Organizational Theory Assessment Gp Essay Help

Table of Contents
Context of the Company's Organizational Structure Recommendations for Theory of Organization Power Assessment Conclusion References

The business segment's competitive market of today offers customers a selection of items and potentially favorable propositions. However, for the unit to achieve a profitable position in the field, it is of the utmost necessity to build correct organizational structure patterns. Various scholars have defined a series of organizational structures that businesses might use to implement a quality policy in order to simplify the subsequent duties. Researchers define organizational structure as "the framework of the interrelationships between jobs, systems, operating procedures, people, and groups striving to achieve objectives" (Ahmady et al., 2016, p. 455). Consequently, the organizational structure represents the methods by which a company unit might split duties in order to achieve its goals.

For a more comprehensive understanding of the aforementioned concept, it may be useful to examine organizational structure patterns in order to identify its fundamental work patterns. Additionally, one could argue that it would be advantageous to concentrate on the structural peculiarities of a large firm and its extensive organizational features. Therefore, the purpose of this research is to undertake an extensive investigation of the Procter & Gamble (P&G) Company's organizational structure.

History of the Institution

People from all over the world frequently do not pay attention to the brands and categories of products they use daily. Tide, Gillette, Always, and Head & Shoulders, for instance, are household names and self-care products that virtually everyone in the world is familiar with. However, only a small number of people consider the global context, which connects all of these concepts into a massive multinational organization, Procter & Gamble Company. In terms of its total product typology, P&G operates in six primary categories: beauty, grooming, health care, fabric & home care, and feminine & family care (Procter & Gamble Co., 2020). Therefore, the company serves clients from across the globe with branded products pertaining to the aforementioned market category.

P&G Co., with headquarters in Cincinnati, Ohio, and subsidiaries throughout Africa, the Americas, Asia & the Pacific, and Europe, claims to be one of the most well-known consumer goods firms in the world. Since its founding on October 31, 1837, P&G Company has held a strong competitive advantage in the market for more than 180 years (P&G, 2020). During this time, not only has the company significantly improved the quality of its product, but it has also launched a number of environmentally and socially conscious projects. This advancement would not have been possible without the hard effort of the staff. P&G recruits a variety of executives that are accountable for all global segments. The primary management jobs are then subdivided into human resources, accounting, and sales, each of which plays a vital role in the communication between the top management and all employees. The total number of staff workers is 97,000 individuals.

Organizational Structure

To determine the organizational structure type of a particular business, it is necessary to examine the theoretical foundations of the issue. Initially, the concept of an organizational structure can be evaluated from a variety of angles. Theorists claim that the major categories for structures are physical and social interactions (Ahmady et al., 2016). In contrast to the former, which are concerned with the connections between units such as subsidiaries and the overall geographic location, the latter are concerned with the interpersonal interactions between individuals. When determining the working organization, these components should ideally reach a consensus in terms of collaboration. For instance, organizational relationships can be viewed via the lenses of hierarchy, function, and inclusion (Ahmady et al., 2016). These are associated with the order in which units are arranged inside an organization, taking into account the measurable consequence of the structure and the extent of direct communication between the top management and other personnel. Particularly, the aspects of organizational structures pertain to how managers should oversee the unit, the roles of employees within the hierarchy, and the processes that generate managerial patterns inside the group.

Regarding organizational structure types, the concepts of social structures and social forms are taken into account. The classifications of social structures are simple, functional, multidivisional, matrix, hybrid, network, and bureaucracy (Ahmady et al., 2016). Given the size of the P&G organization, it goes without saying that basic structures cannot support the business, necessitating a complex strategy. The social structure most likely to meet the expectations of the company is the matrix, which requires the integration of functional and multidimensional work frames in order to split the responsibility among the units. It has already been stated that the corporation's leaders utilize a complex hierarchy structure to manage each subsidiary.

Instead of connecting directly with upper management, each local executive in a matrix system conducts functional structure within the unit and then reports the results. (Lukinait & Sontait, 2017) Hall classifies matrix organizational structure as having many managerial authorities that can work with one another, thereby leaving the responsibility to the functional managers of each enterprise's department. With this description in mind, it is easy to summarize the primary benefits and drawbacks of the matrix organizational structure in the context of a large business.

Consequently, the advantages of this system include:

Flexibility. By delegating a great deal of authority to the local administration in the company's subsidiaries, it becomes simpler for them to implement innovations and address problems without consulting with the administration. However, such autonomy is achievable unless it involves taking extreme actions; Absence of red tape. When dealing with the management of a major organization, the hierarchy typically consists of multiple layers. When implementing adjustments to the existing system, such a position ladder becomes particularly apparent. In order for the proposed intervention to be successful, management must wait a lengthy period for the project to complete all stages. Nonetheless, once the matrix system is implemented, some of the modifications may be added to the subsidiary; Teamwork mentality. One of the primary objectives of management inside a business is to ensure effective team communication in order to boost overall productivity. However, when working with a company as huge as P&G, it is nearly impossible to maintain a family-like atmosphere. Consequently, a big number of employees are divided into smaller groups that could potentially bond with the assistance of the supervisor (Gleeson, 2019); Efficient HR utilization. It is difficult to conceive of a fair and advantageous workload distribution for a multinational firm with about one hundred thousand employees. However, the smaller the team, the easier it is for management to monitor both the team's overall and individual production. Consequently, subsidiaries handle their personnel in a manner that maximizes the company's profit and growth with the aid of a thorough analysis of human resources throughout the working process; New viewpoints. While the organization is led by a single functional management team, there are few opportunities to increase productivity. In terms of gender, age, socioeconomic status, and geographic location, however, P&G's target consumer is extremely diverse. With local leaders in many locations, there is a strong possibility that new ideas and strategies will emerge (Gleeson, 2019).

Once the potential good effects of adopting a matrix organizational structure are pretty evident, it is crucial to define some of the major structural shortcomings to function based on factual comparisons. Thus, the disadvantages consist of:

Potential for disagreements Despite the fact that matrix structure entails a high degree of autonomy for local governments, a few of the challenges have a common aspect. In such situations, the greater the number of functional managers inside an organization, the greater the likelihood of a conflict of interest between the units. Moreover, in the event of a conflict, employees are placed in the middle without the ability to support any option (Gleeson, 2019); Unhealthy competition. In a matrix structure, functional and general managers are expected to have an equal impact on the enterprise’s operations. Despite the fact that functional managers can regularly witness the process, they believe they have more decision-making authority. As a result of their lack of direct involvement in the manufacturing process, general managers, on the other hand, view themselves as being extremely important. Despite the fact that in such situations, managers are expected to establish a consensus for the sake of the company, these talks frequently end in implicit competition that damages both employees and the enterprise in general; increased complexity. It was said in the description of the system's benefits that the matrix's opposition to bureaucracy facilitates the introduction of fresh approaches to the system. Nonetheless, a range of managers could also contribute to the overall sophistication of the communication. On the example of P&G, one may see that each subsidiary employs functional and general managers who report to the company's executives. With such a system, employees may encounter challenges when reporting productivity.

Consequently, it was proven in the discussion that, despite the fact that a matrix organizational structure may have a number of disadvantages, the productivity benefits are far more prominent. To preserve this result, however, functional and general managers, as well as the corporation's executives, must recognize the extent of their duty in terms of consumer and employee satisfaction.

The Organizational Theory

Behind all of the current organizational structures are theories of organizations that inspired these methods. The course covered contemporary, classical, and neoclassical theories. The classical theory of organization posits that an organization is comprised of four basic components: activities system, people, cooperation, and authority. Regarding the examined company's history, one may deduce that the classical approach to organizational structure is important to P&G's management principles.

In addition, the theory's primary objective is a rationalized system of responsibility differentiation, which is evident when examining P&G structure (nday, 2016). However, while the purpose of this theory is to provide the basis of an organizational structure, it goes without saying that the majority of principles are strengthened and modified in the present day. In this manner, the business is able to meet both the needs of its clients and the expectations of its staff. Consequently, some of the key concepts of contemporary organizational theory are also included into the P&G labor culture. For instance, the organization promises to focus more on the individuals than the responsibilities they play on a team. In addition, the concept of a team is adjusted to ensure that the personnel is divided into groups small enough to ensure an efficient and productive atmosphere.

Power Assessment

P&G, as one of the segment's most influential firms, possesses a sophisticated corporate structure and patterns of power distribution throughout the organization. From the perspectives of business units and board structure, the whole structure can be evaluated. P&G is often organized into six business units, each specializing in a separate segment of production. Each of the business units has its own sphere-specific executive leadership. The latter classification, however, is concerned with protecting the company's beliefs and principles. Thus, governance is carried out by twelve board chairs, each of whom is accountable for a specific area (P&G, 2020). In accordance with geographical dispersion, the firm is also run by the local management.

Recommendations

The degree of responsibility required to manage a large organization is frequently incompatible with human capabilities. In order to effectively assign this responsibility among employees, functional management, and general management, a matrix organizational structure was developed for this goal. However, there are disadvantages that must be addressed in order to boost production. The initial suggestion relates to further organizational customization. Indeed, a shared objective for the team is one of the most important success pillars when it comes to motivating personnel. The global spread of P&G necessitates a unique strategy that takes into account the characteristics of culture and place. Increasing the general level of intervention in the company's working process is an additional recommendation of significance. With a broad authority model, personnel and administration are primarily focused on the processes occurring within their unit without regard for the big picture. Therefore, it would be highly advantageous to implement intervention visits between the business units in order to build stronger patterns of cooperation in the future.

Conclusion

The organizational structure has become one of the most important components of any business, since it defines the communication and work patterns within the organization. As a result, the Procter & Gamble Company was evaluated in terms of the following article in order to discuss the uniqueness of such organizational systems. During the conversation, the organizational structure of the business, as well as its good and negative characteristics, were defined. In addition, the theoretical foundation of the structure was investigated in order to develop suggestions for productivity increase. Future ramifications of this study may include evaluating the firm using a different approach to organizational patterns in order to undertake a comprehensive comparative examination of the structures.

References

A. Ahmady, M. Mehrpour, and A. Nikooravesh (2016). Organizational structure. 230, 455-462. Procedia-Social and Behavioral Sciences.

Gleeson, P. (2019). In corporate organizations, advantages and downsides of matrix organizational systems.

Lukinaitė, E., & Sondaitė, J. (2017). The mentality of employees working in a matrix organization. 18(144-151) Business: Theory and Practice.

Őnday, Ő. (2016). Classical organization theory: from Socrates' general management through Weber's bureaucracy. 4(1), 87-105, International Journal of Business and Management Review.

P&G. (2020). P&G background. Web.

The Procter & Gamble Company (2020).

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Information Systems Improving Business Efficiency Gp Essay Help

Introduction

Information has emerged as a crucial agent of integration of corporate activities and as a catalyst for boosting the competitiveness of contemporary business enterprises on both the local and international markets. However, it remains to be determined whether the shifts in strategic planning methodologies actually support the new function and engagement of the information system and technology in enhancing the organization's efficiency. This is highly dependent on the size and type of the company, as well as the volume of data that the information systems may generate. A thorough integration of planning activities with the development and management of the organization through enterprise information resources that are capable of gathering information and data and characterizing the company would help the decrease of the information system's reaction cycle. Such integration may also permit an economic evaluation of the investment in the information system in order to measure the information systems' actual advantages. For quite some time, the senior management of corporations was unable to grasp the connection between the usefulness of information systems and the plans developed for corporate growth. They believed that information systems were synonymous with corporate-level data processing duties and viewed information systems as back-office assistance for everyday tasks. (Rockart, 1979) However, there has been a growing awareness of the necessity to evolve and embrace appropriate information systems as one of the strategic strategies for the organization's overall improvement. Consequently,'strategic information system planning' has come to be seen as a crucial aspect of the operation of any significant commercial institution. In a number of polls on information system strategies, enhancing the strategic planning of the information system has been identified as the greatest obstacle facing Information system administrators (Pavri and Ang, 1995, Beath and Orlikowski, 1994; Porter and Miller, 1985).

Planification of Information System

As with the construction of any other system, the planning for information systems begins with the identification of the organization's fundamental requirements. To be effective, the creation of any type of computer-based information system must be driven by business requirements, regardless of whether the system merely processes transactions or is a complicated information support system that supports senior-level management decision making. The planning for information systems is noted to follow the same method as strategic planning management. In order to be effective, information system projects must adhere to specified objectives, priorities, and authorisation.

The information system development plan should identify specific projects that are anticipated to be undertaken in the future, the priorities set for these projects and the resources allocated to them, as well as the general procedures followed by the organization and the potential obstacles that the systems may face. In addition, the planning must be specific enough to guarantee that all parties understand the status of each application and are aware of their position in the development sequence. King (1995) characterizes a strategic capability architecture as a "flexible and continuously improving infrastructure of organizational capabilities" that serves as the foundation for the enhancement of a company's sustained competitive advantage. King (1995) has also emphasized the need for constant upgrading and enhancement of the system architecture's strategic capabilities.

The Strategic Information System's Functions

Strategic information system planning involves the review of information and processes based on business information models, together with an assessment of risks and the organization's existing needs. The result of such an analysis, according to Battaglia (1991), is a thorough action plan that illustrates the sequence of actions that will align the use and needs of the information systems with the strategic goals of the company. Therefore, according to the author, planning an information system is more of a managerial than a technical role. This perspective aligns with the distinction between old views of information processing as data processing and contemporary views of the information system as a strategic instrument. Thus, the strategic information system planning assists in defining the optimal targets for the procurement and installation of new management information systems, maximizing the return on the information system investment. The primary objective of the information system comprised of computer-based applications is to assist the organization in carrying out its strategic business plans and achieving its objectives. It is now widely acknowledged that the application and adoption of information technology systems to a company's strategic activities has the potential to significantly enhance the organization's performance.

Diverse Viewpoints Regarding Information Systems

John Ward et al. (1990) recognized three distinct perspectives on information systems during the past several decades. (1) Data Processing, which in the 1960s represented the fundamental function of computers that are remote and distant from their customers, and whose primary objective was cost reduction. (2) Management Information Systems that are mostly user-driven and comprise distributed processes that are integrated and governed by a management service to serve the business. In the 1970s and 1980s, this viewpoint was widely accepted and implemented. (3) From the 1980s through the 1990s, the information system developed a strategic function that was designed to incorporate networks and integrated systems. These systems are primarily designed to assist users in pursuing business plans; they are business-driven, and alterations to business strategies need modifications to the information system setups.

The application of information systems should be planned based on the relative contribution of the data processing system, the Management Information system, and the strategic information system to the firm's current and future operations. Traditional information system models have evaluated the interrelationships between themselves and the jobs they accomplish, but have not considered the success of the business as a whole. McFarlan (1984) examines the influence of the industry on the contribution of IS/IT to the current and future business.

The Information Systems' Objectives

Lederer and Gardner (1992) defined five distinct goals of a model for a strategic information system. The following are:

Identification of the organization's information requirements Creating new options for leveraging the collected information to strengthen the organization's competitive advantage Defining the organization's overall IT strategy in order to meet its IT objectives Defining the data, applications, and technology requirements of the company in order to provide the necessary support for the organization's overall IT strategy, and defining the actions required to achieve these requirements and for the implementation of the overall IT strategy.

Value Chain

Vitale et al. (1986) categorize the Strategic information system planning techniques as impact and alignment. The objective of impact techniques is to generate and justify new uses of IT for the business, whereas alignment methodologies seek to connect IS objectives with organizational objectives.

The 'value chain' is an impact methodology that assists organizations in developing and implementing new IT applications. The term "value chain" was introduced by Michel Porter in 1984. According to Porter (1984), "any company is a collection of actions conducted to create, manufacture, sell, distribute, and support its product. All of these operations can be represented by a value chain." Porter emphasizes further that information technology is one of the key aspects that support the operations of the value chain. "Information systems technology is very widespread in the value chain, as every value-adding action generates and utilizes information. Due to the widespread significance of information in the value chain, the recent, rapid technical change in information systems has a substantial impact on competitiveness and competitive advantage. Changes in how office operations can be performed are one of the most significant sorts of technical changes affecting businesses today, despite the fact that few companies are investing significant resources to it. When a company discovers a superior technology for doing a task than its rivals, it acquires a competitive edge (Porter, 1985).

Benefits of Value Chain

On the formation of the value chain, it is simpler for executives to organize the stages required in identifying the departments and functions that are crucial to the organization's strategic objectives. In a following phase, executives can consider the interfaces between the major functions along the production chain and the support activities. This allows them to determine the crucial aspects of interdepartmental collaboration. Consequently, value chain analysis:

Enables the analysis of business activity, which dissects firm activities into constituent elements from which information systems are produced. Assists the organization in developing the information system that will allow it to boost the firm's profitability. Assists the organization in identifying the potential business benefits that may be attainable through other linked initiatives. This information will be accessible via the information interchange. the advantages may stem from the same or similar businesses. Concentrates on adding value to company activities, regardless of the organizational structure's strengths. As a result of the value chain's emphasis on the value addition of the firm's many activities, the company is able to tailor its information systems to the value addition domain rather than the cost reduction domain.

Critical success factor analysis is the other impact approach, which can be considered both an impact and alignment methodology. Rockart (1979) defines crucial success factors as "the limited number of areas in which, if the results are satisfactory, the organization's competitive performance will be successful."

The Alignment approach includes IBM's "Business System Planning," Robert Holland's "Strategic System Planner," and James Martin's "Information Engineering" (1982)

Strategic Information System Planning Formulation

On the basis of an examination of the aforementioned literature and the relevant techniques, certain broad processes for the creation of a strategic information system planning can be recognized. These steps consist of:

Internal business environment research

The examination of the internal business environment is a precondition for the development of any organization's strategic information system. This comprises the analysis of the organization's mission, objectives, strategies, and plans, as well as its business functions and activities, organizational environment, key competencies, critical success factor, and internal value chain.

An investigation of the external business environment

The examination of the external environment enables the organization to focus on the factors and pressure groups it faces. The external pressures have a long-lasting effect on the organization's business strategies. In the study of the external environment, the following factors must be considered: the industry in which the industry operates, the critical success factor of the industry, the competitive position that the organization occupies, and the relationship between the organization and its major suppliers and buyers.

Analysis of the IS/IT setting

This involves analyzing the present and future applications of the information systems that can aid the firm in attaining its goals. Other factors to examine include the current IS organization, the capabilities and attitudes of organizational members, the existing IT environment, and the IS/IT budgets.

External IS/IT Environment Research

The study of the external environment of IS/IT includes an evaluation of existing and upcoming technologies, as well as their consequences for the business. The primary objective of this study is to comprehend how rivals are leveraging IT to increase the value of their business.

The complete process of designing and implementing an information system includes the following stages:

Planning level Analysis and design level Implementation level

Comprehensive Strategic Information System Planning for SAS Plc

The following variables may be considered for the construction of an effective and efficient IS when the aforementioned principles are applied in developing an efficient IS for SAS plc:

Purchasing Capability

The purchasing function's information system should support the following modifications in order to provide comprehensive data for making efficient operational decisions:

A comprehensive list of suppliers, vendors, subcontractors, and service providers must be compiled into a database. This list should include the names, addresses, email addresses, telephone numbers, and names of the individuals to contact. This database should include cross-references for all things that can be supplied by their respective vendors. Alternately, the supplier database should be structured so that a list of suppliers with all pertinent information about the suppliers is given based on the materials and services. This database must be updated whenever a new vendor or supplier is added to the purchasing system. All suppliers can be assigned a numeric or alphanumeric identifier, and these identifiers should be recorded in a central database so that they are accessible to all purchasers. One individual in the IS/IT department should be tasked with maintaining the vendor status. On the system for placing purchase orders, the ordering system should allow for the easy analysis of competitive quotations received, the rate quoted by the selected supplier, the history of previous supplies of the vendor, the total credit limit the company has from the particular supplier, the amount of credit used to date, the payment terms, and the rating of the supplier in terms of quality and dependability of the supplier in terms of timely delivery. On the financial side, the corresponding department's purchase request must be recognized as the transaction's starting point. On the basis of a properly authorized purchase requisition, buy orders may be generated, with a copy automatically sent to the stores' goods receiving department. As soon as the purchase order is issued (with a proper reference to the purchase requisition), all pertinent information must be entered into the system, including provisions for entering details of physical receipts of goods, claims on quality, deductions for quantity and cash discounts, claims for poor quality, and returns for inferior quality. As soon as the products are physically received in the store, a Goods Received Note with references to the purchase order, suppliers' invoice/delivery Chillan, and the quantity requested and received can be generated.

Production Activities

The manufacturing department's strategic information system would include the deployment of a complete system encompassing the following factors:

The system should enable the integration of costing and production information and data so that a

Aramex Company’s Operations Management Gp Essay Help

Table of Contents
Executive synopsis Introduction Brief history, commercial goals, and objectives of Aramex Review of the literature on operations management ideas Aramex current operations management system Suggestions for enhancing Aramex's operations management Conclusion References

Executive summary

This report's objective is to analyze Aramex's operations management system in connection to the company's business goals and objectives. In addition to a brief history of the company, Aramex's mission and business plan are explained. Included in the factual data are figures pertaining to the company's scope and operational strategy. A literature review describing relevant management ideas is offered. On the basis of the given information, recommendations for improving the achievement of business objectives are provided.

Introduction

Aramex is a global provider of logistics and transportation services, and its unique characteristics, such as its global presence and multi-product offering, make it an intriguing case study for the application of operation management concepts in real-world circumstances. Even though Aramex is already a globally recognized brand, the continuous growth of its network and the expansion of the company's operational capabilities highlights the need to evaluate the efficacy of current management systems and reorient them if doing so will result in a better achievement of business objectives.

Aramex aspires to deliver the greatest logistical and express transportation services; yet, client feedback indicates that the company has a long way to go before achieving this goal. Over 80% of Aramex clients are dissatisfied with the quality of their services, according to authoritative review sites such as Trusted Pilot, and the company has an overall rating of 2 out of 10. (Aramex reviews 2016). This report's objective is to assess Aramex's present operations management system and recommend modifications that might be implemented to enhance the quality of their services and the value of their business.

Brief history, commercial goals, and objectives of Aramex

Aramex, an abbreviation of Arab American Express, was formed in 1982 in Dubai, UAE, as an express delivery firm (Overview of Aramex n.d., p. 1). Aramex was one of the first firms to offer many logistics and freight forwarding services under a single name, as well as the first company to list its shares on the NASDAQ. In the 1990s, the corporation focused on expanding its activities beyond the Middle East and developing its footprint in new areas.

Aramex provides logistics and shipping services in 33 countries by 2001. (Aramex: Delivering the Future 2009). As part of the company's expansion objectives, Aramex established the Global Distribution Alliance (GDA), a consortium of more than 40 transport and logistics companies from across the world; Aramex also developed a proprietary shipment management system that is utilized by the GDA (Overview of Aramex, n.d., p. 1). Continually expanding its network and increasing its shipping volume through the acquisition of express delivery companies.

According to the Aramex website, the company's purpose is to become "one of the top five global logistics and express transportation service providers" (About Aramex n.d., para. 2). "to enable and facilitate regional and global trade and commerce responsibly" is the company's mission (About Aramex n.d., para. 3). Aramex currently provides local and international express delivery services, freight forwarding, logistics and supply chain services, e-business solutions, and online shopping services. Aramex operates in over 60 countries and provides services to over 500,000 businesses worldwide.

Review of the literature on operations management ideas

The logistics and transportation sector is highly competitive, with numerous companies offering identical or comparable services on a local and worldwide scale. In a competitive industry such as logistics and transportation, the major objective of every business is to develop a competitive edge through operations. This reality needs knowledge of the supply chain and operations functions (Jacobs and Chase 2014, xiv).

Operations management is a concept that defines the procedures between product production and consumer delivery (Boyer and Verma 2009, xvii). In the service industry, service operations management addresses the same procedures. Supply chain management is the organization of all supply chain activities with the objective of maximizing customer value and competitive advantage (Boyer and Verma 2009, xvii). A supply chain is "the means by which a business delivers its goods or services to the market" (Straus 2012, par. 1).

The company's management is responsible for developing its corporate strategy, a comprehensive set of policies and strategies that synchronize operational objectives. In order to fulfill particular strategic or competitive aims, the corporate strategy entails the creation of an operations plan and an effective supply chain strategy. Globally functioning organizations must establish an effective network of partners, and franchising is one of the business strategies employed by global brands. Franchising is a sort of collaboration in which a corporation, a franchisor, distributes its brand and resources, such as its operating system, to a franchisee in exchange for a recurring fee (Franchising n.d.).

Aramex current operations management system

The core of Aramex's operation is the delivery of items from one location to another via its network of logistical facilities. Aramex operates in a competitive logistics and transportation industry in which one company's service can be substituted with a similar service given by another company. In the industry of delivery services, a number of major businesses, such as DHL, offer express delivery alongside several smaller, local companies.

Due to the competitive nature of this business, the price of express delivery services is determined by the intersection of supply and demand; all companies, including Aramex, accept this price rather than setting it. Therefore, Aramex's long-term profit is close to marginal expenses. A company must differentiate itself from its competitors in order to succeed in a competitive market. Aramex employs brand equity, exceptional customer service, and an efficient supply chain management system as a competitive advantage. Aramex pursues a successful growth strategy and seeks to develop and preserve wealth by:

Expansion through small and medium-sized acquisitions in the economies of Asia, MENA, and Sub-Saharan Africa, which are developing rapidly. The company's position as a global leader in logistic services will be bolstered and development opportunities created by the company's expansion into the major global trade regions. Local businesses can obtain branding, IT systems, a global network, quality control, and business intelligence through franchising. The company can grow its network with minimal initial expenditure through franchising. Utilizing current infrastructure to support organic growth and the development of new services. Aramex is expanding its supply chain management and data storage capabilities at multiple sites (Strategic Direction 2011; Aramex Annual Report 2008, p. 25).

Aramex is a well-known brand within its category, which aids in the promotion of new items to existing customers. In addition, brand helps unite all of a company's true or perceived distinctive characteristics under a single brand identity. In the logistics industry, a company's success is determined by the quality of its customer service, including on-time delivery, customer convenience, and customer assistance, among other factors.

Aramex is a franchise-based business with franchisees and partnering locations in 60 countries across the globe. This company model appears to be both advantageous and disadvantageous. On the one hand, the Aramex-operated global network of partnering outlets shares a vast IT and physical infrastructure and relies on a set of policies that aid in providing the best client service.

In addition, the Aramex business model reduces the cost of new acquisitions because a portion of the investment is made by the franchisee. On the other hand, the sheer size of operations makes it more challenging to provide consistent, high-quality customer service across multiple nations.

Aramex developed a proprietary documented quality management system (DQMS) called InfoHub, which is the cornerstone of the company's management system, in order to increase the efficiency of the company's everyday operations and ensure consistent, high-quality customer service (About Aramex n.d., para. 7). The DQMS of the organization specifies that "all processes affecting the quality of services provided to customers have associated procedures, policies, and standards" (Management Systems 2008, p. 28). The British Standards Institution has validated that DQMS was designed in line with ISO 9001:2000. (Management Systems 2008, p. 28). The company's DQMS is routinely updated to match industry developments. The company's DQMS system was designed to accomplish multiple goals, including:

The application of company-wide standards is one of the aims of the policy. quality performance objectives: the documentation and semi-annual monitoring of operational performance through performance appraisal; service and product quality objectives: maintaining a consistent level of customer service quality and confirming its quality through Qualified Security Assessor (QSA) audits. enhancing the effectiveness of the quality system are the objectives of the quality system (Management Systems 2008, p. 29).

In order to attain these goals, the company has educated Quality Representatives, who are skilled experts who assist in maintaining the organization's rules and standards in remote places. Quality Representatives oversee the performance of the company's franchisees in various regions from locations across the globe. Aramex promotes its employees to contribute to the company's success by awarding the most inventive individuals. In addition, the management of the company specifies quality system objectives for each department in order to enhance the quality systems.

There are additional management systems in place at Aramex that are tailored to specific requirements. These systems consist of a Vehicle Tracking System, an HR management system, and a variety of bespoke IT solutions that support management activities (Management Systems 2008, p. 30). The company developed an integrated communication technology network that offers pertinent information to Aramex franchisees, GDA partners, and clients, as well as training for their employees on how to operate these solutions (Management Systems 2008, p. 29). In addition, the company's management created and revised a proprietary Code of Conduct (Management Systems 2008, p. 29).

Aramex does not restrict the enhancement of its operations by instituting enterprise-wide management systems. The corporation collaborated with prominent anti-corruption organizations and funded various anti-corruption projects. In its Code of Conduct, the company outlines its stance against corruption and bribery (Management Approach 2009, p. 27).

Supply chain management is a component of service operations management, and because to Aramex's global position, the company has access to sophisticated supply chain technologies that are unavailable to smaller, regional businesses. Aramex's supply chain is comprised of a vast infrastructure, which is utilized to develop new services utilizing existing logistics and IT solutions and has an immediate impact on the company's operational and financial performance. As part of its Leveraging Current Infrastructure strategy, Aramex extends its supply chain management to many existing locations. This organization invests in the infrastructure of the Middle East and South Asia (Aramex Annual Report 2008, p. 25).

Aramex has committed to specific labor, environmental, and health and safety requirements, but has not committed to certification of its management practices. These include ISO14001 and OHSAS18001 certifications for the company's European operations, OHSAS18001 certifications for the company's Jordan activities, and certifications for Aramex Stations in Jeddah, Beirut, and Dubai (Management Systems 2008, p. 29). The company-wide labor rules were based on the SA8000 standard, and the AA1000 Stakeholder Engagement Standard is used to facilitate stakeholder engagement processes (Management Systems 2008, p. 29). Transport Asset Protection Association (TAPA) has approved some of the company's facilities, and Aramex intends to certify the remaining sites.

Suggestions for enhancing Aramex's operations management

Aramex deployed a number of operations management systems with the intention of enhancing both its operational performance and service quality. However, online forums and review sites with a high domain authority indicate that Aramex clients are utterly unhappy with the company's performance. Customers cite the following disadvantages of Aramex's services:

Poor customer service; major delays and failure to deliver packages on time; unsupervised employees who do not adhere to corporate rules. Misplaced and lost packages (Aramex Complaints and Reviews, n.d.);

Aramex now has a rating of 1.3 out of 5 stars on aramex.pissedconsumer.com and a rating of 2.0 out of 10 stars on trustedreviews.com. In addition to client complaints, Aramex's website provides additional evidence of the inefficiencies of its operations management. The aramex.com Customer Support page provides online customer support services. However, while selecting certain countries in search of a customer service number, visitors frequently see the following contact information: The telephone number for Customer Service is +000 (000) 000000, and the fax number is +000 (000) 000000.

It is important to remember that Aramex franchisees operate in these countries. In addition, the company lacks a toll-free telephone number. This causes many consumers to submit their questions using an online form on the company's website, and according to user reviews, customer care professionals are unable to react to emails within a few days. This implies that disgruntled clients post their complaints on online forums and review sites, which is detrimental to the Aramex brand.

To minimize bottlenecks and improve the effectiveness of Aramex's operations management, the following enhancements are suggested:

Offer a toll-free line for customer support to assist with urgent situations. Customer service agents should be well-trained in handling tough situations, have a comprehensive awareness of Aramex's policies, and endeavor to minimize damages. Customer service agents should have access to the company's tracking technologies and be able to provide discounts to customers affected by the delay. Expand logistics facilities so they can accommodate the growing volume of parcels and reduce delivery times. If the facility is understaffed and cannot handle the volume of packages, additional personnel must be hired or the responsibilities of current employees must be altered. Adapt predicted delivery timelines to reflect actual circumstances. Provide all corporate employees with basic training or educational resources to ensure that the high standards established in the company's rules are met. Reduce the amount of missing packages by tightening firm restrictions on employee theft. Conduct quarterly or semiannual reviews of all Aramex facilities to ensure that the company's policies and standards are being adhered to. Employ a public relations firm to run your social media campaign. This is vital to mitigate the damage already caused by the vast online presence of unfavorable customer reviews.

The execution of these modifications will necessitate the amendment of the company's current policies. Individual franchisees' performance should be reviewed. If the franchisee does not adhere to the company's delivery requirements, it hinders the company's ability to achieve its business objectives and should be removed from the network. In addition, a portion of the well-trained staff should be reassigned to teach customer service reps. To increase the quality of services and educate and monitor all of the company's workers, it is necessary to build internal manuals and evaluation instruments. Social media marketing has shown to be a successful method for boosting consumer confidence (Olenski 2014).

