Competitive Advantages In The Business Environment Essay Help Service

Table of Contents
Precompetitive Advantage Gaining Phase Strategic Advantage Keeping and Maintaining Competitive Advantage Concluding Statements References

The purpose of the following literature study is to investigate the function of competitive advantage at each stage of the business life cycle and to assess its worth to firms and the economy in general.

Phase of Precompetitive Advantage

The initial phase of the business cycle must be used to establish a competitive advantage. At this juncture, it is essential to identify and assess the company's resources and competencies. According to Rothwell and Kazanas (2003), a comprehensive grasp of the organization's internal dynamics is required in order to build an effective strategic development plan. This concept can be traced back to Penrose's theory, which suggests that the industry's environment effects competitive advantage to a smaller extent than the firm's individual resources (Montgomery 2011). In light of this, pre-competitive competitive advantage can be regarded as a group of assets and resources that are semipermanently attached to the firm (Foss 1997). According to this concept, Hamel and Prahalad (2013) propose that core competencies are the most important source of competitive advantage. According to these experts, competencies hold a unique set of characteristics, including as a lack of physical wear (but, crucially, this also brings the risk of depreciation over time) (Hamel & Prahalad 2013).

Other authors expand the list of competitive advantages to include manufacturing placement in relation to the location of raw supplies, exclusive circumstances determined by successful partnerships, and customer preferences (Heene & Sanchez 2010). Importantly, none of these characteristics belong to the category of core competences, but rather to the list of company-specific resources. The most prevalent classification approach separates these resources into three categories: human, financial, and physical, with core competencies sitting in the first group (Khanka 2007). Other authors elaborate on Ansoff's proposed taxonomy. Hofer and Schendel, for instance, identify human resources as the key source of competitive advantage in the fields of technology (e.g., technical expertise) and organizational capacity (e.g., managerial knowledge and abilities) (Wang 2007). Sparrow, Brewster, and Harris (2004), on the other hand, have stressed the importance of technology resources and highlighted the comparatively tiny influence of financial funds.

In academic literature, there is also a discernible tendency to attribute competitive advantage to the physical features of resources. Finkelstein, Hambrick, and Cannella (2009), for instance, classify resources as either knowledge-based or property-based. This classification scheme corresponds visibly with the tangibility of the resources, with knowledge being intangible and property primarily tangible (Wilson 2005). Researchers are able to evaluate the function of competitive advantage in the development of a company's performance strategy based on the recognized features. According to Lwendahl (2005), such preparatory effort enables the business to build a strategy that takes into consideration not only known competitors now present on the market, but also potential competitors anticipated to enter the segment in the near future. This latter possibility is particularly valuable during the pre-competitive stage, when there are no conclusive data regarding the specific characteristics of competitors, and the strategy must include the possibility of gaining a competitive advantage and the estimated capacity of the company's resources, which allow it.

In addition to the resource-centered approach, a number of thinkers stress the significance of examining the opportunities given by the industry's conditions. This method is most prominent in the writings of Porter (2008), with the five forces model serving as the primary analytical instrument. This model provides the possibility to evaluate the potential competitive advantages of a company by analyzing the supplier power, buyer power, existing competition in the industry, the danger of substitutes, and the ease of entrance (Porter 2008). The latter component is particularly important for the pre-competition phase of the business life cycle, as it provides the opportunity to foresee the appearance of future competitors and incorporate the results of the analysis into the company's strategy. Such an approach is not, however, universally embraced. According to some academics, the contemporary market is too complicated for the five forces model to be successfully used (Harrison 2016; Runge 2013; Turban, Strauss, & Lai 2015). According to Kling et al. (2015), a significant number of factors at play in any given industry impede precise results and conclusions. This issue is evident in strategic studies, which have shifted their emphasis from industry analysis to resource analysis (Moser 2007). The examination of the industry is therefore of minor importance during the pre-competition stage, despite its importance for assessing competitive advantage.

Obtaining a Competitive Edge

After the initial creation of a strategy, organizations enter the phase of implementation, during which they earn a competitive edge. This phase demonstrates the significance of competitive advantage as a measure of corporate performance and, by extension, success (Fuchs & Shapira 2005). Moreover, from a broader viewpoint, a competitive advantage can be viewed as a driving force for the total rate of development. For instance, innovation is frequently regarded as a significant factor in acquiring a competitive edge (Arora & McIntyre 2014). According to the scholarly agreement, there is a positive correlation between the level of innovation a company demonstrates in its operations and the competitive advantage it gains on the market (Betz 2003). Moreover, innovation, in its economic meaning, gives a capability for improvement beyond the company's particular benefits.

Consequently, gaining a competitive advantage frequently results in the production of new value. Importantly, the innovator company frequently receives only a portion of the value in issue, with the remainder being spread among its local area (Betz 2003). Indirectly, the process of attaining a competitive advantage helps to the improvement of the local community and, to a lesser extent, the global community. According to some experts, the average degree of innovation in a particular society is equal to the sum of the innovative capacity of its major enterprises; in other words, the nation with the most innovative companies has a greater national competitive advantage (Betz 2003; Fuchs & Shapira 2005).

Human resources are another factor that improves the role of competitive advantage throughout the gaining stage. In contrast to financial and natural resources, these are more difficult to obtain and replicate (Shuler & Jackson 2006). However, in order to facilitate the essential competitive advantage, businesses must apply multiple tactics to attain a high quality of human resources, such as staff training, adjustments to reward systems, and various workplace improvements (Shuler & Jackson 2006). Despite the fact that these techniques have been demonstrated to be advantageous for the resultant performance of the companies, the total influence can often be witnessed on a bigger scale and can affect the social and psychological environment of the community as a whole (Shuler & Jackson 2006). This result expands the function of competitive advantage beyond its immediate advantages for firms.

The organizational structure of businesses is determined by the process of achieving a competitive advantage. Hill and Jones (2011) state that the most recent process trends include a shift toward a multidivisional structure. Moreover, Jackson et al. (2016) highlight the trend of modern organizations to establish decentralized structures and redistribute decision-making within the organization. Unlike the tactics discussed previously, these structural modifications have a lesser impact on values beyond those that directly affect the well-being of the company. Nonetheless, within this sector, the function of competitive advantage in shaping the structural component of organizations can be regarded primary.

Competitive Advantage Maintenance and Sustainment

The majority of publications underline the need for organizations to sustain a competitive advantage once it has been achieved in the previous phase. The widespread belief is that if one business entity achieves a competitive edge, others will likely replicate the actions required to reclaim the lost position (Wang 2007). The standard strategy suggested by Porter proposes two major strategies for mitigating this risk and sustaining the achieved competitive advantage. First, it is feasible to meet client expectations by identifying these expectations and differentiating the offering (Porter 1986). Typically, these outcomes are attained by the methods described above, which necessitate additional expenditures. Consequently, higher charges are typically implemented to reflect the enhanced value (Hill & Jones 2011). The second strategy, known as cost leadership, is maintaining a competitive edge by reducing product prices, ideally below the market average (Hill & Jones 2011). It is essential to recognize that while both strategies need substantial technological and organizational capabilities, the latter also necessitates a considerably bigger physical and financial resource base, hence reducing the ease of entrance for new companies (Porter 2008).

Notably, despite the fact that Porter's techniques are congruent with the resource-based model mentioned above, some researchers suggest that certain aspects play a more significant role in sustaining a competitive edge. Gottschalk (2005) proposes that information and expertise play a leading role in the process, with operational enhancements as a logical result. This view is reinforced by Bahrami and Evans (2014), who note that knowledge is a unique resource that, rather than being drained upon use, increases as an asset.

Likewise, Grant focuses on competencies and attributes organizational effectiveness to their effective facilitation (Burke & Cooper 2006). Hill and Jones (2011) assert that a company's capabilities define the availability of its resources and that their implementation is adequate for sustaining or retaining competitive advantage.

Critics contest these assumptions by pointing out that competitive advantage cannot be determined by evaluating the resources of each firm separately. Instead, the interdependence of businesses indicates their ability to sustain it. The importance of competitive advantage in this regard is defined by partnerships, collaborations, information sharing, and other relationships between firms (Bathelt & Glückler 2011; Chaminade & Catass 2007). According to this hypothesis, the pursuit of competitive advantage by one entity necessitates roughly equivalent network-wide development (Fonfara 2012).

Conclusion

A assessment of the existing research indicates that competitive advantage plays a decisive role at every stage of the business life cycle. In particular, it influences the formulation of corporate strategy during the pre-competitive phase, pushes innovation, technological advances, and organizational structure during the gaining phase, and initiates diversification and pricing policies during the sustaining phase. Moreover, the benefits of pursuing competitive advantage are not confined to the organization that engages in it, making it an integral part of the larger economic and social environment.

Bibliography

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Burke, R & Cooper, C 2006, Reinventing HRM: new directions and difficulties. Boston's Routledge bookstore.

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Foss, N 1997, Resources, firms, and strategies: a resource-based perspective reader. Oxford University Press is located in Oxford.

Fuchs, G & Shapira, P 2005, Path dependency or regional breakthrough? New York: Springer Science & Business Media.

Gottschalk, P., "Strategic knowledge management technology," in Gottschalk, P. Macmillan, Oxford; Oxford, Macmillan

Hamel, G & Prahalad, C 2013, To vie for the future. London-based Harvard Business Press.

A. Harrison, 2016 Business climate in a global perspective. Oxford University Press is located in Oxford.

Heene, A., and Sanchez, R. (2010). Strengthening competencies for competitive advantage. Bingley's Emerald Group Publishing.

Hill, C., and Jones, G., "Fundamentals of strategic management," 2011. London Cengage Learning.

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Runge, W 2013, A treatise on entrepreneurs and entrepreneurship for and in technology businesses. Karlsruhe's KIT Scientific Publishing.

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Bridging The Gap In Business Essay Help Service

Any expanding business will always face a range of obstacles. As a business grows, new difficulties and possibilities necessitate other approaches; what worked a year ago may no longer be the best course of action. Frequently, avoidable blunders transform a profitable business into a loss. If a business wants to continue expanding and prospering, it must be able to identify and control the possible errors connected with expansion.

Essentially, it would be beneficial if management ensured that their current activities do not create future challenges. Good leadership will enable organizations to maximize their prospects, resulting in long-term sustainability. The management of the Gap organization will employ a variety of problem-solving strategies in response to the occurrence of several operational concerns.

Gap faces a number of obstacles, most notably the driving forces affecting the clothing business, such as the information revolution. Consumers will be able to learn about new designs quickly and simply via social media, and they will be able to compare pricing on their cell phones thanks to the efficient dissemination of information.

Next is technology, which implies that suitable and contemporary technology will improve the creation of the most recent, high-quality clothing (Ayres, 2017). This will also result in reduced costs for raw materials and labor. Prior to that, the price of any new technology must be balanced against the costs of raw materials, labor, and globalization. The rising competition from companies such as H&M and Zara is another concern.

Therefore, for Gap to be successful in resolving the challenges affecting the company, it will be necessary for the senior management to collaborate closely on a variety of methods. The most important performance features of an industry are the strategic factors that determine the market success of an industrial organization.

Particularly, product features, operational approaches, and resources enable a company to derive critical success factors that enable it to be successful in its industry (Yao & Qin, 2016). In the context of Gap, the increase of their goods range throughout their multiple products is a crucial success factor. The company's wide product categories are unavailable to the majority of its competitors in the consumer clothes retail market.

The above important success influence is obtained from the operating strategy, which enables the company to compete in a variety of areas, hence increasing its market share (Al Zuned, 2017). Even though Gap is a mid-level corporation in the sector compared to other high-ranking competitors with superior designs, the company is nevertheless able to provide formidable competition. For instance, in addition to higher quality and more elaborate design, it may market its Old Navy brand as a premium product with a cheaper price tag.

It could also symbolize any element of the apparel industry in terms of pricing, quality and design. Historically, the store has achieved this level of success through successive acquisitions. The company's capacity to effectively compete in the internet retail business is yet another strategic transformation-based major accomplishment.

The revamped e-commerce allows for more efficient and accurate order processing. Customers will be able to shop for all of the company's brands utilizing a single shopping cart after the redesign of their website. These two key performance factors are what distinguishes Gap from its competitors.

Moreover, Murphy, the company's CEO, has long emphasized the necessity of speed to his management. If fewer decision-makers are involved, the time it takes for a piece of apparel to go from conception to store shelves could be cut. With greater autonomy and fewer permissions necessary at each phase of the process, designs might reach the market more quickly (Dong, 2016). It implies that modern business concepts demand less time in boardrooms and significantly more time delivering services.

Similarly, proponents of the input-output (I/O) view might assess the gap scenario in a variety of ways. Each person or organization must evaluate the scenario from their own perspective. For instance, the I/O perspective asserts that Gap did not adapt quickly enough to industry-wide advances. As competitors like H&M and Zara expanded, the business was hesitant to follow suit. On the other hand, the resource-based view (RBV) contends that the organization has the potential to be successful; but, these resources have not been utilized as efficiently as they should have been.

Greater attention on resource utilization could provide Gap with a competitive advantage. The proponents of the guerilla viewpoint conclude that supplying the clothing industry with fresh styles and patterns would provide the company a competitive advantage. Reducing the time between concept creation would facilitate rivalry with H&M and Zara.

In conclusion, this organization's management will need to act swiftly yet prudently in order to solve the difficulties affecting the company. In every workplace, decision-making is the most crucial aspect of the day-to-day operation of the business; nevertheless, the decisions made should be in the best interest of the company and reached after consultations. In this situation, change is always positive if it improves efficiency; hence, the company's leadership must have a clear strategy for implementing positive changes.

References

A. Al Zuned (2017). Harriet Green as a model of effective business leadership styles: a case study Web. Middle East Journal of Business.

Ayres, J. (2017). Inventiveness or prototype? Exploitation and theft in the fashion business. 4(2), 151-165. Fashion, Style, and Popular Culture. Web.

Dong, H. (2016). Entrepreneurs have a competitive advantage in startup businesses. Business Journal, 1(2), 8-12. Web.

Yao, Q., & Qin, H. (2016). Marketing expertise, competitive advantage, and business results. Web.

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Sources Of Energy Review Essay Help Service

Introduction

Energy supply refers to the entire amount of usable energy available to humanity. Fossil fuels, water power, wind power, nuclear power, tidal power, biomass power, solar power, and geothermal power are the primary sources of energy.

Fossil fuels

Fossil Fuels are derived from the decomposition of plants and animals over eons of time. Coal, petroleum, and natural gas provide the majority of the world's energy requirements. Through the combustion of fossil fuels, energy is generated. Power plants transform water into steam, which then turns a turbine to produce electricity. The global production of coal climbed from 2235 MT in 1973 to 4973 MT in 2005. The production of crude oil increased from 2,867 MT in 1973 to 3,923 MT in 2005. The production of natural gas increased from 1226 Bcm in 1973 to 2572 Bcm in 2005.

Coal has the advantage of being inexpensive, and its extraction is simple. Oil and gas are effective energy sources for space heating and are supported by an efficient distribution infrastructure. Nonrenewable resources contribute significantly to air pollution, global warming, and acid rain by emitting poisonous carbon dioxide, sulfur dioxide, and mercury; there are large price swings associated with supply and demand, which pose security risks for dependent countries; and the extraction process of coal frequently involves accidents such as cave-ins and the development of lung disease in miners.

Hydroelectric Power

The production of hydroelectric power is accomplished by constructing dams in hilly regions where water flows from a higher to a lower elevation. The water pressure and velocity are utilized to turn enormous water wheels that produce electricity. The generation of hydroelectric power increased from 1282 TWh in 1973 to 2808 TWh in 2004. In 2004, the leading producers were China (354 TWh), Canada (341 TWh), Brazil (321 TWh), and the United States (271 Twh).

The advantage of hydroelectric power is that water is a renewable source of energy; there is a one-time large investment in building the dam; it is particularly useful in mountainous regions where water flows from a height (for example, the United States has a vast network of dams in the West); and, unlike fossil fuels, it does not contribute to pollution. The downsides are the paucity of suitable places for water elevation and the impossibility of future extension, as existing dams cannot be improved. The construction of dams has a negative impact on fish patterns (such as salmon runs); dam failure can result in loss of life and severe environmental damage in flooded areas.

Wind Power

Utilizing wind power to generate electricity. Wind farms employ the massive blades of wind turbines housed in wind towers to generate electricity using wind power.

The benefit of wind power is that it is a renewable source of energy; unlike fossil fuels, it does not cause pollution; it is well-suited for use in rural areas not only to generate electricity but also to periodically pump water, as it was in the early 1900s; energy generation and maintenance costs are lower. Its disadvantages include the scarcity of wind-friendly places, the possibility that strong winds could damage energy-generating equipment, and the persistent risk that the enormous turbine blades will injure or kill birds.

Nuclear Energy

Nuclear Power produces power through the fission of uranium and other atoms. The Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) countries produced 92.8% of the world's nuclear energy in 1973, followed by the USSR at 5.9% and Asia at 1.3%. In 2004, output soared to 2738 TWh, with OECD countries contributing 84.7%, the USSR 9.1%, Asia 2.2%, and other nations 4%.

It does not produce harmful greenhouse gases or acid rain; nuclear fuel is inexpensive, and a small amount of fuel can provide an enormous amount of electricity; energy generation is the most concentrated source, and it is simple to convey a new source. Its fuel (uranium) is a nonrenewable source of energy; massive investment is required to cover not only construction of nuclear power plants, but also providing emergency, containment, radioactive waste and storage systems, and for the cost of decommissioning the plant at the end of its short life; nuclear proliferation is becoming an increasing global threat, as evidenced by Iran and North Korea's recent activities; and the great danger of accidents (as experienced in Chernobyl).

Tidal Power

Tidal Power generates electricity from the tides. Every day, every coastal region sees two high tides and two low tides. The difference between high and low tides must be at least 5 meters or more than 16 feet for tidal power generation. Across estuaries, a dam or barrage is constructed to drive water into rotating tidal turbines that create electricity.

There is only a one-time investment required, tides are renewable energy sources, and there is no risk of contamination. There are just forty sites in the globe where the exact magnitude of the tidal range occurs, and the dams have a severe impact on the movement of marine species and local ecosystems.

Biomass Energy

Biomass Power is energy extracted from organic matter such as forest and mill waste, municipal and industrial waste, crops and trash, animal waste, timber and wood waste, trees, and aquatic plants.

It utilizes waste materials, so resolving their disposal issues, and there is an abundance of biomass. It is still in an early, small-scale development stage, and it adds to air pollution by producing toxic compounds.

Solar Power

Solar Power utilizes solar cells to create energy from sunlight, as well as solar panels and solar mirrors to heat water.

The sun is a renewable source of energy; it does not generate pollution; like wind power, it is suitable for rural areas; and in addition to producing electricity, it may be utilized to provide heat. Its downsides include the paucity of sunny places (like those in the south of the United States) in the world, when demand can be highest (winter solar heating) when supply is lowest; and the environmental impact of the materials needed to create solar panels and solar mirrors.

Thermal Energy

Geothermal Power extracts heat from the earth's crust's hot rocks. The hot water or steam is pumped to the surface, where it is used to turn turbines and generate energy.

Its benefits are that it does not generate pollution; like tidal power, it involves a one-time investment; and it is an appealing, non-fossil fuel-dependent source of energy that countries with ideal locations are utilizing (according to the U.S. Geothermal Energy Association, 61 projects are presently underway in the country which would enhance total energy availability to 5,000 megawatts). There are few places in the world where tectonic plates clash, and new fossil fuel ventures typically confront environmental obstacles.

Local and global difficulties

There are a number of local and worldwide issues related with various energy sources.

Petroleum has the unfortunate distinction of being the most difficult energy source. It has triggered political and economic disputes. Due to the fact that the majority of the world's oil reserves are located in the Middle East and North Africa, these nations have dictated terms for oil deliveries to dependent nations. Despite ranking third in oil output in 2005, the United States was the largest importer of oil in 2004 with 577 Mt, followed by Japan (206 Mt). Several international issues have arisen, such as the 1973 oil embargo, which was a result of Middle Eastern nations' retaliation against the West for its support of Israel. Within the Organization of the Petroleum Exporting Countries (OPEC), where member nations are perpetually vying for the greatest possible quotas, petroleum has also produced local issues.

Gas is an additional fuel that has contributed to international issues. Iran purposely slowed down negotiations in 2005, implying that it would back out of a deal to deliver 5 million tons of LNG to India for 25 years beginning in 2009, because India voted against Iran in a U.N.-sponsored resolution to put sanctions on Iran over its questionable nuclear program.

The cost-benefit analysis of various energy sources reveals intriguing information.

In 2004, the Rocky Mountains Research Institute determined the cost of electricity generation per kilowatt-hour as follows: 4 cents for coal, 4.2 cents for wind power, 6.8 cents for gas, 9.1 cents for oil, and 10 cents for nuclear power.

Although fossil fuels supply the majority of the world's energy needs (86% in 1973 and 80.3% in 2004), they are rare and are being utilized at a rate that considerably exceeds their slow creation. Second, the primary fossil fuel, petroleum, which supplied 45 percent of the world's needs in 1973 and 34 percent in 2004, is extremely expensive due to exporting nations' price manipulations. New York Mercantile Exchange quoted light sweet crude oil for April 2007 delivery at $ 61.28 per barrel, while London ICE Futures Exchange quoted Brent crude oil at $ 62.18 per barrel. China and Japan, the second and third largest oil users in the world, who consumed 6,391,000 and 5,578,000 barrels per day, respectively, in 2004, are severely affected by the high price. Although the United States was the world's third-biggest oil production in 2005 with 307 Mt, it was the top oil user in 2004 with a daily consumption of 20,030,000 barrels. Thirdly, the outputs of pollutants from fossil fuels are enormous. In 1973, the global emissions of Carbon Dioxide (CO2) from fossil fuels totaled 15,661 Mt (oil 50.7%, coal 34.9%, gas 14.4%), which increased to 26,583 Mt in 2004 (oil 39.9%, coal 40%, gas 19.9%, others 0.3%). The Union of Concerned Scientists in the United States (UCSUSA) estimated in 2005 that a typical coal plant emits 3,700,000 tons of CO2, 10,000 tons of SO2, 10,200 tons of Nitrogen Oxide (NOx), 720 tons of Carbon Monoxide (MO), 220 tons of Volatile Organic Compounds (VOC), 225 pounds of Arsenic, 170 pounds of Mercury, and 114 pounds of Lead annually.

Biomass, tidal, and geothermal energy are insufficient to meet the world's energy demands. Like hydroelectric electricity, the last two are restricted to specific regions of the planet. Generation of energy from biomass is still in its infancy. The building costs and payback timeframes for tidal power plants are astronomical.

Solar power is hindered by the need for large tracts of land to generate tiny amounts of energy. Scientists promoting solar power have been accused of concealing three dangerous facts from the public: first, since solar energy is generated by nuclear fusion within the sun's core, it is extremely volatile; second, the source of solar energy is hydrogen, an extremely explosive gas with a high destruction potential that can also cause hazardous fallout; and third, scientists do not yet fully comprehend how the sun operates.

Conclusion

Wind Power and Nuclear Power are, in my opinion, the finest possibilities, the former in the short term and the latter in the long run.

Wind energy is projected to become the best source of energy for the United States and the entire planet. In 1991, the U.S. Department of Energy made a stunning announcement: only three states (North Dakota, Kansas, and Texas) were so wind-rich that the wind energy potential of these three states alone could meet the nation's needs. In 2003, a group of engineers from Stanford confirmed this remarkable result and added that the wind energy potential was significantly bigger than the 1991 estimate. Together, the European Wind Energy Association and Greenpeace conducted the Wind Force 12 assessment, which determined that the global wind energy potential was so great that it would be double the global electricity demand in 2020; moreover, this assessment only covered global land area – if offshore potential is added, wind power can satisfy not only global electricity needs but also total global energy needs. These findings, coupled with wind energy's reputation for being environmentally beneficial, make it the most alluring energy source in the world at present.

Utilization of nuclear power is rising steadily. In 2004, the United States was the world's largest producer of nuclear energy (813 Twh), followed by France (448 Twh) and Japan (282 Twh). Nonetheless, it is restricted by issues associated with the limited availability of uranium and the radioactive wastes of power stations. The potential of building nuclear fusion reactors that use hydrogen and tritium as fuel excites scientists more and more. It delivers a greater energy production per unit mass per unit than the current nuclear fission process, and the quantity of radiation is much lower. This new form of nuclear power generation, which will take time to create (after 40 years of costly research, commercially available nuclear plants are not anticipated until 35 years from now), is an excellent future scenario for the planet.

References

Brown, Lester R., "Wind Power Set to Become World's Leading Energy Source," Earthpolicy.org, 2004. Web. Brown, Lester R., "Wind Power Set to Become World's Leading Energy Source."

The name Terence Chea. Increasing fossil fuel prices stimulate the development of renewable energy. 2004. Online. Deseretnews.com. Web.

Eere.energy.gov. Online Ocean Tidal Power. Eere.energy.gov, 2005. Web.

The Burning Issues with BioMass, online, Energyjustice.net, 2000. Ewall, Mike. Web.

Iea.org. Key global statistics available online. Iea.org in 2006 Web.

Iran-daily.com. India Assured a Supply of LNG for 25 Years Online. Iran-daily.com, Web site, 2005.

Nationmasters.com. Online statistics for oil consumption by country. Nationmasters.com, 2005. Web.

Offshore-technology.com. Oil Prices Fall Online Prior to OPEC Meeting. 2007. Offshore-technology.com Web.

1994. 2007. Web. Simanek, Donald E. The Dangers of Solar Energy.

Szep, Jason. The United States is asked to increase its use of geothermal energy. Online. Commondreams.org, 2007. Web.

Ucusa.org. 2005. Ucsusa.org. Environmental Impacts of Coal Power: Air Pollution. Web.

The Nuclear Tourist Virtually. Comparative Analysis of Diverse Energy Sources Online. The Virtual Nuclear Tourist, web resource, 2005.

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Ethical Violations And Challenges Essay Help Service

Contents Listing
Introduction Factors Humane Communication Organization Culture Discussion and Conclude References

Introduction

This paper reviews six publications by Ezzamel, Willmott, and Worthington (2001), Fleming and Spicer (2003), Orton (2000), Morrison and Milliken (2000), Piderit (2000), and Vince and Broussine (2000). (1996). The researchers examined organizational transformation concerns by analyzing the elements that inhibit (or promote) the process. This paper assesses their arguments and assumptions using a three-pronged framework that describes their findings as organizational culture concerns, communication concerns, and human considerations (which affect organizational change). This research identifies fresh insights for change management by bridging the gap between theory and practice.

Factors Humane

According to Vince and Broussine (1996), the organizational emphasis in change management should shift from problem-solving and planning-based approaches to human emotions and interpersonal ties. Specifically, they emphasize the necessity to comprehend how human uncertainty and defensiveness influence organizational transformation. According to Vince and Broussine (1996), human factors impact change management through influencing the acceptance of the change process among individuals.

This examination must take into account numerous factors. For instance, change resistance is an attitude problem that the majority of firms might tackle by appealing to human needs. Those who do so have a good likelihood of experiencing employee support in change management. For instance, Faucheux (2013) tells the story of an American church (Jeff's Church) that intended to construct a new sanctuary for its congregants, but received complaints from some of its members for excluding them from the project.

The church resolved this issue by creating a steering committee that solicited the opinions and participation of every church member. Eventually, the majority of members supported the project because they felt included in the process of transformation (Faucheux, 2013). This analysis demonstrates that focusing on people's emotions and interpersonal relationships, as Vince and Broussine (1996) emphasize, is the driving force behind the success of organizational change.

Piderit (2000) supports the focus on human attitudes as a necessary for successful organizational change by arguing for a new approach to employee resistance. According to him, individuals' attitudes influence their resistance to change (or support for it). In this context, Piderit (2000) asserts that achieving a balance between organizational goals and individual needs will promote ambiguous attitudes toward change. To do this, he said that it is essential to comprehend the evolution of employee resistance to change. Likewise, he underlined the need to comprehend how personnel react to change ideas (using a bottom-up approach). He utilized this argument to explain the process of egalitarian change (Piderit, 2000).

Communication

According to Morrison and Milliken (2000), the primary impediment to organizational transformation is the failure of companies to articulate the issues affecting corporate and employee performance. According to them, it would be "unwise" for such firms to allow stakeholders to express organizational issues. They refer to this as "organizational silence" (Morrison & Milliken, 2000).

To encourage organizational change, the researchers researched the contextual elements that contribute to organizational change and proposed that removing these variables would promote change. This viewpoint is consistent with the assertions made by Faucheux (2013), who emphasized the need for managers to convey organizational change challenges to all stakeholders. Additionally, he stated that the executive team must convince all stakeholders to support the change management process (Faucheux, 2013; Morrison & Milliken, 2000). In this manner, employees would comprehend the necessity of change acceptance. This tactic has had favorable results.

For instance, in 1981 British Airways hired a new management who wished to reform the business because he recognized that it was wasting resources (Faucheux, 2013). The airline's personnel was reduced as a result of the restructuring operations he initiated. However, before he did so, he informed all of the organization's stakeholders of the necessity to restructure. This procedure prepared the workforce for the transition. His efforts eventually bore fruit, preventing the near bankruptcy of the London-based airline (Faucheux, 2013).

Organization Culture

According to Fleming and Spicer (2003), subjectivity and power relations are crucial components in organizational change. These elements are mostly a part of organizational culture. In this regard, Fleming and Spicer (2003) assert that the majority of employees who comprehend an organization's culture are likely to support organizational change, whilst those who do not comprehend it are likely to impede the process. The latter group behaves in this manner because they feel alone.

Furthermore, cynicism becomes a prevalent trait of their professional performance. In order to understand this occurrence, Fleming and Spicer (2003) state, "We call this the ideology interpretation because, in dis-identifying with power, it is reproduced inadvertently" (p. 157). Overall, Fleming and Spicer (2003) feel that cultural power has a substantial effect on an organization's capacity to embrace change. Similarly, they assert that subjectivity impacts an organization's capacity for change (subjectivity might not necessarily come from within the organization). This finding also demonstrates that what many individuals may perceive as frustrations associated with change are not always accurate.

Orton (2000) utilized the preceding philosophy to explain how internal communications influence organizational design processes in the US intelligence community. Using Weick's theory of organization development as a foundation, he investigated the effects of three design assumptions on the design process of an organization. In his research, he discovered that the organizational design process was constrained by dominant factors, causal laws, and executive directives (the three organization design assumptions) (Orton, 2000). Overall, Orton (2000) emphasized the necessity for businesses to shift from basic designs to trustworthy designs.

Ezzamel et al. (2001) have questioned the validity for utilizing new waves of management (as mentioned previously) as the sole conditions for re-engineering organizational processes. After analyzing the experiences of dissatisfied managers who attempted to re-engineer organizational processes, the researchers discovered that the vast majority of employees could easily deploy personal and collective forms of resistance to promote (or thwart) organizational change (Ezzamel et al., 2001). Although the authors accept the significance that external organizational factors, such as market shifts, have in organizational transformation, they assert that associating with historical working methods has a stronger impact. Consequently, the authors recognize the importance of focusing on the influence of employee work experiences on organizational development.

Discussion and Summary

After reviewing the six articles featured in this paper, it is clear that organizational transformation is a dynamic and multidimensional topic. Human factors, communication, and organizational transformation emerge as the primary variables influencing the process. As Ezzamel et al. (2001) note, while many types of literature acknowledge the need for adopting modern change management paradigms, such as lean management, it is equally important to recognize the role that an employee's experience plays in determining his resistance (or support) to the change management process.

Therefore, change management should concentrate on getting the "human aspect" right before addressing other crucial concerns, such as communication and organizational culture. This study emphasizes the importance of adopting a multidimensional approach to change management. In addition, it emphasizes the importance of integrating past and present organizational requirements while designing future organizational processes.

References

The authors are Ezzamel, Willmott, and Worthington (2001). In The Factory That Time Forgot, there is power, control, and resistance. 38(8), 1053-1079, Journal of Management Studies

Faucheux, M. (2013). Plans for Change Management That Worked as Illustrations Web.

P. Fleming and A. Spicer (2003). Implications for Power, Subjectivity, and Resistance while Working at a Cynical Distance 10(1), 157-179. Organization.

Morrison, E. W., & Milliken, F. J. (2000). A barrier to change and development in a pluralistic world is organizational silence. The Academy of Management Review, 25(4), pages 706-725.

Orton, J. D. (2000). Enactment, Sensemaking, and Decision Making: Redesign Processes in the Reorganization of US Intelligence in 1976 37(2), pages 213-234, in Journal of Management Studies.

Piderit, S. K. (2000). A Multidimensional Perspective on Organizational Change Attitudes: Reconsidering Resistance and Recognizing Ambivalence The Academy of Management Review, twenty-five (4), 783-794.

R. Vince and M. Broussine (1996). Paradox, Defense, and Attachment: Accessing and Managing the Emotions and Relationships Underlying Organizational Change Organization Studies, seventeen (1), 1-21.

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Leadership Role In Change Management Essay Help Service

Abstract

Due to its benefits, organizations now have the opportunity to accept and include leadership development within their management framework. In this study, however, an investigation of leadership development was based on the leadership development challenges that organizations face, the leadership styles that organizations should adopt for a leader to be effective, leadership development theories, IBM leadership development dimensions, and the efficiencies of leadership within companies. Effective leadership development necessitates a program that enables a leader to design and effectively implement organizational vision and mission statements, build effective relationship management skills, and adopt the leader-member exchange leadership method. Here, the leader-member method facilitates the development of productive working relationships between employees. IBM's story demonstrates that the corporation built a leadership development strategy that adapts to the leadership requirements of the organization, rather than depending on a single theory of leadership management.

Introduction

As businesses continue to evolve, there is an ever-increasing demand for high-caliber leadership in order to address dynamic changes and operational difficulties (Avolio 2010). The need for improved leadership is augmented by the requirement to cultivate enduring leadership capabilities. Theoretically and practically, leadership can only be successful if leadership development is congruent with the leadership needs that target the continuously changing organizational needs (Ahrens & Chapman 2007). Due to the many challenges leaders face as a result of the increasing complexity caused by the rapid technological advances, increase in employee empowerment, organisational "delaying," and the proliferation of team-based approaches to organisational leadership, it has been determined that those in leadership positions must revise their leadership development approaches in order to provide higher quality leadership. According to Kelloway and Barling (2010), better quality leadership is a tool that may be utilized by persons in leadership positions to guide others to effectively pursue corporate goals and objectives, which results in higher quality services and more operational efficiencies (Avolio 2010).

However, Dalakoura (2010) asserts that many businesses fail to use the best business practices to maximize employee skills and knowledge due to the leadership vacuum created by inadequate leadership offered by people in positions of authority. IBM, for example, has been one of the most successful global providers of computer hardware, software, and related services. However, the organization has an urgent need to reform its leadership style by enhancing or bolstering the leadership style by fostering the leadership competencies, wisdom, and insight necessary to successfully execute the organizational business strategies (Brungardt 1997). Here, the corporation has not given substantial attention to the main areas of leadership development, such as experience, competence, and relationship taxonomies, which all organizations use to evaluate their leadership capabilities and determine what they must do to develop their leadership competences (Solansky 2010). On the other side, leadership experience is built on the leadership competences, relationships, and skills required for a leader to develop effective leadership abilities.

Generally, leadership development must center on the key elements of experience that are driven by teaching leaders the leadership skills by providing the required support and teaching them the real-world lessons that build excellent leadership capabilities, providing an environment for the leaders to develop the strong relationship in the breadth and depth of the leadership needs, and providing the leaders with the skills and competencies required to provide competitive leadership. Here, the leader is instructed in the competences necessary for providing effective leadership, which serve as the foundation for enhanced leadership abilities (Scott DeRue & Ashford 2010). There is, nevertheless, a need for organizational managers to develop their leadership skills in order to construct solid leadership foundations, as a result of the prevalence of ineffective leadership in many businesses.

IBM's instance is a typical illustration. Due to a lack of understanding of past errors, IBM's management failed to demonstrate accountability. Transformational leaders are proficient at drawing lessons from the past. The organization should engage transformative leaders to effectively address the obstacles. The frequency with which lawsuits are filed against IBM illustrates the incompetence of the current leadership to manage the business. According to key leadership theories, effective leadership requires control over its followers as well as the development of effective communication channels (Gray & Larson 2008). Leaders must be able to effectively communicate their vision to the entire team. In addition, competent managers must be able to adapt from one model of management to another based on the demands of different individuals and the circumstances. Moreover, effective leadership necessitates an awareness of extraordinary methods of persuading people to comply with established norms and regulations. The leader must acquire the respect of his or her subordinates by efficient task execution (Haberberg & Rieple 2007).

The problem's description

Due to the fact that leadership is a highly contextual construct, many organizations have begun to experience leadership issues as a result of the dynamically emerging leadership challenges caused by rapid change and adoption of new technologies, team-based organizations, and employee empowerment, among other issues. The outcome has been leadership styles that do not measure up to the issues companies face, prompting the question, "What steps do organizations take to reform their leadership styles in order to meet the leadership challenges of today?" The following objectives give the framework for the study needed to answer the research question.

Objectives

Investigate the leadership styles organizations should embrace in order to investigate the leadership development difficulties organizations face. Examine the leadership development theories. Determine the organizational leadership characteristic of IBM Company Establish the effectiveness of the organization's leadership structure.

Justification of the study

The purpose of this study is to address the widening chasm between organisational leadership that has failed to give the necessary leadership to enable leaders to lead people effectively in their pursuits and the leadership that is required to do so.

Literature review

The literature review is a summary of the findings of various authors on the implications of leadership development in various organisations, the leadership challenges that leaders face, the leadership techniques and theories that are implemented to address the challenges, and the knowledge gaps on leadership development that this study aims to fill.

The obstacles organizations face in leadership development

Due to the significant transitory changes that many organizations are currently undergoing, a variety of leadership development difficulties have arisen in a number of organizations. Typically, because the fundamental responsibilities of a leader are to model, inspire vision, encourage and persuade people to act in the desired manners, challenge particular procedures, and guide them to reach the intended outcomes (Castells 2011). To lead, however, leaders must define and demonstrate how leadership should be carried out, create the vision, clarify the principles, energize and mobilize the people, and set the examples for followers to pursue organizational goals and objectives. On the other side, it is essential for leaders to welcome leadership challenges, as they are the antidote to stagnation and disintegration. Studies reveal, however, that what leaders say is not what they do, despite the fact that the majority of organizations agree that leaders are required to lead the people in transitioning an organization from its current state to a new one. However, the bulk of leadership techniques place greater emphasis on the leader as opposed to leadership development. Establishing a leader's connection skills is a problem in the process of developing the correct leadership.

According to Chapman, Hopwood, and Shields (2006), the rationale for creating a strong relationship between employees and leaders is that interpersonal relationships have long been regarded as the key to effective leadership by the majority of organizations. However, relatively few organizations have prioritized the interpersonal side of leadership. Diverse scholars agree, however, that a relational perspective is critical for leaders who wish to enhance their leadership ways in guiding people to effectively pursue and attain organizational objectives.

Relationship difficulty

Academic researchers concur that the relational approach recognizes leadership when the leader transcends the unidirectional nature of leadership or even the reciprocal nature of leadership to one that is extremely significant and never restricted to the formal manner in which leaders operate or are perceived (Chase & Aquilano 2006). For instance, some leaders employ a particular leadership style, such as servant leadership, to lead by example. In contrast, the relational method provides a very effective leadership strategy that serves as a dynamic kind of leadership that enables a broader perspective on leadership. As a result of the social capital generated by solid relationships, relational leaders might encounter an abundance of leadership development chances. Here, the relationship method supports the growth of the formal leader through the use of instruments, like as training, to gain the information and skills required for the leader to effectively execute leadership tasks. In this case, a good connection is founded on the interpersonal competence that is acquired through training.

Interpersonal relationships enable the complex interplay between leaders and their environment, including employees and other organizational environment aspects, to interact effectively, resulting in improved performance and favorable work-related outcomes (Dalakoura 2010). Leadership Development in the context of the organization and the leader entails the ability to develop a community of individuals who work collaboratively to construct a system that enhances the skills of the people under the provided leadership.

Despite the fact that many experts concur that the connection-based approach to leadership development is the most effective, the characteristics that lead to a higher- or lower-quality relationship must still be determined (Dalakoura 2010). A higher quality relationship is viewed as the foundation for a better relationship in the workplace and creates the platform for better ideas on how leadership may be created to enable leaders to effectively address the difficulties faced by modern organizations. In this article, the authors believe that leadership should go beyond the hierarchical connection that characterizes traditional leadership techniques and styles, which is dominated by the manager-subordinate relationship, to a more people-centered approach (Davenport & Brooks 2004).

A quality leader should engage the leader and the led in a leader-led connection that allows for the diversity of what constitutes a great relationship. IBM exemplifies the use of leadership inside an organization by displaying the significance of social capital, which enables the leader to effectively lead an organization to meet the difficulties and demands arising from the internal and external contexts. Here, it is obvious that the vast majority of authors concur that effective leadership derives from a harmonious interaction between organization members (Davila & Foster 2005). The relationship challenge generates new pathways of thought, requiring the leader to develop a new style of thinking in order to capitalize on new possibilities to experiment with and practice new attitudes, skills, and leadership behaviors.

Researchers have provided a variety of recommendations regarding what a leader should do to become an effective leader in order to overcome the problems they face in carrying out their leadership tasks. Among the suggested components is the development of cooperative connections with employees and other members of the management hierarchy. In addition, the second strategy is to implement employee development programs that give various support efforts for the employees in order to make them feel as though they are a part of the organization. Also, it has been stated that inspiring confidence and commitment among employees and management gives employees with a feeling of inspiration and a shift in attitude. In addition, guiding people is essential to the success of leadership development, since employees with a vision are more productive than those with no clear direction to follow.

Nonetheless, high-quality leadership development is predicated on the acquisition and application of effective leadership skills. In this setting, a leader can only be effective if he or she is well-trained in initiative-taking, composed and confident, has solid career management methods, is culturally adaptive, and is self-aware (De Wit & Meyer 2004). In addition, leadership difficulties can be addressed more effectively if the leader is informed about how to effectively apply the technical knowledge and abilities that occur as a result of alterations in organizational operations.

Strategy for leader-member interaction

The leader-member exchange concept has been proposed by academics as a solution to the challenge of leadership development that many organizations, such as IBM, face today. In numerous organizations, the method of leader-member exchange has proven to be highly effective. An research of the application of the technique revealed that, due to the personal nature of the interactions, the members of the organization where the approach was implemented generated a great deal of positive interest in the management (Eeden, Cilliers & Deventer 2008).

Each employee was able to experience a dynamic relationship with the leader, resulting in the observation of improved qualities and behaviors that boost employee productivity and performance in general. In addition, the study revealed that situational factors, such as the need to take action and make judgments, influenced the working environment of employees. It was judged vital to adopt a leadership style that would enable the leader to successfully guide individuals through a variety of scenarios in pursuit of the organization's goals and objectives. The transformational leadership style was proposed as one of the techniques (Gray & Larson 2008). In leadership development, it is essential to recognize that a leader's role is to convince others to work and improve the organization. In this instance, the leadership style had a major impact on the quality of the relationship between the leader and the employee. In addition, the interaction between the leader and subordinates contributed to a more conducive work environment for the development of employees' abilities. Typically, when leaders engage in-group members, employee performance and work satisfaction are likely to increase. In addition, it has been demonstrated that it leads to higher intrinsic and extrinsic motivation, improved citizenship, conduct, and performance. A researcher found that for a leader to demonstrate good leadership skills based on the leader-member exchange approach, it is essential to build an in-group approach to leadership in order to be effective in leadership practices.

Value of social capital

According to researchers, social capital is one of the most significant instruments for organizations seeking to cultivate managerial characteristics. Social capital is essential to leadership development because it enables persons in leadership positions to confront and overcome the difficulties and challenges brought on by the rapid changes in the corporate environment (Gerhard Huber 2004). Specifically, leaders encounter never-ending challenges from their internal and external surroundings, which necessitate effective leadership abilities to resolve. It has been stated that the option to create high-quality products exists.

Maple Leaf Shoe Ltd.’s Human Resource Management Essay Help Service

Table of Contents
Introduction Problem Statement Analysis of Available Options Recommendations Implementation

Introduction

Computerization and the application of other innovative production technologies define the modern world. Nevertheless, it is widely acknowledged that computers will never replace human resources. The optimal distribution of labor in conjunction with efficient management is one of the most pressing issues in the modern world, especially during times of economic crisis. It is a common truth that the correct management and division of workers in manufacturing, in conjunction with the deployment of automation and computer technology, can lead to an increase in output. Using Maple Leaf Shoe Ltd as an example, we will study the human resource situation in the company, evaluate the effectiveness of the current scheme of worker division, and give solutions to the existing challenges in an effort to increase productivity through proper human resource administration.

Problem Statement

Maple Leaf Shoe Ltd is a firm that specializes in the production of shoes, with about 400 employees in its Ontario facility and approximately 380 in its other Canadian and international locations. The company's production costs are rising slowly but steadily. Labor costs account for almost 53 percent of production costs. The company's current challenge is that labor expenses are astronomically high in relation to production. In other words, the level of productivity had not grown recently despite the automation of certain production processes. How to boost productivity through division of human resources is the issue we will address.

Analysis of Available Options

Specifically, production and labor force figures should lead to the conclusion that the number of employees was not the cause of the production growth. In 1978, 65 employees created 50 pairs of shoes, and in 2006, 133 employees produce 105 pairs of shoes, maintaining the same ratio. The ratio cannot be altered and is incorrect. The urgent approaches should be implemented in the rearrangement of human resource management, marketing, and structure of target markets.

Prior to examining the options that may be adopted in the organization, the problems themselves must be evaluated. Jane Reynolds did an examination of the company's production challenges and conditions, from which we will extract information regarding existing problems and a summary of existing situations. Jean Reynolds is a Special Assistant in the Human Resources Division of the company, and based on her report, we will provide some suggestions for reorganizing the company's human resources.

First, an analysis of the operations should be carried out. Cutting, shape, assembling, and finishing are the four distinct processes required in the manufacturing process. It should be mentioned that from cutting to finishing, the difficulty of work performance increases. Everyone is hired for cutting roles, and as they gain experience, they advance to higher ranks. The majority of employees desired to be moved from shaping in 2005-2006, according to an analysis of data regarding worker moves throughout the four operations in 2005-2006. (8 people). It is important to note that two workers have reverted to their prior level of task performance, from assembly to shaping. No one wished to be removed from the completing work. Based on the available evidence, it is reasonable to conclude that the company's hiring strategies are appropriate (to hire for cutting and them shit them to positions with more complex tasks).

Staff members must be highly motivated. According to the statistics, it is evident that more people want to be transferred to additional responsibilities, and offering the best employees the option to advance may be one of the most effective ways to boost productivity. Therefore, individuals should be given tight directions, and both the quantity and quality of completed work should grow. Employees are expected to enhance not only the quantity but also the quality of the things they deal with.

According to the estimate, 33% of cutters will be replaced by automated devices. It is anticipated that the rate of cutting production will grow, as will the need to conduct additional tasks. One of the recommendations is to train the personnel responsible for cutting to perform new responsibilities and to send other departments on professional development courses. Let us describe what will transpire. The process of cutting will be automated, leading to an increase in productivity as machines work faster and with greater consistency. The expansion of cutting goods will have an effect on the other departments. Those fired from cutting roles will be trained to do the remaining three procedures. At least once a year, professional development courses must be held in order to boost the productivity and quality of the other operations.

In the organization, the problem of aging employees is acute. Between 3 and 8 percent of the personnel retire annually. The percentage is quite high. The organization should design a chart depicting the retirement scenario in the next years. The organization should anticipate the circumstance and hire new personnel with the intent of replacing those who will retire. It is also advisable to restrict the age of prospective employees, for instance, by not recruiting individuals above 30 years old. Some business executives believe that it is undesirable to hire inexperienced young adults. Even though they lack practical experience, students who have recently graduated from universities have a great deal of unique ideas that can be utilized in the working process. Giving a young employee the opportunity to gain practical experience requires an investment of time and money, which is one of the major drawbacks. In fact, all of these efforts will be rewarded by the innovative ideas and fresh perspectives of youthful employees.

In addition, choices about the reduction of personnel and automation of operations should be made in stages and without final judgments. Initially, the auditing firm should undertake an analysis of the organization and provide its judgement. Using the experience of other organizations and the auditing verdict, company managers should determine which aspects of production can be automated. The automation of a process reduces labor costs, but not all processes can be automated with optimal efficiency. Once the manufacturing processes that will be automated have been identified, it is time to assess the consequences. Keeping in mind the situation with the reduction of automation, when the other departments had to boost their output, the same must occur with the other departments. The personnel currently performing duties that will be automated should be taught and offered other roles.

The expansion of the store will raise the demand for the company's items. Production increase should be planned for the foreseeable future. It may necessitate incurring money, but the outcomes will pay for them. The extension of the store will provide the company with an opportunity to increase product turnover and revenue. Still, the company's workforce needs be expanded. In fact, there is a second scenario in which the corporation may identify the least profitable outlet and attempt to rearrange the personnel in order to shift away from that outlet and toward the new one.

According to the statistics, shoe manufacture decreases annually. As a result of international competition and the fact that manufacturing adjustments will have no effect on the process, marketing methods must be outlined. The initial objective of the marketing research should be to compile a list of the company's principal competitors. Then, it is necessary to identify the primary strategies and methods employed by competitors to attain superior results.

The second component of marketing research is a review of market demand and supply in the nation and internationally. The corporation must pay close attention to the products with the most demand. The second phase is the advertising campaign. Employing a professional firm, a business may be certain of the high quality of its advertising campaign and the achievement of its goals. However, the corporation should compare its budget and ensure it can afford such expenses. The advertising effort should target multiple aspects. First, taking into account the new location, advertisements should announce the audience for the new product line. Additionally, the quality of the products should be mentioned.

Recommendations

Despite this, it should be determined that a number of activities should be taken to boost the production's efficiency, based on the available information. The company's financial opportunities should be taken into account. First, the planned automation of some industrial departments should be implemented in order to boost efficiency and decrease personnel expenses. Second, the training of the personnel should be completed, including the training of individuals who will be reassigned to new jobs as well as training for the purpose of professional growth. Thirdly, the aging problem should be addressed by employing individuals under 30 years old with experience, as well as recent college graduates with an abundance of new ideas, novel problem-solving strategies, and limited practical experience. In addition, the workforce should be highly motivated by the provision of higher positions and a transition to other, more creative assignments. This will boost the production's productivity and quality. The new location may be one of the options to improve production and manufacturing. The advertising campaign is the final step of the company's renewal process division.

Implementation

Here is the plan and schedule for the completion of the project within the following few months.

Week 1 marks the start of training regimens for two groups (retraining and professional development). The sessions should be two weeks long and include both academic and practical lessons in the evening. In general, 10 lessons must be completed. People should be encouraged to generate speedier, higher-quality goods at this time. Until the assignment shift, employees will be aware of what they must perform to get a greater wage and position. Week 3 – Once the training is complete, the automation of the working process and the transfer of employees to their new roles and representation of their new tasks should commence. It is one of the most important weeks of the entire reorganization process, since the production of a new product type must begin. This procedure will take approximately one month to run smoothly and in harmony. In addition, the advertising effort should begin this week to prepare the target demographic for the launch of the new product.

On the sixth week, the issue of aging should be resolved. Although it is impossible to replace all retirees, it is possible to find the most qualified people to replace them.

Therefore, it may be estimated that the active restructuring will be concluded in approximately six months. The aging problem will not be resolved until then, as it will take some time to replace the entire personnel that is near to retirement.

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Lee Iacocca And Henry Ford II: Leadership Styles Essay Help Service

Abstract

Leadership is the most remarkable characteristic of every company. There are numerous leadership styles and ideas that define the function of a leader. Visions and emotions influence a person's leadership effectiveness. Undisputedly, leadership is the process of social influence in which an individual assists and guides others in reaching a given objective (Schauseil, 2009, p.1). It is the establishment of a method through which individuals can contribute to the search for a solution to something outstanding. To achieve success in the realm of leadership, one must act differently than the masses. Crucial to this influence are attributes such as charisma, patience, vision, values, power, intelligence, and situational interaction. This paper will analyze–compare and contrast the leadership styles and personalities of two business leaders (Lee Iacocca and Henry Ford II) as well as how they achieved success in their respective industries in terms of leadership. Iacocca and Henry II not only exemplified the concept of leadership via their actions, but they have also authored books to assist those who wish to emulate their manner.

Comparing and contrasting Lee Iacocca with Henry Ford II's Leadership Style, Behavior, and Characteristics

Leadership

As stated previously, leadership is the capacity to drive a group of people toward the achievement of specific goals. Similarly, the leaders in question have this skill. Several elements have been offered to aid in the acquisition of leadership qualities. According to (Schauseil, 2009, pp.1-2), the skills necessary for leadership include the seven C's: courage, conviction, communication, charisma, curiosity, competence, and common sense. No one is born with the attributes that have just been enumerated, proving that, contrary to popular belief, leaders can be created rather than produced. The two leaders in this study were selected from a vast pool of corporate leaders based on their ability to effectively manage their responsibilities amid economic downturns.

Lee Iacocca

Lee Iacocca is one of the most well-known businessmen in the world; he has held a number of high-level commercial positions, including President and CEO of Chrysler Corporation and various government positions, due to his exceptional financial acumen. Iacocca attended Lehigh University after graduating from Allentown High School to pursue a degree in Industrial Engineering. He began his career at Ford Motor Company in the Engineering department, but eventually transferred to the Sales division, where he believed his love lay. His career at Ford earned him international renown; he created a number of innovative and profitable automobile designs that put Ford ahead of competitors in the same industry. Later, when he came to Chrysler Corporation, he utilized his business leadership skills to assist the corporation, which was on the edge of collapse, in resuming normal operations (Snyder, 2009, p.22). Even though Iacocca emerges as a success story, it is established that he placed so much trust in his partners and associates that he avoided being the center of attention at all costs, allowing some of his subordinates to assume responsibility. As evidenced by the Iacocca instance, delegating responsibility to a less committed individual may ultimately result in failure if the individual in charge has the necessary abilities or is merely hesitant (Lorsch, J. W et al. 1999, p.96-98).

