Fluid Volume Deficit: Case Study Of Mrs Sally Marek Essay Help Us

Mrs. Sally Marek, age 30, has presented with nausea, vomiting, drowsiness, and confusion following her breast cancer chemotherapy treatment. She has been hospitalised with dehydration due to inadequate meal and liquid consumption. Her present ailment is Fluid Volume Deficiency. The concomitant clinical symptoms are low blood pressure, exhaustion over a period of weeks accompanied by discomfort and nausea, and sleeplessness. Anxiety for her son's future without a mother likely contributed to her insomnia. The pulse oximeter registered a 96% oxygen saturation. She was unable to keep up with her son due to her exhaustion, and she was also unable to concentrate on her tasks for the required periods of time. She has been suffering from dehydration, especially following her bouts of diarrhea. Due to her dry mouth, split lips, severe oral ulcers, and oral thrush, she cannot eat or drink and has a diminished urine production. Since the latest round of chemotherapy two weeks ago, she has dropped five kg and is unable to keep food and liquids down, even when consuming modest amounts. In general, she feels "terrible." She has likely lost weight due to a deficiency in food and liquid consumption. Her decreased urine output is likely a result of dehydration and inadequate fluid consumption. As a result of her internet research, she is concerned about her decision to undergo chemotherapy. Otto (2001) defines malignancy as the abnormal development of cells in the absence of or failure to perform their usual function. Complementing the characteristics of uncontrolled cell division and proliferation are uncontrolled cell function and aberrant motility (Otto, 2001). As shown in Sally's breast, this excessive proliferation results in a shapeless mass that continues to grow. As the nascent cells mature into neoplasms, they begin to vie for space and vital resources. Neoplastic growths are classified as benign or malignant neoplasms (Otto 2001). Malignant neoplasms are often solid growths that are fatal to the host. Chemotherapy, the use of medications to cure, control, or alleviate the symptoms of a disease, is the treatment of choice for Sally's breast cancer. Normal cells are also destroyed and side effects are observed, which are disadvantages of chemotherapy. The adverse effects include nausea and vomiting, tiredness, diarrhea and constipation, infection, and anorexia. The gastro-intestinal side effects are caused by the production of serotonin, which stimulates the brain's chemoreceptor zone and vomiting center (Brown & Edwards 2005). In addition to weariness, the accumulation of metabolites caused by the killing of cells during chemotherapy treatment is also a negative effect. Loss of appetite in cancer patients is a common side effect of chemotherapy (Otto, 2001). The deficiency in fluid volume induced the negative effects of chemotherapy. Water loss without sodium loss has decreased the volume of interstitial, intravascular, or intracellular fluid, resulting in dehydration (Johnson, Bulechek, McCloskey, Dochterman, Mass & Moorhead 2001). Sally is dehydrated due to inability to absorb food and fluids, manifested by low blood pressure, increased pulse rate, dry mouth, cracked lips, and decreased urine output according to subjective and objective data. Sally's fluid volume deficit is the result of excessive fluid loss following chemotherapy. The purpose of treatment is to maintain fluid and electrolyte balance. The result should be a patient who is hydrated and can ingest food and liquids without losing them to vomiting and diarrhea.

The initial nursing intervention is to reduce chemotherapy's most severe side effects, nausea and vomiting, with the provision of anti emetics (Otto, 2001). The nurse evaluates the frequency and duration of the nausea and vomiting, in addition to detecting aggravating variables. Anti-emetic drugs administered promptly should alleviate nausea. As important as prescribing her pills is ensuring that she has received them. It is the nurse's responsibility to ensure that the patient takes her medications on time, as this influences the fluid intake and, consequently, the fluid volume status; rehydration is vital to the patient's recovery (Otto, 2001). The situation should be evaluated by the physician: if Sally has not taken the medication or if she does not experience relief from her nausea, another drug must be administered in order to effectively eliminate the nauseous sensation. If she cannot take oral administration, intramuscular or intravenous injections may be administered. Otto advises, "The combination of antiemetic medications with different mechanisms and around-the-clock administration, as well as higher doses, has proven to be more effective than single agent dosing as needed" (p. 663). Identifying and removing aggravating elements, such as visual stimuli or a source of odor, prevents nausea and vomiting from occurring. The anticipated outcome of this intervention is the enhancement of the patient's comfort, her hydration, and the resolution of her symptoms (Johnson et all 2001).

The second intervention is maintaining appropriate hydration to compensate for fluid volume deficit and maintain blood pressure. Initial evaluation of the severity of dehydration is based on the indications of low blood pressure, weight loss, dry mouth, cracked lips, and episodes of diarrhea. To sustain hydration and fluid-electrolyte balance, the appropriate amount and kind of fluid must be determined. The nurse's monitoring of fluid delivery is equally critical. Sally must be instructed on the importance of staying hydrated. A fluid balance chart must be kept to record intake and output in order to assist evaluation. Documenting the amount, frequency, and type of vomitus and any episodes of diarrhoea is of the utmost importance (Brown & Edwards 2005). Patient education is important since the patient is the best person to describe the frequency of her vomiting or loose stools. To monitor her weight loss, Sally must weigh herself every morning after vomiting or urinating. Daily weighing reveals the status of fluids (Crisp and Taylor, 2005). Urine output monitoring should also be a nurse's responsibility. The output must be maintained between 700 ml and 1400 ml. (2005) Brown and Edwards. Sally must learn how to report changes in her output and present condition, as well as how to prevent dehydration through hydration and elimination status. (Otto, 2001).

Rest and sleep promotion is the third intervention planned for Sally. The discomfort of her mouth ulcers has kept her awake at night. Sally's pain is evaluated with the visual analogue scale, the verbal numeric scale, or by consulting with family members (Otto 2001). As analgesia is beneficial, Sally must be encouraged to ask for pain medications as necessary. She must be made aware of the efficacy of using analgesics. Utilize alternative treatments such as oxygen therapy, heat, and wheat packs. Sally must notify the nurse as soon as she has pain so that she can receive rapid pain medication in an effort to prevent mood problems. If these symptoms manifest, Sally will experience sleep disturbances, which will worsen her health. In addition to reducing her levels of anxiety, depression, anger, and irritability, pain management can also lessen her levels of stress (Crisp & Taylor, 2005). This enhances comfort and sleep quality. This pain reduction enables her to take care of herself. With reduced anxiety, she is able to engage in routine activities and keep a positive disposition at home (Williams, Piamjariyakul, Ducey, Badura, Boltz, Olberding Wingate, Williams 2006). With this technique, the anticipated patient outcome for Sally is restful, undisturbed sleep.

Maintaining the integrity of Sally's skin and increasing her comfort is the fourth intervention. Her oral ulcers must be examined for color, vascularity, and bleeding, in addition to any skin lesions (Otto2001). Good skin is characterized by its suppleness, warmth, pliability, and turgor. Sally and her family must be taught on skin care and the potential risks of infection posed by her split lips and low blood counts as a result of chemotherapy. Frequent movement to prevent the degeneration of pressure points and promote circulation is crucial for preventing infection. The desired patient outcome is skin integrity at the time of discharge. If Sally has a skin defect, she must report any altered sensations or pain (Ackeley & Ladwig, 2004). Sally and her family should have the ability to identify any impairment.

Sally and her family would be provided with sufficient knowledge and comprehension of fluid management for her to take care of herself with their assistance at home. She would be able to prevent dehydration more effectively and, if possible, reverse it with easy actions. If her condition becomes more stable, her everyday activities and caring for her son and husband may improve. She will hopefully experience less weariness and be able to manage her duties and return to work. The division of labor and obligations between them may provide relief to her husband. Her son will spend more time with her.

References

Ackley, B.J. & Ladwig, G.B. (2004) Nursing diagnosis guide. A guide to care planning. (6th ed.). Missouri: Mosby

Brown, D., and H. Edwards (2005). Assessment and management of clinical problems, according to Lewis's Medical-surgical Nursing. Sydney: Mosby.

Crisp, J., and C. Taylor (2005). Potter & Perry's: nursing essentials ( 2nd ed.). Sydney: Elsevier.

Oncology Nursing, by S. E. Otto, 2001. (4th ed.). Sydney: Mosby.

The author of Porth, C.M. (2005). Pathophysiology: the idea of altered states of health (7th ed.). Philadelphia: Lippincott

Mass, M., Moorhead, S., Johnson, M., Bulechek, G., McCloskey Dochterman, J., and Moorhead, S. (2001). Nursing Diagnosis, Outcomes, and Interventions: Nanda, NOC, and NIC Connections Mosby, St. Louis

Williams, P. D., U. Piamjariyakul, K. Ducey, J. Badura, K. D. Boltz, K. D. Olberding, A. Wingate, and A. Williams are all authors (2006). Adult Cancer Treatment, Symptom Management, and Self-Care: Pilot Study. The International Journal of Cancer, 29(5), pages 347 to 355.

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Business And Economics: Know Thyself Essay Help Us

Introduction

Strategic management in business is the process of establishing a long-term business plan that strives to achieve organizational objectives, maintain organizational effectiveness, and provide a work plan that streamlines the operations of the business over a specific time period (Hedstrom et al., 1998, pp.5-19). Companies have increasingly relied on consultants or strategic managers to conduct strategic audits for them in recent years. Despite the relative effectiveness of these auditors, David (2009, p.106) claims that these outsiders merely come to apply universal solutions to business management and are unable of comprehending the internal business context in order to provide meaningful recommendations. Therefore, according to David, true strategic management should be championed within firms by employees and management (pp.106-108).

Depending on the nature of the unit, businesses have both horizontal and vertical levels of management. However, efficient coordination of responsibilities should be enhanced to prevent duplication of duties and the development of knowledge gaps within its ranks. The personnel should be made aware of the proper task description or terms of reference in order for them to internalize it, providing them some freedom for flexibility and creativity so that their productivity can be realized (Banerjee, 2007, pp. 20-30). For example, the finance department should be aware of when it is necessary to seek common responsibility with the research department when purchasing research equipment.

Every organization has a vision and mission that it intends to realize over time, and these aspirations must be ingrained in the hearts of its employees in order to offer focus and cohesion. These tasks are accomplished by setting successful corporate objectives; strategic management assists in establishing these objectives. Relationships within the functional units of a business are also essential, and they should hold regular meetings to discuss and analyze business operations, with each department presenting a status report (David, 2009, pp. 106-108).

On the basis of these concisely outlined concepts of strategic management, the following conversations are held.

Important external considerations Strategic Preparation

I am persuaded that, despite the fact that all aspects of a business are significant, the external environment in which we operate is the most crucial. The following points support this argument.

The external business environment has multiple implications on the strategic planning of a business unit. The external environment refers to external factors such as the government regulatory framework, technical breakthroughs, status of the economy, changes in the cultural milieu and tastes, and the political climate, among others.

Obviously, the internal environment also plays a significant role in strategic planning and ensuring that the organization's goals are realized. These include concerns pertaining to staff management, internal operations such as sales and deliveries, and the availability of resources and methods for obtaining cash for long-term and short-term objectives. However, external influences heavily influence the internal actions that must be taken.

For example, the government may restrict foreign ownership of businesses to a specific amount, which mostly affects enterprises wanting to expand their commercial tentacles. This is because they may not meet the ownership threshold required to control the overseas subsidiary's decision-making organ. This has an effect on strategic business planning in terms of financing, since the business must modify its requirements to comply with regulatory concerns.

Again, technical advancements and innovations in information, communication, and technology have had a significant impact on internal company processes, as organizations have been able to substitute human capital with computers in order to speed up procedures and eliminate system errors.

Today, it is typical to see employees in a number of companies, such as British Airways, go on strike to demand that management stop layoffs. Because firms and corporations are spending in research and development, a significant proportion of these layoffs are attributable to technological advances brought about by the outsourcing of some corporate tasks. This results in the invention of new items rather than the hiring of additional personnel to do mundane tasks.

Lastly, cultures undergo alterations, and these shifts in tastes and preferences help to the development of efficient strategic management documents. This has a significant influence on enterprises engaged in direct product sales. A product intended for a certain market must represent the local cultures in order to be accepted (David, 2009, p.109).

Culture of the Corporation: Policies, Procedures, and Standards

A company's or organization's normal operating procedures comprise its corporate culture. It refers to the values, beliefs, attitudes, and actions exhibited by both the corporation and its personnel. The business's culture must be documented since it specifies how the workforce should behave and operate, particularly in respect to customers and suppliers (Mintzberg, 1994, pp. 259-265).

The teacher describes Corporate Culture as the usual style of completing duties in the workplace, such action being governed by a systematic system of policies, practices, and standards established and implemented by Management in cooperation with other staff members. This method is acceptable because it provides form to the concept of culture as a management strategy for constructing a company's image. This can be accomplished by having clearly defined methods and procedures.

A business can adopt a competitive strategy aimed at boosting sales or market presence by, for example, conducting campaigns to familiarize the products and explain how they are used, conducting sales promotions as a reward to the customers, and fostering the right attitude among the workforce to enhance service delivery to the customers.

According to Hooghiemstra (2000, p. 58-65), a company can also establish an innovative culture. For instance, microfinance institutions provide loans suited to the low-end market segment; hence, a thorough market research must be conducted to determine the market's sustainability. In doing so, the risk variables must also be examined in order to develop the finest loan products for these individuals so that all parties benefit. The company's well-established procedures and processes improve its corporate culture (Mintzberg, 1994, pp. 110-125).

Policies are written by management in cooperation with specialists, and they serve as the foundation for the organization's management. Policies clarify the relationships between departments and provide staff with attitude guidelines. The many documentation and procedures that must be completed before an individual can acquire a product are outlined in the selling policies. Therefore, the sales policies should put the customer at ease, for instance by assuring him that the merchandise will be in good shape. This can be accomplished by offering delivery services to the customer.

Staffing policy must also be drafted by senior management in order to not only determine staff hiring and layoffs, but also to examine the re-evaluation of staffing needs at various departments in order to promote efficiency (Thill & Bovée, 2008, pp. 20-23). When a corporation has insufficient resources, it is possible to eliminate a level of management and outsource the functions. Credit policy, on the other hand, is intended to determine the levels of credit required to finance specific business objectives, and it entails the company establishing its key recapitalization channels, such as rights issues and IPOs.

In conclusion, it is important to note that corporate culture efficiency is an indulgent process. Consequently, all pertinent processes, standards, and policies must be implemented in order to maximize the full potential of a company's corporate culture.

Prediction of Management Processes

Forecasting in a business context involves looking into the future, predicting the opportunities that are available or the threats that may affect the operations in terms of output, scanning the investment opportunities that are available, and predicting the human resource needs that the company will require over a period of time. After this, strategic business policies, such as those with a five-year time horizon, are written in account of the anticipated needs (Mintzberg, 1994, pp. 245-250).

The scale of business activities can be qualitatively and quantitatively predicted using techniques that estimate future consumption or market size and segmentation based on observable characteristics. All firms must anticipate revenue and output expansion over time.

The past and current business conditions should serve as a solid foundation for analyzing or predicting the future business environment, but only if other significant factors such as the political environment, corporate social responsibility (CSR), and the legal business framework are also taken into account (Banerjee, 2007, pp. 20-25). Analyzing the current level of market saturation and customizing products to reflect shifting tastes, conducting a study of competitors and utilizing technology to improve business processes, and being ahead of competitors in terms of embracing innovations are used to anticipate the future.

References

Banerjee S. B (2007). The good, the bad, and the ugly of corporate social responsibility Edward Elgar Publishing, Harvard. J. Bratton and J. Gold (4th Ed.). (2007). Management of human resources: theory and practice. Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan. David, F. R. (12th Ed.). (2009). Strategic management theories and examples. Upper Saddle River, New Jersey: Pearson/Prentice Hall. Hedstrom, G., Poltorzycki, S., & Strob, P. 1998. Sustainable development: the business opportunity of the next generation. Prism, 4: 5–19. Hooghiemstra, R. (2000). Corporate communication and impression management: New insights on why businesses engage in social reporting. 55-68. Journal of Business Ethics, 27(1/2). Mintzberg, H. (1994). The ascent and collapse of strategic planning: rethinking the roles of planning, plans, and planners New York City: Simon & Schuster Thill J. V., & Bovée C. L. (2008) Excellence in business communication Pearson Education, Limited, in Chicago.

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Organizational Challenges And Business Strategic Management Essay Help Us

Table of Contents
Introduction An Analysis of the Complex Problem Illustration of the Systems Approach: A Critical Analysis Recommendations for Critical Evaluation and Extra Considerations Conclusion References

Introduction

Businesses have a variety of difficulties or hurdles that necessitate prompt, evidence-based solutions to improve the situation. Depending on the underlying variables and effects, some of these obstacles may be simple, difficult, or insurmountable. Some intractable obstacles can threaten the future performance and prosperity of a company or an entire industry. These are classified as "wicked" because they necessitate unique tactics for resolution, while also acknowledging that a viable solution may be lacking. Fortunately, some theorists have developed models and notions that can assist managers and organizational leaders in resolving such complex issues. The goal of this study is to apply an effective soft systems approach to addressing environmental degradation and pollution-causing misconduct in my current workplace. The selected company is an industry leader in the production and distribution of fresh juices and processed goods.

An Analysis of the Complex Problem

Business companies operate in contexts and conditions that undergo constant change. Managers should be aware of prospective possibilities and obstacles that could enhance performance and maximize shareholder value. New policies and guidelines have arisen to guide commercial entities' activities, behaviors, and strategies (Checkland, 2006). A comprehensive review of such rules and regulations can serve as the basis for an evidence-based strategy to increase potential obstacles and enhance profitability. The selected example of a wicked problem at my current workplace is the company's unsustainable activities, which continue to harm the ecological integrity.

This organization has an established supply chain management that involves suppliers, logistics companies, and customers. This organization has loosened some of its environmental protection and pollution reduction measures. The majority of staff confirm that untreated effluents had been released into the neighboring river. Additionally, the company fails to implement effective measures to reduce its emissions (Michalko, 2006). As a result, community members have continued to express their concern after discovering that the majority of aquatic species downstream have been dying.

The corporation has been presenting its products as sustainable and suitable for the natural environment, however the company's continual malpractices seem to contradict this claim. This organization has failed to integrate effective methods to address the ongoing difficulties faced by many stakeholders. The rising amount of pollution has rendered it hard for the majority of workers to perform their responsibilities effectively (Proctor, 2013). These circumstances have been recognized as a potential cause of decreased employee engagement and output. If this organization does not adopt a robust solution to address this perplexing issue, it will likely become unsustainable and unable to meet the needs of more stakeholders. Unless a new change is documented, the organization will also record an increase in lawsuits. The integrity of its business model and its pledge to seek corporate social responsibility (CSR) as its driving force has been undermined by such misconduct.

This issue is a wicked problem because it harms the natural environment, disrupts the lives and expectations of many people, and prevents more workers from achieving their goals. The condition has worsened as a result of the failure of all leaders to examine innovative measures to improve the circumstance (Hicks, 2004). The number of community member complaints has increased. Due to the presence of a problem of this magnitude, the company risks losing the majority of its clients and thus becoming less competitive in its industry (Yuliansyah, Gurd and Mohamed, 2017). These factors support the decision to create a better model to solve the situation and empower a greater number of people to execute their tasks in an optimal manner.

Analysis of the Systems Methodology

Due to the nature of wicked problems, it is difficult to define them and develop an effective solution model. Diverse models or methodologies for critical thinking have arisen, which diverse professionals and managers might employ to resolve them (Yi, Park and Kim, 2019). The collaborative model, which has been utilized for decades, is the first. This framework and all those derived from it are intended to ensure that all important stakeholders are informed and involved in developing a sustainable solution to the issue (Reynolds and Holwell, 2010). Before determining a unified strategy, all persons and organizations are urged to convene and discuss the essential issues (Grozdanovska, Jankulovski and Bojkovska, 2017). Adopting this method has enabled numerous businesses and even communities to find answers to some of the nasty problems they may be experiencing (Morrison, 2017). The current situation, however, may not profit from such models, as they are simplistic and lack clear rules for generating favorable results. In addition, it will take time until the desired outcomes may be obtained.

Organizations have utilized a competitive strategy to address a vast array of difficult problems. This model focuses on the most effective ways to reduce the number of problem-solving participants. This technique is significant since it enables folks to reduce objection and complication levels (Hosseini and Mahesh, 2016). Ghazzawi (2018), on the other hand, regards such an approach as problematic because the major stakeholders may fail to consider the needs and expectations of the other individuals or community members. Consequently, the company may face additional obstacles or possibly fail to achieve beneficial results.

Critical thinking has arisen as a strategy based on empirical evidence for addressing complex challenges at the business and societal levels. This concept encourages the use of skepticism and reason in an effort to comprehend the true nature of a given situation (Daft, Murphy and Willmott, 2017). At the business level, a potential solution must be documented as quickly as feasible with the participation of multiple parties. Consideration of factual evidence becomes standard in order to present pertinent information and ultimately inform the problem-solving process (Mukhezakule and Tefera, 2019). Nonetheless, this paradigm disregards the significance of better norms and procedures that diverse actors must take prior to reaching a consensus and adopting the answer.

The notion of planning has been utilized to overcome the majority of obstacles that commercial organizations may face when pursuing their objectives. According to Claxton and Lucas (2007), this notion can aid stakeholders in identifying possible difficulties before they impact future performance. Using this framework, stakeholders can pursue the case of environmental deterioration because it stimulates the participation of several actors and provides superior guidance throughout the process (Samiee and Chirapanda, 2019). This planning model's primary shortcoming is that it requires a great deal of time before favorable results can be documented. Some managers may disregard its relevance and examine contemporary ways for documenting positive results.

The soft systems approach has evolved as a potent paradigm that managers and leaders can employ to implement more changes and deliver novel solutions to difficult situations. The concept is still important since it focuses on varied stakeholder groups, such as customers, community members, developers, supervisors, policymakers, and employees (Schotthofer, 2017). The concept is implemented as a procedure in which diverse participants receive enough guidance and ideas to find answers to a complicated challenge. Due to the nature of the existing issue, the interested parties begin to communicate and make the necessary adjustments (Rittel, 1973). Those with the necessary skills and knowledge will be involved in bridging the gap and developing new solutions. It consists of seven distinct processes that may not be completed if a solution is discovered considerably sooner (Cordoba-Pachon, 2010). In addition, its cyclical structure enables the parties engaged to repeat the procedure until the desired results are achieved. Compared to the other models, the systems approach appears to be the most plausible because it involves all stakeholders and allows them to contribute timely insights and suggestions (Grimes, 2019). The other models fail to account for the participation of some of the main players and may be time-consuming without producing significant results.

Illustrative Application

The soft systems methodology consists of seven steps that all leaders must consider when attempting to solve complex scenarios or challenges. First, the parties must collect sufficient information that can inform or facilitate their understanding of the apparent wicked problem (Camillus, 2016). They will create the necessary documentation and conduct interviews with various parties. The organization will need to monitor its existing organizational structure and how it may be permitting such a threat to emerge (see Figure 1). Second, the appropriate leaders will critically describe and assess the problem (Wilson and Haperen, 2015). They will analyze the various causes, roles of different employees or leaders, and departments that may be involved, as well as project the appropriate image. Thirdly, the company's leaders would define the ideal condition or functions that would facilitate the achievement of the desired objectives. During this phase, all systems supporting the organization's operations should be considered. Customers, actors, community members, environmental restrictions, and the dominant worldview are examples of some of these systems (Maon and Sen, 2016). Fourth, the business will continue to develop conceptual models capable of supporting each of the systems specified in phase 3.

Figure 1. Soft systems technique (Mulder, 2018)

Fifthly, the participating players and leaders evaluate the conceptual models against reality. The ultimate objective is to comprehend how elements and activities must function or look in the real world (Bertain and Humphreys, 2017). This information will make it easy for them to consider the optimal solutions for the problem. After analyzing their effectiveness and practicability, fresh improvements can be implemented. Participants will collaborate and take action to fix a perceived problem on day seven. In this step, the thoughts and ideas developed during the sixth stage will be evaluated and implemented (Incropera, 2016). A feature of this problem-solving tool is that it directs all stakeholders to evaluate the necessity of repeating the procedure if no positive results are obtained.

Critical Evaluation

The aforementioned model is capable of aiding the intended organization in eliminating the existing wicked problem. The framework provides directives that all leaders must evaluate in order to comprehend the nature of this dilemma. Specific characteristics make it suitable to this topic. The first is that it recognizes that all stakeholders have contributed to the emergence and worsening of the problem (Kabeyi, 2019). This means that the steps indicated provide an opportunity to learn more about their acts or inactions that may have contributed to the increase in pollution levels (Ries, 2017). The second characteristic that makes it relevant is the presence of multiple phases that facilitate examination and analysis of the situation. Stakeholders have the opportunity to participate in every stage in an effort to produce long-lasting solutions to the specified problem.

The third characteristic linked with it is the capacity to collect excessive information at the onset of a crisis. The interested parties will be required to present their perspectives on the difficulty and explain why it has arisen in this manner (Rackley, 2015). This accomplishment makes it easier for leaders to have a solid understanding of the situation and to ultimately propose actionable plans. The cyclical character of this paradigm is the fourth feature that makes it relevant. Participants will have to repeat the entire procedure if they are unable to find a common ground and implement adjustments that can address the problem (Wang et al., 2016). This practice presents a new opportunity to collect additional ideas, develop new processes, and test additional ways for timely delivery of great outcomes.

Focusing on the stated problem of pollution and environmental deterioration, the chosen organization will find this approach helpful in resolving it and will involve all essential stakeholders. While the strategy may not guarantee instant success, it appears superior and capable of providing the business with fast outcomes (Wilton, 2016). Consideration of the grievances and the effort to align them with the observed reality is an effective method for evaluating potential action plans and anticipated results. This program will equip participants to overcome some of the anticipated obstacles to reaching common ground or a solution (Sanyal and Hisam, 2018). It is feasible that the business will be willing to enhance and revamp its business model.

Recommendations and Extra Factors to Consider

The current wicked challenge has the potential to impact the organization's performance and profitability. Currently, the world is concentrating on practices and projects that can conserve the natural environment and sustain human life in the future. Companies that engage in immoral behavior represent a significant threat to the sustainability of Earth. Policymakers, politicians, environmentalists, and human rights campaigners have launched a new campaign to persuade governments and corporations to protect the environment (Kouzes and Posner, 2017). Due to the nature of this intractable problem, the company may continue to be unsustainable and lose the majority of its consumers in the foreseeable future.

The proposed model for soft systems stands out because it focuses on this problem as a complicated and detailed one that may not be addressed by other frameworks. The ideal strategy for resolving this issue is to establish the strategy and begin by gathering sufficient information about it. Following this will be a full explanation of the situation (Mayfield and Mayfield, 2017). The evidence will be assessed based on the positions and perspectives of the major players. The leaders will enter the third phase of the theory to formulate the pertinent problem-related definitions (Mathu and Phetla, 2018). They will analyze, for instance, how the issue affects logistical partners, customers, and staff. It will be important to take note of the current worldview in order to comprehend the issue's external implications (Marquis and Huston, 2015). The individuals will investigate if the present procedures, resources, and personnel are capable of implementing the necessary modifications. This strategy will determine whether the organization has a second shot to achieve its objectives.

Professionals will direct all stakeholders in the creation of conceptual frameworks or models for each potential activity. They will take these ideals even farther by basing them on commercial and environmental philosophies. The purpose of this practice is for the leaders to identify and acknowledge that their company has failed to conform to the expectations of the world (Rezaee, 2017). This will become a gap analysis for finding the possible tradeoffs and action plans that are informed by

Starbucks Corporation’s Marketing Evaluation Essay Help Us

Daily, Starbucks sells coffee in more than 80 markets. In the 1980s of the 20th century, the company was a little Seattle store. Now, Starbucks coffee stores carry beverages to airports, shopping malls, city centers, and everywhere else it is feasible. The success of a business is founded on its marketing techniques and core principles. This study will examine the Starbucks marketing strategy and its components.

Starbucks Corporation Evaluation

The Degree of Engagement

Typically, Starbucks is regarded as a high-quality coffee shop for customers who like to hold a meeting in a tranquil and serene environment while holding a cup of coffee. In this instance, though, the level of consumer interaction is relatively high. Unlike low-involvement decisions, high-involvement ones provide a risk to the consumer, necessitating additional consideration time. Currently, Starbucks' pricing are slightly higher than those of its competitors, which poses a risk for the client if the product's quality or flavor is subpar after purchase. With Starbucks' global awareness, the brand may rely on the habitual response behavior — customers in the majority of nations have already tasted its flavor and quality and may be prepared to seek it out again.

Customer Determination Method

A customer who purchases a cup of coffee is similarly participating in the decision-making process. To meet a coworker for a work conversation, a buddy working on the same project, or to take a break may be the first step in the process – recognizing the need. Having used or at least heard of the Starbucks product, the consumer may require less time to finish the second stage – the information search. The evaluation of alternatives, the third phase, involves a customer-important criterion. It could be the product's quality, its image, its flavor, or the location where it is served, as coffee culture also involves savoring the moment while sipping a beloved beverage. Due to the high quality of the aforementioned qualities, a typical Starbucks customer may prefer the coffee shop over its competitors. The purchase and post-buy stages are thoughtfully developed; the brand has numerous affiliates and offers a variety of programs.

The Effect of the Marketing Group

The brand's marketing team can facilitate decision-making phases. First, marketers can speed up the recognition of a need; in other words, they can force consumers to buy coffee. To do this, the team may market the product via Instagram, Telegram, and Facebook profiles or participate in various ecological projects to spread its label to as many locations as possible. Greater exposure increases the likelihood that a customer will purchase a company's product. Brand expansion can considerably facilitate the information-searching phase. Similarly, the visibility of the label to the target market improves the search and secures the consumer's selection.

The marketing team may then also have an impact on the evaluation step. To encourage the client to purchase their product, they may emphasize a value that is vital to the buyer, such as high-quality beans, low-calorie appetizers, skim milk, or recyclable cup paper. The buying process is streamlined in the coffee shop; any customer may pay with a credit card or cash, and waits are never an issue thanks to the coffee shop's numerous affiliates in major cities. In the company, the post-purchase period is handled with skill. In order to encourage customers to seek out the company's product, the corporation offers a generous discount and incentive scheme.

The Roles in Decision-Making Evaluation

Initiator, Influencer, Decider, Buyer, and User are the decision-making roles when purchasing and utilizing a product. An initiate and a purchaser may be the same individual, but an influencer may be a friend or society as a whole. By providing a widely-recognized label on the cup, an image of the brand may positively effect the consumer's ego (Haskova, 2015). Keeping this in mind, a buyer enters into a contract with the corporation. Therefore, the function of the deciding may also be transferred to the individual's society or community. With media and rumors traversing the globe in a digitalized age, the position of influencer may be the most crucial. The impression, opinion, or viewpoint is generated by the social media opinions of the public. All three components shape an individual's opinion and impact their buying decision.

The Starbucks Advertising Plan

The Starbucks corporation utilizes a distinct marketing strategy. This strategy involves targeting multiple market segments with campaigns tailored to satisfy the needs and requirements of these segments. The company caters to affluent, discerning adult consumers by providing high-quality, nutritious beverages and a venue for private meetings or work (Haskova, 2015). The brand also appeals to youthful consumers by offering an assortment of syrups and coffee varieties. For health-conscious customers, salads and baked goods are prepared without the use of corn syrup. Additionally, the company promises to utilize 10% recycled paper and offers 10% savings on beverages served in reusable cups, appealing to the ecologically conscious market.

The Evaluation of Segmentation Efficiency

No business should commit an error while segmenting the market. Despite the difficulty of measuring certain variables, Starbucks examines the size, demographics, and purchasing power of its client categories. The latter consists of affluent adult consumers and environmentally and health-conscious young clients. The portion is then accessed through media outlets, such as Instagram advertisements, Internet articles, and outdoor advertising. Additionally, the company has developed and promoted its application, which includes notifications about its new products and initiatives.

In the current world, the middle class with roughly the same level of wellbeing is quite extensive. Consequently, it is a big market niche for the corporation, as adults and their children can enjoy its goods wherever. With a market valuation of more than 102 billion dollars and more than 291 thousand people, Starbucks is able to provide all created services and initiatives. Among them are equipment, personnel, application design and promotion, commodities, and coffee plantation operations.

The Worth of the Starbucks Brand

When constructing a successful business, value is the most important factor. Before Starbucks was founded, its chairman, Howard Schultz, envisioned it as a place for interaction and a sense of community. He envisioned the coffee shop as a place where people might connect, converse, and even work. As the globe evolves exponentially, new avenues for communication and collaboration are required. A sense of community is a fundamental psychological human need and an aspirational objective. Currently, the brand image is received precisely as intended. Customers use coffee shops to spend time together, collaborate on new projects, and exchange time and ideas. A cup of coffee with a green label is regarded as a reliable and premium product.

Starbucks' Key Criteria for Successful Positioning

Positioning a brand is one of the cornerstones to a business's success. It refers to the customer's loyalty, brand equity, and propensity to buy the goods. For a brand to achieve consumer loyalty, it must be likable, believable, and distinct from its competitors. Starbucks' effective positioning includes its product, name, visual identity, communication approach, and price (Haskova, 2015). The company asserts that it assumes ecological and social responsibility in the operation of coffee farms and, as a result, provides a high-quality product to customers. The company's name is easy to speak and remember, even unintentionally, due to its simplicity and allure. The visual part of the brand is clear and bright – the green label on a white background – which enables one to recall the image. By concentrating brand information within a well-designed location and application, the company made the brand instantly recognizable to buyers. Relatively high prices highlight the product's quality and define the target market.

Starbucks, a globally renowned coffee shop company, began as a little shop in Seattle. With a shrewd marketing strategy and a profound grasp of and continued promotion of its most important value – a sense of community – the company is now one of the market leaders. The green label is known across the globe due to a thorough and shrewd approach to segmentation, customer decision-making, and offline and online promotion.

References

Haskova, K. (2015). CRIS – Bulletin of the Centre for Research and Interdisciplinary Study, 1(1), 11-29. doi: 10.1515/cris-2015-0002.

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Electronic Commerce: Big Changes In The Business World Essay Help Us

Table of Contents
E-Commerce Boundaries and Restriction Defined Internet Commerce Security Conclusion Citations

E-Commerce Explanation

Electronic commerce (e-commerce) is any sort of business transaction in which the parties communicate electronically instead of through physical transactions or direct physical touch.

Globally, electronic commerce is a means of facilitating and supporting larger changes in the business world. It enables businesses to be more efficient and adaptable in their internal processes, to collaborate more closely with their suppliers, and to be more responsive to their consumers' requirements and expectations. It enables businesses to select the best suppliers regardless of their geographic location and to sell their products on a worldwide scale.

Electronic trade is a subset of electronic commerce in which a supplier sells goods or services to a client in exchange for payment. Electronic retailing is a subset of electronic trade in which the customer is an individual consumer as opposed to another business. Despite the economic significance of these exceptional circumstances, they are merely samples of the more general case of any type of business operation or transaction undertaken via electronic media. Other instances are internal transactions within a single corporation and the free release of information to an external entity.

Limits and Boundaries of E-Commerce

Despite the early technological limitations of the Internet, businesses were quick to see the significance of the Internet and the World Wide Web in particular as a means to communicate with clients around the globe (Hoque, 2000).

Electronic commerce will have far-reaching effects on both businesses and society as a whole. Electronic commerce presents the possibility of breakpoint changes for organizations that fully exploit its potential; changes that so drastically alter customer expectations that they redefine the market or create totally new markets. These changes in markets and customer expectations will have an effect on all other businesses, including those that attempt to ignore new technologies. Individual members of society will also be presented with whole new methods for purchasing items, gaining access to information and services, and interfacing with government branches. The selection will be substantially expanded, and geographical and temporal constraints will be eliminated. The effect on lifestyle may be analogous to, instance, the increase in automobile ownership or the proliferation of the telephone.

The frontiers of electronic trade are not determined by geography or national borders, but by the reach of computer networks. Since the most significant networks are global in reach, electronic commerce enables even the smallest suppliers to have a global presence and conduct global business.

Internet Security

Consumers are most concerned about the security of online transactions, fearing that hackers would gain access to their accounts and squander their money (The Pros and the cons, 2004). Credit cards are susceptible to security vulnerabilities, particularly in online transactions. Credit card information is not embedded in unsecure routes. Whoever succeeds to intercept your credit card information can readily exploit your credit line for their own objectives. Consequently, making you pay for errors you have never committed (The Pros and Cons of Using a Credit Card, 2006).

Since the Internet is a public network, firms offering e-commerce sites must protect their own and their customers' banking information, credit card numbers, Social Security numbers, and other sensitive data (What you should know about internet banking, 2007).

Criminals don't always need weapons and masks to threaten and rob money; all they need is a social security number or a pre-approved credit card application from trash to get their evil way (ID Theft, 2004). Some consumers' credit card data and Social Security numbers have been compromised and used fraudulently, resulting in identity theft. By taking appropriate precautions to protect sensitive personal information, you can reduce the likelihood that it will be taken by identity thieves (What you should know about internet banking, 2007).

Credit card numbers, driver's license numbers, social security numbers, dates of birth, and other forms of identity can generate thousands of dollars for thieves in a relatively short period of time. Typically, identity thieves gain your identifying numbers and obtain credit in your name by having credit cards, goods, or services sent to their residence or mail drop. Since the bills for charges are sent to the address of the thief, the consumers will be unaware that debt is accruing in their name until the collections department finds them down (McGoey, 2007).

In light of these internet security problems, there are numerous ways and steps to consider when launching an e-commerce website.

The first step is cataloguing products. The e-catalog presents products as photos accompanied by textual descriptions, prices, and product options. Any definition of e-commerce must have a knowledge of databases. Instead of "printing" each product web page individually, a database generates and populates a single page. This means that instead of a thousand pages for a thousand products, only one page, known as a template, is utilized. The database populates the template's blank spaces (such as image space, pricing space, description space, etc.) with relevant information. The link to the product has the necessary information to populate the placeholders with the correct data.

Also required is the development of a navigation system. Typically, the initial set of links will consist of product categories and will generate a list of specific items inside that category, similar to links. These links will then call the specific product on the template page. This method is known as drilling down.

When a user clicks the "buy" button, the product's identifier is added to the shopping basket. This is a space in the computer's memory that has been reserved for this user. Until the visitor is ready to purchase, additional commands can add or remove numbers from this space. When a visitor advances to the checkout, her information is transferred from the temporary memory space to an empty section of the database, together with a list of the items she is purchasing, the pricing, options, etc.

Additionally, there are the payment terms. There are numerous online payment methods, and they all involve a secure socket layer (SSL). Once collected, the credit card number is kept for subsequent retrieval to be processed via standard PDQ facilities (swiping machine or telephone) or cleared via the Internet by a specialist-clearing house that contacts the visitor's bank.

After the online payment has been cleared, the clearinghouse will notify your website so that a receipt and/or order confirmation can be issued automatically for the customer. This can be accomplished by creating a web-based application that runs on the web server.

The third component of our e-commerce definition is notifying the website's owner that a purchase has been made. This can be accomplished by providing a control panel on the website where new database entries are shown, or by sending an email with the information to a standard inbox. If the information has to include a credit card number, a secure socket layer (SSL) control panel page must be utilized, as email is not secure.

The website owner may wish to provide order tracking capabilities to his customers. This is accomplished by adding a message to the database record and delivering the client a unique identification number that grants her access to only her record set.

Conclusion

Indeed, there is a greater marketing opportunity for e-commerce companies! Once consumers develop a high level of confidence in the processes involved in e-commerce, it is inevitable that more and more businesses will invest in e-commerce platforms.

And how can e-commerce earn the consumers' trust? It is strongly thought that implementing tougher, more explicit, and better-defined regulations for logging in to an e-commerce site, along with a more private and hacker-free site for consumers to key in their credit card information for payment, will increase consumers' confidence in e-commerce. In addition, strategic marketing plans, such as adding promotional and gimmick things to a product acquired via e-commerce or offering discounted rates, can help to build consumers' trust in businesses offering e-commerce services.

References

Hoque, Faisal. Business Models, Architectures, and Components for E-Enterprise. 2000, Cambridge University Press. 1997 Definition of Electronic Commerce Internet Business, Interest Verlag, Germany Augsburg. 2003. E – Commerce Definition. Web.design.uk-bitz. Web. E-Commerce and Internet Business Statistics. 2001. Plunket research company May, Paul. The Business of Electronic Commerce. 2000, Cambridge University Press. McGoey, C. (2007). Identity Theft is the fastest growing crime in the world, according to the statistics. The Benefits and Drawbacks of Credit Card Use (2006). Ezilon databank. What you need to know about online banking (2007). Web.

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The Kuwaiti Service Company’s Lean Management Principle Essay Help Us

Introduction

Lean management is a collection of techniques that can assist a company in identifying and removing ineffective aspects. Startups and established organizations can reduce manufacturing costs and duration by eliminating waste and unneeded complications ( Blank 5-6). This article discusses The Kuwaiti Service Company's implementation of the lean management approach (KSC).

Overview

The city of KSC contains a variety of fast-food establishments. There has been an increase in the number of consumers since the company's founding. The eateries offer pizzas, hamburgers, doughnuts, French fries, and various juices, including bowls, smoothies, green smoothies, and detox diet. The company operates in a market that is dominated by several companies, including KFC, McDonald's, Burger King, Starbucks, Domino's Pizza, and Dunkin' Donuts.