Through forums, social media, and review sites, it can be used to create relationships with customers, collect feedback, and improve the efficiency of the company's operations. It can be utilized to communicate a message of innovation and customer-centricity. To rectify Aramex's existing unfavorable image, it is necessary to engage qualified personnel to manage social media interactions. Feedback and concerns from customers should be routinely assessed and recorded. If these modifications are done, the operations management system will be reoriented to fit the organization's objectives. This change will improve the quality of customer service, increase the efficiency of day-to-day operations, and increase the profitability of the business.

Conclusion

Aramex saw a growth opportunity in the Middle East, a region of the world that larger delivery businesses usually neglected owing to political and economic constraints. The management of Aramex's commitment to create a sustainable, global delivery company has paid off, and Aramex is now a global logistics and transportation service provider that operates in many nations worldwide. After three decades of constructing and expanding Aramex's global network of facilities, the company's management developed a variety of management systems that support every aspect of the company's operations, from human resource management to parcel and vehicle trackers.

To monitor operational performance and maintain consistent customer service quality, Aramex implemented a proprietary documented quality management system. Now that the expansion phase is almost complete, Aramex must focus on service quality and adopt a customer-centric strategy. Current client feedback indicates that there is much room for improvement in service excellence. A big number of unfavorable reviews are detrimental to the internationally renowned brand and expose the shortcomings of the current operations management system. This paper proposes a number of changes to operations management systems that, if implemented appropriately, would realign the business towards its goals and lay the groundwork for greater customer satisfaction and enhanced financial performance.

References

About Aramex n.d.

Aramex evaluates 2016

2009: Aramex: Delivering the Future

Boyer, K., and R. Verma, 2009. Operations and Supply Chain Management for the 21st Century.

Franchising in the present day

Management Strategy 2009.

Management Systems 2008.

Olenski, S. (2014). Four Social Media Marketing Facts Marketers Might Not Know.

A modern overview of Aramex

2011 Strategic Direction

[supanova question]

Sustainability In The Dutch Sneakers Industry: Adidas And Nike Gp Essay Help

Abstract

Different businesses have placed a significant emphasis on sustainable practices over the past two decades. In 2017, fifty percent of the top one hundred fashion firms established a sustainability strategy (McKinsey, 2017). Sustainability is emphasized within the fashion industry's social and environmental movements. In contrast, emphasis on sustainability from the consumer's standpoint has become a subject of general concern. Constantly, consumers are drawn to businesses with transparently sustainable methods and products. Yet, corporations have persistently failed to maintain their socially responsible image in the public eye.

Widespread social worry that businesses are broadcasting false or confusing environmental information has resulted in an increase in customer skepticism regarding the environmental performance and advantages of green products. Previous study has contemplated how skepticism may negatively impact consumer responses (Annamma, Sherry, Venkatesh, Wang, & Chan, 2012). Other research have identified a number of obstacles that consumers may encounter when purchasing sustainable items. Therefore, a greater understanding of how skepticism influences green purchasing behavior is required (Wunker, 2017).

This study will uncover consumer perception barriers to green purchasing behavior and analyze their impact on CSR activities. Moreover, customer perception influences the purchase attitudes of consumers. This study focuses on consumer perceptions regarding purchasing decisions and intent to spread the word. To define the scope of this study, the target population will consist of young customers (aged 18 to 35) in the Netherlands who purchase Nike and Adidas footwear. Quantitative questionnaires will be utilized to obtain primary data, which will then be analyzed using SPSS software.

Abbreviations List

Corporate Social obligation (CSR) Mouth-To-Mouth (WOM) (Px-F) Parley x Footwear (Plant-Based Footwear) (P-BF) Index of Footwear Sustainability (FSI) Air Sole Development (ASI)

Introduction

academic background

Over the past two decades, sustainability in business has garnered a great deal of interest from academics and practitioners in industries across the globe (Turker & Altuntas, 2014). Sustainability is a vital component of businesses since it encourages the sensible use of resources and facilitates company marketing. While the subject has generated considerable controversy, the vast majority of firms consider sustainability fundamental to their activities.

The Triple-Bottom-Line refers to the three pillars of sustainability that address social, economic, and environmental challenges (Govindan, Khodaverdi, & Jafarian, 2013). Firms must build Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR) plans that integrate environmental, social, and ethical rights into company operations in order to produce a more sustainable corporation.

The affiliation of a firm with environmental concerns determines its reputation (Caplan, 2003). As a result, more fashion firms are considering environmental impact (Choi & Cheng, 2015). Adidas and Nike, for example, have made significant strides. Adidas has built a cleaner supply chain, eliminated plastic bags, and participated in a variety of environmental initiatives. Their partnership with Parley enables Adidas to employ recycled ocean plastic and yarn to create "Parley x Footwear" (Px-F) products (Amir, 2018). Nike, on the other hand, strives for sustainability by decreasing the quantity of pollutants discharged from their production lines.

Using the Considered Index, designers can manage the environmental impact of a shoe during the whole design process. Adidas's plan also included the incorporation of Plant-Based Footwear (P-BF), which enhanced their CSR impression. In addition, Nike implemented the Footwear Sustainability Index (FSI) and Air-Sole Innovation (ASI), enabling the firm to assess the environmental impact of each product (Appendix 2).

Due to their commitment to sustainability, these companies have won a great number of devoted customers (McKinsey, 2017). According to CGS's results, brand loyalty is tied to product quality; nevertheless, sustainable practices are the second-highest reason consumers return to a given brand (Sungchul & Ng, 2011). Thus, fashion companies can compete strongly in their respective markets by incorporating sustainability into their business strategies.

Multiple obstacles influence the purchasing decisions of sustainable products. Skepticism is one of the obstacles preventing consumers from purchasing green items (Wunker, 2017). Consumer skepticism is described as "the tendency of consumers to question any aspect of a company's activities" (Morel & Pruyn, 2003, p. 352). When businesses disseminate unclear environmental information regarding their sustainability plan and environmental performance, consumers become skeptical. A study by Yiridoe et al. (2005) revealed that mislabeling, misinterpretation, and misrepresentation of green products contribute to consumer distrust.

Thus, even if consumers desire to purchase green items, their cynicism over environmental performance may prevent them from doing so. A crucial part of CSR is avoiding skepticism (Fuentes, 2018). According to Kwong and Balaji (2016), doubt has a negative effect on consumer purchase intentions. Yet, a greater knowledge of how skepticism affects the green purchase decision is required. Fashion companies must combat consumer cynicism since it can impact consumers’ purchase decisions, which can be detrimental to a business.

Problem statement

As the level of competition among shoemakers increases (World Trade Organization, 2018), a rising number of businesses implement sustainable methods. Recent research indicates, however, that consumers may not be inclined to purchase green items due to their mistrust (Joshi & Rahman, 2015). According to Bronn and Vrioni (2001), customer distrust is increasing as more companies engage in CSR. When consumers mistrust the greenness of a company's products, they may switch to other brands or disseminate negative word-of-mouth (WOM), which harms the company's reputation (Shim & Yang, 2016; Zeynep & Atik, 2015). According to the latter, businesses must alter this "negative attitude" among consumers. This is a dilemma for fashion firms, particularly Nike and Adidas, as their procedures must be stated clearly to consumers without provoking skepticism.

Research objective

This article aims to investigate how consumers perceive Adidas and Nike's sustainability practices. The purpose of this study is to model how consumer mistrust contributes to the prevalence of CSR skepticism. In addition, the study aims to highlight how skepticism regarding CSR procedures effects the reputation of companies, which in turn influences the purchasing decisions of customers in the shoe business. The study then simulates how business reputation and unfavorable WOM influence customer purchase decisions. As a positive component, this research seeks to establish an understanding of how consumers' perceptions of CSR practices affect their purchasing behavior. The'suspicion' of consumers contributes to the enhancement of the CSR policies of footwear firms such as Adidas and Nike.

Literature review

Dimensions of environmental

Sustainability is a crucial factor in modern success (Haanaes, 2016). Several big fashion businesses, notably Adidas and Nike, introduce sustainable efforts (Payseno, 2018). Sustainable development is defined by Williams and Millington (2004) as "development that meets the needs of the present without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their own needs" (p. 100). There are three important facets of sustainability, which are known as the triple bottom line (Govindan et al., 2013; Williams & Millington, 2004).

According to Dahlsrud's (2008) research, there are numerous definitions of CSR. Crane (2013) provides a nice description of CSR: "CSR is the way in which organizations integrate economic, social, and environmental concerns into their values and operations in a transparent and accountable manner." The term emphasizes social, environmental, and economic imperatives, sometimes known as the triple bottom line.

Barriers to sustainable consumption

Today's consumers recognize the significance of sustainability, yet a number of obstacles inhibit purchasing intent (Bonini & Oppenheim, 2008; Wunker, 2017). In addition, Joshi and Rahman's (2015) study revealed that there is a weak relationship between customers' green attitudes and their purchasing behavior, referred to as a "attitude-behavior-gap." Bonini and Oppenheim (2008) investigated over 7,000 consumers in eight major economies and found that 87% of consumers were concerned about the social and environmental impacts of the products they purchased. However, just 33% of these consumers acknowledged that they should purchase green products.

This is partially due to consumers' cynicism towards CSR programs. Consumer skepticism towards CSR initiatives was defined by Morel and Pruyn (2003) as "the tendency of consumers to question any aspect of a company's CSR activities." In addition, Webb and Mohr (1998) assert that doubt arises when consumers question and mistrust a company's CSR practices. The poor view of green fashion can be attributed to a lack of awareness and comprehension. In order to overcome mistrust as a barrier, it is vital to gain an understanding of how customers view green fashion.

Mistrust and perception of CSR

Since the second half of the 20th century, there has been extensive debate on CSR; since then, businesses have always included social responsibility as part of their sustainable practices (Rosenbaum & Wong, 2015). Customers are unable to discern whether organizations pursue sustainability for profit or out of a genuine desire to be sustainable. The source of skepticism is mistrust of advertising claims made by companies about their products (Obermiller & Spangenberg, 2013; Kwong & Balaji, 2016). To increase their market share and keep customers, businesses must take use of a variety of advertising possibilities.

Nonetheless, buyers acquire mistrust when they discover that the quality of products does not match the advertised features. According to Morel and Pruyn (2003), mistrust is related to skepticism because, when consumers are doubtful, they doubt the information about the things they intend to buy. In this instance, Adidas and Nike advertisements are susceptible to mistrust, resulting in "green skepticism" over CSR activities. Therefore, the following alternative hypothesis (H1) anticipates the impact of customer mistrust on CSR practices' skepticism.

Customers' mistrust positively predicts skepticism regarding CSR efforts.

impression of CSR and WOM

Customers' perceptions of CSR efforts are influenced by interactions between businesses and customers. According to Wang (2018), WOM consists of both positive and negative words that customers or potential consumers express and that influence the perception of a company's products and services. Prior research indicates that customer skepticism adds to bad WOM because it effects attitudes, purchasing intentions, and brand image (Balaji, Khong, & Chong, 2016; Skarmeas & Leonidou, 2013).

Effective connection between firms and customers, according to the dialogic theory, generates durable communication channels, reduces mistrust, and promotes the development of good WOM (Uysal, 2018). Therefore, enterprises must reduce the amount of mistrust and skepticism among customers to prevent the propagation of bad WOM over their CSR operations (Servaes & Tamayo, 2013). In this instance, customer distrust influences the perception of CSR, leading to bad WOM. The consequence was the formulation of the following alternative hypothesis (H2):

Consumer suspicion over CSR practices is a predictor of negative WOM.

CSR perception and business standing

In corporations, reputation is crucial since it impacts the effectiveness of marketing strategies. According to the attribution theory, the reputation of an enterprise is influenced by how customers perceive, believe, and trust CSR practices (Chen & Chiu, 2018). According to Rim and Kim (2016), there is an intricate relationship between company reputation and the perception of CSR practices. In essence, corporations' reputations in competitive markets depend on the sort of CSR initiatives they advocate. When customers mistrust CSR activities, they create a poor view of businesses and become skeptical. Previous research has demonstrated that customer skepticism negatively affects how consumers view a company's reputation (Becker-Olsen, Cudmore, & Hill, 2006; Ellen, Webb, & Mohr, 2006; Elving, 2013).

Consumers may perceive that businesses utilize CSR initiatives to increase revenues (Kim & Lee, 2009). Corporate reputation is diminished by skepticism over the CSR practices of businesses (Shim & Yang, 2016). The second alternative hypothesis (H3) was therefore developed:

Consumer cynicism regarding CSR initiatives is a negative predictor of corporate reputation, according to Hypothesis 3.

CSR and acquisition choice

According to Dawson (2006), consumers' product selection, brand selection, and buying habits are determined by their attitudes. A purchase decision is the outcome of each of these elements; therefore, it is beneficial for businesses to collect information about consumer preferences and use it to enhance their offers. Dewey (2012) determined that the purchasing procedure consists of the five steps listed below (Figure 1). Before making a purchasing decision, buyers identify the problem, look for pertinent information, and assess available options.

Figure 1 depicts the five steps of the buying procedure (Dewey, 2012).

This study takes a step farther than Kwong and Balaji (2016), which sought to investigate the role of skepticism in green buying behavior, by analyzing whether consumers are suspicious of the green sneakers given by both Adidas and Nike. Kwang's study presents findings from an investigation into whether consumer mistrust of organic labelling effects their propensity to purchase organic items.

This study indicated that customers' mistrust of organic labels has a negative influence on their purchase intentions and is negatively associated to their future buy intentions. The Kwang study was limited because it was conducted in Malaysia. Therefore, the purpose of this study is to evaluate if customers' skepticism in the category of shoes is related to their green purchasing decisions. Consequently, the following other hypothesis (H4) was developed:

H4: Consumers' distrust about CSR initiatives influences their decision to purchase green sneakers.

Reputation of firms and purchasing decisions

Explaining the relationship between brand image and customer behavior is the direct connection between a company's reputation and consumers' purchasing decisions. According to the theory of reasoned action, customers examine the features of organizations, brands, and products prior to making the crucial purchase choice (Mi, Chang, Lin, & Chang, 2018). Consumers are more likely to purchase a company's products if its CSR efforts contribute to a favorable brand image.

An empirical study involving 212 chief executive officers from various firms indicated that corporate reputation improves brand perceptions, raises consumer awareness, and increases product preferences (Jung & Seock, 2016). However, marketing managers should be aware of the impact of a negative reputation on customers' attitudes and purchase decisions. Jung and Seock (2016) advise companies and marketing managers to avoid unfavorable reputation since it fosters negative attitudes and exacerbates customers' purchase decisions. Thus, the idea of rational action explains the connection between a company's reputation and consumers' purchasing decisions.

Literature review reveals that the reputation of a firm has a considerable impact on customer satisfaction and, consequently, purchase decisions. Reputable firms have a propensity to satisfy their clients, thereby attracting and retaining them over time. El-Garaihy, Mobarak, and Albahussain (2014) found in a research of 300 Saudi firms that corporate reputation mediates the effect of CSR policies on an organization's competitiveness. This research demonstrates that the purchase choice is influenced directly by enterprises' reputation and indirectly by CSR.

In today's environment, where competition is essential to the survival and expansion of firms, organizations concentrate on establishing a competitive reputation in their target markets. According to Hanaysha (2018), firms utilize CSR to establish a favorable brand image on the market in order to influence consumer behavior and purchase decisions in favor of their products. Burke, Dowling, and Wei (2018) suggest that market managers use reputation as a marketing approach since it improves comprehension.

Sustainability In The Dutch Sneakers Industry: Adidas And Nike Gp Essay Help

Abstract

Different businesses have placed a significant emphasis on sustainable practices over the past two decades. In 2017, fifty percent of the top one hundred fashion firms established a sustainability strategy (McKinsey, 2017). Sustainability is emphasized within the fashion industry's social and environmental movements. In contrast, emphasis on sustainability from the consumer's standpoint has become a subject of general concern. Constantly, consumers are drawn to businesses with transparently sustainable methods and products. Yet, corporations have persistently failed to maintain their socially responsible image in the public eye.

Widespread social worry that businesses are broadcasting false or confusing environmental information has resulted in an increase in customer skepticism regarding the environmental performance and advantages of green products. Previous study has contemplated how skepticism may negatively impact consumer responses (Annamma, Sherry, Venkatesh, Wang, & Chan, 2012). Other research have identified a number of obstacles that consumers may encounter when purchasing sustainable items. Therefore, a greater understanding of how skepticism influences green purchasing behavior is required (Wunker, 2017).

This study will uncover consumer perception barriers to green purchasing behavior and analyze their impact on CSR activities. Moreover, customer perception influences the purchase attitudes of consumers. This study focuses on consumer perceptions regarding purchasing decisions and intent to spread the word. To define the scope of this study, the target population will consist of young customers (aged 18 to 35) in the Netherlands who purchase Nike and Adidas footwear. Quantitative questionnaires will be utilized to obtain primary data, which will then be analyzed using SPSS software.

Abbreviations List

Corporate Social obligation (CSR) Mouth-To-Mouth (WOM) (Px-F) Parley x Footwear (Plant-Based Footwear) (P-BF) Index of Footwear Sustainability (FSI) Air Sole Development (ASI)

Introduction

academic background

Over the past two decades, sustainability in business has garnered a great deal of interest from academics and practitioners in industries across the globe (Turker & Altuntas, 2014). Sustainability is a vital component of businesses since it encourages the sensible use of resources and facilitates company marketing. While the subject has generated considerable controversy, the vast majority of firms consider sustainability fundamental to their activities.

The Triple-Bottom-Line refers to the three pillars of sustainability that address social, economic, and environmental challenges (Govindan, Khodaverdi, & Jafarian, 2013). Firms must build Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR) plans that integrate environmental, social, and ethical rights into company operations in order to produce a more sustainable corporation.

The affiliation of a firm with environmental concerns determines its reputation (Caplan, 2003). As a result, more fashion firms are considering environmental impact (Choi & Cheng, 2015). Adidas and Nike, for example, have made significant strides. Adidas has built a cleaner supply chain, eliminated plastic bags, and participated in a variety of environmental initiatives. Their partnership with Parley enables Adidas to employ recycled ocean plastic and yarn to create "Parley x Footwear" (Px-F) products (Amir, 2018). Nike, on the other hand, strives for sustainability by decreasing the quantity of pollutants discharged from their production lines.

Using the Considered Index, designers can manage the environmental impact of a shoe during the whole design process. Adidas's plan also included the incorporation of Plant-Based Footwear (P-BF), which enhanced their CSR impression. In addition, Nike implemented the Footwear Sustainability Index (FSI) and Air-Sole Innovation (ASI), enabling the firm to assess the environmental impact of each product (Appendix 2).

Due to their commitment to sustainability, these companies have won a great number of devoted customers (McKinsey, 2017). According to CGS's results, brand loyalty is tied to product quality; nevertheless, sustainable practices are the second-highest reason consumers return to a given brand (Sungchul & Ng, 2011). Thus, fashion companies can compete strongly in their respective markets by incorporating sustainability into their business strategies.

Multiple obstacles influence the purchasing decisions of sustainable products. Skepticism is one of the obstacles preventing consumers from purchasing green items (Wunker, 2017). Consumer skepticism is described as "the tendency of consumers to question any aspect of a company's activities" (Morel & Pruyn, 2003, p. 352). When businesses disseminate unclear environmental information regarding their sustainability plan and environmental performance, consumers become skeptical. A study by Yiridoe et al. (2005) revealed that mislabeling, misinterpretation, and misrepresentation of green products contribute to consumer distrust.

Thus, even if consumers desire to purchase green items, their cynicism over environmental performance may prevent them from doing so. A crucial part of CSR is avoiding skepticism (Fuentes, 2018). According to Kwong and Balaji (2016), doubt has a negative effect on consumer purchase intentions. Yet, a greater knowledge of how skepticism affects the green purchase decision is required. Fashion companies must combat consumer cynicism since it can impact consumers’ purchase decisions, which can be detrimental to a business.

Problem statement

As the level of competition among shoemakers increases (World Trade Organization, 2018), a rising number of businesses implement sustainable methods. Recent research indicates, however, that consumers may not be inclined to purchase green items due to their mistrust (Joshi & Rahman, 2015). According to Bronn and Vrioni (2001), customer distrust is increasing as more companies engage in CSR. When consumers mistrust the greenness of a company's products, they may switch to other brands or disseminate negative word-of-mouth (WOM), which harms the company's reputation (Shim & Yang, 2016; Zeynep & Atik, 2015). According to the latter, businesses must alter this "negative attitude" among consumers. This is a dilemma for fashion firms, particularly Nike and Adidas, as their procedures must be stated clearly to consumers without provoking skepticism.

Research objective

This article aims to investigate how consumers perceive Adidas and Nike's sustainability practices. The purpose of this study is to model how consumer mistrust contributes to the prevalence of CSR skepticism. In addition, the study aims to highlight how skepticism regarding CSR procedures effects the reputation of companies, which in turn influences the purchasing decisions of customers in the shoe business. The study then simulates how business reputation and unfavorable WOM influence customer purchase decisions. As a positive component, this research seeks to establish an understanding of how consumers' perceptions of CSR practices affect their purchasing behavior. The'suspicion' of consumers contributes to the enhancement of the CSR policies of footwear firms such as Adidas and Nike.

Literature review

Dimensions of environmental

Sustainability is a crucial factor in modern success (Haanaes, 2016). Several big fashion businesses, notably Adidas and Nike, introduce sustainable efforts (Payseno, 2018). Sustainable development is defined by Williams and Millington (2004) as "development that meets the needs of the present without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their own needs" (p. 100). There are three important facets of sustainability, which are known as the triple bottom line (Govindan et al., 2013; Williams & Millington, 2004).

According to Dahlsrud's (2008) research, there are numerous definitions of CSR. Crane (2013) provides a nice description of CSR: "CSR is the way in which organizations integrate economic, social, and environmental concerns into their values and operations in a transparent and accountable manner." The term emphasizes social, environmental, and economic imperatives, sometimes known as the triple bottom line.

Barriers to sustainable consumption

Today's consumers recognize the significance of sustainability, yet a number of obstacles inhibit purchasing intent (Bonini & Oppenheim, 2008; Wunker, 2017). In addition, Joshi and Rahman's (2015) study revealed that there is a weak relationship between customers' green attitudes and their purchasing behavior, referred to as a "attitude-behavior-gap." Bonini and Oppenheim (2008) investigated over 7,000 consumers in eight major economies and found that 87% of consumers were concerned about the social and environmental impacts of the products they purchased. However, just 33% of these consumers acknowledged that they should purchase green products.

This is partially due to consumers' cynicism towards CSR programs. Consumer skepticism towards CSR initiatives was defined by Morel and Pruyn (2003) as "the tendency of consumers to question any aspect of a company's CSR activities." In addition, Webb and Mohr (1998) assert that doubt arises when consumers question and mistrust a company's CSR practices. The poor view of green fashion can be attributed to a lack of awareness and comprehension. In order to overcome mistrust as a barrier, it is vital to gain an understanding of how customers view green fashion.

Mistrust and perception of CSR

Since the second half of the 20th century, there has been extensive debate on CSR; since then, businesses have always included social responsibility as part of their sustainable practices (Rosenbaum & Wong, 2015). Customers are unable to discern whether organizations pursue sustainability for profit or out of a genuine desire to be sustainable. The source of skepticism is mistrust of advertising claims made by companies about their products (Obermiller & Spangenberg, 2013; Kwong & Balaji, 2016). To increase their market share and keep customers, businesses must take use of a variety of advertising possibilities.

Nonetheless, buyers acquire mistrust when they discover that the quality of products does not match the advertised features. According to Morel and Pruyn (2003), mistrust is related to skepticism because, when consumers are doubtful, they doubt the information about the things they intend to buy. In this instance, Adidas and Nike advertisements are susceptible to mistrust, resulting in "green skepticism" over CSR activities. Therefore, the following alternative hypothesis (H1) anticipates the impact of customer mistrust on CSR practices' skepticism.

Customers' mistrust positively predicts skepticism regarding CSR efforts.

impression of CSR and WOM

Customers' perceptions of CSR efforts are influenced by interactions between businesses and customers. According to Wang (2018), WOM consists of both positive and negative words that customers or potential consumers express and that influence the perception of a company's products and services. Prior research indicates that customer skepticism adds to bad WOM because it effects attitudes, purchasing intentions, and brand image (Balaji, Khong, & Chong, 2016; Skarmeas & Leonidou, 2013).

Effective connection between firms and customers, according to the dialogic theory, generates durable communication channels, reduces mistrust, and promotes the development of good WOM (Uysal, 2018). Therefore, enterprises must reduce the amount of mistrust and skepticism among customers to prevent the propagation of bad WOM over their CSR operations (Servaes & Tamayo, 2013). In this instance, customer distrust influences the perception of CSR, leading to bad WOM. The consequence was the formulation of the following alternative hypothesis (H2):

Consumer suspicion over CSR practices is a predictor of negative WOM.

CSR perception and business standing

In corporations, reputation is crucial since it impacts the effectiveness of marketing strategies. According to the attribution theory, the reputation of an enterprise is influenced by how customers perceive, believe, and trust CSR practices (Chen & Chiu, 2018). According to Rim and Kim (2016), there is an intricate relationship between company reputation and the perception of CSR practices. In essence, corporations' reputations in competitive markets depend on the sort of CSR initiatives they advocate. When customers mistrust CSR activities, they create a poor view of businesses and become skeptical. Previous research has demonstrated that customer skepticism negatively affects how consumers view a company's reputation (Becker-Olsen, Cudmore, & Hill, 2006; Ellen, Webb, & Mohr, 2006; Elving, 2013).

Consumers may perceive that businesses utilize CSR initiatives to increase revenues (Kim & Lee, 2009). Corporate reputation is diminished by skepticism over the CSR practices of businesses (Shim & Yang, 2016). The second alternative hypothesis (H3) was therefore developed:

Consumer cynicism regarding CSR initiatives is a negative predictor of corporate reputation, according to Hypothesis 3.

CSR and acquisition choice

According to Dawson (2006), consumers' product selection, brand selection, and buying habits are determined by their attitudes. A purchase decision is the outcome of each of these elements; therefore, it is beneficial for businesses to collect information about consumer preferences and use it to enhance their offers. Dewey (2012) determined that the purchasing procedure consists of the five steps listed below (Figure 1). Before making a purchasing decision, buyers identify the problem, look for pertinent information, and assess available options.

Figure 1 depicts the five steps of the buying procedure (Dewey, 2012).

This study takes a step farther than Kwong and Balaji (2016), which sought to investigate the role of skepticism in green buying behavior, by analyzing whether consumers are suspicious of the green sneakers given by both Adidas and Nike. Kwang's study presents findings from an investigation into whether consumer mistrust of organic labelling effects their propensity to purchase organic items.

This study indicated that customers' mistrust of organic labels has a negative influence on their purchase intentions and is negatively associated to their future buy intentions. The Kwang study was limited because it was conducted in Malaysia. Therefore, the purpose of this study is to evaluate if customers' skepticism in the category of shoes is related to their green purchasing decisions. Consequently, the following other hypothesis (H4) was developed:

H4: Consumers' distrust about CSR initiatives influences their decision to purchase green sneakers.

Reputation of firms and purchasing decisions

Explaining the relationship between brand image and customer behavior is the direct connection between a company's reputation and consumers' purchasing decisions. According to the theory of reasoned action, customers examine the features of organizations, brands, and products prior to making the crucial purchase choice (Mi, Chang, Lin, & Chang, 2018). Consumers are more likely to purchase a company's products if its CSR efforts contribute to a favorable brand image.

An empirical study involving 212 chief executive officers from various firms indicated that corporate reputation improves brand perceptions, raises consumer awareness, and increases product preferences (Jung & Seock, 2016). However, marketing managers should be aware of the impact of a negative reputation on customers' attitudes and purchase decisions. Jung and Seock (2016) advise companies and marketing managers to avoid unfavorable reputation since it fosters negative attitudes and exacerbates customers' purchase decisions. Thus, the idea of rational action explains the connection between a company's reputation and consumers' purchasing decisions.

Literature review reveals that the reputation of a firm has a considerable impact on customer satisfaction and, consequently, purchase decisions. Reputable firms have a propensity to satisfy their clients, thereby attracting and retaining them over time. El-Garaihy, Mobarak, and Albahussain (2014) found in a research of 300 Saudi firms that corporate reputation mediates the effect of CSR policies on an organization's competitiveness. This research demonstrates that the purchase choice is influenced directly by enterprises' reputation and indirectly by CSR.

In today's environment, where competition is essential to the survival and expansion of firms, organizations concentrate on establishing a competitive reputation in their target markets. According to Hanaysha (2018), firms utilize CSR to establish a favorable brand image on the market in order to influence consumer behavior and purchase decisions in favor of their products. Burke, Dowling, and Wei (2018) suggest that market managers use reputation as a marketing approach since it improves comprehension.

Sustainability In The Dutch Sneakers Industry: Adidas And Nike Gp Essay Help

Abstract

Different businesses have placed a significant emphasis on sustainable practices over the past two decades. In 2017, fifty percent of the top one hundred fashion firms established a sustainability strategy (McKinsey, 2017). Sustainability is emphasized within the fashion industry's social and environmental movements. In contrast, emphasis on sustainability from the consumer's standpoint has become a subject of general concern. Constantly, consumers are drawn to businesses with transparently sustainable methods and products. Yet, corporations have persistently failed to maintain their socially responsible image in the public eye.

Widespread social worry that businesses are broadcasting false or confusing environmental information has resulted in an increase in customer skepticism regarding the environmental performance and advantages of green products. Previous study has contemplated how skepticism may negatively impact consumer responses (Annamma, Sherry, Venkatesh, Wang, & Chan, 2012). Other research have identified a number of obstacles that consumers may encounter when purchasing sustainable items. Therefore, a greater understanding of how skepticism influences green purchasing behavior is required (Wunker, 2017).

This study will uncover consumer perception barriers to green purchasing behavior and analyze their impact on CSR activities. Moreover, customer perception influences the purchase attitudes of consumers. This study focuses on consumer perceptions regarding purchasing decisions and intent to spread the word. To define the scope of this study, the target population will consist of young customers (aged 18 to 35) in the Netherlands who purchase Nike and Adidas footwear. Quantitative questionnaires will be utilized to obtain primary data, which will then be analyzed using SPSS software.

Abbreviations List

Corporate Social obligation (CSR) Mouth-To-Mouth (WOM) (Px-F) Parley x Footwear (Plant-Based Footwear) (P-BF) Index of Footwear Sustainability (FSI) Air Sole Development (ASI)

Introduction

academic background

Over the past two decades, sustainability in business has garnered a great deal of interest from academics and practitioners in industries across the globe (Turker & Altuntas, 2014). Sustainability is a vital component of businesses since it encourages the sensible use of resources and facilitates company marketing. While the subject has generated considerable controversy, the vast majority of firms consider sustainability fundamental to their activities.

The Triple-Bottom-Line refers to the three pillars of sustainability that address social, economic, and environmental challenges (Govindan, Khodaverdi, & Jafarian, 2013). Firms must build Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR) plans that integrate environmental, social, and ethical rights into company operations in order to produce a more sustainable corporation.

The affiliation of a firm with environmental concerns determines its reputation (Caplan, 2003). As a result, more fashion firms are considering environmental impact (Choi & Cheng, 2015). Adidas and Nike, for example, have made significant strides. Adidas has built a cleaner supply chain, eliminated plastic bags, and participated in a variety of environmental initiatives. Their partnership with Parley enables Adidas to employ recycled ocean plastic and yarn to create "Parley x Footwear" (Px-F) products (Amir, 2018). Nike, on the other hand, strives for sustainability by decreasing the quantity of pollutants discharged from their production lines.

Using the Considered Index, designers can manage the environmental impact of a shoe during the whole design process. Adidas's plan also included the incorporation of Plant-Based Footwear (P-BF), which enhanced their CSR impression. In addition, Nike implemented the Footwear Sustainability Index (FSI) and Air-Sole Innovation (ASI), enabling the firm to assess the environmental impact of each product (Appendix 2).

Due to their commitment to sustainability, these companies have won a great number of devoted customers (McKinsey, 2017). According to CGS's results, brand loyalty is tied to product quality; nevertheless, sustainable practices are the second-highest reason consumers return to a given brand (Sungchul & Ng, 2011). Thus, fashion companies can compete strongly in their respective markets by incorporating sustainability into their business strategies.