John Henry Ford (HF II)

Henry Ford II (HF2) was one of Edsel Ford's three sons and the grandson of the original Henry Ford. HF2 became president of Ford Motor Company from 1945 until 1960 and had numerous other executive positions in the company after leaving the navy upon the death of their father. He began as a simple executive officer before his latent leadership abilities were fully realized (Lorsch, J. W et al. 1999, pp.99-105).

Differences

HFII had a somewhat strong management style, but one of his most significant traits was that he admitted his lack of experience when he assumed leadership, something that most leaders would never do. He dismissed those he considered were underachievers and a burden on the Ford Corporation. This is how he was able to hire Lee Iacocca: he had a knack for finding excellent executives. His primary responsibility at Ford Motor Company was management and coordination of the organization's many divisions. Iacocca was responsible for taking the initiative and proving his worth by executing the agreed-upon procedures. Later, however, the two leaders disagreed on personal, not business, grounds… The episode led to Iacocca's dismissal from the Company by Henry. Henry once remarked, "Sometimes you just don't like somebody" (Goldsmith, 2009, p.9). This occurrence was viewed as a big failure on Henry's part, as it is never advisable to bring one's personal life into business; commercial transactions must be handled in a unique manner in order to be successful.

The elder Henry's (Henry Ford) shortcomings are claimed to have resulted from his adoption of an autocratic leadership style, in which he assumed complete control over everything. HF2 was also quite dominant, a quality he presumably inherited from his grandfather. This contrasted with the leadership style of Iacocca, who listened to his subordinates as much as he communicated with them. Iacocca was well aware that in the sales department and in any leadership role, such behavior as "a one man guitar" is a prescription for disaster. When the company was doing so well, HF2 became a prisoner of his own success and turned on some of his most dependable and talented colleagues. Iacocca, for his part, believed in following the crowd, but based his actions and decisions on facts; he understood that a corporation can only expand if it has a wide customer base (Snyder, 2009, pp.25-27).

Similarities

Both of these individuals shown an openness to hearing from those outside their industry. They have a propensity to leave their comfort zones in an effort to learn more novel things. Iacocca did the same thing when he was put in control of Chrysler. Both HF2 and Iacocca consulted widely and hired individuals with superior skills. They took pride in their extensive knowledge of their clients' businesses. Numerous inventive concepts in the Ford Motor Company and those begun by Lee in Chrysler demonstrate the two leaders' creative leadership styles. They were quite effective in controlling the changes they had helped to achieve. Despite the obstacles and disagreements between them, both males had a strong desire to move forward…they made a fantastic combination when working together… They remained at the top of the credit list in the field of business management because they inspired and communicated with people throughout. Goldsmith (2009), pages 72-75

Prior to assuming complete charge of their respective business domains, Henry and Iacocca worked in fields that were vastly different from business. The fact that Henry was in the Navy and Iacocca was in the Engineering Field did not prevent them from obtaining success in business. Similarly to how Iacocca saved Chrysler, Henry saved Ford when it was losing over $10 million each month during the worst economic depression in history. Henry I had failed with his single-handed reign, and Henry II was determined to rectify this business blunder; via his leadership, he expanded Ford's products to nearly every corner of the globe. The good impact of both presidents has been felt across the globe. In the past, when it was considered that only wealthy dictators and those with a great deal of influence conducted business, they altered the system of leadership. They rose from modest beginnings and led their respective businesses to glory (Goldsmith, 2009, p.82).

Conclusion

The lives of Iacocca and HF2 are living demonstrations that one must not limit oneself to the field in which he majored; consequently, individuals are cautioned against limiting their paths to success and are encouraged to explore as many choices as possible. Iacocca, for instance, transitioned from the engineering area into sales… somewhat differently, but he felt that his future lay in sales and he achieved great success; the same is true for HF2, who transitioned from the Navy into business management. They were able to demonstrate their leadership abilities because they recognized their flaws and fought against them with their strengths. If he had not switched, none of them would have ever known what a magnificent leader he was. To demonstrate his leadership qualities, a person in a position of responsibility must surround himself with the most qualified individuals, not only in terms of education, but also in terms of talents and attitude. Any management team should be able to devise strategies that are practical, executable, and well-designed in order to direct the firm toward its major goals. This is the method utilized by Henry Ford II. As Lee would say, decisiveness is the sole characteristic that distinguishes a good manager from a terrible one. That is, the ability to choose a course of action amid a crisis by prioritizing problem-solving possibilities.

References

M. Goldsmith (2009). How to Prevent Losing the Top Job. Harvard Business Review, 87(1), pp.72-80, p.9, 87(1), p. Web.

Lorsch, J. W et al (1999).

Harvard Business Review, 77(3), p.10, pp.96-105, "Changing Leaders"

Web.

Schauseil, R. (2009). A New Slant on the C’s. Business Credit. 111(2). pp.1-4. Web.

Snyder, J. (2009). Men who shaped Chrysler. Automotive News. Wernle, Bradford. 83(6347), p.22-27. Web.

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Comcast Cable Company: Strategy Review Essay Help Service

Company Description

Comcast was formed in 1963 as a cable enterprise with a single system. It has risen to become the largest cable service provider in the United States. It is also one among the world's leading telecommunications firms. The company's primary operations involve broadband cable, commerce, and content. The organization provides a quick internet connection, a crystal-clear broadband phone service, digital services, and other unique programs. It is a public firm with about 100,000 employees headquartered in the Greater Philadelphia Area (Comcast, 2009). Internet connections, digital voice calls, and cable television are the three principal offerings.

Environmental analysis

Due to the increasing demand for telecommunication services in the current day, an evaluation of the environmental factors is required. The business climate is extremely dynamic due to the ever-changing demand for superior and more convenient services. The market is extremely liberalized. The preservation of the natural environment has become a major concern in the business sector. A crucial recommendation is the unification of the use of telecommunication infrastructure as pressure mounts on all participants to pursue ecologically friendly means of providing their services. This could have an effect on us by allowing more competitors to enter the market, thereby decreasing our revenues due to increasing competition.

The entry of a large number of new competitors and competition among existing competitors are the two key environmental factors that are expected to have a significant impact on our business. It is anticipated that this will cause prices to fall to unsustainable levels in the future. Faced with globalization, the desire to share knowledge and stay in touch necessitates a worldwide network with even greater connectivity. Due to the high rate of globalization, it is anticipated that opportunities will increase even further, implying that future growth is still highly probable.

Industry Statistics

Currently, the telecommunications industry has the most rapid growth rate. It consists of hardware manufacturers, software vendors, and players with an emphasis on connectivity. In thirty years, the sector has matured into a multibillion-dollar enterprise. It is based mostly on ongoing developments that attempt to satisfy customer needs. Products offered have proven to have a very short life cycle, necessitating the production of both new and modified products. As a means of securing their future earnings, broadband providers are currently aggressively pursuing the acquisition of new users.

The outlook for the industry is optimistic. With almost 100% service penetration, the future will be built on even greater innovations and cost-cutting initiatives. Customers and telecommunications firms that are not left behind by innovations will be the primary beneficiaries.

Currently, the cost of physically establishing a service-providing plant and purchasing licenses is relatively expensive. Therefore, only huge corporations can afford to provide the services. This has been a barrier to entry in the sector for some time. However, this will likely alter in the future as infrastructure sharing gets momentum.

The organization is visibly affected by two of Porter’s "five Forces." First, there is the Supplier power; a significant concentration of telecommunications service providers is gradually forming. This will likely lead to a smaller client base for each supplier, resulting in fewer revenues. It also increases the risk that expenses will increase relative to overall industry purchases. Second, an intense degree of competition is imminent. Large initial investments create a situation in which exiting the business becomes challenging. Due to the possibility of substantial losses, businesses are unable to dissolve without difficulty. This continues to provide a foundation for more industry concentration, and as the sector expands, competition will continue to intensify. This may lead to overcapacity in many businesses. Brand identification and product distinction are the primary tactics used to combat the industry's fierce competition.

Corporate objective

It refers to the reason behind a company's existence. The mission statement is quite useful for explaining the reason for the business's existence.

Comcast Cable Company's objective is to provide clients with the most dependable customized digital and IT-related products. The corporation continually invests in research to maintain a competitive advantage. This ensures the continuous rollout of innovative new services to clients. Indeed, consumer pleasure and monarchy are given considerable importance. To fuel its expansion, the corporation focuses on building a large and loyal consumer base.

Evaluation and Analysis of a Corporation

This entails doing a Strength Weaknesses Opportunities and Threats (SWOT) analysis on the entire corporate entity in order to develop plans for enhancing the business's position.

Conducting a corporate evaluation would entail analyzing the company's strengths, shortcomings, opportunities, and deficiencies. The organization's strengths include the significant market share it has already captured, the brand identity it has developed over the years, the highly talented employees who drive innovation within the company, and its vast business experience.

The company's shortcomings include its high gearing ratio (amount of debt) and its relatively high overhead expenditures compared to those of other companies. These indicate a hazardous business. Opportunities would exist in the ever-evolving demand for information technology (IT)-related services worldwide, while risks could include growing competitiveness and pressure for environmental conservation that could drive legislation mandating infrastructure sharing.

Past performance would be evaluated based on the rate of obtaining new customers, the number of new goods introduced, the increase in revenue, and the profitability levels.

In our industry, a gap analysis is accomplished by first considering the combined potential utilization of our services by a single individual, taking into account the diversity of their wants and applications. It entails determining the greatest potential utilization of the services we provide and extrapolating this to the number of prospective customers. Using a combination of market surveys and demographic data, we were able to determine the number of possible clients for our business.

The unit cost of production has decreased over the years for the business. This is primarily due to the numerous innovations made by the company's staff as well as the increased market share brought about through advertising and promotion. The decreased unit costs have boosted the company's competitiveness.

The company's marketing operation is quite active. It is responsible for connecting sales, development, and customers to the top management of the organization. The marketing and research departments are tightly intertwined in order to ease the sharing of vital information on external events and to provide rapid responses to changes in consumer behavior. Indeed, the department is also strongly interconnected with all other firm departments, as this serves to propel the entire organization toward accomplishing common objectives. A cross-sectional marketing team has proven invaluable in accomplishing this objective. Everyone influences his or her department's efforts to meet client requirements.

Internal marketing audits are frequent at the organization. They prioritize the overall effectiveness of the work process in relation to customer satisfaction. Management of customer interactions, product dependability, and product quality are important to the audit.

General Marketing Strategy

Several plans are in place to position the company positively for the future. First, the company is considering acquiring a competitor whose business plan appears to be well-structured. The objective of this strategy is to increase market share while simultaneously reducing competition. The company also invests in and maintains a highly skilled staff by providing talented employees with suitable compensation. This ensures that the items sold on the market are competitive.

Currently, the company's objectives include enhancing customer service, enhancing the consistency of service delivery, and, most crucially, diversifying into even more service areas. This has informed the company's product aims.

Constant product development and market expansion strategies are employed by the company. This is done to ensure an even stronger hold on market share within the telecommunications industry.

The dominant corporate strategy emphasizes innovation and market growth.

Marketing Analysis Methods

Marketing research procedures involve the collection, analysis, and archiving of data pertaining to the marketing of products and services.

The organization continually monitors industry developments by examining the shifting needs of its clients. Customers determine the path an industry will take. In order to assure timely and correct responses, the organization maintains a steady flow of communication with its clients. In addition, feedback is continuously collected in order to gain customers' perspectives and apply them to develop improvements. In addition, rising operational frontiers are constantly analyzed to keep the organization current.

Existing records in terms of subscriptions and sales levels for the current industry participants are utilized to calculate industry sales and market shares. The corporation has a comprehensive intelligence system that collects data on the competition, the overall economic climate, and its ramifications. An intricate team of researchers collects data on the industry's trend and predicts future events. The information is aggregated and distributed to senior managers, who base their decisions on the reports. This means that resources are committed to the exploration of future potential initiatives well in advance, keeping the organization ahead of the competition ('What is Competitive Intelligence?', 2000).

Market Strategy

The market strategy entails the formulation of a plan of action that tries to maximize sales revenues while minimizing risks. It could be due to the breadth of the intended clientele, the geographical coverage, or even features such as a profession.

Comcast has a broad market presence. It ranges from youth through old age. Parallel to the digital services and software given to companies and individuals, entertainment services are also available. This indicates that the company serves all consumer types with at least one of its goods. This diversity is the company's greatest source of strength.

Geographically, the company is located in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, in order to take advantage of the strong economic activity in the eastern United States that provides chances for the use of IT. The company is also devoted to its largest clients. Companies and individuals who meet a minimum sales threshold are entitled to discounts and special treatment when resolving their inquiries.

Market Segmentation Technique

A market segment is a group of individuals that share similar qualities and so purchase similar products. This may be the result of demographics, location, or other factors.

The company segments the market according to the type of customer. In supplying high-speed internet connectivity, the corporation caters primarily to two distinct consumer groups. The corporate sector comes first, followed by the household sector. Included in the services provided to businesses are interconnectivity of offices to improve communications, rapid and secure data transfer via private lines, and teleworking options. Still, several sub-segments based on the size of firms have been developed inside the business segment, with tailored products for each. The segments consist of small firms with less than 20 employees, medium-sized enterprises with 20 to 100 employees, and bigger businesses. Through cable TV, digital Voice service, and Comcast's triple play, household products focus primarily on entertainment and facilitating social contact (Comcast.com 2009).

Positioning Technique

Positioning strategy entails persuading buyers to see one's product or service in relation to market conditions and competitors.

Comcast has created a powerful brand name that has kept it apart from the competitors. All aspects of the brand's superiority have been emphasized, making it incomparable to all others. The digital voice service is marketed as having the highest level of clarity. Additionally, twelve features have been added to the calls service. It is implied that a function called Powerboost utilized in internet connectivity makes already-fast internet access even quicker. Nonetheless, the business markets its cable television as offering "hundreds of favorite channels and free movies," a term that is intended to portray the product as superior (Comcast 2009).

This has ensured that the products are perceived to be of vastly superior quality to those of competitors. The organization has committed to properly defining its target market and the unique selling factors of each product. It has consequently increased market awareness.

Marketing Strategy

It entails selecting a specific target market and building an effective promotional mix to impact that market.

The corporation participates in extensive advertising in print, internet, and television media. This is used with promotions that include discounts to increase sales, particularly in the business sector. The nature of the offered products has the greatest impact on promotional methods. The efficacy of advertising is measured by the changes in the rate of product adoption during and after the advertising period. A campaign aiming at the internet connectivity market sector will be evaluated by analyzing the subsequent growth in the number of customers.

The organization of the company's sales staff ensures the highest level of customer engagement feasible. Multiple sales representatives are assigned to US cities where correspondent offices are located. Through the complex network, clients can continuously communicate with personnel, ensuring feedback. The sales staff is compensated proportionally to their level of sales success. In an effort to motivate high performers, bonuses are given. The focus of the sales team is on acquiring new clients. Despite this, the sales staff selection process is typically slanted towards individuals that are aggressive and highly competent. In fact, a bachelor's degree is the minimum level of education required. There are annual reviews of the performance of the sales staff, and incentives and salary increases are given to top performers.

Distribution Methodology

Customer access to the company's products is achieved through direct distribution. The majority of the company's items are sold online, removing the need for intermediaries. This eliminates intermediaries, who must likewise make a profit, hence preserving cheap prices. However, payment centers are strategically located in all operational locations to facilitate the payment procedure for clients. If a product's usefulness is thought to have expired, the corporation may employ intermediaries to promote the sale of that product while it focuses its resources on generating a new product that is regarded acceptable.

Pricing Methodology

For brand-new products, the corporation establishes prices that maximize profits. As competition increases, the price decreases and is stabilized at a level where the fixed and variable costs of the product are fully covered in order to ensure the service's profitability.

Extremely high demand elasticity exists for the company's products. Due to the presence of near replacements, modest price increases will result in a proportionally greater fall in demand for the products. Cost-plus pricing is therefore the optimal pricing strategy for current products. This is the best technique for ensuring that the company's prices are competitive. However, rates are variable to accommodate different client categories, and more crucially, the majority of services are accessible on demand, so the customer has complete control over his or her expenses. In this industry, a price cut by a big competitor results in price cuts by other competitors. Nonetheless, the opposite is not true. As a means of luring customers away from the company that raises prices, one competitor's price increase leaves the others' prices unchanged. This indicates that pricing in the business are extremely stable.

Conclusion

Clearly, Comcast Corporation is well positioned for the future. The company's future-readiness is indicated by the strategies it has implemented. Future opportunities are foreseen and proactive measures are done to position the organization favorably in order to take full advantage of them and expand further. Given that computers are becoming an ever-increasing need in every home and business, the future provides a scenario in which only the most innovative companies will survive, and Comcast clearly falls into this category. The diversity of clients and goods reduces the company's exposure to risk, indicating that it is healthy and able to seize chances and expand its operations in the future.

References

Web. Comcast.Comcast.com in 2009.

The definition of Competitive Intelligence 2000.

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Masiya Company’s Quality Management Issues Essay Help Service

This paper focuses mostly on performing research in the chosen company in accordance with the proposed research plan. The task required to be completed has been scheduled in advance. The purpose of this article is to discuss current corporate concerns gathered from interviews with various company members. This report also addresses a variety of additional company concerns. These were gathered from secondary sources, such as the Internet, periodicals, etc. This report also discusses the company's current market position by assessing or comparing it to the market's various competitors. This report concludes with some evaluations of this company based on published data.

Research problem

The objective of this research is to resolve an existing issue at Masiya Company. The research topic is, "How can Masiya Company resolve its marketing and advertising issues in order to provide the highest quality management?" One of the hypotheses for this study topic is that all problems in the marketing and advertising department can be resolved by a thorough examination of the problematic elements.

The purpose of this article is to address issues in marketing and advertising and give a high-quality management strategy for the organization. To supply or make quality management successful, primary and secondary research must be conducted. The data collected from primary and secondary research will serve as data sources and provide a solution or answer to the aforementioned research issue.

The primary research consists of generating questionnaires and conducting interviews with various Masiya Company employees in order to comprehend the company's existing difficulties. Chairman, financial manager, and customer service manager are interviewed. After collecting data from these individuals, everything will be examined. In order to provide the organization with the highest quality management, additional company-related observations are gathered from different external sources. This is the fundamental purpose of primary research. After examining the company's difficulties through primary research, secondary research entails the creation of diverse business plans. This comprises a comparison of the organizational charts of numerous other businesses in order to select the optimal one for this organization. Analysis of the company's existing position in a competitive market is another essential aspect of secondary research.

Original research

Interview with the members of the company

Interview with Masiya's Chairman, Mr. Ahmad AL Hassani

What is the company's area of expertise?

The company's specialties are excellent performance, simple deployment, and seamless management. Employees do greatest effort to generate a large profit. They consistently prioritize the needs of the customer. Masiya Communications Company offers a unique service in the United Arab Emirates, which is the reason for its significance in the sector of telecommunication.

What are the capabilities of Masiya Telecommunications?

The company's primary objective is to identify the most adaptable and effective solutions; next, to apply these ideas to current information technology. They provide employers with exceptional support. The organization seeks out the types of improvements that will provide the greatest value.

Which services did you provide to your customers?

Customers will primarily receive a variety of telecom and IT solutions from Masiya.

How does Masiya's variety of offerings impact its customers?

Customers can get a variety of multimedia services from us.

Do you offer any interior and outdoor communication services?

The Masiya Company provides numerous indoor and outdoor communication facilities. The staff are primarily responsible for maintaining, enhancing, and administering existing networks. We also place greater emphasis on resolving the coverage issue. They optimize indoor GSM network coverage for optimal quality.

How do the company's services affect the customer?

Customers' requirements and expectations are of utmost importance to the company, and in consideration of those demands, the company finds answers to their difficulties and provides them as a package.

Did the relationship with other companies assist the corporation in enhancing its performance?

Masiya has a number of key collaborations that contribute to the company's success by taking care of its products and services. Masiya Telecommunications' major partners include ORACLE (the largest enterprise software company), Airwide (the leader in next-generation mobile messaging infrastructure and applications), Sun (the leader in servers, storage, and software), Vantrix (the leader in mobile contend delivery), MATERNA (Europe's leading independent software and mobile technology solutions company), IFS (component software providers), etc.

What issues does the company currently face? What actions are taken to resolve these issues?

The organization lacks a marketing department, which is essential for selling services and products. Additionally, its advertising strategy is really weak. In an effort to overcome these obstacles, the corporation is giving marketing and advertising greater emphasis.

Set up a meeting with the customer service manager; we will call the customer service secretary on the 17th of October to schedule a meeting. At 8:50 am, the task will require only 3 to 5 minutes.

Customer service managers are crucial to businesses. "Good customer service keeps customers coming back, while poor customer service drives them away, along with their friends, family, and coworkers." (Swinton para 1).

Interview with Masiya's customer service manager

What steps will you take if you are unable to meet the customer's requirements on time?

When we are unable to meet a customer's time-sensitive request, we apologize for not being able to provide the requested service on time. Then we explained why we were unable to do it.

When will you solicit consumer feedback to enhance your service?

Customers are requested to provide feedback within one week, and based on their responses, we make adjustments to our products.

What services does your organization provide?

Our company's services include modification, application development, enhanced utilization of power technology, smart buildings, etc.

What is the current issue affecting your business?

Our current concern is the absence of a marketing department.

What is the marketing department's purpose inside your organization?

Our company's marketing department is crucial to ensuring that our product reaches customers at the appropriate time and that we understand their reactions to it. Additionally, it helps us improve our product.

What are the aims of the department of customer service?

One of our primary goals is to become more customer service-focused in order to increase client satisfaction. Another purpose is to enhance communication inside the organization so that individuals have a clear awareness of their role in achieving the customer service department's objectives.

What is the purpose of your decision-making session?

The purpose of decision-making is to inspire and cultivate expertise within our workforce.

What do you do when an error is made by a member of your staff?

We will attempt to point out their errors and assist them in resolving their problems.

Arrange an interview with the Finance manager; we will contact the finance manager's secretary to prepare for a meeting on October 17th. This work will require only 3 to 5 minutes at 8:40 a.m.

The finance department is essential to the firm since it is the organization's heart. It delivers excellent support by offering services to its clients. The meeting with the financial manager will last between three and five minutes.

What is the current financial position of the company?

The current financial status of the company is satisfactory.

What are your organization's goals?

The primary purpose of our finance department is to utilize capital accurately in order to ensure the company's profitability.

Who is the highest authority in your company's financial department?

The chief authority resides with the finance manager.

How do you calculate your company's annual profit?

A chartered accountant has been hired to update our financial condition.

What are the necessary abilities for your company's finance manager?

The individual must have a degree in commerce and experience in the accounting industry.

What is the finance manager's compensation?

The financial manager will be compensated at the same rate as other managers.

What are your obligations as the company's finance manager?

Utilizing the proper combination of debt and equity, our department strives to fulfill organizational objectives while minimizing funding costs.

What methods would you recommend to boost company profit?

The corporation lacks a marketing department, which is an essential component for selling services and products. Additionally, the company's advertising strategy is really inadequate. Without good advertising, consumers do not receive adequate product information. In order to enhance customer awareness of our goods, we want to invest more in marketing and advertising. Consequently, consumption of the product will expand, as will profit.

Secondary analysis

Investigate the current issue using secondary sources such as the Internet, government publications, journals, newspapers, and other reputable resources:

The company's present problem is that it lacks a marketing department. A company's ability to sell its products and services relies heavily on its marketing department. Another concern is the absence of an effective advertising strategy. A company's marketing department is of paramount importance. A marketing department will assist individuals in learning more about the organization. The company's sales will improve, and as a result, so will its profits. Typically, the marketing department comprises advertising, distribution, promotion, and sales. There are numerous constraints facing the organization. It takes roughly half an hour to reach the company from the city center. The company does not have any branches in Emirates. Consequently, the number of people who are aware of the organization has decreased. Thus, a company's marketing department is crucial. "The marketing department resides on the strategic side of the business and uses market research to address the needs and requirements of customers and prospective customers." What does the marketing department do?

The marketing department will increase the company's profitability. The company will need to determine what the clients' wants are. In this regard, a marketing department is extremely useful. It aids in identifying the needs of clients so that the business may act properly. It helps raise the market's awareness of the company and its reputation. It aids in comprehending client behavior, hence improving decision-making effectiveness. The marketing department should also be well-organized. Employees are required to cooperate. The marketing section closely monitors market competitiveness. It contributes to the development of fresh ideas for the progress of the organization. The company's advertising strategy is weak. It must be enhanced. Advertising is an essential element for a business. "Advertising is a form of paid, impersonal communication intended to creatively convey the nature of products, services, and ideas through the use of mass or information-directed media." (Advertising Effects section one) Advertising has the ability to raise awareness, provide information, and convince. What advertising does not do (Advertising Effects: What Advertising Does Not Do, paragraph 2)

It assists clients in understanding the organization and the services it offers. It contributes to the promotion of businesses. Customers must be drawn to a company's offerings by its advertisements. Explain how the company's products vary from those of its competitors. There are numerous advertising techniques available. It can be done via newspapers, television, journals, the internet, and other media. Currently, media are most frequently employed for advertising purposes. If the company is advertised more in the media, more people will be aware of it. This will result in more sales, which will enhance profits. The corporation should increase its advertising budget. This will not result in a loss, as advertising will raise income. Many individuals will be exposed to advertising. Customers' ignorance of the product or service will be eliminated by advertisements. If people are aware of the product, they will purchase it without hesitation. Thus, advertising enhances the company's sales and simplifies the work of salespeople. Therefore, a marketing department and advertising are essential for the efficient operation of the business. More budgetary resources should be allocated to the marketing and advertising department.

Causes of the advertising and marketing difficulties in Masiya

Advertising is one of the most effective ways to notify consumers about the newest products on the market. The public is unaware of Masiya's products and their uses because the company places little emphasis on advertising them. Any of them are unwilling to spend money on product promotion.

Masiya's failure to recognize the advertising strategy of its competitors prevented it from attracting clients and was another element hurting its advertising and marketing strategy. They also failed to make clients aware of their incentives. The price of their goods was another factor that affected the marketing of their product.

Competitive evaluation

Current competitive standing of the Masiya Corporation in comparison to rivals

Masiya is one of the best and most well-known firms in the world, with several branches in various regions. As a dynamic system indicator and provider of IT and telecommunications solutions, it plays a significant role and holds a standard position in a competitive corporate climate. "Masiya's offerings are as diverse as they are interconnected, enhancing the company's reputation as a one-stop shop that provides quality products, services, and methodological after-sales support." (Welcome to Masiya para 2). This company's products and services are of the highest quality, resulting in a substantial demand for them on the market. Therefore, Masiya's products are available to customers at standard and reasonable prices. This resulted in the acquisition of both regular and new consumers, which contributed to the expansion of their firm. This organization takes client needs into account when presenting a new product, hence achieving customer happiness. As a result of the customers' participation in the decision-making and development processes, they supply the customers' actual needs and desired services. The Masiya Company offers a variety of services, system solutions, hardware and software products, etc. Moreover, their products are capable to support the successful functioning of the IT network in any critical situation. So, most of the large IT enterprises utilize their products and services and

Organizational Changes In General Motors Essay Help Service

Table of Contents
Introduction Diversity Program Discussion Context of the Case The Case-Specific Discrimination Problem Possible Approaches to the Discrimination Problem Citations

Introduction

The historical setting, social developments, and globalization trend that have occurred over the past century have resulted in a shift in the structure of the work force, making it more diversified in terms of ethnicity, demographics, and gender. These changes, coupled with the correlation between staff diversity and firm performance, have elevated diversity management to the level of a strategic business challenge. This was evident in the shift towards more targeted human capital management and talent management techniques directed at certain employee groups. The management of diversity in the public sector is similarly affected by these positive tendencies. However, several interpretations exist in this domain. The case in question demonstrates how crucial it is to have a clear plan for diversity management to prevent legal ramifications.

Diversity Program Discussion

The term "workforce diversity" refers to a group of employees comprised of individuals with specific human attributes or who belong to various ethnic groupings. It is predicated on the premise that people can differ in a variety of ways, including by age, gender, race, ethnicity, religion, nationality, and culture (Berman et al., 2019). Research indicates that workforce diversity can impact the success of firms (Berman et al., 2019). It promotes the creativity, innovation, and productivity of work teams and improves their problem-solving capacity by combining the knowledge and experience of each individual employee (Ritter-Hayashi et al., 2016). In this way, diversity can provide competitive advantages to businesses and reduce staff turnover and absenteeism.

A diverse workforce helps to higher employee job satisfaction due to an improved organizational climate, in addition to its organizational benefits (Berman et al., 2019). In addition, work teams comprised of professionals of varied sexes, ages, and ethnicities are 60% more productive than decision-makers and homogenous groups (Larson, 2017). Respecting gender diversity in the workplace is also vital since it provides a company with varied types of expertise and management styles, a high level of innovation, and a source of sustained competitive advantages (Roh & Kim, 2015).

Numerous legislative initiatives promote public sector diversity management. First, it is the principle of equal employment opportunity, which is one of the tenets of labor relations in a civil society and states that all workers have the same employment, promotion, and termination chances, regardless of their color, gender, age, ethnicity, or other characteristics.

The Civil Rights Act of 1964, which formalized the ban of discrimination based on race, color, religion, sex, and national origin, was the most significant piece of legislation to come from the civil rights movement in the United States between 1958 and 1968. In the area of employment, prohibit the use of discriminatory terminology in legislation governing electoral procedures and prohibit segregation in schools and public areas. The Age Discrimination in Employment Act of 1967, the Pregnancy Discrimination Act of 1978, and the Americans with Disabilities Act of 1990 are all important. All of these laws and other normative legal acts demonstrate that the government has responded seriously to the issues posed by society, the heterogeneity of which necessitated the formation of new rules for interaction between different social groups.

Affirmative action presupposes that the rights of the dominant majority are necessarily protected, given that the culture of this majority is official and develops at the state level, and that the rights of minorities are inherently violated (Berman et al., 2019). The objective of the policy of special measures is to combat inequality and social stratification. Diverse sources of affirmative action measures have been incorporated: constitutional provisions of the legislation, court rulings, informal and voluntary programs, diverse affirmative action plans for the business and public sectors, and enforcement mechanisms for affirmative action measures.

The major federal statute regulating the equal employment rights of individuals is Executive Order 11246, which mandates the filing of documented affirmative action plans by all firms with fifty or more employees and Federal contracts worth at least $50,000. The plans must specify objectives for the hiring of women and minorities, as well as timeframes for the contractor's good faith efforts.

Context of the Case

Unanticipated economic turmoil took California's higher education institutions off guard. This includes the Office of Philanthropy (OOP) of Santa Anita State University. OOP confronted the difficulty of reducing expenses while maintaining maximum productivity in the Office of Marketing. Darlene Stewart was selected when analyzing the performance of staff. Despite her nearly two decades of service at The Special Communications section and her commitment to the business, staff productivity remained low. When the team’s work was rearranged, the burden was significantly reduced; the team was unable to meet deadlines and increased demands. As a result, she was entrusted with minor, routine chores, as it is easier to keep a woman employed than to terminate her and face the ensuing legal ramifications. Darlene Stewart will be terminated as a result of the company's inability to continue supporting her position.

The Case-Specific Discrimination Problem

In addition to age discrimination, Ms. Stewart confronts discrimination in performance evaluations. Identifying profit-dependent personnel in a timely manner, interacting with customers and partners, implementing project directions, fostering staff loyalty, and maintaining a positive brand reputation allows one to maximize the team's potential and grow the firm. However, discrimination based on the value of employees in terms of their utility to the firm might be blatantly discriminatory and viewed as social injustice. The apparent flaw of the resource-based strategy is that it does not account for employee engagement, well-being, burnout, and business loyalty – the crucial HR categories that drive global employment market trends today (Rubin & Edwards, 2020). Today, HR professionals have little doubt that these elements may transform a non-key employee into a key employee, and vice versa.

Key company personnel are typically informal leaders with great social capital (Rubin & Edwards, 2020). However, the previous policy of the director precluded Ms. Stewarts from team communication, preventing her from developing her social capital. Additionally, the system for measuring performance indicators must be open and easily understood by both employees and supervisors. Ms. Stewart's officially insufficient output was not reflected; furthermore, the employee was not warned of probable penalties, and her performance metrics were not reviewed or recorded following the discussions.

Potential Approach to the Problem of Discrimination

To correctly use the criteria for evaluating employee performance, the procedure must be reflected in legal papers (the employment contract and other associated actions) and the assessment system must be discussed beforehand. The assessment presents a unique challenge because the effectiveness of the work of the personnel is determined by numerous factors, including those assessed by quantitative and qualitative methods: the characteristics of the employee's functional responsibilities, the quantity of work completed, the deadlines (intermediate and final results), the level of employee qualifications, the complexity of the tasks, and many other indicators. Each quality indicator must be strictly operationalized while generating indicators and criteria. A quantitative evaluation is preferable because it is more accurate and objective. In actuality, however, every organization contains multiple positions for which quantitative analysis is insufficient or irrelevant. However, as evidenced by the practices of industry leaders, precise metrics are essential for evaluating employee performance (Rubin & Edwards, 2020). The appraisal of employee performance begins with them, and the clearer and more exact the indications, the fewer the grounds for discrimination.

References

Berman, E. M., Bowman, J. S., West, J. P., & Van Wart, M. R. (2019). Management of human resources in the public sector: paradoxes, methods, and issues. Publications by SAGE.

Böhmer, N., & Schinnenburg, H. (2016). (2016). The effects of gender and career conceptions on global talent management. Employee Relations, 38(1), pages 423 to 441

Chrobot-Mason, D., and N. P. Aramovich (2013). The psychological advantages of fostering an atmosphere of acceptance for diversity in the workplace. 38(6), pp. 659-689 in Group & Organization Management.

Gardenswartz, L., & Rowe, A. (2003). Diverse teams in the workplace: using the power of diversity Society for Human Resource Management.

Larson, E. (2017). New research indicates that diversity with inclusion equals improved workplace decision making. Forbes. Web.

Roh, H., & Kim, E. (2016). The business case for gender diversity: analyzing the role of investments in human resource management. Human Resource Management, 55(3), 519-534.

Rubin, E. V., and A. Edwards (2020). The performance of performance appraisal systems: comprehending the relationship between appraisal structure and allegations of appraisal discrimination. The International Journal of Human Resource Management, volume 31 issue 15 (1938-1957), pages 1938-1957.

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Erdemir Company’s Quality Management Essay Help Service

Table of Contents
A Summary of the Company's Product and Service Quality Costs Total Quality Management Quality Measurement Tools Conclusion Bibliography

A Review of the Business

The ability of the majority of Middle Eastern enterprises to integrate business with a variety of social and cultural issues is a distinguishing characteristic (Wilson, 2012). It is always interesting and enlightening to witness how a Middle Eastern company emerges, develops, and demonstrates its own characteristics. The topic of this study is a Turkish corporation called Erdemir. It is a steel manufacturer that supplies coil plates and hot and cold rolled products (ErdemirGroup: Product Catalogue, 2015). The corporation was created in the middle of the 1960s, when the economic structure of Turkey was undergoing significant changes. It was a relatively new trend for the country to produce its own steel. For a very long time, Turkey excelled solely in agriculture. However, even a field like agriculture necessitates a variety of equipment-related advancements. The founders of Erdemir recognized its significance and began to focus more on the raw materials necessary to manufacture the necessary equipment.

(“Erdemir: Products and Services,” 2015, par. However, prior to the company's establishment, a number of precautionary actions and precautions were taken. For instance, a special delegation was required to conduct a feasibility assessment in order to investigate all potential strategies for establishing a formidable organization. Then, a consortium of Turkish corporations was formed in order to draft the legislation upon which Erdemir was founded. A new firm produced over one million pounds of raw and flat steel in 1965. Erdemir has made a number of industrial ventures in Turkey over time. Today, Forbes identifies Erdemir as one of the top corporations in the Middle East, based on its $483 million in income and $6,014 million in assets (Maidment, 2007).

Ali Pandit, the company's chairman, has produced a Code of Ethics and Business Conduct for Erdemir, as have the majority of Middle Eastern firms. Its unusual characteristic is that it addresses numerous personal, social, and political topics. For instance, the company defines the conditions under which it is possible to avoid actions that can be taken in favor of oneself or close relatives, or it must evaluate the situation of receiving and giving gifts to other companies with which Erdemir may or does cooperate ("ErdemirGroup: Code of ethics," n.d.). In general, Erdemir is one of the major firms in Turkey, capable of contributing significantly to the national economy and demonstrating that its steel products are of excellent quality and conform to national and even worldwide requirements.

Due to Erdemir's excellent reputation and overall impact on the country's economy, it seems essential to pay close attention to the quality of its products and services and to determine whether its quality management is as effective and well-organized as its overall operations.

Quality of Product and Services

Quality management is essential for all organizations since it determines the standard and caliber of the products and services delivered. Any quality department is responsible for identifying, evaluating, and summarizing the business's efficiency within the parameters of satisfying all consumer needs (Mauch, 2009). IQNet, the International Certification Network, has granted Erdemir the International Certification. This certification demonstrates how conscientious and accountable the analyzed company is regarding the quality of its services and products. Consistent and suitable service enhancements are the company's goals in order to achieve customer satisfaction and fulfill the expectations of all partners and future customers. The quality management system is fully established and aligns with the company's concept, which is to encourage more efficient steel production because the future of humanity depends on steel.

The company's success depends on its ability to balance quality, safety, the environment, and energy. The following are Erdemir's guiding principles about the quality of products and services:

Consider the thoughts of customers through effective communication; Establish and encourage an innovative company culture; Promote the concept of cost reduction and productivity enhancement simultaneously.

In addition to these principles, Erdemir devotes a great deal of attention to environmental issues, allowing for the control and minimization of the majority of negative environmental consequences and the maximization of environmental performance through the monitoring of all activities.

Price of Quality

Cost of quality is typically described as the sum of all costs incurred to avoid, track, and analyze costs related with a company's products and services (Mauch, 2009). The cost of quality is typically considered by quality department managers in order to advocate right judgments and support quality improvement efforts. Generally, managers focus on the cost of quality to determine how the quality of products and services can affect the company's profits. A properly determined cost of quality facilitates the identification of significant indirect expenses and the elimination of superfluous activities. The quality of the services and goods offered by Erdemir is governed by a number of factors. It is not sufficient to advertise the company's positive work. It is more vital to analyze consumer feedback and examine all potential quality costs. In general, firm managers attempt to coordinate, monitor, and manage all sales and quality-related consumer complaints.

As with the vast majority of large enterprises in the Middle East, Erdemir faces two sorts of quality costs: preventive costs and costs resulting from poor quality (failure costs). Preventive expenses may include consumer surveys and training programs. Failure costs can be determined using a variety of laboratory tests or internal audits. Erdemir displays effective monitoring and enhancement of the quality of given services and goods.

Total Quality Administration

The concept of complete quality management appears to be one of the most effective methods for creating and expanding a successful business, as it focuses directly on the degree of customer satisfaction. Erdemir is renowned for its commitment to sustainability and all actions that contribute to the development and delivery of the best services and products. The approach of sustainability makes Erdemir a formidable multinational organization. It has solid relationships with a variety of national and international organizations, allowing for the sharing of expertise, discussion of strategies, resolution of problems, and enhancement of the industry.

In reality, the concept of complete quality management is the mix of elements like as ethics, trust, leadership, communication, and cooperation. Erdemir exemplifies how these aspects might be combined. Leaders of the organization oversee all departments that foster communication and teamwork. Every employee is aware of and comprehends the company's ethical standards and is willing to advance their skills and knowledge through new training programs. The quality of Erdemir's products is determined by the company's and each employee's ability to achieve predetermined objectives.

Quality Hardware

A corporation chooses from a variety of quality tools to improve its quality and fulfill the relevant criteria. Regarding the reports supplied by Erdemir and the online information, it is possible to specify the following instruments applicable to the specific company:

The Fishbone diagram can be used to determine the causes of poor quality and how to remedy the issue with regards to difficulties with suppliers, people, machines, or materials. Using brainstorming, Erdemir is able to produce a variety of ideas based on consumer expectations; a check sheet is a universal method of obtaining information and promoting analysis based on the data provided. Once the problem has been recognized, professionally trained individuals must examine the problem's domain and present data that can be used to create solutions. A histogram is utilized to analyze a certain time period, compare findings, and address the current difficulties facing an organization.

The representatives of Erdemir can utilize all of these methods to promote high-quality products and services, with consumer happiness as one of their primary objectives.

Quality Evaluation

Erdemir is a firm whose name is recognized in a lot of nations worldwide. Its executives and employees care about the quality of its services and products, so that many worldwide organizations want to collaborate with Erdemir and many customers want to purchase its products regularly. It is not easy to develop a powerful corporation in a short amount of time while considering production, marketing, delivery, improvement, etc. professionally. Erdemir has already established a quality standard that aids in the management of all firm processes and systems. The International Certificate and the number of customers are the primary evidence that Erdemir is successful in business and prepared to set new international standards.

Conclusion

In general, Erdemir is a formidable organization with a variety of capabilities. The given items and services are of excellent quality. There are numerous functions that must be considered for each department. Erdemir prioritized the concept of sustainability. The corporation takes care of its clients and invests a great deal of time, money, and effort to comprehend what can satisfy its customers and enhance the quality standards already in place. The company never ceases to improve itself in several ways. It is vital to monitor and analyze the costs in order to maintain a high level of quality.

References

EdermirGroup: Catalog of products (2015). Web.

The products and services of Erdemir (2015). Web.

Web site: ErdemirGroup: Code of ethics and corporate behaviour.

Maidment, P. (2007). In Pictures: the 40 largest public corporations in the Middle East Forbes. Web.

Mauch, P.D. (2009). Management of quality: theory and practice. Boca Raton, Florida: The CRC Press.

R. Wilson (2012). The second edition of Economic Development in the Middle East. Routledge, New York, NY

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Unprecedented Crisis Management Essay Help Service

Abstract

Following the COVID-19 pandemic, the current status of the aviation sector is used to examine the subject of crisis management. The primary objective of this essay is to highlight the emergence of exceptional crisis management as firms and industries seek to overcome unique obstacles. Based on a survey of current and relevant literature, this paper explores the activities and decisions taken by the aviation sector to address the existing difficulties. Against the backdrop of the pandemic, one should underline that creative thinking and inventions are the most significant phenomena that help the sector survive. In conclusion, the essay provides airlines and airports with helpful recommendations for maintaining their sustainability. These efforts include prioritizing health safety onboard and at the airport, utilizing electrofuels whenever possible, and relying on narrow-bodied aircraft more frequently.

Introduction

This year, one of the most critical catastrophes in human history has occurred. It alludes to the COVID-19 pandemic that has immobilized the entire planet, causing thousands of fatalities and issues in every aspect of life. People should do their best to incorporate new phenomena, such as social distancing and self-isolation, into their lives given the current climate. Against the backdrop of the unprecedented economic crisis, the current condition of affairs is even more difficult for a variety of economic sectors, which must find ways to continue operating. Consequently, this study will examine how the aviation sector manages the coronavirus issue and what steps it must take to assure its continued survival.

Critical Evaluation / Analysis

A crisis is defined as "an event perceived by managers and stakeholders as highly significant, unexpected, and potentially disruptive" (Bundy et al., 2017, p. 1662). The definition is derived from a scholarly publication that provides vital context for the subject. This incident can result in a variety of negative results for enterprises, including organizational issues and the failure to meet predetermined objectives. This is due to the fact that crises strike unexpectedly and it is difficult to determine the best course of action. According to a scientific article by Oscarsson and Danielsson (2018), such circumstances necessitate a swift response that is frequently undertaken under conditions of ambiguity and stress.

Therefore, the subject of crisis management is constantly relevant. The original definition of this phrase is "to identify and correct inputs and operations that result in inefficient outputs" (Bundy et al., 2017, p. 1670). This explanation presupposes that individuals and organizations have the ability to alter the situation in order to produce favorable results. Crisis management is advantageous because it utilizes existing information to address new problems. In other words, crisis management is beneficial when crises are caused by ordinary or typical occurrences.

The information presented above leads to the conclusion that unprecedented crisis management does not exist. When a new circumstance arises, there are no precedents that illustrate how to overcome the obstacles. In this situation, it is usual for unprepared and inexperienced individuals to make errors and be unable to adapt properly to new problems. However, the phrase does not imply that some businesses cannot handle extraordinary challenges. Creativity and innovation are the most crucial factors that could aid businesses and industries in effectively managing extraordinary challenges. The subsequent part will examine the current situation of the aviation business in the context of the COVID-19 epidemic in order to illustrate how the industry responds to this unprecedented issue.

Examining the Evidence: COVID-19 and the Aviation Industry

COVID-19 Impact

As indicated previously, COVID-19 has impacted every aspect of life, including the aviation sector. Due to the preventative steps taken to stop the coronavirus pandemic, the sector faces various obstacles. China, which was the first country to be affected by the virus, saw the most severe unfavorable consequences. Mhalla (2020) analyzes the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic and indicates that the Chinese aviation market, which was ranked third in December 2019 but dropped to 25th in January 2020, was impacted by the pandemic. Mhalla (2020) examines the effects of the coronavirus epidemic on the Asian aviation industry. According to a second scientific study by Nicola et al. (2020), the United States has canceled international and domestic flights to avoid the spread of the disease. Due to the reduced number of flights, British airlines are also in a difficult situation. Therefore, airports and airlines lose a substantial percentage of their revenue, threatening their continued functioning.

Thus, governments cancel flights, isolating numerous individuals in their homes. As a result, supply and demand in the aviation business are decreasing, which has never been a global issue before. Even though airlines have no control over government laws, it is their obligation to ensure that new flights meet all safety criteria whenever new air routes are established. In light of this, the information that follows will discuss the industry's inventive response to the current problem.

Addressing the COVID-19 Crisis

It has already been noted that the COVID-19 epidemic has spawned new phenomena, such as social estrangement and specific preventative measures, among others. As a result, the aviation sector must adequately respond to them whenever air travel becomes feasible. The following selections indicate the potential responses:

safeguarding the safety of patients and airline staff; conducting specialized training; supplying aircrews with the required equipment.

Virus epidemics are not new to the world, despite the fact that the current scenario is considered unprecedented. According to the International Airport Review (2020), a roundtable of aviation industry experts, the Airport Preparedness Guidelines for Outbreaks of Communicable Diseases provide valuable information. This document asserts that passenger and aviation worker safety is the most crucial factor affecting the industry's viability. This is the reason why these rules emphasize "communication, inbound and outbound screening, emergency response, and coordination with relevant authorities" (International Airport Review, 2020, para. 14). In addition, numerous airlines value cleanliness standards and work-from-home alternatives.

The British government recognizes the importance of safety regulations and provides commentary on the situation on its website. Therefore, it has published a guide for the aviation industry to protect passengers and airline personnel from the virus. First, this regulation stresses the need of social distance, requiring a minimum of two meters between passengers and airport personnel (Gov.UK, 2020). Second, the text specifies that washing one's hands is a necessary safeguard against COVID-19. Both passengers and personnel are therefore recommended to regularly wash their hands or use hand sanitizers (Gov.UK, 2020). The third key element of the guide under discussion is respiratory hygiene. This phenomena suggests that individuals should avoid touching their faces and hide their faces (Gov.UK, 2020). In addition, it is the obligation of the airline to ensure adequate ventilation onboard, limit passenger mobility within the aircraft, and restrict interaction between passengers and pilots, among other things.

The preceding data indicates that airport ground workers and aviation crews play a crucial role in controlling the COVID-19 situation. Jetex (2020), a trip support provider for general aviation, insists that airport and airline personnel get COVID-specific training to address the new problems. Such individuals should first receive training on how to operate and behave in workplaces with confirmed coronavirus cases. Second, the new fact of life necessitates that these employees learn how to diagnose and treat suspected instances. The crew's responsibility to protect diseased or potentially ill individuals from infecting healthy folks is shared by these two instances. If a suspected case is confirmed, members of the aircrew become epidemiologists. It implies that airline personnel should identify a risk group onboard, isolate its members, and subject them to health observation upon landing.

Moreover, Jetex (2020) stresses that every aircraft must be supplied with specific precaution kits. They do not replace first-aid kits, but rather provide a suitable reaction to the new hazard. Specifically, these kits should contain germicidal wipes or disinfectants, protective gear, and biohazard disposable waste bags (Jetex, 2020). This statement is a reasonable addition to the prior two points. Because coronavirus is actively transmitted, aircrews must pay particular attention to cleaning and disinfection procedures. These measures are important to ensure that all hazardous compounds are destroyed when passengers exit an airplane. Thus, it is feasible to conclude that the aviation sector is aware of the issues it faces and employs individuals to meet them.

The evidence shown above demonstrates the unusual nature of the current crisis by highlighting concerns that were not as serious a few months ago. Since coronavirus can be transferred over short distances, governments prohibit huge gatherings, rendering aviation industry performance nearly impossible. However, airports and airlines employ an imaginative and resourceful strategy. Relevant and up-to-date sources have provided adequate proof that the industry has the capability to solve the COVID-19 concerns and operate effectively in a new environment. Concurrently, it is important to note that the current crisis does not just highlight the significance of health, safety, disinfection, and others. The lockdown that halted the entire planet for a few months proved that inaction is beneficial for the environment. Self-isolation on a global scale also refers to the absence of air, water, and soil contamination. Determining the aviation industry's viability in the post-crisis age necessitates that it adhere to certain recommendations, as a result of the extraordinary catastrophe. Consequently, the next section will give a few suggested actions.

Meeting the World's Post-Coronavirus Needs

First, it is incontestable that when the COVID-19 crisis ends and virus risks vanish, the highest priority will be given to health safety. Due to the fact that the negative experience will encourage people to pay greater attention to suitable preventative measures. Therefore, the aviation sector should not view coronavirus prevention as a transient phenomena. There is a possibility that they will be an integral part of all future flights. Therefore, it is suggested that the aviation industry devote more resources in training workers, equipping aircraft with the necessary equipment, and other areas. In this instance, air travel will be less related with the transmission of coronavirus or other infections, and governments will not prohibit airline connections in comparable circumstances.

Second, it is prudent for the aviation industry to draw long-term lessons from the current problem. In addition to startling the entire world, the lockdown demonstrated that airplane emissions were a major source of environmental degradation. Since the number of people and air travel volumes are increasing every year, it is reasonable to anticipate irreparable damage to the environment in the near future. This concept is important to the essay published on the World Economic Forum (WEF) website by Skibsted (2020). The World Economic Forum (WEF) is an international organization for public-private cooperation that provides information on what governments should do to contribute to the ongoing growth of various industries. Therefore, Skibsted (2020) analyzes the current issue and concedes that the aviation industry could benefit from the adoption of electrofuels. In this instance, airplanes will emit no hazardous emissions, contributing to a cleaner environment.

Thirdly, it is reasonable to examine which proposals aircraft manufacturers and suppliers may find valuable. The Collyer Bristow LLP (2020), one of the best law companies in London that gives high-quality legal counsel, discusses the matter and presents two findings. On the one side, the lockdown causes airplanes to remain inactive, which hinders their performance capabilities. As a result, after the crisis is ended, manufacturers and suppliers will have a great deal of work. Collyer Bristow LLP (2020), on the other hand, hypothesizes that the COVID-19 pandemic will cause manufacturers to focus more on narrow-bodied aircraft. This decision is supported by the fact that these aircraft are more adaptable and have a lesser danger of passenger-to-passenger virus transmission. This is due to the fact that they can accommodate fewer passengers, which is an effective tactic against coronavirus. Therefore, the advise for manufacturers and suppliers is to prepare for more productive work and spend more effort in narrow-body aircraft production.

The previous two recommendations, involving the usage of electrofuels and the transition to narrow-bodied aircraft, are difficult to implement. The need for adequate financial resources is the greatest obstacle facing the aviation industry. This is the case since the crisis has caused significant revenue losses, and the industry lacks the capital to invest in innovations. The last advise for airlines and aviation industries is therefore to seek and rely on government help. It is reasonable to assume that the aviation industry will not be able to achieve viability in the post-coronavirus era without government assistance.

Conclusion and Discussion

Crises occur on occasion, bringing with them enormous obstacles and negative effects. When such a circumstance arises, the phenomena of crisis management comes to the forefront. This word refers to the actions and decisions taken by responsible parties to lessen the negative effects of an unforeseen event. Typically, crisis management draws on historical data to see how comparable difficulties were addressed in the past. Occasionally, though, an unprecedented crisis arises, and it is impossible to discover precedents for its management. The COVID-19 pandemic is an appropriate illustration of this circumstance, as a single virus has incapacitated the entire planet. Individuals and entire sectors are pushed to rely on innovation and creative thinking because there are no examples in modern history of how to successfully tackle new obstacles. These two occurrences are the most significant in assisting the aviation sector to manage its current challenges.

Despite the exceptional nature of the crisis and the severe disadvantages it entails, the industry responds adequately to its problems. First, airports and airlines exert considerable effort to make their environments safer and less conducive to coronavirus transmission. Aircrews receive specialized training on how to handle suspected and proven COVID-19 cases in order to reduce the number of affected passengers. Thirdly, airports and airlines recognize the importance of preventative measures, such as disinfection processes, and give them the attention they need.

Even if the aviation sector has demonstrated resilience in the face of coronavirus issues, it is reasonable to offer a few suggestions that might enhance the industry's profitability. The first piece of advise for airlines following the end of the coronavirus pandemic is to adhere to health and safety standards. These challenges may form the foundation of the aviation industry in the future. The second recommendation is for aircraft manufacturers to build electrofuel-powered aircraft. This action is important to reduce the environmental impact of the aviation sector. In order to increase the industry's adaptability, aircraft manufacturers may find it advantageous to place greater emphasis on narrow-winged aircraft.

References

J. Bundy, M. D. Pfarrer, C. E. Short, and W. T. Coombs (2017). Crises and crisis management: Integration, interpretation, and the advancement of research. 43(6) Journal of Management, 1661-1692.

Collyer Bristow, a law firm (2020). How does the aviation industry handle COVID-19? Lexology and the World Wide Web.

Gov.UK (2020). Coronavirus (COVID-19): Enhanced aviation safety recommendations. Web.

Review of an International Airport (2020). How is the aviation industry responding to the COVID-19 pandemic, as discussed during a discussion on the coronavirus? Web.

Jetex (2020). How the aviation sector should manage COVID-19, according to WHO guidelines.