Due to the company's expansion, its operations have become disorderly and chaotic. The organization lacks a secure location for document storage. In addition, there is a duplication of responsibilities, particularly among lower-level personnel. The issue has become costly for the business and distressing for the employees. The company's activities did not begin in this manner, but the transition has been gradual. Some of the company's troubles can be related to high personnel turnover. Long-tenured employees who leave the organization typically do so at a crossroads, as it takes time to replace their skill level. These issues are impeding the production of high-quality goods and services.

Lean management principle

Using the lean management philosophy, the organization may handle all of the aforementioned issues (Staats and Upton 3-4). Utilizing the process, this management strategy aims to ensure that customers receive greater value from limited resources. The management of Kuwaiti Services Company should apply the philosophy of lean management. The company's adoption of this idea will secure the following:

Activities organized within the corporation, particularly in the restaurants. By providing clients with great services and delicious meals, the business will save more money. The uninterrupted flow of work and provision of essential services. Obviously, this will help the corporation achieve its objective, which is to generate money.

The following lean management principles can aid in the enhancement of the company's operations:

Prioritize customers

This section focuses on identifying customers and defining values. Every buyer is concerned with price ( Bloom, Sadun, and Reenen 5-7). Very few of the company's efforts add value. Customers only see value when products and services are of high quality in relation to their price ( Upton and Staats 4). The restaurants should ensure that the food they serve is distinct from that of their rivals and that their service exceeds the norm. Customers in restaurants desire high-quality food and beverages, reasonably priced items, and superior service, i.e., quick service. If actions that bring value are readily identified, it will be simpler to identify those that do not.

Developing means of completing the work

As previously noted, the corporation is suffering from disorganization, redundant duties, and inconsistent procedures. These activities will impede the correct execution of restaurant tasks and the creation of high-quality food and juice (Upton and Staats 1-4). However, determining methods for getting things done will ensure that the company is organized. Organizations inside the company will facilitate uniformity and labor division.

Eliminate ineffectiveness and waste

Through the development of a workflow, inefficiency and waste can be eliminated. Since not all services and activities offer value to the organization, it is essential to evaluate each activity individually in order to identify those that do not add value. Non-value activities include time, transportation, and inventory squandered due to overproduction, as well as client delays ( Upton and Staats 10-12). Delayed clearances and increased bureaucracy are additional non-value activities. Kuwaiti management should identify and eradicate these inefficient actions. Elimination will ensure that the company's operations run smoothly, with customers receiving superior products and services without delay, interruption, or diversion.

Follow figures by managing them using evidence

The management must do an examination of the company's activity. This can be accomplished by visiting the restaurants and monitoring the preparation and delivery of the items and services ( Bloom, Sadun and Reenen 3-4). The analysis must consider the following:

Examining food preparation and customer service delivery. The test involved the collecting of data on both food production and service delivery. Identifying any errors in the company's operations. Ensuring improvement in value.

Unidentified error or wasteful action is difficult to correct. This phase will aid in the detection of product and service delivery issues.

empowering the worker

A individual who executes the company's procedure is the ideal candidate for improving it ( Blank 7 ). This idea addresses the utilization of employees' skills. Since there is continual connection between employees and customers, it is the employees that comprehend the customers better than the management. Since staff are familiar with consumer requirements, it is easier for them to devise processes that cater to those requirements. The project will ensure that clients receive only what they desire and on schedule.

Developing a methodical approach

The restaurants strive for perfection in customer service. When organizations are created, operations are typically flawless and flawless, but things start to change as time passes (Staats and Upton 5). Given that changes will occur and that many modifications will be necessary, the organization will be able to reach its objectives by reproducing the process improvements. Combining all lean management principles will result in a considerable improvement in the company's process and product delivery (Staats and Upton 7). Pursuit of excellence in customer service will enable the organization to fulfill its goal of providing excellent services and goods.

Conclusion

Profitability is the primary objective of every business. A corporation that is not earning a profit is necessarily losing money. This objective can be reached if Kuwaiti Service Company has a big number of returning clients. KSC competes with numerous fierce rivals for the same customers in the market in which it operates. The leadership of the organization should follow the lean management principle. All of the company's operational issues, such as disorganization, excessive turnover, and duplication of effort, can be removed through the use of the principle. Eliminating these concerns will guarantee that clients obtain valuable services and high-quality products, which will encourage them to remain loyal to the brand.

Sources Cited

Why the Lean Startup Changes Everything by Steve Blank 2013 edition published by Harvard Business Review in New York.

Bloom, Nicholas; Sadun, Raffaella; Reenen, John. Does Management Actually Function? Washington, District of Columbia: Harvard Business Review, 2012. Print.

Lean Principles, Learning, and Software Production: Evidence from Indian Software Services, by David Upton and Bradley Staats. 2009, Harvard Press, New York, NY. Print.

Staats, Bradley, and Upton, David. Effective Knowledge Work. 2011 edition published by Harvard Business Review in New York.

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Toyota Motor Corporation: Strengths And Weaknesses Essay Help Us

The globalization of competition and the market and industry dynamics have mandated that corporations make significant efforts to ensure that high-quality goods and services are delivered at competitive rates on the market. This has led to the adoption and implementation of numerous methods and tactics aimed at achieving the aforementioned objectives. The examination of a company's strengths and weaknesses, with the goal of capitalizing on its opportunities and avoiding its risks, is one of the strategies that has been widely adopted by a plurality of businesses. The Toyota Motor Corporation has not been excluded from this group. This report tries to assess how effectively Toyota uses its strengths to counter challenges and seize opportunities. Also offered will be a study of how their flaws affect these attempts.

Toyota Motor Corporation has effectively utilized both tangible and intangible resources for its success and continued growth, as evidenced by its internal analyses. The organization has utilized these assets most effectively in order to achieve its goals and objectives.

The internal examination of Toyota Motor Corporation demonstrates that there have been both strengths and flaws throughout the company's history, despite the fact that it has achieved large profits and exponential development over the years. The company's internal aspects that provide value to the firm are its strengths, while the factors that cause obstacles are its weaknesses. The availability of tangible assets has enabled Toyota Motor Corporation to conduct the majority of its operations with relative ease, constituting one of the corporation's strengths. According to Liker (2004), Toyota Motor Corporation has access to tangible assets such as available money, equipment, credit, established customers, current distribution routes, copyrighted content, patents, information and processing systems, and other significant corporate resources. The availability of these assets has facilitated the investigation of expansion possibilities without difficulty.

In addition to the aforementioned, Toyota has an extensive history of research, which is a firm strength. According to Liker (2004), "Toyota has strong research and development and manufacturing capabilities as a result of its ability to foster and maintain employee creativity." Toyota Motor Corporation is the leader in the company's research activities regarding the adoption of lean manufacturing. Lean manufacturing is a widespread term in various industries and business sectors throughout the globe today. It will relate to the manufacturing processes and philosophy that were initially developed by Toyota when they followed Henry Ford's main production principles. This new endeavor resulted in significant improvements in service levels and quality, as well as significant cost reductions. As expected, many organizations and businesses have hurried to adopt the concepts and practices of their systems or cultures.

Since the 1980s, Lean manufacturing has been a symbol of efficiency and optimum performance, mostly due to its relationship with the car industry and Toyota (Womack & Jones, 1996). It has been demonstrated on multiple times that it "outperforms the traditional production model of large batches" (Womack & Jones, 1996). Through the implementation of lean methods, Toyota Motor Company has successfully reduced production time, decreased inventories, produced higher quality services, and increased profitability. The ideas of lean manufacturing inside the organization are based on producing continual improvements and fostering a customer-focused, employee-engaged, steady-fast culture in order to reduce the intensity of time, materials, and capital. "The primary emphasis is on eliminating non-value-added activities and waste from the production process" (Johnson & Wemmerlov, 2004). In this context, "waste" refers to "any use or loss of resources that does not directly lead to the creation or production of a product that a customer desires."

Despite the numerous characteristics that contribute to Toyota Motor Corporation's success, the company also possesses a number of shortcomings that undermine that success. First, Toyota Motor Corporation is the largest carmaker in the world. This indicates that faces both domestic and foreign competition. Second, Toyota Motor Corporation is one of the largest manufacturing companies in the world. Due to wide-scale production, the vast size of a company creates limitations, particularly in the monitoring and evaluation of product quality.

Both the company's strengths in the form of the availability of tangible assets and its ability to conduct research, such as the implementation of lean principles, drive growth through the exploitation of opportunities. The shortcomings, on the other hand, impede the addition of value because they pose challenges to the company's performance and growth. In conclusion, it can be argued that Toyota Motor Corporation has efficiently utilized its strengths to compensate for its flaws and repel competitors.

References

Effectiveness of Lean Metrics in Evaluating the Performance of the Manufacturing System, Johnson & Wemmerlov, 2004. Milwaukee: Wisconsin University

Liker, J. (2004).

Journal of Automotive Engineering, Volume 67, Number 23; The Toyota Way: 14 Management Principles from the World's Largest Manufacturer.

Womack, J., & Jones, D. (1996). Lean Solutions: How Companies and Customers Can Together Create Value and Wealth. New York: Simon & Schuster.

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China’s Economic Growth Essay Help Us

Table of Contents
Introduction Conclusion Works Cited Abstract of the Articles Arguments for China's Future Rapid Economic Growth Implications of China as an Economic Power

Introduction

In 1978, China began implementing economic reforms, allowing it to transition from a planned to a market-based economy. The reforms have allowed the nation to attain a 9.5% average economic growth rate over the past three decades. In 2011, China surpassed the United States as the second largest economy in the world. The majority of Chinese economists anticipate that their economy will surpass that of the United States over the next decade. However, other analysts feel that China's economy cannot surpass America's due to its inherent difficulties (Dreyer 233-246). This study will examine China's potential to exceed the U.S. economy and its potential impact on the global economy if it becomes the next economic superpower. The analysis will be based on two papers describing the economic conditions in the two nations. I shall propose that China will surpass the United States in terms of per capita GDP by 2050.

A Synopsis of the Articles

Robert and Skidelsky contend that western economies cannot recover unless consumption is reduced in favor of savings and investment. They believe that the majority of nations have not yet entered the era of consumption. China is identified as one of the countries that continues to prioritize large-scale savings and investments in support of this stance. In contrast, they say that consumption in western nations has increased dramatically in recent years. According to Robert and Skidelsky, the high consumption in western nations stems from a drive to improve product quality. Product quality enhancements result in increased serial consumption. Even when the enhancements are slight, individuals are nonetheless enticed to consume excessively through advertising. Additionally, consumption is high due to the relative nature of desires.

The more riches we amass, the more we recognize our relative poverty. In addition, the growing disparity between the rich and the poor has led to a rise in consumption financed by debt in an effort to close the income gap. Robert and Skidelsky propose the following measures to reduce excessive consumption. First, the government should increase job security by steadily removing the weekly cap on working hours in various industries. This would allow anyone to labor for as long as they like. Second, the government should guarantee all residents an unconditional basic income (Robert and Skidelsky). Lastly, the government should impose restrictions on advertising to discourage consumption. In addition, it should implement a steeply progressive consumption tax. This will reduce spending and increase personal savings.

Future causes that are likely to impede China's economic growth are outlined by Dreyer. These include difficulties pertaining to international relations, unemployment, corruption, environmental degradation, the effects of globalization, an unstable financial system, an insufficient safety net, rising income disparity, energy shortages, and shifting demographics (Dreyer 233-246). China's rapid population growth necessitates sustained high economic growth in order to increase GDP per capita. The one child per family policy in China has resulted in a male-to-female ratio of 113-119:100, hence reducing the likelihood of men finding wives in the future. This is likely to result in societal discontent that will hinder economic expansion. The depletion of China's energy resources poses a threat to its future economic growth, as the country must rely on imported energy whose supply cannot be guaranteed. The continued use of fossil fuels has accelerated environmental degradation, which threatens agriculture and food production (Dreyer 233-246).

The government's efforts to eliminate regional income gaps have met stiff opposition, particularly in the west, where the poverty rate remains high. In addition, high levels of corruption hinder the government's ability to conduct poverty-alleviating programs in low-income regions. In the future, China's high unemployment rate is projected to cause societal unrest that undermines economic and political stability. In addition, China's financial system is unstable due to the enormous number of nonperforming loans granted to inefficient state-owned enterprises. The inability to repay the debts can result in a financial crisis, consequently decreasing economic growth. Since China's economic growth is dependent on exports, negative global economic shifts will have a negative impact on the demand for its products. Consequently, its economic expansion will diminish (Dreyer 233-246).

Arguments for Future Rapid Economic Growth in China

In spite of the obstacles outlined in the previous paragraph, the Chinese economy is projected to surpass that of the United States for the following reasons: Initially, China's twelfth five-year development plan is addressing practically all of the difficulties. The plan covers the years 2011 through 2015 and attempts to accomplish the following. First, the government is actively rebalancing the economy by moving its reliance from fixed asset investment (FAI) and exports to growth driven by domestic consumption. This entails concentrating on a GDP growth rate of approximately 7.5% in order to reduce FAI expenditures in favor of consumption.

The government will also be able to expand employment and GDP per capita as a result of the 7.5% growth rate (APCO 1-12). To encourage innovation and domestic product development, the government has allocated RMB 4 trillion for investment in seven growing strategic industries. Among the industries are biotechnology, next-generation information technology, and new energy. Developing these businesses will ensure that China transitions from producing goods for other nations to producing its own goods. China will be able to minimize its reliance on exports, wealth disparities, and the "need to maintain an artificially weak currency" by increasing domestic spending (APCO 1-12).

Second, the government is developing social equality programs to ensure a fair distribution of wealth among its residents. This involves growing urbanization and creating social safety nets for the rural population by providing health insurance and increasing land distribution. Additionally, the government is implementing measures such as subsidies, land credit, and tax reductions for enterprises eager to invest in the country's central and western regions (APCO 1-12). Consequently, these regions will attain the same level of development as the eastern portion of the nation. The government would also eliminate regional economic disparities by increasing the minimum wage by 40 percent, extending social welfare programs, enhancing the health care system, and boosting labor-intensive industries in underdeveloped regions.

The government has finally begun to safeguard the environment by establishing regulations that minimize pollution, encourage energy efficiency, and increase the generation of clean energy. Specifically, the government has invested in energy conservation technologies and new clean energy sources such as nuclear and hydropower. Consequently, the nation's carbon emissions will be reduced by 45% by 2020. (APCO 1-12). These steps would enhance the environment's quality, consequently reducing the number of ailments caused by pollution. Moreover, environmental protection will encourage agricultural and food production, thereby creating jobs and alleviating rural poverty. The 12th development plan is planned to grow China’s GDP from $12 trillion to $20 trillion, so overtaking that of the USA, which is expected to reach $18 trillion by 2019.

Even though China is already developing a master plan to help it overcome its development hurdles, the United States still faces the following unresolved economic issues. Initially, the United States has major energy challenges. The price of energy is increasing, although oil and gas production in the country has decreased dramatically (Gordon 1-24). As a result, the United States will be forced to buy oil, which would be prohibitively expensive due to the devaluation of its currency. Due to rising expenses, the government is unable to continue developing sustainable energy sources. As a result, it has prioritized increasing the use of fossil fuels, which would severely damage the environment and induce diseases that will reduce the population's productivity.

The second issue in the United States is the substantial fiscal imbalance, which has resulted in massive cuts to social safety nets. The expenditure cuts are expected to exacerbate poverty by denying a number of people access to essentials like as health care and by removing public sector jobs (Gordon 1-24). This is a prerequisite for societal discontent, which will impede economic expansion. The United States economy will likely increase by only 2% over the next decade, hence increasing the likelihood that China will surpass it.

Consequences of China's Economic Prowess

Even while China will certainly surpass the United States, its global leadership will likely be restricted to economic influence. As an economic superpower, China's business cycle will impact the global economy. For example, a Chinese economic crisis will spread to neighboring nations. China will also play a key role in determining prices due to its capacity to maintain low production costs. In addition, China is projected to be the primary source of money and foreign aid for the majority of nations. China has lent more money to the world than the IMF and the World Bank during the past three years. It seems expected that both wealthy and developing nations, including the United States, would continue to borrow from China to finance their budget deficits (Gordon 1-24). However, the United States and other rich nations are expected to continue their worldwide political and military power. This is due to China's weak military strength and political influence.

Conclusion

The purpose of this article was to examine China's economic potential to surpass that of the United States. Even though China faces numerous development obstacles, it has began addressing them in its current economic plan. In contrast, the United States continues to struggle to address its development issues. China's GDP will likely surpass that of the United States by 2019. However, China's GDP per capita will only surpass that of the United States by 2050 due to its massive population. Due to the limitations of its military power and political influence, China's leadership is likely to be restricted to economic influence.

Sources Cited

China's Twelfth Five-Year Plan: How it Actually Functions and What the Next Five Years Hold. Beijing: APCO, 2010. Print.

Dreyer, June. Academic. 2004. Print. Democratization in Greater China: The Limits to China's Growth. London: Elsevier.

Gordon, Robert. Is the United States' economic expansion over? Innovation in Decline Faces Six Headwinds. National Bureau of Economic Research, Massachusetts, 2013. Print.

Skidelsky, Robert, Charles, and Edward. Enough is Enough with the Consumption Age Financial Times, 2012. Web.

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How E-Business Is Helping Enterprises Compete Essay Help Us

Introduction

A remarkable occurrence is one that leaves a lasting impact, whether it occurs once or often within a small time span. This event could involve celebrations or performances, as well as presentations and rites. The majority of events are planned to honor cultural, political, or business purposes.

The event packaging sector has experienced substantial expansion in recent years. Due to the industry's relevance to the economies of various countries, the government's attention has been called to its expansion. There have been established units for the creation of state-sponsored events. The purpose of which is to connect the results of these events to the success of tourism. According to the opinions of a number of academics, the success of events has a beneficial link, firstly with the visiting tourist and secondly as a method of business management. Providing quality beverage and food offerings, as well as the perception of authenticity, are agreed-upon factors influencing the happiness of event attendees.

In today's service-driven economy, corporations bundle their offerings with an experience in order to sell them more effectively. Businesses must adopt a fee-commanding, experience-engaging design in order to realize the full potential of experience staging. Transitioning from providing a service to marketing or selling an experience has not been simple for established businesses.

The progression of economic history can be retraced by the various transformations that birthday cakes have undergone. As proof of the rural economy, women baked the first birthday cakes. Mixing farm-obtained goods, such as sugar, butter, eggs, and flour. Combined, these items are inexpensive or free. At Betty Croker, women spent a dollar or more for pre-mixed components as the economy of the industrial period advanced. At the beginning of this service-based economy, busy parents ordered cakes from bakery shops that, if purchased for $15 or $20, would have cost significantly more than the packaged ingredient. Parents did not celebrate birthdays with cakes or celebrations during the 1990s. Instead, significant quantities of money were used to completely outsource an event. Other event promoting companies, such as discovery zone and Chuck E. Cheese, were memorable for children. Recently, the majority of the time, cakes at gatherings are provided gratis. Consequently, this is an entry point into an economy of experience. Despite the fact that economists have grouped services and experience together, experience can be viewed as a distinct economic gift, distinct from services. Experience is undoubtedly what customers want, and more businesses are planning and implementing accordingly. From now on, leading businesses will learn that experience staging is the new competitive frontier.

Literature Review

Service design and delivery

In order to comprehend the differences between experience and service, recollect an episode of the old television show Taxi. In it, Iggy, a poor and hilarious driver, decides to become the best taxi driver in the history of this planet. While doing city excursions, he provided his passengers with beverages and sandwiches. He sung Frank Sinatra songs frequently. He transformed an ordinary taxi ride into a memorable experience for his passengers. Iggy presented a very unique economic gift. The experience of riding in Iggy's taxi was significantly more valuable to his passengers than the service of being driven around the city. Customers responded by paying him increased amounts of money. One of his customers was forced to pay far more than the standard rate due to subpar service that prolonged his stay. Iggy supplied services — taxi driving – but this was basically a ruse to sell an experience, which was what he was doing. If businesses utilize their services as a stage and their products as props to engage with clients on an individual level, thereby producing a memorable event, then they will create an experience-based occurrence. Thus, commodities are fungible, whereas things are physical, services are intangible, and experiences are regarded as being unforgettable. Following Walt Disney, the forefather of the experience economy, we will refer to experience purchasers as guests. This visitor favors firms that reveal information over time. While first economic contributions, such as services and presents, are of secondary importance to the guest. Experiences are individual, dwelling in the mind of a person and involving emotional, intellectual, and bodily levels. Thus, two individuals' experiences will always differ. This is due to the fact that an experience consists of the fundamental interactions between a person's mental state and the stage performance. Walt Disney and his businesses have cleverly utilized the idea that experience is the foundation of the entertainment industry. Today, marketing experience has a position in the workplace that is far from parks and theaters. The evolution of new technology has altered the nature of human experience. Internet chat rooms and interactive video games are examples of the emergence of new types of entertainment. New schools of thinking assert that business is more than the manufacture and sale of new things; it also involves the distribution of information and the construction of interactive life link experiences.

At Planet Hollywood and the Hard Rock Cafe, food serves as a prop for the primary focus, which is entertainment. Cabalas', Nike town, attracts customers with amusing activities and captivating displays. Often commonly termed entertailing. However, it cannot be stated that experiences are solely entertainment. Businesses create experiences when they wish to engage customers in a way that will be remembered forever. In the field of business travel, the former chairman of British Airways, Sir Collin Marshal, remarked that the commodity mentality is the belief that a business is only fulfilling a function — in our instance, carrying people from point A to point B on time and at the cheapest price feasible. The airways compete with others on the level of experience provision, surpassing the level of function. Experiences are not limited to consumer-goods manufacturers.

The properties of experiences

Before collecting an admission fee, a corporation must plan and implement an experience that, in the opinion of the customers, is worth the price. As it is for products or services, a flawless plan from design to marketing and delivery would be required for experiences. Always preceding a revenue growth will be inventiveness and creativity. Identical to commodities and services, experiences possess unique characteristics and bring unique design problems. Considering experiences from a two-dimensional perspective is one method of approaching them.

The visitor's participation

At one end of the spectrum, inactive involvement occurs when customers have no impact on performance. This type of participants is exemplified by symphony attendees. During an event, they observe and listen in order to gain experience. Active players comprise the opposite end. Here, the customers contribute to the experience's creation. Skiers are an excellent illustration of this type of participation. Even spectators of a ski race cannot be deemed as passive players. By participating in the ski race, they contribute to the event's visual appeal.

The guest's relationship

This is often referred to as the capacity of a consumer or attendee at an event to properly interact with the surrounding environment. The connection between the client or guest and the event's performance. At one angle of connection range, there is absorption, and at the other, there is immersion. Guests seated in the grandstand and seeing the Kentucky Derby have a tendency to focus on the action occurring below and in front of them. While those right infield are engrossed in the sounds, images, and smells surrounding them. Reading a book can be significantly less engaging than frantically scribbling notes on a notepad during physics class. However, seeing a film in a theater with others, stereophonic sound, and a large screen is more immersive than watching the same film on a video player at home.

Classification of encounters

The involvement or participation of consumers or guests is more passive than active during entertainment-related activities, such as attending a live concert or watching television. In this instance, the relationship during the event is more akin to absorption than immersion. Participation is encouraged at educational events, such as taking a ski lesson or attending a class. However, students are less likely to be immersed in the event than to be on the outside. Escapist experiences can educate in the same way that educational ones do and can be entertaining in the same manner that entertainment experiences may, but with a larger client immersion. Active and immersive experiential participation is required while performing in an orchestra or participating in a play. When active guest participation is limited, an escapist experience transforms into an ecstatic one, the fourth type of experience. Here, guests are immersed in the atmosphere, yet they have no effect, such as a visitor to a photograph exhibit. All rich experiences, such as visiting Disney World, incorporate all components of experience. How distinctive and specific is the experience my company provides? should be the most crucial question for individuals in positions of responsibility to ask themselves. The extent to which the company's business is defined by the quality of the given experience is substantial. As with goods or services, the customer's experience must match his or her requirements or expectations. Experiences are the product of a process of examination, scripting, and execution, whereas services are the result of an examination, blueprint development, and enhancement process.

Creating a remarkable encounter

As with product and process design, it is anticipated that designing an experience will become a business in the future. Incontestably, design principles are evident in the activities and outcomes of organizations already in the industry. The following are the fundamentals of experience design:

The event should have a theme

When one hears the names of restaurants that cater to entertainment, a mental image of what to expect from such a place is formed. Notable examples are the rain forest café and the Hard Rock café. In an effort to stage an event, the first and most crucial step for the proprietors is to create an arresting motif. A badly sculpted topic leaves a prospective client unable to imagine what to anticipate. Moreover, the memories made in such places are frequently fleeting. Gertrude Stein's Oakland is one example of this. Retailers frequently violate ethical standards. They trumpet the shopping experience, but the theme generated does not correspond to the shopping experience that will be produced. When it comes to theme creation, retailers of home appliances demonstrate the least originality. Regarding a Las Vegas mall with the subject of an antique Roman marketplace, this motif has been realized in every way through architectural design. These contain pristine white pillars, marble floors, an outdoor café, running fountains, living trees, and are finished during a thunderstorm.

Adding hopeful hints to the impression

While the theme forms the basis of the experience, leaving an indelible mark on the audience should be viewed as the most important aspect. The impression is what a guest takes away from an encounter, signifying that the theme has been satisfied. Companies must introduce cues that confirm to the client or guest the nature of the encounter in order to make the desired impression. Each cue must correspond with the subject. Harob George, the founder of a Washington, D.C.-based coffee franchise, conceived of the company's identity as a "coffee club" (the marriage of Old world Italian espresso bars with fast paced American living). Customers are able to establish queues without the need for signage, which would have deviated from the theme's intended appearance. This establishment has a reputation for providing prompt service in a pleasant atmosphere. Additionally, the franchise owner encourages his employees to recall the faces of frequent customers in order to serve them without prompting. No matter how minor, the cue adds to the creation of an unforgettable experience. When a host in a restaurant informs you that your table is ready, he or she has not provided you with a cue. In the Rainforest Café, however, a host's warning to her guests to be on the lookout for a soon-to-begin adventure creates the sense of a unique encounter. Cues build impressions, and impressions generate experiences that endure in the customers' memories. A negative experience could be the result of an architectural aspect that has been undervalued, neglected, or mismatched. Due to an unintended visual signal, a consumer may be left bewildered. After being given directions, it may be difficult to locate one's hotel room. The client would have a better and more satisfying experience if there were clearer and more distinct signs on the walkway.

Eliminate discouraged cues.

Positive indicators alone are insufficient to preserve the guest or client experience. Whatever contradicts the topic must be eliminated. Experienced stagers must steadfastly adhere to this. In offices, malls, and airplanes, trivial massages can be observed. Inappropriate massage forms are frequently used by service providers, despite the fact that customers occasionally require guidance. For example, trash cans at fast food restaurants may bear a sign reading "thank you." Alternately, stagers of experience may transform the trash can into a talking, garbage-eating persona that expresses gratitude when the lid is lifted. Without a negative cue, an excellent massage is communicated to the customer. Providing poor services is the quickest method to transform a service into an experience. Thus, an interaction is produced that is memorable, but of a negative nature. Overservice can ruin a customer's experience.

Engage each of the five senses.

It is essential that the sensory stimuli accompanying an event advance its topic. The greater the number of senses involved in an experience, the more memorable it is. Smart operators of shoe-cleaning establishments enhance the aroma of polish using material fragments that are brittle and easily broken. Aroma and sound that contribute nothing to the shoe but enhance the experience. During the mixing of produce, some grocery stores and bakeries scent the passageway, while others employ music and light to simulate a storm. The rain forest.

Supply Chain And Procurement Management Essay Help Us

Table of Contents
Executive Synopsis Background Sainsbury PLC Financial Analysis against Tesco PLC Financial Analysis Financial Analysis Users The significance of supplementary financial analysis List of Citations

Executive Synopsis

The second largest supermarket chain in the United Kingdom is Sainsbury PLC. Tesco PLC is the largest retailer in the United Kingdom and the second-largest retailer in the world after Wal-Mart. Since 1995, Tesco PLC has maintained its top market position in the British retail business. Tesco PLC has been able to maintain its market position despite the economic downturn. Using key financial metrics, this paper compares the 2013 financial performance and posture of Sainsbury PLC and Tesco PLC. The primary objective of the report is to assess the profitability and solvency of these retail businesses. In addition, the paper identifies and evaluates the various types of information required by financial information users.

Background

The parent firm of Sainsbury's store chains is Sainsbury PLC. It is one of the largest retailers in the United Kingdom. It is the most rapidly expanding retail business of the Victorian era. Tesco PLC took the lead in the UK retail industry in 1995, surpassing Sainsbury PLC and other competitors. In 2003, Sainsbury's lost its market position to Asda, whose service strategy and store placement were superior. Sainsbury PLC regained its position as the second-largest retailer in the United Kingdom in 2014, surpassing Asda because to its improved financial performance and excellent business initiatives. The enhancement of Sainsbury's operational strategy and performance suggests that it will become a formidable rival to Tesco PLC in the future.

Review of Sainsbury PLC Financials

Analyzing the financial performance of Sainsbury PLC, it is possible to conclude that the company's business strategies focus on enhancing its brand image, maintaining competitive pricing, and offering clients with supplementary services. According to Sainsbury's annual report (2013), the company's online sales have contributed considerably to its business, contributing approximately 20 percent or £1 billion to its total revenue. Sainsbury's has successfully developed a strong brand image, which has contributed to a 17 percent increase in the company's overall revenues. To combat inflationary pressure, Sainsbury has prioritized operational cost reductions, which have enabled the company to save £100 million. Several joint ventures conducted by the Group have raised the company's operating profit margin by around 5.1%.

Tesco PLC Financial Review

The 2013 annual report for Tesco PLC reveals a 13 percent fall in the company's trading profitability. The corporation must concentrate on those markets in which it can maintain its dominant position. The legislative changes in the UK and South Korea have had a significant impact on Tesco PLC's performance. It has been established that the company's sales have increased by approximately 1.3%, whereas Tesco Bank has exhibited a negative rise of 2.2%. To expand its business in Asia, which has exhibited the highest growth rate of 5.9 percent compared to other corporate market categories, the company intends to renovate its existing locations and invest in transnational distribution systems.

Financial Analysis

Sainsbury versus Tesco

2013 2013

Working Outcome Working Outcome

Ratios de rendement

Margin of Gross Profit Gross Profit / Total Sales 1,277/23,303 (5.48%) 4,089/64,826 6.31%

Operating Profit Net Margin/Total Sales 887/23,303 = 3.81 % 2,188/64,826 3.38%

Mark-up Gross profit/Sales Costs = 1,277/22,026 5.80% 4,089/60,737 6.73%

Liquidity Ratio

Present Ratio Current assets/ Current liabilities 1,914/3,115 61.42% 13,096/18,985 68.98%

Test of acidity (Current assets & Inventory)/Current liabilities (1,914-987/3.115) 29.75% (13,096-7.744)/18,985 49.26%

Cover Operating Profit/Interest Payable with Interest 887/99 8.87 2,188/228 9.55

Analyzing the financial indicators of Sainsbury PLC and Tesco PLC reveals that Sainsbury PLC's overall profitability has remained relatively lower than that of Tesco PLC. The difference between the gross profit margins of Tesco PLC and Sainsbury PLC is due to the fact that Tesco PLC recorded a smaller gross profit than Sainsbury PLC. This indicates that Sainsbury's has had larger sales volume than Tesco. Due to the impact of inflation on the cost of inventories and commodities, the gross profit of both enterprises has decreased. Sainsbury's has a bigger sales volume when compared to the other company. The spending power of consumers has been low, but Sainsbury's brand value and competitive prices have increased the company's sales volume. Its innovative initiatives and joint ventures have contributed to the company's sales development, but Tesco's weak marketing techniques have led to a fall in sales volume during the period. The net margin ratio suggests that Sainsbury PLC has a bigger net margin than Tesco PLC (3.81 percent) (3.38 percent). Tesco PLC's operational activities have remained more efficient than Sainsbury's, which explains why Sainbury's operating earnings are lower than Tesco's. This illustrates the fact that Sainsbury's administrative costs have increased, ultimately reducing its operating profitability. Furthermore, Tesco PLC has a greater interest markup than Sainsbury's. Overall, Tesco's capacity to sell commodities at greater prices to its customers, so increasing its profitability, has remained efficient.

When comparing the liquidity ratios of Sainsbury PLC and Tesco PLC, Tesco PLC is more liquid than Sainsbury's. Tesco has accumulated more debt than Sainsbury's, however. Tesco guarantees the availability of assets to cover its existing and future obligations, whereas Sainsbury's debts exceed its assets. In addition, Tesco PLC has greater long-term solvency than Sainsbury. This demonstrates Tesco's propensity to ensure the availability of internal equity. It is suggested that Sainsbury increase the availability of its current assets, notably cash, in order to become more solvent.

Financial Analysis Users

The research above focuses on the profitability and leverage ratios of both companies. Therefore, investors, creditors, and managers can be potential users of financial analysis. Investors and creditors are particularly concerned with establishing the company's financial position and performance, as well as its ability to utilize the investment or repay loans it gets (Black & Al-Kilani, 2013). Investors will find the information quite useful for comparing and determining the investment potential and market position of the company relative to its competitors in the industry (Lee, 2009). The management use the information to compare the company's profitability to that of its competitors. This allows the management to compare the company's strategy with those of its competitors.

The importance of Complementary Financial Analysis

Supplemental financial measurements are advantageous because they provide a more clearer and more comprehensible snapshot of the company's performance, allowing users to make better decisions. Such metrics are gaining popularity among investors and financial evaluators since they provide extensive information about a company's financial performance (Atrill & McLaney, 2004). Frequently, organizations do not specify the financial measure; instead, they use selective facts to indicate their business' financial performance (Lee, 2009). This implies that investors and preparers must consider the complexity and subjectivity of financial data (Atrill & McLaney, 2004).

Conclusion

Analyzing the financial data of Tesco PLC (2013) and Sainsbury PLC (2013), it can be found that Tesco PLC has had better profitability and leverage than Sainsbury PLC. This demonstrates that Tesco's operational plans and efforts have been more successful than Sainsbury's (Collier, 2003). This has resulted in Tesco PLC maintaining its strong brand image and value over the years, as a result of which people are more likely to shop at Tesco than Sainsbury. Additionally, Tesco's creative pricing and marketing techniques have attracted more customers (Dyson, 2007). In contrast, Tesco PLC's segmented businesses in the United Kingdom and South Korea confront obstacles. Therefore, the organization is more intent on enhancing and expanding its overseas business. Sainsbury PLC, on the other hand, seeks to enhance its brand image, and hence concentrates on delivering supplementary services and establishing client loyalty (Atrill & McLaney, 2004). Profits reflect the fact that Sainsbury's plans and operations have greatly improved in the current fiscal year. In addition, Sainsbury's joint ventures are the primary driver that has improved the company's performance and profitability.

List of Citations

Atrill, P., and McLaney, E. (2004). Management Accounting for Decision Makers.

Black, G., and M. Al-Kilani, Accounting and Finance for Business, Pearson, London, 2013.

Collier, P.M. (2003). Accounting for Managers: Deciphering accounting data for decision-making. Chichester: John Wiley.

Accounting for Non-Accounting Students was published by Prentice Hall / Financial Time in London in 2007.

Financial Analysis, Planning, and Forecasting: Theory and Application, illustrated edition, London: World Scientific, 2009.

[supanova question]

Table of Contents

Executive Summary Context Sainsbury PLC Financial Analysis against Tesco PLC Financial Analysis Financial Analysis Users The significance of supplementary financial analysis List of Citations

Executive Synopsis

The second largest supermarket chain in the United Kingdom is Sainsbury PLC. Tesco PLC is the largest retailer in the United Kingdom and the second-largest retailer in the world after Wal-Mart. Since 1995, Tesco PLC has maintained its top market position in the British retail business. Tesco PLC has been able to maintain its market position despite the economic downturn. Using key financial metrics, this paper compares the 2013 financial performance and posture of Sainsbury PLC and Tesco PLC. The primary objective of the report is to assess the profitability and solvency of these retail businesses. In addition, the paper identifies and evaluates the various types of information required by financial information users.

Background

The parent firm of Sainsbury's store chains is Sainsbury PLC. It is one of the largest retailers in the United Kingdom. It is the most rapidly expanding retail business of the Victorian era. Tesco PLC took the lead in the UK retail industry in 1995, surpassing Sainsbury PLC and other competitors. In 2003, Sainsbury's lost its market position to Asda, whose service strategy and store placement were superior. Sainsbury PLC regained its position as the second-largest retailer in the United Kingdom in 2014, surpassing Asda because to its improved financial performance and excellent business initiatives. The enhancement of Sainsbury's operational strategy and performance suggests that it will become a formidable rival to Tesco PLC in the future.

Review of Sainsbury PLC Financials

Analyzing the financial performance of Sainsbury PLC, it is possible to conclude that the company's business strategies focus on enhancing its brand image, maintaining competitive pricing, and offering clients with supplementary services. According to Sainsbury's annual report (2013), the company's online sales have contributed considerably to its business, contributing approximately 20 percent or £1 billion to its total revenue. Sainsbury's has successfully developed a strong brand image, which has contributed to a 17 percent increase in the company's overall revenues. To combat inflationary pressure, Sainsbury has prioritized operational cost reductions, which have enabled the company to save £100 million. Several joint ventures conducted by the Group have raised the company's operating profit margin by around 5.1%.

Tesco PLC Financial Review

The 2013 annual report for Tesco PLC reveals a 13 percent fall in the company's trading profitability. The corporation must concentrate on those markets in which it can maintain its dominant position. The legislative changes in the UK and South Korea have had a significant impact on Tesco PLC's performance. It has been established that the company's sales have increased by approximately 1.3%, whereas Tesco Bank has exhibited a negative rise of 2.2%. To expand its business in Asia, which has exhibited the highest growth rate of 5.9 percent compared to other corporate market categories, the company intends to renovate its existing locations and invest in transnational distribution systems.

Financial Analysis

Sainsbury versus Tesco

2013 2013

Working Outcome Working Outcome

Ratios de rendement

Margin of Gross Profit Gross Profit / Total Sales 1,277/23,303 (5.48%) 4,089/64,826 6.31%

Operating Profit Net Margin/Total Sales 887/23,303 = 3.81 % 2,188/64,826 3.38%

Mark-up Gross profit/Sales Costs = 1,277/22,026 5.80% 4,089/60,737 6.73%

Liquidity Ratio

Present Ratio Current assets/ Current liabilities 1,914/3,115 61.42% 13,096/18,985 68.98%

Test of acidity (Current assets & Inventory)/Current liabilities (1,914-987/3.115) 29.75% (13,096-7.744)/18,985 49.26%

Cover Operating Profit/Interest Payable with Interest 887/99 8.87 2,188/228 9.55

Analyzing the financial indicators of Sainsbury PLC and Tesco PLC reveals that Sainsbury PLC's overall profitability has remained relatively lower than that of Tesco PLC. The difference between the gross profit margins of Tesco PLC and Sainsbury PLC is due to the fact that Tesco PLC recorded a smaller gross profit than Sainsbury PLC. This indicates that Sainsbury's has had larger sales volume than Tesco. Due to the impact of inflation on the cost of inventories and commodities, the gross profit of both enterprises has decreased. Sainsbury's has a bigger sales volume when compared to the other company. The spending power of consumers has been low, but Sainsbury's brand value and competitive prices have increased the company's sales volume. Its innovative initiatives and joint ventures have contributed to the company's sales development, but Tesco's weak marketing techniques have led to a fall in sales volume during the period. The net margin ratio suggests that Sainsbury PLC has a bigger net margin than Tesco PLC (3.81 percent) (3.38 percent). Tesco PLC's operational activities have remained more efficient than Sainsbury's, which explains why Sainbury's operating earnings are lower than Tesco's. This illustrates the fact that Sainsbury's administrative costs have increased, ultimately reducing its operating profitability. Furthermore, Tesco PLC has a greater interest markup than Sainsbury's. Overall, Tesco's capacity to sell commodities at greater prices to its customers, so increasing its profitability, has remained efficient.

When comparing the liquidity ratios of Sainsbury PLC and Tesco PLC, Tesco PLC is more liquid than Sainsbury's. Tesco has accumulated more debt than Sainsbury's, however. Tesco guarantees the availability of assets to cover its existing and future obligations, whereas Sainsbury's debts exceed its assets. In addition, Tesco PLC has greater long-term solvency than Sainsbury. This demonstrates Tesco's propensity to ensure the availability of internal equity. It is suggested that Sainsbury increase the availability of its current assets, notably cash, in order to become more solvent.

Financial Analysis Users

The research above focuses on the profitability and leverage ratios of both companies. Therefore, investors, creditors, and managers can be potential users of financial analysis. Investors and creditors are particularly concerned with establishing the company's financial position and performance, as well as its ability to utilize the investment or repay loans it gets (Black & Al-Kilani, 2013). Investors will find the information quite useful for comparing and determining the investment potential and market position of the company relative to its competitors in the industry (Lee, 2009). The management use the information to compare the company's profitability to that of its competitors. This allows the management to compare the company's strategy with those of its competitors.

