a final buy.

‘ E-Commerce provides option of virtual auctions.

‘ Readily available information. A customer can see the relevant detailed information within

seconds rather than waiting for days or weeks.

Advantages to the society:

‘ Customers need not to travel to shop a product thus less traffic on road and low air pollution.

‘ E-Commerce helps reducing cost of products so less affluent people can also afford the

products.

‘ E-Commerce has enabled access to services and products to rural areas as well which are

otherwise not available to them.

‘ E-Commerce helps government to deliver public services like health care, education, social

services at reduced cost and in improved way.

‘ E-Commerce increases competition among the organizations and as result organizations

provides substantial discounts to customers.

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5.4 Technological factors:

Cloud computing in e commerce:

According to analysts, within 10 years’ time 80% of all computer usage worldwide, data

storage and e-commerce will be in the cloud. It is called the third phase of the internet.

During the first phase software and operating systems were combined to create a simple flow

of communication through ‘ for instance ‘ email. The second phase brought the user to the

World Wide Web, where he had access to millions of websites. This increased internet usage

by a factor of one hundred in only 2 years’ time. In the third phase everything is in the cloud,

both data and software.

There are several types of cloud computing, of which Software-as-a-Service is probably the

best-known. The others are Platform-as-a-Service (PaaS) and Infrastructure-as-a-Service

(IaaS).

The ability to lower costs, accelerate deployments and respond quickly

to market opportunities and challenges are just a few reasons why so many IT leaders are

leveraging cloud based e commerce applications. Given the variety of solutions, IT leaders

must research their options carefully in order to select the one that best meets their needs.

Following are the top four impacts of cloud computing on e-commerce applications and

steps IT leaders should take during their evaluation process.

It’s easy for business leaders to focus on the benefits of cloud computing without considering

the time and effort involved in implementing a viable solution. However, whatever cloud

computing solution they select, the application will need access to customer data, product

data, fulfilment systems and other operational systems in order to support e-commerce. Cue

the IT team.

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Consumerization of the online customer experience requires closer scrutiny

of e commerce:

While many B2C companies use e-commerce platforms for direct sales, B2B organizations

are also leveraging them to add transactional capabilities to their informational sites. In

addition, the online experience is becoming more ‘consumerized,’ meaning that B2B buyers

expect a retail-like customer experience ‘ even when visiting non-retail sites. Cloud solution

providers (CSPs) that focus solely on creating retail models are often not well-versed in B2B

requirements which can be more complex. As a result, their offerings don’t include B2B

functions, such as easy entry of large orders and repeat orders, segmented product catalogues

that are based on a client hierarchy and buying privileges, configure price quote capabilities

and extended payment terms. IT leaders have an unprecedented number of CSPs from which

to choose. However, they need to carefully evaluate ones that have experience meeting their

industry-specific needs, whether it’s B2B, B2C, or a combination of both.

Usage of bandwidth for E-commerce:

Transmission capacity of a communication channel is a major barrier for products that

require more graphical and video data. For this e commerce companies need higher

bandwidth than usual. These all depend on the no of the customers visiting websites, the

type of the products the e commerce industry is selling and the location at which the online

users are mostly visiting the website. These all are some of the factors that affect the usage

of bandwidth. Web processing is also some of the key factors that make e commerce

industry to run. Another key factor is: High cost of developing, purchasing new software,

licensing of software, integration into existing systems, costly e business solutions for

optimizations.

Benefits of using cloud computing over E-commerce:

‘ Trust. Cloud computing enables online store owners to use the same platform and use

the same functionality. That means that new features can be made available to

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everyone with a simple modification. Moreover, the maintenance is taken care of

centrally, which means that store owners can rely on a stable platform.

‘ Cost saving. In many cases this is the most important reason for companies to choose

cloud computing. Since companies do not need to purchase hardware or bandwidth,

costs can be decreased by 80%.

‘ Speed. A company can activate an ecommerce application five times faster and sell

directly through a platform that is managed remotely.

‘ Scalability. Cloud computing makes a company more elastic and able to respond to

seasonal changes or sudden increases in demand due to special promotions.

‘ Security. Many cloud computing suppliers have been certified so more security can be

guaranteed to customers.

‘ Data exchange. The explosive growth of cloud ecommerce will lead to more data

exchange between the clouds. Suppliers will offer more and more possibilities to add

features to their clouds for users, partners and others.

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CHAPTER 6

PERFORMANCE ANALYSIS

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6. FIRMS UNDER STUDY

‘ Flipkart

‘ Snapdeal

‘ Amazon

Four key metrics have been used to evaluate the performance of

E-Retailers in India.

1. Gross Margin

2. Subscriber Growth Rate

3. Average Order Size:

4. Percentage of Mobile Visits

6.1 Gross Margin (Financial year 2013-2014)

Online shopping in India is growing at a very fast clip. At the same time, there is an intense

competition in ecommerce space, especially among the top 3 players. There is aggressive

pricing and discounts are being paid by Venture Capitalists’ pockets.

Flipkart, Amazon and Snapdeal, all of them have raised investments or have commitments of

$1 Billion or more. This money is being burned to acquire new customers, offer discounts

and pump up products on offers. At the same time these sites are losing money, the quantum

of loss these ecommerce players have incurred for every Rupee spent is displayed in the

below figure.

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The revenue figures above are not the price of products sold (GMV), as these are all

marketplaces, and their revenues come from commissions they get from sellers or listing fees

that they charge to list the products on their site.

GMV or Gross Merchandize Value represents the price of products sold and net revenues are

just a fraction of that.

Flipkart leads the race with net revenue of 179 crore followed by Amazon at 168.9 crore and

Snapdeal at 154.11 crore.

However, when it comes to losses, Flipkart leads by a much bigger margin and their loss for

2013-14 stands at Rs. 400 Crore. Comparatively, Amazon losses are pegged at Rs. 321.3

crore and Snapdeal had least losses of 3 with 264.6 crore.

The figure below shows the loss each player incurs for every rupee in net revenues.

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Flipkart leads the race to losing 2.23 rupees for every 1 rupee of revenue. Amazon loses 1.90

and Snapdeal has least amount of losses at Rs. 1.72.

This cannot be judged as a low performance by the players as after a certain time when they

gain major part of market. Every product they sell would be a profit for them.

6.2 Subscriber Growth Rate

Flipkart was founded in the year 2007. By the end of year 2013 they have acquired 22

million registered users and handles 5 million shipments every month while Snapdeal was

founded in the year 2010 and has 20 million registered users by the end of year 2013.

Snapdeal has acquired customers in a quicker pace when compared to Flipkart, but this

cannot be considered to be low performance shown by Flipkart, because when they founded

e- retail in India, the people were not much familiar to e-commerce and online purchasing at

that period.

6.3 Average ordering size of Flipkart for Financial year 2011-2012

Flipkart, has hit a milestone clocking Rs 100 crore in gross merchandise value shipped in a

month for the first time in June 2012. The jump is from an average of around Rs 42 crore

financial year 2010-2011. Flipkart had clocked Rs 500 crore for the 12 months ended March

31, 2012.

In the year 2012 the number of daily orders has hit 25,000 mark (or seventeen orders per

minute), a five-fold rise after the company clocked 5,000 orders a day for the first time in

May 2011. Flipkart first clocked 1,000 orders a day in March 2010.

Average order size= Total Revenue/Number of Orders

=Rs.5000000000 / 25,000 x 365

=Rs.548

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6.4 Percentage of Mobile Visits

Mobile is now one of our most strategic channels for driving revenue and customer acquisition. The eretailers

are investing to build strong technology and marketing platforms that will allow them to

accelerate their growth on mobile

Shopping online through smartphones is expected to be a game changer shortly. In the year 2014

there were nearly 123 million smartphone users in India. Affordability of smartphones is

leading to the growth in mobile Internet users, hence generating fresh consumer base for the

online players. Mobile Internet users in India are estimated to be 120 million compared to 100 million

users using Internet on their personal computers.

Snapdeals

60 percent of Snapdeals orders are coming over mobile in the end of year 2014. It is growing really fast.

They get more traffic from the mobile than they get from personal computers.

Flipkart

Flipkart a year ago, less than 10 percent of their orders, transactions and visits used to come from mobile

commerce.

Now those numbers are greater than 50 percent for them. It is accelerating at a very rapid pace. Flipkart

is seeing more than 2 times or 3 times growth from the mobile front compared to desktop,

where Flipkart is growing overall but mobile is growing at a much faster pace.

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6.5 Top 10 Indian E-Commerce Sites Traffic Comparison

Stats have been taken for month of April 2014

Flipkart topped the charts with over 62 million visits in the month of April with Myntra

coming shade lower at 59.5 million. Given that both of them have now come together, purely

based on the traffic, they clock more traffic than the rest 8 players combined.

While we expected either Amazon or Snapdeal to grab the 3rd place in terms of traffic,

Jabong took the bronze position with 42.5 million visitors followed by Snapdeal (31.4

million).

Amazon.in clocked a respectable 27.6 million visits in month of April (Remember, they have

not even completed a year since launch as yet). Also, if you combine Junglee, which is

owned by Amazon, their traffic bulges to close to 40 million visits.

Infibeam and Tradus both have not been doing too well in terms of traffic. They clocked 3.4

million & 3 million respectively. Also, according to similar web, their traffic has been

steadily dropping over last 6 months. Both of them had close to 5 million visits at the start of

the year.

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Stats have been taken for month of April 2014

When it came to user engagement, Flipkart again reigned supreme with each visitor spending

an average of 8:35 minutes per visit. Ebay also had very high levels of engagement with 8:15

mins followed by Snapdeal (7:49 mins).

Myntra had surprisingly low (in fact lowest of all) visitor time spent at 3:04 minutes. Junglee

and Jabong were other two sites who had low visitor time spent.

Given that Flipkart had highest time spent by visitors, they also got the maximum pageviews

per visitor (8.53) followed by Ebay (8.04). Surprisingly, Tradus did quite well in terms of

page views with a average of 7.57 views per visit.

6.6 Conclusion

Ecommerce industry in India is in their blooming stage now. E-commerce including online

retail in India constitutes a small fraction of total sales, but is set to grow to a substantial

amount owing to a lot of factors such as rising disposable incomes, rapid urbanization,

increasing adoption and penetration of technology such as the internet and mobiles, rising

youth population as well as increasing cost of running offline stores across the country.

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REFERENCES

‘ https://www.drivingbusinessonline.com.au/articles/5-examples-of-great-e-commercesites/

‘ http://www.jeffbullas.com/2009/09/01/5-case-studies-on-companies-that-win-atsocial-

media-and-ecommerce/

‘ http://www.atuljain7.com/consumer-centric-e-commerce-business-models-in-india

MACRO ENVIONMENTAL ANALYSIS

‘ https://www.academia.edu/3832983/Cloud_Computing_and_E-commerce

‘ http://www.bertramwelink.com/index.php/cloud-computing-taking-over-ecommercemarket/

‘ http://www.maaspros.com/blog/much-bandwidth-need-ecommerce-website

‘ http://www.netmagicsolutions.com/resources/case-study-flipkart

‘ http://www.shopify.in/tour/ecommerce-hosting

‘ http://www.tutorialspoint.com/e_commerce/e_commerce_advantages.htm

‘ http://www.supplychainquarterly.com/columns/scq201102monetarymatters/

‘ http://www.inboundlogistics.com/cms/article/maximizing-productivity-in-e-commercewarehousing-

and-distribution-operations/

‘ http://www.business-standard.com/article/news-cm/e-commerce-to-fire-consumeraspiration-

higher-in-2015-assocham-pwc-study-114122900231_1.html

‘ http://indiamicrofinance.com/ecommerce-business-india-2014-2015-report-pdf.html

‘ http://www.studymode.com/subjects/political-issues-in-e-commerce-page1.html

‘ http://ecommercelawsinindia.blogspot.in/

COMPITITIVE ANALYSIS

‘ http://www.entrepreneurial-insights.com/threat-of-new-entrants-porters-five-forcesmodel/

‘ http://www.forbes.com/sites/greatspeculations/2014/11/24/ebay-through-the-lens-ofporters-

five-forces/

A Study on Indian E-Commerce Industry

49

MARKET SHARE VALUE

‘ http://www.business-standard.com/article/companies/jabongs-revenue-rose-50-times-infy13-

114112001047_1.html

‘ http://www.business-standard.com/article/companies/snapdeal-raises-100-mn-eyes-1bnrevenue-

this-year-114052100665_1.html

‘ https://www.google.co.in/search?q=naaptol+sales+revenue&rlz=1C1GGGE_enIN618IN618&

oq=naaptol+sales+revenue&aqs=chrome..69i57.8943j0j4

‘ http://articles.economictimes.indiatimes.com/2014-12-16/news/57112180_1_amazonindia-

ebay-india-latif-nathani

PERFORMANCE ANALYSIS

‘ http://blog.bigcommerce.com/7-key-ecommerce-metrics/

‘ http://trak.in/tags/business/2014/11/06/flipkart-amazon-snapdeal-revenues-lossescomparison/

‘ http://www.flipkart.com/

‘ http://www.snapdeal.com/

‘ http://trak.in/tags/business/2014/06/04/top-10-indian-e-commerce-sites-comparison/

‘ http://techcircle.vccircle.com/2012/07/03/excl-flipkart-hits-rs-100cr-monthly-sales-marknow-

serving-seven-orders-per-minute/

‘ http://www.medianama.com/2014/05/223-snapdeal-mobile-transactions/

‘ http://www.iamwire.com/2014/12/myntra-set-mobile-only-company-2015/107014

‘ http://gadgets.ndtv.com/mobiles/news/m-commerce-to-contribute-up-to-70-percentof-

online-shopping-experts-628106

GLOBAL AND INDIAN SCENARIO

‘ http://dipp.nic.in/English/Discuss_paper/Discussion_paper_ecommerce_07012014.pdf

‘ http://www.pwc.in/assets/pdfs/publications/2014/evolution-of-e-commerce-in-india.pdf

‘ http://www.iamwire.com/2015/01/e-commerce-vs-indian-e-commerce-identifying-missingpieces/

108066

Electronic banking

DEFINITION OF ELECTRONIC BANKING

The term electronic banking means all day access to cash through an Automated teller machine or direct deposit of pay checks into checking or savings account. But electronic banking involves many different types of transactions, rights, responsibilities and sometimes, fees. Electronic banking can also be defined in a very simple form, it can mean provision of information or services by a bank to its customers, via a computer, television, telephone, or mobile phone.

ORIGIN OF ELECTRONIC BANKING IN NIGERIA

During the Structural Adjustment Programme (SAP) in 1986, in Babangida regime brought to an end the kind of banking services rendered by the first generation of banks in Nigeria. The SAP changed the content of banking business. Just as the number of banks increases from 40 in 1985 to 125 in 1991, the SAP provided licence to more banks which posed more threat to existing ones and the more aggressive the marketing techniques adopted by them. In the process competition among themselves, the adoption of electronic banking was put in place in order to maintain a good competitive position.

EVOLUTION OF ELECTRONIC BANKING IN NIGERIA

Banking as come from a very long way from the periods of ledger card and other manual filling system to a period of computer age. Computerization in the banking industry was first introduced in the 1970s by Society General Bank (Nigeria) Limited. Until the mid-1990, the few banks that were computerised made use of the Local Area Network (LAN) within the banks. The sophisticated ones among the banks then implemented the WAN by linking branches within cities while one or two implemented intercity connectivity using leased lines (Salawu and Salawu, 2007).

Banks have adopted technology to their operations and have advanced from very simple and basic retail operations of deposits and cash withdrawal as well as cheque processing to the delivery of sophisticated products which came as a result of keen competition in view of unprecedented increases in the number of banks and branches. There was the need to modernize banking operation in the face of increased market pressure and customers demand for improved service delivery and convenience. According to Sanusi (2002) as cited by Dogarawa (2005). The introduction of e-banking (e-payment) products in Nigeria commenced in 1996 when the CBN granted All States Trust Bank approval to introduce a closed system electronic purse. It was followed in February 1997, with the introduction of similar product called ‘Pay card’, by Diamond Bank.

CBN additionally gave permission to a number of banks to introduce international money transfer products, on-line banking via the internet, and telephone banking though on a limited scale. It must also be stated that the deployment of Automated teller machine (ATM) by some banks to facilitate card usage and enhance their service delivery. Today, nearly all banks in Nigeria make use of a website. The service or ordering bank drafts or certified cheque made payable to third parties has also been increasingly automated (Irechukwu, 2000).

CHANNELS OF ELECTRONIC BANKING PRODUCT IN NIGERIA

The revolution in the Nigerian banking system which led to the increase in paid up capital from N2 billion to N25 billion effective from 1st of January 2006. This result to liquidation of weak banks in Nigeria that could not find merger partners. The revolution brought about changes to banking operations in Nigeria with aggressive competition among various banks. Each banks came up with new products, repackaged the old ones and came up with more efficient service delivery strategies. This more efficient service delivery was made possible through investment in information and communication technology (ICT) (Sanni, 2009). The huge investment in ICT has been the backbone of electronic banking, using different distribution channels. It should be noted that electronic banking is not just banking via the Internet. The term electronic banking can be described in many ways.

PC BANKING

Personal Computer used by customers allows the customer to use all e-banking facility at home without them going to the bank. It gives consumers a variety of services so they can move be able to move money between accounts, pay their bills, check their account balances, and buy and sell goods.

MOBILE BANKING

Mobile phones are used a lot for financial services in Nigeria. Banks enable their customers to conduct banking services such as account inquiry and funds transfer through the mobile telephone.

AUTOMATED TELLER MACHINE

This is an electronics device provided by the banks which allows bank’s customers to make to withdraw cash and to check their account balances at any time of the day without the need for a human teller. Many ATMs also allow people to transfer money between their bank accounts or even buy postage stamps. To withdraw cash, make deposits, or even transfer funds between accounts, you will insert your ATM card and enter your personal identification number known as pin. Some ATMs impose usage fee on consumer who are not member of their institution. ATMs must allow the customers to be aware of the fee that will be charged provided on the terminal screen or on a sign next to the screen. If one incurred a loss or stolen ATM card, he or she should notify the bank.

SMART CARDS

This is involves conducting of banking transactions through the use of electronic cards such as (Value Card, ATM Card, Debit Card, Credit Card etc.). It makes it easy for bank customers to have access to cash, carry out transfers and make enquiries about their accounts balance without them visiting the banking hall.

(i) Credit cards: These are cards that are plastic in nature encoded with electromagnetic identification. Credit cards allow the holders of the cards to make purchases without any immediate cash payment. Credit limit is fixed by the issuing banks based on the financial history of the user.

(ii) Debit card: When compare with credit cards is an instrument which enables an immediate charge or debt into cardholders account on the sales of goods and services made to him or her in other words the holder is using the balance standing in is deposit account

POINT OF SALE TERMINAL (POS)

A Point of Sales (POS) Terminal are machines that are used to accept cards for payment of goods and services. POS Terminal allows owners of card to have a real-time online access to funds and information in his or her bank account through the use of debit or cash cards.

TRANSACTION ALERT

Customers carry out debit or credit transactions on their accounts on daily basis and the need to keep track of those transactions prompted the creation of the alert system by the Bank to notify customers of those transactions when it take place. The alert system also notify or reach out to customers when necessary information need to be communicated.

ELECTRONIC DATA INTERCHANGE (EDI)

The transfer of information between organizations in machine readable form.

INTERNET BANKING

Internet banking permits bank customers to perform or conduct transaction on the account from any location across the world such as making enquiries, bills payment etc. with speedy respond through the web and email system online.

ELECTRONIC CHEQUE

This allows users of the internet to pay their bills directly over the internet without having to send the paper cheque.

BENEFIT OF ELECTRONIC BANKING

Electronic banking is important to both customers and banks in various ways

To banks;

(1) Improve customer service: Electronic banking allow banks to provide new, faster and better service to its customers, thereby, bringing up the banks to international standards and enhancing competition among other banks.

(2) Reliability of transaction: when transaction are done manually, error is prone to happen, but Electronic banking helps to ensure accurate and timely transactions.

(3) Satisfy: Electronic banking ensures the safety of bank dealing with their customers. Unsafe banking practice can cause huge loses to the bank especially in the cause of misrepresentation of account owners.

(4) Reduction in workload: Due to introduction in electronic banking the workload of the bank as reduce as more people conduct their various transactions electronically rather than them coming to the bank.

(5) Information: Electronic banking makes it easy for banks to convey information about their service to customers through the use of internet, banks can also easily communicate or send information to customers through the use of Electronic mail.

These are some of the services provided by banks to customers, they can also provide statement of account easily to their customers, by sending it to their e-mails, this will make it more comfortable for the customers.

To customer;

Electronic banking provide various benefit to customers such as;

(1) Availability of cash: Electronic banking makes it easy for customers to easily get cash any time they need it from their account, this is possible through the use of Automated Teller Machine (ATM)

(2) Stress Relieve: Since transaction can be done anywhere through the use of electronic banking, this will make customers comfortable.

(3) Payment of bills: It is easy for customers to pay their bills such as PHCN bills (Power holding company of Nigeria) Payment for DSTV card when it as expire. This is possible because banks as provide various means for this payment to occur such as Quick teller etc.

(4) Access to Information: Bank customers can easily get information from their banks about the provision of new product or about a problem that as occur.

(5) For Consumers: Increase convenience for customers, more service options for customers, reduced risk of cash-related crimes, cheaper access to banking services and access to credit.

REASONS FOR AUTOMATION OF BANKING OPERATION

According to Idowu (2005), the following are the reasons for adoption of e- banking in Nigeria; (a) to the bank

(1) Facilitation for easy decision making

(2) Availability of quality information

(3) Improve in service delivery

(4) Development of new product

(5) Savings in space and running costs

(6) Relevance among league of global financial institution.

(b) To the customer

(1) The quality of service they enjoy

(2) Reduction in time being spent at banking halls

(3) Confidentiality

(4) Statement of account obtain easily

(5) 24 hours service delivery.

(6) Customer account could be accessed almost anywhere in the world

(c) To the economy

(1) Creation of jobs

(2) Improvement in commerce

(3) Development in technology

(4) Data bank for National planning

CHALLENGES OF E-BANKING IN NIGERIA

Some of the problems facing electronic banking in Nigeria are;

(1) MONEY LAUNDERING: Money laundering can be defined as a derivation of washy money from illicit activities especially drugs trafficking, advance fee fraud and other forms illegal activities. Development in Electronic banking makes it possible to transact business electronically which can be used to launder money.

(2) FRAUD: Fraud which literally means a conscious and deliberate action by a person or group of persons with the intention of altering the truth or fact for selfish personal gain. The high exposure of the system to fraudsters, and other criminally minded persons who could access confidential information from the system if security measures are weak to check personal files is a challenge of electronic banking.

(3) CONSUMER PROTECTION: Another problem of electronic banking is the absence of regulatory body to protect the consumers of the product or services.

(4) SYSTEMS OPERATIONAL RISKS: Bank rest on the use of electronic banking to conduct business which could result to system failure.

(5) POOR NETWORK: Bad network is a major challenge facing electronic banking in Nigeria, poor network can lead to inability to withdraw money from the Automated Teller Machine (ATM), inability to send alert to the customer if money has been deposited into is account or if money has been deducted from is account.

(6) LITERACY ISSUES: This can be refer to as a situation when all targeted people are not educated, while some do not know how to make use of electronic banking. For instance, a dubious businessman may see a customer finding it difficult to operate the POS (POINT OF SALE) terminal and decided to deduct more than what the person consume.

THREATS OF CYBER ‘ CRIMES ON THE NIGERIAN BANKING PREMISES

Fraudsters or 419, which is one of the most popular of all internet frauds in Nigeria, Has its origin from Nigeria in the 1980s. Its development and spread started through the developments in information technology at inception. Later in the early 1990s, it became integrated into the telecommunication facilities such as fax and telephone from the late 1990s following the introduction of internet and computers, 419 crimes became prevalently perpetrated through the use of e-mail and other internet means (Amedu, 2005). The latest dimension taken by this fraudsters is the use of fake internet bank site, and using it to encourage victims to open accounts with them. These issues basically causes problem to electronic banking, which includes confidentiality, integrity and availability.

Several factors are responsible for the above situation. They include weakness of the judicial institutions to make and enforce laws on cyber-crimes; inordinate tolerance for corruption among Nigerian public and government agencies; unemployment among graduates, and the gap between the rich and the poor caused mainly by bad governance. In the main, erosion of good value principles and corruption constitute the greatest cause of rising cyber-crimes among Nigerian (Domestic electronic payment in Nigeria) (Amedu, 2005).

CUSTOMER SATISFACTION

Jamal (2003) defined customer satisfaction as the meeting of one’s expectations relating to the product used by the customer; these are sentiments and feelings about the product used by the customer. Previous studies (Schultz and Good, 2000; Churchill and Surprenant, 1982; and Patterson, (1993) they agreed that the service performance has direct impact on customer satisfaction. They believed that interaction between them and the customer plays a key role in organizational success or failure and customer satisfaction is a critical performance indicator. File and Prince, (1992) according to File and Prince they explained that satisfied customers will be loyal to the organization and they will tell others about their favourable experience thereby leading to positive word of mouth advertising. Sahereh et al, (2013) identified ten (10) factors influencing satisfaction as follows:

(1) Properly behaviour with friendly: Being polite and friendly to customers will definitely generate more customers and will make customer relationship with bank strong. Friendly service is a necessary condition for development of activities and impress a good name about the bank.

(2) To speed in delivery of services: Anything that leads to customer satisfaction will help them to reach their goal earlier.

(3) Accuracy in providing services: This factor wants to minimize in error rate of doing things and improving quality of work to the standards and acceptable by the people so as to result to the trust and confidence of customers and increasing their satisfaction.

(4) Standard-Oriented: If customers have to ensure that the relationship does not rule and providing facilities request them is done based on standard and criteria, trust isn’t deprive and will not lead to their disappointment.

(5) Interest of deposits: Without doubt depositors are attending to the actual interest that should be considered inflation and other costs carefully.

(6) Secrecy: The banks customers expect that bank personnel in maintaining statements of accounts function or other financial issues do not disclose their account to anybody even their closest relatives.

(7) Skills of personnel: based on the researches done the necessary conditions for employment post include: The ability to move, speed in the work, balancing, and the ability of such.

(8) Guiding and presenting the necessary information and helpful: The right guidance on how to use customers from service will result to the speed of work and customer satisfaction.

(9) Discipline: Discipline is a very important features in all aspect of human life. Discipline led to focusing on the work and higher level of service delivery.

(10) Ease of access to services: Banks could easily apply to most services, this will result to greater customer satisfaction.

BANK CUSTOMER RELATIONSHIP

Bank customer relationship, is a special contract where a person entrusts valuable items (the customer) with another person (the bank) with the intention that such items shall be retrieved on demand from the keeper by the person who so entrust. The banker is the one entrusted with above mentioned valuable items, while the person who entrust the items a view to retrieving it on demand is called the customer.

The relationship between the bank and customer is based on contract. It is based on certain terms and conditions. For instance, the customer has the right to collect his money on demand personally or by proxy. The banker is under obligation to pay, so long the proxy is duly authorized by the customer. The terms and conditions governing the relationship should not be allowed to be leaked to a third party, particularly by the banker. Also the items kept should not be released to a third party without authorization by the customer.

A key issue here is how to handle the rising level of frauds prevalent in the entire banking system, and how to make the Internet banking fit so well in the banking structure of a country.

GUIDELINES ON ELECTRONIC BANKING IN NIGERIA

TECHNOLOGY AND SECURITY STANDARDS

CBN will monitor the technology acquisitions of banks, and all investments in technology, which exceed 10% of free funds, will henceforth be subject to approval. Where banks use third parties or outsource technology, banks are required to comply with the CBN guidelines.

STANDARDS FOR COMPUTER NETWORKS & INTERNET

(a) Networks used for transmission of financial data must be demonstrated to meet the requirements specified for data confidentiality and integrity.

(b) Banks are required to deploy a proxy type firewall to prevent a direct connection between the banks back end systems and the Internet.

(c) Banks are required to ensure that the implementation of the firewalls addresses the security concerns for which they are deployed.

(d) For dial up services, banks must ensure that the modems do not circumvent the firewalls to prevent direct connection to the bank’s back end system.

(e) External devices such as Automated Teller Machines (ATMs), Personal Computers, (PC’s) at remote branches, kiosks, etc. permanently connected to the bank’s network and passing through the firewall must at the minimum address issues relating to non-repudiation, data integrity and confidentiality. Banks may consider authentication via Media Access Control (MAC) address in addition to other methods.

(f) Banks are required to implement proper physical access controls over all network infrastructures both internal and external.

STANDARDS ON PROTOCOLS

Banks must take additional steps to ensure that whilst the web ensures global access to data enabling real time connectivity to the bank’s back-end systems, adequate measures must be in place to identify and authenticate authorized users while limiting access to data as defined by the Access Control List.

Banks are required to ensure that unnecessary services and ports are disabled.

Standards on Application and System Software

(a) Electronic banking applications must support centralized (bank-wide) operations or branch level automation. It may have a distributed, client server or three tier architecture based on a file system or a Database Management System (DBMS) package. Moreover, the product may run on computer systems of various types ranging from PCs, open systems, to proprietary main frames.

(b) Banks must be mindful of the limitations of communications for server/client-based architecture in an environment where multiple servers may be more appropriate.

(c) Banks must ensure that their banking applications interface with a number of external sources. Banks must ensure that applications deployed can support these external sources (interface specification or other CBN provided interfaces) or provide the option to incorporate these interfaces at a later date.

(d) A schedule of minimum data interchange specifications will be provided by the CBN.

(e) Banks must ensure continued support for their banking application in the event the supplier goes out of business or is unable to provide service. Banks should ensure that at a minimum, the purchase agreement makes provision for this possibility.

(f) The bank’s information system (IS) infrastructure must be properly physically secured. Banks are required to develop policies setting out minimum standards of physical security.

(g) Banks are required to identify an ICT compliance officer whose responsibilities should include compliance with standards contained in these guidelines as well as the bank’s policies on ICT.

(h) Banks should segregate the responsibilities of the Information Technology (IT) security officer / group which deals with information systems security from the IT division, which implements the computer systems

STANDARD ON DELIVERY CHANNELS

Mobile Telephony: Mobile phones are increasingly being used for financial services in Nigeria. Banks are enabling the customers to conduct some banking services such as account inquiry and funds transfer. Therefore the following guidelines apply:

(a) Networks used for transmission of financial data must be demonstrated to meet the requirements specified for data confidentiality, integrity and non- repudiation.

(b) An audit trail of individual transactions must be kept.

Automated Teller Machines (ATM): In addition to guidelines on e-banking in general, the following specific guidelines apply to ATMs:

(a) Networks used for transmission of ATM transactions must be demonstrated to meet the guidelines specified for data confidentiality and integrity.

(b) In view of the demonstrated weaknesses in the magnetic stripe technology, banks should adopt the chip (smart card) technology as the standard, within 5 years. For banks that have not deployed ATMs, the expectation is that chip based ATMs would be deployed. However, in view of the fact that most countries are still in the magnetic stripe conversion process, banks may deploy hybrid (both chip and magnetic stripe) card readers to enable the international cards that are still primarily magnetic stripe to be used on the ATMs.

(c) Banks will be considered liable for fraud arising from card skimming and counterfeiting except where it is proven that the merchant is negligent. However, the cardholder will be liable for frauds arising from PIN misuse.

(d) Banks are encouraged to join shared ATM networks.

(e) Banks are required to display clearly on the ATM machines, the Acceptance Mark of the cards usable on the machine.

(f) All ATMs not located within bank premises must be located in a manner to assure the safety of the customer using the ATM. Appropriate lighting must be available at all times and a mirror may be placed around the ATM to enable the individual using the ATM to determine the locations of persons in their immediate vicinity.

(g) ATMs must be situated in such a manner that passers-by cannot see the key entry of the individual at the ATM directly or using the security devices.

(h) ATMs may not be placed outside buildings unless such ATM is bolted to the floor and surrounded by structures to prevent removal.

(I) Additional precaution must be taken to ensure that any network connectivity from the ATM to the bank or switch are protected to prevent the connection of other devices to the network point.

(j) Non-bank institutions may own ATMs, however such institutions must enter into an agreement with a bank for the processing of all the transactions at the ATM. If an ATM is owned by a non-bank institution, processing banks must ensure that the card readers, as well as, other devices that capture/store information on the ATM do not expose information such as the PIN number or other information that is classified as confidential. The funding (cash in the ATM) and operation of the ATM should be the sole responsibility of the bank. (k) Where the owner of the ATM is a financial institution, such owner of the ATM must also ensure that the card reader as well as other devices that capture information on the ATM does not expose/store information such as the PIN number or other information that is classified as confidential to the owner of the ATM.

(l) ATMs at bank branches should be situated in such a manner as to permit access at reasonable times. Access to these ATMs should be controlled and secured so that customers can safely use them within the hours of operations. Deplorers are to take adequate security steps according to each situation subject to adequate observance of standard security policies.

(m) Banks are encouraged to install cameras at ATM locations. However, such cameras should not be able to record the keystrokes of such customers.

(n) At the minimum, a telephone line should be dedicated for fault reporting, and such a number shall be made known to users to report any incident at the ATM. Such facility must be manned at all times the ATM is operational.

INTERNET BANKING

Banks should put in place procedures for maintaining the bank’s Web site which should ensure the following:-

(a) Only authorized staff should be allowed to update or change information on the Web site.

(b) Updates of critical information should be subject to dual verification (e.g. interest rates)

(c) Web site information and links to other Web sites should be verified for accuracy and functionality.

(d) Management should implement procedures to verify the accuracy and content of any financial planning software, calculators, and other interactive programs available to customers on an Internet Web site or other electronic banking service.

(e) Links to external Web sites should include a disclaimer that the customer is leaving the bank’s site and provide appropriate disclosures, such as noting the extent, if any, of the bank’s liability for transactions or information provided at other sites.

(f) Banks must ensure that the Internet Service Provider (ISP) has implemented a firewall to protect the bank’s Web site where outsourced.

(g) Banks should ensure that installed firewalls are properly configured and institute procedures for continued monitoring and maintenance arrangements are in place.

(h) Banks should ensure that summary-level reports showing web-site usage, transaction volume, system problem logs, and transaction exception reports are made available to the bank by the Web administrator.

LEGAL ISSUES

(a) Banks are obliged not only to establish the identity of their Customers (KYC principle) but also enquire about their integrity and reputation. To this end, accounts should be opened only after proper introduction and physical verification of the identity of the customer.

(b) Digital signature should not be relied on solely as evidence in e-banking transactions, as there is presently no legislation on electronic banking in Nigeria

(c) There is an obligation on banks to maintain secrecy and confidentiality of customer’s accounts. In e-banking scenario, there is the risk of banks not meeting the above obligation. Banks may be exposed to enhanced risk of liability to customers on account of breach of secrecy, denial of service etc. because of hacking /other technological failures. Banks should, therefore, institute adequate risk control measures to manage such risks.

(d) Banks should protect the privacy of the customer’s data by ensuring:

(1) That customer’s personal data are used for the purpose for which they are compiled. (2) Consent of the customer must be sought before the Data is used

(3) Data user may request, free of cost for blocking or rectification of inaccurate data or enforce remedy against breach of confidentiality

(4) Processing of children’s data must have the consent of the parents and there must be verification via regular mail.

(5) Strict criminal and pecuniary sanctions are imposed in the event of default.

(e) In e-banking, there is very little scope for the banks to act on stop payment instructions from the customers. Hence, banks should clearly notify the customers the time frame and the circumstances in which any stop-payment instructions could be accepted.

(f) While recognizing the rights of consumers under the Nigerian Consumer Protection Council Act, which also apply to consumers in banking services generally, banks engaged in e-banking should endeavour to insure themselves against risks of unauthorized transfers from customers account’s, through hacking, denial of services on account of technological failure etc., to adequately insulate themselves from liability to the customers.

(g) Agreements reached between providers and users of e-banking products and services should clearly state the responsibilities and liabilities of all parties involved in the transactions.

12 years a slave: college essay help

According to Drew Faust, author of Culture, Conflict, and Community, There was a slave owner named James Henry Hammond who did not really have any idea of how to control the slaves. He did not know what to do and how to command them. He had been married into it. He began to listen to his friends who had suggested to ‘Be kind to them make them feel an obligation and by all means keep all other Negros away from the place, and make yours stay at home- and raise their church to the ground-keep them from fanaticism for God’s sake and your own.’ So he did just that. He began to tear down churches just so they could assimilate more into the white Churches and hopefully show up by taking their churches away. They began to become less religious for quite some time but then they began to rise up again. They started to act lazy and defiant because of the lack of authority. ‘The slaves, accustomed to a far less rigorous system of management, resented his attempts and tried to undermine his drive for efficiency.’ Because of the disobedience he began to severely punish them. Constantly beat them senseless if they did not follow orders. That was the norm throughout most slave owners. They would casually beat their slaves for disobeying their master and sometimes even for the hell of it. This is evidently clear in 12 years a Slave.

In 12 Years a Slave, an African American man named Solomon Northup is a free man in the North, living in New York with this wife and two children. He is a savvy violinist and is approached by two individuals asking if he wants to perform for a circus they are opening up in Washington which would pay greatly. He agrees but is drugged and sent back to the South under the name Platt, a runaway slave from Georgia. He gets sold to a plantation but is later sent to another. The reason why will be later stated. In this second plantation, his owner John Epps is known as not being the nicest slave owner. He was actually known for being incredibly cruel for those who disobey his order. He interprets the bible in a way saying that if the slaves were to disobeyed their master they would get 100 slashes if necessary. Epps would have the slaves pick cotton. The average pounds picked by slaves were 200 pounds and whoever didn’t meet the average would get whipped. Northup would usually not meet the quota so he would usually take part of those lashings. Epps would lash out at slaves when he didn’t get what he wanted. His wife would also beat one of the slaves because of jealousy towards her.

Now of course most slave owners are not usually that mean when it comes to the way they treat their slaves. According to Faust before Hammond took the course of action to beat the slaves for their disobedience, he began to kind of give slaves some of what they asked for. After he took away their churches and they failed to join the white churches he began to become more lenient and allowed a traveling minister just for slave services. ‘For a number of years he hired itinerant ministers for Sunday afternoon slave services.’ He would also imply a system of reward for those who did well in their task, instead of not getting any gratitude. Of course he would still punish those that failed in their duties but I suppose it is a start. ‘Hammond seemed not so much to master as to manipulate his slaves, offering a system not just of punishments, but pf positive inducements, ranging from contests to single out the most diligent hands, to occasional rituals of rewards for all, such as Christmas holidays; rations of sugar, tobacco, and coffee; or even pipes sent to all adult slaves from Europe when Hammond departed on the Grand Tour’ So as you can see sometimes some slave owners would be kinder to their slaves than most other slave owners.

In 12 Years a Slave, this is evident as well. Northup, during the slave auction gets sold to a plantation owner named William Ford. Ford tries to convince the seller to give sell him the daughter of a woman he was buying just to keep their family together but the man wouldn’t budge after Ford practically begged for her. Once they all arrive to the farm, Northup works and shows his ingenuity by impressing Ford with a waterway that will help transport logs quickly and cheaper. Ford’s carpenter, John Tibeats, said that couldn’t work and when it did he quickly resented Northup for it. One day he began to harass Northup and they both got into a scuffle in which Northup won but Tibeats threatened him. Ford’s overseer Chapin came and told him to stay on the plantation because if he left he would not be able to protect him. Tibeats came back later with two of his friends and began to lynch Northup. That’s when Chapin came and rescued him from the three men and warned them with a gun pointing at them saying that Ford held a mortgage on Platt and if they hung him, he would lose that money. He then told them to leave Northup and run away. Chapin then left Northup on his tip toes just so the noose won’t wring his neck all day until Ford came and rescued him. That night, Ford keeps Northup in the house protecting him and tells him in order to save his life he has given his debt to Epps. This shows how tender and nice some slave owners were compared to some cruel slave owners like Epps.

Elizabeth Keckley

Elizabeth Keckley’s life was an eventful one. Born a slave in Dinwiddie Court-House, Virginia, from slave parents, she did not have it easy, as her early years were crowded with incidents.

She was only four year old when her mistress, Mrs. Burwell delivered a beautiful black-eyed baby, whose care was assigned to Elizabeth, a child herself. This task didn’t seem very hard to her, as she had been educated to serve others and to rely much on herself. If she met Mrs. Burwell’s expectations, it would be her passport into the plantation house, where she could work alongside her mother, who did most of the cooking and sewing in the family. Trying to rock the cradle as hard as she could, she dropped the baby on the floor and immediately panicked, attempting to pick it up with the fire-shovel, until her mistress came into the room and started screaming at her. It was then that she received her first lashing, but that would not be her last punishment. It was the one she would remember most, though.

At seven years old, Elizabeth saw a slave sale for the first time. Her master had just acquired the hogs he needed for the winter and didn’t have enough money for the purchase. To avoid the shame of not being able to pay, he decided to sell one of his slaves, little Joe, the cook’s son. His mom was kept in oblivion, in spite of her suspicions. She was told little Joe was coming back the next morning, but mornings passed and his mother never saw him again.

By the time she was eight, the Burwell family had four daughters and six sons, with a large number of servants. She didn’t see much of her father, as he served a different master, but it was also because they were enable to be together as a family only twice a year, at Christmas and during the Easter holidays. Her mother, Agnes, was thrilled when Mr. Burwell made arrangements for her husband to come live with them, and little Lizzie, as her father used to call her, was ecstatic to finally have her family together. That only lasted until Mr. Burwell came on one fine day bringing with him a letter saying that her father had to leave to the West with his master, where he had decided to relocate. And that was the last time she ever saw her dad.

Another memory that Elizabeth could not shake was the death of one her uncles, another slave of Mr. Burwell’s. After one day, he lost his pair of plough-lines, but Colonel Burwell offered him another, a new one, and told him he would be punished if he lost those too. But a couple weeks later his new pair got stolen and he hung himself for fear of his master’s reaction. It was Lizzie’s mother that found him the next morning, suspended by one of the willow’s solid branches, down by the river. He chose taking his life over the punishment from his master.

Because they didn’t have any slaves of their own, at 14 Lizzie was separated from her mom and given as a chore girl to her master’s oldest son, who lived in Virginia. His wife was a helpless, morbidly sensitive girl, with little parenting skills. Reverend Robert Burwell was earning very little money, so he couldn’t afford to buy Elizabeth, only to benefit from her services thanks to his father. Living with the minister, she had to do the work of three people, and they still didn’t find her trustworthy. By the time she was 18, Elizabeth had grown into a proud, beautiful young woman. It was around that time that the family moved to Hillsboro, in Northern Carolina, where the minister was assigned a church of his own.

Mr. Bingham, the school principal, was an active member of the church and a frequent visitor of the church house. He was a harsh, pitiless man who became the mistress’s tool in punishing Lizzie, as Mrs. Burwell was always looking for vengeance against her for one reason or another. Mr. Burwell was a kind man, but was highly influenced by his wife and took after her behavior fairly often. One night, after Elizabeth had just put the baby to sleep, Mr. Bingham told her to follow him to his office , where she was asked to take her clothes off because he was going to whip her. Then she did something that no slave had ever done. She refused. She dared him to give her a reason or otherwise he would have to force her, which he did. She was too proud to give him the pleasure of seeing her suffer, so she just stood there like a statue, with her lips firmly closed, until it was over. When he finally let her go, she went straight to her master and asked for an explanation, but Mr. Burwell didn’t react in any way, and only told her to leave. When she refused to go, the minister hit her with a chair. Lizzie couldn’t sleep that night, and it wasn’t from the physical pain, but more from the mental torture she had suffered. Her spirit stoically refused this unjust behavior and as much as she tried, she couldn’t forgive those who had it inflicted it upon her.

The next day all she wanted was a kind word from those who had made her suffer, but that didn’t happen. Instead, she continued to be lashed on a regular basis by Mr. Bingham, who convinced Mrs. Burwell it was the right thing to do to cure her pride and stubbornness. Lizzie continued to resist him, more proud and defiant every time, until one day he started crying in front of her, telling her she didn’t deserve it and he couldn’t do it anymore. He even asked Lizzie for forgiveness and from that day on he never hit one of his slaves ever again.

When Mr. Bingham refused to perform his duty anymore, it was Mr. Burwell’s turn to do it, urged by his jealous wife. Elizabeth continued to resist though, and eventually her attitude softened their hearts and they promised to never beat her again, and they kept their promise.

Sadly, this kind of event was not the only thing that caused her pain during her residence at Hillsboro. Because she was consider fair-looking for one of her race, she was abused by a white man for more than four years, when she got pregnant and gave birth to a boy, the only child she ever had. It wasn’t a child that she wanted to have, because of the society that she was part of, as a child of two races would always be frowned upon and she didn’t want him to suffer like she did.

The years passed and many things happened during that time. One of Elizabeth’s old mistress’s daughters, Ann, married Mr. Garland, and Lizzie went to live with them in Virginia, where she was reunited with her mother. The family was poor and couldn’t afford a living in Virginia, so Mr. Garland decided to move away from his home to the banks of Mississippi, in search of better luck. Unfortunately, moving didn’t change anything, and the family still didn’t have the resource needed to make a living. It got to a point where they were considering putting Agnes, her mother, out of service. Lizzie was outraged by the idea that her mom, who was raised in this family and grew up to raise their children years later and love them as her own, would have to go work for strangers. She would have done anything to prevent this from happening. And she did. She convinced Mr. Garland to let find someplace to work to help the family and to keep her mother close to her. It wasn’t hard to find work , and she soon had quite a reputation as a seamstress and dress-maker. All the ladies came to her for dresses and she never lacked clients. She was doing so well that she managed to support a seventeen-member family for almost two and a half years. Around that time, Mr. Keckley, whom she had met earlier in Virginia, and regarded with a little more than friendship, came to St. Louis and proposed to her. She refused at first, saying that she had to think about his offer, but what scared her was the thought of giving birth to another child that would live in slavery. She loved her son enormously, but she always felt it was unfair for the free side of him, the Anglo-Saxon blood that he had, to be silenced by the slave side that he was born with. She wanted him to have the freedom that he deserved. After thinking about it for a long time, he decided to go to Mr. Garland and asked him the price she should pay for her freedom and her son’s. he dismissed her immediately and told her to never say such a thing ever again, but she couldn’t stop thinking about it. With all the respect the had for her master, she went to see him again and asked him what was the price she had to pay for herself and her son to be free.

He finally gave in to her requests and told her that 1200$ was the price of her freedom. This gave her a silver lining to the dark cloud of her life and with a perspective of freedom she agreed to marry Mr. Keckley and start a family with him. But years passed and she couldn’t manage to save that amount of money because her duties with the family were overwhelming and she didn’t leave much time for anything. Also, her husband, Mr. Keckley, proved to be more of a burden than a support for her and the boy. Meanwhile Mr. Garland died and Elizabeth was given to another master, a Mississippi planter, Mr. Burwell, a compassionate man who told her she should be free and he would help with anything she needed to raise the amount of money needed to pay for this freedom.

Several plans were thought through, until Lizzie decided she should go to New York and appeal to people’s generosity to help her carry out her plan. All was set; all she needed now was six men to vouch with their money for her return. She had lots of friends in St. Louis and didn’t think it would be a problem, and she easily gathered the first five signatures. The sixth one was Mr. Farrow, an old friend of hers, and she didn’t think he would refuse her. He didn’t, but he didn’t believe she would came back either. Elizabeth was puzzled that he didn’t believe in her cause, and she couldn’t accept his signature if he really thought it was the final goodbye from her. She went home and started to cry, looking at her ready-to-go trunk and at the luncheon her mother had prepared for her, believing that her dream of freedom was nothing but a dream and she and her son would die slaves, the same way they were born.

And then something happened, something she never expected. Mrs. Le Bourgois, one of her patrons, walked in and changed her world around. She said it wouldn’t be fair for her to beg strangers for money and it was the ones who knew her that should help her. She would give her 200$ from her and mother and she would ask all her friends do help Elizabeth. She was successful and rapidly managed to find the 1200$ Elizabeth needed. And that was it. Lizzie and her sixteen year old son, George, were finally free. Free to go anywhere they wanted. Free to start over and to have the life they always wanted. Free by the laws of men and by the smile of God.