Mhalla, M. (2020). The effect of the novel coronavirus (COVID-19) on the international oil and aviation sectors. 10(2), 96-104, Journal of Asian Scientific Research.

Nicola, M., Alsafi, Z., Sohrabi, C., Kerwan, A., Al-Jabir, A., Iosifidis, C., Agha, M., & Agha, R. (2020). Review of the socioeconomic repercussions of the coronavirus pandemic (COVID-19). 78, 185-193 of the International Journal of Surgery.

Oscarsson, O., & Danielsson, E. (2018). Unrecognized crisis management – Normalizing daily tasks. Journal of Crisis and Emergency Management, 26(2), 225-236.

Skibsted, J. M. (2020). COVID-19 gives us a chance to design an aviation industry fit for the future. World Economic Forum. Web.

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PESTEL Company Strategic Analysis Essay Help Service

Introduction

This is an examination of Tribe Stout Company's strategic position. First, a summary of the Tribe Stout Company and its special business requirements. The Five Forces by Porter will be utilized to evaluate the external environment, while the PESTEL analysis will be used to quantify the internal factors.

TSC is a tiny family-owned business that produces traditional Irish stout for the Galway community. John Murphy founded the company after recognizing that the need for local beers in Galway bars and hotels was not being satisfied. There were no locally made beverages accessible on the market. After inheriting money, he established TSC, which has grown from a very tiny three-person company with €20,000 in sales to 20 employees and €1,500,000 in sales this year. The company advertises itself as a producer of "traditional" Irish stout (called Tribe) offered in 250ml and 500ml bottles (both containing 5% alcohol). The company's core market is the hotels and pubs with a big number of foreign customers. The reputation of TSC has been built on a high-quality product and prompt delivery, but it has recently suffered due to reports of insolvency in the local business community. Mr. Murphy believed that instituting systematic management or financial controls would incur unnecessary costs because he was aware of what was happening within the firm.

Environmental Scan

Utilization of PESTEL evaluation

The PESTEL analysis will shed light on the most important issues, particularly the external elements that will have a negative impact on the firm. These aspects include political, economic, sociocultural, technological, environmental or ecological, and legal.

Political

Bradford and Tarcy (2005) explain in their research that political issues would affect the industry, in this case the beer industry, as well as the legislative procedures that may have a detrimental impact on taxation policies and national laws that ban specific operations. This will emphasize the utility of the business in particular. There is a need to investigate the hurdles that may be erected in the present and future by political forces.

Economic

In his studies (Philips, 2009), he concludes that the economic analysis focuses primarily on the economic situation of the people because the purchasing power of consumers is directly proportional to their financial situation, the current economic crisis that has a direct impact on the economy, and the real Gross Domestic Product (GDP). This will be crucial for establishing the direction of the company's innovation process (Christensen, 2004).

Socio-cultural variables

They focus primarily on the changing cultural trends, which have a direct impact on the changing consumer needs; therefore, it will be important to analyze issues such as incorporating outsiders in the company other than family members only and also issues such as gender balance in the company by, for example, considering women's employment and its impact on the company's needs.

Technological variables

In his work, Wells (2007) argues that there is a need to adapt to the changing times and improve on the evolving technology. This may involve converting the majority of manually operated machinery to the present automated and computer-monitored systems. This will boost the company's overall performance by increasing production efficiency and staff safety and welfare. The usage of technology will extend beyond the machinery that aids the company in robust production to the marketing of the company. Through what is known as e-marketing, technology and marketing work in tandem. Internet marketing is a growing trend for rapidly disseminating information at little cost and receiving feedback without hesitancy. Technology will improve firm accounting management and provide insights into market trends and business performance. Manual activities are susceptible to human mistake, and as a result, the organization may continue to incur losses that were either unanticipated or too little to be observable. The entrance to the corporate world has been shaped and governed by technical progress, which has led to the demise of many companies and the entry of new ones.

Environmental/Ecological

This focuses primarily on the firm's eco-friendliness, its environmental initiatives, and their impact on the environment in order for the company to be environmentally responsible. A corporation must exhibit ethical business practices in order to acquire a competitive advantage over other businesses that are less concerned with environmental issues. With the growing worry over global warming, a corporation must closely monitor its trends. For instance, the company's strategy on bottle disposal and other wastes must be cautious; does it have a recycling policy so that not everything ends up in a landfill? Other environmental influences that may have an impact on the business include cultural shifts. Culture refers to the common rules and values of a certain group of people. The corporation must modify its cultural perspectives in order to accommodate each distinct culture in a way that promotes cultural values, resulting in a market expansion. A company's culture is something profoundly rooted and ingrained. It is possible to say that the culture of an organization is its character.

Legal

In their book (Hill & Westbrook, 2006), they argue that the promotion of a healthy environment for innovation necessitates the enforcement of health and safety laws and the provision of insurance to the company's employees (Anthony, 2008). Therefore, it will be the responsibility of the corporation to ensure that there is an appropriate framework that ensures legal procedures are followed to the letter.

Model by porter

Energy from the supplier

Customers perceive TSC as a company that offers quick service and negotiates on pricing and payment terms out of desperation. Murphy is viewed as a disorderly man who was skilled at producing high-quality goods but may not be able to sustain the company for much longer. Some clients are hesitant to place significant, long-term orders out of concern that the company may not be able to fulfill them. TSC has neglected to make major investments in the promotion of the stout's image, depending instead on the beer's quality as its selling point. Considering the emergence of new competitors, this should not be the case. The corporation can also establish subsidiaries in other locations, either inside or beyond the country. Subsidiaries demonstrate to the world that a business is capable of managing itself independently of its mother organization. Customers will have more faith in it.

Pertinence of new rivals

Additionally, domestic and international beer and stout firms who have invested extensively in their brands have significantly boosted competition. The strategy for competing with new market entrants is to provide the product to clients in real time. In this instance, the supplies are delivered to the taverns and hotels by a rusty, occasionally malfunctioning business truck. To maximize delivery, the corporation must modify its perspective and purchase new delivery trucks while also increasing the number of delivery staff. Advertising and promotion are also essential components of a field-competition plan (Rothman, 2007). When it comes to selling a company's supplies, branding is crucial. Your brand name differentiates your items from those of competing companies.

Threat posed by competitive products

There is a threat from alternatives if there are comparable items with cheaper prices and superior performance attributes (Dagmar Recklies, 2001). The market has been invaded by other stout manufacturers. They might likely attract the interest of a sizeable portion of the market, hence reducing TSC's potential sales volume. The treatment of substitutes will be determined by factors such as the loyalty of your customers to your product, the company's relationship with its customers (close or loose), the financial impact of a customer's switch to another product, the price and performance of the substitute, and the substitute's current market trends.

Capacity of the purchaser

Such a product's consumers must have access to several alternatives on the market. A product's price is determined by market forces such that it is constantly in balance. Due to the importance of communication in the current day, it is doubtful that the company will lose revenue (Grant, 2005).

Competitive aggression

This force represents the level of competition among existing industry participants (businesses) (Dagmar Recklies, 2001).

SWOT Analysis

TSC is a well-established company recognized for its distinctive stout. The company's strengths include the fact that its stout is prepared from natural ingredients, which has earned it a number of worldwide quality awards and contributed to the preservation of the local culture. This aspect has contributed to the beverage's popularity among both locals and foreigners. The company's core market is the hotels and pubs with a big number of foreign customers. It also has a reputation based on the quality of its products and their prompt delivery.

The company's shortcoming is that it lacks systematized and financial controls. Mr. Murphy has every position in the organization, from sales to directorship.

The company's prospects stem from the fact that it has a specific niche, namely the surrounding neighborhood, which enjoys high-quality beer for enjoyment and refreshment. The visitors have already spread the news about the beer's high quality. The company has a very good chance of reestablishing itself and demonstrating itself to the outside world, given this reality and the prizes.

TSC confronts significant pressures from new market entrants who have introduced innovative products and techniques in an effort to win over customers. Second, a financial threat looms since the company's profits may not be sufficient to get it back on its feet, necessitating a pooling of resources from elsewhere.

Innovative Clicks and Blocks Strategy

This method can be utilized by TSC in its marketing endeavors. This entails performing online sales while allowing the buyer to pick up the product from any distribution outlet. The business utilizes software to track transactions and locate the customer. This method is beneficial since it frees up time for other commercial pursuits (Brendan, 2006).

The company's management should be able to track the development of the product by monitoring its life cycle.

A product's life cycle.

This pertains to the conception of a product, its introduction to the market, its growth, and its eventual decline. Therefore, the time it takes for a product to reach the final consumer, taking into account the associated costs and time, is of great importance. Initially, the company focuses on advertising the product on the market through advertisements and the incorporation of unique website features. As this is an introductory level, the pricing structure is designed to attract a large number of clients. The distribution method ensures that only the designated location receives the goods.

At the growth and development stage, the company's primary focus is on enhancing its distinctive qualities. Since demand is rising, the price is maintained at a same level. At this stage, increasing the number of distribution agents, such as subsidiary companies, is crucial. To promote the goods at this level, Telstra takes into account a large population.

To enter the maturity stage, the product must be differentiated from other products on the market. It is prudent to cut the price of the goods in order to assess the competition. Increased market coverage makes it simple to locate the product wherever. Telstra attempts to establish product differentiation given the market's obvious abundance of items. This is a measure to guarantee differentiation.

At the last stage, it is apparent that market production drops. The administration must consider releasing an additional competitive product or incorporating specialized features into the existing product. Local market sector is the target market.

recommended methods

Competitive technique

Strategy is the structure that leads and centers these decisions. Competitive strategy will assist us in defining our company today and in the future. It also assists us in determining which fields or markets we will compete in. It also assists us in defining our fundamental strategy for achieving competitive advantage, be it through cheap prices, distinctiveness, or the niche. Competitive strategy enables us to analyze the size of the target market. Understanding and overcoming the system obstacles that impede the achievement of corporate objectives is the solution to strategy formulation. An effective strategy detects these obstacles and devises judgments and options to overcome them.

Strategic Methodologies

In his research, (Simmers, 2008) identifies three fundamental strategic approaches.

One is the offensive approach, which focuses on overcoming obstacles to goal attainment by altering the universal relationships that led to their formation. This investment-intensive strategy entails modifying the competitive climate in your business through forward or backward integration or even the acquisition of rivals. It also entails anticipating the competitive structural change in the market and preparing your organization to capitalize on this transition before the competition catches on. This might be accomplished by creating substitute products or modifying the manner in which you sell or distribute. It also involves expanding into additional attractive markets.

The second option is the defensive strategy, which entails preparing your organization to defend against the industry's competitive dynamics as they emerge.

Every business has a competitive strategy, but the majority of them have evolved through time rather than being distinctly conceived through a deliberate process of thought and preparation. Inherited strategies will lack concentration, give rise to inconsistent conclusions, and ultimately become obsolete.

Directional Method

The study (Guiltinan, 2007) says that every company must determine its growth reference point. The organization should consider whether to expand, reduce, or maintain its current strategies, as well as the consequences of each option. It should also assess whether to focus on its existing activity, in this case beer production, or whether to diversify into other industries, such as non-alcoholic beverage production. To remain competitive, a business must expand either nationally or internationally. Before doing so, the organization must determine if it will do so through internal development, external acquisitions, mergers with other organizations, or strategic alliances.

The directional strategy of a firm may consist of three big strategies. First, growth plans, which extend the business's operations. Second, stability plans, which do not alter the company's current operations, and third, retrenchment strategies, which limit the company's activity level.

Considerations for the implementation of these strategies

During implementation of the aforementioned two tactics, TSC will prioritize two elements. These are the costs associated with the company's entry into the market and its profit potential.

Cost To Enter Market

In his book (Simmers, 2008), he explains that these variables will affect your costs to achieve significant market penetration. Consider your marketing prowess, i.e. how well you advertise your business, as a starting point. Then, consider whether you have inexpensive access to supplies and how efficient your production is. Consider the enterprise's track record as well. The distribution effectiveness will also be evaluated based on the history of relations, the degree of channel exploitation, the company's economic strength, its reputation, access to further prospects, and knowledge of your contribution.

Determine whether technical endeavors are likely to succeed. This can be determined by the development organization's strength. Lastly, and most importantly, appropriate operating money must be available.

Profit Prospects

First, there is the potential for retaliation from competitors, which will depend on their financial resources, commitment to the industry, cash position, and market status.

In addition, it contains the competitive challenge intensity based on the size and number of competitors, exit restrictions, product differentiation, and rate of market expansion. Another factor is the company's ability to silence or diminish the bargaining power of the supplier.

References

Bradford, R., P. Duncan, and B. Tarcy (2005). Streamlined strategy planning. Seventh edition, London: McGraw-Hill.

Marketing Management: Strategies and Programs, by D. Guiltinan.

New York: The Thomson corporation, fourth edition

Hill, T., & Westbrook, R. (2006). It's Time for a Product Recall: A SWOT & PESTEL Analysis. Prentice Hall, California, 8th edition.

Strategy and Marketing: Designing Missions, Constructing Audiences, and Generating. Dallas, Monks publishers, eighth edition.

Robin, C. (2004) Knowledge Management. New York: CRC Publishing.

Simmers, C. (2008). The Internet and the Transformation of the Workplace. London: Sharpe.

H. Wells, Theories of Knowledge Management, 2007. New York: Springer.

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Marketing, Brand Image, Strategy, Social Media, Groundswell Energy, And Social Technographics Comparison Essay Help Service

Table of Contents
Beginning with Zyman Li Charlene and Bernoff Josh Similarities Differences Conclusion References

Introduction

Organizations seek to increase revenue over the long run. To accomplish this purpose, they employ a variety of tools. Zyman, Li, and Bernoff have expressed their perspectives on approaches for reaching marketing objectives. Zyman demonstrates the significance of enticing clients to purchase a company's products. Li and Bernoff demonstrate how to accomplish this goal. The focus of Li and Bernoff's job is to increase the organization's sales.

The following table illustrates the similarities and differences between Zyman's and Li and Bernoff's works. Zyman emphasizes the significance of both strategy and individuals. He lacked awareness of social media, as demonstrated by Table 1. His concepts are applicable to the local market. Li and Bernoff demonstrated the value of individuals, including customers and employees. They believed that client interaction was necessary for corporations to increase sales. Current business environment is relevant to Li and Bernoff's argument.

Table 1

Subject / Concepts / Objectives / Strategies / Tactics, etc. Comparing Zyman Li with Bernoff Similar Differing

Marketing X X X

Customers/people X X X X

Strategy X X X X

Branding X X X

Objectives X X

X

Groundswell energy

X

X

Social Technologie

X

X

Zyman

The book The end of marketing as we know it was written by Sergio Zyman and released in 1999. The author of this book served as the Coca-Cola Company's Chief Marketing Officer. He has employed his experience within this firm to teach various marketing strategies. The work describes the goal or purpose of marketing as well as methods for achieving those goals. The author intends to offer a few suggestions for increasing the sales of the company's products.

This study is advantageous since it mixes theory with practice. Zyman overcame numerous obstacles while employed with Coca-Cola Company. He responded to them with a variety of techniques. It has been fourteen years since the publishing of this work. The author believes that the book's principles are applicable to modern corporate operations. They can gain from emulating Coca-Cola and other firms that have withstood numerous crises (Zyman 1999).

Zyman observes that a few businesses fail because they cannot focus on the consumer. Most businesses believe they can convince customers to purchase their products. At a certain moment, firms cease to innovate, causing them to lose market share that is vital to their continued existence. Periodically, marketing departments must assess the effect of their efforts on sales. These studies enable businesses to analyze their strengths and weaknesses (Zyman 1999).

According to the author, marketing is the process of increasing a company's revenues. True, the sales department is responsible for increased sales. The marketing department should assist other departments to increase the company's profitability. The marketing department is unable of increasing sales through advertising and product promotions. In addition to these operations, this division must employ additional strategies to contribute to the organization's long-term growth. For instance, it is necessary to analyze variations in client demand. This is crucial since client wants may shift over time (Zyman 1999).

Organizations spend in marketing in an effort to increase sales. A marketing agency whose operations fail to increase revenue may lose clients. Companies must boost their marketing expenditures in order to grow their profitability. Marketing expenditures assist firms to endure economic downturns. An important responsibility of the marketing department is to increase product demand. Most businesses have short-term objectives. They lack long-term responsibilities. Such businesses are unable to increase their sales over the long term. The marketing department must be able to motivate employees to generate more (Zyman 1999).

The book demonstrates the significance of strategy, which helps a corporation to position itself in the global marketplace. Coca-Cola Company, for instance, launched Diet Coke to a big market. This is a significant change since Coca-Cola Company opted to abandon the practice of launching a new product in a small market (Zyman 1999, p. 29). The business cannot afford to devote its entire net worth in marketing and planning. There is a requirement for the optimal strategy to combat competition. Microsoft pursued a policy of competition elimination. Internet Explorer faced tremendous competition from Netscape.

Microsoft eliminated this competition by revealing Netscape Navigator's weaknesses (Zyman 1999, p. 34). Coca-Cola Company established a strategy to combat Pepsi Company's competitiveness. Crystal Pepsi is a beverage introduced by Pepsi Company. In response to this competition, Coca-Cola introduced Tab Clear. Pepsi Company was required to participate in the diet beverage market. Because Crystal Pepsi had sugar, the corporation failed to compete. The primary purpose of the new product produced by Coca-Cola Company was to neutralize the competitor's offering (Zyman 1999, p. 36).

In certain instances, Coca-Cola Company competed with its rivals by introducing superior products. For instance, Snapple was created to compete with Coca-Cola, a sweetened and carbonated beverage. Snapple was marketed as a fruit-based beverage. In the beginning, Coca-marketing Cola's department overlooked Snapple. Snapple eventually posed formidable competition to Coca-products. Cola's To address this issue, Coca-Cola Company introduced Fruitopia, a new fruit-based product (Zyman 1999, p. 37).

People in the marketing department should be familiar with marketing fundamentals. They should investigate the business climate that can affect the company's prospects. It is unwise to rely just on a single strategy. Depending on numerous political and economic circumstances, the marketing department may be required to alter its strategy. A member of the marketing department must be willing to learn from anyone and to grow.

A marketing officer should develop skills such as attentiveness and the ability to ask pertinent questions. It is essential to listen to others around you (Zyman 1999). The introduction of the new Coke was the product of continuous study into customer expectations. The new product was successful because it reflected American culture (Zyman 1999, p. 55).

The marketing department is also responsible for developing and executing a branding strategy. For the company's long-term growth, it is vital to establish a brand identity. Marketing agencies are able to increase the organization's sales through developing brands. The Coca-Cola brand, for instance, was built through sustained and methodical efforts. It helped the corporation to increase its product sales. Zyman criticizes the strategy of big branding.

This is because giant brands conceal the identification of a company's distinctive products. Through branding, it is possible to provide customers incentive to purchase a company's items. This technique allows the corporation to differentiate its products from those of its competitors (Zyman 1999).

Long-term sales growth can be achieved by sticking to the local market, as suggested in the book. Indeed, the corporation must seek for new markets. Local markets should not be disregarded in this process. Additionally, Zyman recommends that after releasing new items, a corporation should not disregard older ones. Innovative items and techniques are necessary to combat the competition (Zyman 1999).

Li Charlene and Bernoff Josh

The term "groundswell" is discussed in the book Winning in a World Transformed by Social Technologies: Groundswell. The book was published in 2011. The purpose of this book is to assist business executives in marketing their products via social media. The authors contend that corporations could improve their brand image by implementing their ideas regarding the groundswell. The book employs a case study methodology (Li & Bernoff 2011).

The writers collaborated with business leaders to develop strategies for utilizing social media platforms such as Facebook, Twitter, and YouTube. The book demonstrates that by utilizing social media, businesses may increase their profitability and output. Individuals can improve their relationships with others through social media. They might share information on product-marketing companies. It is recommended that social media users enhance their interpersonal relationships. The work offers technology a subordinate position. It recognizes the significance of people to the development of any company.

This is because when people are absent, technology loses significance. There is no way to avoid social media. This is due to the fact that websites like Facebook now have more than 500 million users. Organizations can increase their virtual awareness using social media (Li & Bernoff 2011).

The book uses the concept of groundswell to explain strategies for accomplishing the organization's specific objectives. Groundswell is the energy created by customers sharing their experiences with one another. It is essential to cultivate grassroots support and utilize it for the company's long-term success. Organizations that disregard grassroots movements may be unable to compete with other businesses. Groundswell is significant since it can influence the organization's branding approach. The text provides the example of a jujitsu master who can gain by observing the opponent. Business leaders should be able to benefit from grassroots technologies (Li & Bernoff 2011).

The writers mention the "Social Technographics Profile" tool (Li & Bernoff 2011, p. 43). It allows businesses to classify clients into multiple groups. Based on this action, companies can introduce suitable items. For instance, firms such as Fujitsu and NEC collected customer data. They discovered that Fujitsu personal computer (PC) purchasers were more active and inventive than NEC PC purchasers (Li & Bernoff 2011, p. 51).

The book outlines a system for utilizing ground-swell energy. The strategy is known as POST, and it consists of people, goals, strategy, and technology. According to Li and Bernoff, there are a variety of goals, including listening, speaking, energizing, supporting, and embracing. The list of objectives replaces the usual list of research, marketing, sales, support, and development objectives (Li & Bernoff 2011, p. 69).

Enhancing the organization's sales, the new aims list supplemented the previous list. Leaders of the organization must listen to the energy of the groundswell in order to comprehend its characteristics. Listening has a significant impact on a company's brand. By paying attention to clients' opinions, it is possible to gather useful information about their behavior. Companies invest a great deal of money to acquire this information. In 2009, firms spent more than $4 billion to Nielsen, a marketing research firm, to collect this information (Li & Bernoff 2011, p. 80).

The next stage in utilizing groundswell energy is to communicate with it via social media technologies. The tools include social media-based audio and video applications. By activating groundswell, the company can acquire new customers. Customers should be encouraged to interact with one another. For instance, Dell Company encouraged client connection through a blog. The message gained by Dell was helpful in developing a strategy to meet the organization's goals. The publication views customers as partners. The company should take the necessary steps to attain its goals. Twitter enabled businesses to communicate with their customers (Li & Bernoff 2011).

Business leaders should implement the ground swell theory's tenets. Companies can harness this energy from their staff. Organizations are able to empower their employees by giving them with an online platform, thereby contributing to their increased productivity. Companies are likely to develop many applications over time. Organizations should understand how to manage numerous application submissions. The book suggests that organizations will likely recognize the significance of groundwater energy in the near future. Businesses may develop social media strategy to compete with other businesses (Li & Bernoff 2011).

Numerous case examples have been utilized to demonstrate groundswell approach ideas. Companies such as Ernst & Young, HP, Procter & Gamble, Constant Contact, Lego, Dell, and Unilever benefited from following the principles discussed in this work, according to case studies. Companies have used wikis, blogs, and webpages to get input from their real and potential customers. For example, Dell Company developed a blog to communicate with its customers.

Similarities

The two works share similarities. They comprehend the objective of marketing. Marketing is not limited to a single advertisement. Traditionally, marketing professionals felt that marketing departments required to develop print and electronic advertisements. Zyman demonstrated the requirement for collaboration between marketing and sales teams in order to accomplish the marketing objective. The books have proposed many strategies for reaching this purpose.

The works also recognize the requirement for increased product sales over the long run. The works advocate the employment of various approaches to attain marketing objectives. The authors of both publications argue that it is feasible to increase an organization's profitability and productivity through marketing.

Organizations must observe the strategies of their rivals. To combat competition, businesses need to create new products and methods. Companies may not achieve success in the short term, but they must have a long-term perspective. These books offered an innovative definition of marketing. They demonstrated that the marketing department had multiple functions.

As demonstrated in Table 1, the authors consider the customer to be vital to the firm. This is because customers may elect not to purchase a company's products. Such actions would have a long-term impact on the organization's growth. There is a requirement to gather customer-related information. Companies must collect information regarding customer opinions regarding their products. Customers should not be taken for granted.

Customers cannot be expected to continue purchasing the company's products indefinitely. According to the literature, business leaders must strengthen their listening skills in order to comprehend the requirements and goals of clients. Companies must monitor how customers react to their products. Based on client input, firms might introduce new products. Companies must classify clients into distinct groups. This is crucial to provide customers with relevant products.

As demonstrated in Table 1, the writers recognize the significance of developing methods to combat competition. With the aid of plans, businesses can accomplish their long-term objectives. The development of strategies is based on the analysis of customer and competition behavior. The works suggest that a branding strategy is necessary. This is vital to increase the organization's sales. Organizations should employ a variety of methods to accomplish this purpose. The writers have used case studies to demonstrate their hypotheses. For instance, Zyman provides numerous Coca-Cola Company examples. Li and Bernoff, on the other hand, analyzed Coca-Cola Company, Dell, HP, and other companies that implemented the suggested principles.

Zyman, Li, and Bernoff understood the significance of innovation for expanding client base. For instance, they did not rely solely on advertisements. They realized the importance of interacting with

Self-Development For Managers: Why Is It Important? Essay Help Service

Personal development can be defined as a process that aims to improve an individual's qualities and skills. Those in positions of authority over other individuals and organizations must place a premium on continuous improvement. First, managers who make an effort to develop themselves can set an example for their people (Woodcock, 2017). If they do not practice what they teach, their followers may view them as hypocrites. As an example, as a manager I may advocate time management among my team members, yet I consistently arrive late and miss deadlines. In this instance, the team members would see the inconsistency between my words and actions and lose motivation to improve their time management abilities.

The second reason why personal growth is crucial for managers in a continuously changing business environment is that it enables them to adapt to new situations. The whitewater rapids metaphor presented by Reiche et al. is appealing to me (2016). The metaphor represents the ever-changing nature of the contemporary world, in which change is not a minor aberration but a fundamental aspect of reality. When there is a significant shift in politics, economy, or technology, managers must recognize that normalcy cannot and will not be restored. Managers should devote time and effort in self-development to stay up with the changes and maintain their effectiveness in their positions. This will help kids develop one of the most essential skills available today: the ability to learn.

As a manager, I have made considerable strides in managing my team. I would like to highlight my capacity to delegate as one of my most developed abilities. I have come to understand that supervisors cannot know everything about every employee's domain of expertise. Attempting to micromanage team members is irrational and perhaps detrimental for this reason. First, it hinders the development of trusting connections, and second, it demotivates and discourages people from taking initiative. I am fairly adept at judging when to exert strict control and when to adopt a more laissez-faire stance.

This brings me to my second point: decision-making is crucial to the success of a company. The importance of decision-making in organizational management cannot be overstated. It appears that I have sufficient analytical and problem-solving skills to devise an adequate plan. I am particularly adept at making decisions under time constraints and on the go. I consider myself an innovative thinker capable of generating unconventional ideas.

At this time, communication is one of the areas I would like to develop further. I've learned the importance of active listening and taking another person's perspective throughout my profession. I am sure that the majority of organizational problems come from individuals' failure to communicate effectively and make an attempt to comprehend one another. As a manager, I want to encourage my team members to speak out, voice their concerns, and contribute their thoughts. I would also like to establish mechanisms for obtaining input from my teams, such as online forms and surveys. To match my personal development with corporate goals, I must improve my interpersonal skills and become more empathic and caring.

Lastly, I would like to reframe the unavoidable obstacles in everyone's life as significant lessons. I used to endure a significant lot of tension due to trivial matters that did not merit my time or effort. However, I want to become more adaptable and tolerant with time. As stated previously, change is not an anomaly; it is inherent to life itself. For this reason, I will respond to stressful occurrences with greater awareness. This strategy will hopefully assist me in adopting new technologies, as I must keep up with industry changes for my job.

I see potential to fulfill my current objectives inside the organization for which I have worked for a considerable amount of time. The organization provides a variety of career pathways for those who wish to advance their knowledge and skills. My employer values initiative when it comes to accomplishing work tasks. In light of this, I intend to demonstrate to my company that I am qualified to assume even more challenging leadership tasks. I would eventually like to take advantage of an opportunity to advance the logistics department to the next level.

I have thus far established five goals that are both attainable and ambitious and are linked with my personal vision and business objectives. Listed below are the goals conceived under the SMART framework:

S (particular) – finishing my management course; My success is determined by my performance and capacity to acquire a certificate. A (attainable) – thus far, this course has been difficult but manageable; Relevant: finishing the management course will allow me to advance within the organization. T (time-based) – course completion is subject to predetermined time constraints; S – comprehend how to be a more effective manager; M's promotions and performance measures serve as reliable indicators; A – I am currently enrolled in a management course that will serve this purpose; My career objectives demand me to become a better manager. I anticipate seeing the outcomes within the next two to three years. S – have a more complete understanding of the company's direction; M – self-appraisal; A – I have sufficient company support; R – my career objectives require me to get a deeper knowledge of the firm's direction. I anticipate seeing the outcomes during the following few months. S — providing assistance to other departments M – my success is determined by the enhanced performance measures of the aforementioned departments. A – because I have expertise managing people, I will be able to do so. R – this objective aligns with my personal vision. I anticipate seeing the outcomes within the next two to three years. S achieving promotion to senior management M – my success is determined by my position inside the organization. A – because I have expertise managing people, I will be able to do so. R – this objective aligns with my personal vision. I anticipate seeing the outcomes during the next three or more years.

References

Reiche, B. S., Stahl, G. K., Mendenhall, M. E., & Oddou, G. R. (Eds.). (2016). Readings and cases in international human resource management. The company Taylor & Francis.

Woodcock, M., 2017. Team development manual. Routledge.

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Werribee Park: Marketing Strategy Essay Help Service

Table of Contents
Introduction Factors contributing to expatriate success Contributing factors to the failure Conclusion References

Introduction

The urge to work abroad is an offer that many employees cannot refuse. After years of working in a home nation, many employees cannot resist the temptation to explore new lands. These individuals cannot wait to put their years of acquired skills, training, and expertise to the test by relocating to a foreign country. Working as an international expatriate is not only difficult, but it can also provide numerous opportunities for adventure. The advantages of working as an expatriate have been reported by a number of sources. One of the primary advantages of an international profession is the opportunity to grow as an individual more quickly and to obtain additional abilities that will increase one's marketability (Marx 2009). Some of the most important talents one may develop are negotiation skills, the ability to make better decisions, maturity, and the ability to manage people more effectively.

The dynamic nature of the modern business environment necessitates that businesses prepare with a global view. In today's hyper volatile corporate world, expatriate assignments are a necessary component of global human resources operations. Employees are given international assignments that teach them valuable lessons about international management and how to operate professionally in a multicultural setting. A normal expatriate assignment lasts between two and five years, at which point migration to the nation of employment becomes a sensible human resource decision.

Factors contributing to expatriate success

For this type of assignment to be a success, the expatriates' transition to the new social and cultural context must be carefully considered. Adjustment has been characterized as "the degree of compatibility between the expatriate employee and the new work and nonwork environments" (Aycan 1997). This adjustment occurs on multiple levels, including social, psychological, and economic dimensions. Several personal aspects will impact how quickly an expatriate employee will adjust to their new environment. When selecting the ideal expatriate applicant, a manager of human resources should consider the following characteristics.

Age is a significant aspect that may affect the success or failure of the assignee's assignment. According to Fieldman and Thomson, younger expatriates with minimal family obligations have an easier time assimilating to a foreign environment (1993) Middle-aged and elderly expatriates have more demanding social activities, which could force them to conclude their assignment early. On the other side, an expatriate who is married and has a family to support them may be better equipped to carry out the job effectively. It may be beneficial for the manager of human resources to consider these two possibilities carefully to determine which is most suitable.

The efficiency of an expatriate will also depend on his or her personal traits. These characteristics will impact how successfully and quickly an individual adapts to a new situation. The expatriate should have a high level of self-motivation, stress-management skills, good communication abilities, dependability, and cultural adaptability. These factors have been utilized in prior research to measure the level of performance and adaptability of expatriates (Bodor 1999)

After examining these personal characteristics, a human resource manager is left with the responsibility of identifying the expatriate assignees' specific talents and competence. Many multinational corporations view expatriate assignments as the ultimate career development opportunity. The organization should be eager to offer this opportunity to its most brilliant employees and ensure that this assignment aligns with their evolving career objectives. According to the findings of the International Assignee Research Project of 1996-1997, this will boost the success rate of assignments.

Contributing factors to the failure

Although many factors contribute to the success of expatriates, others may lead to their failure in their jobs. Without competent management of expatriates and their families, an organization could suffer unfavorable consequences. In the majority of situations, firms prefer to place a greater emphasis on the technical competencies of the expatriate while ignoring other vital traits, such as the capacity to create relationships in the host nation. Other organizations transfer expatriates abroad solely because they shown greater job performance at home. However, this does not imply that the same skills will necessarily be transferred to the new job location. Their capacity to demonstrate great technical expertise at home becomes the sole criterion for selection. In addition, many expatriates do not receive any type of pre-departure preparation; hence, they travel to new nations unprepared to tackle new and unusual obstacles.

If multiple tactics are applied, expatriate assignments could have a high success rate. Once the appropriate candidate has been chosen, the employee should be given a sufficient amount of time to prepare for the work.

It is essential for organizations with international operations to implement effective communication methods and support systems for their expatriate employees. Moreover, these organizations must foresee any negative consequences that may result from sending their employees overseas. Therefore, ensuring that there are effective expatriate planning processes relating their employment assignments to their future career objectives is essential (Farid, 1998). According to a poll conducted by a company specializing in worldwide relocations of expats, 35% of expatriates seeking to go abroad were unaware of the impact their assignments would have on their professional ambitions and objectives (p. 123). This type of circumstance was seen to be quite worrisome because these personnel transfer to foreign countries and assume substantial risks by leaving their home company. Some may have built a track record that may be the same in the new country of assignment in the majority of instances. This could potentially result in disenchantment. Expatriates are more likely to easily adapt to their new responsibilities if firms recognize the significance of excellent career development methods during assignments.

It is of the utmost significance to prepare employees for "culture shock." The expats may encounter unexplainable behavior in their new surroundings. They lack the mental models that define what is ethically right and wrong according to the new society. This can result in a high degree of worry and, thus, low levels of productivity, but the situation improves with time. It is a good idea to hire a candidate whose cultural ideas are nearly identical to those of the new job description. The process of adaptation will be quite swift and uncomplicated.

Studies and experience have demonstrated that it is very expensive for expatriate assignments to fail. Therefore, it is crucial to comprehend this meaning and the primary factors that may have contributed to this state of affairs. In spite of this, expatriate failure rates have decreased in recent years as more organizations recognize the financial ramifications of expatriate failure and implement proper solutions to address the issue. (Daniels 1998). Many businesses continue to make the grave error of focusing solely on the technical skills of employees they wish to assign to overseas assignments, while ignoring other crucial variables such as family and how they may be affected by the assignment. According to Sappinen (1993), this is typically the case because employers have failed to comprehend the notion of a failed assignment and since most research has concentrated on defining failure of expatriates as those who return to their home countries too soon. Inadequate management of expatriates in terms of their professional and familial welfare might have negative repercussions. It has been documented that expatriates face huge financial and psychological obstacles (Mendenhall, 1987). Companies incur substantial expenses while relocating, compensating, and retraining newly posted expatriates. Consequently, if the projects execute as planned, these businesses may face substantial financial costs.

Conclusion

Appropriate human resource policies should be implemented to accommodate expatriate assignments. This ensures proper management of human resources on a global scale and encourages personnel to accept international assignments because their interests are protected. These regulations foster a climate conducive to employee success, as even the finest performers may fail in the absence of an optimal setting. Managing successful expatriate assignments involves more than firms' worldwide talent management. It requires more. Bodor explains further that the most crucial factor is what happens to the employee after the assignment (p. 235). Companies that invest in mentoring their expats and provide them with opportunity to take vacations in their home countries tend to achieve greater success since the expatriates are driven to create in a positive work environment. "Planning for the individual's next position should be a consideration in the international assignment decision" (Daniels 1998).

First-time expatriates should be counseled on how to take a few steps to enable a more seamless transition to living abroad. Pre-departure and/or post-arrival cross-cultural training will help them examine their expectations and preconceptions realistically. Finding a mentor in the local office early on will make the assignment both a learning and working opportunity.

Nowadays, training and orientation for overseas assignments are more prevalent. It is estimated that fifty percent of companies who sent workers overseas provided pre-training and orientation (Aycan 1997). Other nations, such as Japan, place a greater emphasis on training for international jobs. This may explain the low failure rate (less than 10 percent) attributed to most Japanese multinational corporations. International training at Japanese companies normally lasts one year and teaches expatriate staff about the culture, customs, and business practices of the host country (Farid 1998).

Additionally, an increasing number of multinational corporations have demonstrated a strong commitment to international training and orientation (Sappinen 1993). Additionally, organizations are increasingly emphasizing expatriate training (p. 123). In addition to serving as "realistic job previews," familiarization tours can be utilized as part of the company's junior trainee program. This program seeks to foster professions with a global perspective and experience (Mendenhill 1997). Therefore, emphasizing training is essential to ensuring that expatriates settle into their workstations successfully.

References

The Relationship between Differential Inequity, Job Satisfaction, Intention to Leave, and Self-Esteem. Journal of Psychology, 133: 205-215, 1997.

International Dimensions of Organized Behavior, Third Edition, Bodor, G., 1999. Ohio: South-Western College Publishing, Cincinnati.

1998. Measuring cross-cultural adaptation: the dilemma of criteria.

International Journal of Intercultural Relations, Volume 2, Pages 21 through 37.

1997, Expatriation and Repatriation in Multinational Corporations: A Taxonomy, Human Resource Management, 41: 239-259.

Fieldman B. and Thomson P. Human Resource Management Journal, 7: 31-41, International Human Resource Management: Beyond Expatriation.

Employee Involvement: Methods for Improving Performance and Work Attitudes, by Farid K. Farid, 1998. Sage Publications, Newbury Park, CA.

Insch L. (1993). Employee Participation: Methods for Enhancing Work Performance and Attitudes Sage Publications, Newbury Park, CA.

Marx E. 2009). Internationalization. Random House Inc., New York, NY

1997, Expatriation and Repatriation in Multinational Corporations: A Taxonomy, Human Resource Management, 41: 239-259.

Global Giants: The 100 Largest U.S. Multinationals,” Forbes 24: 335-336, 2000, by L. Sappinen.

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Aloha Airlines: Marketing Strategy Essay Help Service

How Aloha Airlines Fell Short

The headquarters of Aloha Airlines was located in Honolulu, Hawaii. Honolulu International Airport was served by the airline. It ceased operations on March 31, 2008 (Foster 44). Numerous circumstances led to the airline's demise. These factors included rising costs, Japan's economic retreat, the historic 9/11 assaults on the Pentagon and the World Trade Center, the possibility of SARS in 2003, and growing airline fuel costs. Aloha Airlines filed for bankruptcy twice in order to decrease its operational expenses and remain competitive in the airline business (Leas 61). The airline encountered price difficulties that forced it into a fare war with go! go!, its principal inter-island competitor.

The fare war caused Aloha Airlines to incur losses that ultimately forced it to cease passenger services operations. The closure of the airline resulted in the loss of around 1,900 jobs. All of these reasons made it impossible for Aloha Airlines Company's services to compete with those of other airlines.

Revival Strategy for Aloha Airlines

Executive Synopsis

This marketing strategy highlights the marketing sectors and methods Aloha Airlines will deploy to revitalize its business. This strategy will assist Aloha Airlines in regaining consumers and establishing a sustainable income stream. The Airline's unique focus on providing airline travel services across the islands with a fresh twist will give the company a competitive advantage over its major rivals by allowing it to provide superior airline services to its consumers. The airline will also expand its travel services to other regions of the world in order to increase its client base, revenue streams, and worldwide footprint.

The Aviation Industry and Its Prospects

The aviation industry is still a huge and expanding market. It is one of the most important contributors to global economic growth. It fosters the expansion of international tourism and commerce. This indicates that the airline business is not yet completely saturated. Following its rapid expansion, the air travel industry has enjoyed tremendous growth in recent years. Numerous businesses target the worldwide market, and the number of such businesses is expanding rapidly.

This affords Aloha Airlines the chance to resurrect itself and join other airlines in offering international air travel services. It will not be difficult for Aloha Airlines to re-join the air travel sector and begin commanding high profit margins, as there is a substantial possibility for new airline companies to enter the market and generate profits (Cabalatungan 1-3).

SWOT Evaluation of Aloha Airlines

This analysis assists the organization in identifying some external and internal aspects that are strategically vital to its operations (Carlock and Ward 154).

Strengths

It is vital to stress that the failure of Aloha Airlines' passenger services was due to external reasons, not ineptitude on the part of the company's management. Capacity to establish very inexpensive flight fares The business is able to adhere to International Air Transport Association code standards. The company has the ability to attract investors eager to engage in revival capital. Aloha Airlines is already well-known in the aviation business.

Imperfections of Aloha Airlines

Incapability to manage rising gasoline costs The firm has a meager capital base. Due to its inability to pay its debt obligations, the company was forced to suspend its passenger operation services. Aloha Airlines is unable to set rates that allow it to compete favorably with other industry participants. Comparatively operating inside a smaller geographical territory than other industry competitors Passenger services have been completely suspended, and the airline must start from zero.

Opportunities

There are an increasing number of multinational enterprises engaged in international trade; this presents a growth opportunity for the company. The thriving tourism industry also affords Aloha Airlines the ability to expand its operations to include places experiencing a tourism boom. Aloha Airlines has the opportunity to capitalize on the global economic recovery and relaunch its operations. The global economic recovery is anticipated to boost both domestic and international commerce. There are numerous potential airline personnel who are immediately available for employment. This indicates that Aloha Airlines has access to readily available, low-cost labor. There are numerous prospective investors eager to invest in the airline. This indicates that Aloha Airlines will have sufficient funds for its initial operations.

Threats

Fuel price increases may have a negative impact on the operations of Aloha Airlines. Already established and fast expanding rivals The potential for a second global economic recession. Creditors and unsatisfied shareholders are threatening to file for bankruptcy against the corporation. Adverse weather conditions that may impede its functioning. High operational expenditure

Competitor Evaluation

There are already well-established airlines in the market. Hawaiian Airlines and Aloha Air Cargo are two major competitors; Aloha Air Cargo was a subsidiary of the Aloha Airlines Company until it ceased passenger operations. The Aloha Air Cargo is now managed by a new team. The rivals operate on a worldwide scale and have already realized economies of scale. They have a huge number of consumers, some of whom are loyal, a high level of liquidity, and a staff that is highly trained. However, the major competitors are unable to handle the high number of travelers efficiently.

In many instances, delays in departures and arrivals make passengers unsatisfied with certain carriers. Additionally, airplanes are relatively expensive, and because there are no viable alternatives, travelers are compelled to absorb the high expense of flight. This affords Aloha Airlines a greater potential to begin competing profitably with its rivals (Grant and Bendure 535). According to Wolfe and NewMyer (5), airlines have been suffering financial difficulties in general. This has compelled them to decrease their prices, so compelling their competitors to do the same.

Target Market and Segmentation Segment 1

The Aloha Airlines Company should focus on the business travel sector of the airline industry. The volume of international business transactions has increased throughout time and is projected to continue to rise in the years to come. Increased worldwide business interactions require international travel. Therefore, it is necessary to provide swift and effective airline services. Therefore, the company should conduct a survey regarding certain passenger groups and destinations. The cost of this survey should be included in the overall operation's initial funding. The daily booking goal for Aloha Airlines should be 80% of its available seats.

In its early phases of operation, the company should provide relatively low fares to attract more clients from this market niche. The Aloha Airlines should develop its reservation offices in large cities, particularly in close proximity to international enterprises. It should also offer additional commercial services, such as low-cost automobile rentals, and offer appropriate incentives to attract clients.

Segment 2

Additionally, the organization should concentrate on the tourism sector of the air travel industry. Numerous international tourists travel to foreign countries for recreational purposes. These vacationers require a comprehensive travel package. The company can make arrangements with various tourism service providers to facilitate the travel operations of tourists. The organization may arrange for travellers to be picked up from the airport and dropped off at their respective hotels at significantly reduced rates. This will encourage more travelers to utilize the travel services of the organization. The segment can be reached by forming agreements with many tour operators who will integrate the company's services with theirs, so increasing the likelihood of acquiring consumer loyalty.

Mixing Branding and Promotion

In order to reintroduce its travel services, the corporation will need to rebrand itself. Rebranding the company's product and service offerings will provide the company a new image in the airline sector. This will also ensure that the company regains its lost connection with the public and acquires a proper image that will allow it to compete with the industry's established players. Rebranding will accommodate all of these new developments in the company's offerings, as the company will expand its regional operations and provide other services.

In the process of resurrecting the Aloha Airlines Company, one of the most significant tasks is to develop a well-planned marketing mix that will successfully position the company's travel products within the travel industry market groups. The following promotion mix could be utilized by the company:

Advertising: the company should utilize the most affordable, effective, and accessible advertising mediums. The corporation should utilize local media such as radio, television, and print publications. Additionally, the organization should consider using online advertising platforms and billboards. The Aloha Airlines Company will need to utilize brochures, flyers, direct mail, newsletters, email communications, and posters. Sales promotion: Aloha Airlines should engage in sales promotional activities to attract more customers. The corporation can provide loyal customers price discounts (such as extra packs) and rebates. Personal selling refers to the promotion of a firm's products through face-to-face interactions between company personnel. In this instance, the primary responsibilities of sales representatives include, but are not limited to, finding new customers, contacting potential customers and responding to any inquiries, communicating with both existing and potential customers, gathering vital business information for the company, and providing customer support services (Sindell 353). Public relations: for Aloha Airlines Company to experience a complete rebirth, the company must have a solid public image. Public relations will guarantee that the company is seen favorably by both current and potential clients. The corporation should consider establishing an effective public relations department to manage its public image.

Other approaches

Additionally, the organization may employ the following strategies:

Initially, the airline should provide discounted tickets to passengers. This ought to take a year. In its second year of business, the company should create a marketing campaign that promotes the product's value and quality to increase consumer confidence. In the process of marketing, the company is likely to encounter objections; to overcome these objections, the company will need to utilize warranty offers, client endorsements, and testimonials. This will be most effective once the business has gained loyal customers.

Unique Selling Proposition, competitive advantage

Unique Selling Proposition and competitive advantage are what will provide Aloha Airlines a competitive advantage over its rivals. These are what will distinguish the company from its competition. The corporation should consider offering slightly lower ticket pricing, promoting through contests, providing free presents in some circumstances, implementing referral networks, and employing a variety of reminder strategies. If the majority or all of these unique selling propositions and competitive advantages are leveraged, the company has the ability to grow and compete on a broad scale with previously established industry giants.

Corporate Social obligation

Currently, every commercial enterprise engages in Corporate Social Responsibility. There are benefits associated with CSR. Aloha Airlines will be able to demonstrate that it is a responsible corporate citizen by utilizing CRS. The CRS enables businesses to recruit and retain talented workers. This will be highly advantageous for Aloha Airlines. In addition, it will be able to prevent quick staff turnover and generate powerful incentives for accountability in labor performances. Through CRS, Aloha Airlines will also be able to develop unique selling proposals and competitive advantages for its products, so enhancing its operational efficiency, reducing costs, and enhancing its reputation for business services.

Sources Cited

Krizia M. Cabalatungan. "Airline Industry: A Description of Operations." 2009, from Scribd Web.

Carlock, Randel and John Ward. Strategic planning for the family business: planning in parallel to unify the family and the enterprise. 2001, Palgrave Macmillan, New York.

Foster, Jeanette. Frommer's Hawaii, 2010 Edition. Hoboken: Frommer’s, 2009.

Grant, Kimberly., and Bendure, Glenda. Lonely Planet's guide to Hawaii. 2005: New York: Lonely Planet.

The name Cheryl Leas. Maui for Dummies. Hoboken: For Dummies, 2009.

Sindell, Kathleen. Investing online for dummies. Hoboken: For Dummies, 2005.

Wolfe, Harry., and NewMyer, David. Aviation industry oversight. 1985. United States of America: SIU Press.

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Mexico Essay Help Service

1.0 Introduction

1.1 Introduction to the report

This report is going to describe the main features of Mexico, including background information, geographical features, politics, economy and social indicators.

1.2 Background of Mexico

Mexico is the cradle of various highly developed Amerindian civilizations, including the Olmec, Maya, Toltec, and Aztec (Country Watch, 2014).It is also the most populous Spanish speaking country in the world (Baird et al, 2009; Country Watch, 2014). It was conquered and colonised by Spain for three centuries and declares its independence in 1821 (Baird et al, 2009; CIA, 2014). In 1836, Mexico lost Texas and from 1846 to 1848 after the Mexican War of territory flight with the U.S., it lost the territory in the northern Rio Grande (Boardman, 2006; Infoplease, 2005). In 1994, The North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA) takes effect among Mexico, the U.S. and Canada (Scholastic, 2014; O’Neil, 2014).

2.0 Geographical features

2.1 Location & size

Mexico is located in the North America, between the northern border with the United States (3,141 km) and southern border with Belize (250 km) and Guatemala (962km), as well as bordering the North Pacific Ocean, the Caribbean Sea and the Gulf of Mexico (Baird et al, 2009; CIA, 2014; STRATFOR, 2012). It is fully accessible by air, sea, car, taxi, bus and passenger train (Baird et al, 2009; Frommer’s, 2014a; Frommer’s, 2014b; Visit Mexico, 2012).

Mexico is vaguely less than three times the size of Texas and ranked 14 in the world (CIA, 2014). The total surface area is 1,964,375 square kilometres which is compounded of 1,943,945 sq km land area and 20,430 sq km water area (CIA, 2014). It also has a total of 9,330 km coastline (CIA, 2014).

Map 1. Map of Mexico. Source: CIA (2014)

2.2 Weather & time zone

Mexico’s climate varies from tropical to desert in accordance to its varied geography (see map2) . It has two main climate seasons: rainy (May to mid-Oct) and dry (mid-Oct to Apr) (Frommer’s, 2014c). Hurricane season (June to October) affects weather on the Yucat??n Peninsula and the southern Pacific coast (Frommer’s, 2014c).

There are three time zones in Mexico: the Northeast, the Pacific and Central time zone (see map3).

Map 2. Climate Zones of Mexico (ERM, 2014)

Map 3. Mexico time zone map (Time temperature, 2014)

3.0 Social indicators

According to HDI 2012, Mexico is a high human development country in terms of life expectancy, education, and income (UNDP, 2013). However, there is still a high degree of income inequality and disproportional benefit from the economy growth among certain socio-economic groups such as health care (Leiner et al, 2012; Mckee and Todd, 2011; Ruiz-Beltran and Kamau, 2001; Van Ginneken, 1979). According to the World Bank (2014f), more than half of Mexican live at national poverty line. The uneven geographical spread of benefit from economic growth is due to rapid urbanisation (Durr, 2012; UN data, 2014).

4.0 Economic indicators

The economic indicators below illustrated a steady growth of the country’s economy (see table 1). However it doesn’t reflect the income distribution and real currency value within a country such as urban/rural.

Mexico is a one of the ten largest oil producer and exporter in the world (EIA, 2012). Since NAFTA takes effect, intraregional trade has multiplied from roughly $290 billion in 1993 to over $1.1 trillion in 2012 (O’Neil, 2014). United States is Mexico primary export partner account for 78 percent of total exports and they share a 2,000-mile border (CIA, 2014; BWHA, 2013; O’Neil, 2014). The main industries in Mexico are food and beverages, tobacco, chemicals, iron and steel, petroleum, mining, textiles, clothing, motor vehicles, consumer durables and tourism (CIA, 2014; IHS Global, 2013; Wilson, 2008).

2009 2010 2011 2012 Source

GDP per capita (current US$) 7,691 8,885 9,717 9,749 World Bank (2014d)

Gross national income per capita, PPP (current international $) 13,800 14,600 15,800 16,450 World Bank (2014e)

Table 1 Summary of economic indicators

5.0 Politics

Mexico is a federal republic, governed by the Institutional Revolutionary Party (CIA, 2014). It consists of 31 states and 1 federal district of which is also the capital, Mexico City (CIA, 2014).

Since 2010, Mexico has plagued by rampant violence and crime (Baird et al, 2009; BBC, 2013; Country Watch, 2014; Gov.uk, 2014; STRATFOR, 2012; Watt and Zepeda, 2012).Narco-trafficking is one of Mexico’s biggest sources of revenue, as well as its most crime with over 12,000 drug-rated executions in 2011 (Baird et al, 2009; Watt and Zepeda, 2012). The new president announced a new national police force in early 2013 due to increasing concern of security. However, it will take several years before it takes effect (BMI, 2014).

6.0 Conclusion

Mexico is relatively accessible with rich natural resources such as oil, as well as its diverse cultures. It has excellent economic performance. However, its economic benefit is disproportionally spread. Moreover, its economy is too dependent on the U.S. market. The other major concern is its security.

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Reconnaissance attacks in IPv6 networks buy argumentative essay help

2.1.1 Reconnaissance attacks in IPv6 networks

The 1st larger attack in IPv6 is usually a reconnaissance attack. An attacker try reconnaissance attacks to get some confidential information about the victim network that can be misused by the attacker in further attacks. For this he uses active methods, such as scanning techniques or data mining strategies. To start, an intruder begins to ping the victim network to determine the IP addresses currently used in the victim network. After getting some of the accessible system, he starts to scan the port to find out any open port in the desired system. The size of subnet is bigger than that of the in IPv4 networks. To perform a scan for the whole subnet an attacker should make 264 probes and that???s impossible. With this fact, IPv6 networks are much more resistant to reconnaissance attacks than IPv4 networks. Unfortunately, there are some addresses which are multicast address in IPv6 networks that help an intruder to identify and attack some resources in the target network.

2.1.2 Security threats related to IPv6 routing headers

As per IPv6 protocol specification, all of the IPv6 nodes must be able to process routing headers. In fact, routing headers can be used to avoid access controls based on destination addresses. Such action can cause security effects. It may be happen that an attacker sends a packet to a publicly accessible address with a routing header containing a ???forbidden??? address on the victim network. In such matter the publicly accessible host will forward the packet to the destination address stated in the routing header even though that destination is already filtered before as a forbidden address. By spoofing packet source addresses an intruder can easily perform denial of service attack with use of any publicly accessible host for redirecting attack packets.