The importance of Complementary Financial Analysis

Supplemental financial measurements are advantageous because they provide a more clearer and more comprehensible snapshot of the company's performance, allowing users to make better decisions. Such metrics are gaining popularity among investors and financial evaluators since they provide extensive information about a company's financial performance (Atrill & McLaney, 2004). Frequently, organizations do not specify the financial measure; instead, they use selective facts to indicate their business' financial performance (Lee, 2009). This implies that investors and preparers must consider the complexity and subjectivity of financial data (Atrill & McLaney, 2004).

Conclusion

Analyzing the financial data of Tesco PLC (2013) and Sainsbury PLC (2013), it can be found that Tesco PLC has had better profitability and leverage than Sainsbury PLC. This demonstrates that Tesco's operational plans and efforts have been more successful than Sainsbury's (Collier, 2003). This has resulted in Tesco PLC maintaining its strong brand image and value over the years, as a result of which people are more likely to shop at Tesco than Sainsbury. Additionally, Tesco's creative pricing and marketing techniques have attracted more customers (Dyson, 2007). In contrast, Tesco PLC's segmented businesses in the United Kingdom and South Korea confront obstacles. Therefore, the organization is more intent on enhancing and expanding its overseas business. Sainsbury PLC, on the other hand, seeks to enhance its brand image, and hence concentrates on delivering supplementary services and establishing client loyalty (Atrill & McLaney, 2004). Profits reflect the fact that Sainsbury's plans and operations have greatly improved in the current fiscal year. In addition, Sainsbury's joint ventures are the primary driver that has improved the company's performance and profitability.

List of Citations

Atrill, P., and McLaney, E. (2004). Management Accounting for Decision Makers.

Black, G., and M. Al-Kilani, Accounting and Finance for Business, Pearson, London, 2013.

Collier, P.M. (2003). Accounting for Managers: Deciphering accounting data for decision-making. Chichester: John Wiley.

Accounting for Non-Accounting Students was published by Prentice Hall / Financial Time in London in 2007.

Lee, AC 2009, Financial Analysis, Planning & Forecasting: Theory and Application, llustrated edn, World Scientific, London.

[supanova_question]

Supply Chain And Procurement Management Essay Help Us

Comparison of the Leadership and Management Styles

Leadership is the innate capacity of a person to influence others via motivation so that they contribute to the effectiveness and success of their organizations. The behavior of leaders is typically described as brilliant and mercurial due to their charismatic characteristics (Folkman 2009). This implies that the personalities of leaders cannot be replaced by other determinants of individual behavior. Managers are responsible for regulating and guiding staff to ensure that they collaborate to achieve the organization's goals.

Investors and employees typically misunderstand the majority of the risks taken by leaders because they are viewed as illogical or irrational. They are typically comfortable taking risks because their high levels of imagination allow them to think outside the norm. The personality of the majority of managers is typically characterized as rational since they prioritize problem-solving and maximizing profits for their shareholders and investors by combining and optimizing production components. In addition, their personalities and the virtues of tenacity, intelligence, strong will, and critical analysis are described. Leaders prioritize leading people and ensuring that every individual contributes to the success of their businesses by utilizing their skills, experiences, and skills (Dukakis 2010). Managers manage work and ensure that all workers, responsibilities, and resources are coordinated so that all available resources are maximized to generate profits. Achievements are the results of good leaders who examine problems and design new, innovative techniques to managing them, ensuring that their effects have minimal negative effects on worker performance and production.

Managers focus on attaining positive outcomes through the development of strategies, policies, and methods that foster teamwork and contribute to the efficient functioning of businesses. They collaborate with other employees to ensure that their perspectives, values, and expectations are gathered and their contributions to the success of their companies are evaluated (Fuda 2013). Leaders are typically viewed as solitary individuals who operate in isolation without seeking the opinions of others regarding various issues. Moreover, they take and accept risks without worry of incurring losses or jeopardizing the performance of people and organizations. They think that risks are chances for growth and improvement, and as a result, they strive diligently to guarantee that all opportunities for positive benefits are taken advantage of.

However, managers are risk-averse since the majority of them are unable to manage obstacles without negatively impacting the performance of their firms and people (Chartered Institute of Purchasing and Supply 2014). Leaders play passive roles and support decision-making by ensuring that they create opportunities for other employees to meet and debate strategies for enhancing the performance and profitability of their firms. However, managers assume active roles and participate in crucial decision-making to ensure that they discuss the success of their organizations with other employees.

Leaders strive to transform their organizations by collaborative and participatory methods, whereas managers accomplish it by dictating and authorizing subordinates. Leaders wield power by charisma and persuasion, whereas managers control subordinates through their jobs and official authority. Leaders appeal to the hearts of their followers, which drives them to easily attain their goals. On the other side, managers appeal to the heads of their employees in order to ensure that they comprehend their organizations' expectations and endeavor to meet them.

The Power Sources According to French and Raven

These authors distinguished legitimate, reward, coercive, expert, and referent sources of power. They clarify that legitimate power has the statutory authority to make demands and expect compliance from its subordinates. Reward power derives from the ability to recompense persons who agree with regulations, whereas coercive authority derives from the ability to penalize individuals who do not comply with the rules set to manage their behavior (Ranadive 2012). Expertise is developed from a person's experience, education, and talents, which distinguish him in society. Referent power is the capacity to exert influence on others based on how they feel about a person.

Application of These Power Sources in the Purchasing Division

This department has several responsibilities that demand employees with the capacity to decide the appropriate organizational directions. Managers can utilize their authorized authority to influence the purchasing department's decisions by ensuring they control supplier selection. In addition, they can utilize their expertise to advise this department on the most effective ways to select the products or services in which their firm intends to concentrate (Jamison 2013).

Customers can utilize their coercive power to affect this department's activity. They exert influence on the activity of this department by refusing to adopt the organization's client-selection staffing rules. The accounts and management departments may influence the performance of the purchasing sector through the application of incentive power. They can review the recent performance of their organizations and suggest increased funding to the purchasing department based on their findings (Morse 2008). In addition, the department of quality assurance can decide and influence the success of the purchasing sector by proposing supplier changes or input reductions to ensure the quality of its services is enhanced.

How supplier employees use these sources of influence with their clients

The supply department determines the market's availability of products and services. This department may be influenced by managers who utilize their legal authority to persuade it to increase or limit customer product and service availability. This means that the supply department will have no choice but to carry out the directives of its supervisors. Failure to comply with this regulation may result in the imposition of sanctions against all of the responsible employees. Customers have the ability to determine the success or failure of the supply department through the use of their reward power (Joyner 2008).

If these stakeholders increase their demand for the organization's goods or services, the business will be compelled to create more. In addition, they establish rigorous standards and ensure that firms provide high-quality goods and services. This means they can use their coercive power to compel firms to provide products and services that meet their requirements (Kellerman 2010). Employees of suppliers can utilize their specialist knowledge to predict the future consumption patterns of clients and advise their superiors on how to optimize the anticipated demand. In addition, they can utilize their referent authority to identify what providers must do to be better positioned for effective competition with other suppliers. This will allow them time to prepare and determine how to recruit and keep large markets.

What is an endeavor? Differences between Purchasing Normal Goods and Services and Purchasing in a Project Environment

A project is a plan consisting of interdependent tasks that are to be completed within a set timeframe. There are numerous variations between purchasing goods and services in a project context and in a typical business setting. First, purchasing in a project entails the acquisition of necessary skills, tools, or machinery that will be utilized to facilitate the production of goods or services (Pristorites 2013). Consequently, their qualities will decide the worth of a created service or product. Therefore, purchasing in a project setting necessitates careful assessment of the quality of inputs collected.

This procedure involves the quality assurance department to verify that a firm gets inputs that will add value to its products or services. Normal purchases of products and services, on the other hand, do not necessitate complete and careful assessment of the quality of inputs required. To be commercially viable for human consumption, the majority of inputs must meet the general quality standards. In addition, these purchases are intended to achieve short-term objectives, therefore there is no added value to the inputs. Second, the purchase of goods or services in a project setting does not necessarily imply that they will be employed for production reasons (Harvard Business Review Press 2014). In truth, the vast majority of them are employed to assist the production process and are not part of the products or services themselves. For instance, a corporation may decide to build a new branch, necessitating the purchase of construction supplies, office supplies, furniture, and the hiring of personnel. As a result, their expenses are recouped once the new branch begins operations and generates revenues. This indicates that the cost of acquiring inputs incurred during the acquisition of products or services in a project context is recovered over an extended period of time.

Purchasing ordinary goods and services, on the other hand, does not incur losses and there are no expectations of profits (Frame 2013). There is no expectation that the money needed to obtain the majority of these consumer goods and services will be recouped. Therefore, these are tools that enable individuals to live comfortably and engage in their daily activities without worrying about their health, wealth, or safety. Thirdly, purchasing in a project setting is regarded an investment because the value of the acquired inputs cannot be depleted (Goleman 2011). Land appreciates in value over time, allowing investors to recoup their investment and earn a profit when they sell the land at a higher price in the future. However, inputs like as automobiles, machines, furniture, and buildings deteriorate and become obsolete over time. Consequently, they will not fetch high prices when sold later.

However, investors typically reap a substantial amount of profits generated by these inputs, personnel, raw materials, services, and goods. Therefore, they recover the funds invested in the establishment of their investments by the time the value of their assets has depreciated. Purchasing ordinary products and services, on the other hand, does not include the generating of profits or the accumulation of funds for future use. As a result of their short lifespan and the nature of their use, the value of these items is destroyed, as they are purchased to satisfy urgent basic necessities. Therefore, they do not safeguard the purchasers' financial future.

How a Project Management Strategy for Purchasing Activities Can Benefit ENOC

Organizations rely on their project management departments to implement their strategies for their advantage. ENOC focuses in the provision of indirect goods such as labor supply, transportation, IT solutions, and consulting services. A project management approach to procurement processes can yield the following benefits for ENOC: (Kerzner 2013). Initially, project management will aid this department in identifying an undesired or unacceptable circumstance that affects procurement operations. The department will present difficulties that it considers to be obstacles to its success, ensuring coordination with the project management sector to evaluate the effectiveness of the highlighted issue. For instance, the procurement department may discover that clients' preferences have shifted and they now choose public transportation over private vehicles. This will result in decreased demand for private vehicles, which will have a detrimental influence on the company's sales (Project Management Institute 2007).

This department will therefore conduct research on how to enhance the sale of private vehicles, despite the fact that consumer patterns indicate a drop in demand for these models. Therefore, it will begin supplying private vehicles at reduced prices or boost the benefits clients receive while purchasing them. To guarantee that the problem stated is real and affects the ENOC Group, it will be necessary for the department to adopt a project management strategy while addressing this matter. This strategy will allow this department to identify the shortcomings of private car use that contribute to their declining popularity. Therefore, it will ensure that it purchases inexpensive and fuel-efficient vehicles. This approach will ensure that the procurement department finds automobile models with a high stock turnover rate, notwithstanding the changing preferences of consumers.

Secondly, a project management approach to challenges impacting the procurement department of ENOC Group will assist this sector in determining and evaluating the significance of a new project inside the organization. In addition, it will allow this department to evaluate methods for implementing the new project without disrupting other departments or the business (Heagney 2011). If this department decides to invest in fuel-efficient and inexpensive private vehicles, for instance, it must verify that their quality does not undermine ENOC Group's standards. In addition, if it decides to use inexpensive staffing or transportation alternatives, it must ensure that the quality of its services does not fall short of ENOC Group customers' expectations.

This department will be able to study several choices for implementing the project and determine the optimal option. In addition, this strategy will define the project's scope and explain the necessary steps to prevent it from becoming a company albatross. It is vital to clarify that a project management technique should be utilized in the procurement department to eliminate project uncertainty and reduce the likelihood of launching and implementing projects that contradict with other departments' responsibilities (Feist 2013). Finally, this methodology will aid the procurement division in evaluating the performance and accomplishments of its new initiatives. Repeated evaluation of the efficacy of projects will assist the procurement division in determining how to enhance them so that they are cost-effective and provide acceptable profits for ENOC Group.

John Kotter's Eight Step Change Model

Change is the process by which an organization decides to implement new policies, processes, systems, people, or departments in order to maximize its resources for profitable purposes. This comprises the implementation of production, marketing, and distribution techniques to ensure their activities incur low costs. Change is inevitable in organizations because it allows them to remain relevant in terms of creating items that satisfy consumers' demands, compensating employees fairly, and employing legal manufacturing, marketing, and advertising techniques to increase the popularity of their brands (Kotter 2012). John Kotter identified the eight states of change that must be addressed in order for organizations to achieve their objectives.

First, he stated that acting quickly is the first stage in implementing change in businesses. Change requires organizations to act swiftly and fix flaws or vulnerabilities that expose them to inefficiency. Therefore, Kotter suggests that companies should move swiftly and ensure that issues requiring change are addressed in order for a business to provide goods or services that fulfill the requisite criteria (Cummings 2014). However, businesses that take too long to implement changes rarely achieve their goals due to a lack of competitive advantages. The ENOC procurement department

Comparison of the Leadership and Management Styles

Leadership is the innate capacity of a person to influence others via motivation so that they contribute to the effectiveness and success of their organizations. The behavior of leaders is typically described as brilliant and mercurial due to their charismatic characteristics (Folkman 2009). This implies that the personalities of leaders cannot be replaced by other determinants of individual behavior. Managers are responsible for regulating and guiding staff to ensure that they collaborate to achieve the organization's goals.

Investors and employees typically misunderstand the majority of the risks taken by leaders because they are viewed as illogical or irrational. They are typically comfortable taking risks because their high levels of imagination allow them to think outside the norm. The personality of the majority of managers is typically characterized as rational since they prioritize problem-solving and maximizing profits for their shareholders and investors by combining and optimizing production components. In addition, their personalities and the virtues of tenacity, intelligence, strong will, and critical analysis are described. Leaders prioritize leading people and ensuring that every individual contributes to the success of their businesses by utilizing their skills, experiences, and skills (Dukakis 2010). Managers manage work and ensure that all workers, responsibilities, and resources are coordinated so that all available resources are maximized to generate profits. Achievements are the results of good leaders who examine problems and design new, innovative techniques to managing them, ensuring that their effects have minimal negative effects on worker performance and production.

Managers focus on attaining positive outcomes through the development of strategies, policies, and methods that foster teamwork and contribute to the efficient functioning of businesses. They collaborate with other employees to ensure that their perspectives, values, and expectations are gathered and their contributions to the success of their companies are evaluated (Fuda 2013). Leaders are typically viewed as solitary individuals who operate in isolation without seeking the opinions of others regarding various issues. Moreover, they take and accept risks without worry of incurring losses or jeopardizing the performance of people and organizations. They think that risks are chances for growth and improvement, and as a result, they strive diligently to guarantee that all opportunities for positive benefits are taken advantage of.

However, managers are risk-averse since the majority of them are unable to manage obstacles without negatively impacting the performance of their firms and people (Chartered Institute of Purchasing and Supply 2014). Leaders play passive roles and support decision-making by ensuring that they create opportunities for other employees to meet and debate strategies for enhancing the performance and profitability of their firms. However, managers assume active roles and participate in crucial decision-making to ensure that they discuss the success of their organizations with other employees.

Leaders strive to transform their organizations by collaborative and participatory methods, whereas managers accomplish it by dictating and authorizing subordinates. Leaders wield power by charisma and persuasion, whereas managers control subordinates through their jobs and official authority. Leaders appeal to the hearts of their followers, which drives them to easily attain their goals. On the other side, managers appeal to the heads of their employees in order to ensure that they comprehend their organizations' expectations and endeavor to meet them.

The Power Sources According to French and Raven

These authors distinguished legitimate, reward, coercive, expert, and referent sources of power. They clarify that legitimate power has the statutory authority to make demands and expect compliance from its subordinates. Reward power derives from the ability to recompense persons who agree with regulations, whereas coercive authority derives from the ability to penalize individuals who do not comply with the rules set to manage their behavior (Ranadive 2012). Expertise is developed from a person's experience, education, and talents, which distinguish him in society. Referent power is the capacity to exert influence on others based on how they feel about a person.

Application of These Power Sources in the Purchasing Division

This department has several responsibilities that demand employees with the capacity to decide the appropriate organizational directions. Managers can utilize their authorized authority to influence the purchasing department's decisions by ensuring they control supplier selection. In addition, they can utilize their expertise to advise this department on the most effective ways to select the products or services in which their firm intends to concentrate (Jamison 2013).

Customers can utilize their coercive power to affect this department's activity. They exert influence on the activity of this department by refusing to adopt the organization's client-selection staffing rules. The accounts and management departments may influence the performance of the purchasing sector through the application of incentive power. They can review the recent performance of their organizations and suggest increased funding to the purchasing department based on their findings (Morse 2008). In addition, the department of quality assurance can decide and influence the success of the purchasing sector by proposing supplier changes or input reductions to ensure the quality of its services is enhanced.

How supplier employees use these sources of influence with their clients

The supply department determines the market's availability of products and services. This department may be influenced by managers who utilize their legal authority to persuade it to increase or limit customer product and service availability. This means that the supply department will have no choice but to carry out the directives of its supervisors. Failure to comply with this regulation may result in the imposition of sanctions against all of the responsible employees. Customers have the ability to determine the success or failure of the supply department through the use of their reward power (Joyner 2008).

If these stakeholders increase their demand for the organization's goods or services, the business will be compelled to create more. In addition, they establish rigorous standards and ensure that firms provide high-quality goods and services. This means they can use their coercive power to compel firms to provide products and services that meet their requirements (Kellerman 2010). Employees of suppliers can utilize their specialist knowledge to predict the future consumption patterns of clients and advise their superiors on how to optimize the anticipated demand. In addition, they can utilize their referent authority to identify what providers must do to be better positioned for effective competition with other suppliers. This will allow them time to prepare and determine how to recruit and keep large markets.

What is an endeavor? Differences between Purchasing Normal Goods and Services and Purchasing in a Project Environment

A project is a plan consisting of interdependent tasks that are to be completed within a set timeframe. There are numerous variations between purchasing goods and services in a project context and in a typical business setting. First, purchasing in a project entails the acquisition of necessary skills, tools, or machinery that will be utilized to facilitate the production of goods or services (Pristorites 2013). Consequently, their qualities will decide the worth of a created service or product. Therefore, purchasing in a project setting necessitates careful assessment of the quality of inputs collected.

This procedure involves the quality assurance department to verify that a firm gets inputs that will add value to its products or services. Normal purchases of products and services, on the other hand, do not necessitate complete and careful assessment of the quality of inputs required. To be commercially viable for human consumption, the majority of inputs must meet the general quality standards. In addition, these purchases are intended to achieve short-term objectives, therefore there is no added value to the inputs. Second, the purchase of goods or services in a project setting does not necessarily imply that they will be employed for production reasons (Harvard Business Review Press 2014). In truth, the vast majority of them are employed to assist the production process and are not part of the products or services themselves. For instance, a corporation may decide to build a new branch, necessitating the purchase of construction supplies, office supplies, furniture, and the hiring of personnel. As a result, their expenses are recouped once the new branch begins operations and generates revenues. This indicates that the cost of acquiring inputs incurred during the acquisition of products or services in a project context is recovered over an extended period of time.

Purchasing ordinary goods and services, on the other hand, does not incur losses and there are no expectations of profits (Frame 2013). There is no expectation that the money needed to obtain the majority of these consumer goods and services will be recouped. Therefore, these are tools that enable individuals to live comfortably and engage in their daily activities without worrying about their health, wealth, or safety. Thirdly, purchasing in a project setting is regarded an investment because the value of the acquired inputs cannot be depleted (Goleman 2011). Land appreciates in value over time, allowing investors to recoup their investment and earn a profit when they sell the land at a higher price in the future. However, inputs like as automobiles, machines, furniture, and buildings deteriorate and become obsolete over time. Consequently, they will not fetch high prices when sold later.

However, investors typically reap a substantial amount of profits generated by these inputs, personnel, raw materials, services, and goods. Therefore, they recover the funds invested in the establishment of their investments by the time the value of their assets has depreciated. Purchasing ordinary products and services, on the other hand, does not include the generating of profits or the accumulation of funds for future use. As a result of their short lifespan and the nature of their use, the value of these items is destroyed, as they are purchased to satisfy urgent basic necessities. Therefore, they do not safeguard the purchasers' financial future.

How a Project Management Strategy for Purchasing Activities Can Benefit ENOC

Organizations rely on their project management departments to implement their strategies for their advantage. ENOC focuses in the provision of indirect goods such as labor supply, transportation, IT solutions, and consulting services. A project management approach to procurement processes can yield the following benefits for ENOC: (Kerzner 2013). Initially, project management will aid this department in identifying an undesired or unacceptable circumstance that affects procurement operations. The department will present difficulties that it considers to be obstacles to its success, ensuring coordination with the project management sector to evaluate the effectiveness of the highlighted issue. For instance, the procurement department may discover that clients' preferences have shifted and they now choose public transportation over private vehicles. This will result in decreased demand for private vehicles, which will have a detrimental influence on the company's sales (Project Management Institute 2007).

This department will therefore conduct research on how to enhance the sale of private vehicles, despite the fact that consumer patterns indicate a drop in demand for these models. Therefore, it will begin supplying private vehicles at reduced prices or boost the benefits clients receive while purchasing them. To guarantee that the problem stated is real and affects the ENOC Group, it will be necessary for the department to adopt a project management strategy while addressing this matter. This strategy will allow this department to identify the shortcomings of private car use that contribute to their declining popularity. Therefore, it will ensure that it purchases inexpensive and fuel-efficient vehicles. This approach will ensure that the procurement department finds automobile models with a high stock turnover rate, notwithstanding the changing preferences of consumers.

Secondly, a project management approach to challenges impacting the procurement department of ENOC Group will assist this sector in determining and evaluating the significance of a new project inside the organization. In addition, it will allow this department to evaluate methods for implementing the new project without disrupting other departments or the business (Heagney 2011). If this department decides to invest in fuel-efficient and inexpensive private vehicles, for instance, it must verify that their quality does not undermine ENOC Group's standards. In addition, if it decides to use inexpensive staffing or transportation alternatives, it must ensure that the quality of its services does not fall short of ENOC Group customers' expectations.

This department will be able to study several choices for implementing the project and determine the optimal option. In addition, this strategy will define the project's scope and explain the necessary steps to prevent it from becoming a company albatross. It is vital to clarify that a project management technique should be utilized in the procurement department to eliminate project uncertainty and reduce the likelihood of launching and implementing projects that contradict with other departments' responsibilities (Feist 2013). Finally, this methodology will aid the procurement division in evaluating the performance and accomplishments of its new initiatives. Repeated evaluation of the efficacy of projects will assist the procurement division in determining how to enhance them so that they are cost-effective and provide acceptable profits for ENOC Group.

John Kotter's Eight Step Change Model

Change is the process by which an organization decides to implement new policies, processes, systems, people, or departments in order to maximize its resources for profitable purposes. This comprises the implementation of production, marketing, and distribution techniques to ensure their activities incur low costs. Change is inevitable in organizations because it allows them to remain relevant in terms of creating items that satisfy consumers' demands, compensating employees fairly, and employing legal manufacturing, marketing, and advertising techniques to increase the popularity of their brands (Kotter 2012). John Kotter identified the eight states of change that must be addressed in order for organizations to achieve their objectives.

First, he stated that acting quickly is the first stage in implementing change in businesses. Change requires organizations to act swiftly and fix flaws or vulnerabilities that expose them to inefficiency. Therefore, Kotter suggests that companies should move swiftly and ensure that issues requiring change are addressed in order for a business to provide goods or services that fulfill the requisite criteria (Cummings 2014). However, businesses that take too long to implement changes rarely achieve their goals due to a lack of competitive advantages. The ENOC procurement department

Digital Rights Management: Definition And Application Essay Help Us

Table of Contents
Introduction Digital Rights Management (DRM) Definition Utilizing Technology to Protect Intellectual Property A Typical DRM Application for Managing Digital Content Access Disadvantages of DRM Conclusion Bibliography

Introduction

The modern corporate environment presents several issues for organizations, the majority of them relate to the security of processing and storing critical online data. For this aim, they employ digital rights management, a method that efficiently accomplishes the operation while restricting the population's access to certain information (Dingledy & Matamoros, 2016).

This strategy, however, is very new and requires special care. Therefore, the purpose of this paper is to define digital rights management (DRM), discuss how businesses employ technology to safeguard intellectual property, and provide an example of a typical DRM implementation. It also discusses the disadvantages of the defined method for businesses who utilize technical solutions to satisfy their need to secure information security.

Digital Rights Management (DRM) Definition

Digital rights management refers to a collection of steps designed to protect an organization's data. It regulates access to content on digital devices, so assuring compliance with copyright and proprietary hardware usage principles (Dingledy & Matamoros, 2016).

In other words, it entails technological solutions that ensure compliance with the legislation, which stipulate that certain assets should not be used by individuals (Dingledy & Matamoros, 2016). This notion is extensively adopted by numerous businesses, whose operations entail special concerns regarding the likelihood of unlawful data use (Heitner, 2018). Therefore, it is the ideal way for carrying out the aforementioned task.

Under digital rights management, the restriction of access to company information necessitates the execution of one of the two options. Permission management and copy protection are the two techniques, and which one a corporation chooses depends on its specific requirements. Consequently, the former reflects the installation of limits on data consumers (Dingledy & Matamoros, 2016).

It can be accomplished through the application of software licensing for computer programs or user authentication, which identifies the individuals who are permitted to access the information (Dingledy & Matamoros, 2016). The second type of DRM, on the other hand, entails the protection of data by banning any type of copying (Dingledy & Matamoros, 2016). In this way, an organization's efforts might be directed on imposing restrictions on the individuals or processes involved in the use of information.

Utilizing Technology to Protect Intellectual Property

To secure their intellectual capital, modern enterprises use a variety of technology methods within digital rights management. This is due to the fact that the majority of commercial transactions are now conducted online, a circumstance that necessitates the creation of appropriate security measures.

Targeted data in this instance are trademarks, copyrights, and patents (Heitner, 2018). However, despite the general efficacy of this strategy, it is frequently inaccessible to small and medium-sized businesses due to its high cost (Heitner, 2018). Therefore, it is easier to examine the adoption of DRM systems using major businesses as a case study.

This situation necessitates the protection of intellectual property since huge financial losses are possible. They result from the policies of some businesses watching the actions and tendencies of others in order to remain competitive on the international market (Heitner, 2018).

From this vantage point, the protection of intellectual property becomes an important issue for enterprises, which is typically addressed by solution developers. TM Cloud and NPER are examples of partner organizations that assist with the management of intellectual property filings and the documentation of intellectual property ownership and licensing, respectively (Heitner, 2018). In this manner, the demand for these services is effectively met by the respective businesses.

Typical DRM Software for Managing Digital Content Access

A typical implementation of digital rights management can be evaluated using a single corporation as an example. For example, Alibaba's attitude to the requirement to protect their data is one of the most effective strategies (Sun, 2018). This company's primary objective is to detect and trace pirated and counterfeit items in route to their intended consumers (Sun, 2018).

By recognizing instances of unwanted access to digital content and similar preventative measures, they contribute to the endeavor aimed at protecting the security of information and property rights. The organization leverages new technologies such as big-data analytics and machine learning for this goal (Sun, 2018). Consequently, they not only accomplish the stated functions efficiently, but also serve as a model for the adoption of these tools by others.

In fact, e-commerce is one of the most dependent businesses on technology solutions securing their data. If their transactions are dangerous, they pose a threat to the entire profitability of the company. Moreover, in the context of globalization, the expertise of pioneers such as Alibaba is crucial for the establishment of similar methods worldwide (Sun, 2018). The technology can nevertheless be successfully adopted and adapted to a particular context despite the fact that the restrictions vary based on government policy.

Disadvantages of DRM

Utilizing digital rights management is a beneficial strategy for modern enterprises. However, its widespread dispersion carries with it both advantages and disadvantages. The objection of American organizations to this strategy is founded on a series of tenets (Dingledy & Matamoros, 2016). Thus, they view DRM as a potential danger to the balance between private and public interests (Dingledy & Matamoros, 2016).

It is because the concept of fair use is vague, and the protection of specific material could be considered as a violation of government interests (Dingledy & Matamoros, 2016). Moreover, DRM appears to restrict user options by punishing genuine product owners rather than pirated copy owners, and it occasionally inhibits users from accessing content, so encouraging its illicit usage (Dingledy & Matamoros, 2016).

From this perspective, DRM's effectiveness would be considerably enhanced if the legislation addressed the aforementioned problems. However, this does not appear viable due to the rigidity of this data management strategy.

Conclusion

Digital rights management, in a nutshell, is a solution to the problem faced by organizations with a frequent online presence. This method entails regulating access to content on digital devices, thereby securing firms' vital data. This prevents the transfer of an organization's intellectual capital to third parties who may utilize the information for their own gain, resulting in financial losses for the organization.

Alibaba demonstrates that the application of big data analytics and machine learning may fill this need in e-commerce. In addition, such practices can be used by businesses around the world. In general, this strategy appears to be beneficial, although it is nonetheless criticized for producing an increase in the dissemination of pirate copies and for creating unclear restrictions.

References

F. W. Dingledy and A. B. Matamoros (2016). What is digital rights management? Digital rights management: The librarian's guide. In C. A. Lemmer & C. P. Wale (Eds. ), Digital rights management: The librarian's guide (pp. 1-25). The publishers Rowman and Littlefield

Heitner, D. (2018). Why intellectual property is essential to your business and what you should do to safeguard it now. Inc. Website.

Sun, J. (2018). Alibaba's perspective on intellectual property and e-commerce WIPO Magazine. Web.

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Coca Cola Company: Staff Performance Effective Management Essay Help Us

Introduction

This report is in response to an earlier request for a document detailing how your organization can effectively monitor employee performance. Approximately 700,000 Coca-Cola Corporation employees are stationed in various subsidiary companies throughout the globe. In order to achieve its aims and objectives, the organization promotes a culture of creativity and innovation among its personnel.

As a means of motivating employees, the Coca-Cola Corporation emphasizes respect and fair treatment of employees as guiding principles of its corporate philosophy. Additionally, the company features a diverse work environment that fosters employee participation in its operations. As noted in this research, the administration of a company with such a wide range of operations demands effective methods for managing the performance of personnel.

Performance management within Coca Cola

According to Torrington et al. (2014), successful management of employee performance involves building a shared understanding of the organization's goals and objectives among employees. In addition, the management should prioritize integrating the company's objectives with the employees' measures, abilities, and competences. In this situation, management promotes learning, development, and improvement for employees in order to fulfill the organization's objectives, hence generating a high-performing workforce (Torrington et al. 2014).

The management of Coca-Cola should implement learning initiatives that expose staff to both formal and informal training. According to Foot and Hook (2011), formal training comprises exposing employees to an academic atmosphere so that they can demonstrate their academic credentials in their preferred fields. In informal training, employees are sponsored to attend seminars, trade fairs, and exhibitions (Foot & Hook 2011).

After exposing employees to informal training, Coca Cola Corporation management might implement a program requiring employees to submit their findings to their coworkers and management. A program of this nature promotes a culture of sharing, hence reducing individuality. In addition, Mone and London (2014) argue that the culture of sharing pushes employees to focus on attaining the company's group objectives.

Planning and monitoring

According to Boxhall and Purcell (2011), management has a crucial role in planning because it includes the establishment of performance expectations. In such a situation, management focuses on establishing objectives that connect individual employees and groups to a set of organizational aims. In leading personnel to meet the company's goals, they are aware of what, how, and when must be accomplished. According to Kramar and Syed (2012), monitoring ensures accurate and consistent measurement of employee performance and appraisal of employee comments following an evaluation.

It is obvious from the above comments that planning and monitoring keep personnel alert, thereby pushing them to work toward the organization's goals (Klein 2009). Therefore, the Coca-Cola Corporation should conduct reviews during monitoring to ensure that employees strive against the odds and push members of their groups to guarantee they are advancing the mission and vision of the firm.

Setting goals and objectives

Foot and Hook (2011) note that establishing the organization's goals and objectives is a critical aspect of planning. Without guiding principles governing their job, employees in an organization cannot function. Further, Mone and London (2014) suggest that a company's goals should be concise, measurable, attainable, and time-bound. The management holds employees accountable for their obligations and responsibilities through the objectives. Moreover, objectives with the aforementioned four aspects encourage employees to implement the company's strategies rather than store them as paperwork (Mone & London 2014).

In the case of Coca-Cola, each subsidiary should establish work-related goals for its employees. Moreover, management should align objectives with the aims of individuals who prioritize variety, creativity, and innovation. However, individual goals should be adaptable to the organization's aims and objectives. According to Williams and Adam-Smith (2010), an organization's objectives are consistent, but they demand timetable flexibility and staff achievement of management-set criteria. The Coca-Cola Corporation should modify its goals to accommodate creative or innovative staff activities so long as they are helpful to the company or contribute to profit production.

Assessing the company's development

According to Patrick (2013), management teams should assist monitoring by conducting continuous inspections to ensure that staff are performing the appropriate tasks. For Coca-Cola, monitoring should be conducted by supervisors who report to department leaders. During the evaluation process, supervisors can compare employees' milestones to the company's or subsidiary' goals to ensure that operations are completed within the specified timeframes.

Reports should follow the chain of command from supervisors to regional managers in order to compile reports from different regions and submit information in a single document to the executives of the organization. Moreover, at this time, management should identify obstacles that limit the advancement of personnel as they attempt to achieve their goals and those of Coca-Cola Corporation.

According to Williams and Adam-Smith (2010), during progressive reviews, managers evaluate employee performance in relation to both their personal and organizational goals. The management determines the extent to which employees are meeting the organization's objectives through progressive reviews. This trend necessitates adherence to the nature of objectives, as they must be attained within a specified time frame.

Slow growth, exemplified by the inability to meet particular goals within the allotted time, may be attributable to ambiguous objectives or insufficient resources to allow the implementation of the goals. Using this information, Coca Cola Corporation managers should identify hindering issues and apply corrective measures, such as more resources or clarifications, to combat substandard performance.

Developing

Given that the Coca-Cola Corporation must manage a big number of employees, the management should prioritize developing development chances via assigning responsibilities. Employees will identify areas in which they need to improve in order to enhance their performance by means of delegations. According to Narasimhan (2004), organizations are comprised of individuals with diverse beliefs and demands about cultural orientation and way of life.

Despite the fact that individuals have personal goals and ambitions, management should work toward reconciling the two to guarantee that the workforce is aligned with the organization's aims and objectives. In this situation, reconciling individual ambitions with those of the organization requires satisfying the developmental needs of employees. According to Huffmire and Holmes (2006), managers should increase the performance capacity of their staff through training and the implementation of enhanced work procedures and practices.

In addition to providing possibilities for development through delegation, Coca-Cola should require employees to submit individual reports detailing their strengths and flaws. The report should assist the management in identifying areas for improvement and developing the impacted personnel.

Successful introduction and implementation of change within an organization are contingent on the views and attitudes of employees regarding the change (Storey 2007). Such an argument necessitates that management examine employee behavior patterns prior to implementing changes to see what best suits employee attitudes. Before implementing changes, the Coca-Cola Company should get employee feedback and prepare them to operate new machinery or processes through training. In such a circumstance, employee participation in the change process will lessen the likelihood of resistance (Cuch 2013).

Creating development possibilities

According to Legge (2005), a company's high incidence of staff turnover indicates a lack of development prospects. As employees try to advance the organization, they also consider their own personal growth. In the majority of cases, employees are compelled to seek out possibilities for personal growth elsewhere because their employers offer no such opportunities. Opportunities for advancement show the level of employee skills while evaluating performance.

In order to steer both individual and organizational development, according to Narasimhan (2005), managers should expose their staff to training, thereby equipping them with the necessary skills. In addition to identifying developmental requirements, giving many opportunities for development enables employees to embrace change since they are equipped with the knowledge and abilities to adapt to new circumstances (Mondy & Mondy 2014). The management of Coca-Cola Corporation can establish development possibilities through delegation of work, official and informal training, and exposure exchange programs.

Evaluation and Reward

Torrington et al. (2014) emphasize the importance of periodically summarizing the performance of employees. A periodic overview of performance facilitates the comparison of employee performance within a specific period. A rating can be attained by performance evaluations against a system established by management. According to Storey (2007), rewarding comprises recognizing and valuing the efforts of exceptional performers and their contributions to the organization's success.

Positive behavior is rewarded, whilst negative behavior is penalized, according to the concept of behavior governed by consequences (Compton 2005). Based on this analysis, the Coca-Cola Corporation's management should recognize exceptional employee performance prior to soliciting nominations for official awards. However, awards can be either monetary or non-monetary, and both drive employees to continue doing exceptional work (Compton 2005).

Performance evaluation and remuneration

The Coca-Cola Company should create an evaluation system that permits performance reviews twice every fiscal year. Individual and group performance is measured against the company's objectives by the management. The rating can be determined by allocating percentages to the individual and group tasks. In order to recognize good performance, the corporation can create a performance-based remuneration scheme. Outstanding achievers may receive monetary gifts and a fully funded vacation package from the company. The issue with such a technique of evaluating performance, however, is that employees may rush and neglect some essential activities in order to meet their targets within the time constraints.

Considering feedback

During performance evaluation, managers discover areas that require correction (Cuch 2013). Managers generate a report detailing areas requiring adjustments and review its contents with the affected parties.

However, employees are responsible for adopting report recommendations and providing management with feedback. Managers examine employee feedback and scrutinize whether the employee has adopted the recommendations given in the employee's report (Mone &London 2014). Due to the bureaucracies imposed by extensive frameworks of governance, the evaluation of comments at Coca-Cola Corporation may take time. Nonetheless, managers can assess input at the subsidiary level, as opposed to waiting for instructions from the headquarters through regional managers.

Conclusion

The administration of the Coca-Cola Company should begin with planning by establishing goals and objectives. Incorporating innovative individual goals of employees, management should evaluate individual goals to corporate objectives and approve plans that help to the achievement of corporate objectives. In addition, the evaluation should involve periodic and continuous reviews to ensure that personnel achieve defined goals within specified timeframes.

In addition, the Coca-Cola Company should allocate responsibilities, train staff, offer exchange programs, and expose them to trade shows and exhibitions in order to create development chances. After the completion of the project implementation period, the company should evaluate the performance of its personnel in relation to the organization's goals. Packages of compensation should include both monetary and non-monetary rewards. However, the subsidiary should evaluate the comments rather than waiting for a reaction from the parent company.

Bibliography

Boxhall, P., and Purcell, J. (2011). Human Resource Management Strategy. Palgrave, Basingstoke.

An Introduction to Positive Psychology, Wadsworth, Belmont, W. Compton, 2005.

Cuch, W. (2013). Effective Management. Boston: Cengage Learning.

Foot, M., and C. Hook. (2011). Introducing Human Resource Management.

Handbook of effective management: how to manage or supervise strategically, Praeger Publishers, Westport, D. Huffmire and J. Holmes, 2006.

The strategic management of intellectual capital. New York: Routledge, 2009.

Human Resource Management in a Global Context: A Critical Approach, Palgrave, Basingstoke, R. Kramar and J. Syed, 2012.

Human Resource Management: Rhetorics and Realities, published by Palgrave Macmillan in Basingstoke in 2005.

Mondy, R., and J. Mondy. (2014). Human Resource Management. Upper Saddle River: Pearson.

Employee Engagement through Effective Performance Management: A Practical Guide for Managers, by E. Mone and M. London, Routledge, London, 2014.

Narasimhan, K. (2004). "Performance Management." Measuring Business Success.

Patrick, B. (2013). Ethics of performance management. Public Integrity, volume 15, number 3, pages 221-242.

Human Resource Management: A critical text. London: Thomson Learning, 2007.

Torrington, D, Hall, L, Taylor, S & Atkinson, C 2014, Human Resource Management, Prentice Hall, Harlow.

Williams, S & Adam-Smith, D 2010, Contemporary Employment Relations: A Critical Introduction, Oxford University Press, Oxford.

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Hennes & Mauritz Company’s Market Environment Essay Help Us

Market Environment for H&M
Market size, market share, and target markets

After Zara and Gap Inc., The H&M Company is the third-largest fashion house in the world. The market capitalization of the corporation exceeds $45 billion. The company has more than 2,000 stores worldwide and is presently the industry leader in the fast fashion sector (H&M Company 2015). Customers of all ages who are interested in fashion apparel are targeted by the company. The company specializes in affordable and trendy clothing for women, men, and children.

Micro and macro ecosystems Macro-environment

The H&M Company's external environment was determined using Porter's Five Forces Analysis, as described in the following section.

The prospect of new competitor

It is difficult for a new entry to enter the fashion business and displace incumbents such as H&M and Gap Inc., given their dominance and substantial capitalization (Elder & Krishna 2012).

Threat of competition

Since the H&M Company and its current competitors offer bespoke goods that cannot be easily replicated, the prospect of perfect alternatives is minimal (Cone 2011). Such products as cheap-chic and rapid fashion are exclusive to the H&M Company. However, the corporation is today confronted with the problem of imitations, particularly on the Asian and African markets.