Critical review II: The Dependency theory

Latin American countries have always been exposed to western influence. With its neo-liberalist stance the west encourages Latin America to open up its trade and cooperate with the west. During the 1960s many countries wanted to keep Western influence outside because they were convinced that this would negatively influence their development. A consequence of this attitude was the development of a theory that criticized the western liberalist stance; the dependency theory. Dependency theory criticizes western modernity. This critical stance can be explained by the fact that Latin America is historically exposed to the political, economic, cultural and intellectual influence of the US and its recurrent attempt to diminish US domination (Tickner 2008:736). The region, being part of the non-core, wants their understanding of global realities to be explored. (Tickner 2003b). However, the theory has been influenced by the west and thereby has lost strength. Moreover, its empirical validity has been questioned. For the above mentioned reasons the theory is hardly used anymore. It should not be forgotten, however, that the theory has some qualities which do contribute to the field of international relations. First this essay will discuss the post-colonial argument that dependency theory is not critical enough and gives an explanation why the theory is Eurocentric. Afterwards it will discuss its empirical validity and finally it addresses the theory its contribution to the field of international relations. Dependency theory originated in the 1960s in Latin America. Frank, the leading theorist, argues that due to the capitalist system, developing countries are underdeveloped and development is impossible as long as they remain in the capitalist system (Frank 1969). Opposed to Frank, Cardoso and Faletto argue that development is possible despite structural determination and that the local state has an important role, they call it associated dependent development ((1979:xi). Yet, both Frank and Cardoso and Falleto eventually argue that dependency paths need to be broken by constructing paths toward socialism. The dependency theorists are thus critical of Western liberalism. As mentioned above, dependency theory attempts to criticize western-modernity. Post-colonialism, however, argues that dependency theory is not counter-modernist and not critical enough. Post-colonial theorists, in contrast to many conventional theorists, state that attention to colonial origins is needed to get a better understanding of the expansion of the world order (Seth 2011). Dependency theory does pay attention to its colonial origins. For example, Frank argues that dependency occurred historically through slavery and colonialism and continues today through western dominance of the international trading system, the practices of multinational companies and the LDC’s reliance on Western aid (Frank 1969). However, post-colonialism does criticize the way how dependency theorists address the colonial origins. The first critique stems from the fact that the homogenizing and incorporating world historical scheme of dependency ignores, domesticates, or transcends difference. It does not take into account the differences in histories, cultures and peoples (Said, 1985: 22).The second critique stems from the fact that to get a sufficient understanding of the emergence of the modern international system, it should not be examined how an international society that developed in the West radiated outwards, but rather the ways in which international society was shaped by interactions between Europe and those it colonized. (Seth 2011:174). Pos-colonalists, however, argue that dependency theory is Eurocentric. Dependency theorists are not aware of the way in which culture frames their own analysis. While trying to look at imperialism from the perspective of the periphery, dependistas fail to do this (Kapoor 2002:654). For dependistas the ‘centre’ continues to be central and dominant so that the West ends up being consolidated as sovereign subject. Dependency’s ethnocentrism appears in its historical analysis as well. Dependistas use the way how capitalism developed in Europe as a universal model that stands for history and see developing countries as examples of failed or dependent capitalism. (Kapoor 2002:654) Post colonialism thus would argue that while challenging the current capitalist system, dependency theory is not critical enough because it does not adequately address history and culture and is Eurocentric. Tickner (2008) may provide an explanation of why dependency theory is not critical enough and why it is described in terms of adherence to the capitalist system dominated by the west. IR thinking in Latin America is influenced by -among other things- US intellectual knowledge. As Tickner argues, dependency theory is not a genuine non-core theory but it is influenced by US analysts. According to Cardoso (1977) this led to severe distortions in its original contents because it local internal problems of greatest concern to social scientists in Latin America became invisible and external factors such as US intervention and multinational corporations were prioritized. Furthermore, IR thinking in that region has been influenced by conventional theories. For example, through the influence of realism in Latin America, much attention was paid to the role of the elite and furthermore, theorists were concerned with the concept of power but replaced it with a more suitable concept autonomy (Tickner 2008:742).Thus the influence of US IR knowledge and conventional theories may have contributed to the fact that dependency theory is not critical enough and has lost its influence. Although post-colonialism addresses dependency’s problem – that is does not sufficiently addresses culture because of its sole focus on capitalism – it should be noted that not only culture is not taken into account but a whole range of other factors which could help explain underdevelopment are left out the theory as well. This shortcoming clarifies why dependency theory is empirical invalid.For example, dependency does not address local, physical, social or political forces that might have had a role in the inability to generate industrial development and does not acknowledge that imperialism is only partly responsible for underdevelopment (Smith 1981). As Smith argues; ”dependency theory exaggerates the explanatory power of economic imperialism as a concept to make sense of historical change in the south” (1981:757). Smith rightly points out that in some instances dependistas do recognize the influence of local circumstances but this is only so to reaffirm ultimately the overriding power of economic imperialism. Moreover, the theory does not pay any attention to the positive effects that the contact with the international system can provide for developing countries. Thus, dependistas solely look at economic power and state that as long as countries remain part of the international capitalist system development is impossible. The only way to escape is to isolate from this system or if the colonizer relinquishes political power. (Kapoor 656) However, South-Korea’s development shows the invalidity of this argument. South-Korea experienced rapid growth during the 1970s despite its dependency on the US. The case of South-Korea shows that development is possible despite dependency and that dependency can have positive effects. Another case which shows dependency’s invalidity is Ghana. During the 1980s Ghana adopted dependency policies that were consistent with the denial of the relevance of the western economic principles and tried to keep western influence outside. However, instead of bringing prosperity and greater independence for the Ghanasian economy, these policies caused poverty and greater dependence on international aid or charity (Ahiakpor 1985:13). The dependency policies did not support Ghana’s development because it only focused on capitalism without taking other factors into account. The theory thus has significant shortcomings which explains its loss of influence. However, it should be noted that the theory has some qualities as well. Despite its homogenizing and Eurocentric history, the theory is aware that history is an important factor. The advantage of dependency’s structural-historical perspective is that broad patterns and trends can be recognized. Moreover, it allows one to learn from past mistakes to change the future (Kapoor 2002:660). On top of that, as Wallerstein argues ”One of the crucial insights and contributions of dependency is the conceptualization of the unicity of the world system” (1974:3). It clearly describes how the world is incorporated in the capitalist system and it shows the importance of economic considerations on political issues. Furthermore, it addresses the importance of local elites and foreign companies to the internal affairs of weak states whereby it provides an analytical framework. (Smith 1981:756). For example, Cardoso and Faletto argue that if there is no strong local state, the ruling elite may ally themselves with foreign companies pursuing their own interests and this way upholding dependency and underdevelopment. This analysis is applicable to Congo and shows for example that Congo’s development is restrained because a strong local state is absent and the local elite allies with foreign companies pursuing their own interests (Reno 2006). In short, dependency theory has lost influence because – from a post-colonial perspective – it is not counter-modernist and not critical enough. It does not adequately address history and culture and is Eurocentric. Moreover, it is empirically invalid because it solely focuses on capitalism without taking other factors into account. In contrast to what dependistas argue, dependent development is possible within the capitalist system and the proposed isolation from this system may even worsen the economy instead of bringing prosperity. However, the theory did influence foreign policymakers and analysts not only in Latin America but also in Africa between the 1960s and the 1980s and it is still useful because it provides an analytical framework on which other analysts can elaborate.

Data Acquisition and Analysis – Curve fitting and Data Modelling: college application essay help

1 Part 1: Track B: Linear Fitting Scheme to Find Best-Fit Values

Introduction

In a linear regression problem, a mathematical model is used to examine the relationship between two variables i.e. the independent variables and dependent variable (the independent variable is used to predict the dependent variable).

This is achieved by using the least square method using excel plotting data values and drawing a straight line to derive the best fit values. A nonlinear graph was obtained on plotting the data points provided but the least square method applied obtained a linear graph with a straight line which estimated and minimized the squared difference between the total sum of the data values and model values.

Aim

The aim of this coursework Part1, Track B is to carryout data analysis assessment with respect to linear model fitting by manual calculation working obtaining the best-fit values with the decay transient data provided in table 1 below which is implemented using excel.

Time (sec) Response (v)

0.01 0.812392

0.02 0.618284

0.03 0.425669

0.04 0.328861

0.05 0.260562

0.06 0.18126

0.07 0.1510454

0.08 0.11254

0.09 0.060903

0.1 0.070437

Table 1.1: data for decay transient

Methodology

The data in the table 1.1 above represents decay transient which can be modelled as an exponential function of time as shown below:

V(t)=V_0 exp'(-t/??) ”””””””””””””’ (1.1)

The equation above is nonlinear; to make it linear the natural logarithm method is applied

Logex = Inx ”””””””””””””””. (1.2)

From the mathematical equation of a straight line

Y = mx + c”””””””””””””””. (1.3)

Y = a0 + a1x + e””””””””””””””. (1.4)

Y = Inx”””””””””””””””’… (1.5)

In this case

Y = InV”””””””””””””””’… (1.6)

So,

InV = InV0 + Ine(-t/??) ””””””””””””’. (1.6)

But Inex = x; eInx = x

InV = InV0 ‘ t/”””””””””””””’??. (1.7)

Applying natural logarithm method to the equation obtained two coefficients InV0 and t/?? which represent a0 and a1 respectively from equation (1.4)

The normal equation for a straight line can be written in matrix form as:

[‘(n&’[email protected]’xi&”xi’^2 )] {‘([email protected])} = {‘(‘[email protected]’xiyi)} ”””””””””.””. (1.8)

This is separated to give

[‘(‘(1&1)&’&[email protected]'(xi&x2)&’&xn)] [‘(‘([email protected])&'([email protected])@’&’@1&xn)]{‘([email protected])} = [‘(‘(1&1)&’&[email protected]'(x1&x2)&’&xn)] [‘(‘([email protected])@’@yn)] ””’.””. (1.9)

From (1.9) the general linear least squares fit equation is given as

[[Z^T ] [Z]]{A}= {[Z^T ] {Y}}

The main purpose is to calculate for {A} (InV0 and t/??) which are the coefficients of the linear equation in (1.7). Matrix method using excel is used to achieve this by finding values for [Z],[Z^T ],[Z^T ][Z],[Z^T ][Y],’and[[Z^T ] [Z]]’^(-1).

The table below shows the calculated values for InV when natural logarithm was applied to the response V using excel.

Table 1.2: Excel table showing calculated values for InV

[Z]= [‘(1&[email protected]&[email protected]&[email protected]&[email protected]&[email protected]&[email protected]&[email protected]&[email protected]&[email protected]&0.1) ]

The transpose of [Z] is given as

[Z]= [‘(1&1&1&1&1&1&1&1&1&[email protected]&0.02&0.03&0.04&0.05&0.06&0.07&0.08&0.09&0.1)]

The product of [Z^T ][Z] is given as

[Z^T ][Z] = [‘(10.0000&[email protected]&0.0385)]

The inverse [[Z^T ] [Z]]^(-1) of the matrix [Z^T ][Z] is given as

[[Z^T ] [Z]]^(-1) = [‘(0.4667&[email protected]&121.2121)]

The product of the transpose of [Z], [Z^T ] and [Y] (InV) is given as

[Z^T ][Y] = [‘([email protected])]

To obtain {A} the product of [[Z^T ] [Z]]^(-1) and [Z^T ][Y] was calculated to give

{A} = [‘([email protected])]; {A}= [‘([email protected]/??)]

Where;

InV0 = a0; and – 1/?? = a1

{A} = [‘([email protected])]

So,

InV0 = 0.0626; and 1/?? = -28.8434

V0 = exp(0.0626) = 1.0646; and ?? = 1/-28.8434 = 0.03467

Then,

V(t)=1.0646exp'(-t/0.03467)

Since Y = InV(t)

Y = 1.0646exp'(-t/0.03467)

Table 1.3: Excel table showing calculated values for InV [Y] and InV(t) [Y]

Table 1.4: Diagram of Excel calculation for curve fitting

Figure 1.1: Diagram of transient decay for response V and response V(t)

Figure 1.2: Diagram of transient decay for response V and response V(t)

Conclusion

The solutions to this linear regression exercise was achieved by manually calculating the generalized normal equation for the least square fit using the matrix method and Microsoft excel program obtaining the unknown values of the coefficients V0 and ??. The method provides accurate results and the best fit values obtained show the relationship between the straight line response and the transient line response shown in figure above and is seen to have given

2 Part 2: Track B: Type K thermocouple

INTRODUCTION:

The thermocouple is a sensor that is used to measure temperature and is commonly used in many industries. For this lab work, a Type K thermocouple is used to acquire a first order transient data (non-linear) response to a temperature change, a signal conditioning element called the AD595 thermocouple amplifier is used to improve thermocouple signal since it produced a low voltage output proportional to the input temperature, a data acquisition device the NI-USB 6008 is used to acquire signals from the signal conditioning circuit, a resistor-capacitor (RC) low-pass filter is built for reduce the frequency and noise of the signal generated and further investigations and analysis are carried out. In this part, the non-linear regression was used to obtain the transient response of thermocouple signal using Labview program

Aim

The aim of the assignment is to produce a Labview program which can obtain transient real data values from a Type K thermocouple which is a sensor that produces voltage by the differential temperature its conductors sense (i.e. a first order response) followed by a non- linear model fitting procedure which allows the user capture the thermocouple initial first order response to a rising input temperature and an appropriate response function model to the transient response. The program displays the transient data, fitted model response and calculated model parameters.

Reason of the choice of model response

The model output transient response obtained from the input (temperature) of the Type K thermocouple was a first order can be defined as having only s to the power of one in the first order transfer function which is characterised with no overshoot because the order of any system is determined by the power of s in the transfer function denominator and has a transfer function as 1/(??s+1) for a unit step signal of 1/s in the Laplace transform domain or s domain and is given as

Y(s) = 1/(s(??s+1)) ””””””””””””””’… (2.1)

Partial fraction method is used to find the output signal Y(t) to give

Y(s) = A/s+B/(??s+1) ””””””””””””””’ (2.2)

A = [s * Y(s)] for s = 0 = 1

B = [(??s+1) * Y(s)] for s = (-1)/?? = -1

Y(s) = 1/s-1/(??s+1) ””””””””””””””’ (2.3)

Therefore the output signal in the time domain is given as:

Y(t) = L-1 [1/s-1/(??s+1)] ”””””””””””””’ (2.4)

Y(t) = U(t) – e^((-t)/??) ”””””””””””””’ (2.5)

Y(t) = 1- e^((-t)/??) where t’0 ””””””””””” (2.6)

Substituting the output response V(t) for Y(t) , the equation (2.6) can also be re-written as:

V(t) = 1- e^((-t)/??) ”””””””””””””’ (2.7)

Assuming for a given input temperature T0 an output response V0 was derived and for a given increase in temperature T1 an output response voltage V1 was derived, so therefore the output voltage for the change in voltage relative to the change in temperature is given as:

V(t) =(V1 ‘ V0)( 1- e^((-t)/??) ) ”””””””””””. (2.7)

V(t) =V0 + (V1 ‘ V0)( 1- e^((-t)/??) ) (thermocouple voltage response) ”””’. (2.8)

V(t) = (V1 ‘ V0)( 1- e^((-t)/??) ) + V0 ””””””””””. (2.9)

Where (V1 ‘ V0) = ??V

V(t) = ??V ( 1- e^((-t)/??) ) + V0 ”””””””””””. (3.0)

T(t) = ??T ( 1- e^((-t)/??) ) + T0”””””””””””. (3.1)

T(t) = a ( 1- e^((-t)/b) ) + c

Equation (3.1) is similar to the general nonlinear model given as:

F(x) = a ( 1- e^((-t)/b) ) + c ”…””””””””””’. (3.2)

Where,

F(x) = V(t) ; a = ??V; b = 1/??; and c = V0

The thermocouples voltage output is nonlinear given a first order response curve (Digilent Inc., 2010)

V(t)

0 (-t)/??

Table 2:1: showing thermocouple output voltage first order response curve

Explanation on the principles of non-linear regression analysis

The principle of non-linear regression is a method that can be used to show how the response and the unknown values (predictors) relate to each other by following a functional form i.e. relating Y as being a function of x or more variables. This is to say that the non-linear equation we are trying to predict rely non-linearly mainly upon one or more variables or parameters. The Gauss Newton Method is a method used to solve non-linear regression by applying Taylor series expansion to express a non-linear expression in a linear for form.

A non-linear regression compared to a linear regression cannot be manipulated or solved directly to get the equation; it can be exhausting calculating for this as an iterative approach is used. A non-linear regression model is given as:

Yi = f(xi, a0, a1) + ei

Where,

Yi = responses

F = function of (xi, a0, a1)

ei = errors

For this assignment the non-linear regression model is given as

f(x) = a0(1 ‘ e-a1x) + e

Where,

F(x) = V(t) ; a0 = ??V; b = (-t)/??; and e = V0

T(t) = (T1 ‘ T0)( 1- e^((-t)/??) ) + T0 ””””””””””. (3.3)

V(t) = (V1 ‘ V0)( 1- e^((-t)/??) ) + V0 ””””””””””. (3.4)

Where (V1 ‘ V0) = ??V

V(t) = ??V ( 1- e^((-t)/??) ) + V0 ”””””””””””. (3.5)

Description of measurement task

The intent of the measurement experiment was to seek, identify, analyse the components of that make measurement task and to examine the transient response from the Type k thermocouple. It analyses the method, instruments and series of actions in obtaining results from measurements. Equipment such as the Type K thermocouple, NI-PXI-6070E 12 bit I/O card, AD595 thermocouple amplifier, and a Labview software program which was used for calculation of model parameters were used to carry out this task.

The measurement task is to introduce the Type K thermocouple sensing junction in hot water to analyse the temperature change and the corresponding voltage response is generated and observed on a Labview program. This activity is executed frequently to acquire the best fitted model response and parameters.

Choice of signal conditioning elements

The choice of a signal conditioning element used in measurement is important because the signal conditioning element used can either enhance the quality and efficiency of a measurement system or reduce its performance.

The AD595 thermocouple amplifier is the choice signal conditioning element used with the Type K thermocouple for this experiment because it is has a built in ice-point compensation (cold junction compensator) and amplifier which is used as a reference junction to compare and amplify the output voltage of the Type K thermocouple which generates a small output voltage corresponding to the input temperature. AD595AQ chip used is pre-calibrated by laser trimming to correspond to the Type K thermocouple characteristic feature with an accuracy of ??3oC, operating between (-55 oC – 125 oC) and are available with 14 pins/low cost cerdip. The AD595 device resolves this issue by providing amplification of low output voltage (gain), linearization of the nonlinear output response of the thermocouple so as to change to the equivalent input temperature, and provide cold junction compensation to improve the performance and accuracy of thermocouple measurements.

Equipment provided for measurement

There were three equipment provided for the measurement exercise and they include:

Type K thermocouple

The Type K thermocouple (chromel/alumel) is the most commonly used transducer to measure temperature with an electromotive force (e.m.f) of 41 microvolts per degree(??V/ oC) which is nonlinear and the voltage produced between its two dissimilar alloys changes with temperature i.e. the input temperature corresponds to the output voltage it generates. It is cheap to buy with the ability to perform in rugged environmental conditions and is calibrated to operate at wide temperature range of about -250 oC to 1370 oC. It is made of a constituent called nickel which is magnetic and its magnetic component may change direction or deviate when subjected to a high enough temperature and can affect its accuracy.

Signal connector signal conditioner

Thermocouple

Cold junction ‘([email protected])

Figure 2.2: Circuit diagram of a thermocouple, signal connector and signal conditioner

NI-USB 6008

The NI-USB 6008 is a National Instrument device that provides DAQ functionality for some applications like portable measurements, data logging and lab experiments. It is cheap for academic purposes and is used for more complicated measurement tasks. It has a ready to run data logger software which allows the user to perform quick measurements and can be configured by using Labview National Instruments software. It provides connection to 8 analog single-ended input channels (AI), 2 analog output channels (AO), 12 data input and output (I/O) channels, 32 bit counter bus with a very quick USB interface and are compatible with Labview 7.x, LabWindowsTM/CVI, and Measurement Studio DAQ modules for visual Studio.

Figure 2.3: NI-USB 6008 pin out

AD595 thermocouple amplifier

The AD595 thermocouple amplifier is a thermocouple amplifier and a cold junction compensator on a small chip of semiconductor material (microchip or IC) which produces a high output of 10 mV/oC from the input signal of a thermocouple as a result of combining a cold junction reference with a pre-calibrated amplifier. It has an accuracy of ??10C and ??30C for the A and C performance grade version respectively and can be powered by a supply including +5V and a negative supply if temperatures below 00C are to be measured. It laser trimmer is pre-calibrated so as to conform to the Type k thermocouple specification and is available in 14-pin side brazed ceramic dips (Devices, 1999).

Figure 2.4: Block diagram showing AD595 in a functional circuit

Configuration of the I/O channel(s)

The I/O channel(s) provide a way (path) for communication between the input device (thermocouple sensor) and the output device (DAQ). The thermocouple senses temperature as input and sends the data to the DAQ which receives the data and displays the information through a computer on the Labview front panel graph.

The following explain the configuration of the DAQ for the thermocouple measurement:

Channel Settings: this is used to select an I/O channel in the DAQ device either AI0 or AI1 can be chosen and rename to suit user

Signal Input Range: this is used to select the minimum and maximum voltage of the AD595 thermocouple amplifier which also helps to achieve better resolution of the NI-USB 6008 Data Acquisition Device

Scale Units: this is used to select the scale unit of the analog signal generated and since the thermocouples output signal measured corresponding to temperature is Voltage, then the Scaled unit chosen will be ‘Volts’

Terminal Configuration: this is used to choose terminal on the DAQ for which the signal conditioning circuit is connected

Custom Scaling: No scale was chosen since no custom scale was adopted

Acquisition Mode: this is used to select how the sample are played, the continuous samples was chosen because it allows the DAQ to collect data signals continuously from the circuit until the user decides to stop

Samples to Read: this allows the user to choose how many samples to read depending on the frequency of the input signal generated. It is important to choose at least twice the frequency signal to acquire all the desire signals. One thousand (2K) samples was chosen

Rate (Hz): this allows the user to choose the rate of the sample signals generated. Rate (Hz) 1k was chosen.

Connection of Circuit to DAQ and Configuration of I/O channel(s)

The connection of the circuit to the NI-USB 6008 data acquisition device was carried out by connecting two wires from the output voltage and ground of the signal conditioning unit i.e. the AD595 device.

The red wire from the signal conditioning unit was connected to the positive port of the analog input channel 0 (+AI0) of the DAQ device and the black wire from the ground was connected to the negative port of the analog input channel 0 (-AI0) of the DAQ. The diagrams below show the connections between the signal conditioning circuit and the connector block (DAQ).

Figure 2.5: Picture showing the connection of the signal conditioning circuit with the DAQ

Description of the Labview VI

Labview is a National instrument programming system design software that is optimal for control measurements and provides an engineer with tools to test, solve practical problems in a short amount of time, and the design of control systems. It is less complex and very easy to use compared to other programming simulation applications. The Labview Virtual Instrument (VI) program includes the Front Panel and the Block diagram and for this lab experiment, it is used to examine and determine the thermocouple frequency response and to carry out an analysis of the noise present in the filtered and unfiltered signal of the thermocouple voltage generated, displaying the result on its Graph indicators. The description of the Labview VI Front Panel and Block diagram are as follows:

Figure 2.6: Block diagram of the Labview design

Block diagram:

It is where a user can create the basic code for the Labview program. The program can be created when the block diagram is active by using the functions palette which contains objects like structure, numeric, Boolean, string, array, cluster, time and dialog, file I/O, and advanced functions which can be added to the block diagram.

Front Panel:

It is a graphic user interface that allows the user to interact with the Labview program. It can appear in silver, classic, modern or system style. The controls and indicators are located on the controls palette and used to build and add objects like numeric displays, graphs and charts, Boolean controls and indicators etc. to the front panel.

DAQ Assistant:

It allows a user to configure, generate and acquire analog input signals from any one of the data acquisitions (DAQ) input channel. For this experiment the signal conditioning circuit was connected to the analog input 0 channel of the NI-USB 6008 data acquisition device and the DAQ assistant is used to configure to DAQ so as to be able to acquire signals from the AD595 thermocouple amplifier.

For Loop:

The For loop like the while loop allows codes to be executed repeatedly by executing a subdiagram a required number of times (N). The For loop is found on the structure palette and can be placed on the block diagram. It is made up of the count and iteration terminal.

Trigger and Gate VI:

It is used to take out a part (segment) of a signal and its mode of operation is either based on a start or stop condition or can be static.

Curve Fitting VI:

It is used to calculate and determine the best fit parameter values that best depict an input signal. It can be used for linear, non-linear, spline, quadratic and polynomial models type. It minimizing the weighted mean squared error between the initial and best fit response signal generated. For this experiment initial guesses were made for the coefficients of non-linear model used.

Graphs:

It is a type of special indicator accepts different data types and used to display an array of input data or signals. In this case a waveform graph was used.

Numeric Function:

It is used to carry out mathematical and arithmetic actions on numbers and converts numbers from one data type to another. The multiply numeric function was used to return the products of inputs.

Figure 2.7: Configuration of Trigger and Gate

Figure 2.8: Curve fitting configuration

The diagram in figure 2.8 above is a window showing the configuration for curve fitting and the configuration steps are as follows:

Model Type: Non-linear model was chosen because the signal observed is a first order response (non-linear) curve.

Independent variable: t was the independent variable chosen

Maximum iterations: The default maximum iterations 500 is chosen.

Non-linear model: The equation for the non-linear model a*( 1- exp'(-t/b)) ) + c

Initial guesses: Values for a, b, and c were chosen to get the best fitting values for the curve. The values for a, b, and c are 15.000000, 0.040000, and 29.000000 respectively.

Figure 2.9: Transient response of the thermocouple for best fit 1st measurement

Figure 3.0: Transient response of the thermocouple for best fit 2nd measurement

Figure 3.1: Transient response of the thermocouple for best fit 3rd measurement

The diagrams in figures 2.9, 3.0 and 3.1 above show the transient response of the thermocouple after being inserted in warm water to get the best fit curve i.e. to replicate the actual thermocouple response curve. It is observed that with the use of the Trigger and Gate Express VI, the delay experienced in the in the three graphs were removed making the thermocouples signal response more appropriate providing a more decent best fit curve result. Carrying out multiple measurements to get the best fit curve reduces the time constants and produces a better response curve compared to taking one measurement. The table below shows the results from the three measurement activities with their residual and mean squared error values.

Model Parameters First Measurement(1st) Second Measurement(2nd) Third Measurement(3rd)

a (0C) 21.4671 10.2373 8.60708

b (sec) 0.0232065 0.039578 0.0432934

c (0C) 32.1068 29.661 29.4745

Residual 0.666461 0.0357227 0.124069

Mean Squared Error 0.431833 0.0181012 0.0227711

Table 2.1: Showing results from the three measurements with best fit parameters mean squared error and Residual for curve fitting.

From Table the second measurement was observed to have the best fitting curve with the minimum residual and Mean Squared error that are closest to zero compared to the 1st and 3rd measurements. The best fit parameter results of the second measurement will be inserted in the non-linear model equation which is given as:

y = a*( 1- exp'(-t/b)) ) + c””””””””””””(3.6)

T(t) = ??T ( 1- e^((-t)/??) ) + T0””””””””””””…(3.7)

Where,

a is the change in temperature of thermocouple (??T)

b is the time constant (??)

c is the initial temperature of the thermocouple (T0)

t is the time

Substituting values for a, b, and c of third measurement in the equation

T(t) = 10.2373( 1- exp'(-t/0.039578)) ) + 29.661”’..”””””..(3.8)

Equation 3.7 above is the non-linear model equation with best fit parameters for the thermocouple response signal at every value of time (t).

To achieve the output voltage response, the change in temperature and the initial temperature values from equation 3.7 need to be converted to volts this can be obtained by dividing the temperature value by 100 since 100oC is equal to 1V. So the resulting output voltage of the thermocouple is as follows:

V(t) = ??V ( 1- e^((-t)/??) ) + V0”’..””””””””””'(3.9)

Where,

a = ??V; b =1/??; and c = V0

V(t) = 0.102373( 1- exp'(-t/0.039578)) ) + 0.29661””””””’.(4.0)

Conclusion

The curve fitting experiment using the Type K thermocouple, the AD595 signal conditioning device, and the NI-USB 6008 to acquire and display signals using Labview software was carried out successfully. Curve fitting of the transient response signal of the thermocouple was achieved by analysing and obtaining the transient response of the thermocouple and using a non-linear model implementing best fit values to replicate the response curve by subjecting the thermocouple to temperature. This can be used to obtain the behaviour of an input response signal and improve efficiency for control systems.

References

Cimbala, J. M., 2013. Dynamic System Response. [Online]

Available at: https://www.mne.psu.edu/me345/Lectures/Dynamic_systems.pdf

[Accessed 10 March 2014].

Devices, A., 1999. Analog Devices. [Online]

Available at: http://www.analog.com/media/en/technical-documentation/data-sheets/AD594_595.pdf

[Accessed 2 March 2015].

Digilent Inc., 2010. Introduction to First Order Responses. [Online]

Available at: http://www.digilentinc.com/Classroom/RealAnalog/text/Chapter_2p4p1.pdf

[Accessed 6 March 2014].

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Job evaluation

Job evaluation is defined as a method for determining the worth of a job in comparison to the different jobs in the organization. To establish a justified pay structure for all the employees of the organization, job evaluation gives a means to compare the quality of the work in a particular job, in other words, the worth of a job.

It is different from job analysis; rather job evaluation is done after the stage of job analysis in order to obtain some information about the concerned jobs. Job analysis is defined as a process of determining the skills, duties and responsibilities, in a systematic way, required for a particular job. Thus job evaluation is a method which commences from job evaluation from job analysis but it ends at a point where the worth of the job is determined by ensuring internal as well as external pay equity. In this competitive business environment, it is essential to maintain pay equity otherwise the organization may lose its crucial talent.

Equity:

Overpayment Inequity (Positive Equity):

Underpayment Inequity (Negative equity):

Where,

Input: Any value that person brings to a job.

Outcome: any sort of benefit that an employee is awarded from his/her job.

Objectives of job evaluation

‘ To build a systematic, reasonable, deliberate structure of jobs based on their worth to the organization.

‘ To support a current pay rate structure or to build up one that accommodates internal equity.

‘ To support in setting pay rates that are tantamount to those of in comparable jobs in different organizations to contend in market place for best talent.

‘ To give a balanced premise to arranging pay rates when bargaining collectively with a recognized union.

‘ To guarantee the reasonable and fair remuneration of workers in connection to their obligations.

‘ To guarantee equity in pay for jobs of comparable efforts, responsibility, efforts and working conditions by utilizing a framework that reliably and precisely surveys contrasts in relative quality among jobs.

‘ To create a system of techniques to determine the grade levels and the resulting pay range for new jobs or the jobs which have advanced and changed.

‘ To distinguish a ladder of progression for future development to all workers who are interested in enhancing their remuneration.

‘ To comply with equal pay legislation and regulations deciding pay contrasts as indicated by job content.

‘ To add to a base for merit or performance-related pay.

Characteristics of job evaluation

The essential goal of job evaluation is to figure out the value of work; however this is a quality which differs occasionally and from spot to place affected by certain economic pressure. The principle features of job evaluation are:

‘ To supply bases for compensation arrangement established on realities as opposed to on dubious moderate thoughts.

‘ It endeavors to assess jobs, not individuals.

‘ Job evaluation is the yield given by job analysis.

‘ Job evaluation does not plan pay structure, it helps in supporting the framework by decreasing number of separate and diverse rates.

‘ Job evaluation is not made by people rather it is carried out by gathering of specialists.

‘ Job evaluation decides the estimation of job. Further the estimation of each of the perspectives, for example, aptitude and obligation levels are additionally related and concentrated on regarding the job.

‘ Job evaluation helps the administration to keep up abnormal amounts of representative gainfulness and worker fulfillment.

Process of job evaluation

Job analysis describes the skills, duties and responsibilities required for a job. Job evaluation adds to an arrangement for contrasting jobs regarding those things the association considers vital determinants of job worth. This procedure includes various steps that will be quickly expressed here and afterward talked about all the more completely.

1. Job Analysis: The primary step is an investigation of the jobs in the association. Through job analysis, data on job substance is acquired, together with a valuation for worker prerequisites for effective execution of the job. This data is recorded in the exact, steady dialect of a job description.

2. Compensable Factors: The following step is choosing what the association “is paying for” – that is, the thing that variable or elements put one job at a more elevated amount in the job chain of importance than an alternate. These compensable elements are the measuring sticks used to focus the relative position of jobs. As it were, picking compensable components is the heart of job evaluation. Not just do these variables spot jobs in the association’s job progressive system, yet they additionally serve to advise job officeholders which commitments are remunerated.

3. Building up the Method: The third venture in job evaluation is to choose a technique for evaluating the association’s jobs as indicated by the factor(s) picked. The technique ought to allow reliable situation of the association’s jobs containing a greater amount of the elements higher in the job progression, than those jobs lower in the progressive system.

4. Job Structure: The fourth step is contrasting jobs with build up a job structure. This includes picking and relegating chiefs, arriving at and recording choices, and setting up the job progression.

5. Pay Structure: The last step is evaluating the job structure to land at a compensation structure.

Merits of job evaluation

Job evaluation is a procedure of deciding the relative worth of a job. It is a procedure which is useful actually for encircling remuneration arranges by the personnel manager. Job evaluation as a methodology is worthwhile to an organization from multiple points of view:

‘ Decrease in disparities in pay structure – It is discovered that individuals and their inspiration is needy upon how well they are being paid. Accordingly the primary target of job evaluation is to have outer and interior consistency in compensation structure so that imbalances in pay rates are lessened.

‘ Specialization – Because of division of work and subsequently specialization, an expansive number of endeavors have landed hundred positions and numerous representatives to perform them. Hence, an endeavor ought to be made to characterize a job and accordingly settle pay rates for it. This is conceivable just through job evaluation.

‘ Aides in choice of representatives – The job evaluation data can be useful at the time of determination of applicants. The elements that are resolved for job evaluation can be considered while selecting the workers.

‘ Amicable relationship in the middle of workers and administrator – Through job evaluation, agreeable and harmonious relations can be kept up in the middle of representatives and administration, so that a wide range of pay rates debates can be minimized.

‘ Institutionalization – The procedure of deciding the pay differentials for distinctive jobs get to be institutionalized through job evaluation. This aide in bringing consistency into compensation structure.

‘ Pertinence of new jobs – Through job evaluation, one can comprehend the relative estimation of new jobs in a worry.

Demerits of job evaluation

‘ In spite of the fact that there are numerous methods for applying job evaluation in an adaptable way, fast changes in innovation and in the supply of and interest for specific aptitudes, make issues of change that may need further study.

‘ At the point when job evaluation brings about considerable changes in the current pay structure, the likelihood of executing these progressions in a generally brief time may be limited by the money related breaking points inside which the firm needs to work.

‘ At the point when there is an extensive extent of motivating force workers, it might be hard to keep up a sensible and worthy structure of relative profit.

‘ The methodology of job rating is, to some degree, vague on the grounds that a portion of the components and degrees can be measured with precision.

‘ Job evaluation takes quite a while to finish, requires specific specialized staff and quite expensive.

Methods of job evaluation

Job Ranking:

As indicated by this technique, jobs are arranged from highest to lowest, in place of their worth or legitimacy to the organization. Jobs can likewise be organized by relative trouble in performing them. The jobs are analyzed in general instead of on the premise of essential considers the job; the job at the highest priority on the rundown has the most astounding quality and clearly the job at the base of the rundown will have the least esteem. Jobs are typically positioned in every division and afterward the office rankings are joined to build up an authoritative positioning. The variety in installment of compensations relies on upon the variety of the way of the job performed by the workers. The positioning technique is easy to comprehend and practice and it is ideally equipped for a little association. Its straightforwardness however attempts to its inconvenience in huge associations on the grounds that rankings are hard to grow in an extensive, complex organization. Besides, this sort of positioning is very subjective in nature and may outrage numerous workers. In this way, a more investigative and productive method for job evaluation is called for.

Job Classification:

As per this system, a predetermined number of job groups or job classes are built and jobs are allotted to these characterizations. This technique spots gatherings of jobs into job classes or job grades. Separate classes may incorporate office, administrative, administrative, work force, and so on.

Class I – Executives: Further order under this classification may be Office Manager, Deputy Office administrator, Office director, Departmental chief, and so forth.

Class II – Skilled workers: Under this classification may come the Purchasing partner, Cashier, Receipts assistant, and so forth.

Class III – Semiskilled workers: Under this classification may come Stenotypists, Machine-administrators, Switchboard administrator and so on.

Class IV – Unskilled workers: This classification may involve peons, delivery people, housekeeping staff, File agents, Office young men, and so forth.

The job reviewing system is less subjective when contrasted with the prior positioning strategy. The framework is straightforward and adequate to pretty much all representatives without a second thought. One in number point for the system is that it considers all the elements that a job involves. This framework can be viably utilized for a mixed bag of jobs. The shortcomings of the Grading technique are:

‘ Actually when the prerequisites of distinctive jobs contrast, they may be joined into a solitary class, contingent upon the status a job conveys.

‘ It is hard to compose all inclusive descriptions of a grade.

‘ The system distorts sharp contrasts between diverse jobs and distinctive evaluations.

‘ At the point when individual job depictions and grade portrayals don’t match well, the evaluators tend to characterize the job utilizing their subjective judgments.

The problems that foreign workers face in a host country: essay help online

According to the latest figures CSO (Central Statistical Office), the number of foreign workers in Mauritius has been constantly increasing and is now at approximately 39, 032. From those figures we can state that there are 27, 408 men and 11 624 women. This amount of expatriates is mainly made up of workers coming from Bangladesh, 18 429, from India, 9105, China, 4656 and Madagascar with 3596.

It is the manufacturing sector that employs the largest number of foreign workers, that is29 846, while the construction comes second with 6070 workers. Last September, the ministry of Labour took the decision to freeze the recruitment of foreign workers in the construction sector. In all case, the bar of 40 000 foreign workers in Mauritius will quickly be reached by the end of the year announcing an increase of 20% compared to 2008. Those workers are supposed to be treated the same way as local workers and to take advantage of the local welfare.. Though Mauritius did not signed ICRMW (International Convention on the protection of the Rights of All Migrant Workers), the country needs to apply its own laws. Here, it is the Employees Rights Act (2008) which stipulates all the law concerning any work related issues. This causes the migrant workers to rebel in order to voice out through violent actions. Those persons are actually migrating to another country in order to get a better living conditions, also, promises are made but rarely respected. From the point of view of management, they prefer employing migrants as they are more hard-working, skilled and cheaper compared to a local worker. It is a fact that it is not always easy for the foreign workers to cope with the working conditions applied to them and moreover their cultures and those that we have in Mauritius are not always the same.

RESEARCH OBJECTIVES

The research objectives of this study are:

‘ To explore the different difficulties that the expatriates face in the host country

‘ To explore the foreign workers’ opinions about the way they are treated

‘ Propose recommendations to those organizations who employ foreign workers to improve their working and living conditions.

LITERATURE REVIEW

Wilson & Dalton (1998) describe expatriates as, ‘those who work in a country or culture other than their own.’

Connerly et al. (2008) stated that ‘many scholars have proposed that personal characteristics predict whether individuals will succeed on their expatriate assignment.’ Due to globalization, there is the need for expatriates. Thus, companies dealing with external workers should find ways to solve problems faced by these workers and make them comfortable in their daily life so that they do not want to go back to their native country. (Selmer and Leung, 2002)

PROBLEMS FACED BY EXPATRIATES

1. Culture Shock

Hofstede (2001) defined it as ‘the state of distress following the transfer of a person to an unfamiliar environment which may also be accompanied by physical symptoms’.

According to Dr Kalvero Oberg, expatriates are bound to experience four distinct phases before adapting themselves to another culture.

Those four phases are:

1. A Honeymoon Phase

2. The Negotiation Phase

3. An Adjustment Phase

4. A Reverse Culture Shock

During the Honeymoon Phase, the expatriates are excited to discover their new environment. They are ready to lay aside minor problems in order to learn new things. But eventually, this stage ends somehow.

At the Negotiation Phase or the Crisis Period, the expatriates start feeling homesick and things start to become a burden for them. For example, they might feel discomfort regarding the local language, the public transport systems or the legal procedures of the host country.

Then the Adjustment Phase starts. Six to twelve months after arriving in the new country, most expatriates start to feel accustomed to their new home and know what to expect. Their activities become routines and the host country is now accepted as another place to live. The foreign worker starts to develop problem-solving skills to change their negative attitudes to a more positive one.

The final stage called the Reverse Culture Shock or Re-entry Shock. It occurs when expatriates return to their home country after a long period. They are surprised to find themselves encountering cultural difficulties.

There are physical and psychological symptoms of culture shock such as:

1. Physical factors

‘ Loss of appetite

‘ Digestion problems

2. Cognitive factors

‘ Feeling of isolation/ home sickness

‘ Accusing the host culture for own distress

3- Behavioural factors

‘ Performance deficits

‘ Higher alcohol consumption

2. Communication/ Language Barrier

Communication is crucial to both management and employees. Sometimes, due to this language barrier, employees do not understand what is expected from them. They thus tend to make mistakes at the workplace and conflicts arise between the parties concerned. Also, the language barrier is the major obstacle when it comes to the changing of environment for expatriates. These people usually feel homesick and lonely as they are unable to communicate with the local people they meet. This language problem becomes a barrier in creating new relationships. A special attention must be paid to one’s specific body language signs, conversation tone and linguistic nuances and customs. Communicative ability permits cultural development through interaction with other individuals. Language becomes the mean that promotes the development of culture. Language affects and reflects culture just as culture affects and reflects what is encoded in language. Language learners may be subconsciously influenced by the culture of the learned language. This helps them to feel more comfortable and at ease in the host country.

3. Industrial Laws

Laws are vital for the proper conduct of such activity as that of welcoming expatriates in Mauritius. The Ministry of Labour, Industrial Relations and employment are meant to produce a ‘Guidelines for work permit application (February 2014)’ manual for those organisations which are engaged in this activity. This manual describes procedures that should be followed in case of a Bangladeshi, Chinese or Indian worker. Any breach of the law will lead automatically to severe sanctions.

For example, Non-Citizens (Employment Restriction) Act 1973 which provides, among others, that ‘a non-citizen shall not engage in any occupation in Mauritius for reward or profit or be employed in Mauritius unless there is in force in relation to him a valid work permit.’ A request to the government should be made if an organization wishes to recruit foreign workers in bulk.

Expatriates are human beings so they should have some fundamental ‘Rights’ in the host country. In Mauritius, the contract for employment of foreign workers stipulates all the necessary information concerning the expatriates’ rights, conditions of work, accommodation and remuneration amongst others. This contract is based on the existing Labour law and the contents of the contract are to large extent the same with some slight differences in conditions of work. Mauritius has adopted the good practices in relation to labour migration and has spared no efforts to develop policies and programmes to maximize benefits and minimize its negative consequences. However, there are still improvements to be brought to the living and working conditions of foreign workers.

4. Living Conditions

The NESC published a report in February 2007 which advocated that foreigners working in the island should enjoy the same rights as local workers. In reality, many foreign workers suffer from bad working conditions. Some workers have intolerable living conditions, sleeping in dormitories on benches without mattresses or in tiny bedroom containing many people. Those who intend to voice out or those considered as ‘ring leaders’ are deported.

In 2006, some workers from China and India who tried to form a trade union or to protest were deported. Peaceful demonstrations often turn into riots which the police brutally suppressed.

In August (2007) some 500 Sri Lankans were demanding better wages at the company Tropic Knits and in response, the Mauritian authorities deported 35 of them. At the Companie Mauricienne de Textile, one of the biggest companies of the island employing more than 5,000 people, 177 foreign workers were deported after taking part in an ‘illegal demonstration’ about the lack of running water, the insufficient number of toilets and poor accommodation.

During the year (2011) a visit at two of the Trend Clothing’s Ltd by (Jeppe Blumensaat Rasmussen) shows how several Bangladeshi workers were living under inhumane living conditions. Furthermore, workers were paid an hourly rate of Rs15.50, which was even less than the previous amount of Rs16.57 bringing the monthly salary to an amount of Rs3500 ‘ 5000 depending on overtime. One woman even said that she had work 43 hours and was paid only 32. The Bangladeshi workers were also living in dormitories containing several holes in the ceilings and signs of water damage next to electrical sockets. We also have the case of the migrant Nepal’s workers who decided to leave Mauritius due to their bad working and living conditions. They were living in an old production space which was turn into dormitories, hosting 34 migrants’ workers. There were no water connection in the kitchen and no running water to flush toilets. They also did not receive any allowance and their salary was decreased from Rs5600 to Rs5036 per month. On the 9th June 2011, eight workers wrote a letter to their boss, giving their employer a month notice.

In September (2013) more than 450 Bangladeshi workers working in the textile company, Real Garments, in Pointe-aux-Sables were on strike claiming for better working conditions. They also protested in the streets of Port-Louis and had gone to the Ministry of Labor to submit their claims one day before (L’Express; Mauritius). Fourteen Bangladeshi workers were considered as the main leaders and were deported by the authorities.

5. Foreign workers and Income

Foreign workers take the decision to leave their native country to work in other countries with the aim of making more money and then send it to their family. However, they did not predict that they will be paid less than that was promised to them before their departure to the host country. Some organisations pay them only half of what they were supposed to. Having already signed their contract, they are forced to work hard for a low salary. Many Bangladeshis, Indians or Chinese choose to leave the host country after their contract termination and the more courageous ones stay and renew their contract for more years. Despite their low paid jobs, it is still better than in their native country where they are even more exploited or where life is far more difficult for them.

The Employment Rights Act (2008) stipulate that if a local worker ‘works on a public holiday, he shall be remunerated at twice the national rate per hour for every hour of work performed.’

However, some expatriates who are forced to work on a public holiday are usually paid the same amount as a usual day. As human beings, they should be treated as any other worker either local or foreign, with the same rights and possibilities.

6. Unions

Unionism is about workers standing together to improve their situation, and to help others. Some unions are reactive, that is waiting for the employer to act and then choosing how to attack or respond and others are proactive, that is developing their own agenda and then advancing it wherever it’s possible. When unions and management fail to reach agreement, or where relations break down, the union has the option of pursuing industrial action through a strike, a go-slow, a work-to-rule, a slow-down, an overtime ban or an occupation.

However, the Expatriates are often not aware of the law protecting their rights (e.g. many migrant workers are not informed of the laws that provide them with the same level of protection as Mauritian nationals and Employers refused to recognize union representatives. It is also often difficult for unions to get access to and organize for foreign workers.

An ICFTU-AFRO (the African regional organization of the former International Confederation of Free Trade Unions) mission to Mauritius in February 2004 was told that the few men they saw were mainly supervisors who were said to be hostile to unions.

During 2006 there were a series of reports that workers from China and India who had tried to form a trade union or protest against their employers had been summarily deported. On 23 May 2006, policemen armed with shields and truncheons beat female workers from Novel Garments holding a sit-in in the courtyard of the factory in Coromandel protesting against plans to transfer them to other production units.

According to the MAURITIUS 2012 HUMAN RIGHTS REPORT, section 7: Worker Rights, a. Freedom of Association and the Right to collective Bargaining, the constitution and law provide for the rights of workers, including foreign workers, to form and join independent unions, conduct legal strikes, and bargain collectively With the exception of police, the Special Mobile Force, and persons in government services who were not executive officials, workers were free to form and join unions and to organize in all sectors, including in the Export Oriented Enterprises (EOE), formerly known as the Export Processing Zone.

Alzheimer's disease (AD): college essay help online

Alzheimer’s disease (AD) is the most common cause of dementia and chronic neurodegenerative disorder among the aging population. Dementia is a syndrome characterized by progressive illnesses affecting memory, thinking, behavior and everyday performance of an individual. Dementia affects older people, but 2% of people starts developing before the age of 65 years (Organization 2006). According to the Worlds Alzheimer Report 2014, 44 million of people are living with dementia all across the globe and its set to get doubled by 2030 and triples by 2050 (Prince, Albanese et al. 2014). Its estimated that 5.2 million Americans have AD in 2014 (Weuve, Hebert et al. 2014). This includes 200,000 individuals under 65 age have early onset of AD and 5 million people of age 65 and above (Weuve, Hebert et al. 2014). Women are affected more than men in AD and other dementias (Weuve, Hebert et al. 2014). Among 5 million people of above 65 years of age, 3.2 million are women and 1.8 million are men (Weuve, Hebert et al. 2014). The Multiple factors that leads to AD are age, genetics, environmental factors, head trauma, depression, diabetes mellitus, hyperlipidemia, and vascular factors. There are no treatments for AD that slows or stops the death and malfunctioning of neurons in the brain, indeed many therapies and drugs are aimed in slowing or stopping neuronal malfunction (Association 2014). Currently five drugs have been approved by the U.S food and Drug Administration to improve symptoms of AD by increasing the amount of neurotransmitters in the brain (Association 2014). It has been estimated that Medicare and Medicaid covered $150 billion of total health care for long duration care for individuals suffering for AD and other dementias (Association 2014).