2.1.3 Fragmentation related security threats

As per IPv6 protocol specification, packet fragmentation by the intermediate nodes is not permitted. Since in IPv6 network based on ICMPv6 messages, the usage of the path MTU discovery method is a duty, packet fragmentation is only allowed at the source node.1280 octets is the minimal size of the MTU for IPv6 network. The packets with size less than 1280 octets to be discarded unless it???s the last packet in the flow as per security reasons. With use of fragmentation, an attacker can get that port numbers not found in the first fragment and thus they bypass security monitoring devices expecting to find transport layer protocol data in the very first fragment. An attacker will send a huge amount of small fragments and create an overload of reconstruction buffers on the victim system which resulted to the system crash. To prevent system from such attacks it???s necessary to bound the total number of fragments and their permissible arrival rate.

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WMBA 6000-13 Topic: Course Evaluation persuasive essay help

WMBA 6000-13

Topic: Course Evaluation

Date: March 2, 2014

Based on the assigned readings for this course (Dynamic Leadership), I have read an enormous amount of information about the different categories of leaders and leadership styles. Today’s leaders are different from the leaders of twenty to fifty years ago. In the past leaders gave commands and they controlled the actions of others. Today leaders are willing to involve others in their decision making and they are more open to new possibilities.

A good leader has a vision for their organization and they know how to align and engage employees in order to promote collaboration. The successful leader knows how to lead by using superior values, principles and goals that fit the organization’s values, principles and goals. Also these leaders know that leadership is not made from authority, it’s made from trust and followership. Coleman, J., Gulati, & Segovia, W.O. (2012)

I am impressed most by the characteristics of the authentic leader because they know how to develop themselves; they use formal and informal support networks to get honest feedback in order to drive long-term results. Authentic leaders build support teams to help them stay on course and counsel them in times of uncertainty. George, B., Sims, P., Mclean, A.N. & Mayer D. (2007)

In addition, I found the Leadership Code to be important because it provides structure and guidance and helps one to be a better leader by not emphasizing one element of leadership over another. Some focus on the importance of vision for the future; others on executing in the present; others on personal charisma and character; others on engaging people’; and others on building long-term organization. The code represents about 60 to 70 percent of what makes an effective leader. Ulrich, D., Smallwood, N., Sweetman, K. (2008)

The information that I acquired from this course will help me to pursue the goal of owning a beauty supply business. Another goal that I can add to my action plan is to include not only wigs and welted hair, but I will add hair, skin and nail products to my inventory. A future goal will be to add handbags and accessories as well.

After completing my short-term goal of finishing my MBA, I can take the knowledge from this course along with my values, ethics and principles to help me to manage employees and operate a successful business. Annie Smith (March 2, 20

Coleman, J. G. (2012). Educating young leaders. Passion and Purpose , 197-202.

George, B. S. (2007). Discovering your authentic leadership. Harvard Business Review , 129-138.

Lyons, R. (2012). Dean of Haas of School of Business University of California, Berkely. It’s made from followership. (J. G. Cole, Interviewer) Coleman, J., Gulati, D., & Segovia, W.O.

Ulrich, D. S. (2008). Five rules of leadership. In The leadership code five rules to lead by. Defining Leadership Code , 1-24.

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Family presence during CPR (cardiopulmonary resuscitation) writing essay help

In a pre-hospital setting, there are few moments that are as intense as the events that take place when trying to save a life. Family presence during these resuscitation efforts has become an important and controversial issue in health care settings. Family presence during cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) is a relatively new issue in healthcare. Before the advent of modern medicine, family members were often present at the deathbed of their loved ones. A dying person’s last moments were most often controlled by his or her family in the home rather than by medical personnel (Trueman, History of Medicine). Today, families are demanding permission to witness resuscitation events. Members of the emergency medical services are split on this issue, noting benefits but also potentially negative consequences to family presence during resuscitation efforts.

A new study has found that family members who observed resuscitation efforts were significantly less likely to experience symptoms of post-traumatic stress, anxiety and depression than family members that did not. The results, published in an online article in The New England Journal of Medicine, entitled ‘Family Presence during Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation,’ were the same regardless of the survival of the patient. The study involved 570 people in France whose family members were treated by emergency medical personnel at home. These EMS teams were unique in that they were comprised of a physician, a nurse trained in emergency medicine, and two emergency medical technicians. The study found that the presence of relatives did not affect the results of CPR, nor did it increase the stress levels of the emergency medical teams. Having family present also did not result in any legal claims after the incidents occured. While the unique limitations of the study warrant consideration, the results show a definite benefit in having families stay during CPR (Jabre Family Presence).

Historically, although parents of children have been allowed to be present for various reasons, relatives of adult patients have not. As medical practices change to increasingly involve family in the care of patients, growing numbers of emergency medical practitioners say that giving relatives the option of watching CPR can be a good idea. Several national organizations, including The American Heart Association, have revised their policies to call for giving family members the option of being present during CPR (AHA Guidelines for CPR). Witnessing CPR, say some emergency medical experts and family members, can take the mystery out of what could be a potentially terrifying experience. It can provide reassurance to family members that everything is being done to save their loved ones. It also can offer closure for relatives wanting to be with their family members until the last minute (Kirkland Lasting Benefit). Another benefit is that it shows people why reviving someone in cardiac arrest is much less likely than people assume from watching it being done on television (Ledermann Family Presence During). Family members who can truly understand what it means to ‘do everything possible’ can go on to make more informed decisions about end-of-life care for themselves or their families.

There are three perspectives on this issue- that of the emergency medical personnel providing care, the family, and the patients. The resistance on the part of the medical community to family presence during CPR stems from several different concerns. The most common concern among these is that family members, when faced with overwhelming fear, stress and grief, could disrupt or delay active CPR. Another concern raised by emergency medical personnel is that the realities of CPR may simply be too traumatic for loved ones, causing them to suffer more than they potentially would have if they had never witnessed the event. Some families share this view, citing the potential for extreme distress as a main reason for not wanting to witness resuscitation (Grice Study examining attitudes). Many emergency medical personnel also fear an increased risk of liability and litigation with family members present in the room (Fullbrook the Presence of Family). The worry is that errors can occur, inappropriate comments may be made, and the actions of the personnel involved may be misinterpreted. In an already tense situation, the awareness of the family could increase the anxiety of the personnel and create a greater potential for mistakes.

Another complication that arises from having families present during resuscitation attempts is that of patient confidentiality. The patient’s right to privacy should not be circumvented with implied consent. There is always the possibility that medical information previously unknown to the family may be revealed in the chaos of resuscitation. In addition, patient dignity, whether physical or otherwise, may become compromised (Fullbrook the Presence of Family). Beyond moral considerations, legal concerns regarding revealing patient information are real. This could become an even larger issue if there is no one available to screen witnesses, which could result in unrelated people gaining access to personal information. Eventually, a breach in confidentiality can lead to a breach in the confidence that the public has gained in pre-hospital emergency care.

Family presence during CPR in a pre-hospital setting remains a highly debatable topic. This could be largely due to the fact that the needs of the emergency medical providers and the rights of the patients can be at odds with the wishes of the family members. Although there are several possible reasons why family presence is not being welcomed into daily practice, one of the major reasons could be the lack of formal written policies that define the roles of families and providers placed into this situation. Bringing family members into a situation where CPR is being performed on a loved one should not happen haphazardly. It should happen with careful concern and support for everyone involved. Policies and protocols, defined by experienced personnel, can provide legal and emotional support. They can also potentially help ease anxiety by defining expectations and placing responsibility in the hands of people who are experienced enough to know how to handle the situation appropriately. The policies and protocols should address the basic needs of all people involved. Five basic needs should be addressed:

1. The number of people allowed to be present

2. Which relatives should be allowed to be present (age, relationship, etc.)

3. The role of the family members present and what is expected of them.

4. The place where the family should remain during the duration of CPR.

5. The formal wishes of the patient- written as a directive like a living will.

An important component of this is available, trained staff that can prepare the family members for what they will witness, support them through the event, and then direct them after the event’s conclusion.

The American Heart Association states that the goals of cardiopulmonary resuscitation are, ‘to preserve life, restore health, relieve suffering, limit disability, and respect the individual’s decisions rights and privacy’ (AHA Guidelines for CPR). The practice of offering family members the opportunity to be present during CPR is a controversial ethical issue in emergency medical services. While the results of the study published on this topic in The New England Journal of Medicine clearly show no negative side effects from having families present during resuscitation attempts, the limitations of the study lend to the need for more research before it could be universally accepted.

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Respondeat Superior college admissions essay help

Legal claims that derive from a situation where there are claims of negligence can sometimes involve an entity other than the neglectful parties. In certain circumstances employers are fully responsible for their employees, and the tasks they perform during working hours. During the course of this paper, the doctrine of respondeat superior will be defined and explained. Two case studies in which the doctrine was applied will also be analyzed to determine if it was applied correctly.

Respondeat superior is a legal theory that holds employers responsible for any negligent or harmful act performed by an employee during the commission of their employment duties (Thornton, 2010). The Maryland Supreme Court in 1951 was the first court to utilize respondeat superior in a court case involving a question of employer liability (Burns, 2011). This doctrine is important as it holds employers liable in court cases where one of its employees does harm to an individual. Vicarious liability and indirect liability are two base concepts that make-up respondeat superior (Thornton, 2010). Respondeat superior shows that the employer did not have to be responsible for the employee???s negligent behavior, in the form of improper training or instruction to perform harmful acts, in order for the employer to be held legally responsible.

In the case of Valle v. City of Houston, the police force was sued for excessive force and an illegal search in an attempt to remove an individual from his parent???s home (Nicholl & Kelly, 2012). The situation stemmed from a man, Omar Esparza, barricading himself in his parent???s home and refusing to come out (p. 285). After a long police standoff, the SWAT team was ordered to forcefully enter the home and remove Mr. Esparza (p. 285). The SWAT team utilized taser gun and bean bag ammunition in an attempt to subdue Mr. Esparza after they felt he posed a physical threat by wielding a hammer, but as those attempts failed the suspect was fatally wounded when an officer fired his weapon (p. 286). Shortly after the incident the mother was allowed into the home, and she reported no visible evidence that her son was possession of a hammer (p. 286). The court found that the city was not liable for damages under the theory of respondeat superior, because the order to remove the individual from the home was not made by an individual deemed as a decision-maker by the city (p. 286).

From the outside, this case seems to fit the theory of respondeat superior. As the employer, the city should be held responsible for the actions of its employees. The police, serving as the city???s employees acted in a manner that was unnecessary for the situation and in conflict of their training (p. 286). However, the court sided with the City of Houston because the chain of command was not followed in regards to the use of force (p. 286). The end result is a case where an individual made a decision that was not his to make; that ultimately cost a man his life.

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Selfishness Is An Innate Nature Essay Help Service

Selfishness is placing care or concern with oneself or one’s own profits above the well-being of others. This is one of the character trait of every human in the world since they were born and this characteristic of human being will keep xxxxx . Shirley Jackson explores this premise in her short story ‘The Lottery’ where people living in the village have an annual ritual known as ‘the lottery’, they will draw to choose a person to stone in oder to ensure a good harvest for the whole year. During the lottery, people are willing to do anything to prevent being selected because they are afraid to be chosen. So, selfishness is an inborn nature as people have an instinct to survive, most people do not wish anything bad happen to them and people do not care about other if the punishment will not fall on them.

People become selfish when they have to face the live or death situation because people have an instinct to survive. In order to survive, ‘me’ has to come first. This self-awareness is central to each and every one of us that becomes woven into the fabric of whose is important and who we are at different points depending upon the situation and our personality. This is clearly shown by Tessie Hutchinson when she said, ‘There is Don and Eva, make them take their chance!’. When the Hutchinson family was chosen in the first round of the lottery, Tessie Hutchinson was willing to risk her daughter’s and son-in-law’s lives in order to decrease the probability of herself being chosen. Tessie neglected her responsibility as a mother to protect her child and became selfish as she wanted to stay alive. Not only the mother, 2 children of the Hutchinson family show their selfishness in front of the critical situation. ‘Nancy and Bill.Jr beamed and laughed, turning around to the crowd, showing their blank slips of paper above their heads’. These two young children were happily telling the crowd that they are safe but they were not worrying about their parents who had higher possibility to be stoned as long as they could survive. Tessie, Nancy and Bill.Jr showed that selfishness is an inborn personality by cause of the strong aptitude to survive.

Another reason why human are selfish is they do not wish anything bad happen to themselves. Human are timid and afraid of the possibility of getting something bad or suffering from bad luck. One more supporting sentence. In the short story, when Mr Summer brought the black box that kept all the papers to the square, all of the villagers kept their distance from the black box, no one but Mr Martin and his son helped Mr Summers to hold the box. This show that most of the villagers put their own concerns above the others, they were scared to touch the black box that symbolise the coffin because they thought it might bring them misfortune. Villagers in that time were not be chosen willingly for the good harvest of the village so they would try to avoid being selected. So, people are selfish and apathetic when the thing might bring adversity to them.

Besides, people are selfish and do not care for other if they are not the one who receive the punishment. This is the natural quality of human because when a person is in the safe area he will simmer down and do not take other people’s problem seriously even though they are in hot water. In the second paragraph of the short story, Shirley Jackson described the children selecting the smoothest and roundest stones to make a great pile of stones. It can be concluded that the children knew that it took longer time to kill people with smooth stones, therefore they can have more fun throwing stones at the person as they would not draw for the lottery. During the first round of drawing, Tessie encouraged her husband to draw the lottery, ‘ Get up there, Bill.’ Her action clearly shown that she was utterly willing to stone one of her neighbours, but when she was the one who was going to be stoned, she says, ‘It is not fair!’. After knowing the Hutchinson family was selected, Tessie’s friend, Mrs Delacroix stopped Tessie from complaining and elucidated that everyone took the same chance. Mrs Delacroix did not console her friend and support her to ask for a redraw but she bravely asked her friend to clam down and accepted the fact. She did not worry about her friend who might be killed by the villager. Most of the villager did not concern about others including their friends if they were safe.

Selfishness, as said earlier are traits of every human. This is necessary qualities in the basic theme ‘survival of the fittest’. People should not hide their helping hands when they think their sympathetic action might bring them to a worse circumstance. In conclusion, selfishness is an innate nature that one posses since born.

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The Relationship between Manager Assertiveness and having to tell Employees Exactly What to Do melbourne essay help

Not only is it important to tell workers exactly what to do by being direct, but it is of an equal importance to be assertive with them. If a manager is too passive with his or her employees, it may lead to a managerial mess, as many workers constantly try to test managers’ boundaries.

One of the main reasons as to why employees end up misbehaving in the workplace is primarily because they are not managed correctly, and those who are in authority allow them to get that way. When it comes to being a manager, you shouldn’t expect employees to respect you on a personal level, but you should expect them to respect your authority on a professional level.

Managers should not only be consistently setting up new boundaries, but they should also be enforcing them. Without enforcing them, if an employee overpasses it and nothing is advised to him or her, they will think it is okay to continue to do so. How will they know that it is wrong unless you tell them? It is of an utmost importance to also advise them that you can’t tolerate it.

As a manager, to do their job they have the innate obligation to do only the things that is right for the company that he or she works for. This includes of setting the appropriate boundaries, and not exercising too much sympathy and empathy as it may cause the manager to get too involved with their personal lives. Otherwise, he or she may promote favoritism thereby causing other employees to be jealous. Although this may be true, there is no need to be overly rude and cold towards employees. Being assertive and setting boundaries doesn’t always mean one has to be disrespectful or even rude to their employees. The difference between an authoritarian manager who respects their employees and for managers who don’t differentiates the results of whether or not employees comply or commit themselves to work. In order to have them commit rather than only comply, it is important to be respectful while being assertive. When employees are willing to commit, they are more than likely to deliver work that exceeds a manager’s expectations. (Alexander Hamilton Institute, 2012)

The Importance for Managers to Be a Leader

When it comes to capabilities to effectively communicate with employees, good managers are able to sustain and encourage self-assurance, enthusiasm, and emotional stability while pursuing their day-to-day activities. The position of being a manager can, at times, be quite stressful and overwhelming, so the ideal manager should not let it get to them.

Why is this important when it comes to effectively advising employees as to what has to be done?

If managers aren’t able to maintain self-control of their emotions, then it is likely that they won’t be able to do well at leading employees. Managers are commonly seen as a workplace role model, so if their employees see them as unable to maintain control, it is likely the employees won’t either, thereby leading to decreased amounts of productivity.

Why Communication Is a Key Aspect for Managers

In order to ensure efficient productivity among employees, it is important for them to be able to effectively communicate with them. Moreover, they must also be able to report to higher managers regarding productivity statistics and the like. Not only will great managers be able to communicate well with employees to advise them what they have to do, but they will also be active listeners. Without being able to listen to an employee when he or she has questions about their job or what they have to do, it is likely that they won’t end up doing what they are supposed to do. Another important trait for managers is being able to get a message across without having to overly emphasize it verbally. They know how to implement non-verbal communication techniques such as body language in order to get an important message across to employees. (Melinda Hill Mendoza, n.d).

Common Traits of a Good Employee’ Where You Don’t Have to Be As Specific

There are various indicators that strongly determine whether or not if you have to be overly specific when trying to get an employee to do something. Here I’ve included some of the top traits when it comes to being an effective listener as an employee.

‘ Action Oriented: When you tell an employee to do something, and if he or she is action-oriented, you will see them do it right away’ no questions asked. Although sometimes their work may not be sufficient, most of the time they will provide great work with high levels of productivity. Also, when it comes to productivity, they usually get things done a lot sooner than employees who are stagnant.

‘ Intelligent: Intelligence is important for an employee to thoroughly understand what you want them to do without you having to be too specific with them. Not only that, but when you tell an intelligent employee what to do, most of the time they will do it perfectly correct. It is very rare for an employee who has high levels of intelligence to ask too many questions for additional specificity.

‘ Ambitious: Having an employee with ambition is important because they are well-known to come up with creative ideas that can bring the productivity of any company to the next level. So rather than spending extra time telling them exactly what they have to do, they will work right away, and by the time they are done they will provide you with a genius idea to do things quicker, and you may want to consider forwarding it to your boss.

‘ Autonomous: Employees with an autonomous trait are known to begin working on a project the second you explain to them what needs to be done. They are extremely independent and they require no ‘hand-holding’ whatsoever. This is an important trait, because as a manager, they have a lot of tasks on hand and they don’t want to be wasting it answering a hundred questions about completing a simple task.

‘ Confidence: It is more likely for an unconfident employee to ask questions about exactly what they need to do than a confident employee. This is primarily due to the fact that employees who are confident will trust there instinct on what they’ve heard from the manager, and they won’t second guess their initial impression. On the other hand, unconfident employees will lack their confidence in trusting their understanding, causing them to ask a lot of unnecessary questions.

‘ Leadership: After confidence comes leadership. When you are explaining a task to an employee with leadership skills, you will be confident that they will over-deliver on your expectations. They have the experience to not only deliver the job promptly without any questions ask, but they can set the bar higher in terms of quality and productivity.

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Learning Theory Behaviorism (Teori Pembelajaran Behaviorisme) extended essay help biology

2.0 Teori Pembelajaran Behaviorisme

Teori Behaviorisme merupakan satu pendekatan pemikiran yang menekankan peranan pengalaman dalam mengawal tingkah laku. Pengasas teori ini adalah J.B Watson yang popular dengan teori Little Albert. Namun, selain daripada J.B Watson terdapat tokoh lain yang turut mengkaji tentang teori ini. Mereka adalah Skinner, Thondike dan Pavlov. Teori pemerolehan bahasa Behavioris pada zaman sebelum ini lebih menekankan tingkah laku yang dapat dilihat sahaja. Bagi mereka perkara yang berlaku dalam otak manusia tidak dapat dikenalpasti. Mereka membuat analogi otak manusia sama seperti sebuah kotak hitam yang gelap. Oleh itu mereka tidak mementingkan peranan otak dalam pemerolehan bahasa.

Golongan mazhab ini menolak pendapat yang menghubungkan operasi kognitif dengan pemerolehan bahasa. Seseorang dianggap telah belajar sesuatu jika dia dapat menunjukkan perubahan perilakunya. Menurut teori ini dalam belajar yang penting adalah input yang berupa stimulus dan output yang berupa reaksi (respond). Stimulus adalah apa saja yang diberikan guru kepada pelajar, sedangkan respon berupa reaksi atau tanggapan pelajar terhadap stimulus yang diberikan oleh guru tersebut. Proses yang terjadi antara stimulus dan respon tidak penting untuk diperhatikan kerana tidak dapat diamati dan tidak dapat diukur. Yang dapat diamati adalah stimulus dan respon. Oleh sebab itu, apa yang diberikan oleh guru iaitu stimulus dan apa yang diterima oleh pelajar iaitu respon harus dapat diamati dan diukur. Teori ini mengutamakan pengukuran kerana pengukuran merupakan perkara yang penting untuk melihat terjadi atau tidak perubahan tingkah laku tersebut.

2.1 Teori Behaviorisme menurut J.B Watson

J.B Watson (1878-1958), seorang ahli psikologi di Amerika Syarikat, merupakan orang pertama mencipta istilah behaviorisme untuk menghuraikan tingkah laku manusia. Kajian banyak dipengaruhi oleh Teori Pelaziman Klasik Pavlov. Kajian beliau, yang terkenal ialah mengenai emosi kanak-kanak dengan menggunakan Model Pelaziman Klasik. Mengikut Watson, tingkah laku manusia merupakan reflex terlazim iaitu suatu gerak balas yang dipelajari melalui proses pelaziman klasik. Dengan kata lain, semua pembelajaran adalah pelaziman klasik Watson berpendapat gerakan-gerakan refleks yang mudah misalnya berkelip mata, bersin apabila hidung gatal dan sebarang tindakan yang dilakukan secara semulajadi adalah tingkah laku yang diwarisi dan tidak perlu dipelajari. Selain daripada tingkah laku, Watson pula menjalankan kajian tentang pembelajaran emosi semula jadi iaitu takut, marah, dan kasih saying. Emosi manusia atau perubahan dipelajari melalui proses pelaziman.

2.1.1 Implikasi Teori Pembelajaran J.B Watson

Menurut beliau, semua tingkah laku boleh dipelajari melalui proses pelaziman. Tingkah laku positif boleh diajarkan melalui ransangan yang sesuai. Seterusnya, untuk menguasai kemahiran menyelesaikan masalah, pelajar perlu belajar cara perhubungan gerak balas secara sistematik. Selain itu, teori ini memberi implikasi untuk mengukuhkan apa yang telah dipelajari dalam ingatan, latihan- latihan hendaklah dijalankan secara kerap. Dalam proses pengajaran,guru hendaklah menggunakan rasangan yang boleh memotivasikan murid untuk minat belajar dan mengelakkan pengunaan ransangan yang membawa kepada kesan negatif.

2.2 Teori Behaviorisme menurut Thorndike

Menurut Thorndike, belajar adalah proses interaksi antara stimulus dan respon. Stimulus adalah apa yang merangsang terjadinya aktiviti belajar seperti fikiran, perasaan, atau hal-hal lain yang dapat dikesan melalui pancaindera. Manakala, respon adalah reaksi yang muncul apabila peserta dididik ketika belajar, dan yang dapat pula adalah berupa fikiran, perasaan, gerakan atau tindakan. Jadi, perubahan tingkah laku akibat kegiatan belajar dapat dikategorikan sebagai konkrit, iaitu yang dapat diamati, atau tidak konkrit iaitu yang tidak dapat diamati. Meskipun aliran behaviorisme sangat mengutamakan pengukuran, tetapi tidak dapat menjelaskan bagaimana cara mengukur tingkah laku yang tidak dapat diamati. Teori Thorndike ini disebut pula dengan teori koneksionisme. Thorndike berjaya membentuk tiga hokum iaitu Hukum kesediaan, Hukum latihan, Hukum kesan. Hukum kesediaan merupakan keupayaan persiapan seseorang individu di dalam kendirinya untuk memulakan sesuatu aktiviti pembelajaran. Manakala hokum latihan pula menyatakan bahawa semakin byak latihan yang dijalankan semakin bertambah kukuh ikatan gerak balas yang tertentu dengan ransangan yang berkaitan. Hukum kesan menyatakan bahawa ikatan ransangan dengan gerak balas akan bertambah kukuh sekiranya individu memperolehi kesan yang memuaskan selepas gerak balasnya dihasilkan.

2.1.2 Implikasi Teori Pembelajaran Thorndike

Antara implikasi Teori Pembelajaran Thorndike ialah untuk meningkatkan tahap kesediaan belajar, guru harus menggunakan motivasi yang sesuai. Selain itu, ia juga dapat mengukuhkan pertalian antara ransangan dengan gerak balas pelajar dengan memperbanyak aktiviti latihan, ulangkaji, aplikasi serta pengukuhan dalam keadaan yang menyeronokkan. Seterusnya memberikan ganjaran atau peneguhan untuk respon antau gerak balas yang betul daripada pelajar. Memberi peluang kepada pelajar untuk menikmati kejayaan dalam pembelajaran mereka.

2.3 Teori Pembelajaran Behaviorisme Ivan Pavlov

Ivan Pavlov merupakan salah seorang daripada ahli teori Behavioris selain daripada Skinner, Thondike dan Watson. Beliau dilahirkan pada 14 September 1849 di Ryazan, Rusia Tengah. Beliau telah meninggal dunia pada 27 Februari 1936 di Leningrad Rusia ketika berusia 86 tahun. Ivan Pavlov merupakan ahli fisiologi, psikologi dan ahli fizik berbangsa Rusia. Sebagai seorang yang sangat mencintai bidang fisiologi beliau telah meminta seorang pelajar duduk di sebelah katilnya dan merekodkan perihal kematiannya. Beliau terkenal dengan orang pertama yang mendeskripsikan fonomena pelaziman klasik atau pelaziman responden. Teori pelaziman klasik adalah tentang tingkah laku pembelajaran yang telah dipelopori oleh Ivan Pavlov ( 1849-1936). Pada tahun 1980-an. Pavlov mengkaji fungsi pencernaan pada anjing dengan melakukan pemerhatian pada kelenjar air liur. Dengan cara itu, beliau dapat mengumpulkan, menyukat dan menganalisis air liur haiwan itu dan bagaimana ia dapat diberikan makanan pada keadaan yang berbeza. Beliau sedar anjing akan mengeluarkan air liur sebelum makanan sampai ke mulutnya dan mencari hubungan timbal balik antara air liur dengan aktiviti perut. Pavlov hendak melihat rangsangan luar dapat mempengaruhi proses ini. Oleh itu contoh paling awal dan terkenal bagi pelaziman klasik melibatkan pelaziman air liur pada anjing kajian Pavlov.

2.4 Teori Pembelajaran Behaviorisme B.F Skinner

Manakala menerusi B.F Skinner pula, beliau mengutarakan teori behaviorisme adalah teori. Menurut Nana Sudjana, 1990 pendekatan Skinner adalah operant conditioning, yang merupakan penerusan dan perluasan secara tepat dari hokum Thorndike. Ia mengakui adanya fenomena conditioning yang klasik dari Pavlov dalam perilaku manusia dan binatang, tetapi itu tidak dianggap terlalu penting.

2.4.1 Implikasi Teori Pembelajaran B.F Skinner

Sesuatu kemahiran atau teknik yang baru dipelajari hendaklah diberi peneguhan secara berterusan dan diikuti secara berkala supaya kemahiran atau teknik itu dapat dikukuhkan dan dikekalkan. Selain itu, penggunaan peneguhan positif yang membawa keseronokan adalah lebih berkesan daripada peneguhan negative yang membawa kesakitan. Seterusnya, prinsip penghapusan melalui proses pelaziman operan adalah sesuai digunakan untuk memodifikasikan tingkah laku pelajar yangtidak diingini, misalnya menghentikan peneguhan yang diberikan dahulu sama ada peneguhan positif atau negatif

2.5 Kelebihan teori pembelajaran behaviorisme

Kelebihan yang pertama yang kami perolehi melalui teori ini adalah teori ini sangat sesuai untuk melatih atau mendidik kanak-kanak yang masih memerlukan bantuan daripada orang dewasa di sekeliling mereka. Sebagai contoh kanak-kanak tadika memerlukan bimbingan dan perhatian yang khusus daripada orang di persekitarannya terutamanya guru-guru mereka kerana mereka mudah mengikuti apa yang diajar dan disuruh selain suka meniru perlakuan orang di sekelilingnya. Selain itu, mereka juga suka dengan bentuk-bentuk penghargaan yang diberi kepadanya seperti pujian dan melalui bentuk penghargaan tersebut ianya dapat membangkitkan semangat ingin belajar dalam diri mereka.

Kelebihan yang kedua adalah guru tidak perlu mengambil masa yang lama untuk memberi penerangan yang panjang tentang pembelajaran kepada murid-murid. Hal ini kerana murid-murid akan dibiasakan belajar dengan sendiri kecuali sekiranya murid menghadapi sesuatu masalah dan memerlukan penjelasan yang lebih daripada guru. Dalam hal ini guru perlu memberikan penerangan dengan jelas.

Selain daripada itu, teori ini juga menekankan kemahiran lisan berbanding kemahiran membaca dan menulis. Melalui aspek kemahiran lisan yang ditekankan dapat memberikan kelebihan kepada murid kerana aspek lisan iaitu mendengar dan bertutur penting dalam situasi harian murid. Boleh dikatakan bahawa kemahiran ini adalah kemahiran terkerap yang digunakan manusia untuk berkomunikasi antara satu sama lain.

2.6 Kelemahan Teori Behaviorisme

Dari segi kelemahan pula, penerapan teori behavioris yang kurang tepat dalam sesuatu situasi pembelajaran boleh mangakibatkan berlakunya proses pembelajaran yang tidak kondusif bagi murid-murid kerana pembelajaran berlaku dalam keadaan sehala dimana ianya berpusatkan kepada guru sahaja. Guru hanya mengajar dan melatih murid manakala murid hanya menerima apa yang diajar oleh guru mereka tanpa memberi sebarang maklum balas. Malah dalam teori pembelajaran ini murid berperanan sebagai pendengar dan mereka menghafal apa yang didengar dan dipandang sebagai cara belajar yang efektif. Penggunaan hukuman merupakan salah satu cara untuk guru mendisiplinkan murid dan hal ini akan mendatangkan akibat buruk kepada murid.

Kelemahan yang kedua ialah proses pembelajaran dikatakan kurang memberikan gerak balas yang bebas bagi pelajar untuk berinteraksi serta untuk mengembangkan idea. Hal ini kerana sistem pembelajaran tersebut lebih tertumpu kepada rangsangan dan gerak balas yang ditunjukkan. Sekiranya tiada rangsangan maka tindak balas tidak akan berlaku. Sebagai contoh, guru akan memberi rangsangan dalam bentuk hadiah dan daripada situ barulah murid akan memberikan jawapan yang dikehendaki oleh guru. Sekiranya perkara ini berlaku secara berterusan dikhuatiri murid akan terlalu bergantung terhadap rangsangan dari luar sedangkan murid harus memiliki rangsangan dari dalam diri mereka sendiri sebagai satu cara pembelajaran.

Kelemahan yang ketiga menurut teori ini adalah penambahan ilmu pengetahuan lebih tertumpu kepada buku teks. Hal ini kerana mereka belajar mengikut urutan kurikulum yang sangat ketat sehinggakan buku teks merupakan buku wajib dalam pembelajaran mereka malah mereka juga perlu dikehendaki memahami dan mempersembahkan kembali isi pembelajaran di dalam buku teks tersebut dengan baik. Hal ini boleh mendatangkan kesan buruk kepada pelajar kerana ilmu pengetahuan yang mereka peroleh tidak begitu berkembangan dengan hanya tertumpu kepada satu buah buku sahaja.

2.7 Implikasi teori pembelajaran behaviorisme

Yang pertama ialah guru perlu sedar bahawa kaitan antara rangsangan dan gerak balas boleh dilazimkan iaitu dipelajari. Sebagai contoh apabila guru ingin menyuruh murid-murid beratur ketika waktu rehat di kantin sekolah guru boleh mengaitkannya dengan cara untuk berjaya dalam kehidupan. Implikasi yang seterusnya ialah kaitan antara rangsangan dan gerak balasdapat dikukuhkan melalui latihan. Semakin kerap rangsangan itu dikaitkan dengan sesuatu gerak balas, semakin kukuh gerak balas terlazim itu. Sebagai contoh guru ingin murid-murid supaya tidak mengaitkan mata pelajaran matematik dengan kesukaran, dengan memberi mereka latihan- latihan yang mudah dan apabila mereka beransur mahir menyelesaikan masalah yang sukar maka guru bolehlah menukar aras pembelajaran kepada tahap yang sederhana sukar dan seterusnya ke aras pembelajaran yang sukar.

Di samping itu, dalam proses pembelajaran, generalisasi boleh berlaku. Ini bermakna perkara yang dipelajari dalam situasi A boleh dipindahkan ke situasi B. Sebagai contoh guru mata pelajaran sains mengaitkan kejadian pencemaran alam sekitar yang mengakibatkan kemusnahan alam semula jadi dengan kemusnahan alam yang berlaku seperti tsunami yang melanda Bandar Acheh.

faktor motivasi memainkan peranan yang penting bagi menghasilkan gerak balas yang diinginkan. Dalam hal ini pemberian ganjaran perlu diberi perhatian. Sebagai contoh ketika murid menjawab soalan yang diberikan oleh guru dengan betul maka guru boleh memberikan pujian kepadanya atau dengan memberikannya hadiah supaya pada waktu pembelajaran yang seterusnya pelajar tersebut akan lebih menumpukan perhatian di dalam kelas untuk memperoleh pujian yang diingini. Namun sekiranya pelajar tersebut tidak dapat menjawab soalan yang diberi maka guru perlulah membimbing pelajar tersebut supaya mereka tidak berasa terpinggir dan seterusnya dapat bersama-sama memahami tajuk pembelajaran pada ketika itu.

Selain itu juga, dalam proses pembelajaran tingkah laku yang dapat dilihat, diamati, diukur dan dikawal hendaklah diberi perhatian. Hal ini kerana melalui perubahan tingkah laku yang ditunjukkan oleh murid guru boleh mengambil sebarang tindakan sekiranya ianya di kesan lebih awal. Sebagai contoh sekiranya seseorang murid menunjukkan tingkah laku yang negatif seperti tidak faham tentang apa yang diajar oleh guru maka guru boleh membuat pemulihan terhadap dirinya. Dalam pembelajaran, penghapusan boleh berlaku jika peneguhan tidak diberikan. Ini bermakna, sekiranya sesuatu tingkahlaku tidak diperkukuhkan melalui ganjaran, tingkahlaku itu mungkin akan terhapus begitu sahaja. Konsep pemulihan serta-merta juga dapat membantu seseorang guru meningkatkan keberkesanan pembelajaran

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Research design admission essay help

2.7 RESEARCH DESIGN USED :

The conception of research design plan is the critical step in the research process. The design ,of the study constitutes the blue print for the collection, measurement and analysis of data. In other words the research design is a conceptual structure with in which,h research is conducted.

2.8 DATA COLLECTION METHODS :

Primary Data: – Primary data are those data which are collected for the first time, and thus hap,pen to be original in character. It is extracted with the help of discussions co,nducted with senior managers with respect to factors affecting the performance.,

Secondary Data: – Secondary data are those data which are already collected by someone else ,and which have already passed through the statistical process. These data are g,athered by Books, Lectures, Notes, and Official Websites etc.

The study make,s extensive use of secondary data. ‘Secondary data are those which have already,y been passed through the statistical process’. The data which is pre-essential for ,this study relating to comparative analysis of Balance Sheet and PROFIT AND L,OSS A/c was based on secondary source of data. This data will be collected fro,m materials provided by Rakshitas Pvt. Ltd., discussions conducted with store m,anagers and some essential

Financial Accounts books.

2.9 LIMITATIONS :,

‘ Data provided is very limited due to the subjectivity of it being highly confidential.,

‘ The data taken for interpretation is for a limited period.

‘ Assumptions, are to be taken into consideration while doing analysis and interpretation, of data.

‘ Due to limited, information, depth analysis could not be made.

2.10 RESEARCH MEASURE TOOLS :

Various financial techniques and statistical tools are used to measure the data used in the study. Column graphs, pie chart etc. is used to highlight the statistical inference,s. The study cannot be completed without balance sheet and profit and loss a/c. ,Therefore three years balance sheet and profit & loss a/c has been taken out for ma,king proper research.

2.11 ANALYSIS OF DATA :

The data collected is secondary, and it’s compiled, classified, tabulated and then analyzed u,sing financial techniques and statistical tools. Graphs and charts are used to hig,hlight the statistics. Based on this data and analysis, inferences are drawn accor,dingly.

2.12 OVER VIEW OF THE CHAPTER :

The Project I,s Presented in the following chapter :-

CHAPTER 1 : INTRODUCTION

This chapter includes introduction to finance, theorectical back ground for the study of the ,various performance, introduction to finance, definition of retail industry and di,fferent type of industry.

CHAPTER 2 : DESIGN OF THE STUDY

This chapter I,ncludes the projects introduction of the subject background, statement of the, problem, objectives of the study, scope of the study, need and purpose of study,, research methodology, research design, data collection method primary and seco,ndary data, limitations, research measure tools and analysis of data.,

CHA,PTER 3 : PROFILE OF THE COMPANY

This c,hapter contains the profile of the company, its origin and background, board of directors, number of branches and organization structure.

CHAP,TER 4 : DATA ANALYSIS AND INTERPRETATION

This ch,apter consists of Table, Graphs, Analysis and Interpretation based on the question,nairies.

CHAPT,ER 5 : SUMMARY OF FINDINGS, CONCULSIONS AND RECOM,MENDATIONS

This chap,ter includes findings based on objectives of the study, conclusion drawn from the f,indings and recommendations given from the analysis.

Chapter:-3

PROFILE OF THE ORGANIZATION

COMPANY PROFILE

RAKSHITAS PVT.LTD.

Rakshitas business con,cept is to offer a broad and varied range of apparels that allows customers to fin,d their own personal style to choose from more than 150 remiums national and int,ernational brands.

Rakshitas is aimed at everyone in the family with an interest in modern basics, fashion, quality and affo,rdable pricing. Customers should always be able to find clothes and accessories ,at Rakshitas for every occasion. The collections are extensive and new arrivals, being launched week after week in each of the 4 floors spread across 20,000 s,q. ft. for Men, Women, Kids and Teen’s casual wear, formal wear, denim wea,r, ethnic and Kancheevaram silks etc. The range and collections are supplemen,ted by matching costume jewellery, premium international watches, perfumes, ,lingerie’s.

Mission

Our mission is to achieve excelle,nce in the products and services we offer, in the methods we employ and in the res,ult we produce.

Products

Menswear: menswear,r means clothing for men. Rakshitas provide various brands for menswear which ,includes formal shirts, casual shirts, trousers, jeans etc. of several variety of int,ernational as well as national brands, for example: -levis, pepe jeans, killer, lee, w,rangler etc.

Women’s wear: Women’s wear means ,clothing for women. Rakshitas provides the best options for women’s apparel rang,ing from skirts to ethnic, casuals as well as formals.

Kids wear: Kids wear are meant only for kids or children ranging below age of 12 years. Rakshitas provides awesome collection for kids which include children formal wear, kurtas, shirt,s etc.

Party wear: Party wear dresses are meant for wearing in parties, functions, special occasions etc. Rakshitas provides variety ranges of party wear which includes lehngas, wedding dresses, traditional indian dress etc.

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Control and organisational behaviour (pengendalian dan perilaku organisasi) get essay help

PENGENDALIAN DAN PERILAKU ORGANISASI

PERILAKU ORGANISASI

Untuk membuat dasar yang nantinya dapat digunakan manajemen dalam menyusun system pengendalian manajemen, maka kita perlu mengetahui lebih dalam mengenai perilaku organisasi. Berikut ini adalah beberapa penjelasan mengenai teori akuntansi sebagai bentuk pemahaman terhadap organisasi.

Definisi Organisasi

Secara umum, organisasi diartikan sebagai sekumpulan orang yang melakukan kerjasama demi mencapai tujuan ‘ tujuan yang telah ditentukan bersama. Organisasi tercipta ketika orang ‘ orang bergabung dan melakukan sesuatu untuk berbagai tujuan dan organisasi dapat mencakup segala aspek dalam kehidupan. Organisasi dapat bersifat formal dan informal. Pekerjaan di dalam suatu organisasi dapat dibagi ‘ bagi dan dikoordinasi sesuai dengan kebutuhan dan keahlian tiap ‘tiap anggota organisasinya untuk mencapai tujuan organisasi tersebut. Suatu organisasi haruslah going concern, dalam arti organisasi tersebut diasumsikan akan hidup selamanya.

Teori Perilaku Organisasi (Theory of Organization Behaviour)

Ada beberapa teori yang menjelaskan mengenai mengapa dan bagaimana orang ‘ orang berperilaku dalam organisasi. Berikut ada dua penjelasan mengenai teori tersebut :

1. Teori jenjang kebutuhan

Teori ini menjelaskan bahwa setiap manusia memiliki kebutuhan yang banyak dan harus dipenuhi dan kebutuhan serta keinginan tersebut tersusun secara rapih, sehingga apabila ada satu kebutuhan terpenuhi maka setelah itu ia akan berusaha memenuhi kebutuhannnya yang lebih tinggi. Dalam teori ini tersirat bahwa system pengendalian manajemen juga didasarkan pada kebutuhan manusia yang terkoordinasi dan dilakukan sesuai dengan tujuan organisasi.

2. Teori motivasi pencapaian

Teori ini lebih mengacu pada perilaku atasan atau manajer dalam perannya saat berorganisasi. Untuk mencapai keberhasilan dan mendapat sebuah kekuasaan, maka manajer tersebut juga perlu memiliki keinginan yang kuat agar dapat menghasilkan prestasi dalam organisasi.

TEORI ORGANISASI

Pengetahuan yang dalam mengenai organisasi sangatlah diperlukan oleh para pelaku organisasi dalam pelaksanaan system pengendalian manajemen organisasi tersebut. Para pelaku organisasi harus benar ‘ benar mengetahui semua poin dalam organisasi termasuk sejarah organisasi, tujuan organisasi, bagaimana perilaku para pelakunya hingga reaksi organisasi tersebut terhadap lingkungan.

Tak berbeda dengan teori perilaku akuntansi, dalam teori organisasi juga terdapat banyak teori yang membahas mengenai organisasi. Dan disini akan dibahas mengenai dua teori juga tentang organisasi, yaitu :

1. Teori Organisasi yang Berorientasi ke Dalam

Banyak organisasi dianggap indepen dan tidak terlalu memperhatikan lingkungan luar oleh beberapa teori. Teori organisasi yang berorientasi ke dalam ini banyak dijadikan dasar oleh sebagian besar system pengendalian manajemen dalam suatu organisasi hal tersebut didasarkan karena dalam teori ini mencakup tanggung jawab dalam pengambilan keputusan yang berlaku menurut proyek ‘ proyek, program ‘ program serta komponen ‘ komponen fungsionalnya.

2. Teori Organisasi yang Berorientasi ke Luar

Teori ini adalah teori kebalikan dari teori sebelumnya yaitu teori organisasi yang berorientasi ke dalam. Teori ini beranggapan bahwa suatu organisasi selalu berhubungan dengan lingkungan di sekitarnya. Ada dua jenis organisasi yang menganut teori organisasi yang berorientasi keluar ini, yaitu :

– Organisasi system umum terbuka

– Organisasi system manajemen

TIPE ORGANISASI

Ada tiga jenis atau tipe organisasi, yaitu :

1. Organisasi Fungsional

Dalam tipe organisasi ini, penekanan lebih ditujukan kepada manajer yang sangat harus bertanggung jawab terhadap suatu fungsi tertentu, seperti fungsi produksi, fungsi pemasaran dan fungsi lainnya yang diterapkan dalam organisasi tersebut. Fungsi ‘ fungsi tersebut dapat dihimpun oleh fungsi yang lebih tinggi dalam organisasi itu juga. Organisasi ini berpotensi membuat efisiensi perusahaan yang lebih baik karena menggunakan masukan ‘ masukan dari manajerial yang lebih tinggi.

2. Organisasi Divisi

Dalam organisasi ini, semua manajer harus bertanggung jawab terhadap hamper keseluruhan fungsi dalam proses produksi serta distribusi lini pada organisasi tersebut. Orientasi organisasi divisi lebih terbuka yang berarti lebih menekankan bahwa para manajer harus peka terhadap pengaruh ‘ pengaruh yang dating dari luar yang mungkin dapat mempengaruhi kinerja organisasi.

3. Organisasi Matriks

Ada dua struktur organisasi dalam organisasi matriks, yaitu ditata berdasarkan fungsi dan ditata berdasarkan program. Pada organisasi matriks, para manajer bertanggung jawab penuh atas profitabilitas dari lini produk organisasi tersebut dimana proses produksi dilakukan oleh unit ‘ unit organisasi fungsional.

Teori Kemungkinan (Contingency Theory)

Untuk mengendalikan suatu manajemen menggunakan tiga macam pendekatan, antara lain :

1. Pendekatan tradisional

Pendekatan ini menekankan pada perencanaan, pendekatan dan pengendalian.

2. Pendekatan system

Pendekatan ini menekankan padapenggunaan sumber daya manusia sebagai pertimbangan dalam pengambilan keputusan.

3. Pendekatan perilaku

Pendekatan ini menekankan pada pengendalian manusia termasuk di dalamnya motivasi dan prediksi.

PERILAKU MANAJEMEN

Organisasi dan sistemnya yang rumit akan mempengaruhi perilaku manusia menjadi rumit pula.

Konsep Fundamental

Agar suatu organisasi ‘terkendali’ maka para anggota organisasi harus mengetahui dengan baik apa sebenarnya yang diinginkan oleh manajemen. Untuk merealisasikan hal tersebut, dapat menggunakan banyak informasi yang telah disediakan oleh manajemen organisasi seperti anggaran hingga kebijakan organisasi. Tujuan organisasi dibuat oleh para manajer senior dan dilaksanakan oleh manajer operasional untuk selanjutnya para manajer senior menerapkan system pengendalian manajemen untuk mengontrol organisasi tersebut.

Persepsi Tujuan

Para manajer operasional harus benar ‘ benar mengetahui apa tujuan organisasi. Para manajer operasional tersebut dapat secara mudah mendapatkan informasi ‘ informasi yang mereka butuhkan dari berbagai sumber baik dari dokumen maupun percakapan informal saja. System pengendalian manajemen yang efektif dapat menguatkan kepastian suatu perusahaan.

Organisasi Informal

Adanya organisasi informal di dalam organisasi formal sering menyebabkan adanya salah persepsi mengenai tindakan yang diharapkan. Hubungan pada organisasi informal tidak tercantum di dalam bagan organisasi, padahal hal tersebut cukup penting untuk pemahaman system pengendalian organisasi tersebut.

Motivasi

Reaksi pada pelaku organisasi terutama manajemen terhadap organisasi dapat berbeda tergantung pada motivasinya. Motivasi dapat bermacam ‘ macam, misalnya kenaikan gaji, promosi, pujian dan lain ‘ lain. Motivasi timbul dari dalam pribadi masing ‘ masing, tetapi motivasi dapat dipengaruhi oleh rangsangan dari lingkungan sekitarnya.

Keselarasan Tujuan (Goal Congruence)

Setiap manusia memiliki tujuan pribadi, begitu juga dengan organisasi yang juga memiliki tujuan bersama. Salah satu tugas penting system pengendalian adalah menyelaraskan kedua tujuan tersebut serta mencapainya demi mendapatkan kepuasan bersama. Semakin kuat hubungan antara tujuan pribadi dan tujuan organisasi, maka ssistem pengendalian organisasi tersebut akan semakin kuat juga.

Kerjasama dan Konflik

Suatu organisasi tidak akan berjalan dengan baik apabila para anggotanya tidak bekerjasama dengan baik secara terkoordinasi, untuk itu di dalam organisasi sangat dibutuhkan kerjasama yang terkoordinir dan selaras. Selain itu, organisasi juga harus menjaga koordinasi dan keselarasan tersebut agar tidak terjadi konflik yang dapat mengganggu kinerja organisasi. Konflik tersebut dapat terjadi karena berbagai alasan, salah satunya adalah dengan adanya persaingan didalam organisasi tersebut.

Iklim Organisasi (Organizational Climate)

Secara singkat, iklim organisasi dapat diartikan sebagai hasil kombinasi dari struktur formal dan struktur informal pada suatu organisasi. Dan menurut pemahaman saya iklim organisasi merupakan suasana di dalam organisasi dimana tiap pelaku organisasi di dalam organisasi saling membantu, saling menilai, dan memahami antara satu dengan yang lain. Iklim organisasi ikut mengambil bagian penting dalam organisasi. Keduanya saling mempengaruhi satu sama lain.

Tipe Pengendalian

Pelaku pengendalian Sumber arah pengendalian Macam ‘ macam Pengendalian

Ukuran prestasi dan tingkah laku Isyarat untuk tindak koreksi Imbalan untuk prestasi Hukuman untuk kegagalan

Organisasi formal Rencana organisasi, strategi, tanggapan atas persaingan Anggaran, biaya standar, target penjualan penyimpangan Penghargaan manajemen, insentif uang, promosi Minta penjelasan

Kelompok informal Keterikatan bersama cita’cita kelompok Norma-norma kelompok penyimpangan Pengakuan rekan, keanggotaan, kepemimpinan Ejekan, pengasingan, permusuhan

Perorangan Tujuan pribadi, aspirasi Harapan pribadi, target antara Dugaan akan kegagalan di masa yang akan dating, target tak tercapai Kepuasan karena ‘terkendali’ kegembiraan Merasa gagal

Sumber : Disarikan dari Gene W. Dalton dan Paul R. Lawrence, Motivation and Control in Organizations (Homewood, III. : Richard D. Irwin, 1971). Hak Cipta 1971 oleh Richard D. Irwin Inc.

Variasi dalam Pengendalian

Hakekat system pengendalian manajemen dibedakan menurut sifat pekerjaan, macam organisasi, lingkungan daan peran manajer. Berikut adalah tiga dimensi yang perlu diperhatikan dalam penggunaan dan pengembangan system pengendalian manajemen :

1. Besar keleluasaan manajemen

2. Besar interdependensi

3. Rentang waktu pelaksanaan

FUNGSI KONTROLER

Kontroler dapat diartikan sebagai petinggi atau pejabat yang bertanggung jawab atas apa yang telah direncanakan oleh organisasi dan bagaimana pengoperasiannya. Tanggung jawab para kontroler berbeda ‘ beda di tiap organisasi bahkan di tiap divisinya. Tanggung jawab kontroler didasarkan pada posisinya masing ‘ masing. Tanggung jawab tersebut dilaksanakan secara langsung. Selain tanggung jawab dalam perencanaan dan pengoperasian tersebut, berikut ini adalah fungsi lain dari kontroler :

a. Menyiapkan laporan kepada pihak pemerintah serta pihak ‘ pihak luar lainnya.

b. Mempersiapkan pengembalian pajak.

c. Mempersiapkan dan melakukan analisa terhadap laporan prestasi keuangan.

d. Membantu para manajer dengan cara melakukan analisa sertab menafsirkan laporan ‘ laporan tersebut.

e. Menggunakan prosedur pemeriksaan intern dan pengendalian akuntansi, memastikan validitas informasi, menetapkan usaha perlindungan yangcukup terhadap berbagai penyimpangan serta melakukan pemeriksaan operasional.

f. Melakukan pengembangan kepada orang ‘ orang yang ia pimpin serta berperan langsung dalam penambahan pengetahuan mengenai fungsi kontroler

g. Mengadakan manajemen kas, asuransi serta kegiatan ‘ kegiatan lainnya demi pengamanan kekayaan perusahaan.

Hubungan dengan Organisasi Lini

Kontroler juga memiliki hak untuk membuat kebijakan ‘ kebijakan dalam organisasi. Namun keputusan ‘ keputusan tersebut merupakan realisasi pelaksanaan kebijakan ‘ kebijakan yang telah dibuat oleh manajer lini. Dengan kata lain, terdapat keselarasan antara kedua belah pihak. Hal tersebut tentunya sangat baik untuk menjaga kelancaran jalannya organisasi tersebut.

Kontroler Divisi

Kebanyakan perusahaan atau organisasi membagi organisasinya tersebut menjadi beberapa divisi yang dikepalai oleh seorang manajer. Manajer divisi tentu juga memiliki kontroler divisi. Dalam hal ini, kontroler divisi harus patuh kepada manajer divisi dan juga kontroler perusahaan yang terkadang beda kepentingannya. Penilaian prestasi terhadap kontroler divisi dapat dilakukan dengan menilai beberapa poin, antara lain :

– Laporan akuntansi dan keuangan

– Pengetahuan mengenai operasi divisi

– Sasaran dan pelaksanaan kepatuhan terhadap kebijakan

– Kontribusi manajemen

– Pengetahuan terhadap akuntansi

– Kejujuran dan profesionalisme

– Kemauan bekerjasama

– Organisasi dan staf

– Inisiatif dan semangat

HUBUNGAN LINI-STAF

Seorang manajer divisi dapat dikatakan tidak memiliki staf maupun asisten pribadi. Manajer tersebut mendapatkan bantuan dari :

1. Tenaga yang ditugaskan untuk membantunya dari staf umum, insinyur serta petugas pembelian

2. Staf pusat yang dapat dimintai bantuan kapan saja sebanyak mungkin.

HUBUNGAN MANAJER DIVISI ‘ KONTROLER

Untuk mencapai kesuksesan organisasi dalam hubungannya dengan manajer divisi, maka organisasi perlu membina kerjasama yang baik dan solid di tiap ‘ tiap manajemen. Berikut merupakan beberapa factor yang dapat mempengaruhi hubungan baik adalah :

1. System akuntansi yang seragam dan terpusat

2. Sasaran ‘ saasaran keuangan yang telah ditetapkan sebelumnya untuk tiap ‘ tiap divisi.

(Pertumbuhan penjualan serta besar laba penjualan)

3. Pembagian laba antara kontroler dan manajer

SISTEM AKUNTANSI

Selain memiliki tanggung jawab dalam perencanaan dan pengoperasian organisasi, divisi kontroler juga memiliki kewenangan atas system akuntansi yang akan digunakan oleh organisasi tersebut termasuk di dalamnya menetapkan cara dan jenis pos ‘ pos yang harus mereka awasi. Sistem akuntansi dijadikan dasar dalam penyusunan laporan keuangan beserta analisisnya.