Multiple obstacles influence the purchasing decisions of sustainable products. Skepticism is one of the obstacles preventing consumers from purchasing green items (Wunker, 2017). Consumer skepticism is described as "the tendency of consumers to question any aspect of a company's activities" (Morel & Pruyn, 2003, p. 352). When businesses disseminate unclear environmental information regarding their sustainability plan and environmental performance, consumers become skeptical. A study by Yiridoe et al. (2005) revealed that mislabeling, misinterpretation, and misrepresentation of green products contribute to consumer distrust.

Thus, even if consumers desire to purchase green items, their cynicism over environmental performance may prevent them from doing so. A crucial part of CSR is avoiding skepticism (Fuentes, 2018). According to Kwong and Balaji (2016), doubt has a negative effect on consumer purchase intentions. Yet, a greater knowledge of how skepticism affects the green purchase decision is required. Fashion companies must combat consumer cynicism since it can impact consumers’ purchase decisions, which can be detrimental to a business.

Problem statement

As the level of competition among shoemakers increases (World Trade Organization, 2018), a rising number of businesses implement sustainable methods. Recent research indicates, however, that consumers may not be inclined to purchase green items due to their mistrust (Joshi & Rahman, 2015). According to Bronn and Vrioni (2001), customer distrust is increasing as more companies engage in CSR. When consumers mistrust the greenness of a company's products, they may switch to other brands or disseminate negative word-of-mouth (WOM), which harms the company's reputation (Shim & Yang, 2016; Zeynep & Atik, 2015). According to the latter, businesses must alter this "negative attitude" among consumers. This is a dilemma for fashion firms, particularly Nike and Adidas, as their procedures must be stated clearly to consumers without provoking skepticism.

Research objective

This article aims to investigate how consumers perceive Adidas and Nike's sustainability practices. The purpose of this study is to model how consumer mistrust contributes to the prevalence of CSR skepticism. In addition, the study aims to highlight how skepticism regarding CSR procedures effects the reputation of companies, which in turn influences the purchasing decisions of customers in the shoe business. The study then simulates how business reputation and unfavorable WOM influence customer purchase decisions. As a positive component, this research seeks to establish an understanding of how consumers' perceptions of CSR practices affect their purchasing behavior. The'suspicion' of consumers contributes to the enhancement of the CSR policies of footwear firms such as Adidas and Nike.

Literature review

Dimensions of environmental

Sustainability is a crucial factor in modern success (Haanaes, 2016). Several big fashion businesses, notably Adidas and Nike, introduce sustainable efforts (Payseno, 2018). Sustainable development is defined by Williams and Millington (2004) as "development that meets the needs of the present without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their own needs" (p. 100). There are three important facets of sustainability, which are known as the triple bottom line (Govindan et al., 2013; Williams & Millington, 2004).

According to Dahlsrud's (2008) research, there are numerous definitions of CSR. Crane (2013) provides a nice description of CSR: "CSR is the way in which organizations integrate economic, social, and environmental concerns into their values and operations in a transparent and accountable manner." The term emphasizes social, environmental, and economic imperatives, sometimes known as the triple bottom line.

Barriers to sustainable consumption

Today's consumers recognize the significance of sustainability, yet a number of obstacles inhibit purchasing intent (Bonini & Oppenheim, 2008; Wunker, 2017). In addition, Joshi and Rahman's (2015) study revealed that there is a weak relationship between customers' green attitudes and their purchasing behavior, referred to as a "attitude-behavior-gap." Bonini and Oppenheim (2008) investigated over 7,000 consumers in eight major economies and found that 87% of consumers were concerned about the social and environmental impacts of the products they purchased. However, just 33% of these consumers acknowledged that they should purchase green products.

This is partially due to consumers' cynicism towards CSR programs. Consumer skepticism towards CSR initiatives was defined by Morel and Pruyn (2003) as "the tendency of consumers to question any aspect of a company's CSR activities." In addition, Webb and Mohr (1998) assert that doubt arises when consumers question and mistrust a company's CSR practices. The poor view of green fashion can be attributed to a lack of awareness and comprehension. In order to overcome mistrust as a barrier, it is vital to gain an understanding of how customers view green fashion.

Mistrust and perception of CSR

Since the second half of the 20th century, there has been extensive debate on CSR; since then, businesses have always included social responsibility as part of their sustainable practices (Rosenbaum & Wong, 2015). Customers are unable to discern whether organizations pursue sustainability for profit or out of a genuine desire to be sustainable. The source of skepticism is mistrust of advertising claims made by companies about their products (Obermiller & Spangenberg, 2013; Kwong & Balaji, 2016). To increase their market share and keep customers, businesses must take use of a variety of advertising possibilities.

Nonetheless, buyers acquire mistrust when they discover that the quality of products does not match the advertised features. According to Morel and Pruyn (2003), mistrust is related to skepticism because, when consumers are doubtful, they doubt the information about the things they intend to buy. In this instance, Adidas and Nike advertisements are susceptible to mistrust, resulting in "green skepticism" over CSR activities. Therefore, the following alternative hypothesis (H1) anticipates the impact of customer mistrust on CSR practices' skepticism.

Customers' mistrust positively predicts skepticism regarding CSR efforts.

impression of CSR and WOM

Customers' perceptions of CSR efforts are influenced by interactions between businesses and customers. According to Wang (2018), WOM consists of both positive and negative words that customers or potential consumers express and that influence the perception of a company's products and services. Prior research indicates that customer skepticism adds to bad WOM because it effects attitudes, purchasing intentions, and brand image (Balaji, Khong, & Chong, 2016; Skarmeas & Leonidou, 2013).

Effective connection between firms and customers, according to the dialogic theory, generates durable communication channels, reduces mistrust, and promotes the development of good WOM (Uysal, 2018). Therefore, enterprises must reduce the amount of mistrust and skepticism among customers to prevent the propagation of bad WOM over their CSR operations (Servaes & Tamayo, 2013). In this instance, customer distrust influences the perception of CSR, leading to bad WOM. The consequence was the formulation of the following alternative hypothesis (H2):

Consumer suspicion over CSR practices is a predictor of negative WOM.

CSR perception and business standing

In corporations, reputation is crucial since it impacts the effectiveness of marketing strategies. According to the attribution theory, the reputation of an enterprise is influenced by how customers perceive, believe, and trust CSR practices (Chen & Chiu, 2018). According to Rim and Kim (2016), there is an intricate relationship between company reputation and the perception of CSR practices. In essence, corporations' reputations in competitive markets depend on the sort of CSR initiatives they advocate. When customers mistrust CSR activities, they create a poor view of businesses and become skeptical. Previous research has demonstrated that customer skepticism negatively affects how consumers view a company's reputation (Becker-Olsen, Cudmore, & Hill, 2006; Ellen, Webb, & Mohr, 2006; Elving, 2013).

Consumers may perceive that businesses utilize CSR initiatives to increase revenues (Kim & Lee, 2009). Corporate reputation is diminished by skepticism over the CSR practices of businesses (Shim & Yang, 2016). The second alternative hypothesis (H3) was therefore developed:

Consumer cynicism regarding CSR initiatives is a negative predictor of corporate reputation, according to Hypothesis 3.

CSR and acquisition choice

According to Dawson (2006), consumers' product selection, brand selection, and buying habits are determined by their attitudes. A purchase decision is the outcome of each of these elements; therefore, it is beneficial for businesses to collect information about consumer preferences and use it to enhance their offers. Dewey (2012) determined that the purchasing procedure consists of the five steps listed below (Figure 1). Before making a purchasing decision, buyers identify the problem, look for pertinent information, and assess available options.

Figure 1 depicts the five steps of the buying procedure (Dewey, 2012).

This study takes a step farther than Kwong and Balaji (2016), which sought to investigate the role of skepticism in green buying behavior, by analyzing whether consumers are suspicious of the green sneakers given by both Adidas and Nike. Kwang's study presents findings from an investigation into whether consumer mistrust of organic labelling effects their propensity to purchase organic items.

This study indicated that customers' mistrust of organic labels has a negative influence on their purchase intentions and is negatively associated to their future buy intentions. The Kwang study was limited because it was conducted in Malaysia. Therefore, the purpose of this study is to evaluate if customers' skepticism in the category of shoes is related to their green purchasing decisions. Consequently, the following other hypothesis (H4) was developed:

H4: Consumers' distrust about CSR initiatives influences their decision to purchase green sneakers.

Reputation of firms and purchasing decisions

Explaining the relationship between brand image and customer behavior is the direct connection between a company's reputation and consumers' purchasing decisions. According to the theory of reasoned action, customers examine the features of organizations, brands, and products prior to making the crucial purchase choice (Mi, Chang, Lin, & Chang, 2018). Consumers are more likely to purchase a company's products if its CSR efforts contribute to a favorable brand image.

An empirical study involving 212 chief executive officers from various firms indicated that corporate reputation improves brand perceptions, raises consumer awareness, and increases product preferences (Jung & Seock, 2016). However, marketing managers should be aware of the impact of a negative reputation on customers' attitudes and purchase decisions. Jung and Seock (2016) advise companies and marketing managers to avoid unfavorable reputation since it fosters negative attitudes and exacerbates customers' purchase decisions. Thus, the idea of rational action explains the connection between a company's reputation and consumers' purchasing decisions.

Literature review reveals that the reputation of a firm has a considerable impact on customer satisfaction and, consequently, purchase decisions. Reputable firms have a propensity to satisfy their clients, thereby attracting and retaining them over time. El-Garaihy, Mobarak, and Albahussain (2014) found in a research of 300 Saudi firms that corporate reputation mediates the effect of CSR policies on an organization's competitiveness. This research demonstrates that the purchase choice is influenced directly by enterprises' reputation and indirectly by CSR.

In today's environment, where competition is essential to the survival and expansion of firms, organizations concentrate on establishing a competitive reputation in their target markets. According to Hanaysha (2018), firms utilize CSR to establish a favorable brand image on the market in order to influence consumer behavior and purchase decisions in favor of their products. Burke, Dowling, and Wei (2018) suggest that market managers use reputation as a marketing approach since it improves comprehension.

Rules-Based Accounting Analysis Gp Essay Help

The purpose of this study is to investigate critically the assertion that rules-based accounting adds additional complexity, fosters financial engineering, and does not necessarily lead to a "true and fair view" or "fair presentation." This article argues that the International Accounting Standard (IAS), which essentially employs a principles-based approach to establishing accounting standards, will assist in achieving the goal of presenting a truthful and fair view or 'fair presentation'

According to critics, the current US GAAP guidelines are rules-based rather than principles-based, and their application has not produced a "true and fair view" or "fair presentation." This is despite assertions in the usual independent auditor's report that the audited company's financial statements portray the operation and financial results accurately. 1 To achieve the desired purpose in financial reporting, it is argued here that the International Accounting Standard, which is founded on principles, should be implemented as an alternative. In reality, the Sarbanes-Oxley Act of 2002 recognized the necessity to implement accounting standards based on principles. 2

The report by The Institute of Chartered Accountants of Scotland (ICAS) on its Report on Proceedings of Financial Instrument Workshops in 2006 concerning the group examination of IAS 39, which refers to financial instruments: recognition and measurement, provides evidence that the international accounting standard has adopted a principles-based standard rather than a rules-based standard.

3 The group was especially concerned with establishing standards for cash and cash contracts.

The group has also explored the distinction between a principle and a rule, concluding that nomenclature is unimportant and that what is required is a clear hierarchy of overarching principles, as in the case of a conceptual framework, followed by supporting guidance for these principles.

4 Despite the fact that the group did not explicitly define what constitutes a principle and what constitutes a rule, it can be inferred from their work that they recognised the need to employ principles and supporting information. This scholar considers direction to be synonymous with regulations. Therefore, the use of rules cannot be eliminated entirely from the standard-setting process.

However, there is a distinction between rule-based and principle-based standard-setting. To use a rules-based approach would entail stating the standards first in terms of rules and then possibly qualifying them with principles, which is an inverted way of attempting to have a standard that is conceptually broad enough to cover every transaction while allowing exceptions through the use of rules.

The ICAS group highlighted the need for a written standard that satisfies the high-level principles described in the applicable Framework or Concept Statement. It is easier to agree that a concept is written in principle as a matter of broad statement as opposed to stating it as a specific statement that may be equated to a rule and which may only be relevant in certain circumstances. In logic, presenting an argument deductively is more compelling than inductively. 5 Such a logical approach, when applied to standard-setting, would be analogous to using general statements or concept statements as the basis for proposing possible exceptions to rules when circumstances warrant.

The ICAS working group was tasked with resolving the Principles versus Rules controversy within international accounting standard-setting, and their final report favored the use of principles-based rather than rules-based accounting standards. In underlining the significance of the findings, the working group's report reached a conclusion regarding the appropriateness of a principles-based approach to standard-setting, which was deemed essential in order to meet the needs of industry and the public interest. In addition, the panel came to the conclusion that worldwide convergence of accounting standards is unattainable under a rules-driven, thorough approach. 6 The latter result may be contested on the basis of simple cultural differences between nations.

The working group did actually remark that "rules-based accounting adds unnecessary complexity, encourages financial engineering, and does not necessarily lead to a true and fair view or fair presentation." The group demonstrated this by exploring an alternate model for financial instruments if the same were to be developed from scratch. This researcher could only concur, as rules-based accounting standards would be focused on mere compliance with the "letter" of the rules, rather than the "spirit" or concepts of the standard that should provide its broad adoption and applications, regardless of cultural differences, life. The letter of the law is considered to kill, but the spirit gives life. 7 The same might be implemented in regular environments.

It can be concluded that rules-based accounting would add necessary complexity because accounting professionals or individuals preparing financial statements would always assert that they have complied with accounting rules, which would lead them to believe that they have met the 'fair presentation' requirement. However, there is reason to believe that the same would be essentially acts of financial engineering that are designed to comply with the "letter" of the standard, but not its principles or spirit. Further, it may be stated that only through utilizing and applying IAS could a principles-based accounting standard be implemented.

Sources Cited

Eighty Sketches of Sermons: Together with an Introductory Essay, by Francis Close, 1861, original from Oxford University, digitized in 2006.

Terrell, Dailey Burnham. Logic: A Modern Introduction to Deductive Reasoning.

Principles not Rules: Report on Proceedings of Financial Instrument Workshops, The Institute of Chartered Accountants in Scotland (2006a). Web.

The Institute of Chartered Accountants of Scotland, Accounting Standards Based on Principles or Rules? A Matter of Opinion (2006b). Web.

1995. Whittington & Pany, Principles of Auditing, IRWIN, London, United Kingdom, United States.

Footnotes

1995. Whittington & Pany, Principles of Auditing, IRWIN, London, United Kingdom, United States. The Institute of Chartered Accountants of Scotland, Accounting Standards Based on Principles or Rules? A Matter of Opinion (2006b). The Institute of Chartered Accountants of Scotland, Principles not Rules: Report on Proceedings of Financial Instrument Workshops, available on the World Wide Web (2006a). Web. Ibid. Terrell, Dailey Burnham Terrell Logic: A Contemporary Introduction to Inferential Reasoning Holt, Rinehart and Winston, 1967. Principles not Rules: Report on Proceedings of Financial Instrument Workshops, The Institute of Chartered Accountants in Scotland (2006a). Close, Francis. Together with an Introductory Essay, Eighty Sketches of Sermons, 1861, Original from Oxford University, Digitized in 2006.

[supanova question]

The purpose of this study is to investigate critically the assertion that rules-based accounting adds additional complexity, fosters financial engineering, and does not necessarily lead to a "true and fair view" or "fair presentation." This article argues that the International Accounting Standard (IAS), which essentially employs a principles-based approach to establishing accounting standards, will assist in achieving the goal of presenting a truthful and fair view or 'fair presentation'

According to critics, the current US GAAP guidelines are rules-based rather than principles-based, and their application has not produced a "true and fair view" or "fair presentation." This is despite assertions in the usual independent auditor's report that the audited company's financial statements portray the operation and financial results accurately. 1 To achieve the desired purpose in financial reporting, it is argued here that the International Accounting Standard, which is founded on principles, should be implemented as an alternative. In reality, the Sarbanes-Oxley Act of 2002 recognized the necessity to implement accounting standards based on principles. 2

The report by The Institute of Chartered Accountants of Scotland (ICAS) on its Report on Proceedings of Financial Instrument Workshops in 2006 concerning the group examination of IAS 39, which refers to financial instruments: recognition and measurement, provides evidence that the international accounting standard has adopted a principles-based standard rather than a rules-based standard.

3 The group was especially concerned with establishing standards for cash and cash contracts.

The group has also explored the distinction between a principle and a rule, concluding that nomenclature is unimportant and that what is required is a clear hierarchy of overarching principles, as in the case of a conceptual framework, followed by supporting guidance for these principles.

4 Despite the fact that the group did not explicitly define what constitutes a principle and what constitutes a rule, it can be inferred from their work that they recognised the need to employ principles and supporting information. This scholar considers direction to be synonymous with regulations. Therefore, the use of rules cannot be eliminated entirely from the standard-setting process.

However, there is a distinction between rule-based and principle-based standard-setting. To use a rules-based approach would entail stating the standards first in terms of rules and then possibly qualifying them with principles, which is an inverted way of attempting to have a standard that is conceptually broad enough to cover every transaction while allowing exceptions through the use of rules.

The ICAS group highlighted the need for a written standard that satisfies the high-level principles described in the applicable Framework or Concept Statement. It is easier to agree that a concept is written in principle as a matter of broad statement as opposed to stating it as a specific statement that may be equated to a rule and which may only be relevant in certain circumstances. In logic, presenting an argument deductively is more compelling than inductively. 5 Such a logical approach, when applied to standard-setting, would be analogous to using general statements or concept statements as the basis for proposing possible exceptions to rules when circumstances warrant.

The ICAS working group was tasked with resolving the Principles versus Rules controversy within international accounting standard-setting, and their final report favored the use of principles-based rather than rules-based accounting standards. In underlining the significance of the findings, the working group's report reached a conclusion regarding the appropriateness of a principles-based approach to standard-setting, which was deemed essential in order to meet the needs of industry and the public interest. In addition, the panel came to the conclusion that worldwide convergence of accounting standards is unattainable under a rules-driven, thorough approach. 6 The latter result may be contested on the basis of simple cultural differences between nations.

The working group did actually remark that "rules-based accounting adds unnecessary complexity, encourages financial engineering, and does not necessarily lead to a true and fair view or fair presentation." The group demonstrated this by exploring an alternate model for financial instruments if the same were to be developed from scratch. This researcher could only concur, as rules-based accounting standards would be focused on mere compliance with the "letter" of the rules, rather than the "spirit" or concepts of the standard that should provide its broad adoption and applications, regardless of cultural differences, life. The letter of the law is considered to kill, but the spirit gives life. 7 The same might be implemented in regular environments.

It can be concluded that rules-based accounting would add necessary complexity because accounting professionals or individuals preparing financial statements would always assert that they have complied with accounting rules, which would lead them to believe that they have met the 'fair presentation' requirement. However, there is reason to believe that the same would be essentially acts of financial engineering that are designed to comply with the "letter" of the standard, but not its principles or spirit. Further, it may be stated that only through utilizing and applying IAS could a principles-based accounting standard be implemented.

Sources Cited

Eighty Sketches of Sermons: Together with an Introductory Essay, by Francis Close, 1861, original from Oxford University, digitized in 2006.

Terrell, Dailey Burnham. Logic: A Modern Introduction to Deductive Reasoning.

Principles not Rules: Report on Proceedings of Financial Instrument Workshops, The Institute of Chartered Accountants in Scotland (2006a). Web.

The Institute of Chartered Accountants of Scotland, Accounting Standards Based on Principles or Rules? A Matter of Opinion (2006b). Web.

1995. Whittington & Pany, Principles of Auditing, IRWIN, London, United Kingdom, United States.

Footnotes

1995. Whittington & Pany, Principles of Auditing, IRWIN, London, United Kingdom, United States. The Institute of Chartered Accountants of Scotland, Accounting Standards Based on Principles or Rules? A Matter of Opinion (2006b). The Institute of Chartered Accountants of Scotland, Principles not Rules: Report on Proceedings of Financial Instrument Workshops, available on the World Wide Web (2006a). Web. Ibid. Terrell, Dailey Burnham Terrell Logic: A Contemporary Introduction to Inferential Reasoning Holt, Rinehart and Winston, 1967. Principles not Rules: Report on Proceedings of Financial Instrument Workshops, The Institute of Chartered Accountants in Scotland (2006a). Close, Francis. Together with an Introductory Essay, Eighty Sketches of Sermons, 1861, Original from Oxford University, Digitized in 2006.

[supanova question]

The Bosch-Siemens Hausgerate Group Innovation In A Technology Management Perspective Gp Essay Help

Table of Contents
Introduction: Responses Discussion Comparison Bibliography

Introduction

The Bosch-Siemens Hausgerate Group (BSHG) is a German electrical and electronic consumer goods producer. Since 1989, the corporation has prioritized environmental conservation as a means of aligning economic objectives with environmental protection. However, the regulatory system has implemented regulations requiring manufacturers to take corrective environmental protection measures. In this regard, BSGH initiated an invention that would adapt to regulatory measures and assure the achievement of corporate objectives. The purpose of the environmental protection strategy is to make the manufacturing processes more eco-friendly and to clean up the environmental mess caused by earlier corporate initiatives through collection, disposal, and recycling efforts. This invention encompasses the entire product life cycle, from product design to production to packaging to use and expiration. Due to apparent benefits, the organization has implemented project monitoring and performance enhancement measures.

This report aims to assess the BSHG innovation from a technology management standpoint. First, the paper addresses case study concerns regarding the innovation's development, management, implementation, and monitoring. The section then discusses the lessons learned from the case study analysis. Finally, there is a comparison between the innovations of BSHG and EKATO Ruhrwerke, in which the many areas of technology management are considered. Despite the fact that technology innovation is a strategic response to certain organizational difficulties, the organizational management structure, strategy, and commercial objectives are the most relevant factors.

Answers

The Bosch-Siemens Hausgerate Group (BSHG) implemented an environmental management policy and protective measures for a variety of motives. Initially, the organization intended to address environmental challenges resulting from industrial activity. In Europe and Germany in particular, the disposal of obsolete equipment has become a big issue. Second, the corporation desired to comply with government-mandated environmental requirements. The German government approved a new recycling law that imposes stringent obligations on producers of electronic and electrical products and other appliances. Thirdly, the organization desired to pursue its environmental preservation goal. Since 1989, environmental preservation has played an integral role in all BSHG business operations.

The sophisticated technology was introduced by BSHG through the implementation of defined organizational and environmental frameworks in which all departments and employees contributed to environmental protection. Every accountable individual was included in the structure. In addition to outlining the functions of specific individuals, the organization had a hierarchy that included the chairman, steering committee, working groups, and environmental department. The responsibilities were transferred downward and centralized inside the environmental department.

Lack of skilled personnel and poor program communication was one of the primary obstacles to the deployment of the sophisticated technology. The program's success depends heavily on staff dedication. To ensure a qualified staff, the company provided workers with ample opportunities for continuing education and personal growth. The program's dissemination was bolstered by special courses and in-house publications that reported on environmental actions. The corporation overcame the hurdle of employee adoption of the technology by boosting understanding of corporate norms.

The new technology is implemented as a procedure that is designed to address all potential environmental risk areas. The process begins with the creation of recyclable products during the product design phase. This technique maintains waste minimization and the use of eco-friendly materials in the production and packaging of goods. The process continues to the working life stage, where energy usage is correspondingly lowered. At the expiration date of the products, the technology either reuses or disposes of the products. The procedure also includes a method for the return and disposal of expired products from other producers. Transport pollution, environmental regulations for suppliers, the deployment of environmental protection measures, and the pursuit of stability are other systems operated by the technology.

The contribution of environmental protection technology to performance enhancement is measured using an input-output statement that compares several environmental criteria. This involves the measurement of emissions, raw materials, packing, drainage, water usage, and toxic contaminants. In addition, success metrics for designing new products, conserving energy, lowering and enhancing packaging, and incorporating recycled materials into new products continue to increase year.

According to the case study, the central environmental department, local environmental advisors, and outside qualified assessors monitor the efficiency of the technology (Schilling, 2010, p.172). Monitoring the technology entails setting internal measures and benchmarks to quantify development and, if possible, compare them to those of other companies. The investment decisions are made in an effort to comply with Germany's increasingly stringent environmental legislation, to improve the company's ecological balance and so align with company policy, and to enhance the quality of its products. This proposal for new technologies likely originated from the environmental protection department working its way down the organizational ladder.

The improved technology has both direct and indirect expenses, which have been offset by the indirect benefits. These advantages include attaining a positive image through environmental sensitivity, increasing staff motivation through more open contact with the company, and preventing damage claims for environmental degradation. In addition, the technology provides a competitive edge on the market because the company is perceived as ecologically friendly.

Discussion

A key takeaway from the case study is that technological innovation may involve the improvement of an existing process or product. It is not only about creating whole new items or processes, but also about enhancing those that already exist. Schilling (2005) categorized the various types of innovation as radical innovation and incremental innovation. This lesson is confirmed by incremental innovation, which entails making modifications to an existing system. Since 1989, Bosch-Siemens Hausgerate Group has been engaged in environmental protection operations, but the environmental protection program in question is regarded as an innovation. Not only did the prior actions fail to comply with environmental requirements, but they also failed to incorporate the important aspects that can improve the environment and boost commercial success. The new environmental protection program is an innovation since it is a process.

The second lesson learned is that certain ideas require a centralized structure to be successful. In reality, well-developed procedures and standards help ensure that the organization makes better development investment decisions and can implement programs efficiently and rapidly (Dodgson, Gann & Salter, 2008, pp.165-171). Formalization, or the degree to which an organization uses rules, processes, and other documents to structure the behavior of individuals or groups, becomes crucial in this regard. The BSHG is committed to formalizing its environmental protection management standards and procedures. All responsible parties adhere to roles and obligations that are clearly stated. Regarding the innovation, the chairman, steering committee, working groups, and environmental departments are all aware of what is required of them.

The value of technology is mainly defined by the extent to which stakeholders are able to comprehend, access, and incorporate it into their daily life. Deployment, according to Rainey (2006), is not merely a means for the corporation to increase income from the invention; rather, it is the core of the innovation process itself. Here, strategic time becomes the driving force behind the innovation's success and acceptability. A corporation that fails to deploy an innovation when the stakeholders are prepared for it will fail just as surely as one that executes an innovation without conducting adequate market research. The environmental protection innovation was adopted by BSHG when the majority of stakeholders were prepared for it. In addition to providing environmental education and awareness to staff, the government and consumers anticipated that the corporation would be more concerned about environmental deterioration. This scheduling ensured the company's compliance with standards while simultaneously boosting employee morale and consumer loyalty.

In conclusion, the case study demonstrates the importance of controlling a technology innovation process. Not only does proper management assure the success of the innovation, but it also keeps the costs of the procedures to a minimum. Appropriate administration will comprise decreasing the development cycle time, integrating stakeholders, and establishing development process indicators (Schilling, 2005). In order to shorten development cycle time, BSHG maintains a parallel development process in the environmental protection program in which activities overlap. As the company designs new items, outdated ones are simultaneously collected from customers and producers for recycling. Employees and vendors are also involved in the company's environmental protection initiative. The performance improvement is measured by a variety of parameters and monitored by the environmental department at the central office.

Comparison

The technological developments of the Bosch-Siemens Hausgerate Group and EKATO Ruhrwerke share a lot of similarities. Both are process innovations as opposed to product innovations. According to the technology management perspective, process innovations are intended to increase the production's effectiveness or efficiency. Environmental protection efforts associated with BSHG innovation include the production of recyclable products, the recycling of expired products, and their proper disposal. Similarly, the invention of EKATO aims to enhance the manufacturing process by reorganizing the company in order to streamline the management and labor operations. Consequently, the purpose of both innovations were to link company objectives with organizational operations in order to address the rising challenges.

The organizational structure built to spearhead the projects reveals a second similarity. Both procedures were carried out by teamwork. In contrast to the EKATO organization, the BSHG had only two types of teams, albeit all of them were task-oriented. The teams consisted of employees with past experience with the respective companies. The personnel were prepared for the innovation by acquiring the appropriate expertise. In the case of BSHG, the personnel participated in environmental protection courses, while at EKATO they received organizational training. In all instances, communication was improved to secure employee acceptance of the change.

Nevertheless, there were numerous distinctions between the BSHG and EKATO inventions. One of them concerned the scope of the organizational transformation. The EKATO innovation entailed a fundamental reorganization of the entire company. With the adoption of a decentralized structure, the decision-making process became more flexible. During team development, team leadership played a major role, and subsequent tasks were allocated by team leaders. BSHG was a centralized organization. The chairman of the project was the ultimate leader, with greater accountability for project decisions. From the chairman all the way down to the work groups, tasks were delegated in a hierarchical fashion.

The nature of the inventions is another distinction. The EKATO project was revolutionary in the sense that it was entirely novel (Rainey, 2006, p.424). The company's physical infrastructure, organizational structure, and business idea were substantially modified as part of a revolutionary transition. In addition, the human resources were required to undergo comprehensive training that established a new way of thinking about the project and the business in general. The outcomes also resulted in a total transformation of the organizational culture and behavior. On the other hand, BSHG engaged in a type of innovation that was incremental. In this instance, the company expanded on a project that had been initiated with renewed zeal and concentration. The program for environmental protection required the integration of all relevant corporate operations, including design, production, packaging, and distribution. In this approach, the company looked to have prolonged an existing underperforming project.

References

Dodgson, M, Gann, D M & Salter, A 2008, The strategy and practice of technological innovation management. London's Oxford University Press.

Sustainable business development: designing the future via strategy, innovation, and leadership. Rainey, D.L., 2006. London's Cambridge University Press.

M. A. Schilling, Strategic management of technological innovation, 2005. The New York location of McGraw-Hill Irwin.

M. A. Schilling, Strategic management of technological innovation, 2010. The New York location of McGraw-Hill Irwin.

[supanova question]

Quality Management And Performance Model Gp Essay Help

Table of Contents
Introduction Definition of excellence Quality administration Model of quality management and performance Five reviews of excellent administration References

Introduction

The components of the concept of quality management (QM) have long been the subject of human endeavors. Nonetheless, the topic of quality management has not been thoroughly explored in the preceding literature. This is evident in written form, where scientists and chiefs have given varying connotations to the concept. The inability to find a definition that could be applied universally and the lack of grasp of quality management terminology may account for a significant amount of the difficulties encountered by supervisors in its use. Understanding the significance of quality is vital since quality management is a long-term, resource-intensive endeavor (Antony & Preece, 2002).

The purpose of the literature review is to analyze the variety of definitions offered by several scientists. Several global self-assessment models for evaluating the quality management effort will be covered. Lastly, an audit is conducted by the International Organization for Standardization (ISO 9000:2000), which provides a framework as a shared factor of what global business quality entails, and Six Sigma, which is a valid and effective procedure modification philosophy to achieve QM.

Definition of excellence

Antony and Preece (2002), who claimed that quality as a large-scale capacity of foundations must be present in the day-to-day operations of an organization, summed up the need for quality as a fundamental component in the development of organizational processes. For instance, the basis of strategies, the selection procedure, the selection of the personnel, the allocation of assets, the interpretation of client demands, and the delivery of administrative services.

The authors indicated that quality methodology as a crucial component has imparted a different way of thinking about quality, since it promotes improved product and service execution. According to Antony and Preece (2002), quality is no longer a discretionary variable; it is an essential survival strategy. QM improves the quality of customer-offered goods and services. Consequently, we must examine the notion of quality management. According to Antony and Preece (2002), an organization's worth is increased by quality, consistency, excellent service delivery, and competitive price. Quality is the most important of these aggressive weapons, however it is difficult to define in a few words. Quality offers many marvels in business and sociology (Murgatroyd & Morgan, 1999).

Quality excludes items and services, but includes time, environment, tools, forms, individuals, security, and data estimation (Murgatroyd & Morgan, 1999). Quality is a progressive process that must be so pervasive throughout an organization that it becomes its guiding philosophy and culture. Each foundation and office in the firm must adopt the same system in order to provide the customer with greater quality, reduced costs, faster response, and remarkable adaptability (Sallis, 2002).

There appears to be no universal understanding and interpretation of the significance of the term quality, and even clearly understood authors appear to have differing perspectives on this topic. According to Murgatroyd and Morgan (1999), the search for the meaning of value has produced contradictory outcomes. The authors emphasized that inattention to quality management framework has resulted lack muddled definitions and has been used to show a vast array of marvels.

Quality administration

Quality management has been defined as “rationality or a method of administration” comprised of “an arrangement of mutually reinforcing standards, each of which is supported by an arrangement of practices and strategies” (Endres, 2000). QM has unified legitimacy since there is substantial agreement among authors regarding the essential criteria and procedures of quality management. QM logic and practice may be reliably identified across hierarchical change systems.

