Developing A Manager In Different Ways Grad School Essay Help

Table of Contents
Different managerial styles The Qualities of a Leader Communication Methodologies Organisational culture and transformation References

Different managerial styles

The process of becoming an effective manager begins with the acquisition of the appropriate managing style. Some managerial styles are focused on people, while others are focused on projects or products. The chosen style depends on the manager's skills, knowledge, and resources, as well as the desired outcomes. There are three effective forms of management: participative, directive, and teamwork.

Participative style entails permitting every employee to accomplish the entire assignment. If this is not practicable, the management must guarantee that the employee understands his portion of the assignment. The role of the participative leader while individuals are working in a team is to enable each team member see the big picture of the project and motivate them to perform better (Kippenberger, 2002). A participatory leader takes the time to clarify the specifics and responsibilities of each employee. The manager should be able to instill a sense of worth in employees and motivate them to contribute to the project's completion. A participatory manager can coordinate group and individual contributions. In addition, the management works to reduce any potential challenges faced by personnel. A participative manager recognizes both results and motivation. In other words, the participative style necessitates the manager's participation in the process.

When there are a large number of employees and a requirement for a top-down management style, a directive management style is more effective. The manager is supposed to respond to "what, how, why, when, and where" queries. A leader is expected to tell people what they must accomplish, how they must perform the assignment, and when the project must be completed (Kippenberger, 2002). The directing style is said to as impersonal because the reader's primary function is to assign roles and responsibilities and provide guidance and instruction on how to do the tasks. Managers who provide direction are more effective at establishing expectations and norms. The communication strategy is focused on specifics and straightforward. Directing leaders are prone to establishing crystal-clear objectives and making rapid decisions. Regarding compensation, personnel are evaluated only based on the ultimate outcome.

The collaboration management style refers to the efficient direction of a team. The major responsibility of a team leader is to maximize the project completion procedure. Managers of teams must inspire individuals to utilize their knowledge and develop their work-related potential (Kippenberger 2002). The success of collaboration depends on the good coordination of team members' actions through communication. The manager is accountable for preparing reports that are clear and precise. The most crucial part of a manager's teamwork style is his or her willingness to reward the team for great performance and instruct the team on how to attain positive outcomes if the team is unsuccessful.

The Qualities of a Leader

A good manager or leader must simultaneously be proactive and reactive. He should conduct a three-step analysis of the circumstance and act as a master of his environment. A leader who is effective prevents problems before they arise. The manager should be adaptable and flexible, able to adjust to a changing environment. The manager must be an effective communicator and a ready listener. A good manager asks his employees numerous questions and guides them to the correct decision. Great leaders must be considerate of others and confident in their own talents (Whetten & Cameron, 2006). Effective leaders are enthusiastic and optimistic, self-motivated, and committed to helping their colleagues realize their full potential.

One of the most crucial leadership qualities is an open mind. A strong leader considers all options prior to making a choice. Managers employ existing resources for the greater good of all parties involved. It does not imply that a good leader has all the solutions. Using the available resources, effective managers seek solutions to these issues. Effective leaders should acknowledge their employees' efforts and praise their performance. The manager should be educated and knowledgeable. Without an in-depth comprehension of theoretical material, the leader will be unable to effectively lead people in a real-world work environment.

An effective manager must be adaptable and consider various perspectives. He should be willing to accept responsibility and risk for his conduct. For instance, if a leader believes that changing a policy will have beneficial results, he should devote all of his resources to that endeavor. A excellent leader is receptive to queries and interested in receiving feedback. Moreover, outstanding managers should continually analyze events and programs that are crucial to the company's overall development (Whetten & Cameron, 2006). Good leaders assess and alter initiatives and are willing to contribute to the growth of the organization. They continually consider alternatives and look for opportunities to motivate staff to improve their performance.