SASARAN ‘ SASARAN DIVISI

Seperti yang telah disebutkan pada bagian sebelumnya, perusahaan atau organisasi memiliki sasaran keuangan, yaitu pertumbuhan penjualan dan tingkat laba. Tingkat laba dalam organisasi atau perusahaan ditetapkan sebaga persentase penjualan. Berikut ini adalah beberapa factor penentu target laba penjualan :

1. Kemungkinan pematenan produk

2. Besar laba atas investasi yang diinginkan

3. Besar laba industry bersangkutan

4. Besar laba investasi bersangkutan

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Business notes: Creative problem solving cbest essay help

1 Unit 1 – Creative problem solving

1.1 Introduction

A business leader is expected to identify problems, implement solutions and find business opportunities. To do so, they must learn to plan, analyse situations, identify and solve problems (or potential problems), make decisions, and set realistic and attainable goals for the business/unit. These are the fundamental thinking/creative requirements for leadership, and these set direction to a successful future. Without this critical competence, you will have to rely on others to do your thinking for you, or you will simply have to learn to nurture your creative thinking skills which will help you on your journey towards successful business.

Creative thinking forms part of this continuous problem solving process, and is the fundamental basis for facilitating in the development of solutions, new initiatives, products or services. In an entrepreneurial context, the end result of this process should be directly linked to a feasible opportunity in the market environment.

Quote – What lies behind us and what lies before us, are tiny matters, compared to what lies within us. – William Morrow

The creative problem solving process consists of the following four steps:

‘ Problem analysis

‘ Solution analysis

‘ Decision analysis

‘ Solution implementation

1.2 The process

The creative problem solving process consists of an important core process, namely the idea generation process see figure 1. This is an important step, especially if you need to come up with creative ideas for products, services, and processes, to solve a consumer problem. The idea generation process consists of the following four steps:

‘ Step 1 – Generating ideas

‘ Step 2 – Developing ideas into a concept

‘ Step 3 – Converting a concept into a tangible or intangible product

‘ Step 4 – Finally protecting the tangible or intangible product

Figure 1 – The process of creative thinking (idea generation)

Initially you need to understand the problem and find the root cause of the problem. Many techniques are available to find the causes of problems, you can use the 5 Why technique in this case, if you are familiar with it. The more advanced courses will describe how to use the major problem identification techniques, but this course will focus on the idea generation process.

1.3 Where to start

In the entrepreneurial phase, the best way to start the idea generation process is when you are required to come up with a new product or service, to identify a potential consumer problem. Initially, focus on identifying problems in the area of your expertise (your knowledge base).

If you have no knowledge of the problem, the product development stage could be a challenge for you.

You will learn in the next section that not all problems are opportunities, and entrepreneurs should be careful as to how they approach this stage, when generating ideas in trying to identify a new product or service.

1.4 Problem versus opportunity

In most cases, the idea-generation phase in the creative problem solving process is neglected. Individuals normally identify a problem or an opportunity (which may seem like an opportunity, but is actually just an idea), and then develop a new product in line with the new assumed idea or opportunity. It is therefore important to distinguish between an idea and an opportunity. Resources may be wasted if a mere idea is incorrectly perceived as an opportunity.

Any opportunity is initially problem based (e.g. a coffee shop in a destination where there is a lack thereof, this creates several problem situations and potentially feasible opportunities for the entrepreneur). The creative thinking (idea generation process) involved, is the means to solving these problems, and bring forth solutions to the market problems, which create further opportunities.

1.4.1 Difference between problem and opportunity

There is, however, a critical difference between a problem and opportunity. Consider the following:

‘ Is it an idea or an opportunity to develop a high speed train between two major cities which are not far from each other? Some may say it is a great idea, but when you need to pay R200 a day to make use of it, it is simply not an opportunity. Only a few people would make use of the service, resulting in a negative impact on the market.

‘ If it is possible to transport people between the two cities for a lower cost, say R10, it would possibly be a more feasible opportunity.

Here is a good example of an opportunity – Around the turn of the twentieth century, a shoe manufacturer sent a representative to Africa, to open up a market in the undeveloped area in that continent. After exploring the culture for a month, the rep sent a telegram to the home office shouting,

‘Disaster! Disaster! These people do not wear shoes. Bring me home immediately!’

A short time later, another shoe company sent their agent to Africa for the same purpose. A month later his home office also received a telegram:

‘Opportunity! Opportunity! These people do not wear shoes! Triple production immediately!’

Quote – Every situation contains the potential for disastrous problems or unprecedented success. The event is what we perceive it to be. Unknown

Now the question arises: How do I distinguish between an idea and an opportunity? Looking at above examples, every problem is not an opportunity, and it really depends at how you are looking at the problem. If you see a viable opportunity in a problem then you are looking at the problem with a different perception than most people (the glass is half full or half empty). From a business perspective all opportunities are not necessarily a viable opportunity, the market determines the available opportunities. Without the knowledge to interpret the market conditions, you could miss it totally in terms of your opportunity analysis.

Table 1 shows the different industries in South Africa, the level of entrepreneurial activity, and how the same opportunity differs in each of these market areas.

1.4.2 The global entrepreneurship monitor

The Global Entrepreneurship Monitor ‘ specifically identified the entrepreneurial activity in the various industries of South Africa. It can be generalized to state that an industry with a high level of entrepreneurial activity, gives away more business opportunities (e.g. manufacturing, retail, hotel, restaurant and business services), while one with a lower level will indicate far less opportunities (e.g. agriculture, forestry, hunting, fishing, finance, insurance, real estate and health, education and social services).

If we analyse just one ‘high-opportunity’ industry, for instance manufacturing, it may be an opportunity today to manufacture a final product, and export it to an international market. A ‘low-opportunity’ industry, for instance insurance (especially in the market entry phase), may be negative as having an extremely high crime rate and insurance companies have to pay out claims at an alarming rate. It is also evident that low-opportunity industries may create feasible opportunities.

An entrepreneur should therefore be wary of following a fad, (latest trend) and exploiting assumed opportunities in a ‘popular’ industry.

Percentage of Entrepreneurs

ISIC Category Start-ups New Firms Total

Agriculture, forestry, hunting, fishing 1,3 2,6 1,6

Mining, construction 9,7 5,0 4,1

Manufacturing 14,3 19,1 13,8

Transport, communications, utilities 9,8 0,7 8,0

Wholesale, motor vehicle sales, repairs 6,0 6,5 6,3

Retail, hotel, restaurant 40,8 47,7 43,5

Finance, insurance, real estate 0,3 5,2 1,4

Business services 10,1 7,9 9,4

Health, education, social services 2,6 0,7 2,3

Consumer services 11,0 3,5 9,7

Source: Driver. Wood, Segal & Herrington, 2001

Table 1 – The percentage of entrepreneurs in the different industries in South-Africa

1.4.3 What is an opportunity?

What exactly is an opportunity and how does an entrepreneur exploit a feasible opportunity? According to Hesrich & Peters (2002), an opportunity is the process whereby the entrepreneur assesses whether a certain product, service or process, will yield the necessary earnings based on the resource inputs that are required to manufacture and market it.

The nature of opportunities needs to be assessed – thus, what leads to the existence of an opportunity? The following factors may result in an opportunity:

‘ General and specific problems faced by consumers

‘ Market shifts

‘ Government regulations

‘ Competition

There are two equally important criteria in the assessment of an opportunity. Firstly, the size of the market – will the number of customers reward the input and energy required, to create and deliver the product?

Secondly, the length in terms of the frame of the opportunity (window of opportunity). For example, is the demand for this product only a short fashionable phenomenon or is it based on sustainable business, or how long will it take before someone else (a competitor), to grab the opportunity?

These two aspects should also link directly to the personal skills and competence of the entrepreneur. For example, entrepreneurs with no skills or interest in information technology will not necessarily achieve their personal goals. They should rather venture into an opportunity which suits their experience and personality.

1.4.4 Transform opportunity into a business

Table 2 shows how the development of a business plan links to the identification and evaluation of opportunities, the determination of the resources required and the eventual management of the enterprise. All of these factors play a significant role in the correct assessment of the business opportunity.

This means that the business plan must explain in sufficient detail how the business will exploit the situation, to transform the opportunity, into solving a problem for the consumer, which generates extraordinary profits for the people involved.

Identify and evaluate the opportunity Develop the business plan Determine the resources needed Manage the enterprise

Creation and length of opportunity

Real and perceived value of opportunity

Risk and returns of opportunity

Opportunity versus skills and goals

Competitive situation Title page

Table of contents

Executive summary

Description of business

Description of industry

Marketing plan

Financial plan

Production plan

Organisational plan

Operational plan

Summary

Appendices Existing resources of the entrepreneur

Resource gap and available supplies

Access to needed resources Management style

Key variables for success

Identification of problems and potential problems

Implementation of control systems

Source: Hisrich, R.D. & Peters, M.P. 2002: 40. Entrepreneurship. Boston: Irwin/McGraw-Hill.

Table 2 – Link between Opportunity and business plan

1.5 Instruction

Exit and resume to your current page.

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The importance of employee engagement in an organization ccusa autobiographical essay help

1.4 Literature Review

Mark Kilsby and Stephen Beyer (1996) ‘ Engagement and Interaction : A comparison between supported employment and acts’. This research study was conducted with the help of interaction and commitment patterns of 13 supported employees and 38 regular adult training center attainders of the organization. Direct observation was used as method of data collection, within the 13 employment sites and a representative sample of ATC organized activities. Because of the higher level of task specific dialogue between individuals and the service of the organization it is found that there is more of social interaction in ACT. Interaction of employees with public within office hours was the cause for this as per the study conducted.

Douglas R. May, Richard L, Gilson and Lynn M . Harter (2004) ‘The Psychological Conditions Of Meaningfulness ,Safety And Availability And The Engagement Of The Human Spirit At Work’. This shows the study about a U.S western company which explored the determinants and mediated the effects of tree psychological conditions they are meaningful, safe and available. The above studies shoes that all the three factors (meaningfulness, safety and availability) have a positive relation with the engagement of an employee in the organization. In other words they are completely associated with the psychological safety where as loyalty to co worker norms and self- consciousness are negatively related.

Despoina Xanthopaolou, Arnold B, Bakker, Evangelia Demerouti and Wilmar B.Schaufeli (2009) ‘Work Engagement And Financial Returns : A Diary Study On The Role Of The Job And Personal Resources’. The above study shows that how daily fluctuations in job can affect the level of personal resource , financial returns and work engagement. Different level of analysis revealed that day level job resources had an effect on work engagement through the day level personal resources. When there was a control for the general level of personal resources and organizational engagement Day level work engagement showed a positive way towards day level training, which in turn showed the financial returns.

Dan-Shang Wang and Chia ‘Chun Hsieh (2013) ‘The Effect Of Authentic Leadership On Employee Trust And Employee Engagement’ they have examined the genuine leadership on employee engagement through employee trust. They have collected data from 386 employees from top 1000 manufacturing companies and top 500 service companies in Taiwan. Hierarchical multiple regression was used to test the hypothesis on the employees. Later on the results shows that the consistency between the supervisors , words and actions as well as their moral perceptions are optimistically related to employee engagement , when only supervisors are consist between the words and actions in positively related employment trust. The study shows how employee engagement had a positive trust on employee. Employee trust has a partial link between authentic leadership and employee engagement.

Benjamin J.C, Yuan and Michael B.H. Lin (2012) ‘Transforming Employee Engagement Into Long-Term Customer Relationships: Evidence From Information Technology Salespeople In Taiwan’. This article shows that when information sales people in Taiwan have perceived more transformational leadership and they were more expected to show increased development in work engagement. Over a period of time it was found that increased development in work engagement influenced the increased customer relationship. It showed how employee engagement is indirectly co related with customer relationship.

Xander M.Bezuijen, Karen Van Dam, Peter T . Van Den Berg and Henk Thierry (2010) ‘How Leaders Stimulate Employee Learning : A Leader ‘ Member Exchange Approach’. This study investigated how the three factors as such as leader member exchange, goal setting, and feedback are related to employee engagement in the learning activities. Here, two different mechanisms were proposed , first one a mediating mechanism telling that leader member exchange shows specific leader behavior. The second one is it as a moderating mechanism , holding that leader member exchange will strengthen the effect of leader behavior from 7 organizations a sample of 1112 employees was taken , to measure the leader member exchange approach. 233 of the direct leaders answered that they find difficulty in rating employee engagement in learning activities.

Maureen F.Dollard and Arnold B. Bakker (2010) ‘Psychosocial Safety Climate As A Precursor To Conducive Work Environment , Psychological Health Problems , And Employee Engagement’. This article shows the gap between work psychology and psychosocial working condition. Where we construct a psychosocial working condition PSC. It explains how PSC influences the senior management in psychological working conditions and in psychological health and engagement. They use the job demand and resources as a frame work and uses a multi level thinking into their explanation

James R.Jones (2009) ‘Comparative Effects On Race/Ethnicity And Employee Engagement On Withdrawal Behavior’. This study have added knowledge on the basis of effects on employee attachment. In addition to that it provides more evidence on looking at all types of employees as a single entity which can lead to false results.

Shane Crabb ( 2011) ‘The Use Of Coaching Principles To Foster Employee Engagement’. The above article focuses on the human condition that leads to the happiness of fulfillment and flourishing of employee engagement. Where positive psychology results in so many questions from traditional psychological approaches .Which have mean to focus on a different model of human functioning with healing people fail. In another way positive psychology takes additional holistic approach to human life. Seeing the positive and negative aspects of context when establishing what is right , working and good of people.

Roberta A . Neault and Deidre A .Pickerel (2011) ‘Career Engagement : Bridging Career Counseling And Employee engagement’ . this article is showing that employee counselors helps individuals in maximizing their career engagement at any career stage of an individual. When you facilitate career engagement it contributes to employee engagement which employee are looking for. They even encourages others to use the career engagement and employee engagement models as vehicles to combine the employers to interest in engagement counselors to create interest in supporting the development of employee an motivate them to work.

2.1 Title: A Cross Sectional Study Of Employee Engagement In Apollo Hospitals.

2.2 Objectives:

1. To determine the level of Employee Engagement in Apollo Hospitals.

2. To identify the factors of Employee Engagement.

3. To analyze and suggest strategies for improvement.

2.3 Research Methodology:

I had adopted descriptive research design for the purpose of this

Survey on employee engagement. The primary data was collected from the 100 employees conveniently selected from Apollo Hospitals Bangalore, through structured questionnaire.

2.4 Limitations:

1) The survey was carried out for a sample sized of 100 working staff only.

2) Findings and suggestion of this research are applicable only to Apollo Hospitals.

3) As an fact finding study advanced statistical tools or analysis are not used.

Table 1.1 Weighted Average on Opportunities for growth

X 1 2 3 4 5

I have adequate opportunities for professional growth in this organization. (X1) 10 20 32 19 19

I receive the training I need to do my job well.(X2) 2 52 22 16 08

My manager is actively interested in my professional development and advancement.(X3) 32 21 12 18 17

My manager encourages and supports my development (X4) 08 10 40 18 24

I am encouraged to learn from my mistakes (X5) 52 23 16 04 05

My work is challenging, stimulating, and rewarding(X6) 28 14 33 16 09

X1 ?? XI X2 ?? X2 X3 ?? X3 X4 ?? X4 X5 ?? X5 X6 ?? X6

10 50 2 10 32 160 08 40 52 260 28 140

20 80 52 208 21 84 10 40 23 92 14 56

32 96 22 66 12 36 40 120 16 48 33 99

19 38 16 32 18 36 18 36 04 08 16 32

19 19 08 08 17 17 24 24 05 05 09 09

TOTAL 283 TOTAL 324 TOTAL 333 TOTAL 260 TOTAL 413 TOTAL 336

Table 1.2 Calculation Of Weighted Average on Opportunities for growth

283/100 2.83 324/100 3.24 333/100 3.33 260/100 2.60 413/100 4.13 336/100 3.36

RANKED 6 RANKED 4 RANKED 3 RANKED 5 RANKED 1 RANKED 2

Table 1.3 Showing The Rank Of Each Component of Opportunities for growth

INFERENCE

The above table shows that the employees are encouraged to learn from their mistakes that is 4.15 out of 5.the work is stimulating rewarding and challenging is ranked 2nd.the manager is actively interested in employees professional growth is

ranked 3rd.the level of opportunity for professional growth shows the least ranking.

Table 1.4: Showing Adequate Opportunities/ Professional growth

STRONGLY AGREED AGREED NEUTRAL DISAGREE STRONGLY DISAGREE TOTAL

10 20 32 19 19 100

Chart 1.1: Showing Adequate Opportunities/ Professional growth

Interpretation:

32% of the employees from the given population says that they have a neutral opportunity to grow where as 10 % stands in the outstanding category and 20% of them in good category. An equal no of employees disagree to the fact in the other hand that is 19% of the given population.

STRONGLY AGREED AGREED NEUTRAL DISAGREE STRONGLY DISAGREE TOTAL

2 52 22 16 8 100

Table 1.5: Showing Training

Chart 1.2: Showing Training

Interpretation:

In the given sample 52% of the employees agrees to the fact that they receive good training in order to do their job efficiently and 2% strongly agrees. where 22 % is neutral to the situation given.16 % of them do not get proper training they required to do their jobs and 8 % strongly disagree to it. It is clear that the organization is giving a proper training to employees to make their work effective.

Table 1.6: Showing Professional Development And Advancement

STRONGLY AGREED AGREED NEUTRAL DISAGREE STRONGLY DISAGREE TOTAL

32 21 12 18 17 100

Chart 1.3: Showing Professional Development And Advancement

Interpretation:

Most of the employees agree that their manager takes attention in their professional development steps. 32 % to 25 of the employees from the given sample have strongly agreed and agreed to it respectively. whereas 12 % is neutral to it . but 18% to 17% disagrees and says that they are not taken care in respective of their advancement in profession.

Table 1.7: Showing Encouragement And Support

STRONGLY AGREED AGREED NEUTRAL DISAGREE STRONGLY DISAGREE TOTAL

8 10 40 18 24 100

Chart 1.4: Showing Encouragement And Support

Interpretation:

From the above graph its clear that 40% of the employees neither agree or disagree that management encourage them or support them. 8% to 10% agrees that they have been supported by the management . but 18 % to 24 % disagree to the fact that management supports them .

Table 1.8: Showing Challenges, Stimulation And Reward

STRONGLY AGREED AGREED NEUTRAL DISAGREE STRONGLY DISAGREE TOTAL

52 23 16 4 5 100

Chart 1.5: Showing Challenges, Stimulation And Reward

Interpretation:

More than half , 52% of the employees states that they have a challenging stimulating and rewarding work. A very few of them disagree to it 4 % to 5% . and 23 % of them agrees t it there is a majority of people agreeing to it.

Table 1.9: Showing Encouragement

STRONGLY AGREED AGREED NEUTRAL DISAGREE STRONGLY DISAGREE TOTAL

28 14 33 16 9 100

Chart 1.6: Showing Encouragement

Interpretation:

There is a 28% of people agreeing to it. And 16 % to 9 % disagreeing to the fact that they are not encouraged to learn from their mistakes .

Table 1.10: Showing Weighted Average on Work/Life Balance; Stress and Work Pace

X 1 2 3 4 5

My manager understands the benefits of maintaining a balance between work and personal life. (X1) 02 13 08 48 29

My job does not cause unreasonable amounts of stress in my life. (X2) 30 13 08 48 29

The amount of work I am asked to do is reasonable. (X3) 40 20 12 14 14

I am able to satisfy both my job and family/personal responsibilities. (X4) 27 12 08 09 44

X1 ?? X1 X2 ?? X2 X3 ?? X3 X4 ?? X4

02 10 30 150 40 200 27 135

13 52 13 52 20 80 12 48

08 24 08 24 12 48 08 24

48 96 48 96 14 28 09 18

29 29 29 29 14 14 44 44

TOTAL 211 TOTAL 351 TOTAL 370 TOTAL 269

Table 1.11: Showing Calculation Of Weighted Average on Work/Life Balance; Stress and Work Pace

Table 1.12: Showing The Rank Of Each Component of Work/Life Balance; Stress And Work Pace

211/100 2.11 351/100 3.51 370/100 3.7 269/100 2.69

RANKED 4 RANKED 1 RANKED 2 RANKED 3

INFERRENCE

By analysing the given data using weighted average method that the level of stress reduced in the employees is 3.51 out of 4 , and the amount of work the employee is asked to do is 3.7. the employee is able to balance between family and personal responsibility is 2.69 . the managers understanding in the benefits and maintaining balance between work and personal life should be taken care because it is got only 2.11 which have least rank

STRONGLY AGREED AGREED NEUTRAL DISAGREE STRONGLY DISAGREE TOTAL

2 13 8 48 29 100

Table 1.13: Showing Work/Life Balance; Stress And Work Pace Balance Between Work And Personal Life

Chart 1.7: Showing Work/Life Balance; Stress And Work Pace Balance Between Work And Personal Life

Interpretation:

Only 2% of the employees says that there is a balance between work life and personal life. 13% of them agrees to it and 8% is neutral to it.but 48% of the sample disagrees and 29 % of them strongly disagrees to it.

Table 1.14: Showing Stress Level In Employees Life

STRONGLY AGREED AGREED NEUTRAL DISAGREE STRONGLY DISAGREE TOTAL

30 13 8 48 29 100

Chart 1.8: Showing Stress Level In Employees Life

Interpretation:

30% of the employees strongly agrees that the job doesn’t cause much stress where 13% of them agrees and 8% is neutral to it. But 48%of them disagree nd 29% strongly disagrees and states that job causes stress in their life.

Table 1.15: Showing Amount Of Work Asked To Do

STRONGLY AGREED AGREED NEUTRAL DISAGREE STRONGLY DISAGREE TOTAL

40 20 12 14 14 100

Chart 1.9: Showing Amount Of Work Asked To Do

Interpretation:

40% of them strongly agrees that they have sufficient amount of work and they do not feel any stress where 20 % of them agrees. 12% of the sample is neutral.14% of them disagrees they don’t have suffient amount of work or they are overloaded with the work given.

Table 1.16: Showing Satisfying Family / Personal Responsibilities

STRONGLY AGREED AGREED NEUTRAL DISAGREE STRONGLY DISAGREE TOTAL

40 20 12 14 14 100

Chart 1.10: Showing Satisfying Family / Personal Responsibilities

Interpretation:

44% of them strongly disagree that they are not able to complete their job, family and personal responsibilities. 27 % to 12 % agrees to it and 8% is neutral to that. It shows that employees are not satisfied with the amount of work given to them.

Table 1.17: Showing Weighted Average on Personal Expression / Diversity

X 1 2 3 4 5

My ideas and opinions count at work. (X1) 03 18 19 32 28

I am comfortable sharing my opinions at work. (X2) 10 08 28 42 12

We work to attract, develop, and retain people with diverse backgrounds. (X3) 10 13 09 56 12

Senior management is genuinely interested in employee opinions and ideas. (X4) 24 23 36 07 10

People with different ideas are valued in this organization. (X5) 20 18 40 13 09

Table 1.18: Calculation Of Weighted Average on Personal Expression / Diversity

X1 ?? X1 X2 ?? X2 X3 ?? X3 X4 ?? X4 X5 ?? X5

3 15 10 50 10 50 24 120 20 100

18 72 08 32 13 52 23 92 18 72

19 57 28 84 09 27 36 108 40 120

32 64 42 84 56 112 07 14 13 26

28 26 12 12 12 12 10 10 09 09

TOTAL 234 TOTAL 262 TOTAL 253 TOTAL 344 TOTAL 327

234/100 2.34 262/100 2.62 253/100 2.53 344/100 3.44 327/100 3.27

RANKED 5 RANKED 3 RANKED 4 RANKED 1 RANKED 2

Table 1.19: Showing The Rank Of Each Component of Personal Expression / Diversity

INFERRENCE

By analysing the above table it shows that senior management is interested in personal opinions which shows the rank 1. And people with different ideas are valued in the organisation are considered 3.27 out of 5. Employees are free to share their ideas 2.62. the employees work in such a manner to attract and retain others 2.53 ,which has got the 4th rank. Ideas counted at work has got the least rank where they have to work on that part.

Table 1.20: Showing Idea And Opinion Count

STRONGLY AGREED AGREED NEUTRAL DISAGREE STRONGLY DISAGREE TOTAL

3 18 19 32 28 100

Chart 1.11: : Showing Idea And Opinion Count

Interpretation:

Only 3% of the employees agree that the management listens to their ideas and opinions. 18% of them agree to it as well. 19 % is neutral to the situation. Whereas there is a huge no of the sample size that is32% to 28% who is disagreeing to it. Their opinions and ideas are not taken seriously by the management.

Table 1.21: Showing Level Comfort in Sharing Opinions

STRONGLY AGREED AGREED NEUTRAL DISAGREE STRONGLY DISAGREE TOTAL

10 8 28 42 12 100

Chart 1.12 : Showing Level Comfort in Sharing Opinions

Interpretation:

The conducted shows that onl10% to 8% employees are comfortable in sharing their problems with the upper management. Rest of the sample that is 42% is disagreeing that they are not comfortable in sharing their ideas or problems.12% of them strongly disagrees.

Table 1.22: Showing The Work They Do Is To Attract , Develop And Retain

STRONGLY AGREED AGREED NEUTRAL DISAGREE STRONGLY DISAGREE TOTAL

10 13 9 56 12 100

Chart 1.13: Showing The Work They Do Is To Attract , Develop And Retain

Interpretation:

56% of the employees disagrees that they don’t work to attract ,develop or retain customers. Where 10% to 13% agrees to the statement . a little sample size of 12% strongly disagrees to the statement .

Table 1.23: Showing Senior Management Interest In Employee Opinion And Ideas

STRONGLY AGREED AGREED NEUTRAL DISAGREE STRONGLY DISAGREE TOTAL

24 23 26 7 10 100

Chart 1.14: Showing Senior Management Interest In Employee Opinion And Ideas

Interpretation

The management shows interest in taking employees ideas and opinions.24% of them agrees and 23% of the strongly agrees to the statement. A huge sample ,36% id neutral to the statement. But a little sample, 7% to 10% disagrees to the statement.

Table 1.24: Showing People With Different Ideas Are Valued

STRONGLY AGREED AGREED NEUTRAL DISAGREE STRONGLY DISAGREE TOTAL

20 18 40 13 9 100

Chart 1.15: Showing People With Different Ideas Are Valued

Interpretation:

20% to 18% of the employees agree that people with different ideas are well accepted in the organization. 40% to the employees are neutral to the statement. 13 % to 9% of the sample disagrees to the statement on the other hand.

Table 1.25: Showing Weighted Average On Compensation

X 1 2 3 4 5

I am paid fairly for the work I do. (X1) 19 42 12 25 2

My salary is competitive with similar jobs I might find elsewhere.(X2) 32 12 28 23 5

My benefits are comparable to those offered by other organizations.(X3) 8 29 28 32 3

I understand my benefit plan. (X4) 42 15 19 9 15

I am satisfied with my benefit package. (X5) 58 12 11 6 13

Table 1.26: Calculation Of Weighted Average On Compensation

X1 vX1 X2 ?? X2 X3 ?? X3 X4 ?? X4 X5 ?? X5

19 95 32 160 08 40 42 210 58 290

42 168 12 48 29 116 15 60 12 48

12 36 28 84 28 84 19 57 11 33

25 50 23 46 32 64 09 18 06 12

02 02 05 05 03 03 15 15 13 13

TOTAL 351 TOTAL 343 TOTAL 307 TOTAL 360 TOTAL 396

Table 1.27: Showing The Rank Of Each Component Of Compensation

351/100 3.51 343/100 3.43 307/100 3.07 360/100 3.60 396/100 3.96

RANKED 3 RANKED 4 RANKED 5 RANKED 2 RANKED 1

INFERENCES

The above table shows that the employees are satisfied with the benefit package they are given 3.96 out of 5.the employees understand their plan is 3.60. the fair pay is ranked 3rd.the employees salary is competitive with others is ranked 4th. The salary is not comparable with salary with others which has been ranked the least, rank 5.

Table 1.28: showing Fair Pay

STRONGLY AGREED AGREED NEUTRAL DISAGREE STRONGLY DISAGREE TOTAL

19 42 12 25 2 100

Chart 1.16: Showing Fair Pay

Interpretation:

19% to 42% of the Employees agree that they are paid fairly according to the amount of work they do. But 25% to 2% of the sample size disagrees to the statement. And 12% is neutral to it.

Table 1.29: Showing Salary Competitiveness

STRONGLY AGREED AGREED NEUTRAL DISAGREE STRONGLY DISAGREE TOTAL

32 12 28 23 5 100

Chart 1.17: Showing Salary Competitiveness

Interpretation:

32% of the employees agrees that they get a competitive salary when compared to other organizations with same designation. 12% of them strongly agrees to it .28% of them are neutral to the statement. 23% to 5% is disagrees to the statement in the other hand.

Table 1.30: Showing Comparability Of Benefits

STRONGLY AGREED AGREED NEUTRAL DISAGREE STRONGLY DISAGREE TOTAL

8 29 28 32 3 100

Chart 1.18: Showing Comparability Of Benefits

Interpretation:

There is balance, 29% of the employees agrees and 32 % of them strongly disagrees that they have a comparable benefits.28% of them are neutral in the other hand.

Table 1.31: Showing Understanding Of Benefit Plan

STRONGLY AGREED AGREED NEUTRAL DISAGREE STRONGLY DISAGREE TOTAL

42 15 19 9 15 100

Chart 1.19: Showing Understanding Of Benefit Plan

Interpretation:

42% of the employees agrees that they understand their benefit plan. 15% strongly agrees ,where 19% is neutral.9% to 15% disagrees to the fact and says they don’t understand the benefit plans they are given.

Table 1.32: Showing Satisfaction With Benefit Package

STRONGLY AGREED AGREED NEUTRAL DISAGREE STRONGLY DISAGREE TOTAL

58 12 11 6 13 100

Chart 1.20: Showing Satisfaction With Benefit Package

Interpretation:

58% of them are satisfied with their benefit package. 12% strongly agrees. Whereas little sample of 6% to 13% disagrees to the statement. Or they are not happy with their benefit package.11% is neutral to it.

Summary of Findings

‘ Most of the employee’s ability state the opinion firmly and positively is better than acceptable standards.

‘ Majority of the employee’s ability in exercising the professional duties without assistance is better than acceptable standard.

‘ The Emotional Stamina of the majority of the employees is better than acceptable standard.

‘ Majority of the Employee’s Ability to work co-operatively and collaboratively to achieve common goal is better than acceptable.

‘ Majority of the employees Ability to effectively guide a group through an appropriate process to help to achieve their desired outcomes is better than acceptable standard.

‘ Majority of the employee’s ability to clarify and establish with a group roles and responsibilities, common goal and plan to achieve them and group behavioural is outstanding.

‘ Majority of the employees Ability to deal with multiple issues and details, alertness and learning capacity is better than acceptable standard.

‘ Majority of the employee’s ability to see and think beyond the obvious and formulate original solution is better than acceptable standards.

‘ Majority of the employee’s ability to present ideas, concept, plan and procedure clearly to the target group is better than acceptable standard.

‘ Concern for excellence of the majority of the employee’s is better than acceptable standard.

‘ Majority of the employee’s Aware of what is going on in the workplace and responds in a suitable manner to situations as they is better than acceptable.

‘ The understanding between the top level and employees are in good terms.

‘ Employees do understand their benefits and opportunities given by the organisation.

‘ The employees are paid fairly according to the work done.

‘ Freedom of sharing new ideas and opinions are welcomed in the organisation.

‘ The employees are able to make a balance between personnel and work life. which reduces the amount of stress in them.

‘ The organisation encourages the employee to learn from their mistakes.

‘ Recommendations

‘ In this organization employee engagement study must be regularly done in order to check the level of employee effectiveness.

‘ Since many of the employees are performing different jobs to what they were doing at the time of their joining they need training to perform the new work allotted them.

‘ Different sources of employee engagement tactics must be encouraged in employees.

‘ The top management should support the lower level employees since it is considered a major hurdle in effective employee engagement and the employees must also be made aware of importance of engagement at work system

‘ The employees should be then and there motivated for work.

‘ The understanding between management and employees should be increased.

‘ Level of stress in work should be reduced.

‘ Better benefit package should be given to the employees.

Conclusion

In the report we have discussed the importance of employee engagement in an organization and how it affects the efficiency of work and productivity. Employment counselors should help individuals to maximize their career engagement at any stage of their career. Basically employee engagement should be a buzz word for the employee engagement and a positive attitude held by the employees towards the organization. Employee engagement is gaining its importance and popularity in work places and its impact in many ways. It emphasis on the importance of employee engagement in a organization, an organization should thus give more importance for its employees than any other variable as they are the powerful contributors to a company’s competitiveness. Thus it shows that employee engagement should be a continues process for learning, improvement, measurement and action of an employee.

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The limitations of the Chit Acts summary and response essay help

1.1 BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY

The financial system assumes strategically a very important role in channelling the funds from surplus units to deficit units. The financial system here refers to the group of institutions, markets and instruments which helps in formation of capital and thus accelerates to the pace of economic development.

The base of this study stems from the fact that there exists a gap between gross capital formation and gross domestic savings in India. So, there exists the need to augment the growth rate of voluntary domestic savings. This goal can be realized by widening and strengthening the working of different financial intermediaries which will result in mobilizing savings from various income level categories. .It is in this context that the role of the Non-Banking Financial Intermediaries like Chit Finance should be appreciated in supplementing the functions of the Banking Institutions.

Chit funds are Chit funds are the Indian equivalent of the Rotating Savings and Credit Associations (ROSCA). ROSCAs are famous in many parts of the world and is seen as an instrument to ‘save and borrow’ simultaneously. ROSCAs basically started as a way to help in fulfilling the needs of the low-income households as it enables the people to convert their small savings into lump sums. The concept of chit funds originated more than 1000 years ago. Initially it was in the form of an informal association of traders and households within communities, wherein the members contributed some money in return for an accumulated sum at the end of the tenure. Participation in Chit funds was mainly for the purpose of purchasing some property or, in other words, for ‘consumption’ purposes. However, in recent times, there have been tremendous alterations in the constitution and functioning of Chit funds. A significant difference between Chit Funds and ROSCAs are that in most places ROSCAs are user-owned and organized informally, but chit funds have been formally institutionalized in India. (Chit Funds-An innovative access to finance for low income households, 2009)

1.1.1 WHAT DO WE MEAN BY CHIT FUNDS?

Chit fund is a savings-cum-borrowing instrument. The basic aim of this instrument is to pool small amount of savings by all the members which is then managed by a foreman. The foreman has the responsibility to act as a trustee-cum-supervisors for the process of collection and allotment of the pooled amount.

Chit funds represent a traditional form of saving-cum-credit institution evolved before the bank system was introduced in rural India. There are many who avail themselves of this avenue for saving for a reasonable return.

1.1 NEED AND RATIONALE OF THE STUDY

Despite the growth of a wide range of savings avenues and the widespread network of banks and other financial institutions, it has been found that Chit scheme still forms an important part in the asset portfolio of many households and firms in India and especially in South India including Karnataka. Also, the review of literature shows that there are only a few studies on Chit Finance. Therefore, the need to conduct the study stems from the requirement to understand Chit Funds in Bangalore.

1.2 NEED TO CONDUCT THE STUDY

The research titled ‘A Study on Chit Funds in Bangalore to understand the behaviour and financial needs of the chit fund members as well as to identify the important predictors of regular participation in chit funds’ The study estimates the net returns and interest rate on Chit funds. This study tries to point out the limitations of the Chit Acts and suggests feasible recommendations for improving the working of such institutions.

.3.2 STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM

‘A Study on Chit Funds in Bangalore to understand the behaviour and financial needs of the chit fund members as well as to identify the important predictors of regular participation in chit funds’.

VARIABLES UNDER INVESTIGATION

1. Age

2. Occupation

3. Monthly income

4. Gender

5. Bank loan

6. Regular participation in chit fund

7. Membership in multiple chit schemes

8. Cause for participating in multiple schemes

9. Preferred avenue of saving

10. Preferred source of finance

11. Safety

12. Better service

13. Flexibility

14. Timely Payment

15. Low commission

16. Personal contact

17. Unregistered chit funds membership

18. Cause for participating in unregistered chit funds

19. Cause for not participating in unregistered chit fund

3.5 OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDY

3.5.1 OBJECTIVE(PRIMARY)

1. To understand the behaviour and financial needs of the chit fund members.

2. To identify the important predictors behind chit fund participation

3.5.2 OHER OBJECTIVES OF RESEARCH

1. To estimate interest rates in registered chit funds.

2. To compare the relative ratings of Chit subscribers towards registered and unregistered chit funds on

3. To estimate the return on Chit Funds.

3.6 HYPOTHESIS

There are two types of statistical hypotheses.

1. Null hypothesis

2. Alternative hypothesis.

Hypothesis 1:

H0: There is no significant relation between gender and cause for participation in chit fund.

H1: There is significant relation between gender and cause for participation in chit fund.

Hypothesis 2:

H0: There is no significant relation between occupation and cause for participation in chit fund.

H1: There is significant relation between occupation and cause for participation in chit fund.

Hypothesis 3:

H0: There is no significant relation between age and causes for participation in chit fund

H1: There is significant relation between age and cause for participation in chit fund

Hypothesis 4:

H0: There is no significant relation between monthly income and cause for participation in chit fund

H1: There is significant relation between monthly income and cause for participation in chit fund

Hypothesis 5:

H0: There is no significant relation between gender and causes for bidding in chit fund

H1: There is significant relation between gender and cause for bidding in chit fund

Hypothesis 6:

H0: There is no significant relation between occupation and cause for bidding in chit fund

H1: There is significant relation between occupation and cause for bidding in chit fund

Hypothesis 7:

H0: There is no significant relation between age and cause for bidding in chit fund

H1: There is significant relation between age and cause for bidding in chit fund

Hypothesis 8:

H0: There is no significant relation between monthly income and cause for bidding in chit fund

H1: There is significant relation between monthly income and cause for bidding in chit fund

Hypothesis 9:

H0: There is no significant relation between gender and cause for saving in chit fund

H1: There is significant relation between gender and cause for saving in chit fund

Hypothesis 10:

H0: There is no significant relation between occupation and cause for saving in chit fund.

H1: There is significant relation between occupation and cause for saving in chit fund.

Hypothesis 11:

H0: There is no significant relation between age and cause for saving in chit fund

H1: There is significant relation between age and cause for saving in chit fund

Hypothesis 12:

H0: There is no significant relation between having bank loan and membership in multiple chit schemes.

H1: There is significant relation between having bank loan and membership in multiple chit schemes.

Hypothesis 13:

H0: There is no significant relation between monthly income and participation in unregistered chit funds

H1: There is significant relation between monthly income and participation in unregistered chit funds

Hypothesis 14 :

H0: There is no significant relation between causes to prefer chit fund over bank and having bank loan.

H1: There is significant relation between causes to prefer chit fund over bank and having bank loan.

Hypothesis 15:

H0: Presence of safety, flexibility, timely payment, low commission, better service, personal contact, having a bank loan are no significant predictors of regular participation in chit fund.

H1: Presence of safety, flexibility, timely payment, low commission, better service, personal contact ,having a bank loan,are significant predictors of regular participation in chit fund.

.

3.8 SAMPLING METHOD

Members of four registered chit fund companies in Bangalore. The four registered chit fund companies were selected due to the large size of their subscriber base.

3.8.3 SIZE OF SAMPLE

150 respondents

3.9 MECHANISM OF STUDY

3.9.1 PRIMARY RESEARCH

Questions relating to behaviour and financial pattern will be found out through questionnares

3.9.2 SECONDARY RESEARCH

‘ Reports on chit fund industry

OVERVIEW OF INDIAN CHIT FUND INDUSTRY

4.1.1 NUMBER OF REGISTERED CHIT FUND COMPANIES:

According to the Ministry of Corporate Affairs, as on 31st December, 2013:

Volume of registered chit companies: 5412

Volume of chit companies in Karnataka: 703

Number of chit fund companies in Bangalore: 315

UNREGISTERED CHIT FUND INDUSTRY

Although unregistered chits are an informal source of finance but still they are a significant part of the chit fund industry. Though they are more easily accessible as compared to registered chit funds.

4.3 PURPOSE OF THE STUDY

The study titled ‘A Study on Chit Funds in Bangalore to understand the behaviour and financial needs of the chit fund members as well as to identify the important predictors of regular participation in chit funds’ attempt in The study estimates the net returns and interest rate on Chit funds. This study also examines the limitations of the Chit Acts and suggests suitable recommendations for improving the functioning of such institutions.

4.4 LIMITATION OF STUDY

‘ Unwillingness of the members to share their income and financial details made the task of data collection somewhat difficult.

‘ Collecting data became difficult since I don’t know the regional languages.

5.2 ANALYSIS OF DATA

The analysis is done on the primary data collected from 150 chit funds members in Bangalore

TESTING OF HYPOTHESES

5.4.1 Hypothesis 1:

H0: There is no significant relation between gender and cause for participation in chit fund.

H1: There is significant relation between gender and cause for participation in chit fund.

Chi-Square Tests

Value df Asymp. Sig. (2-sided)

Pearson Chi-Square 31.070a 16 .013

Likelihood Ratio 35.945 16 .003

Linear-by-Linear Association 8.809 1 .003

N of Valid Cases 150

a. 1 cells (10.0%) have expected count less than 5. The minimum expected count is .30.

Symmetric Measures

Value Approx. Sig.

Nominal by Nominal Phi .455 .013

Cramer’s V .228 .013

N of Valid Cases 150

a. Not assuming the null hypothesis.

b. Using the asymptotic standard error assuming the null hypothesis.

INTERPRETATION:

The value of chi-square=31.070 was p=.013, less than 0.05.

We can see that the strength of association between the variables is moderate (Phi and Cramer’s V -0.455).

Therefore, the research hypothesis that differences in ’cause to participate in chit funds’ are related to differences in ‘age” is supported by this analysis. This means that different age groups of the chit fund members have different reasons of participating in chit funds. As can be seen from the table above that those who belong to ’36-45 years’ have saving as the predominant reason to participate whereas members of other age groups do not have any dominant reason to participate.

5.4.2 Hypothesis 2:

Hypothesis 2:

H0: There is no significant relation between occupation and cause for participation in chit fund.

H1: There is significant relation between occupation and cause for participation in chit fund.

Hypothesis 3:

. Hypothesis 3:

H0: There is no significant relation between age and causes for participation in chit fund

H1: There is significant relation between age and cause for participation in chit fund

Chi-Square Tests

Value df Asymp. Sig. (2-sided)

Pearson Chi-Square 10.018a 4 .040

Likelihood Ratio 10.478 4 .033

Linear-by-Linear Association 6.876 1 .009

N of Valid Cases 150

Symmetric Measures

Value Approx. Sig.

Nominal by Nominal Phi .258 .040

Cramer’s V .258 .040

N of Valid Cases 150

a. Not assuming the null hypothesis.

a. Using the asymptotic standard error assuming the null hypothesis.

INTERPRETATION:

The value of chi-square=10.018 was p=.040, less than 0.05.

.We can see that the strength of association between the variables is weak (0.258)

Therefore, the research hypothesis that differences in ’cause to participate in chit funds’ are related to differences in ‘gender” is supported by this analysis. This means that males and females have different reasons of participating in chit funds. As it can be seen that males participate in chit funds for business and personal consumption purposes apart from saving whereas women predominantly participate to save.

5.4

Hypothesis 4:

H0: There is no significant relation between monthly income and cause for participation in chit fund

H1: There is significant relation between monthly income and cause for participation in chit fund

Chi-Square Tests

Value df Asymp. Sig. (2-sided)

Pearson Chi-Square 82.176a 12 .000

Likelihood Ratio 97.665 12 .000

Linear-by-Linear Association 15.696 1 .000

N of Valid Cases 150

Symmetric Measures

Value Approx. Sig.

Nominal by Nominal Phi .740 .000

Cramer’s V .427 .000

N of Valid Cases 150

INTERPRETATION:

We can see that the strength of association between the variables is strong (0.740)

Therefore, the research hypothesis that differences in ‘reason to participate in chit funds’ are related to differences in ‘occupation” is supported by this analysis. It can be seen that the self-employed members mainly participate to avail for business reasons whereas salaried employee participate mainly for personal consumption purposes.

Hypothesis 5:

Hypothesis 5:

H0: There is no significant relation between gender and causes for bidding in chit fund

H1: There is significant relation between gender and cause for bidding in chit fund

Chi-Square Tests

Value df Asymp. Sig. (2-sided)

Pearson Chi-Square 66.691a 20 .000

Likelihood Ratio 43.579 20 .002

Linear-by-Linear Association 4.804 1 .028

N of Valid Cases 150

a. 1 cell (10.0%) has expected count less than 5. The minimum expected count is .07.

Symmetric Measures

Value Approx. Sig.

Nominal by Nominal Phi .667 .000

Cramer’s V .333 .000

N of Valid Cases 150

a. Not assuming the null hypothesis.

b. Using the asymptotic standard error assuming the null hypothesis.

INTERPRETATION:

The (chi-square=66.691) was p=.000, less than 0.05.

We can see that the strength of association between the variables is moderately strong (0.667)

Therefore, the research hypothesis that differences in ’cause to bid in chit funds’ are related to differences in ‘age” is supported by this analysis. It can be seen that the members of age group’36-45 years’ are more interested in bidding for business related purposes where members of other age groups bid mainly for emergency needs.

5.4.6 Hypothesis 6:

. Hypothesis 6:

H0: There is no significant relation between occupation and cause for bidding in chit fund

H1: There is significant relation between occupation and cause for bidding in chit fund

Chi-Square Tests

Value df Asymp. Sig. (2-sided)

Pearson Chi-Square 7.167a 5 .209

Likelihood Ratio 7.885 5 .163

Linear-by-Linear Association 1.120 1 .290

N of Valid Cases 150

a. 5 cells (41.7%) have expected count less than 5. The minimum expected count is .81.

Symmetric Measures

Value Approx. Sig.

Nominal by Nominal Phi .219 .209

Cramer’s V .219 .209

N of Valid Cases 150

a. Not assuming the null hypothesis.

b. Using the asymptotic standard error assuming the null hypothesis.

INTERPRETATION:

The probability of the chi-square test statistic (chi-square=7.167) was p=.209, more than the alpha level of significance of 0.05.

Therefore, the research hypothesis that differences in ‘reason to bid in chit funds’ are related to differences in ‘gender” is not supported by this analysis.

5.4.7 Hypothesis 7:

Hypothesis 7:

H0: There is no significant relation between age and cause for bidding in chit fund

H1: There is significant relation between age and cause for bidding in chit fund

Chi-Square Tests

Value df Asymp. Sig. (2-sided)

Pearson Chi-Square 180.915a 15 .000

Likelihood Ratio 160.460 15 .000

Linear-by-Linear Association 28.379 1 .000

N of Valid Cases 150

a. 1 cell (10.0%) has expected count less than 5. The minimum expected count is .13.

Symmetric Measures

Value Approx. Sig.

Nominal by Nominal Phi 1.098 .000

Cramer’s V .634 .000

N of Valid Cases 150

INTERPRETATION:

The (chi-square=180.915) was p=.000, less than 0.05.

We can see that the strength of association between the variables is extremely strong (1.098)

Therefore, the research hypothesis that differences in’ are related to differences in ‘occupation” is supported by this analysis. It can be clearly seen that self-employed people bid in chit scheme mostly for business purposes, salaried people for emergency needs and housewives for household purposes.

5.4.8 Hypothesis 8:

Hypothesis 8:

H0: There is no significant relation between monthly income and cause for bidding in chit fund

H1: There is significant relation between monthly income and cause for bidding in chit fund

Chi-Square Tests

Value df Asymp. Sig. (2-sided)

Pearson Chi-Square 123.331a 35 .000

Likelihood Ratio 106.298 35 .000

Linear-by-Linear Association 4.957 1 .026

N of Valid Cases 150

INTERPRETATION:

The probability of the chi-square test statistic (chi-square=123.331) was p=.000, less than the alpha level of significance of 0.05.

We can see that the strength of association between the variables is extremely strong (.907)

Therefore, the research hypothesis that differences in ‘reason to bid in chit funds’ are related to differences in ‘income” is supported by this analysis. It can be clearly seen that low income members bid mostly for consumption reasons whereas higher income members bid for business related and emergency purposes.

SUMMARY:

Reason to bid in chit fund has the strongest association with the occupation of the chit fund members as the probability of the chi-square test statistic (chi-square=180.915) was p=.000 and the strength of association between the variables is extremely strong (1.098).

5.4.

Hypothesis 9:

H0: There is no significant relation between gender and cause for saving in chit fund

H1: There is significant relation between gender and cause for saving in chit fund

Chi-Square Tests

Value df Asymp. Sig. (2-sided)

Pearson Chi-Square 21.702a 16 .153

Likelihood Ratio 23.775 16 .095

Linear-by-Linear Association 2.397 1 .122

N of Valid Cases 150

INTERPRETATION:

The chi-square=123.331) was p=.153, more than 0.05. Therefore, the research hypothesis that differences in ’cause to save in chit funds’ are related to differences in ‘age” is not supported by this analysis.

5.4.10 Hypothesis 10:

H0: There is no significant relation between occupation and cause for saving in chit fund.

H1: There is significant relation between occupation and cause for saving in chit fund.

Chi-Square Tests

Value df Asymp. Sig. (2-sided)

Pearson Chi-Square 20.510a 4 .000

Likelihood Ratio 29.038 4 .000

Linear-by-Linear Association 7.062 1 .008

N of Valid Cases 150

a. 1 cell (10.0%) has expected count less than 5. The minimum expected count is .81.

Symmetric Measures

Value Approx. Sig.

Nominal by Nominal Phi .370 .000

Cramer’s V .370 .000

N of Valid Cases 150

a. Not assuming the null hypothesis.

b. Using the asymptotic standard error assuming the null hypothesis.

INTERPRETATION:

The chi-square=20.510) was p=.000, less than 0.05.

We can see that the strength of association between the variables is weak (.370).Therefore, the research hypothesis that differences in ’cause to save in chit funds’ are related to differences in ‘gender” is supported by this analysis.

5.4.11 Hypothesis 11:

Hypothesis 11:

H0: There is no significant relation between age and cause for saving in chit fund

H1: There is significant relation between age and cause for saving in chit fund

Chi-Square Tests

Value df Asymp. Sig. (2-sided)

Pearson Chi-Square 67.261a 12 .000

Likelihood Ratio 60.380 12 .000

Linear-by-Linear Association 9.507 1 .002

N of Valid Cases 150

a. 1 cell (10.0%) has expected count less than 5. The minimum expected count is .13.

Symmetric Measures

Value Approx. Sig.

Nominal by Nominal Phi .670 .000

Cramer’s V .387 .000

N of Valid Cases 150

INTERPRETATION:

The chi-square=67.261 was p=.000, less than 0.05.

We can see that the strength of association between the variables is moderately strong(.670).Therefore, the research hypothesis that differences in ‘reason to cause in chit funds’ are related to differences in ‘occupation” is supported by this analysis. Salaried people save their money in chit fund with no particular purpose. But self-employed people are equally interested in saving for house purchase as well as for general purpose.

SUMMARY:

chit fund is most closely associated with occupation of the chit fund members as it has the highest value of chi-square statistic and Phi coefficient.

5.4.12 Hypothesis 12:

Hypothesis 12:

H0: There is no significant relation between having bank loan and membership in multiple chit schemes.

H1: There is significant relation between having bank loan and membership in multiple chit schemes.

Chi-Square Tests

Value df Asymp. Sig. (2-sided)

Pearson Chi-Square 56.697a 3 .000

Likelihood Ratio 67.900 3 .000

Linear-by-Linear Association 36.400 1 .000

N of Valid Cases 150

INTERPRETATION:

The probability of the chi-square test statistic (chi-square=56.697) was p=.000, less than the alpha level of significance of 0.05.

We can see that the strength of association between the variables is strong (.615).

Therefore, the research hypothesis that differences in ‘membership in multiple chit schemes are related to differences in ‘having currently bank loan” is supported by this analysis. It is clearly evident that those members currently having bank loan have invested in only one chit scheme whereas those members who do not have availed bank loan have invested in more than one chit schemes.

5.4.13 Hypothesis 13:

Hypothesis 13:

H0: There is no significant relation between monthly income and participation in unregistered chit funds

H1: There is significant relation between monthly income and participation in unregistered chit funds

.

Chi-Square Tests

Value df Asymp. Sig. (2-sided)

Pearson Chi-Square 96.660a 7 .000

Likelihood Ratio 85.378 7 .000

Linear-by-Linear Association 59.577 1 .000

N of Valid Cases 150

a. 1 cell(10.0%) has expected count less than 5. The minimum expected count is 1.08.

INTERPRETATION:

The chi-square=96.660 was p=.000, less than 0.05.

We can see that the strength of association between the variables is extremely strong (.803).

Therefore, the research hypothesis that differences in ‘participation in unregistered chit funds’ are related to differences in ‘income” is supported by this analysis. It is clearly evident that mostly low- income members have participated in unregistered funds. This is because the registered funds have become expensive due to the increase in their operational cost as a result of stringent regulations.

5.2.14 Hypothesis 14 :

H0: There is no significant relation between causes to prefer chit fund over bank and having bank loan.

H1: There is significant relation between causes to prefer chit fund over bank and having bank loan

Chi-Square Tests

Value df Asymp. Sig. (2-sided)

Pearson Chi-Square 28.049a 5 .000

Likelihood Ratio 31.806 5 .000

Linear-by-Linear Association 2.967 1 .085

N of Valid Cases 150

a. 2 cells (15.0%) have expected count less than 5. The minimum expected count is 1.79.

Symmetric Measures

Value Approx. Sig.

Nominal by Nominal Phi .432 .000

Cramer’s V .432 .000

N of Valid Cases 150

INTERPRETATION:

The probability of the chi-square test statistic (chi-square=28.049) was p=.000, less than the alpha level of significance of 0.05.

We can see that the strength of association between the variables is moderate (.432).

Therefore, the research hypothesis that differences in ’cause to prefer chit fund over bank’ are related to differences in ‘having bank loan” is supported by this analysis. It is clearly evident that members who have bank loan have preferred chit fund over bank mainly due to better dividends. But those who do not have bank loan prefer chit fund over bank mainly due to better service in terms of more personalized service.)