Diagnostic criteria

Neurological and Communicative Disorders and Stroke’Alzheimer’s Disease and Related Disorders Association (NINCDS’ADRDA) in 1984 proposed a criteria which is as follows (1) clinical diagnosis of AD could only be designated as ‘probable’ while the patient was alive and could not be made definitively until Alzheimer’s pathology had been confirmed post mortem (McKhann, Drachman et al. 1984) and (2) the clinical diagnosis of AD could be assigned only when the disease had advanced to the point of causing significant functional disability and met the threshold criterion of dementia (McKhann, Drachman et al. 1984).

In 2007, IWG proposed criteria that AD could be recognized in vivo and independently of dementia in the presence of two features (Dubois, Feldman et al. 2007). The first criteria was a core clinical that require evidence of a specific episodic memory profile characterized by a low free recall that is normalized by cueing (Dubois and Albert 2004). The second is the presence of biomarker evidence on AD which include (1) structural MRI, (2) Neuroimaging using PET (18F-2-fluoro-2-deoxy-D-glucose PET [FDG PET] or 11C-labelled Pittsburgh compound B PET [PiB PET]), and (3) CSF analysis of amyloid ?? (A??) or tau protein (total tau [T-tau] and phosphorylated tau [P-tau]) concentrations (Dubois, Feldman et al. 2007)

In 2011, the NIA and Alzheimer’s association proposed guidelines to help pathologist and categorizing the brain changes with AD and other dementias (Hyman, Phelps et al. 2012). Based on the changes absorbed, they classified into three stages (a) preclinical Alzheimer’s disease, (b) mild cognitive impairment (MCI) due to Alzheimer’s disease, (c) Dementia due to Alzheimer’s disease (Hyman, Phelps et al. 2012). In pre-clinical AD, the individual have changes in the cerebrospinal fluid but they don’t develop memory loss. This reflects that Alzheimer’s related brain changes occur 20 years onset before the symptom occurs (Petersen, Smith et al. 1999, H??nninen, Hallikainen et al. 2002, Reiman, Quiroz et al. 2012). In MCI due to AD, individuals suffering from MCI has some notable changes in thinking that could be absorbed among family members and friends, but do not meet criteria for dementia (Petersen, Smith et al. 1999, H??nninen, Hallikainen et al. 2002, Reiman, Quiroz et al. 2012). Various studies show that 10 to 20% of individual of age 65 or above have MCI (Petersen, Smith et al. 1999, H??nninen, Hallikainen et al. 2002, Reiman, Quiroz et al. 2012). Its is estimated that 15% and 10% progress from MCI to dementia and AD every year (Manly, Tang et al. 2008). In Dementia due to AD, Individual is characterized by having problem in memory, thinking and behavioral symptom that affects his routine life (Association 2014).

In 2014, IWG proposed criteria for maintaining the principle of high specificity, based on the framework they classified as follows (1). Typical AD can be diagnosed in the presence of an amnestic syndrome of the hippocampal type, which could be associated with different cognitive or behavioral changes and having one of following changes in vivo AD pathology such as decreased A??42 together with increased T-tau or P-tau concentration in CSF or increased retention on amyloid tracer PET (Dubois, Feldman et al. 2014). (2) Atypical AD could be made in the presence of the following, which includes clinical phenotypes that is consistent with one of the known atypical presentation and at-least one of the following changes indicating in-vivo AD pathology (Dubois, Feldman et al. 2014). (3) Mixed AD can be made in patients with typical or atypical phenotypic feature of AD and presence of at-least one biomarker of AD pathology (Dubois, Feldman et al. 2014). (4) Preclinical states of AD require absence of clinical symptoms of AD (typical or atypical phenotypes) and inclusion of at-least one biomarker of AD pathology for identifying the presence of asymptomatic at-risk state or the presence of a proven AD autosomal dominant mutation of chromosome 1, 14 or 21 for the diagnosis of presymptomatic change (Dubois, Feldman et al. 2014). (5) To differentiate biomarkers of AD diagnosis from those of AD progression (Dubois, Feldman et al. 2014).

Neuropathology

Dr. Alois Alzheimer, a German physician in 1906 observed pathologic abnormalities in autopsied brain of women who suffered from memory related problems, confusion and language trouble (Prince, Albanese et al. 2014). He found the presence of plaques deposits outside the neurons and tangles inside the brain cells (Prince, Albanese et al. 2014). Thus, the senile plaques and neurofibrillary tangles have became two pathological hallmarks of AD (Prince, Albanese et al. 2014).

The histological hallmarks of AD in brain are intracellular deposition of microtubule-associated tau protein called neurofibrillary tangles (NTF) and extracellular accumulation of amyloid ?? peptide (A??) in senile plaques (Bloom 2014). A?? derived from the larger glycoprotein called amyloid precursor protein (APP) can processed through two pathways amyloidogenic and non-amyloidogenic (Gandy 2005) . In amyloidogenic pathway ??-secretase and ??-secretase proteolysis APP to produce soluble amyloid precursor protein ?? (sAPP??) and a carboxyl terminal fragment CTF?? (C99) to produce A?? peptides (Gandy 2005). Alternatively APP is proteolysed by the action of ?? and ??- secretase generating soluble amino terminal fragments (sAPP??) and a carboxyl terminal fragment CTF?? (C83) to produce non amyloidogenic peptide (Esch, Keim et al. 1990, Buxbaum, Thinakaran et al. 1998).

Figure 1. Amyloidogenic and non-amyloidogenic pathways of APP

APP is cleaved by ??-?? secretases (amyloidogenic) releasing amyloid A?? peptide(s) or by ??-?? secretases (non-amyloidogenic), adapted from (Read and Suphioglu 2013)

The amino acid sequences of A?? include A??42 and A??40. During normal condition A??40 is 10-fold higher concentration level, when compared to A??42 central nervous system (CNS) (Haass, Schlossmacher et al. 1992). However during inflammation, stress and injury in the brain causes A??40 and A??42 for a dynamic change and leads to an upregulation of A??42. In AD A??42 accumulates as misfolded proteins in extracellular space (Gurol, Irizarry et al. 2006).

Tau is a microtubule-associated protein (MAP), most abundant in central and peripheral nervous system that help in assembly and stabilizing of microtubules that is crucial among the cellular morphology and trafficking (Tolnay and Probst 1999, Iqbal, Liu et al. 2010, Cohen, Guo et al. 2011). NFT is the major hallmarks of AD patients in brain. In AD, phosphorylation of tau leads to the loss of neuronal function and death. Degeneration of synapse strongly correlates with cognitive decline in AD, while soluble oligomeric tau contribute to synapse degeneration (Morris, Maeda et al. 2011). Although, the protein aggregating into NFT are unclear, number of NFT and the progression of neurodegeneration as well as dementia showed a significant positive correlation in AD (Cohen, Guo et al. 2011) (Arnaud, Robakis et al. 2006).

Figure 2. AD pathology

Deposition of A?? and tau in neurons. The boxes shows the different biomarkers which are used for examination, adapted from (Nordberg 2015)

Biomarkers

A characteristic that is objectively measured and evaluated as an indicator of normal biological processes, pathogenic process or pharmacologic responses to a therapeutic intervention (Atkinson, Colburn et al. 2001).The pathology of neurodegenerative for individuals is provided by using imaging and fluid biomarkers (Dickerson, Wolk et al. 2013).

CSF Biomarkers

The CSF biomarkers play a major role in diagnosing probable AD. However, abnormality in the CSF is found long before the symptoms occur.

Amyloid beta (A??) is synthesized in brain and diffused into CSF. In cognitively normal individuals A?? appears in moderate condition, however for individuals suffering from AD has reduced A??42 in CSF which act as an useful biomarker during diagnosis (Sunderland, Linker et al. 2003). The low levels of A??42 appears at-least 20 years prior to clinical dementia in individuals with familial AD mutations (Ringman, Coppola et al. 2012). In addition, reduced levels of A??42 appear early in cognitively normal which precedes MCI by years (Fagan, Head et al. 2009). Therefore A??42 cannot be used individually as a specific biomarkers in discriminating from other dementia hence it should be combined with other biomarkers for determining specific dementia.

Tau in CSF relates with the progression of tau related pathology in cerebral cortex. Increased in the tau level in CSF for AD patients reflects the neuronal loss in brain (de Souza, Chupin et al. 2012). Similarly, like A??42 elevation in tau seems to occur at cognitive normal individuals (Fagan, Head et al. 2009). Hence its important to consider other biomarker for differential diagnosis of AD. Moreover, phosphorylated (p)-tau have 85% sensitivity and 97% specificity in discriminating AD from other neurological disorder (Tan, Yu et al. 2014). P-tau is therefore more superior to t-tau in differentiating diagnosis, thus helps in overcoming the short coming of A??42 and t-tau in differentiating diagnosis (Buerger, Zinkowski et al. 2002). CSF t-tau and p-tau occurs after A??42 initially aggregates and increases as amyloid accumulates (Buchhave, Minthon et al. 2012).

Imaging Biomarkers

Structural MRI

Structural MRI studies helps in subjects diagnosed with AD and MCI who consistently show change in atrophy in entorhinal cortex and hippocampus of medial temporal lobe (MTL) and cortical thinning in AD signature region are the MRI sign of emerging AD (Du, Schuff et al. 2001). MRI studies focus on normal subjects who have maternal history of AD, has reduced volume of MTL and precuneus (Berti, Mosconi et al. 2011). Voxel based analysis on whole brain determines the structural MRI could be used to identify the presence of brain atrophy in cortical regions up to 10 years before clinical symptoms of AD, with greater impact in MTL (Du, Schuff et al. 2001).

Positron Emission Tomography (PET)

PET is based on the principle of spontaneous emission of positron by the nuclei of unstable radionuclide, whose number of protons exceeds that of electrons (Granov, Tiutin et al. 2013). PET images in-vivo distribution of radiopharmaceutical substances with higher resolution and sensitivity (Fahey 2003). The positron which is a ??-particle with positive charge annihilates with an electron of negative charge, releasing equal number of gamma photons of same energy (511 keV) moving in 180 degree opposite to each other to conserve momentum (Kukekov and Fadeev 1986, Fahey 2003).

The components involved in the PET scanner are movable bed, detector, gantry and computer. The detector consist of multiple crystals attached with a photomultipliers (Granov, Tiutin et al. 2013). The interaction among the gamma photon and crystal produces scintillation which induces electric impulse in the photomultipliers and could be detected and processed using computer (Khmelev, Shiryaev et al. 2004). If the two detectors are in coincidence, then the positron emitted along the line connects the detectors which is termed as line of response (LOR) (Fahey 2003).In most of the scanners the two detectors are in coincidence, if they are detected with in 10 seconds (Fahey 2003). The sensitivity of the PET can be increased by increasing the number of detectors into a ring. The data examined from the individual is acquired in computer in the form of sinogram. There are different techniques of reconstruction such as filtered back projection (FBP), Iterative Method, OSEM are used for reconstructing an image. In modern PET scanners, LSO crystals with minimum size are used which permits high resolving capacity, high resolution, effective algorithm for image reconstruction and field of view sufficient for single stage scanning of the brain or heart (Granov, Tiutin et al. 2013).

The cyclotron, a particle accelerator provides the production of radionuclides for clinical use. Heavy particles are accelerated to a higher energy level of 5-100MeV using cyclotron (Granov, Tiutin et al. 2013). The beam of particles is focused on the target substance by using radio magnetic lens. The target material is bombarded with heavy particle to generate the required radionuclide (Granov, Tiutin et al. 2013).

The requirements of a good tracer which include higher affinity towards the target receptor, selectivity versus other receptors (Bmax / Kd of at least 10-fold,where Bmax is the density of the receptor and Kd is the concentration of the radiotracer) and good permeability (McCarthy, Halldin et al. 2009). The tracers has to be a poor substrate of p-glycoprotein if it has been developed for imaging targets in brain (Terasaki and Hosoya 1999). It has been found that low hydrogen bonding plays an important role in predicting good PET tracers (McCarthy, Halldin et al. 2009). For a good tracers, time to binding equilibrium should be long relative to washout of non-specifically bound tracer, but short relative to isotope decay (McCarthy, Halldin et al. 2009) .

Amyloid PET

PET imaging of amyloid binding agent Pittsburg compound B (PET-PiB) helps to determine the ??-amyloid (A??) and its distribution over the brain that were previously restricted to postmortem studies. The longitudinal study provided evidence relating with a direct relationship between PET-PiB and likelihood of conversion from clinical diagnosis of MCI to AD over three years (Klunk 2011). Since there is significant overlap between amyloid imaging and CSF- A??42, researchers attempt to address the areas where these two biomarkers may be equivalent and areas where one measurement could hold unique advantages (Vlassenko, Mintun et al. 2011). In addition, current hypothesis states that higher amyloid burden assessed by florbetapir 18F (18F-AV-45) amyloid PET is related with lower memory performance among clinically normal older subjects (Sperling, Johnson et al. 2013).

FDG-PET

FDG-PET (2-deoxy-2[18F]fluoro-D-glucose) is one of the neurodegeneration biomarkers included in the new research criteria proposed for the various diagnosis of AD by the International working group (IWG) in 2007 and 2010, also in the new diagnostic criteria of AD by National Institute of Aging-Alzheimer Association (NIA-AA) (McKhann, Drachman et al. 1984, Dubois, Feldman et al. 2007, Dubois, Feldman et al. 2014). FDG-PET measures the local glucose metabolism for neuronal activity at resting state to asses cerebral function. It is evident that AD individuals has reduced FDG uptake predominantly in tempoparietal association areas, precuneus and posterior cingulate region (Minoshima, Giordani et al. 1997). These changes could be observed in subjects from 1-2 year before the onset of dementia and are closely related to cognitive impairment (Herholz 2010). Although MRI is more sensitive in detecting and monitoring hippocampal atrophy (Fox and Kennedy 2009), FDG is more sensitive in detecting neuronal dysfunction in neocortical association areas. Hence FDG is well suited for monitoring the progression of the disease syndrome (Alexander, Chen et al. 2002).

Regional functional impairment of glucose metabolism in AD is related with the severity and progression of different cognitive deficits (Langbaum, Chen et al. 2009)

INDIAN NATIONALISM (1757-1947)

Great Britain had colonized the nation of India amid the 1700’s when East India organization picked up control of India in 1757 however the Company ruled India without impedance from British Government until 1800s With the measure of crude materials and the developing business for British products, the British government starts to build its control. In 1858, British government takes complete control of India after the Sepoy Mutiny and the British subdued and displayed bigotry against local Indians. Indian nationalistic developments, for example, ones drove by the Indian National Congress, had endeavored endeavors at lead toward oneself yet had never been entirely effective. The immense supporter of a free India, Gandhi, was influential in the Indian Pro-independence Movement. Known as the Mahatma, or the Great Soul, Gandhi constrained change and an end to British colonization through a strict approach of peacefulness, or detached resistance. This development picked up energy after the world war 1 however the llianwala Bagh Massacre where number of individuals had gathered at Jallianwala Bagh in Amritsar for going to the yearly Baisakhi reasonable were encompass by the armed force at the requests of General Dyer and opened fire on the swarm, slaughtering several individuals. The Aftermath of this slaughter brought about general hubbub when the swarms took to the roads in numerous north Indian towns. The British utilized ruthless suppression, trying to embarrass and threaten individuals. Individuals were flagellated and towns were besieged and this savagery constrained Gandhi to stop the development

A feeling of solidarity and patriotism was motivated by history and fiction, folktale and melodies, prevalent prints and images. Abanindranath Tagore’s picture of Bharat Mata and Bankim Chandra melody Vande Mataram united numerous individuals and groups During the Swadeshi Movement; a tri-shading (red, green and yellow) banner was outlined. It had eight lotuses speaking to eight regions of British India and a sickle moon, speaking to Hindus and Muslims In 1921, Gandhi had planned the tri-shading Swaraj banner (red, green and yellow) with the turning wheel at the focal point. This banner spoke to the Gandhian perfect of self improvement and turned into an image of resistance. This ingrained pride and united the Indians.

However Despite the impact of Gandhi, India fell into confusion. Hindu individuals needed an all-Hindu state and Muslims, drove by the Muslim League needed a different state. Gandhi was killed in light of this contention. In the end, Pakistan was framed as a different Muslim state. Along these lines, the quality and will of the basic individuals both attained to Indian autonomy and shredded India. The tale of Mahatma Gandhi and Indian patriotism is one of history’s most prominent ironies

PAN AFRICAN NATIONALISM

Soon after the end of World War II, most European countries were sometime during closure magnificent control of Africa. Skillet Africanism got to be overwhelming on the mainland of Africa. Container Africanism is a nationalistic development that requires the solidarity of all African countries. While is has immense impact, for example, the African National Council, it has never succeeded in uniting all of Africa. Difference and a hefty portion of the issues confronting Africa since the end of WWII into present-day can be faulted for European colonialism. Political defilement is uncontrolled in light of the fact that European colonialists left without making stable governments. Ethnic pressure exists in light of the fact that European fringes were made with no idea given to the tribal framework. Tribalism is one of the greatest impediments to Africa in light of the fact that conventional adversaries were contained inside one European-made outskirt. A decent sample of ethnic strain is the contention between the Hutus and Tutsis in which 1,000’s on both sides were slaughtered and numerous more fled to Zaire to look for shelter. Both the countries of Rwanda and Burundi had noteworthy populaces of Hutus and Tutsis, both customary tribes. Notwithstanding the mind-boggling issues, there have been some significant achievements where patriotism has brought about positive change.

The principal Arab-Israeli clash set two nationalistic developments against one another. The War for Independence (1948-49) was the disappointment of the Arab world to prevent Israel from being framed as a Jewish sovereign state. This war brought about Jerusalem falling under the control of the Israelis and the end to a proposed arrangement for a free Palestinian state to be shaped. The Suez War of 1956 brought about Nasser’s Egypt losing control of the Sinai Peninsula, debilitating the dependability of the immeasurably critical Suez Canal. The Six-Day War of 1967 saw large portions of the encompassing Arab countries assault Israel and afterward continue to lose region (the challenged ranges recorded above) to Israel in under a week. The Yom Kippur War of 1973 was an Egyptian assault over the Sinai and turned into a Cold War occasion as the Americans and Soviets got to be included. Nasser’s successor, Anwar al-Sadat, (envisioned here) was the first Arab pioneer to perceive Israel as a country. For this alone, he was killed, viably finishing any endeavors at enduring peace. The contention proceeds with today.

Ghana:

During the days of empire-building, the nation now called Ghana was called the Gold Coast, an English settlement. The nationalist leader Kwame Nkrumah called on the souls of the African people by renaming the obviously imperial European “Gold Coast” to something that back to the golden age of western Africa, the Empire of Ghana. As he was a believer in the principles of Gandhi. He established autonomy for Ghana through civil defiance and passive resistance. Through the superiority and bravery of Nkrumah and the Ghanaian people, Great Britain left. To quote the words of Nkrumah, “No people without a government of their own can expect to be treated on the same level as people of independent sovereign states. It is far better to be free to govern or misgovern yourself than to be governed by anybody else . . .

Kenya:

The situation in the British colony of Kenya was similar to Ghana. The exploitation of Kenyan resources and oppression of its people were the typical traits of British domination. The path to independence, however, was radically different. Kenya’s nationalist leader, Jomo Kenyatta, initiated his movement by means of passive confrontation. However, Great Britain refused to end its imperial rule of Kenya and had confined Kenyatta for paramilitary warfare he may or may not have asked for. Irrespective, the Mau Mau, Kenyan guerilla troops, resisted British troops until Great Britain released Kenyatta and left in 1963 with Kenyatta as the prime minister of a free Kenya.

South Africa:

The circumstance in South Africa was distinctive. It had encountered colonialism, however the nation had picked up self-rule when the new century rolled over. White setters called Afrikaners had control of the South African government and had forced a social structure known as apartheid. Apartheid comprised of two social classes, upper white and lower dark. The races were kept separate and unequal, with the dark populace enduring awful ill-uses. Illustrations of this misuse incorporate pass cards for blacks just, voting rights for whites just, and isolated reservations called Home Lands.

However the most acclaimed of all African patriot pioneers Nelson Mandela talked against these segregations and began his hostile to apartheid developments. Anyhow Mandela, because of taking a stand in opposition to apartheid, was detained for a long time and not discharged until the mid 1990’s. South African president F.W. De Klerk liberated Mandela and finished the bigot convention. In 1994, South Africa had its first free race and Mandela was chosen president. Mandela and De Klerk earned the Nobel Peace Prize together for their endeavors.

Canada Current Immigration Policies: essay help online free

A policy is a plan or course of action that an organized body undertakes to guide in decision making and other matters. Immigration policies are meant to guide the immigration of people into a country for which ever reason. Canada is a country found on the northern part of North America’s continent. It has ten provinces and three territories. Canada is a constitutional monarchy and a federal parliamentary democracy headed by queen Elizabeth II. It is a bilingual state that has a diverse cultural base owing to the large influx of immigrants to the country. The country’s economy is among the world largest since it depends on its natural resources and developed trade networks.

Canada has been shaped greatly by immigration in society and culture. With Its small population and large tracts of unoccupied Canada’s immigration policy was fuelled by the need for expansion with immigrants encouraged to settle in rural areas .In the early 20th century the country began to control the flow of immigrants using policies that excluded the applicants of non Europeans .1n 1976 new laws removed the ethnic criteria and it became a destination for all from a variety of countries.

There are three categories of immigrants the family class which consists of those closely related, independent immigrants who are admitted on the basis of skill capital and labor market requirements and refugees. When applying for settlement immigration officers are instructed to give priority to family reunifications and refugees before independent job seekers with skill or capital without families. Arrivals in the family category are usually unskilled or the skills they posses do not match the community they have settled in thus disrupting the labor market. This results to economic insecurity which might create disappointment and hostility among the immigrants or among Canadians who feel threatened by the newcomers.

Canada’s immigration policy encourages dispersal of immigrants across the country. Current policy has attempted to encourage immigrants to settle in smaller communities in the less-populated province of Canada. The organizations within the society that are tasked with the formulation of immigration policies and regulations are churches, employers, organized labor groups and community-based and ethnic organizations. Many of these organizations aims is to promote family reunification and to attain financial adjustment schemes.

Canada policy is non discriminatory to ethnicity however individuals suffering from diseases that pose a danger to the public, those with no clear means of financial support or criminals and terrorists are excluded. An undetermined number of persons in this undesired category have however gained entry through back doors while others who have been admitted rightfully on short term visas choose to remain by extending the time permitted by the Canadian law. The group of those entering the country illegally has grown for the recent and has become a major challenge to the government especially at border crossings and airports. This group usually operate in low tones and are unnoticed till they try to acquire some public service which will bring them to the attention of government authorities .the government is working towards sealing any loop holes that have facilitated the admission of persons not authorized under the current regulations and legislations. Claims falsified by refugees status trying to avoid normal overseas screening and processing constitute one of the more serious problems confronting immigration officials.

In accommodating the immigrants Canada provides immigrants with language training and access to Canada’s national health care and social welfare programs. However, the immigrants in the 80s do not match the economical success of those in the 90s and many find difficulty in finding jobs according to their qualifications. Other immigrants are not fluent in either English or French to be able to exploit their degrees while other qualifications are not recognized by the country.In employment a Canadian born income rises same as those of European origin individuals unlike the non -white Canadians who receive low income rates.

The admission of highly skilled professionals to Canada from less developed countries has continued to provoke controversy since the governments of these countries where these immigrants originate complain of poaching of people they cannot afford to lose. Canada has maintained the need for freedom of movements of people in the midst of the controversy that it should not encourage the outflow of trained individuals from the regions that require there services.

For the immigrants who are seeking asylum Canada is known for having a fairly liberal policy on asylum. Any person who arrives in Canada can apply for refugee status at any border, airport, or immigration office inside the country. Anyone who arrives and claims to be a refugee Canada will look at the claim even if they are could not be as considered to be a in other countries. The process is divided into two a claim is submitted to Citizenship and Immigration Canada . CIC determines within three days whether the claim is eligible to be referred to the Immigration and Refugee Board , the body that makes the final determination as to whether the applicant will receive protected status. After a person has received refugee status, he or she can apply for permanent residency. This system has been criticized as to encourage backdoor applications and posing a threat to security since after they apply they are free to move around as they wait for their determination

The Canadian policy is divide into two parts temporary entry to the country and permanent entry. Under the temporary entry one can apply while inside the country or outside the country. While outside the one applies for a visitor visa when they wish to visit the country as a tourist or a visitor. The purpose of such a visit should be to visit relatives, to attend a business meeting, to attend a conference or convention, pleasure trip or participating in a cultural show. the second class is the student authorization or the student visa which is granted to a person who wishes to come to the country to study as an international student. The third class is the employment authorization or work permit which is granted to one who wishes to come to Canada and work for a Canadian company. It is referred to work permit visa in many countries. Under any of this classes one can apply for an extension of their visas while they are within the country. While in the country one may apply for an immigrant visa as a conventional refugee also referred to as a political asylum work permit visa as a live-in-caregiver known as a domestic help, immigrant visa of Canada as a spouse granted to an application made if one gets married in Canada while on a temporary visa and immigrant visa of Canada under humanitarian and compassionate reasons. If an individual changes the visa status this may lead to permanent immigration visa of Canada.

One can apply for permanent immigration to Canada under three categories while outside Canada. In the independent class assessment is done based on a point system. It is a very popular class also called professional class or skilled worker class. This category is based on an individual’s desire to come to Canada based on qualification, work experience and knowledge of English or French. The other class is the entrepreneur class investor class or self employed class. It is also known as business migration class. Entrepreneur class and self employed is for individuals who wish to start a business in Canada while the investor class is for those who do not wish to start a business in Canada. Applying for immigrant visa to Canada under the family class is for those who have close relatives in Canada under family sponsorship.

Canadian citizens and permanent residents may make an application to sponsor their relatives under the class of family class relatives and private sponsorship for refugees. Another application is by a permanent resident if one wishes to stay outside Canada for more than six months and wants to return. It’s called a return resident permit. A person can be granted Canadian citizenship provided he or she is a permanent resident of Canada for more than three years. When applying for proof of citizenship, also called citizenship certificate the applicant may do this while within or outside of Canada.

Canada is currently a country of choice for many people from all over the world. That may not be the case in future, especially for highly skilled people. The current policies have both positive and negative effects to the society of Canada.. Some of the positive impacts of the current policies include refocusing the federal skilled worker program, an initiative to bring in skilled trades to the country who bring with them jobs and investments.

Increased protection for caregivers who come into the country for the nanny jobs or housekeeping. Those who go into foreign countries are usually abused by their workers at times and end up working in deplorable conditions such as working for long hours without time to rest, depriving them day-offs and confiscation of vital documents such as passports for the immigrants. Some also face sexual harassment which is against the laws .The immigrants are thus faced with difficult conditions yet they cannot report or if reported they cannot get help. The current policies have therefore come in handy to protect this individuals from such torture. Permanent resident status to be granted to eligible students. The students who apply for student visas and perform exemplary well will be granted permanent residency in Canada after completion of studies. This can enable students to acquire citizenship and settle in the country after completion of studies. This ensures a retention of skilled people to work towards the growth of the economy.

The current policies have helped in addressing the current short-term labor market needs for the country because of the small population of Canada which cannot meet its labor requirements. The immigrants solve the labor situation which otherwise the country would not have addressed.

These policies have their negative sides. In the long term Canada will be viewed as no longer welcoming as it was. These include decision to wipe out immigration application backlogs legislatively. The applications of immigrants to get visas for whatever reason has been denied by immigration officers thus preventing serious developments on either the job market or education sector. A suspension or delay on family sponsorships which will deny the coming in of family to reunite with the rest of the families. This will affect the status of those who seek to migrate to Canada for the fear of being isolated from their families.

Reliance on temporary foreign workers to meet labor market needs. These has affected the attitude of the skilled workers who jet into the country and have not been able to get jobs. The Canadian citizens at times feel insecure by the immigration of the people into the country since they view them as a threat to their jobs and opportunities in the country. Hostility has been reported against the immigrants to an extent of some losing their lives. Organized crime has been witnessed against the immigrants to scare them so as to instill fear in them.

Tightened citizenship requirements which has locked out a lot of people who have genuine reasons to apply for the citizenship. Some of the requirement has locked out skilled workers and potential job creators to get into the country. Jobs would have boost the economic state of the country but due to the being looked out vast opportunities are also shut out. A list of refugees tagged as safe whose claims would be checked vigorously to determine if the claims are true. This has affected those who genuinely seek to immigrate as refugees.

Mandatory detention of asylum seekers who arrive for the fear terrorist or criminal activities especially after the 9/11 attack on the us. The asylum seekers will not be allowed to walk freely before the determination of their pending applications. This usually creates unnecessary anxiety for the asylum seekers.

These policies are made in a flashy speed and the breadth of them is likely not to be understood by the masses. The way the policies interact with each other is also an issue that will impact negatively on the society.

Conclusion

The current policies on immigration has impacted the society of Canada in both negative and positive ways. Some have been very fruitful to the growth of the economy and the cultural state of the country. The cultural state of the country has been made diverse by the different origins of the immigrants. the economic growth has been made possible by the influx of highly qualified individuals to the job market and the coming in of investors and job creators.

Canada has however been accused of poaching of the best brains from less developed and still developing countries worldwide. In its defense however it has said that there is freedom of movement for all the people.

In general the current immigration policies have helped in several ways for the betterment of the society but has introduced some problems too to the people living in Canada.

Sex Offenders in the Community

The United States government has rules in place to register the names of sex offenders, but unfortunately seems to overlook the idea of sex offenders living near children. In that respect, there is an injustice in the fact that sex offenders live on the same streets as children without parole officers making this information explicit to the parents. There are many child molesters who, even if they do have a professional job, work near minors. The government has laws, which state that a sex offender must be registered, but there are no laws saying that a sex offender cannot live around children. I do not agree with the idea that sex offenders are allowed to live in communities near children. In order to keep our children safe, child molesters should be banned from living and working near a school.

Realistically, allowing sex offenders to continue living near school systems enables them to target individuals, the majority of which are adolescents. Unknowingly, I worked with a sex offender when I was sixteen. Between the ages of sixteen and eighteen, a different sex offender targeted me. Any child could come into contact with a situation in which she is vulnerable and unaware of the danger. As a young person, one should not have to worry about whether or not he or she will be a victim of rape or sexual assault. I was fortunate enough not to be a victim, but I could have been. There was another situation where I had to stay with my grandparents for a period of time because my parents were fearful of the child molester who lived nearby. These are perfect examples of why we need laws that regulate an offender’s proximity to young children. Individuals should not have to be frightened in their daily life.

According to Understanding Child Molesters, there are a number of ways in which a sex offender may be disciplined, including probation, parole, and incarceration. When an individual decides to assault another person, there are consequences, such as having a parole officer, experiencing felony or misdemeanor changes, and registering as a sex offender’among many other methods of discipline. Even though a sex offender has to register every year, he is able to continue living in the community. This registration is compiled into an online database, but some individuals may have difficulty accessing this information due to a lack of technology. Sometimes sex offenders even have jobs where they work with minors and this should be prevented to minimize the perpetuation of a reoccurring crime.

The Washington Department of Corrections goes into further detail regarding sex offenders who live in our communities. The sex offenders must allow their parole officers to know where they live, and the parole officers must visit the sex offender regularly. Parole officers must be notified if the sex offender moves, and the parole officer must also approve of where the offender lives. From this point, sex offenders must become registered and allow the neighborhood to know that they are living within the community (‘Rules’). Registration alone is not sufficient because having their name on list will not prevent sex offenders from committing future sexual assault.

After a person becomes known as a sex offender, he must follow precise supervision. A parole officer will then monitor the offender for a period of time that is determined by the court system. Then, the offender will register as a child molester, and continue to do so indefinitely. By order of the court, he cannot leave the state. A parole officer will make a determination of whether or not the sex offender is allowed to live in a particular location. If the offender decides to move, he must also get the approval of the parole officer (‘Rules’).

The offender’s parole officer will ensure that the offender does not have possession of a computer or any other forms of media. Having possession of magazines, computers, televisions, phones, or any similar item could enable the offender to have access to pornography. The offender must also ensure not to attend any events partaking in an adults’ club. Essentially, the offender must stray from any type of pornography or sexual setting. If an offender decides to date or marry, the potential candidate must be notified of the offender’s criminal history (‘Rules’).

In addition to notifying the potential dating or marriage partner, a sex offender must also alert family and friends of the incident. Once a person becomes labeled as a sex offender, the neighborhood must be aware that there is a sex offender living amongst the community (‘Rules’). The public is only notified via a website they can visit if they choose, but this information should be presented to them more explicitly. There are many individuals who do not know how to use a computer. A parole officer should visit the neighbors to discuss safety protocol and other warnings. The offender’s address should be shared with all of the local residents, as well as individuals who find the offense report on the internet. Having the offender’s information online is not sufficient. In order to protect children, we must make better efforts to notify the community in a better way. Making sure that the public is aware of sex offenders in the community is crucial, and may save the lives of many children.

Sex offenders may be required to attend counseling sessions, for the duration of time determined by the court system. The offender must continue to update the parole officer to ensure proper attendance of the sessions. A polygraph may be used on the offender, if necessary. He is required to submit to the polygraph, as well as any drug tests that may be administered. With that being said, the offender must refrain from consuming alcohol or using drugs. Taking a polygraph and being drug-free are required to show that the offender is making changes in his life. Ideally, making these requests is to ensure that the offender will not sexually assault another child.

The offender cannot, by any means, contact the victim of the crime. Possible contact of the victim is one of the reasons as to why the offender cannot have a phone or a computer. Offenders cannot have any methods of communication with the victim, but the offenders still live in communities, near children. Since the offenders cannot contact their victims, it is essential that the offenders not be able to contact other innocent children. Seeking Justice in Child Sexual Abuse explains that, ‘Child abuse is one of the most difficult crimes to detect and prosecute, in large part because there often are no witnesses except the victim,’ (Staler 3). Unfortunately, many times when a minor is sexually assaulted, there are no witnesses. Having a sex offender near school districts enables more children to possibly be harmed and ultimately, there may not be any witnesses.

Through Civil Disobedience, Thoreau argues that breaking laws is sometimes necessary. Thoreau goes on to justify his argument, saying that breaking the law can often be the only thing that changes the mindsets of individuals. In a parallel example of Thoreau’s theory, we must break the misconception that having sex offenders living near children is perfectly acceptable. Change will not happen unless we, as a community, do something drastic to make a change happen (Thoreau).

Unfortunately, children are still placed in danger when sex offenders live near the school systems. In Martin Luther King Jr’s Letter From the Birmingham Jail, he makes a comment that his children are afraid of their surroundings. In today’s society, children are still afraid of their environment. Martin Luther King Jr. has the idea that one should break a law, if he or she deems it as ‘unjust.’ (King). I completely agree with King, and in this situation, I feel as though it is completely unjust to have sex offenders live near children. Ultimately, we cannot simply remove sex offenders from the communities, because they must live somewhere. But, as Martin Luther King Jr. was calm and rational in his approach, I believe that is the best method for the nation to make a difference.

Martin Luther King Jr. and Henry David Thoreau are very similar in the sense that they both want to take a stand for the people, and essentially, do what is morally right. They both agree that if a law is unjust, it needs to be broken. And both men stay determined to break the laws that they deem ‘unjust.’ Neither man is willing to give up on what he believes, yet both men face imprisonment for doing the right thing. If these men can be incarcerated for doing the right thing, perhaps sex offenders can have more severe punishments for doing horrendous acts to children (Thoreau, King).

Both of these men are true inspirations as to how we can handle our disagreements in a rational manner. I do not feel comfortable having sex offenders live near children. We cannot completely remove child molesters from our streets, but there are many other ways to reduce the amount of rapes and sexual abuse. The first possibility is that sex offenders stay imprisoned indefinitely. Yes, that is an unfortunate experience, but the children that are raped are emotionally scarred for the rest of their lives. So, maybe it would be rational for sex offenders to stay in prison indefinitely.

Another alternative may be to have a ban, where sex offenders cannot live within a certain radius of schools. Either way, a list of sex offenders will still be posted to notify the community. But, in my proposal, there will be more ways of warning everyone. These registries will be abundantly clear, even to those who may not have access to the existing lists. Not everyone has access to the internet, or knows how to operate a computer. Perhaps, in addition to being posted online like they are now, the lists will also be given to each homeowner in a more noticeable method. Advising the community is the first step in making this situation better. Maybe we cannot eliminate sex offenders from our streets, but we can take better precautions.

I believe that, in order to protect innocent adolescents, it is necessary to make a stand. We, as a community, should make every effort to ensure that children are not put into a situation where they are harmed. No child should be raped, sexually assaulted, or murdered. There are simple changes that this country can take at this very moment to ensure better safety of children. Law enforcement can improve methods of notifying the public that there is a sex offender present. Sex offenders can have a ban on how close they live to a school system, or they can be incarcerated indefinitely. Child sex abuse is a very serious issue that we could possibly eliminate, or reduce the number of victims.

Facebook as a learning platform

Abstract

The past decade has seen a growing popularity of social networking sites and out of all that is available, Facebook is the one that stands out for being unique and offering a range of user-friendly features. This site has frequently topped the ranks with record number of memberships and daily users. Facebook is often considered as a personal and informal space for sharing pictures, information, webpages, forming ‘Groups’, participating in discussions and debates, and providing comments on wall posts etc. The aim of this paper is to explore the use of Facebook as learning and teaching tool. It will highlight some of the theoretical debates and existing research to understand the effectiveness of this site as an informal and learner driven space, and ways in which it empowers students and stimulates their intellectual growth. The conclusion highlights the on-going contested nature of technological advances and its influences on traditional ideas of teaching and learning.

Keywords: Facebook; Situated Learning Theory; Community of Practice; Connectivist Approach; Personal Learning Environment; Informal Learning; Criticical Thinking; Creativity; Communicative Confidence; Collaborative Learning.

Introduction

Over two decades ago, theorists Jean Lave & Etienne Wenger (1991) introduced a theory of learning called ‘situated learning’ and the concept of community of practice (CoP from here on), so as to describe learning through practice and participation. The CoP can be bracketed as a group of individuals who share a common interest and a desire to learn from and contribute to the community. Wenger (2010) elaborated the idea by stating that:

Communities of practice are formed by people who engage in a process of collective learning in a shared domain of human endeavor: a tribe learning to survive, a band of artists seeking new forms of expression, a group of engineers working on similar problems, a clique of pupils defining their identity in the school, a network of surgeons exploring novel techniques, a gathering of first-time managers helping each other cope. In a nutshell: Communities of practice are groups of people who share a concern or a passion for something they do and learn how to do it better as they interact regularly.

According to Wegner, the CoP needs to meet three essential characteristics i.e. domain, community and practice. The CoP has an identity defined by a shared domain of interest. Therefore, membership implies a commitment to that particular domain, and a shared competence that distinguishes members from other individuals (namely non-members). The community then becomes a way through which members can pursue interest in their domain, engage in collaborative activities and discussions, provide assistance to each other, and share or disseminate information. They build a co-operative relationship that enables them to learn from each other. Wegnner terms the members of a CoP as practitioners ‘ as they develop a shared repertoire of resources, experiences, stories, tools, and ways of addressing repetitive problems. This in short can be called a shared practice, which takes time and sustained interaction. It is the combination of these three components constitutes a CoP, and it is by developing these in parallel that one cultivates such a community (ibid).

Social networking sites are often seen as promoting CoP. In simple terms, these sites can be defined as: ‘web-based services that allow individuals to (1) construct a public or semi-public profile within a bounded system, (2) articulate a list of other users with whom they share a connection, and (3) view and traverse their list of connections and those made by others within the system.’ (Boyd and Ellison, 2008: 211). What makes social networking sites unique is not whether they allow individuals to meet new people, but rather that they enable users to articulate and make their social networks visible (ibid). Therefore, social networking can be seen as ‘the practice of expanding knowledge by making connections with individuals of similar interests’ (Gunawardena et al. 2009:4). Researchers have frequently concluded that social networking sites are at the core of what is described as online CoP (Watkins, and Groundwater-Smith, 2009).

According to Wong et al. (2011), growth in technology and social networking sites have contributed to an increase in the opportunity to operate in an improved learning environment through enhanced communication and incorporation of collaborative teaching and learning approaches. Amongst all the social networking sites, Facebook (FB from hereon) is the one that stands out the most. There are a number of reasons as to why FB can be used for building an online CoP and ways in which its features are considered as unique and suitable for Higher Education purposes:

1) Ability to create a ‘Group’: FB is equipped with dynamic features, such as, messaging, and ability to post videos, weblinks and pictures. However, Group is one of the most powerful features on the site, and it can encourage and enhance collaborative learning. Learners can create a Group or join an existing Group related to their interest, and they can use the site features for sharing information and performing variety of tasks. FB Group features can build an online CoP, as they meet the three fundamental components of communities (i.e. domain, community and practice). (ibid: 319)

2) Share information: FB features, such as, Groups, Chats and Docs enable sharing of information. Learners can form groups for a specific purpose, and post messages, have discussions/debates and share resources on a specific domain within the group. The members of a CoP are practitioners, and they can develop a shared repertoire of resources.(ibid:319)

3) Encourage collaborative tasks: ‘Docs’ feature on FB site can help with collaborative tasks, and it can allow Group members to work collectively (if required). Any/all group members can view, edit, add or remove sections of the ‘Doc’. (ibid:319)

While the above shows the ways in which FB can be useful in building an online CoP, a more careful analysis is required, in order to establish its usefulness as learning and teaching tool in Higher Education. Therefore, rest of this paper will draw upon theoretical debates and evidence from within the literature, so as to explain the ways in which FB could be a powerful tool ‘ one that could enhance learning and criticality amongst learners, and also boost their communicative confidence.

Why Facebook?

Created in 2004, by the end of 2013 FB was reported to have more than 1.23 billion monthly active users worldwide, and 24 million Britons logged on to the site each day (The Guardian, 2014). Due to its ease of use and availability in the form of mobile applications, FB has now become integral part of its users social lifestyle ‘ conventional estimates suggest that a typical user spends around 20 minutes a day on the site, and 2/3 of users log in at least once a day (Ellison et al. 2007). Since its creation, FB has been subjected to immense academic and scholarly scrutiny, especially for its uses within the educational settings. The initial literature largely focused on the negative aspects associated with its use, such as, identity presentation and lack of privacy (See Gross & Acquisti, 2005). It was argued that, amount of information FB users provide about themselves, (somewhat) open nature of the information, and the lack of privacy controls could put users at risk online and offline, for e.g. bullying, stalking and identity theft (Gross and Acquisti, 2005). However, constant changes made to the privacy settings have subsequently reversed these concerns. The users can control the release of information by changing the privacy settings. Issues surrounding student perceptions of lecturer presence and self-disclosure (Mazer, Murphy, & Simonds, 2007), and inconsistent patterns of use were also highlighted as potential causes of concern (Golder, Wilkinson, & Huberman, 2007). However, the positive effects of social networking tools in teaching and learning soon took precedence, as these computer-mediated communication modes are often seen as lowering barriers to interaction and encouraging communicative confidence amongst students. For instance, during a qualitative study at the Yale University, the members of staff praised FB for breaking the barriers between themselves and students, and it also encouraged students to feel part of the same academic community (mentioned in Bosch, 2009). Similarly, a study conducted by Ellison et al. (2007) explored maintained social capital, which assesses one’s ability to stay connected with members of a community. They concluded that FB usage amongst students is linked to psychological well-being, and it could especially be of benefit to students with lower self-esteem and low life satisfaction. It could also trigger a process, whereby goal attainment amongst students is significantly increased.

The above uses of FB in Higher Education and as a tool for enabling the maintenance of social capital, can be contrasted with its value as a learning environment. Selwyn (2009) has strongly cautioned against the use of FB for teaching and learning, as students might be reluctant to use it for learning purposes, shifting its focus away from being an academic tool and becoming considered purely as a site for socialisation and sharing mundane information. Selwyn presented an in-depth qualitative analysis of the FB ‘wall’ activity of nearly 1000 students in a British educational establishment, and his study offered a very pessimistic conclusion. He noted that students did not use this site for educational purposes and their interactions were limited to offering negative comments on learning/lecture/seminar experiences, casual comments about events, sharing factual about teaching and assessment requirements, seeking moral support for assessment or learning, and even boasting oneself as being academically incompetent and/or disengaged (2009:157). The evidence from this study suggests that, FB in Higher Education must be approached with severe caution and lecturers need to use it in a considered, strategic, logical and objective manner (ibid).

It is likely that FB could clash with traditional pedagogical models. Nevertheless, it can provide channels for informal and unstructured learning. For instance, Bugeja (2006:1) suggested that, social networking offers the opportunity to ‘re-engage’ individuals with learning, and promote ‘critical thinking’, which is one of the traditional objectives of education (explained further in subsequent paragraphs). Siemens (2005) connectivist approach also recognises these impacts of technology on learning and ways of knowing. According to him, learning in the digital age is no longer dependent on individual obtaining/storing/retrieving knowledge, but instead relies on the connected learning that occurs through interaction with various sources of knowledge and participation in communities of common interest, including social networks, and group tasks (Brindley et al. 2009). The shift of focus to group and network as the epicentre of learning relies on a concept of learning based on ‘exploration, connection, creation and evaluation within networks that connect people, digital artefacts and content’ (Manca and Ranieri, 2013:488). This type of learning through socialisation can foster student interest in the subject material. Duffy (2011) proposed that FB could be used for teaching and learning, as it enables students to share knowledge and information with the ‘Group’ members’ and the associations between them. Duffy (2011) further argued that FB provides a range of educational benefits by: Allowing students to demonstrate critical thinking, take creative risks, and make sophisticated use of language and digital literacy skills, and in doing so, the students acquire creative, critical, communicative, and collaborative skills that are useful in both educational and professional contexts. (p. 288). This in turn will also help to achieve the Abertay Graduate Attributes ‘ and encourage development of students’ intellectual and social capacity, give them tools to find creative solutions to real world problems, and work within a complex and interdisciplinary contexts. It could trigger intellectual, communicative and collaborative confidence amongst students, train them to take creative risks and help them broaden their knowledge base.

What is particularly fascinating about FB is the fact that it encourages a creation of Personal Learning Environment (PLE) ‘ which is an emerging pedagogical approach for both integrating formal and informal learning, supporting self-regulated learning, and empowering students intellectually (these values are also outlined in the Abertay Strategic Plan). According to Attwell (2010):

PLEs are made-up of a collection of loosely coupled tools, including Web 2.0 technologies, used for working, learning, reflection and collaboration with others. PLEs can be seen as the spaces in which people interact and communicate and whose ultimate result is learning and the development of collective know-how. A PLE can use social software for informal learning which is learner driven, problem-based and motivated by interest ‘ not as a process triggered by a single learning provider, but as a continuing activity.

PLEs are spaces for the modern learner to create, explore and communicate, and they are characterised as an approach to learning rather than a set of computer assisted applications (Dalsgaard 2006:2). The use of PLEs can help to reinforce classroom learning by extending communication outside of the classroom hours (but at the same time not creating classroom outside of the classroom), and thinking about topics beyond the weekly seminar sessions both individually and in collaboration with classmates through posting materials (like files, website links, notes etc.) and leaving comments. This type of engagement can result in the development of (informal) communities of learning. Whereas, collaborative learning can lead to deeper level learning, critical thinking, and shared understanding (Kreijns, Kirschner and Jochems, 2003). A study conducted by Churchill (2009) highlighted that ‘online-blogs’ can foster a learning community, and it makes learners feel as an important part of the classroom. The best is achieved from such blogs when they are designed to facilitate student access of course material, posting reflections on learning tasks and commenting on peer contribution. Taking into account that FB is one of the most popular network and method of community building, through which students today are communicating ‘ it can prove an useful tool in collaborative student-led learning (in prove equal or more beneficial than blogs). Downes (2007) argues that FB is distinctive when compared to other forms of computer-mediated communications because it has stronger roots in the academic community. One of the reports by the UK government body for technology in learning lists several potential uses of FB in education, and for developing communities of practice, communication skills, e-portfolios, and literacy ‘ all of which are essential aspects of the Abertay Graduate Attributes.

FB can be used not only to gain knowledge and information, but also to share information, as and when needed. McLoughlin and Lee (2007;2010) have pointed out that ‘learning on demand’ is becoming a type of lifestyle in modern society, and learners are constantly seeking information to solve a problem or to satisfy their curiosity. Learners should therefore not be considered as passive information consumers, but as active co-producers of content. This also makes learning highly independent, self-driven, informal and integral part of University life (ibid). Formal learning is described as highly structured (one that happens in classrooms), whereas informal learning happens through observation, listening to stories, communicating with others, asking questions, reflecting and seeking assistance. Informal learning rests primarily in hands of the learner and use of FB could allow learners to create and maintain a learning space that facilitates self-learning activities and connections with classmates and other academic/educational networks (ibid). However, informal learning outside of the classroom must be considered as a continuum, rather than either/or dichotomy (Attwell, 2007). The informal learning can be used to supplement formal learning (not substitute) and PLE as a pedagogical tool should be viewed as intentioned merger of formal and informal learning spaces.