At the level of practice, an assessment of whether quality management exists and what constitutes QM should be made at the observational level. Practices are the observable aspect of quality management, and they are the means by which directors recognize authoritative changes. For experimental exploration, the standards are extremely broad, and techniques are crucial, making it impossible to obtain reliable results. Few studies have attempted to organize the quality management literature and identify the key measurements.

The consistency of past QM literature's findings illustrates that the subject of quality management has matured and is now based on solid definitions of organizations. However, future investigation must build upon the present foundation. Future research should express the extent to which they are leaning toward quality management content, such as standards, practices, or methodologies. The expert group’s examination of the expanding breadth of practices under the QM umbrella while attempting to re-bundle and make it more marketable is a tendency that poses a threat to the integrity of the field’s applied institutions.

For example, the expansion of quality appraisal systems has resulted in their transformation into "business brilliance" models rather than quality models alone. This pattern has the risk of undermining the validity of quality management, a challenge that researchers must address.

Model of quality management and performance

An key area of research in quality management has been the evaluation of its impact on business performance. The quality execution model illustrates the limited ways in which quality management approach can affect the quality, operations, and business performance. Quality management proponents argue that the implementation of QM procedures reduces manufacturing process inconsistency through the use of factual procedure control.

Sallis (2002) evaluated the impact of internal procedure quality and product routine on corporate operations and growth. Regarding the impact of value on business performance, he offered two primary courses: the manufacturing course and the business sector course. Enhanced interior procedure quality during the assembly process, resulting in fewer absconds, scrap, and increased operational execution (lower fabricating costs, more reliable procedures). In the course of the market, improvements in product quality result in increased sales and a larger share of the whole industry, or decreased adaptability and higher prices. Less flexible interest rates and more costs will improve corporate performance. Increased item quality can ultimately result in reduced assurance and item obligation costs, resulting in reduced administration expenses and enhanced business performance (Procedure for Management Review Meetings, 2015).

Five reviews of excellent administration

The techniques and apparatuses for ensuring quality may have evolved throughout time, but the fundamental consumer needs have remained essentially unchanged (Garvin, 2015). All firms produce and sell products and services with varying degrees of both; consequently, organizations must focus on product and service quality. Although there are different definitions of value, it is appropriate to gain a deeper grasp of the meanings of experts such as Deming, Crosby, Feigenbaum, Ishikawa, and Juran.

These gurus ensure that their definitions, medications, conclusions, and proposals are equally effective in producing products and delivering services. From the various definitions of value demonstrated by these masters in their writings, it appears that there are two levels to the concept of value: level one, by creating products or providing services whose quantifiable qualities meet a predetermined set of specifications, and level two, products and services that satisfy client desires for their use.

Level one quality implies conformity to specifications, while level two quality implies client satisfaction. Garvin (2015) stated that quality encompasses a great lot more than level one, particular compliance to specifications. They identified eight characteristics for categorisation, including:

Achievement, structures, consistent quality, conformity, sturdiness, usability, aesthetics, and worth.

Based on both levels, each of the five writing masters characterizes quality differently.

Crosby's definition of value is “meeting prerequisites,” which is classified as level one. Consequently, his analysis can be condensed into three components.

It is essential to define the quality. One must comprehend the requirements and be able to translate these requirements into quantitative product or service characteristics. It is essential to evaluate the quality of a product or service. Crosby's concept implied that there are two levels of quality: acceptable and unacceptable.

Deming's perspective on value is based on level two criteria, and he described quality as multidimensional. He defined quality management as the competence to make a product or provide services that satisfy the needs of the client in order to guarantee customer satisfaction. Through this notion, he drew a parallel between excellence and consumer loyalty. His fundamental contentions are:

This quality must be characterized by customer satisfaction. Quality is multidimensional, such that it is difficult to characterize the quality of a product or service with a single trademark or operator. There are varying degrees of value due to the correlation between quality and consumer loyalty (Garvin, 2015).

Feigenbaum's definition of value is a level two definition, and he defined quality as “The aggregate composite item and service attributes of marketing, building, assembling, and maintenance through which the item and administration being used will satisfy the client's desires.” On the basis of the definition, Feigenbaum's theory of quality management can be broken down into three components.

Consumer loyalty must describe this quality. Quality is complex and must be exhaustively characterized. As the needs and expectations of customers evolved, quality has evolved.

Ishikawa's interpretation of value corresponds to level two definitions. We participate in quality control with the intention of producing high-quality products that meet the needs of customers. Ishikawa makes it obvious that superior quality is necessary to accommodate the shifting purchasing habits of consumers. Ishikawa's quality management ideas can be summed up in three components.

This quality is equivalent to the buyer's satisfaction. Quality must be exhaustively characterized. The wants and requirements of buyers are constantly in flux. The price of a product or service is a significant indicator of its quality.

Juran considers synchronous endeavors to be level one and level two definitions of value. He defined quality in light of its significance.

Quality consists of those goods that answer the needs of customers and provide item fulfillment. Flexibility from deficiency is a component of quality.

Garvin (2015) defined quality as conformity to a set of client requirements that, if met, result in a product or service that is suitable for its intended use.

Antony and Preece (2002) proposed an alternative interpretation by emphasizing the aesthetic and dynamic qualities of value. Quality is what surprises and captivates the customer. The use of “conformance” implies that a reasonable detail must be satisfied (the assembling approach). Crosby's definitions provide support for this perspective on value. Utilizing “customers' desires” is an effort to combine customer- and value-based approaches.

The definitions of Feigenbaum and Ishikawa strengthen this perspective on quality. It believes that the product or service must satisfy customer needs, which are determined by price. By consistently addressing client needs, the definition of fulfillment can advance to a higher level: captivating the client. Antony and Preece (2002) backed the previously mentioned viewpoints by defining quality as consistently delivering what the client requires while reducing previously incurred errors.

In the pursuit of consumer loyalty, the concept of meeting or exceeding customers' requirements has become an ideological trailblazer. Nevertheless, quality is less a result and more a process of continuously raising the quality of what an organization produces (Procedure for Management Review Meetings, 2015).

Consider quality from the perspective of clients and potential customers. The purpose of establishment should be to satisfy the existing demands of customers with high-quality products and to anticipate, suspect, and create future needs. This necessitates the establishment of close ties between the firms and their customers (Procedure for Management Review Meetings, 2015).

References

Antony, J., and D. Preece (2002). Frameworks, methods, and examples for comprehending, managing, and implementing quality. New York, United States of America: Routledge Publishers.

Endres, A. (2000). Implementing Juran's quality leadership road map: benchmarks and outcomes. New York, United States: Wiley.

Garvin, D. (2015). (2015). Competing on the eight quality dimensions. 101–10 in Harvard Business Review, 45(9).

Murgatroyd, S., & Morgan, C. (1993). Total quality management and the educational institution. Open University Press, South Melbourne, Australia.

Management Review Meeting Procedure (2015). Web.

New York, United States: Sallis, E. (2002). Total quality management in education. Kogan Page.

[supanova question]

Quality Management And Performance Model Gp Essay Help

Table of Contents
Introduction Definition of excellence Quality administration Model of quality management and performance Five reviews of excellent administration References

Introduction

The components of the concept of quality management (QM) have long been the subject of human endeavors. Nonetheless, the topic of quality management has not been thoroughly explored in the preceding literature. This is evident in written form, where scientists and chiefs have given varying connotations to the concept. The inability to find a definition that could be applied universally and the lack of grasp of quality management terminology may account for a significant amount of the difficulties encountered by supervisors in its use. Understanding the significance of quality is vital since quality management is a long-term, resource-intensive endeavor (Antony & Preece, 2002).

The purpose of the literature review is to analyze the variety of definitions offered by several scientists. Several global self-assessment models for evaluating the quality management effort will be covered. Lastly, an audit is conducted by the International Organization for Standardization (ISO 9000:2000), which provides a framework as a shared factor of what global business quality entails, and Six Sigma, which is a valid and effective procedure modification philosophy to achieve QM.

Definition of excellence

Antony and Preece (2002), who claimed that quality as a large-scale capacity of foundations must be present in the day-to-day operations of an organization, summed up the need for quality as a fundamental component in the development of organizational processes. For instance, the basis of strategies, the selection procedure, the selection of the personnel, the allocation of assets, the interpretation of client demands, and the delivery of administrative services.

The authors indicated that quality methodology as a crucial component has imparted a different way of thinking about quality, since it promotes improved product and service execution. According to Antony and Preece (2002), quality is no longer a discretionary variable; it is an essential survival strategy. QM improves the quality of customer-offered goods and services. Consequently, we must examine the notion of quality management. According to Antony and Preece (2002), an organization's worth is increased by quality, consistency, excellent service delivery, and competitive price. Quality is the most important of these aggressive weapons, however it is difficult to define in a few words. Quality offers many marvels in business and sociology (Murgatroyd & Morgan, 1999).

Quality excludes items and services, but includes time, environment, tools, forms, individuals, security, and data estimation (Murgatroyd & Morgan, 1999). Quality is a progressive process that must be so pervasive throughout an organization that it becomes its guiding philosophy and culture. Each foundation and office in the firm must adopt the same system in order to provide the customer with greater quality, reduced costs, faster response, and remarkable adaptability (Sallis, 2002).

There appears to be no universal understanding and interpretation of the significance of the term quality, and even clearly understood authors appear to have differing perspectives on this topic. According to Murgatroyd and Morgan (1999), the search for the meaning of value has produced contradictory outcomes. The authors emphasized that inattention to quality management framework has resulted lack muddled definitions and has been used to show a vast array of marvels.

Quality administration

Quality management has been defined as “rationality or a method of administration” comprised of “an arrangement of mutually reinforcing standards, each of which is supported by an arrangement of practices and strategies” (Endres, 2000). QM has unified legitimacy since there is substantial agreement among authors regarding the essential criteria and procedures of quality management. QM logic and practice may be reliably identified across hierarchical change systems.

At the level of practice, an assessment of whether quality management exists and what constitutes QM should be made at the observational level. Practices are the observable aspect of quality management, and they are the means by which directors recognize authoritative changes. For experimental exploration, the standards are extremely broad, and techniques are crucial, making it impossible to obtain reliable results. Few studies have attempted to organize the quality management literature and identify the key measurements.

The consistency of past QM literature's findings illustrates that the subject of quality management has matured and is now based on solid definitions of organizations. However, future investigation must build upon the present foundation. Future research should express the extent to which they are leaning toward quality management content, such as standards, practices, or methodologies. The expert group’s examination of the expanding breadth of practices under the QM umbrella while attempting to re-bundle and make it more marketable is a tendency that poses a threat to the integrity of the field’s applied institutions.

For example, the expansion of quality appraisal systems has resulted in their transformation into "business brilliance" models rather than quality models alone. This pattern has the risk of undermining the validity of quality management, a challenge that researchers must address.

Model of quality management and performance

An key area of research in quality management has been the evaluation of its impact on business performance. The quality execution model illustrates the limited ways in which quality management approach can affect the quality, operations, and business performance. Quality management proponents argue that the implementation of QM procedures reduces manufacturing process inconsistency through the use of factual procedure control.

Sallis (2002) evaluated the impact of internal procedure quality and product routine on corporate operations and growth. Regarding the impact of value on business performance, he offered two primary courses: the manufacturing course and the business sector course. Enhanced interior procedure quality during the assembly process, resulting in fewer absconds, scrap, and increased operational execution (lower fabricating costs, more reliable procedures). In the course of the market, improvements in product quality result in increased sales and a larger share of the whole industry, or decreased adaptability and higher prices. Less flexible interest rates and more costs will improve corporate performance. Increased item quality can ultimately result in reduced assurance and item obligation costs, resulting in reduced administration expenses and enhanced business performance (Procedure for Management Review Meetings, 2015).

Five reviews of excellent administration

The techniques and apparatuses for ensuring quality may have evolved throughout time, but the fundamental consumer needs have remained essentially unchanged (Garvin, 2015). All firms produce and sell products and services with varying degrees of both; consequently, organizations must focus on product and service quality. Although there are different definitions of value, it is appropriate to gain a deeper grasp of the meanings of experts such as Deming, Crosby, Feigenbaum, Ishikawa, and Juran.

These gurus ensure that their definitions, medications, conclusions, and proposals are equally effective in producing products and delivering services. From the various definitions of value demonstrated by these masters in their writings, it appears that there are two levels to the concept of value: level one, by creating products or providing services whose quantifiable qualities meet a predetermined set of specifications, and level two, products and services that satisfy client desires for their use.

Level one quality implies conformity to specifications, while level two quality implies client satisfaction. Garvin (2015) stated that quality encompasses a great lot more than level one, particular compliance to specifications. They identified eight characteristics for categorisation, including:

Achievement, structures, consistent quality, conformity, sturdiness, usability, aesthetics, and worth.

Based on both levels, each of the five writing masters characterizes quality differently.

Crosby's definition of value is “meeting prerequisites,” which is classified as level one. Consequently, his analysis can be condensed into three components.

It is essential to define the quality. One must comprehend the requirements and be able to translate these requirements into quantitative product or service characteristics. It is essential to evaluate the quality of a product or service. Crosby's concept implied that there are two levels of quality: acceptable and unacceptable.

Deming's perspective on value is based on level two criteria, and he described quality as multidimensional. He defined quality management as the competence to make a product or provide services that satisfy the needs of the client in order to guarantee customer satisfaction. Through this notion, he drew a parallel between excellence and consumer loyalty. His fundamental contentions are:

This quality must be characterized by customer satisfaction. Quality is multidimensional, such that it is difficult to characterize the quality of a product or service with a single trademark or operator. There are varying degrees of value due to the correlation between quality and consumer loyalty (Garvin, 2015).

Feigenbaum's definition of value is a level two definition, and he defined quality as “The aggregate composite item and service attributes of marketing, building, assembling, and maintenance through which the item and administration being used will satisfy the client's desires.” On the basis of the definition, Feigenbaum's theory of quality management can be broken down into three components.

Consumer loyalty must describe this quality. Quality is complex and must be exhaustively characterized. As the needs and expectations of customers evolved, quality has evolved.

Ishikawa's interpretation of value corresponds to level two definitions. We participate in quality control with the intention of producing high-quality products that meet the needs of customers. Ishikawa makes it obvious that superior quality is necessary to accommodate the shifting purchasing habits of consumers. Ishikawa's quality management ideas can be summed up in three components.

This quality is equivalent to the buyer's satisfaction. Quality must be exhaustively characterized. The wants and requirements of buyers are constantly in flux. The price of a product or service is a significant indicator of its quality.

Juran considers synchronous endeavors to be level one and level two definitions of value. He defined quality in light of its significance.

Quality consists of those goods that answer the needs of customers and provide item fulfillment. Flexibility from deficiency is a component of quality.

Garvin (2015) defined quality as conformity to a set of client requirements that, if met, result in a product or service that is suitable for its intended use.

Antony and Preece (2002) proposed an alternative interpretation by emphasizing the aesthetic and dynamic qualities of value. Quality is what surprises and captivates the customer. The use of “conformance” implies that a reasonable detail must be satisfied (the assembling approach). Crosby's definitions provide support for this perspective on value. Utilizing “customers' desires” is an effort to combine customer- and value-based approaches.

The definitions of Feigenbaum and Ishikawa strengthen this perspective on quality. It believes that the product or service must satisfy customer needs, which are determined by price. By consistently addressing client needs, the definition of fulfillment can advance to a higher level: captivating the client. Antony and Preece (2002) backed the previously mentioned viewpoints by defining quality as consistently delivering what the client requires while reducing previously incurred errors.

In the pursuit of consumer loyalty, the concept of meeting or exceeding customers' requirements has become an ideological trailblazer. Nevertheless, quality is less a result and more a process of continuously raising the quality of what an organization produces (Procedure for Management Review Meetings, 2015).

Consider quality from the perspective of clients and potential customers. The purpose of establishment should be to satisfy the existing demands of customers with high-quality products and to anticipate, suspect, and create future needs. This necessitates the establishment of close ties between the firms and their customers (Procedure for Management Review Meetings, 2015).

References

Antony, J., and D. Preece (2002). Frameworks, methods, and examples for comprehending, managing, and implementing quality. New York, United States of America: Routledge Publishers.

Endres, A. (2000). Implementing Juran's quality leadership road map: benchmarks and outcomes. New York, United States: Wiley.

Garvin, D. (2015). (2015). Competing on the eight quality dimensions. 101–10 in Harvard Business Review, 45(9).

Murgatroyd, S., & Morgan, C. (1993). Total quality management and the educational institution. Open University Press, South Melbourne, Australia.

Management Review Meeting Procedure (2015). Web.

New York, United States: Sallis, E. (2002). Total quality management in education. Kogan Page.

[supanova question]

Diversity Management Within A Public Organization Gp Essay Help

Table of Contents
Introduction Background Literature Evaluation Conclusion References

Introduction

In the United States, diversity management has been a matter of discussion for decades. According to Riccucci (2018), the issue is directly related to the problem of equal employment opportunity. Companies have made efforts to provide this possibility to their employees. This has resulted in numerous difficulties for managers, brought about by the heterogeneous environment (Riccucci, 2018). The process of managing people with diverse perspectives, opinions, and backgrounds can be difficult since it can result in misunderstandings and confrontations. This does not, however, imply that such situations are ineffective. Contrary to this, research have demonstrated that a diverse workforce is advantageous for public organizations (Ashikali & Groeneveld, 2015a). People that operate in such an environment are more driven to exert greater effort, and as a result, they produce more value. In this atmosphere, the potential of the personnel can be utilized more efficiently with competent management. The purpose of this article is to investigate the relationship between diversity management and increased performance of individuals in public institutions by capitalizing on their skills, knowledge, and talents.

Background

The topic of the benefits of workforce diversity to public organizations is intriguing since workforce diversity is an inevitable result of social growth (Block & Noumair, 2017). The issue of equal employment opportunities can be remedied by employing individuals from diverse backgrounds. Additionally, such tactics might provide companies with a competitive advantage, as these individuals can give diverse perspectives and ideas. As stated by Riccucci (2018), "the manner in which government employers embrace this opportunity for diversity will differentiate effective and efficient organizations from those that are unproductive and unable to meet the demands and needs of the American people in the twenty-first century." (p.10).

Numerous studies have been conducted on the topic of worker diversity and its benefits. The majority of them concentrate on how it affects the productivity of institutions. Others, such as the study by Ashikali and Groeneveld (2015b), seek to comprehend the issue's impact on the vast majority of employees. In addition, it investigates whether they are deterred by the chances afforded to minorities. These studies aid in comprehending how various ecosystems should be managed. Diversity in the workforce is a major concern for organizational managers. I have not previously attempted to fix the issue. Having a greater understanding of the topic, I would now use interviews and surveys to determine the employees' perspectives on the issue in the specific establishment.

Literature Review

The topic is significant to current institutions and merits debate since it is a method for organizations to influence the skills, knowledge, and talents of their employees by mixing diverse cultural surroundings, perspectives, and experiences. Diversity can signify not just diverse cultural backgrounds but also distinct points of view. Trittin and Schoeneborn (2017) asserted that the definition of the term should be broadened to encompass a variety of perspectives within an organization. It is possible to argue that hiring persons of different races is indicative of diverse work styles and life experiences. In order for a business to get the full benefits of diversity, it must employ individuals with diverse perspectives. In this approach, the talents and knowledge of the employees would be utilized, as they would be challenged by the competing viewpoints of their coworkers.

Important to the effectiveness of workforce diversity is the management paradigm employed to implement the practice. Ashikali and Groeneveld (2015b) intended to determine the relationship between these variables. It is crucial to comprehend how to effectively manage a public organization's diversified environment. In the absence of mitigation, the detrimental effect can diminish overall motivation. According to Ashikali and Groeneveld (2015a), "diversity has both positive and negative effects on work-related or employee outcomes" (p. 6). To avoid the opposite effect, management should focus on the competencies and capabilities of employees and hire individuals who will increase the organization's production.

The effects of diversity management in public organizations are influenced by how employees perceive it. Another study by Ashikali and Groeneveld (2015a) focuses on how employees view the institution's environment and the effect it has on their attitude and conduct. The study indicated that when employees perceive that their firm is inclusive, their dedication and organizational citizenship are more successful than in circumstances when the company is not inclusive. The research was conducted among Dutch public sector institutions. In order for these organizations to optimize the effectiveness of their staff, it is vital that the management build and effectively manage a diverse workplace.

Analysis

Diversity influences public organizations because it determines the work environment. According to Llorens, Klingner, and Nalbandian (2016), a company's culture cannot exist without diversity. Changes must be made to the institution's human resource processes in order for it to use workforce diversity as an employee motivational tool. People's skills, expertise, and abilities should be motivated and utilized to the fullest extent possible with the help of diversity management.

According to studies, good diversity management can have a favorable effect on employees' perceptions of the firm (Ashikali & Groeneveld, 2015b). Consequently, in such a scenario, the workforce will be more motivated. This will result in a more effective use of skills, knowledge, and abilities. Diversity of viewpoints is advantageous since it challenges the personnel and their abilities (Trittin & Schoeneborn, 2017). This can also be advantageous for the organization, since these personnel might provide a fresh perspective on issues and new ideas. This can provide a business with a competitive advantage and the opportunity for innovation. In all instances, it is necessary to manage diversity in a manner that does not exclusively emphasize the political and social necessity for diversity. This is accomplished by hiring workers with diverse cultural backgrounds but lacking the required skills and expertise. Such a policy can hinder the employee's desire to work. People within the organization should understand that the fundamental criterion for employment is the value they can offer to the organization.

Conclusion

Overall, diversity management remains an important aspect of public institution administration. Studies have demonstrated that a diverse workforce increases the institution's production. The correct application of the concept has the potential to enhance employees' perceptions of the organizational environment and boost performance. If the diversified environment is not well controlled, the reverse impact will occur. To effectively utilize an employee's skills and abilities, management should prioritize selecting individuals with diverse perspectives who can push others and introduce new ideas to the firm. However, it is essential to guarantee that these differences do not lead to major conflict. Recruiting policies ought to be adapted to improve the environment. To improve the company's performance, it is necessary to investigate the issue in depth and implement the appropriate policies.

References

Ashikali, T. S., & Groeneveld, S. M. (2015a). Diversity management in public enterprises and its impact on employees' affective commitment: The role of transformational leadership and inclusivity of organizational culture. 35(2), 146-168, Review of Public Personnel Administration. Web.

Ashikali, T. S., & Groeneveld, S. M. (2015b). Management of diversity for all? An empirical examination of the results of diversity management across groups. Personnel Review, 44(5), 757-789. Web.

Block, C. J., and D. A. Noumair (2017). Understanding the dynamics of diversity in systems: social equality as an issue of organizational transformation 150-155. The Journal of Applied Behavioral Science, 53(2). Web.

Llorens J. J., Klingner, D. E., & Nalbandian J. (2016). Public personnel management (7th ed.). Routledge, New York, NY

Riccucci, N. M. (2018). Essentials of public policy and administration series; Managing diversity in public sector workforces Routledge, New York, NY

Trittin, H., & Schoeneborn, D. (2017). Diversity as polyphony: a communication-centered reconceptualization of diversity management. 144(2) Journal of Business Ethics: 305–322. Web.

[supanova_question]

Westonwich District Council: HRM Challenges Gp Essay Help

Table of Contents
Introduction The State of the Art: Survey Results Key Concerns Recommendations Conclusion Bibliography

Introduction

Today, concerns pertaining to the management of human resources in the public sector are of particular importance. Human resource management must shift its emphasis from administrative methods to the implementation of personnel policy, which is based on the system of civil servant and government agency interests (Bozeman and Su, 2015). Therefore, there is a need for the most recent scientific information and effective technologies in the field of human resource management, techniques of workforce development and management, and the research of novel technologies in dealing with staff. The application of current technologies for human resource management is a potential trend for the development of human resources in state and municipal government service. Using the example of the Westonwich District Council (WDC), which delivers a variety of local government services to a primarily rural community, the possibilities of their application will be illustrated in the section that follows.

The State of the Art: Survey Results

The WDC employee poll revealed troubling trends: 54% of respondents are actively seeking alternative work. This finding demonstrates the fundamental ineffectiveness of WDC's incentive and retention tactics and approaches. The conclusions can be classified as follows: responsibility, involvement, and advancement; work-life balance and workplace stress; financial reward and incentives; corporate culture and diversity. Despite the fact that certain categories have relatively positive outcomes, others suggest severe issues. The best results were obtained in the category of responsibility, participation, and promotion: 61% find their work rewarding, 44% are satisfied with the variety of work, and the level of satisfaction with the level of responsibility, as well as employees' perception of promotion opportunities, are high and correspond to the best standards even in commercial organizations; 71% and 70% of WDC employees are satisfied by these parameters, respectively (Wilkinson, Armstrong and Lounsbury, 2017). Nevertheless, even in this category, problems are evident: only 32% of employees are satisfied with their training and development opportunities, indicating not only a lack of proper corporate training, talent management, and workforce development, but also an improperly constructed system of promotion that is not based on employees' professional growth. This will certainly lead to problems with the promotion system in the future, as the system is not based on employees' competitive advantages and already represents missed opportunities and benefits as a result of not maximizing organizational performance potential.

WDC employees are unsatisfied with the excessive workload; 89% think their employment have been more stressful over the past few years, and 90% say they 'sometimes feel worried' at work. This is a key warning indicator for WDC, needing quick action to balance employee work duties and workload, restructure teams, implement effective business procedures, and enhance corporate information systems (IS). In addition, 55% are satisfied with their work-life balance, which is a somewhat surprising outcome given the two previously mentioned factors. Nonetheless, this allows for team formation and training within the context of organizational changes throughout business process reengineering and corporate IS alterations. To account for the fact that only 15% of WDC employees believe change is managed well, an acceptable change model should be selected prior to planning and implementing any changes, based on its theoretical implications and application to WDC-specific circumstances.

Culture and diversity within an organization might be defined as ambiguous. Some indices are quite satisfactory: 61% of respondents find their work gratifying, and 13% enjoy it "greatly"; 59% are satisfied with their physical work environment, and 88% are pleased with the council's equality and diversity practices. Similarly, only 28% believe they are "listened to at work," while 37% are content with the "amount of discretion" they are permitted to exercise in their jobs. Although these parameters can be attributed to the first category – responsibility, participation, and promotion – in the context of WDC HRM practices research, it is more expedient to consider them under the category of organizational culture, as it is one of the most important factors in today's motivational systems in all organizations, in both the private and public sectors. Analyzing the results for this category of responses reveals that the good characteristics of organizational culture and diversity are more often the result of statutory requirements for organizations in the public administration sector than the efforts of WDC executives. They are required to offer employees with ergonomic workspaces and adhere to diversity quotas, but it is clear from the survey results that the company does not utilize the benefits and possibilities of diversity to enhance organizational performance, as do commercial firms. Moreover, only 36% of employees are satisfied with their job security, which is significantly lower than the acceptable number in private sector businesses and is unusually low for public administration organizations (Esteve and Shuster, 2019). Being 'catalyzed' by low engagement and dissatisfaction with material incentives (21% are satisfied with their pay and benefits, but no one says they are'very satisfied'), this situation can lead to a catastrophic staffing situation in WDC and, as a result, the inability to provide adequate services to the covered population.

Key Concerns

On the basis of the brief analysis presented above, it can be concluded that the most important issues to address are our lack of talent management and well-organized business procedures, which constitute two fundamental approaches to the treatment of employee motivation. As a branch of psychology, motivation is founded on a definite psychological and scientific machinery. The study of human resource management examines two categories of theories of motivation: substantive and procedural. According to substantive theories, human wants are ranked in numerous ways. Maslow, with his notion of the hierarchy of needs, McClelland, and Herzberg, as well as other American psychologists and scholars, are among the proponents of this theory (Garley, 2015). Nonetheless, procedural theories favor taking into account factors other than the individual's requirements as the foundation for the construction of the reward system. They imply that the work and organizational behavior of employees is heavily influenced by internal attitudes and expectations. These theories seek to identify why an individual chooses a particular action and how to modify the factors that impact this decision (Garley, 2015). Proponents of procedural theories of motivation argue that an employee matches the challenge with his or her own objectives, motives, and expectations, and then chooses a particular form of conduct (Vokic and Hernaus, 2017). He/she establishes objectives based on the tasks provided, but decreases and alters them based on personal value orientations.

A poll reveals that motivating and encouraging personnel is the biggest difficult issue at WDC. The majority of employees are unsatisfied with the compensation system, and in their responses they highlighted its flaws, namely the lack of non-material incentives. Due to the organization's limited material resources, it must rely on non-material methods of motivation, which have long been acknowledged to be more effective on the long-term strategic plane than purely financial motivation tools.

Due to the enormous complexity and unpredictability of motivational elements and associated processes, it is not always possible for modern scientists and practitioners to establish effective working techniques to motivate and stimulate personnel. However, researchers on this issue agree that the interest of staff in achieving high labor results is a source of increasing the organization's functioning efficiency, a prerequisite for the implementation of its strategy, and a guarantee of an increase in potential and competitive status (Wilcox, 2016). The reality of this issue is supported by research findings: motivation increases labor productivity by up to 1.5 times (while demotivation decreases it by several times), reduces delays by 90 percent and absenteeism by 18 to 50 percent (Sparrow, 2015). 70% to 80% of a worker's professional potential and competencies are realized when he or she is highly motivated, compared to 20% to 30% at best when motivation is low. By improving employee motivation, it is feasible to increase their output by two to three times (Garley, 2015). Due to the scarcity of most types of material, technical, raw materials, financial, and other resources, effective motivation enables the achievement of high-performance indicators of the organization through the activation of human capital, i.e., without large investments, which makes the problem of motivation particularly pertinent for WDC.

Specifically, employee involvement represents the degree to which the employee's beliefs align with those of the organization. The effectiveness of this exercise can only be evaluated based on the contentment and participation of the workers. Engagement is the most essential social aspect of a team (Garley, 2015). Essentially, it resembles the economic attribute of its producing activity: labor productivity. Engagement has a direct effect on an organization's performance, such that with least financial and time input, an ideal result is attained (Niranjan and Thomas, 2018). A competent person is devoted to the organization; for him or her, work is the most essential aspect of life, and he or she constantly seeks growth and development, enjoys responsibility, and is able to create and fulfill goals.

In result, an effective talent management system may assure a high level of employee engagement. The term "talent" in the notion of talent management refers to an employee's abilities and personality qualities, knowledge, skills, and experience, motivational attributes, including motivation for learning, and professional growth and development (Rozman, Treven and Cancer, 2017). Such a system of characteristics makes it possible to achieve a result of labor that is differentiated by uniqueness, high quality, and social relevance, and it must match to the qualities and substance of the subject's professional activity, as well as the organization's strategic goals. Consequently, the talent management process is a deliberate action designed to establish in an organization a system for recruiting, developing, and retaining workers who can provide high-quality, unique, and socially significant work results (Sheridan, 2015). In addition, talent must be evaluated in light of the organization's strategic objectives, its corporate culture, and the overall backdrop of its activities.

One may claim that talent management is becoming a more vital factor in enhancing organizational success. As one of the strategic HRM approaches, it interacts with the other management functions, focusing on one of the organization's core resources — the people who implement the organizational strategy. Talent management is the implementation of an integrated strategy for managing numerous HR operations, including as hiring, onboarding, development and training, performance management, leadership, and career planning (Greene, 2020). Likewise, talent management activities are unachievable in the absence of well-defined and well-adjusted business procedures, under conditions of organizational instability or excessive workload, which hinders employees from working on their growth and demonstrating initiative and engagement. Innovative approaches promote HR operations to interact in real-time with an organization's business activities.

Without exaggeration, the workload of the employees is a reflection of the company's health. It should be kept in mind that even if one individual in the chain is loaded for eight hours while others are overloaded or underloaded, this might be considered a business process failure requiring correction. In this context, the primary objective of business process reengineering is to significantly enhance all performance metrics of the organization. Consequently, this procedure should result in optimal efficiency in the work of all corporate components, whether personnel or machinery (Bhaskar, 2017). At the same time, it is essential not to overburden personnel to the point where they are continuously in emergency mode and completing infinite activities, but rather to define all functions for pre-built business processes (Mavetera et al., 2015). Each employee should have specific instructions about how to accomplish the actions. It should be built with the work of estimating the time spent executing a certain function and time for rest in mind, which is also required to increase the quality of certain actions.