5.2..15 Hypothesis 15: To identify significant predictors of regular participation in chit funds using Binary Logistic Regression

Hypothesis 15:

H0: Presence of safety, flexibility, timely payment, low commission, better service, personal contact, having a bank loan are no significant predictors of regular participation in chit fund.

H1: Presence of safety, flexibility, timely payment, low commission, better service, personal contact ,having a bank loan,are significant predictors of regular participation in chit fund.

Variables in the Equation

B S.E. Wald df Sig. Exp(B)

Step 0 Constant -1.046 .186 31.574 1 .000 .351

Model Summary

Step -2 Log likelihood Cox & Snell R Square Nagelkerke R Square

1 37.170a .533 .576

a. Estimation terminated at iteration number 6 because parameter estimates changed by less than .001.

Variables in the Equation

B S.E. Wald df Sig. Exp(B)

Step 1a bank_loan(1) 1.068 1.265 14.715 1 .000 11.720

reason_2 2.286 4 .683

reason_2(1) 1.336 1.077 1.540 1 .215 3.805

reason_2(2) .134 2.239 .004 1 .952 1.143

reason_2(3) -.559 1.896 .087 1 .768 .572

reason_2(4) .731 1.347 .294 1 .588 2.076

reason_3 4.874 5 .431

reason_3(1) 1.188 .924 1.652 1 .199 3.279

reason_3(2) 1.661 2.048 .658 1 .417 5.263

reason_3(3) -1.654 1.228 1.813 1 .178 .191

reason_3(4) .404 1.192 .115 1 .735 1.497

reason_3(5) -17.379 20.722 .000 1 .700 .000

reason_4 .355 4 .986

reason_4(1) -1.047 1.850 .320 1 .571 .351

reason_4(2) -.839 1.979 .180 1 .672 .432

reason_4(3) -.932 1.637 .324 1 .569 .394

reason_4(4) 3.519 4.199 .000 1 .600 3.746

reason_5 8.553 5 .128

reason_5(1) -.254 1.768 .021 1 .886 .776

reason_5(2) -19.245 9.890 .000 1 .999 .000

reason_5(3) 1.420 1.338 1.126 1 .289 4.136

reason_5(4) -.747 1.306 .327 1 .567 .474

reason_5(5) .561 1.342 .174 1 .676 1.752

B S.E. Wald df Sig. Exp(B)

Step 1a Safety -.075 .320 4.377 1 .011 0.928

Flexi -.178 .426 3.337 1 .021 0.837

commision -.185 .188 1.868 1 .026 0.831

payment -.267 .178 1.657 1 .097 0.766

service -.859 .412 1.348 1 .083 0.424

personal -1.122 .163 .996 1 .079 0.329

Constant 3.058 2.440 1.571 1 .010 21.291

a. Variable(s) entered on step 1: : bank_loan, reason_2, reason_3, reason_4, reason_5.imp1, imp2, imp3, imp4, imp5, imp6.

INTERPRETATION:

‘ -2 Log Likelihood statistic is 37.170. This statistic how poorly the model predicts the decisions — the smaller the statistic the better the model. Since, 37.170 is a relatively small number therefore, this model is able to predict the decisions in a better way.

‘ Here Cox & Snell R Square statistic indicates that 53.3% of the variation in the regular participation in chit funds is explained by the logistic model.

‘ In our case Nagelkerke R Square is 0.576, indicating a moderate relationship of 57.6 % between the predictors and the prediction.

‘ If it is less than .05 then, we will reject the null hypothesis and accept the alternative hypothesis.

‘ In this case, we can see that bank loan, safety, flexibility and low commission have contributed signi’cantly to the prediction of regular participation in chit funds but other variables are not significant predictors of regular participation in chit funds.

‘ Since only bank loan has p=.000, therefore we can say that bank loan is the most significant predictor

among other significant predictors. This is followed by safety (p=.011), flexibility (p=.021) and low commission (p=.026).

‘ Here, the EXP (B) bank loan is 11.727. Hence when bank loan is availed by one unit (one person) the odds ratio is 11 times as large and therefore people are 11 more times likely not to regularly participate in chit funds.

‘ Here, the EXP (B) with safety is .928. Hence when safety is increased by one percent the odds ratio is .928 times as large and therefore people are .928 more times likely to regularly participate in chit funds.

‘ Here, the EXP (B) flexibility is 837. Hence when flexibility is increased by one percent the odds ratio is .928 times as large and therefore people are .837 more times likely to regularly participate in chit funds.

‘ Here, the EXP (B) low commission is .831. Hence when flexibility is increased by one percent the odds ratio is .928 times as large and therefore people are .831 more times likely to regularly participate in chit funds.

SUMMARY

Bank loan is the most significant predictor of regular participation in chit funds. This is followed by safety, flexibility and low commission.

Instalment no No of months remaining Monthly subscription Prize amount PV of monthly subscription(PV of outlow at 10%) PV of Prize amount(PV of inflow at 10%) Net Present Value(PV of inflow – PV of outflow)

1 24 2000 50000 2000 50000 10444.9

2 23 1500 35000 1488.1 34723.1 -4832.0

3 22 1500 35000 1476.4 34448.4 -5106.7

4 21 1500 35000 1464.7 34175.9 -5379.2

5 20 1500 35000 1453.1 33905.5 -5649.6

6 19 1500 35000 1441.6 33637.3 -5917.8

7 18 1500 35000 1430.2 33371.2 -6183.9

8 17 1500 35000 1418.9 33107.2 -6447.9

9 16 1620 38000 1520.3 35660.6 -3894.5

10 15 1620 38000 1508.2 35378.5 -4176.6

11 14 1700 40000 1570.2 36945.9 -2609.2

12 13 1700 40000 1557.8 36653.6 -2901.5

13 12 1780 42000 1618.2 38181.8 -1373.3

14 11 1780 42000 1605.4 37879.8 -1675.3

15 10 1780 42000 1592.7 37580.1 -1975.0

16 9 1860 44000 1651.1 39058.2 -496.9

17 8 1860 44000 1638.0 38749.2 -805.9

18 7 1860 44000 1625.1 38442.6 -1112.5

19 6 1940 46000 1681.6 39872.1 317.0

20 5 1940 46000 1668.3 39556.6 1.5

21 4 1940 46000 1655.1 39243.7 -311.4

22 3 1940 46000 1642.0 38933.2 -621.8

23 2 1940 46000 1629.0 38625.2 -929.8

24 1 1940 46000 1616.1 38319.7 -1235.4

25 0 1940 46000 1603.3 38016.5 -1538.6

39555.1 934465.9 -54411.4

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Merit goods best college essay help

Merit goods are goods which will be under-provided by the market, therefore they will be under-consumed. They are thought by the governments to be good for the populations and so the governments want them to be consumed to a great extent. They increase the private and social benefits and cause the social benefit be higher than the private one. The best examples of them, apart from all the public goods, can be the education, health care, sports facilities and the opera.

Although the majority of the merit goods is provided by the private sectors, not all the people can afford buying them, therefore they will be under-consumed. That is why the government is needed to destroy the market failure increasing the supply and consequently raising the consumption.

To explain the reasons for government to provide the merit goods, I need to apply some examples of them. The first one can be the education. It is significant for the governments to provide it so that the society would be well-educated. Governments determine the period of education required for people (the compulsory education) to maintain the proper level of education of the society. The governments find education an important aspect that should be available for everyone as it cause the whole country to have better both economic growth and economic development.

Considering another example such as health care, the situation is quite similar. The governments want to provide the population with it because they care about the high states of health of society in their country. To gain these, the countries need to have high quality of health care. Governments often offer people unpaid programs consisting of preventative medical examination which contribute to maintain the high number of healthy people. This is also connected with the problems of the labour market. The healthier people are, the more efficient their work is, the greater revenue firms have and countries are more developed because of taxations.

Other examples like sport facilities or the opera are meant for people to become physically and culturally developed but their availability is not as important as in the case of the previous examples. That is why they are not as much provided by the governments as the rest of the merit goods.

Although most of the merit goods provided by the governments are free, the fact is that they are paid through the taxes that the societies pay. The number of the merit goods of particular types that the governments provide or subsidize depends on the necessity of them. If they are provided, the societies’ benefits get higher and so is the public treasury of the countries.

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Research proposal: The effect of pregnancy on the adolescent pregnant teen & father easy essay help

Abstract: The purpose for this research paper is to address the adolescent pregnant teen & father and the effects a pregnancy has on both of their lives during and after her pregnancy. How the teens need the support of the family, community, church, and the school system. I will also address the teen father mostly disregarded in any aspect of the teen’s pregnancy and how this affects him, and how both teens need support in our society. How we can address the social problem of teen pregnancy from all avenues.

‘Three issues that have an impact on the pregnant adolescent are discussed education, identity development, and maternal support’ (Turnage & Pharris, 2013). My research focuses on adolescent pregnant teen women 19 years old and younger. It will also reflect the problems of the teen pregnant adolescents journeying thru the process of becoming a teen mother, finishing high school, developing her own identity and the maternal support she gets from her mother during her transition from pregnant teen to motherhood.

‘Several issues that differently influence the pregnant teen is individually based on the female’s chronological age’ (Turnage & Pharris, 2013). ‘For the pregnant adolescent, her pregnancy supersedes high school graduation as the benchmark for her being viewed as an adult’ (Turnage & Pharris, 2013). ‘Failure to graduate high school is associated with poor social and educational outcomes for teen mothers and their children’ (Turnage & Pharris, 2013).

‘While the pregnant adolescent is defining who she is as a person she experiences a transition to the new identity of mother’ (Turnage & Pharris, 2013). ‘During her pregnancy the adolescent’s mother is seen as the primary source of support that contributes to a positive self-image and can assist her in the adapting to the role of parent’ (Turnage & Pharris, 2013).

My research paper will also show how important it is to support the teen during and after pregnancy. It addresses the need for the teen mothers to finish high school, and find her identity. How important it is to have the support system of her mother and family to achieve all of these things. Without these support systems, the pregnant adolescent could end up in poverty, no social skills, homeless and a host of other social problems for her and her baby.

Addressed and examined is teen motherhood and its long-term mental and physical health of the teen mother’ (Patel & Sen, 2012). They used a (PCS) health survey known as SF-12 NLSY79 a study that compared two major comparisons groups of which only teens who experienced teen pregnancy and girls who did not experience teen pregnancy. On average the survey for teen mothers was on average 50.89.

The study to access the health outcome of ‘two major comparison groups, which consisted of women who were only experienced teen pregnancy & women who were having unprotected sexual relation as a teen but did not become pregnant ‘ (Patel & Sen, 2012). Estimated is that teen mothers are more likely to have poor health later in life in the study of all the comparison groups.

Along with support, they desperately need help taking care of an infant as a teen; they need a support system to take notice of how they are managing their health & well-being so that they can be a successful teen parent. In addition, being a teen parent can affect the mother’s mentally as the pressure of being new teen mom can be stressful.

The teen mothers who marry after they give birth to their children statistics state that 30 % of them will not remain in their marriages into their 40’s. This result comes from teen adolescents in a single parent home raising their child. This can put a strain on the teen adolescent because she will financially have to seek support from her family or enter into the welfare system and suffer mental health issues.

‘Adolescent teen mothers identify social support with, parenting and emotional support primary emanating from family members, particularly their own mothers, as well as from the father of the baby (Savio Beers & Lee, 2009)’. ‘Older sisters may play an important role in the support network for adolescent mothers, the supportive sister relationships decrease depressive and anxiety-related symptoms in adolescent mothers (Savio Beers & Lee, 2009).

‘For some adolescent parents, participation in a religious community programs may provide the significant social support and serve as a protective factor’ (Savio Beers & Lee, 2009). This directly stresses the point that without the support of family, community, and church with the support of the father the adolescent teen mother can suffer mental issues, poverty issues, and marriage problems.

We addressed the many issues that teen mothers have to face, so now I would like to address the teen father in our society. What are their concerns on becoming a teen father, and how do they view their role as father where their masculinity is concerned? While most of the research done on teen pregnancy and parenting mainly focusing on the mother, the father is invisible.

Interviewed were 26 young teen fathers in the mid-western American towns. The in depth survey of three themes of gender discord focused on teen father narratives, which took on responsibility, sex, being a man, this is the direct viewpoint of the invisible teen father. What they feel about getting a teen girl pregnant and what responsibility they take in the pregnancy if any. How they relate to getting a teen pregnant and how that affects his identity as a man and their masculinity.

‘Gendered assumptions regarding pregnancy and contraception’specifically that women are in charge of preventing pregnancy and they have the belief that male sexuality is uncontrollable; and that use of love and intimacy talk (Weber, J. B., 2013). The teen fathers that took the questionnaire did not blame themselves for getting the teen girl pregnant. They see the teen’s pregnancy as her problem.

Studies suggest that teen fathers are more likely to be of a minority race. He has a mother who had a baby as a teen; his parents have a minimal education. His parents do not have high expectations of him finishing school; all of these factors result in the likelihood that makes him a candidate to becoming a teenage father. ‘The research states that the teen fathers go to school fewer years less than non-teenage fathers (Fletcher & Wolfe, 2011).

‘Evidence shows that men who have children before marriage leave school earlier and have worse labor markets outcomes’ (Fletcher & Wolfe, 2011). ‘Data was used only on young men who reported a pregnancy as an adolescent’ (Fletcher & Wolfe, 2011). It affects his completion of high school.

It also affects his ability to take care of the teen mother & baby, which causes him to drop out of school early. Statistically, ‘teen fathers work more hours and earn more money following the birth of a child then his non-parent counterparts’ (Fletcher & Wolfe, 2011). Teen fatherhood results in the teen father getting married early or co-habitation with the teen mother.

In conclusion, teen pregnancy is a social problem in the United States both teens will have to suffer in their education, grow up before their time, take on adult responsibilities, and suffer financial problems to take care of the child. Which ultimately falls on the parents of the teens, society or the welfare system in which the teen mother becomes a social statistic or shall I say a number.

Teen pregnancy as of 2014 have been on the decline in the United States and increased in other states, however a positive support system for both teens is minimal at best. Socially as communities, churches and government we have to take an active role in education of abstaining from sex, talking to the teens about sex, and protecting themselves against pregnancy.

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Reconnaissance attacks in IPv6 networks law essay help

2.1.1 Reconnaissance attacks in IPv6 networks

The 1st larger attack in IPv6 is usually a reconnaissance attack. An attacker try reconnaissance attacks to get some confidential information about the victim network that can be misused by the attacker in further attacks. For this he uses active methods, such as scanning techniques or data mining strategies. To start, an intruder begins to ping the victim network to determine the IP addresses currently used in the victim network. After getting some of the accessible system, he starts to scan the port to find out any open port in the desired system. The size of subnet is bigger than that of the in IPv4 networks. To perform a scan for the whole subnet an attacker should make 264 probes and that???s impossible. With this fact, IPv6 networks are much more resistant to reconnaissance attacks than IPv4 networks. Unfortunately, there are some addresses which are multicast address in IPv6 networks that help an intruder to identify and attack some resources in the target network.

2.1.2 Security threats related to IPv6 routing headers

As per IPv6 protocol specification, all of the IPv6 nodes must be able to process routing headers. In fact, routing headers can be used to avoid access controls based on destination addresses. Such action can cause security effects. It may be happen that an attacker sends a packet to a publicly accessible address with a routing header containing a ???forbidden??? address on the victim network. In such matter the publicly accessible host will forward the packet to the destination address stated in the routing header even though that destination is already filtered before as a forbidden address. By spoofing packet source addresses an intruder can easily perform denial of service attack with use of any publicly accessible host for redirecting attack packets.

2.1.3 Fragmentation related security threats

As per IPv6 protocol specification, packet fragmentation by the intermediate nodes is not permitted. Since in IPv6 network based on ICMPv6 messages, the usage of the path MTU discovery method is a duty, packet fragmentation is only allowed at the source node.1280 octets is the minimal size of the MTU for IPv6 network. The packets with size less than 1280 octets to be discarded unless it???s the last packet in the flow as per security reasons. With use of fragmentation, an attacker can get that port numbers not found in the first fragment and thus they bypass security monitoring devices expecting to find transport layer protocol data in the very first fragment. An attacker will send a huge amount of small fragments and create an overload of reconstruction buffers on the victim system which resulted to the system crash. To prevent system from such attacks it???s necessary to bound the total number of fragments and their permissible arrival rate.

[supanova_question]

WMBA 6000-13 Topic: Course Evaluation college admissions essay help

WMBA 6000-13

Topic: Course Evaluation

Date: March 2, 2014

Based on the assigned readings for this course (Dynamic Leadership), I have read an enormous amount of information about the different categories of leaders and leadership styles. Today’s leaders are different from the leaders of twenty to fifty years ago. In the past leaders gave commands and they controlled the actions of others. Today leaders are willing to involve others in their decision making and they are more open to new possibilities.

A good leader has a vision for their organization and they know how to align and engage employees in order to promote collaboration. The successful leader knows how to lead by using superior values, principles and goals that fit the organization’s values, principles and goals. Also these leaders know that leadership is not made from authority, it’s made from trust and followership. Coleman, J., Gulati, & Segovia, W.O. (2012)

I am impressed most by the characteristics of the authentic leader because they know how to develop themselves; they use formal and informal support networks to get honest feedback in order to drive long-term results. Authentic leaders build support teams to help them stay on course and counsel them in times of uncertainty. George, B., Sims, P., Mclean, A.N. & Mayer D. (2007)

In addition, I found the Leadership Code to be important because it provides structure and guidance and helps one to be a better leader by not emphasizing one element of leadership over another. Some focus on the importance of vision for the future; others on executing in the present; others on personal charisma and character; others on engaging people’; and others on building long-term organization. The code represents about 60 to 70 percent of what makes an effective leader. Ulrich, D., Smallwood, N., Sweetman, K. (2008)

The information that I acquired from this course will help me to pursue the goal of owning a beauty supply business. Another goal that I can add to my action plan is to include not only wigs and welted hair, but I will add hair, skin and nail products to my inventory. A future goal will be to add handbags and accessories as well.

After completing my short-term goal of finishing my MBA, I can take the knowledge from this course along with my values, ethics and principles to help me to manage employees and operate a successful business. Annie Smith (March 2, 20

Coleman, J. G. (2012). Educating young leaders. Passion and Purpose , 197-202.

George, B. S. (2007). Discovering your authentic leadership. Harvard Business Review , 129-138.

Lyons, R. (2012). Dean of Haas of School of Business University of California, Berkely. It’s made from followership. (J. G. Cole, Interviewer) Coleman, J., Gulati, D., & Segovia, W.O.

Ulrich, D. S. (2008). Five rules of leadership. In The leadership code five rules to lead by. Defining Leadership Code , 1-24.

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Family presence during CPR (cardiopulmonary resuscitation) gp essay help

In a pre-hospital setting, there are few moments that are as intense as the events that take place when trying to save a life. Family presence during these resuscitation efforts has become an important and controversial issue in health care settings. Family presence during cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) is a relatively new issue in healthcare. Before the advent of modern medicine, family members were often present at the deathbed of their loved ones. A dying person’s last moments were most often controlled by his or her family in the home rather than by medical personnel (Trueman, History of Medicine). Today, families are demanding permission to witness resuscitation events. Members of the emergency medical services are split on this issue, noting benefits but also potentially negative consequences to family presence during resuscitation efforts.

A new study has found that family members who observed resuscitation efforts were significantly less likely to experience symptoms of post-traumatic stress, anxiety and depression than family members that did not. The results, published in an online article in The New England Journal of Medicine, entitled ‘Family Presence during Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation,’ were the same regardless of the survival of the patient. The study involved 570 people in France whose family members were treated by emergency medical personnel at home. These EMS teams were unique in that they were comprised of a physician, a nurse trained in emergency medicine, and two emergency medical technicians. The study found that the presence of relatives did not affect the results of CPR, nor did it increase the stress levels of the emergency medical teams. Having family present also did not result in any legal claims after the incidents occured. While the unique limitations of the study warrant consideration, the results show a definite benefit in having families stay during CPR (Jabre Family Presence).

Historically, although parents of children have been allowed to be present for various reasons, relatives of adult patients have not. As medical practices change to increasingly involve family in the care of patients, growing numbers of emergency medical practitioners say that giving relatives the option of watching CPR can be a good idea. Several national organizations, including The American Heart Association, have revised their policies to call for giving family members the option of being present during CPR (AHA Guidelines for CPR). Witnessing CPR, say some emergency medical experts and family members, can take the mystery out of what could be a potentially terrifying experience. It can provide reassurance to family members that everything is being done to save their loved ones. It also can offer closure for relatives wanting to be with their family members until the last minute (Kirkland Lasting Benefit). Another benefit is that it shows people why reviving someone in cardiac arrest is much less likely than people assume from watching it being done on television (Ledermann Family Presence During). Family members who can truly understand what it means to ‘do everything possible’ can go on to make more informed decisions about end-of-life care for themselves or their families.

There are three perspectives on this issue- that of the emergency medical personnel providing care, the family, and the patients. The resistance on the part of the medical community to family presence during CPR stems from several different concerns. The most common concern among these is that family members, when faced with overwhelming fear, stress and grief, could disrupt or delay active CPR. Another concern raised by emergency medical personnel is that the realities of CPR may simply be too traumatic for loved ones, causing them to suffer more than they potentially would have if they had never witnessed the event. Some families share this view, citing the potential for extreme distress as a main reason for not wanting to witness resuscitation (Grice Study examining attitudes). Many emergency medical personnel also fear an increased risk of liability and litigation with family members present in the room (Fullbrook the Presence of Family). The worry is that errors can occur, inappropriate comments may be made, and the actions of the personnel involved may be misinterpreted. In an already tense situation, the awareness of the family could increase the anxiety of the personnel and create a greater potential for mistakes.

Another complication that arises from having families present during resuscitation attempts is that of patient confidentiality. The patient’s right to privacy should not be circumvented with implied consent. There is always the possibility that medical information previously unknown to the family may be revealed in the chaos of resuscitation. In addition, patient dignity, whether physical or otherwise, may become compromised (Fullbrook the Presence of Family). Beyond moral considerations, legal concerns regarding revealing patient information are real. This could become an even larger issue if there is no one available to screen witnesses, which could result in unrelated people gaining access to personal information. Eventually, a breach in confidentiality can lead to a breach in the confidence that the public has gained in pre-hospital emergency care.

Family presence during CPR in a pre-hospital setting remains a highly debatable topic. This could be largely due to the fact that the needs of the emergency medical providers and the rights of the patients can be at odds with the wishes of the family members. Although there are several possible reasons why family presence is not being welcomed into daily practice, one of the major reasons could be the lack of formal written policies that define the roles of families and providers placed into this situation. Bringing family members into a situation where CPR is being performed on a loved one should not happen haphazardly. It should happen with careful concern and support for everyone involved. Policies and protocols, defined by experienced personnel, can provide legal and emotional support. They can also potentially help ease anxiety by defining expectations and placing responsibility in the hands of people who are experienced enough to know how to handle the situation appropriately. The policies and protocols should address the basic needs of all people involved. Five basic needs should be addressed:

1. The number of people allowed to be present

2. Which relatives should be allowed to be present (age, relationship, etc.)

3. The role of the family members present and what is expected of them.

4. The place where the family should remain during the duration of CPR.

5. The formal wishes of the patient- written as a directive like a living will.

An important component of this is available, trained staff that can prepare the family members for what they will witness, support them through the event, and then direct them after the event’s conclusion.

The American Heart Association states that the goals of cardiopulmonary resuscitation are, ‘to preserve life, restore health, relieve suffering, limit disability, and respect the individual’s decisions rights and privacy’ (AHA Guidelines for CPR). The practice of offering family members the opportunity to be present during CPR is a controversial ethical issue in emergency medical services. While the results of the study published on this topic in The New England Journal of Medicine clearly show no negative side effects from having families present during resuscitation attempts, the limitations of the study lend to the need for more research before it could be universally accepted.

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Respondeat Superior college application essay help online

Legal claims that derive from a situation where there are claims of negligence can sometimes involve an entity other than the neglectful parties. In certain circumstances employers are fully responsible for their employees, and the tasks they perform during working hours. During the course of this paper, the doctrine of respondeat superior will be defined and explained. Two case studies in which the doctrine was applied will also be analyzed to determine if it was applied correctly.

Respondeat superior is a legal theory that holds employers responsible for any negligent or harmful act performed by an employee during the commission of their employment duties (Thornton, 2010). The Maryland Supreme Court in 1951 was the first court to utilize respondeat superior in a court case involving a question of employer liability (Burns, 2011). This doctrine is important as it holds employers liable in court cases where one of its employees does harm to an individual. Vicarious liability and indirect liability are two base concepts that make-up respondeat superior (Thornton, 2010). Respondeat superior shows that the employer did not have to be responsible for the employee???s negligent behavior, in the form of improper training or instruction to perform harmful acts, in order for the employer to be held legally responsible.

In the case of Valle v. City of Houston, the police force was sued for excessive force and an illegal search in an attempt to remove an individual from his parent???s home (Nicholl & Kelly, 2012). The situation stemmed from a man, Omar Esparza, barricading himself in his parent???s home and refusing to come out (p. 285). After a long police standoff, the SWAT team was ordered to forcefully enter the home and remove Mr. Esparza (p. 285). The SWAT team utilized taser gun and bean bag ammunition in an attempt to subdue Mr. Esparza after they felt he posed a physical threat by wielding a hammer, but as those attempts failed the suspect was fatally wounded when an officer fired his weapon (p. 286). Shortly after the incident the mother was allowed into the home, and she reported no visible evidence that her son was possession of a hammer (p. 286). The court found that the city was not liable for damages under the theory of respondeat superior, because the order to remove the individual from the home was not made by an individual deemed as a decision-maker by the city (p. 286).

From the outside, this case seems to fit the theory of respondeat superior. As the employer, the city should be held responsible for the actions of its employees. The police, serving as the city???s employees acted in a manner that was unnecessary for the situation and in conflict of their training (p. 286). However, the court sided with the City of Houston because the chain of command was not followed in regards to the use of force (p. 286). The end result is a case where an individual made a decision that was not his to make; that ultimately cost a man his life.

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User Demand Modelling Based On Domain Modelling Essay Help Service

V. ON-DEMAND SERVICES

User demand modelling based on domain modelling; domain demand models are the basis for modelling users personalized demands. A demand model that supports uncertainty, consumers may be unspecific or provide incomplete information, accurately predicting resource demands is a key concern of demand modelling. User scenario modelling, modelling demands in uncertain scenarios, a probabilistic-constrained fuzzy logic as well as its speculative method.

VI. PROVISIONING PLANS

The cloud broker considers the reservation plan as medium- to long-term planning, since the plan has to be reserved in advance such as 1 or 3 years and the plan can significantly reduce the total provisioning cost. Also, the broker considers the on-demand plan as short term planning, since the plan can be purchased anytime for short period of time such as one week when the resources reserved by the reservation-plan are insufficient.

VII. PROVISIONING STAGES

When a cloud provider accepts a request from a cloud customer, cloud must create the appropriate number of virtual machines (VMs) and allocate resources to support them. The services are provided by several different ways: advance provisioning, dynamic resource provisioning and self-service provisioning.

In advance resource provisioning, the customer contacts with the provider for services and the cloud provider prepares the appropriate resources in advance of start of service. The customer is charged for a resource they consumed either in a flat fee or is billed on a monthly basis.

In dynamic resource provisioning, the cloud provider allocates more resources as consumers needed and removes them when they do not want to use. The customer is billed on a pay-per-usage basis.

In user self-provisioning (also known as cloud self-service), the customer buy resources from the cloud provider by creating an account and paying for resources either with a credit card or net banking. The provider’s resources are available for customer use within an hour.

VIII. PSO PARTICLE SWARM OPTIMIZATION

PSO learned from the scenario and used it to solve the optimization problems. PSO is a robust stochastic optimization technique based on the movement and intelligence of swarms. It uses a number of agents (particles) that constitute a swarm moving around in the search space looking for the best solution. Each particle is treated as a point in a N-dimensional space which adjusts its ???flying??? according to its own flying experience as well as the flying experience of other particles. Each particle keeps track of its coordinates in the solution space which are associated with the best solution (fitness) that has achieved so far by that particle. This value is called personal best , pbest. Another best value that is tracked by the PSO is the best value obtained so far by any particle in the neighborhood of that particle. This value is called gbest.

IX. ADVANCED ENCRYPTION STANDARD

AES is a block cipher with a block length of 128 bits. AES allows for three different key lengths: 128, 192, or 256 bits. Each round of processing includes one single-byte based substitution step, a column-wise mixing step, a row-wise permutation step and the addition of the round key. The order may differ for these four steps are executed for encryption and decryption. Unlike DES, the decryption algorithm differs substantially from the encryption algorithm. AES requires the block size to be 128 bits, the original rijndael cipher works with any block size that is a multiple of 32 as long as it exceeds 128. The state array for the different block sizes still has only four rows in the rijndael cipher. However, the number of columns depends on size of the block. For example, when the block size is 192, the rijndael cipher requires a state array to consist of 4 rows and 6 columns.

X. CONCLUSION

In Cloud Computing, the resource provisioning mechanism uses Stochastic Programming model. These models consider many numbers of scenarios which leads to time and computational. The utility model employed by commercial cloud providers has demotivated the need for efficient and responsive economic resource allocation in high-performance computing environments. Economic resource allocation provides a well-studied and efficient means of scalable decentralized allocation it has been stereotyped as a low performance solution due to the resource commitment overhead and latency in the allocation process. The high utilization strategies are designed to minimize the impact of these factors to increase occupancy and improve system utilization. The Scenario Reduction algorithm is applied to reduce the uncertainties in cloud computing and by formulating PSO particle swarm optimization algorithm, the total cost of the resources can be reduced.

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Implementing Swifinet essay help from professional writers

ABSTRACT

Use of wireless sensor networks (WSN) has resulted in many revolutionary changes in human life. WSN has gain significant concentration from scientist and end users. ‘SWiFiNet’ is task distributed reusable system architecture. In this architecture complex functionality has been transfer to the second tire devices of the system. Second tire devices are provided with more resources. ‘SWiFiNet’ satisfy the desire architecture of the WSN. This paper aims to analyze various reusable wireless sensor networks and concept related to ‘SWiFiNet’. And it provides the existing architecture of ‘SWiFiNet’ and also the functionality of the component of the reusable network architecture. This paper also provides idea about the proposed ‘SWiFiNet’ which will be developed on IEEE 802.15.4 MAC/PHY layer which will be having more advantages over its counterparts.

Keywords:- WSN, SWiFiNet, Reusable architecture.

I. INTRODUCTION:

Use of wireless network is increasing in every field, day by day. WSN is extensively use where wired network cannot be deployed or is expensive to deploy. WSN opens many ways for research community to further enhance wireless communication efficiency and productivity. Many protocols and algorithms has been developed to addressed many kind of issues related to WSN. But most of these protocols and algorithms concentrate on routing, energy efficiency, reliability and congestion control.

No more research is done on creating some integrated network architecture that will make the implementation of any WSN application easy. It means to make the components of the WSN system reusable. The main focus of WSN is on creating more and more efficient wireless interfaces. The wireless sensor network generally developed for specific work. These work include climate reporting, military applications, fuel level indicator and many more. While creating such system one has to start from the scratch and it becomes burdensome.

So, for all these difficulties, one solution is to create reusable WSN framework. This kind of framework is developed in ‘SWiFiNet’. It is a task distributed System Architecture for WSN.

This paper provides overview of ‘SWiFiNet’ and reusable architecture for WSN. In first section provided introduction about WSN and ‘SWiFiNet’. Second section provides related work regarding task distributed network architecture. Third section provides design goals of reusable architecture. Fourth section provides WSN architecture along with ‘SWiFiNet’ architecture comparison. Fifth and last part concludes the paper.

II. RELATED WORK

There has been attempts to make hierarchical task distributed reusable wireless sensor network architecture. Most of such proposals were developed using 802.11. The different applications related to reusable WSN architecture is as follows:-

ART wise gateway architecture was presented by Leel et al [4]. The architecture is two tire architecture. Tier one uses IEEE 802.15.4 and tire two uses 802.11. Linfeng develop Environmental adaptive Architecture model for wireless sensor network [5]. It was two tire architecture. The second tire was capable of adding number of nodes without affecting two tire architecture. ANGLE [5] architecture was develop for the health care applications. In this application authors claims that it can be reused for any other application.

Open and reconfigurable wireless sensor network has been proposed by Triantafyllidis. It was developed for pervasive health monitoring. Its main emphasis was on easy extension with additional sensor functionality. ZUMA [6] was developed for centralize smart phone platform which will interconnects all kinds of smart phone devices.

The ReWINS [3] research initiative is an attempt to advance such an end-to-end solution with support for incremental arrangement through a transparent lower layer implementation and control architecture and a user-friendly application interface.

Wireless Integrated Network Sensors or the WINS [7] project and NIMS project at University of California, Los Angeles is about ad-hoc wireless sensor network research dealing mainly with constructing micro-electronic mechanical sensors (MEMS) [8], effective circuit design, and design of self-organizing wireless network architecture. Though these projects have been successful in demonstrating a network of self-organized sensor wireless nodes, they seem to have a bias towards environmental and military applications. Also they use proprietary RF communication technology and hence the solutions are limiting for wide scale deployments in industries.

Motes and Smart Dust project [9] at University of California, Berkeley involved creating particularly low-cost micro-sensors, which can be suspended in air, buoyed by currents. Crossbow Inc. has commercialized the conclusion of this project. Here again the solution is limiting, as exclusive communication technologies have been used to achieve inter-device communication. Further, the focus has been on development of sensors and their communication rather than how the sensors will be integrated to form systems. This is generally termed as the ‘bottom-up’ approach, which may not be suitable for building complex systems.

Pico-Radio [10] ‘ A group headed by Jan Rabaey at University of California, Berkeley is trying to build an integrated wireless application interface called Sensor Network Service Platform. An attempt is to develop an interface that will abstract the sensor network and make it transparent to the application layer. A introductory draft describing the application interface has been recently released. They believe in a ‘top down approach’ (from control to sensor nodes) for building sensor networks which is probably more suitable for building complex systems.

Recently, there have been several work initiatives like TinyDB [11], Cornell’s Cougar etc. to develop a declarative SQL-like language to query sensors and define certain standard query services. Here the employment is sensor-interface specific and not a general or abstracted sensor networking platform. These query services can be implemented with ease on top of our (developed) wireless interface and sensor networking platform and can be made generic by extending them for other sensors.

Other research initiatives in this field include MIT’s ??AMPS, Columbia University’s INSIGNIA, Rice University’s Monarch. Though there have been a lot of research efforts in developing ad-hoc wireless networks, the focus has been on developing smart wireless sensor interfaces and not much attention has been paid to the actual application integration. Typical approach has been to develop powerful smart wireless interfaces, which supports the important features/requirements for a particular class of applications (like military, environment sensing or more focused applications like fuel-level control in automobiles). The result is a number of wireless interfaces appropriate for a certain class of application; but almost no interoperability between them. We believe that the deployment of wireless infrastructure in industries will occur in incremental stages and thus interoperability (between different sensor-networks) and extendibility (according to application needs) will form the basic requirements of any prospective solution. A prospective good solution would be an end-to-end solution, which is modular and extendable.

All of the above applications were the forward steps towards the making of reusable network architecture. From the comparison of the above all network architecture, it is clear that user of hierarchical network give advantage over flat network. And three tire architecture is also better for reusable WSN architecture.

EXISTING SYSTEM:-

‘SWiFiNet’ [1] is task distributed and reusable component architecture. The task layer hierarchical model of ‘SWiFiNet’ is as shown in the given figure. It follows hierarchical architecture comprising of Master node, router node and sensor node. The base layer is 802.15.4 MAC/PHY layer.

Table 1. Comparison between different reusable wireless sensor network applications

Sr. No Application/Project Purpose of Application/Project Limitations

1 ART gateway architecture To develop Hierarchical two tire architecture each tire having different base MAC/PHY The system is more complex due to different protocol in each layer.

2 EAWNA To develop tire two in such a way that adding more sensor dose no affect the architecture The focus is given more on second tire of architecture.

3 ANGEL For health care application. Claimed to be reusable Reusable for specific health care application

4 ReWins To develop such an end-to-end solution The main focus is given on industrial scenarios.

5 Wireless Integrated Network Sensor Building efficient circuit design, and design of self-organizing wireless network architecture These project seems to have bias towards environmental and military application

6 Motes and smart dust project Creating low cost micro sensor which can suspended in air The focus is on sensors rather how they will be integrated

7 Pico-Radio To make sensor network transparent to application layer Suitable for building complex systems only

8 TinyDB To develop declarative SQL-like language to query sensor Not a generic or abstracted sensor networking platform

.

The upper layer to this layer is DLL task layer. All the network communication is controlled by this layer. The functionality of different device component of the architecture is as given below:

Sensor node: The task of sensor node is restricted to sensing background and connecting the neighboring nodes or the master node. When the packet is handed over to any parent node, then it is the responsibility of the parent node to transfer the packet to the master node. In this node’s layer architecture, the network layer will have the addresses of the parent devices. It will be stored in the table. Two types of addresses are present in the table. First one is primary parent address and the other is secondary parent address. If primary address parent is not available then secondary parent address will be try by the node.

If network layer don’t contain any table then a ‘Hello’ packet request is broadcast into the network. Then the neighboring device will issue the join request. The join request will be accepted if the device meets LQI threshold criteria.

Router Node: – Router nodes are come in use when sensor nodes are not in the range of Master Node. Clustering is also possible using router node. In ‘SWiFiNet’ distributed architecture the functionality of the router node increased remarkably. The complex implementation of any application or protocol will be deployed on the second tire devices. The router node network layer also maintains the table containing entries of the parent devices to the router node. It can be router node again or router will send the information directly to the master node. Router nodes will generate join request if they receive hello packet request from any sensor node.

Master node: The complete topology information of the network is maintain by the master node. When there is queried transmission model, master node will generate query and send it in the network. Whenever the routing tables are updated in end nodes or router nodes will send the information to the master node.

Sensor node Router Node Master Node

Fig 1. Distributed architecture of ‘SWiFiNet’

III. PROPOSED MODEL:

The ‘SWiFiNet’ model developed [1] is successfully implemented on the hardware as the architecture of the ‘SWiFiNet’ is defined. But ns-2 simulation of ‘SWiFiNet’ is based on 802.11a. As the basic idea of MAC/PHY layer is to have 802.15.4 which will work more efficiently on the ‘SWiFiNet’ architecture. The architectural diagram [1] is as shown below:-

In many of the sensor network architecture the sensor nodes are based on the 802.11a, but in ‘SWiFiNet’ MAC/PHY layer is based on 802.15.4. It is having low bandwidth comparative to the 802.11a. As the ns-2 modulation of the architecture is done using 802.11a, we cannot compare the exact result of hardware simulation and the software simulation.

Dynamic source routing (DSR) has similar characteristics as of ‘SWiFiNet’. After comparing the hardware results [1] with DSR it is found that ‘SWiFiNet’ is having better performance against many parameters. Implementation of ‘SWiFiNet’ using ns-2 on 802.15.4 IEEE is not yet checked against other protocols and hardware results.

The software architecture [2] of the ‘SWiFiNet’ agent is as shown in figure 2. This diagram shows the network component simulation in ns-2. The devices can be identified by the variable passed from TCL script. 1 value represent master node. 2 value represent router node and 3 value represent sensor node.

Fig 2: Component simulation in ns-2

IV. Conclusion:-

The survey paper provides a detailed comparison and description of the well-known projects and applications which are developed from reusable architecture point of view. ‘SWiFiNet’ is basically a task distributed generic reusable architecture for WSN. The functionality of sensor node is reduced and has been transferred to the second tire devices like router node. By doing so sensor nodes are restricted to gather information and connecting to neighboring nodes. As time synchronization overhead is not present the lifetime of the network increase.

This reusable architecture can be used for various range of applications and can be configured accordingly. This paper gives proposed ‘SWiFiNet’ system which will be based on 802.15.4 IEEE standard and will be useful for researchers in many ways.

V. REFERENCES:

[1] A. H. Willig, J. H. Karowski, N. Baldus, H. Huebner, A., “The ANGEL WSN Architecture,” in Electronics, Circuits and Systems, 2007. ICECS 2007. 14th IEEE International Conference on, 2007, pp. 633-636.

[2] A. W. Rohankar, Mrinal K. Naskar, Amitava Mukharjee, ‘SWiFiNet’: Task Distributed System Architecture for WSN’ in IJACSA Special Issue on Selected Papers from International Conference & Workshop On Advance Computing 2013.

[3] A. W. Rohankar, Mrinal K. Naskar, Amitava Mukharjee, ‘A step towards reusable WSN architecture’, International Journal of Research and Reviews in Wireless Sensor Networks (IJRRWSN) vol. Vol. 2, 2012.

[4] B. S. P. Harish Ramamurthy, Rajit Gadh, “Reconfigurable Wireless Interface for Networking Sensors (ReWINS),” in proceeding of the 9th IFIP International Conference on Personal Wireless Communications (PWC 2004), 2004.

[5] J. C. Leal, A. Alves, M. Koubaa, A., “On a IEEE 802.15.4/ZigBee to IEEE 802.11 gateway for the ART-WiSe architecture,” in Emerging Technologies and Factory Automation, 2007. ETFA. IEEE Conference on, 2007, pp. 1388-1391.

[6] L. Linfeng, “Research on Environment-Adaptive Architecture Model of Wireless Sensor Networks,” in Networks Security Wireless Communications and Trusted Computing (NSWCTC), 2010 Second International Conference on, 2010, pp. 130-133.

[7] M. N. K. V. G. Soini, J. Rabaey, J. M. Sydanheimo, L. T., “Beyond Sensor Networks: ZUMA Middleware,” in Wireless Communications and Networking Conference, 2007.WCNC 2007. IEEE, 2007, pp. 4318-4323.

[8] Micro-Adaptive Multi-domain Power-aware Sensors (??AMPS) project at University of California, Berkeley, URL: http://www-mtl.mit.edu/research/icsystems/uamps/

[9] Pico-Radio project at University of California, Berkeley,URL:http://bwrc.eecs.berkeley.edu/Research/Pico_Radio/

[10] Smart Dust and motes project at University of California, Berkeley, URL: http://robotics.eecs.berkeley.edu/~pister/SmartDust/

[11] ] TinyDB project at University of California, Berkeley, URL: http://telegraph.cs.berkeley.edu/tinydb

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The Relationship between Manager Assertiveness and having to tell Employees Exactly What to Do free essay help

Not only is it important to tell workers exactly what to do by being direct, but it is of an equal importance to be assertive with them. If a manager is too passive with his or her employees, it may lead to a managerial mess, as many workers constantly try to test managers’ boundaries.

One of the main reasons as to why employees end up misbehaving in the workplace is primarily because they are not managed correctly, and those who are in authority allow them to get that way. When it comes to being a manager, you shouldn’t expect employees to respect you on a personal level, but you should expect them to respect your authority on a professional level.

Managers should not only be consistently setting up new boundaries, but they should also be enforcing them. Without enforcing them, if an employee overpasses it and nothing is advised to him or her, they will think it is okay to continue to do so. How will they know that it is wrong unless you tell them? It is of an utmost importance to also advise them that you can’t tolerate it.

As a manager, to do their job they have the innate obligation to do only the things that is right for the company that he or she works for. This includes of setting the appropriate boundaries, and not exercising too much sympathy and empathy as it may cause the manager to get too involved with their personal lives. Otherwise, he or she may promote favoritism thereby causing other employees to be jealous. Although this may be true, there is no need to be overly rude and cold towards employees. Being assertive and setting boundaries doesn’t always mean one has to be disrespectful or even rude to their employees. The difference between an authoritarian manager who respects their employees and for managers who don’t differentiates the results of whether or not employees comply or commit themselves to work. In order to have them commit rather than only comply, it is important to be respectful while being assertive. When employees are willing to commit, they are more than likely to deliver work that exceeds a manager’s expectations. (Alexander Hamilton Institute, 2012)

The Importance for Managers to Be a Leader

When it comes to capabilities to effectively communicate with employees, good managers are able to sustain and encourage self-assurance, enthusiasm, and emotional stability while pursuing their day-to-day activities. The position of being a manager can, at times, be quite stressful and overwhelming, so the ideal manager should not let it get to them.

Why is this important when it comes to effectively advising employees as to what has to be done?

If managers aren’t able to maintain self-control of their emotions, then it is likely that they won’t be able to do well at leading employees. Managers are commonly seen as a workplace role model, so if their employees see them as unable to maintain control, it is likely the employees won’t either, thereby leading to decreased amounts of productivity.

Why Communication Is a Key Aspect for Managers

In order to ensure efficient productivity among employees, it is important for them to be able to effectively communicate with them. Moreover, they must also be able to report to higher managers regarding productivity statistics and the like. Not only will great managers be able to communicate well with employees to advise them what they have to do, but they will also be active listeners. Without being able to listen to an employee when he or she has questions about their job or what they have to do, it is likely that they won’t end up doing what they are supposed to do. Another important trait for managers is being able to get a message across without having to overly emphasize it verbally. They know how to implement non-verbal communication techniques such as body language in order to get an important message across to employees. (Melinda Hill Mendoza, n.d).

Common Traits of a Good Employee’ Where You Don’t Have to Be As Specific

There are various indicators that strongly determine whether or not if you have to be overly specific when trying to get an employee to do something. Here I’ve included some of the top traits when it comes to being an effective listener as an employee.

‘ Action Oriented: When you tell an employee to do something, and if he or she is action-oriented, you will see them do it right away’ no questions asked. Although sometimes their work may not be sufficient, most of the time they will provide great work with high levels of productivity. Also, when it comes to productivity, they usually get things done a lot sooner than employees who are stagnant.

‘ Intelligent: Intelligence is important for an employee to thoroughly understand what you want them to do without you having to be too specific with them. Not only that, but when you tell an intelligent employee what to do, most of the time they will do it perfectly correct. It is very rare for an employee who has high levels of intelligence to ask too many questions for additional specificity.

‘ Ambitious: Having an employee with ambition is important because they are well-known to come up with creative ideas that can bring the productivity of any company to the next level. So rather than spending extra time telling them exactly what they have to do, they will work right away, and by the time they are done they will provide you with a genius idea to do things quicker, and you may want to consider forwarding it to your boss.

‘ Autonomous: Employees with an autonomous trait are known to begin working on a project the second you explain to them what needs to be done. They are extremely independent and they require no ‘hand-holding’ whatsoever. This is an important trait, because as a manager, they have a lot of tasks on hand and they don’t want to be wasting it answering a hundred questions about completing a simple task.

‘ Confidence: It is more likely for an unconfident employee to ask questions about exactly what they need to do than a confident employee. This is primarily due to the fact that employees who are confident will trust there instinct on what they’ve heard from the manager, and they won’t second guess their initial impression. On the other hand, unconfident employees will lack their confidence in trusting their understanding, causing them to ask a lot of unnecessary questions.

‘ Leadership: After confidence comes leadership. When you are explaining a task to an employee with leadership skills, you will be confident that they will over-deliver on your expectations. They have the experience to not only deliver the job promptly without any questions ask, but they can set the bar higher in terms of quality and productivity.

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Learning Theory Behaviorism (Teori Pembelajaran Behaviorisme) homework essay help

2.0 Teori Pembelajaran Behaviorisme

Teori Behaviorisme merupakan satu pendekatan pemikiran yang menekankan peranan pengalaman dalam mengawal tingkah laku. Pengasas teori ini adalah J.B Watson yang popular dengan teori Little Albert. Namun, selain daripada J.B Watson terdapat tokoh lain yang turut mengkaji tentang teori ini. Mereka adalah Skinner, Thondike dan Pavlov. Teori pemerolehan bahasa Behavioris pada zaman sebelum ini lebih menekankan tingkah laku yang dapat dilihat sahaja. Bagi mereka perkara yang berlaku dalam otak manusia tidak dapat dikenalpasti. Mereka membuat analogi otak manusia sama seperti sebuah kotak hitam yang gelap. Oleh itu mereka tidak mementingkan peranan otak dalam pemerolehan bahasa.

Golongan mazhab ini menolak pendapat yang menghubungkan operasi kognitif dengan pemerolehan bahasa. Seseorang dianggap telah belajar sesuatu jika dia dapat menunjukkan perubahan perilakunya. Menurut teori ini dalam belajar yang penting adalah input yang berupa stimulus dan output yang berupa reaksi (respond). Stimulus adalah apa saja yang diberikan guru kepada pelajar, sedangkan respon berupa reaksi atau tanggapan pelajar terhadap stimulus yang diberikan oleh guru tersebut. Proses yang terjadi antara stimulus dan respon tidak penting untuk diperhatikan kerana tidak dapat diamati dan tidak dapat diukur. Yang dapat diamati adalah stimulus dan respon. Oleh sebab itu, apa yang diberikan oleh guru iaitu stimulus dan apa yang diterima oleh pelajar iaitu respon harus dapat diamati dan diukur. Teori ini mengutamakan pengukuran kerana pengukuran merupakan perkara yang penting untuk melihat terjadi atau tidak perubahan tingkah laku tersebut.

2.1 Teori Behaviorisme menurut J.B Watson

J.B Watson (1878-1958), seorang ahli psikologi di Amerika Syarikat, merupakan orang pertama mencipta istilah behaviorisme untuk menghuraikan tingkah laku manusia. Kajian banyak dipengaruhi oleh Teori Pelaziman Klasik Pavlov. Kajian beliau, yang terkenal ialah mengenai emosi kanak-kanak dengan menggunakan Model Pelaziman Klasik. Mengikut Watson, tingkah laku manusia merupakan reflex terlazim iaitu suatu gerak balas yang dipelajari melalui proses pelaziman klasik. Dengan kata lain, semua pembelajaran adalah pelaziman klasik Watson berpendapat gerakan-gerakan refleks yang mudah misalnya berkelip mata, bersin apabila hidung gatal dan sebarang tindakan yang dilakukan secara semulajadi adalah tingkah laku yang diwarisi dan tidak perlu dipelajari. Selain daripada tingkah laku, Watson pula menjalankan kajian tentang pembelajaran emosi semula jadi iaitu takut, marah, dan kasih saying. Emosi manusia atau perubahan dipelajari melalui proses pelaziman.

2.1.1 Implikasi Teori Pembelajaran J.B Watson

Menurut beliau, semua tingkah laku boleh dipelajari melalui proses pelaziman. Tingkah laku positif boleh diajarkan melalui ransangan yang sesuai. Seterusnya, untuk menguasai kemahiran menyelesaikan masalah, pelajar perlu belajar cara perhubungan gerak balas secara sistematik. Selain itu, teori ini memberi implikasi untuk mengukuhkan apa yang telah dipelajari dalam ingatan, latihan- latihan hendaklah dijalankan secara kerap. Dalam proses pengajaran,guru hendaklah menggunakan rasangan yang boleh memotivasikan murid untuk minat belajar dan mengelakkan pengunaan ransangan yang membawa kepada kesan negatif.

2.2 Teori Behaviorisme menurut Thorndike

Menurut Thorndike, belajar adalah proses interaksi antara stimulus dan respon. Stimulus adalah apa yang merangsang terjadinya aktiviti belajar seperti fikiran, perasaan, atau hal-hal lain yang dapat dikesan melalui pancaindera. Manakala, respon adalah reaksi yang muncul apabila peserta dididik ketika belajar, dan yang dapat pula adalah berupa fikiran, perasaan, gerakan atau tindakan. Jadi, perubahan tingkah laku akibat kegiatan belajar dapat dikategorikan sebagai konkrit, iaitu yang dapat diamati, atau tidak konkrit iaitu yang tidak dapat diamati. Meskipun aliran behaviorisme sangat mengutamakan pengukuran, tetapi tidak dapat menjelaskan bagaimana cara mengukur tingkah laku yang tidak dapat diamati. Teori Thorndike ini disebut pula dengan teori koneksionisme. Thorndike berjaya membentuk tiga hokum iaitu Hukum kesediaan, Hukum latihan, Hukum kesan. Hukum kesediaan merupakan keupayaan persiapan seseorang individu di dalam kendirinya untuk memulakan sesuatu aktiviti pembelajaran. Manakala hokum latihan pula menyatakan bahawa semakin byak latihan yang dijalankan semakin bertambah kukuh ikatan gerak balas yang tertentu dengan ransangan yang berkaitan. Hukum kesan menyatakan bahawa ikatan ransangan dengan gerak balas akan bertambah kukuh sekiranya individu memperolehi kesan yang memuaskan selepas gerak balasnya dihasilkan.

2.1.2 Implikasi Teori Pembelajaran Thorndike

Antara implikasi Teori Pembelajaran Thorndike ialah untuk meningkatkan tahap kesediaan belajar, guru harus menggunakan motivasi yang sesuai. Selain itu, ia juga dapat mengukuhkan pertalian antara ransangan dengan gerak balas pelajar dengan memperbanyak aktiviti latihan, ulangkaji, aplikasi serta pengukuhan dalam keadaan yang menyeronokkan. Seterusnya memberikan ganjaran atau peneguhan untuk respon antau gerak balas yang betul daripada pelajar. Memberi peluang kepada pelajar untuk menikmati kejayaan dalam pembelajaran mereka.

2.3 Teori Pembelajaran Behaviorisme Ivan Pavlov

Ivan Pavlov merupakan salah seorang daripada ahli teori Behavioris selain daripada Skinner, Thondike dan Watson. Beliau dilahirkan pada 14 September 1849 di Ryazan, Rusia Tengah. Beliau telah meninggal dunia pada 27 Februari 1936 di Leningrad Rusia ketika berusia 86 tahun. Ivan Pavlov merupakan ahli fisiologi, psikologi dan ahli fizik berbangsa Rusia. Sebagai seorang yang sangat mencintai bidang fisiologi beliau telah meminta seorang pelajar duduk di sebelah katilnya dan merekodkan perihal kematiannya. Beliau terkenal dengan orang pertama yang mendeskripsikan fonomena pelaziman klasik atau pelaziman responden. Teori pelaziman klasik adalah tentang tingkah laku pembelajaran yang telah dipelopori oleh Ivan Pavlov ( 1849-1936). Pada tahun 1980-an. Pavlov mengkaji fungsi pencernaan pada anjing dengan melakukan pemerhatian pada kelenjar air liur. Dengan cara itu, beliau dapat mengumpulkan, menyukat dan menganalisis air liur haiwan itu dan bagaimana ia dapat diberikan makanan pada keadaan yang berbeza. Beliau sedar anjing akan mengeluarkan air liur sebelum makanan sampai ke mulutnya dan mencari hubungan timbal balik antara air liur dengan aktiviti perut. Pavlov hendak melihat rangsangan luar dapat mempengaruhi proses ini. Oleh itu contoh paling awal dan terkenal bagi pelaziman klasik melibatkan pelaziman air liur pada anjing kajian Pavlov.