Supplier's bargaining power

In the fashion industry in which H&M works, supplier influence is significant. H&M has engaged numerous local and international vendors to provide a variety of stylish products. However, H&M has deftly circumvented the strong supplier power by entering legally binding contracts with manufacturers to decrease the influence of middlemen in the fragile industry (H&M Company 2015).

Buyer's bargaining power

Within the H&M Company, a number of fragmented segments are managed. Due to intense competition from firms like Zara and Gap, this indicates that potential customers of H&M products have a great deal of sway over the company's pricing decisions (H&M Company 2015). H&M boasts, thankfully, some of the most competitive prices in the industry.

Rivalry

Within the worldwide fashion sector, a number of fashion retail stores operate. As an illustration, Gap is the market leader, followed by Zara and H&M. In preparing for market expansion, H&M must be extremely cautious not to make a move that could erode its competitive edge (Sethna, Harrigan, & Jones 2013). The H&M Company, for instance, has produced adaptable brand names such as cheap chic and rapid fashion (H&M Company 2015). In addition, the organization has capitalized on quality and tailored service delivery to survive the worldwide market's competitive dynamics.

Internal environment investigation

For the purpose of determining the internal environment of the H&M Company, a SWOT analysis was conducted, and the results are given below.

Strengths

To facilitate access to the market, the company has an extensive network of over 2,000 retailers dispersed across the globe. This has increased the accessibility and visibility of several H&M Company retail products. Additionally, the company's products are varied and split to appeal to various customer segments. In addition, the organization has a solid brand in addition to a solid customer relationship management approach (H&M Company 2015).

Weaknesses

The company's presence in Europe is greater than its position in other markets. Unlike its big competitors Zara and Gap, the company's stores are not distributed uniformly. This prevents the H&M Company from enjoying consistent product demand across the globe. Additionally, the company has suffered with high inventory expenses and has reduced the number of stores (H&M Company 2015). These shortcomings have hindered the company's market expansion.

Opportunities

Due to its significant market presence and global brand image, the company has the chance for further expansion. For example, the corporation may adopt current technologies in sales and marketing to increase income. Additionally, the company has a chance to enter new markets through a cooperation with subsidiary fashion companies to enter the untapped markets in Asia and Africa (H&M Company 2015).

Threats

Global companies such as Gap and Zara pose the greatest danger to the H&M Company. In addition, the corporation is at risk from counterfeiting businesses that may make poor fabrics and sell them under the H&M brand. In addition, the corporation may be compelled to raise prices in the future due to the high supplier power and even rising cost of raw materials from independent manufacturers (H&M Company 2015). This method could be ineffective in a market with several replacement products (Sethna, Harrigan, & Jones 2013).

Based on the examination of the internal and external environments, it is evident that H&M has the ability to further penetrate the underdeveloped markets in Asia and Africa. The H&M brand has been positioned as accessible, high-quality fashion apparel for all consumers.

H&M Marketing Mix

Product growth; lifespan, branding, packaging, and structure

The H&M items have reached the stage of maturity, which is defined by an established market presence and a strong brand name. As a competitive advantage strategy, the only improvements the corporation may now make to its products are modifications to the manufacturing process.

H&M presents their items on the market under a variety of labels, including affordable chic and quick fashion. These brands operate autonomously to attract distinct customer segments (Sethna, Harrigan, & Jones 2013). The corporation employed several branding techniques to establish an environment of its own rivalry by appealing to different clients seeking distinct fashion apparel (Cone 2011).

Women's and children's fashion clothes from H&M are wrapped in appealing hues. The range of colors includes red, pink, violet, and purple. Customers who purchase products from the company's retail locations receive biodegradable, high-end bags.

To cater to low-income and high-income customer categories, the products are separated into high-end and low-end clothes (Sethna, Harrigan, & Jones 2013). Additionally, the products are subdivided by their use, such as children's clothing, women's clothing, and men's clothing. In addition, the H&M product line is subdivided into accessories, apparel, and bags, as well as formal dress (H&M Company 2015).

Pricing strategy; examination of competitive pricing and breakeven

The H&M Company has honed its multiple-price strategy in order to compete with the cost-leader pricing followed by Gap Inc. and Zara firms. The company's multiple-pricing strategy is designed to entice prospective clients to make multiple purchases by promising discounts for a particular volume of sale (H&M Company 2015).

This technique has been effective in combating the loss-leader pricing employed by the company's chief competitors, as the discounts have succeeded in luring more people into the stores (Elder & Krishna 2012). The company has been profitable for the past two decades, and estimates for the future show an increase in profit margin. During the 2014 fiscal year, the corporation earned more than $4 billion in profit. This represented a 10% increase in profitability compared to the prior year (H&M Company 2015).

Distribution via channels and the Internet

The company's distribution network is comprised of local and international suppliers, independent producers, and a thriving internal distribution system (Sethna, Harrigan, & Jones 2013). The company has effectively adopted vertical integration and an online portal to streamline the flow of goods from production stores to retail locations. The distribution channels operate independently in various locations where H&M has outlets. The internet gateway has increased the company's sales by almost 15% during the past five years.

Communication; marketing, public relations, sales promotion, and publicity

The corporation has a sophisticated and well-organized strategy for promoting its various brands. Local media channels, social media, print media, and company websites are used for advertising (Sethna, Harrigan, & Jones 2013). The sales promos include discount coupons, loyalty points, and free shipping for bulk purchasers.

The company's return-and-replacement policy is extremely liberal so long as the product has not been used. The organization has a strategic customer relationship management department that provides customer care services 24 hours a day, seven days a week (Sethna, Harrigan, & Jones 2013). The department also serves as the company's central public relations component. H&M has been one of the few firms with a favourable public image across the globe over the past two decades.

Analysis and Suggestions

Management should take measures to boost benefits and decrease prices.

The following actions should be taken by managers of H&M in order to boost customer advantages and decrease prices when they shop for products.

Operational efficiency: By enhancing operational efficiency, the business will cut inventory costs and increase output at the lowest cost possible. The increase in efficiency will result in the development of margin for price reductions at H&M retail locations (Elder & Krishna 2012).

Modification of the present vertical integration plan: The company's management should consider altering the current vertical integration strategy by forming a retail partnership with medium and smaller enterprises (Sethna, Harrigan, & Jones 2013). This method is intended to streamline the supply chain and decrease inefficiencies, such as foreign currency fluctuations, which affect the ultimate pricing of various items (Cone 2011). Through this method, the corporation will be able to provide its products at more competitive pricing on a global scale.

Innovation in pricing: The H&M Company may wish to follow the cost leadership strategy currently developed by the Zara Company to ensure that the company's output is optimized for cost-effectiveness in production (Sethna, Harrigan, & Jones 2013). This can be accomplished by generating series of products with varying price tags for various client classes (Birdsall & Johnston 2010). Consequently, the company will be able to offer prices that appeal to customers of various socioeconomic strata.

How H&M can boost the customer value of its offering

Through the provision of after-sales services such as loyalty cards and regular discounts, The H&M Company may raise the value of its product to customers even more. This method will foster brand loyalty among customers who perceive that the company cares about their finances (Cone 2011). Through well-structured after-sales services, the company will be able to improve revenues as a result of an increase in shop visits.

How H&M creates a balance between marketing campaign consistency and customization

In order to achieve a balance between uniformity and adaptation of its marketing program, the administration should consider customizing the products for each market to ensure that the targeted clients embrace the items. On the Chinese market, for instance, the company might explore tailoring H&M products to the conservative Chinese culture. This should be accompanied with Chinese-language localized marketing programs to boost brand acceptance in this market (Kotler & Keller 2012). As a result, the company will be able to enter each market without any cultural or communication barriers, as each marketing program will be tailored to the specific area.

A marketing plan that can help H&M achieve market success.

Regarding parts of the marketing program, H&M's administration should invest in revamping the current marketing communication techniques that are aligned with each client segment in each geographic region. This can be accomplished by incorporating cultural factors that influence product adoption into existing marketing initiatives. For best success and product market viability, however, the programs should be totally personalized and regionalized (Sethna, Harrigan, & Jones 2013). Through this strategy, the difficulties that the H&M Company currently has in foreign markets such as China, Africa, and portions of Asia will become a thing of the past.

Bibliography

Birdsall, C., and N. Johnston, "Achieving brand-driven business success," Design Management Review, volume 19, issue 2, pages 67-74, 2010.

Cone, S 2011, These are the marketing strategies that will make you a star. New York, John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

Elder, R., and Krishna, A. (2012). The visual depiction effect in advertising: Facilitating embodied mental simulation through product orientation. Journal of Consumer Research, 38(6), 988-1003.

H&M Company, About Us, 2015.

2012, Marketing management, Pearson Prentice Hall, New Jersey. Kotler, P., and Keller, K.

New York: Emerald Group Publishing, 2013. Sethna, Z., P. Harrigan, and R. Jones. 2013. Entrepreneurial marketing: A global viewpoint.

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Smarts Company’s Post-Implementation Issues Essay Help Us

Introduction
Object of the document

The purpose of this document is to identify solutions that the SMARTS Company might employ to ensure the flexibility of their operations. The management must devise a plan that will ensure consumer satisfaction in light of the company's accelerated growth. The mission of draper consulting limited is to provide answers to networking issues and support the technological advancement of small and medium-sized businesses. We have been in the consulting industry for years and believe we have sufficient experience to devise a viable solution. The sector of information technology is seeing a significant number of advancements and changes. We intend to incorporate these innovations into the projects we are tasked with so that the companies involved are served without hiccups. Information systems are essential for any firm that wishes to expand. The modern economy has shifted from primarily serving a small group of individuals to serving society as a whole. Therefore, it is necessary to ensure that customers throughout the region are aware of how and where to get their services. Additionally, customers must be informed of the company's varied activities in order to make an informed decision. There are many types and natures of clients who must be served at their convenience. This document will ensure that all firm customers have a greater selection of handy services to choose from.

Scope

This project's scope includes the ability to make it effective for the business without interfering with its other operations. A particular amount has been allocated for the development and expansion of the project, which should not exceed the company's capabilities. The training and installation process is intended to take a particular length of time in order to minimize any potential additional expenses. Therefore, the organization has implemented a strategy consisting of a timetable of events and the maximum amount of time it will take (Cronin, 2004). The activities of the scimitar and frostie will be included into the company's timetable to maximize the use of available resources. For instance, the company's customer service department will be responsible for all actions including customer support via scimatar. The activities of frostie will be supervised by the company's information technology department (Beynon-Davies, 2002). Some marketing methods will also be implemented to ensure that the company's clientele are aware of the existence of the project. The company's present website will be utilized and integrated into its installations.

Installation

Deployment plan

The initiative is being implemented primarily to facilitate communication between the company's clients and staff. The manner of communication relies heavily on internet coverage, an important factor that the organization has taken into account. Despite the widespread use of internet communication, certain of the company's customers may not have access to the medium. This could be because of their physical position and economic activities. A poll on the utilization of the company's website revealed, however, that at least seventy percent of the company's clientele were able to utilize the system. The connection was also accessible to the company's other locations, so facilitating communication. In order to accommodate clients who are unable to access the link, alternative communication channels have also been made available. There may also be additional issues connected to the system failure that could impede networking. Thus, the organization is not abandoning the previously utilized communication means.

Different firm personnel will use the SCIMATAR system to speak about the issues they are now facing. The system will ensure that the information is accessible online, but only to a select number of individuals. Therefore, the employees will require technical training so that they can simply access the information. However, the facilities that will be utilized will not be overly complex, and users will not be required to install an entire computer package in order to use them. The majority of the instructions that can be taught to employees during their routine duties are straightforward.

In contrast, the FROSTIE system will be an open user group site that will be launched as a standard website. The site will be launched under the company's name and will be heavily promoted. Consumers will be able to access all relevant information about the company's operations by logging in to this website. Differentiating it from other websites will be the various links that will be included to direct users to specific information (Cadle & Yeates, 2001). There will be an icon that will be linked to certain customer-required information. For instance, if a consumer want to learn more about a tailor who specializes in men's designer suits, he or she will just click on the corresponding icon. The link will provide him with a list of tailors and their locations, allowing him to place orders or make other inquiries. If the consumer desires a custom-tailored suit, there will be a link on the same page instructing him on how to submit his measurements, choose the suit's color, and select the fabric. There will also be a chance for him to meet the tailor in person if he requires additional information.

Arguments against straight transition

Considering the many phases that the site must undergo, a direct transition may not be the best option for the business. Before introducing the site to its staff and customers, the organization will need to follow a number of procedures. It should be emphasized that the company is adapting this approach for the very first time. If it were an enhancement over the current one, it would be simpler for the business. As a pilot project, the technology will be deployed in one of the branches before being gradually rolled out to the remaining branches. First, it must be validated that the initiative is truly worthwhile and will be profitable for the business. It is not solely about the company's appearance. Installing new systems is an expensive endeavor for the organization due to the related maintenance costs. The company must first guarantee that it has the cash to sustain the installation and that its staff are on par with the installation's requirements. It is one thing for a corporation to have a particular system, but it is something quite different for that system to be utilized for its intended purpose. Therefore, it is vital to implement a pilot project and verify its effectiveness prior to implementing it in other departments.

Data migration

The corporation is now storing its data in its raw form in its records before transferring it to its systems. A portion of the material was preserved on computer discs for clarity purposes in case they were tampered with. The majority of the information pertaining to clients' daily orders was stored in books so that tailors could quickly access it. Certain company data will not be migrated to the new system because the orders were completed and the company obtained confirmation of their receipt. Such obsolete information will not be considered by the new software. Nonetheless, all pending client orders will be migrated to the new program. The information recorded on the company's disks and systems will be easy to transfer. Those on paper will need to be transcribed and effectively organized in order to fit the system. All information pertaining to the tailors' varied actions and locations will be included in the system. There will also be information about the many types and colors of fabrics offered by the company's branches. In addition, there will be a breakdown of the costs associated with the production of various clothing styles, as well as allowances for transportation costs in the event that the client prefers such deliveries.

SCIMATAR data

The scimitar will be engraved with the following information: client records such as age, sexe, and measurements. There will also be information on the company's available textiles, allowing clients to select the items they desire. There will also be information regarding the costs associated with the production of specific garments and their maintenance. There will also be additional information regarding the type of work performed by each member of the company's workforce. Also included will be patterns needed to create various types of clothes. In addition, information regarding stock categories and tailors involved in the work will be evaluated.

FROSTIE data

The required information for the frostie will include information about the fabric used by the employees, the patterns adapted for the activities, and the quantity of orders being placed. In addition, there will be information on the kinds of stocks being created, the volumes of stocks kept by the various branches, and the individuals participating in the supply system.

Training

Training is a fundamental procedure that must be carried out within the organization. As it is a new system in the organization, personnel will need to be trained on how to utilize it so that it can properly serve the organization. It will be necessary to instruct tailors on how to retrieve customer-posted information from the system and decode it for the required design. The training will be based on the data entry format that will be used. The format that will be changed will assure clarity and simplicity, though. It will therefore be difficult for pattern cutters to acquire client information and transmit confirmations that their requests have been accepted, as they will be the primary recipients of the information. They will also be instructed on how to contact clients using the website if they require additional clarifications. To access the information, tailors and those involved in sewing and assembly will also require training. They are to continue reviewing the customer-provided details to verify that they produce the desired design. This will decrease consumer issues that may emerge due to the error of a certain employee.

Administrators, workshop managers, and technical support personnel will require training on how to access client data and the numerous inputs made by employees in other branches. They will need to clarify all client-sent information on their request and verify that the task has been completed to their specifications. In addition, they will need to discover the specifications requested by clients and provide the required feedback. They will also be responsible for managing the many updates submitted by personnel from different organizations and ensuring proper synchronization. Therefore, they will require a more specific form of training than tailors, pattern makers, and sewing and assembly personnel. The administrators and supervisors will need to review the information prior to its dissemination to the personnel.

The value of the training also lies in informing the staff that certain material should not be divulged because it involves sensitive company data. If any of it is accessed by competitors, it will be difficult for the business to conduct its operations efficiently. This training will be conducted in phases based on how the system will be setup. As long as they are full-time workers of the company, all employees are eligible for this training. The training will be conducted on the company's premises if the necessary facilities are available. The project manager may provide all pertinent information to the company's IT manager, who will then relay it to the other staff. The length of the training will rely on the employees' ability to grasp the fundamentals involved (Tourniaire, & Farrell, 1997). It is a simple technique that will not cost the business very much. As the technology will be transferred to other firm divisions, it may be some time before the full organization is notified. The organization may also hire more new employees who will require orientation on these tasks. Consequently, the training process will continue as long as the organization is in operation.

The training of the various end groups will begin in mid-March. The procedure will begin at the company's main branch and then move to the other branches. The corporation will utilize the IT personnel who will instruct the users on how to utilize the data. In addition to being shown the company's new advances and instructed on how to enter data, visiting consumers will also have the opportunity to be shown the company's new advancements. The training will be conducted on the project's early activities. As the company launches the project, the employees will be trained on how to utilize it.

Documentation

Different document types will be necessary for the various user groups. End-user groups, who are primarily the company's customers, will require a document that describes the company's service offerings and how to access specific services. Their document will contain precise information on the company's many branches and the tailors they can contact for services. It will also feature a form for clients to fill out if they wish to place specific orders. This document's format will be straightforward, with no login credentials required. This is due to

How E-Marketing Affects Consumer Behaviour Essay Help Us

Preliminary Title

How does e-marketing effect consumer behavior? – A research topic for an MBA dissertation. The purpose of this dissertation proposal is to evaluate the impact of E-marketing on consumer behavior. As respondents, the poll will target college graduate employees between the ages of 21 and 40 working for a variety of firms.

A concise summary of the relevant literature

In recent years, E-marketing professionals have strived to appreciate the dynamics surrounding E-marketing. Additionally, researchers are becoming increasingly interested in the subject. On the basis of the high rate of internet acceptance by consumers, company penetration, and transaction volumes, it is anticipated that e-marketing would undergo exponential growth in the future years. In addition, online consumers have reached a degree of maturity, which has prompted virtual providers to highlight the urgency and significance of a customer-centric and professional E-marketing strategy. Although it may have been expected that the internet bubble of the 1990s would have served as a wakeup call for online marketers to further investigate the behavior of their online shoppers (Constantinides, Lorenzo, Gómez-Borja, and Geurts, 2008, p. 2), existing empirical and anecdotal evidence indicates that the majority of online marketing companies have yet to fully comprehend the behavior of their customers, with the majority of them "…continuing to struggle with In addition to external and personal uncontrolled elements, clients' exposure to the marketing strategy of an internet company has the potential to influence the decision-making process. By utilizing actual, conventional marketing materials, online marketers are able to influence the decision-making process. Nonetheless, the most effective technique is one that incorporates the formation and creation of the appropriate online experience, as well as a web experience (Babin & Babin, 2001, p. 91).

Demographic and lifestyle changes have had a substantial impact on consumer behavior. In recent years, the median age has increased in industrialized nations where web marketing has been adopted at a higher rate than in other nations, for instance. In addition, many of the homes in these nations have more money since the ratio of working husbands and wives is larger than in other nations (Tirmizi, Rehman & Saif, 2009, p. 526). However, they have less time to participate in hobbies such as shopping. E-marketing has therefore proven beneficial to them. In addition, consumers are increasingly seeking "hassle-free" service, and internet marketing has been adapted to meet their requirements. Increased stress due to balancing work and personal life has led to increased autonomy, which has also had a significant impact on consumer purchasing behavior.

Cultural and societal changes have had a substantial impact on E-marketing. Due to the introduction of the Internet, consumers now appear somewhat overwhelmed by information overload (Mai, Jung, Lantz & Loeb, 2001, P. 21). In addition, life stress and multitasking have resulted in time scarcity, which has altered consumer purchasing behavior. In addition, sophisticated consumers have benefited greatly from information overload since they are more aware of the control they have over their purchasing decisions. Consequently, they are aware of the many marketing options available to them. Nonetheless, E-marketing has negatively impacted customer behavior. In light of the internet's susceptibility to data security and privacy issues, for instance, consumers are wary about exposing their information, despite the benefits of e-marketing. Additionally, customers are concerned about the rise of internet crimes.

Consumer behavior is the process and behaviors individuals engage in when searching for, selecting, purchasing, using, reviewing, and discarding goods and services to satisfy their needs and preferences.

” (Belch & Belch, 2007, p. 105). According to the black-box model, there is a relationship between customer attributes, stimuli, consumer responses, and decision making (Sandhusen, 2000, p. 218). The concept posits that customer answers are the result of a rational and deliberate decision-making procedure. Consequently, it is assumed that purchasers are well aware of the issue at hand.

E-marketing is defined as "the use of information technology in the processes of creating, communicating, and delivering value to customers, as well as for managing customer relationships in a manner that benefits the organization and its stakeholders" (Schiffman & Kanuk, 2004, p. 17). In recent years, marketers have depended on E-marketing to establish favorable, long-lasting client relationships. This is intended to ensure that the company in issue gains a competitive advantage over its rivals. E-marketing functions are more efficient and effective than traditional marketing operations. In other words, technological advancement transforms marketing techniques. In this manner, worldwide relationships have been established and new global markets have arisen. This not only results in the creation of new business models, but also in the enhancement of customer value, hence boosting the profitability of the in question accompaniment. However, there is more to E-marketing than simply using the Internet. Convergence of technologies improves customer relationship management. This is in addition to enhanced database management and supply chain management. In addition to providing clients with a network function, e-marketing utilizes the internet to supply content to the target market, sell and transmit such information, and communicate it to the target market.

The objective of marketers who use the Internet to communicate with clients is to build strong relationships with them. Therefore, marketers can sell their products and services directly over the Internet. E-marketing has altered the marketing functions, which is advantageous for organizations facing intensifying global rivalry (Taylor & Strutton, 2009, P. 4). In addition, consumers' expectations appear to be increasing in terms of the quality of products and services, reaction time, and product personalization. This indicates that customer behavior has changed in unison with technology advancements. In light of this, marketing operations must undergo a significant transformation. In terms of eliciting and providing immediate reactions, e-marketing is defined by a high degree of engagement between customers and marketers. A peculiar characteristic of consumer behavior is the simultaneous punishment and reinforcement of the subject. In this instance, the benefits attributed to services and products serve as reinforcement, together with social endorsement of purchase by opinion leaders, for instance. On the other hand, consumer behavior is also punished, as consumers are typically compelled to forego such universal conditioned reinforcers as money and rights. In addition, there is the problem of the time and effort that they must invest during the purchasing process.

Regarding E-marketing, consumer behavior is punished when they are required to surrender certain rights, such as credit card information, to merchants throughout the purchasing process. Consequently, their security becomes extremely compromised. On the other hand, e-marketing has accelerated the purchasing procedure. As a result, consumers are no longer required to physically visit a store to make purchases. All that is required is access to the website of an e-marketing company. From there, the consumer can evaluate the products or services on offer, as well as their prices. After they are happy with the product or service, they can then make a purchase. The BPM (behavioral perspective model) seeks to comprehend customer behavior better by examining the characteristics that distinguish consumers (Kacen & Lee, 2002, p. 165). According to this approach, a customer's purchasing behavior is jointly determined by their consuming learning history and their consumer behavior setting. The behavioral setting off of a customer is comprised of occurrences inside the consumer's consumption environment, which signal distinct consequences for diverse consumer responses. Behavioral environments serve as stimuli. The customer receives a signal from behavioral settings on the expected consequences of individual purchasing responses, such as purchase postponement, purchase acceleration, saving, and seeking, based on prior learning history.

E-marketing has also enabled marketers to tailor the mass market into smaller niches, allowing them to cater to their clients' demands (Park, Kim & Forney, 2006, P. 444). However, it is essential to highlight that personalised items are no longer the primary concern of clients when making purchases. In contrast, the emergence of the internet has prompted customers to want convenient products and services in the quickest feasible period. Time is therefore a crucial component in this situation. In addition, users are willing to spend more on online products and services if they reflect their evolving lives and interests. Consequently, online marketers must conduct periodic surveys to understand the preferences of their target market in order to keep a competitive advantage.

Aims and purposes

Aim

The purpose of this research is to evaluate the effect of E-marketing on consumer behavior. In light of this, numerous ideas that influence customer behavior will be examined in the context of e-marketing. Since E-marketing typically highlights the importance of marketing's ability to attract and influence the behavior or specific interests of potential consumers, the purpose of this study is to provide empirical evidence regarding the consumer's behavior in relation to E-marketing. This will shed insight on the influence of E-marketing on customer purchasing behavior.

Objectives

To evaluate the impact of e-marketing on consumers' purchasing decisions. To investigate the influence of e-marketing on the consumer buying choice To determine how consumers feel about privacy in relation to e-marketing. Assess the impact of e-marketing on consumer-vendor interaction during the purchase process.

Description of the design and methods

This research will employ a descriptive quantitative methodology. Adopting such a research methodology enables the researcher to quantify the current association between E-marketing on the one hand and consumer behavior on the other. In addition, the descriptive quantitative design must be cross-sectional, which means that data collecting from respondents must be conducted just once.

Several measures are required to solve the research design's validity and dependability concerns. For instance, the researcher would ensure that the data collection tool, in this case a self-administered and semi-structured questionnaire, is reliable. Consequently, the questionnaire must be pretested before to administration to the study participants. Regarding the issue of validity, the use of a pre-tested questionnaire for data collection purposes will assist in minimizing instrument error. To strengthen the validity of the research design, the selection of study participants will also be conducted appropriately. The researcher also hopes to maintain low attrition rates among respondents by completing data collecting in the shortest period possible, in this case two weeks.

Data sources and acquisition

Self-administered, semi-structured questionnaires are the preferred method for obtaining data from study participants. In addition, a survey approach shall be employed to collect the data, with the researcher mailing the questionnaire to the respondents. The open-ended and semi-structured questionnaire will investigate the respondents' E-marketing-related behavior, traits, beliefs, and attitudes. The respondents to the survey will be categorized according to their age and professional standing. In this situation, the respondents of choice will be graduate professionals with Internet access. This is due to the fact that this demographic is more likely to utilize the internet to search for and purchase goods and services. While it would have been preferable to conduct an online survey targeting the employees of E-marketing organizations, cost and schedule constraints necessitate the use of a postal questionnaire. Before actually collecting data, the researcher must obtain approval from the IRB committee at the educational institution where he is enrolled. In addition, the researcher will send a request for participation in the survey through email to potential responders. Ethical considerations must be incorporated into the data collecting and analysis processes. The respondents must be thoroughly informed of the study's purpose and objectives. Additionally, involvement must be voluntary. The survey data shall be used solely for the purpose of informing the research study questions. In addition, once the data has been collected and processed, the study questionnaires will be locked up in a secure location before being discarded.

Procedure for data analysis

Because a descriptive quantitative design will be utilized in this study, it is necessary to employ a method of data analysis that is compatible with the chosen research design. Consequently, data analysis shall be conducted using statistical analysis tools, specifically SPSS (Statistical Package for Social Sciences). In addition to facilitating the collection of quantitative statistics to facilitate the correlations of the study variables, the questionnaire's design should also facilitate the collection of quantitative statistics. Consequently, a quantitative method of data analysis is the most appropriate option.

Method of presenting

The researcher has determined that graphs, tables, and charts are necessary to effectively explain the research findings. This will also permit a thorough presentation of such research findings, laying the groundwork for the discussion of study outcomes and, eventually, recommendations for future research in the field.

Timetable

February 2010 March 2010 April 2010 May 2010 Activity

Questionnaire formulation Week 1 & 2

IRB Approval Week 3

Approval from the business Week 4

Pre-study Questionnaire Testing

Week 1

Modifications to the pretested questionnaire

Week 2

Mailing of questionnaire to respondents

Week 3

Data gathering

Week 4 Week 1

Collection of data

Week 2 & 3

Data analysis

Week 4

Writing the report

Week 1

Corrections and edits

Week 2

Photocopying and binding

Week 3

Final report presentation

Week 4

Reference

Babin, B. J., and L. Babin (2001), "In search of the unusual? A model of common consumer effect schema. The Journal of Business Research, 54(2), pp. 89-96.

Belch, G. E., & Belch, M. A. (2007). Consumer conduct Manhattan: McGraw-Hill

Constantinides, E., Lorenzo, C., Gómez-Borja, B. A. & Geurts, P. (2008). Effects of Cultural Background on Internet Purchasing Behavior: Towards a Global Village on the Internet? London: Springer

Journal of Consumer Impulse Buying Behavior, 12(2):163-176. Kacen, J. J., and Lee, J. A. (2002). "The Influence of Culture on Consumer Impulse Buying Behavior."

Lynn G., Lipp S., Akgün A. Cortez A. (2002). Marketing Factors Influencing the Adoption and Effectiveness of the World Wide Web. Industrial Marketing Management Journal, 31(1): 35-49

Journal of International Marketing, 11(2):13-35. Mai, N. T. T., Jung, K., Lantz, G., and Loeb, S. G. (2003). "An Exploratory Investigation into Impulse Buying Behavior in a Transitional Economy: A Study of Urban Consumers in Vietnam."

Park, E. J., E. Y. Kim, and J. C. Forney (2006), "A Structural model of Fashion-oriented Impulse Buying Behavior," Journal of Fashion Marketing and Management, 10(4): 433-446. Web.

Sandhusen, R. L. (2000). New York: Barron's Educational Series, p. 218. Marketing.

Schiffman, L. G., & Kanuk, L. L. (2004). Consumer conduct Prentice-Hall, Englewood Cliffs, NJ

Taylor, D. G., and D. Strutton (2009). Has E-marketing reached maturity? Historical influences on post-adoption Internet consumer behavior are modeled. Journal of Business Studies

Tirmizi, M. A., Rehman, K. & Saif, I. (2009). A Quantitative Analysis of Consumer Impulse Purchasing in Local Markets. The European Journal of Scientific Research, 28(4), pages 522-532. Web.

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Hyundai Motor Company’s Market Consulting Project Essay Help Us

Introduction

The automobile business is the most appealing and stagnant industry in the world, with no manufacturing saturation point. It is one of the country's primary sources of income in terms of employment and output. In 1739, a French engineer named Nicholas J. Cugnot built the car, which was powered by a steam engine and could be driven for less than ten minutes. In 1914, Mr. Henry Ford invented the Ford automobile, which he named after himself, and therefore established the automobile industry. Since that year, the United States has been the only country in the world with few competition for vehicle manufacturing. After the Second World War, Japan and Germany emerged as the United States' principal competitors on the market. German Motors, Mitsubishi, Toyota, Hyundai, Volkswagen, Nissan, etc., are the biggest competitors in the current market. The United States is the world's largest producer of automobiles.

The Company Summary

Mr. Chung Ju Yung created Hyundai Motor Company in South Korea in 1967, at a time when there were other major market players. Due to its superior products and relationship with Ford Motors, it has become the fifth-largest automaker in the world, despite the industry's various difficulties. In 1968, Hyundai Motors introduced the Cortina in conjunction with the United States.

In 1975, the business began production with the assistance of Japanese technology from Mitsubishi, where it built its own engine. With the tiny Excel model, Microsoft entered the United States market in 1986.

With the launch of the Sonata model in 1988, Hyundai entered the international market for the first time using its own technology to manufacture automobiles. In 1991, Hyundai Motors bought KIA, a corporation based in the United States. Hyundai Motors's mission is to acquire world-class inventions and enhance our reputation as a premium automaker. ” (R&D vision and strategy 2009). Hyundai Motors' vision is to "create exceptional automotive value for our customers by blending safety, quality, and efficiency with a diverse team; we will provide responsible stewardship to our community and environment while achieving stability and security for present and future generations." ” (What is the mission statement of Hyundai motor company 2009).

The corporation has numerous long- and medium-term strategies, including:

We devised five intermediate and long-term strategies: worldwide management, greater brand values, business innovation, environmental management, and product competitiveness enhancement. Specifically, we choose environmental management as one of our strategies in order to meet the requirements of our stakeholders and the society to which we belong. In addition, we seek to encourage sustainable development and environmental protection. ” (Company overview 2009).

Specify and Chart the Market

Hyundai Motor Company is involved in vehicle design, protocol development, and marketing. Hyundai Motors has two segments of its business:

Non-financial sector Financial Sector

The non-financial sector encompasses the company's design, development, and production of commercial vehicles, whereas the financial industry focuses on the purchase or lease of cars. Customers of Hyundai Motors are a diverse group of individuals with varied lifestyles. They could range from middle class to highly professional class. Hyundai Motor intends to provide cars at an accessible price with a lengthy warranty duration, placing a premium on quality.

Hyundai has a specialized R&D division dedicated to identifying client needs and desires. In addition, they operate R&D facilities in North America, Japan, and Europe. They intend to have a diversified presence in markets such as the Indian and European markets. The primary objective is to comprehend the purchasing power of the client in each region and the product diversity of those locations. Europe, the Middle East, Africa, North America, Central Asia, and the Pacific are only few of the regions where they have a substantial market presence.

Value Chain Analysis

The value chain is a process that begins with the creation of a product. During the product's development, its specs are also determined.

The value chain is a method for analyzing the creation of competitive advantage. (Value chain analysis: lessons learned — value chain analysis, 2009)

It is the most effective and valuable technique for senior-level managers to identify the essential activities that comprise the value chain for a specific corporation. The success of a company is contingent on how successfully it performs its value chain analysis. The value chain analysis integrates all functional departments toward the fulfillment of the goal and then evaluates whether or not the predefined objectives have been met. The examination of the value chain combines both core functions and support functions. According to Michael Porter in 1985, the core function includes:

"Outbound logistics Operations Marketing and sales"

In addition, supporting functions encompass all tasks done by functional departments, such as "human resources, information technology, finance, and accounting, etc." What is value chain analysis?

Inbound logistics: "One of the most important business processes in transportation planning is Inbound Logistics." (Inbound logistics not specified). Hyundai's inbound logistics operations originate in its home country of Korea. The origins of the raw materials are determined by the quality of the suppliers. Alabama, in the United States, manufactures autos.

Activities: The operations include the designing and manufacturing of products. Hyundai is constructing a massive production facility in Alabama. This production unit is equipped with all current amenities and is considered the most technologically advanced production unit in the United States.

Marketing and sales: Marketing and sales primarily focus on sales promotional activities and identify numerous methods to improve product sales. This feature analyzes the tastes and preferences of the target clients and raises their brand awareness.

Outbound logistics mostly involves the delivery of automobiles around the globe. Hyundai has international distributors. These retailers are responsible for distributing the products to the final consumers.

Servicing refers to the value-added services and after-sales services offered by the company. Hyundai has its own service centers throughout the world. All of these elements entice consumers to purchase Hyundai automobiles. A diagram depicts these value chain processes in their entirety.

Fig – 1

The diagram clearly illustrates the customer value chain. The process begins with the procurement of raw materials and concludes with the production of completed goods for distribution to the intended customers. All functional departments participate in the value chain analysis process. From the examination of the value chain, the business can determine whether or not consumer expectations are met.

Determine the Customer

Hyundai Motors views its consumers as its most valuable asset. The Company places a high priority on client satisfaction. Hyundai Motors introduced the advanced customer communication program (ACCP) in the United States when it introduced the first commercial vehicle. In addition, they utilize questionnaires that allow customers or consumers to express their opinions or to improve the product on the market.

The company's value chain encompasses the various sets of procedures involved in the marketing of goods and services for competitive advantage, from procurement through final promotion. The value chain may be internal or external to the company, with the internal chain focusing mostly on the acquisition of resources and the external chain encompassing the entire manufacturing and marketing process.

Important links in the supply chain

Dealers

The dealers are the primary distribution channel; they make the goods available at the appropriate time. They depend on regional and psychological characteristics.

Distributional Channels

"Path or conduit through which goods and services flow in one direction (from a vendor to a consumer) and the resulting payments flow in the opposite direction" (from consumer to the vendor).

” (Distributional channel 2009).

The channels of distribution are the many routes that finished goods take to reach end-users or customers. There are various distribution channels that may be used. The selection of the distribution channel is mostly determined by the product. In the case of automobiles, distribution to clients is handled through dealers. Marketing managers are in control of distribution channels and are responsible for making the appropriate product available to customers at the appropriate time.

Customers are found through R&D operations, and the primary area of concentration is the customers' purchasing behavior. The analysis is conducted with purchase power parity, and the automobile is dispersed among individuals of various socioeconomic situations; this is the primary source for one analysis. In the process of selecting a geographical place, the affordability must be double-checked.

Selection of Vendors

Hyundai has a lot of suppliers from all around the world, and the unit located in the United States has local suppliers. The providers are chosen based on their level of expertise and the level of trust they've maintained with the business. Hyundai chooses suppliers who place a greater emphasis on quality and contribute successfully to the company's overall productivity and profitability. Hyundai determines whose vendors are:

"Dedicated to expansion Dedicated to enhancing quality Dedicated to perfection Dedicated to cost-effectiveness.

” (Doing business with Hyundai, 2009).

The following criteria are examined when choosing a supplier:

"Suppliers committed to delivering our customers, workers, and dealers with great services, products, and support. Suppliers who prioritize quality and engage in continuous cost reduction Suppliers who provide Hyundai with a substantial competitive advantage Suppliers with a commitment to ethical business conduct Suppliers whose companies have been operational for at least two years Suppliers with skilled and qualified personnel." (Transacting with Hyundai in 2009)

The process of determining decisions

The decision-making procedure poses the greatest corporate risk. It requires investigation, analysis, and sample testing prior to reaching a conclusion. The major decision-makers are the organization's upper management. The decision-making process should primarily examine resources, revenue, rivals, etc. There are essentially six steps to the decision-making process.

"Identifying the issue" Develop alternatives Consider the alternatives Make the choice Implement the remedy Monitoring the remedy" (2009, six steps to the decision-making process)

Prior to making the right option, it is necessary to identify the problem and define it. Without an issue, decision-making is unnecessary.

Develop alternatives: The following phase, after recognizing the problems, is to develop a number of potential solutions.

After establishing a number of possibilities, the following stage is to assess those options.

Following evaluation, the best alternative is selected and evaluated when the decision is made.

Implement the remedy:

The selected alternative is implemented.

Monitoring the solution: The deployed solution is monitored by examining the difference between customer expectation and actual product value.

Determine the Key Purchasing Decision Criteria

The decision-making authority is mostly with the upper management. Before making judgments, there are a number of aspects that must be considered. Typically, it involves the following factors:

The economic aspects mostly relate the economic status of the country, whether it is experiencing a boom or a recession. It also affects the firm's financial capabilities. This element encompasses all governmental laws and regulations. Social factors refer to the organization's obligation to the community, or corporate social responsibility. Hyundai's corporate social responsibility is shown in the fact that it employs approximately 30,000 Americans in its Alabama manufacturing facilities. As Hyundai sells its products internationally, it must take into account the many cultures of the nations in which it operates. Before making any organizational decision, advancements in technology must be taken into account. The corporation must also examine the international trade market's regulations and procedures, as well as the tastes and preferences of global consumers.

Identify and validate segments

The primary goal of market segmentation is to determine which market segments share similar requirements and preferences, and then to build goods to meet those demands. By segmenting the market, the corporation may readily determine the needs and desires of each segment and so meet the expectations of each section's clients. (Kotler et al., 1994) "Market segmentation is the division of a market into distinct groups of buyers who may require different products or marketing mixes." (Marketing 2009).

Hyundai's marketing strategy is distinctive marketing. The majority of businesses segment their markets based on the following market segmentation strategies: geographical segmentation, demographic segmentation, psychographic segmentation, and behavioral segmentation.

Geographical Sectioning

"Geographic segmentation is extremely advantageous for any firm. It assists the marketing team in identifying and segmenting the market based on:

language climatic conditions lifestyles.” (What is geographic segmentation 2009).

Geographic segmentation consists mostly of dividing markets or customers based on geographical units. This type of segmentation is mostly used to determine the tastes and preferences of consumers in various geographic regions. The tastes, qualities, and usage of the product vary depending on the location of the customer. Hyundai is concentrating its efforts in North America, particularly in California, Alabama, and Michigan. Since the tastes and preferences of the clients in these three locations vary, items are made accessible based on the requirements of the various market segments.

Demographic Classification

"The origin of demographics is the word 'demography,' which means'study of population.' The population is divisible by age, gender, income, and family lifecycle, among other factors." (Market segmentation n.d.). Consumers are segmented depending on their gender, age, education, lifestyle, economic level, religion, and nationality for the purpose of demographic segmentation. There are disparities in preferences based on the aforementioned criteria within North America. Hyundai Motors manufactures automobiles for customers of various ages, income levels, etc. The target market consists of Executive-class individuals between the ages of 21 and 65. Based on income, Hyundai is targeting both middle- and upper-class professionals who place a premium on the genuine worth of the money they pay and want safe and comfortable travel. In the instance of the Hyundai i10 and the Hyundai Pa’s, college students are also attracted to certain variants.

Psychographic Classification

This sort of market segmentation splits clients into categories based on their lifestyles. (Market segmentation- psychological segmentation, n.d.) Psychographic segmentation splits customers according to their characteristics.

Costco Wholesale Company’s Financial Analysis Essay Help Us

Executive Synopsis

Finance encompasses money, credit, banking, and investing operations. Essentially, it concerns the acquisition and management of money. The concept of financial analysis is essential for all businesses, regardless of size. Understanding the foundations of finance is crucial for making decisions inside a business. Typically, financial analysts and accountants are employed by medium and big businesses to manage the financial affairs of the organization. Small business owners may not be able to afford a financial professional, so they do their own financial analysis. When a business has financial management competence, it receives the following benefits, the first of which is effective investment decisions. The only way for a corporation to come up with productive investment projects is if it employs financial formulae to determine the proper investments. Many businesses commonly invest in bonds and equities. Capital assets pricing model and return on investments are fundamental financial concepts.