Good managers are additionally structured and consistent. Great leaders always come to meetings and events prepared. In addition, they guarantee that their staff and the people around them are also prepared. Managers are assured, courteous, and dependable in their actions and commitments. People follow a good leader because he is willing to consider the thoughts of others and can guide them. The manager is a delegator who recognizes that he cannot do every work himself. Moreover, a great leader is able to coordinate the abilities of those around him. Managers should be motivators and leaders. He is essential to the planning and implementation of new policies and concepts.

Communication Methodologies

Without good communication systems, it would be hard to develop a motivating environment and organize people. Every message conveyed by the management must have an objective or purpose. As the sender of a message, the management intends to achieve something through the communication process. The goals of workplace communication are to inform, persuade, motivate, and instruct (Guffey, 2007). The distinct objective distinguishes business communication from conversation. Every message conveyed by the manager must support the mission and objectives of the organization. Another purpose of the communication process is to ensure employee comprehension and excellent performance.

Communication in the workplace is official and conducted through formal channels (either horizontally or vertically, depending on the organizational structure). Without a proper exchange of information, it is impossible to execute objectives efficiently. Information is shared between employees, managers, and departments. Managers convey policies and directives to staff. The manager is responsible for developing a message regarding aims and objectives, informing the superior management about departmental problems, and recommending ways to improve the overall performance of his or her department (Guffey, 2007). Internal (among employees and supervisors) and external (inside an organization) formal communication can occur (among the company and its customers).

The communication process involves the transfer of information from one individual to another. The most difficult aspect of the communication process is ensuring that the recipient comprehends the intended message. The communication process consists of the following components (Guffey, 2007): the sender, the message, the channel, the receiver, any potential distractions, and feedback. Managers are accountable for the ongoing development of their communication skills and for ensuring that their messages are correctly received. Effective communication contributes to an increase in profitability, a decrease in work-related stress, an improvement in quality and customer satisfaction, and an improvement in morale and job satisfaction. Effectively communicating mediators can lessen tensions during mediation sessions and ensure that all parties' viewpoints are heard. Sales managers can enhance sales and customer happiness with the use of effective communication.

Different individuals interpret identical messages differently. Therefore, the manager's message should be as transparent as feasible. Additionally, the management should consider the personality of the message recipient. For instance, the workaholic thinks first and likes to classify things, being responsible and well-organized. Consequently, messages should be concise and direct. Reactor personality, on the other hand, is used to define an emotional person who is sympathetic, sensitive, and feels first. Thus, messages should contain additional information and explanations.

Organisational culture and transformation

Comparable to the communication process, organizational culture plays a crucial part in establishing a healthy work environment. A manager's principal duty is to guarantee that all employees share the same values and are committed to the success of the firm. The manager establishes and transmits culture via formal channels of communication. In layman's terms, a company's culture is its personality and is comprised of its employees' values, customs, and habits (Schein, 2004). Organizational culture is difficult to describe or articulate, but every employee should be able to perceive it.

Corporate culture is a system of organizational values that is influenced by a manager's leadership style, level of competition, and personality. A manager that encourages casual communication and a participative style of leadership will foster a more familial workplace culture, whereas an authoritarian boss is more likely to promote discipline and formal subordination. Not only are communication patterns and managerial style indicators of organizational culture, but also the strategy, services, and behavior of firm employees (Schein, 2004). When a business undergoes transformation, the significance of culture becomes especially apparent. The realization that employees and managers are a part of the organization motivates them to give more. The organizational culture has a significant impact on how employees behave and work. Recalling the cultural shift at British Airways, the strong organizational culture helped to the transition of the unsuccessful airline into a thriving business with a reputation for profitability and politeness.

Jeffery Sonnenfeld described many corporate cultures, including academy, baseball, club, and fortress (Schein, 2004). When employees are highly skilled, the organizational climate is solid, and people desire working their way up the rank structure, an academy culture should be implemented. The culture of a baseball club is applicable when personnel are extraordinarily skilled and contemplate leaving the organization due to a lack of attachment. Effective club culture occurs when employees feel like team members and remain with the organization for many years. In contrast, a fortress culture is encouraged when there is little stability inside the organization and the threat of reorganization. In this scenario, employees are not driven to perform better, and the company's objective is unclear. Downfall to build a functioning culture may result in the failure of an organization.