2.4 Teori Pembelajaran Behaviorisme B.F Skinner

Manakala menerusi B.F Skinner pula, beliau mengutarakan teori behaviorisme adalah teori. Menurut Nana Sudjana, 1990 pendekatan Skinner adalah operant conditioning, yang merupakan penerusan dan perluasan secara tepat dari hokum Thorndike. Ia mengakui adanya fenomena conditioning yang klasik dari Pavlov dalam perilaku manusia dan binatang, tetapi itu tidak dianggap terlalu penting.

2.4.1 Implikasi Teori Pembelajaran B.F Skinner

Sesuatu kemahiran atau teknik yang baru dipelajari hendaklah diberi peneguhan secara berterusan dan diikuti secara berkala supaya kemahiran atau teknik itu dapat dikukuhkan dan dikekalkan. Selain itu, penggunaan peneguhan positif yang membawa keseronokan adalah lebih berkesan daripada peneguhan negative yang membawa kesakitan. Seterusnya, prinsip penghapusan melalui proses pelaziman operan adalah sesuai digunakan untuk memodifikasikan tingkah laku pelajar yangtidak diingini, misalnya menghentikan peneguhan yang diberikan dahulu sama ada peneguhan positif atau negatif

2.5 Kelebihan teori pembelajaran behaviorisme

Kelebihan yang pertama yang kami perolehi melalui teori ini adalah teori ini sangat sesuai untuk melatih atau mendidik kanak-kanak yang masih memerlukan bantuan daripada orang dewasa di sekeliling mereka. Sebagai contoh kanak-kanak tadika memerlukan bimbingan dan perhatian yang khusus daripada orang di persekitarannya terutamanya guru-guru mereka kerana mereka mudah mengikuti apa yang diajar dan disuruh selain suka meniru perlakuan orang di sekelilingnya. Selain itu, mereka juga suka dengan bentuk-bentuk penghargaan yang diberi kepadanya seperti pujian dan melalui bentuk penghargaan tersebut ianya dapat membangkitkan semangat ingin belajar dalam diri mereka.

Kelebihan yang kedua adalah guru tidak perlu mengambil masa yang lama untuk memberi penerangan yang panjang tentang pembelajaran kepada murid-murid. Hal ini kerana murid-murid akan dibiasakan belajar dengan sendiri kecuali sekiranya murid menghadapi sesuatu masalah dan memerlukan penjelasan yang lebih daripada guru. Dalam hal ini guru perlu memberikan penerangan dengan jelas.

Selain daripada itu, teori ini juga menekankan kemahiran lisan berbanding kemahiran membaca dan menulis. Melalui aspek kemahiran lisan yang ditekankan dapat memberikan kelebihan kepada murid kerana aspek lisan iaitu mendengar dan bertutur penting dalam situasi harian murid. Boleh dikatakan bahawa kemahiran ini adalah kemahiran terkerap yang digunakan manusia untuk berkomunikasi antara satu sama lain.

2.6 Kelemahan Teori Behaviorisme

Dari segi kelemahan pula, penerapan teori behavioris yang kurang tepat dalam sesuatu situasi pembelajaran boleh mangakibatkan berlakunya proses pembelajaran yang tidak kondusif bagi murid-murid kerana pembelajaran berlaku dalam keadaan sehala dimana ianya berpusatkan kepada guru sahaja. Guru hanya mengajar dan melatih murid manakala murid hanya menerima apa yang diajar oleh guru mereka tanpa memberi sebarang maklum balas. Malah dalam teori pembelajaran ini murid berperanan sebagai pendengar dan mereka menghafal apa yang didengar dan dipandang sebagai cara belajar yang efektif. Penggunaan hukuman merupakan salah satu cara untuk guru mendisiplinkan murid dan hal ini akan mendatangkan akibat buruk kepada murid.

Kelemahan yang kedua ialah proses pembelajaran dikatakan kurang memberikan gerak balas yang bebas bagi pelajar untuk berinteraksi serta untuk mengembangkan idea. Hal ini kerana sistem pembelajaran tersebut lebih tertumpu kepada rangsangan dan gerak balas yang ditunjukkan. Sekiranya tiada rangsangan maka tindak balas tidak akan berlaku. Sebagai contoh, guru akan memberi rangsangan dalam bentuk hadiah dan daripada situ barulah murid akan memberikan jawapan yang dikehendaki oleh guru. Sekiranya perkara ini berlaku secara berterusan dikhuatiri murid akan terlalu bergantung terhadap rangsangan dari luar sedangkan murid harus memiliki rangsangan dari dalam diri mereka sendiri sebagai satu cara pembelajaran.

Kelemahan yang ketiga menurut teori ini adalah penambahan ilmu pengetahuan lebih tertumpu kepada buku teks. Hal ini kerana mereka belajar mengikut urutan kurikulum yang sangat ketat sehinggakan buku teks merupakan buku wajib dalam pembelajaran mereka malah mereka juga perlu dikehendaki memahami dan mempersembahkan kembali isi pembelajaran di dalam buku teks tersebut dengan baik. Hal ini boleh mendatangkan kesan buruk kepada pelajar kerana ilmu pengetahuan yang mereka peroleh tidak begitu berkembangan dengan hanya tertumpu kepada satu buah buku sahaja.

2.7 Implikasi teori pembelajaran behaviorisme

Yang pertama ialah guru perlu sedar bahawa kaitan antara rangsangan dan gerak balas boleh dilazimkan iaitu dipelajari. Sebagai contoh apabila guru ingin menyuruh murid-murid beratur ketika waktu rehat di kantin sekolah guru boleh mengaitkannya dengan cara untuk berjaya dalam kehidupan. Implikasi yang seterusnya ialah kaitan antara rangsangan dan gerak balasdapat dikukuhkan melalui latihan. Semakin kerap rangsangan itu dikaitkan dengan sesuatu gerak balas, semakin kukuh gerak balas terlazim itu. Sebagai contoh guru ingin murid-murid supaya tidak mengaitkan mata pelajaran matematik dengan kesukaran, dengan memberi mereka latihan- latihan yang mudah dan apabila mereka beransur mahir menyelesaikan masalah yang sukar maka guru bolehlah menukar aras pembelajaran kepada tahap yang sederhana sukar dan seterusnya ke aras pembelajaran yang sukar.

Di samping itu, dalam proses pembelajaran, generalisasi boleh berlaku. Ini bermakna perkara yang dipelajari dalam situasi A boleh dipindahkan ke situasi B. Sebagai contoh guru mata pelajaran sains mengaitkan kejadian pencemaran alam sekitar yang mengakibatkan kemusnahan alam semula jadi dengan kemusnahan alam yang berlaku seperti tsunami yang melanda Bandar Acheh.

faktor motivasi memainkan peranan yang penting bagi menghasilkan gerak balas yang diinginkan. Dalam hal ini pemberian ganjaran perlu diberi perhatian. Sebagai contoh ketika murid menjawab soalan yang diberikan oleh guru dengan betul maka guru boleh memberikan pujian kepadanya atau dengan memberikannya hadiah supaya pada waktu pembelajaran yang seterusnya pelajar tersebut akan lebih menumpukan perhatian di dalam kelas untuk memperoleh pujian yang diingini. Namun sekiranya pelajar tersebut tidak dapat menjawab soalan yang diberi maka guru perlulah membimbing pelajar tersebut supaya mereka tidak berasa terpinggir dan seterusnya dapat bersama-sama memahami tajuk pembelajaran pada ketika itu.

Selain itu juga, dalam proses pembelajaran tingkah laku yang dapat dilihat, diamati, diukur dan dikawal hendaklah diberi perhatian. Hal ini kerana melalui perubahan tingkah laku yang ditunjukkan oleh murid guru boleh mengambil sebarang tindakan sekiranya ianya di kesan lebih awal. Sebagai contoh sekiranya seseorang murid menunjukkan tingkah laku yang negatif seperti tidak faham tentang apa yang diajar oleh guru maka guru boleh membuat pemulihan terhadap dirinya. Dalam pembelajaran, penghapusan boleh berlaku jika peneguhan tidak diberikan. Ini bermakna, sekiranya sesuatu tingkahlaku tidak diperkukuhkan melalui ganjaran, tingkahlaku itu mungkin akan terhapus begitu sahaja. Konsep pemulihan serta-merta juga dapat membantu seseorang guru meningkatkan keberkesanan pembelajaran

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Research design homework essay help

2.7 RESEARCH DESIGN USED :

The conception of research design plan is the critical step in the research process. The design ,of the study constitutes the blue print for the collection, measurement and analysis of data. In other words the research design is a conceptual structure with in which,h research is conducted.

2.8 DATA COLLECTION METHODS :

Primary Data: – Primary data are those data which are collected for the first time, and thus hap,pen to be original in character. It is extracted with the help of discussions co,nducted with senior managers with respect to factors affecting the performance.,

Secondary Data: – Secondary data are those data which are already collected by someone else ,and which have already passed through the statistical process. These data are g,athered by Books, Lectures, Notes, and Official Websites etc.

The study make,s extensive use of secondary data. ‘Secondary data are those which have already,y been passed through the statistical process’. The data which is pre-essential for ,this study relating to comparative analysis of Balance Sheet and PROFIT AND L,OSS A/c was based on secondary source of data. This data will be collected fro,m materials provided by Rakshitas Pvt. Ltd., discussions conducted with store m,anagers and some essential

Financial Accounts books.

2.9 LIMITATIONS :,

‘ Data provided is very limited due to the subjectivity of it being highly confidential.,

‘ The data taken for interpretation is for a limited period.

‘ Assumptions, are to be taken into consideration while doing analysis and interpretation, of data.

‘ Due to limited, information, depth analysis could not be made.

2.10 RESEARCH MEASURE TOOLS :

Various financial techniques and statistical tools are used to measure the data used in the study. Column graphs, pie chart etc. is used to highlight the statistical inference,s. The study cannot be completed without balance sheet and profit and loss a/c. ,Therefore three years balance sheet and profit & loss a/c has been taken out for ma,king proper research.

2.11 ANALYSIS OF DATA :

The data collected is secondary, and it’s compiled, classified, tabulated and then analyzed u,sing financial techniques and statistical tools. Graphs and charts are used to hig,hlight the statistics. Based on this data and analysis, inferences are drawn accor,dingly.

2.12 OVER VIEW OF THE CHAPTER :

The Project I,s Presented in the following chapter :-

CHAPTER 1 : INTRODUCTION

This chapter includes introduction to finance, theorectical back ground for the study of the ,various performance, introduction to finance, definition of retail industry and di,fferent type of industry.

CHAPTER 2 : DESIGN OF THE STUDY

This chapter I,ncludes the projects introduction of the subject background, statement of the, problem, objectives of the study, scope of the study, need and purpose of study,, research methodology, research design, data collection method primary and seco,ndary data, limitations, research measure tools and analysis of data.,

CHA,PTER 3 : PROFILE OF THE COMPANY

This c,hapter contains the profile of the company, its origin and background, board of directors, number of branches and organization structure.

CHAP,TER 4 : DATA ANALYSIS AND INTERPRETATION

This ch,apter consists of Table, Graphs, Analysis and Interpretation based on the question,nairies.

CHAPT,ER 5 : SUMMARY OF FINDINGS, CONCULSIONS AND RECOM,MENDATIONS

This chap,ter includes findings based on objectives of the study, conclusion drawn from the f,indings and recommendations given from the analysis.

Chapter:-3

PROFILE OF THE ORGANIZATION

COMPANY PROFILE

RAKSHITAS PVT.LTD.

Rakshitas business con,cept is to offer a broad and varied range of apparels that allows customers to fin,d their own personal style to choose from more than 150 remiums national and int,ernational brands.

Rakshitas is aimed at everyone in the family with an interest in modern basics, fashion, quality and affo,rdable pricing. Customers should always be able to find clothes and accessories ,at Rakshitas for every occasion. The collections are extensive and new arrivals, being launched week after week in each of the 4 floors spread across 20,000 s,q. ft. for Men, Women, Kids and Teen’s casual wear, formal wear, denim wea,r, ethnic and Kancheevaram silks etc. The range and collections are supplemen,ted by matching costume jewellery, premium international watches, perfumes, ,lingerie’s.

Mission

Our mission is to achieve excelle,nce in the products and services we offer, in the methods we employ and in the res,ult we produce.

Products

Menswear: menswear,r means clothing for men. Rakshitas provide various brands for menswear which ,includes formal shirts, casual shirts, trousers, jeans etc. of several variety of int,ernational as well as national brands, for example: -levis, pepe jeans, killer, lee, w,rangler etc.

Women’s wear: Women’s wear means ,clothing for women. Rakshitas provides the best options for women’s apparel rang,ing from skirts to ethnic, casuals as well as formals.

Kids wear: Kids wear are meant only for kids or children ranging below age of 12 years. Rakshitas provides awesome collection for kids which include children formal wear, kurtas, shirt,s etc.

Party wear: Party wear dresses are meant for wearing in parties, functions, special occasions etc. Rakshitas provides variety ranges of party wear which includes lehngas, wedding dresses, traditional indian dress etc.

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Control and organisational behaviour (pengendalian dan perilaku organisasi) college essay help near me

PENGENDALIAN DAN PERILAKU ORGANISASI

PERILAKU ORGANISASI

Untuk membuat dasar yang nantinya dapat digunakan manajemen dalam menyusun system pengendalian manajemen, maka kita perlu mengetahui lebih dalam mengenai perilaku organisasi. Berikut ini adalah beberapa penjelasan mengenai teori akuntansi sebagai bentuk pemahaman terhadap organisasi.

Definisi Organisasi

Secara umum, organisasi diartikan sebagai sekumpulan orang yang melakukan kerjasama demi mencapai tujuan ‘ tujuan yang telah ditentukan bersama. Organisasi tercipta ketika orang ‘ orang bergabung dan melakukan sesuatu untuk berbagai tujuan dan organisasi dapat mencakup segala aspek dalam kehidupan. Organisasi dapat bersifat formal dan informal. Pekerjaan di dalam suatu organisasi dapat dibagi ‘ bagi dan dikoordinasi sesuai dengan kebutuhan dan keahlian tiap ‘tiap anggota organisasinya untuk mencapai tujuan organisasi tersebut. Suatu organisasi haruslah going concern, dalam arti organisasi tersebut diasumsikan akan hidup selamanya.

Teori Perilaku Organisasi (Theory of Organization Behaviour)

Ada beberapa teori yang menjelaskan mengenai mengapa dan bagaimana orang ‘ orang berperilaku dalam organisasi. Berikut ada dua penjelasan mengenai teori tersebut :

1. Teori jenjang kebutuhan

Teori ini menjelaskan bahwa setiap manusia memiliki kebutuhan yang banyak dan harus dipenuhi dan kebutuhan serta keinginan tersebut tersusun secara rapih, sehingga apabila ada satu kebutuhan terpenuhi maka setelah itu ia akan berusaha memenuhi kebutuhannnya yang lebih tinggi. Dalam teori ini tersirat bahwa system pengendalian manajemen juga didasarkan pada kebutuhan manusia yang terkoordinasi dan dilakukan sesuai dengan tujuan organisasi.

2. Teori motivasi pencapaian

Teori ini lebih mengacu pada perilaku atasan atau manajer dalam perannya saat berorganisasi. Untuk mencapai keberhasilan dan mendapat sebuah kekuasaan, maka manajer tersebut juga perlu memiliki keinginan yang kuat agar dapat menghasilkan prestasi dalam organisasi.

TEORI ORGANISASI

Pengetahuan yang dalam mengenai organisasi sangatlah diperlukan oleh para pelaku organisasi dalam pelaksanaan system pengendalian manajemen organisasi tersebut. Para pelaku organisasi harus benar ‘ benar mengetahui semua poin dalam organisasi termasuk sejarah organisasi, tujuan organisasi, bagaimana perilaku para pelakunya hingga reaksi organisasi tersebut terhadap lingkungan.

Tak berbeda dengan teori perilaku akuntansi, dalam teori organisasi juga terdapat banyak teori yang membahas mengenai organisasi. Dan disini akan dibahas mengenai dua teori juga tentang organisasi, yaitu :

1. Teori Organisasi yang Berorientasi ke Dalam

Banyak organisasi dianggap indepen dan tidak terlalu memperhatikan lingkungan luar oleh beberapa teori. Teori organisasi yang berorientasi ke dalam ini banyak dijadikan dasar oleh sebagian besar system pengendalian manajemen dalam suatu organisasi hal tersebut didasarkan karena dalam teori ini mencakup tanggung jawab dalam pengambilan keputusan yang berlaku menurut proyek ‘ proyek, program ‘ program serta komponen ‘ komponen fungsionalnya.

2. Teori Organisasi yang Berorientasi ke Luar

Teori ini adalah teori kebalikan dari teori sebelumnya yaitu teori organisasi yang berorientasi ke dalam. Teori ini beranggapan bahwa suatu organisasi selalu berhubungan dengan lingkungan di sekitarnya. Ada dua jenis organisasi yang menganut teori organisasi yang berorientasi keluar ini, yaitu :

– Organisasi system umum terbuka

– Organisasi system manajemen

TIPE ORGANISASI

Ada tiga jenis atau tipe organisasi, yaitu :

1. Organisasi Fungsional

Dalam tipe organisasi ini, penekanan lebih ditujukan kepada manajer yang sangat harus bertanggung jawab terhadap suatu fungsi tertentu, seperti fungsi produksi, fungsi pemasaran dan fungsi lainnya yang diterapkan dalam organisasi tersebut. Fungsi ‘ fungsi tersebut dapat dihimpun oleh fungsi yang lebih tinggi dalam organisasi itu juga. Organisasi ini berpotensi membuat efisiensi perusahaan yang lebih baik karena menggunakan masukan ‘ masukan dari manajerial yang lebih tinggi.

2. Organisasi Divisi

Dalam organisasi ini, semua manajer harus bertanggung jawab terhadap hamper keseluruhan fungsi dalam proses produksi serta distribusi lini pada organisasi tersebut. Orientasi organisasi divisi lebih terbuka yang berarti lebih menekankan bahwa para manajer harus peka terhadap pengaruh ‘ pengaruh yang dating dari luar yang mungkin dapat mempengaruhi kinerja organisasi.

3. Organisasi Matriks

Ada dua struktur organisasi dalam organisasi matriks, yaitu ditata berdasarkan fungsi dan ditata berdasarkan program. Pada organisasi matriks, para manajer bertanggung jawab penuh atas profitabilitas dari lini produk organisasi tersebut dimana proses produksi dilakukan oleh unit ‘ unit organisasi fungsional.

Teori Kemungkinan (Contingency Theory)

Untuk mengendalikan suatu manajemen menggunakan tiga macam pendekatan, antara lain :

1. Pendekatan tradisional

Pendekatan ini menekankan pada perencanaan, pendekatan dan pengendalian.

2. Pendekatan system

Pendekatan ini menekankan padapenggunaan sumber daya manusia sebagai pertimbangan dalam pengambilan keputusan.

3. Pendekatan perilaku

Pendekatan ini menekankan pada pengendalian manusia termasuk di dalamnya motivasi dan prediksi.

PERILAKU MANAJEMEN

Organisasi dan sistemnya yang rumit akan mempengaruhi perilaku manusia menjadi rumit pula.

Konsep Fundamental

Agar suatu organisasi ‘terkendali’ maka para anggota organisasi harus mengetahui dengan baik apa sebenarnya yang diinginkan oleh manajemen. Untuk merealisasikan hal tersebut, dapat menggunakan banyak informasi yang telah disediakan oleh manajemen organisasi seperti anggaran hingga kebijakan organisasi. Tujuan organisasi dibuat oleh para manajer senior dan dilaksanakan oleh manajer operasional untuk selanjutnya para manajer senior menerapkan system pengendalian manajemen untuk mengontrol organisasi tersebut.

Persepsi Tujuan

Para manajer operasional harus benar ‘ benar mengetahui apa tujuan organisasi. Para manajer operasional tersebut dapat secara mudah mendapatkan informasi ‘ informasi yang mereka butuhkan dari berbagai sumber baik dari dokumen maupun percakapan informal saja. System pengendalian manajemen yang efektif dapat menguatkan kepastian suatu perusahaan.

Organisasi Informal

Adanya organisasi informal di dalam organisasi formal sering menyebabkan adanya salah persepsi mengenai tindakan yang diharapkan. Hubungan pada organisasi informal tidak tercantum di dalam bagan organisasi, padahal hal tersebut cukup penting untuk pemahaman system pengendalian organisasi tersebut.

Motivasi

Reaksi pada pelaku organisasi terutama manajemen terhadap organisasi dapat berbeda tergantung pada motivasinya. Motivasi dapat bermacam ‘ macam, misalnya kenaikan gaji, promosi, pujian dan lain ‘ lain. Motivasi timbul dari dalam pribadi masing ‘ masing, tetapi motivasi dapat dipengaruhi oleh rangsangan dari lingkungan sekitarnya.

Keselarasan Tujuan (Goal Congruence)

Setiap manusia memiliki tujuan pribadi, begitu juga dengan organisasi yang juga memiliki tujuan bersama. Salah satu tugas penting system pengendalian adalah menyelaraskan kedua tujuan tersebut serta mencapainya demi mendapatkan kepuasan bersama. Semakin kuat hubungan antara tujuan pribadi dan tujuan organisasi, maka ssistem pengendalian organisasi tersebut akan semakin kuat juga.

Kerjasama dan Konflik

Suatu organisasi tidak akan berjalan dengan baik apabila para anggotanya tidak bekerjasama dengan baik secara terkoordinasi, untuk itu di dalam organisasi sangat dibutuhkan kerjasama yang terkoordinir dan selaras. Selain itu, organisasi juga harus menjaga koordinasi dan keselarasan tersebut agar tidak terjadi konflik yang dapat mengganggu kinerja organisasi. Konflik tersebut dapat terjadi karena berbagai alasan, salah satunya adalah dengan adanya persaingan didalam organisasi tersebut.

Iklim Organisasi (Organizational Climate)

Secara singkat, iklim organisasi dapat diartikan sebagai hasil kombinasi dari struktur formal dan struktur informal pada suatu organisasi. Dan menurut pemahaman saya iklim organisasi merupakan suasana di dalam organisasi dimana tiap pelaku organisasi di dalam organisasi saling membantu, saling menilai, dan memahami antara satu dengan yang lain. Iklim organisasi ikut mengambil bagian penting dalam organisasi. Keduanya saling mempengaruhi satu sama lain.

Tipe Pengendalian

Pelaku pengendalian Sumber arah pengendalian Macam ‘ macam Pengendalian

Ukuran prestasi dan tingkah laku Isyarat untuk tindak koreksi Imbalan untuk prestasi Hukuman untuk kegagalan

Organisasi formal Rencana organisasi, strategi, tanggapan atas persaingan Anggaran, biaya standar, target penjualan penyimpangan Penghargaan manajemen, insentif uang, promosi Minta penjelasan

Kelompok informal Keterikatan bersama cita’cita kelompok Norma-norma kelompok penyimpangan Pengakuan rekan, keanggotaan, kepemimpinan Ejekan, pengasingan, permusuhan

Perorangan Tujuan pribadi, aspirasi Harapan pribadi, target antara Dugaan akan kegagalan di masa yang akan dating, target tak tercapai Kepuasan karena ‘terkendali’ kegembiraan Merasa gagal

Sumber : Disarikan dari Gene W. Dalton dan Paul R. Lawrence, Motivation and Control in Organizations (Homewood, III. : Richard D. Irwin, 1971). Hak Cipta 1971 oleh Richard D. Irwin Inc.

Variasi dalam Pengendalian

Hakekat system pengendalian manajemen dibedakan menurut sifat pekerjaan, macam organisasi, lingkungan daan peran manajer. Berikut adalah tiga dimensi yang perlu diperhatikan dalam penggunaan dan pengembangan system pengendalian manajemen :

1. Besar keleluasaan manajemen

2. Besar interdependensi

3. Rentang waktu pelaksanaan

FUNGSI KONTROLER

Kontroler dapat diartikan sebagai petinggi atau pejabat yang bertanggung jawab atas apa yang telah direncanakan oleh organisasi dan bagaimana pengoperasiannya. Tanggung jawab para kontroler berbeda ‘ beda di tiap organisasi bahkan di tiap divisinya. Tanggung jawab kontroler didasarkan pada posisinya masing ‘ masing. Tanggung jawab tersebut dilaksanakan secara langsung. Selain tanggung jawab dalam perencanaan dan pengoperasian tersebut, berikut ini adalah fungsi lain dari kontroler :

a. Menyiapkan laporan kepada pihak pemerintah serta pihak ‘ pihak luar lainnya.

b. Mempersiapkan pengembalian pajak.

c. Mempersiapkan dan melakukan analisa terhadap laporan prestasi keuangan.

d. Membantu para manajer dengan cara melakukan analisa sertab menafsirkan laporan ‘ laporan tersebut.

e. Menggunakan prosedur pemeriksaan intern dan pengendalian akuntansi, memastikan validitas informasi, menetapkan usaha perlindungan yangcukup terhadap berbagai penyimpangan serta melakukan pemeriksaan operasional.

f. Melakukan pengembangan kepada orang ‘ orang yang ia pimpin serta berperan langsung dalam penambahan pengetahuan mengenai fungsi kontroler

g. Mengadakan manajemen kas, asuransi serta kegiatan ‘ kegiatan lainnya demi pengamanan kekayaan perusahaan.

Hubungan dengan Organisasi Lini

Kontroler juga memiliki hak untuk membuat kebijakan ‘ kebijakan dalam organisasi. Namun keputusan ‘ keputusan tersebut merupakan realisasi pelaksanaan kebijakan ‘ kebijakan yang telah dibuat oleh manajer lini. Dengan kata lain, terdapat keselarasan antara kedua belah pihak. Hal tersebut tentunya sangat baik untuk menjaga kelancaran jalannya organisasi tersebut.

Kontroler Divisi

Kebanyakan perusahaan atau organisasi membagi organisasinya tersebut menjadi beberapa divisi yang dikepalai oleh seorang manajer. Manajer divisi tentu juga memiliki kontroler divisi. Dalam hal ini, kontroler divisi harus patuh kepada manajer divisi dan juga kontroler perusahaan yang terkadang beda kepentingannya. Penilaian prestasi terhadap kontroler divisi dapat dilakukan dengan menilai beberapa poin, antara lain :

– Laporan akuntansi dan keuangan

– Pengetahuan mengenai operasi divisi

– Sasaran dan pelaksanaan kepatuhan terhadap kebijakan

– Kontribusi manajemen

– Pengetahuan terhadap akuntansi

– Kejujuran dan profesionalisme

– Kemauan bekerjasama

– Organisasi dan staf

– Inisiatif dan semangat

HUBUNGAN LINI-STAF

Seorang manajer divisi dapat dikatakan tidak memiliki staf maupun asisten pribadi. Manajer tersebut mendapatkan bantuan dari :

1. Tenaga yang ditugaskan untuk membantunya dari staf umum, insinyur serta petugas pembelian

2. Staf pusat yang dapat dimintai bantuan kapan saja sebanyak mungkin.

HUBUNGAN MANAJER DIVISI ‘ KONTROLER

Untuk mencapai kesuksesan organisasi dalam hubungannya dengan manajer divisi, maka organisasi perlu membina kerjasama yang baik dan solid di tiap ‘ tiap manajemen. Berikut merupakan beberapa factor yang dapat mempengaruhi hubungan baik adalah :

1. System akuntansi yang seragam dan terpusat

2. Sasaran ‘ saasaran keuangan yang telah ditetapkan sebelumnya untuk tiap ‘ tiap divisi.

(Pertumbuhan penjualan serta besar laba penjualan)

3. Pembagian laba antara kontroler dan manajer

SISTEM AKUNTANSI

Selain memiliki tanggung jawab dalam perencanaan dan pengoperasian organisasi, divisi kontroler juga memiliki kewenangan atas system akuntansi yang akan digunakan oleh organisasi tersebut termasuk di dalamnya menetapkan cara dan jenis pos ‘ pos yang harus mereka awasi. Sistem akuntansi dijadikan dasar dalam penyusunan laporan keuangan beserta analisisnya.

SASARAN ‘ SASARAN DIVISI

Seperti yang telah disebutkan pada bagian sebelumnya, perusahaan atau organisasi memiliki sasaran keuangan, yaitu pertumbuhan penjualan dan tingkat laba. Tingkat laba dalam organisasi atau perusahaan ditetapkan sebaga persentase penjualan. Berikut ini adalah beberapa factor penentu target laba penjualan :

1. Kemungkinan pematenan produk

2. Besar laba atas investasi yang diinginkan

3. Besar laba industry bersangkutan

4. Besar laba investasi bersangkutan

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Business notes: Creative problem solving custom essay help

1 Unit 1 – Creative problem solving

1.1 Introduction

A business leader is expected to identify problems, implement solutions and find business opportunities. To do so, they must learn to plan, analyse situations, identify and solve problems (or potential problems), make decisions, and set realistic and attainable goals for the business/unit. These are the fundamental thinking/creative requirements for leadership, and these set direction to a successful future. Without this critical competence, you will have to rely on others to do your thinking for you, or you will simply have to learn to nurture your creative thinking skills which will help you on your journey towards successful business.

Creative thinking forms part of this continuous problem solving process, and is the fundamental basis for facilitating in the development of solutions, new initiatives, products or services. In an entrepreneurial context, the end result of this process should be directly linked to a feasible opportunity in the market environment.

Quote – What lies behind us and what lies before us, are tiny matters, compared to what lies within us. – William Morrow

The creative problem solving process consists of the following four steps:

‘ Problem analysis

‘ Solution analysis

‘ Decision analysis

‘ Solution implementation

1.2 The process

The creative problem solving process consists of an important core process, namely the idea generation process see figure 1. This is an important step, especially if you need to come up with creative ideas for products, services, and processes, to solve a consumer problem. The idea generation process consists of the following four steps:

‘ Step 1 – Generating ideas

‘ Step 2 – Developing ideas into a concept

‘ Step 3 – Converting a concept into a tangible or intangible product

‘ Step 4 – Finally protecting the tangible or intangible product

Figure 1 – The process of creative thinking (idea generation)

Initially you need to understand the problem and find the root cause of the problem. Many techniques are available to find the causes of problems, you can use the 5 Why technique in this case, if you are familiar with it. The more advanced courses will describe how to use the major problem identification techniques, but this course will focus on the idea generation process.

1.3 Where to start

In the entrepreneurial phase, the best way to start the idea generation process is when you are required to come up with a new product or service, to identify a potential consumer problem. Initially, focus on identifying problems in the area of your expertise (your knowledge base).

If you have no knowledge of the problem, the product development stage could be a challenge for you.

You will learn in the next section that not all problems are opportunities, and entrepreneurs should be careful as to how they approach this stage, when generating ideas in trying to identify a new product or service.

1.4 Problem versus opportunity

In most cases, the idea-generation phase in the creative problem solving process is neglected. Individuals normally identify a problem or an opportunity (which may seem like an opportunity, but is actually just an idea), and then develop a new product in line with the new assumed idea or opportunity. It is therefore important to distinguish between an idea and an opportunity. Resources may be wasted if a mere idea is incorrectly perceived as an opportunity.

Any opportunity is initially problem based (e.g. a coffee shop in a destination where there is a lack thereof, this creates several problem situations and potentially feasible opportunities for the entrepreneur). The creative thinking (idea generation process) involved, is the means to solving these problems, and bring forth solutions to the market problems, which create further opportunities.

1.4.1 Difference between problem and opportunity

There is, however, a critical difference between a problem and opportunity. Consider the following:

‘ Is it an idea or an opportunity to develop a high speed train between two major cities which are not far from each other? Some may say it is a great idea, but when you need to pay R200 a day to make use of it, it is simply not an opportunity. Only a few people would make use of the service, resulting in a negative impact on the market.

‘ If it is possible to transport people between the two cities for a lower cost, say R10, it would possibly be a more feasible opportunity.

Here is a good example of an opportunity – Around the turn of the twentieth century, a shoe manufacturer sent a representative to Africa, to open up a market in the undeveloped area in that continent. After exploring the culture for a month, the rep sent a telegram to the home office shouting,

‘Disaster! Disaster! These people do not wear shoes. Bring me home immediately!’

A short time later, another shoe company sent their agent to Africa for the same purpose. A month later his home office also received a telegram:

‘Opportunity! Opportunity! These people do not wear shoes! Triple production immediately!’

Quote – Every situation contains the potential for disastrous problems or unprecedented success. The event is what we perceive it to be. Unknown

Now the question arises: How do I distinguish between an idea and an opportunity? Looking at above examples, every problem is not an opportunity, and it really depends at how you are looking at the problem. If you see a viable opportunity in a problem then you are looking at the problem with a different perception than most people (the glass is half full or half empty). From a business perspective all opportunities are not necessarily a viable opportunity, the market determines the available opportunities. Without the knowledge to interpret the market conditions, you could miss it totally in terms of your opportunity analysis.

Table 1 shows the different industries in South Africa, the level of entrepreneurial activity, and how the same opportunity differs in each of these market areas.

1.4.2 The global entrepreneurship monitor

The Global Entrepreneurship Monitor ‘ specifically identified the entrepreneurial activity in the various industries of South Africa. It can be generalized to state that an industry with a high level of entrepreneurial activity, gives away more business opportunities (e.g. manufacturing, retail, hotel, restaurant and business services), while one with a lower level will indicate far less opportunities (e.g. agriculture, forestry, hunting, fishing, finance, insurance, real estate and health, education and social services).

If we analyse just one ‘high-opportunity’ industry, for instance manufacturing, it may be an opportunity today to manufacture a final product, and export it to an international market. A ‘low-opportunity’ industry, for instance insurance (especially in the market entry phase), may be negative as having an extremely high crime rate and insurance companies have to pay out claims at an alarming rate. It is also evident that low-opportunity industries may create feasible opportunities.

An entrepreneur should therefore be wary of following a fad, (latest trend) and exploiting assumed opportunities in a ‘popular’ industry.

Percentage of Entrepreneurs

ISIC Category Start-ups New Firms Total

Agriculture, forestry, hunting, fishing 1,3 2,6 1,6

Mining, construction 9,7 5,0 4,1

Manufacturing 14,3 19,1 13,8

Transport, communications, utilities 9,8 0,7 8,0

Wholesale, motor vehicle sales, repairs 6,0 6,5 6,3

Retail, hotel, restaurant 40,8 47,7 43,5

Finance, insurance, real estate 0,3 5,2 1,4

Business services 10,1 7,9 9,4

Health, education, social services 2,6 0,7 2,3

Consumer services 11,0 3,5 9,7

Source: Driver. Wood, Segal & Herrington, 2001

Table 1 – The percentage of entrepreneurs in the different industries in South-Africa

1.4.3 What is an opportunity?

What exactly is an opportunity and how does an entrepreneur exploit a feasible opportunity? According to Hesrich & Peters (2002), an opportunity is the process whereby the entrepreneur assesses whether a certain product, service or process, will yield the necessary earnings based on the resource inputs that are required to manufacture and market it.

The nature of opportunities needs to be assessed – thus, what leads to the existence of an opportunity? The following factors may result in an opportunity:

‘ General and specific problems faced by consumers

‘ Market shifts

‘ Government regulations

‘ Competition

There are two equally important criteria in the assessment of an opportunity. Firstly, the size of the market – will the number of customers reward the input and energy required, to create and deliver the product?

Secondly, the length in terms of the frame of the opportunity (window of opportunity). For example, is the demand for this product only a short fashionable phenomenon or is it based on sustainable business, or how long will it take before someone else (a competitor), to grab the opportunity?

These two aspects should also link directly to the personal skills and competence of the entrepreneur. For example, entrepreneurs with no skills or interest in information technology will not necessarily achieve their personal goals. They should rather venture into an opportunity which suits their experience and personality.

1.4.4 Transform opportunity into a business

Table 2 shows how the development of a business plan links to the identification and evaluation of opportunities, the determination of the resources required and the eventual management of the enterprise. All of these factors play a significant role in the correct assessment of the business opportunity.

This means that the business plan must explain in sufficient detail how the business will exploit the situation, to transform the opportunity, into solving a problem for the consumer, which generates extraordinary profits for the people involved.

Identify and evaluate the opportunity Develop the business plan Determine the resources needed Manage the enterprise

Creation and length of opportunity

Real and perceived value of opportunity

Risk and returns of opportunity

Opportunity versus skills and goals

Competitive situation Title page

Table of contents

Executive summary

Description of business

Description of industry

Marketing plan

Financial plan

Production plan

Organisational plan

Operational plan

Summary

Appendices Existing resources of the entrepreneur

Resource gap and available supplies

Access to needed resources Management style

Key variables for success

Identification of problems and potential problems

Implementation of control systems

Source: Hisrich, R.D. & Peters, M.P. 2002: 40. Entrepreneurship. Boston: Irwin/McGraw-Hill.

Table 2 – Link between Opportunity and business plan

1.5 Instruction

Exit and resume to your current page.

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The importance of employee engagement in an organization compare and contrast essay help

1.4 Literature Review

Mark Kilsby and Stephen Beyer (1996) ‘ Engagement and Interaction : A comparison between supported employment and acts’. This research study was conducted with the help of interaction and commitment patterns of 13 supported employees and 38 regular adult training center attainders of the organization. Direct observation was used as method of data collection, within the 13 employment sites and a representative sample of ATC organized activities. Because of the higher level of task specific dialogue between individuals and the service of the organization it is found that there is more of social interaction in ACT. Interaction of employees with public within office hours was the cause for this as per the study conducted.

Douglas R. May, Richard L, Gilson and Lynn M . Harter (2004) ‘The Psychological Conditions Of Meaningfulness ,Safety And Availability And The Engagement Of The Human Spirit At Work’. This shows the study about a U.S western company which explored the determinants and mediated the effects of tree psychological conditions they are meaningful, safe and available. The above studies shoes that all the three factors (meaningfulness, safety and availability) have a positive relation with the engagement of an employee in the organization. In other words they are completely associated with the psychological safety where as loyalty to co worker norms and self- consciousness are negatively related.

Despoina Xanthopaolou, Arnold B, Bakker, Evangelia Demerouti and Wilmar B.Schaufeli (2009) ‘Work Engagement And Financial Returns : A Diary Study On The Role Of The Job And Personal Resources’. The above study shows that how daily fluctuations in job can affect the level of personal resource , financial returns and work engagement. Different level of analysis revealed that day level job resources had an effect on work engagement through the day level personal resources. When there was a control for the general level of personal resources and organizational engagement Day level work engagement showed a positive way towards day level training, which in turn showed the financial returns.

Dan-Shang Wang and Chia ‘Chun Hsieh (2013) ‘The Effect Of Authentic Leadership On Employee Trust And Employee Engagement’ they have examined the genuine leadership on employee engagement through employee trust. They have collected data from 386 employees from top 1000 manufacturing companies and top 500 service companies in Taiwan. Hierarchical multiple regression was used to test the hypothesis on the employees. Later on the results shows that the consistency between the supervisors , words and actions as well as their moral perceptions are optimistically related to employee engagement , when only supervisors are consist between the words and actions in positively related employment trust. The study shows how employee engagement had a positive trust on employee. Employee trust has a partial link between authentic leadership and employee engagement.

Benjamin J.C, Yuan and Michael B.H. Lin (2012) ‘Transforming Employee Engagement Into Long-Term Customer Relationships: Evidence From Information Technology Salespeople In Taiwan’. This article shows that when information sales people in Taiwan have perceived more transformational leadership and they were more expected to show increased development in work engagement. Over a period of time it was found that increased development in work engagement influenced the increased customer relationship. It showed how employee engagement is indirectly co related with customer relationship.

Xander M.Bezuijen, Karen Van Dam, Peter T . Van Den Berg and Henk Thierry (2010) ‘How Leaders Stimulate Employee Learning : A Leader ‘ Member Exchange Approach’. This study investigated how the three factors as such as leader member exchange, goal setting, and feedback are related to employee engagement in the learning activities. Here, two different mechanisms were proposed , first one a mediating mechanism telling that leader member exchange shows specific leader behavior. The second one is it as a moderating mechanism , holding that leader member exchange will strengthen the effect of leader behavior from 7 organizations a sample of 1112 employees was taken , to measure the leader member exchange approach. 233 of the direct leaders answered that they find difficulty in rating employee engagement in learning activities.

Maureen F.Dollard and Arnold B. Bakker (2010) ‘Psychosocial Safety Climate As A Precursor To Conducive Work Environment , Psychological Health Problems , And Employee Engagement’. This article shows the gap between work psychology and psychosocial working condition. Where we construct a psychosocial working condition PSC. It explains how PSC influences the senior management in psychological working conditions and in psychological health and engagement. They use the job demand and resources as a frame work and uses a multi level thinking into their explanation

James R.Jones (2009) ‘Comparative Effects On Race/Ethnicity And Employee Engagement On Withdrawal Behavior’. This study have added knowledge on the basis of effects on employee attachment. In addition to that it provides more evidence on looking at all types of employees as a single entity which can lead to false results.

Shane Crabb ( 2011) ‘The Use Of Coaching Principles To Foster Employee Engagement’. The above article focuses on the human condition that leads to the happiness of fulfillment and flourishing of employee engagement. Where positive psychology results in so many questions from traditional psychological approaches .Which have mean to focus on a different model of human functioning with healing people fail. In another way positive psychology takes additional holistic approach to human life. Seeing the positive and negative aspects of context when establishing what is right , working and good of people.

Roberta A . Neault and Deidre A .Pickerel (2011) ‘Career Engagement : Bridging Career Counseling And Employee engagement’ . this article is showing that employee counselors helps individuals in maximizing their career engagement at any career stage of an individual. When you facilitate career engagement it contributes to employee engagement which employee are looking for. They even encourages others to use the career engagement and employee engagement models as vehicles to combine the employers to interest in engagement counselors to create interest in supporting the development of employee an motivate them to work.

2.1 Title: A Cross Sectional Study Of Employee Engagement In Apollo Hospitals.

2.2 Objectives:

1. To determine the level of Employee Engagement in Apollo Hospitals.

2. To identify the factors of Employee Engagement.

3. To analyze and suggest strategies for improvement.

2.3 Research Methodology:

I had adopted descriptive research design for the purpose of this

Survey on employee engagement. The primary data was collected from the 100 employees conveniently selected from Apollo Hospitals Bangalore, through structured questionnaire.

2.4 Limitations:

1) The survey was carried out for a sample sized of 100 working staff only.

2) Findings and suggestion of this research are applicable only to Apollo Hospitals.

3) As an fact finding study advanced statistical tools or analysis are not used.

Table 1.1 Weighted Average on Opportunities for growth

X 1 2 3 4 5

I have adequate opportunities for professional growth in this organization. (X1) 10 20 32 19 19

I receive the training I need to do my job well.(X2) 2 52 22 16 08

My manager is actively interested in my professional development and advancement.(X3) 32 21 12 18 17

My manager encourages and supports my development (X4) 08 10 40 18 24

I am encouraged to learn from my mistakes (X5) 52 23 16 04 05

My work is challenging, stimulating, and rewarding(X6) 28 14 33 16 09

X1 ?? XI X2 ?? X2 X3 ?? X3 X4 ?? X4 X5 ?? X5 X6 ?? X6

10 50 2 10 32 160 08 40 52 260 28 140

20 80 52 208 21 84 10 40 23 92 14 56

32 96 22 66 12 36 40 120 16 48 33 99

19 38 16 32 18 36 18 36 04 08 16 32

19 19 08 08 17 17 24 24 05 05 09 09

TOTAL 283 TOTAL 324 TOTAL 333 TOTAL 260 TOTAL 413 TOTAL 336

Table 1.2 Calculation Of Weighted Average on Opportunities for growth

283/100 2.83 324/100 3.24 333/100 3.33 260/100 2.60 413/100 4.13 336/100 3.36

RANKED 6 RANKED 4 RANKED 3 RANKED 5 RANKED 1 RANKED 2

Table 1.3 Showing The Rank Of Each Component of Opportunities for growth

INFERENCE

The above table shows that the employees are encouraged to learn from their mistakes that is 4.15 out of 5.the work is stimulating rewarding and challenging is ranked 2nd.the manager is actively interested in employees professional growth is

ranked 3rd.the level of opportunity for professional growth shows the least ranking.

Table 1.4: Showing Adequate Opportunities/ Professional growth

STRONGLY AGREED AGREED NEUTRAL DISAGREE STRONGLY DISAGREE TOTAL

10 20 32 19 19 100

Chart 1.1: Showing Adequate Opportunities/ Professional growth

Interpretation:

32% of the employees from the given population says that they have a neutral opportunity to grow where as 10 % stands in the outstanding category and 20% of them in good category. An equal no of employees disagree to the fact in the other hand that is 19% of the given population.

STRONGLY AGREED AGREED NEUTRAL DISAGREE STRONGLY DISAGREE TOTAL

2 52 22 16 8 100

Table 1.5: Showing Training

Chart 1.2: Showing Training

Interpretation:

In the given sample 52% of the employees agrees to the fact that they receive good training in order to do their job efficiently and 2% strongly agrees. where 22 % is neutral to the situation given.16 % of them do not get proper training they required to do their jobs and 8 % strongly disagree to it. It is clear that the organization is giving a proper training to employees to make their work effective.

Table 1.6: Showing Professional Development And Advancement

STRONGLY AGREED AGREED NEUTRAL DISAGREE STRONGLY DISAGREE TOTAL

32 21 12 18 17 100

Chart 1.3: Showing Professional Development And Advancement

Interpretation:

Most of the employees agree that their manager takes attention in their professional development steps. 32 % to 25 of the employees from the given sample have strongly agreed and agreed to it respectively. whereas 12 % is neutral to it . but 18% to 17% disagrees and says that they are not taken care in respective of their advancement in profession.

Table 1.7: Showing Encouragement And Support

STRONGLY AGREED AGREED NEUTRAL DISAGREE STRONGLY DISAGREE TOTAL

8 10 40 18 24 100

Chart 1.4: Showing Encouragement And Support

Interpretation:

From the above graph its clear that 40% of the employees neither agree or disagree that management encourage them or support them. 8% to 10% agrees that they have been supported by the management . but 18 % to 24 % disagree to the fact that management supports them .

Table 1.8: Showing Challenges, Stimulation And Reward

STRONGLY AGREED AGREED NEUTRAL DISAGREE STRONGLY DISAGREE TOTAL

52 23 16 4 5 100

Chart 1.5: Showing Challenges, Stimulation And Reward

Interpretation:

More than half , 52% of the employees states that they have a challenging stimulating and rewarding work. A very few of them disagree to it 4 % to 5% . and 23 % of them agrees t it there is a majority of people agreeing to it.

Table 1.9: Showing Encouragement

STRONGLY AGREED AGREED NEUTRAL DISAGREE STRONGLY DISAGREE TOTAL

28 14 33 16 9 100

Chart 1.6: Showing Encouragement

Interpretation:

There is a 28% of people agreeing to it. And 16 % to 9 % disagreeing to the fact that they are not encouraged to learn from their mistakes .

Table 1.10: Showing Weighted Average on Work/Life Balance; Stress and Work Pace

X 1 2 3 4 5

My manager understands the benefits of maintaining a balance between work and personal life. (X1) 02 13 08 48 29

My job does not cause unreasonable amounts of stress in my life. (X2) 30 13 08 48 29

The amount of work I am asked to do is reasonable. (X3) 40 20 12 14 14

I am able to satisfy both my job and family/personal responsibilities. (X4) 27 12 08 09 44

X1 ?? X1 X2 ?? X2 X3 ?? X3 X4 ?? X4

02 10 30 150 40 200 27 135

13 52 13 52 20 80 12 48

08 24 08 24 12 48 08 24

48 96 48 96 14 28 09 18

29 29 29 29 14 14 44 44

TOTAL 211 TOTAL 351 TOTAL 370 TOTAL 269

Table 1.11: Showing Calculation Of Weighted Average on Work/Life Balance; Stress and Work Pace

Table 1.12: Showing The Rank Of Each Component of Work/Life Balance; Stress And Work Pace

211/100 2.11 351/100 3.51 370/100 3.7 269/100 2.69

RANKED 4 RANKED 1 RANKED 2 RANKED 3

INFERRENCE

By analysing the given data using weighted average method that the level of stress reduced in the employees is 3.51 out of 4 , and the amount of work the employee is asked to do is 3.7. the employee is able to balance between family and personal responsibility is 2.69 . the managers understanding in the benefits and maintaining balance between work and personal life should be taken care because it is got only 2.11 which have least rank

STRONGLY AGREED AGREED NEUTRAL DISAGREE STRONGLY DISAGREE TOTAL

2 13 8 48 29 100

Table 1.13: Showing Work/Life Balance; Stress And Work Pace Balance Between Work And Personal Life

Chart 1.7: Showing Work/Life Balance; Stress And Work Pace Balance Between Work And Personal Life

Interpretation:

Only 2% of the employees says that there is a balance between work life and personal life. 13% of them agrees to it and 8% is neutral to it.but 48% of the sample disagrees and 29 % of them strongly disagrees to it.

Table 1.14: Showing Stress Level In Employees Life

STRONGLY AGREED AGREED NEUTRAL DISAGREE STRONGLY DISAGREE TOTAL

30 13 8 48 29 100

Chart 1.8: Showing Stress Level In Employees Life

Interpretation:

30% of the employees strongly agrees that the job doesn’t cause much stress where 13% of them agrees and 8% is neutral to it. But 48%of them disagree nd 29% strongly disagrees and states that job causes stress in their life.

Table 1.15: Showing Amount Of Work Asked To Do

STRONGLY AGREED AGREED NEUTRAL DISAGREE STRONGLY DISAGREE TOTAL

40 20 12 14 14 100

Chart 1.9: Showing Amount Of Work Asked To Do

Interpretation:

40% of them strongly agrees that they have sufficient amount of work and they do not feel any stress where 20 % of them agrees. 12% of the sample is neutral.14% of them disagrees they don’t have suffient amount of work or they are overloaded with the work given.

Table 1.16: Showing Satisfying Family / Personal Responsibilities

STRONGLY AGREED AGREED NEUTRAL DISAGREE STRONGLY DISAGREE TOTAL

40 20 12 14 14 100

Chart 1.10: Showing Satisfying Family / Personal Responsibilities

Interpretation:

44% of them strongly disagree that they are not able to complete their job, family and personal responsibilities. 27 % to 12 % agrees to it and 8% is neutral to that. It shows that employees are not satisfied with the amount of work given to them.

Table 1.17: Showing Weighted Average on Personal Expression / Diversity

X 1 2 3 4 5

My ideas and opinions count at work. (X1) 03 18 19 32 28

I am comfortable sharing my opinions at work. (X2) 10 08 28 42 12

We work to attract, develop, and retain people with diverse backgrounds. (X3) 10 13 09 56 12

Senior management is genuinely interested in employee opinions and ideas. (X4) 24 23 36 07 10

People with different ideas are valued in this organization. (X5) 20 18 40 13 09

Table 1.18: Calculation Of Weighted Average on Personal Expression / Diversity

X1 ?? X1 X2 ?? X2 X3 ?? X3 X4 ?? X4 X5 ?? X5

3 15 10 50 10 50 24 120 20 100

18 72 08 32 13 52 23 92 18 72

19 57 28 84 09 27 36 108 40 120

32 64 42 84 56 112 07 14 13 26

28 26 12 12 12 12 10 10 09 09

TOTAL 234 TOTAL 262 TOTAL 253 TOTAL 344 TOTAL 327

234/100 2.34 262/100 2.62 253/100 2.53 344/100 3.44 327/100 3.27

RANKED 5 RANKED 3 RANKED 4 RANKED 1 RANKED 2

Table 1.19: Showing The Rank Of Each Component of Personal Expression / Diversity

INFERRENCE

By analysing the above table it shows that senior management is interested in personal opinions which shows the rank 1. And people with different ideas are valued in the organisation are considered 3.27 out of 5. Employees are free to share their ideas 2.62. the employees work in such a manner to attract and retain others 2.53 ,which has got the 4th rank. Ideas counted at work has got the least rank where they have to work on that part.

Table 1.20: Showing Idea And Opinion Count

STRONGLY AGREED AGREED NEUTRAL DISAGREE STRONGLY DISAGREE TOTAL

3 18 19 32 28 100

Chart 1.11: : Showing Idea And Opinion Count

Interpretation:

Only 3% of the employees agree that the management listens to their ideas and opinions. 18% of them agree to it as well. 19 % is neutral to the situation. Whereas there is a huge no of the sample size that is32% to 28% who is disagreeing to it. Their opinions and ideas are not taken seriously by the management.

Table 1.21: Showing Level Comfort in Sharing Opinions

STRONGLY AGREED AGREED NEUTRAL DISAGREE STRONGLY DISAGREE TOTAL

10 8 28 42 12 100

Chart 1.12 : Showing Level Comfort in Sharing Opinions

Interpretation:

The conducted shows that onl10% to 8% employees are comfortable in sharing their problems with the upper management. Rest of the sample that is 42% is disagreeing that they are not comfortable in sharing their ideas or problems.12% of them strongly disagrees.

Table 1.22: Showing The Work They Do Is To Attract , Develop And Retain

STRONGLY AGREED AGREED NEUTRAL DISAGREE STRONGLY DISAGREE TOTAL

10 13 9 56 12 100

Chart 1.13: Showing The Work They Do Is To Attract , Develop And Retain

Interpretation:

56% of the employees disagrees that they don’t work to attract ,develop or retain customers. Where 10% to 13% agrees to the statement . a little sample size of 12% strongly disagrees to the statement .

Table 1.23: Showing Senior Management Interest In Employee Opinion And Ideas

STRONGLY AGREED AGREED NEUTRAL DISAGREE STRONGLY DISAGREE TOTAL

24 23 26 7 10 100

Chart 1.14: Showing Senior Management Interest In Employee Opinion And Ideas

Interpretation

The management shows interest in taking employees ideas and opinions.24% of them agrees and 23% of the strongly agrees to the statement. A huge sample ,36% id neutral to the statement. But a little sample, 7% to 10% disagrees to the statement.