PLEs are increasingly becoming effective in addressing issues of learner control and personalization that are often absent in the University Learning Management Systems, such as, Virtual Learning Environment (VLE) or Blackboard ( Dabbagh and Kitsantas, 2011). VLEs do not accommodate social connectivity tools and personal profile spaces, and they tend to replicate traditional models of learning and teaching in online environments. They create a classroom outside of the classroom, which may explain as to why educators ‘can’t ‘ stop lecturing online’ (Sheely, 2006). Also, VLEs are largely considered as tutor dissemination tools (for lecture notes, readings and assessment related information), over student learning tools. The University faculty and administrators control VLEs, and learners cannot maintain learning space that facilitates their own learning activities, and connection with and fellow classmates (Dabbagh and Kitsantas, 2011:2). When FB is employed as a learning tool, it moves away from this very hierarchical form of learning and empowers students through designs that focus on collaboration, connections and social interactions. It is much more dynamic and evolved in this sense.

It has been long argued that VLEs have had only a relatively slight impact on pedagogy in higher education, despite their commercial success (Brown, 2010). However, FB has the potential not only to fundamentally change the nature of learning and teaching but, through the creation of learner-controlled devices, it may challenge the role of traditional institutions in a way that previous technologies could not. Brown (2010:8) imposes a crucial question regarding VLE (such as Blackboard), and that it is ‘reasonable to wonder how much longer the return on investment will stand up to scrutiny’ (Brown 2010:8).

Conclusion

FB is increasingly becoming a popular learning platform that has a true potential in HE. A FB ‘Group’ can facilitate learning, by increased interaction between students and staff. The research has so far (despite being plausible in nature) indicated FB can be used to enhance the literacy, critical thinking, and collaborative and communicative skills amongst students. Some researchers have argued that social networking sites, such as, FB could offer ‘the capacity to radically change the educational system’ to better motivate students as engaged learners rather than learners who are primarily passive observers of the educational process’ (Ziegler 2007, 69). However, this overly-optimistic view is strongly contested by others, who have raised grave concerns about heightened disengagement, alienation and disconnection of students from education and to the detrimental effect that FB may have on ‘traditional’ skills and literacies (Brabazon, 2007). Academics have feared that FB could lead to intellectual and scholarly ‘de-powering’ of students, incapable of independent critical thought. According to Ziegler (2007:69), sites such as FB could lead to ‘the mis-education of Generation M’ (cited in Selwyn, 2009), and despite of its popularity as innovative educational tool, studies have indicated that it may distract learners from their studies and purely become a tool for socialisation (ibid). The use of FB remains controversial and further research is needed in this area to establish its effectiveness in HE teaching and learning.

Causes of drug failure: essay help online

One of the most common causes of drug failure is drug-induced liver injuries (DILIs). The majority of these failures are idiosyncratic reactions, which occur in small patient populations (between 1 in 1.000-10.000) in an unpredictable manner.1 The underlying mechanism of this type of DILI is very complex and still not completely understood.2 However, recent data have suggested that the crosstalk between cytokine-mediated pro-apoptotic signalling and drug reactive metabolite-mediated intracellular stress responses is essential in the comprehension of DILI.3

Various xenobiotics (e.g. diclofenac) can induce liver damage via the tumor necrosis factor ?? (TNF??) pathway. Excretion of this major cytokine will initiate through liver macrophages (Kuppfer cells) after exposure to bacterial endotoxins (e.g. Lipopolysaccharide).4 After binding of TNF?? to its receptor (TNFR1), the transcription factor nuclear factor kappa-B (NF-??B) is activated.5 In general, NF-??B is detained in the cytoplasm by binding to an inhibitor of ??B (I??B) complex. The initiated NF-??B leads to activation of I??B kinase (IKK), which eventually leads to the ubiquitination and phosphorylation of the I??B complex.6 Subsequently, this complex is targeted for proteosomal degradation. Hereafter, NF-??B translocates to the nucleus in an oscillatory way and activates the transcription of several genes which primarily encode survival proteins, such as cellular FLICE-like inhibitory protein (c-FLIP), inhibitor of apoptosis proteins (IAPs) and negative regulators proteins (e.g. A20, I??B??).7 After protein synthesis, A20 and I??B?? will inhibit the function of NF-??B in a negative feedback manner (Figure 1). Modified TNF??-induced NF??B translocation by various compounds is believed to shift the balance between cell survival and cell death.

Furthermore, reactive compound metabolites are capable of altering cellular molecules, which could lead to intracellular disturbances and eventually to the induction of various stress response or toxicity pathways.8 These pathways, combined with a decreased response for cell damage recovery and protection, will enhance the susceptibility to cell death of various cells. Up to now, insufficient studies have been performed to investigate the contribution of various pathways to DILI. It still remains uncertain which drug-induced toxicity pathways modulate the pro-apoptotic activity of TNF?? signaling in DILI reactions. However, there are different stress responses which are most likely involved in the formation of DILI. The Kelch-like ECH-associated protein 1 (Keap1)/nuclear factor-erythroid 2 (NF-E2)-related factor 2 (Nrf2) antioxidant response pathway and the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress-mediated unfolded protein response (UPR) have been studied in drug-induced toxicity of hepatocytes [2]. The Keap1/Nrf2 pathway is essential in recognizing ROS and/or cellular oxidative stress [6]. Keap1 maintains Nrf2 in the cytoplasm and guides it toward proteasomal degradation under normal circumstances. Nrf2 signaling is important in the cytoprotective response against ROS, but its role in the TNF??/drug interaction in idiosyncratic DILI remains unclear.

Furthermore, the ER stress-mediated UPR is a stress response due to enhanced translation and/or disturbed protein folding. Should the modification fail, a pro-apoptotic system will be initiated to eliminate the injured cell. The exact mechanism and role of the ER stress signalling response in managing DILI in relation to TNF??-induced apoptosis still remains unclear.

In this research, we hypothesize that stress response mechanisms (e.g. ER stress responses, oxidative stress responses) are involved in the delay of NF-??B nuclear translocation upon exposure to various NF-??B nuclear translocation compounds.

In this project, a human HepG2 cell line will be used to study the interaction between five different compounds (amiodarone, carbamazepine, diclofenac, nefazodone, ximelagatran) and cytokine TNF alpha. To investigate the overall percentage of cell death, a lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) assay will be performed. Furthermore, in order to quantify the amount of apoptotic cells, an Annexin V affinity assay will be executed. It is expected that the concentration-dependant toxicity of the compounds is enhanced with the presence of TNF??. Live cell imaging with HepG2 GFPp65 cells will be used to follow the NF-??B translocation after exposure to the five various compounds. Subsequently, an automated image quantification of the p65 signal intensity ratio of nucleus/cytoplasm is measured to show the exact onset of the second nuclear entry of NF-??B. It is estimated that the data of the NF-??B translocation will show a compound-induced delayed onset of NF-??B.

The activation of NF-??B target genes cIAP and c-FLIP will be measured using a Western Blot analysis. Moreover, the negative regulators of NF-??B, A20 and I??B??, will be studied to investigate the negative feedback loop of NF-??B. We anticipate that the data of the Western Blot analysis will show a decrease in production of the investigated target genes, because of the reduced TNF??-induced NF-??B transcriptional activity.

Ultimately, a data analysis will be applied on the results using t-test or two-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) in case of multiple comparisons.

Karma by Kushwant Singh

The text ‘Karma’ is written by Kushwant Singh in 1950 who is a English novelist.

The short story is 65 years old today but it is still relevant today, many of the issue that the text show.

The story deal with problems of the Indian cultures. Novel tells us the impact the empire have had on India, and shows us that the British norms have had influence on India.

It shows us that there is a big clash between women and men in India, and the way that men looks at women, but also the clash between rich and poor, is very big, in the story men and women does not sit in the same side of the train.

The text take place in a train.

And we have main character who names is Sir Mohan Lal, he is an Indian Man, and he think self he is very handsome and beautiful like the English men. He actually think of himself as an Englishman.

He think he is better than he Indians.

He despratly trys to fit in with the Englishmen.

Sir Mohan is very well iducated his job is a vizeier and barrister, he has been in England to stody, and maybe that is the reason that he thinks of himself as an Englishman. He think he is a good looking man, a time in the story he looks in the mirror ‘Distinguished, efficient – even handsome. That neatly trimmed moustache – the suit from Savile Row, the carnation in the buttonhole.’ It shows that he is proud of himself, and he knows which image he want to send to other people, but also that he only speaks to himself.

Sir Mohan Lal obsessed with how other people think of him. He will do anything to get to know an Englishman. In the train he meets many Englishmen and he always have an old copy of ‘The Times’ which shows how desperately he want to get in touch with an Englishman. And also that he think he as a well education, and also to show that he is a man of manners and English culture. He feels like he is an English man and not an India, he think that Indian people is poor, and not like him. He will not being seen with some of them, and also his wife would he not been seen with.

In the short story we also meet his wife, which is an Indian women, he doesn’t love her and think she is ugly, the only reason he is married to her is because he want to have children.

This shows us the problematic we have reading in the class, were many married has been arranged, and that the people there is married doesn’t love each other. Sir Mohan Lal makes her travel in the zenana(a section in the train only for women).

In the train Sir Mohan Lal meet two English soldiers, who he wants to travel and talk to them, that he tell the guard that they could sit in his coupe. Mohan should never had does that. The men were not looking for an Indian man to talk with, and they sees themselves as better than Sir Mohan Lal. Just like he had done before with the Indians people, then he could see how it feels, to not be an excepted person.

Karma is when something you have done comes back to you and it certainly does.

Human Resource Management and Employee Commitment: essay help

The concept of employment commitment lies at the heart of any analysis of Human Resource Management. Really, the rationale for introducing Human Resource Management policies is to increase levels of commitment so positive outcome can result. Such is the importance of this construct. Yet, despite many studies on commitment, very little is understand of what managers mean by the term ‘commitment’ when they evaluate someone’s performance and motivation. Development of organizational commitment is basically by major theoretical approaches emerge from previous research on commitment: Firstly, commitment is view as an attitude of attachment to the organization, which leads to particular job-related behaviors. The committed employee, for example, is less often absent, and is less likely to leave the organization voluntarily, than are less committed employees.

Secondly, one line of research in organizations focuses on the implications of certain types of behaviors on subsequent attitudes. A typical finding is that employees who freely choose to behave in a certain way, and who find their decision difficult to change, becomes committed to the chosen behavior and develop attitudes consistent with their choice. One approach emphasizes the influence of commitment attitudes on behaviors, whereas the other emphasizes the influence of committing behaviors on attitude. Although the ‘commitment attitude behavior’ and ‘committing behavior attitude’ approaches emerge from different theoretical orientations, and have generated separate research traditions, understanding the commitment process is facilitated by viewing these two approaches as, inherently, inter-related. Further by virtue of commitment the human recourse management department can fully utilized their talent, skill, and efficiency of the employee in productive way to fulfill the personal goals of the employees and organizational goals. More over commitment helps in fulfilling the purpose of training imparted to the employees because in spite of increasing the level of skill through training without commitment these cannot be maintained. After all existence of adequate commitment amongst employees create an work culture environment and there by all employees can be motivated and encourage towards the excellent performance of their duties.

3.5 Social Support ‘ its Concept, Purpose, Types, Relations with Social Network and social Integration

3.5.1 Concept of Social support

The concept of social support is strategic which defined as the belief that one is cared for and loved, esteemed and valued. It is a strategic concept in not only giving understanding to the maintenance of health and the development of (mental and somatic) health problems, but also their prevention. Types and sources of social support can vary. Four main categories of social support are (i) emotional, (ii) appraisal, (iii) informational and (iv) instrumental support. Social support is closely related to the concept of social network, the ties to family, friends, neighbors, colleagues, and others of significance to a person. Within this context, social support is the potential of the network to provide help.

It is important for organizations to collect information on social support in the employees, to enable both risk assessment and the planning of preventive interventions at different level such as:

a) Lack of social support increases the risk for Organizational Commitment:

Lack of social support is shown to increase the risk of both mental and somatic disorders, and seems to be especially important in stressful life situations. Poor social support is also associated with enhanced mortality. Social support may affect health through different pathways i.e. behavioral, psychological and physiological pathways.

b) Social support is determined by individual and environmental factors:

Social support is determined by factors at both the individual as well as the social level. Social support in adulthood may be to some extent genetically determined. Personality factors that might be associated with perceived social support are interpersonal trust and social fear. The position of a person within the social structure, which is determined by factors such as marital status, family size and age, will influence the probability of them receiving social support. The occurrence of social support depends on opportunities that an organization creates to commitment with employees.

c) Preventive interventions stimulate social support at different levels:

There are three types of preventive interventions aimed at stimulating social support: universal, selective or indicated interventions. The ultimate goal of universal interventions is to promote health. They are aim at providing social support at the group or community level. Selective preventions aim to strengthen social skills and coping abilities with, for example social skill training. Social support groups and self-help groups are other examples of selective prevention programs. Indicated prevention programmes aim to reduce the risk of people who already have symptoms of psychological stress, developing a mental disorder.

Social support is defining as help in difficult life situations. Social support is a concept that is generally understands in a spontaneous sense, as the help from other people in a difficult life situation. It is social support as ‘the individual belief that one is cared for and loved, esteemed and valued, and belongs to a network of communication and mutual obligations’. In spite of these widely accepted definitions of social support, there are very few consensuses in the literature about the definition and consequently the operation implementation of the concept. There is a need for further research, especially about what kind of support is most important for organizational commitment. Researcher tried to the applied social support score is the sum of the raw scores for each of the items. In the Guwahati Metro region, the sum-score of the Social Support Scale ranges. A score is classified as poor support, intermediate support and strong support.

3.5.2 Purpose of Social Support

Researcher thinks that in defining social support the qualities of support perceived (satisfaction) and provided social support for the managerial employees are significant here. Most of studies are constructed on the measurement of subjectively perceived support, whereas others aim at measuring social support in a more objective sense. One could also distinguish between the support received, and the expectations when in need, and between event specific support and general support. The definition in terms of a subjective feeling of support raises the question whether social support reflects a personality trait, rather than the actual social environment (Pierce et al., 1997). Most researchers will agree that the person as well as the situation affects perceived social support, and that the concept deals with the interaction between individual and social variables. In the present study researcher has tried to observe percentage of male and female managerial employees with poor support, intermediate support, and strong support in Public and private organizations of Guwahati Metro region.

3.5.3 Types of Social Support

Types and sources of social support may vary. Mainly four major categories of social support such as emotional, appraisal, informational and instrumental are in the use of research work. Researcher tried to observe it in her study.

a) Emotional support generally comes from family and close friends and is the most commonly recognized form of social support. It includes empathy, concern, caring, love and trust.

b) Appraisal support involves transmission of information in the form of affirmation, feedback and social comparison. This information is often evaluative and can come from family, friends, coworkers, or community sources.

c) Informational support includes advice, suggestions, or directives that assist the person respond to personal or situational demands.

d) Instrumental support is the most concrete direct form of social support, encompassing help in the form of money, time, in-kind assistance, and other explicit interventions on the person’s behalf.

3.5.4 Social Support & Concept of a Social Network

Social support is closely related to the concept of a social network, or the ties to family, friends, neighbors, colleagues, and others of significance to the person. However, when the social network is described in structural terms, like size, range, density, proximity and homogeneity, social support normally refers to the qualitative aspects of the social network within this context, social support is the potential of the network to provide help in situations when needed. However, the social network may also be the cause of psychological problems.

Halle and Wellman present the interplay between social support, the social network, and psychological health in a model: The social network as a mediating construct. This model shows that social support can be seen as resulting from certain characteristics of the social network, which are in turn caused by environmental and personal factors. The model suggests that it is important to distinguish between the structural and quantitative aspects of the social network on the one side, and social support on the other. In this study researcher has correlated stress and social support with organizational commitment taking in to consideration managerial employees of Public and private sector in Guwahati Metro region.

3.5.5 Social integration and Social Support

Whereas the concept of social support mainly refers to the individual and group level, the concept of social integration can refer to the community level. A well-integrated community refers to well developed supportive relationships between people in the community, with everybody feeling accepted and included. A related concept is social capital, which is often used as the sum of supportive relationships in the community. Social capital may, however, also be used in a somewhat different meaning, such as solidarity’. It is an important for the development of organizational commitment.

In the fields of Organizational Behavior and Industrial/Organizational Psychology is, in a general sense, the employee’s psychological attachment to the organization. It can be contrasted with other work-related attitudes, such as job satisfaction, defined as an employee’s feelings about their job, and organizational identification, defined as the degree to which an employee experiences a ‘sense of oneness’ with their organization. Nobel laureate Amartya Sen said that the sense of oneness in every individual should he ‘dynamic’ and not confined within the narrowness of a single identity. People have to judge contextually as to what oneness means in several aspects of our life. A person cannot have just one identity of oneness based on one’s nationality or religion.

Encompass the systematic study and careful application of knowledge about how people act within organizations. Organizational studies sometimes are considered a sister field for, or overarching designation that includes the disciplines like industrial and organizational psychology, organizational behavior, human resources, and management.

However, there is no universally accepted classification system for such subfields. Beyond this general sense, organizational scientists have developed many feelings especially in creative expression of organizational commitment; the present study is combination of the higher level employees stress and social support, which effects on organizational commitment. Researcher have selected Guwahati Metro region for their study. The study is design based on types of organizations i.e. Public and private organizations.

Climate Effect On Building facade: essay help

Abstract : Building facade is one of an important element of the architecture. It have a significant effect on energy conservation and the comfort of the building users. The facade is affected by the environmental conditions and it designs should take into consideration the climate of it regions this research will explain the facade treatment on different region, also the Basic methods for designing high-performance building facade it will explain two case studies that illustrate facade design methods for two different climate conditions.

Content

1. Introduction ”””””””””””””….. 3

2. Literature Review””””””””””””’ 4

3. Research discussion and data analysis””””””””’ 5

3.1. Design criteria For Mixed Climate”””””””’.. 5

3.2. Design criteria For Hot Climates””””””””.8

4. Conclusion””””””””””’..”””11

5. References”””””””””””””’11

1. Introduction

Climate is always affect our daily life ether if it’s sunny ,cloudy ,rainy it have an Influences on our sense of comfortable when we go outside the building. When we are inside the building, the building separate use from the outer environment and. It have it own conditions depend on the technology inside the building such as , HVAC systems which allows us to change the temperature or humidity’etc . Building protects us from the Weather problems that are not favored to stay out in it. Building interior spaces conditions also depends on the exterior facade treatment For example the interior heat or lighting that comes through the glazed windows will affect the temperature of the interior.

This research will explain the influence of the climate on the building facade , what is the main factor that affect the facade of the architecture on the other hand ,the techniques of treatment the facade to provide a suitable interior environment for it users in cretin climate condition, also how can we design the facade in simple way to fit with the changing in the climate , and facade materials selection to help in adaptation the building to the climate conditions.

2. Literature Review

Across the history Human used the shelter to protect them from danger Such as wailed animals and Climatic conditions. Later on with the evolution of human the dwellings has developed after it was a cave in Mount it became a building in various forms and functions. Buildings provide the foundation for our daily activities, for example ,educational ,commercial , Health care ‘. Etc.

Climate is generally the weather conditions of a region, as temperature, air pressure, humidity, precipitation, sunshine, cloudiness, and winds, throughout the year, averaged over a series of years (n.d, The American Heritage?? New Dictionary of Cultural Literacy). Every region have it own climatic characteristics that can affect the architecture facade differently, for example In warm areas like middle east region, people avoid the glare and the heat of the sun, as demonstrated by the decreasing size of the windows. On the other hand in north Europe they use glass in Exaggeration way to allow the sun light to inter the building and heat the interior space because of the cold weather of their region (””””” 2010).

3. Research Discussion And Data Analysis

facade is generally one exterior side of a building, usually but not always, the front side of the building(n.d, 2011). The building facade acts as a skin that wraps around the building and affects the internal environment as it interacts with the external one. Building facades is not only about the aesthetic of the building, it’s also perform as the barriers that separate a building’s interior from the external environment. facades are one of the most Important contributors to the energy consumptions and the comfort norms of any building. facade designs and performance are one of the main factors for sustainable, energy-efficient, and high performance buildings. A facade should satisfy the design as well as the functional requirements .The Climate of the area plays a major role in designing the facade, different design strategies are required for different climatic zones. One of the traditional way to deal with the climate in the Middle East the use of small opining and Mashrabia or (Roshan) to cover the windows. this techniques that characterized the facade in this region were use to prevent the heat to enter the building and to Imprisonment the cool inside the building, also to filter the air from the dust associated with it (Mady, 2010).

3.1. Design Criteria For Mixed Climate

the Center for Urban Waters is a Public laboratory building, in Tacoma, Wash. A Tacoma is in a region with a mixed marine climate. Designed by Perkins+Will and got LEED Platinum award.

Figure 1 shows average daily temperatures and the solar radiation for each month.

This temperature of this climate zone allows cooling by natural ventilation, and the quite soft winters with low solar radiation .This climate conditions using a reasonable amount of glazing on the south and west orientations will not have a negative affect a building’s energy performance.

This view of the building is the west and south facade. It shows the differ??ent treatments for different building sides.

– The west facade consists of an aluminum cladded rain screen system, with integration of win??dows that some of it operable and non operable, and exterior blinds.

– The south facade consists of a curtain wall of fritted glass and external hori-zontal shading devices.

It is located in industrial waterfront on a long narrow site. The building program element located according it’s possible needs of air and natural ventilation. The waterside of the building provides a fresh cold air which is idle foe ventilation, so the designer placed offices on the waterway to provide a good ventilation. On the road and industrial side the opportunities of fresh airs is reduced so the designer placed the laboratories on this side because of it need of mechanical ventilation.

The shading strategies used based on the facade orientation. The western orientation of the building receives the greatest solar heat gain so it designed with a low window to wall ratio, vertical Shading devices used to moderate the solar heat gain and glare from low afternoon sun. the south facade consist of a curtain wall that provide clear views to the waterside, while horizontal shading devices obstruct the solar heat gain. The north facade mainly consists of solid elements and minimum amounts of glass. This design approach improves thermal resistance , limiting the heat transmit from exterior to interior environment. The rain screen on the east facade are made of horizontal corrugated metal panels faces the industrial side. It covered the upper half of the 2nd and 3rd level with small win??dows opining on the corrugated metal screens. These aluminum screens help to manage the early morning sun and reduce it poten-tial glare, on the other hand maintaining of the exterior views and maximizing natural day lighting of the interior spaces. It uses natural ventilation to decrease the building’s energy loads, also control the amount of natural ventilation through the Operable windows.

In summary the center for urban water designed consist of many sustainable elements not only in the facade but also in the roof system sewage and mechanical system , see building section on (Figure 3).These sustainable systems will rise the building performance and suitable the real-time energy use(Aksamija, 2014).

3.2. Design Criteria For Hot Climates

The University of Texas at Dallas. It’s a Student Services Building located Texas ,USA. It’s in a hot climate region. Designed by Perkins+Will and got LEED Platinum award.

Figure 4 shows annual average daily temperatures in rela??tion to thermal comfort zone and the available solar radiation.

In designing the facade of this building, the main con??cern was the hot climate conditions, because In this region the climate is usually hot and sunny at the summer session ,while the other sea??sons are relatively mild.

The longer sides of the rectangular form building is facing north and south orientations. All sides of the build??ing are covered by a curtain wall. Add to that the shading devices which supported by the curtain wall are wrapping the east, west, south, and small part of north facade. The shading system consists of horizontal terra-cotta louvers and vertical stainless steel rods (Figure5). The shading devices are distributed around the building creating an asymmetrical pat??tern over the building facades however, the terra-cotta shading element is important for reduc??ing solar heat gain in summer hot climate.

In the interior of the Building there are three internal atriums pro??vide daylight to interior spaces (Figure6).

The location of the lobby is on the east side of the building in one of the atriums, it provide natural day light and limit the gaining of the heat.

This design strategy is suitable for hot climates regions, especially when reducing solar heat gain while providing a natural daylight for the interior spaces. The arrangement of shad??ing devices along the facade and internal atriums is an ideal for providing a natural daylight. Almost all of the spaces in the Building have views to the outside. The building also contains other sustainable design strategies which improves the energy efficiency and the comforts interior spaces (Aksamija, 2014).

4. Conclusion

Design the facade is important because it’s the connection between building exterior and interior. Architect has to take in consideration the building’s location and climate to make a high performance facades and to provide a sustainable and com-fortable spaces for building occu??pants, also significantly reducing a building’s energy consumption. Strategies differentiate from each other depending on the geographical and climatic regions, so criteria that work best in hot climates are different from those in hot and humid or cold regions. Architect should know the characteristics of each climatic condition and location as well as the program and function requirements to create a sustainable facade fit to it environment.

Online Behavioral Advertising (OBA)

In order to understand where online privacy concerns of consumers origins from it first need to be noted what OBA is and what is the main mechanism behind it. It is of great importance to note that this main mechanism behind OBA are cookies. These cookies in accordance cause privacy concerns among consumers.

1.1 Online behavioral advertising

Online advertising is the provision of content and service for free, from the website publishers to the website visitors. In this case advertisements are aimed at everyone visiting their websites (networkadvertising.org, 2012). However, there is a type of online advertising specifically aimed at providing tailored advertisement content to a specific customer. This type of advertisement is known as Online Behavioral Advertising. Online behavioral advertising is the practice of gathering information regarding someone’s activities online. This data is used in order to determine which form and content to display to the web site visitor (McDonald & Cranor, 2009). This practice provides advertisements on the websites the individual visits and make them with the collection of their content relevant to their specific interests (Leon et al., 2012). When they consequently visit a website which correlates with their specific interests, suiting advertisement will be provided.

Consumers can control OBA by the application of tools, including those concerned with self-regulatory programs. If these tools are applied appropriately, the consumer could reach more control of self-disclosure. Tools to control OBA are for instance op-outs tools, built-in browser settings, blocking tools (Leon et al., 2011). Tools such as Do Not Track headers to websites show a message that the website visitor does not prefer to be tracked. Opt-out tools on other side, create the ability for the user to set opt-out cookies for multiple advertising networks. The issue that arises with the latter case is that if a consumer chooses to opt-out, the network of the establisher will discontinue to show customized advertising but on the other hand will keep tracking and profiling the website visitor (Leon et al., 2011). The continuation of tracking and profiling website visitors has caused considerate privacy concerns among consumers. This situation shows high correlation with the case of NPO. NPO didn’t make the consumer aware of an opt-out option even before using an opt-out option, which is expected to create even more privacy concerns (B. Comb??e, 2013).

1.2 Cookies

The most important feature of OBA is the utilization of cookies. Third-party HTTP cookies are the main mechanism used for online tracking. In comparison to first party cookies, which are located by the domain the website user is visiting. Third party cookies are visited by a different domain such as an advertising network. Other cookies such as flash cookies and HTML 5 (local storage) continue to stay on the user ‘s PC even if the website visitor deleted cookies or change browsers (B. Krishnamurthy and C. Wills, 2009;M. Ayenson et al., 2011 and M. Dahlen and S. Rosengren, 2005).

Cookies are directly linked to OBA because as earlier explained OBA uses third-party cookies to provide customized advertisements. A cookie is a small document of signs in the form of numbers and letters. For example: lghinbgiyt7695nb. The computer provides the cookie an unique code. These signs are downloaded on an individuals’ web browser when they access most websites (Zuiderveen Borgesius, 2011). Cookies enable websites to notice them whenever they return back to a website. Only the server that sent the cookie can read and therefore utilize that cookie. These cookies are vital in order to offer a more customized experience. (youronlinechoices.com, 2015).

1.2.1 Types of Cookies

There are different types of cookies. The most important cookies relevant to this research are discussed. The selection of cookies are derived from the cookies used by NPO. There are 2 different categories of cookies. First party cookies are cookies which make sure the website functions optimally. The behavior of the website visitor is tracked within one website, the website the consumer visits. Third party cookies on the other hand, are placed by third parties, in order for the website to be analyzed by google analytics. This type of cookie makes sure the website visitor will receive customized advertisements (Zuiderveen Borgesius, 2011 ).

First party cookies (npo.nl, 2015):

‘ Functional cookies: Cookies that make the website functioning as it should. These cookies keep track of the web site visitors’ preferences and memorize the individual previously visited the website.

Third party cookies (npo.nl, 2015):

‘ Analytics: Cookies to measure utilization of website.

‘ Social media: Cookies to share the content of the NPO website through social media. The video’s and articles opened on the website can be shared through buttons. To make these buttons function, social media cookies are used by different social media parties. This in order for them to recognize the website visitor whenever it wants to share an article or video.

‘ Advertisement cookies: Cookies to show Star- adverts. These advertisements are placed by the website owner or third parties on the website of the website owner.

‘ Recommendations: Cookies to make more suitable recommendations. The NPO wants to make suggestions to website visitors on other program’s for consumers to watch online.

The main information these cookies store are:

‘ Keeping track of visitors on their webpages

‘ Keeping track of time it spends on its visit

‘ What are areas the website should take notice of in order to improve

‘ Keeping track of the order of visits of different webpages within the website

If this information is gathered, this data can be added to the existing profile information. In time third parties will be able to create a personal profile of the consumer, even though there is no name attached to it. Today third-party tracking is subject to privacy debates (Zuiderveen Borgesius, 2011 ). Consumers can feel invaded in their privacy if they suspect digital marketers from creating a personal profile, by gathered information from consumers visiting websites. Third party tracking and consumer privacy get a significant amount of attention from the government and consumer protection (Zuiderveen Borgesius, 2011 )

1.2.2 Cookie use by marketers

Since the law is updated continuously on privacy regulations and there is no uniform law concerning privacy of consumers marketers are recommended to weigh out the benefits of using practices that are not 100% conform privacy regulations against the financial and risks on their reputation that comes along with this consideration. (Chaffey & Ellis-Chadwick, 2012; Zuiderveen Borgesius, 2011)The organization must inform the website visitors properly the reasons and the procedure of data collection. The marketers’ website needs to provide its visitors with information on how they will make use of a website visitors’ data . Next to that, the consumer has to give consent for the utilization of consumer data. The figure below, indicates the issues that should get considerate attention when a data subject is informed by how his/her data will be utilized. These issues are described below the figure.

Figure 1. Information flows that need to be understood for compliance with data protection legislation.

Source: D. Chaffey and F. Ellis-Chadwick, Digital Marketing, 2012, p. 163

‘ Whether the consumer will receive future communications

‘ Whether the data will be passed on to third parties with consent explicitly required. Referring to section 2.1 on privacy and the recommendation section, on privacy issues regarding NPO, it can be obtained that the NPO didn’t comply with explicit ‘consent’ from the website visitor which caused their bad publicity.

‘ The length of data storage. Referring to the models in section 2.3 confidence, knowledge and control are major indicators on consumer behavior regarding OBA.

According to marketingsherpa.com (2011) A business making use of OBA has to know whether it properly understands its application. It is important to adopt an ‘cookie audit’. A cookie audit is the principle of understanding the types of third-party tracking systems that are available and which are located on the browser of consumers when they visit the company’s website. This is important since third-party tracking can cause deceleration on a company’s website. Next to that, information obtained from customers can leak out to even unknown companies.

Furthermore, it is important to clearly give website visitors the option to opt out and to provide them with information on any form of tracking. First the website visitor needs to be aware where the website is about. Secondly the consumer need to be provided with information about the substance of the ads. Last the website visitor should get the ability to learn more about how to opt-out.

An opt out means a company will discontinue collecting and utilizing information from different web domains for the aim of providing personalized based advertising from data gathering using third party cookies in OBA. However it should be noted to the website visitor that opting out does not specifically mean they will cease receiving online advertising. The website visitor will continue to receive advertisements but not tailored to their specific preferences. (networkadvertising.org, 2012; youronlinechoices.com, 2009). Some companies make use of flash cookies. These cookies make regular cookies come to life again after the website visitor has deleted the cookies. The new cookie will get the same code as the web site visitor has removed (Soltani, 2009).

In addition it is of great importance to give website visitors the control of their data. 67% of the website visitors entrust transparent brands more. This confidence makes the chance of purchase 36% more likely than if a brand is not transparent. Companies that do not obey regulations regarding privacy also showed decreases in turnover. (Brown, 2009). Furthermore it is important to take measures for website visitors to manage cookie tracking and privacy. The website visitor should very easily know what the purpose if of the data obtained from them. As earlier explained they should also have the quick option to opt-out. (marketingsherpa.com, 2011)

1.2.3 Drawbacks cookie use

Netscape Navigator, the first successfully implemented web browser, introduced cookies. Version 1.0 of the web browser was introduced in 1994. In Netscape 1.0 cookies where introduced. (Turnbull, 2013). Even though the cookies are introduced almost 20 years ago, until recently two thirds of the samples used in research are not even able to explain what a cookie actually is. Even up to now customers believe more data is collected from them than is the case. Next to that consumers do not understand who are involved and how these companies are involved in OBA. Neither there is a understanding of technologies present (Ur et al 2012).

Next to that, the majority of web users don’t know about opt out cookies. Even nowadays the perception still exists it can be done through turning to their web browsers or delete cookies.(Ur et al., 2012). However if the website visitors are aware that if they have the ability to opt out and gain more knowledge on privacy matters, visitors feel more positive about the application of OBA by businesses (McDonald & Cranor , 2008) . If consumers do not understand their rights on privacy, they are pre-biased on this matter. This issue will be discussed further in chapter 2. If organizations easily and properly inform website visitors on their privacy rights they can possibly break through this pre-assumption. (McDonald& Cranor, 2008 and 2009)

In addition, the icon for opt-out options demonstrated in section 2.1, is subject to discussion whether the aim of this icon is reached. According to critics the meaning of this icon is not known by consumers, therefore opt-out possibilities are perceived as difficult. (‘Volg-me-niet register is wassen neus’, 2011).

Furthermore, according to marketingsherpa.com (2011) consumers should be better informed about opt-out opportunities in order to take away uncertainty of privacy matters. The privacy issues that are involved as partly discussed above will be further analyzed in chapter 2 and with the assistance of models the effects of privacy matters on consumer behavior are analyzed.

Besides, consumers complain they find privacy important but ease of use as equally important. They are annoyed by the question they are asked continuously regarding accepting the use of cookies (B. Comb??e, 2013). Next to that consumers complain about websites which place a cookie wall which makes it only possible to enter the website if the use of cookies is agreed upon.

2. How do consumers react to current privacy concerns in OBA?

2.1 Privacy

Privacy is defined as a moral right of having the possibility to prevent intrusion into someone’s personal information. Nowadays, privacy is of high importance to consumers with increasing technology increasing possibilities to more enhanced practices in identity theft, such as hacking or just invasion of consumers’ online privacy practices. By gathering personal information of consumers with the use of earlier explained cookies, the degree of customization can highly increase. (Chaffey & Ellis-Chadwick, 2012)

2.1.1 Root of privacy concerns online

In Europe the legal framework concerned with online behavioral tracking is regulated by the European Data Protection Directive. These regulations enclose gathering, processing, filing and transmission of personal information. Next to that the European e-Privacy Directive mainly regulates privacy of data and the use of cookies. This regulation made third parties placing cookies apply a regulation to give website visitors the ability to opt-out. This gave web site visitors the chance to reject cookies. Consequently, websites provided information on how to opt-out or reject cookies.

J. Zuiderveen (2011) did research on to what extent practice is complying with data protection directives on ‘permission’: a willingly, specific, based on information volition. Research has shown that the processing of personal data cannot be based on article 7.b data protection directives: there should be a positive agreement. There is no form of agreement if consumers are not aware of exchanging personal information in turn for a service. Next to that collection of personal information can neither be justified by article 7.f which states that the interests of third parties are important, unless the privacy of the concerned is invaded. Privacy interests also means that the right on privacy is a significantly important right. By following online behavior of web site visitors, Dutch companies cannot refer to these 2 articles. However in 2011 article 2.h came to attention which states that with unambiguous permission the website is not allowed to make to quick assumptions that the website user give permission to make use of personal information (European commission, 2003; 2006). This latter was specifically the case with NPO as described in the introduction. They explicitly did not asked for permission before collecting data.

Even though policies on cookies are changing continuously, it is important to describe how consumers are up dated on getting more insight into their privacy rights and consequently what effect the extent of privacy has on consumer behavior discussed with models in chapter 2.3.

Components consumer update on privacy (iab.net, 2015):

‘ Advertising option Icon : This icon will represent that the form of advertising is supported by a self-regulatory program. If the consumer clicks on this icon it will be provided with a disclosure statement concerning data gathering and where the information is used for and a simple opt-out system.

‘ Consumer choice mechanism: At AboutAds.info consumers are provide with information on how to opt out.

‘ Accountability and enforcement: Since 2011, DMA (Direct marketing association) and CBBB employed technologies to provide website visitors with information on a company’s transparency and control purveyance.

‘ Educational programs: Businesses and consumers will be educated on opt-out options and thus self-regulatory systems.

For now self-regulatory systems are opt-outs with the future possibilities of opt-ins. These mentioned components above all provide consumers with more information on opt-out possibilities. According to privacy concerns this self-regulatory systems proofs that consumers should be educated about opt-out options. Privacy regarding personal information using cookies needs considerate attention. Previous research has shown that if consumers have the perception their privacy is invaded they consider it as invasive and obstructive. Therefore, it is important for companies to be transparent. (Goldfarb & Tucker 2011). Even though advertisement becomes more personalized web site visitors do feel uncomfortable with companies tracking their online affairs. (Beales, 2010; Goldfarb & Tucker 2011).

2.2 Statistics

With assistance of statistics it will be analyzed in which area the problems of consumers and their privacy occur. If this is obtained, with the application of multiple online behavior models in section 2.3 , the problem areas can be theoretically analyzed in order to come up with a decent recommendation on how consumers actually are behaving and how marketers can respond to this.

(TRUSTe, 2008) Areas of consumer concerns regarding to online privacy in OBA:

Advertising relevance:

‘ Of 87% respondents, 25% of the ads were actually personalized.

‘ 64% would only choose to see ads of online stores they are familiar with and trust.

‘ 72% find OBA intrusive if it’s not to their specific needs.

Awareness of OBA:

‘ 40% are familiar with OBA and a higher percentage knows of tracking. 71% knows their browsing data is gathered by third parties.

Attitudes toward OBA:

‘ 57% say they are not comfortable with collecting browsing history for customized advertising.

‘ 54% state they delete their cookies 2-3 times monthly.

‘ 55% are willing to get customized online ads in order by filing in an anonymous form. 19% did not. 37% would still fill out a form about products services and brands to buy even if they aren’t held anonymous.

‘ 40% of participants in our online study agree or strongly agree they would watch what they do

online more carefully if advertisers were collecting data. (McDonald & Cranor, 2010)

Intent to take measures:

‘ 96% want to take measures on protecting their privacy settings. However respondents don’t state they don’t want to be part of OBA at al. even 56% won’t click to reduce unwanted ads. And 58% would not register in the don’t-follow-me registration.

From these statistics it can be obtained that the majority of respondents of this study have negative attitudes towards privacy matters in OBA. However referring to the first heading advertising relevance and the last heading; intent to take measures, it could be stated that the majority of consumers do prefer some form of OBA. This implies cookies are needed. Therefore the problem area as earlier discussed lies more in that consumers do not know enough about opt-out and are not confident with privacy statements. Therefore knowledge and trust will be the major factors to be analyzed in order to see how companies can overcome this issue.

These factors which will be analyzed using models are of great importance. This because TRUSTe states that knowledge and trust are great factors influencing online behavior since there is an increased level of awareness that website visitors are being tracked, to be provided with customized advertisements. Even though they are aware that they are anonymous because their name is not obtained (google.com, 2015; J. Zuiderveen 2011) they do not feel comfortable with them being followed and targeted. Therefore website visitors strongly prefer to limit and have more control on OBA practices. (TRUSTe, 2008).

2.3 Models concerned with consumer behavior

2.3.1 Knowledge: Consumer Privacy States Framework

In order to assess to what extent consumers consider their privacy as important and what are the factors that influence this degree, the use of a Consumer Privacy States Framework will be applied. This framework is derived from the Journal of Policy & Marketing and established by G. Milne and A. Rohm. According to G. Milne and A. Rohm, this framework focuses on 2 dimension. The dimensions of this framework are a reaction to consumers privacy concerns and their willingness to provide marketers with their personal information (Sheehan & Hoy 2000; Milne & Rohm 2000). These dimensions are awareness of data collection and knowledge of name removal mechanism.

According to this model privacy is only present in cell 1. In this stage consumers are aware that their personal information is being gathered. Next to that they know how to opt-out. In this stage consumers are more satisfied and react more positive towards direct marketing relationships (Milne & Rohm 2000). Research has shown that consumers are willing to exchange private information for benefits. Consumers will give more information to digital marketers if there are perceived long term benefits. Next to that, if consumers are able to control their privacy, consumers are more willing to give up their personal information. (Ariely, 2000).

Table 1: Consumer Privacy States Framework (G. Milne and A. Rohm, 2000)

Consumer is knowledgeable about name removal mechanisms Consumer is not knowledgeable about name removal mechanisms

Consumer is aware of data collection Cell 1: Privacy exists Cell 2: Privacy does not exist

Consumer is not aware of data collection Cell 2: Privacy does not exist Cell 4: Privacy does not exist

( Note: opt-out options in the study of 2008 is used as a similar concept as name removal mechanisms in the study of 2000)

Research has shown that 34% of the population is positioned in cell 1, 74% was aware of data collection and 45% knew how to handle name removal mechanisms. This research has shown that organizations need to educate consumers more intensively about name removal mechanisms (Culnan 1995; Milne 1997). Nowadays this issue is still the case. According to TRUST E marketwire.com (2008) 70% of consumers is aware of data collection and 40% knows about opt-out options.

On the other hand, Wood & Quinn (2003) evaluated the effects on attitudes of forewarnings. If consumers are pre-informed on what is the function of cookies, biased thinking can be encouraged which will generate negative attitudes to its function. However, if people are not provided with information on how to opt-out or opt-in possibilities they are more likely to share their personal information. The cookie-icon could be seen as a pre-warning. This makes consumers see a pre-warning as being warned for something which makes their behavior turn to resistance. This resistance occurs because individuals will feel invaded in their privacy. Next to that consumers do not feel comfortable with others knowing their preferences. Therefore, according to Jacks and Devine (2000), resistance occurs in the form of keeping personal freedom. If resistance occurs, resistance strategies could be applied.

According to Jacks and Cameron (2003) consumers could respond with resistance strategies. These strategies are built as described below. The individual could show resistance by not responding to the customized advertisement message or by leaving the situation as it is. This is called selective exposure. Either the receiving individual could immediately start making counter arguments. In this case counter arguing finds place. On the other side, attitude bolstering implies the individual strengthens its own original view without directly making up counter arguments. Source derogation implies insulting the source or reject the validity of the source. In case of social validation, individuals resist the customized message and bring to mind others who share the same viewpoint. In case of negative effect, individuals get angry because their personal information is utilized without the source indicating what it is used for.

Eventually resistance doesn’t have to appear when getting a pre-warming in the form of an icon. Instead of resistance strategies, individuals could choose to make adjustments to their cookie settings or choose to register to not be followed anymore by signing in an authorized non-registration register. As explained under the heading statistics it could be stated that indeed 40% would take measures if their personal information would be collected (TRUSTe, 2008), therefore resisting strategies play a significant role.

2.3.2 Rank order table: Trust

Next to this framework Earp & Baumer (2003) introduced a rank order of most influential factors affecting consumer behavior regarding their privacy. The table below states that consumers that have high confidence in privacy practices of a website are more willing to provide personal information.

Table 2: Rank ordering of stated influential factors in confidence of privacy practices of web site . Bron: J. Earp and D. Baumer, 2003

Rank of most influential factors Factor

1 Company name

2 Option ‘to opt out’

3 Presence of a privacy policy

4 Presence of a web seal

5 Design of the site

76% of respondents from this study showed that having the ability to opt-out as an important factor for having reliability in the privacy practices of the website. However according to research 87.5% of consumers expect detailed information about privacy policies when visiting websites, while only 54% of this amount is actually reading these privacy policies. 66% of this study showed a rise in reliability if a website provides comprehensive privacy policies.(Earp & Baumer, 2003). Next to that consumers believe websites having a comprehensive privacy policy, will make the website always live up to its policy (Ant??n et al. 2002). This again implies that most internet users prefer assurance of privacy policy but are less apprehensive about what the policy actually says (J. Earp and D. Baumer, 2003). Therefore trust and confidence plays a more important role on providing private information than what the policy actually says.

2.3.3 The consumer profile

The consumer profile is relevant to this particular situation in the sense that the effect of consumers’ perceptions of OBA can be measured. Risk and privacy invasion are major areas of concern among consumers and therefore it could be analyzed to what extent these perceptions will affect their online behavior. By making an analyses, companies could get more focused on what areas to improve in order to not deal with privacy issues in future.

The first factor in the consumer profile that should be analyzed is that security and privacy information should be considered. As described earlier, consumers need to be secured that accurate privacy information is provided to them, however in reality this doesn’t make them read it. Referring back to the rank order table, 66% of website visitors expect proper privacy disclosure but only 54% of the website visitors is actually reading it (Earp & Baumer, 2003). Therefore it could be stated that customers are not focused on explicitly security but only on the idea of security. Therefore the issue that evolves around privacy is more on the security of privacy information but not specifically the content of privacy information. Therefore websites with just being able to demonstrate proper regulations on privacy will have greater chance of creating customers having a more positive perception on online privacy practices. Next tot that according to C. Hoofnagle (2010) internet users rarely read privacy statements. However on the other side, if consumers are better informed on opt-out options there is a possibility this knowledge will create resistance as earlier described (Wood & Quinn, 2003) .

Secondly risk plays an important role in behavior on consumers online. The degree of online sales effectiveness can be raised substantially if the perception of risk is reduced. If customers would read the stipulations it would even be questionable whether they realize the consequences of gathering and analyzing their personal information by cookies (Barocas & Nissenbaum, 2009). Even if anonymized information can be linked to an individual, this individual might think there is a small chance of this happening (Zuiderveen Borgesius, 2011). Therefore again privacy regulations are supposed to just be there to gain security. Risk is sometimes not even considered in its essence but more the perception of risk. Because if web site visitors think there is a small chance of third party’s getting access to information perceived personal, evaluation of risk is seemingly poor.

Third, trust is highly correlated to risk. Increased trust is the consequence of a decrease in perceived risk. This will cause positive beliefs in the business’s online reputation. Fourth, Perceived usefulness. This incorporates the time and effort required for an individual to educate itself on how to opt-out (Perea et al., 2004). Website visitors only have limited knowledge on technology, information and communication technology. Consumers need to understand what is written in privacy statements and what they actually sign an agreement with (Perea et al., 2004). As earlier described, educating web site visitors more by forewarnings can create resistance, which will negatively impact their purchasing behavior (W. Wood & J. Quinn 2003) .

At last the ease of use also has significant impact on consumers their online behavior. Using a new technology need to be free of effort. If an internet user visits a website, he or she experiences this as very time consuming to completely analyze the statement. This makes the website visitor not read it and either state they do not care about their privacy. In statics this is about 3%. On the other side incorporating the law, it cannot be assumed that website visitors not reading the privacy statements willingly accepts the browser settings of cookies. Therefore according to article 2 subsection h Data protection directive which demand for permission a free, specific and on information founded volition will cause considerate problems. (Group privacy protection 29, 2008)

3 What strategies should marketers apply to respond to current privacy concerns regarding cookies in OBA?

3.1 Coercive vs. non- coercive strategies

Organizations that deal with online privacy concerns among consumers should realize whether they are adopting an coercive influence strategy or a non-coercive influence strategy. The coercive influence strategy involves web sites offering incentives to consequently make consumers increase self-disclosure (provide more personal information) (Acquisti & Varian, 2005). Incentives to provide personal information can be categorized into economic incentives such as promotions, discounts and coupons. Non-economic incentives are for instance translated into customization, personalization and access to exclusive content. Threats indicate a penalty or exclusion of benefits for noncompliance. Therefore if the request is not honored, the website visitor cannot make use of the content of the website. For example, NPO, like more websites demand from customers to provide their personal information to get the ability to register on the website and to access specific information on the website. This method of data gathering is aimed at punishing people who refuse to provide their personal information by not providing them with the website content they requested (Sheehan, 2005).