Recommendations

When a business has created all work procedures, employee engagement emerges and is the spark that ignites inspiration. Among the methods for talent management in the public sector, the following activities stand out: "social elevators," the option to study abroad and specialized programs for the training and retraining of public officials, and the establishment of a staff reserve (Deters, 2017). In addition to the exclusive instruments, the following inclusive ones are employed: The institution of mentoring, personnel rotation mechanisms, and the concept of a new model of civil service are forming an instrument for evaluating and rewarding civil workers based on performance, which is closely tied to talent management. One of the responsibilities of talent management is to prevent talent loss and establish optimal working environment. Talented team members must be assigned engaging tasks and provided with opportunity for additional training and professional advancement. The most significant aspect of professional and career advancement, together with professional atmosphere and recognition.

The development of a talent management system begins with the recruitment of high-potential specialists. To do this, HR managers must study and implement HR marketing techniques. They will promote a positive image of the company and recruit team members with values compatible with the corporate culture. Staff development is an essential component of a talent management program. In order to get better outcomes and more benefits, it is crucial not only to utilize the specialist's innate skills, but also to guide his or her development in the appropriate path. This is made possible by the organization of people training and advanced training in any style, be it mentoring, training, or course. This aspect of the talent management system can assist in retaining specialists, motivating them, and developing a career development plan. Moreover, the image of a firm that invests in its team is created through caring for talented individuals.

As part of the talent management system, employee progress might involve not only climbing the career ladder but also participating in new, promising projects and assuming greater responsibilities. At the same time, the organization gains the consequence of maximizing the utilization of employees' creative ideas, experience, and competencies. Career counseling also appears appropriate, since it will assist the employee in navigating the circumstance, developing an attitude towards what is occurring, and determining his or her own development and learning plan. Numerous companies have already implemented their career management systems. However, it is ineffective without career guidance because it does not touch the individual on a deeper level (Cauvier, 2018). One of the tasks of career coaching is working with intrinsic motivation, identifying the potential of a talented employee, and identifying ways to realize it. An employee's intrinsic drive rises when he or she is aware of

Sunglass Hut: Preliminary Marketing Gp Essay Help

Table of Contents
Introduction Industry Classification Understanding market Consumer Behavior Suggested Marketing Research Marketing strategies Conclusion Bibliography

Introduction

This protective equipment is designed to shield the eyes from intense light. The sun's rays can be harmful to the eyes, so health specialists recommend eye protection, especially from UV radiation. Sunglasses are made for a certain use. They are developed to satisfy specific requirements, such as the necessity for protection against solar rays that are significantly stronger than those of the sun. In sports, they are also created for swimmers and mountain climbers, and ice skaters have nose protection built in.

Sunglasses are not only worn for protection, but also to avoid direct eye contact with individuals, particularly those worn by police officers, performers, and moaners. Due to these demands, numerous companies have emerged to manufacture sunglasses. Year after year, they strive to increase the quality of their products to suit customer demands. With the inclusion of globalization, numerous businesses are now able to satisfy market need.

The emphasis of this article is the Australian market, where Sunglass Hut is the dominant retailer. The company has a selection of sunglasses that vary according to the needs of the consumer. It has numerous outlets on both the domestic and international markets. In light of a recent study, it is necessary to modernize sunglass production to include the use of cameras. This article will discuss the market analysis of the new model of sunglasses, including the aspects to be examined and the resulting impact (Bradley 2007).

Industry Classification

The hut firm was founded in Australia in 1971 and sells multiple brands of sunglasses and frames. It has approximately 2,286 stores across Canada, North America, and other countries. Sunglass Hut offers a variety of sunglasses, including sports, specialty, fashion, and general-purpose styles. These brands include Prada, Ray-Ban, and Versace, as well as Bolle and coach. Despite outperforming its rivals, the corporation has a number of up-and-coming competitors. It offers both prescription and non-prescription sunglasses. Due to its extensive market penetration, it appears to have no significant competitors.

The second competitors have fewer than 25 stores compared to its store count of about 1600. Therefore, despite the rivals' efforts to advance, it may be challenging. The sunglass hub has a variety of marketing tactics for its goods. It uses a variety of promotional tactics, such as sponsoring movie celebrities, to sell its spectacles (Malhotra 2002). It also has advertising slogans such as "the future is so bright that people must wear glasses to improve their vision and maintain concentration." Through these tactics, individuals are well-informed, and as a result, their annual sales values are consistently high.

As a result of globalization, they have access to the necessary technology to make a variety of sunglasses that match the needs of their clients. Having a solid foundation, it may employ a big number of workers and so fulfill the requisite output levels. Due to impending competition, the corporation will find that manufacturing these sunglasses is one of the best ways to maintain its position as market leader (Kinnear & Root 1988).

Recognizing the market

Every market player must be capable of market analysis. When discussing market analysis, numerous market aspects are utilized, with the 4Ps being the most frequent. These include price, product placement, and advertising (Kotler et al 2009). It is necessary for a firm to identify a certain group of consumers who will use its product, as it is impossible to service every consumer. Regarding location, we must examine the region target to determine whether the organization will make items for local or worldwide usage, as well as the means to transport the goods to the appropriate locations on time (Malhotra 2002).

The price paid should be reasonable in a way that is both enticing to consumers and reasonable for the business, so that the cost and profits of the given product are balanced. Every company must employ promotional activities such as advertising to enlighten their clients. They provide comprehensive descriptions of the product's features, availability, and costs. Additionally, they assist with beautiful packaging to entice buyers.

Adopting an entirely new method to comprehend marketing, which is built on the concept of value exchange. It is essential for every producer to comprehend the market at all times (Paul 2004). This is accomplished effectively through marketing management (Glazer 1991). The marketing manager should develop tactics that are heavily influenced by the company's culture, size, and the overall industry.

For a marketing strategy to be effective, objectives must be defined (Bradley 2007). The market analysis consists of an analysis of the company, consumers, rivals, and industry background. Keeping this in mind, the marketer will be able to establish the necessary methods that will assist the organization in accomplishing its goals. In dealing with consumer analysis, we will be able to determine the customer's needs and location (Charles et al 1986pp. 149-198).

The marketer may result in the segmentation of the market. This is a classification of consumers according to their behavior, geography, needs, and benefit. This will be crucial since the organization will be able to accommodate the needs of every customer. This will also ensure that the business leaves no room for competition. On the company analysis section, examiners concentrate mostly on the company's costs and those of its competitors; this notion is known as cost leadership.

Consequently, the marketer focuses on the revenue, the numerous resources employed, and the manufacturing line. To ensure their continued existence on the market, they should be cost leaders in every respect, with production costs that do not exceed revenues (Day 1980).

Customers should be charged appropriate prices, and costs should be minimized at the point of production (Bradley 2007). Customers will be retained by providing acceptable prices, and the quality given should be commensurate with the prices charged. In the analysis of competitors, the marketer should concentrate on product distinction. This will comprise a SWOT analysis in which its strengths and weaknesses relative to its competitors will be evaluated (Paul, 2004). This will allow the organization to assess how to address its flaws and capitalize on its strengths. In addition, the organization will be able to identify the opportunities for improvement and the dangers it is likely to face.

As a result of the investigation, they will be prepared to deal with any threat they may encounter on the market. Through product differentiation, a corporation is able to meet a variety of consumer wants. This may consist of sizes or pricing (Charles et al 1986pp. 149-198). There are clients who like enormous quantities, as well as those who prefer little or medium quantities. With this information, the market analysis business will be able to match the customer's needs. The market analysis will result in adequate planning for the execution of various tasks. The organization will be in a position to attain its aim as a result of the numerous tactics and careful planning.

Consumer Conduct

Depending on the individual, there may be an infinite number of elements that influence a consumer's choice. As a marketer, however, we prioritize the internal, external, and marketing variables depicted in the figure below.

Regardless of the situation, consumers are the most vital members of the organization. The company's decisions should always be made with the consumer in mind. For a successful business, companies should prioritize strong customer relationships. This will mostly address the prices, quantities, and availability of the goods (Lieberman 2003). The corporation should prioritize providing high-quality goods that provide the necessary service to consumers. On the subject of pricing, acceptable prices should be charged and exorbitant prices should never be used to abuse consumers. The business must ensure that it receives consumer feedback and, if applicable, incorporate it into its product development (Kotler et al 2009).

This objective can be accomplished by incorporating product differentiation into production. Product-based differentiation will be able to include nearly every consumer on the production schedule. As in our case, sunglasses will be created in a variety of sizes, qualities, and costs to fulfill the needs of various demographics. Therefore, they should also be able to understand consumer behavior so that they can create a product that is suitable for the day-to-day activities of consumers (Glazer 1991). It is a well-known tourist destination in Australia, has a large beach, and participates in numerous activities such as ice skating.

Therefore, when creating a hub, one should consider how eyewear might improve the lives of people when they are engaged in activities (Day 1980). In a market analysis, it will be determined whether the product would improve or worsen people's lives. In accordance with the company's mission, the consumer's conduct influences the company's success. Therefore, the corporation should treat their customers as kings, as they cannot exist without them. They must earn their trust in order to maintain them (Kinnear & Root 1988).

Advised Marketing Research

In marketing, the objective is to satisfy the demands of the consumer. This is accomplished by applying the 4Ps (product, pricing, promotion, and place or distribution) to meet the market objective (Day 1980). Certain requirements must be met if an organization is to achieve its stated aims and objectives. Initially, such a business must identify its target market. The company must then evaluate the available marketing opportunity.

A company's marketing tactics should also be intended to facilitate the achievement of its objectives. In addition, the planning process for marketing initiatives should aid management in implementing the best marketing decisions.

Before implementing the plan to make eyeglasses with built-in cameras, we are concerned with the first two phases in our situation. Initially, we must assess the marketing potential. In this stage, the company will be able to define the nature of the market and identify the specific clients to target (Lieberman, 2003). There is also an evaluation of how consumers will react to the debut of the new product.

The environment is also evaluated to see whether the product has a high possibility of survival (Kotler et al 2009). Additionally, the company's resources are evaluated to ensure that they are sufficient to sustain the output. Identifying the market sector and selecting the target audience is the second step. This will aid in concentrating on a certain market sector, hence enhancing the product's overall economic performance. This will be able to understand the numerous techniques to employ.

Market segmentation

This is where the organization will identify the specific market segments that can consume the goods. In addition to tourists, astronauts, and criminal detectives, the hub where the company sells the eyewear is also frequented by other members of the general public. Tourists will gain from the production of built-in cameras since they will be able to capture images without needing a separate camera (Dickson and James 1987). The same will be true for assonance; they will be able to shoot many photographs in the area with ease. In the security sector, particularly for police officers and detectives, taking a picture at a crime scene will be simple and yield more precise findings. This is represented in the following table:

Market segmentation groups

Tourists Mountain climbers, athletes, ice skaters, and others

Assonance Moonbound astronauts

Policemen, criminal investigators, and a government official are investigators.

others Children, students, instructors, politicians, actors, and several others

Australia is a well-known tourism location, thus the hub company will target the majority of travelers. This will generate a substantial demand for the eyewear. This can only be accomplished if the product's superiority over competing sunglasses is effectively communicated through robust promotional efforts. One of the advantages is that they will not need to carry a camera to take pictures. In addition to protecting the eyes, the sunglasses may also be used to shoot images. Therefore, purchasing them will be advantageous and cost-saving. The corporation should alter the style of the sunglasses and make them more appealing to tourists in order to increase sales. Since visitors purchase everything as long as it is appealing, regardless of price.

Marketing strategies

After conducting the necessary market study, the corporation should concentrate on advertising, distribution, and pricing for its products. To achieve the desired sales volume, the corporation must announce the launch of the new product. This will be accomplished through advertising and gift methods. Also, since the product primarily targets both local and foreign tourists, they may fund films that will be viewed both domestically and globally.

Consequently, the will alert the public about the availability of such a product. The price will also be an issue to consider, as the company must charge appropriate prices that do not exploit the buyer and are profitable for the business (Paul 2004).

The location or method of distribution should be optimal for the customer; the product should be made available in convenient locations. Some of these products may be placed in curio shops, which are frequented by the majority of tourists. These stores could also be set near the entrances of national parks and at several other strategic locations where travelers can access them with ease. With good marketing management, the company will identify the target audience that is in a position to set the price and, in consideration of its competitors, will manufacture products that will appeal to all market participants. They will be capable of cost leadership in terms of pricing, market segmentation, and product differentiation.

Having knowledge of the buyer's behavior and opinions, the company will be able to determine if creating the specific product will be beneficial and, if there are any obstacles, how to overcome them (Malhotra 2002). The corporation should consider the issue of product mix, in which the numerous eyewear produced should vary in size and quality to satisfy different demographics. In situations when they will have to sell outside of the organization, the methods of delivery must be efficient to minimize damage, and they must also prioritize good punctuality to avoid delays.

Conclusion

Therefore, marketing is a business activity aimed to plan the product's price, distribution, and promotion. Without competent marketing management, the organization may not be able to achieve its goals or achieve its sales goals.

Appropriate market research must be conducted. This will be of great assistance in the product's pricing, advertising, and distribution. Marketing research identifies a company's market-related strengths, opportunities, weaknesses, and threats and prepares it to capitalize on these opportunities to improve its service or product. In every action, customers should be handled with care to guarantee that their ideas are incorporated into the creation of the product and that their wants are addressed upon consumption. Keeping this in mind, the organization will be able to achieve its objectives effectively.

Bibliography

Bradley, Nigel, 2007, Tools & Techniques for Marketing Research. Oxford University Press is located in Oxford.

Charles M Judd, Richard Jessor, and John E Donovan, "Structural equation models and personality," published in 1986. Research Journal of Personality Volume 54, Issue 1: 149-198 pages.

Day, G., 1980, Strategic Market Analysis: Top-down and bottom-up techniques, Marketing Science Institute Working Paper #80-105, Cambridge, Massachusetts.

Peter R. Dickson and James L. Ginter published Market Segmentation, Product Differentiation, and Marketing Strategy in 1987. Journal of Marketing, Volume 51, Number 2, Pages 1 to 10.

Glazer, Rashi. "Marketing in an Information-Intensive Environment: Strategic Implications of Knowledge as an Asset." Journal of Marketing, Upper Saddle River, NJ, 1991, pp. 1–19.

American Marketing Association published 1988 Survey of Marketing Research by Thomas C. Kinnear and Ann R. Root in Chicago in 1988.

2009, Principles of Marketing, Fourth Edition, Pearson Education, Sydney, Australia. Kotler, P., S. Adam, S. Denize, and G. Armstrong.

Lieberman, Michael, 2003, A lovely segmentation, Quirk's Marketing Research Review.

Malhotra, Naresha K., Basic Marketing Research: A Decision-Making Approach, Prentice Hall, Upper Saddle River, NJ, 2002.

Chris, Paul, 2004, Know this: marketing basics, know this media. Chicago. Prentice Hall. Web.

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Myer And Harvey Companies: Accounting For Decision-Making Gp Essay Help

Executive synopsis

This report gives a comprehensive examination of Myer and Harvey's major financial ratios. They are both well-known Australian retail chains that create and sell homewares and electronics, respectively. The purpose of the study is to determine their level of performance and viability. This is intended to aid future investors in making accurate investment selections. In addition, the report provides trustworthy information regarding the visible limitations under which the companies operate, as well as realistic suggestions to aid the formation of informed investment judgments.

Introduction

Financial ratios are essential performance indicators that provide a clear picture of the financial strength and performance capabilities of a business. Clearly, the purpose of the financial analysis of the Myer and Harvey corporations is to enhance comprehension of their financial performance. This is essential, since it will allow their stakeholders to make legitimate decisions regarding possible investment opportunities. Meyer Corporation produces and sells premium homecare products, men's, women's, and children's apparel. Since its inception, it has been able to develop its client base and market share effectively. Hervey Norman Corporation shops and sells gadgets, furniture, and beddings on a variable basis. The Company's financial capacity has increased as a result of its high unit sales, which may be attributed to its efficient inventory turnover management. The financial ratios of the companies are effectively reviewed in order to determine their future growth potential. This is crucial because it aims to provide investors with an accurate basis for making a legitimate decision regarding which of the two companies to invest in.

Body

Ratios de rendement Gross margin of profit

Gross profit margin indicates a company's operating profit after deducting the cost of sales (Kennon, 2012, p, 1). It provides a clear indicator of the manner in which a firm manages its direct cost of sales, which sets its gross performance levels. Although there is no suggested gross profit margin percentage, the value should be high to allow a business to properly cover operating and financial expenses.

Between 2011 and 2012, the graph depicts the gross profit margin analysis of Meyer and Harvey enterprises. In particular, Myer Company, which has always recorded excellent profit margins, declared a profit margin of 46.80% in 2012. This indicates a 2.73 percent improvement in its profit margin. As indicated by its profit margin data, Harvey Company also recorded a strong performance. However, between 2011 and 2012, its performance margin decreased from 27.43% to 27.14%. The decline in performance is a result of inadequate cost of sales management (Amato, p, 14).

The superior performance of Myers is related to its superior resource management and lower-cost responsibilities than Harvey Company. Additionally, it suggests that the company's cost of sales has been below its sales value. This enhances its reputation as an efficiently run company.

Net income margin

According to Robinson (2009, p. 1), the net profit margin (NPM) is the proportion of income that is actually realizable after deducting expenses and taxes.

According to the graph, the NPM for Myer and Harvey firms in 2012 was reported to be 8.80% and 14.07%, respectively. The numbers demonstrate a favorable result due to low expenditures. However, in 2012 both companies had a significant fall in NPM value compared to 2011. The net profit value of Myer decreased from 9.65% to 8.80% between 2011 to 2012. Between the two years, Harvey Company recorded a drop of 0.98 percent. The sharp decline in net income in 2012 was caused by the increase in expenditures at both companies.

Despite the decline in profit margin, Harvey Company remains superior to Myer in terms of spending management. This is clear given that Myer's respective net income for the two years is proportional to its gross margin percentages.

Return on investment

Myer Holdings Harvey Holdings in the year

2011 19.05% 10.68%

2012 16.04% 8.85%

Return on equity is a financial ratio that gauges a company's ability and power to meet the expectations of its owners. Its study is crucial because it provides a clear indication of how an organization might use its resources to ensure good returns on investments (Loth, 2012, p, 1).

As depicted in the diagram, the return on equity of both companies has decreased significantly. In particular, Myer's ROE decreased from 19.05 percent in 2011 to 16.04 percent in 2012. This represents a 3.01% drop compared to the harvest's 1.03% decrease. The decrease in return on equity is a result of the low net profit margins recorded by corporations in 2012. Ineffective management of expenditures and other operating expenses also contributes. This has impacted the businesses, particularly Myer firm. Harvey is the greatest firm in compared to Myer holdings because to its comparatively superior ROE.

Return on property

Return on assets (ROA) is a prominent financial ratio used by investors and financial analysts to determine a company's performance strength (Riley, 2012, p, 1). It assesses the company's ability to create income from its available assets. Indeed, greater ROA ratios indicate superior institutional management and resource utilization.

In a 2012 comparison of the two companies, Myer Company reported a decrease in its ROA value. In 2011 and 2012, respectively, the value decreased from 9.59% to 8.55 %. Harvey Company likewise reported a large decline, from 6.66 percent in 2011 to 5.93 percent in 2012. The decline is due to poor management of the existing resources, particularly liquid assets and expenses. The decline is partly attributable to improper coordination and exploitation of assets (Noonan, 2005, p25).

Compared to Myer Company, Harvey's minimal drop indicates that its resources are employed more efficiently.

Performance Ratios

Inventory rotation

Inventory turnover is a ratio that measures the number of times a stock is sold during a given time period (Lee & Liu, 2010, p, 172).

According to the graph, Myer Corporation's inventory turnover period increased by 1.40 days from 52.5 days in 2011 to 53.9 days in 2012. Additionally, Harvey Company reported an increase from 4.62 to 5.34 days between 2011 and 2012. This demonstrates carelessness in the sales department and the use of ineffective marketing methods, particularly in 2012, by both organizations. Harvey Company has more effective inventory turnover procedures than Myer since it has fewer turnover days.

Debtor's turnover days

Year Myer business Harvey business

2011 0.67 days 257 days

2012 0.64 days 240days

Debtors' turnover ratios estimate the average number of days or months required to collect a debt (Peavle, 2012, p, 1). The fewer days institutions have to eliminate write-off expenses, the better.

According to the data, both organizations' debt collection periods have decreased due to the implementation of effective debt management practices.

Despite a remarkable decline of 13 days, Harvey Company's debt collection period remains longer than Myer Company's. This demonstrates that Myer Company's debt management is highly effective.

Creditors change

Year Myer ltd Harvey ltd

2011 50days 212days

2012 47.9days 212 days

The ratio assesses the efficiency with which a corporation pays its creditors (Fairfield, & Teri, 2001, p, 1).

According to the table, it took Myer Company 47.9 days to pay its debtors in 2012, compared to 50 days in 2011. In 2011, Harvey Company maintained the same number of debt payback periods, 212. This clearly demonstrates that Myer Company meets its payment obligations faster than Harvey.

Financial ratios

Actual ratios

Obtaining the current ratio involves dividing current assets by current liabilities (Robinson, 2009, p, 20). Its objective is to evaluate a company's short-term loan capacity and liquidity.

As demonstrated, Meyer Company recorded a 0.7% increase in their current ratio in 2012. This demonstrates that the company's assets were sufficient to pay its debts in 2012, more so than in 2011. Nevertheless, Harvey Company recorded a modest decline in its current ratio. The decline from 1.64 percent in 2011 to 1.64 percent in 2012 indicates a severe disparity between the asset value and debt obligation of the company. This suggests that the company's present assets are insufficient to cover its debt obligations.

In comparison to Myer's stats, which were greater than 1%, the worth of its current ratio is still exceptional. This demonstrates that the corporation has sufficient assets to meet its debt obligations with few issues compared to Myer Corporation.

Rapid ratio

The quick ratio is a financial indicator that gauges the amount or value of current assets that are the most liquid (Amato, 2012, p, 6). It refines the current ratio by determining the extent to which particular current assets can cover current obligations.

In 2011 and 2012, Myer Company recorded a quick ratio of 0.12 and 0.12, respectively. This reflects a fall of 0.01% in its liquidity capacity, which should remain above 1%. Compared to Harvey Company, the company has been reporting a quick ratio that is below 1%. This can impact its ability to repay loans, as a quick ratio below 1% indicates poor liquidity. In contrast, Harvey Company recorded a gain of 0.05 percent in its liquidity position. The rise that exceeds Myers' calculations in both 2011 and 2012 is from 1.3% to 1.35 %.

Equity to debt ratio

The debt-to-equity ratio quantifies a company's financial performance by providing a trustworthy view of the connection between debt and shareholders' equity (Kennon 2012, p, 1).

Due to good management, the debt-to-assets ratio of Myer Company decreased by 0.11%. The decline went from 1.29 percent in 2011 to 1.19 percent in 2012. Inconsistently, Harvey Company had a low debt-to-asset ratio, indicating its proficient debt management. Compared to Myer Company, the company's debt-to-assets ratio has reached a record low. Its ratio in 2011 was 0.743% and in 2012 it was 0.795%.

Comparatively, Myer Company's ratio remains below 1%, which is favorable for its progress.

Periodical interest earned

Times interest earned indicates a company's capacity and capability to meet its loan obligations (Noonan, 2005, p, 23). As demonstrated, Myer Company's ratio of interest-earning times (IET) was more constant than Harvey corporation's, which had a considerable decline in 2012.

Other pertinent information

It is essential to emphasize other important ratios that investors must examine while making investing decisions. The ratios include the dividend yield ratio, the price-to-earnings ratio (PE), and the earnings yield ratio (EPS). The ratios focus mostly on the expected return benefits investors will obtain from institutions. The advantages are determined by a company's income levels (Peavle, 2012, p, 1). Thus, if a company has a poor performance, its earnings will decrease, whereas a high income will result in high returns. Evidently, the two companies' poor performance in 2012 resulted in minimal profits in 2012. They both experienced a decline in their income value, which determines the level of earnings per share. This necessitates efficient management of a company's expenditures so that it can record high levels of income and grow its EPS.

Limitations

Indeed, both businesses lack strong leadership and sound financial management procedures. This has been the reason of the company's performance decline, particularly in 2012. This presents a formidable obstacle for the companies' future growth and expansion prospects. Specifically, the companies lack qualified financial counselors with impeccable credentials. Additionally, the companies work with limited resources, which hinders their asset purchase expansion potential. In addition, they lack skilled and competent spending managers who can assist in achieving a healthy balance between income and expenditure.

Recommendations

In compared to Myer Firm, Harvey Company is the company with the most promising future that investors should consider. Despite its small reach, it recorded more favorable and attractive results in its key ratios than Myer Company. To promote their growth, the organizations should implement excellent financial management and leadership principles. They should also manage their expenditures effectively by creating a balance between income and expenditures. This is essential for maintaining high levels of profit margin and return on equity. Consequently, businesses should have effective techniques for debt management (payable and collection). This is essential for ensuring that the debt-to-asset and equity-to-liability ratios are limited and sustainable.

References

Amato, E. (2012). The Top Fifteen Financial Ratios.

Fairfield, P., and L. Teri, 2001. Using Asset Turnover and Profit Margin to Predict Profitability Changes Review of Accounting Studies, volume six, number four, pages 371-371. Web.

2012, Kennon, J., Debt to Equity Ratio.

Kennon, K 2012, Calculating Gross Profit Margin. Web.

Loth, R. (2012). Financial Ratio Tutorial. World Wide Web.

Statistical Inventory Management in Two-Echelon, Multiple-Retailer Supply Chain Systems. 5(1), pages 172-177, Journal of International Management Studies. Web.

Noonan, R. (2005). Coles Myer to Sell Megamart Unit; Myer Store Business Could Be Discontinued. Wall Street Journal, eighth edition, number two, pages 23-42. Web.

Peavle, R 2012, How is the Total Asset Turnover Ratio Calculated and What is It? Web.

Riley, J., key financial ratios, 2012. Web.

Analysis of International Financial Statements by Robinson, R., 2009. John Wiley & Sons, New Jersey, Hoboken.

Appendices

Gross margin of profit Net income margin Return on property Inventory rotation

Debtor's turnover days

Year Myer business Harvey business

2011 0.67 days 257 days

2012 0.64 days 240days

Creditors deliver

Year Myer ltd Harvey ltd

2011 50days 212days

2012 47.9days 212 days

Present ratio Rapid ratio Equity to debt ratio [supanova question]

Downfall: An Overview Of British Motorcycle Industry Gp Essay Help

Introduction

The British motorcycle industry has evolved over the years to demonstrate its rich heritage. They began as bicycle makers who installed small, affordable engines in bicycles. Who would have guessed that these bicycles would contribute almost 5 billion pounds to their economy in the 21st century? Yes, the British bicycle sector provides more than 370 million pounds to exports and more than 5 billion pounds to the economy's total sales, and it is growing.

Daft, 1994, is the source cited.

United Kingdom machines continues to progress and evolve. The 1930s saw some of the most imaginative motorcycle designs, while the post-Depression era produced some of the best motorcycles. However, they were more expensive. In the 1930s, the motorcycle's function as economical public transportation diminished, and it became more of a hobbyist or competitive vehicle. The fact that motorbikes were a cost-effective mode of transportation for police and military personnel also contributed positively to the general demand for motorcycles.

The Second World War once again led to the shutdown of numerous factories. Many businesses continued to produce items for the war effort, while others simply shuttered. Few manufacturers continued to produce motorcycles, primarily to supply the British military. As a result of U-boat attacks, export sales diminished. The destruction of plants and equipment caused by German air strikes in Coventry and London spelled ruin for certain enterprises, which never recovered. Others never returned to manufacturing motorcycles. (Deakins, 2005)

Influence on Stakeholder's

Stakeholders of an organization are the parties or individuals who are influenced by the company's decision-making and, consequently, profitability. They can be used to express the enterprise's outlook in numerous operational areas. Different preferences and interests among market participants can result in a conflict of interests. Customers, stockholders (investors), employees, suppliers, and manufacturers all have a significant stake in the British bicycle business. These investors and stakeholders are entirely responsible for the industry's development and revenue.

The stakeholders of the British motorcycle industry rely heavily on the sector's operation and profitability. If the industry fails to function well, consumers will lose interest in its products. To please its clients worldwide, and notably in the United Kingdom, the enterprises must cater to the needs of their customers in terms of motorcycle production. (2008) Gibson

Depending on the industry's performance, the investors may incur a loss or earn substantial profits. If the industry performs well, it can attract more and more clients, make more cash, and consequently expand, however if it performs poorly, it may lose its supporters.

Frequently, employees are not considered a stakeholder, which is incorrect because they are a vital asset. If the industry performs successfully and ethically, there will be more jobs available in the labor market. Individuals will be eager to work for the sector and become a part of it.

The industry's suppliers, i.e., those who provide spare parts and raw materials, likewise monitor the industry's performance and profitability. Thus, the operation of the motorcycle industry affects its relationships with its suppliers.

Numerous manufacturing partners include Arai Helmet, Dunlop Tires, Dream Machine Race Paint, Wolf, Silkolene, Brembo, Hardinge Bridgeport, and others. These companies have quite fruitful relationships with this industry and supply the motorbike manufacturing industry with components. (Daft, 1994)

Competitors

Triumph, Norton, AJS, CCM, Matchless, Megelli, and Rickman are currently the most prominent names in the British motorcycle business. These vehicles were introduced by British industry, and Triumphs were the pride of the British market, selling locally and primarily exporting to the United States. Since the 1960s, however, the Japanese motorcycle industry has posed a significant challenge to the British motorcycle sector. Primarily as a result of the stylish and numerous appealing motorcycles, unlike their British counterparts, which have become a symbol for outmoded motorcycles. The growth of British manufacturing was attributed to the introduction of the chopper. Triumph was the first company to come up with the concept of a heavy and classy motorcycle, and it was quite successful in selling these motorcycles until the Japanese introduced more attractive, lighter, and more fuel-efficient motorcycles that also provided better mileage and cost less. These motorcycles were also favoured over British motorcycles due to their superior components and engineering, which provided the client with more options. In addition, the buyers found the Japanese bikes interesting because the Japanese made the motorcycles for the racetracks, which attracted the already-excited clients. Bresnan (2010).

Daft, 1994, is the source cited.

The Japanese built an entirely new motorbike image. They came up with the notion that automotive purchasers are only interested in speed. Therefore, they began producing inexpensive automobiles at an unrivaled rate. They introduced the most ingenious engines at such a low price that British businesses were unable to compete and thus lost a substantial portion of its American and Asian clientele. Now, motorcycles are not only utilitarian but also enjoyable, and more and more teenagers and young adults aspire to join the biker culture. Therefore, these Japanese vehicles have become one of the world's most popular motorcycles.

In the present decade, motorcycle sales have been very strong. Returning the Chopper culture to the continents of South and North America and Europe, Triumph Motorcycles has become one of the largest and most successful motorcycle manufacturers of all time, catering to a massive consumer base and supplying all types of motorbikes, including choppers and sports bikes, which achieved worldwide success.

Yet, the British motorcycle manufacturers face a significant competition from Japanese businesses such as Suzuki, Yamaha, Honda, and Kawasaki, as well as the Chinese industry, which is always developing better and more affordable models. The British industry has maintained its sales to some degree, although the Japanese have a greater global consumer base. During the 1970s, British motorcycles also lost their Asian market share to the Japanese. The Indian subcontinent as a whole shifted to Honda and other fuel-efficient and less expensive automobiles that the Japanese and Chinese markets offered. Not only does the Japanese market cater to basic customers, but it also supports international motorcycle racing. In such a setting, British industry must be watchful and generate innovative and superior ideas in order to remain competitive on the market. These enterprises may even be required to manufacture cheaper products that can be marketed for up to $2,000 in order to cater to lower-class clients. In this regard, the Chinese market is becoming increasingly popular as time passes. (Kardes, 2001)

The Five Forces Analysis of Porter

The Danger of New Competitors

Danger posed by the Chinese and Japanese markets Chinese and Japanese technologies and machinery are superior to those of British vehicles, allowing them to easily defeat them. The Chinese pose a threat of dominance over British industry's clients.

The intensity of rivalry in competition

Japanese industry is the largest competitive rival Japan continues to expand swiftly and enter new markets. Has a base of delighted customers. Customers have faith in and respect Japanese technology.

The possibility of Substitution

Bikes are expected to be inexpensive. British bicycles are expensive, therefore they can be omitted in favor of cheaper automobiles, as consumers may choose inexpensive four-wheelers to pricey two-wheelers. To cater to these markets during a recession, the British must launch cheaper and more affordable items.