Table 1.24: Showing People With Different Ideas Are Valued

STRONGLY AGREED AGREED NEUTRAL DISAGREE STRONGLY DISAGREE TOTAL

20 18 40 13 9 100

Chart 1.15: Showing People With Different Ideas Are Valued

Interpretation:

20% to 18% of the employees agree that people with different ideas are well accepted in the organization. 40% to the employees are neutral to the statement. 13 % to 9% of the sample disagrees to the statement on the other hand.

Table 1.25: Showing Weighted Average On Compensation

X 1 2 3 4 5

I am paid fairly for the work I do. (X1) 19 42 12 25 2

My salary is competitive with similar jobs I might find elsewhere.(X2) 32 12 28 23 5

My benefits are comparable to those offered by other organizations.(X3) 8 29 28 32 3

I understand my benefit plan. (X4) 42 15 19 9 15

I am satisfied with my benefit package. (X5) 58 12 11 6 13

Table 1.26: Calculation Of Weighted Average On Compensation

X1 vX1 X2 ?? X2 X3 ?? X3 X4 ?? X4 X5 ?? X5

19 95 32 160 08 40 42 210 58 290

42 168 12 48 29 116 15 60 12 48

12 36 28 84 28 84 19 57 11 33

25 50 23 46 32 64 09 18 06 12

02 02 05 05 03 03 15 15 13 13

TOTAL 351 TOTAL 343 TOTAL 307 TOTAL 360 TOTAL 396

Table 1.27: Showing The Rank Of Each Component Of Compensation

351/100 3.51 343/100 3.43 307/100 3.07 360/100 3.60 396/100 3.96

RANKED 3 RANKED 4 RANKED 5 RANKED 2 RANKED 1

INFERENCES

The above table shows that the employees are satisfied with the benefit package they are given 3.96 out of 5.the employees understand their plan is 3.60. the fair pay is ranked 3rd.the employees salary is competitive with others is ranked 4th. The salary is not comparable with salary with others which has been ranked the least, rank 5.

Table 1.28: showing Fair Pay

STRONGLY AGREED AGREED NEUTRAL DISAGREE STRONGLY DISAGREE TOTAL

19 42 12 25 2 100

Chart 1.16: Showing Fair Pay

Interpretation:

19% to 42% of the Employees agree that they are paid fairly according to the amount of work they do. But 25% to 2% of the sample size disagrees to the statement. And 12% is neutral to it.

Table 1.29: Showing Salary Competitiveness

STRONGLY AGREED AGREED NEUTRAL DISAGREE STRONGLY DISAGREE TOTAL

32 12 28 23 5 100

Chart 1.17: Showing Salary Competitiveness

Interpretation:

32% of the employees agrees that they get a competitive salary when compared to other organizations with same designation. 12% of them strongly agrees to it .28% of them are neutral to the statement. 23% to 5% is disagrees to the statement in the other hand.

Table 1.30: Showing Comparability Of Benefits

STRONGLY AGREED AGREED NEUTRAL DISAGREE STRONGLY DISAGREE TOTAL

8 29 28 32 3 100

Chart 1.18: Showing Comparability Of Benefits

Interpretation:

There is balance, 29% of the employees agrees and 32 % of them strongly disagrees that they have a comparable benefits.28% of them are neutral in the other hand.

Table 1.31: Showing Understanding Of Benefit Plan

STRONGLY AGREED AGREED NEUTRAL DISAGREE STRONGLY DISAGREE TOTAL

42 15 19 9 15 100

Chart 1.19: Showing Understanding Of Benefit Plan

Interpretation:

42% of the employees agrees that they understand their benefit plan. 15% strongly agrees ,where 19% is neutral.9% to 15% disagrees to the fact and says they don’t understand the benefit plans they are given.

Table 1.32: Showing Satisfaction With Benefit Package

STRONGLY AGREED AGREED NEUTRAL DISAGREE STRONGLY DISAGREE TOTAL

58 12 11 6 13 100

Chart 1.20: Showing Satisfaction With Benefit Package

Interpretation:

58% of them are satisfied with their benefit package. 12% strongly agrees. Whereas little sample of 6% to 13% disagrees to the statement. Or they are not happy with their benefit package.11% is neutral to it.

Summary of Findings

‘ Most of the employee’s ability state the opinion firmly and positively is better than acceptable standards.

‘ Majority of the employee’s ability in exercising the professional duties without assistance is better than acceptable standard.

‘ The Emotional Stamina of the majority of the employees is better than acceptable standard.

‘ Majority of the Employee’s Ability to work co-operatively and collaboratively to achieve common goal is better than acceptable.

‘ Majority of the employees Ability to effectively guide a group through an appropriate process to help to achieve their desired outcomes is better than acceptable standard.

‘ Majority of the employee’s ability to clarify and establish with a group roles and responsibilities, common goal and plan to achieve them and group behavioural is outstanding.

‘ Majority of the employees Ability to deal with multiple issues and details, alertness and learning capacity is better than acceptable standard.

‘ Majority of the employee’s ability to see and think beyond the obvious and formulate original solution is better than acceptable standards.

‘ Majority of the employee’s ability to present ideas, concept, plan and procedure clearly to the target group is better than acceptable standard.

‘ Concern for excellence of the majority of the employee’s is better than acceptable standard.

‘ Majority of the employee’s Aware of what is going on in the workplace and responds in a suitable manner to situations as they is better than acceptable.

‘ The understanding between the top level and employees are in good terms.

‘ Employees do understand their benefits and opportunities given by the organisation.

‘ The employees are paid fairly according to the work done.

‘ Freedom of sharing new ideas and opinions are welcomed in the organisation.

‘ The employees are able to make a balance between personnel and work life. which reduces the amount of stress in them.

‘ The organisation encourages the employee to learn from their mistakes.

‘ Recommendations

‘ In this organization employee engagement study must be regularly done in order to check the level of employee effectiveness.

‘ Since many of the employees are performing different jobs to what they were doing at the time of their joining they need training to perform the new work allotted them.

‘ Different sources of employee engagement tactics must be encouraged in employees.

‘ The top management should support the lower level employees since it is considered a major hurdle in effective employee engagement and the employees must also be made aware of importance of engagement at work system

‘ The employees should be then and there motivated for work.

‘ The understanding between management and employees should be increased.

‘ Level of stress in work should be reduced.

‘ Better benefit package should be given to the employees.

Conclusion

In the report we have discussed the importance of employee engagement in an organization and how it affects the efficiency of work and productivity. Employment counselors should help individuals to maximize their career engagement at any stage of their career. Basically employee engagement should be a buzz word for the employee engagement and a positive attitude held by the employees towards the organization. Employee engagement is gaining its importance and popularity in work places and its impact in many ways. It emphasis on the importance of employee engagement in a organization, an organization should thus give more importance for its employees than any other variable as they are the powerful contributors to a company’s competitiveness. Thus it shows that employee engagement should be a continues process for learning, improvement, measurement and action of an employee.

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The limitations of the Chit Acts cheap essay help

1.1 BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY

The financial system assumes strategically a very important role in channelling the funds from surplus units to deficit units. The financial system here refers to the group of institutions, markets and instruments which helps in formation of capital and thus accelerates to the pace of economic development.

The base of this study stems from the fact that there exists a gap between gross capital formation and gross domestic savings in India. So, there exists the need to augment the growth rate of voluntary domestic savings. This goal can be realized by widening and strengthening the working of different financial intermediaries which will result in mobilizing savings from various income level categories. .It is in this context that the role of the Non-Banking Financial Intermediaries like Chit Finance should be appreciated in supplementing the functions of the Banking Institutions.

Chit funds are Chit funds are the Indian equivalent of the Rotating Savings and Credit Associations (ROSCA). ROSCAs are famous in many parts of the world and is seen as an instrument to ‘save and borrow’ simultaneously. ROSCAs basically started as a way to help in fulfilling the needs of the low-income households as it enables the people to convert their small savings into lump sums. The concept of chit funds originated more than 1000 years ago. Initially it was in the form of an informal association of traders and households within communities, wherein the members contributed some money in return for an accumulated sum at the end of the tenure. Participation in Chit funds was mainly for the purpose of purchasing some property or, in other words, for ‘consumption’ purposes. However, in recent times, there have been tremendous alterations in the constitution and functioning of Chit funds. A significant difference between Chit Funds and ROSCAs are that in most places ROSCAs are user-owned and organized informally, but chit funds have been formally institutionalized in India. (Chit Funds-An innovative access to finance for low income households, 2009)

1.1.1 WHAT DO WE MEAN BY CHIT FUNDS?

Chit fund is a savings-cum-borrowing instrument. The basic aim of this instrument is to pool small amount of savings by all the members which is then managed by a foreman. The foreman has the responsibility to act as a trustee-cum-supervisors for the process of collection and allotment of the pooled amount.

Chit funds represent a traditional form of saving-cum-credit institution evolved before the bank system was introduced in rural India. There are many who avail themselves of this avenue for saving for a reasonable return.

1.1 NEED AND RATIONALE OF THE STUDY

Despite the growth of a wide range of savings avenues and the widespread network of banks and other financial institutions, it has been found that Chit scheme still forms an important part in the asset portfolio of many households and firms in India and especially in South India including Karnataka. Also, the review of literature shows that there are only a few studies on Chit Finance. Therefore, the need to conduct the study stems from the requirement to understand Chit Funds in Bangalore.

1.2 NEED TO CONDUCT THE STUDY

The research titled ‘A Study on Chit Funds in Bangalore to understand the behaviour and financial needs of the chit fund members as well as to identify the important predictors of regular participation in chit funds’ The study estimates the net returns and interest rate on Chit funds. This study tries to point out the limitations of the Chit Acts and suggests feasible recommendations for improving the working of such institutions.

.3.2 STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM

‘A Study on Chit Funds in Bangalore to understand the behaviour and financial needs of the chit fund members as well as to identify the important predictors of regular participation in chit funds’.

VARIABLES UNDER INVESTIGATION

1. Age

2. Occupation

3. Monthly income

4. Gender

5. Bank loan

6. Regular participation in chit fund

7. Membership in multiple chit schemes

8. Cause for participating in multiple schemes

9. Preferred avenue of saving

10. Preferred source of finance

11. Safety

12. Better service

13. Flexibility

14. Timely Payment

15. Low commission

16. Personal contact

17. Unregistered chit funds membership

18. Cause for participating in unregistered chit funds

19. Cause for not participating in unregistered chit fund

3.5 OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDY

3.5.1 OBJECTIVE(PRIMARY)

1. To understand the behaviour and financial needs of the chit fund members.

2. To identify the important predictors behind chit fund participation

3.5.2 OHER OBJECTIVES OF RESEARCH

1. To estimate interest rates in registered chit funds.

2. To compare the relative ratings of Chit subscribers towards registered and unregistered chit funds on

3. To estimate the return on Chit Funds.

3.6 HYPOTHESIS

There are two types of statistical hypotheses.

1. Null hypothesis

2. Alternative hypothesis.

Hypothesis 1:

H0: There is no significant relation between gender and cause for participation in chit fund.

H1: There is significant relation between gender and cause for participation in chit fund.

Hypothesis 2:

H0: There is no significant relation between occupation and cause for participation in chit fund.

H1: There is significant relation between occupation and cause for participation in chit fund.

Hypothesis 3:

H0: There is no significant relation between age and causes for participation in chit fund

H1: There is significant relation between age and cause for participation in chit fund

Hypothesis 4:

H0: There is no significant relation between monthly income and cause for participation in chit fund

H1: There is significant relation between monthly income and cause for participation in chit fund

Hypothesis 5:

H0: There is no significant relation between gender and causes for bidding in chit fund

H1: There is significant relation between gender and cause for bidding in chit fund

Hypothesis 6:

H0: There is no significant relation between occupation and cause for bidding in chit fund

H1: There is significant relation between occupation and cause for bidding in chit fund

Hypothesis 7:

H0: There is no significant relation between age and cause for bidding in chit fund

H1: There is significant relation between age and cause for bidding in chit fund

Hypothesis 8:

H0: There is no significant relation between monthly income and cause for bidding in chit fund

H1: There is significant relation between monthly income and cause for bidding in chit fund

Hypothesis 9:

H0: There is no significant relation between gender and cause for saving in chit fund

H1: There is significant relation between gender and cause for saving in chit fund

Hypothesis 10:

H0: There is no significant relation between occupation and cause for saving in chit fund.

H1: There is significant relation between occupation and cause for saving in chit fund.

Hypothesis 11:

H0: There is no significant relation between age and cause for saving in chit fund

H1: There is significant relation between age and cause for saving in chit fund

Hypothesis 12:

H0: There is no significant relation between having bank loan and membership in multiple chit schemes.

H1: There is significant relation between having bank loan and membership in multiple chit schemes.

Hypothesis 13:

H0: There is no significant relation between monthly income and participation in unregistered chit funds

H1: There is significant relation between monthly income and participation in unregistered chit funds

Hypothesis 14 :

H0: There is no significant relation between causes to prefer chit fund over bank and having bank loan.

H1: There is significant relation between causes to prefer chit fund over bank and having bank loan.

Hypothesis 15:

H0: Presence of safety, flexibility, timely payment, low commission, better service, personal contact, having a bank loan are no significant predictors of regular participation in chit fund.

H1: Presence of safety, flexibility, timely payment, low commission, better service, personal contact ,having a bank loan,are significant predictors of regular participation in chit fund.

.

3.8 SAMPLING METHOD

Members of four registered chit fund companies in Bangalore. The four registered chit fund companies were selected due to the large size of their subscriber base.

3.8.3 SIZE OF SAMPLE

150 respondents

3.9 MECHANISM OF STUDY

3.9.1 PRIMARY RESEARCH

Questions relating to behaviour and financial pattern will be found out through questionnares

3.9.2 SECONDARY RESEARCH

‘ Reports on chit fund industry

OVERVIEW OF INDIAN CHIT FUND INDUSTRY

4.1.1 NUMBER OF REGISTERED CHIT FUND COMPANIES:

According to the Ministry of Corporate Affairs, as on 31st December, 2013:

Volume of registered chit companies: 5412

Volume of chit companies in Karnataka: 703

Number of chit fund companies in Bangalore: 315

UNREGISTERED CHIT FUND INDUSTRY

Although unregistered chits are an informal source of finance but still they are a significant part of the chit fund industry. Though they are more easily accessible as compared to registered chit funds.

4.3 PURPOSE OF THE STUDY

The study titled ‘A Study on Chit Funds in Bangalore to understand the behaviour and financial needs of the chit fund members as well as to identify the important predictors of regular participation in chit funds’ attempt in The study estimates the net returns and interest rate on Chit funds. This study also examines the limitations of the Chit Acts and suggests suitable recommendations for improving the functioning of such institutions.

4.4 LIMITATION OF STUDY

‘ Unwillingness of the members to share their income and financial details made the task of data collection somewhat difficult.

‘ Collecting data became difficult since I don’t know the regional languages.

5.2 ANALYSIS OF DATA

The analysis is done on the primary data collected from 150 chit funds members in Bangalore

TESTING OF HYPOTHESES

5.4.1 Hypothesis 1:

H0: There is no significant relation between gender and cause for participation in chit fund.

H1: There is significant relation between gender and cause for participation in chit fund.

Chi-Square Tests

Value df Asymp. Sig. (2-sided)

Pearson Chi-Square 31.070a 16 .013

Likelihood Ratio 35.945 16 .003

Linear-by-Linear Association 8.809 1 .003

N of Valid Cases 150

a. 1 cells (10.0%) have expected count less than 5. The minimum expected count is .30.

Symmetric Measures

Value Approx. Sig.

Nominal by Nominal Phi .455 .013

Cramer’s V .228 .013

N of Valid Cases 150

a. Not assuming the null hypothesis.

b. Using the asymptotic standard error assuming the null hypothesis.

INTERPRETATION:

The value of chi-square=31.070 was p=.013, less than 0.05.

We can see that the strength of association between the variables is moderate (Phi and Cramer’s V -0.455).

Therefore, the research hypothesis that differences in ’cause to participate in chit funds’ are related to differences in ‘age” is supported by this analysis. This means that different age groups of the chit fund members have different reasons of participating in chit funds. As can be seen from the table above that those who belong to ’36-45 years’ have saving as the predominant reason to participate whereas members of other age groups do not have any dominant reason to participate.

5.4.2 Hypothesis 2:

Hypothesis 2:

H0: There is no significant relation between occupation and cause for participation in chit fund.

H1: There is significant relation between occupation and cause for participation in chit fund.

Hypothesis 3:

. Hypothesis 3:

H0: There is no significant relation between age and causes for participation in chit fund

H1: There is significant relation between age and cause for participation in chit fund

Chi-Square Tests

Value df Asymp. Sig. (2-sided)

Pearson Chi-Square 10.018a 4 .040

Likelihood Ratio 10.478 4 .033

Linear-by-Linear Association 6.876 1 .009

N of Valid Cases 150

Symmetric Measures

Value Approx. Sig.

Nominal by Nominal Phi .258 .040

Cramer’s V .258 .040

N of Valid Cases 150

a. Not assuming the null hypothesis.

a. Using the asymptotic standard error assuming the null hypothesis.

INTERPRETATION:

The value of chi-square=10.018 was p=.040, less than 0.05.

.We can see that the strength of association between the variables is weak (0.258)

Therefore, the research hypothesis that differences in ’cause to participate in chit funds’ are related to differences in ‘gender” is supported by this analysis. This means that males and females have different reasons of participating in chit funds. As it can be seen that males participate in chit funds for business and personal consumption purposes apart from saving whereas women predominantly participate to save.

5.4

Hypothesis 4:

H0: There is no significant relation between monthly income and cause for participation in chit fund

H1: There is significant relation between monthly income and cause for participation in chit fund

Chi-Square Tests

Value df Asymp. Sig. (2-sided)

Pearson Chi-Square 82.176a 12 .000

Likelihood Ratio 97.665 12 .000

Linear-by-Linear Association 15.696 1 .000

N of Valid Cases 150

Symmetric Measures

Value Approx. Sig.

Nominal by Nominal Phi .740 .000

Cramer’s V .427 .000

N of Valid Cases 150

INTERPRETATION:

We can see that the strength of association between the variables is strong (0.740)

Therefore, the research hypothesis that differences in ‘reason to participate in chit funds’ are related to differences in ‘occupation” is supported by this analysis. It can be seen that the self-employed members mainly participate to avail for business reasons whereas salaried employee participate mainly for personal consumption purposes.

Hypothesis 5:

Hypothesis 5:

H0: There is no significant relation between gender and causes for bidding in chit fund

H1: There is significant relation between gender and cause for bidding in chit fund

Chi-Square Tests

Value df Asymp. Sig. (2-sided)

Pearson Chi-Square 66.691a 20 .000

Likelihood Ratio 43.579 20 .002

Linear-by-Linear Association 4.804 1 .028

N of Valid Cases 150

a. 1 cell (10.0%) has expected count less than 5. The minimum expected count is .07.

Symmetric Measures

Value Approx. Sig.

Nominal by Nominal Phi .667 .000

Cramer’s V .333 .000

N of Valid Cases 150

a. Not assuming the null hypothesis.

b. Using the asymptotic standard error assuming the null hypothesis.

INTERPRETATION:

The (chi-square=66.691) was p=.000, less than 0.05.

We can see that the strength of association between the variables is moderately strong (0.667)

Therefore, the research hypothesis that differences in ’cause to bid in chit funds’ are related to differences in ‘age” is supported by this analysis. It can be seen that the members of age group’36-45 years’ are more interested in bidding for business related purposes where members of other age groups bid mainly for emergency needs.

5.4.6 Hypothesis 6:

. Hypothesis 6:

H0: There is no significant relation between occupation and cause for bidding in chit fund

H1: There is significant relation between occupation and cause for bidding in chit fund

Chi-Square Tests

Value df Asymp. Sig. (2-sided)

Pearson Chi-Square 7.167a 5 .209

Likelihood Ratio 7.885 5 .163

Linear-by-Linear Association 1.120 1 .290

N of Valid Cases 150

a. 5 cells (41.7%) have expected count less than 5. The minimum expected count is .81.

Symmetric Measures

Value Approx. Sig.

Nominal by Nominal Phi .219 .209

Cramer’s V .219 .209

N of Valid Cases 150

a. Not assuming the null hypothesis.

b. Using the asymptotic standard error assuming the null hypothesis.

INTERPRETATION:

The probability of the chi-square test statistic (chi-square=7.167) was p=.209, more than the alpha level of significance of 0.05.

Therefore, the research hypothesis that differences in ‘reason to bid in chit funds’ are related to differences in ‘gender” is not supported by this analysis.

5.4.7 Hypothesis 7:

Hypothesis 7:

H0: There is no significant relation between age and cause for bidding in chit fund

H1: There is significant relation between age and cause for bidding in chit fund

Chi-Square Tests

Value df Asymp. Sig. (2-sided)

Pearson Chi-Square 180.915a 15 .000

Likelihood Ratio 160.460 15 .000

Linear-by-Linear Association 28.379 1 .000

N of Valid Cases 150

a. 1 cell (10.0%) has expected count less than 5. The minimum expected count is .13.

Symmetric Measures

Value Approx. Sig.

Nominal by Nominal Phi 1.098 .000

Cramer’s V .634 .000

N of Valid Cases 150

INTERPRETATION:

The (chi-square=180.915) was p=.000, less than 0.05.

We can see that the strength of association between the variables is extremely strong (1.098)

Therefore, the research hypothesis that differences in’ are related to differences in ‘occupation” is supported by this analysis. It can be clearly seen that self-employed people bid in chit scheme mostly for business purposes, salaried people for emergency needs and housewives for household purposes.

5.4.8 Hypothesis 8:

Hypothesis 8:

H0: There is no significant relation between monthly income and cause for bidding in chit fund

H1: There is significant relation between monthly income and cause for bidding in chit fund

Chi-Square Tests

Value df Asymp. Sig. (2-sided)

Pearson Chi-Square 123.331a 35 .000

Likelihood Ratio 106.298 35 .000

Linear-by-Linear Association 4.957 1 .026

N of Valid Cases 150

INTERPRETATION:

The probability of the chi-square test statistic (chi-square=123.331) was p=.000, less than the alpha level of significance of 0.05.

We can see that the strength of association between the variables is extremely strong (.907)

Therefore, the research hypothesis that differences in ‘reason to bid in chit funds’ are related to differences in ‘income” is supported by this analysis. It can be clearly seen that low income members bid mostly for consumption reasons whereas higher income members bid for business related and emergency purposes.

SUMMARY:

Reason to bid in chit fund has the strongest association with the occupation of the chit fund members as the probability of the chi-square test statistic (chi-square=180.915) was p=.000 and the strength of association between the variables is extremely strong (1.098).

5.4.

Hypothesis 9:

H0: There is no significant relation between gender and cause for saving in chit fund

H1: There is significant relation between gender and cause for saving in chit fund

Chi-Square Tests

Value df Asymp. Sig. (2-sided)

Pearson Chi-Square 21.702a 16 .153

Likelihood Ratio 23.775 16 .095

Linear-by-Linear Association 2.397 1 .122

N of Valid Cases 150

INTERPRETATION:

The chi-square=123.331) was p=.153, more than 0.05. Therefore, the research hypothesis that differences in ’cause to save in chit funds’ are related to differences in ‘age” is not supported by this analysis.

5.4.10 Hypothesis 10:

H0: There is no significant relation between occupation and cause for saving in chit fund.

H1: There is significant relation between occupation and cause for saving in chit fund.

Chi-Square Tests

Value df Asymp. Sig. (2-sided)

Pearson Chi-Square 20.510a 4 .000

Likelihood Ratio 29.038 4 .000

Linear-by-Linear Association 7.062 1 .008

N of Valid Cases 150

a. 1 cell (10.0%) has expected count less than 5. The minimum expected count is .81.

Symmetric Measures

Value Approx. Sig.

Nominal by Nominal Phi .370 .000

Cramer’s V .370 .000

N of Valid Cases 150

a. Not assuming the null hypothesis.

b. Using the asymptotic standard error assuming the null hypothesis.

INTERPRETATION:

The chi-square=20.510) was p=.000, less than 0.05.

We can see that the strength of association between the variables is weak (.370).Therefore, the research hypothesis that differences in ’cause to save in chit funds’ are related to differences in ‘gender” is supported by this analysis.

5.4.11 Hypothesis 11:

Hypothesis 11:

H0: There is no significant relation between age and cause for saving in chit fund

H1: There is significant relation between age and cause for saving in chit fund

Chi-Square Tests

Value df Asymp. Sig. (2-sided)

Pearson Chi-Square 67.261a 12 .000

Likelihood Ratio 60.380 12 .000

Linear-by-Linear Association 9.507 1 .002

N of Valid Cases 150

a. 1 cell (10.0%) has expected count less than 5. The minimum expected count is .13.

Symmetric Measures

Value Approx. Sig.

Nominal by Nominal Phi .670 .000

Cramer’s V .387 .000

N of Valid Cases 150

INTERPRETATION:

The chi-square=67.261 was p=.000, less than 0.05.

We can see that the strength of association between the variables is moderately strong(.670).Therefore, the research hypothesis that differences in ‘reason to cause in chit funds’ are related to differences in ‘occupation” is supported by this analysis. Salaried people save their money in chit fund with no particular purpose. But self-employed people are equally interested in saving for house purchase as well as for general purpose.

SUMMARY:

chit fund is most closely associated with occupation of the chit fund members as it has the highest value of chi-square statistic and Phi coefficient.

5.4.12 Hypothesis 12:

Hypothesis 12:

H0: There is no significant relation between having bank loan and membership in multiple chit schemes.

H1: There is significant relation between having bank loan and membership in multiple chit schemes.

Chi-Square Tests

Value df Asymp. Sig. (2-sided)

Pearson Chi-Square 56.697a 3 .000

Likelihood Ratio 67.900 3 .000

Linear-by-Linear Association 36.400 1 .000

N of Valid Cases 150

INTERPRETATION:

The probability of the chi-square test statistic (chi-square=56.697) was p=.000, less than the alpha level of significance of 0.05.

We can see that the strength of association between the variables is strong (.615).

Therefore, the research hypothesis that differences in ‘membership in multiple chit schemes are related to differences in ‘having currently bank loan” is supported by this analysis. It is clearly evident that those members currently having bank loan have invested in only one chit scheme whereas those members who do not have availed bank loan have invested in more than one chit schemes.

5.4.13 Hypothesis 13:

Hypothesis 13:

H0: There is no significant relation between monthly income and participation in unregistered chit funds

H1: There is significant relation between monthly income and participation in unregistered chit funds

.

Chi-Square Tests

Value df Asymp. Sig. (2-sided)

Pearson Chi-Square 96.660a 7 .000

Likelihood Ratio 85.378 7 .000

Linear-by-Linear Association 59.577 1 .000

N of Valid Cases 150

a. 1 cell(10.0%) has expected count less than 5. The minimum expected count is 1.08.

INTERPRETATION:

The chi-square=96.660 was p=.000, less than 0.05.

We can see that the strength of association between the variables is extremely strong (.803).

Therefore, the research hypothesis that differences in ‘participation in unregistered chit funds’ are related to differences in ‘income” is supported by this analysis. It is clearly evident that mostly low- income members have participated in unregistered funds. This is because the registered funds have become expensive due to the increase in their operational cost as a result of stringent regulations.

5.2.14 Hypothesis 14 :

H0: There is no significant relation between causes to prefer chit fund over bank and having bank loan.

H1: There is significant relation between causes to prefer chit fund over bank and having bank loan

Chi-Square Tests

Value df Asymp. Sig. (2-sided)

Pearson Chi-Square 28.049a 5 .000

Likelihood Ratio 31.806 5 .000

Linear-by-Linear Association 2.967 1 .085

N of Valid Cases 150

a. 2 cells (15.0%) have expected count less than 5. The minimum expected count is 1.79.

Symmetric Measures

Value Approx. Sig.

Nominal by Nominal Phi .432 .000

Cramer’s V .432 .000

N of Valid Cases 150

INTERPRETATION:

The probability of the chi-square test statistic (chi-square=28.049) was p=.000, less than the alpha level of significance of 0.05.

We can see that the strength of association between the variables is moderate (.432).

Therefore, the research hypothesis that differences in ’cause to prefer chit fund over bank’ are related to differences in ‘having bank loan” is supported by this analysis. It is clearly evident that members who have bank loan have preferred chit fund over bank mainly due to better dividends. But those who do not have bank loan prefer chit fund over bank mainly due to better service in terms of more personalized service.)

5.2..15 Hypothesis 15: To identify significant predictors of regular participation in chit funds using Binary Logistic Regression

Hypothesis 15:

H0: Presence of safety, flexibility, timely payment, low commission, better service, personal contact, having a bank loan are no significant predictors of regular participation in chit fund.

H1: Presence of safety, flexibility, timely payment, low commission, better service, personal contact ,having a bank loan,are significant predictors of regular participation in chit fund.

Variables in the Equation

B S.E. Wald df Sig. Exp(B)

Step 0 Constant -1.046 .186 31.574 1 .000 .351

Model Summary

Step -2 Log likelihood Cox & Snell R Square Nagelkerke R Square

1 37.170a .533 .576

a. Estimation terminated at iteration number 6 because parameter estimates changed by less than .001.

Variables in the Equation

B S.E. Wald df Sig. Exp(B)

Step 1a bank_loan(1) 1.068 1.265 14.715 1 .000 11.720

reason_2 2.286 4 .683

reason_2(1) 1.336 1.077 1.540 1 .215 3.805

reason_2(2) .134 2.239 .004 1 .952 1.143

reason_2(3) -.559 1.896 .087 1 .768 .572

reason_2(4) .731 1.347 .294 1 .588 2.076

reason_3 4.874 5 .431

reason_3(1) 1.188 .924 1.652 1 .199 3.279

reason_3(2) 1.661 2.048 .658 1 .417 5.263

reason_3(3) -1.654 1.228 1.813 1 .178 .191

reason_3(4) .404 1.192 .115 1 .735 1.497

reason_3(5) -17.379 20.722 .000 1 .700 .000

reason_4 .355 4 .986

reason_4(1) -1.047 1.850 .320 1 .571 .351

reason_4(2) -.839 1.979 .180 1 .672 .432

reason_4(3) -.932 1.637 .324 1 .569 .394

reason_4(4) 3.519 4.199 .000 1 .600 3.746

reason_5 8.553 5 .128

reason_5(1) -.254 1.768 .021 1 .886 .776

reason_5(2) -19.245 9.890 .000 1 .999 .000

reason_5(3) 1.420 1.338 1.126 1 .289 4.136

reason_5(4) -.747 1.306 .327 1 .567 .474

reason_5(5) .561 1.342 .174 1 .676 1.752

B S.E. Wald df Sig. Exp(B)

Step 1a Safety -.075 .320 4.377 1 .011 0.928

Flexi -.178 .426 3.337 1 .021 0.837

commision -.185 .188 1.868 1 .026 0.831

payment -.267 .178 1.657 1 .097 0.766

service -.859 .412 1.348 1 .083 0.424

personal -1.122 .163 .996 1 .079 0.329

Constant 3.058 2.440 1.571 1 .010 21.291

a. Variable(s) entered on step 1: : bank_loan, reason_2, reason_3, reason_4, reason_5.imp1, imp2, imp3, imp4, imp5, imp6.

INTERPRETATION:

‘ -2 Log Likelihood statistic is 37.170. This statistic how poorly the model predicts the decisions — the smaller the statistic the better the model. Since, 37.170 is a relatively small number therefore, this model is able to predict the decisions in a better way.

‘ Here Cox & Snell R Square statistic indicates that 53.3% of the variation in the regular participation in chit funds is explained by the logistic model.

‘ In our case Nagelkerke R Square is 0.576, indicating a moderate relationship of 57.6 % between the predictors and the prediction.

‘ If it is less than .05 then, we will reject the null hypothesis and accept the alternative hypothesis.

‘ In this case, we can see that bank loan, safety, flexibility and low commission have contributed signi’cantly to the prediction of regular participation in chit funds but other variables are not significant predictors of regular participation in chit funds.

‘ Since only bank loan has p=.000, therefore we can say that bank loan is the most significant predictor

among other significant predictors. This is followed by safety (p=.011), flexibility (p=.021) and low commission (p=.026).

‘ Here, the EXP (B) bank loan is 11.727. Hence when bank loan is availed by one unit (one person) the odds ratio is 11 times as large and therefore people are 11 more times likely not to regularly participate in chit funds.

‘ Here, the EXP (B) with safety is .928. Hence when safety is increased by one percent the odds ratio is .928 times as large and therefore people are .928 more times likely to regularly participate in chit funds.

‘ Here, the EXP (B) flexibility is 837. Hence when flexibility is increased by one percent the odds ratio is .928 times as large and therefore people are .837 more times likely to regularly participate in chit funds.

‘ Here, the EXP (B) low commission is .831. Hence when flexibility is increased by one percent the odds ratio is .928 times as large and therefore people are .831 more times likely to regularly participate in chit funds.

SUMMARY

Bank loan is the most significant predictor of regular participation in chit funds. This is followed by safety, flexibility and low commission.

Instalment no No of months remaining Monthly subscription Prize amount PV of monthly subscription(PV of outlow at 10%) PV of Prize amount(PV of inflow at 10%) Net Present Value(PV of inflow – PV of outflow)

1 24 2000 50000 2000 50000 10444.9

2 23 1500 35000 1488.1 34723.1 -4832.0

3 22 1500 35000 1476.4 34448.4 -5106.7

4 21 1500 35000 1464.7 34175.9 -5379.2

5 20 1500 35000 1453.1 33905.5 -5649.6

6 19 1500 35000 1441.6 33637.3 -5917.8

7 18 1500 35000 1430.2 33371.2 -6183.9

8 17 1500 35000 1418.9 33107.2 -6447.9

9 16 1620 38000 1520.3 35660.6 -3894.5

10 15 1620 38000 1508.2 35378.5 -4176.6

11 14 1700 40000 1570.2 36945.9 -2609.2

12 13 1700 40000 1557.8 36653.6 -2901.5

13 12 1780 42000 1618.2 38181.8 -1373.3

14 11 1780 42000 1605.4 37879.8 -1675.3

15 10 1780 42000 1592.7 37580.1 -1975.0

16 9 1860 44000 1651.1 39058.2 -496.9

17 8 1860 44000 1638.0 38749.2 -805.9

18 7 1860 44000 1625.1 38442.6 -1112.5

19 6 1940 46000 1681.6 39872.1 317.0

20 5 1940 46000 1668.3 39556.6 1.5

21 4 1940 46000 1655.1 39243.7 -311.4

22 3 1940 46000 1642.0 38933.2 -621.8

23 2 1940 46000 1629.0 38625.2 -929.8

24 1 1940 46000 1616.1 38319.7 -1235.4

25 0 1940 46000 1603.3 38016.5 -1538.6

39555.1 934465.9 -54411.4

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Merit goods free essay help online

Merit goods are goods which will be under-provided by the market, therefore they will be under-consumed. They are thought by the governments to be good for the populations and so the governments want them to be consumed to a great extent. They increase the private and social benefits and cause the social benefit be higher than the private one. The best examples of them, apart from all the public goods, can be the education, health care, sports facilities and the opera.

Although the majority of the merit goods is provided by the private sectors, not all the people can afford buying them, therefore they will be under-consumed. That is why the government is needed to destroy the market failure increasing the supply and consequently raising the consumption.

To explain the reasons for government to provide the merit goods, I need to apply some examples of them. The first one can be the education. It is significant for the governments to provide it so that the society would be well-educated. Governments determine the period of education required for people (the compulsory education) to maintain the proper level of education of the society. The governments find education an important aspect that should be available for everyone as it cause the whole country to have better both economic growth and economic development.

Considering another example such as health care, the situation is quite similar. The governments want to provide the population with it because they care about the high states of health of society in their country. To gain these, the countries need to have high quality of health care. Governments often offer people unpaid programs consisting of preventative medical examination which contribute to maintain the high number of healthy people. This is also connected with the problems of the labour market. The healthier people are, the more efficient their work is, the greater revenue firms have and countries are more developed because of taxations.

Other examples like sport facilities or the opera are meant for people to become physically and culturally developed but their availability is not as important as in the case of the previous examples. That is why they are not as much provided by the governments as the rest of the merit goods.

Although most of the merit goods provided by the governments are free, the fact is that they are paid through the taxes that the societies pay. The number of the merit goods of particular types that the governments provide or subsidize depends on the necessity of them. If they are provided, the societies’ benefits get higher and so is the public treasury of the countries.

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Research proposal: The effect of pregnancy on the adolescent pregnant teen & father law essay help

Abstract: The purpose for this research paper is to address the adolescent pregnant teen & father and the effects a pregnancy has on both of their lives during and after her pregnancy. How the teens need the support of the family, community, church, and the school system. I will also address the teen father mostly disregarded in any aspect of the teen’s pregnancy and how this affects him, and how both teens need support in our society. How we can address the social problem of teen pregnancy from all avenues.

‘Three issues that have an impact on the pregnant adolescent are discussed education, identity development, and maternal support’ (Turnage & Pharris, 2013). My research focuses on adolescent pregnant teen women 19 years old and younger. It will also reflect the problems of the teen pregnant adolescents journeying thru the process of becoming a teen mother, finishing high school, developing her own identity and the maternal support she gets from her mother during her transition from pregnant teen to motherhood.

‘Several issues that differently influence the pregnant teen is individually based on the female’s chronological age’ (Turnage & Pharris, 2013). ‘For the pregnant adolescent, her pregnancy supersedes high school graduation as the benchmark for her being viewed as an adult’ (Turnage & Pharris, 2013). ‘Failure to graduate high school is associated with poor social and educational outcomes for teen mothers and their children’ (Turnage & Pharris, 2013).

‘While the pregnant adolescent is defining who she is as a person she experiences a transition to the new identity of mother’ (Turnage & Pharris, 2013). ‘During her pregnancy the adolescent’s mother is seen as the primary source of support that contributes to a positive self-image and can assist her in the adapting to the role of parent’ (Turnage & Pharris, 2013).

My research paper will also show how important it is to support the teen during and after pregnancy. It addresses the need for the teen mothers to finish high school, and find her identity. How important it is to have the support system of her mother and family to achieve all of these things. Without these support systems, the pregnant adolescent could end up in poverty, no social skills, homeless and a host of other social problems for her and her baby.

Addressed and examined is teen motherhood and its long-term mental and physical health of the teen mother’ (Patel & Sen, 2012). They used a (PCS) health survey known as SF-12 NLSY79 a study that compared two major comparisons groups of which only teens who experienced teen pregnancy and girls who did not experience teen pregnancy. On average the survey for teen mothers was on average 50.89.

The study to access the health outcome of ‘two major comparison groups, which consisted of women who were only experienced teen pregnancy & women who were having unprotected sexual relation as a teen but did not become pregnant ‘ (Patel & Sen, 2012). Estimated is that teen mothers are more likely to have poor health later in life in the study of all the comparison groups.

Along with support, they desperately need help taking care of an infant as a teen; they need a support system to take notice of how they are managing their health & well-being so that they can be a successful teen parent. In addition, being a teen parent can affect the mother’s mentally as the pressure of being new teen mom can be stressful.

The teen mothers who marry after they give birth to their children statistics state that 30 % of them will not remain in their marriages into their 40’s. This result comes from teen adolescents in a single parent home raising their child. This can put a strain on the teen adolescent because she will financially have to seek support from her family or enter into the welfare system and suffer mental health issues.

‘Adolescent teen mothers identify social support with, parenting and emotional support primary emanating from family members, particularly their own mothers, as well as from the father of the baby (Savio Beers & Lee, 2009)’. ‘Older sisters may play an important role in the support network for adolescent mothers, the supportive sister relationships decrease depressive and anxiety-related symptoms in adolescent mothers (Savio Beers & Lee, 2009).

‘For some adolescent parents, participation in a religious community programs may provide the significant social support and serve as a protective factor’ (Savio Beers & Lee, 2009). This directly stresses the point that without the support of family, community, and church with the support of the father the adolescent teen mother can suffer mental issues, poverty issues, and marriage problems.

We addressed the many issues that teen mothers have to face, so now I would like to address the teen father in our society. What are their concerns on becoming a teen father, and how do they view their role as father where their masculinity is concerned? While most of the research done on teen pregnancy and parenting mainly focusing on the mother, the father is invisible.

Interviewed were 26 young teen fathers in the mid-western American towns. The in depth survey of three themes of gender discord focused on teen father narratives, which took on responsibility, sex, being a man, this is the direct viewpoint of the invisible teen father. What they feel about getting a teen girl pregnant and what responsibility they take in the pregnancy if any. How they relate to getting a teen pregnant and how that affects his identity as a man and their masculinity.

‘Gendered assumptions regarding pregnancy and contraception’specifically that women are in charge of preventing pregnancy and they have the belief that male sexuality is uncontrollable; and that use of love and intimacy talk (Weber, J. B., 2013). The teen fathers that took the questionnaire did not blame themselves for getting the teen girl pregnant. They see the teen’s pregnancy as her problem.

Studies suggest that teen fathers are more likely to be of a minority race. He has a mother who had a baby as a teen; his parents have a minimal education. His parents do not have high expectations of him finishing school; all of these factors result in the likelihood that makes him a candidate to becoming a teenage father. ‘The research states that the teen fathers go to school fewer years less than non-teenage fathers (Fletcher & Wolfe, 2011).

‘Evidence shows that men who have children before marriage leave school earlier and have worse labor markets outcomes’ (Fletcher & Wolfe, 2011). ‘Data was used only on young men who reported a pregnancy as an adolescent’ (Fletcher & Wolfe, 2011). It affects his completion of high school.

It also affects his ability to take care of the teen mother & baby, which causes him to drop out of school early. Statistically, ‘teen fathers work more hours and earn more money following the birth of a child then his non-parent counterparts’ (Fletcher & Wolfe, 2011). Teen fatherhood results in the teen father getting married early or co-habitation with the teen mother.

In conclusion, teen pregnancy is a social problem in the United States both teens will have to suffer in their education, grow up before their time, take on adult responsibilities, and suffer financial problems to take care of the child. Which ultimately falls on the parents of the teens, society or the welfare system in which the teen mother becomes a social statistic or shall I say a number.

Teen pregnancy as of 2014 have been on the decline in the United States and increased in other states, however a positive support system for both teens is minimal at best. Socially as communities, churches and government we have to take an active role in education of abstaining from sex, talking to the teens about sex, and protecting themselves against pregnancy.

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Reconnaissance attacks in IPv6 networks college admission essay help houston tx

2.1.1 Reconnaissance attacks in IPv6 networks

The 1st larger attack in IPv6 is usually a reconnaissance attack. An attacker try reconnaissance attacks to get some confidential information about the victim network that can be misused by the attacker in further attacks. For this he uses active methods, such as scanning techniques or data mining strategies. To start, an intruder begins to ping the victim network to determine the IP addresses currently used in the victim network. After getting some of the accessible system, he starts to scan the port to find out any open port in the desired system. The size of subnet is bigger than that of the in IPv4 networks. To perform a scan for the whole subnet an attacker should make 264 probes and that???s impossible. With this fact, IPv6 networks are much more resistant to reconnaissance attacks than IPv4 networks. Unfortunately, there are some addresses which are multicast address in IPv6 networks that help an intruder to identify and attack some resources in the target network.

2.1.2 Security threats related to IPv6 routing headers

As per IPv6 protocol specification, all of the IPv6 nodes must be able to process routing headers. In fact, routing headers can be used to avoid access controls based on destination addresses. Such action can cause security effects. It may be happen that an attacker sends a packet to a publicly accessible address with a routing header containing a ???forbidden??? address on the victim network. In such matter the publicly accessible host will forward the packet to the destination address stated in the routing header even though that destination is already filtered before as a forbidden address. By spoofing packet source addresses an intruder can easily perform denial of service attack with use of any publicly accessible host for redirecting attack packets.

2.1.3 Fragmentation related security threats

As per IPv6 protocol specification, packet fragmentation by the intermediate nodes is not permitted. Since in IPv6 network based on ICMPv6 messages, the usage of the path MTU discovery method is a duty, packet fragmentation is only allowed at the source node.1280 octets is the minimal size of the MTU for IPv6 network. The packets with size less than 1280 octets to be discarded unless it???s the last packet in the flow as per security reasons. With use of fragmentation, an attacker can get that port numbers not found in the first fragment and thus they bypass security monitoring devices expecting to find transport layer protocol data in the very first fragment. An attacker will send a huge amount of small fragments and create an overload of reconstruction buffers on the victim system which resulted to the system crash. To prevent system from such attacks it???s necessary to bound the total number of fragments and their permissible arrival rate.

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WMBA 6000-13 Topic: Course Evaluation essay help site:edu

WMBA 6000-13

Topic: Course Evaluation

Date: March 2, 2014

Based on the assigned readings for this course (Dynamic Leadership), I have read an enormous amount of information about the different categories of leaders and leadership styles. Today’s leaders are different from the leaders of twenty to fifty years ago. In the past leaders gave commands and they controlled the actions of others. Today leaders are willing to involve others in their decision making and they are more open to new possibilities.

A good leader has a vision for their organization and they know how to align and engage employees in order to promote collaboration. The successful leader knows how to lead by using superior values, principles and goals that fit the organization’s values, principles and goals. Also these leaders know that leadership is not made from authority, it’s made from trust and followership. Coleman, J., Gulati, & Segovia, W.O. (2012)

I am impressed most by the characteristics of the authentic leader because they know how to develop themselves; they use formal and informal support networks to get honest feedback in order to drive long-term results. Authentic leaders build support teams to help them stay on course and counsel them in times of uncertainty. George, B., Sims, P., Mclean, A.N. & Mayer D. (2007)

In addition, I found the Leadership Code to be important because it provides structure and guidance and helps one to be a better leader by not emphasizing one element of leadership over another. Some focus on the importance of vision for the future; others on executing in the present; others on personal charisma and character; others on engaging people’; and others on building long-term organization. The code represents about 60 to 70 percent of what makes an effective leader. Ulrich, D., Smallwood, N., Sweetman, K. (2008)

The information that I acquired from this course will help me to pursue the goal of owning a beauty supply business. Another goal that I can add to my action plan is to include not only wigs and welted hair, but I will add hair, skin and nail products to my inventory. A future goal will be to add handbags and accessories as well.

After completing my short-term goal of finishing my MBA, I can take the knowledge from this course along with my values, ethics and principles to help me to manage employees and operate a successful business. Annie Smith (March 2, 20

Coleman, J. G. (2012). Educating young leaders. Passion and Purpose , 197-202.

George, B. S. (2007). Discovering your authentic leadership. Harvard Business Review , 129-138.

Lyons, R. (2012). Dean of Haas of School of Business University of California, Berkely. It’s made from followership. (J. G. Cole, Interviewer) Coleman, J., Gulati, D., & Segovia, W.O.

Ulrich, D. S. (2008). Five rules of leadership. In The leadership code five rules to lead by. Defining Leadership Code , 1-24.

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Family presence during CPR (cardiopulmonary resuscitation) english essay help

In a pre-hospital setting, there are few moments that are as intense as the events that take place when trying to save a life. Family presence during these resuscitation efforts has become an important and controversial issue in health care settings. Family presence during cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) is a relatively new issue in healthcare. Before the advent of modern medicine, family members were often present at the deathbed of their loved ones. A dying person’s last moments were most often controlled by his or her family in the home rather than by medical personnel (Trueman, History of Medicine). Today, families are demanding permission to witness resuscitation events. Members of the emergency medical services are split on this issue, noting benefits but also potentially negative consequences to family presence during resuscitation efforts.

A new study has found that family members who observed resuscitation efforts were significantly less likely to experience symptoms of post-traumatic stress, anxiety and depression than family members that did not. The results, published in an online article in The New England Journal of Medicine, entitled ‘Family Presence during Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation,’ were the same regardless of the survival of the patient. The study involved 570 people in France whose family members were treated by emergency medical personnel at home. These EMS teams were unique in that they were comprised of a physician, a nurse trained in emergency medicine, and two emergency medical technicians. The study found that the presence of relatives did not affect the results of CPR, nor did it increase the stress levels of the emergency medical teams. Having family present also did not result in any legal claims after the incidents occured. While the unique limitations of the study warrant consideration, the results show a definite benefit in having families stay during CPR (Jabre Family Presence).

Historically, although parents of children have been allowed to be present for various reasons, relatives of adult patients have not. As medical practices change to increasingly involve family in the care of patients, growing numbers of emergency medical practitioners say that giving relatives the option of watching CPR can be a good idea. Several national organizations, including The American Heart Association, have revised their policies to call for giving family members the option of being present during CPR (AHA Guidelines for CPR). Witnessing CPR, say some emergency medical experts and family members, can take the mystery out of what could be a potentially terrifying experience. It can provide reassurance to family members that everything is being done to save their loved ones. It also can offer closure for relatives wanting to be with their family members until the last minute (Kirkland Lasting Benefit). Another benefit is that it shows people why reviving someone in cardiac arrest is much less likely than people assume from watching it being done on television (Ledermann Family Presence During). Family members who can truly understand what it means to ‘do everything possible’ can go on to make more informed decisions about end-of-life care for themselves or their families.

There are three perspectives on this issue- that of the emergency medical personnel providing care, the family, and the patients. The resistance on the part of the medical community to family presence during CPR stems from several different concerns. The most common concern among these is that family members, when faced with overwhelming fear, stress and grief, could disrupt or delay active CPR. Another concern raised by emergency medical personnel is that the realities of CPR may simply be too traumatic for loved ones, causing them to suffer more than they potentially would have if they had never witnessed the event. Some families share this view, citing the potential for extreme distress as a main reason for not wanting to witness resuscitation (Grice Study examining attitudes). Many emergency medical personnel also fear an increased risk of liability and litigation with family members present in the room (Fullbrook the Presence of Family). The worry is that errors can occur, inappropriate comments may be made, and the actions of the personnel involved may be misinterpreted. In an already tense situation, the awareness of the family could increase the anxiety of the personnel and create a greater potential for mistakes.

Another complication that arises from having families present during resuscitation attempts is that of patient confidentiality. The patient’s right to privacy should not be circumvented with implied consent. There is always the possibility that medical information previously unknown to the family may be revealed in the chaos of resuscitation. In addition, patient dignity, whether physical or otherwise, may become compromised (Fullbrook the Presence of Family). Beyond moral considerations, legal concerns regarding revealing patient information are real. This could become an even larger issue if there is no one available to screen witnesses, which could result in unrelated people gaining access to personal information. Eventually, a breach in confidentiality can lead to a breach in the confidence that the public has gained in pre-hospital emergency care.

Family presence during CPR in a pre-hospital setting remains a highly debatable topic. This could be largely due to the fact that the needs of the emergency medical providers and the rights of the patients can be at odds with the wishes of the family members. Although there are several possible reasons why family presence is not being welcomed into daily practice, one of the major reasons could be the lack of formal written policies that define the roles of families and providers placed into this situation. Bringing family members into a situation where CPR is being performed on a loved one should not happen haphazardly. It should happen with careful concern and support for everyone involved. Policies and protocols, defined by experienced personnel, can provide legal and emotional support. They can also potentially help ease anxiety by defining expectations and placing responsibility in the hands of people who are experienced enough to know how to handle the situation appropriately. The policies and protocols should address the basic needs of all people involved. Five basic needs should be addressed:

1. The number of people allowed to be present

2. Which relatives should be allowed to be present (age, relationship, etc.)

3. The role of the family members present and what is expected of them.

4. The place where the family should remain during the duration of CPR.

5. The formal wishes of the patient- written as a directive like a living will.

An important component of this is available, trained staff that can prepare the family members for what they will witness, support them through the event, and then direct them after the event’s conclusion.

The American Heart Association states that the goals of cardiopulmonary resuscitation are, ‘to preserve life, restore health, relieve suffering, limit disability, and respect the individual’s decisions rights and privacy’ (AHA Guidelines for CPR). The practice of offering family members the opportunity to be present during CPR is a controversial ethical issue in emergency medical services. While the results of the study published on this topic in The New England Journal of Medicine clearly show no negative side effects from having families present during resuscitation attempts, the limitations of the study lend to the need for more research before it could be universally accepted.

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Respondeat Superior free essay help

Legal claims that derive from a situation where there are claims of negligence can sometimes involve an entity other than the neglectful parties. In certain circumstances employers are fully responsible for their employees, and the tasks they perform during working hours. During the course of this paper, the doctrine of respondeat superior will be defined and explained. Two case studies in which the doctrine was applied will also be analyzed to determine if it was applied correctly.

Respondeat superior is a legal theory that holds employers responsible for any negligent or harmful act performed by an employee during the commission of their employment duties (Thornton, 2010). The Maryland Supreme Court in 1951 was the first court to utilize respondeat superior in a court case involving a question of employer liability (Burns, 2011). This doctrine is important as it holds employers liable in court cases where one of its employees does harm to an individual. Vicarious liability and indirect liability are two base concepts that make-up respondeat superior (Thornton, 2010). Respondeat superior shows that the employer did not have to be responsible for the employee???s negligent behavior, in the form of improper training or instruction to perform harmful acts, in order for the employer to be held legally responsible.

In the case of Valle v. City of Houston, the police force was sued for excessive force and an illegal search in an attempt to remove an individual from his parent???s home (Nicholl & Kelly, 2012). The situation stemmed from a man, Omar Esparza, barricading himself in his parent???s home and refusing to come out (p. 285). After a long police standoff, the SWAT team was ordered to forcefully enter the home and remove Mr. Esparza (p. 285). The SWAT team utilized taser gun and bean bag ammunition in an attempt to subdue Mr. Esparza after they felt he posed a physical threat by wielding a hammer, but as those attempts failed the suspect was fatally wounded when an officer fired his weapon (p. 286). Shortly after the incident the mother was allowed into the home, and she reported no visible evidence that her son was possession of a hammer (p. 286). The court found that the city was not liable for damages under the theory of respondeat superior, because the order to remove the individual from the home was not made by an individual deemed as a decision-maker by the city (p. 286).

From the outside, this case seems to fit the theory of respondeat superior. As the employer, the city should be held responsible for the actions of its employees. The police, serving as the city???s employees acted in a manner that was unnecessary for the situation and in conflict of their training (p. 286). However, the court sided with the City of Houston because the chain of command was not followed in regards to the use of force (p. 286). The end result is a case where an individual made a decision that was not his to make; that ultimately cost a man his life.

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