References

Business Communication: Process and Product, sixth edition, South-Western College Publishing, 2007. Capstone Publishing published Leadership Styles (Express Exec) by T. Kippenberger in 2002. The third edition of Schein's Organizational Culture and Leadership (The Jossey-Bass Business & Management Series) was published by Jossey-Bass Press in 2004. Whetten, D., and K. Cameron, Developing Management Skills, 7th edition, Prentice Hall Press, 2006.

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Human Resource Management: A Critical Analysis And HIV/Aids-Related Policy Grad School Essay Help

Table of Contents
Introduction Analysis of a Johnson Stores plc case study: A Study's Conclusions Bibliography

Introduction

Since around two decades ago, the term “human resource management” has been regularly employed. Previously, the field was referred to as personnel administration. The name change is not merely cosmetic. Personnel administration, which originated as a clearly defined field in the 1920s, was primarily concerned with the technical aspects of employing, appraising, training, and compensating personnel and was a "staff" role in the majority of firms. In general, the field did not emphasize the impact of dissimilar employment practices on overall organizational performance or the hierarchical linkages between such practices. In addition, the field lacked a unifying paradigm.

HRM arose in response to the substantial increase in viable pressures that American commercial organizations began to experience in the late 1970s as a result of globalization, deregulation, and rapid technological advancement. Firms become more concerned with strategic planning as a result of these pressures. Strategic planning is the act of anticipating future changes in the environment and aligning various organizational components to enhance organizational effectiveness.

Despite the fact that the technical parts of long-established personnel administration remain an integral part of HRM, the design and implementation of strategies have become its leading and integrating standard. Human resource (HR) managers are tasked with creating employment systems that are internally harmonizing and ultimately contribute to the company's achievement of its primary goals. Additionally, the function is viewed as being far closer to the strategic apex of the organization than personnel administration.

HR managers are depicted in the literature on strategic human resource management as employing a toolset of HRM techniques that may be molded into an organization-wide HR system. Schuler (1988, pp.24–39) contends, for instance, that the general organization methods corporations develop necessitate the endorsement of particular employee behaviors; HR techniques are therefore designed to get the required behavioral repertoires. The formulation of HR strategies focuses on the following factors:

When filling positions, does the company rely mostly on internal versus external sources? Are career routes expansive or restrictive? Exists a single promotion ladder, or are there multiple? Are the criteria used to make personnel decisions explicit or implicit? Does the organization rely on extensive as opposed to restricted socialization? Are hiring procedures often open or closed and secretive? Does the company typically pay low versus high wages in contrast to the market? Is internal versus external equity emphasized in remuneration decisions? Are there few versus numerous ancillary benefits? Does the organization offer a multitude of performance incentives? Finally, does the company offer high employment security with variable pay as opposed to low employment security with stable pay? How extensive is the company's commitment to training and development? If so, are these objectives short-term or long-term? Is training limited as opposed to wide, and is the emphasis on increasing output as opposed to enhancing employee quality of life? Is training planned and structured as opposed to impromptu?

These are only a few of the activities that function as HR strategy design components; others include employee evaluation, job design, employee participation, and labor-management interactions. Clearly, HR strategies can vary within firms based on the strategic objectives of a particular department or division.

Critical Evaluation

The development of Strategic Human Resource Management Research was initially met with opposition due to a lack of theory (Zedeck & Cascio, 1984, pp.461 – 519; Dyer, 1985, pp.1 – 30; Bacharach, 1989, pp.496 – 515); however, as time passed, the number of articles proposing models for human resource management increased, primarily following the significant theoretical revisions of (1998). From this starting point, the models became progressively more complex through a process of systematic extension that included conceptual and methodological inputs from various strategic, economic, organizational, and sociological theories (Jackson & Schuler, 1995 pp.727-786; McMahan, Viricky Wright, 1999 pp.99-122). This growth in literature, still existent in specific publication contexts, necessitates a thorough investigation of the various explanations provided. In this sense, the purpose of this paper is to examine the current state of the art in the field of research on human resource management. Using the vocabulary offered by Jackson, Schuler, and Rivero (1989, pp.727-786), Brewster (1995, pp.1-21 and 1999, pp.45-64), and Delery and Doty (1996), four study perspectives have been defined to classify the literature: universalistic, contingent, configurational, and contextual.