Non-coercive influence strategies. In this case NPO would still take the same actions but without making use of rewards or penalties. For example, a website could explicitly demand the web site visitor by using web forms for these visitors to provide their personal information without the use of non-economic incentives, in this case providing customized advertisement. Instead of providing incentives, NPO could start providing recommendations, such as making the consumer believe, if they provide personal information it can improve their experience on the website (customization) and therefore making the website still reach its original aim. In this case websites can make use of information provision, where they can provide web site visitors with privacy policies which states how and why information will be collected (Milne, Rohm and Bahl, 2004) . Next to that they will provide seals of trust to provide website visitors the guarantee of privacy protection. (Gabbish, 2011).

The main focus for websites such as NPO is identifying strategies for gathering information from website visitors that provide the opportunity to reduce privacy concerns and increase consumers’ trust. According to Payan & McFarland (2005) the application of non-coercive influence strategies have shown positive relational effects. On the other side, coercive strategies have shown the opposite effect. According to Hausman & Johnston (2009) non- coercive strategies have a positive influence on trust while coercive strategies show the opposite. Privacy literature also shows that privacy policies and seals make concerns on privacy decrease and trust to rise. Rewards and threats on the other side makes trust decrease and privacy concerns to increase (Gabbish, 2011).

3.2 Application of the structural model of privacy policy

For companies to reduce the chances of the adoption of resistance strategies from consumers, they could opt for making use of a structural model of privacy policy, privacy concern, trust and willingness to provide personal information. This model showed that if applied properly companies can increase consumer confidence and willingness to provide their personal information (Wu et al., 2012). The model consist of the parameters notice, choice, access, security and enforcement.

Source: Wu et al., 2012

Notice is the most important parameter, stating that consumers should be informed about the collection of personal data before personal data is gathered from these individuals (Wu et al., 2012). In the NPO case, personal data from consumers was collected from consumers without them being aware of it (Pijnenburg, 2014). Choice gives consumers the ability to control the personal data obtained from them. Access gives web site users the ability to have insight into their data. Next to that, website visitors can check whether the data collected from them is correct and complete. Security is concerned with checking whether information is secure and correct.

In order for data integrity to occur, web site owners and third-parties should take measures that provide consumers the ability to have insight into data, erase information and change it to anonymous characters. Enforcement is one of the most important parameters of privacy protection, since privacy can only be assured if there are measures that enforce privacy protection (Wu et al., 2012).

According to Wu et al. (2012) the study came to the conclusion that security ranks highest in concerns of consumers. If the web site owner is aimed at increasing trust among web site visitors, in order for them to provide more personal information, they increase their focus on the provision of security and security data along with creating privacy statements.

This study done by Wu et al. 2012 did research on the relationship of the content of privacy policy to trust and online privacy concern. There are moderating variables that can affect the relationships. These moderating variables tend to describe consumer behavior. Therefore these factors shouldn’t be left out of the original model. The moderating variables that have been researched are cross-cultural effects, age and gender. According to this study, culture has an important moderating effect on the behavior of website visitors to the content of Privacy Policy. Some cultures show a rise in trust in websites when they give consumers access to their data and when their personal data is secure. Differences in cultures have a significant function in the behavior of website users and have influence on their choices in activities online. Gender also influences privacy concerns and willingness to provide personal information. Woman show more openness and therefore more self-disclosure. However they have higher needs for privacy (Wu et., al 2012). Age on the other hand could also have significant impact on the relationship of content of privacy policy and privacy concern/trust. Research showed, the older people get, the more worried they are on their online privacy.

3.3 Web bugs

According to Goldfarb &Tucker (2010) web bugs can be described as 1×1-pixel parts of a code that give online advertisers the ability to follow consumers online. Web bugs are not similar to cookies since they are not visible to the website user and are not saved on the computer of the website visitor. A consumer is therefore not aware of being tracked, unless they analyze the html. code of the webpage. Web bugs track the consumer from website to website. Next to that, web bugs are able to track how far a visitor scrolls down a page. This will have a positive impact on the collection of the preferences of the website visitor (Goldfarb &Tucker, 2010). According to Murray &Cowart (2001) web bugs are used by approximately 95% of top brands. Since consumers are not aware of data collection, privacy concerns will not occur as much as with cookies. However if the law would make websites inform consumers about web bugs, privacy concerns could rise again (Goldfarb &Tucker, 2010). Therefore web bugs could be seen as an alternative for cookies. But if the Privacy Directive adjusts the law, web bugs would become similar to cookies, with the same privacy concerns as consequence.

4 Conclusion/ Recommendation

The reason why this paper focuses on NPO is because in July 2014 they received a penalty by the Dutch authority for consumers and markets known as ACM (acm.nl, 2014). The NPO placed cookies which track the web site visitors without giving accurate information to its visitors. ACM claimed the NPO was not complying with article 11.7A of the Dutch telecommunication, neither complying with the Dutch data protection act. The NPO is only allowed to track consumers if consent of the web-site visitor is given willingly and unambiguously, according to the information that is disclosed (Fouad, 2014). Referring back to section chapter 2 it can be obtained that the NPO didn’t comply with laws referring to article 2.h. In 2011 article 2.h came to attention that with ‘unambiguous’ permission the website is not allowed to make to quick assumptions that the website user gives permission to make use of personal information (European commission, 2003; 2006).

From the models of factors influencing consumer behavior in section 2.3, it can be obtained that the Consumer Privacy States Framework states that according to consumers if the consumer is aware of data collection and the consumer is knowledgeable about opt-out practices, it could be stated that privacy exists, therefore NPO went wrong in not giving consumers the idea that privacy exists.

The rank order table in section 2.3.2 statistics showed that consumers do need assurance from websites that a website have a comprehensive privacy policy. However websites having privacy policies don’t make consumers actually read them (Earp & Baumer, 2003; Ant??n et al. 2002). Therefore consumers not feeling knowledgeable about their rights show resistance. This can be emphasized by figures showing that the cookie wall of NPO is perceived as a pressure. They actually state; if you don’t accept my cookies you can’t visit my website, with the consequence that they lose visitors. Other businesses use a softer approach with the risk of a loss of personal information. This cookie wall has resulted in a loss in turnover of 0-5% in short term. The NPO expects on the long term a rising trend in visitors on their website (Douma & Verspreek, 2014).

Referring back to the Customer profile model in 2.3.3, influencing factors in consumer behavior online show that if consumers feel more secure on how to control their privacy online they will show a more positive perception about OBA. However on the other side, more control would mean more resistance (Wood & Quinn 2003) . Next to that actual risk is not really experienced but the perception of risk.

Therefore NPO should in the future focus on having their privacy statements accurate and clear and create confidence among website visitors. In the end, the consumers are not specifically worried about their privacy and the detailed information in privacy statements but more on their degree of control, what all 3 models confirm.

In order for consumers not to choose to turn to resistance strategies, influence strategies could be applied. Some of these influence strategies could be considered as manipulative. However on the other side, other influence strategies could increase consumers’ perception of security (Kirmani & Campbell, 2004). The effect of influence strategies is not similar to all individual website visitors. Differences may appear in privacy concerns, consumers ‘trust and their willingness to provide personal information (Milne et al., 2009). Research has shown that non-coercive strategies, such as placing privacy policies on a website, decreases concerns on disclosure of personal information. However on the other side, coercive strategies offering a reward would increase privacy concern and decrease self-disclosure willingness (Andrade et al., 2002). Therefore it is recommended to NPO to adopt a non-coercive strategy to increase trust and willingness to provide personal information.

Referring back to the structural model of Wu et al. (2012) the study came to the conclusion that security ranks highest in concerns of consumers. If the web site owner is aimed at increasing trust among web site visitors, in order for them to provide more personal information they increase their focus on the provision of security and security data along with creating privacy statements or building the website. Therefore again, this strategy shows that NPO should increase attention to the parameter trust in order to increase willingness to provide personal information. This strategy highly correlates with the non-coercive strategy. In the coercive strategy NPO would put too much focus on trying to let customers know about the customization provided which would increase resistance and reduce trust. The non-coercive strategy and (the importance of trust in) the structural model both focus on providing security to increase trust and in turn reach a higher willingness to provide personal information.

The alternative of using cookies could be the application of web bugs. However the application of web bugs is only a short term solution until privacy regulations will change. When privacy regulations will change web bugs would become similar to cookies. Therefore it is recommended that NPO as an example organization should not turn to this strategy.

MPPT CONTROLLER UNDER PARTIAL: essay help online free

ABSTRACT: Maximum Power Point

Tracking (MPPT) is the most important part

of an energy conversion system using

photovoltaic arrays. Maximum power point

tracking (MPPT) techniques are used in

photovoltaic (PV) systems to maximize the

PV array output power by tracking

continuously the maximum power point

(MPP) which depends on panel temperature

and on irradiance conditions. The power

voltage characteristic of PV arrays

operating under partial shading conditions

exhibits multiple local maximum power

points (LMPPs). In this paper, a review of

various characteristics curves of MPPT

controller under partial shading conditions

has been presented to analyze the

performance of MPPT controller under

such conditions.

Keywords: Maximum Power Point

Tracking (MPPT), Global Maximum Power

Point (GMPP), Local Maximum Power

Point (LMPP), Multiple Maxima, Partial

Shading, Photovoltaic (PV).

I. INTRODUCTION

A PHOTOVOLTAIC (PV) cell is an

electrical device that converts the energy of

light directly into electricity through PV

effect. PV cells have a complex relationship

between solar irradiation, temperature, and

total resistance, and exhibit a nonlinear

output efficiency characteristic known as

the P’V curve. Therefore, maximum power

point tracking (MPPT) techniques should be

developed in PV systems in order to

maximize the output power of PV systems.

Nowadays, there have been many MPPT

methods reported in the literature, such as

hill climbing, perturb and observe

incremental conductance (INC) and ripple

correction.

However, when there is multiple local

power maxima, from partially shading or

from installation on a curved surface,

conventional MPPT techniques do not

perform well. Multiple maxima may occur

due to bypass diodes, which are used to

avoid hot spots from forming when some

cells in a module or some modules in a

string receive less irradiance than others.

Without the remediation of power

electronics, the lost energy due to partial

shading can be significant. Thus, it is

imperative to utilize MPPT techniques that

reliably track the unique global power

maximum present in shaded arrays.

Some researchers have proposed global

maximum power point tracking (GMPPT)

algorithms to address the partial shading

condition. It is observed that the peaks

follow a specific trend in which the power at

a peak point continues to increase until it

reaches the GMPP, and afterward, it

continuously decreases. The proposed

algorithm incorporates an online current

measurement and periodic interruptions to

address certain challenges associated with

rapidly changing insolation and partial

shading. This method can be an effective

solution to mitigate the effect of partial

shading. The simulation results, however,

obtained by measuring environmental

parameters and the actual case will be

drastically different, because the actual

characteristic of the solar panels depends on

many factors (e.g., light intensity,

temperature,

Fig. 1 PV array under different partial

shading conditions.

ageing, dust, and partial shading). In

addition, the method increases the PV

system cost in practical commercial

applications.

II. PARTIAL SHADING

CONDITIONS

Fig. 1 shows a PV array which has

four PV modules connected in series under

uniform insolation conditions. Fig. 2(a)

illustrates typical I’V and P’V curves for

the PV array under a uniform solar

irradiance of 1000 W/m2 on all the PV

modules. The traditional MPPT algorithm

can reach this peak and continue oscillating

around the MPP. The P&O method, e.g.,

perturbs the solar array voltage in one

direction in each sampling period and tests

the power change afterward. It is assumed

that initially PV array is operating at point

A, as shown in Fig. 2(a).

An operating voltage of the PV array

is perturbed in a given direction (from A to

B), and an increase in output power is

observed (PB > PA). This means that point B

is closer to the MPP than point A, and the

operating voltage must be further perturbed

in the same direction (from B to C). On the

other hand, if the output power of the PV

array decreases (from D to E), the operating

point has moved away from the MPP, and

therefore, the direction of the operating

voltage perturbation must be reversed (from

D to C). Through constant perturbation,

eventually the operating voltage will reach

and continue oscillating around the MPP

level.

However, in some practical

conditions, the series strings of PV modules

are not under the same solar irradiance

condition. The partial shading condition is a

common situation due to the shadows of

buildings, trees, clouds, dirt, etc. Fig. 1

shows several different partial shading

situations. Under the partial shading

condition, if there is one module in a PV

string that is less illuminated, the shaded

module will dissipate some of the power

generated by the rest of the modules. It

means that the current available in a series

connected PV array is limited by the current

of the shaded module. This can be avoided

by using bypass diodes which can be placed

in parallel with the PV module.

The method of using bypass diodes

allows the array current to flow in the

correct direction even if one of the strings is

completely shadowed. Bypass diodes are

widely implemented in commercial solar

panels. Because of bypass diodes, multiple

maxima appear under the partial shading

condition. The P’V curve of PV array in

Fig. 1 possesses multiple maxima under the

partial shading condition, as shown in Fig. 2

(b). The unshaded modules in the sample

PV array are exposed to 1000 W/m2 of

solar insolation and the shaded module is

exposed to 400 W/m2 of solar insolation.

There are two observed peaks in the P’V

curve, because of the natural behavior of the

bypass diode and PV array connection

inside the module. Point A is the GMPP,

while point B the local maximum power

point (LMPP). When the area covered by

the shadow changes, the P’V curve and the

location of GMPP also changes, as shown in

Fig. 2(c) and (d). Under these conditions,

traditional algorithms can only track either

of the two MPPs, and cannot distinguish

between GMPP and LMPP.

Continuing with the P&O method as

an example, both points satisfy the

conditions to be the ‘MPP.’ If the operating

point obtained by the PV array algorithm is

LMPP, the output power is significantly

lower. Some researchers proposed a global

scan method to obtain the PV output curves.

Then a complex algorithm is required to

calculate the GMPP of the curves. This

method is able to obtain the GMPP, but it

cannot determine whether the PV cell is

operating under shading conditions, and

blindly and constantly scans for the MPP,

wasting the output energy. For these

reasons, a new improved MPPT method for

the PV system under the partial shading

condition is proposed in this paper.

Fig. 2 P’V and I’V characteristics curves

of a PV array under different partial

shading conditions

III. ANALYSIS OF

CHARACTERISTIC CURVES

UNDER PARTIAL SHADING

CONDITIONS

In order to avoid blind global scan,

methods to determine the presence of partial

shading are essential. It is noted that when a

series of PV array is under the identical

solar irradiance condition [Fig. 1], every PV

model works as a source, and all modules

are identical in their voltage, current, and

output power at any time. But this state

changes when there is shadow. Fig. 1 is an

example in the following analysis. The

models in the series array are exposed to

two different solar irradiances, and the solar

irradiation levels are 1000 and 400 W/m2,

respectively. The voltages of the modules

that are exposed to different irradiation

levels are completely different.

The two peaks on the P’V curve are

divided into two separate parts, as shown in

Fig. 2(c). Part A is the curve containing the

left peak (curved A’C), and part B is the

curve containing the right peak (curve C’B’

E). In part A, the current of the PV array IPV

is greater than the maximum current that the

PV module can

Fig. 3 Every module output voltage with

array output power.

(a) Unshaded module. (b) Shaded

module.

produce under the shade (M3 and M4);

therefore, the current will flow through the

bypass diode of each module. At this stage,

only PV M1 and M2 are supplying power,

and PV M3 and M4 have been bypassed by

the diodes. The characteristic curves of the

PV module voltage with output power are

shown in Fig. 3(a) and (b). The voltages of

PV M3 and M4 are approximately negative

0.7V (the diode’s forward voltage drop) in

part A, as shown in Fig. 3(b).

Therefore, the module voltages

being equal to the negative of the diode’s

forward voltage can be used as one effective

way to estimate partial shading condition. In

part B, all PV modules are supplying power,

but the unshaded and shaded modules are in

different working conditions. Because the

PV modules receive different amounts of

solar radiation, the voltages of the PV

modules are different. In part B (curve C’

B’E), the voltage of the unshaded modules

is greater than that of the shaded modules,

as shown in Fig. 4. It is evident that this is

another indicator to efficiently identify

partial shading. Following the above

analysis, some of the observations are listed

as follows.

1) I’V curves under partial shading

conditions have multiple steps, while the

P-V curves are characterized by multiple

peaks.

2) The number of peaks is equal to the

number of different insolation levels

irradiated on the PV array, and any peak

point may be the GMPP.

Fig 4 Array output power with unshaded

module output voltage and shaded

module output voltage.

3) The voltages of PV modules that receive

different solar radiations are different.

4) The voltage of the PV module that is

bypassed by a diode is equal to the negative

of the diode’s forward voltage drop.

CONCLUSION

In this paper, a review of concepts &

developments in the field of MPPT has been

shown. Also various partial shading

conditions have been briefly reviewed. The

comparison between this various conditions

of partial shading has been summarized with

the help of various characteristic curves.

Finally it is concluded that conventional

MPPT techniques have disadvantages like

energy loss, not able to determine partial

shading conditions, etc. Majority of these

problems can be eliminated by improved

MPPT controller method. Therefore

application of Improved MPPT controller

method now a day’s not limited up to

generation level but research work

suggested that it is having ability to replace

the conventional MPPT methods too in near

future.

REFERENCES

[1] W. Xiao and W. G. Dunford, ‘A

modified adaptive hill climbing MPPT

method for photovoltaic power systems,’ in

Proc. Power Electron. Spec. Conf.

(PESC’04), vol. 3, Jun. 2004, pp. 1957

1963.

[2] N. Femia, G. Petrone, G. Spagnuolo, and

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[3] F. Liu, S. Duan, and F. Liu, ‘A variable

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2353’2362, Sep. 2008.

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based modeling to study the effects of

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IEEE Trans. Energy Convers., vol. 23, no.

1, pp. 302’310, Mar. 2008.

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S. Pulver, and A. D. Cronin, ‘A simple non

linear model for the effect of partial shade

on PV systems,’ in Proc. IEEE Photovoltaic

Spec. Conf. (PVSC), 2010, pp. 2321’2326.

[7] Yang Chen, Keyue Ma Smedley, ‘A

Cost-Effective Single-Stage Inverter With

Maximum Power Point Tracking’, IEEE

Transactions Power Electronics, Vol. 19,

No. 5, pp. 1289-1294, Sep. 2004.

[8] Eduardo Rom??n, Ricardo Alonso, Pedro

Iba??ez, Sabino Elorduizapatarietxe &

Dami??n Goitia, ‘Intelligent PV Module for

Grid-Connected PV Systems’, IEEE

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No. 4, pp. 1066-1073, Aug. 2006.

[9] Hiren Patel, Vivek Agarwal, ‘Maximum

Power Point Tracking Scheme for PV

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Conditions’, IEEE Transactions Industrial

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[10] Hiren Patel, Vivek Agarwal,

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Characteristics’, IEEE Transactions Energy

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Mar. 2008.

[11] Jonathan W. Kimball, Philip T. Krein,

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for Maximum Power Point Tracking’, IEEE

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[12] Jung-Min Kwon, Bong-Hwan Kwon,

Kwang-Hee Nam, ‘Grid-Connected

Photovoltaic Multistring PCS with PV

Current Variation Reduction Control’, IEEE

Transactions Industrial Electronics, Vol. 56,

No. 11, pp.4381-4388, Nov. 2009.

Learning theories – behavioural, social & cultural, constructivism, cognitive

Learning is defined as the permanent change in individuals mind, voluntary or involuntary. It occurs through an experience that can bring about a relatively permanent change in an individual’s knowledge or behavior. Behaviorist defines learning as the changes in an individual’s mind resulting in a permanent change. It is learning that takes place intentional or unwillingly in individuals. Cognitive psychologist defines learning as the changes in knowledge that can be an internal mental activity that cannot be observed directly. Learning involves obtaining and modifying knowledge, skills, strategies, beliefs, attitudes and behaviors to understand old or new information. Individuals learn skills from experiences that tend to take the form of social interactions, linguistic or motor skills. Educational professionals define learning as an ‘enduring change in behavior or in the capacity to behave in a given fashion which results from practice or other forms of experience’.

One may ask how does learning happen? Learning happens every day to every individual, it doesn’t only happen in the classrooms, colleges or universities buildings but it can happen anywhere and every day. Learning can occur through interacting with others, observing or simply as just listening to a conversation. Learning happens through experiences good and bad, or ones that can provoke an emotional response or simply offer a moment of revelation. Behaviorist and cognitive theorist believed that learning can be affected by the environment an individual resides but behaviorist focused more on the role of the environment and how the stimuli is presented and arrange and the responses reinforced. Cognitive theorist on the other hand agrees with behaviorist but tend to focus more on the learners abilities, beliefs, values and attitudes. They believe that learning occurs by consolidation which is the forming and strengthening of neural connections which include the factors organization, rehearsal, elaboration and emotional. Learning occurs in many ways, psychologist believe that learning is the key concept of living whether it’s intentional or unintentional which is why they came up with the learning theories.

Learning theories are considered theoretical frameworks in describing how information is contain, refined and maintain during learning. Learning is an important activity in the lives of individuals; it is the core of our educational process, even though learning begins out of the classroom. For many years psychologist sought to understand what is learning, the nature of it, how is it transpired and how individuals influence learning in others through teaching and similar endeavors. Learning theories tend to be based on scientific evidence and more valid than personal opinions or experiences. There are five basic types of theories used in educational psychology which are: Behavioral, Cognitive, Social & Cultural, and Constructivism.

Behavioral Theory

The behavioral approach is the behavior view that generally assumes that the outcome of learning is the change in behavior and emphasizes the effects of internal events on an individual. In the behaviorist approach, they believed that individuals have no free will, and that the environment an individual is place in determines their behavior. They believe that individuals are born with a clean slate and that behaviors can be learned from the environment. The learning theories from the behaviorists Pavlov, Guthrie and Thorndike have historical importance on learning. Although they may differ each theory has its own process of forming associations between stimuli and responses. Thorndike believed that responses to stimuli are strengthening when it is followed by a satisfying consequence. Guthrie reasoned that the relation between stimulus and responses is established through pairing. Pavlov, who developed the classical conditioning, demonstrated how stimuli can be conditioned to obtain certain responses while being paired with another stimulus. The behavior theory is expressed in conditioning theories that explains learning in the terms of environmental events but is not the only conditioning theory.

B. F. Skinner developed the Operant conditioning; this form of conditioning is based on the assumptions that the features of the environment serves as cues for responding. He believed that we learn to behave in certain ways as we operate on the environment. In operant conditioning reinforcement strengthens the responses and increases the likelihood of the occurring when the stimuli are present. The operant conditioning is a three-term contingency that involves the antecedent (stimulus), the behavior (response) and the consequences. Operant conditioning involves consequences which can determine how individuals respond to environmental cues. Consequences can be either good or bad for individuals, it can reinforce behavior that increases it or a reinforcement that decreases behavior. There are other operant conditioners such as generalization, discrimination, primary and secondary reinforcements, reinforcement schedules and the premack principle.

Shaping is another form of operant conditioning, it is the process used to alter behavior in individuals. Shaping is the successive approximations which involves the reinforcing progress. It is the complex behaviors that are formed by the linking of simple behaviors in the three-term contingencies. This operant conditioning involves self-regulation which is the process of obtaining an individual stimulus and reinforcement control of themselves.

Cognitive Theory

The cognitive theory focuses on the inner activities of the mind. The cognitive theory states that knowledge is learned and the changes in knowledge make the changes in behavior possible. Both the behavioral and cognitive theory believe that reinforcement is important in learning but for different reasons. The behaviorist suggests that reinforcement strengthens responses but cognitive suggest that reinforcement is a source of feedback about what is likely to happen if behaviors are repeated or changed. The cognitive approach suggests an important element in the learning process is the knowledge an individual has towards a situation. Cognitive theorist believe that they information we already know determines what we will perceive, learn, remember and forget.

There are three main theorist of the cognitive development Gestalt, Kohler and Koffka. Gestalt learning theory approach proposes that learning consists of grasping of a structural whole and not just a mechanistic response to a stimulus. The main concept of his theory was that when we process sensory stimuli we are aware of the configuration or the overall pattern which is the whole. Kohler theory stated that learning can occur by a ‘sudden comprehension’ as to gradually understanding. This theory could happen without any reinforcement and there will be no need for review, training or investigations. Koffka theory suggested that he supported the fact that animals are can be participants in learning because they are similar to humans in many ways. He believed that there was no such thing as meaningless learning, and that the idea interdependent of facts was more important than knowing many individual facts.

Social & Cultural theory

The social and cultural theory is based on how individuals functioning are related to cultural, institutional and historical context. Vygotsky was a psychologist in Russia who identified the Social & Cultural theory also known as sociocultural theory. The Sociocultural theory is known as the combining theory in psychology because it discussed the important contributions society makes on an individual development and cognitive views of Piaget. The theory suggested that learning occurs between the interactions of people. Lev. Vygotsky believed that Parents, Caregivers, Peers and culture played an important in the development of a high order function. According to Vygotsky ‘Every function is the children cultural development that appears twice: firstly on the social level, secondly on an individual level. In the social cultural theory tends to focus not only on how adults or peers influence learning but how an individual culture can impact how learning takes place.

According to Vygotsky children are born with the basic constraints on their mind. He believed that each culture provides ‘tools of intellectual adaptation’ for each individual. Theses adaptation allows children to use their basic mental ability to adapt to their culture for example a culture may utilized tools to emphasize on memorization strategies. Vygotsky was a brilliant man, he worked along with Piaget in developing the cognitive theory their theories differ in certain ways. Firstly Piaget theory was basically based on how children interactions and explorations influenced development, Vygotsky placed greater emphasis on the social factors that influence development. Another difference is the Vygotsky suggested that cognitive development can be different between cultures while Piaget theory suggested the development in universal. There is one important concept in the sociocultural theory known as the zone of proximal. The Zone of proximal is considered to be the level of independent problem solving and a level of potential development, through problem solving under the guidance of an adult or with peers. It includes the skills that a person cannot understand or perform on their own yet, but is capable of learning with guidance.

Constructivism Theory

The constructivism learning theory is defined as how learners or individuals construct knowledge from pervious experiences. Constructivism is often associated with a pedagogic approach that often promote learning or learning by doing. Constructing is known as the meaning for learning because constructivism focuses on the individual thinking about learning. The constructivist theory argues that individuals can generate knowledge from interactions between experiences and ideas. Constructivism examined the interactions between individuals from infancy to adulthood to try to comprehend how learning is done from experiences and behavior patterns. The constructivist theory is attributed to Jean Piaget who articulated the mechanisms by stating that knowledge is internalized by learners. Piaget stated that through the processes of adaptation the accommodation and assimilation, individuals can construct new knowledge from past experiences.

According Piaget theory of constructivism accommodation is the process of an individual reframing one’s mental view of the world and tries to fit in new experiences. Accommodation can be understood when failure leads to learning, as humans if we have an idea that the world works only one way and that way fails us then we will fail. In accommodation we learn from our failure or the failures of others. The constructivism theory describes how learning happens whether the individuals learn from using their experiences to understand information or by just following instructions to construct something. In both cases constructivism suggest that learner construct knowledge from experiences. The constructivism theory tends to be associated with active learning because5 individuals learn from experiences, something that was already did. Several cognitive psychologists argued that constructivist theories are misleading or can contradict findings.

As an educator I can facilitate learning by encouraging my students, helping them to develop to their fullest potential. As an educator I am compelled to vie and asses learning styles so that I can meet every student needs within the classroom. As an educator I want to be able to allow students to learn gradually. I would want my students to thrive academically and socially in and out of the classroom. From my understanding the four learning theories discussed in the paper all contribute to my understanding of learning. Despite all the different theories each theory gave me a new insight on learning occurs in and out of a class, college or university. From Behaviorist perspective view of learning is the change in behavior and emphasis of external events on an individual. For example Pavlov experiment in classical conditioning, where he taught dogs to salivate when they hear the tuning of a fork. If we used both conditioning theories with the classrooms can train students to behave and operant in the way they would want them to.

The theory that can be used in Music is the Behaviorist theory, I say this because music is the incorporating of knowledge and feeling. Music sets the atmosphere for an environment for example if a relaxing song is being played at home, that song puts the individual in a relaxing mood , in the behaviorist theory the environment influences the response of an individual so the relaxing song will evoke a relaxed response as done in Pavlov experiment of classical conditioning with the dogs that provoke salivating when hearing the tuning of a fork. In music classical conditioning is where students can be conditioned to like or enjoy a piece of music. For example if a classical song is being played that the students don’t know or like the teacher can play it repeatedly so they can get an understanding of it and eventually the students will enjoy the music because of the repetition of the song being played. There response to the song might be in the way of moving their bodies, tapping their feet or nodding their head.

Dennis Rader And His Brutal Killings

This assignment will critically analyse the story of Dennis Rader and his brutal killings, his upbringing will be discussed along with his modus operandi and the reasons behind his killings, how he got away with it for such a long period and how he eventually got caught. The mass media and the influence they had in his killings and him eventually being tracked down and arrested, as well as the relevant psychodynamic, labelling and Social Learning theories will be discussed throughout the essay, how they relate to the case of Dennis Rader and the potential drawbacks and criticism of the theories themselves from relevant sources.

The official definition of a Serial Murderer according to (FBI, 2015) is broken down and a definition from that has been made. The breakdown is as follows-

– One or more offenders

– Two or more murdered victims-

– Incidents should be occurring in separate events, at different times

– The time period between murders separates serial murder from mass murder

From this, the FBI have come up with their own definition of what they believe is a serial murderer. ” The unlawful killing of two or more victims by the same offender(s), in separate events”. There are also different types of murder, one being ‘spree’ and the other being ‘mass’ and there are differences between the three. The official definition of a Spree Killer is ”Murderers who kill two or more victims, but are more than one location. Although their murders occur in separate locations, their spree is considered a single event, because there is no “cooling off” period between the murders. An example of a Spree killer is Robert Polin, who killed one student and wounded 5 others at a high school in 1975. The definition of a Mass murderer is an individual who kills four or more people at one location during one period of time, it can be over a few minutes or a period of days. An example of a Mass murderer would be Richard Speck, who killed eight student nurses in one night in 1966 (Crime About, 2014).

Dennis Rader was born in Kansas on March 9th, 1945; he was the first of four sons. However, as a child there are contradicting views on how he behaved. Some say Rader appeared ‘outwardly normal’ and unremarkable. He also took part in youth group activities when in Church. Those who knew Rader also commented on how much of a ‘polite’ young man he was, and how he was often quiet and didn’t say much. Rader graduated from school with relatively poor grades, which led him to look for part time work and eventually join the Air Force in 1966 at the age of 21. It was also then his fantasies came to light, his constant attempts to engage in bondage activities we’re rejected. However, once in school his behaviour dramatically changed. Rader often had fantasies about bondage and torture. He also by his own admission, admitted to having sexual fantasies about tying girls up and ‘having his way’ with them (Denis Rader BTK, 2014). His first fantasies he admitted to was as a youngster, he said it was like a ‘picture show’ that he wanted to direct and take part in, no matter what cost. He started by strangling local cats and dogs around his neighbourhood before finally in 1974, Rader made his fantasies a reality when he killed 4 people, all from the same family (Crime and Investigation, 2014). Throughout his killing spree, he named himself BTK (Blind, Torture Kill). He ended up killing 10 separate people over a 20 year period. He started with Joseph Otero (38), his wife Julie (34) and their two children Josephine, aged eleven and her seven-year-old brother Joey. Rader was in complete control of the situation, at first promising the family that all he wanted was cash and their car whilst they we’re tied up (Independent, 2015).

After that, he went onto killing Julie Otero, who he said was ‘surprised’ with the time and effort it took to strangle someone, his first attempt was unsuccessful whilst Otero pleaded to let her go. She then went on to say ‘May God have mercy on your soul’ before succeeding in killing her after his second strangulation. He then strangled Joseph Otero II, who was only 9 years old whilst in his bedroom before finally killing Josephine Otero. He did this by tying a noose around her neck and hanged her from a pipe in the basement.

On the 4th April 1974 Rader continued his murder spree by killing Kathryn Bright. Despite her constant attempts and effort to restrain him, she died in hospital hours later after suffering stab wounds. Three year later, Rader killed again. This time on the 17th of March 1977, the victim was named Shirley Vian. When Rader got into the house, he put Vian’s three young children in the bathroom and told them he was ‘only’ going to rape her, then proceed to letting her go. However, he then proceeded to strangling her with a cord after revealing who he was. He also left semen next to her underwear found lying by her body.

In December that year, Nancy Fox was Rader’s latest victim. He broke into Fox’s flat, raped her and tied her to the bed. He also strangled her and left semen next to her nightgown. It would be 8 years until Dennis Rader committed his next murder, being 53 year old widow Marine Hedge. Rader hid on a closet whilst Hedge came home accompanied by a male friend, he waited for the friend to leave and then strangled her in her bed. He then took her body to church and posed for photographs in her basement.

A year later, Rader murdered his 9th victim. He posed as a telephone repairman and entered the home of victim Vicki Wegrele. He strangled her with a ligature as she tried her best to fight him off, before killing her and taking several photos of her dying body.

Dennis Rader’s 10th and final victim came 5 years later, in 1991. The victim was named Dolores Davis. He again posed as someone else, this time a criminal vagrant who was seeking food before binding and strangling her to death. He then dumped her body under a bridge (Free Webs, 2007).

After so many years of Police and authorities attempting to track down Rader, he was finally caught and arrested on 25th February, 2005 and charged with 10 counts of first degree murder. To the major surprise of everyone involved within the case, Rader pleaded guilty to all charges on June 27th, 2005. Whilst in court, he also gave the horrendous details of his crimes and how he committed them. Rader also managed to escape the death penalty as the law wasn’t enforced until 1994 (Biography, 2015).

The Mass Media had a massive impact on Rader’s crimes, and also his eventual arrest. When committing his crimes, Dennis Rader stayed in regular contact with the Police and Media, which in the end the Police exploited and managed to take advantage of when tracking him down. The Police investigation went on for nearly 30 years, with no one getting close to finding him. BTK sent letters and anagrams to the media and Police, this was to terrorise as much as possible and have a sense of power for the individual. During the investigation, the Police used Rader’s unusual fascination with the media to keep him communicating to find out as much information as possible. The FBI also got involved with the case and offered advice on how to handle press briefings which would help with their investigation and keep communication levels as high as possible. When releasing Police statements, they would carefully construct what they would say, not only to reach out for public help but also because they wanted him to continue talking with law enforcement so they could ‘close in’ on their suspect, in the end the medias strategy paid off when he was eventually arrested. (Police Chief Magazine, 2006).

Within the case of Dennis Rader, there is relevant theoretical perspectives which relate to Rader and the crimes he committed. Psychodynamic approach is one example. Some assumptions for the Psychodynamic approach are that the behaviour and feelings are powerfully affected by our unconscious motives. Also, that behaviour and feelings as adults are from previous childhood experiences. The theory also suggests that the personality is made up of three parts. The id, ego and superego. The behaviour of the individual is also made up of two separate drives, one being Eros (Sex Drive and Life instinct) and Thanatos (the aggressive drive and death instinct), (Simply Psychology, 2007). The general explanations of crime came from the influential work of Sigmund Freud, his belief was that sexuality is present from birth and there is a subsequent course of development which is the basis of psychoanalysis and one that has come with a certain level of controversy (Roger Hopkins Burke, 2009, P92). Some of the suggestions of this theory have a direct link to Dennis Rader’s killings, for example by his own admission Rader admitted his crimes we’re sexually motivated. This was Rader’s modus operandi behind his crimes. Dennis Rader also told Police that one of his victims (Josephine Otero) was a specific target as he was sexually attracted to Hispanics. He also admitted how he would satisfy his sexual fantasies by hunting his victims and referring to his killings as his ”projects” (BBC, 2005). He also strangled cats and dogs and had a fetish for women’s underwear when he was younger, which again suggests from previous childhood experiences the Psychodynamic approach links in with Rader’s killings. However, there are some arguments that this theory comes with, Freud originally claimed that experiences of sexual seduction in childhood are the basis of neurosis, which wasn’t the case with Rader as there was no record on him having sexual experiences when he was young, instead creating his own fantasies. Freud did eventually change his mind on this belief though, saying that the seductions may not have taken place, and that they were in fact fantasies, just like the case of Dennis Rader (Roger Hopkins Burke, 2009, P92). The fact that Sigmund Freud changed his mind on psychodynamic theory could suggest that it is unreliable and not completely accurate. On the other hand, Aichorn (1925) argued that when a child is first born, they have specific instinctive drives that ‘demand’ satisfaction that he or she is unaware and unaffected by it. This could be a counter argument that Rader had no control over what he was doing, and was just engaging and satisfying the urges he was ‘born’ with (Roger Hopkins Burke, 2009, P93).

Labelling theory is also relevant to Dennis Rader. The theorists believe that no behaviour is inherited, and instead only comes to the individual when other people influence the label upon the act (Roger Hopkins Burke, 2009, P168) When committing his crimes, he wanted to be known as BTK (Bind, Torture, and Kill). Rader clearly embraced this label as much as possible, he was quoted saying ‘I had a label on me. It was like the ‘Green River Killer’ and ‘Son of Sam’. These quotes from Rader links also links in with Power and Control theory, in which Rader believed he was a ‘dominant’ figure and felt powerful with such a nickname, he also said he wanted just his nickname to be on the ‘list’ of the world’s worst serial killers (Herald Sun, 2014). Labelling theories themselves have different concepts and insights (Roger Hopkins Burke, 2009, P167). Labelling theory can also have an effect on the way someone behaves in their life (like the case of Rader), meaning the label cannot be shaken off which could have been one of the reasons Rader was so keen to have a nickname and insisted on being called it by the general public. (History Learning Site, 2014). A critique of the labelling theory could be that although the argument is that crimes and behaviour only come to the individual once the label has been put upon them, Dennis Rader was committing crimes and his horrific murders before the mass media labelled him as the ‘BTK’, which shows that labelling theory might not be relevant in some cases. There is also criticisms of labelling theory from other sources since it became far more prominent in the 1960’s. One of those was Plummer (1979) who argued that the perspective of the theory isn’t defined and could harbour many different theoretical positions and leaving itself open for further criticism down the line. Gibbs (1966) also argued that labelling theorists claim that an act is deviant if a reaction follows, however at the same time the theory refers to ‘secret and primary deviants’ (Roger Hopkins Burke, 2009, P175). This shows the potential drawbacks that come with labelling theory and how there is an argument for contradicting within the theory itself.

Social Learning theory is also relatable to Dennis Rader. The theory first emerged in the 1970’s as the product of two separate theories all together (behaviourism and cognitive psychology). The main three concepts of Social Leaning theory are learning, social and cognition. The term ‘learning’ in the theory means that many things individuals do are learned, even from a basic age (Tim Newburn, 2007, P153). A Social Learning theory argument in the Dennis Rader case could be that he acted upon his fantasies based on what he observed in the past, whether that was through a poor upbringing and family members or something he found out for himself. On the other hand, to criticize this particular theory, unlike most Serial Killers Dennis Rader had a relatively trauma-free upbringing. In which case he wouldn’t have acted upon actions he hadn’t seen when growing up. Another critique of Social Learning theory came from Albert Bandura during the 20th century. He argued during an experiment which required learners to find a description of certain behaviours, experts suggest that the learning actually occurs after the observation and they might not repeat the same behaviour time after time (EHow, 2015). This suggests that there are shortcomings in the theory.

To conclude, the effect serial murderers have on law enforcement agencies is massive, however with more technology now developing every day it’s becoming easier for law enforcement to catch criminals much quicker. For example, CCTV is constantly improving, making it easier to identify any criminal at one time, as well as thermal imagining. Crime mapping is also a technique law enforcement agencies are using more often, this gives the Police the ability to predict future crime locations, they do this through intelligence led policing (Police Chief, 2004). With the ability to constantly improve different technology systems, this can only improve resources for law enforcement agencies to make sure there isn’t a moral panic amongst the general public and also so that a case like Dennis Rader, which took so many years to conclude, will never happen to that extent again.

A Report on E-Commerce Industry: essay help site:edu

A Study on Indian E-Commerce Industry

Executive Summary

Following report has been made on the ‘Indian E-commerce Industry’. All the data has been collected from the internet, research papers and surveys. The e-commerce is one of the biggest things that have taken the Indian business by storm. It is creating an entire new economy, which has a huge potential and is fundamentally changing the way businesses are done. It has advantages for both buyers as well as sellers and this win-win situation is at the core of its phenomenal rise. Rising incomes and a greater variety of goods and services that can be bought over the internet is making buying online more attractive and convenient for consumers all over the country.

The report gives information on different aspects of the Indian E-commerce industry. For simplicity it is divided into various chapters.

Chapter 1 ‘ Introduces to the Indian E-commerce industry and defines its importance to the economy. The objective of the study is set in this chapter.

Chapter 2 – Briefs about the Global and Indian scenario. Comparison of U.S and Indian E-commerce

Chapter 3 ‘ Provides a brief insight into the Structure of the industry with the HHI index the Chapter 4 ‘ Has the macro environmental analysis of E-Commerce industry which includes the PESTEL analysis.

Chapter 5 – Briefs the Competitive analysis using Porters 5 Forces.

Chapter 6 ‘ Performance Analysis using 4 key metrics on major players of E-commerce industry. Also included the Internet users traffic comparison on top 10 e-commerce sites in India.

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CHAPTER 1

INTRODUCTION

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1.1 Introduction

Since from few years, Growth of internet has changed the world in terms of expectations of

the consumer and consumer behaviour. Online websites for product purchasing concentrate

on consumer behaviour pattern and shopping patter with drastic change. Company are now a

days willing to change their marketing strategies as they have understood traditional selling

practices won’t work with changing technology world.

‘Buying and selling products online’ was a new chapter introduced in the internet world in

year 1991. Ebay.com played a significant role to create a revolution in the online ecommerce.

Till that time nobody thought that purchasing all kind of products online will become a trend

in world and India will share a good part of success. In the late 1990’s, ReddifShopping.com

and Ebay.com gave a first-hand experience for Indians towards E-retail.

Initially when it use to come for weekly shopping of groceries, clothes, shoes and cosmetics,

majority of the people preferred to get into their cars and drive to the supermarket to get the

groceries, shops or malls for other basic products. Now it is becoming common news that

people even buy their groceries online in India.

1.2 Business Model of E-commerce Industry

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Deals Websites

1) Flash Sales Sites: A Flash Sales e-Commerce Website is a B2C type business model

where the website sells the products directly to the end customers. They normally

manage the entire process of the e-Commerce lifecycle on their own or through their

partners and the consumer make the payment directly to the business owning and

managing the website. The consumers take the benefit of huge discounts, which at

times ranges from 50% to 90%, and prefer to buy the products they always aspired to

own. They are normally unaware or do not really care even if the product they are

buying from such websites are obsolete or no longer in fashion.

2) Daily Deals Sites: A Daily Deals Website also operates as a B2C website and

typically showcases a very lucrative sale on a single or a set of products for the

customers. Unlike the Flash Sales website, such a deal is time bound (usually for a

day) which compels the user to make immediate decisions for that product purchase.

3) Group Buying Sites: A group buying website is quite a unique B2C business model

where the website invites the buyers to buy the products / services at a discounted or

at a wholesale price. Like the Daily Deals site, the products advertised on the group

buying sites are also time bound, but usually not limited to a day.

Online Subscriptions

An online subscription website works in a similar manner like an offline subscription

for any kind of service. Such websites showcase the entire catalogue of subscription

options for the users to choose from and subscribe online.

E-Retailing

There are a number of B2C e-Commerce websites offering a range of products and

services to customers across different brands and categories. Such websites buy the

products from the brands or their distributors and sell to the end customer on market

competitive prices. Though their modus operandi is same like a flash sales website,

but their business objective is to offer the latest products to the end customers online

at the best possible prices.

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Marketplace

Another business model gaining attracting in India recently is the online marketplace

model which enables the buyers get in touch with the sellers and makes a transaction.

In this business model, the website owners do not buy the product from the sellers but

act as mediators to facilitate the entire e-commerce transaction. They do assist the

sellers in various services like payment collection, logistics, etc. but do not prefer to

hold inventory in their own warehouse.

1) C2C Marketplace

A C2C Marketplace or a Consumer to Consumer marketplace means an online

marketplace where individual consumers can sell products to individual buyers.

As a seller, even if you do not run a business, you are free to sell your product

through such marketplace to the end customers.

2) B2C Marketplace

A B2C Marketplace or a Business to Consumer marketplace means an online

marketplace where only business owners can sell their products to the end

customer. The process is more or less the same like that of a C2C Marketplace

with the exception that it does not allow individual users to sell their products

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online. Best example of this kind of a website would be SnapDeal.com which has

now become a B2C Marketplace.

3) B2B Marketplace

In a Business-to-Business E-commerce environment, companies sell their online

goods to other companies without being engaged in sales to consumers. B2B web

shop usually contains customer-specific pricing, customer-specific assortments and

customer-specific discounts. Indiamart.com and TATA groups tatab2b.com are few

popular sites in India.

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Exclusive Brand Stores

This is the latest business model of its kind recently started in India. In this business

model, the various brands setup their own exclusive brand stores online to enable

consumers buy directly from the brand. A few examples of brands operating through

an Exclusive Online Brand Store are Lenovo, Canon, Timex, Sennheiser, HP,

Samsung, Mobilestore.com etc.

1.3 Role of Internet in E-Commerce

Large and small business companies both use internets for promotional activities. Some of

the advantages of E-Commerce are:-

1. Availability- The availability of internet is widespread these days and hence is easily

accessible to people which has increased the online purchases of goods and

commodities.

2. Open to All- Internet open page allows everyone to access and transact from any

global location. Moreover it provides an extension of product choice to the customers

which in turn is not possible at local retail stores, etc .

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3. Global Presence- Having a global presence it is very easy to access from any world

location just by having a laptop and an internet connection. All such happenings have

encouraged E-Commerce as any commodity is just a step away from oneself.

4. Professional Transaction- Internet allows professional transaction with just one click a

professionalism that consists of decision making.

5. Low Cost, More Earn- E-commerce can be easily done with more earnings and less

expenses. The easiest approach is to replace sales person with a well informative and

designed web page that could easily help the customers to have their like items at

their doorsteps with a click of a mouse.

1.4 Changes due to online shopping in India

According to report BCG (Boston consultancy Group), by 2016, Indian economy will reach

$10.8 trillion. In global chart India’s rank is 8th. India ranks top in services and china occupies

top position in goods in terms of export through internet. As of now, June 2014, India has

user base of about 250.2 million. It is estimated that by 2024-26, e-commerce market in India

will be $260 billion.

At an Exponential rate, E-commerce is growing in India. According to recent online retailing

report by Forrester, twenty eight percentage of growth is experienced by every retailer year

after year in 2012. As per the study digital consumers spend alomostaround$1.46 billion on

cyber cafes. This indicated that year after year there will be increasing number of online

users. Consumer behaviour is one of the biggest reasons of e-commerce boom in India.

Major reasons for online shopping growth in India

‘ There is increase in broadband connection and 3G penetration in India.

‘ Much wider range of products are available then what is available in brick and mortar

retailers.

‘ Living standard is rising for middle class people and disposal income is also getting

high.

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‘ Online products are usually available at discount which is less than the products

available in normal shops.

‘ Lack of time and busy lifestyle for offline shopping.

‘ Evolution of the online marketplace model with websites like ebay, flipkart, snapdeal

etc.

‘ Takes less time for purchasing as there is no need to stand in the queues which usually

done in offline shopping.

1.5 Advantages of E-Commerce

‘ With E-Commerce as an alternative shopping is no longer a barrier for the customers

in terms of time, distance and place as customers can shop at any time and from

anywhere they prefer to.

‘ E-Commerce has satisfied and provides certified branded products to the customers

that even typical Indian customers are ready to buy products such as clothes, shoes,

etc. without even touching or trying them for fitness.

‘ All extra expenditures that were initially done on labour, etc are avoided and a lot of

funds get saved.

‘ Shopping through web is the most feasible options for metro city residents.

‘ Transaction time has reduced.

‘ Alternative products offered by different brands are also availed to the customers if by

chance the current product in a particular brand is unavailable.

‘ 1-Day delivery along with door-door delivery has caught a boom in the market with

the evolution of E-Commerce.

1.6 Disadvantages of E-Commerce

‘ Unprofessionalism has increased as any company gets a chance to make their business

portal out of trust or belief.

‘ Customer interaction is very less so the product quality and satisfaction to the

customer remains a matter for concern.

‘ Hackers and crackers are day in and day out searching for a chance to hack into

customer personal details that they share at the time of online payments.

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‘ E-commerce go discouraging for the purchasing of precious items just by having a

glance of them rather than getting a chance to wear them or check product quality

such as jewellery etc.

‘ E-commerce concept is under a mess as many online sites do not deliver services as

promised at the time of placing the order.

‘ Authenticity for the product is untrustworthy.