The second advantage is that the company is able to obtain a comprehensive study of the financing choices for acquiring the best purchase options or new expansion chances. Capital structure analysis and weighted average are among the basic financial formulae used to calculate debt or equity and obtain external financing. The principles of finance evaluate debt based on loan conditions, interest rates, and the manner of repayment.

The analysis of a company's statement of cash flows enables it to determine the amount of cash it earns, making cash management one of the most important corporate finance principles. The statement enables the organization to comprehend the cash inflows and outflows associated with investments and financial operations. The net present value formula is used to evaluate an organization's anticipated cash inflows to its current cash outflows. The cashflow statement is an important indicator of a company's financial health. The cash influx represents money entering the business through investments or sales, whereas the cash outflow represents money leaving the business. Therefore, a business is in a healthy position when its cash inflows exceed its cash outflows. A company's decreased cash flow might be dangerous, as it can lead to insolvency. Evaluations of a company's balance sheet assist in identifying the company's strengths and weaknesses, which provides crucial information for creating projections and financial estimates of the company's future performance. The study will analyze the financial analysis of Costco Wholesale for the past three years. The focus of the analysis will be on the cash flow and cash inflows, as well as the company's budgeting processes and investments.

Histories of the firm

Costco is a multi-billion dollar international retailer with operations in eight countries. It offers a global network of warehouses that sell quality and branded items at a discount. Small and medium-sized businesses are able to cut their purchasing expenses for resale as a result of the wholesale model's architecture. Additionally, anyone may purchase products from the warehouse for their own use (Rahman, 2020). The business offers exclusive product categories in a single location. It is renowned for producing high-quality goods with a 100 percent client satisfaction record.

Costco began operating in 1976 under the name Price Club. Initially, it served small businesses, but over time it expanded to include non-business members. This resulted in substantial development, and by 1983 the company was operating under the name Costco. The company's revenues increased from nothing to approximately $3 billion in less than six years, making it the first company to achieve such sales (Costco, 2021). Throughout the 21st century, Costco Companies operated stores in the United States, Mexico, Canada, Australia, Europe, and Australia. The name Costco Companies was completely adopted in 1997. (Costco, 2021). The company was commended for giving its employees with a greater income and enhanced perks.

Maintaining minimal expenses and passing savings on to members has always been the guiding concept. In recent years, Costco's global sales have surpassed $64 billion, and it has significantly transformed the retail industry (Rahman, 2020). With the company's ongoing evolution, it has been able to remain true to its values and attract millions of loyal members worldwide. Due to the company's dedication to quality, it maintains over 4000 stock keeping units (Costco, 2021). Costco provides the best value to its customers by judiciously picking its merchandise based on brand, quality, and price. It currently offers a wide selection of merchandise with the support of numerous departments and an exceptional customer service. With multiple locations across the globe, the company is committed to providing customers with a pleasant shopping experience.

Cash receipts and cash payments

Cash inflow is the money a business receives from its operations. Included in the cash inflow are the following items:

monetary gain from sales Cash receipts from supplier refunds Receipts from license sales Cash collected via the collection of accounts receivable

Cash outflow is the amount of cash a company expends; this is money leaving the company. Among the examples of cash outflows are:

Refunds of cash to the customers

Tax payments made in cash Compensations of employees Payment to vendors Interest payments made to creditors

For a business to operate efficiently, it must create positive cash flow, and negative cash flow is indicative of inadequate management. In order to determine the company's success at any given time, management must comprehend the cash influx and outflow of the business. The subsequent diagram depicts Costco's cash inflow and outflow from 2018 to 2020.

figure 1 (Source Costco website). Values are in Million Dollars.

2020 August Year and Month

September 2019 September 2018

Initial Net Income $4,059 $3,704 $3,179

Taxes deferred 104 147 – 49

decline in value 1645 1492 1437

Items not cash 855 604 538

cash flow from operating operations net 8861 6356 5774

Expenses payable 2261 322 1561

Purchases of Fixed Assets -2810 -2998 -2969

Capital Expenditures -2810 -2998 -2969

Investment Purchases -1626 -1094 -1060

Cash Generated by Investing Activities -3,891 -2,865 2,947

Long term debt 792 209 -86

Reduction of Long-Term Debt -3200 2-89 -86

Effects of foreign exchange 70 -15 37

Beginning Cash Balance 8384 2329 1509

Ending Balance of Net Cash 12277 8384 6055

Taxes paid in cash 1052 1187 1204

Interest paid in cash 124 141 143

Costco expenditures from 2018 until 2020.

figure 2 (Source Cotsco website). All values are in USD.

2018 2019 2020

Capital Expenditures (2.97B) (3B) (2.81B)

Growth in Capital Expenditures -18.67% -0.9% 6.27%

Capital Expenditures / Sales -2.10% -1.96% -1.69%

Capital Expenditures (Fixed Asset) (2.97B) (3B) (2.81B)

Expenditures for Capital (Other Assets) – – –

– Net Assets from Acquisitions – (1.16B)

Sale of Fixed Assets and Businesses –

Acquisition/Sale of Investment 18M 137M 52M

Acquisition of Investment (1.06B) (1.09B) (1.63B)

Sale or Expiration of Investments 1.08B 1.23B 1.68B

Other Uses (4M) – –

Other Sources $80 million $210 million $137 million

Investing Cash Flow Net ($2.95) ($2.87) (3.89B)

Growth in Net Investing Cash Flow -24.56% 2.78% -35.81%

Investment Net Cash Flow / Revenue -2.08% -1.88% -2.33%

Capital expenditure calculation techniques

Capital budgeting can be defined as the process of reviewing an investment's costs and returns in order to maximize the investment's profitability (Alles et al.2021). Typically, businesses must choose between two initiatives or buy vs replace alternatives. Any organization would like to invest in a project that generates a profit, however due to capital constraints, the firm must select a certain project. Budgeting for capital expenditures affects our daily life, and the following are its goals:

It aids in the selection of profitable initiatives. Firms are usually presented with a variety of profitable investment opportunities, but due to their limited money, they must select the most profitable businesses in order to increase shareholder wealth. Identifying the appropriate funding sources is another essential purpose of capital budgeting, as determining the amount of funds and the appropriate sources for acquiring them is crucial to the success of the organization. Capital budgeting's primary objective is to assess the relationship between investment returns and borrowing costs. It aids in capital control; capital control is the goal of capital budgeting, and having an acceptable expenditure for a particular project is the key to capital budgeting, and management of capital expenses is a must for any firm.

Capital budgeting techniques

Based on its cash inflows and outflows, a company might employ a variety of capital budgeting approaches. The following are some of the capital budgeting approaches utilized by Costco:

Repayment schedule method

This refers to the amount of time required to recoup the initial investment expenditure. Time required for an investment to generate its initial investment (Alles et al.2021). This method computes the amount of time required to recoup the original expenditure in a project. The undertaking with the shortest duration is selected.

The formula used to determine the payback period depends heavily on whether the monthly cash inflows of an investment are even or odd. For a uniform payback period, the following formula is utilized:

Payback Period = Initial Investment Periodic Net Cash Flow

For instance, suppose Costco intends to begin an investment that requires $100 million in early funding. Using the assumption that the project will create $30 million in yearly net cash flows over the following five years, the payback period can be computed as follows:

Initial Capitalization = $100

Annual Cash Flow is $30

Return term = $100 $30 = 3.35 years.

The greater the risk, the longer the payback period of the project's investment. The decision is to invest in the project with the quickest return on investment. In this instance, Costco can proceed and invest in the project. The acceptance or rejection of a particular project is totally dependent on the risk tolerance of the company's management (Alles et al.2021). Managers must determine the acceptable payback period for each investment. For low return investments, managers will accept a project with a low risk profile and a shorter payback period.

The benefits of the payback period

It is straightforward to compute. For businesses with liquidity issues, it will provide a ranking of their investments based on which can return funds quickly. The payback period demonstrates the predictability of the project's cash flow and can be used to quantify the inheritance of risk within a project.

Negative aspects of the payback period

It takes into account the monetary value that can lead to poor decision-making. This disadvantage is addressed by the variation strategy of discounted payback. It does not account for cash flow that occurs after repayment. After the payback period, an investment with a sufficient cash flow can be disregarded.

Accounting return rate (ARR)

This is another capital budgeting strategy that Costco Company uses when making judgments. It is the projected rate of return on an investment as a percentage of the initial investment cost (Alles et al.2021). ARR is one of the most effective capital budgeting methods for estimating the profitability of an investment and determining the type of project in which to invest. This method can be of great assistance to the organization in determining the best selections for the future.

The formula for computing ARR is as follows:

ARR = Common Annual Profit / Common Investment

For instance, if Costco Wholesale wishes to expand their business by purchasing a new fleet of automobiles. The expected cost of the vehicles is $1,000,000, which will result in an increase in revenue of $250,000 and an increase in expenses of $50,000. The new vehicles are anticipated to have a 20-year lifespan with no salvage value.

The ARR is then determined as follows:

ARR = Typical Annual Profit Typical Investment Annual profit =$250,000-$50,000=$200,000 Depreciation expense=$1000,000/20=$50,000 True annual average profit = $200,000 minus $50,000 = $150,000 ARR=$150,000/$250,000=0.6=60%

Therefore, from this form of investment by Costco, it can be established that the corporation will obtain a return of 60% for each dollar invested. This is an excellent investment opportunity, and if it is the only one available, the corporation may choose to invest in it.

Each company always seeks out new investment options to increase their profitability (Sarwary, 2019). Return on investment calculations aid in determining if a project is worthwhile.

The benefits of the ARR capital budgeting method

Its computation is straightforward and simple to comprehend. The method is based on accounting profit, therefore it measures the profitability of investments. This computation approach is based on accounting facts and does not require any specific reports.

Disadvantages of ARR

It disregards investment cash flows. Ignores a capital's time worth ARR does not take the final value of an investment into account.

Calculations of Costco's investment return

ROI= Profit/ Investment Cost 100%

In 2018, Costco's investment cost was $1.06 billion and its investment cash flow was $2.95 billion. Therefore, the return on investment for 2018 is computed as follows:

Gain = $2.95B – $1.06B = $1.89B

Cost of Investment = $1,060 billion

ROI=$1.89B/$1.06B×100%

2018 ROI=65.17%

In 2019, Costco invested $1.09 billion and generated $2.87 billion in cash flow from its net investments.

Therefore, the ROI for 2019 can be estimated as follows:

Profit=$2.87B-$1.09B=$1.78B

COI=$1.09B

ROI=$1.78B/$1.09B ×100% =163.30%

Costco invested $1.63 billion in 2020 and generated $3.89 billion by the end of the year.

ROI=$3.89B-$1.63B =$2.26B profit

COI=$1.63B

ROI=$2.26B/$1.63×100% =138.65%

In the past three years, Costco has invested $3.78 billion and generated $9.71 billion in cash flow.

Return on investment over the past three years = $9.71B – $3.78B = $5.93B

ROI=$5.93B/$3.78B×100% =156.88%

Expected obstacles

Each firm has a substantial number of operational issues, and each opportunity and problem requires a unique solution. The following are anticipated obstacles for Costco:

Changes in customer preferences pose a threat to the company's business model, which is dependent on high-volume sales. The corporation has been hesitant to adapt online purchasing, despite the fact that many customers prefer it. The company's reliance on recurrent purchases from its subscribers is also a significant challenge. The model is effective if its members return, but it presents a hurdle if they decide to join a competitor.

Recommendations

It is essential for Costco Wholesale to utilize social media to connect with the younger generation as clients. The corporation must choose a social media platform that will assist them with marketing their commercial activity. In order to continue efficiently attracting more clients, it is essential for business managers to monitor social media trends and implement cutting-edge technologies. When a corporation decides to make an investment, it must take into account all relevant risks and avoid making poor investment decisions.

Findings

Costco's profits indicate that its sales have been increasing by an estimated 21% yearly. In 2019, the company's yearly earnings increased to $8.20 billion, and in 2020, they will increase by 20% to $9.85 billion (Costco, 2021). Costco earns a great deal of money by selling memberships, which also enables the corporation to have loyal customers. The business concept of offering advantages to their members encourages customers to return in order to obtain membership perks. The corporation charges its members a yearly fee and grants them shopping rights in its stores; the company's income has been stable over time (Rahman, 2020). This company's ability to attract customers without spending a great deal on advertising is a key factor in its position as one of the world's leading retailers.

Conclusion

In conclusion, Costco's success is due to its distinctive business approach. By providing lower-priced goods, the business has advanced and associated with many households over the globe. Through its membership program, its number of devoted members has increased. With the advancement of technology, the organization has transitioned to enhancing its digital presence by selling services online in the digital era. Furthermore, it is evident from this analysis that the organization has financial strengths that have allowed it to remain competitive in its industry.

References

Alles, L., Jayathilaka, R., Kumari, N., Malalathunga, T., Obeyesekera, H., & Sharmila, S. (2021). An research into how small and medium-sized businesses utilize capital budgeting approaches. Quantity and quality.

Wholesale Costco Corporation. Wholesale Costco Corporation (2021). Web.

Rahman, M. H. (2020). The Strengths And Weaknesses of Costco Wholesale Corporation's Financial Analysis

Sarwary, Z. (2019). Techniques for capital budgeting in SMBs: A literature review Journal of Accounting and Finance.

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Research Proposal: Stress Among Parents Of Adult Children With Intellectual Disabilities Essay Help Us

The main concept included in this study are stress, parents, children, and intellectual disabilities which the proposal will clarify at a later stage.

The topic of intellectual disability is a topic known to many people ,when items surrounding this topic are discussed ,the focus tends to be placed on the individual with the intellectual disability (ID). There is little emphases placed on those surrounding individuals with ID.it also tends to focus on the siblings of the individual with the ID; and little emphases is placed on the parents ,this is where the interest has developed for the researcher as it was felt that not enough has been written about the parents and the direct effects their childs disability has on them as individuals ,the researcher also has experience working with individuals with ID and from this experience has noticed through the interaction with parents the stress they encounter looking after a child with an ID .Through working in this area the researcher has gained interest in the effects on the parents and has felt that parents are often neglected . Through research for this proposal the researcher has found that others have also addressed the issue of stress among parents of children with ID.also in this research the researcher has not gained much information on supports services for parents regarding this topic and feels that there is a gap in relation to this . This topic is worth studying to gain an insight into the effects that stress has on the parents and how they may or may not have coped with this .

This research proposal will focus on the research question of ‘stress among parents of adults with intellectual disabilities .

For the purpose of this research the researcher aims to :

To show the effects of stress on parents with children with intellectual disabilities

To gain information through the completion of 40-60 questionnaires

To explore the service precisions in place for parents

To provide evidence of effectiveness of service provisions for parents

To look at different levels of stress

To establish the coping strategies used by parents of children with ID

The following pieces of literature includes journals ,books and internet sources .The literature discussed falls under the main concepts of this research proposal .These are stress ,parental stress, intellectual disabilities, coping strategies and support services.

Applying psychology by Nicola Brace ,Helen Westcott and Andy McBurnie (2008)chapter 1 written by Mary Hanley discusses the term stress which will help the researcher to define the term stress .William Wilkie(1999)titled ‘understanding stress breakdown’ also gives the researcher an understanding of stress and can be used in defining stress and understanding the process that individuals go through ,The’ relaxation and stress reduction workbook’ 5th edition by Davies ,Eshelman and McKay (2000) discusses not only what stress is but also looks at how individuals can manage their stress in a variety of ways

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Placement computer science essay help

The Placement I chose was with The Garden Team, Sunbeam House Services (S.H.S), which is based off the Veveay Road, Bray, Co Wicklow .This location is a day service which provides a day centre facility to a number of adults with intellectual disabilities.

The S.H.S ethos and philosophy aim to empower people within their care with the necessary skills to live full and satisfying lives as equal citizens of their local communities. The Garden Team day service focus is on the individual, their growth, development and care. The individual is encouraged and empowered to pursue their goals, dreams and aspirations on an ongoing basis. The Sunbeam organisation, via The Garden Team, in partnership with the individual implement supports to facilitate realisation of their service users goals and aspirations.

A quality system known within the organisation as personal outcomes ensures that the organisation provides service to and for its service users based on the principles of basic assurances, shared values, responsive services and community life. The main role of this system is that the individual???s personal preferences are supported and their personal choices facilitated. S.H.S is also committed to forging links with other organisations in order to ensure their service users goals and aspirations are met.

My Role within this placement was to shadow existing staff, assist them with whatever activities they undertook with the service users attending the day service and interact with the same said service users as and when they attended this day service. This interaction required communication skills such as active listening and non-verbal communication. Social care practice requires me to participate in reinforcing daily social skills such as interpersonal greeting and adherence to social norms. This practice involved daily rituals around breakfast in the day service involving everyone attending the service, such as staff, students and service users greeting each other appropriately, catching up on what each other had done the previous night /weekend .This is an idea opportunity for the staff to touch base with some of the service users who come from troubled backgrounds and also to judge the mood of the service users and through this they can detect when there is an issue that may need to be resolved.

The Garden Team placement ethos is based on the work ethic, social norms and personal outcomes of the individual service user. This is to ensure that the service users both individually and as a group have daily, weekly and long term goals to work towards .The service users have a keyworker within The Garden Team their role is to assist the service user and support them to achieve their personal outcomes.

A long term goal for a service user might be their wish to live independently as they may currently be living in the family home or in a residential service, this long term goal would be broken up into shorter term goals such as budgeting, social skills, personal hygiene and personal shopping this would all take place of a period of time and with each new skill

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Universal healthcare my assignment essay help

Universal healthcare it is a primary right or a privilege, It has many flaws in various countries and limited access to outrages expenses in MRI’s, long awaiting periods for surgical procedures. Many people have their care delayed and their medical condition gets much worse and can no longer receive treatment. In Germany healthcare is higher in taxes and have no problems receiving medical care. The French claim their salary is way lower as an employer and are required to pay in order to have national healthcare system and their care needed is always available. The American Journal of Public health confirms that 45,000 people die each year in the United States because of no Health Insurance. Yes, we have a right to healthcare.

Universal healthcare goal is to have people live in better health and protect from over charged care for medical hardships with billing. The uninsured are the main ones, who need Universal healthcare. People who make too, much money from working don’t qualify for Medicaid and end up with financial hardship and aren’t able to get the care needed for their health. The common issue for all universal healthcare programs is they need some form of government connection. The law determines what type of care is available and how the coverage will be paid. Many people choose to support the system known as a single payer health insurance. It’s when the government funds the healthcare and does not supply the care, Just like Medicare and Medicaid.

The poor people can’t afford healthcare and live in much worse environments and have more medical problems. We as Citizens of the United States have rights to Healthcare and our health is jeopardized by not being able to pay for insurance. People who work are struggling to pay for healthcare and have health conditions that need medical attention. Due to lack of work for health issue some people lose their jobs and are forced to file bankruptcy. This is why poor people are struggling in the economy and are forced to live in bad health. The right to healthcare should be a civil right. People should not be categorized by their illness and have financial problems paying for their medical treatments. Americans that are poor have bad health and one doctor visit can diagnose their condition before it leads to death.

Therefore, I am for our rights to have universal healthcare for people who need it and can’t afford insurance. This coverage will not only save peoples life and help us get out of debt with medical bills over charging major countries. It is funded through taxation and every day, we people could use this form of coverage I support the government in helping us as the economy to live healthier and longer with better care from universal healthcare coverage.

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Implementing Swifinet essay help services

ABSTRACT

Use of wireless sensor networks (WSN) has resulted in many revolutionary changes in human life. WSN has gain significant concentration from scientist and end users. ‘SWiFiNet’ is task distributed reusable system architecture. In this architecture complex functionality has been transfer to the second tire devices of the system. Second tire devices are provided with more resources. ‘SWiFiNet’ satisfy the desire architecture of the WSN. This paper aims to analyze various reusable wireless sensor networks and concept related to ‘SWiFiNet’. And it provides the existing architecture of ‘SWiFiNet’ and also the functionality of the component of the reusable network architecture. This paper also provides idea about the proposed ‘SWiFiNet’ which will be developed on IEEE 802.15.4 MAC/PHY layer which will be having more advantages over its counterparts.

Keywords:- WSN, SWiFiNet, Reusable architecture.

I. INTRODUCTION:

Use of wireless network is increasing in every field, day by day. WSN is extensively use where wired network cannot be deployed or is expensive to deploy. WSN opens many ways for research community to further enhance wireless communication efficiency and productivity. Many protocols and algorithms has been developed to addressed many kind of issues related to WSN. But most of these protocols and algorithms concentrate on routing, energy efficiency, reliability and congestion control.

No more research is done on creating some integrated network architecture that will make the implementation of any WSN application easy. It means to make the components of the WSN system reusable. The main focus of WSN is on creating more and more efficient wireless interfaces. The wireless sensor network generally developed for specific work. These work include climate reporting, military applications, fuel level indicator and many more. While creating such system one has to start from the scratch and it becomes burdensome.

So, for all these difficulties, one solution is to create reusable WSN framework. This kind of framework is developed in ‘SWiFiNet’. It is a task distributed System Architecture for WSN.

This paper provides overview of ‘SWiFiNet’ and reusable architecture for WSN. In first section provided introduction about WSN and ‘SWiFiNet’. Second section provides related work regarding task distributed network architecture. Third section provides design goals of reusable architecture. Fourth section provides WSN architecture along with ‘SWiFiNet’ architecture comparison. Fifth and last part concludes the paper.

II. RELATED WORK

There has been attempts to make hierarchical task distributed reusable wireless sensor network architecture. Most of such proposals were developed using 802.11. The different applications related to reusable WSN architecture is as follows:-

ART wise gateway architecture was presented by Leel et al [4]. The architecture is two tire architecture. Tier one uses IEEE 802.15.4 and tire two uses 802.11. Linfeng develop Environmental adaptive Architecture model for wireless sensor network [5]. It was two tire architecture. The second tire was capable of adding number of nodes without affecting two tire architecture. ANGLE [5] architecture was develop for the health care applications. In this application authors claims that it can be reused for any other application.

Open and reconfigurable wireless sensor network has been proposed by Triantafyllidis. It was developed for pervasive health monitoring. Its main emphasis was on easy extension with additional sensor functionality. ZUMA [6] was developed for centralize smart phone platform which will interconnects all kinds of smart phone devices.

The ReWINS [3] research initiative is an attempt to advance such an end-to-end solution with support for incremental arrangement through a transparent lower layer implementation and control architecture and a user-friendly application interface.

Wireless Integrated Network Sensors or the WINS [7] project and NIMS project at University of California, Los Angeles is about ad-hoc wireless sensor network research dealing mainly with constructing micro-electronic mechanical sensors (MEMS) [8], effective circuit design, and design of self-organizing wireless network architecture. Though these projects have been successful in demonstrating a network of self-organized sensor wireless nodes, they seem to have a bias towards environmental and military applications. Also they use proprietary RF communication technology and hence the solutions are limiting for wide scale deployments in industries.

Motes and Smart Dust project [9] at University of California, Berkeley involved creating particularly low-cost micro-sensors, which can be suspended in air, buoyed by currents. Crossbow Inc. has commercialized the conclusion of this project. Here again the solution is limiting, as exclusive communication technologies have been used to achieve inter-device communication. Further, the focus has been on development of sensors and their communication rather than how the sensors will be integrated to form systems. This is generally termed as the ‘bottom-up’ approach, which may not be suitable for building complex systems.

Pico-Radio [10] ‘ A group headed by Jan Rabaey at University of California, Berkeley is trying to build an integrated wireless application interface called Sensor Network Service Platform. An attempt is to develop an interface that will abstract the sensor network and make it transparent to the application layer. A introductory draft describing the application interface has been recently released. They believe in a ‘top down approach’ (from control to sensor nodes) for building sensor networks which is probably more suitable for building complex systems.

Recently, there have been several work initiatives like TinyDB [11], Cornell’s Cougar etc. to develop a declarative SQL-like language to query sensors and define certain standard query services. Here the employment is sensor-interface specific and not a general or abstracted sensor networking platform. These query services can be implemented with ease on top of our (developed) wireless interface and sensor networking platform and can be made generic by extending them for other sensors.

Other research initiatives in this field include MIT’s ??AMPS, Columbia University’s INSIGNIA, Rice University’s Monarch. Though there have been a lot of research efforts in developing ad-hoc wireless networks, the focus has been on developing smart wireless sensor interfaces and not much attention has been paid to the actual application integration. Typical approach has been to develop powerful smart wireless interfaces, which supports the important features/requirements for a particular class of applications (like military, environment sensing or more focused applications like fuel-level control in automobiles). The result is a number of wireless interfaces appropriate for a certain class of application; but almost no interoperability between them. We believe that the deployment of wireless infrastructure in industries will occur in incremental stages and thus interoperability (between different sensor-networks) and extendibility (according to application needs) will form the basic requirements of any prospective solution. A prospective good solution would be an end-to-end solution, which is modular and extendable.

All of the above applications were the forward steps towards the making of reusable network architecture. From the comparison of the above all network architecture, it is clear that user of hierarchical network give advantage over flat network. And three tire architecture is also better for reusable WSN architecture.

EXISTING SYSTEM:-

‘SWiFiNet’ [1] is task distributed and reusable component architecture. The task layer hierarchical model of ‘SWiFiNet’ is as shown in the given figure. It follows hierarchical architecture comprising of Master node, router node and sensor node. The base layer is 802.15.4 MAC/PHY layer.

Table 1. Comparison between different reusable wireless sensor network applications

Sr. No Application/Project Purpose of Application/Project Limitations

1 ART gateway architecture To develop Hierarchical two tire architecture each tire having different base MAC/PHY The system is more complex due to different protocol in each layer.

2 EAWNA To develop tire two in such a way that adding more sensor dose no affect the architecture The focus is given more on second tire of architecture.

3 ANGEL For health care application. Claimed to be reusable Reusable for specific health care application

4 ReWins To develop such an end-to-end solution The main focus is given on industrial scenarios.

5 Wireless Integrated Network Sensor Building efficient circuit design, and design of self-organizing wireless network architecture These project seems to have bias towards environmental and military application

6 Motes and smart dust project Creating low cost micro sensor which can suspended in air The focus is on sensors rather how they will be integrated

7 Pico-Radio To make sensor network transparent to application layer Suitable for building complex systems only

8 TinyDB To develop declarative SQL-like language to query sensor Not a generic or abstracted sensor networking platform

.

The upper layer to this layer is DLL task layer. All the network communication is controlled by this layer. The functionality of different device component of the architecture is as given below:

Sensor node: The task of sensor node is restricted to sensing background and connecting the neighboring nodes or the master node. When the packet is handed over to any parent node, then it is the responsibility of the parent node to transfer the packet to the master node. In this node’s layer architecture, the network layer will have the addresses of the parent devices. It will be stored in the table. Two types of addresses are present in the table. First one is primary parent address and the other is secondary parent address. If primary address parent is not available then secondary parent address will be try by the node.

If network layer don’t contain any table then a ‘Hello’ packet request is broadcast into the network. Then the neighboring device will issue the join request. The join request will be accepted if the device meets LQI threshold criteria.

Router Node: – Router nodes are come in use when sensor nodes are not in the range of Master Node. Clustering is also possible using router node. In ‘SWiFiNet’ distributed architecture the functionality of the router node increased remarkably. The complex implementation of any application or protocol will be deployed on the second tire devices. The router node network layer also maintains the table containing entries of the parent devices to the router node. It can be router node again or router will send the information directly to the master node. Router nodes will generate join request if they receive hello packet request from any sensor node.

Master node: The complete topology information of the network is maintain by the master node. When there is queried transmission model, master node will generate query and send it in the network. Whenever the routing tables are updated in end nodes or router nodes will send the information to the master node.

Sensor node Router Node Master Node

Fig 1. Distributed architecture of ‘SWiFiNet’

III. PROPOSED MODEL:

The ‘SWiFiNet’ model developed [1] is successfully implemented on the hardware as the architecture of the ‘SWiFiNet’ is defined. But ns-2 simulation of ‘SWiFiNet’ is based on 802.11a. As the basic idea of MAC/PHY layer is to have 802.15.4 which will work more efficiently on the ‘SWiFiNet’ architecture. The architectural diagram [1] is as shown below:-

In many of the sensor network architecture the sensor nodes are based on the 802.11a, but in ‘SWiFiNet’ MAC/PHY layer is based on 802.15.4. It is having low bandwidth comparative to the 802.11a. As the ns-2 modulation of the architecture is done using 802.11a, we cannot compare the exact result of hardware simulation and the software simulation.

Dynamic source routing (DSR) has similar characteristics as of ‘SWiFiNet’. After comparing the hardware results [1] with DSR it is found that ‘SWiFiNet’ is having better performance against many parameters. Implementation of ‘SWiFiNet’ using ns-2 on 802.15.4 IEEE is not yet checked against other protocols and hardware results.

The software architecture [2] of the ‘SWiFiNet’ agent is as shown in figure 2. This diagram shows the network component simulation in ns-2. The devices can be identified by the variable passed from TCL script. 1 value represent master node. 2 value represent router node and 3 value represent sensor node.

Fig 2: Component simulation in ns-2

IV. Conclusion:-

The survey paper provides a detailed comparison and description of the well-known projects and applications which are developed from reusable architecture point of view. ‘SWiFiNet’ is basically a task distributed generic reusable architecture for WSN. The functionality of sensor node is reduced and has been transferred to the second tire devices like router node. By doing so sensor nodes are restricted to gather information and connecting to neighboring nodes. As time synchronization overhead is not present the lifetime of the network increase.

This reusable architecture can be used for various range of applications and can be configured accordingly. This paper gives proposed ‘SWiFiNet’ system which will be based on 802.15.4 IEEE standard and will be useful for researchers in many ways.

V. REFERENCES:

[1] A. H. Willig, J. H. Karowski, N. Baldus, H. Huebner, A., “The ANGEL WSN Architecture,” in Electronics, Circuits and Systems, 2007. ICECS 2007. 14th IEEE International Conference on, 2007, pp. 633-636.

[2] A. W. Rohankar, Mrinal K. Naskar, Amitava Mukharjee, ‘SWiFiNet’: Task Distributed System Architecture for WSN’ in IJACSA Special Issue on Selected Papers from International Conference & Workshop On Advance Computing 2013.

[3] A. W. Rohankar, Mrinal K. Naskar, Amitava Mukharjee, ‘A step towards reusable WSN architecture’, International Journal of Research and Reviews in Wireless Sensor Networks (IJRRWSN) vol. Vol. 2, 2012.

[4] B. S. P. Harish Ramamurthy, Rajit Gadh, “Reconfigurable Wireless Interface for Networking Sensors (ReWINS),” in proceeding of the 9th IFIP International Conference on Personal Wireless Communications (PWC 2004), 2004.

[5] J. C. Leal, A. Alves, M. Koubaa, A., “On a IEEE 802.15.4/ZigBee to IEEE 802.11 gateway for the ART-WiSe architecture,” in Emerging Technologies and Factory Automation, 2007. ETFA. IEEE Conference on, 2007, pp. 1388-1391.

[6] L. Linfeng, “Research on Environment-Adaptive Architecture Model of Wireless Sensor Networks,” in Networks Security Wireless Communications and Trusted Computing (NSWCTC), 2010 Second International Conference on, 2010, pp. 130-133.

[7] M. N. K. V. G. Soini, J. Rabaey, J. M. Sydanheimo, L. T., “Beyond Sensor Networks: ZUMA Middleware,” in Wireless Communications and Networking Conference, 2007.WCNC 2007. IEEE, 2007, pp. 4318-4323.

[8] Micro-Adaptive Multi-domain Power-aware Sensors (??AMPS) project at University of California, Berkeley, URL: http://www-mtl.mit.edu/research/icsystems/uamps/

[9] Pico-Radio project at University of California, Berkeley,URL:http://bwrc.eecs.berkeley.edu/Research/Pico_Radio/

[10] Smart Dust and motes project at University of California, Berkeley, URL: http://robotics.eecs.berkeley.edu/~pister/SmartDust/

[11] ] TinyDB project at University of California, Berkeley, URL: http://telegraph.cs.berkeley.edu/tinydb

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The Relationship between Manager Assertiveness and having to tell Employees Exactly What to Do college essay help free

Not only is it important to tell workers exactly what to do by being direct, but it is of an equal importance to be assertive with them. If a manager is too passive with his or her employees, it may lead to a managerial mess, as many workers constantly try to test managers’ boundaries.

One of the main reasons as to why employees end up misbehaving in the workplace is primarily because they are not managed correctly, and those who are in authority allow them to get that way. When it comes to being a manager, you shouldn’t expect employees to respect you on a personal level, but you should expect them to respect your authority on a professional level.

Managers should not only be consistently setting up new boundaries, but they should also be enforcing them. Without enforcing them, if an employee overpasses it and nothing is advised to him or her, they will think it is okay to continue to do so. How will they know that it is wrong unless you tell them? It is of an utmost importance to also advise them that you can’t tolerate it.

As a manager, to do their job they have the innate obligation to do only the things that is right for the company that he or she works for. This includes of setting the appropriate boundaries, and not exercising too much sympathy and empathy as it may cause the manager to get too involved with their personal lives. Otherwise, he or she may promote favoritism thereby causing other employees to be jealous. Although this may be true, there is no need to be overly rude and cold towards employees. Being assertive and setting boundaries doesn’t always mean one has to be disrespectful or even rude to their employees. The difference between an authoritarian manager who respects their employees and for managers who don’t differentiates the results of whether or not employees comply or commit themselves to work. In order to have them commit rather than only comply, it is important to be respectful while being assertive. When employees are willing to commit, they are more than likely to deliver work that exceeds a manager’s expectations. (Alexander Hamilton Institute, 2012)

The Importance for Managers to Be a Leader

When it comes to capabilities to effectively communicate with employees, good managers are able to sustain and encourage self-assurance, enthusiasm, and emotional stability while pursuing their day-to-day activities. The position of being a manager can, at times, be quite stressful and overwhelming, so the ideal manager should not let it get to them.

Why is this important when it comes to effectively advising employees as to what has to be done?

If managers aren’t able to maintain self-control of their emotions, then it is likely that they won’t be able to do well at leading employees. Managers are commonly seen as a workplace role model, so if their employees see them as unable to maintain control, it is likely the employees won’t either, thereby leading to decreased amounts of productivity.

Why Communication Is a Key Aspect for Managers

In order to ensure efficient productivity among employees, it is important for them to be able to effectively communicate with them. Moreover, they must also be able to report to higher managers regarding productivity statistics and the like. Not only will great managers be able to communicate well with employees to advise them what they have to do, but they will also be active listeners. Without being able to listen to an employee when he or she has questions about their job or what they have to do, it is likely that they won’t end up doing what they are supposed to do. Another important trait for managers is being able to get a message across without having to overly emphasize it verbally. They know how to implement non-verbal communication techniques such as body language in order to get an important message across to employees. (Melinda Hill Mendoza, n.d).

Common Traits of a Good Employee’ Where You Don’t Have to Be As Specific

There are various indicators that strongly determine whether or not if you have to be overly specific when trying to get an employee to do something. Here I’ve included some of the top traits when it comes to being an effective listener as an employee.

‘ Action Oriented: When you tell an employee to do something, and if he or she is action-oriented, you will see them do it right away’ no questions asked. Although sometimes their work may not be sufficient, most of the time they will provide great work with high levels of productivity. Also, when it comes to productivity, they usually get things done a lot sooner than employees who are stagnant.

‘ Intelligent: Intelligence is important for an employee to thoroughly understand what you want them to do without you having to be too specific with them. Not only that, but when you tell an intelligent employee what to do, most of the time they will do it perfectly correct. It is very rare for an employee who has high levels of intelligence to ask too many questions for additional specificity.

‘ Ambitious: Having an employee with ambition is important because they are well-known to come up with creative ideas that can bring the productivity of any company to the next level. So rather than spending extra time telling them exactly what they have to do, they will work right away, and by the time they are done they will provide you with a genius idea to do things quicker, and you may want to consider forwarding it to your boss.

‘ Autonomous: Employees with an autonomous trait are known to begin working on a project the second you explain to them what needs to be done. They are extremely independent and they require no ‘hand-holding’ whatsoever. This is an important trait, because as a manager, they have a lot of tasks on hand and they don’t want to be wasting it answering a hundred questions about completing a simple task.

‘ Confidence: It is more likely for an unconfident employee to ask questions about exactly what they need to do than a confident employee. This is primarily due to the fact that employees who are confident will trust there instinct on what they’ve heard from the manager, and they won’t second guess their initial impression. On the other hand, unconfident employees will lack their confidence in trusting their understanding, causing them to ask a lot of unnecessary questions.

‘ Leadership: After confidence comes leadership. When you are explaining a task to an employee with leadership skills, you will be confident that they will over-deliver on your expectations. They have the experience to not only deliver the job promptly without any questions ask, but they can set the bar higher in terms of quality and productivity.

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Learning Theory Behaviorism (Teori Pembelajaran Behaviorisme) need essay help

2.0 Teori Pembelajaran Behaviorisme

Teori Behaviorisme merupakan satu pendekatan pemikiran yang menekankan peranan pengalaman dalam mengawal tingkah laku. Pengasas teori ini adalah J.B Watson yang popular dengan teori Little Albert. Namun, selain daripada J.B Watson terdapat tokoh lain yang turut mengkaji tentang teori ini. Mereka adalah Skinner, Thondike dan Pavlov. Teori pemerolehan bahasa Behavioris pada zaman sebelum ini lebih menekankan tingkah laku yang dapat dilihat sahaja. Bagi mereka perkara yang berlaku dalam otak manusia tidak dapat dikenalpasti. Mereka membuat analogi otak manusia sama seperti sebuah kotak hitam yang gelap. Oleh itu mereka tidak mementingkan peranan otak dalam pemerolehan bahasa.

Golongan mazhab ini menolak pendapat yang menghubungkan operasi kognitif dengan pemerolehan bahasa. Seseorang dianggap telah belajar sesuatu jika dia dapat menunjukkan perubahan perilakunya. Menurut teori ini dalam belajar yang penting adalah input yang berupa stimulus dan output yang berupa reaksi (respond). Stimulus adalah apa saja yang diberikan guru kepada pelajar, sedangkan respon berupa reaksi atau tanggapan pelajar terhadap stimulus yang diberikan oleh guru tersebut. Proses yang terjadi antara stimulus dan respon tidak penting untuk diperhatikan kerana tidak dapat diamati dan tidak dapat diukur. Yang dapat diamati adalah stimulus dan respon. Oleh sebab itu, apa yang diberikan oleh guru iaitu stimulus dan apa yang diterima oleh pelajar iaitu respon harus dapat diamati dan diukur. Teori ini mengutamakan pengukuran kerana pengukuran merupakan perkara yang penting untuk melihat terjadi atau tidak perubahan tingkah laku tersebut.

2.1 Teori Behaviorisme menurut J.B Watson

J.B Watson (1878-1958), seorang ahli psikologi di Amerika Syarikat, merupakan orang pertama mencipta istilah behaviorisme untuk menghuraikan tingkah laku manusia. Kajian banyak dipengaruhi oleh Teori Pelaziman Klasik Pavlov. Kajian beliau, yang terkenal ialah mengenai emosi kanak-kanak dengan menggunakan Model Pelaziman Klasik. Mengikut Watson, tingkah laku manusia merupakan reflex terlazim iaitu suatu gerak balas yang dipelajari melalui proses pelaziman klasik. Dengan kata lain, semua pembelajaran adalah pelaziman klasik Watson berpendapat gerakan-gerakan refleks yang mudah misalnya berkelip mata, bersin apabila hidung gatal dan sebarang tindakan yang dilakukan secara semulajadi adalah tingkah laku yang diwarisi dan tidak perlu dipelajari. Selain daripada tingkah laku, Watson pula menjalankan kajian tentang pembelajaran emosi semula jadi iaitu takut, marah, dan kasih saying. Emosi manusia atau perubahan dipelajari melalui proses pelaziman.

2.1.1 Implikasi Teori Pembelajaran J.B Watson

Menurut beliau, semua tingkah laku boleh dipelajari melalui proses pelaziman. Tingkah laku positif boleh diajarkan melalui ransangan yang sesuai. Seterusnya, untuk menguasai kemahiran menyelesaikan masalah, pelajar perlu belajar cara perhubungan gerak balas secara sistematik. Selain itu, teori ini memberi implikasi untuk mengukuhkan apa yang telah dipelajari dalam ingatan, latihan- latihan hendaklah dijalankan secara kerap. Dalam proses pengajaran,guru hendaklah menggunakan rasangan yang boleh memotivasikan murid untuk minat belajar dan mengelakkan pengunaan ransangan yang membawa kepada kesan negatif.