These forms of theorizing” (Delery & Doty, 1996, p.802-835) enable four diverse approaches to the same research subject, each emphasizing a particular aspect of the human factor in organizational tactics. Since the definitions of the four views are founded on the same concepts, this metric permits a thorough classification of the literature. Collectively, they illustrate the range that includes all conceivable perceptions. Using this method, each research project may be categorised and incorporated into the discipline's evolution explanation. In this regard, the study focuses on the degree to which each perspective is utilized today and which theoretical frameworks and research methodologies are promoting the growth of the universalistic, contingent, configurational, and contextual approach.

Analysis of a case study at Johnson Stores plc

Given the amount of time people spend at work, it should not come as a surprise that workplaces are plagued by pain and suffering (Frost, 1999 pp.127-133; Frost, 2003; Frost et al., 2000 pp. 25-45). People typically bring personal suffering to their place of employment. For example, the fact that Norman Smith has AIDS influences how people feel at work. Similarly, a broad array of work-related issues, such as aggressive interactions with coworkers, can cause individuals to experience significant and long-lasting discomfort.

Pain and suffering have significant effects on organizational production and performance. For example, employee sadness costs businesses upwards of 75 billion dollars annually. In addition to monetary losses, there are also psychological, physiological, and interpersonal consequences, such as a lower sense of self-worth, a weakened immune system, and workplace sabotage (Frost, 2003; Ryff & Singer, 2001). ‘Organizational members are frequently left without dependable opportunity to address their suffering due to organizations' typically limited capacity to recognize and respond to it.’ (Frost, 1999 pp.127-133).

Organizational factors can both decrease and increase the extent to which members perceive other other’s distress, view it as valid and worthy of care, and communicate their awareness. These characteristics include organizational policies and shared values that heighten members' care for pain and provide a language to identify it, aspects of the organization's physical architecture that make members accessible to each other and make it easier for them to see suffering within the organization, and organizational systems and technologies that facilitate communication about the presence of pain in the system. Each of these has the ability to influence the amount to which organizational members are receptive to the presence of pain in others and the extent to which this knowledge is legitimized within the organization.

Cisco Systems is an example of a company whose rules produce such a capability. John Chambers, the CEO of Cisco, has a policy that requires him to be notified if an employee or an employee's immediate family member becomes gravely ill or dies. This policy raises the awareness of individual members by urging them to be aware of pain: employees recognize they must be aware of a coworker's grief. The policy also conveys shared organizational principles that emphasize that people's family circumstances are genuine sources of worry, thereby increasing the likelihood that members will disclose distressing family news. It also defines pain precisely so that members know what to expect and recognize it when they see it. In addition, Cisco has a communication mechanism called the Serious Health Notification System that expedites the delivery of such information to the CEO. Employees also utilize it to spread the word among members, therefore alerting others to the presence of pain in the company and enabling for the communal recognition of a colleague's misery. This policy, along with the supporting communication infrastructure and technology, serves to legitimize and propagate organizational members' knowledge of suffering and appreciation for its significance. Consequently, they contribute to the organization's ability for collective noticing.

In the case of Norman's acute illness, Gwen Fine would be in a stronger position if she could seek the advice of medical professionals. No adjustments to working conditions are required for HIV-positive employees. Alternative work arrangements should be developed to assist Norman in remaining employed.