1.7 OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDY

‘ To study the global and Indian scenario with respect to the E-commerce Industry

‘ To study the structure of the Indian E-commerce industry

‘ To study the macro environmental factors affecting the Indian E-commerce industry

‘ To analyze the industry using Porters 5 Forces

‘ To study the performance of major players in the industry

‘ To compare the U.S and Indian E-commerce industry

‘ To study the future opportunities and prospective growth in the industry

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CHAPTER 2

GLOBAL AND INDIAN

SCENARIO

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2.1 Status of the global e-commerce industry

Middle class in many of the developing countries, including India, is rapidly embracing

online shopping. However, India falls behind not only US, China and Australia in terms of

Internet density, but also countries like Sri Lanka and Pakistan. Sri Lanka has an internet

penetration of 15 percent. Better internet connectivity and the presence of an internet-savvy

customer segment have led to growth of e-commerce in Sri Lanka with an existing market

size of USD 2 billion. Pakistan, with an internet penetration of 15 percent has an existing

market size of consumer e-commerce of USD 4 billion. Incidentally FDI in inventory-based

consumer ecommerce is allowed in both these countries. (IAMAI-KPMG report, September

2013).

A.T. Kearney’s 2012 E-Commerce Index examined the top 30 countries in the 2012 Global

Retail Development Index’ (GRDI). Using 18 infrastructure, regulatory, and retail-specific

variables, the Index ranks the top 10 countries by their e-commerce potential.

Following are some other major findings of the Index:

i) China occupies first place in the Index. The G8 countries (Japan, United States, United

Kingdom, Germany, France, Canada, Russia, and Italy) all fall within the Top 15.

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ii) Developing countries feature prominently in the Index. Developing countries hold 10 of

the 30 spots, including first-placed China. These markets have been able to shortcut the

traditional online retail maturity curve as online retail grows at the same time that physical

retail becomes more organized. Consumers in these markets are fast adopting behaviors

similar to those in more developed countries.

iii) Several “small gems” are making an impact. The rankings include 10 countries with

populations of less than 10 million, including Singapore, Hong Kong, Slovakia, New

Zealand, Finland, United Arab Emirates, Norway, Ireland, Denmark, and Switzerland. These

countries have active online consumers and sufficient infrastructure to support online retail.

iv) India is not ranked. India, the world’s second most populous country at 1.2 billion, does

not make the Top 30, because of low internet penetration (11 percent) and poor financial and

logistical infrastructure compared to other countries.

It is seen that countries making in the top list of the table of e-commerce have required

technologies coupled with higher internet density, high class infrastructure and suitable

regulatory framework. India needs to work on these areas to realize true potential of ecommerce

business in the country.

2.2 Comparison of E-Commerce in US and India

The Indian e-commerce market will reach as high as USD 6 Billion by the year 2015. This

implies that if we compare the e-commerce market with the statistics from the year 2014,

there is a substantial growth of 70%. It is evident that India is slowly becoming like the US in

the area of e-commerce.

It is stated that India has started doing well in the market of e-commerce because of the

growing number of people who have access to mobile Internet. Broadband usage has

increased by about three times in the last two years (2013 & 2014).

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2.2.1 Cash on Delivery (COD) system in India

Cash on Delivery is an Indian thing. US consumers mainly transact online using Credit Cards

or through PayPal. Indians are known to be price sensitive. Even though with heavy

discounting e-retailers are trying to lure them to buy online, consumers are still wary of

making prepaid orders.

The situation is different in US. Even though the discounting games continue, users generally

go with prepayment. This is also because the penetration of credit cards and electronic

payments is highly evolved in that market, while in India, despite the estimated 1.252 billion

strong population of India, only 18.8 million credit cards existed in the country, with

approximately 331 million debit cards till last year. The popularity of CoD is directly

dependent on the trust issues consumers have on the online retailers.

2.2.2 Offers and excitement created among customers

The trend of mega online shopping festivals started in the West. From offline trends of

Macy’s Day parade and Black Friday to taking these festivals online, and creating further

new trends like Cyber Monday.

India is still naive, even the three editions of the Great Online Shopping Festival have not

been able to make the impact they were expected to. The festive season of Diwali is a time

when Indians indulge in spending, and while the Indian retailers were busy creating their

respective versions of ‘mega sales’, US based Amazon was the first to step on this

opportunity with ‘Diwali Dhamaka Sale’. Also, the consumer shopping behaviour is different

in the two countries.

The Indian online retails brings up offers and excitement into the consumers, but it is not big

like how it is in US.

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2.2.3 Type of Product that People Buy Online.

Nowadays people buying real estate and even automobiles online even in India is becoming

common. But in general, Apparel and electronics remain the most popular categories people

buy online, and the same is seen in the US as well. These two categories dominate both the

markets.

An area where India is lacking is online grocery retail. Grocery retail and logistics is highly

evolved in US. In India, it was a taboo, and wasn’t touched for a long time even though the

sentiment was strong. Players are emerging now in this segment, with start-up’s like

BigBasket, LocalBanya etc. and mature players like Reliance Fresh taking the lead.

The local Indian ‘banya’ is still stronger than online stores. The unorganised retail in India is

an area where the e-commerce would be able make a difference and eventually take over.

2.2.4 Logistics and Regulations

The logistics infrastructure is still not up to the mark in India. While India Post is doing a

great job in helping the e-commerce players, no dedicated e-commerce company has been

able to scale up its operations to reach all the postal codes. The penetration of internet in

India is 18% as against 87% in US, is a big hindrance.

When it comes to technology, site crashes, issues in ERP systems etc. are commonly heard

things in India. Whereas in US, the technology is very strong.

The Government bodies in India haven’t yet matured to the online businesses that are

operational. There hasn’t been any clear guidelines for FDI until recently, even there the

Government has decided to treat both online and offline retail alike. Some of the other online

marketplace keeps running into warehousing policy issues. The heavy discounting is another

questionable area, since the Government has clear guidelines for Maximum Retail Price,

there is no lower bar set.

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CHAPTER 3

STRUCTURE OF THE

INDUSRTY

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3.1 HERFINDAHL – HIRSCHMAN INDEX

A commonly accepted measure of market concentration. It is calculated by squaring the

market share of each firm competing in a market, and then summing the resulting numbers.

The HHI number can range from close to zero to 10,000.

The HHI is expressed as: HHI = S1^2 + S2^2 + S3^2 + … + Sn^2 (where Sn is the market

share of the Ith firm) the closer a market is to being a monopoly, the higher the market’s

concentration (and the lower its competition).

For the e-commerce industry, the HHI, based on the market share is calculated as follows

Company Sales(in cr) market

share

HHI index

Flipkart 2846.13 53.89683186 2904.868484

Jabong 202 3.82525044 14.63254093

Myntra 441.58 8.362148958 69.92553519

Snapdeal 830 15.7176132 247.0433646

Amazon 168.99 3.20014392 10.24092111

Ebay 107 2.02624652 4.105674961

naptol 460 8.710966349 75.88093474

Yebhi 120 2.272426004 5.163919944

Yepme 80 1.514950669 2.295075531

bewakoof 25 0.473422084 0.22412847

total sales 5280.7 100 3334.38058

>1800

Highly

concentrated

Source: capitaline.com

The HHI can have a theoretical value ranging from close to zero to 10,000. If there exists

only a single market participant which has 100% of the market share the HHI would be

10,000. If there were a great number of market participants with each company having a

market share of almost 0% then the HHI could be close to zero.

‘ When the HHI value is less than 100, the market is highly competitive.

‘ When the HHI value is between 100 and 1000, the market is said to be not concentrated.

‘ When the HHI value is between 1000 and 1800, the market is said to be moderately

concentrated.

‘ When the HHI value is above 1800, the market is said to be highly concentrated.

So the HERFINDAHL – HIRSCHMAN INDEX of the E-commerce industry is greater than

1800. Hence it is highly concentrated.

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CHAPTER 4

COMPITITIVE ANALYSIS

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4.1 PORTER’S FIVE FORCE ANALYSIS

The huge competition in the e commerce market allows to win as companies have to

keep their prices in check to attract buyers.

Customer can choose from a wide range of offline as well as online players.

Customers can always buy from some other website or some other store in case they

are not satisfied with any one player

Buyers in this industry are customers who purchase products online. Since this

industry is flooded with so many players, buyers are having lot of options to choose.

Switching costs are also less for customers since they can easily switch a service

from one online retail company to other one. Same products will be displayed in

several online retail websites. So, product differentiation is almost low. So, all these

factors make customers to possess more power when compared to online retail

companies.

Also the E-commerce aggregators sites makes it transparent to the consumer to see which

site offers the product in the least price

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4.1.1 Bargaining Power of Buyers

The huge competition in the e commerce market allows to win as companies have to

keep their prices in check to attract buyers.

Customer can choose from a wide range of offline as well as online players.

Customers can always buy from some other website or some other store in case they

are not satisfied with any one player

Buyers in this industry are customers who purchase products online. Since this

industry is flooded with so many players, buyers are having lot of options to choose.

Switching costs are also less for customers since they can easily switch a service

from one online retail company to other one. Same products will be displayed in

several online retail websites. So, product differentiation is almost low. So, all these

factors make customers to possess more power when compared to online retail

companies.

Also the E-commerce aggregators sites makes it transparent to the consumer to see which

site offers the product in the least price

4.1.2 Bargaining Power of suppliers

Tens of millions of sellers list their products on ecommerce marketplaces; hence

their individual bargaining power is limited.

However, sellers can also list their products on multiple platforms and sites,

including Amazon, Etsy.com and various international e-commerce sites. Hence, if

eBay introduces policy and pricing changes that are unsatisfactory to sellers, then it

could result in lower number of product listings on its marketplace.

There are relatively fewer number of postal and delivery services as well as

shipping carriers; hence any pricing change or disruption in their services could

hamper eBay’s ability to deliver products on time. Hence, these carriers hold some

bargaining power.

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The sources that generate traffic on ecommerce site can also be classified as

suppliers. Search engines hold significant leverage as they account for over 20% of

traffic on eBay if we account for both organic and paid search (according to Similar

Web estimates). Changes in Google SEO (search engine algorithm) have a negative

impact on traffic. eBay’ seller marketplace model leads to large amounts of

unstructured data on the site, which is detrimental to its SEO efforts.

Additionally, several referring sites such as slickdeals.net, dealnews.com and social

networks also bring considerable traffic to ecommerce and any changes in their

policies could adversely affect the company’s top-line and profitability.

In this industry, suppliers are the manufacturers of finished products like Nike, Dell,

Apple etc. Online retail companies sell various products ranging from books to

computer accessories to apparels to footwear. Since there are many suppliers for any

particular category, they can’t show power on online retail companies. For example,

if you take computers category, there are many suppliers like Dell, Apple, Lenovo,

and Toshiba who wants to sell their products through these online retail companies.

So, they won’t be having power to control the online retail companies. Online

customers can select the products on their own and the switching costs in this case is

zero. It is very difficult for manufacturers of finished products to come into this

industry because of challenges in Logistics. Online retail industry is important to

suppliers because it acts as one of the channel to sell the products. Now, with most

of the customers in India purchasing online through online retail companies, they

can’t afford to lose this channel. So, they can’t dictate terms with online retail

companies. So, in this industry the supplier power is low.

4.1.3 Competitive Rivalry within the Industry

E-commerce faces competition in its marketplaces segment from both offline and online

players. Customers can buy products from a wide range of retailers, distributors,

auctioneers, directories, search engines, etc and hence the competition is intense.

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Various factors such as price, product selection and services influence the purchasing

decision of customers. E-commerce companies frequently engage in price-based

competition to woo buyers, which limits their ability to raise prices.

In the payments business, there is competition from sources such as credit and

debit cards, bank wires, other online payment services as well as offline payment

mechanisms including cash, check, money order or mobile phones.

Considering the entry of newer players such as Apple Pay and Alibaba, the

competition is expected to heighten in the online payments space.

Competition is very high in this industry with so many players like Flip kart,

Myntra, Jabong, Snap deal, Amazon, India plaza, Homeshop18 etc.

4.1.4 Threat of New Entrants

Given the nature of the business, there is always a threat of new entrants as it is

relatively less costly to enter the market and setup operations. There is no additional

cost incurred to set up any physical stores and locations. In addition, traditional

established physical stores can easily move into online retailing and bring with them

their substantial consumer base. These stores such as Target or Wal-Mart, already enjoy

economies of scale, have recognizable brands and a strong supply chain. So they do

pose strong competition to Amazon.

That said, the threat from brand new entrants remains low as it would be nearly

impossible for a new company to match the cost advantages, economies of scale and

variety of offering as Amazon.com. These advantages will deter most brand new

entrants to the market.

Substantial Economies of Scale

Ecommerce like Amazon works with over 10,000 vendors and boasts an impressive 75

percent repeat purchasers. Its market capitalization is substantially ahead of its nearest

competitors.

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First Mover Advantage

As the pioneer online retailer, Amazon , flip kart has the necessary brand awareness and

credibility as a strong reliable presence in the market.

Massive product Variety

Way beyond a bookstore now, Amazon.com , Flipkart provides any type of product

there is in its online stores. This means that there is a strong supplier base relationship

that cannot be replicated. In addition, as a bookseller and a provider of other

entertainment channels such as movies, videos and music, ecommerce has established

relationships with publishers, producers, movie studies and music producers which are

not easy to form and replicate.

The e-commerce market is characterized by low barriers to entry. It is relatively easy

for newer players to enter the market and start selling products. Having said that, it’s

difficult for newer players to gain brand recognition and attain high ranking on search

engines.

Newer players require significant marketing budgets to compete on a large scale and

this restricts entry of newer players to an extent.

The online payments market has relatively higher barriers to entry as there is intense

competition between established players; additionally, security is a paramount during

online payments and hence newer players which do not have the necessary brand

recognition will find it difficult to attract new customers.

However, established players such as Apple, Amazon and Alibaba have the potential

to make a dent in PayPal’s strong market position.

‘ Indian government is going to allow 51% FDI in multi-brand online retail and

100% FDI in single brand online retail sooner or later. So, this means foreign

companies can come and start their own online retail companies.

‘ There are very less barriers to entry like less amount of money required to start a

business, less amount of infrastructure required to start business. All you need is

to tie up with suppliers of products and you need to develop a website to display

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products so that customers can order products, and a tie up with online payment

gateway provider like bill desk.

‘ Industry is also going to grow at a rapid rate. It is going to touch 76 billion $ by

2021. Industry is going to experience an exponential growth rate. So, obviously no

one wants to miss this big opportunity.

4.1.5 Threat of substitute products

The threat of substitutes for ecommerce is high. The unique characteristic Amazon has is

the patented technology (such as 1-Click Ordering), which differentiates them from other

possible substitutes. However, there are many alternatives providing the same products

and services, which could reduce Amazon’s competitive advantage. Therefore, Amazon

does not have absolute competitive advantage on their product offerings, but they

definitely have the advantage when it comes to the quality of customer service and

convenience provided.

There is no technology that can substitute the Internet so far in the market. Even, analog

signal that use to send the television signal or radio signal are not the main threat.

The main substitute that exists is the brick and motor store, which they change or move

their place to be on the Internet. Therefore, the e-commerce industry has low threat of

substitutions. When we compare relative quality, relative price of product that he/she

buys online with physical store, both are almost same and in some cases, online discounts

will be available which makes customers to buy products online.

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Porters 5 Force Model of E-Commerce Industry

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CHAPTER 5

MACRO ENVIORNMENTAL

ANALYSIS

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PESTLE ANALYSIS

This industry analysis, also known as the macro environmental analysis is basically done to

determine the conditions in which the industry is operating in. The analysis of these factors

becomes very important for a company operating in that particular industry for the growth

and sustenance.

5.1 POLITICAL AND LEGAL FACTORS:

E-commerce has introduced many changes in the Indian consumers and customers. However,

e-commerce in India has also given rise to many disputes by the consumers purchasing the

products from e-commerce websites. In fact, many e-commerce websites are not following

Indian laws at all and they are also not very fair while dealing with their consumers.

Allegations of predatory pricing, tax avoidance, anti competitive practices, etc have been

levelled against big e-commerce players of India. As a result, disputes are common in India

that is not satisfactorily redressed. This reduces the confidence in the e-commerce segment

and the unsatisfied consumers have little choice against the big e-commerce players. At a

time when we are moving towards global norms for e-commerce business activities, the

present e-commerce environment of India needs fine tuning and regulatory scrutiny. In fact,

India is exploring the possibility of regulation of e-commerce through either Telecom

Regulatory Authority of India (TRAI) or through different Ministries/Departments of Central

Government in a collective manner.

It is obvious that e-commerce related issues are not easy to manage. E-commerce disputes

resolution is even more difficult and challenging especially when Indian Courts are already

overburdened with court cases. Of course, establishment of e-courts in India and use of online

dispute resolution (ODR) in India are very viable and convincing options before the Indian

Government.

Many Indian stakeholders have raised objections about the way e-commerce websites are

operating in India. These websites are providing deep discounts that have been labeled as

predatory by offline traders and businesses. Further, Myntra, Flipkart, Amazon, Uber, etc

have already been questioned by the regulatory authorities of India for violating Indian laws.

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5.1.1 NEED FOR HUMORIZED TAXATION LAWS:

Laws regulating ecommerce in India are still evolving and lack clarity. Favorable regulatory

environment would be key towards unleashing the potential of ecommerce and help in

efficiency in operations, creation of jobs, growth of the industry, and investments in back-end

infrastructure. Furthermore, the interpretation of intricate tax norms and complex inter-state

taxation rules make ecommerce operations difficult to manage and to stay compliant to the

laws. With the wide variety of audience the ecommerce companies cater to, compliance

becomes a serious concern. Companies will need to have strong anti-corruption programs for

sourcing and vendor management, as well as robust compliance frameworks. It is important

for the E-Commerce companies to keep a check at every stage and adhere to the relevant

laws, so as to avoid fines.Myntra, Flipkart and many more e-commerce websites are under

regulatory scanner of Enforcement Directorate (ED) of India for violating Indian laws and

policies. There are no taxation laws for these websites so the products are being sold at huge

discounts in these sites. Some of the major causes not keeping taxation laws over ecommerce

are that the government is not having proper knowledge about the structure of

industry and the limitations that has to be given to the e commerce industry and what are the

rights that should be given to them for selling the product Security of the information

provided during the online transaction is a major concern. Under section 43A of the I T Act

the ‘Reasonable practices and procedures and sensitive personal data or information Rules,

2011’ have been proposed, which provide a framework for the protection of data in India

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5.2 ECONOMIC FACTORS:

Mass usage of internet:

The usage of internet is increasing rapidly in INDIA, it is said that India is said to be the 3rd

largest internet population country after USA and CHINA. Current India internet users are

205 millions .The total no of users are expected to be 330-370 millions in just 3 years. The

internet usage in cities has been increased rapidly.

Increased aspiration levels and availability

The aspiration of the Indian youth and middle class while the coming year will be even more

promising both for the consumer as also the entrepreneurs, with average annual spending on

online purchases projected to increase by 67 per cent to Rs 10,000 from Rs 6,000 per person.

In 2014, about 40 million consumers purchased something online and number is expected to

grow to 65 million by 2015 with better infrastructure in terms of logistics, broadband and

Internet ready devices will be fuelling the demand in ecommerce. The smart phones and

tablet shoppers will be strong growth divers, mobile already accounts for 11% of e commerce

sales, and its share will jump to 25% by 2017. Computer and consumer’s electronics as well

as app

eral and accessories account for the bulk of India retail ecommerce sales will contribute 42%

of its sales.

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Liberal policies (FDI in Retail and Insurance)

The E-commerce Association of India (ECAI) is looking for a positive response from the

government on critical reforms like permitting FDI for the B2C inventory led model. This has

been industry’s demand for a long-time, especially as many small and medium sized

ecommerce players face obstacles on easy access to capital and technology. The industry has

been hoping that the government would at least review a partial opening of the sector to FDI.

In 2015 budget the FDI has been increased to 51 %. So there is a positive response from the

international e commerce industry that is trying to enter into India. Even allibaba.com is also

trying to enter into India with the help of snapdeal.com. But on the other side the small e

commerce companies are finding it difficult because may face difficulty in the future when

the MNC e commerce companies enter India.

Supply chain and the productivity growth

The most important impact of ecommerce is maintained supply chain and the productivity of

the products. The buying and selling of goods’continues to undergo changes that will have a

profound impact on the way companies manage their supply chains. Simply put, e-commerce

has altered the practice, timing, and technology of business-to-business and business-toconsumer

commerce. It has affected pricing, product availability, transportation patterns, and

consumer behavior in developed economy in India. Business-to-business electronic

commerce accounts for the vast majority of total e-commerce sales and plays a leading role in

supply chain network. In 2014, approximately 21 percent of manufacturing sales and 14.6

percent of wholesales are done in India.

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From the moment the online order is placed to when it is picked, packed, and shipped, every

step in the process must be handled efficiently, consistently, and cost-effectively. In ecommerce,

the distribution center provides much of the customer experience. Simply

delivering the goods is no longer an adequate mission for the fulfillment center’customer

satisfaction has to be a critical priority. The typical e-commerce consumer expects a wide

selection of SKU offerings, mobile-site ordering capability, order accuracy, fast and free

delivery, and free returns. Understanding how online consumers shop and purchase across

channels is critical to the success of online fulfillment. More consumers are browsing the

Internet for features and selection, testing products at brick-and-mortar stores, acquiring

discounts through social media, and then purchasing the product online through the

convenience of their mobile device. Some retailers,’including those that also sell through

catalogs’have been in the direct-to-consumer marketplace for some time. These companies

have fulfillment facilities established and information technologies in place to manage orders

with speed and efficiency, doing it well and profitably. But to many distribution executives,

online fulfillment poses a significant challenge to their existing knowledge, experience, and

resources.

5.3 SOCIAL FACTORS:

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Better comfort level and trust in online shopping:

‘ Consumers feel easy to access the ecommerce sites 24×7 support. Customer can do

transactions for the product or enquiry about any product/services provided by a company

anytime, anywhere from any location. Here 24×7 refers to 24 hours of each seven days of a

week.

‘ E-Commerce application provides user more options and quicker delivery of products.

‘ E-Commerce application provides user more options to compare and select the cheaper and

better option.

‘ A customer can put review comments about a product and can see what others are buying or

see the review comments of other customers before making a final buy.

‘ E-Commerce provides option of virtual auctions.

‘ Readily available information. A customer can see the relevant detailed information within

seconds rather than waiting for days or weeks.

Advantages to the society:

‘ Customers need not to travel to shop a product thus less traffic on road and low air pollution.

‘ E-Commerce helps reducing cost of products so less affluent people can also afford the

products.

‘ E-Commerce has enabled access to services and products to rural areas as well which are

otherwise not available to them.

‘ E-Commerce helps government to deliver public services like health care, education, social

services at reduced cost and in improved way.

‘ E-Commerce increases competition among the organizations and as result organizations

provides substantial discounts to customers.

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5.4 Technological factors:

Cloud computing in e commerce:

According to analysts, within 10 years’ time 80% of all computer usage worldwide, data

storage and e-commerce will be in the cloud. It is called the third phase of the internet.

During the first phase software and operating systems were combined to create a simple flow

of communication through ‘ for instance ‘ email. The second phase brought the user to the

World Wide Web, where he had access to millions of websites. This increased internet usage

by a factor of one hundred in only 2 years’ time. In the third phase everything is in the cloud,

both data and software.

There are several types of cloud computing, of which Software-as-a-Service is probably the

best-known. The others are Platform-as-a-Service (PaaS) and Infrastructure-as-a-Service

(IaaS).

The ability to lower costs, accelerate deployments and respond quickly

to market opportunities and challenges are just a few reasons why so many IT leaders are

leveraging cloud based e commerce applications. Given the variety of solutions, IT leaders

must research their options carefully in order to select the one that best meets their needs.

Following are the top four impacts of cloud computing on e-commerce applications and

steps IT leaders should take during their evaluation process.

It’s easy for business leaders to focus on the benefits of cloud computing without considering

the time and effort involved in implementing a viable solution. However, whatever cloud

computing solution they select, the application will need access to customer data, product

data, fulfilment systems and other operational systems in order to support e-commerce. Cue

the IT team.

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Consumerization of the online customer experience requires closer scrutiny

of e commerce:

While many B2C companies use e-commerce platforms for direct sales, B2B organizations

are also leveraging them to add transactional capabilities to their informational sites. In

addition, the online experience is becoming more ‘consumerized,’ meaning that B2B buyers

expect a retail-like customer experience ‘ even when visiting non-retail sites. Cloud solution

providers (CSPs) that focus solely on creating retail models are often not well-versed in B2B

requirements which can be more complex. As a result, their offerings don’t include B2B

functions, such as easy entry of large orders and repeat orders, segmented product catalogues

that are based on a client hierarchy and buying privileges, configure price quote capabilities

and extended payment terms. IT leaders have an unprecedented number of CSPs from which

to choose. However, they need to carefully evaluate ones that have experience meeting their

industry-specific needs, whether it’s B2B, B2C, or a combination of both.

Usage of bandwidth for E-commerce:

Transmission capacity of a communication channel is a major barrier for products that

require more graphical and video data. For this e commerce companies need higher

bandwidth than usual. These all depend on the no of the customers visiting websites, the

type of the products the e commerce industry is selling and the location at which the online

users are mostly visiting the website. These all are some of the factors that affect the usage

of bandwidth. Web processing is also some of the key factors that make e commerce

industry to run. Another key factor is: High cost of developing, purchasing new software,

licensing of software, integration into existing systems, costly e business solutions for

optimizations.

Benefits of using cloud computing over E-commerce:

‘ Trust. Cloud computing enables online store owners to use the same platform and use

the same functionality. That means that new features can be made available to

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everyone with a simple modification. Moreover, the maintenance is taken care of

centrally, which means that store owners can rely on a stable platform.

‘ Cost saving. In many cases this is the most important reason for companies to choose

cloud computing. Since companies do not need to purchase hardware or bandwidth,

costs can be decreased by 80%.

‘ Speed. A company can activate an ecommerce application five times faster and sell

directly through a platform that is managed remotely.

‘ Scalability. Cloud computing makes a company more elastic and able to respond to

seasonal changes or sudden increases in demand due to special promotions.

‘ Security. Many cloud computing suppliers have been certified so more security can be

guaranteed to customers.

‘ Data exchange. The explosive growth of cloud ecommerce will lead to more data

exchange between the clouds. Suppliers will offer more and more possibilities to add

features to their clouds for users, partners and others.

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CHAPTER 6

PERFORMANCE ANALYSIS

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6. FIRMS UNDER STUDY

‘ Flipkart

‘ Snapdeal

‘ Amazon

Four key metrics have been used to evaluate the performance of

E-Retailers in India.

1. Gross Margin

2. Subscriber Growth Rate

3. Average Order Size:

4. Percentage of Mobile Visits

6.1 Gross Margin (Financial year 2013-2014)

Online shopping in India is growing at a very fast clip. At the same time, there is an intense

competition in ecommerce space, especially among the top 3 players. There is aggressive

pricing and discounts are being paid by Venture Capitalists’ pockets.

Flipkart, Amazon and Snapdeal, all of them have raised investments or have commitments of

$1 Billion or more. This money is being burned to acquire new customers, offer discounts

and pump up products on offers. At the same time these sites are losing money, the quantum

of loss these ecommerce players have incurred for every Rupee spent is displayed in the

below figure.

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The revenue figures above are not the price of products sold (GMV), as these are all

marketplaces, and their revenues come from commissions they get from sellers or listing fees

that they charge to list the products on their site.

GMV or Gross Merchandize Value represents the price of products sold and net revenues are

just a fraction of that.

Flipkart leads the race with net revenue of 179 crore followed by Amazon at 168.9 crore and

Snapdeal at 154.11 crore.

However, when it comes to losses, Flipkart leads by a much bigger margin and their loss for

2013-14 stands at Rs. 400 Crore. Comparatively, Amazon losses are pegged at Rs. 321.3

crore and Snapdeal had least losses of 3 with 264.6 crore.

The figure below shows the loss each player incurs for every rupee in net revenues.

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Flipkart leads the race to losing 2.23 rupees for every 1 rupee of revenue. Amazon loses 1.90

and Snapdeal has least amount of losses at Rs. 1.72.

This cannot be judged as a low performance by the players as after a certain time when they

gain major part of market. Every product they sell would be a profit for them.

6.2 Subscriber Growth Rate

Flipkart was founded in the year 2007. By the end of year 2013 they have acquired 22

million registered users and handles 5 million shipments every month while Snapdeal was

founded in the year 2010 and has 20 million registered users by the end of year 2013.

Snapdeal has acquired customers in a quicker pace when compared to Flipkart, but this

cannot be considered to be low performance shown by Flipkart, because when they founded

e- retail in India, the people were not much familiar to e-commerce and online purchasing at

that period.

6.3 Average ordering size of Flipkart for Financial year 2011-2012

Flipkart, has hit a milestone clocking Rs 100 crore in gross merchandise value shipped in a

month for the first time in June 2012. The jump is from an average of around Rs 42 crore

financial year 2010-2011. Flipkart had clocked Rs 500 crore for the 12 months ended March

31, 2012.

In the year 2012 the number of daily orders has hit 25,000 mark (or seventeen orders per

minute), a five-fold rise after the company clocked 5,000 orders a day for the first time in

May 2011. Flipkart first clocked 1,000 orders a day in March 2010.

Average order size= Total Revenue/Number of Orders

=Rs.5000000000 / 25,000 x 365

=Rs.548

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6.4 Percentage of Mobile Visits

Mobile is now one of our most strategic channels for driving revenue and customer acquisition. The eretailers

are investing to build strong technology and marketing platforms that will allow them to

accelerate their growth on mobile

Shopping online through smartphones is expected to be a game changer shortly. In the year 2014

there were nearly 123 million smartphone users in India. Affordability of smartphones is

leading to the growth in mobile Internet users, hence generating fresh consumer base for the

online players. Mobile Internet users in India are estimated to be 120 million compared to 100 million

users using Internet on their personal computers.

Snapdeals

60 percent of Snapdeals orders are coming over mobile in the end of year 2014. It is growing really fast.

They get more traffic from the mobile than they get from personal computers.

Flipkart

Flipkart a year ago, less than 10 percent of their orders, transactions and visits used to come from mobile

commerce.

Now those numbers are greater than 50 percent for them. It is accelerating at a very rapid pace. Flipkart

is seeing more than 2 times or 3 times growth from the mobile front compared to desktop,

where Flipkart is growing overall but mobile is growing at a much faster pace.

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6.5 Top 10 Indian E-Commerce Sites Traffic Comparison

Stats have been taken for month of April 2014

Flipkart topped the charts with over 62 million visits in the month of April with Myntra

coming shade lower at 59.5 million. Given that both of them have now come together, purely

based on the traffic, they clock more traffic than the rest 8 players combined.

While we expected either Amazon or Snapdeal to grab the 3rd place in terms of traffic,

Jabong took the bronze position with 42.5 million visitors followed by Snapdeal (31.4

million).

Amazon.in clocked a respectable 27.6 million visits in month of April (Remember, they have

not even completed a year since launch as yet). Also, if you combine Junglee, which is

owned by Amazon, their traffic bulges to close to 40 million visits.

Infibeam and Tradus both have not been doing too well in terms of traffic. They clocked 3.4

million & 3 million respectively. Also, according to similar web, their traffic has been

steadily dropping over last 6 months. Both of them had close to 5 million visits at the start of

the year.

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Stats have been taken for month of April 2014

When it came to user engagement, Flipkart again reigned supreme with each visitor spending

an average of 8:35 minutes per visit. Ebay also had very high levels of engagement with 8:15

mins followed by Snapdeal (7:49 mins).

Myntra had surprisingly low (in fact lowest of all) visitor time spent at 3:04 minutes. Junglee

and Jabong were other two sites who had low visitor time spent.

Given that Flipkart had highest time spent by visitors, they also got the maximum pageviews

per visitor (8.53) followed by Ebay (8.04). Surprisingly, Tradus did quite well in terms of

page views with a average of 7.57 views per visit.

6.6 Conclusion

Ecommerce industry in India is in their blooming stage now. E-commerce including online

retail in India constitutes a small fraction of total sales, but is set to grow to a substantial

amount owing to a lot of factors such as rising disposable incomes, rapid urbanization,

increasing adoption and penetration of technology such as the internet and mobiles, rising

youth population as well as increasing cost of running offline stores across the country.

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media-and-ecommerce/

‘ http://www.atuljain7.com/consumer-centric-e-commerce-business-models-in-india

MACRO ENVIONMENTAL ANALYSIS

‘ https://www.academia.edu/3832983/Cloud_Computing_and_E-commerce

‘ http://www.bertramwelink.com/index.php/cloud-computing-taking-over-ecommercemarket/

‘ http://www.maaspros.com/blog/much-bandwidth-need-ecommerce-website

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higher-in-2015-assocham-pwc-study-114122900231_1.html

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‘ http://ecommercelawsinindia.blogspot.in/

COMPITITIVE ANALYSIS

‘ http://www.entrepreneurial-insights.com/threat-of-new-entrants-porters-five-forcesmodel/

‘ http://www.forbes.com/sites/greatspeculations/2014/11/24/ebay-through-the-lens-ofporters-

five-forces/

A Study on Indian E-Commerce Industry

49

MARKET SHARE VALUE

‘ http://www.business-standard.com/article/companies/jabongs-revenue-rose-50-times-infy13-

114112001047_1.html

‘ http://www.business-standard.com/article/companies/snapdeal-raises-100-mn-eyes-1bnrevenue-

this-year-114052100665_1.html

‘ https://www.google.co.in/search?q=naaptol+sales+revenue&rlz=1C1GGGE_enIN618IN618&

oq=naaptol+sales+revenue&aqs=chrome..69i57.8943j0j4

‘ http://articles.economictimes.indiatimes.com/2014-12-16/news/57112180_1_amazonindia-

ebay-india-latif-nathani

PERFORMANCE ANALYSIS

‘ http://blog.bigcommerce.com/7-key-ecommerce-metrics/

‘ http://trak.in/tags/business/2014/11/06/flipkart-amazon-snapdeal-revenues-lossescomparison/

‘ http://www.flipkart.com/

‘ http://www.snapdeal.com/

‘ http://trak.in/tags/business/2014/06/04/top-10-indian-e-commerce-sites-comparison/

‘ http://techcircle.vccircle.com/2012/07/03/excl-flipkart-hits-rs-100cr-monthly-sales-marknow-

serving-seven-orders-per-minute/

‘ http://www.medianama.com/2014/05/223-snapdeal-mobile-transactions/

‘ http://www.iamwire.com/2014/12/myntra-set-mobile-only-company-2015/107014

‘ http://gadgets.ndtv.com/mobiles/news/m-commerce-to-contribute-up-to-70-percentof-

online-shopping-experts-628106

GLOBAL AND INDIAN SCENARIO

‘ http://dipp.nic.in/English/Discuss_paper/Discussion_paper_ecommerce_07012014.pdf

‘ http://www.pwc.in/assets/pdfs/publications/2014/evolution-of-e-commerce-in-india.pdf

‘ http://www.iamwire.com/2015/01/e-commerce-vs-indian-e-commerce-identifying-missingpieces/

108066

Electronic banking

DEFINITION OF ELECTRONIC BANKING

The term electronic banking means all day access to cash through an Automated teller machine or direct deposit of pay checks into checking or savings account. But electronic banking involves many different types of transactions, rights, responsibilities and sometimes, fees. Electronic banking can also be defined in a very simple form, it can mean provision of information or services by a bank to its customers, via a computer, television, telephone, or mobile phone.

ORIGIN OF ELECTRONIC BANKING IN NIGERIA

During the Structural Adjustment Programme (SAP) in 1986, in Babangida regime brought to an end the kind of banking services rendered by the first generation of banks in Nigeria. The SAP changed the content of banking business. Just as the number of banks increases from 40 in 1985 to 125 in 1991, the SAP provided licence to more banks which posed more threat to existing ones and the more aggressive the marketing techniques adopted by them. In the process competition among themselves, the adoption of electronic banking was put in place in order to maintain a good competitive position.

EVOLUTION OF ELECTRONIC BANKING IN NIGERIA

Banking as come from a very long way from the periods of ledger card and other manual filling system to a period of computer age. Computerization in the banking industry was first introduced in the 1970s by Society General Bank (Nigeria) Limited. Until the mid-1990, the few banks that were computerised made use of the Local Area Network (LAN) within the banks. The sophisticated ones among the banks then implemented the WAN by linking branches within cities while one or two implemented intercity connectivity using leased lines (Salawu and Salawu, 2007).

Banks have adopted technology to their operations and have advanced from very simple and basic retail operations of deposits and cash withdrawal as well as cheque processing to the delivery of sophisticated products which came as a result of keen competition in view of unprecedented increases in the number of banks and branches. There was the need to modernize banking operation in the face of increased market pressure and customers demand for improved service delivery and convenience. According to Sanusi (2002) as cited by Dogarawa (2005). The introduction of e-banking (e-payment) products in Nigeria commenced in 1996 when the CBN granted All States Trust Bank approval to introduce a closed system electronic purse. It was followed in February 1997, with the introduction of similar product called ‘Pay card’, by Diamond Bank.

CBN additionally gave permission to a number of banks to introduce international money transfer products, on-line banking via the internet, and telephone banking though on a limited scale. It must also be stated that the deployment of Automated teller machine (ATM) by some banks to facilitate card usage and enhance their service delivery. Today, nearly all banks in Nigeria make use of a website. The service or ordering bank drafts or certified cheque made payable to third parties has also been increasingly automated (Irechukwu, 2000).

CHANNELS OF ELECTRONIC BANKING PRODUCT IN NIGERIA

The revolution in the Nigerian banking system which led to the increase in paid up capital from N2 billion to N25 billion effective from 1st of January 2006. This result to liquidation of weak banks in Nigeria that could not find merger partners. The revolution brought about changes to banking operations in Nigeria with aggressive competition among various banks. Each banks came up with new products, repackaged the old ones and came up with more efficient service delivery strategies. This more efficient service delivery was made possible through investment in information and communication technology (ICT) (Sanni, 2009). The huge investment in ICT has been the backbone of electronic banking, using different distribution channels. It should be noted that electronic banking is not just banking via the Internet. The term electronic banking can be described in many ways.

PC BANKING

Personal Computer used by customers allows the customer to use all e-banking facility at home without them going to the bank. It gives consumers a variety of services so they can move be able to move money between accounts, pay their bills, check their account balances, and buy and sell goods.

MOBILE BANKING

Mobile phones are used a lot for financial services in Nigeria. Banks enable their customers to conduct banking services such as account inquiry and funds transfer through the mobile telephone.

AUTOMATED TELLER MACHINE

This is an electronics device provided by the banks which allows bank’s customers to make to withdraw cash and to check their account balances at any time of the day without the need for a human teller. Many ATMs also allow people to transfer money between their bank accounts or even buy postage stamps. To withdraw cash, make deposits, or even transfer funds between accounts, you will insert your ATM card and enter your personal identification number known as pin. Some ATMs impose usage fee on consumer who are not member of their institution. ATMs must allow the customers to be aware of the fee that will be charged provided on the terminal screen or on a sign next to the screen. If one incurred a loss or stolen ATM card, he or she should notify the bank.

SMART CARDS

This is involves conducting of banking transactions through the use of electronic cards such as (Value Card, ATM Card, Debit Card, Credit Card etc.). It makes it easy for bank customers to have access to cash, carry out transfers and make enquiries about their accounts balance without them visiting the banking hall.

(i) Credit cards: These are cards that are plastic in nature encoded with electromagnetic identification. Credit cards allow the holders of the cards to make purchases without any immediate cash payment. Credit limit is fixed by the issuing banks based on the financial history of the user.

(ii) Debit card: When compare with credit cards is an instrument which enables an immediate charge or debt into cardholders account on the sales of goods and services made to him or her in other words the holder is using the balance standing in is deposit account

POINT OF SALE TERMINAL (POS)

A Point of Sales (POS) Terminal are machines that are used to accept cards for payment of goods and services. POS Terminal allows owners of card to have a real-time online access to funds and information in his or her bank account through the use of debit or cash cards.

TRANSACTION ALERT

Customers carry out debit or credit transactions on their accounts on daily basis and the need to keep track of those transactions prompted the creation of the alert system by the Bank to notify customers of those transactions when it take place. The alert system also notify or reach out to customers when necessary information need to be communicated.

ELECTRONIC DATA INTERCHANGE (EDI)

The transfer of information between organizations in machine readable form.

INTERNET BANKING

Internet banking permits bank customers to perform or conduct transaction on the account from any location across the world such as making enquiries, bills payment etc. with speedy respond through the web and email system online.

ELECTRONIC CHEQUE

This allows users of the internet to pay their bills directly over the internet without having to send the paper cheque.

BENEFIT OF ELECTRONIC BANKING

Electronic banking is important to both customers and banks in various ways

To banks;

(1) Improve customer service: Electronic banking allow banks to provide new, faster and better service to its customers, thereby, bringing up the banks to international standards and enhancing competition among other banks.

(2) Reliability of transaction: when transaction are done manually, error is prone to happen, but Electronic banking helps to ensure accurate and timely transactions.

(3) Satisfy: Electronic banking ensures the safety of bank dealing with their customers. Unsafe banking practice can cause huge loses to the bank especially in the cause of misrepresentation of account owners.

(4) Reduction in workload: Due to introduction in electronic banking the workload of the bank as reduce as more people conduct their various transactions electronically rather than them coming to the bank.

(5) Information: Electronic banking makes it easy for banks to convey information about their service to customers through the use of internet, banks can also easily communicate or send information to customers through the use of Electronic mail.

These are some of the services provided by banks to customers, they can also provide statement of account easily to their customers, by sending it to their e-mails, this will make it more comfortable for the customers.

To customer;

Electronic banking provide various benefit to customers such as;

(1) Availability of cash: Electronic banking makes it easy for customers to easily get cash any time they need it from their account, this is possible through the use of Automated Teller Machine (ATM)

(2) Stress Relieve: Since transaction can be done anywhere through the use of electronic banking, this will make customers comfortable.

(3) Payment of bills: It is easy for customers to pay their bills such as PHCN bills (Power holding company of Nigeria) Payment for DSTV card when it as expire. This is possible because banks as provide various means for this payment to occur such as Quick teller etc.

(4) Access to Information: Bank customers can easily get information from their banks about the provision of new product or about a problem that as occur.

(5) For Consumers: Increase convenience for customers, more service options for customers, reduced risk of cash-related crimes, cheaper access to banking services and access to credit.

REASONS FOR AUTOMATION OF BANKING OPERATION

According to Idowu (2005), the following are the reasons for adoption of e- banking in Nigeria; (a) to the bank

(1) Facilitation for easy decision making

(2) Availability of quality information

(3) Improve in service delivery

(4) Development of new product

(5) Savings in space and running costs

(6) Relevance among league of global financial institution.

(b) To the customer

(1) The quality of service they enjoy

(2) Reduction in time being spent at banking halls

(3) Confidentiality

(4) Statement of account obtain easily

(5) 24 hours service delivery.

(6) Customer account could be accessed almost anywhere in the world

(c) To the economy

(1) Creation of jobs

(2) Improvement in commerce

(3) Development in technology

(4) Data bank for National planning

CHALLENGES OF E-BANKING IN NIGERIA

Some of the problems facing electronic banking in Nigeria are;

(1) MONEY LAUNDERING: Money laundering can be defined as a derivation of washy money from illicit activities especially drugs trafficking, advance fee fraud and other forms illegal activities. Development in Electronic banking makes it possible to transact business electronically which can be used to launder money.

(2) FRAUD: Fraud which literally means a conscious and deliberate action by a person or group of persons with the intention of altering the truth or fact for selfish personal gain. The high exposure of the system to fraudsters, and other criminally minded persons who could access confidential information from the system if security measures are weak to check personal files is a challenge of electronic banking.

(3) CONSUMER PROTECTION: Another problem of electronic banking is the absence of regulatory body to protect the consumers of the product or services.

(4) SYSTEMS OPERATIONAL RISKS: Bank rest on the use of electronic banking to conduct business which could result to system failure.

(5) POOR NETWORK: Bad network is a major challenge facing electronic banking in Nigeria, poor network can lead to inability to withdraw money from the Automated Teller Machine (ATM), inability to send alert to the customer if money has been deposited into is account or if money has been deducted from is account.

(6) LITERACY ISSUES: This can be refer to as a situation when all targeted people are not educated, while some do not know how to make use of electronic banking. For instance, a dubious businessman may see a customer finding it difficult to operate the POS (POINT OF SALE) terminal and decided to deduct more than what the person consume.

THREATS OF CYBER ‘ CRIMES ON THE NIGERIAN BANKING PREMISES

Fraudsters or 419, which is one of the most popular of all internet frauds in Nigeria, Has its origin from Nigeria in the 1980s. Its development and spread started through the developments in information technology at inception. Later in the early 1990s, it became integrated into the telecommunication facilities such as fax and telephone from the late 1990s following the introduction of internet and computers, 419 crimes became prevalently perpetrated through the use of e-mail and other internet means (Amedu, 2005). The latest dimension taken by this fraudsters is the use of fake internet bank site, and using it to encourage victims to open accounts with them. These issues basically causes problem to electronic banking, which includes confidentiality, integrity and availability.

Several factors are responsible for the above situation. They include weakness of the judicial institutions to make and enforce laws on cyber-crimes; inordinate tolerance for corruption among Nigerian public and government agencies; unemployment among graduates, and the gap between the rich and the poor caused mainly by bad governance. In the main, erosion of good value principles and corruption constitute the greatest cause of rising cyber-crimes among Nigerian (Domestic electronic payment in Nigeria) (Amedu, 2005).

CUSTOMER SATISFACTION

Jamal (2003) defined customer satisfaction as the meeting of one’s expectations relating to the product used by the customer; these are sentiments and feelings about the product used by the customer. Previous studies (Schultz and Good, 2000; Churchill and Surprenant, 1982; and Patterson, (1993) they agreed that the service performance has direct impact on customer satisfaction. They believed that interaction between them and the customer plays a key role in organizational success or failure and customer satisfaction is a critical performance indicator. File and Prince, (1992) according to File and Prince they explained that satisfied customers will be loyal to the organization and they will tell others about their favourable experience thereby leading to positive word of mouth advertising. Sahereh et al, (2013) identified ten (10) factors influencing satisfaction as follows:

(1) Properly behaviour with friendly: Being polite and friendly to customers will definitely generate more customers and will make customer relationship with bank strong. Friendly service is a necessary condition for development of activities and impress a good name about the bank.

(2) To speed in delivery of services: Anything that leads to customer satisfaction will help them to reach their goal earlier.

(3) Accuracy in providing services: This factor wants to minimize in error rate of doing things and improving quality of work to the standards and acceptable by the people so as to result to the trust and confidence of customers and increasing their satisfaction.

(4) Standard-Oriented: If customers have to ensure that the relationship does not rule and providing facilities request them is done based on standard and criteria, trust isn’t deprive and will not lead to their disappointment.

(5) Interest of deposits: Without doubt depositors are attending to the actual interest that should be considered inflation and other costs carefully.

(6) Secrecy: The banks customers expect that bank personnel in maintaining statements of accounts function or other financial issues do not disclose their account to anybody even their closest relatives.

(7) Skills of personnel: based on the researches done the necessary conditions for employment post include: The ability to move, speed in the work, balancing, and the ability of such.

(8) Guiding and presenting the necessary information and helpful: The right guidance on how to use customers from service will result to the speed of work and customer satisfaction.

(9) Discipline: Discipline is a very important features in all aspect of human life. Discipline led to focusing on the work and higher level of service delivery.

(10) Ease of access to services: Banks could easily apply to most services, this will result to greater customer satisfaction.

BANK CUSTOMER RELATIONSHIP

Bank customer relationship, is a special contract where a person entrusts valuable items (the customer) with another person (the bank) with the intention that such items shall be retrieved on demand from the keeper by the person who so entrust. The banker is the one entrusted with above mentioned valuable items, while the person who entrust the items a view to retrieving it on demand is called the customer.

The relationship between the bank and customer is based on contract. It is based on certain terms and conditions. For instance, the customer has the right to collect his money on demand personally or by proxy. The banker is under obligation to pay, so long the proxy is duly authorized by the customer. The terms and conditions governing the relationship should not be allowed to be leaked to a third party, particularly by the banker. Also the items kept should not be released to a third party without authorization by the customer.

A key issue here is how to handle the rising level of frauds prevalent in the entire banking system, and how to make the Internet banking fit so well in the banking structure of a country.

GUIDELINES ON ELECTRONIC BANKING IN NIGERIA

TECHNOLOGY AND SECURITY STANDARDS

CBN will monitor the technology acquisitions of banks, and all investments in technology, which exceed 10% of free funds, will henceforth be subject to approval. Where banks use third parties or outsource technology, banks are required to comply with the CBN guidelines.

STANDARDS FOR COMPUTER NETWORKS & INTERNET

(a) Networks used for transmission of financial data must be demonstrated to meet the requirements specified for data confidentiality and integrity.

(b) Banks are required to deploy a proxy type firewall to prevent a direct connection between the banks back end systems and the Internet.