The negotiating power of consumers

Strong bargaining position of customers There are many more motorcycle manufacturers in the world. Indian and Japanese bikes are readily available in British-dominated markets. As a result, the British should maintain positive relationships with their customers and produce according to their preferences.

The negotiating leverage of suppliers

The suppliers' bargaining leverage is poor. The Japanese and Chinese suppliers have far lower costs, and the British can swap suppliers at any time. The British do not switch due to the brand image they have developed by purchasing spare parts manufactured by reputable companies. Also, if the British move to Japanese or Chinese suppliers, they may lose customers who purchase motorcycles only for their brand image.

Structural Analysis

Social Change Research

The growing elderly population in the United Kingdom poses a danger to industrial sales. People may transfer from vehicles to motorbikes as a result of the increase in the single population and the high divorce rate, which will raise sales at a healthy rate. Should invest in CSR efforts to improve social standing

Analysis of Technological Transformations

Technology is intended to minimize a company's expenses. The British machines serve this function, but not as well as their Japanese counterparts. This is why British vehicles are more expensive than their Japanese counterparts. This is the only area where the British economy is lagging. Therefore, the British should prioritize increasing their research expenditures.

Environmental Change Study

The European Union has introduced new standards governing the disposal of manufacturing waste; hence, the British should be wary of these new regulations. Additionally, British businesses should be more environmentally conscious and produce automobiles that generate less smoke and other dangerous chemicals. To become more responsible and environmentally friendly, they can even launch hybrid motorcycles akin to hybrid cars.

Economic Evaluation

The economy of the United Kingdom is on the rise, yet its greatest client base outside, the United States, is experiencing a credit crunch. The key to maintaining exports is the introduction of cheaper products for lower-class consumers.

Political Evaluation

Politically, the British business has encountered neither aid nor obstruction. This is the wisest course of action because political involvement is a complete risk and can be either hazardous or rewarding for British businesses.

Legal Analysis

Legally, there are no restrictions on the use of a motorcycle or its operation. And British companies have not encountered any issues to date.

Educational Evaluation

Additionally, the British industry lacks information regarding the machinery used by motorcycle producers. As a result, it should either hire workers from Japan or China, or train its own workers and then upgrade their technology.

Differentiating Customers

A company's client base must be segmented since it is crucial to identify the various subsets of the population that utilize their product. It is then easy to market and advertise the product differently to the various segments of clients and even potential buyers.

Age

Customers of a business are segmented based on their age. Such as children, adolescents, middle age, and the elderly. Customers of British helicopters are predominantly middle-aged, as opposed to younger or older individuals. Due to its reputation as a costly and classic motorcycle. Teenagers choose sports class motorcycles because they have a contemporary appearance and they can relate to being fast and athletic. British motorcycles are already marketed to the age groups that represent their prospective client base. To increase its consumer base, the sector needs just to market more.

Social Position/Wealth

It entails segmenting the client base by social class. Regarding socioeconomic class, British motorcycles cater only to the upper class. This is due to the fact that these are costly two-seaters. A member of a lower social class would opt for a four-passenger vehicle, i.e. a car. This issue can be resolved if the British industry introduces more affordable motorcycles, similar to the Chinese sector. It is possible to sell cheaper motorcycles to the lowest classes in Britain and elsewhere.

Gender

Market segmentation based on gender. The motorbike industry in Britain is dominated by men. With a minimal number of female buyers, the British motorcycle maintains its reputation. This is primarily due to the motorcycle's reputation as a vehicle designed for guys. In this regard, the British motorcycle industry can gain a competitive advantage over other nations by introducing a motorcycle designed for female riders and marketed only to women. This will allow the British industry to continue to target the over fifty percent of the population that was previously ignored, and may even treble its existing sales. A female-oriented motorcycle can be ergonomically designed for the customer's comfort and convenience. This might be an innovative step that also revolutionizes the motorbike industry as it is currently understood. (Keller & Kotler, 2006)

Brand Recognition / preconceptions

The global motorbike industry has traditionally been marketed as a product of man. There is a substantial female consumer base that can be targeted and demonstrated to be far more profitable. The British motorcycle manufacturers could introduce a motorcycle that would be marketed and sold exclusively to female customers. This may be a crucial notion for boosting the revenue of the British industry and so reversing its downward trend.

Cautions/Re-education

Throughout the preceding decades, the British motorcycle industry has maintained a reputation for producing big, durable motorcycles. This image has been extremely valuable for the business; consequently, corporations should only advertise to maintain their reputation and not to change or alter it in the minds of consumers. This means that there is no need for reeducation regarding the product, and there is now nothing to warn customers about. Therefore, people can continue to think about British motorcycles as they did decades ago.

Current/New Customers

Very slowly, the British motorbike industry has been expanding. Therefore, it has been able to keep all of its previous customers, while having a very limited capacity for expansion. These businesses can still improve their customer base by targeting Asian markets. This is due to the fact that their new/old markets are the American and European markets. The Asian markets offer tremendous income potential and potentially be a gold mine for the British motorbike industry. These new consumers are an excellent source of money and revenue for the sector.

The advertising mix

The 7Ps of Marketing formula is used to evaluate a business and its activities to guarantee that the business is satisfying the needs of its customers profitably and efficiently. This formula consists of the four traditional Ps (product, price, place, and promotion) as well as three new Ps (process, physical evidence, and promotion). (Lipsey & Chrystal, 2003)

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Kuwait Airways’ Revenue Management Strategy Gp Essay Help

Abstract

Since 1978, when the airline sector was deregulated, fierce competition has been a constant. In actuality, the strong rivalry has compelled every airline to search for a competitive advantage in worldwide markets. To achieve this, the majority of airlines, including Kuwait Airways, have employed cutting-edge optimization tactics, such as viable business models and revenue management procedures. Kuwait Airways and other airlines view revenue management as a crucial method for increasing profitability and capacity utilization. These airlines execute their revenue management plan by managing demand and supply appropriately, which is ensured via price control.

In order to achieve the purposes and objectives of the research, this study will be both qualitative and quantitative. The acquired primary and secondary research data will be analyzed using a number of statistical methods. In order to answer the specified research questions, variables such as customer arrival rates, the probability that a client would reject or accept the Kuwait airways ticket, the pricing of tickets, the booking times, and the itineraries utilized by Kuwait airlines will be evaluated.

In reality, research on revenue management and business models has expanded to encompass approaches for ticket pricing and inventory management. Due to the intricacy of such procedures and the numerous underlying assumptions, it has become exceedingly difficult to use them in real-world circumstances. In order to investigate the revenue management strategies, business models, and implementation of Kuwait Airways, this study will examine a different research model that incorporates relevant pricing techniques, client arrival rate, the probability that clients will accept the tickets, and client behavior. In conclusion, both dynamic and static pricing will be examined.

Introduction

In today's environment of diverse business prospects and intense competition in each, the client or end-user reaps the rewards. When purchasing plane tickets, the majority of buyers are primarily concerned with cost. This is due to the abundance of possibilities available. It is not true that a consumer cannot travel if he or she cannot obtain a ticket from a specific airline. There are always many alternatives available. Therefore, in today's competitive market, airlines must keep their pricing as low as possible to avoid losing consumers. Moreover, as a result of the liberalization of aviation rules by many governments, the number of Low Cost Carriers has increased continuously. In order to survive in this environment of intense competition, airlines are compelled to decrease their rates and sell one-way tickets (especially in the case of international flights). Under these conditions, the airline industry' profit margins have likewise shrunk to an absolute minimum. Clearly, these airline businesses are constantly searching for ways to boost their overall profit. Increasing the aircraft's carrying capacity, or purchasing larger aircrafts, is one of the simplest measures that airlines may take. Even though this is a pricey endeavor, airlines will gain in the long term.

In order to adapt to such circumstances, airlines all around the world have developed their own revenue management systems. Regarding the international airlines' revenue management methods and the implementation of their adopted business models, numerous studies have been undertaken. However, the Kuwaiti airways have got little to no attention on these factors. This study will evaluate the revenue management methods and business models utilized by Kuwait airways, as well as their implementation. Literature in the subject of revenue management methods, the business model accepted by the airline industry, and their execution have left a gap in this particular case study area, making the project extremely important.

Recommendations will be based on an evaluation of the available revenue management strategies, business models, and their execution. The evaluation will assist in determining the relationship between the three observed factors and their effects on the achievement of Kuwait airlines' revenue and commercial objectives, missions, and ambitions. As a result, the study will investigate the business models and revenue management practices of Kuwait Airways in order to identify the most significant enhancements.

The relationship between revenue management strategies, business models, and their implementations has not been sufficiently investigated, despite the fact that earlier research has mostly concentrated on revenue management strategies and their significance to diverse industries. Thus, the significance of this study rests in the fact that any deficiencies Kuwait Airways may have in its revenue management strategies, business models, and their implementation must be analyzed and recommendations made to strengthen the company's competitive edge on the worldwide market.

The management of the Kuwaiti airways will profit from this study, since crucial areas that require specific development may be identified. In addition, strategies and business models that account for the changing market environment for Kuwait Airways can be developed. As a means of enhancing the organizational performance of Kuwait Airways, the study will identify characteristics that may simplify the creation of optimal revenue management strategies, business models, and their execution. Following is a concise description of Kuwait Airways:

Kuwait Airways is a well-known airline headquartered in Kuwait. According to the Kuwait Airways website, the company's objective is to "set the standard for customer orientation and become an airline that is admired to fly, invest in, and work for" (Kuwait Airways 2009).

Kuwait Airlines' fleet now comprises of Airbus and Boeing aircraft. Following is a thorough description in the table:

Type of aircraft Producer Quantity Flight crew Range Length of the span Passenger capacity

A 320 – 200 Airbus Ind. aircraft (France) 3 2 to 6 5550 kilometers / 3000 nautical miles 111 feet, two inches / 34.1 meters 123 feet, three inches / 37.6 meters 130 (20 – J and 110 – Y)

A 310 – 308 Airbus Ind. aircraft (France) 3 2 to 10 9540 Kilometers / 5150 Nautical Miles 144 Feet 0.3 In / 15.8 M 153 Ft. 10.4 In / 46.4 M 198 (24 " J & 174 " Y)

A 300 to 600 Airbus Ind. aircraft (France) 5 2 to 12 7600 km / 4100 miles 16.5 meters 147 feet 8 In / 53.8 M 232 (18 – F, 18 – J and 196 – Y)

A 340 – 313 Airbus Ind. (France) 4 2 to 13 12230 Kilometers / 6600 Nautical Miles A97 Feet 10 Inches / 60.3 Meters 208 Feet 102 Inches / 63.7 Meters 272 Feet (18 – F, 24 – J and 230 – Y)

The Boeing Commercial Airplane Company – United States B 777 – 269 2 2 to 13 10040 Km / 5420 NM 199 Ft 1 In / 60.9 M 209 Ft 1 In / 63.7 M 273 (24 – F, 24 – J, and 225 – Y)

First class, business class, and economy class, respectively.

Obtainable from kuwaitairways.com.

Other characteristics of Kuwait Airways include:

There are two check-in options available at Kuwait Airways. Passengers can either check in at the airport counters of Kuwait Airways, or they can check in online in advance. This is a useful tool for customers because it saves them time. If the passenger has no bags to check, he or she can proceed directly to the security check. However, if there is any baggage, it must be checked in. Baggage limitations: Economy class travellers are permitted a maximum of two pieces of checked luggage. The maximum weight of each bag should not exceed 20 to 23 kg. The sum of the length, width, and height shall not exceed 158 centimeters (62 Inch). Again, two pieces of checked baggage are permitted for business class travellers, with a weight limit of 30 to 32 kilograms per item. The permitted size is unchanged (158 cms). One piece of carry-on luggage is the maximum allowed. The weight cannot exceed 5 kg. First-class travellers get the same baggage allowance as business-class passengers. There are primarily two seating options available on Kuwait Airways: business class and economy class. However, certain of its aircraft, such the A 300 – 600, A 340 – 313, and B 777 – 269, offer the option of first class seating. Kuwait Airways offers its business and first class passengers access to the Oasis Lounge at Kuwait International Airport.

Objectives

The study's aims will include the following:

To analyze Kuwait airlines' revenue management approach To analyze the business model of Kuwait Airways that provides optimum revenue management. To investigate the implementation of business concepts and revenue management strategies. To recommend to the management of Kuwait Airways new business models and technology developments that may increase their market competitiveness.

What are the primary questions that the initiative intends to address?

When this research study is complete, the resulting data should address the following questions:

What revenue management tactics are currently employed by Kuwait Airways to maximize revenues? What effects do the adopted business models have on the revenue maximization methods of Kuwait Airways? How does Kuwait airways utilize business models and revenue management methods to achieve the most money possible? What policy actions and recommendations should the management of Kuwait's airways design and execute to sustain its market competitiveness?

Methodology and hypotheses

Which Research Methods do you plan to employ?

Methodology and Study Design in Research Research Procedure

To examine the revenue management strategies, business models, and implementations of Kuwait Airways, both qualitative and quantitative research approaches will be utilized. Much of the qualitative research methodology's results are derived from the literature study. In contrast, the quantitative method will consist of a survey. The online survey will be administered to the managers of the major Kuwaiti airways. The survey will exclusively target Kuwait airways management and act as the major source of primary data for the research. The researcher intends to employ inductive reasoning. These research strategies are increasingly regarded as the finest since they rarely have a chance of excluding significant alternative explanations and because they infer event causes.

In addition, descriptive statistics will be derived from the observations obtained to critically highlight the impact of revenue management strategies, business models, and their implementations on the success of Kuwait airways as they exist at the time this study is undertaken. The researcher additionally intends to apply the defined research procedures in order to obtain relevant primary research data and any other pertinent explored information from the research participants. It is believed that this will aid in the development of clear and logical study conclusions and practical recommendations for the ongoing research.

Sources of primary and secondary data

This investigation into the revenue management strategies, business models, and implementations of Kuwait Airways will utilize two well-known research sources, namely the primary data source and the secondary data source, in order to present significant research findings, appropriate conclusions, and credible recommendations. Nonetheless, the major research information and needed data for this innovative study will be gathered by administering self-designed survey questionnaires and performing in-depth interviews with the study's target audience. In actuality, the researcher wants to present the questionnaires to the study participants in person by selecting each respondent from the initial study group. Interview schedules that have already been approved to collect information on Kuwait airways' revenue management strategies, business models, and their implementations will also be used to determine the management's and employees' perspectives on the extent to which Kuwait airways has addressed business model implementation and revenue management issues.

On the other side, secondary research data and information will be derived from various management, business, and financial records, as well as any other certified evidence of earned revenue that Kuwait airways have submitted. To acquire secondary information, a study of the revenue management strategy's information, accepted business models, and assumed implementation processes, acceptability, and any resistance will be conducted. Such research data will aid in determining whether or not the corporation in question has a solid revenue management strategy and business models that have been adopted and effectively managed to help propel the business and operational performance of Kuwait Airways.

The majority of the secondary and primary data collected will pertain to Kuwait Airways' seat inventory, passenger arrival rate, and ticket price or fare structure. Various data pertaining to revenue maximization strategies, such as dynamic pricing, network inventory, and static pricing, will be utilized to answer the research issues. In addition, information regarding the acceptance or rejection likelihood of a client's ticket will be required.

Research designs

The following three models will aid in determining the revenue management strategies, business models, and implementations of Kuwait Airways.

Pricing technique

This model will assist in estimating the rates offered by Kuwaiti airlines, the maximum time before prices fluctuate, and the booking window. Under this strategy, Kuwait Airways will study multiple techniques, including the time remaining approach, the hybrid approach, and the seats remaining approach.

Acceptance probability

This revenue management technique will assist the researcher in determining occasions in which the management of Kuwait Airways forecasts whether a customer would accept or reject a seat, as well as the rates provided and measures implemented. In this instance, three probabilities will be utilized: the offered price likelihood, the remaining time probability, and the composite probability.

Client arrival rate

This plan will consider the three arrival rates of customers, namely high, medium, and low. Under this approach, the assumed booking processes will also be investigated.

Instrumentation and Information Gathering Data Collection Devices

Data deemed to have pertinent research information for this study will be collected from both primary and secondary sources. As a case study survey and a study involving self-administration of research questionnaires, the primary data will be collected through self-administration of the study questionnaires, structured in-depth interviews with the selected Kuwait airways revenue management and business plan development employees, and observation. Prior to initiating the actual revenue management strategy, business model, and implementation research study, a comprehensive exploration instrument will be built and thoroughly evaluated. In other words, a questionnaire will be prepared following consultation with the supervisor, and only the selected and modified elements that address the research questions and objectives will be included.

Data Analysis Technique

In order to verify logical completeness and response consistency, the researcher will revise the obtained revenue management data, business model information, and their implementation each day in order to detect any data gaps or errors.

Tate And Lyle Company’s Logistic Challenges Gp Essay Help

Tate and Lyle is one of the oldest brands in Britain and is well known for its sugar products, including Golden Syrup and Black Treacle. Their largest refinery is located in Silvertown, near City Airport. The refinery processes 3,500 tons of raw sugar cane per day, which is transported by ships that arrive at their dock every week. The tugs of the Port of London are required to secure the ships' safe navigation of the Thames. The Silvertown Refinery is only one step in the process of bringing Tate & Lyle products from the field to the table; therefore, coordination of their activities entails a great deal more than ensuring that ships dock safely. Tate & Lyle Company employs the services of a supply chain and logistic company and outsources the services of others in an effort to ensure that commodities flow from one location to another; as a result, they face a variety of obstacles.

According to Ganesan and Harrison, a supply chain is the system of distribution choices and facilities that acquires inputs and changes them into outputs for customer consumption (1995).

Despite the fact that Tate and Lyle’s logistics may be experiencing growth as a result of the country’s economic development, there are a number of obstacles on the horizon, ranging from structural difficulties to legislative shortcomings. This has caused the corporation to outsource some of its logistics needs to other companies, such as Abraham Lyle and sons ltd. The following are the most significant logistical issues Tate and Lyle faces:

Despite the massive initiatives being conducted by the corporation, Britain is one of the states with a good infrastructure system; nonetheless, the infrastructures connecting the Silver town Refinery's upstream supply chain and the next tier downstream to the company are inadequate. There are accusations that the lack of integration between the logistics industry and information technology slows down the company's logistical operations.

The British logistics market is highly regulated, and its opening to global competition is proceeding at a glacial pace. The state imposes laws at several levels, and these regulations vary between municipalities, so impeding the sufficiency of the networks.

The boroughs oversee every activity in Britain, and the strength of their networks with state bureaucracy is crucial to gaining approval for any logistical endeavor. There is still a degree of favoritism that necessitates the establishment of strong ties between businesses and their boroughs.

The majority of British enterprises, including Tate and Lyle, have ignored the importance of the logistic department's function by focusing on production and marketing. As a result, they hold very few workshops and practical training on the subject. They have not understood the significance of obtaining new logistics and supply strategies. Lack of implementation of strategic regulatory authorizations to promote this program has contributed to the sector's inefficiency.

In addition, information and communication systems outside of logistical hubs are unreliable, IT standards in the sector are low, and system integration with equipment is inadequate.

The British logistic business is fragmented and controlled by commodities and poor quality transit standards and warehousing infrastructure; this, in turn, provides little of a foundation for the development of a global industry.

On the other hand, the cost of delivering commodities in Britain is high due to high tolls charged on roads, as well as additional logistic costs like as warehousing and distribution fees, which make the entire process costly for the majority of businesses, including Tate & Lyle.

It is believed that approximately 20% of Tate and Lyle's sugar is lost annually due to poor handling and management, and that most stockpiles are damaged or lost as a result of inadequate warehouse facilities.

The economy of Britain is characterized by a wide range of levels of development. This in turn is a hindrance to distribution, as there is a significant imbalance in the flow of commodities, hence increasing the logistic costs.

Domestic taxation has posed a problem for the majority of British businesses, including Tate and Lyle, because commodities are subject to unofficial borough border taxes. This is especially noticeable when transporting items from upstream to downstream.

In an effort to overcome obstacles, Tate and Lyle and other comparable businesses have been compelled to experience a decline in revenue.

Tate and Lyle have also participated in advocacy efforts to urge the government to reduce taxes.

The group has filed complaints with the government about the state of the logistic industry through the organization of logistic providers. This is intended to draw attention to the activities that strain the sector and encourage government intervention, like the domestic tax levied on inter-borough transit.

The company has lately implemented a biannual workshop and training program for its logistic specialists. This program is intended to prepare the company's employees with modern logistical procedures.

In addition, the corporation has carefully analyzed the cost of the supplies, and it is contemplating outsourcing inexpensive components and services in order to maximize profits.

The company has also reduced its investment in the same logistic and supply chain till the expected economic rebound in 2011.

Tate and Lyle are also investing heavily in market surveillance and legislation to comply with state regulations on noise and exhaust pollution. This will lessen the penalties that increase logistical costs.

The company has recently begun investing in the integration of information technology with its warehousing infrastructure. This includes the construction of a state-of-the-art warehouse equipped with complex modern people lifts. This is intended to reduce sugar spills caused by poor handling and mismanagement.

Along with other businesses, the company has written to the government in an effort to prevent unfair competition from non-compliant companies and products. With this, the corporation aims to recover from global logistical issues as the economy improves, most likely through the introduction and use of mass customization in an effort to decrease manufacturing costs and enhance production rate. Unfortunately, corporations that have engaged in monopoly face turf battles when their competitors band together. As corporations strive to gain a competitive edge, price wars develop, resulting in a drop in revenue, quality, and profits. This refers to limitations in the corporate environment that are frequently caused by monopolistic actions.

The idea of constraint emphasizes that organizational accomplishments are dependent on a small number of restrictions and that there is always a constraint in an organization. A constraint is any obstacle to the attainment of the organization's goals; this can be considered as obstacles to the development of the organization. Constraints might be internal or external. At times, the market may want more from the organization than it can provide. This constraint can only be eliminated by utilizing mass customization, a trend that Tate and Lyle should employ.

Similarly, an external limitation exists when a corporation produces more goods than the market can absorb. According to Department for schools, children, and families (2010), the lack of continual training of logistical workers is a concern that gradually reduces the company's productivity. Inadequate equipment, governmental policies, and a deficient warehouse system are further drawbacks. These are some of the obstacles that contribute to the company's internal restriction. Tate & Lyle's logistical issues are best explained by this idea, according to which the organization must identify the restrictions, determine how to exploit the constraint to the company's advantage, and direct all organizational choices toward removing or altering the constraint. Scholars refer to this as the process of continuous improvement. If an organization wants to attain optimal performance, it must eliminate a limitation.

Mass customization refers to the application and usage of a computer-supported manufacturing system to generate personalized goods; the system is adaptable and decreases production costs. According to Chase, Jacobs, and Aquillano (2006), mass customization is a way for delaying the task of differentiating a product for a particular consumer until the latest possible point in the supply chain. ”Mass customisation' is defined by other supply chain experts as the manufacturing of client-specific items at the lowest possible production cost.

The concept of mass customization has been most successful in the electronic manufacturing and call center service industries. There are four primary forms of mass customization: collaborative, adaptive, transparent, and cosmetic. Tseng & Jiao (2001) propose collaborative customization as a measure, in which the client is asked to provide information about how he or she wants a product to serve his or her needs; adaptive customization entails the production of standardized outputs for the clients to make any necessary adjustments themselves. According to Duarte, transparent customisation entails delivering clients customized goods without alerting them that they are customized, whereas cosmetic customization entails producing identical products but marketing them in distinct ways (2001).

According to Aquilano (2006), mass customization offers more advantages than problems. Tate and Lyle's implementation of this strategy will allow them to maximize client satisfaction and capitalize on the available market.

The corporation will reduce inventory and material costs by utilizing mass customization. This will be accomplished by ensuring that items reach the market on time and that production will be less expensive. Reorganizing the efficiency code of ethics is a wonderful approach to make gains inefficient in this situation. Noguchi and Hernandez-Velasco (2005) note that time saved is essential, and that it can assist an organization generate more value in sales owing to on-time delivery and faster sales, particularly if demand is high and supply speed is adequate to fulfill this need.

In addition, they will create based on demand, which will reduce their warehouse costs and other expenses.

Through mass customization, companies like Tate & Lyle will be able to quickly respond to varying customer demands, hence lowering the expenses associated with delays.

Tate and Lye will also be able to supply on time at the lowest possible cost, thereby reducing their inventory risk.

Tate and Lyle, one of the oldest sugar-producing companies in the United Kingdom, can benefit from mass customization. Incorporating mass customization into the sugar packaging process and the use of bespoke folk lifting, as well as the packaging branding, will significantly reduce their product costs and enhance their production rate.

Adsit (2009) highlighted that firms face complex issues in the present day. The necessity to adapt to new technology to preserve efficiency is increasingly obligatory. Supply chain management is an essential business discipline. It is a fundamental process in marketplaces driven by the customer. Numerous firms struggle to adapt to the needs of consumers and the evolving business environment. Core processes require transitional modification. This is a transition from conventional to contemporary supply chain management approaches. This is accomplished by integrating strategy with technology.

Additionally, production rate is becoming a problem. To fulfill the increasing demand for products, corporations are falling behind their competitors in order to survive the tides and meet the production hurdles, according to Pine (1992). Again, technology is useful for overcoming such a commercial deadlock. It is the management strategy supported by sound practices and sound knowledge of how to propel a company to the next level of growth that enables the transition from inefficient to effective production. As such, according to Dawes (1994), a thorough understanding of management practices and technical requirements can go a long way toward ensuring an organization's effectiveness.

Bibliography

Adsit, D. (2009). The evolution of mass customization and the call center industry. Web.

Aquilano, J., Chase, Jacobs (2006). Management of Operations for Competitive Advantage (11th Ed.). New York City McGraw-Hill/Irwin.

Dawes, J, et al (1994). A Critical Analysis of Strategy Typology, Southern Marketing: Theory and Applications, AMI, Australia.

Department for schools, families, and children (2010). R11- Brief overview of the financial management skills required of school personnel. Web.

Customizing Massachusetts Institute of Technology Mass Housing: a discursive grammar for Siza's dwellings at Malagueira. Duarte, J.P. (2001). Ph.D. Dissertation.

Eliyahu M. (1984). The objectives. New York, New York: York Press.

R. Ganesan and B. Harrison (1995). Introduction to logistics and supply chain. New York City McGraw-Hill.

Noguchi, M & Hernandez-Velasco, C.R. (2005). A "mass custom design" strategy for modernizing conventional dwelling development in Mexico. 29(2) Habitat International Press, pages 325-336.

Pine, J (1992). Customizing individuals is the new frontier of business competition. Boston, MA: Harvard Business School Press.

Tseng, M.M., and J. Jiao. (2001). Mass Customization. In G. Salvendy (Ed. ), Handbook of Industrial Engineering, Third Edition. New York: Wiley.

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Acquisition Proposal For Volkswagen Group Gp Essay Help

Introduction

The purpose of this research is to provide Volkswagen Group with a strategic acquisition proposal in the automotive industry. Commercial and passenger cars are the primary categories of the worldwide automobile industry. Due to the COVID-19 epidemic, the automobile market is anticipated to see a severe decline in sales in 2020. Wagner (2020) predicts that global sales of passenger cars will drop to 60,5 million units in 2020, from a peak of 79,6 million units in 2017. Prior to the advent of the virus, the industry was already experiencing challenges. Consequently, a considerable number of smaller firms will be unable to withstand the market downturn, creating advantageous acquisition prospects for larger firms.

Volkswagen

Company Profile

Volkswagen Group is a major player in the automobile sector, generating about $279 billion in revenue in 2019. (Volkswagen AG, 2020). Volkswagen group brands include Volkswagen Passenger Cars, Audi, KODA, Bentley, Porsche Automotive, Volkswagen Commercial Vehicles, Scania Vehicles and Services, MAN Commercial Vehicles, and other financial services providers (Volkswagen AG, 2020).

Despite the industry's volatility, the company offers robust growth potential and great financial stability. The company's net income has increased significantly during the past five years (Volkswagen AG, 2020). From $11.83 billion in 2018 to $13.89 billion in 2019, net income climbed by more than 14%. (Volkswagen AG, 2020). After witnessing a significant dip in the stock market and reaching its lowest price of $101.5 per share on March 18, the company recovered on April 9 to $128.3 per share (Yahoo Finance, 2020d). As soon as the viral outbreak begins to subside, the company should recover.

Volkswagen and EV Market

The electric vehicle (EV) business is a fast expanding market that attracts automakers from all over the world. While the market for all passenger cars was trailing at 3.5 million sales per month in the prior year, EV sales are slowly increasing from 125,000 to 162,000 per month (Bullard, 2019). By comparing the EV market to worldwide passenger vehicle sales, Figure 1 enhances comprehension of the EV market. At a CAGR of 15.69%, analysts anticipate the market will increase from $129,671.56 million in 2018 to $359,854.56 million by the end of 2025. (Valuates Reports, 2019). In other words, the EV market is flourishing, allowing both start-ups and established vehicle manufacturers to develop novel customer service strategies.

Figure 1. EV Sales VS All Passenger Vehicles Sales (Bullard, 2019).

German and Chinese firms are fighting to be the industry leaders, with China now in the lead (Bullard, 2019). Volkswagen is aware of the present EV industry trend and intends to adapt its business strategy to the impending changes. The corporation expects to dominate the industry in the near future by investing more than $30 billion in EV research and development and production, which is equal to its three-year earnings total (Matousek, 2019). It hopes to produce 600,000 units annually in China by 2022, whereas Tesla plans to produce only 150,000 vehicles (Hanley, 2019). Therefore, the primary objective of the Volkswagen Group is to steadily expand its presence in the EV market.

Potential Acquisition Candidates

General Reflections

In order to be compatible with the Volkswagen Group, potential acquisition candidates must satisfy a number of criteria. First, the target company must have the potential to generate value (Salter & Weinhold, 1981). Second, the prospective applicant should answer Volkswagen's specific requirements (Salter & Weinhold, 1981). Lastly, the purchased company must help achieve strategic objectives (Salter & Weinhold, 1981).

Volkswagen can gain from the horizontal acquisition of Chinese EV firms in light of its desire to become the world's leading EV manufacturer and the expansion of the EV market described in the preceding section. These acquisitions will benefit the Volkswagen company by expanding its presence in the region to produce 600,000 electric vehicles by 2022. In addition, as China was severely affected by the COVID-19 epidemic, the current financial performance of automotive companies in the region is anticipated to be weak.

The transaction should be financed using debt and paid for with cash. Volkswagen's current debt to assets ratio (D/A) is 0.837 (€ 187,092 million of total liabilities by €223,536 million of total assets), which is a very high ratio (Volkswagen AG, 2020).

Even though the D/E ratio in 2019 declined from 0.839 in 2018 (Volkswagen AG, 2020), the change is insignificant, and it would be preferable to finance the acquisition by issuing extra shares under normal circumstances. Volkswagen should however evaluate the COVID-19 scenario and its potential outcomes. According to Russel Investments (2020), central banks in the United States, Europe, and the United Kingdom are anticipated to execute unprecedented stimulus measures, which frequently involve lowering the key interest rate (Russel Investments, 2020). Therefore, the Volkswagen Group will likely benefit from the lowest interest rate of the twenty-first century. Therefore, it is preferable to pay for the purchase with borrowed funds.

Overview of Possible Applicants

Potential candidates for purchase should be Chinese automakers with a three-year track record of consistent performance in the EV industry. Bloomberg's list of firms competing in the electric passenger vehicle market according to their revenues from electric passenger vehicle sales is presented in Figure 2. (Bullard, 2019). According to Figure 2, BYD, Geely, BAIC, SAIC, and JAC Motors are the most suitable acquisition candidates. Only three candidates — BYD, SAIC, and Geely — will be evaluated in this report.

Figure 2: Revenues from EV sales by Company (Bullard, 2019). BYD

Rechargeable Battery and Photovoltaic Business, Mobile Handset Components and Assembly Service, and Automobiles and Related Products are the three business segments of BYD Company Limited, a Chinese corporation (Yahoo Finance, 2020c). It provides a vast array of goods and services, including lithium-ion batteries, mobile phones, electric tools, automobiles, buses, and real estate services (Yahoo Finance, 2020c).

In 2018, the company's net income decreased significantly from $4.07 billion in 2017 to $2.82 billion (Yahoo Finance, 2020a). Its stock market performance is marked by severe volatility, which is reflective of its unpredictable financial performance (Yahoo Finance, 2020a). Even though Volkswagen AG can benefit from acquiring the company, BYD offers a multitude of ancillary services that would require Volkswagen to acquire competence in various fields, which could be burdensome.