Procedure modifications regarding AIDS and the workplace Policy Issues:

The administration should draft an HIV/AIDS policy for the workplace that may be included into existing contract language. Employers should employ the knowledge of non-governmental and community-based organizations when crafting such a policy. HIV/AIDS testing or screening for work or pre-employment is unnecessary and should not be mandated. The status of an individual's HIV infection or AIDS must be kept discreet. Workers should not be required to disclose their HIV/AIDS status to their employers. No adjustments to working conditions are required for HIV-positive employees. If a worker is hampered by an HIV-related illness, alternative work arrangements should be created to allow him or her continue working. Infection with HIV is not grounds for terminating employment. Information, HIV and AIDS education initiatives, counseling, and proper referrals are crucial in the battle against AIDS. In every case requiring first aid in the workplace, steps must be taken to reduce the danger of bloodborne infection transmission. Employers should implement initial and ongoing training sessions for employees whose jobs expose them to HIV-infected materials.

Conclusions

Human resource management is concerned with the construction of global employment systems that are internally harmonizing and ultimately contribute to the achievement of the organization's primary goals.

In numerous companies, management has developed HIV/AIDS and other chronic illness policies. If such a policy is formed, it must be extensively disseminated and understood by all management and employees. The policy language might be integrated into the existing contract.

Employers should utilize the experience of relevant non-governmental and community-based groups when designing HIV/AIDS-related policies and educational programs for the workplace. This form of collaboration can save time and effort by facilitating the sharing of effective knowledge and methods.

Bibliography

Bacharach, S. (1989). "Organizational Theories: Some Evaluation Criteria." The Academy of Management Review.

Brewster, C. (1995). Towards a European Model of Human Resource Management. Journal of International Business Studies.

Brewster, C. (1999). Strategic Human Resource Management: the utility of several frameworks. Management International Review, 39(3), pp.45-64.

The Academy of Management Journal, 39(4), pp.802-835, 1996. Delery, J.E., and D.H. Doty. "Modes of Theorizing in Strategic Human Resources Management: Test of Universalistic, Contingency, and Configurational Performance Predictions."

Dyer, L., "Strategic Human Resources Management and Planning," in Rowland, KM, and Ferris, GR (Eds. ), Research in Personnel and Human Resource Management, JAI Press, Greenwich, 1985, pp.1-30.

Frost, PJ. (1999). "Why compassion matters." Journal of Management Inquiry.

Frost, PJ 2003, Toxic emotions in the workplace: how compassionate managers deal with pain and conflict Harvard Business School Press, Boston, MA.

Frost, PJ, J.E. Dutton, MC Worline, and A. Wilson, "Narratives of compassion in organizations," published in 2000 In S. Fineman (Ed. ), Emotion in organizations, Sage Publications, Thousand Oaks, CA, pp. 25-45.

Jackson, S.E., and R.S. Schuler, "Understanding Human Resource Management in the Context of Organizations and Organizational Characteristics as Predictors of Personnel Practices," Personnel Psychology, vol. 42, no. 6, 1995, pp. 727-786.

Jackson, SE Schuler, R.S., and J.C. Rivero, "Organizational characteristics as predictors of personnel practices," Personnel Psychology, vol. 42, no. 4, pp. 727–786, 1989.

McMahan, G.C., M. Virick, and P.M. Wright, "Alternative theoretical perspectives for strategic human resource management revisited: progress, problems, and prospects," Research in Personnel and Human Resources Management, suppl. 4, pp. 99-122, 1999.

Rogers, E.W., and P.M. Wright, "Measuring organizational performance in strategic human resource management: problems, prospects, and performance information markets," Human Resource Management Review, vol. 8, no. 3, pp. 311–331, 1998.

Ryff, C & Singer, B Eds 2001. Oxford: Oxford University Press. Emotion, social interactions, and health.

Schuler, R 1988. Options for human resource management and organizational strategy, Readings in Personnel and Human Resource Management, edited by R. Schuler, S. Youndblood, and V. Huber, St. Paul, MN: West Publishing, pp. 24–39.

Wright, P.M., and G.C. McMahan, "Theoretical Perspectives for Strategic Human Resource Management," Journal of Management, volume 18, number 2, pages 295-320, 1992.

Wright, P.M., and W.S. Sherman, "Failing to find fit in strategic human resource management: theoretical and empirical problems," Research in Personnel and Human Resources Management, suppl. 4, pages 53-74, 1999.