(c) Banks are required to ensure that the implementation of the firewalls addresses the security concerns for which they are deployed.

(d) For dial up services, banks must ensure that the modems do not circumvent the firewalls to prevent direct connection to the bank’s back end system.

(e) External devices such as Automated Teller Machines (ATMs), Personal Computers, (PC’s) at remote branches, kiosks, etc. permanently connected to the bank’s network and passing through the firewall must at the minimum address issues relating to non-repudiation, data integrity and confidentiality. Banks may consider authentication via Media Access Control (MAC) address in addition to other methods.

(f) Banks are required to implement proper physical access controls over all network infrastructures both internal and external.

STANDARDS ON PROTOCOLS

Banks must take additional steps to ensure that whilst the web ensures global access to data enabling real time connectivity to the bank’s back-end systems, adequate measures must be in place to identify and authenticate authorized users while limiting access to data as defined by the Access Control List.

Banks are required to ensure that unnecessary services and ports are disabled.

Standards on Application and System Software

(a) Electronic banking applications must support centralized (bank-wide) operations or branch level automation. It may have a distributed, client server or three tier architecture based on a file system or a Database Management System (DBMS) package. Moreover, the product may run on computer systems of various types ranging from PCs, open systems, to proprietary main frames.

(b) Banks must be mindful of the limitations of communications for server/client-based architecture in an environment where multiple servers may be more appropriate.

(c) Banks must ensure that their banking applications interface with a number of external sources. Banks must ensure that applications deployed can support these external sources (interface specification or other CBN provided interfaces) or provide the option to incorporate these interfaces at a later date.

(d) A schedule of minimum data interchange specifications will be provided by the CBN.

(e) Banks must ensure continued support for their banking application in the event the supplier goes out of business or is unable to provide service. Banks should ensure that at a minimum, the purchase agreement makes provision for this possibility.

(f) The bank’s information system (IS) infrastructure must be properly physically secured. Banks are required to develop policies setting out minimum standards of physical security.

(g) Banks are required to identify an ICT compliance officer whose responsibilities should include compliance with standards contained in these guidelines as well as the bank’s policies on ICT.

(h) Banks should segregate the responsibilities of the Information Technology (IT) security officer / group which deals with information systems security from the IT division, which implements the computer systems

STANDARD ON DELIVERY CHANNELS

Mobile Telephony: Mobile phones are increasingly being used for financial services in Nigeria. Banks are enabling the customers to conduct some banking services such as account inquiry and funds transfer. Therefore the following guidelines apply:

(a) Networks used for transmission of financial data must be demonstrated to meet the requirements specified for data confidentiality, integrity and non- repudiation.

(b) An audit trail of individual transactions must be kept.

Automated Teller Machines (ATM): In addition to guidelines on e-banking in general, the following specific guidelines apply to ATMs:

(a) Networks used for transmission of ATM transactions must be demonstrated to meet the guidelines specified for data confidentiality and integrity.

(b) In view of the demonstrated weaknesses in the magnetic stripe technology, banks should adopt the chip (smart card) technology as the standard, within 5 years. For banks that have not deployed ATMs, the expectation is that chip based ATMs would be deployed. However, in view of the fact that most countries are still in the magnetic stripe conversion process, banks may deploy hybrid (both chip and magnetic stripe) card readers to enable the international cards that are still primarily magnetic stripe to be used on the ATMs.

(c) Banks will be considered liable for fraud arising from card skimming and counterfeiting except where it is proven that the merchant is negligent. However, the cardholder will be liable for frauds arising from PIN misuse.

(d) Banks are encouraged to join shared ATM networks.

(e) Banks are required to display clearly on the ATM machines, the Acceptance Mark of the cards usable on the machine.

(f) All ATMs not located within bank premises must be located in a manner to assure the safety of the customer using the ATM. Appropriate lighting must be available at all times and a mirror may be placed around the ATM to enable the individual using the ATM to determine the locations of persons in their immediate vicinity.

(g) ATMs must be situated in such a manner that passers-by cannot see the key entry of the individual at the ATM directly or using the security devices.

(h) ATMs may not be placed outside buildings unless such ATM is bolted to the floor and surrounded by structures to prevent removal.

(I) Additional precaution must be taken to ensure that any network connectivity from the ATM to the bank or switch are protected to prevent the connection of other devices to the network point.

(j) Non-bank institutions may own ATMs, however such institutions must enter into an agreement with a bank for the processing of all the transactions at the ATM. If an ATM is owned by a non-bank institution, processing banks must ensure that the card readers, as well as, other devices that capture/store information on the ATM do not expose information such as the PIN number or other information that is classified as confidential. The funding (cash in the ATM) and operation of the ATM should be the sole responsibility of the bank. (k) Where the owner of the ATM is a financial institution, such owner of the ATM must also ensure that the card reader as well as other devices that capture information on the ATM does not expose/store information such as the PIN number or other information that is classified as confidential to the owner of the ATM.

(l) ATMs at bank branches should be situated in such a manner as to permit access at reasonable times. Access to these ATMs should be controlled and secured so that customers can safely use them within the hours of operations. Deplorers are to take adequate security steps according to each situation subject to adequate observance of standard security policies.

(m) Banks are encouraged to install cameras at ATM locations. However, such cameras should not be able to record the keystrokes of such customers.

(n) At the minimum, a telephone line should be dedicated for fault reporting, and such a number shall be made known to users to report any incident at the ATM. Such facility must be manned at all times the ATM is operational.

INTERNET BANKING

Banks should put in place procedures for maintaining the bank’s Web site which should ensure the following:-

(a) Only authorized staff should be allowed to update or change information on the Web site.

(b) Updates of critical information should be subject to dual verification (e.g. interest rates)

(c) Web site information and links to other Web sites should be verified for accuracy and functionality.

(d) Management should implement procedures to verify the accuracy and content of any financial planning software, calculators, and other interactive programs available to customers on an Internet Web site or other electronic banking service.

(e) Links to external Web sites should include a disclaimer that the customer is leaving the bank’s site and provide appropriate disclosures, such as noting the extent, if any, of the bank’s liability for transactions or information provided at other sites.

(f) Banks must ensure that the Internet Service Provider (ISP) has implemented a firewall to protect the bank’s Web site where outsourced.

(g) Banks should ensure that installed firewalls are properly configured and institute procedures for continued monitoring and maintenance arrangements are in place.

(h) Banks should ensure that summary-level reports showing web-site usage, transaction volume, system problem logs, and transaction exception reports are made available to the bank by the Web administrator.

LEGAL ISSUES

(a) Banks are obliged not only to establish the identity of their Customers (KYC principle) but also enquire about their integrity and reputation. To this end, accounts should be opened only after proper introduction and physical verification of the identity of the customer.

(b) Digital signature should not be relied on solely as evidence in e-banking transactions, as there is presently no legislation on electronic banking in Nigeria

(c) There is an obligation on banks to maintain secrecy and confidentiality of customer’s accounts. In e-banking scenario, there is the risk of banks not meeting the above obligation. Banks may be exposed to enhanced risk of liability to customers on account of breach of secrecy, denial of service etc. because of hacking /other technological failures. Banks should, therefore, institute adequate risk control measures to manage such risks.

(d) Banks should protect the privacy of the customer’s data by ensuring:

(1) That customer’s personal data are used for the purpose for which they are compiled. (2) Consent of the customer must be sought before the Data is used

(3) Data user may request, free of cost for blocking or rectification of inaccurate data or enforce remedy against breach of confidentiality

(4) Processing of children’s data must have the consent of the parents and there must be verification via regular mail.

(5) Strict criminal and pecuniary sanctions are imposed in the event of default.

(e) In e-banking, there is very little scope for the banks to act on stop payment instructions from the customers. Hence, banks should clearly notify the customers the time frame and the circumstances in which any stop-payment instructions could be accepted.

(f) While recognizing the rights of consumers under the Nigerian Consumer Protection Council Act, which also apply to consumers in banking services generally, banks engaged in e-banking should endeavour to insure themselves against risks of unauthorized transfers from customers account’s, through hacking, denial of services on account of technological failure etc., to adequately insulate themselves from liability to the customers.

(g) Agreements reached between providers and users of e-banking products and services should clearly state the responsibilities and liabilities of all parties involved in the transactions.

12 years a slave: college essay help

According to Drew Faust, author of Culture, Conflict, and Community, There was a slave owner named James Henry Hammond who did not really have any idea of how to control the slaves. He did not know what to do and how to command them. He had been married into it. He began to listen to his friends who had suggested to ‘Be kind to them make them feel an obligation and by all means keep all other Negros away from the place, and make yours stay at home- and raise their church to the ground-keep them from fanaticism for God’s sake and your own.’ So he did just that. He began to tear down churches just so they could assimilate more into the white Churches and hopefully show up by taking their churches away. They began to become less religious for quite some time but then they began to rise up again. They started to act lazy and defiant because of the lack of authority. ‘The slaves, accustomed to a far less rigorous system of management, resented his attempts and tried to undermine his drive for efficiency.’ Because of the disobedience he began to severely punish them. Constantly beat them senseless if they did not follow orders. That was the norm throughout most slave owners. They would casually beat their slaves for disobeying their master and sometimes even for the hell of it. This is evidently clear in 12 years a Slave.

In 12 Years a Slave, an African American man named Solomon Northup is a free man in the North, living in New York with this wife and two children. He is a savvy violinist and is approached by two individuals asking if he wants to perform for a circus they are opening up in Washington which would pay greatly. He agrees but is drugged and sent back to the South under the name Platt, a runaway slave from Georgia. He gets sold to a plantation but is later sent to another. The reason why will be later stated. In this second plantation, his owner John Epps is known as not being the nicest slave owner. He was actually known for being incredibly cruel for those who disobey his order. He interprets the bible in a way saying that if the slaves were to disobeyed their master they would get 100 slashes if necessary. Epps would have the slaves pick cotton. The average pounds picked by slaves were 200 pounds and whoever didn’t meet the average would get whipped. Northup would usually not meet the quota so he would usually take part of those lashings. Epps would lash out at slaves when he didn’t get what he wanted. His wife would also beat one of the slaves because of jealousy towards her.

Now of course most slave owners are not usually that mean when it comes to the way they treat their slaves. According to Faust before Hammond took the course of action to beat the slaves for their disobedience, he began to kind of give slaves some of what they asked for. After he took away their churches and they failed to join the white churches he began to become more lenient and allowed a traveling minister just for slave services. ‘For a number of years he hired itinerant ministers for Sunday afternoon slave services.’ He would also imply a system of reward for those who did well in their task, instead of not getting any gratitude. Of course he would still punish those that failed in their duties but I suppose it is a start. ‘Hammond seemed not so much to master as to manipulate his slaves, offering a system not just of punishments, but pf positive inducements, ranging from contests to single out the most diligent hands, to occasional rituals of rewards for all, such as Christmas holidays; rations of sugar, tobacco, and coffee; or even pipes sent to all adult slaves from Europe when Hammond departed on the Grand Tour’ So as you can see sometimes some slave owners would be kinder to their slaves than most other slave owners.

In 12 Years a Slave, this is evident as well. Northup, during the slave auction gets sold to a plantation owner named William Ford. Ford tries to convince the seller to give sell him the daughter of a woman he was buying just to keep their family together but the man wouldn’t budge after Ford practically begged for her. Once they all arrive to the farm, Northup works and shows his ingenuity by impressing Ford with a waterway that will help transport logs quickly and cheaper. Ford’s carpenter, John Tibeats, said that couldn’t work and when it did he quickly resented Northup for it. One day he began to harass Northup and they both got into a scuffle in which Northup won but Tibeats threatened him. Ford’s overseer Chapin came and told him to stay on the plantation because if he left he would not be able to protect him. Tibeats came back later with two of his friends and began to lynch Northup. That’s when Chapin came and rescued him from the three men and warned them with a gun pointing at them saying that Ford held a mortgage on Platt and if they hung him, he would lose that money. He then told them to leave Northup and run away. Chapin then left Northup on his tip toes just so the noose won’t wring his neck all day until Ford came and rescued him. That night, Ford keeps Northup in the house protecting him and tells him in order to save his life he has given his debt to Epps. This shows how tender and nice some slave owners were compared to some cruel slave owners like Epps.

Elizabeth Keckley

Elizabeth Keckley’s life was an eventful one. Born a slave in Dinwiddie Court-House, Virginia, from slave parents, she did not have it easy, as her early years were crowded with incidents.

She was only four year old when her mistress, Mrs. Burwell delivered a beautiful black-eyed baby, whose care was assigned to Elizabeth, a child herself. This task didn’t seem very hard to her, as she had been educated to serve others and to rely much on herself. If she met Mrs. Burwell’s expectations, it would be her passport into the plantation house, where she could work alongside her mother, who did most of the cooking and sewing in the family. Trying to rock the cradle as hard as she could, she dropped the baby on the floor and immediately panicked, attempting to pick it up with the fire-shovel, until her mistress came into the room and started screaming at her. It was then that she received her first lashing, but that would not be her last punishment. It was the one she would remember most, though.

At seven years old, Elizabeth saw a slave sale for the first time. Her master had just acquired the hogs he needed for the winter and didn’t have enough money for the purchase. To avoid the shame of not being able to pay, he decided to sell one of his slaves, little Joe, the cook’s son. His mom was kept in oblivion, in spite of her suspicions. She was told little Joe was coming back the next morning, but mornings passed and his mother never saw him again.

By the time she was eight, the Burwell family had four daughters and six sons, with a large number of servants. She didn’t see much of her father, as he served a different master, but it was also because they were enable to be together as a family only twice a year, at Christmas and during the Easter holidays. Her mother, Agnes, was thrilled when Mr. Burwell made arrangements for her husband to come live with them, and little Lizzie, as her father used to call her, was ecstatic to finally have her family together. That only lasted until Mr. Burwell came on one fine day bringing with him a letter saying that her father had to leave to the West with his master, where he had decided to relocate. And that was the last time she ever saw her dad.

Another memory that Elizabeth could not shake was the death of one her uncles, another slave of Mr. Burwell’s. After one day, he lost his pair of plough-lines, but Colonel Burwell offered him another, a new one, and told him he would be punished if he lost those too. But a couple weeks later his new pair got stolen and he hung himself for fear of his master’s reaction. It was Lizzie’s mother that found him the next morning, suspended by one of the willow’s solid branches, down by the river. He chose taking his life over the punishment from his master.

Because they didn’t have any slaves of their own, at 14 Lizzie was separated from her mom and given as a chore girl to her master’s oldest son, who lived in Virginia. His wife was a helpless, morbidly sensitive girl, with little parenting skills. Reverend Robert Burwell was earning very little money, so he couldn’t afford to buy Elizabeth, only to benefit from her services thanks to his father. Living with the minister, she had to do the work of three people, and they still didn’t find her trustworthy. By the time she was 18, Elizabeth had grown into a proud, beautiful young woman. It was around that time that the family moved to Hillsboro, in Northern Carolina, where the minister was assigned a church of his own.

Mr. Bingham, the school principal, was an active member of the church and a frequent visitor of the church house. He was a harsh, pitiless man who became the mistress’s tool in punishing Lizzie, as Mrs. Burwell was always looking for vengeance against her for one reason or another. Mr. Burwell was a kind man, but was highly influenced by his wife and took after her behavior fairly often. One night, after Elizabeth had just put the baby to sleep, Mr. Bingham told her to follow him to his office , where she was asked to take her clothes off because he was going to whip her. Then she did something that no slave had ever done. She refused. She dared him to give her a reason or otherwise he would have to force her, which he did. She was too proud to give him the pleasure of seeing her suffer, so she just stood there like a statue, with her lips firmly closed, until it was over. When he finally let her go, she went straight to her master and asked for an explanation, but Mr. Burwell didn’t react in any way, and only told her to leave. When she refused to go, the minister hit her with a chair. Lizzie couldn’t sleep that night, and it wasn’t from the physical pain, but more from the mental torture she had suffered. Her spirit stoically refused this unjust behavior and as much as she tried, she couldn’t forgive those who had it inflicted it upon her.

The next day all she wanted was a kind word from those who had made her suffer, but that didn’t happen. Instead, she continued to be lashed on a regular basis by Mr. Bingham, who convinced Mrs. Burwell it was the right thing to do to cure her pride and stubbornness. Lizzie continued to resist him, more proud and defiant every time, until one day he started crying in front of her, telling her she didn’t deserve it and he couldn’t do it anymore. He even asked Lizzie for forgiveness and from that day on he never hit one of his slaves ever again.

When Mr. Bingham refused to perform his duty anymore, it was Mr. Burwell’s turn to do it, urged by his jealous wife. Elizabeth continued to resist though, and eventually her attitude softened their hearts and they promised to never beat her again, and they kept their promise.

Sadly, this kind of event was not the only thing that caused her pain during her residence at Hillsboro. Because she was consider fair-looking for one of her race, she was abused by a white man for more than four years, when she got pregnant and gave birth to a boy, the only child she ever had. It wasn’t a child that she wanted to have, because of the society that she was part of, as a child of two races would always be frowned upon and she didn’t want him to suffer like she did.

The years passed and many things happened during that time. One of Elizabeth’s old mistress’s daughters, Ann, married Mr. Garland, and Lizzie went to live with them in Virginia, where she was reunited with her mother. The family was poor and couldn’t afford a living in Virginia, so Mr. Garland decided to move away from his home to the banks of Mississippi, in search of better luck. Unfortunately, moving didn’t change anything, and the family still didn’t have the resource needed to make a living. It got to a point where they were considering putting Agnes, her mother, out of service. Lizzie was outraged by the idea that her mom, who was raised in this family and grew up to raise their children years later and love them as her own, would have to go work for strangers. She would have done anything to prevent this from happening. And she did. She convinced Mr. Garland to let find someplace to work to help the family and to keep her mother close to her. It wasn’t hard to find work , and she soon had quite a reputation as a seamstress and dress-maker. All the ladies came to her for dresses and she never lacked clients. She was doing so well that she managed to support a seventeen-member family for almost two and a half years. Around that time, Mr. Keckley, whom she had met earlier in Virginia, and regarded with a little more than friendship, came to St. Louis and proposed to her. She refused at first, saying that she had to think about his offer, but what scared her was the thought of giving birth to another child that would live in slavery. She loved her son enormously, but she always felt it was unfair for the free side of him, the Anglo-Saxon blood that he had, to be silenced by the slave side that he was born with. She wanted him to have the freedom that he deserved. After thinking about it for a long time, he decided to go to Mr. Garland and asked him the price she should pay for her freedom and her son’s. he dismissed her immediately and told her to never say such a thing ever again, but she couldn’t stop thinking about it. With all the respect the had for her master, she went to see him again and asked him what was the price she had to pay for herself and her son to be free.

He finally gave in to her requests and told her that 1200$ was the price of her freedom. This gave her a silver lining to the dark cloud of her life and with a perspective of freedom she agreed to marry Mr. Keckley and start a family with him. But years passed and she couldn’t manage to save that amount of money because her duties with the family were overwhelming and she didn’t leave much time for anything. Also, her husband, Mr. Keckley, proved to be more of a burden than a support for her and the boy. Meanwhile Mr. Garland died and Elizabeth was given to another master, a Mississippi planter, Mr. Burwell, a compassionate man who told her she should be free and he would help with anything she needed to raise the amount of money needed to pay for this freedom.

Several plans were thought through, until Lizzie decided she should go to New York and appeal to people’s generosity to help her carry out her plan. All was set; all she needed now was six men to vouch with their money for her return. She had lots of friends in St. Louis and didn’t think it would be a problem, and she easily gathered the first five signatures. The sixth one was Mr. Farrow, an old friend of hers, and she didn’t think he would refuse her. He didn’t, but he didn’t believe she would came back either. Elizabeth was puzzled that he didn’t believe in her cause, and she couldn’t accept his signature if he really thought it was the final goodbye from her. She went home and started to cry, looking at her ready-to-go trunk and at the luncheon her mother had prepared for her, believing that her dream of freedom was nothing but a dream and she and her son would die slaves, the same way they were born.

And then something happened, something she never expected. Mrs. Le Bourgois, one of her patrons, walked in and changed her world around. She said it wouldn’t be fair for her to beg strangers for money and it was the ones who knew her that should help her. She would give her 200$ from her and mother and she would ask all her friends do help Elizabeth. She was successful and rapidly managed to find the 1200$ Elizabeth needed. And that was it. Lizzie and her sixteen year old son, George, were finally free. Free to go anywhere they wanted. Free to start over and to have the life they always wanted. Free by the laws of men and by the smile of God.

Critical review II: The Dependency theory

Latin American countries have always been exposed to western influence. With its neo-liberalist stance the west encourages Latin America to open up its trade and cooperate with the west. During the 1960s many countries wanted to keep Western influence outside because they were convinced that this would negatively influence their development. A consequence of this attitude was the development of a theory that criticized the western liberalist stance; the dependency theory. Dependency theory criticizes western modernity. This critical stance can be explained by the fact that Latin America is historically exposed to the political, economic, cultural and intellectual influence of the US and its recurrent attempt to diminish US domination (Tickner 2008:736). The region, being part of the non-core, wants their understanding of global realities to be explored. (Tickner 2003b). However, the theory has been influenced by the west and thereby has lost strength. Moreover, its empirical validity has been questioned. For the above mentioned reasons the theory is hardly used anymore. It should not be forgotten, however, that the theory has some qualities which do contribute to the field of international relations. First this essay will discuss the post-colonial argument that dependency theory is not critical enough and gives an explanation why the theory is Eurocentric. Afterwards it will discuss its empirical validity and finally it addresses the theory its contribution to the field of international relations. Dependency theory originated in the 1960s in Latin America. Frank, the leading theorist, argues that due to the capitalist system, developing countries are underdeveloped and development is impossible as long as they remain in the capitalist system (Frank 1969). Opposed to Frank, Cardoso and Faletto argue that development is possible despite structural determination and that the local state has an important role, they call it associated dependent development ((1979:xi). Yet, both Frank and Cardoso and Falleto eventually argue that dependency paths need to be broken by constructing paths toward socialism. The dependency theorists are thus critical of Western liberalism. As mentioned above, dependency theory attempts to criticize western-modernity. Post-colonialism, however, argues that dependency theory is not counter-modernist and not critical enough. Post-colonial theorists, in contrast to many conventional theorists, state that attention to colonial origins is needed to get a better understanding of the expansion of the world order (Seth 2011). Dependency theory does pay attention to its colonial origins. For example, Frank argues that dependency occurred historically through slavery and colonialism and continues today through western dominance of the international trading system, the practices of multinational companies and the LDC’s reliance on Western aid (Frank 1969). However, post-colonialism does criticize the way how dependency theorists address the colonial origins. The first critique stems from the fact that the homogenizing and incorporating world historical scheme of dependency ignores, domesticates, or transcends difference. It does not take into account the differences in histories, cultures and peoples (Said, 1985: 22).The second critique stems from the fact that to get a sufficient understanding of the emergence of the modern international system, it should not be examined how an international society that developed in the West radiated outwards, but rather the ways in which international society was shaped by interactions between Europe and those it colonized. (Seth 2011:174). Pos-colonalists, however, argue that dependency theory is Eurocentric. Dependency theorists are not aware of the way in which culture frames their own analysis. While trying to look at imperialism from the perspective of the periphery, dependistas fail to do this (Kapoor 2002:654). For dependistas the ‘centre’ continues to be central and dominant so that the West ends up being consolidated as sovereign subject. Dependency’s ethnocentrism appears in its historical analysis as well. Dependistas use the way how capitalism developed in Europe as a universal model that stands for history and see developing countries as examples of failed or dependent capitalism. (Kapoor 2002:654) Post colonialism thus would argue that while challenging the current capitalist system, dependency theory is not critical enough because it does not adequately address history and culture and is Eurocentric. Tickner (2008) may provide an explanation of why dependency theory is not critical enough and why it is described in terms of adherence to the capitalist system dominated by the west. IR thinking in Latin America is influenced by -among other things- US intellectual knowledge. As Tickner argues, dependency theory is not a genuine non-core theory but it is influenced by US analysts. According to Cardoso (1977) this led to severe distortions in its original contents because it local internal problems of greatest concern to social scientists in Latin America became invisible and external factors such as US intervention and multinational corporations were prioritized. Furthermore, IR thinking in that region has been influenced by conventional theories. For example, through the influence of realism in Latin America, much attention was paid to the role of the elite and furthermore, theorists were concerned with the concept of power but replaced it with a more suitable concept autonomy (Tickner 2008:742).Thus the influence of US IR knowledge and conventional theories may have contributed to the fact that dependency theory is not critical enough and has lost its influence. Although post-colonialism addresses dependency’s problem – that is does not sufficiently addresses culture because of its sole focus on capitalism – it should be noted that not only culture is not taken into account but a whole range of other factors which could help explain underdevelopment are left out the theory as well. This shortcoming clarifies why dependency theory is empirical invalid.For example, dependency does not address local, physical, social or political forces that might have had a role in the inability to generate industrial development and does not acknowledge that imperialism is only partly responsible for underdevelopment (Smith 1981). As Smith argues; ”dependency theory exaggerates the explanatory power of economic imperialism as a concept to make sense of historical change in the south” (1981:757). Smith rightly points out that in some instances dependistas do recognize the influence of local circumstances but this is only so to reaffirm ultimately the overriding power of economic imperialism. Moreover, the theory does not pay any attention to the positive effects that the contact with the international system can provide for developing countries. Thus, dependistas solely look at economic power and state that as long as countries remain part of the international capitalist system development is impossible. The only way to escape is to isolate from this system or if the colonizer relinquishes political power. (Kapoor 656) However, South-Korea’s development shows the invalidity of this argument. South-Korea experienced rapid growth during the 1970s despite its dependency on the US. The case of South-Korea shows that development is possible despite dependency and that dependency can have positive effects. Another case which shows dependency’s invalidity is Ghana. During the 1980s Ghana adopted dependency policies that were consistent with the denial of the relevance of the western economic principles and tried to keep western influence outside. However, instead of bringing prosperity and greater independence for the Ghanasian economy, these policies caused poverty and greater dependence on international aid or charity (Ahiakpor 1985:13). The dependency policies did not support Ghana’s development because it only focused on capitalism without taking other factors into account. The theory thus has significant shortcomings which explains its loss of influence. However, it should be noted that the theory has some qualities as well. Despite its homogenizing and Eurocentric history, the theory is aware that history is an important factor. The advantage of dependency’s structural-historical perspective is that broad patterns and trends can be recognized. Moreover, it allows one to learn from past mistakes to change the future (Kapoor 2002:660). On top of that, as Wallerstein argues ”One of the crucial insights and contributions of dependency is the conceptualization of the unicity of the world system” (1974:3). It clearly describes how the world is incorporated in the capitalist system and it shows the importance of economic considerations on political issues. Furthermore, it addresses the importance of local elites and foreign companies to the internal affairs of weak states whereby it provides an analytical framework. (Smith 1981:756). For example, Cardoso and Faletto argue that if there is no strong local state, the ruling elite may ally themselves with foreign companies pursuing their own interests and this way upholding dependency and underdevelopment. This analysis is applicable to Congo and shows for example that Congo’s development is restrained because a strong local state is absent and the local elite allies with foreign companies pursuing their own interests (Reno 2006). In short, dependency theory has lost influence because – from a post-colonial perspective – it is not counter-modernist and not critical enough. It does not adequately address history and culture and is Eurocentric. Moreover, it is empirically invalid because it solely focuses on capitalism without taking other factors into account. In contrast to what dependistas argue, dependent development is possible within the capitalist system and the proposed isolation from this system may even worsen the economy instead of bringing prosperity. However, the theory did influence foreign policymakers and analysts not only in Latin America but also in Africa between the 1960s and the 1980s and it is still useful because it provides an analytical framework on which other analysts can elaborate.

Data Acquisition and Analysis – Curve fitting and Data Modelling: college application essay help

1 Part 1: Track B: Linear Fitting Scheme to Find Best-Fit Values

Introduction

In a linear regression problem, a mathematical model is used to examine the relationship between two variables i.e. the independent variables and dependent variable (the independent variable is used to predict the dependent variable).

This is achieved by using the least square method using excel plotting data values and drawing a straight line to derive the best fit values. A nonlinear graph was obtained on plotting the data points provided but the least square method applied obtained a linear graph with a straight line which estimated and minimized the squared difference between the total sum of the data values and model values.

Aim

The aim of this coursework Part1, Track B is to carryout data analysis assessment with respect to linear model fitting by manual calculation working obtaining the best-fit values with the decay transient data provided in table 1 below which is implemented using excel.

Time (sec) Response (v)

0.01 0.812392

0.02 0.618284

0.03 0.425669

0.04 0.328861

0.05 0.260562

0.06 0.18126

0.07 0.1510454

0.08 0.11254

0.09 0.060903

0.1 0.070437

Table 1.1: data for decay transient

Methodology

The data in the table 1.1 above represents decay transient which can be modelled as an exponential function of time as shown below:

V(t)=V_0 exp'(-t/??) ”””””””””””””’ (1.1)

The equation above is nonlinear; to make it linear the natural logarithm method is applied

Logex = Inx ”””””””””””””””. (1.2)

From the mathematical equation of a straight line

Y = mx + c”””””””””””””””. (1.3)

Y = a0 + a1x + e””””””””””””””. (1.4)

Y = Inx”””””””””””””””’… (1.5)

In this case

Y = InV”””””””””””””””’… (1.6)

So,

InV = InV0 + Ine(-t/??) ””””””””””””’. (1.6)

But Inex = x; eInx = x

InV = InV0 ‘ t/”””””””””””””’??. (1.7)

Applying natural logarithm method to the equation obtained two coefficients InV0 and t/?? which represent a0 and a1 respectively from equation (1.4)

The normal equation for a straight line can be written in matrix form as:

[‘(n&’[email protected]’xi&”xi’^2 )] {‘([email protected])} = {‘(‘[email protected]’xiyi)} ”””””””””.””. (1.8)

This is separated to give

[‘(‘(1&1)&’&[email protected]'(xi&x2)&’&xn)] [‘(‘([email protected])&'([email protected])@’&’@1&xn)]{‘([email protected])} = [‘(‘(1&1)&’&[email protected]'(x1&x2)&’&xn)] [‘(‘([email protected])@’@yn)] ””’.””. (1.9)

From (1.9) the general linear least squares fit equation is given as

[[Z^T ] [Z]]{A}= {[Z^T ] {Y}}

The main purpose is to calculate for {A} (InV0 and t/??) which are the coefficients of the linear equation in (1.7). Matrix method using excel is used to achieve this by finding values for [Z],[Z^T ],[Z^T ][Z],[Z^T ][Y],’and[[Z^T ] [Z]]’^(-1).

The table below shows the calculated values for InV when natural logarithm was applied to the response V using excel.

Table 1.2: Excel table showing calculated values for InV

[Z]= [‘(1&[email protected]&[email protected]&[email protected]&[email protected]&[email protected]&[email protected]&[email protected]&[email protected]&[email protected]&0.1) ]

The transpose of [Z] is given as

[Z]= [‘(1&1&1&1&1&1&1&1&1&[email protected]&0.02&0.03&0.04&0.05&0.06&0.07&0.08&0.09&0.1)]

The product of [Z^T ][Z] is given as

[Z^T ][Z] = [‘(10.0000&[email protected]&0.0385)]

The inverse [[Z^T ] [Z]]^(-1) of the matrix [Z^T ][Z] is given as

[[Z^T ] [Z]]^(-1) = [‘(0.4667&[email protected]&121.2121)]

The product of the transpose of [Z], [Z^T ] and [Y] (InV) is given as

[Z^T ][Y] = [‘([email protected])]

To obtain {A} the product of [[Z^T ] [Z]]^(-1) and [Z^T ][Y] was calculated to give

{A} = [‘([email protected])]; {A}= [‘([email protected]/??)]

Where;

InV0 = a0; and – 1/?? = a1

{A} = [‘([email protected])]

So,

InV0 = 0.0626; and 1/?? = -28.8434

V0 = exp(0.0626) = 1.0646; and ?? = 1/-28.8434 = 0.03467

Then,

V(t)=1.0646exp'(-t/0.03467)

Since Y = InV(t)

Y = 1.0646exp'(-t/0.03467)

Table 1.3: Excel table showing calculated values for InV [Y] and InV(t) [Y]

Table 1.4: Diagram of Excel calculation for curve fitting

Figure 1.1: Diagram of transient decay for response V and response V(t)

Figure 1.2: Diagram of transient decay for response V and response V(t)

Conclusion

The solutions to this linear regression exercise was achieved by manually calculating the generalized normal equation for the least square fit using the matrix method and Microsoft excel program obtaining the unknown values of the coefficients V0 and ??. The method provides accurate results and the best fit values obtained show the relationship between the straight line response and the transient line response shown in figure above and is seen to have given

2 Part 2: Track B: Type K thermocouple

INTRODUCTION:

The thermocouple is a sensor that is used to measure temperature and is commonly used in many industries. For this lab work, a Type K thermocouple is used to acquire a first order transient data (non-linear) response to a temperature change, a signal conditioning element called the AD595 thermocouple amplifier is used to improve thermocouple signal since it produced a low voltage output proportional to the input temperature, a data acquisition device the NI-USB 6008 is used to acquire signals from the signal conditioning circuit, a resistor-capacitor (RC) low-pass filter is built for reduce the frequency and noise of the signal generated and further investigations and analysis are carried out. In this part, the non-linear regression was used to obtain the transient response of thermocouple signal using Labview program

Aim

The aim of the assignment is to produce a Labview program which can obtain transient real data values from a Type K thermocouple which is a sensor that produces voltage by the differential temperature its conductors sense (i.e. a first order response) followed by a non- linear model fitting procedure which allows the user capture the thermocouple initial first order response to a rising input temperature and an appropriate response function model to the transient response. The program displays the transient data, fitted model response and calculated model parameters.

Reason of the choice of model response

The model output transient response obtained from the input (temperature) of the Type K thermocouple was a first order can be defined as having only s to the power of one in the first order transfer function which is characterised with no overshoot because the order of any system is determined by the power of s in the transfer function denominator and has a transfer function as 1/(??s+1) for a unit step signal of 1/s in the Laplace transform domain or s domain and is given as

Y(s) = 1/(s(??s+1)) ””””””””””””””’… (2.1)

Partial fraction method is used to find the output signal Y(t) to give

Y(s) = A/s+B/(??s+1) ””””””””””””””’ (2.2)

A = [s * Y(s)] for s = 0 = 1

B = [(??s+1) * Y(s)] for s = (-1)/?? = -1

Y(s) = 1/s-1/(??s+1) ””””””””””””””’ (2.3)

Therefore the output signal in the time domain is given as:

Y(t) = L-1 [1/s-1/(??s+1)] ”””””””””””””’ (2.4)

Y(t) = U(t) – e^((-t)/??) ”””””””””””””’ (2.5)

Y(t) = 1- e^((-t)/??) where t’0 ””””””””””” (2.6)

Substituting the output response V(t) for Y(t) , the equation (2.6) can also be re-written as:

V(t) = 1- e^((-t)/??) ”””””””””””””’ (2.7)

Assuming for a given input temperature T0 an output response V0 was derived and for a given increase in temperature T1 an output response voltage V1 was derived, so therefore the output voltage for the change in voltage relative to the change in temperature is given as:

V(t) =(V1 ‘ V0)( 1- e^((-t)/??) ) ”””””””””””. (2.7)

V(t) =V0 + (V1 ‘ V0)( 1- e^((-t)/??) ) (thermocouple voltage response) ”””’. (2.8)

V(t) = (V1 ‘ V0)( 1- e^((-t)/??) ) + V0 ””””””””””. (2.9)

Where (V1 ‘ V0) = ??V

V(t) = ??V ( 1- e^((-t)/??) ) + V0 ”””””””””””. (3.0)

T(t) = ??T ( 1- e^((-t)/??) ) + T0”””””””””””. (3.1)

T(t) = a ( 1- e^((-t)/b) ) + c

Equation (3.1) is similar to the general nonlinear model given as:

F(x) = a ( 1- e^((-t)/b) ) + c ”…””””””””””’. (3.2)

Where,

F(x) = V(t) ; a = ??V; b = 1/??; and c = V0

The thermocouples voltage output is nonlinear given a first order response curve (Digilent Inc., 2010)

V(t)

0 (-t)/??

Table 2:1: showing thermocouple output voltage first order response curve

Explanation on the principles of non-linear regression analysis

The principle of non-linear regression is a method that can be used to show how the response and the unknown values (predictors) relate to each other by following a functional form i.e. relating Y as being a function of x or more variables. This is to say that the non-linear equation we are trying to predict rely non-linearly mainly upon one or more variables or parameters. The Gauss Newton Method is a method used to solve non-linear regression by applying Taylor series expansion to express a non-linear expression in a linear for form.

A non-linear regression compared to a linear regression cannot be manipulated or solved directly to get the equation; it can be exhausting calculating for this as an iterative approach is used. A non-linear regression model is given as:

Yi = f(xi, a0, a1) + ei

Where,

Yi = responses

F = function of (xi, a0, a1)

ei = errors

For this assignment the non-linear regression model is given as

f(x) = a0(1 ‘ e-a1x) + e

Where,

F(x) = V(t) ; a0 = ??V; b = (-t)/??; and e = V0

T(t) = (T1 ‘ T0)( 1- e^((-t)/??) ) + T0 ””””””””””. (3.3)

V(t) = (V1 ‘ V0)( 1- e^((-t)/??) ) + V0 ””””””””””. (3.4)

Where (V1 ‘ V0) = ??V

V(t) = ??V ( 1- e^((-t)/??) ) + V0 ”””””””””””. (3.5)

Description of measurement task

The intent of the measurement experiment was to seek, identify, analyse the components of that make measurement task and to examine the transient response from the Type k thermocouple. It analyses the method, instruments and series of actions in obtaining results from measurements. Equipment such as the Type K thermocouple, NI-PXI-6070E 12 bit I/O card, AD595 thermocouple amplifier, and a Labview software program which was used for calculation of model parameters were used to carry out this task.

The measurement task is to introduce the Type K thermocouple sensing junction in hot water to analyse the temperature change and the corresponding voltage response is generated and observed on a Labview program. This activity is executed frequently to acquire the best fitted model response and parameters.

Choice of signal conditioning elements

The choice of a signal conditioning element used in measurement is important because the signal conditioning element used can either enhance the quality and efficiency of a measurement system or reduce its performance.

The AD595 thermocouple amplifier is the choice signal conditioning element used with the Type K thermocouple for this experiment because it is has a built in ice-point compensation (cold junction compensator) and amplifier which is used as a reference junction to compare and amplify the output voltage of the Type K thermocouple which generates a small output voltage corresponding to the input temperature. AD595AQ chip used is pre-calibrated by laser trimming to correspond to the Type K thermocouple characteristic feature with an accuracy of ??3oC, operating between (-55 oC – 125 oC) and are available with 14 pins/low cost cerdip. The AD595 device resolves this issue by providing amplification of low output voltage (gain), linearization of the nonlinear output response of the thermocouple so as to change to the equivalent input temperature, and provide cold junction compensation to improve the performance and accuracy of thermocouple measurements.

Equipment provided for measurement

There were three equipment provided for the measurement exercise and they include:

Type K thermocouple

The Type K thermocouple (chromel/alumel) is the most commonly used transducer to measure temperature with an electromotive force (e.m.f) of 41 microvolts per degree(??V/ oC) which is nonlinear and the voltage produced between its two dissimilar alloys changes with temperature i.e. the input temperature corresponds to the output voltage it generates. It is cheap to buy with the ability to perform in rugged environmental conditions and is calibrated to operate at wide temperature range of about -250 oC to 1370 oC. It is made of a constituent called nickel which is magnetic and its magnetic component may change direction or deviate when subjected to a high enough temperature and can affect its accuracy.

Signal connector signal conditioner

Thermocouple

Cold junction ‘([email protected])

Figure 2.2: Circuit diagram of a thermocouple, signal connector and signal conditioner

NI-USB 6008

The NI-USB 6008 is a National Instrument device that provides DAQ functionality for some applications like portable measurements, data logging and lab experiments. It is cheap for academic purposes and is used for more complicated measurement tasks. It has a ready to run data logger software which allows the user to perform quick measurements and can be configured by using Labview National Instruments software. It provides connection to 8 analog single-ended input channels (AI), 2 analog output channels (AO), 12 data input and output (I/O) channels, 32 bit counter bus with a very quick USB interface and are compatible with Labview 7.x, LabWindowsTM/CVI, and Measurement Studio DAQ modules for visual Studio.

Figure 2.3: NI-USB 6008 pin out

AD595 thermocouple amplifier

The AD595 thermocouple amplifier is a thermocouple amplifier and a cold junction compensator on a small chip of semiconductor material (microchip or IC) which produces a high output of 10 mV/oC from the input signal of a thermocouple as a result of combining a cold junction reference with a pre-calibrated amplifier. It has an accuracy of ??10C and ??30C for the A and C performance grade version respectively and can be powered by a supply including +5V and a negative supply if temperatures below 00C are to be measured. It laser trimmer is pre-calibrated so as to conform to the Type k thermocouple specification and is available in 14-pin side brazed ceramic dips (Devices, 1999).

Figure 2.4: Block diagram showing AD595 in a functional circuit

Configuration of the I/O channel(s)

The I/O channel(s) provide a way (path) for communication between the input device (thermocouple sensor) and the output device (DAQ). The thermocouple senses temperature as input and sends the data to the DAQ which receives the data and displays the information through a computer on the Labview front panel graph.

The following explain the configuration of the DAQ for the thermocouple measurement:

Channel Settings: this is used to select an I/O channel in the DAQ device either AI0 or AI1 can be chosen and rename to suit user

Signal Input Range: this is used to select the minimum and maximum voltage of the AD595 thermocouple amplifier which also helps to achieve better resolution of the NI-USB 6008 Data Acquisition Device

Scale Units: this is used to select the scale unit of the analog signal generated and since the thermocouples output signal measured corresponding to temperature is Voltage, then the Scaled unit chosen will be ‘Volts’

Terminal Configuration: this is used to choose terminal on the DAQ for which the signal conditioning circuit is connected

Custom Scaling: No scale was chosen since no custom scale was adopted

Acquisition Mode: this is used to select how the sample are played, the continuous samples was chosen because it allows the DAQ to collect data signals continuously from the circuit until the user decides to stop

Samples to Read: this allows the user to choose how many samples to read depending on the frequency of the input signal generated. It is important to choose at least twice the frequency signal to acquire all the desire signals. One thousand (2K) samples was chosen

Rate (Hz): this allows the user to choose the rate of the sample signals generated. Rate (Hz) 1k was chosen.

Connection of Circuit to DAQ and Configuration of I/O channel(s)

The connection of the circuit to the NI-USB 6008 data acquisition device was carried out by connecting two wires from the output voltage and ground of the signal conditioning unit i.e. the AD595 device.

The red wire from the signal conditioning unit was connected to the positive port of the analog input channel 0 (+AI0) of the DAQ device and the black wire from the ground was connected to the negative port of the analog input channel 0 (-AI0) of the DAQ. The diagrams below show the connections between the signal conditioning circuit and the connector block (DAQ).

Figure 2.5: Picture showing the connection of the signal conditioning circuit with the DAQ

Description of the Labview VI

Labview is a National instrument programming system design software that is optimal for control measurements and provides an engineer with tools to test, solve practical problems in a short amount of time, and the design of control systems. It is less complex and very easy to use compared to other programming simulation applications. The Labview Virtual Instrument (VI) program includes the Front Panel and the Block diagram and for this lab experiment, it is used to examine and determine the thermocouple frequency response and to carry out an analysis of the noise present in the filtered and unfiltered signal of the thermocouple voltage generated, displaying the result on its Graph indicators. The description of the Labview VI Front Panel and Block diagram are as follows:

Figure 2.6: Block diagram of the Labview design

Block diagram:

It is where a user can create the basic code for the Labview program. The program can be created when the block diagram is active by using the functions palette which contains objects like structure, numeric, Boolean, string, array, cluster, time and dialog, file I/O, and advanced functions which can be added to the block diagram.

Front Panel:

It is a graphic user interface that allows the user to interact with the Labview program. It can appear in silver, classic, modern or system style. The controls and indicators are located on the controls palette and used to build and add objects like numeric displays, graphs and charts, Boolean controls and indicators etc. to the front panel.

DAQ Assistant:

It allows a user to configure, generate and acquire analog input signals from any one of the data acquisitions (DAQ) input channel. For this experiment the signal conditioning circuit was connected to the analog input 0 channel of the NI-USB 6008 data acquisition device and the DAQ assistant is used to configure to DAQ so as to be able to acquire signals from the AD595 thermocouple amplifier.

For Loop:

The For loop like the while loop allows codes to be executed repeatedly by executing a subdiagram a required number of times (N). The For loop is found on the structure palette and can be placed on the block diagram. It is made up of the count and iteration terminal.

Trigger and Gate VI:

It is used to take out a part (segment) of a signal and its mode of operation is either based on a start or stop condition or can be static.

Curve Fitting VI:

It is used to calculate and determine the best fit parameter values that best depict an input signal. It can be used for linear, non-linear, spline, quadratic and polynomial models type. It minimizing the weighted mean squared error between the initial and best fit response signal generated. For this experiment initial guesses were made for the coefficients of non-linear model used.

Graphs:

It is a type of special indicator accepts different data types and used to display an array of input data or signals. In this case a waveform graph was used.

Numeric Function:

It is used to carry out mathematical and arithmetic actions on numbers and converts numbers from one data type to another. The multiply numeric function was used to return the products of inputs.

Figure 2.7: Configuration of Trigger and Gate

Figure 2.8: Curve fitting configuration

The diagram in figure 2.8 above is a window showing the configuration for curve fitting and the configuration steps are as follows:

Model Type: Non-linear model was chosen because the signal observed is a first order response (non-linear) curve.

Independent variable: t was the independent variable chosen

Maximum iterations: The default maximum iterations 500 is chosen.

Non-linear model: The equation for the non-linear model a*( 1- exp'(-t/b)) ) + c

Initial guesses: Values for a, b, and c were chosen to get the best fitting values for the curve. The values for a, b, and c are 15.000000, 0.040000, and 29.000000 respectively.

Figure 2.9: Transient response of the thermocouple for best fit 1st measurement

Figure 3.0: Transient response of the thermocouple for best fit 2nd measurement

Figure 3.1: Transient response of the thermocouple for best fit 3rd measurement

The diagrams in figures 2.9, 3.0 and 3.1 above show the transient response of the thermocouple after being inserted in warm water to get the best fit curve i.e. to replicate the actual thermocouple response curve. It is observed that with the use of the Trigger and Gate Express VI, the delay experienced in the in the three graphs were removed making the thermocouples signal response more appropriate providing a more decent best fit curve result. Carrying out multiple measurements to get the best fit curve reduces the time constants and produces a better response curve compared to taking one measurement. The table below shows the results from the three measurement activities with their residual and mean squared error values.

Model Parameters First Measurement(1st) Second Measurement(2nd) Third Measurement(3rd)

a (0C) 21.4671 10.2373 8.60708

b (sec) 0.0232065 0.039578 0.0432934

c (0C) 32.1068 29.661 29.4745

Residual 0.666461 0.0357227 0.124069

Mean Squared Error 0.431833 0.0181012 0.0227711

Table 2.1: Showing results from the three measurements with best fit parameters mean squared error and Residual for curve fitting.

From Table the second measurement was observed to have the best fitting curve with the minimum residual and Mean Squared error that are closest to zero compared to the 1st and 3rd measurements. The best fit parameter results of the second measurement will be inserted in the non-linear model equation which is given as:

y = a*( 1- exp'(-t/b)) ) + c””””””””””””(3.6)

T(t) = ??T ( 1- e^((-t)/??) ) + T0””””””””””””…(3.7)

Where,

a is the change in temperature of thermocouple (??T)

b is the time constant (??)

c is the initial temperature of the thermocouple (T0)

t is the time

Substituting values for a, b, and c of third measurement in the equation

T(t) = 10.2373( 1- exp'(-t/0.039578)) ) + 29.661”’..”””””..(3.8)

Equation 3.7 above is the non-linear model equation with best fit parameters for the thermocouple response signal at every value of time (t).

To achieve the output voltage response, the change in temperature and the initial temperature values from equation 3.7 need to be converted to volts this can be obtained by dividing the temperature value by 100 since 100oC is equal to 1V. So the resulting output voltage of the thermocouple is as follows:

V(t) = ??V ( 1- e^((-t)/??) ) + V0”’..””””””””””'(3.9)

Where,

a = ??V; b =1/??; and c = V0

V(t) = 0.102373( 1- exp'(-t/0.039578)) ) + 0.29661””””””’.(4.0)

Conclusion

The curve fitting experiment using the Type K thermocouple, the AD595 signal conditioning device, and the NI-USB 6008 to acquire and display signals using Labview software was carried out successfully. Curve fitting of the transient response signal of the thermocouple was achieved by analysing and obtaining the transient response of the thermocouple and using a non-linear model implementing best fit values to replicate the response curve by subjecting the thermocouple to temperature. This can be used to obtain the behaviour of an input response signal and improve efficiency for control systems.