Geely

Geely Car Holdings Limited is an investment holding company that operates in the People's Republic of China as an automobile manufacturer (Yahoo Finance, 2020b). It manufactures and sells autos and automobile components and offers aftermarket services (Yahoo Finance, 2020b). It invests in vehicle engine research and development (R&D) and electric hybrid engine R&D, which can help Volkswagen enhance its R&D potential (Yahoo Finance, 2020b).

The company's net income has increased rapidly over the past three years, reaching $12.55 billion in 2018; yet, its stock market value has decreased steadily since March 2018, indicating that it can be purchased at a comparatively low price (Yahoo Finance, 2020b). Considering the company's profile and performance, Volkswagen may be able to purchase it.

SAIC

SAIC Motor Corporation Limited is a Shanghai-based automaker that offers a comparable range of goods and services to Volkswagen. It manufactures and distributes autos and parts, and also offers finance services (Yahoo Finance, 2020c). The company's financial performance has been comparable to that of its competitors over the past three years, with revenues reaching $36.01 billion in 2018. (Yahoo Finance, 2020c). Since 2018, its stock market performance has mirrored that of Geely, indicating a gradual fall (Yahoo Finance, 2020c). Even though the company provides comparable services, its size may cause Volkswagen to incur extra debt.

Conclusion and Suggestion

Currently, the COVID-19 pandemic is causing a severe drop in the automotive industry. Volkswagen may benefit from the moment of unpredictability by strategically acquiring a Chinese automaker to expand its position in the region. Geely Automobile Holdings Limited appears to be Volkswagen's best alternative, since it will assist Volkswagen achieve its strategic objectives and meet its needs. After the COVID-19 issue has subsided, it will be easier to obtain low-interest loans, thus the acquisition should be paid for in cash using borrowed funds.

References

Bullard, N. (2019). China is dominating the market for electric vehicles. Bloomberg. Web.

Hanley, S. (2019). Volkswagen intends to dominate the production of electric vehicles in China. The Clean Technica website.

Matousek, M. (2019). Volkswagen is placing a significant bet on electric vehicles, despite the fact that they represent a minute portion of the worldwide automobile market. It has no other choice. Business Insider. Web.

Russel Investments (2020). Global market forecast — Q2 update. Web.

Salter, M., & Weinhold, W. (1981). Choosing appropriate acquisitions. Web-based Harvard Business Review.

Valuates Reports (2019). Electric Vehicles market analysis. Web.

Volkswagen AG (2020). Online annual report for 2020.

Wagner, I. (2020). The automotive industry: statistics and facts Statista. Web.

Yahoo Finance (2020a). BYD Limited Company. Web.

Google Finance (2020b). Limited Geely Automobile Holdings. Web.

Google Finance (2020c). Limited SAIC Motor Corporation Web.

Google Finance (2020d). Volkswagen AG. Web.

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Online Banking Impact On Dubai Islamic Bank Gp Essay Help

Introduction

Many firms realize they must accept change in order to remain competitive (Cummings & Worley, 2008). This evolution has led to the emergence of change management, which entails organizational efforts to improve the success of adopting new systems or procedures (Hammoud, Bizri, & El Baba, 2018). Through the development of e-banking, a virtual instrument for facilitating commercial transactions, the Islamic banking industry has witnessed comparable patterns of change (Allied Market Research, 2019).

Despite the undeniable expansion of e-banking in the Middle Eastern financial industry, few Islamic banks comprehend how the virtual platform affects their bottom-line performance. This paper tries to analyze the impact of online banking on the Dubai Islamic Bank in light of this vacuum in the literature (DIB). This financial institution will serve as a case study to illustrate the impact of digitization on Islamic banking in the banking industry. The purpose of this analysis is to explore the effects of online banking on DIB, as posed by the research question that guides this study. The conversations will be guided by three objectives. They are concerned with determining how online banking affects DIB's service quality, customer satisfaction criteria, employee burden, and operational efficiency. These objectives have been adopted by other scholars to examine the influence of digital banking on their respective financial sectors. The aforementioned aims, for instance, are derived from the research conducted by Dinh, Le, and Le (2015) to comprehend the impact of e-banking on the Vietnam financial system.

Theoretical Structure and Subject Statement

As stated previously, e-banking has impacted various areas of the financial sector's new business development. However, no other industry has been affected by this transition as dramatically as the banking industry (Hammoud, Bizri, & El Baba, 2018; Siyal et al., 2019; Allied Market Research, 2019; Dinh et al., 2015). Online banking has emerged as a prominent platform for enabling commercial transactions as a result of the transformation. E-banking is typically described as an electronic payment system that enables fast transactions and the borderless flow of capital (Hammoud et al., 2018; Siyal et al., 2019; Allied Market Research, 2019; Dinh et al., 2015). This description is reinforced by recent events, which have witnessed the growth of internet banking by at least 22% per year to become a significant portion of worldwide financial transactions (Allied Market Research, 2019). It is anticipated that if this rise continues until 2023, there will be a 500% increase in banking activities compared to 2016 numbers (Allied Market Research, 2019). Advanced consumer interfaces and the ease of conducting financial transactions are among the key growth factors in the online banking industry (Hammoud et al., 2018; Siyal et al., 2019).

Globally, the expansion of the banking business has resulted in financial institutions offering goods and services in accordance with their geographic profiles and banking services (Allied Market Research, 2019; Dinh et al., 2015). This transformation has led to the emergence of retail, corporate, priority, and investment banking products, among others (Hammoud et al., 2018; Siyal et al., 2019). The rise of the internet banking industry has been primarily driven by an increased demand for new financial products, as seen in Figure 1.

Figure 1. Global online banking market (Source: Allied Market Research, 2019).

Financial payment is regarded as the largest contributor to the global expansion of e-commerce. In 2017, it contributed $2.866 billion to the revenue of e-commerce enterprises (Allied Market Research, 2019).

Islamic banking is one of the most understudied sectors of the online banking industry. The overall value of the banking sector is estimated to be $2.05 trillion (Research & Markets, 2019). This industry's expansion has attracted a variety of companies, who have segmented the market to boost their profitability by offering specialized electronic products and services (Research & Markets, 2019). In contrast, the worldwide Islamic banking sector has incorporated other Muslim-based financial instruments, such as Islamic Insurance (Sukuk), Islamic bonds, and Sharia capital markets (Research & Markets, 2019). Although moderate growth rates have been observed for the Islamic banking sector, online banking has demonstrated promise for boosting the flow of investment capital across important business groups (Research &Markets, 2019).

Islamic banking is dominated by a number of important investors who are willing to expend enormous sums of cash to remain competitive. Kuwait House Finance, Bank Al-Rajhi, and DIB are a few of the key participants (Research& Markets, 2019). The majority of these financial institutions utilize online banking to achieve their goals. Therefore, the research question directing this inquiry is predicated on comprehending the implications of online banking on DIB, the case study.

Methodology

Creswell (2014) states that the two primary sorts of research methodologies in research development are qualitative and quantitative. The qualitative method is utilized for research investigations including subjective variables, whilst the quantitative method is typically employed for studies involving measurable data. Both methodologies were combined in this document to build a collaborative mixed methods framework. The rationale for employing both methods was to study the research topic from diverse vantage points. In other words, the investigation was not restricted by the accessible data types.

The mixed-methods architecture enabled the collecting of data from both primary and secondary sources. The conclusions of the case study provided primary data acquired through interviews with members of the DIB personnel. Different types of inquiries regarding the organization's experience with internet banking were posed to the informants. The influence of digital banking on customer satisfaction, service quality, operational efficiency, and employee workload was discussed. The purpose of these questions was to gain a comprehensive knowledge of the impact of internet banking on DIB's core operational initiatives. The informants were selected utilizing the snowball sampling technique since one team member knew several bank employees. The initial set of employees was utilized to contact additional sources of information. The participants in the virtual interviews were middle-level managers from six DIB branches in the UAE. The opinions of management were solicited because the team had a deeper awareness of e-effects commerce's than lower-level personnel.

The second source of information used in the report was secondary data. Existing papers that have explored the subject issue were reviewed in order to compile the data. This type of data collecting was crucial in gathering the theoretical information necessary to address the change challenge (effect of digital banking on DIB's operations). The data was then examined by identifying themes that emerged from the interviews. The themes were produced by discovering patterns of analysis relevant to the aims of the study. Creswell (2014) refers to this style of data analysis as the theme method.

Results (Primary Data)

Organizations that strive to improve their performance by reorganizing their operational procedures frequently employ change management to maximize results (Cummings & Worley, 2008). Although change frequently encompasses all subsets of an organization's processes, the primary change agent is people. Therefore, change management must be integrated into a company's leadership structure for optimal results. This is the case for Dubai International Bank, since the digitization of its banking infrastructure is one of the most significant organizational developments. Detailed interviews were conducted with respondents to elicit their perspectives on the influence of digital banking on DIB, as detailed in this document. The results are listed below.

Impact of Digital Banking on DIB Service Quality

One of the topics posed to respondents concerned the impact of internet banking on DIB's service quality. It was determined that digital banking improved service quality at the bank by reducing the time and effort required to deliver services. It also enabled DIB to work with third-party agencies to enhance the quality of services provided. For instance, the bank has partnered with an external business to strengthen its billing system, a procedure that has contributed to the financial institution's improved service quality. Respondents also noted that digital banking reduced the amount of reported errors in financial transactions. They stated that virtual banking increased the rate of financial integration amongst the various DIB service model agents. Moreover, according to the respondents, the aforementioned benefits were easily realized because the bank's user experience on all banking platforms was intuitive.

Digital banking, according to a second respondent, improved the quality of banking services provided to customers by enhancing the planning, coordination, and control of banking services. This advantage was also associated with low transaction processing delays and higher transaction processing efficiency. Moreover, the favorable impact of digital banking adoption on DIB's operations was consistent with the bank's objective of digitizing banking services. In addition to altering consumer behavior, the institution's deployment of e-banking altered consumer behavior. In light of the aforementioned alterations, DIB has opted to adopt digital banking to suit client demands.

DIB's use of e-banking encompasses the creation of several virtual-based financial products, including t-banking (telephone banking), e-banking (electronic banking), and m-banking (mobile banking). On the same platform, contactless cards, automated teller machines, and point-of-sale services are alternative financial services. Due to greater efficiency and speed in providing customer services, the bank's online banking platform also facilitates the delivery of higher-quality customer support. The convenience provided by e-banking solutions has also been significant in enhancing the banking experiences of customers. The significance of understanding how e-banking has increased the efficiency of DIB's financial services is highlighted by these findings.

Effects of e-Banking on the Effectiveness of DIB Operations

Due to the advent of e-banking services, DIB operations have been more efficient, which has been supported by the incorporation of indirect services into the company's primary online banking platform. For instance, the ease of updating client data on the bank's records has facilitated the simplification of loan approval processes and increased the variety of transactions due to the simple identification of consumer attributes. E-banking has also increased the bank's efficiency by reducing the number of customers who visit physical branches to do transactions. The speed of information transfers between the bank and other parties has also contributed to DIB's increased operational efficiency. Some banking transactions at DIB still require the customer's personal presence, despite the fact that the greater integration of information technology tools has helped enhance efficiency.

Due to a decrease in operational expenses, the bank's cost management division has also reported an increase in the efficiency of e-banking services on DIB's operations. These benefits have decreased the processing time for financial transactions and minimized human error. E-impact banking's on DIB's operations has also increased the company's profitability and efficiency. This result is supported by improved financial indices, such as the cost-to-income ratio and the return on investments. Therefore, higher financial performance is associated with a decreased reliance on manual processing when examining financial transactions or conducting periodic performance assessments.

In general, the findings of this analysis indicate that digital banking has increased the turnaround time and quality of DIB's services, hence increasing the efficiency of DIB's operations. Due to the rise of e-banking, the proportion of transactions requiring the actual presence of clients has also decreased. This decrease in actual bank visits was mostly attributable to the automation-driven minimization of utility-related financial operations, such as the payment of water and power bills.

E-banking services have also been linked to the provision of up-to-date information and real-time updates of financial transactions in order to increase their efficiency. On the basis of the aforementioned benefits of digitization, the respondents indicated that the volume of online transactions conducted by various DIB departments has increased. Consequently, this increase in numbers has contributed to the bank's total number of transactions. One of the informants, for instance, indicated that up to 70% of all business banking transactions are conducted online.

E-Effect Banking's on Customer Satisfaction

Customer happiness is one of the many aspects that influence the success or failure of various sorts of organizations. It has been reported that online banking has a beneficial impact on customer satisfaction at DIB. This outcome is partly linked with the increased efficiency and productivity associated with the bank’s e-banking products and services. These opinions indicate that consumer satisfaction has grown as a result of the increased adoption of digital services. Specifically, the development of user-friendly interfaces has made the e-banking platform easier to navigate, hence increasing consumer satisfaction. In relation to this issue, some of DIB's bank clients are hesitant to embrace internet banking and prefer to visit the bank's branches in order to obtain the bank's financial services. Nonetheless, a few of the informants predicted that this trend would cease as consumers gain knowledge and confidence in internet banking.

The growing usage of DIB's e-banking services has been attributed in large part to customers' awareness of online banking. The stated increase in customer satisfaction levels at DIB can be attributed in large part to the bank's digital banking services. Specifically, the bank's goods have adopted significant characteristics, such as perceived quality and functional value, which influence how clients evaluate the quality of the bank's services. Other characteristics of the bank's online banking platform that have led to a rise in customer satisfaction criteria are service speed, employee-customer engagement, brand trust, and innovation.

Overall, DIB has begun to accept digital banking as the norm for conducting banking transactions. This is why the company has created so many digital banking products. Comparatively, according to one responder, some of their competitors employ digital banking as a distinct entity to conduct certain financial activities. Despite this, there is no disagreement that the bank's clients are growing more aware of digital banking and are prepared to test new products due to the platform's efficiency and convenience.

Employee Impacts of Digital Banking

In many firms, employees are frequently under pressure to fulfill tasks within specified timeframes. The same is true for DIB, as the personnel is contractually obligated to perform effectively. However, digital banking has harmed its performance by altering how its employees carry out their duties and responsibilities. As stated in this report, the automation of numerous banking procedures has shortened the time required to conduct financial transactions. As a result, the financial system has become more efficient due to the reduction of human errors and the accumulation of more client data.

The digital banking strategy at DIB has reduced the present burden of the bank's personnel. This result has been connected to increased automation because such systems perform the majority of the organization's responsibilities. In the same way that human error is a risk element for the bank, the respondents emphasized that the quality of inputs incorporated into the automated process should be thoroughly evaluated. Some of DIB’s employees pointed out that the use of

Lee Greenwood And John Newton, Composers Gp Essay Help

Lee Greenwood and John Newton are two composers that have written great works of art. Lee Greenwood is famous for the song “God Bless the USA” while John Newton wrote “Amazing Grace”. When choosing a composer to research I picked these two men because of what they songs they composed mean to me and make me feel. I have grown up with knowing the song “Amazing Grace” but did not know anything about the man who composed it or why he was compelled to write this hymn. The same for “God Bless the USA”, Lee Greenwood will always be remembered for this song but I always wanted to know why he wrote it.

Lee Greenwood is a California native born in October 27, 1947.Lee Greenwood has always had music in his life. He was in the band in high school that played pop, jazz, rhythm and Blues but eventually made his way to Nashville playing country music. Lee plays the drums, piano, saxophone, trumpet, banjo, timpani and vocals. Lee did not attend college for technical musical training, he played many different places including Nevada eventually moving his way to Nashville. Lee writes mostly country at this time but has in the past used his pop, jazz and rhythm and blues background to write songs. Many songs have been written by Lee Greenwood including: ” I.O.U.”, ” Somebody’s Gonna Love You” and ” Dixie Road”. Lee comes from a farming family and still helps out on the farm but his main source of income is music. The married the love of his life Kim and they had two boys Dalton and Parker. He is a “conservative Christian”. Lee has some significant honors in country music including Male Vocalist in 1983 & 1984 from the Country Music Association, Grammy for top Male Performance of “I.O.U.”. and in 2001 one about 18 years after he wrote “God Bless the USA” the song went number one on the pop charts (http://www.leegreenwood.com/biography).

John Newton was born in London England on July 24, 1725. John composed hymns later in life while he was ships in his younger years. John self taught himself after he left boarding school. John was also a preacher in the evangelical church. He married Mary, a women he had loved since he was a young man. While they did not have children of their own they raised their nieces. John wrote ” Glorious Things of Thee are Spoken”, ” Sinner Art thou still secure?” and ” Saved by Blood I Live to Tell” just to name a few. John was a strong advocate to abolish slavery in his later years while he did run a slave ship when he was younger.

Lee Greenwood and John Newton have several similarities. Both men have a sing relationship with their faith in God. John became an evangelical preacher and Lee is a Baptist. Lee and John have ties to the military. Lee Greenwood’s father was in the merchant Marines and Navy, this could be one of the reasons he felts so compelled to write “God Bless the USA”. Johns was in the British Navy as a young man. Throughout his stay in the Navy John has seen many different circumstances. Both men married women that were and are the loves of their lives, Lee married Kim and John married Mary.

With as many similarities that the two man had with each other they also has many differences. John was in the era of slavery. He was one of the front runners supporting to abolish slavery. Lee Greenwood was not around during this time. John Newton was a writer of hundreds of hymns while Lee Greenwood stuck with country and pop songs. John Newton’s mother died and his father remarried while Lee’s parents were divorced. Lee Greenwood also has a sister while John was an only child.

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The limitations of the Chit Acts online essay help

1.1 BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY

The financial system assumes strategically a very important role in channelling the funds from surplus units to deficit units. The financial system here refers to the group of institutions, markets and instruments which helps in formation of capital and thus accelerates to the pace of economic development.

The base of this study stems from the fact that there exists a gap between gross capital formation and gross domestic savings in India. So, there exists the need to augment the growth rate of voluntary domestic savings. This goal can be realized by widening and strengthening the working of different financial intermediaries which will result in mobilizing savings from various income level categories. .It is in this context that the role of the Non-Banking Financial Intermediaries like Chit Finance should be appreciated in supplementing the functions of the Banking Institutions.

Chit funds are Chit funds are the Indian equivalent of the Rotating Savings and Credit Associations (ROSCA). ROSCAs are famous in many parts of the world and is seen as an instrument to ‘save and borrow’ simultaneously. ROSCAs basically started as a way to help in fulfilling the needs of the low-income households as it enables the people to convert their small savings into lump sums. The concept of chit funds originated more than 1000 years ago. Initially it was in the form of an informal association of traders and households within communities, wherein the members contributed some money in return for an accumulated sum at the end of the tenure. Participation in Chit funds was mainly for the purpose of purchasing some property or, in other words, for ‘consumption’ purposes. However, in recent times, there have been tremendous alterations in the constitution and functioning of Chit funds. A significant difference between Chit Funds and ROSCAs are that in most places ROSCAs are user-owned and organized informally, but chit funds have been formally institutionalized in India. (Chit Funds-An innovative access to finance for low income households, 2009)

1.1.1 WHAT DO WE MEAN BY CHIT FUNDS?

Chit fund is a savings-cum-borrowing instrument. The basic aim of this instrument is to pool small amount of savings by all the members which is then managed by a foreman. The foreman has the responsibility to act as a trustee-cum-supervisors for the process of collection and allotment of the pooled amount.

Chit funds represent a traditional form of saving-cum-credit institution evolved before the bank system was introduced in rural India. There are many who avail themselves of this avenue for saving for a reasonable return.

1.1 NEED AND RATIONALE OF THE STUDY

Despite the growth of a wide range of savings avenues and the widespread network of banks and other financial institutions, it has been found that Chit scheme still forms an important part in the asset portfolio of many households and firms in India and especially in South India including Karnataka. Also, the review of literature shows that there are only a few studies on Chit Finance. Therefore, the need to conduct the study stems from the requirement to understand Chit Funds in Bangalore.

1.2 NEED TO CONDUCT THE STUDY

The research titled ‘A Study on Chit Funds in Bangalore to understand the behaviour and financial needs of the chit fund members as well as to identify the important predictors of regular participation in chit funds’ The study estimates the net returns and interest rate on Chit funds. This study tries to point out the limitations of the Chit Acts and suggests feasible recommendations for improving the working of such institutions.

.3.2 STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM

‘A Study on Chit Funds in Bangalore to understand the behaviour and financial needs of the chit fund members as well as to identify the important predictors of regular participation in chit funds’.

VARIABLES UNDER INVESTIGATION

1. Age

2. Occupation

3. Monthly income

4. Gender

5. Bank loan

6. Regular participation in chit fund

7. Membership in multiple chit schemes

8. Cause for participating in multiple schemes

9. Preferred avenue of saving

10. Preferred source of finance

11. Safety

12. Better service

13. Flexibility

14. Timely Payment

15. Low commission

16. Personal contact

17. Unregistered chit funds membership

18. Cause for participating in unregistered chit funds

19. Cause for not participating in unregistered chit fund

3.5 OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDY

3.5.1 OBJECTIVE(PRIMARY)

1. To understand the behaviour and financial needs of the chit fund members.

2. To identify the important predictors behind chit fund participation

3.5.2 OHER OBJECTIVES OF RESEARCH

1. To estimate interest rates in registered chit funds.

2. To compare the relative ratings of Chit subscribers towards registered and unregistered chit funds on

3. To estimate the return on Chit Funds.

3.6 HYPOTHESIS

There are two types of statistical hypotheses.

1. Null hypothesis

2. Alternative hypothesis.

Hypothesis 1:

H0: There is no significant relation between gender and cause for participation in chit fund.

H1: There is significant relation between gender and cause for participation in chit fund.

Hypothesis 2:

H0: There is no significant relation between occupation and cause for participation in chit fund.

H1: There is significant relation between occupation and cause for participation in chit fund.

Hypothesis 3:

H0: There is no significant relation between age and causes for participation in chit fund

H1: There is significant relation between age and cause for participation in chit fund

Hypothesis 4:

H0: There is no significant relation between monthly income and cause for participation in chit fund

H1: There is significant relation between monthly income and cause for participation in chit fund

Hypothesis 5:

H0: There is no significant relation between gender and causes for bidding in chit fund

H1: There is significant relation between gender and cause for bidding in chit fund

Hypothesis 6:

H0: There is no significant relation between occupation and cause for bidding in chit fund

H1: There is significant relation between occupation and cause for bidding in chit fund

Hypothesis 7:

H0: There is no significant relation between age and cause for bidding in chit fund

H1: There is significant relation between age and cause for bidding in chit fund

Hypothesis 8:

H0: There is no significant relation between monthly income and cause for bidding in chit fund

H1: There is significant relation between monthly income and cause for bidding in chit fund

Hypothesis 9:

H0: There is no significant relation between gender and cause for saving in chit fund

H1: There is significant relation between gender and cause for saving in chit fund

Hypothesis 10:

H0: There is no significant relation between occupation and cause for saving in chit fund.

H1: There is significant relation between occupation and cause for saving in chit fund.

Hypothesis 11:

H0: There is no significant relation between age and cause for saving in chit fund

H1: There is significant relation between age and cause for saving in chit fund

Hypothesis 12:

H0: There is no significant relation between having bank loan and membership in multiple chit schemes.

H1: There is significant relation between having bank loan and membership in multiple chit schemes.

Hypothesis 13:

H0: There is no significant relation between monthly income and participation in unregistered chit funds

H1: There is significant relation between monthly income and participation in unregistered chit funds

Hypothesis 14 :

H0: There is no significant relation between causes to prefer chit fund over bank and having bank loan.

H1: There is significant relation between causes to prefer chit fund over bank and having bank loan.

Hypothesis 15:

H0: Presence of safety, flexibility, timely payment, low commission, better service, personal contact, having a bank loan are no significant predictors of regular participation in chit fund.

H1: Presence of safety, flexibility, timely payment, low commission, better service, personal contact ,having a bank loan,are significant predictors of regular participation in chit fund.

.

3.8 SAMPLING METHOD

Members of four registered chit fund companies in Bangalore. The four registered chit fund companies were selected due to the large size of their subscriber base.

3.8.3 SIZE OF SAMPLE

150 respondents

3.9 MECHANISM OF STUDY

3.9.1 PRIMARY RESEARCH

Questions relating to behaviour and financial pattern will be found out through questionnares

3.9.2 SECONDARY RESEARCH

‘ Reports on chit fund industry

OVERVIEW OF INDIAN CHIT FUND INDUSTRY

4.1.1 NUMBER OF REGISTERED CHIT FUND COMPANIES:

According to the Ministry of Corporate Affairs, as on 31st December, 2013:

Volume of registered chit companies: 5412

Volume of chit companies in Karnataka: 703

Number of chit fund companies in Bangalore: 315

UNREGISTERED CHIT FUND INDUSTRY

Although unregistered chits are an informal source of finance but still they are a significant part of the chit fund industry. Though they are more easily accessible as compared to registered chit funds.

4.3 PURPOSE OF THE STUDY

The study titled ‘A Study on Chit Funds in Bangalore to understand the behaviour and financial needs of the chit fund members as well as to identify the important predictors of regular participation in chit funds’ attempt in The study estimates the net returns and interest rate on Chit funds. This study also examines the limitations of the Chit Acts and suggests suitable recommendations for improving the functioning of such institutions.

4.4 LIMITATION OF STUDY

‘ Unwillingness of the members to share their income and financial details made the task of data collection somewhat difficult.

‘ Collecting data became difficult since I don’t know the regional languages.

5.2 ANALYSIS OF DATA

The analysis is done on the primary data collected from 150 chit funds members in Bangalore

TESTING OF HYPOTHESES

5.4.1 Hypothesis 1:

H0: There is no significant relation between gender and cause for participation in chit fund.

H1: There is significant relation between gender and cause for participation in chit fund.

Chi-Square Tests

Value df Asymp. Sig. (2-sided)

Pearson Chi-Square 31.070a 16 .013

Likelihood Ratio 35.945 16 .003

Linear-by-Linear Association 8.809 1 .003

N of Valid Cases 150

a. 1 cells (10.0%) have expected count less than 5. The minimum expected count is .30.

Symmetric Measures

Value Approx. Sig.

Nominal by Nominal Phi .455 .013

Cramer’s V .228 .013

N of Valid Cases 150

a. Not assuming the null hypothesis.

b. Using the asymptotic standard error assuming the null hypothesis.

INTERPRETATION:

The value of chi-square=31.070 was p=.013, less than 0.05.

We can see that the strength of association between the variables is moderate (Phi and Cramer’s V -0.455).

Therefore, the research hypothesis that differences in ’cause to participate in chit funds’ are related to differences in ‘age” is supported by this analysis. This means that different age groups of the chit fund members have different reasons of participating in chit funds. As can be seen from the table above that those who belong to ’36-45 years’ have saving as the predominant reason to participate whereas members of other age groups do not have any dominant reason to participate.

5.4.2 Hypothesis 2:

Hypothesis 2:

H0: There is no significant relation between occupation and cause for participation in chit fund.

H1: There is significant relation between occupation and cause for participation in chit fund.

Hypothesis 3:

. Hypothesis 3:

H0: There is no significant relation between age and causes for participation in chit fund

H1: There is significant relation between age and cause for participation in chit fund

Chi-Square Tests

Value df Asymp. Sig. (2-sided)

Pearson Chi-Square 10.018a 4 .040

Likelihood Ratio 10.478 4 .033

Linear-by-Linear Association 6.876 1 .009

N of Valid Cases 150

Symmetric Measures

Value Approx. Sig.

Nominal by Nominal Phi .258 .040

Cramer’s V .258 .040

N of Valid Cases 150

a. Not assuming the null hypothesis.

a. Using the asymptotic standard error assuming the null hypothesis.

INTERPRETATION:

The value of chi-square=10.018 was p=.040, less than 0.05.

.We can see that the strength of association between the variables is weak (0.258)

Therefore, the research hypothesis that differences in ’cause to participate in chit funds’ are related to differences in ‘gender” is supported by this analysis. This means that males and females have different reasons of participating in chit funds. As it can be seen that males participate in chit funds for business and personal consumption purposes apart from saving whereas women predominantly participate to save.

5.4

Hypothesis 4:

H0: There is no significant relation between monthly income and cause for participation in chit fund

H1: There is significant relation between monthly income and cause for participation in chit fund

Chi-Square Tests

Value df Asymp. Sig. (2-sided)

Pearson Chi-Square 82.176a 12 .000

Likelihood Ratio 97.665 12 .000

Linear-by-Linear Association 15.696 1 .000

N of Valid Cases 150

Symmetric Measures

Value Approx. Sig.

Nominal by Nominal Phi .740 .000

Cramer’s V .427 .000

N of Valid Cases 150

INTERPRETATION:

We can see that the strength of association between the variables is strong (0.740)

Therefore, the research hypothesis that differences in ‘reason to participate in chit funds’ are related to differences in ‘occupation” is supported by this analysis. It can be seen that the self-employed members mainly participate to avail for business reasons whereas salaried employee participate mainly for personal consumption purposes.

Hypothesis 5:

Hypothesis 5:

H0: There is no significant relation between gender and causes for bidding in chit fund

H1: There is significant relation between gender and cause for bidding in chit fund

Chi-Square Tests

Value df Asymp. Sig. (2-sided)

Pearson Chi-Square 66.691a 20 .000

Likelihood Ratio 43.579 20 .002

Linear-by-Linear Association 4.804 1 .028

N of Valid Cases 150

a. 1 cell (10.0%) has expected count less than 5. The minimum expected count is .07.

Symmetric Measures

Value Approx. Sig.

Nominal by Nominal Phi .667 .000

Cramer’s V .333 .000

N of Valid Cases 150

a. Not assuming the null hypothesis.

b. Using the asymptotic standard error assuming the null hypothesis.

INTERPRETATION:

The (chi-square=66.691) was p=.000, less than 0.05.

We can see that the strength of association between the variables is moderately strong (0.667)

Therefore, the research hypothesis that differences in ’cause to bid in chit funds’ are related to differences in ‘age” is supported by this analysis. It can be seen that the members of age group’36-45 years’ are more interested in bidding for business related purposes where members of other age groups bid mainly for emergency needs.

5.4.6 Hypothesis 6:

. Hypothesis 6:

H0: There is no significant relation between occupation and cause for bidding in chit fund

H1: There is significant relation between occupation and cause for bidding in chit fund

Chi-Square Tests

Value df Asymp. Sig. (2-sided)

Pearson Chi-Square 7.167a 5 .209

Likelihood Ratio 7.885 5 .163

Linear-by-Linear Association 1.120 1 .290

N of Valid Cases 150

a. 5 cells (41.7%) have expected count less than 5. The minimum expected count is .81.

Symmetric Measures

Value Approx. Sig.

Nominal by Nominal Phi .219 .209

Cramer’s V .219 .209

N of Valid Cases 150

a. Not assuming the null hypothesis.

b. Using the asymptotic standard error assuming the null hypothesis.

INTERPRETATION:

The probability of the chi-square test statistic (chi-square=7.167) was p=.209, more than the alpha level of significance of 0.05.

Therefore, the research hypothesis that differences in ‘reason to bid in chit funds’ are related to differences in ‘gender” is not supported by this analysis.

5.4.7 Hypothesis 7:

Hypothesis 7:

H0: There is no significant relation between age and cause for bidding in chit fund

H1: There is significant relation between age and cause for bidding in chit fund

Chi-Square Tests

Value df Asymp. Sig. (2-sided)

Pearson Chi-Square 180.915a 15 .000

Likelihood Ratio 160.460 15 .000

Linear-by-Linear Association 28.379 1 .000

N of Valid Cases 150

a. 1 cell (10.0%) has expected count less than 5. The minimum expected count is .13.

Symmetric Measures

Value Approx. Sig.

Nominal by Nominal Phi 1.098 .000

Cramer’s V .634 .000

N of Valid Cases 150

INTERPRETATION:

The (chi-square=180.915) was p=.000, less than 0.05.

We can see that the strength of association between the variables is extremely strong (1.098)

Therefore, the research hypothesis that differences in’ are related to differences in ‘occupation” is supported by this analysis. It can be clearly seen that self-employed people bid in chit scheme mostly for business purposes, salaried people for emergency needs and housewives for household purposes.

5.4.8 Hypothesis 8:

Hypothesis 8:

H0: There is no significant relation between monthly income and cause for bidding in chit fund

H1: There is significant relation between monthly income and cause for bidding in chit fund

Chi-Square Tests

Value df Asymp. Sig. (2-sided)

Pearson Chi-Square 123.331a 35 .000

Likelihood Ratio 106.298 35 .000

Linear-by-Linear Association 4.957 1 .026

N of Valid Cases 150

INTERPRETATION:

The probability of the chi-square test statistic (chi-square=123.331) was p=.000, less than the alpha level of significance of 0.05.