2.2 Teori Behaviorisme menurut Thorndike

Menurut Thorndike, belajar adalah proses interaksi antara stimulus dan respon. Stimulus adalah apa yang merangsang terjadinya aktiviti belajar seperti fikiran, perasaan, atau hal-hal lain yang dapat dikesan melalui pancaindera. Manakala, respon adalah reaksi yang muncul apabila peserta dididik ketika belajar, dan yang dapat pula adalah berupa fikiran, perasaan, gerakan atau tindakan. Jadi, perubahan tingkah laku akibat kegiatan belajar dapat dikategorikan sebagai konkrit, iaitu yang dapat diamati, atau tidak konkrit iaitu yang tidak dapat diamati. Meskipun aliran behaviorisme sangat mengutamakan pengukuran, tetapi tidak dapat menjelaskan bagaimana cara mengukur tingkah laku yang tidak dapat diamati. Teori Thorndike ini disebut pula dengan teori koneksionisme. Thorndike berjaya membentuk tiga hokum iaitu Hukum kesediaan, Hukum latihan, Hukum kesan. Hukum kesediaan merupakan keupayaan persiapan seseorang individu di dalam kendirinya untuk memulakan sesuatu aktiviti pembelajaran. Manakala hokum latihan pula menyatakan bahawa semakin byak latihan yang dijalankan semakin bertambah kukuh ikatan gerak balas yang tertentu dengan ransangan yang berkaitan. Hukum kesan menyatakan bahawa ikatan ransangan dengan gerak balas akan bertambah kukuh sekiranya individu memperolehi kesan yang memuaskan selepas gerak balasnya dihasilkan.

2.1.2 Implikasi Teori Pembelajaran Thorndike

Antara implikasi Teori Pembelajaran Thorndike ialah untuk meningkatkan tahap kesediaan belajar, guru harus menggunakan motivasi yang sesuai. Selain itu, ia juga dapat mengukuhkan pertalian antara ransangan dengan gerak balas pelajar dengan memperbanyak aktiviti latihan, ulangkaji, aplikasi serta pengukuhan dalam keadaan yang menyeronokkan. Seterusnya memberikan ganjaran atau peneguhan untuk respon antau gerak balas yang betul daripada pelajar. Memberi peluang kepada pelajar untuk menikmati kejayaan dalam pembelajaran mereka.

2.3 Teori Pembelajaran Behaviorisme Ivan Pavlov

Ivan Pavlov merupakan salah seorang daripada ahli teori Behavioris selain daripada Skinner, Thondike dan Watson. Beliau dilahirkan pada 14 September 1849 di Ryazan, Rusia Tengah. Beliau telah meninggal dunia pada 27 Februari 1936 di Leningrad Rusia ketika berusia 86 tahun. Ivan Pavlov merupakan ahli fisiologi, psikologi dan ahli fizik berbangsa Rusia. Sebagai seorang yang sangat mencintai bidang fisiologi beliau telah meminta seorang pelajar duduk di sebelah katilnya dan merekodkan perihal kematiannya. Beliau terkenal dengan orang pertama yang mendeskripsikan fonomena pelaziman klasik atau pelaziman responden. Teori pelaziman klasik adalah tentang tingkah laku pembelajaran yang telah dipelopori oleh Ivan Pavlov ( 1849-1936). Pada tahun 1980-an. Pavlov mengkaji fungsi pencernaan pada anjing dengan melakukan pemerhatian pada kelenjar air liur. Dengan cara itu, beliau dapat mengumpulkan, menyukat dan menganalisis air liur haiwan itu dan bagaimana ia dapat diberikan makanan pada keadaan yang berbeza. Beliau sedar anjing akan mengeluarkan air liur sebelum makanan sampai ke mulutnya dan mencari hubungan timbal balik antara air liur dengan aktiviti perut. Pavlov hendak melihat rangsangan luar dapat mempengaruhi proses ini. Oleh itu contoh paling awal dan terkenal bagi pelaziman klasik melibatkan pelaziman air liur pada anjing kajian Pavlov.

2.4 Teori Pembelajaran Behaviorisme B.F Skinner

Manakala menerusi B.F Skinner pula, beliau mengutarakan teori behaviorisme adalah teori. Menurut Nana Sudjana, 1990 pendekatan Skinner adalah operant conditioning, yang merupakan penerusan dan perluasan secara tepat dari hokum Thorndike. Ia mengakui adanya fenomena conditioning yang klasik dari Pavlov dalam perilaku manusia dan binatang, tetapi itu tidak dianggap terlalu penting.

2.4.1 Implikasi Teori Pembelajaran B.F Skinner

Sesuatu kemahiran atau teknik yang baru dipelajari hendaklah diberi peneguhan secara berterusan dan diikuti secara berkala supaya kemahiran atau teknik itu dapat dikukuhkan dan dikekalkan. Selain itu, penggunaan peneguhan positif yang membawa keseronokan adalah lebih berkesan daripada peneguhan negative yang membawa kesakitan. Seterusnya, prinsip penghapusan melalui proses pelaziman operan adalah sesuai digunakan untuk memodifikasikan tingkah laku pelajar yangtidak diingini, misalnya menghentikan peneguhan yang diberikan dahulu sama ada peneguhan positif atau negatif

2.5 Kelebihan teori pembelajaran behaviorisme

Kelebihan yang pertama yang kami perolehi melalui teori ini adalah teori ini sangat sesuai untuk melatih atau mendidik kanak-kanak yang masih memerlukan bantuan daripada orang dewasa di sekeliling mereka. Sebagai contoh kanak-kanak tadika memerlukan bimbingan dan perhatian yang khusus daripada orang di persekitarannya terutamanya guru-guru mereka kerana mereka mudah mengikuti apa yang diajar dan disuruh selain suka meniru perlakuan orang di sekelilingnya. Selain itu, mereka juga suka dengan bentuk-bentuk penghargaan yang diberi kepadanya seperti pujian dan melalui bentuk penghargaan tersebut ianya dapat membangkitkan semangat ingin belajar dalam diri mereka.

Kelebihan yang kedua adalah guru tidak perlu mengambil masa yang lama untuk memberi penerangan yang panjang tentang pembelajaran kepada murid-murid. Hal ini kerana murid-murid akan dibiasakan belajar dengan sendiri kecuali sekiranya murid menghadapi sesuatu masalah dan memerlukan penjelasan yang lebih daripada guru. Dalam hal ini guru perlu memberikan penerangan dengan jelas.

Selain daripada itu, teori ini juga menekankan kemahiran lisan berbanding kemahiran membaca dan menulis. Melalui aspek kemahiran lisan yang ditekankan dapat memberikan kelebihan kepada murid kerana aspek lisan iaitu mendengar dan bertutur penting dalam situasi harian murid. Boleh dikatakan bahawa kemahiran ini adalah kemahiran terkerap yang digunakan manusia untuk berkomunikasi antara satu sama lain.

2.6 Kelemahan Teori Behaviorisme

Dari segi kelemahan pula, penerapan teori behavioris yang kurang tepat dalam sesuatu situasi pembelajaran boleh mangakibatkan berlakunya proses pembelajaran yang tidak kondusif bagi murid-murid kerana pembelajaran berlaku dalam keadaan sehala dimana ianya berpusatkan kepada guru sahaja. Guru hanya mengajar dan melatih murid manakala murid hanya menerima apa yang diajar oleh guru mereka tanpa memberi sebarang maklum balas. Malah dalam teori pembelajaran ini murid berperanan sebagai pendengar dan mereka menghafal apa yang didengar dan dipandang sebagai cara belajar yang efektif. Penggunaan hukuman merupakan salah satu cara untuk guru mendisiplinkan murid dan hal ini akan mendatangkan akibat buruk kepada murid.

Kelemahan yang kedua ialah proses pembelajaran dikatakan kurang memberikan gerak balas yang bebas bagi pelajar untuk berinteraksi serta untuk mengembangkan idea. Hal ini kerana sistem pembelajaran tersebut lebih tertumpu kepada rangsangan dan gerak balas yang ditunjukkan. Sekiranya tiada rangsangan maka tindak balas tidak akan berlaku. Sebagai contoh, guru akan memberi rangsangan dalam bentuk hadiah dan daripada situ barulah murid akan memberikan jawapan yang dikehendaki oleh guru. Sekiranya perkara ini berlaku secara berterusan dikhuatiri murid akan terlalu bergantung terhadap rangsangan dari luar sedangkan murid harus memiliki rangsangan dari dalam diri mereka sendiri sebagai satu cara pembelajaran.

Kelemahan yang ketiga menurut teori ini adalah penambahan ilmu pengetahuan lebih tertumpu kepada buku teks. Hal ini kerana mereka belajar mengikut urutan kurikulum yang sangat ketat sehinggakan buku teks merupakan buku wajib dalam pembelajaran mereka malah mereka juga perlu dikehendaki memahami dan mempersembahkan kembali isi pembelajaran di dalam buku teks tersebut dengan baik. Hal ini boleh mendatangkan kesan buruk kepada pelajar kerana ilmu pengetahuan yang mereka peroleh tidak begitu berkembangan dengan hanya tertumpu kepada satu buah buku sahaja.

2.7 Implikasi teori pembelajaran behaviorisme

Yang pertama ialah guru perlu sedar bahawa kaitan antara rangsangan dan gerak balas boleh dilazimkan iaitu dipelajari. Sebagai contoh apabila guru ingin menyuruh murid-murid beratur ketika waktu rehat di kantin sekolah guru boleh mengaitkannya dengan cara untuk berjaya dalam kehidupan. Implikasi yang seterusnya ialah kaitan antara rangsangan dan gerak balasdapat dikukuhkan melalui latihan. Semakin kerap rangsangan itu dikaitkan dengan sesuatu gerak balas, semakin kukuh gerak balas terlazim itu. Sebagai contoh guru ingin murid-murid supaya tidak mengaitkan mata pelajaran matematik dengan kesukaran, dengan memberi mereka latihan- latihan yang mudah dan apabila mereka beransur mahir menyelesaikan masalah yang sukar maka guru bolehlah menukar aras pembelajaran kepada tahap yang sederhana sukar dan seterusnya ke aras pembelajaran yang sukar.

Di samping itu, dalam proses pembelajaran, generalisasi boleh berlaku. Ini bermakna perkara yang dipelajari dalam situasi A boleh dipindahkan ke situasi B. Sebagai contoh guru mata pelajaran sains mengaitkan kejadian pencemaran alam sekitar yang mengakibatkan kemusnahan alam semula jadi dengan kemusnahan alam yang berlaku seperti tsunami yang melanda Bandar Acheh.

faktor motivasi memainkan peranan yang penting bagi menghasilkan gerak balas yang diinginkan. Dalam hal ini pemberian ganjaran perlu diberi perhatian. Sebagai contoh ketika murid menjawab soalan yang diberikan oleh guru dengan betul maka guru boleh memberikan pujian kepadanya atau dengan memberikannya hadiah supaya pada waktu pembelajaran yang seterusnya pelajar tersebut akan lebih menumpukan perhatian di dalam kelas untuk memperoleh pujian yang diingini. Namun sekiranya pelajar tersebut tidak dapat menjawab soalan yang diberi maka guru perlulah membimbing pelajar tersebut supaya mereka tidak berasa terpinggir dan seterusnya dapat bersama-sama memahami tajuk pembelajaran pada ketika itu.

Selain itu juga, dalam proses pembelajaran tingkah laku yang dapat dilihat, diamati, diukur dan dikawal hendaklah diberi perhatian. Hal ini kerana melalui perubahan tingkah laku yang ditunjukkan oleh murid guru boleh mengambil sebarang tindakan sekiranya ianya di kesan lebih awal. Sebagai contoh sekiranya seseorang murid menunjukkan tingkah laku yang negatif seperti tidak faham tentang apa yang diajar oleh guru maka guru boleh membuat pemulihan terhadap dirinya. Dalam pembelajaran, penghapusan boleh berlaku jika peneguhan tidak diberikan. Ini bermakna, sekiranya sesuatu tingkahlaku tidak diperkukuhkan melalui ganjaran, tingkahlaku itu mungkin akan terhapus begitu sahaja. Konsep pemulihan serta-merta juga dapat membantu seseorang guru meningkatkan keberkesanan pembelajaran

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Research design my assignment essay help london

2.7 RESEARCH DESIGN USED :

The conception of research design plan is the critical step in the research process. The design ,of the study constitutes the blue print for the collection, measurement and analysis of data. In other words the research design is a conceptual structure with in which,h research is conducted.

2.8 DATA COLLECTION METHODS :

Primary Data: – Primary data are those data which are collected for the first time, and thus hap,pen to be original in character. It is extracted with the help of discussions co,nducted with senior managers with respect to factors affecting the performance.,

Secondary Data: – Secondary data are those data which are already collected by someone else ,and which have already passed through the statistical process. These data are g,athered by Books, Lectures, Notes, and Official Websites etc.

The study make,s extensive use of secondary data. ‘Secondary data are those which have already,y been passed through the statistical process’. The data which is pre-essential for ,this study relating to comparative analysis of Balance Sheet and PROFIT AND L,OSS A/c was based on secondary source of data. This data will be collected fro,m materials provided by Rakshitas Pvt. Ltd., discussions conducted with store m,anagers and some essential

Financial Accounts books.

2.9 LIMITATIONS :,

‘ Data provided is very limited due to the subjectivity of it being highly confidential.,

‘ The data taken for interpretation is for a limited period.

‘ Assumptions, are to be taken into consideration while doing analysis and interpretation, of data.

‘ Due to limited, information, depth analysis could not be made.

2.10 RESEARCH MEASURE TOOLS :

Various financial techniques and statistical tools are used to measure the data used in the study. Column graphs, pie chart etc. is used to highlight the statistical inference,s. The study cannot be completed without balance sheet and profit and loss a/c. ,Therefore three years balance sheet and profit & loss a/c has been taken out for ma,king proper research.

2.11 ANALYSIS OF DATA :

The data collected is secondary, and it’s compiled, classified, tabulated and then analyzed u,sing financial techniques and statistical tools. Graphs and charts are used to hig,hlight the statistics. Based on this data and analysis, inferences are drawn accor,dingly.

2.12 OVER VIEW OF THE CHAPTER :

The Project I,s Presented in the following chapter :-

CHAPTER 1 : INTRODUCTION

This chapter includes introduction to finance, theorectical back ground for the study of the ,various performance, introduction to finance, definition of retail industry and di,fferent type of industry.

CHAPTER 2 : DESIGN OF THE STUDY

This chapter I,ncludes the projects introduction of the subject background, statement of the, problem, objectives of the study, scope of the study, need and purpose of study,, research methodology, research design, data collection method primary and seco,ndary data, limitations, research measure tools and analysis of data.,

CHA,PTER 3 : PROFILE OF THE COMPANY

This c,hapter contains the profile of the company, its origin and background, board of directors, number of branches and organization structure.

CHAP,TER 4 : DATA ANALYSIS AND INTERPRETATION

This ch,apter consists of Table, Graphs, Analysis and Interpretation based on the question,nairies.

CHAPT,ER 5 : SUMMARY OF FINDINGS, CONCULSIONS AND RECOM,MENDATIONS

This chap,ter includes findings based on objectives of the study, conclusion drawn from the f,indings and recommendations given from the analysis.

Chapter:-3

PROFILE OF THE ORGANIZATION

COMPANY PROFILE

RAKSHITAS PVT.LTD.

Rakshitas business con,cept is to offer a broad and varied range of apparels that allows customers to fin,d their own personal style to choose from more than 150 remiums national and int,ernational brands.

Rakshitas is aimed at everyone in the family with an interest in modern basics, fashion, quality and affo,rdable pricing. Customers should always be able to find clothes and accessories ,at Rakshitas for every occasion. The collections are extensive and new arrivals, being launched week after week in each of the 4 floors spread across 20,000 s,q. ft. for Men, Women, Kids and Teen’s casual wear, formal wear, denim wea,r, ethnic and Kancheevaram silks etc. The range and collections are supplemen,ted by matching costume jewellery, premium international watches, perfumes, ,lingerie’s.

Mission

Our mission is to achieve excelle,nce in the products and services we offer, in the methods we employ and in the res,ult we produce.

Products

Menswear: menswear,r means clothing for men. Rakshitas provide various brands for menswear which ,includes formal shirts, casual shirts, trousers, jeans etc. of several variety of int,ernational as well as national brands, for example: -levis, pepe jeans, killer, lee, w,rangler etc.

Women’s wear: Women’s wear means ,clothing for women. Rakshitas provides the best options for women’s apparel rang,ing from skirts to ethnic, casuals as well as formals.

Kids wear: Kids wear are meant only for kids or children ranging below age of 12 years. Rakshitas provides awesome collection for kids which include children formal wear, kurtas, shirt,s etc.

Party wear: Party wear dresses are meant for wearing in parties, functions, special occasions etc. Rakshitas provides variety ranges of party wear which includes lehngas, wedding dresses, traditional indian dress etc.

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Control and organisational behaviour (pengendalian dan perilaku organisasi) research essay help

PENGENDALIAN DAN PERILAKU ORGANISASI

PERILAKU ORGANISASI

Untuk membuat dasar yang nantinya dapat digunakan manajemen dalam menyusun system pengendalian manajemen, maka kita perlu mengetahui lebih dalam mengenai perilaku organisasi. Berikut ini adalah beberapa penjelasan mengenai teori akuntansi sebagai bentuk pemahaman terhadap organisasi.

Definisi Organisasi

Secara umum, organisasi diartikan sebagai sekumpulan orang yang melakukan kerjasama demi mencapai tujuan ‘ tujuan yang telah ditentukan bersama. Organisasi tercipta ketika orang ‘ orang bergabung dan melakukan sesuatu untuk berbagai tujuan dan organisasi dapat mencakup segala aspek dalam kehidupan. Organisasi dapat bersifat formal dan informal. Pekerjaan di dalam suatu organisasi dapat dibagi ‘ bagi dan dikoordinasi sesuai dengan kebutuhan dan keahlian tiap ‘tiap anggota organisasinya untuk mencapai tujuan organisasi tersebut. Suatu organisasi haruslah going concern, dalam arti organisasi tersebut diasumsikan akan hidup selamanya.

Teori Perilaku Organisasi (Theory of Organization Behaviour)

Ada beberapa teori yang menjelaskan mengenai mengapa dan bagaimana orang ‘ orang berperilaku dalam organisasi. Berikut ada dua penjelasan mengenai teori tersebut :

1. Teori jenjang kebutuhan

Teori ini menjelaskan bahwa setiap manusia memiliki kebutuhan yang banyak dan harus dipenuhi dan kebutuhan serta keinginan tersebut tersusun secara rapih, sehingga apabila ada satu kebutuhan terpenuhi maka setelah itu ia akan berusaha memenuhi kebutuhannnya yang lebih tinggi. Dalam teori ini tersirat bahwa system pengendalian manajemen juga didasarkan pada kebutuhan manusia yang terkoordinasi dan dilakukan sesuai dengan tujuan organisasi.

2. Teori motivasi pencapaian

Teori ini lebih mengacu pada perilaku atasan atau manajer dalam perannya saat berorganisasi. Untuk mencapai keberhasilan dan mendapat sebuah kekuasaan, maka manajer tersebut juga perlu memiliki keinginan yang kuat agar dapat menghasilkan prestasi dalam organisasi.

TEORI ORGANISASI

Pengetahuan yang dalam mengenai organisasi sangatlah diperlukan oleh para pelaku organisasi dalam pelaksanaan system pengendalian manajemen organisasi tersebut. Para pelaku organisasi harus benar ‘ benar mengetahui semua poin dalam organisasi termasuk sejarah organisasi, tujuan organisasi, bagaimana perilaku para pelakunya hingga reaksi organisasi tersebut terhadap lingkungan.

Tak berbeda dengan teori perilaku akuntansi, dalam teori organisasi juga terdapat banyak teori yang membahas mengenai organisasi. Dan disini akan dibahas mengenai dua teori juga tentang organisasi, yaitu :

1. Teori Organisasi yang Berorientasi ke Dalam

Banyak organisasi dianggap indepen dan tidak terlalu memperhatikan lingkungan luar oleh beberapa teori. Teori organisasi yang berorientasi ke dalam ini banyak dijadikan dasar oleh sebagian besar system pengendalian manajemen dalam suatu organisasi hal tersebut didasarkan karena dalam teori ini mencakup tanggung jawab dalam pengambilan keputusan yang berlaku menurut proyek ‘ proyek, program ‘ program serta komponen ‘ komponen fungsionalnya.

2. Teori Organisasi yang Berorientasi ke Luar

Teori ini adalah teori kebalikan dari teori sebelumnya yaitu teori organisasi yang berorientasi ke dalam. Teori ini beranggapan bahwa suatu organisasi selalu berhubungan dengan lingkungan di sekitarnya. Ada dua jenis organisasi yang menganut teori organisasi yang berorientasi keluar ini, yaitu :

– Organisasi system umum terbuka

– Organisasi system manajemen

TIPE ORGANISASI

Ada tiga jenis atau tipe organisasi, yaitu :

1. Organisasi Fungsional

Dalam tipe organisasi ini, penekanan lebih ditujukan kepada manajer yang sangat harus bertanggung jawab terhadap suatu fungsi tertentu, seperti fungsi produksi, fungsi pemasaran dan fungsi lainnya yang diterapkan dalam organisasi tersebut. Fungsi ‘ fungsi tersebut dapat dihimpun oleh fungsi yang lebih tinggi dalam organisasi itu juga. Organisasi ini berpotensi membuat efisiensi perusahaan yang lebih baik karena menggunakan masukan ‘ masukan dari manajerial yang lebih tinggi.

2. Organisasi Divisi

Dalam organisasi ini, semua manajer harus bertanggung jawab terhadap hamper keseluruhan fungsi dalam proses produksi serta distribusi lini pada organisasi tersebut. Orientasi organisasi divisi lebih terbuka yang berarti lebih menekankan bahwa para manajer harus peka terhadap pengaruh ‘ pengaruh yang dating dari luar yang mungkin dapat mempengaruhi kinerja organisasi.

3. Organisasi Matriks

Ada dua struktur organisasi dalam organisasi matriks, yaitu ditata berdasarkan fungsi dan ditata berdasarkan program. Pada organisasi matriks, para manajer bertanggung jawab penuh atas profitabilitas dari lini produk organisasi tersebut dimana proses produksi dilakukan oleh unit ‘ unit organisasi fungsional.

Teori Kemungkinan (Contingency Theory)

Untuk mengendalikan suatu manajemen menggunakan tiga macam pendekatan, antara lain :

1. Pendekatan tradisional

Pendekatan ini menekankan pada perencanaan, pendekatan dan pengendalian.

2. Pendekatan system

Pendekatan ini menekankan padapenggunaan sumber daya manusia sebagai pertimbangan dalam pengambilan keputusan.

3. Pendekatan perilaku

Pendekatan ini menekankan pada pengendalian manusia termasuk di dalamnya motivasi dan prediksi.

PERILAKU MANAJEMEN

Organisasi dan sistemnya yang rumit akan mempengaruhi perilaku manusia menjadi rumit pula.

Konsep Fundamental

Agar suatu organisasi ‘terkendali’ maka para anggota organisasi harus mengetahui dengan baik apa sebenarnya yang diinginkan oleh manajemen. Untuk merealisasikan hal tersebut, dapat menggunakan banyak informasi yang telah disediakan oleh manajemen organisasi seperti anggaran hingga kebijakan organisasi. Tujuan organisasi dibuat oleh para manajer senior dan dilaksanakan oleh manajer operasional untuk selanjutnya para manajer senior menerapkan system pengendalian manajemen untuk mengontrol organisasi tersebut.

Persepsi Tujuan

Para manajer operasional harus benar ‘ benar mengetahui apa tujuan organisasi. Para manajer operasional tersebut dapat secara mudah mendapatkan informasi ‘ informasi yang mereka butuhkan dari berbagai sumber baik dari dokumen maupun percakapan informal saja. System pengendalian manajemen yang efektif dapat menguatkan kepastian suatu perusahaan.

Organisasi Informal

Adanya organisasi informal di dalam organisasi formal sering menyebabkan adanya salah persepsi mengenai tindakan yang diharapkan. Hubungan pada organisasi informal tidak tercantum di dalam bagan organisasi, padahal hal tersebut cukup penting untuk pemahaman system pengendalian organisasi tersebut.

Motivasi

Reaksi pada pelaku organisasi terutama manajemen terhadap organisasi dapat berbeda tergantung pada motivasinya. Motivasi dapat bermacam ‘ macam, misalnya kenaikan gaji, promosi, pujian dan lain ‘ lain. Motivasi timbul dari dalam pribadi masing ‘ masing, tetapi motivasi dapat dipengaruhi oleh rangsangan dari lingkungan sekitarnya.

Keselarasan Tujuan (Goal Congruence)

Setiap manusia memiliki tujuan pribadi, begitu juga dengan organisasi yang juga memiliki tujuan bersama. Salah satu tugas penting system pengendalian adalah menyelaraskan kedua tujuan tersebut serta mencapainya demi mendapatkan kepuasan bersama. Semakin kuat hubungan antara tujuan pribadi dan tujuan organisasi, maka ssistem pengendalian organisasi tersebut akan semakin kuat juga.

Kerjasama dan Konflik

Suatu organisasi tidak akan berjalan dengan baik apabila para anggotanya tidak bekerjasama dengan baik secara terkoordinasi, untuk itu di dalam organisasi sangat dibutuhkan kerjasama yang terkoordinir dan selaras. Selain itu, organisasi juga harus menjaga koordinasi dan keselarasan tersebut agar tidak terjadi konflik yang dapat mengganggu kinerja organisasi. Konflik tersebut dapat terjadi karena berbagai alasan, salah satunya adalah dengan adanya persaingan didalam organisasi tersebut.

Iklim Organisasi (Organizational Climate)

Secara singkat, iklim organisasi dapat diartikan sebagai hasil kombinasi dari struktur formal dan struktur informal pada suatu organisasi. Dan menurut pemahaman saya iklim organisasi merupakan suasana di dalam organisasi dimana tiap pelaku organisasi di dalam organisasi saling membantu, saling menilai, dan memahami antara satu dengan yang lain. Iklim organisasi ikut mengambil bagian penting dalam organisasi. Keduanya saling mempengaruhi satu sama lain.

Tipe Pengendalian

Pelaku pengendalian Sumber arah pengendalian Macam ‘ macam Pengendalian

Ukuran prestasi dan tingkah laku Isyarat untuk tindak koreksi Imbalan untuk prestasi Hukuman untuk kegagalan

Organisasi formal Rencana organisasi, strategi, tanggapan atas persaingan Anggaran, biaya standar, target penjualan penyimpangan Penghargaan manajemen, insentif uang, promosi Minta penjelasan

Kelompok informal Keterikatan bersama cita’cita kelompok Norma-norma kelompok penyimpangan Pengakuan rekan, keanggotaan, kepemimpinan Ejekan, pengasingan, permusuhan

Perorangan Tujuan pribadi, aspirasi Harapan pribadi, target antara Dugaan akan kegagalan di masa yang akan dating, target tak tercapai Kepuasan karena ‘terkendali’ kegembiraan Merasa gagal

Sumber : Disarikan dari Gene W. Dalton dan Paul R. Lawrence, Motivation and Control in Organizations (Homewood, III. : Richard D. Irwin, 1971). Hak Cipta 1971 oleh Richard D. Irwin Inc.

Variasi dalam Pengendalian

Hakekat system pengendalian manajemen dibedakan menurut sifat pekerjaan, macam organisasi, lingkungan daan peran manajer. Berikut adalah tiga dimensi yang perlu diperhatikan dalam penggunaan dan pengembangan system pengendalian manajemen :

1. Besar keleluasaan manajemen

2. Besar interdependensi

3. Rentang waktu pelaksanaan

FUNGSI KONTROLER

Kontroler dapat diartikan sebagai petinggi atau pejabat yang bertanggung jawab atas apa yang telah direncanakan oleh organisasi dan bagaimana pengoperasiannya. Tanggung jawab para kontroler berbeda ‘ beda di tiap organisasi bahkan di tiap divisinya. Tanggung jawab kontroler didasarkan pada posisinya masing ‘ masing. Tanggung jawab tersebut dilaksanakan secara langsung. Selain tanggung jawab dalam perencanaan dan pengoperasian tersebut, berikut ini adalah fungsi lain dari kontroler :

a. Menyiapkan laporan kepada pihak pemerintah serta pihak ‘ pihak luar lainnya.

b. Mempersiapkan pengembalian pajak.

c. Mempersiapkan dan melakukan analisa terhadap laporan prestasi keuangan.

d. Membantu para manajer dengan cara melakukan analisa sertab menafsirkan laporan ‘ laporan tersebut.

e. Menggunakan prosedur pemeriksaan intern dan pengendalian akuntansi, memastikan validitas informasi, menetapkan usaha perlindungan yangcukup terhadap berbagai penyimpangan serta melakukan pemeriksaan operasional.

f. Melakukan pengembangan kepada orang ‘ orang yang ia pimpin serta berperan langsung dalam penambahan pengetahuan mengenai fungsi kontroler

g. Mengadakan manajemen kas, asuransi serta kegiatan ‘ kegiatan lainnya demi pengamanan kekayaan perusahaan.

Hubungan dengan Organisasi Lini

Kontroler juga memiliki hak untuk membuat kebijakan ‘ kebijakan dalam organisasi. Namun keputusan ‘ keputusan tersebut merupakan realisasi pelaksanaan kebijakan ‘ kebijakan yang telah dibuat oleh manajer lini. Dengan kata lain, terdapat keselarasan antara kedua belah pihak. Hal tersebut tentunya sangat baik untuk menjaga kelancaran jalannya organisasi tersebut.

Kontroler Divisi

Kebanyakan perusahaan atau organisasi membagi organisasinya tersebut menjadi beberapa divisi yang dikepalai oleh seorang manajer. Manajer divisi tentu juga memiliki kontroler divisi. Dalam hal ini, kontroler divisi harus patuh kepada manajer divisi dan juga kontroler perusahaan yang terkadang beda kepentingannya. Penilaian prestasi terhadap kontroler divisi dapat dilakukan dengan menilai beberapa poin, antara lain :

– Laporan akuntansi dan keuangan

– Pengetahuan mengenai operasi divisi

– Sasaran dan pelaksanaan kepatuhan terhadap kebijakan

– Kontribusi manajemen

– Pengetahuan terhadap akuntansi

– Kejujuran dan profesionalisme

– Kemauan bekerjasama

– Organisasi dan staf

– Inisiatif dan semangat

HUBUNGAN LINI-STAF

Seorang manajer divisi dapat dikatakan tidak memiliki staf maupun asisten pribadi. Manajer tersebut mendapatkan bantuan dari :

1. Tenaga yang ditugaskan untuk membantunya dari staf umum, insinyur serta petugas pembelian

2. Staf pusat yang dapat dimintai bantuan kapan saja sebanyak mungkin.

HUBUNGAN MANAJER DIVISI ‘ KONTROLER

Untuk mencapai kesuksesan organisasi dalam hubungannya dengan manajer divisi, maka organisasi perlu membina kerjasama yang baik dan solid di tiap ‘ tiap manajemen. Berikut merupakan beberapa factor yang dapat mempengaruhi hubungan baik adalah :

1. System akuntansi yang seragam dan terpusat

2. Sasaran ‘ saasaran keuangan yang telah ditetapkan sebelumnya untuk tiap ‘ tiap divisi.

(Pertumbuhan penjualan serta besar laba penjualan)

3. Pembagian laba antara kontroler dan manajer

SISTEM AKUNTANSI

Selain memiliki tanggung jawab dalam perencanaan dan pengoperasian organisasi, divisi kontroler juga memiliki kewenangan atas system akuntansi yang akan digunakan oleh organisasi tersebut termasuk di dalamnya menetapkan cara dan jenis pos ‘ pos yang harus mereka awasi. Sistem akuntansi dijadikan dasar dalam penyusunan laporan keuangan beserta analisisnya.

SASARAN ‘ SASARAN DIVISI

Seperti yang telah disebutkan pada bagian sebelumnya, perusahaan atau organisasi memiliki sasaran keuangan, yaitu pertumbuhan penjualan dan tingkat laba. Tingkat laba dalam organisasi atau perusahaan ditetapkan sebaga persentase penjualan. Berikut ini adalah beberapa factor penentu target laba penjualan :

1. Kemungkinan pematenan produk

2. Besar laba atas investasi yang diinginkan

3. Besar laba industry bersangkutan

4. Besar laba investasi bersangkutan

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Business notes: Creative problem solving buy essay help

1 Unit 1 – Creative problem solving

1.1 Introduction

A business leader is expected to identify problems, implement solutions and find business opportunities. To do so, they must learn to plan, analyse situations, identify and solve problems (or potential problems), make decisions, and set realistic and attainable goals for the business/unit. These are the fundamental thinking/creative requirements for leadership, and these set direction to a successful future. Without this critical competence, you will have to rely on others to do your thinking for you, or you will simply have to learn to nurture your creative thinking skills which will help you on your journey towards successful business.

Creative thinking forms part of this continuous problem solving process, and is the fundamental basis for facilitating in the development of solutions, new initiatives, products or services. In an entrepreneurial context, the end result of this process should be directly linked to a feasible opportunity in the market environment.

Quote – What lies behind us and what lies before us, are tiny matters, compared to what lies within us. – William Morrow

The creative problem solving process consists of the following four steps:

‘ Problem analysis

‘ Solution analysis

‘ Decision analysis

‘ Solution implementation

1.2 The process

The creative problem solving process consists of an important core process, namely the idea generation process see figure 1. This is an important step, especially if you need to come up with creative ideas for products, services, and processes, to solve a consumer problem. The idea generation process consists of the following four steps:

‘ Step 1 – Generating ideas

‘ Step 2 – Developing ideas into a concept

‘ Step 3 – Converting a concept into a tangible or intangible product

‘ Step 4 – Finally protecting the tangible or intangible product

Figure 1 – The process of creative thinking (idea generation)

Initially you need to understand the problem and find the root cause of the problem. Many techniques are available to find the causes of problems, you can use the 5 Why technique in this case, if you are familiar with it. The more advanced courses will describe how to use the major problem identification techniques, but this course will focus on the idea generation process.

1.3 Where to start

In the entrepreneurial phase, the best way to start the idea generation process is when you are required to come up with a new product or service, to identify a potential consumer problem. Initially, focus on identifying problems in the area of your expertise (your knowledge base).

If you have no knowledge of the problem, the product development stage could be a challenge for you.

You will learn in the next section that not all problems are opportunities, and entrepreneurs should be careful as to how they approach this stage, when generating ideas in trying to identify a new product or service.

1.4 Problem versus opportunity

In most cases, the idea-generation phase in the creative problem solving process is neglected. Individuals normally identify a problem or an opportunity (which may seem like an opportunity, but is actually just an idea), and then develop a new product in line with the new assumed idea or opportunity. It is therefore important to distinguish between an idea and an opportunity. Resources may be wasted if a mere idea is incorrectly perceived as an opportunity.

Any opportunity is initially problem based (e.g. a coffee shop in a destination where there is a lack thereof, this creates several problem situations and potentially feasible opportunities for the entrepreneur). The creative thinking (idea generation process) involved, is the means to solving these problems, and bring forth solutions to the market problems, which create further opportunities.

1.4.1 Difference between problem and opportunity

There is, however, a critical difference between a problem and opportunity. Consider the following:

‘ Is it an idea or an opportunity to develop a high speed train between two major cities which are not far from each other? Some may say it is a great idea, but when you need to pay R200 a day to make use of it, it is simply not an opportunity. Only a few people would make use of the service, resulting in a negative impact on the market.

‘ If it is possible to transport people between the two cities for a lower cost, say R10, it would possibly be a more feasible opportunity.

Here is a good example of an opportunity – Around the turn of the twentieth century, a shoe manufacturer sent a representative to Africa, to open up a market in the undeveloped area in that continent. After exploring the culture for a month, the rep sent a telegram to the home office shouting,

‘Disaster! Disaster! These people do not wear shoes. Bring me home immediately!’

A short time later, another shoe company sent their agent to Africa for the same purpose. A month later his home office also received a telegram:

‘Opportunity! Opportunity! These people do not wear shoes! Triple production immediately!’

Quote – Every situation contains the potential for disastrous problems or unprecedented success. The event is what we perceive it to be. Unknown

Now the question arises: How do I distinguish between an idea and an opportunity? Looking at above examples, every problem is not an opportunity, and it really depends at how you are looking at the problem. If you see a viable opportunity in a problem then you are looking at the problem with a different perception than most people (the glass is half full or half empty). From a business perspective all opportunities are not necessarily a viable opportunity, the market determines the available opportunities. Without the knowledge to interpret the market conditions, you could miss it totally in terms of your opportunity analysis.

Table 1 shows the different industries in South Africa, the level of entrepreneurial activity, and how the same opportunity differs in each of these market areas.

1.4.2 The global entrepreneurship monitor

The Global Entrepreneurship Monitor ‘ specifically identified the entrepreneurial activity in the various industries of South Africa. It can be generalized to state that an industry with a high level of entrepreneurial activity, gives away more business opportunities (e.g. manufacturing, retail, hotel, restaurant and business services), while one with a lower level will indicate far less opportunities (e.g. agriculture, forestry, hunting, fishing, finance, insurance, real estate and health, education and social services).

If we analyse just one ‘high-opportunity’ industry, for instance manufacturing, it may be an opportunity today to manufacture a final product, and export it to an international market. A ‘low-opportunity’ industry, for instance insurance (especially in the market entry phase), may be negative as having an extremely high crime rate and insurance companies have to pay out claims at an alarming rate. It is also evident that low-opportunity industries may create feasible opportunities.

An entrepreneur should therefore be wary of following a fad, (latest trend) and exploiting assumed opportunities in a ‘popular’ industry.

Percentage of Entrepreneurs

ISIC Category Start-ups New Firms Total

Agriculture, forestry, hunting, fishing 1,3 2,6 1,6

Mining, construction 9,7 5,0 4,1

Manufacturing 14,3 19,1 13,8

Transport, communications, utilities 9,8 0,7 8,0

Wholesale, motor vehicle sales, repairs 6,0 6,5 6,3

Retail, hotel, restaurant 40,8 47,7 43,5

Finance, insurance, real estate 0,3 5,2 1,4

Business services 10,1 7,9 9,4

Health, education, social services 2,6 0,7 2,3

Consumer services 11,0 3,5 9,7

Source: Driver. Wood, Segal & Herrington, 2001

Table 1 – The percentage of entrepreneurs in the different industries in South-Africa

1.4.3 What is an opportunity?

What exactly is an opportunity and how does an entrepreneur exploit a feasible opportunity? According to Hesrich & Peters (2002), an opportunity is the process whereby the entrepreneur assesses whether a certain product, service or process, will yield the necessary earnings based on the resource inputs that are required to manufacture and market it.

The nature of opportunities needs to be assessed – thus, what leads to the existence of an opportunity? The following factors may result in an opportunity:

‘ General and specific problems faced by consumers

‘ Market shifts

‘ Government regulations

‘ Competition

There are two equally important criteria in the assessment of an opportunity. Firstly, the size of the market – will the number of customers reward the input and energy required, to create and deliver the product?

Secondly, the length in terms of the frame of the opportunity (window of opportunity). For example, is the demand for this product only a short fashionable phenomenon or is it based on sustainable business, or how long will it take before someone else (a competitor), to grab the opportunity?

These two aspects should also link directly to the personal skills and competence of the entrepreneur. For example, entrepreneurs with no skills or interest in information technology will not necessarily achieve their personal goals. They should rather venture into an opportunity which suits their experience and personality.

1.4.4 Transform opportunity into a business

Table 2 shows how the development of a business plan links to the identification and evaluation of opportunities, the determination of the resources required and the eventual management of the enterprise. All of these factors play a significant role in the correct assessment of the business opportunity.

This means that the business plan must explain in sufficient detail how the business will exploit the situation, to transform the opportunity, into solving a problem for the consumer, which generates extraordinary profits for the people involved.

Identify and evaluate the opportunity Develop the business plan Determine the resources needed Manage the enterprise

Creation and length of opportunity

Real and perceived value of opportunity

Risk and returns of opportunity

Opportunity versus skills and goals

Competitive situation Title page

Table of contents

Executive summary

Description of business

Description of industry

Marketing plan

Financial plan

Production plan

Organisational plan

Operational plan

Summary

Appendices Existing resources of the entrepreneur

Resource gap and available supplies

Access to needed resources Management style

Key variables for success

Identification of problems and potential problems

Implementation of control systems

Source: Hisrich, R.D. & Peters, M.P. 2002: 40. Entrepreneurship. Boston: Irwin/McGraw-Hill.

Table 2 – Link between Opportunity and business plan

1.5 Instruction

Exit and resume to your current page.

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The importance of employee engagement in an organization assignment help sydney

1.4 Literature Review

Mark Kilsby and Stephen Beyer (1996) ‘ Engagement and Interaction : A comparison between supported employment and acts’. This research study was conducted with the help of interaction and commitment patterns of 13 supported employees and 38 regular adult training center attainders of the organization. Direct observation was used as method of data collection, within the 13 employment sites and a representative sample of ATC organized activities. Because of the higher level of task specific dialogue between individuals and the service of the organization it is found that there is more of social interaction in ACT. Interaction of employees with public within office hours was the cause for this as per the study conducted.

Douglas R. May, Richard L, Gilson and Lynn M . Harter (2004) ‘The Psychological Conditions Of Meaningfulness ,Safety And Availability And The Engagement Of The Human Spirit At Work’. This shows the study about a U.S western company which explored the determinants and mediated the effects of tree psychological conditions they are meaningful, safe and available. The above studies shoes that all the three factors (meaningfulness, safety and availability) have a positive relation with the engagement of an employee in the organization. In other words they are completely associated with the psychological safety where as loyalty to co worker norms and self- consciousness are negatively related.