References

Cimbala, J. M., 2013. Dynamic System Response. [Online]

Available at: https://www.mne.psu.edu/me345/Lectures/Dynamic_systems.pdf

[Accessed 10 March 2014].

Devices, A., 1999. Analog Devices. [Online]

Available at: http://www.analog.com/media/en/technical-documentation/data-sheets/AD594_595.pdf

[Accessed 2 March 2015].

Digilent Inc., 2010. Introduction to First Order Responses. [Online]

Available at: http://www.digilentinc.com/Classroom/RealAnalog/text/Chapter_2p4p1.pdf

[Accessed 6 March 2014].

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Job evaluation

Job evaluation is defined as a method for determining the worth of a job in comparison to the different jobs in the organization. To establish a justified pay structure for all the employees of the organization, job evaluation gives a means to compare the quality of the work in a particular job, in other words, the worth of a job.

It is different from job analysis; rather job evaluation is done after the stage of job analysis in order to obtain some information about the concerned jobs. Job analysis is defined as a process of determining the skills, duties and responsibilities, in a systematic way, required for a particular job. Thus job evaluation is a method which commences from job evaluation from job analysis but it ends at a point where the worth of the job is determined by ensuring internal as well as external pay equity. In this competitive business environment, it is essential to maintain pay equity otherwise the organization may lose its crucial talent.

Equity:

Overpayment Inequity (Positive Equity):

Underpayment Inequity (Negative equity):

Where,

Input: Any value that person brings to a job.

Outcome: any sort of benefit that an employee is awarded from his/her job.

Objectives of job evaluation

‘ To build a systematic, reasonable, deliberate structure of jobs based on their worth to the organization.

‘ To support a current pay rate structure or to build up one that accommodates internal equity.

‘ To support in setting pay rates that are tantamount to those of in comparable jobs in different organizations to contend in market place for best talent.

‘ To give a balanced premise to arranging pay rates when bargaining collectively with a recognized union.

‘ To guarantee the reasonable and fair remuneration of workers in connection to their obligations.

‘ To guarantee equity in pay for jobs of comparable efforts, responsibility, efforts and working conditions by utilizing a framework that reliably and precisely surveys contrasts in relative quality among jobs.

‘ To create a system of techniques to determine the grade levels and the resulting pay range for new jobs or the jobs which have advanced and changed.

‘ To distinguish a ladder of progression for future development to all workers who are interested in enhancing their remuneration.

‘ To comply with equal pay legislation and regulations deciding pay contrasts as indicated by job content.

‘ To add to a base for merit or performance-related pay.

Characteristics of job evaluation

The essential goal of job evaluation is to figure out the value of work; however this is a quality which differs occasionally and from spot to place affected by certain economic pressure. The principle features of job evaluation are:

‘ To supply bases for compensation arrangement established on realities as opposed to on dubious moderate thoughts.

‘ It endeavors to assess jobs, not individuals.

‘ Job evaluation is the yield given by job analysis.

‘ Job evaluation does not plan pay structure, it helps in supporting the framework by decreasing number of separate and diverse rates.

‘ Job evaluation is not made by people rather it is carried out by gathering of specialists.

‘ Job evaluation decides the estimation of job. Further the estimation of each of the perspectives, for example, aptitude and obligation levels are additionally related and concentrated on regarding the job.

‘ Job evaluation helps the administration to keep up abnormal amounts of representative gainfulness and worker fulfillment.

Process of job evaluation

Job analysis describes the skills, duties and responsibilities required for a job. Job evaluation adds to an arrangement for contrasting jobs regarding those things the association considers vital determinants of job worth. This procedure includes various steps that will be quickly expressed here and afterward talked about all the more completely.

1. Job Analysis: The primary step is an investigation of the jobs in the association. Through job analysis, data on job substance is acquired, together with a valuation for worker prerequisites for effective execution of the job. This data is recorded in the exact, steady dialect of a job description.

2. Compensable Factors: The following step is choosing what the association “is paying for” – that is, the thing that variable or elements put one job at a more elevated amount in the job chain of importance than an alternate. These compensable elements are the measuring sticks used to focus the relative position of jobs. As it were, picking compensable components is the heart of job evaluation. Not just do these variables spot jobs in the association’s job progressive system, yet they additionally serve to advise job officeholders which commitments are remunerated.

3. Building up the Method: The third venture in job evaluation is to choose a technique for evaluating the association’s jobs as indicated by the factor(s) picked. The technique ought to allow reliable situation of the association’s jobs containing a greater amount of the elements higher in the job progression, than those jobs lower in the progressive system.

4. Job Structure: The fourth step is contrasting jobs with build up a job structure. This includes picking and relegating chiefs, arriving at and recording choices, and setting up the job progression.

5. Pay Structure: The last step is evaluating the job structure to land at a compensation structure.

Merits of job evaluation

Job evaluation is a procedure of deciding the relative worth of a job. It is a procedure which is useful actually for encircling remuneration arranges by the personnel manager. Job evaluation as a methodology is worthwhile to an organization from multiple points of view:

‘ Decrease in disparities in pay structure – It is discovered that individuals and their inspiration is needy upon how well they are being paid. Accordingly the primary target of job evaluation is to have outer and interior consistency in compensation structure so that imbalances in pay rates are lessened.

‘ Specialization – Because of division of work and subsequently specialization, an expansive number of endeavors have landed hundred positions and numerous representatives to perform them. Hence, an endeavor ought to be made to characterize a job and accordingly settle pay rates for it. This is conceivable just through job evaluation.

‘ Aides in choice of representatives – The job evaluation data can be useful at the time of determination of applicants. The elements that are resolved for job evaluation can be considered while selecting the workers.

‘ Amicable relationship in the middle of workers and administrator – Through job evaluation, agreeable and harmonious relations can be kept up in the middle of representatives and administration, so that a wide range of pay rates debates can be minimized.

‘ Institutionalization – The procedure of deciding the pay differentials for distinctive jobs get to be institutionalized through job evaluation. This aide in bringing consistency into compensation structure.

‘ Pertinence of new jobs – Through job evaluation, one can comprehend the relative estimation of new jobs in a worry.

Demerits of job evaluation

‘ In spite of the fact that there are numerous methods for applying job evaluation in an adaptable way, fast changes in innovation and in the supply of and interest for specific aptitudes, make issues of change that may need further study.

‘ At the point when job evaluation brings about considerable changes in the current pay structure, the likelihood of executing these progressions in a generally brief time may be limited by the money related breaking points inside which the firm needs to work.

‘ At the point when there is an extensive extent of motivating force workers, it might be hard to keep up a sensible and worthy structure of relative profit.

‘ The methodology of job rating is, to some degree, vague on the grounds that a portion of the components and degrees can be measured with precision.

‘ Job evaluation takes quite a while to finish, requires specific specialized staff and quite expensive.

Methods of job evaluation

Job Ranking:

As indicated by this technique, jobs are arranged from highest to lowest, in place of their worth or legitimacy to the organization. Jobs can likewise be organized by relative trouble in performing them. The jobs are analyzed in general instead of on the premise of essential considers the job; the job at the highest priority on the rundown has the most astounding quality and clearly the job at the base of the rundown will have the least esteem. Jobs are typically positioned in every division and afterward the office rankings are joined to build up an authoritative positioning. The variety in installment of compensations relies on upon the variety of the way of the job performed by the workers. The positioning technique is easy to comprehend and practice and it is ideally equipped for a little association. Its straightforwardness however attempts to its inconvenience in huge associations on the grounds that rankings are hard to grow in an extensive, complex organization. Besides, this sort of positioning is very subjective in nature and may outrage numerous workers. In this way, a more investigative and productive method for job evaluation is called for.

Job Classification:

As per this system, a predetermined number of job groups or job classes are built and jobs are allotted to these characterizations. This technique spots gatherings of jobs into job classes or job grades. Separate classes may incorporate office, administrative, administrative, work force, and so on.

Class I – Executives: Further order under this classification may be Office Manager, Deputy Office administrator, Office director, Departmental chief, and so forth.

Class II – Skilled workers: Under this classification may come the Purchasing partner, Cashier, Receipts assistant, and so forth.

Class III – Semiskilled workers: Under this classification may come Stenotypists, Machine-administrators, Switchboard administrator and so on.

Class IV – Unskilled workers: This classification may involve peons, delivery people, housekeeping staff, File agents, Office young men, and so forth.

The job reviewing system is less subjective when contrasted with the prior positioning strategy. The framework is straightforward and adequate to pretty much all representatives without a second thought. One in number point for the system is that it considers all the elements that a job involves. This framework can be viably utilized for a mixed bag of jobs. The shortcomings of the Grading technique are:

‘ Actually when the prerequisites of distinctive jobs contrast, they may be joined into a solitary class, contingent upon the status a job conveys.

‘ It is hard to compose all inclusive descriptions of a grade.

‘ The system distorts sharp contrasts between diverse jobs and distinctive evaluations.

‘ At the point when individual job depictions and grade portrayals don’t match well, the evaluators tend to characterize the job utilizing their subjective judgments.

The problems that foreign workers face in a host country: essay help online

According to the latest figures CSO (Central Statistical Office), the number of foreign workers in Mauritius has been constantly increasing and is now at approximately 39, 032. From those figures we can state that there are 27, 408 men and 11 624 women. This amount of expatriates is mainly made up of workers coming from Bangladesh, 18 429, from India, 9105, China, 4656 and Madagascar with 3596.

It is the manufacturing sector that employs the largest number of foreign workers, that is29 846, while the construction comes second with 6070 workers. Last September, the ministry of Labour took the decision to freeze the recruitment of foreign workers in the construction sector. In all case, the bar of 40 000 foreign workers in Mauritius will quickly be reached by the end of the year announcing an increase of 20% compared to 2008. Those workers are supposed to be treated the same way as local workers and to take advantage of the local welfare.. Though Mauritius did not signed ICRMW (International Convention on the protection of the Rights of All Migrant Workers), the country needs to apply its own laws. Here, it is the Employees Rights Act (2008) which stipulates all the law concerning any work related issues. This causes the migrant workers to rebel in order to voice out through violent actions. Those persons are actually migrating to another country in order to get a better living conditions, also, promises are made but rarely respected. From the point of view of management, they prefer employing migrants as they are more hard-working, skilled and cheaper compared to a local worker. It is a fact that it is not always easy for the foreign workers to cope with the working conditions applied to them and moreover their cultures and those that we have in Mauritius are not always the same.

RESEARCH OBJECTIVES

The research objectives of this study are:

‘ To explore the different difficulties that the expatriates face in the host country

‘ To explore the foreign workers’ opinions about the way they are treated

‘ Propose recommendations to those organizations who employ foreign workers to improve their working and living conditions.

LITERATURE REVIEW

Wilson & Dalton (1998) describe expatriates as, ‘those who work in a country or culture other than their own.’

Connerly et al. (2008) stated that ‘many scholars have proposed that personal characteristics predict whether individuals will succeed on their expatriate assignment.’ Due to globalization, there is the need for expatriates. Thus, companies dealing with external workers should find ways to solve problems faced by these workers and make them comfortable in their daily life so that they do not want to go back to their native country. (Selmer and Leung, 2002)

PROBLEMS FACED BY EXPATRIATES

1. Culture Shock

Hofstede (2001) defined it as ‘the state of distress following the transfer of a person to an unfamiliar environment which may also be accompanied by physical symptoms’.

According to Dr Kalvero Oberg, expatriates are bound to experience four distinct phases before adapting themselves to another culture.

Those four phases are:

1. A Honeymoon Phase

2. The Negotiation Phase

3. An Adjustment Phase

4. A Reverse Culture Shock

During the Honeymoon Phase, the expatriates are excited to discover their new environment. They are ready to lay aside minor problems in order to learn new things. But eventually, this stage ends somehow.

At the Negotiation Phase or the Crisis Period, the expatriates start feeling homesick and things start to become a burden for them. For example, they might feel discomfort regarding the local language, the public transport systems or the legal procedures of the host country.

Then the Adjustment Phase starts. Six to twelve months after arriving in the new country, most expatriates start to feel accustomed to their new home and know what to expect. Their activities become routines and the host country is now accepted as another place to live. The foreign worker starts to develop problem-solving skills to change their negative attitudes to a more positive one.

The final stage called the Reverse Culture Shock or Re-entry Shock. It occurs when expatriates return to their home country after a long period. They are surprised to find themselves encountering cultural difficulties.

There are physical and psychological symptoms of culture shock such as:

1. Physical factors

‘ Loss of appetite

‘ Digestion problems

2. Cognitive factors

‘ Feeling of isolation/ home sickness

‘ Accusing the host culture for own distress

3- Behavioural factors

‘ Performance deficits

‘ Higher alcohol consumption

2. Communication/ Language Barrier

Communication is crucial to both management and employees. Sometimes, due to this language barrier, employees do not understand what is expected from them. They thus tend to make mistakes at the workplace and conflicts arise between the parties concerned. Also, the language barrier is the major obstacle when it comes to the changing of environment for expatriates. These people usually feel homesick and lonely as they are unable to communicate with the local people they meet. This language problem becomes a barrier in creating new relationships. A special attention must be paid to one’s specific body language signs, conversation tone and linguistic nuances and customs. Communicative ability permits cultural development through interaction with other individuals. Language becomes the mean that promotes the development of culture. Language affects and reflects culture just as culture affects and reflects what is encoded in language. Language learners may be subconsciously influenced by the culture of the learned language. This helps them to feel more comfortable and at ease in the host country.

3. Industrial Laws

Laws are vital for the proper conduct of such activity as that of welcoming expatriates in Mauritius. The Ministry of Labour, Industrial Relations and employment are meant to produce a ‘Guidelines for work permit application (February 2014)’ manual for those organisations which are engaged in this activity. This manual describes procedures that should be followed in case of a Bangladeshi, Chinese or Indian worker. Any breach of the law will lead automatically to severe sanctions.

For example, Non-Citizens (Employment Restriction) Act 1973 which provides, among others, that ‘a non-citizen shall not engage in any occupation in Mauritius for reward or profit or be employed in Mauritius unless there is in force in relation to him a valid work permit.’ A request to the government should be made if an organization wishes to recruit foreign workers in bulk.

Expatriates are human beings so they should have some fundamental ‘Rights’ in the host country. In Mauritius, the contract for employment of foreign workers stipulates all the necessary information concerning the expatriates’ rights, conditions of work, accommodation and remuneration amongst others. This contract is based on the existing Labour law and the contents of the contract are to large extent the same with some slight differences in conditions of work. Mauritius has adopted the good practices in relation to labour migration and has spared no efforts to develop policies and programmes to maximize benefits and minimize its negative consequences. However, there are still improvements to be brought to the living and working conditions of foreign workers.

4. Living Conditions

The NESC published a report in February 2007 which advocated that foreigners working in the island should enjoy the same rights as local workers. In reality, many foreign workers suffer from bad working conditions. Some workers have intolerable living conditions, sleeping in dormitories on benches without mattresses or in tiny bedroom containing many people. Those who intend to voice out or those considered as ‘ring leaders’ are deported.

In 2006, some workers from China and India who tried to form a trade union or to protest were deported. Peaceful demonstrations often turn into riots which the police brutally suppressed.

In August (2007) some 500 Sri Lankans were demanding better wages at the company Tropic Knits and in response, the Mauritian authorities deported 35 of them. At the Companie Mauricienne de Textile, one of the biggest companies of the island employing more than 5,000 people, 177 foreign workers were deported after taking part in an ‘illegal demonstration’ about the lack of running water, the insufficient number of toilets and poor accommodation.

During the year (2011) a visit at two of the Trend Clothing’s Ltd by (Jeppe Blumensaat Rasmussen) shows how several Bangladeshi workers were living under inhumane living conditions. Furthermore, workers were paid an hourly rate of Rs15.50, which was even less than the previous amount of Rs16.57 bringing the monthly salary to an amount of Rs3500 ‘ 5000 depending on overtime. One woman even said that she had work 43 hours and was paid only 32. The Bangladeshi workers were also living in dormitories containing several holes in the ceilings and signs of water damage next to electrical sockets. We also have the case of the migrant Nepal’s workers who decided to leave Mauritius due to their bad working and living conditions. They were living in an old production space which was turn into dormitories, hosting 34 migrants’ workers. There were no water connection in the kitchen and no running water to flush toilets. They also did not receive any allowance and their salary was decreased from Rs5600 to Rs5036 per month. On the 9th June 2011, eight workers wrote a letter to their boss, giving their employer a month notice.

In September (2013) more than 450 Bangladeshi workers working in the textile company, Real Garments, in Pointe-aux-Sables were on strike claiming for better working conditions. They also protested in the streets of Port-Louis and had gone to the Ministry of Labor to submit their claims one day before (L’Express; Mauritius). Fourteen Bangladeshi workers were considered as the main leaders and were deported by the authorities.

5. Foreign workers and Income

Foreign workers take the decision to leave their native country to work in other countries with the aim of making more money and then send it to their family. However, they did not predict that they will be paid less than that was promised to them before their departure to the host country. Some organisations pay them only half of what they were supposed to. Having already signed their contract, they are forced to work hard for a low salary. Many Bangladeshis, Indians or Chinese choose to leave the host country after their contract termination and the more courageous ones stay and renew their contract for more years. Despite their low paid jobs, it is still better than in their native country where they are even more exploited or where life is far more difficult for them.

The Employment Rights Act (2008) stipulate that if a local worker ‘works on a public holiday, he shall be remunerated at twice the national rate per hour for every hour of work performed.’

However, some expatriates who are forced to work on a public holiday are usually paid the same amount as a usual day. As human beings, they should be treated as any other worker either local or foreign, with the same rights and possibilities.

6. Unions

Unionism is about workers standing together to improve their situation, and to help others. Some unions are reactive, that is waiting for the employer to act and then choosing how to attack or respond and others are proactive, that is developing their own agenda and then advancing it wherever it’s possible. When unions and management fail to reach agreement, or where relations break down, the union has the option of pursuing industrial action through a strike, a go-slow, a work-to-rule, a slow-down, an overtime ban or an occupation.

However, the Expatriates are often not aware of the law protecting their rights (e.g. many migrant workers are not informed of the laws that provide them with the same level of protection as Mauritian nationals and Employers refused to recognize union representatives. It is also often difficult for unions to get access to and organize for foreign workers.

An ICFTU-AFRO (the African regional organization of the former International Confederation of Free Trade Unions) mission to Mauritius in February 2004 was told that the few men they saw were mainly supervisors who were said to be hostile to unions.

During 2006 there were a series of reports that workers from China and India who had tried to form a trade union or protest against their employers had been summarily deported. On 23 May 2006, policemen armed with shields and truncheons beat female workers from Novel Garments holding a sit-in in the courtyard of the factory in Coromandel protesting against plans to transfer them to other production units.

According to the MAURITIUS 2012 HUMAN RIGHTS REPORT, section 7: Worker Rights, a. Freedom of Association and the Right to collective Bargaining, the constitution and law provide for the rights of workers, including foreign workers, to form and join independent unions, conduct legal strikes, and bargain collectively With the exception of police, the Special Mobile Force, and persons in government services who were not executive officials, workers were free to form and join unions and to organize in all sectors, including in the Export Oriented Enterprises (EOE), formerly known as the Export Processing Zone.

Alzheimer's disease (AD): college essay help online

Alzheimer’s disease (AD) is the most common cause of dementia and chronic neurodegenerative disorder among the aging population. Dementia is a syndrome characterized by progressive illnesses affecting memory, thinking, behavior and everyday performance of an individual. Dementia affects older people, but 2% of people starts developing before the age of 65 years (Organization 2006). According to the Worlds Alzheimer Report 2014, 44 million of people are living with dementia all across the globe and its set to get doubled by 2030 and triples by 2050 (Prince, Albanese et al. 2014). Its estimated that 5.2 million Americans have AD in 2014 (Weuve, Hebert et al. 2014). This includes 200,000 individuals under 65 age have early onset of AD and 5 million people of age 65 and above (Weuve, Hebert et al. 2014). Women are affected more than men in AD and other dementias (Weuve, Hebert et al. 2014). Among 5 million people of above 65 years of age, 3.2 million are women and 1.8 million are men (Weuve, Hebert et al. 2014). The Multiple factors that leads to AD are age, genetics, environmental factors, head trauma, depression, diabetes mellitus, hyperlipidemia, and vascular factors. There are no treatments for AD that slows or stops the death and malfunctioning of neurons in the brain, indeed many therapies and drugs are aimed in slowing or stopping neuronal malfunction (Association 2014). Currently five drugs have been approved by the U.S food and Drug Administration to improve symptoms of AD by increasing the amount of neurotransmitters in the brain (Association 2014). It has been estimated that Medicare and Medicaid covered $150 billion of total health care for long duration care for individuals suffering for AD and other dementias (Association 2014).

Diagnostic criteria

Neurological and Communicative Disorders and Stroke’Alzheimer’s Disease and Related Disorders Association (NINCDS’ADRDA) in 1984 proposed a criteria which is as follows (1) clinical diagnosis of AD could only be designated as ‘probable’ while the patient was alive and could not be made definitively until Alzheimer’s pathology had been confirmed post mortem (McKhann, Drachman et al. 1984) and (2) the clinical diagnosis of AD could be assigned only when the disease had advanced to the point of causing significant functional disability and met the threshold criterion of dementia (McKhann, Drachman et al. 1984).

In 2007, IWG proposed criteria that AD could be recognized in vivo and independently of dementia in the presence of two features (Dubois, Feldman et al. 2007). The first criteria was a core clinical that require evidence of a specific episodic memory profile characterized by a low free recall that is normalized by cueing (Dubois and Albert 2004). The second is the presence of biomarker evidence on AD which include (1) structural MRI, (2) Neuroimaging using PET (18F-2-fluoro-2-deoxy-D-glucose PET [FDG PET] or 11C-labelled Pittsburgh compound B PET [PiB PET]), and (3) CSF analysis of amyloid ?? (A??) or tau protein (total tau [T-tau] and phosphorylated tau [P-tau]) concentrations (Dubois, Feldman et al. 2007)

In 2011, the NIA and Alzheimer’s association proposed guidelines to help pathologist and categorizing the brain changes with AD and other dementias (Hyman, Phelps et al. 2012). Based on the changes absorbed, they classified into three stages (a) preclinical Alzheimer’s disease, (b) mild cognitive impairment (MCI) due to Alzheimer’s disease, (c) Dementia due to Alzheimer’s disease (Hyman, Phelps et al. 2012). In pre-clinical AD, the individual have changes in the cerebrospinal fluid but they don’t develop memory loss. This reflects that Alzheimer’s related brain changes occur 20 years onset before the symptom occurs (Petersen, Smith et al. 1999, H??nninen, Hallikainen et al. 2002, Reiman, Quiroz et al. 2012). In MCI due to AD, individuals suffering from MCI has some notable changes in thinking that could be absorbed among family members and friends, but do not meet criteria for dementia (Petersen, Smith et al. 1999, H??nninen, Hallikainen et al. 2002, Reiman, Quiroz et al. 2012). Various studies show that 10 to 20% of individual of age 65 or above have MCI (Petersen, Smith et al. 1999, H??nninen, Hallikainen et al. 2002, Reiman, Quiroz et al. 2012). Its is estimated that 15% and 10% progress from MCI to dementia and AD every year (Manly, Tang et al. 2008). In Dementia due to AD, Individual is characterized by having problem in memory, thinking and behavioral symptom that affects his routine life (Association 2014).

In 2014, IWG proposed criteria for maintaining the principle of high specificity, based on the framework they classified as follows (1). Typical AD can be diagnosed in the presence of an amnestic syndrome of the hippocampal type, which could be associated with different cognitive or behavioral changes and having one of following changes in vivo AD pathology such as decreased A??42 together with increased T-tau or P-tau concentration in CSF or increased retention on amyloid tracer PET (Dubois, Feldman et al. 2014). (2) Atypical AD could be made in the presence of the following, which includes clinical phenotypes that is consistent with one of the known atypical presentation and at-least one of the following changes indicating in-vivo AD pathology (Dubois, Feldman et al. 2014). (3) Mixed AD can be made in patients with typical or atypical phenotypic feature of AD and presence of at-least one biomarker of AD pathology (Dubois, Feldman et al. 2014). (4) Preclinical states of AD require absence of clinical symptoms of AD (typical or atypical phenotypes) and inclusion of at-least one biomarker of AD pathology for identifying the presence of asymptomatic at-risk state or the presence of a proven AD autosomal dominant mutation of chromosome 1, 14 or 21 for the diagnosis of presymptomatic change (Dubois, Feldman et al. 2014). (5) To differentiate biomarkers of AD diagnosis from those of AD progression (Dubois, Feldman et al. 2014).

Neuropathology

Dr. Alois Alzheimer, a German physician in 1906 observed pathologic abnormalities in autopsied brain of women who suffered from memory related problems, confusion and language trouble (Prince, Albanese et al. 2014). He found the presence of plaques deposits outside the neurons and tangles inside the brain cells (Prince, Albanese et al. 2014). Thus, the senile plaques and neurofibrillary tangles have became two pathological hallmarks of AD (Prince, Albanese et al. 2014).

The histological hallmarks of AD in brain are intracellular deposition of microtubule-associated tau protein called neurofibrillary tangles (NTF) and extracellular accumulation of amyloid ?? peptide (A??) in senile plaques (Bloom 2014). A?? derived from the larger glycoprotein called amyloid precursor protein (APP) can processed through two pathways amyloidogenic and non-amyloidogenic (Gandy 2005) . In amyloidogenic pathway ??-secretase and ??-secretase proteolysis APP to produce soluble amyloid precursor protein ?? (sAPP??) and a carboxyl terminal fragment CTF?? (C99) to produce A?? peptides (Gandy 2005). Alternatively APP is proteolysed by the action of ?? and ??- secretase generating soluble amino terminal fragments (sAPP??) and a carboxyl terminal fragment CTF?? (C83) to produce non amyloidogenic peptide (Esch, Keim et al. 1990, Buxbaum, Thinakaran et al. 1998).

Figure 1. Amyloidogenic and non-amyloidogenic pathways of APP

APP is cleaved by ??-?? secretases (amyloidogenic) releasing amyloid A?? peptide(s) or by ??-?? secretases (non-amyloidogenic), adapted from (Read and Suphioglu 2013)

The amino acid sequences of A?? include A??42 and A??40. During normal condition A??40 is 10-fold higher concentration level, when compared to A??42 central nervous system (CNS) (Haass, Schlossmacher et al. 1992). However during inflammation, stress and injury in the brain causes A??40 and A??42 for a dynamic change and leads to an upregulation of A??42. In AD A??42 accumulates as misfolded proteins in extracellular space (Gurol, Irizarry et al. 2006).

Tau is a microtubule-associated protein (MAP), most abundant in central and peripheral nervous system that help in assembly and stabilizing of microtubules that is crucial among the cellular morphology and trafficking (Tolnay and Probst 1999, Iqbal, Liu et al. 2010, Cohen, Guo et al. 2011). NFT is the major hallmarks of AD patients in brain. In AD, phosphorylation of tau leads to the loss of neuronal function and death. Degeneration of synapse strongly correlates with cognitive decline in AD, while soluble oligomeric tau contribute to synapse degeneration (Morris, Maeda et al. 2011). Although, the protein aggregating into NFT are unclear, number of NFT and the progression of neurodegeneration as well as dementia showed a significant positive correlation in AD (Cohen, Guo et al. 2011) (Arnaud, Robakis et al. 2006).

Figure 2. AD pathology

Deposition of A?? and tau in neurons. The boxes shows the different biomarkers which are used for examination, adapted from (Nordberg 2015)

Biomarkers

A characteristic that is objectively measured and evaluated as an indicator of normal biological processes, pathogenic process or pharmacologic responses to a therapeutic intervention (Atkinson, Colburn et al. 2001).The pathology of neurodegenerative for individuals is provided by using imaging and fluid biomarkers (Dickerson, Wolk et al. 2013).

CSF Biomarkers

The CSF biomarkers play a major role in diagnosing probable AD. However, abnormality in the CSF is found long before the symptoms occur.

Amyloid beta (A??) is synthesized in brain and diffused into CSF. In cognitively normal individuals A?? appears in moderate condition, however for individuals suffering from AD has reduced A??42 in CSF which act as an useful biomarker during diagnosis (Sunderland, Linker et al. 2003). The low levels of A??42 appears at-least 20 years prior to clinical dementia in individuals with familial AD mutations (Ringman, Coppola et al. 2012). In addition, reduced levels of A??42 appear early in cognitively normal which precedes MCI by years (Fagan, Head et al. 2009). Therefore A??42 cannot be used individually as a specific biomarkers in discriminating from other dementia hence it should be combined with other biomarkers for determining specific dementia.

Tau in CSF relates with the progression of tau related pathology in cerebral cortex. Increased in the tau level in CSF for AD patients reflects the neuronal loss in brain (de Souza, Chupin et al. 2012). Similarly, like A??42 elevation in tau seems to occur at cognitive normal individuals (Fagan, Head et al. 2009). Hence its important to consider other biomarker for differential diagnosis of AD. Moreover, phosphorylated (p)-tau have 85% sensitivity and 97% specificity in discriminating AD from other neurological disorder (Tan, Yu et al. 2014). P-tau is therefore more superior to t-tau in differentiating diagnosis, thus helps in overcoming the short coming of A??42 and t-tau in differentiating diagnosis (Buerger, Zinkowski et al. 2002). CSF t-tau and p-tau occurs after A??42 initially aggregates and increases as amyloid accumulates (Buchhave, Minthon et al. 2012).

Imaging Biomarkers

Structural MRI

Structural MRI studies helps in subjects diagnosed with AD and MCI who consistently show change in atrophy in entorhinal cortex and hippocampus of medial temporal lobe (MTL) and cortical thinning in AD signature region are the MRI sign of emerging AD (Du, Schuff et al. 2001). MRI studies focus on normal subjects who have maternal history of AD, has reduced volume of MTL and precuneus (Berti, Mosconi et al. 2011). Voxel based analysis on whole brain determines the structural MRI could be used to identify the presence of brain atrophy in cortical regions up to 10 years before clinical symptoms of AD, with greater impact in MTL (Du, Schuff et al. 2001).

Positron Emission Tomography (PET)

PET is based on the principle of spontaneous emission of positron by the nuclei of unstable radionuclide, whose number of protons exceeds that of electrons (Granov, Tiutin et al. 2013). PET images in-vivo distribution of radiopharmaceutical substances with higher resolution and sensitivity (Fahey 2003). The positron which is a ??-particle with positive charge annihilates with an electron of negative charge, releasing equal number of gamma photons of same energy (511 keV) moving in 180 degree opposite to each other to conserve momentum (Kukekov and Fadeev 1986, Fahey 2003).

The components involved in the PET scanner are movable bed, detector, gantry and computer. The detector consist of multiple crystals attached with a photomultipliers (Granov, Tiutin et al. 2013). The interaction among the gamma photon and crystal produces scintillation which induces electric impulse in the photomultipliers and could be detected and processed using computer (Khmelev, Shiryaev et al. 2004). If the two detectors are in coincidence, then the positron emitted along the line connects the detectors which is termed as line of response (LOR) (Fahey 2003).In most of the scanners the two detectors are in coincidence, if they are detected with in 10 seconds (Fahey 2003). The sensitivity of the PET can be increased by increasing the number of detectors into a ring. The data examined from the individual is acquired in computer in the form of sinogram. There are different techniques of reconstruction such as filtered back projection (FBP), Iterative Method, OSEM are used for reconstructing an image. In modern PET scanners, LSO crystals with minimum size are used which permits high resolving capacity, high resolution, effective algorithm for image reconstruction and field of view sufficient for single stage scanning of the brain or heart (Granov, Tiutin et al. 2013).

The cyclotron, a particle accelerator provides the production of radionuclides for clinical use. Heavy particles are accelerated to a higher energy level of 5-100MeV using cyclotron (Granov, Tiutin et al. 2013). The beam of particles is focused on the target substance by using radio magnetic lens. The target material is bombarded with heavy particle to generate the required radionuclide (Granov, Tiutin et al. 2013).

The requirements of a good tracer which include higher affinity towards the target receptor, selectivity versus other receptors (Bmax / Kd of at least 10-fold,where Bmax is the density of the receptor and Kd is the concentration of the radiotracer) and good permeability (McCarthy, Halldin et al. 2009). The tracers has to be a poor substrate of p-glycoprotein if it has been developed for imaging targets in brain (Terasaki and Hosoya 1999). It has been found that low hydrogen bonding plays an important role in predicting good PET tracers (McCarthy, Halldin et al. 2009). For a good tracers, time to binding equilibrium should be long relative to washout of non-specifically bound tracer, but short relative to isotope decay (McCarthy, Halldin et al. 2009) .

Amyloid PET

PET imaging of amyloid binding agent Pittsburg compound B (PET-PiB) helps to determine the ??-amyloid (A??) and its distribution over the brain that were previously restricted to postmortem studies. The longitudinal study provided evidence relating with a direct relationship between PET-PiB and likelihood of conversion from clinical diagnosis of MCI to AD over three years (Klunk 2011). Since there is significant overlap between amyloid imaging and CSF- A??42, researchers attempt to address the areas where these two biomarkers may be equivalent and areas where one measurement could hold unique advantages (Vlassenko, Mintun et al. 2011). In addition, current hypothesis states that higher amyloid burden assessed by florbetapir 18F (18F-AV-45) amyloid PET is related with lower memory performance among clinically normal older subjects (Sperling, Johnson et al. 2013).

FDG-PET

FDG-PET (2-deoxy-2[18F]fluoro-D-glucose) is one of the neurodegeneration biomarkers included in the new research criteria proposed for the various diagnosis of AD by the International working group (IWG) in 2007 and 2010, also in the new diagnostic criteria of AD by National Institute of Aging-Alzheimer Association (NIA-AA) (McKhann, Drachman et al. 1984, Dubois, Feldman et al. 2007, Dubois, Feldman et al. 2014). FDG-PET measures the local glucose metabolism for neuronal activity at resting state to asses cerebral function. It is evident that AD individuals has reduced FDG uptake predominantly in tempoparietal association areas, precuneus and posterior cingulate region (Minoshima, Giordani et al. 1997). These changes could be observed in subjects from 1-2 year before the onset of dementia and are closely related to cognitive impairment (Herholz 2010). Although MRI is more sensitive in detecting and monitoring hippocampal atrophy (Fox and Kennedy 2009), FDG is more sensitive in detecting neuronal dysfunction in neocortical association areas. Hence FDG is well suited for monitoring the progression of the disease syndrome (Alexander, Chen et al. 2002).

Regional functional impairment of glucose metabolism in AD is related with the severity and progression of different cognitive deficits (Langbaum, Chen et al. 2009)

INDIAN NATIONALISM (1757-1947)

Great Britain had colonized the nation of India amid the 1700’s when East India organization picked up control of India in 1757 however the Company ruled India without impedance from British Government until 1800s With the measure of crude materials and the developing business for British products, the British government starts to build its control. In 1858, British government takes complete control of India after the Sepoy Mutiny and the British subdued and displayed bigotry against local Indians. Indian nationalistic developments, for example, ones drove by the Indian National Congress, had endeavored endeavors at lead toward oneself yet had never been entirely effective. The immense supporter of a free India, Gandhi, was influential in the Indian Pro-independence Movement. Known as the Mahatma, or the Great Soul, Gandhi constrained change and an end to British colonization through a strict approach of peacefulness, or detached resistance. This development picked up energy after the world war 1 however the llianwala Bagh Massacre where number of individuals had gathered at Jallianwala Bagh in Amritsar for going to the yearly Baisakhi reasonable were encompass by the armed force at the requests of General Dyer and opened fire on the swarm, slaughtering several individuals. The Aftermath of this slaughter brought about general hubbub when the swarms took to the roads in numerous north Indian towns. The British utilized ruthless suppression, trying to embarrass and threaten individuals. Individuals were flagellated and towns were besieged and this savagery constrained Gandhi to stop the development

A feeling of solidarity and patriotism was motivated by history and fiction, folktale and melodies, prevalent prints and images. Abanindranath Tagore’s picture of Bharat Mata and Bankim Chandra melody Vande Mataram united numerous individuals and groups During the Swadeshi Movement; a tri-shading (red, green and yellow) banner was outlined. It had eight lotuses speaking to eight regions of British India and a sickle moon, speaking to Hindus and Muslims In 1921, Gandhi had planned the tri-shading Swaraj banner (red, green and yellow) with the turning wheel at the focal point. This banner spoke to the Gandhian perfect of self improvement and turned into an image of resistance. This ingrained pride and united the Indians.

However Despite the impact of Gandhi, India fell into confusion. Hindu individuals needed an all-Hindu state and Muslims, drove by the Muslim League needed a different state. Gandhi was killed in light of this contention. In the end, Pakistan was framed as a different Muslim state. Along these lines, the quality and will of the basic individuals both attained to Indian autonomy and shredded India. The tale of Mahatma Gandhi and Indian patriotism is one of history’s most prominent ironies

PAN AFRICAN NATIONALISM

Soon after the end of World War II, most European countries were sometime during closure magnificent control of Africa. Skillet Africanism got to be overwhelming on the mainland of Africa. Container Africanism is a nationalistic development that requires the solidarity of all African countries. While is has immense impact, for example, the African National Council, it has never succeeded in uniting all of Africa. Difference and a hefty portion of the issues confronting Africa since the end of WWII into present-day can be faulted for European colonialism. Political defilement is uncontrolled in light of the fact that European colonialists left without making stable governments. Ethnic pressure exists in light of the fact that European fringes were made with no idea given to the tribal framework. Tribalism is one of the greatest impediments to Africa in light of the fact that conventional adversaries were contained inside one European-made outskirt. A decent sample of ethnic strain is the contention between the Hutus and Tutsis in which 1,000’s on both sides were slaughtered and numerous more fled to Zaire to look for shelter. Both the countries of Rwanda and Burundi had noteworthy populaces of Hutus and Tutsis, both customary tribes. Notwithstanding the mind-boggling issues, there have been some significant achievements where patriotism has brought about positive change.

The principal Arab-Israeli clash set two nationalistic developments against one another. The War for Independence (1948-49) was the disappointment of the Arab world to prevent Israel from being framed as a Jewish sovereign state. This war brought about Jerusalem falling under the control of the Israelis and the end to a proposed arrangement for a free Palestinian state to be shaped. The Suez War of 1956 brought about Nasser’s Egypt losing control of the Sinai Peninsula, debilitating the dependability of the immeasurably critical Suez Canal. The Six-Day War of 1967 saw large portions of the encompassing Arab countries assault Israel and afterward continue to lose region (the challenged ranges recorded above) to Israel in under a week. The Yom Kippur War of 1973 was an Egyptian assault over the Sinai and turned into a Cold War occasion as the Americans and Soviets got to be included. Nasser’s successor, Anwar al-Sadat, (envisioned here) was the first Arab pioneer to perceive Israel as a country. For this alone, he was killed, viably finishing any endeavors at enduring peace. The contention proceeds with today.

Ghana:

During the days of empire-building, the nation now called Ghana was called the Gold Coast, an English settlement. The nationalist leader Kwame Nkrumah called on the souls of the African people by renaming the obviously imperial European “Gold Coast” to something that back to the golden age of western Africa, the Empire of Ghana. As he was a believer in the principles of Gandhi. He established autonomy for Ghana through civil defiance and passive resistance. Through the superiority and bravery of Nkrumah and the Ghanaian people, Great Britain left. To quote the words of Nkrumah, “No people without a government of their own can expect to be treated on the same level as people of independent sovereign states. It is far better to be free to govern or misgovern yourself than to be governed by anybody else . . .

Kenya:

The situation in the British colony of Kenya was similar to Ghana. The exploitation of Kenyan resources and oppression of its people were the typical traits of British domination. The path to independence, however, was radically different. Kenya’s nationalist leader, Jomo Kenyatta, initiated his movement by means of passive confrontation. However, Great Britain refused to end its imperial rule of Kenya and had confined Kenyatta for paramilitary warfare he may or may not have asked for. Irrespective, the Mau Mau, Kenyan guerilla troops, resisted British troops until Great Britain released Kenyatta and left in 1963 with Kenyatta as the prime minister of a free Kenya.

South Africa:

The circumstance in South Africa was distinctive. It had encountered colonialism, however the nation had picked up self-rule when the new century rolled over. White setters called Afrikaners had control of the South African government and had forced a social structure known as apartheid. Apartheid comprised of two social classes, upper white and lower dark. The races were kept separate and unequal, with the dark populace enduring awful ill-uses. Illustrations of this misuse incorporate pass cards for blacks just, voting rights for whites just, and isolated reservations called Home Lands.

However the most acclaimed of all African patriot pioneers Nelson Mandela talked against these segregations and began his hostile to apartheid developments. Anyhow Mandela, because of taking a stand in opposition to apartheid, was detained for a long time and not discharged until the mid 1990’s. South African president F.W. De Klerk liberated Mandela and finished the bigot convention. In 1994, South Africa had its first free race and Mandela was chosen president. Mandela and De Klerk earned the Nobel Peace Prize together for their endeavors.

Canada Current Immigration Policies: essay help online free

A policy is a plan or course of action that an organized body undertakes to guide in decision making and other matters. Immigration policies are meant to guide the immigration of people into a country for which ever reason. Canada is a country found on the northern part of North America’s continent. It has ten provinces and three territories. Canada is a constitutional monarchy and a federal parliamentary democracy headed by queen Elizabeth II. It is a bilingual state that has a diverse cultural base owing to the large influx of immigrants to the country. The country’s economy is among the world largest since it depends on its natural resources and developed trade networks.

Canada has been shaped greatly by immigration in society and culture. With Its small population and large tracts of unoccupied Canada’s immigration policy was fuelled by the need for expansion with immigrants encouraged to settle in rural areas .In the early 20th century the country began to control the flow of immigrants using policies that excluded the applicants of non Europeans .1n 1976 new laws removed the ethnic criteria and it became a destination for all from a variety of countries.

There are three categories of immigrants the family class which consists of those closely related, independent immigrants who are admitted on the basis of skill capital and labor market requirements and refugees. When applying for settlement immigration officers are instructed to give priority to family reunifications and refugees before independent job seekers with skill or capital without families. Arrivals in the family category are usually unskilled or the skills they posses do not match the community they have settled in thus disrupting the labor market. This results to economic insecurity which might create disappointment and hostility among the immigrants or among Canadians who feel threatened by the newcomers.

Canada’s immigration policy encourages dispersal of immigrants across the country. Current policy has attempted to encourage immigrants to settle in smaller communities in the less-populated province of Canada. The organizations within the society that are tasked with the formulation of immigration policies and regulations are churches, employers, organized labor groups and community-based and ethnic organizations. Many of these organizations aims is to promote family reunification and to attain financial adjustment schemes.

Canada policy is non discriminatory to ethnicity however individuals suffering from diseases that pose a danger to the public, those with no clear means of financial support or criminals and terrorists are excluded. An undetermined number of persons in this undesired category have however gained entry through back doors while others who have been admitted rightfully on short term visas choose to remain by extending the time permitted by the Canadian law. The group of those entering the country illegally has grown for the recent and has become a major challenge to the government especially at border crossings and airports. This group usually operate in low tones and are unnoticed till they try to acquire some public service which will bring them to the attention of government authorities .the government is working towards sealing any loop holes that have facilitated the admission of persons not authorized under the current regulations and legislations. Claims falsified by refugees status trying to avoid normal overseas screening and processing constitute one of the more serious problems confronting immigration officials.

In accommodating the immigrants Canada provides immigrants with language training and access to Canada’s national health care and social welfare programs. However, the immigrants in the 80s do not match the economical success of those in the 90s and many find difficulty in finding jobs according to their qualifications. Other immigrants are not fluent in either English or French to be able to exploit their degrees while other qualifications are not recognized by the country.In employment a Canadian born income rises same as those of European origin individuals unlike the non -white Canadians who receive low income rates.

The admission of highly skilled professionals to Canada from less developed countries has continued to provoke controversy since the governments of these countries where these immigrants originate complain of poaching of people they cannot afford to lose. Canada has maintained the need for freedom of movements of people in the midst of the controversy that it should not encourage the outflow of trained individuals from the regions that require there services.

For the immigrants who are seeking asylum Canada is known for having a fairly liberal policy on asylum. Any person who arrives in Canada can apply for refugee status at any border, airport, or immigration office inside the country. Anyone who arrives and claims to be a refugee Canada will look at the claim even if they are could not be as considered to be a in other countries. The process is divided into two a claim is submitted to Citizenship and Immigration Canada . CIC determines within three days whether the claim is eligible to be referred to the Immigration and Refugee Board , the body that makes the final determination as to whether the applicant will receive protected status. After a person has received refugee status, he or she can apply for permanent residency. This system has been criticized as to encourage backdoor applications and posing a threat to security since after they apply they are free to move around as they wait for their determination

The Canadian policy is divide into two parts temporary entry to the country and permanent entry. Under the temporary entry one can apply while inside the country or outside the country. While outside the one applies for a visitor visa when they wish to visit the country as a tourist or a visitor. The purpose of such a visit should be to visit relatives, to attend a business meeting, to attend a conference or convention, pleasure trip or participating in a cultural show. the second class is the student authorization or the student visa which is granted to a person who wishes to come to the country to study as an international student. The third class is the employment authorization or work permit which is granted to one who wishes to come to Canada and work for a Canadian company. It is referred to work permit visa in many countries. Under any of this classes one can apply for an extension of their visas while they are within the country. While in the country one may apply for an immigrant visa as a conventional refugee also referred to as a political asylum work permit visa as a live-in-caregiver known as a domestic help, immigrant visa of Canada as a spouse granted to an application made if one gets married in Canada while on a temporary visa and immigrant visa of Canada under humanitarian and compassionate reasons. If an individual changes the visa status this may lead to permanent immigration visa of Canada.

One can apply for permanent immigration to Canada under three categories while outside Canada. In the independent class assessment is done based on a point system. It is a very popular class also called professional class or skilled worker class. This category is based on an individual’s desire to come to Canada based on qualification, work experience and knowledge of English or French. The other class is the entrepreneur class investor class or self employed class. It is also known as business migration class. Entrepreneur class and self employed is for individuals who wish to start a business in Canada while the investor class is for those who do not wish to start a business in Canada. Applying for immigrant visa to Canada under the family class is for those who have close relatives in Canada under family sponsorship.

Canadian citizens and permanent residents may make an application to sponsor their relatives under the class of family class relatives and private sponsorship for refugees. Another application is by a permanent resident if one wishes to stay outside Canada for more than six months and wants to return. It’s called a return resident permit. A person can be granted Canadian citizenship provided he or she is a permanent resident of Canada for more than three years. When applying for proof of citizenship, also called citizenship certificate the applicant may do this while within or outside of Canada.

Canada is currently a country of choice for many people from all over the world. That may not be the case in future, especially for highly skilled people. The current policies have both positive and negative effects to the society of Canada.. Some of the positive impacts of the current policies include refocusing the federal skilled worker program, an initiative to bring in skilled trades to the country who bring with them jobs and investments.

Increased protection for caregivers who come into the country for the nanny jobs or housekeeping. Those who go into foreign countries are usually abused by their workers at times and end up working in deplorable conditions such as working for long hours without time to rest, depriving them day-offs and confiscation of vital documents such as passports for the immigrants. Some also face sexual harassment which is against the laws .The immigrants are thus faced with difficult conditions yet they cannot report or if reported they cannot get help. The current policies have therefore come in handy to protect this individuals from such torture. Permanent resident status to be granted to eligible students. The students who apply for student visas and perform exemplary well will be granted permanent residency in Canada after completion of studies. This can enable students to acquire citizenship and settle in the country after completion of studies. This ensures a retention of skilled people to work towards the growth of the economy.

The current policies have helped in addressing the current short-term labor market needs for the country because of the small population of Canada which cannot meet its labor requirements. The immigrants solve the labor situation which otherwise the country would not have addressed.

These policies have their negative sides. In the long term Canada will be viewed as no longer welcoming as it was. These include decision to wipe out immigration application backlogs legislatively. The applications of immigrants to get visas for whatever reason has been denied by immigration officers thus preventing serious developments on either the job market or education sector. A suspension or delay on family sponsorships which will deny the coming in of family to reunite with the rest of the families. This will affect the status of those who seek to migrate to Canada for the fear of being isolated from their families.

Reliance on temporary foreign workers to meet labor market needs. These has affected the attitude of the skilled workers who jet into the country and have not been able to get jobs. The Canadian citizens at times feel insecure by the immigration of the people into the country since they view them as a threat to their jobs and opportunities in the country. Hostility has been reported against the immigrants to an extent of some losing their l