We can see that the strength of association between the variables is extremely strong (.907)

Therefore, the research hypothesis that differences in ‘reason to bid in chit funds’ are related to differences in ‘income” is supported by this analysis. It can be clearly seen that low income members bid mostly for consumption reasons whereas higher income members bid for business related and emergency purposes.

SUMMARY:

Reason to bid in chit fund has the strongest association with the occupation of the chit fund members as the probability of the chi-square test statistic (chi-square=180.915) was p=.000 and the strength of association between the variables is extremely strong (1.098).

5.4.

Hypothesis 9:

H0: There is no significant relation between gender and cause for saving in chit fund

H1: There is significant relation between gender and cause for saving in chit fund

Chi-Square Tests

Value df Asymp. Sig. (2-sided)

Pearson Chi-Square 21.702a 16 .153

Likelihood Ratio 23.775 16 .095

Linear-by-Linear Association 2.397 1 .122

N of Valid Cases 150

INTERPRETATION:

The chi-square=123.331) was p=.153, more than 0.05. Therefore, the research hypothesis that differences in ’cause to save in chit funds’ are related to differences in ‘age” is not supported by this analysis.

5.4.10 Hypothesis 10:

H0: There is no significant relation between occupation and cause for saving in chit fund.

H1: There is significant relation between occupation and cause for saving in chit fund.

Chi-Square Tests

Value df Asymp. Sig. (2-sided)

Pearson Chi-Square 20.510a 4 .000

Likelihood Ratio 29.038 4 .000

Linear-by-Linear Association 7.062 1 .008

N of Valid Cases 150

a. 1 cell (10.0%) has expected count less than 5. The minimum expected count is .81.

Symmetric Measures

Value Approx. Sig.

Nominal by Nominal Phi .370 .000

Cramer’s V .370 .000

N of Valid Cases 150

a. Not assuming the null hypothesis.

b. Using the asymptotic standard error assuming the null hypothesis.

INTERPRETATION:

The chi-square=20.510) was p=.000, less than 0.05.

We can see that the strength of association between the variables is weak (.370).Therefore, the research hypothesis that differences in ’cause to save in chit funds’ are related to differences in ‘gender” is supported by this analysis.

5.4.11 Hypothesis 11:

Hypothesis 11:

H0: There is no significant relation between age and cause for saving in chit fund

H1: There is significant relation between age and cause for saving in chit fund

Chi-Square Tests

Value df Asymp. Sig. (2-sided)

Pearson Chi-Square 67.261a 12 .000

Likelihood Ratio 60.380 12 .000

Linear-by-Linear Association 9.507 1 .002

N of Valid Cases 150

a. 1 cell (10.0%) has expected count less than 5. The minimum expected count is .13.

Symmetric Measures

Value Approx. Sig.

Nominal by Nominal Phi .670 .000

Cramer’s V .387 .000

N of Valid Cases 150

INTERPRETATION:

The chi-square=67.261 was p=.000, less than 0.05.

We can see that the strength of association between the variables is moderately strong(.670).Therefore, the research hypothesis that differences in ‘reason to cause in chit funds’ are related to differences in ‘occupation” is supported by this analysis. Salaried people save their money in chit fund with no particular purpose. But self-employed people are equally interested in saving for house purchase as well as for general purpose.

SUMMARY:

chit fund is most closely associated with occupation of the chit fund members as it has the highest value of chi-square statistic and Phi coefficient.

5.4.12 Hypothesis 12:

Hypothesis 12:

H0: There is no significant relation between having bank loan and membership in multiple chit schemes.

H1: There is significant relation between having bank loan and membership in multiple chit schemes.

Chi-Square Tests

Value df Asymp. Sig. (2-sided)

Pearson Chi-Square 56.697a 3 .000

Likelihood Ratio 67.900 3 .000

Linear-by-Linear Association 36.400 1 .000

N of Valid Cases 150

INTERPRETATION:

The probability of the chi-square test statistic (chi-square=56.697) was p=.000, less than the alpha level of significance of 0.05.

We can see that the strength of association between the variables is strong (.615).

Therefore, the research hypothesis that differences in ‘membership in multiple chit schemes are related to differences in ‘having currently bank loan” is supported by this analysis. It is clearly evident that those members currently having bank loan have invested in only one chit scheme whereas those members who do not have availed bank loan have invested in more than one chit schemes.

5.4.13 Hypothesis 13:

Hypothesis 13:

H0: There is no significant relation between monthly income and participation in unregistered chit funds

H1: There is significant relation between monthly income and participation in unregistered chit funds

.

Chi-Square Tests

Value df Asymp. Sig. (2-sided)

Pearson Chi-Square 96.660a 7 .000

Likelihood Ratio 85.378 7 .000

Linear-by-Linear Association 59.577 1 .000

N of Valid Cases 150

a. 1 cell(10.0%) has expected count less than 5. The minimum expected count is 1.08.

INTERPRETATION:

The chi-square=96.660 was p=.000, less than 0.05.

We can see that the strength of association between the variables is extremely strong (.803).

Therefore, the research hypothesis that differences in ‘participation in unregistered chit funds’ are related to differences in ‘income” is supported by this analysis. It is clearly evident that mostly low- income members have participated in unregistered funds. This is because the registered funds have become expensive due to the increase in their operational cost as a result of stringent regulations.

5.2.14 Hypothesis 14 :

H0: There is no significant relation between causes to prefer chit fund over bank and having bank loan.

H1: There is significant relation between causes to prefer chit fund over bank and having bank loan

Chi-Square Tests

Value df Asymp. Sig. (2-sided)

Pearson Chi-Square 28.049a 5 .000

Likelihood Ratio 31.806 5 .000

Linear-by-Linear Association 2.967 1 .085

N of Valid Cases 150

a. 2 cells (15.0%) have expected count less than 5. The minimum expected count is 1.79.

Symmetric Measures

Value Approx. Sig.

Nominal by Nominal Phi .432 .000

Cramer’s V .432 .000

N of Valid Cases 150

INTERPRETATION:

The probability of the chi-square test statistic (chi-square=28.049) was p=.000, less than the alpha level of significance of 0.05.

We can see that the strength of association between the variables is moderate (.432).

Therefore, the research hypothesis that differences in ’cause to prefer chit fund over bank’ are related to differences in ‘having bank loan” is supported by this analysis. It is clearly evident that members who have bank loan have preferred chit fund over bank mainly due to better dividends. But those who do not have bank loan prefer chit fund over bank mainly due to better service in terms of more personalized service.)

5.2..15 Hypothesis 15: To identify significant predictors of regular participation in chit funds using Binary Logistic Regression

Hypothesis 15:

H0: Presence of safety, flexibility, timely payment, low commission, better service, personal contact, having a bank loan are no significant predictors of regular participation in chit fund.

H1: Presence of safety, flexibility, timely payment, low commission, better service, personal contact ,having a bank loan,are significant predictors of regular participation in chit fund.

Variables in the Equation

B S.E. Wald df Sig. Exp(B)

Step 0 Constant -1.046 .186 31.574 1 .000 .351

Model Summary

Step -2 Log likelihood Cox & Snell R Square Nagelkerke R Square

1 37.170a .533 .576

a. Estimation terminated at iteration number 6 because parameter estimates changed by less than .001.

Variables in the Equation

B S.E. Wald df Sig. Exp(B)

Step 1a bank_loan(1) 1.068 1.265 14.715 1 .000 11.720

reason_2 2.286 4 .683

reason_2(1) 1.336 1.077 1.540 1 .215 3.805

reason_2(2) .134 2.239 .004 1 .952 1.143

reason_2(3) -.559 1.896 .087 1 .768 .572

reason_2(4) .731 1.347 .294 1 .588 2.076

reason_3 4.874 5 .431

reason_3(1) 1.188 .924 1.652 1 .199 3.279

reason_3(2) 1.661 2.048 .658 1 .417 5.263

reason_3(3) -1.654 1.228 1.813 1 .178 .191

reason_3(4) .404 1.192 .115 1 .735 1.497

reason_3(5) -17.379 20.722 .000 1 .700 .000

reason_4 .355 4 .986

reason_4(1) -1.047 1.850 .320 1 .571 .351

reason_4(2) -.839 1.979 .180 1 .672 .432

reason_4(3) -.932 1.637 .324 1 .569 .394

reason_4(4) 3.519 4.199 .000 1 .600 3.746

reason_5 8.553 5 .128

reason_5(1) -.254 1.768 .021 1 .886 .776

reason_5(2) -19.245 9.890 .000 1 .999 .000

reason_5(3) 1.420 1.338 1.126 1 .289 4.136

reason_5(4) -.747 1.306 .327 1 .567 .474

reason_5(5) .561 1.342 .174 1 .676 1.752

B S.E. Wald df Sig. Exp(B)

Step 1a Safety -.075 .320 4.377 1 .011 0.928

Flexi -.178 .426 3.337 1 .021 0.837

commision -.185 .188 1.868 1 .026 0.831

payment -.267 .178 1.657 1 .097 0.766

service -.859 .412 1.348 1 .083 0.424

personal -1.122 .163 .996 1 .079 0.329

Constant 3.058 2.440 1.571 1 .010 21.291

a. Variable(s) entered on step 1: : bank_loan, reason_2, reason_3, reason_4, reason_5.imp1, imp2, imp3, imp4, imp5, imp6.

INTERPRETATION:

‘ -2 Log Likelihood statistic is 37.170. This statistic how poorly the model predicts the decisions — the smaller the statistic the better the model. Since, 37.170 is a relatively small number therefore, this model is able to predict the decisions in a better way.

‘ Here Cox & Snell R Square statistic indicates that 53.3% of the variation in the regular participation in chit funds is explained by the logistic model.

‘ In our case Nagelkerke R Square is 0.576, indicating a moderate relationship of 57.6 % between the predictors and the prediction.

‘ If it is less than .05 then, we will reject the null hypothesis and accept the alternative hypothesis.

‘ In this case, we can see that bank loan, safety, flexibility and low commission have contributed signi’cantly to the prediction of regular participation in chit funds but other variables are not significant predictors of regular participation in chit funds.

‘ Since only bank loan has p=.000, therefore we can say that bank loan is the most significant predictor

among other significant predictors. This is followed by safety (p=.011), flexibility (p=.021) and low commission (p=.026).

‘ Here, the EXP (B) bank loan is 11.727. Hence when bank loan is availed by one unit (one person) the odds ratio is 11 times as large and therefore people are 11 more times likely not to regularly participate in chit funds.

‘ Here, the EXP (B) with safety is .928. Hence when safety is increased by one percent the odds ratio is .928 times as large and therefore people are .928 more times likely to regularly participate in chit funds.

‘ Here, the EXP (B) flexibility is 837. Hence when flexibility is increased by one percent the odds ratio is .928 times as large and therefore people are .837 more times likely to regularly participate in chit funds.

‘ Here, the EXP (B) low commission is .831. Hence when flexibility is increased by one percent the odds ratio is .928 times as large and therefore people are .831 more times likely to regularly participate in chit funds.

SUMMARY

Bank loan is the most significant predictor of regular participation in chit funds. This is followed by safety, flexibility and low commission.

Instalment no No of months remaining Monthly subscription Prize amount PV of monthly subscription(PV of outlow at 10%) PV of Prize amount(PV of inflow at 10%) Net Present Value(PV of inflow – PV of outflow)

1 24 2000 50000 2000 50000 10444.9

2 23 1500 35000 1488.1 34723.1 -4832.0

3 22 1500 35000 1476.4 34448.4 -5106.7

4 21 1500 35000 1464.7 34175.9 -5379.2

5 20 1500 35000 1453.1 33905.5 -5649.6

6 19 1500 35000 1441.6 33637.3 -5917.8

7 18 1500 35000 1430.2 33371.2 -6183.9

8 17 1500 35000 1418.9 33107.2 -6447.9

9 16 1620 38000 1520.3 35660.6 -3894.5

10 15 1620 38000 1508.2 35378.5 -4176.6

11 14 1700 40000 1570.2 36945.9 -2609.2

12 13 1700 40000 1557.8 36653.6 -2901.5

13 12 1780 42000 1618.2 38181.8 -1373.3

14 11 1780 42000 1605.4 37879.8 -1675.3

15 10 1780 42000 1592.7 37580.1 -1975.0

16 9 1860 44000 1651.1 39058.2 -496.9

17 8 1860 44000 1638.0 38749.2 -805.9

18 7 1860 44000 1625.1 38442.6 -1112.5

19 6 1940 46000 1681.6 39872.1 317.0

20 5 1940 46000 1668.3 39556.6 1.5

21 4 1940 46000 1655.1 39243.7 -311.4

22 3 1940 46000 1642.0 38933.2 -621.8

23 2 1940 46000 1629.0 38625.2 -929.8

24 1 1940 46000 1616.1 38319.7 -1235.4

25 0 1940 46000 1603.3 38016.5 -1538.6

39555.1 934465.9 -54411.4

[supanova_question]

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Merit goods are goods which will be under-provided by the market, therefore they will be under-consumed. They are thought by the governments to be good for the populations and so the governments want them to be consumed to a great extent. They increase the private and social benefits and cause the social benefit be higher than the private one. The best examples of them, apart from all the public goods, can be the education, health care, sports facilities and the opera.

Although the majority of the merit goods is provided by the private sectors, not all the people can afford buying them, therefore they will be under-consumed. That is why the government is needed to destroy the market failure increasing the supply and consequently raising the consumption.

To explain the reasons for government to provide the merit goods, I need to apply some examples of them. The first one can be the education. It is significant for the governments to provide it so that the society would be well-educated. Governments determine the period of education required for people (the compulsory education) to maintain the proper level of education of the society. The governments find education an important aspect that should be available for everyone as it cause the whole country to have better both economic growth and economic development.

Considering another example such as health care, the situation is quite similar. The governments want to provide the population with it because they care about the high states of health of society in their country. To gain these, the countries need to have high quality of health care. Governments often offer people unpaid programs consisting of preventative medical examination which contribute to maintain the high number of healthy people. This is also connected with the problems of the labour market. The healthier people are, the more efficient their work is, the greater revenue firms have and countries are more developed because of taxations.

Other examples like sport facilities or the opera are meant for people to become physically and culturally developed but their availability is not as important as in the case of the previous examples. That is why they are not as much provided by the governments as the rest of the merit goods.

Although most of the merit goods provided by the governments are free, the fact is that they are paid through the taxes that the societies pay. The number of the merit goods of particular types that the governments provide or subsidize depends on the necessity of them. If they are provided, the societies’ benefits get higher and so is the public treasury of the countries.

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Research proposal: The effect of pregnancy on the adolescent pregnant teen & father academic essay help

Abstract: The purpose for this research paper is to address the adolescent pregnant teen & father and the effects a pregnancy has on both of their lives during and after her pregnancy. How the teens need the support of the family, community, church, and the school system. I will also address the teen father mostly disregarded in any aspect of the teen’s pregnancy and how this affects him, and how both teens need support in our society. How we can address the social problem of teen pregnancy from all avenues.

‘Three issues that have an impact on the pregnant adolescent are discussed education, identity development, and maternal support’ (Turnage & Pharris, 2013). My research focuses on adolescent pregnant teen women 19 years old and younger. It will also reflect the problems of the teen pregnant adolescents journeying thru the process of becoming a teen mother, finishing high school, developing her own identity and the maternal support she gets from her mother during her transition from pregnant teen to motherhood.

‘Several issues that differently influence the pregnant teen is individually based on the female’s chronological age’ (Turnage & Pharris, 2013). ‘For the pregnant adolescent, her pregnancy supersedes high school graduation as the benchmark for her being viewed as an adult’ (Turnage & Pharris, 2013). ‘Failure to graduate high school is associated with poor social and educational outcomes for teen mothers and their children’ (Turnage & Pharris, 2013).

‘While the pregnant adolescent is defining who she is as a person she experiences a transition to the new identity of mother’ (Turnage & Pharris, 2013). ‘During her pregnancy the adolescent’s mother is seen as the primary source of support that contributes to a positive self-image and can assist her in the adapting to the role of parent’ (Turnage & Pharris, 2013).

My research paper will also show how important it is to support the teen during and after pregnancy. It addresses the need for the teen mothers to finish high school, and find her identity. How important it is to have the support system of her mother and family to achieve all of these things. Without these support systems, the pregnant adolescent could end up in poverty, no social skills, homeless and a host of other social problems for her and her baby.

Addressed and examined is teen motherhood and its long-term mental and physical health of the teen mother’ (Patel & Sen, 2012). They used a (PCS) health survey known as SF-12 NLSY79 a study that compared two major comparisons groups of which only teens who experienced teen pregnancy and girls who did not experience teen pregnancy. On average the survey for teen mothers was on average 50.89.

The study to access the health outcome of ‘two major comparison groups, which consisted of women who were only experienced teen pregnancy & women who were having unprotected sexual relation as a teen but did not become pregnant ‘ (Patel & Sen, 2012). Estimated is that teen mothers are more likely to have poor health later in life in the study of all the comparison groups.

Along with support, they desperately need help taking care of an infant as a teen; they need a support system to take notice of how they are managing their health & well-being so that they can be a successful teen parent. In addition, being a teen parent can affect the mother’s mentally as the pressure of being new teen mom can be stressful.

The teen mothers who marry after they give birth to their children statistics state that 30 % of them will not remain in their marriages into their 40’s. This result comes from teen adolescents in a single parent home raising their child. This can put a strain on the teen adolescent because she will financially have to seek support from her family or enter into the welfare system and suffer mental health issues.

‘Adolescent teen mothers identify social support with, parenting and emotional support primary emanating from family members, particularly their own mothers, as well as from the father of the baby (Savio Beers & Lee, 2009)’. ‘Older sisters may play an important role in the support network for adolescent mothers, the supportive sister relationships decrease depressive and anxiety-related symptoms in adolescent mothers (Savio Beers & Lee, 2009).

‘For some adolescent parents, participation in a religious community programs may provide the significant social support and serve as a protective factor’ (Savio Beers & Lee, 2009). This directly stresses the point that without the support of family, community, and church with the support of the father the adolescent teen mother can suffer mental issues, poverty issues, and marriage problems.

We addressed the many issues that teen mothers have to face, so now I would like to address the teen father in our society. What are their concerns on becoming a teen father, and how do they view their role as father where their masculinity is concerned? While most of the research done on teen pregnancy and parenting mainly focusing on the mother, the father is invisible.

Interviewed were 26 young teen fathers in the mid-western American towns. The in depth survey of three themes of gender discord focused on teen father narratives, which took on responsibility, sex, being a man, this is the direct viewpoint of the invisible teen father. What they feel about getting a teen girl pregnant and what responsibility they take in the pregnancy if any. How they relate to getting a teen pregnant and how that affects his identity as a man and their masculinity.

‘Gendered assumptions regarding pregnancy and contraception’specifically that women are in charge of preventing pregnancy and they have the belief that male sexuality is uncontrollable; and that use of love and intimacy talk (Weber, J. B., 2013). The teen fathers that took the questionnaire did not blame themselves for getting the teen girl pregnant. They see the teen’s pregnancy as her problem.

Studies suggest that teen fathers are more likely to be of a minority race. He has a mother who had a baby as a teen; his parents have a minimal education. His parents do not have high expectations of him finishing school; all of these factors result in the likelihood that makes him a candidate to becoming a teenage father. ‘The research states that the teen fathers go to school fewer years less than non-teenage fathers (Fletcher & Wolfe, 2011).

‘Evidence shows that men who have children before marriage leave school earlier and have worse labor markets outcomes’ (Fletcher & Wolfe, 2011). ‘Data was used only on young men who reported a pregnancy as an adolescent’ (Fletcher & Wolfe, 2011). It affects his completion of high school.

It also affects his ability to take care of the teen mother & baby, which causes him to drop out of school early. Statistically, ‘teen fathers work more hours and earn more money following the birth of a child then his non-parent counterparts’ (Fletcher & Wolfe, 2011). Teen fatherhood results in the teen father getting married early or co-habitation with the teen mother.

In conclusion, teen pregnancy is a social problem in the United States both teens will have to suffer in their education, grow up before their time, take on adult responsibilities, and suffer financial problems to take care of the child. Which ultimately falls on the parents of the teens, society or the welfare system in which the teen mother becomes a social statistic or shall I say a number.

Teen pregnancy as of 2014 have been on the decline in the United States and increased in other states, however a positive support system for both teens is minimal at best. Socially as communities, churches and government we have to take an active role in education of abstaining from sex, talking to the teens about sex, and protecting themselves against pregnancy.

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Reconnaissance attacks in IPv6 networks gp essay help

2.1.1 Reconnaissance attacks in IPv6 networks

The 1st larger attack in IPv6 is usually a reconnaissance attack. An attacker try reconnaissance attacks to get some confidential information about the victim network that can be misused by the attacker in further attacks. For this he uses active methods, such as scanning techniques or data mining strategies. To start, an intruder begins to ping the victim network to determine the IP addresses currently used in the victim network. After getting some of the accessible system, he starts to scan the port to find out any open port in the desired system. The size of subnet is bigger than that of the in IPv4 networks. To perform a scan for the whole subnet an attacker should make 264 probes and that???s impossible. With this fact, IPv6 networks are much more resistant to reconnaissance attacks than IPv4 networks. Unfortunately, there are some addresses which are multicast address in IPv6 networks that help an intruder to identify and attack some resources in the target network.

2.1.2 Security threats related to IPv6 routing headers

As per IPv6 protocol specification, all of the IPv6 nodes must be able to process routing headers. In fact, routing headers can be used to avoid access controls based on destination addresses. Such action can cause security effects. It may be happen that an attacker sends a packet to a publicly accessible address with a routing header containing a ???forbidden??? address on the victim network. In such matter the publicly accessible host will forward the packet to the destination address stated in the routing header even though that destination is already filtered before as a forbidden address. By spoofing packet source addresses an intruder can easily perform denial of service attack with use of any publicly accessible host for redirecting attack packets.

2.1.3 Fragmentation related security threats

As per IPv6 protocol specification, packet fragmentation by the intermediate nodes is not permitted. Since in IPv6 network based on ICMPv6 messages, the usage of the path MTU discovery method is a duty, packet fragmentation is only allowed at the source node.1280 octets is the minimal size of the MTU for IPv6 network. The packets with size less than 1280 octets to be discarded unless it???s the last packet in the flow as per security reasons. With use of fragmentation, an attacker can get that port numbers not found in the first fragment and thus they bypass security monitoring devices expecting to find transport layer protocol data in the very first fragment. An attacker will send a huge amount of small fragments and create an overload of reconstruction buffers on the victim system which resulted to the system crash. To prevent system from such attacks it???s necessary to bound the total number of fragments and their permissible arrival rate.

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WMBA 6000-13 Topic: Course Evaluation essay help writer

WMBA 6000-13

Topic: Course Evaluation

Date: March 2, 2014

Based on the assigned readings for this course (Dynamic Leadership), I have read an enormous amount of information about the different categories of leaders and leadership styles. Today’s leaders are different from the leaders of twenty to fifty years ago. In the past leaders gave commands and they controlled the actions of others. Today leaders are willing to involve others in their decision making and they are more open to new possibilities.

A good leader has a vision for their organization and they know how to align and engage employees in order to promote collaboration. The successful leader knows how to lead by using superior values, principles and goals that fit the organization’s values, principles and goals. Also these leaders know that leadership is not made from authority, it’s made from trust and followership. Coleman, J., Gulati, & Segovia, W.O. (2012)

I am impressed most by the characteristics of the authentic leader because they know how to develop themselves; they use formal and informal support networks to get honest feedback in order to drive long-term results. Authentic leaders build support teams to help them stay on course and counsel them in times of uncertainty. George, B., Sims, P., Mclean, A.N. & Mayer D. (2007)

In addition, I found the Leadership Code to be important because it provides structure and guidance and helps one to be a better leader by not emphasizing one element of leadership over another. Some focus on the importance of vision for the future; others on executing in the present; others on personal charisma and character; others on engaging people’; and others on building long-term organization. The code represents about 60 to 70 percent of what makes an effective leader. Ulrich, D., Smallwood, N., Sweetman, K. (2008)

The information that I acquired from this course will help me to pursue the goal of owning a beauty supply business. Another goal that I can add to my action plan is to include not only wigs and welted hair, but I will add hair, skin and nail products to my inventory. A future goal will be to add handbags and accessories as well.

After completing my short-term goal of finishing my MBA, I can take the knowledge from this course along with my values, ethics and principles to help me to manage employees and operate a successful business. Annie Smith (March 2, 20

Coleman, J. G. (2012). Educating young leaders. Passion and Purpose , 197-202.

George, B. S. (2007). Discovering your authentic leadership. Harvard Business Review , 129-138.

Lyons, R. (2012). Dean of Haas of School of Business University of California, Berkely. It’s made from followership. (J. G. Cole, Interviewer) Coleman, J., Gulati, D., & Segovia, W.O.

Ulrich, D. S. (2008). Five rules of leadership. In The leadership code five rules to lead by. Defining Leadership Code , 1-24.

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Family presence during CPR (cardiopulmonary resuscitation) popular mba argumentative essay help

In a pre-hospital setting, there are few moments that are as intense as the events that take place when trying to save a life. Family presence during these resuscitation efforts has become an important and controversial issue in health care settings. Family presence during cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) is a relatively new issue in healthcare. Before the advent of modern medicine, family members were often present at the deathbed of their loved ones. A dying person’s last moments were most often controlled by his or her family in the home rather than by medical personnel (Trueman, History of Medicine). Today, families are demanding permission to witness resuscitation events. Members of the emergency medical services are split on this issue, noting benefits but also potentially negative consequences to family presence during resuscitation efforts.

A new study has found that family members who observed resuscitation efforts were significantly less likely to experience symptoms of post-traumatic stress, anxiety and depression than family members that did not. The results, published in an online article in The New England Journal of Medicine, entitled ‘Family Presence during Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation,’ were the same regardless of the survival of the patient. The study involved 570 people in France whose family members were treated by emergency medical personnel at home. These EMS teams were unique in that they were comprised of a physician, a nurse trained in emergency medicine, and two emergency medical technicians. The study found that the presence of relatives did not affect the results of CPR, nor did it increase the stress levels of the emergency medical teams. Having family present also did not result in any legal claims after the incidents occured. While the unique limitations of the study warrant consideration, the results show a definite benefit in having families stay during CPR (Jabre Family Presence).

Historically, although parents of children have been allowed to be present for various reasons, relatives of adult patients have not. As medical practices change to increasingly involve family in the care of patients, growing numbers of emergency medical practitioners say that giving relatives the option of watching CPR can be a good idea. Several national organizations, including The American Heart Association, have revised their policies to call for giving family members the option of being present during CPR (AHA Guidelines for CPR). Witnessing CPR, say some emergency medical experts and family members, can take the mystery out of what could be a potentially terrifying experience. It can provide reassurance to family members that everything is being done to save their loved ones. It also can offer closure for relatives wanting to be with their family members until the last minute (Kirkland Lasting Benefit). Another benefit is that it shows people why reviving someone in cardiac arrest is much less likely than people assume from watching it being done on television (Ledermann Family Presence During). Family members who can truly understand what it means to ‘do everything possible’ can go on to make more informed decisions about end-of-life care for themselves or their families.

There are three perspectives on this issue- that of the emergency medical personnel providing care, the family, and the patients. The resistance on the part of the medical community to family presence during CPR stems from several different concerns. The most common concern among these is that family members, when faced with overwhelming fear, stress and grief, could disrupt or delay active CPR. Another concern raised by emergency medical personnel is that the realities of CPR may simply be too traumatic for loved ones, causing them to suffer more than they potentially would have if they had never witnessed the event. Some families share this view, citing the potential for extreme distress as a main reason for not wanting to witness resuscitation (Grice Study examining attitudes). Many emergency medical personnel also fear an increased risk of liability and litigation with family members present in the room (Fullbrook the Presence of Family). The worry is that errors can occur, inappropriate comments may be made, and the actions of the personnel involved may be misinterpreted. In an already tense situation, the awareness of the family could increase the anxiety of the personnel and create a greater potential for mistakes.

Another complication that arises from having families present during resuscitation attempts is that of patient confidentiality. The patient’s right to privacy should not be circumvented with implied consent. There is always the possibility that medical information previously unknown to the family may be revealed in the chaos of resuscitation. In addition, patient dignity, whether physical or otherwise, may become compromised (Fullbrook the Presence of Family). Beyond moral considerations, legal concerns regarding revealing patient information are real. This could become an even larger issue if there is no one available to screen witnesses, which could result in unrelated people gaining access to personal information. Eventually, a breach in confidentiality can lead to a breach in the confidence that the public has gained in pre-hospital emergency care.

Family presence during CPR in a pre-hospital setting remains a highly debatable topic. This could be largely due to the fact that the needs of the emergency medical providers and the rights of the patients can be at odds with the wishes of the family members. Although there are several possible reasons why family presence is not being welcomed into daily practice, one of the major reasons could be the lack of formal written policies that define the roles of families and providers placed into this situation. Bringing family members into a situation where CPR is being performed on a loved one should not happen haphazardly. It should happen with careful concern and support for everyone involved. Policies and protocols, defined by experienced personnel, can provide legal and emotional support. They can also potentially help ease anxiety by defining expectations and placing responsibility in the hands of people who are experienced enough to know how to handle the situation appropriately. The policies and protocols should address the basic needs of all people involved. Five basic needs should be addressed:

1. The number of people allowed to be present

2. Which relatives should be allowed to be present (age, relationship, etc.)

3. The role of the family members present and what is expected of them.

4. The place where the family should remain during the duration of CPR.

5. The formal wishes of the patient- written as a directive like a living will.

An important component of this is available, trained staff that can prepare the family members for what they will witness, support them through the event, and then direct them after the event’s conclusion.

The American Heart Association states that the goals of cardiopulmonary resuscitation are, ‘to preserve life, restore health, relieve suffering, limit disability, and respect the individual’s decisions rights and privacy’ (AHA Guidelines for CPR). The practice of offering family members the opportunity to be present during CPR is a controversial ethical issue in emergency medical services. While the results of the study published on this topic in The New England Journal of Medicine clearly show no negative side effects from having families present during resuscitation attempts, the limitations of the study lend to the need for more research before it could be universally accepted.

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Respondeat Superior college admission essay help houston tx

Legal claims that derive from a situation where there are claims of negligence can sometimes involve an entity other than the neglectful parties. In certain circumstances employers are fully responsible for their employees, and the tasks they perform during working hours. During the course of this paper, the doctrine of respondeat superior will be defined and explained. Two case studies in which the doctrine was applied will also be analyzed to determine if it was applied correctly.

Respondeat superior is a legal theory that holds employers responsible for any negligent or harmful act performed by an employee during the commission of their employment duties (Thornton, 2010). The Maryland Supreme Court in 1951 was the first court to utilize respondeat superior in a court case involving a question of employer liability (Burns, 2011). This doctrine is important as it holds employers liable in court cases where one of its employees does harm to an individual. Vicarious liability and indirect liability are two base concepts that make-up respondeat superior (Thornton, 2010). Respondeat superior shows that the employer did not have to be responsible for the employee???s negligent behavior, in the form of improper training or instruction to perform harmful acts, in order for the employer to be held legally responsible.

In the case of Valle v. City of Houston, the police force was sued for excessive force and an illegal search in an attempt to remove an individual from his parent???s home (Nicholl & Kelly, 2012). The situation stemmed from a man, Omar Esparza, barricading himself in his parent???s home and refusing to come out (p. 285). After a long police standoff, the SWAT team was ordered to forcefully enter the home and remove Mr. Esparza (p. 285). The SWAT team utilized taser gun and bean bag ammunition in an attempt to subdue Mr. Esparza after they felt he posed a physical threat by wielding a hammer, but as those attempts failed the suspect was fatally wounded when an officer fired his weapon (p. 286). Shortly after the incident the mother was allowed into the home, and she reported no visible evidence that her son was possession of a hammer (p. 286). The court found that the city was not liable for damages under the theory of respondeat superior, because the order to remove the individual from the home was not made by an individual deemed as a decision-maker by the city (p. 286).

From the outside, this case seems to fit the theory of respondeat superior. As the employer, the city should be held responsible for the actions of its employees. The police, serving as the city???s employees acted in a manner that was unnecessary for the situation and in conflict of their training (p. 286). However, the court sided with the City of Houston because the chain of command was not followed in regards to the use of force (p. 286). The end result is a case where an individual made a decision that was not his to make; that ultimately cost a man his life.

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