Despoina Xanthopaolou, Arnold B, Bakker, Evangelia Demerouti and Wilmar B.Schaufeli (2009) ‘Work Engagement And Financial Returns : A Diary Study On The Role Of The Job And Personal Resources’. The above study shows that how daily fluctuations in job can affect the level of personal resource , financial returns and work engagement. Different level of analysis revealed that day level job resources had an effect on work engagement through the day level personal resources. When there was a control for the general level of personal resources and organizational engagement Day level work engagement showed a positive way towards day level training, which in turn showed the financial returns.

Dan-Shang Wang and Chia ‘Chun Hsieh (2013) ‘The Effect Of Authentic Leadership On Employee Trust And Employee Engagement’ they have examined the genuine leadership on employee engagement through employee trust. They have collected data from 386 employees from top 1000 manufacturing companies and top 500 service companies in Taiwan. Hierarchical multiple regression was used to test the hypothesis on the employees. Later on the results shows that the consistency between the supervisors , words and actions as well as their moral perceptions are optimistically related to employee engagement , when only supervisors are consist between the words and actions in positively related employment trust. The study shows how employee engagement had a positive trust on employee. Employee trust has a partial link between authentic leadership and employee engagement.

Benjamin J.C, Yuan and Michael B.H. Lin (2012) ‘Transforming Employee Engagement Into Long-Term Customer Relationships: Evidence From Information Technology Salespeople In Taiwan’. This article shows that when information sales people in Taiwan have perceived more transformational leadership and they were more expected to show increased development in work engagement. Over a period of time it was found that increased development in work engagement influenced the increased customer relationship. It showed how employee engagement is indirectly co related with customer relationship.

Xander M.Bezuijen, Karen Van Dam, Peter T . Van Den Berg and Henk Thierry (2010) ‘How Leaders Stimulate Employee Learning : A Leader ‘ Member Exchange Approach’. This study investigated how the three factors as such as leader member exchange, goal setting, and feedback are related to employee engagement in the learning activities. Here, two different mechanisms were proposed , first one a mediating mechanism telling that leader member exchange shows specific leader behavior. The second one is it as a moderating mechanism , holding that leader member exchange will strengthen the effect of leader behavior from 7 organizations a sample of 1112 employees was taken , to measure the leader member exchange approach. 233 of the direct leaders answered that they find difficulty in rating employee engagement in learning activities.

Maureen F.Dollard and Arnold B. Bakker (2010) ‘Psychosocial Safety Climate As A Precursor To Conducive Work Environment , Psychological Health Problems , And Employee Engagement’. This article shows the gap between work psychology and psychosocial working condition. Where we construct a psychosocial working condition PSC. It explains how PSC influences the senior management in psychological working conditions and in psychological health and engagement. They use the job demand and resources as a frame work and uses a multi level thinking into their explanation

James R.Jones (2009) ‘Comparative Effects On Race/Ethnicity And Employee Engagement On Withdrawal Behavior’. This study have added knowledge on the basis of effects on employee attachment. In addition to that it provides more evidence on looking at all types of employees as a single entity which can lead to false results.

Shane Crabb ( 2011) ‘The Use Of Coaching Principles To Foster Employee Engagement’. The above article focuses on the human condition that leads to the happiness of fulfillment and flourishing of employee engagement. Where positive psychology results in so many questions from traditional psychological approaches .Which have mean to focus on a different model of human functioning with healing people fail. In another way positive psychology takes additional holistic approach to human life. Seeing the positive and negative aspects of context when establishing what is right , working and good of people.

Roberta A . Neault and Deidre A .Pickerel (2011) ‘Career Engagement : Bridging Career Counseling And Employee engagement’ . this article is showing that employee counselors helps individuals in maximizing their career engagement at any career stage of an individual. When you facilitate career engagement it contributes to employee engagement which employee are looking for. They even encourages others to use the career engagement and employee engagement models as vehicles to combine the employers to interest in engagement counselors to create interest in supporting the development of employee an motivate them to work.

2.1 Title: A Cross Sectional Study Of Employee Engagement In Apollo Hospitals.

2.2 Objectives:

1. To determine the level of Employee Engagement in Apollo Hospitals.

2. To identify the factors of Employee Engagement.

3. To analyze and suggest strategies for improvement.

2.3 Research Methodology:

I had adopted descriptive research design for the purpose of this

Survey on employee engagement. The primary data was collected from the 100 employees conveniently selected from Apollo Hospitals Bangalore, through structured questionnaire.

2.4 Limitations:

1) The survey was carried out for a sample sized of 100 working staff only.

2) Findings and suggestion of this research are applicable only to Apollo Hospitals.

3) As an fact finding study advanced statistical tools or analysis are not used.

Table 1.1 Weighted Average on Opportunities for growth

X 1 2 3 4 5

I have adequate opportunities for professional growth in this organization. (X1) 10 20 32 19 19

I receive the training I need to do my job well.(X2) 2 52 22 16 08

My manager is actively interested in my professional development and advancement.(X3) 32 21 12 18 17

My manager encourages and supports my development (X4) 08 10 40 18 24

I am encouraged to learn from my mistakes (X5) 52 23 16 04 05

My work is challenging, stimulating, and rewarding(X6) 28 14 33 16 09

X1 ?? XI X2 ?? X2 X3 ?? X3 X4 ?? X4 X5 ?? X5 X6 ?? X6

10 50 2 10 32 160 08 40 52 260 28 140

20 80 52 208 21 84 10 40 23 92 14 56

32 96 22 66 12 36 40 120 16 48 33 99

19 38 16 32 18 36 18 36 04 08 16 32

19 19 08 08 17 17 24 24 05 05 09 09

TOTAL 283 TOTAL 324 TOTAL 333 TOTAL 260 TOTAL 413 TOTAL 336

Table 1.2 Calculation Of Weighted Average on Opportunities for growth

283/100 2.83 324/100 3.24 333/100 3.33 260/100 2.60 413/100 4.13 336/100 3.36

RANKED 6 RANKED 4 RANKED 3 RANKED 5 RANKED 1 RANKED 2

Table 1.3 Showing The Rank Of Each Component of Opportunities for growth

INFERENCE

The above table shows that the employees are encouraged to learn from their mistakes that is 4.15 out of 5.the work is stimulating rewarding and challenging is ranked 2nd.the manager is actively interested in employees professional growth is

ranked 3rd.the level of opportunity for professional growth shows the least ranking.

Table 1.4: Showing Adequate Opportunities/ Professional growth

STRONGLY AGREED AGREED NEUTRAL DISAGREE STRONGLY DISAGREE TOTAL

10 20 32 19 19 100

Chart 1.1: Showing Adequate Opportunities/ Professional growth

Interpretation:

32% of the employees from the given population says that they have a neutral opportunity to grow where as 10 % stands in the outstanding category and 20% of them in good category. An equal no of employees disagree to the fact in the other hand that is 19% of the given population.

STRONGLY AGREED AGREED NEUTRAL DISAGREE STRONGLY DISAGREE TOTAL

2 52 22 16 8 100

Table 1.5: Showing Training

Chart 1.2: Showing Training

Interpretation:

In the given sample 52% of the employees agrees to the fact that they receive good training in order to do their job efficiently and 2% strongly agrees. where 22 % is neutral to the situation given.16 % of them do not get proper training they required to do their jobs and 8 % strongly disagree to it. It is clear that the organization is giving a proper training to employees to make their work effective.

Table 1.6: Showing Professional Development And Advancement

STRONGLY AGREED AGREED NEUTRAL DISAGREE STRONGLY DISAGREE TOTAL

32 21 12 18 17 100

Chart 1.3: Showing Professional Development And Advancement

Interpretation:

Most of the employees agree that their manager takes attention in their professional development steps. 32 % to 25 of the employees from the given sample have strongly agreed and agreed to it respectively. whereas 12 % is neutral to it . but 18% to 17% disagrees and says that they are not taken care in respective of their advancement in profession.

Table 1.7: Showing Encouragement And Support

STRONGLY AGREED AGREED NEUTRAL DISAGREE STRONGLY DISAGREE TOTAL

8 10 40 18 24 100

Chart 1.4: Showing Encouragement And Support

Interpretation:

From the above graph its clear that 40% of the employees neither agree or disagree that management encourage them or support them. 8% to 10% agrees that they have been supported by the management . but 18 % to 24 % disagree to the fact that management supports them .

Table 1.8: Showing Challenges, Stimulation And Reward

STRONGLY AGREED AGREED NEUTRAL DISAGREE STRONGLY DISAGREE TOTAL

52 23 16 4 5 100

Chart 1.5: Showing Challenges, Stimulation And Reward

Interpretation:

More than half , 52% of the employees states that they have a challenging stimulating and rewarding work. A very few of them disagree to it 4 % to 5% . and 23 % of them agrees t it there is a majority of people agreeing to it.

Table 1.9: Showing Encouragement

STRONGLY AGREED AGREED NEUTRAL DISAGREE STRONGLY DISAGREE TOTAL

28 14 33 16 9 100

Chart 1.6: Showing Encouragement

Interpretation:

There is a 28% of people agreeing to it. And 16 % to 9 % disagreeing to the fact that they are not encouraged to learn from their mistakes .

Table 1.10: Showing Weighted Average on Work/Life Balance; Stress and Work Pace

X 1 2 3 4 5

My manager understands the benefits of maintaining a balance between work and personal life. (X1) 02 13 08 48 29

My job does not cause unreasonable amounts of stress in my life. (X2) 30 13 08 48 29

The amount of work I am asked to do is reasonable. (X3) 40 20 12 14 14

I am able to satisfy both my job and family/personal responsibilities. (X4) 27 12 08 09 44

X1 ?? X1 X2 ?? X2 X3 ?? X3 X4 ?? X4

02 10 30 150 40 200 27 135

13 52 13 52 20 80 12 48

08 24 08 24 12 48 08 24

48 96 48 96 14 28 09 18

29 29 29 29 14 14 44 44

TOTAL 211 TOTAL 351 TOTAL 370 TOTAL 269

Table 1.11: Showing Calculation Of Weighted Average on Work/Life Balance; Stress and Work Pace

Table 1.12: Showing The Rank Of Each Component of Work/Life Balance; Stress And Work Pace

211/100 2.11 351/100 3.51 370/100 3.7 269/100 2.69

RANKED 4 RANKED 1 RANKED 2 RANKED 3

INFERRENCE

By analysing the given data using weighted average method that the level of stress reduced in the employees is 3.51 out of 4 , and the amount of work the employee is asked to do is 3.7. the employee is able to balance between family and personal responsibility is 2.69 . the managers understanding in the benefits and maintaining balance between work and personal life should be taken care because it is got only 2.11 which have least rank

STRONGLY AGREED AGREED NEUTRAL DISAGREE STRONGLY DISAGREE TOTAL

2 13 8 48 29 100

Table 1.13: Showing Work/Life Balance; Stress And Work Pace Balance Between Work And Personal Life

Chart 1.7: Showing Work/Life Balance; Stress And Work Pace Balance Between Work And Personal Life

Interpretation:

Only 2% of the employees says that there is a balance between work life and personal life. 13% of them agrees to it and 8% is neutral to it.but 48% of the sample disagrees and 29 % of them strongly disagrees to it.

Table 1.14: Showing Stress Level In Employees Life

STRONGLY AGREED AGREED NEUTRAL DISAGREE STRONGLY DISAGREE TOTAL

30 13 8 48 29 100

Chart 1.8: Showing Stress Level In Employees Life

Interpretation:

30% of the employees strongly agrees that the job doesn’t cause much stress where 13% of them agrees and 8% is neutral to it. But 48%of them disagree nd 29% strongly disagrees and states that job causes stress in their life.

Table 1.15: Showing Amount Of Work Asked To Do

STRONGLY AGREED AGREED NEUTRAL DISAGREE STRONGLY DISAGREE TOTAL

40 20 12 14 14 100

Chart 1.9: Showing Amount Of Work Asked To Do

Interpretation:

40% of them strongly agrees that they have sufficient amount of work and they do not feel any stress where 20 % of them agrees. 12% of the sample is neutral.14% of them disagrees they don’t have suffient amount of work or they are overloaded with the work given.

Table 1.16: Showing Satisfying Family / Personal Responsibilities

STRONGLY AGREED AGREED NEUTRAL DISAGREE STRONGLY DISAGREE TOTAL

40 20 12 14 14 100

Chart 1.10: Showing Satisfying Family / Personal Responsibilities

Interpretation:

44% of them strongly disagree that they are not able to complete their job, family and personal responsibilities. 27 % to 12 % agrees to it and 8% is neutral to that. It shows that employees are not satisfied with the amount of work given to them.

Table 1.17: Showing Weighted Average on Personal Expression / Diversity

X 1 2 3 4 5

My ideas and opinions count at work. (X1) 03 18 19 32 28

I am comfortable sharing my opinions at work. (X2) 10 08 28 42 12

We work to attract, develop, and retain people with diverse backgrounds. (X3) 10 13 09 56 12

Senior management is genuinely interested in employee opinions and ideas. (X4) 24 23 36 07 10

People with different ideas are valued in this organization. (X5) 20 18 40 13 09

Table 1.18: Calculation Of Weighted Average on Personal Expression / Diversity

X1 ?? X1 X2 ?? X2 X3 ?? X3 X4 ?? X4 X5 ?? X5

3 15 10 50 10 50 24 120 20 100

18 72 08 32 13 52 23 92 18 72

19 57 28 84 09 27 36 108 40 120

32 64 42 84 56 112 07 14 13 26

28 26 12 12 12 12 10 10 09 09

TOTAL 234 TOTAL 262 TOTAL 253 TOTAL 344 TOTAL 327

234/100 2.34 262/100 2.62 253/100 2.53 344/100 3.44 327/100 3.27

RANKED 5 RANKED 3 RANKED 4 RANKED 1 RANKED 2

Table 1.19: Showing The Rank Of Each Component of Personal Expression / Diversity

INFERRENCE

By analysing the above table it shows that senior management is interested in personal opinions which shows the rank 1. And people with different ideas are valued in the organisation are considered 3.27 out of 5. Employees are free to share their ideas 2.62. the employees work in such a manner to attract and retain others 2.53 ,which has got the 4th rank. Ideas counted at work has got the least rank where they have to work on that part.

Table 1.20: Showing Idea And Opinion Count

STRONGLY AGREED AGREED NEUTRAL DISAGREE STRONGLY DISAGREE TOTAL

3 18 19 32 28 100

Chart 1.11: : Showing Idea And Opinion Count

Interpretation:

Only 3% of the employees agree that the management listens to their ideas and opinions. 18% of them agree to it as well. 19 % is neutral to the situation. Whereas there is a huge no of the sample size that is32% to 28% who is disagreeing to it. Their opinions and ideas are not taken seriously by the management.

Table 1.21: Showing Level Comfort in Sharing Opinions

STRONGLY AGREED AGREED NEUTRAL DISAGREE STRONGLY DISAGREE TOTAL

10 8 28 42 12 100

Chart 1.12 : Showing Level Comfort in Sharing Opinions

Interpretation:

The conducted shows that onl10% to 8% employees are comfortable in sharing their problems with the upper management. Rest of the sample that is 42% is disagreeing that they are not comfortable in sharing their ideas or problems.12% of them strongly disagrees.

Table 1.22: Showing The Work They Do Is To Attract , Develop And Retain

STRONGLY AGREED AGREED NEUTRAL DISAGREE STRONGLY DISAGREE TOTAL

10 13 9 56 12 100

Chart 1.13: Showing The Work They Do Is To Attract , Develop And Retain

Interpretation:

56% of the employees disagrees that they don’t work to attract ,develop or retain customers. Where 10% to 13% agrees to the statement . a little sample size of 12% strongly disagrees to the statement .

Table 1.23: Showing Senior Management Interest In Employee Opinion And Ideas

STRONGLY AGREED AGREED NEUTRAL DISAGREE STRONGLY DISAGREE TOTAL

24 23 26 7 10 100

Chart 1.14: Showing Senior Management Interest In Employee Opinion And Ideas

Interpretation

The management shows interest in taking employees ideas and opinions.24% of them agrees and 23% of the strongly agrees to the statement. A huge sample ,36% id neutral to the statement. But a little sample, 7% to 10% disagrees to the statement.

Table 1.24: Showing People With Different Ideas Are Valued

STRONGLY AGREED AGREED NEUTRAL DISAGREE STRONGLY DISAGREE TOTAL

20 18 40 13 9 100

Chart 1.15: Showing People With Different Ideas Are Valued

Interpretation:

20% to 18% of the employees agree that people with different ideas are well accepted in the organization. 40% to the employees are neutral to the statement. 13 % to 9% of the sample disagrees to the statement on the other hand.

Table 1.25: Showing Weighted Average On Compensation

X 1 2 3 4 5

I am paid fairly for the work I do. (X1) 19 42 12 25 2

My salary is competitive with similar jobs I might find elsewhere.(X2) 32 12 28 23 5

My benefits are comparable to those offered by other organizations.(X3) 8 29 28 32 3

I understand my benefit plan. (X4) 42 15 19 9 15

I am satisfied with my benefit package. (X5) 58 12 11 6 13

Table 1.26: Calculation Of Weighted Average On Compensation

X1 vX1 X2 ?? X2 X3 ?? X3 X4 ?? X4 X5 ?? X5

19 95 32 160 08 40 42 210 58 290

42 168 12 48 29 116 15 60 12 48

12 36 28 84 28 84 19 57 11 33

25 50 23 46 32 64 09 18 06 12

02 02 05 05 03 03 15 15 13 13

TOTAL 351 TOTAL 343 TOTAL 307 TOTAL 360 TOTAL 396

Table 1.27: Showing The Rank Of Each Component Of Compensation

351/100 3.51 343/100 3.43 307/100 3.07 360/100 3.60 396/100 3.96

RANKED 3 RANKED 4 RANKED 5 RANKED 2 RANKED 1

INFERENCES

The above table shows that the employees are satisfied with the benefit package they are given 3.96 out of 5.the employees understand their plan is 3.60. the fair pay is ranked 3rd.the employees salary is competitive with others is ranked 4th. The salary is not comparable with salary with others which has been ranked the least, rank 5.

Table 1.28: showing Fair Pay

STRONGLY AGREED AGREED NEUTRAL DISAGREE STRONGLY DISAGREE TOTAL

19 42 12 25 2 100

Chart 1.16: Showing Fair Pay

Interpretation:

19% to 42% of the Employees agree that they are paid fairly according to the amount of work they do. But 25% to 2% of the sample size disagrees to the statement. And 12% is neutral to it.

Table 1.29: Showing Salary Competitiveness

STRONGLY AGREED AGREED NEUTRAL DISAGREE STRONGLY DISAGREE TOTAL

32 12 28 23 5 100

Chart 1.17: Showing Salary Competitiveness

Interpretation:

32% of the employees agrees that they get a competitive salary when compared to other organizations with same designation. 12% of them strongly agrees to it .28% of them are neutral to the statement. 23% to 5% is disagrees to the statement in the other hand.

Table 1.30: Showing Comparability Of Benefits

STRONGLY AGREED AGREED NEUTRAL DISAGREE STRONGLY DISAGREE TOTAL

8 29 28 32 3 100

Chart 1.18: Showing Comparability Of Benefits

Interpretation:

There is balance, 29% of the employees agrees and 32 % of them strongly disagrees that they have a comparable benefits.28% of them are neutral in the other hand.

Table 1.31: Showing Understanding Of Benefit Plan

STRONGLY AGREED AGREED NEUTRAL DISAGREE STRONGLY DISAGREE TOTAL

42 15 19 9 15 100

Chart 1.19: Showing Understanding Of Benefit Plan

Interpretation:

42% of the employees agrees that they understand their benefit plan. 15% strongly agrees ,where 19% is neutral.9% to 15% disagrees to the fact and says they don’t understand the benefit plans they are given.

Table 1.32: Showing Satisfaction With Benefit Package

STRONGLY AGREED AGREED NEUTRAL DISAGREE STRONGLY DISAGREE TOTAL

58 12 11 6 13 100

Chart 1.20: Showing Satisfaction With Benefit Package

Interpretation:

58% of them are satisfied with their benefit package. 12% strongly agrees. Whereas little sample of 6% to 13% disagrees to the statement. Or they are not happy with their benefit package.11% is neutral to it.

Summary of Findings

‘ Most of the employee’s ability state the opinion firmly and positively is better than acceptable standards.

‘ Majority of the employee’s ability in exercising the professional duties without assistance is better than acceptable standard.

‘ The Emotional Stamina of the majority of the employees is better than acceptable standard.

‘ Majority of the Employee’s Ability to work co-operatively and collaboratively to achieve common goal is better than acceptable.

‘ Majority of the employees Ability to effectively guide a group through an appropriate process to help to achieve their desired outcomes is better than acceptable standard.

‘ Majority of the employee’s ability to clarify and establish with a group roles and responsibilities, common goal and plan to achieve them and group behavioural is outstanding.

‘ Majority of the employees Ability to deal with multiple issues and details, alertness and learning capacity is better than acceptable standard.

‘ Majority of the employee’s ability to see and think beyond the obvious and formulate original solution is better than acceptable standards.

‘ Majority of the employee’s ability to present ideas, concept, plan and procedure clearly to the target group is better than acceptable standard.

‘ Concern for excellence of the majority of the employee’s is better than acceptable standard.

‘ Majority of the employee’s Aware of what is going on in the workplace and responds in a suitable manner to situations as they is better than acceptable.

‘ The understanding between the top level and employees are in good terms.

‘ Employees do understand their benefits and opportunities given by the organisation.

‘ The employees are paid fairly according to the work done.

‘ Freedom of sharing new ideas and opinions are welcomed in the organisation.

‘ The employees are able to make a balance between personnel and work life. which reduces the amount of stress in them.

‘ The organisation encourages the employee to learn from their mistakes.

‘ Recommendations

‘ In this organization employee engagement study must be regularly done in order to check the level of employee effectiveness.

‘ Since many of the employees are performing different jobs to what they were doing at the time of their joining they need training to perform the new work allotted them.

‘ Different sources of employee engagement tactics must be encouraged in employees.

‘ The top management should support the lower level employees since it is considered a major hurdle in effective employee engagement and the employees must also be made aware of importance of engagement at work system

‘ The employees should be then and there motivated for work.

‘ The understanding between management and employees should be increased.

‘ Level of stress in work should be reduced.

‘ Better benefit package should be given to the employees.

Conclusion

In the report we have discussed the importance of employee engagement in an organization and how it affects the efficiency of work and productivity. Employment counselors should help individuals to maximize their career engagement at any stage of their career. Basically employee engagement should be a buzz word for the employee engagement and a positive attitude held by the employees towards the organization. Employee engagement is gaining its importance and popularity in work places and its impact in many ways. It emphasis on the importance of employee engagement in a organization, an organization should thus give more importance for its employees than any other variable as they are the powerful contributors to a company’s competitiveness. Thus it shows that employee engagement should be a continues process for learning, improvement, measurement and action of an employee.

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The limitations of the Chit Acts nursing essay help

1.1 BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY

The financial system assumes strategically a very important role in channelling the funds from surplus units to deficit units. The financial system here refers to the group of institutions, markets and instruments which helps in formation of capital and thus accelerates to the pace of economic development.

The base of this study stems from the fact that there exists a gap between gross capital formation and gross domestic savings in India. So, there exists the need to augment the growth rate of voluntary domestic savings. This goal can be realized by widening and strengthening the working of different financial intermediaries which will result in mobilizing savings from various income level categories. .It is in this context that the role of the Non-Banking Financial Intermediaries like Chit Finance should be appreciated in supplementing the functions of the Banking Institutions.

Chit funds are Chit funds are the Indian equivalent of the Rotating Savings and Credit Associations (ROSCA). ROSCAs are famous in many parts of the world and is seen as an instrument to ‘save and borrow’ simultaneously. ROSCAs basically started as a way to help in fulfilling the needs of the low-income households as it enables the people to convert their small savings into lump sums. The concept of chit funds originated more than 1000 years ago. Initially it was in the form of an informal association of traders and households within communities, wherein the members contributed some money in return for an accumulated sum at the end of the tenure. Participation in Chit funds was mainly for the purpose of purchasing some property or, in other words, for ‘consumption’ purposes. However, in recent times, there have been tremendous alterations in the constitution and functioning of Chit funds. A significant difference between Chit Funds and ROSCAs are that in most places ROSCAs are user-owned and organized informally, but chit funds have been formally institutionalized in India. (Chit Funds-An innovative access to finance for low income households, 2009)

1.1.1 WHAT DO WE MEAN BY CHIT FUNDS?

Chit fund is a savings-cum-borrowing instrument. The basic aim of this instrument is to pool small amount of savings by all the members which is then managed by a foreman. The foreman has the responsibility to act as a trustee-cum-supervisors for the process of collection and allotment of the pooled amount.

Chit funds represent a traditional form of saving-cum-credit institution evolved before the bank system was introduced in rural India. There are many who avail themselves of this avenue for saving for a reasonable return.

1.1 NEED AND RATIONALE OF THE STUDY

Despite the growth of a wide range of savings avenues and the widespread network of banks and other financial institutions, it has been found that Chit scheme still forms an important part in the asset portfolio of many households and firms in India and especially in South India including Karnataka. Also, the review of literature shows that there are only a few studies on Chit Finance. Therefore, the need to conduct the study stems from the requirement to understand Chit Funds in Bangalore.

1.2 NEED TO CONDUCT THE STUDY

The research titled ‘A Study on Chit Funds in Bangalore to understand the behaviour and financial needs of the chit fund members as well as to identify the important predictors of regular participation in chit funds’ The study estimates the net returns and interest rate on Chit funds. This study tries to point out the limitations of the Chit Acts and suggests feasible recommendations for improving the working of such institutions.

.3.2 STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM

‘A Study on Chit Funds in Bangalore to understand the behaviour and financial needs of the chit fund members as well as to identify the important predictors of regular participation in chit funds’.

VARIABLES UNDER INVESTIGATION

1. Age

2. Occupation

3. Monthly income

4. Gender

5. Bank loan

6. Regular participation in chit fund

7. Membership in multiple chit schemes

8. Cause for participating in multiple schemes

9. Preferred avenue of saving

10. Preferred source of finance

11. Safety

12. Better service

13. Flexibility

14. Timely Payment

15. Low commission

16. Personal contact

17. Unregistered chit funds membership

18. Cause for participating in unregistered chit funds

19. Cause for not participating in unregistered chit fund

3.5 OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDY

3.5.1 OBJECTIVE(PRIMARY)

1. To understand the behaviour and financial needs of the chit fund members.

2. To identify the important predictors behind chit fund participation

3.5.2 OHER OBJECTIVES OF RESEARCH

1. To estimate interest rates in registered chit funds.

2. To compare the relative ratings of Chit subscribers towards registered and unregistered chit funds on

3. To estimate the return on Chit Funds.

3.6 HYPOTHESIS

There are two types of statistical hypotheses.

1. Null hypothesis

2. Alternative hypothesis.

Hypothesis 1:

H0: There is no significant relation between gender and cause for participation in chit fund.

H1: There is significant relation between gender and cause for participation in chit fund.

Hypothesis 2:

H0: There is no significant relation between occupation and cause for participation in chit fund.

H1: There is significant relation between occupation and cause for participation in chit fund.

Hypothesis 3:

H0: There is no significant relation between age and causes for participation in chit fund

H1: There is significant relation between age and cause for participation in chit fund

Hypothesis 4:

H0: There is no significant relation between monthly income and cause for participation in chit fund

H1: There is significant relation between monthly income and cause for participation in chit fund

Hypothesis 5:

H0: There is no significant relation between gender and causes for bidding in chit fund

H1: There is significant relation between gender and cause for bidding in chit fund

Hypothesis 6:

H0: There is no significant relation between occupation and cause for bidding in chit fund

H1: There is significant relation between occupation and cause for bidding in chit fund

Hypothesis 7:

H0: There is no significant relation between age and cause for bidding in chit fund

H1: There is significant relation between age and cause for bidding in chit fund

Hypothesis 8:

H0: There is no significant relation between monthly income and cause for bidding in chit fund

H1: There is significant relation between monthly income and cause for bidding in chit fund

Hypothesis 9:

H0: There is no significant relation between gender and cause for saving in chit fund

H1: There is significant relation between gender and cause for saving in chit fund

Hypothesis 10:

H0: There is no significant relation between occupation and cause for saving in chit fund.

H1: There is significant relation between occupation and cause for saving in chit fund.

Hypothesis 11:

H0: There is no significant relation between age and cause for saving in chit fund

H1: There is significant relation between age and cause for saving in chit fund

Hypothesis 12:

H0: There is no significant relation between having bank loan and membership in multiple chit schemes.

H1: There is significant relation between having bank loan and membership in multiple chit schemes.

Hypothesis 13:

H0: There is no significant relation between monthly income and participation in unregistered chit funds

H1: There is significant relation between monthly income and participation in unregistered chit funds

Hypothesis 14 :

H0: There is no significant relation between causes to prefer chit fund over bank and having bank loan.

H1: There is significant relation between causes to prefer chit fund over bank and having bank loan.

Hypothesis 15:

H0: Presence of safety, flexibility, timely payment, low commission, better service, personal contact, having a bank loan are no significant predictors of regular participation in chit fund.

H1: Presence of safety, flexibility, timely payment, low commission, better service, personal contact ,having a bank loan,are significant predictors of regular participation in chit fund.

.

3.8 SAMPLING METHOD

Members of four registered chit fund companies in Bangalore. The four registered chit fund companies were selected due to the large size of their subscriber base.

3.8.3 SIZE OF SAMPLE

150 respondents

3.9 MECHANISM OF STUDY

3.9.1 PRIMARY RESEARCH

Questions relating to behaviour and financial pattern will be found out through questionnares

3.9.2 SECONDARY RESEARCH

‘ Reports on chit fund industry

OVERVIEW OF INDIAN CHIT FUND INDUSTRY

4.1.1 NUMBER OF REGISTERED CHIT FUND COMPANIES:

According to the Ministry of Corporate Affairs, as on 31st December, 2013:

Volume of registered chit companies: 5412

Volume of chit companies in Karnataka: 703

Number of chit fund companies in Bangalore: 315

UNREGISTERED CHIT FUND INDUSTRY

Although unregistered chits are an informal source of finance but still they are a significant part of the chit fund industry. Though they are more easily accessible as compared to registered chit funds.

4.3 PURPOSE OF THE STUDY

The study titled ‘A Study on Chit Funds in Bangalore to understand the behaviour and financial needs of the chit fund members as well as to identify the important predictors of regular participation in chit funds’ attempt in The study estimates the net returns and interest rate on Chit funds. This study also examines the limitations of the Chit Acts and suggests suitable recommendations for improving the functioning of such institutions.

4.4 LIMITATION OF STUDY

‘ Unwillingness of the members to share their income and financial details made the task of data collection somewhat difficult.

‘ Collecting data became difficult since I don’t know the regional languages.

5.2 ANALYSIS OF DATA

The analysis is done on the primary data collected from 150 chit funds members in Bangalore

TESTING OF HYPOTHESES

5.4.1 Hypothesis 1:

H0: There is no significant relation between gender and cause for participation in chit fund.

H1: There is significant relation between gender and cause for participation in chit fund.

Chi-Square Tests

Value df Asymp. Sig. (2-sided)

Pearson Chi-Square 31.070a 16 .013

Likelihood Ratio 35.945 16 .003

Linear-by-Linear Association 8.809 1 .003

N of Valid Cases 150

a. 1 cells (10.0%) have expected count less than 5. The minimum expected count is .30.

Symmetric Measures

Value Approx. Sig.

Nominal by Nominal Phi .455 .013

Cramer’s V .228 .013

N of Valid Cases 150

a. Not assuming the null hypothesis.

b. Using the asymptotic standard error assuming the null hypothesis.

INTERPRETATION:

The value of chi-square=31.070 was p=.013, less than 0.05.

We can see that the strength of association between the variables is moderate (Phi and Cramer’s V -0.455).

Therefore, the research hypothesis that differences in ’cause to participate in chit funds’ are related to differences in ‘age” is supported by this analysis. This means that different age groups of the chit fund members have different reasons of participating in chit funds. As can be seen from the table above that those who belong to ’36-45 years’ have saving as the predominant reason to participate whereas members of other age groups do not have any dominant reason to participate.

5.4.2 Hypothesis 2:

Hypothesis 2:

H0: There is no significant relation between occupation and cause for participation in chit fund.

H1: There is significant relation between occupation and cause for participation in chit fund.

Hypothesis 3:

. Hypothesis 3:

H0: There is no significant relation between age and causes for participation in chit fund

H1: There is significant relation between age and cause for participation in chit fund

Chi-Square Tests

Value df Asymp. Sig. (2-sided)

Pearson Chi-Square 10.018a 4 .040

Likelihood Ratio 10.478 4 .033

Linear-by-Linear Association 6.876 1 .009

N of Valid Cases 150

Symmetric Measures

Value Approx. Sig.

Nominal by Nominal Phi .258 .040

Cramer’s V .258 .040

N of Valid Cases 150

a. Not assuming the null hypothesis.

a. Using the asymptotic standard error assuming the null hypothesis.

INTERPRETATION:

The value of chi-square=10.018 was p=.040, less than 0.05.

.We can see that the strength of association between the variables is weak (0.258)

Therefore, the research hypothesis that differences in ’cause to participate in chit funds’ are related to differences in ‘gender” is supported by this analysis. This means that males and females have different reasons of participating in chit funds. As it can be seen that males participate in chit funds for business and personal consumption purposes apart from saving whereas women predominantly participate to save.

5.4

Hypothesis 4:

H0: There is no significant relation between monthly income and cause for participation in chit fund

H1: There is significant relation between monthly income and cause for participation in chit fund

Chi-Square Tests

Value df Asymp. Sig. (2-sided)

Pearson Chi-Square 82.176a 12 .000

Likelihood Ratio 97.665 12 .000

Linear-by-Linear Association 15.696 1 .000

N of Valid Cases 150

Symmetric Measures

Value Approx. Sig.

Nominal by Nominal Phi .740 .000

Cramer’s V .427 .000

N of Valid Cases 150

INTERPRETATION:

We can see that the strength of association between the variables is strong (0.740)

Therefore, the research hypothesis that differences in ‘reason to participate in chit funds’ are related to differences in ‘occupation” is supported by this analysis. It can be seen that the self-employed members mainly participate to avail for business reasons whereas salaried employee participate mainly for personal consumption purposes.

Hypothesis 5:

Hypothesis 5:

H0: There is no significant relation between gender and causes for bidding in chit fund

H1: There is significant relation between gender and cause for bidding in chit fund

Chi-Square Tests

Value df Asymp. Sig. (2-sided)

Pearson Chi-Square 66.691a 20 .000

Likelihood Ratio 43.579 20 .002

Linear-by-Linear Association 4.804 1 .028

N of Valid Cases 150

a. 1 cell (10.0%) has expected count less than 5. The minimum expected count is .07.

Symmetric Measures

Value Approx. Sig.

Nominal by Nominal Phi .667 .000

Cramer’s V .333 .000

N of Valid Cases 150

a. Not assuming the null hypothesis.

b. Using the asymptotic standard error assuming the null hypothesis.

INTERPRETATION:

The (chi-square=66.691) was p=.000, less than 0.05.

We can see that the strength of association between the variables is moderately strong (0.667)

Therefore, the research hypothesis that differences in ’cause to bid in chit funds’ are related to differences in ‘age” is supported by this analysis. It can be seen that the members of age group’36-45 years’ are more interested in bidding for business related purposes where members of other age groups bid mainly for emergency needs.

5.4.6 Hypothesis 6:

. Hypothesis 6:

H0: There is no significant relation between occupation and cause for bidding in chit fund

H1: There is significant relation between occupation and cause for bidding in chit fund

Chi-Square Tests

Value df Asymp. Sig. (2-sided)

Pearson Chi-Square 7.167a 5 .209

Likelihood Ratio 7.885 5 .163

Linear-by-Linear Association 1.120 1 .290

N of Valid Cases 150

a. 5 cells (41.7%) have expected count less than 5. The minimum expected count is .81.

Symmetric Measures

Value Approx. Sig.

Nominal by Nominal Phi .219 .209

Cramer’s V .219 .209

N of Valid Cases 150

a. Not assuming the null hypothesis.

b. Using the asymptotic standard error assuming the null hypothesis.

INTERPRETATION:

The probability of the chi-square test statistic (chi-square=7.167) was p=.209, more than the alpha level of significance of 0.05.

Therefore, the research hypothesis that differences in ‘reason to bid in chit funds’ are related to differences in ‘gender” is not supported by this analysis.

5.4.7 Hypothesis 7:

Hypothesis 7:

H0: There is no significant relation between age and cause for bidding in chit fund

H1: There is significant relation between age and cause for bidding in chit fund

Chi-Square Tests

Value df Asymp. Sig. (2-sided)

Pearson Chi-Square 180.915a 15 .000

Likelihood Ratio 160.460 15 .000

Linear-by-Linear Association 28.379 1 .000

N of Valid Cases 150

a. 1 cell (10.0%) has expected count less than 5. The minimum expected count is .13.

Symmetric Measures

Value Approx. Sig.

Nominal by Nominal Phi 1.098 .000

Cramer’s V .634 .000

N of Valid Cases 150

INTERPRETATION:

The (chi-square=180.915) was p=.000, less than 0.05.

We can see that the strength of association between the variables is extremely strong (1.098)

Therefore, the research hypothesis that differences in’ are related to differences in ‘occupation” is supported by this analysis. It can be clearly seen that self-employed people bid in chit scheme mostly for business purposes, salaried people for emergency needs and housewives for household purposes.

5.4.8 Hypothesis 8:

Hypothesis 8:

H0: There is no significant relation between monthly income and cause for bidding in chit fund

H1: There is significant relation between monthly income and cause for bidding in chit fund

Chi-Square Tests

Value df Asymp. Sig. (2-sided)

Pearson Chi-Square 123.331a 35 .000

Likelihood Ratio 106.298 35 .000

Linear-by-Linear Association 4.957 1 .026

N of Valid Cases 150

INTERPRETATION:

The probability of the chi-square test statistic (chi-square=123.331) was p=.000, less than the alpha level of significance of 0.05.

We can see that the strength of association between the variables is extremely strong (.907)

Therefore, the research hypothesis that differences in ‘reason to bid in chit funds’ are related to differences in ‘income” is supported by this analysis. It can be clearly seen that low income members bid mostly for consumption reasons whereas higher income members bid for business related and emergency purposes.

SUMMARY:

Reason to bid in chit fund has the strongest association with the occupation of the chit fund members as the probability of the chi-square test statistic (chi-square=180.915) was p=.000 and the strength of association between the variables is extremely strong (1.098).

5.4.

Hypothesis 9:

H0: There is no significant relation between gender and cause for saving in chit fund

H1: There is significant relation between gender and cause for saving in chit fund

Chi-Square Tests

Value df Asymp. Sig. (2-sided)

Pearson Chi-Square 21.702a 16 .153

Likelihood Ratio 23.775 16 .095

Linear-by-Linear Association 2.397 1 .122

N of Valid Cases 150

INTERPRETATION:

The chi-square=123.331) was p=.153, more than 0.05. Therefore, the research hypothesis that differences in ’cause to save in chit funds’ are related to differences in ‘age” is not supported by this analysis.

5.4.10 Hypothesis 10:

H0: There is no significant relation between occupation and cause for saving in chit fund.

H1: There is significant relation between occupation and cause for saving in chit fund.

Chi-Square Tests

Value df Asymp. Sig. (2-sided)

Pearson Chi-Square 20.510a 4 .000

Likelihood Ratio 29.038 4 .000

Linear-by-Linear Association 7.062 1 .008

N of Valid Cases 150

a. 1 cell (10.0%) has expected count less than 5. The minimum expected count is .81.

Symmetric Measures

Value Approx. Sig.

Nominal by Nominal Phi .370 .000

Cramer’s V .370 .000

N of Valid Cases 150

a. Not assuming the null hypothesis.

b. Using the asymptotic standard error assuming the null hypothesis.

INTERPRETATION:

The chi-square=20.510) was p=.000, less than 0.05.

We can see that the strength of association between the variables is weak (.370).Therefore, the research hypothesis that differences in ’cause to save in chit funds’ are related to differences in ‘gender” is supported by this analysis.

5.4.11 Hypothesis 11:

Hypothesis 11:

H0: There is no significant relation between age and cause for saving in chit fund

H1: There is significant relation between age and cause for saving in chit fund

Chi-Square Tests

Value df Asymp. Sig. (2-sided)

Pearson Chi-Square 67.261a 12 .000

Likelihood Ratio 60.380 12 .000

Linear-by-Linear Association 9.507 1 .002

N of Valid Cases 150

a. 1 cell (10.0%) has expected count less than 5. The minimum expected count is .13.

Symmetric Measures

Value Approx. Sig.

Nominal by Nominal Phi .670 .000

Cramer’s V .387 .000

N of Valid Cases 150

INTERPRETATION:

The chi-square=67.261 was p=.000, less than 0.05.

We can see that the strength of association between the variables is moderately strong(.670).Therefore, the research hypothesis that differences in ‘reason to cause in chit funds’ are related to differences in ‘occupation” is supported by this analysis. Salaried people save their money in chit fund with no particular purpose. But self-employed people are equally interested in saving for house purchase as well as for general purpose.

SUMMARY:

chit fund is most closely associated with occupation of the chit fund members as it has the highest value of chi-square statistic and Phi coefficient.

5.4.12 Hypothesis 12:

Hypothesis 12:

H0: There is no significant relation between having bank loan and membership in multiple chit schemes.

H1: There is significant relation between having bank loan and membership in multiple chit schemes.

Chi-Square Tests

Value df Asymp. Sig. (2-sided)

Pearson Chi-Square 56.697a 3 .000

Likelihood Ratio 67.900 3 .000

Linear-by-Linear Association 36.400 1 .000

N of Valid Cases 150

INTERPRETATION:

The probability of the chi-square test statistic (chi-square=56.697) was p=.000, less than the alpha level of significance of 0.05.

We can see that the strength of association between the variables is strong (.615).

Therefore, the research hypothesis that differences in ‘membership in multiple chit schemes are related to differences in ‘having currently bank loan” is supported by this analysis. It is clearly evident that those members currently having bank loan have invested in only one chit scheme whereas those members who do not have availed bank loan have invested in more than one chit schemes.

5.4.13 Hypothesis 13:

Hypothesis 13:

H0: There is no significant relation between monthly income and participation in unregistered chit funds

H1: There is significant relation between monthly income and participation in unregistered chit funds

.

Chi-Square Tests

Value df Asymp. Sig. (2-sided)

Pearson Chi-Square 96.660a 7 .000

Likelihood Ratio 85.378 7 .000

Linear-by-Linear Association 59.577 1 .000

N of Valid Cases 150

a. 1 cell(10.0%) has expected count less than 5. The minimum expected count is 1.08.

INTERPRETATION:

The chi-square=96.660 was p=.000, less than 0.05.

We can see that the strength of association between the variables is extremely strong (.803).

Therefore, the research hypothesis that differences in ‘participation in unregistered chit funds’ are related to differences in ‘income” is supported by this analysis. It is clearly evident that mostly low- income members have participated in unregistered funds. This is because the registered funds have become expensive due to the increase in their operational cost as a result of stringent regulations.

5.2.14 Hypothesis 14 :

H0: There is no significant relation between causes to prefer chit fund over bank and having bank loan.

H1: There is significant relation between causes to prefer chit fund over bank and having bank loan

Chi-Square Tests

Value df Asymp. Sig. (2-sided)

Pearson Chi-Square 28.049a 5 .000

Likelihood Ratio 31.806 5 .000

Linear-by-Linear Association 2.967 1 .085

N of Valid Cases 150

a. 2 cells (15.0%) have expected count less than 5. The minimum expected count is 1.79.

Symmetric Measures

Value Approx. Sig.

Nominal by Nominal Phi .432 .000

Cramer’s V .432 .000

N of Valid Cases 150

INTERPRETATION:

The probability of the chi-square test statistic (chi-square=28.049) was p=.000, less than the alpha level of significance of 0.05.

We can see that the strength of association between the variables is moderate (.432).

Therefore, the research hypothesis that differences in ’cause to prefer chit fund over bank’ are related to differences in ‘having bank loan” is supported by this analysis. It is clearly evident that members who have bank loan have preferred chit fund over bank mainly due to better dividends. But those who do not have bank loan prefer chit fund over bank mainly due to better service in terms of more personalized service.)

5.2..15 Hypothesis 15: To identify significant predictors of regular participation in chit funds using Binary Logistic Regression

Hypothesis 15:

H0: Presence of safety, flexibility, timely payment, low commission, better service, personal contact, having a bank loan are no significant predictors of regular participation in chit fund.

H1: Presence of safety, flexibility, timely payment, low commission, better service, personal contact ,having a bank loan,are significant predictors of regular participation in chit fund.

Variables in the Equation

B S.E. Wald df Sig. Exp(B)

Step 0 Constant -1.046 .186 31.574 1 .000 .351

Model Summary

Step -2 Log likelihood Cox & Snell R Square Nagelkerke R Square

1 37.170a .533 .576

a. Estimation terminated at iteration number 6 because parameter estimates changed by less than .001.

Variables in the Equation

B S.E. Wald df Sig. Exp(B)

Step 1a bank_loan(1) 1.068 1.265 14.715 1 .000 11.720

reason_2 2.286 4 .683

reason_2(1) 1.336 1.077 1.540 1 .215 3.805

reason_2(2) .134 2.239 .004 1 .952 1.143

reason_2(3) -.559 1.896 .087 1 .768 .572

reason_2(4) .731 1.347 .294 1 .588 2.076

reason_3 4.874 5 .431

reason_3(1) 1.188 .924 1.652 1 .199 3.279

reason_3(2) 1.661 2.048 .658 1 .417 5.263

reason_3(3) -1.654 1.228 1.813 1 .178 .191

reason_3(4) .404 1.192 .115 1 .735 1.497

reason_3(5) -17.379 20.722 .000 1 .700 .000

reason_4 .355 4 .986

reason_4(1) -1.047 1.850 .320 1 .571 .351

reason_4(2) -.839 1.979 .180 1 .672 .432

reason_4(3) -.932 1.637 .324 1 .569 .394

reason_4(4) 3.519 4.199 .000 1 .600 3.746

reason_5 8.553 5 .128

reason_5(1) -.254 1.768 .021 1 .886 .776

reason_5(2) -19.245 9.890 .000 1 .999 .000

reason_5(3) 1.420 1.338 1.126 1 .289 4.136

reason_5(4) -.747 1.306 .327 1 .567 .474

reason_5(5) .561 1.342 .174 1 .676 1.752

B S.E. Wald df Sig. Exp(B)

Step 1a Safety -.075 .320 4.377 1 .011 0.928

Flexi -.178 .426 3.337 1 .021 0.837

commision -.185 .188 1.868 1 .026 0.831

payment -.267 .178 1.657 1 .097 0.766

service -.859 .412 1.348 1 .083 0.424

personal -1.122 .163 .996 1 .079 0.329

Constant 3.058 2.440 1.571 1 .010 21.291

a. Variable(s) entered on step 1: : bank_loan, reason_2, reason_3, reason_4, reason_5.imp1, imp2, imp3, imp4, imp5, imp6.

INTERPRETATION:

‘ -2 Log Likelihood statistic is 37.170. This statistic how poorly the model predicts the decisions — the smaller the statistic the better the model. Since, 37.170 is a relatively small number therefore, this model is able to predict the decisions in a better way.

‘ Here Cox & Snell R Square statistic indicates that 53.3% of the variation in the regular participation in chit funds is explained by the logistic model.

‘ In our case Nagelkerke R Square is 0.576, indicating a moderate relationship of 57.6 % between the predictors and the prediction.

‘ If it is less than .05 then, we will reject the null hypothesis and accept the alternative hypothesis.

‘ In this case, we can see that bank loan, safety, flexibility and low commission have contributed signi’cantly to the prediction of regular participation in chit funds but other variables are not significant predictors of regular participation in chit funds.

‘ Since only bank loan has p=.000, therefore we can say that bank loan is the most significant predictor

among other significant predictors. This is followed by safety (p=.011), flexibility (p=.021) and low commission (p=.026).

‘ Here, the EXP (B) bank loan is 11.727. Hence when bank loan is availed by one unit (one person) the odds ratio is 11 times as large and therefore people are 11 more times likely not to regularly participate in chit funds.

‘ Here, the EXP (B) with safety is .928. Hence when safety is increased by one percent the odds ratio is .928 times as large and therefore people are .928 more times likely to regularly participate in chit funds.

‘ Here, the EXP (B) flexibility is 837. Hence when flexibility is increased by one percent the odds ratio is .928 times as large and therefore people are .837 more times likely to regularly participate in chit funds.

‘ Here, the EXP (B) low commission is .831. Hence when flexibility is increased by one percent the odds ratio is .928 times as large and therefore people are .831 more times likely to regularly participate in chit funds.

SUMMARY

Bank loan is the most significant predictor of regular participation in chit funds. This is followed by safety, flexibility and low commission.

Instalment no No of months remaining Monthly subscription Prize amount PV of monthly subscription(PV of outlow at 10%) PV of Prize amount(PV of inflow at 10%) Net Present Value(PV of inflow – PV of outflow)

1 24 2000 50000 2000 50000 10444.9

2 23 1500 35000 1488.1 34723.1 -4832.0

3 22 1500 35000 1476.4 34448.4 -5106.7

4 21 1500 35000 1464.7 34175.9 -5379.2

5 20 1500 35000 1453.1 33905.5 -5649.6

6 19 1500 35000 1441.6 33637.3 -5917.8

7 18 1500 35000 1430.2 33371.2 -6183.9

8 17 1500 35000 1418.9 33107.2 -6447.9

9 16 1620 38000 1520.3 35660.6 -3894.5

10 15 1620 38000 1508.2 35378.5 -4176.6

11 14 1700 40000 1570.2 36945.9 -2609.2

12 13 1700 40000 1557.8 36653.6 -2901.5

13 12 1780 42000 1618.2 38181.8 -1373.3

14 11 1780 42000 1605.4 37879.8 -1675.3

15 10 1780 42000 1592.7 37580.1 -1975.0

16 9 1860 44000 1651.1 39058.2 -496.9

17 8 1860 44000 1638.0 38749.2 -805.9

18 7 1860 44000 1625.1 38442.6 -1112.5

19 6 1940 46000 1681.6 39872.1 317.0

20 5 1940 46000 1668.3 39556.6 1.5

21 4 1940 46000 1655.1 39243.7 -311.4

22 3 1940 46000 1642.0 38933.2 -621.8

23 2 1940 46000 1629.0 38625.2 -929.8

24 1 1940 46000 1616.1 38319.7 -1235.4

25 0 1940 46000 1603.3 38016.5 -1538.6

39555.1 934465.9 -54411.4

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Merit goods persuasive essay help

Merit goods are goods which will be under-provided by the market, therefore they will be under-consumed. They are thought by the governments to be good for the populations and so the governments want them to be consumed to a great extent. They increase the private and social benefits and cause the social benefit be higher than the private one. The best examples of them, apart from all the public goods, can be the education, health care, sports facilities and the opera.

Although the majority of the merit goods is provided by the private sectors, not all the people can afford buying them, therefore they will be under-consumed. That is why the government is needed to destroy the market failure increasing the supply and consequently raising the consumption.

To explain the reasons for government to provide the merit goods, I need to apply some examples of them. The first one can be the education. It is significant for the governments to provide it so that the society would be well-educated. Governments determine the period of education required for people (the compulsory education) to maintain the proper level of education of the society. The governments find education an important aspect that should be available for everyone as it cause the whole country to have better both economic growth and economic development.

Considering another example such as health care, the situation is quite similar. The governments want to provide the population with it because they care about the high states of health of society in their country. To gain these, the countries need to have high quality of health care. Governments often offer people unpaid programs consisting of preventative medical examination which contribute to maintain the high number of healthy people. This is also connected with the problems of the labour market. The healthier people are, the more efficient their work is, the greater revenue firms have and countries are more developed because of taxations.

Other examples like sport facilities or the opera are meant for people to become physically and culturally developed but their availability is not as important as in the case of the previous examples. That is why they are not as much provided by the governments as the rest of the merit goods.

Although most of the merit goods provided by the governments are free, the fact is that they are paid through the taxes that the societies pay. The number of the merit goods of particular types that the governments provide or subsidize depends on the necessity of them. If they are provided, the societies’ benefits get higher and so is the public treasury of the countries.

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Research proposal: The effect of pregnancy on the adolescent pregnant teen & father extended essay help biology

Abstract: The purpose for this research paper is to address the adolescent pregnant teen & father and the effects a pregnancy has on both of their lives during and after her pregnancy. How the teens need the support of the family, community, church, and the school system. I will also address the teen father mostly disregarded in any aspect of the teen’s pregnancy and how this affects him, and how both teens need support in our society. How we can address the social problem of teen pregnancy from all avenues.

‘Three issues that have an impact on the pregnant adolescent are discussed education, identity development, and maternal support’ (Turnage & Pharris, 2013). My research focuses on adolescent pregnant teen women 19 years old and younger. It will also reflect the problems of the teen pregnant adolescents journeying thru the process of becoming a teen mother, finishing high school, developing her own identity and the maternal support she gets from her mother during her transition from pregnant teen to motherhood.

‘Several issues that differently influence the pregnant teen is individually based on the female’s chronological age’ (Turnage & Pharris, 2013). ‘For the pregnant adolescent, her pregnancy supersedes high school graduation as the benchmark for her being viewed as an adult’ (Turnage & Pharris, 2013). ‘Failure to graduate high school is associated with poor social and educational outcomes for teen mothers and their children’ (Turnage & Pharris, 2013).

‘While the pregnant adolescent is defining who she is as a person she experiences a transition to the new identity of mother’ (Turnage & Pharris, 2013). ‘During her pregnancy the adolescent’s mother is seen as the primary source of support that contributes to a positive self-image and can assist her in the adapting to the role of parent’ (Turnage & Pharris, 2013).

My research paper will also show how important it is to support the teen during and after pregnancy. It addresses the need for the teen mothers to finish high school, and find her identity. How important it is to have the support system of her mother and family to achieve all of these things. Without these support systems, the pregnant adolescent could end up in poverty, no social skills, homeless and a host of other social problems for her and her baby.

Addressed and examined is teen motherhood and its long-term mental and physical health of the teen mother’ (Patel & Sen, 2012). They used a (PCS) health survey known as SF-12 NLSY79 a study that compared two major comparisons groups of which only teens who experienced teen pregnancy and girls who did not experience teen pregnancy. On average the survey for teen mothers was on average 50.89.

The study to access the health outcome of ‘two major comparison groups, which consisted of women who were only experienced teen pregnancy & women who were having unprotected sexual relation as a teen but did not become pregnant ‘ (Patel & Sen, 2012). Estimated is that teen mothers are more likely to have poor health later in life in the study of all the comparison groups.

Along with support, they desperately need help taking care of an infant as a teen; they need a support system to take notice of how they are managing their health & well-being so that they can be a successful teen parent. In addition, being a teen parent can affect the mother’s mentally as the pressure of being new teen mom can be stressful.

The teen mothers who marry after they give birth to their children statistics state that 30 % of them will not remain in their marriages into their 40’s. This result comes from teen adolescents in a single parent home raising their child. This can put a strain on the teen adolescent because she will financially have to seek support from her family or enter into the welfare system and suffer mental health issues.

‘Adolescent teen mothers identify social support with, parenting and emotional support primary emanating from family members, particularly their own mothers, as well as from the father of the baby (Savio Beers & Lee, 2009)’. ‘Older sisters may play an important role in the support network for adolescent mothers, the supportive sister relationships decrease depressive and anxiety-related symptoms in adolescent mothers (Savio Beers & Lee, 2009).

‘For some adolescent parents, participation in a religious community programs may provide the significant social support and serve as a protective factor’ (Savio Beers & Lee, 2009). This directly stresses the point that without the support of family, community, and church with the support of the father the adolescent teen mother can suffer mental issues, poverty issues, and marriage problems.

We addressed the many issues that teen mothers have to face, so now I would like to address the teen father in our society. What are their concerns on becoming a teen father, and how do they view their role as father where their masculinity is concerned? While most of the research done on teen pregnancy and parenting mainly focusing on the mother, the father is invisible.

Interviewed were 26 young teen fathers in the mid-western American towns. The in depth survey of three themes of gender discord focused on teen father narratives, which took on responsibility, sex, being a man, this is the direct viewpoint of the invisible teen father. What they feel about getting a teen girl pregnant and what responsibility they take in the pregnancy if any. How they relate to getting a teen pregnant and how that affects his identity as a man and their masculinity.

‘Gendered assumptions regarding pregnancy and contraception’specifically that women are in charge of preventing pregnancy and they have the belief that male sexuality is uncontrollable; and that use of love and intimacy talk (Weber, J. B., 2013). The teen fathers that took the questionnaire did not blame themselves for getting the teen girl pregnant. They see the teen’s pregnancy as her problem.

Studies suggest that teen fathers are more likely to be of a minority race. He has a mother who had a baby as a teen; his parents have a minimal education. His parents do not have high expectations of him finishing school; all of these factors result in the likelihood that makes him a candidate to becoming a teenage father. ‘The research states that the teen fathers go to school fewer years less than non-teenage fathers (Fletcher & Wolfe, 2011).

‘Evidence shows that men who have children before marriage leave school earlier and have worse labor markets outcomes’ (Fletcher & Wolfe, 2011). ‘Data was used only on young men who reported a pregnancy as an adolescent’ (Fletcher & Wolfe, 2011). It affects his completion of high school.

It also affects his ability to take care of the teen mother & baby, which causes him to drop out of school early. Statistically, ‘teen fathers work more hours and earn more money following the birth of a child then his non-parent counterparts’ (Fletcher & Wolfe, 2011). Teen fatherhood results in the teen father getting married early or co-habitation with the teen mother.

In conclusion, teen pregnancy is a social problem in the United States both teens will have to suffer in their education, grow up before their time, take on adult responsibilities, and suffer financial problems to take care of the child. Which ultimately falls on the parents of the teens, society or the welfare system in which the teen mother becomes a social statistic or shall I say a number.

Teen pregnancy as of 2014 have been on the decline in the United States and increased in other states, however a positive support system for both teens is minimal at best. Socially as communities, churches and government we have to take an active role in education of abstaining from sex, talking to the teens about sex, and protecting themselves against pregnancy.

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Reconnaissance attacks in IPv6 networks cheap mba definition essay help

2.1.1 Reconnaissance attacks in IPv6 networks

The 1st larger attack in IPv6 is usually a reconnaissance attack. An attacker try reconnaissance attacks to get some confidential information about the victim network that can be misused by the attacker in further attacks. For this he uses active methods, such as scanning techniques or data mining strategies. To start, an intruder begins to ping the victim network to determine the IP addresses currently used in the victim network. After getting some of the accessible system, he starts to scan the port to find out any open port in the desired system. The size of subnet is bigger than that of the in IPv4 networks. To perform a scan for the whole subnet an attacker should make 264 probes and that???s impossible. With this fact, IPv6 networks are much more resistant to reconnaissance attacks than IPv4 networks. Unfortunately, there are some addresses which are multicast address in IPv6 networks that help an intruder to identify and attack some resources in the target network.

2.1.2 Security threats related to IPv6 routing headers

As per IPv6 protocol specification, all of the IPv6 nodes must be able to process routing headers. In fact, routing headers can be used to avoid access controls based on destination addresses. Such action can cause security effects. It may be happen that an attacker sends a packet to a publicly accessible address with a routing header containing a ???forbidden??? address on the victim network. In such matter the publicly accessible host will forward the packet to the destination address stated in the routing header even though that destination is already filtered before as a forbidden address. By spoofing packet source addresses an intruder can easily perform denial of service attack with use of any publicly accessible host for redirecting attack packets.

2.1.3 Fragmentation related security threats

As per IPv6 protocol specification, packet fragmentation by the intermediate nodes is not permitted. Since in IPv6 network based on ICMPv6 messages, the usage of the path MTU discovery method is a duty, packet fragmentation is only allowed at the source node.1280 octets is the minimal size of the MTU for IPv6 network. The packets with size less than 1280 octets to be discarded unless it???s the last packet in the flow as per security reasons. With use of fragmentation, an attacker can get that port numbers not found in the first fragment and thus they bypass security monitoring devices expecting to find transport layer protocol data in the very first fragment. An attacker will send a huge amount of small fragments and create an overload of reconstruction buffers on the victim system which resulted to the system crash. To prevent system from such attacks it???s necessary to bound the total number of fragments and their permissible arrival rate.

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WMBA 6000-13 Topic: Course Evaluation college essay help service

WMBA 6000-13

Topic: Course Evaluation

Date: March 2, 2014

Based on the assigned readings for this course (Dynamic Leadership), I have read an enormous amount of information about the different categories of leaders and leadership styles. Today’s leaders are different from the leaders of twenty to fifty years ago. In the past leaders gave commands and they controlled the actions of others. Today leaders are willing to involve others in their decision making and they are more open to new possibilities.

A good leader has a vision for their organization and they know how to align and engage employees in order to promote collaboration. The successful leader knows how to lead by using superior values, principles and goals that fit the organization’s values, principles and goals. Also these leaders know that leadership is not made from authority, it’s made from trust and followership. Coleman, J., Gulati, & Segovia, W.O. (2012)

I am impressed most by the characteristics of the authentic leader because they know how to develop themselves; they use formal and informal support networks to get honest feedback in order to drive long-term results. Authentic leaders build support teams to help them stay on course and counsel them in times of uncertainty. George, B., Sims, P., Mclean, A.N. & Mayer D. (2007)

In addition, I found the Leadership Code to be important because it provides structure and guidance and helps one to be a better leader by not emphasizing one element of leadership over another. Some focus on the importance of vision for the future; others on executing in the present; others on personal charisma and character; others on engaging people’; and others on building long-term organization. The code represents about 60 to 70 percent of what makes an effective leader. Ulrich, D., Smallwood, N., Sweetman, K. (2008)

The information that I acquired from this course will help me to pursue the goal of owning a beauty supply business. Another goal that I can add to my action plan is to include not only wigs and welted hair, but I will add hair, skin and nail products to my inventory. A future goal will be to add handbags and accessories as well.

After completing my short-term goal of finishing my MBA, I can take the knowledge from this course along with my values, ethics and principles to help me to manage employees and operate a successful business. Annie Smith (March 2, 20

Coleman, J. G. (2012). Educating young leaders. Passion and Purpose , 197-202.

George, B. S. (2007). Discovering your authentic leadership. Harvard Business Review , 129-138.

Lyons, R. (2012). Dean of Haas of School of Business University of California, Berkely. It’s made from followership. (J. G. Cole, Interviewer) Coleman, J., Gulati, D., & Segovia, W.O.

Ulrich, D. S. (2008). Five rules of leadership. In The leadership code five rules to lead by. Defining Leadership Code , 1-24.

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Family presence during CPR (cardiopulmonary resuscitation) “essay help” site:edu

In a pre-hospital setting, there are few moments that are as intense as the events that take place when trying to save a life. Family presence during these resuscitation efforts has become an important and controversial issue in health care settings. Family presence during cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) is a relatively new issue in healthcare. Before the advent of modern medicine, family members were often present at the deathbed of their loved ones. A dying person’s last moments were most often controlled by his or her family in the home rather than by medical personnel (Trueman, History of Medicine). Today, families are demanding permission to witness resuscitation events. Members of the emergency medical services are split on this issue, noting benefits but also potentially negative consequences to family presence during resuscitation efforts.

A new study has found that family members who observed resuscitation efforts were significantly less likely to experience symptoms of post-traumatic stress, anxiety and depression than family members that did not. The results, published in an online article in The New England Journal of Medicine, entitled ‘Family Presence during Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation,’ were the same regardless of the survival of the patient. The study involved 570 people in France whose family members were treated by emergency medical personnel at home. These EMS teams were unique in that they were comprised of a physician, a nurse trained in emergency medicine, and two emergency medical technicians. The study found that the presence of relatives did not affect the results of CPR, nor did it increase the stress levels of the emergency medical teams. Having family present also did not result in any legal claims after the incidents occured. While the unique limitations of the study warrant consideration, the results show a definite benefit in having families stay during CPR (Jabre Family Presence).

Historically, although parents of children have been allowed to be present for various reasons, relatives of adult patients have not. As medical practices change to increasingly involve family in the care of patients, growing numbers of emergency medical practitioners say that giving relatives the option of watching CPR can be a good idea. Several national organizations, including The American Heart Association, have revised their policies to call for giving family members the option of being present during CPR (AHA Guidelines for CPR). Witnessing CPR, say some emergency medical experts and family members, can take the mystery out of what could be a potentially terrifying experience. It can provide reassurance to family members that everything is being done to save their loved ones. It also can offer closure for relatives wanting to be with their family members until the last minute (Kirkland Lasting Benefit). Another benefit is that it shows people why reviving someone in cardiac arrest is much less likely than people assume from watching it being done on television (Ledermann Family Presence During). Family members who can truly understand what it means to ‘do everything possible’ can go on to make more informed decisions about end-of-life care for themselves or their families.

There are three perspectives on this issue- that of the emergency medical personnel providing care, the family, and the patients. The resistance on the part of the medical community to family presence during CPR stems from several different concerns. The most common concern among these is that family members, when faced with overwhelming fear, stress and grief, could disrupt or delay active CPR. Another concern raised by emergency medical personnel is that the realities of CPR may simply be too traumatic for loved ones, causing them to suffer more than they potentially would have if they had never witnessed the event. Some families share this view, citing the potential for extreme distress as a main reason for not wanting to witness resuscitation (Grice Study examining attitudes). Many emergency medical personnel also fear an increased risk of liability and litigation with family members present in the room (Fullbrook the Presence of Family). The worry is that errors can occur, inappropriate comments may be made, and the actions of the personnel involved may be misinterpreted. In an already tense situation, the awareness of the family could increase the anxiety of the personnel and create a greater potential for mistakes.

Another complication that arises from having families present during resuscitation attempts is that of patient confidentiality. The patient’s right to privacy should not be circumvented with implied consent. There is always the possibility that medical information previously unknown to the family may be revealed in the chaos of resuscitation. In addition, patient dignity, whether physical or otherwise, may become compromised (Fullbrook the Presence of Family). Beyond moral considerations, legal concerns regarding revealing patient information are real. This could become an even larger issue if there is no one available to screen witnesses, which could result in unrelated people gaining access to personal information. Eventually, a breach in confidentiality can lead to a breach in the confidence that the public has gained in pre-hospital emergency care.

Family presence during CPR in a pre-hospital setting remains a highly debatable topic. This could be largely due to the fact that the needs of the emergency medical providers and the rights of the patients can be at odds with the wishes of the family members. Although there are several possible reasons why family presence is not being welcomed into daily practice, one of the major reasons could be the lack of formal written policies that define the roles of families and providers placed into this situation. Bringing family members into a situation where CPR is being performed on a loved one should not happen haphazardly. It should happen with careful concern and support for everyone involved. Policies and protocols, defined by experienced personnel, can provide legal and emotional support. They can also potentially help ease anxiety by defining expectations and placing responsibility in the hands of people who are experienced enough to know how to handle the situation appropriately. The policies and protocols should address the basic needs of all people involved. Five basic needs should be addressed:

1. The number of people allowed to be present

2. Which relatives should be allowed to be present (age, relationship, etc.)

3. The role of the family members present and what is expected of them.

4. The place where the family should remain during the duration of CPR.

5. The formal wishes of the patient- written as a directive like a living will.

An important component of this is available, trained staff that can prepare the family members for what they will witness, support them through the event, and then direct them after the event’s conclusion.

The American Heart Association states that the goals of cardiopulmonary resuscitation are, ‘to preserve life, restore health, relieve suffering, limit disability, and respect the individual’s decisions rights and privacy’ (AHA Guidelines for CPR). The practice of offering family members the opportunity to be present during CPR is a controversial ethical issue in emergency medical services. While the results of the study published on this topic in The New England Journal of Medicine clearly show no negative side effects from having families present during resuscitation attempts, the limitations of the study lend to the need for more research before it could be universally accepted.

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Respondeat Superior essay help writing

Legal claims that derive from a situation where there are claims of negligence can sometimes involve an entity other than the neglectful parties. In certain circumstances employers are fully responsible for their employees, and the tasks they perform during working hours. During the course of this paper, the doctrine of respondeat superior will be defined and explained. Two case studies in which the doctrine was applied will also be analyzed to determine if it was applied correctly.

Respondeat superior is a legal theory that holds employers responsible for any negligent or harmful act performed by an employee during the commission of their employment duties (Thornton, 2010). The Maryland Supreme Court in 1951 was the first court to utilize respondeat superior in a court case involving a question of employer liability (Burns, 2011). This doctrine is important as it holds employers liable in court cases where one of its employees does harm to an individual. Vicarious liability and indirect liability are two base concepts that make-up respondeat superior (Thornton, 2010). Respondeat superior shows that the employer did not have to be responsible for the employee???s negligent behavior, in the form of improper training or instruction to perform harmful acts, in order for the employer to be held legally responsible.

In the case of Valle v. City of Houston, the police force was sued for excessive force and an illegal search in an attempt to remove an individual from his parent???s home (Nicholl & Kelly, 2012). The situation stemmed from a man, Omar Esparza, barricading himself in his parent???s home and refusing to come out (p. 285). After a long police standoff, the SWAT team was ordered to forcefully enter the home and remove Mr. Esparza (p. 285). The SWAT team utilized taser gun and bean bag ammunition in an attempt to subdue Mr. Esparza after they felt he posed a physical threat by wielding a hammer, but as those attempts failed the suspect was fatally wounded when an officer fired his weapon (p. 286). Shortly after the incident the mother was allowed into the home, and she reported no visible evidence that her son was possession of a hammer (p. 286). The court found that the city was not liable for damages under the theory of respondeat superior, because the order to remove the individual from the home was not made by an individual deemed as a decision-maker by the city (p. 286).

From the outside, this case seems to fit the theory of respondeat superior. As the employer, the city should be held responsible for the actions of its employees. The police, serving as the city???s employees acted in a manner that was unnecessary for the situation and in conflict of their training (p. 286). However, the court sided with the City of Houston because the chain of command was not followed in regards to the use of force (p. 286). The end result is a case where an individual made a decision that was not his to make; that ultimately cost a man his life.

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Psychological Egoism And Ethical Egoism Essay Help Us

I have always looked at myself as an unselfish person with a good sense of empathy towards my friends and other people. I have always thought about egoism as something solely negative. That was before I knew the true meaning and concept of the word. Now I am no longer so sure; is it possible to be an absolute altruist? Is it possible to keep going on an absolute altruistic line of life without any egoistic subsidiary interference?

Psychological egoism is a human beings factual motivation in life. Psychological egoism builds around that our intended actions are always controlled by our own interests, wishes and motives. We are motivated by a wish to accomplish a sort of self-fulfillment, meaning that our actions in all aspects of our lives (from buying a sandwich because we are hungry, to studying for an exam to get a good grade) are all done because it is for our own beneficial interests, wishes and motives.

The definition for ethical egoism is basically ‘how we ought to act’. Ethical egoism builds itself around the idea that the best way to promote collective reimbursement, is to follow self-interests. By always striving for our own personal self-fulfillment a person will better be able to promote what is in the best interest of the community, more so than always striving to promote the community’s interests. A person is able to hold a sociable role that supports the general public by taking care of his or her own well-being and self-interest first.

The relationship between psychological egoism and ethical egoism is very clear. Since ethical egoism states that the best way to promote the welfare of others is by promoting your own self-interest, they kind of go hand in hand. But they are different since psychological egoism focus only on self-fulfillment and self-interest. The term ego means self. A body without an ego is just empty, without a soul. To deny one’s own ego is to deny one’s own mental existence, which is naturally not good for one’s mental health. To have a good mental health involves being an integrated and harmonized human being. This anticipates that you are an egoist. Without good mental health and personal harmony one does not make the right choices for either yourself or the welfare of other people around you.

The word altruism was first used by the French philosopher, Auguste Comte. Every human beings moral purpose is to serve others well-being on the expense of your own values. Altruism considers personal interest as something negative. Self-interest is per definition unmoral. It seems like being an altruist is to go against one’s self and breaking the connection between actions and beliefs, interests, and moral thoughts. It seems that in the altruistic model one constantly is trying to please other people and letting other’s needs and interests control their own actions. By always doing this there will be a constant split between one’s actions and one’s ego, making it very hard to be a harmonized human being. Being raised in an altruistic way seems to like living in a constant conflict with one’s self. By living a life of constant conflict with one’s self, there must be a big chance of developing poor self-confidence and irrational guilt.

Guilt is something you experience when something is in conflict with your own moral belief. Rational guilt is to feel guilt when one actually harms others. That type of guilt is good, because it aids learning to show consideration when it comes to others and their feelings. But irrational guilt, feeling guilty when you have not done anything wrong, is never positive. By reflecting about altruism, the feeling that altruism can create guilt in times when one does not do what other people want becomes apparent. That could make it very hard to say no, which lead to situations of victimization and being taken advantage of. In many situations in life, it is important to have a self-defense to protect one ‘s self and interests. The concept of a self-defense will always be egoistic, and involves the sub consciousness sense what is right or wrong. If a person believes that it’s wrong to think about themselves and feel guilty to do acts that are in their own interests, it gets very hard to make the right decisions. It makes you self-destructive to feel irrational guilt all the time. One has no emotional support for your own actions. To have personal opinions, it’s necessary to have sub-conscious support. The sub-consciousness needs to work for the personal best interest, because if the sub-consciousness gives priority to other’s beliefs, it will increase one’s sensitivity to criticism. To be sensitive to criticism is the same as being sensitive to other people’s thoughts.

It might seem logical that collectivism and altruism are important values to collaborate socially. This is completely wrong. Social competence is a quality of the individual. To work socially is to work as an individual in relation to other people, and to work as an individual one needs to be an egoist. It is not possible to become social by denying one’s ego. Altruistic behavior makes it easier for other people to manipulate feelings and actions. Confidence anticipates that one can trust their own sub-consciousness. Insecurity is driven by a lack of support from the sub-conscious. An altruistic belief leads to being very influenced by other people’s beliefs, and becoming insecure in social situations. It is also hard to work socially, if one is sensitive to criticism, and feel irrational guilt. Altruism makes one a target of outside control, which makes a self-controlled life problematic.

In conclusion, there is little to no room for altruism where egoism dominates. Altruists get motivated by what other people believe is best, and it seems like they need to be part of a collective were they can agree with others and feel safe. By having this as a priority the world would not develop without egoism, because to gain full potential one needs a sense of inner motivation to reveal their talents and gain a knowledge of who they really are and of what they as a single person can become capable.

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Family presence during CPR (cardiopulmonary resuscitation) college essay help service

In a pre-hospital setting, there are few moments that are as intense as the events that take place when trying to save a life. Family presence during these resuscitation efforts has become an important and controversial issue in health care settings. Family presence during cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) is a relatively new issue in healthcare. Before the advent of modern medicine, family members were often present at the deathbed of their loved ones. A dying person’s last moments were most often controlled by his or her family in the home rather than by medical personnel (Trueman, History of Medicine). Today, families are demanding permission to witness resuscitation events. Members of the emergency medical services are split on this issue, noting benefits but also potentially negative consequences to family presence during resuscitation efforts.

A new study has found that family members who observed resuscitation efforts were significantly less likely to experience symptoms of post-traumatic stress, anxiety and depression than family members that did not. The results, published in an online article in The New England Journal of Medicine, entitled ‘Family Presence during Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation,’ were the same regardless of the survival of the patient. The study involved 570 people in France whose family members were treated by emergency medical personnel at home. These EMS teams were unique in that they were comprised of a physician, a nurse trained in emergency medicine, and two emergency medical technicians. The study found that the presence of relatives did not affect the results of CPR, nor did it increase the stress levels of the emergency medical teams. Having family present also did not result in any legal claims after the incidents occured. While the unique limitations of the study warrant consideration, the results show a definite benefit in having families stay during CPR (Jabre Family Presence).

Historically, although parents of children have been allowed to be present for various reasons, relatives of adult patients have not. As medical practices change to increasingly involve family in the care of patients, growing numbers of emergency medical practitioners say that giving relatives the option of watching CPR can be a good idea. Several national organizations, including The American Heart Association, have revised their policies to call for giving family members the option of being present during CPR (AHA Guidelines for CPR). Witnessing CPR, say some emergency medical experts and family members, can take the mystery out of what could be a potentially terrifying experience. It can provide reassurance to family members that everything is being done to save their loved ones. It also can offer closure for relatives wanting to be with their family members until the last minute (Kirkland Lasting Benefit). Another benefit is that it shows people why reviving someone in cardiac arrest is much less likely than people assume from watching it being done on television (Ledermann Family Presence During). Family members who can truly understand what it means to ‘do everything possible’ can go on to make more informed decisions about end-of-life care for themselves or their families.

There are three perspectives on this issue- that of the emergency medical personnel providing care, the family, and the patients. The resistance on the part of the medical community to family presence during CPR stems from several different concerns. The most common concern among these is that family members, when faced with overwhelming fear, stress and grief, could disrupt or delay active CPR. Another concern raised by emergency medical personnel is that the realities of CPR may simply be too traumatic for loved ones, causing them to suffer more than they potentially would have if they had never witnessed the event. Some families share this view, citing the potential for extreme distress as a main reason for not wanting to witness resuscitation (Grice Study examining attitudes). Many emergency medical personnel also fear an increased risk of liability and litigation with family members present in the room (Fullbrook the Presence of Family). The worry is that errors can occur, inappropriate comments may be made, and the actions of the personnel involved may be misinterpreted. In an already tense situation, the awareness of the family could increase the anxiety of the personnel and create a greater potential for mistakes.

Another complication that arises from having families present during resuscitation attempts is that of patient confidentiality. The patient’s right to privacy should not be circumvented with implied consent. There is always the possibility that medical information previously unknown to the family may be revealed in the chaos of resuscitation. In addition, patient dignity, whether physical or otherwise, may become compromised (Fullbrook the Presence of Family). Beyond moral considerations, legal concerns regarding revealing patient information are real. This could become an even larger issue if there is no one available to screen witnesses, which could result in unrelated people gaining access to personal information. Eventually, a breach in confidentiality can lead to a breach in the confidence that the public has gained in pre-hospital emergency care.

Family presence during CPR in a pre-hospital setting remains a highly debatable topic. This could be largely due to the fact that the needs of the emergency medical providers and the rights of the patients can be at odds with the wishes of the family members. Although there are several possible reasons why family presence is not being welcomed into daily practice, one of the major reasons could be the lack of formal written policies that define the roles of families and providers placed into this situation. Bringing family members into a situation where CPR is being performed on a loved one should not happen haphazardly. It should happen with careful concern and support for everyone involved. Policies and protocols, defined by experienced personnel, can provide legal and emotional support. They can also potentially help ease anxiety by defining expectations and placing responsibility in the hands of people who are experienced enough to know how to handle the situation appropriately. The policies and protocols should address the basic needs of all people involved. Five basic needs should be addressed:

1. The number of people allowed to be present

2. Which relatives should be allowed to be present (age, relationship, etc.)

3. The role of the family members present and what is expected of them.

4. The place where the family should remain during the duration of CPR.

5. The formal wishes of the patient- written as a directive like a living will.

An important component of this is available, trained staff that can prepare the family members for what they will witness, support them through the event, and then direct them after the event’s conclusion.

The American Heart Association states that the goals of cardiopulmonary resuscitation are, ‘to preserve life, restore health, relieve suffering, limit disability, and respect the individual’s decisions rights and privacy’ (AHA Guidelines for CPR). The practice of offering family members the opportunity to be present during CPR is a controversial ethical issue in emergency medical services. While the results of the study published on this topic in The New England Journal of Medicine clearly show no negative side effects from having families present during resuscitation attempts, the limitations of the study lend to the need for more research before it could be universally accepted.

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Respondeat Superior write my essay help

Legal claims that derive from a situation where there are claims of negligence can sometimes involve an entity other than the neglectful parties. In certain circumstances employers are fully responsible for their employees, and the tasks they perform during working hours. During the course of this paper, the doctrine of respondeat superior will be defined and explained. Two case studies in which the doctrine was applied will also be analyzed to determine if it was applied correctly.

Respondeat superior is a legal theory that holds employers responsible for any negligent or harmful act performed by an employee during the commission of their employment duties (Thornton, 2010). The Maryland Supreme Court in 1951 was the first court to utilize respondeat superior in a court case involving a question of employer liability (Burns, 2011). This doctrine is important as it holds employers liable in court cases where one of its employees does harm to an individual. Vicarious liability and indirect liability are two base concepts that make-up respondeat superior (Thornton, 2010). Respondeat superior shows that the employer did not have to be responsible for the employee???s negligent behavior, in the form of improper training or instruction to perform harmful acts, in order for the employer to be held legally responsible.

In the case of Valle v. City of Houston, the police force was sued for excessive force and an illegal search in an attempt to remove an individual from his parent???s home (Nicholl & Kelly, 2012). The situation stemmed from a man, Omar Esparza, barricading himself in his parent???s home and refusing to come out (p. 285). After a long police standoff, the SWAT team was ordered to forcefully enter the home and remove Mr. Esparza (p. 285). The SWAT team utilized taser gun and bean bag ammunition in an attempt to subdue Mr. Esparza after they felt he posed a physical threat by wielding a hammer, but as those attempts failed the suspect was fatally wounded when an officer fired his weapon (p. 286). Shortly after the incident the mother was allowed into the home, and she reported no visible evidence that her son was possession of a hammer (p. 286). The court found that the city was not liable for damages under the theory of respondeat superior, because the order to remove the individual from the home was not made by an individual deemed as a decision-maker by the city (p. 286).

From the outside, this case seems to fit the theory of respondeat superior. As the employer, the city should be held responsible for the actions of its employees. The police, serving as the city???s employees acted in a manner that was unnecessary for the situation and in conflict of their training (p. 286). However, the court sided with the City of Houston because the chain of command was not followed in regards to the use of force (p. 286). The end result is a case where an individual made a decision that was not his to make; that ultimately cost a man his life.

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