Zedeck, S., and W. Cascio, "Psychological Issues in Personnel Decisions," 1984. Annual Review of Psychology, 35. pp.461-519.

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Product Accounting In Smartphones Grad School Essay Help

Introduction

The smartphone market is characterized by a wide variety of products, many of which are identical in nature but have vastly varying prices. Therefore, product accounting is vital to a product's performance in the industry. Some companies set high pricing for their cellphones and experience significant sales success due to the power of their brands or other quality of life benefits. Others sell models with comparable specifications at a fraction of the cost and nevertheless achieve considerable achievements as a result of the value propositions of their products. This research report seeks to discover the ideal pricing strategies for the worldwide and United Arab Emirates sales of a particular smartphone model.

Research Background

The Situation

This study's hypothesis is that a new company is releasing its first production model in an attempt to penetrate the market. The most recent entry is built on many of the same components as rival products, but it has a number of distinguishing characteristics. Energizer’s “Power Max P18K” (n.d.) is illustrative since it features a novel front camera configuration and an exceptionally big battery, which may alleviate consumers’ concerns regarding independent usage. The model caters to a specific category of consumers, and subsequent goods may cover other niches to widen the company's appeal, but the initial attempt's success is crucial to the company's continuous existence.

However, the newly generated product lacks sufficient differentiation from existing solutions in the market. While the product's strong attributes make it among the market leaders in key categories within the sector, it lacks the exceptional characteristics of competing products. In addition, as the company's first smartphone, it has not been subjected to the scrutiny of the general public, which can discover issues that did not arise during focus group testing. In addition, it cannot leverage the reputation of its predecessors in the same manner as its competitors. As a result, it must appeal to factors other than its current value, necessitating the application of product accounting to calculate the proper price.

The smartphone market is characterized by low levels of competition, which is enabled by the industry's limited number of participants. Due to the fact that the majority of smartphones are constructed from the same or similar components, the differences between handsets sold by different firms at the same price are typically minimal. This uniformity of products shows that the system is an oligopoly, in which a small number of firms dominate the market and do not compete with one another by selling identical goods. However, the reliance of most manufacturers on the same component manufacturers also makes market entry very simple. Many of the criteria offered by industry experts can be met by a corporation by obtaining the proper components from the company they employ.

The fictional company's upcoming smartphone will be priced in the center of the market. The organization lacks the experience necessary to concentrate on the premium pricing range. Moreover, according to Gordon (2016), phones that are less expensive than more expensive models retain a significant amount of their functionalities, indicating that it is possible to create a model with outstanding specifications that is also reasonable. As the company's first entry into the smartphone industry, the model described in this article should leave a lasting impression on the general public. As such, it should have a price that allows it to be sold to a large number of people and necessary functions that justify the price.

As a mid-range device, the smartphone should appeal to the majority of demographic groups. Smartphones are a necessity in the present era, and the majority of individuals need one to fulfill their communication, entertainment, self-expression, and productivity needs. Children, adolescents, and adults are the key target markets, according to Chen, Chen, and Lin (2016), who assert that access to recreational resources and job requirement are the primary motivations for purchasing the gadgets. Moreover, according to Habbal (2017), senior citizens in the United Arab Emirates increasingly use cellphones and are solely concerned with pricing. As with many technological equipment, the devices can endure a considerable amount of time, and current smartphone owners may not necessarily be interested in a new model. People with typical salaries who are interested in replacing an aging smartphone or getting one for the first time will be the primary audience for the new model.

The Problems

A high level of market rivalry, particularly in the company's mid-priced area, is the company's greatest challenge. The smartphone must compete with numerous other products, many of which are produced and marketed by well-established corporations. In addition, the design has already been finalized, therefore the only conceivable alteration to the product's value is its price. According to Ameen (2017), “price value proved substantial in [Iraq, Jordan, and UAE]” indicating that the metric greatly influences customer decisions (p. 361). A correct determination of retail pricing can significantly add to a product's popularity, helping to establish the company's position in the market.

The company is a market newcomer with neither an established customer base nor a potent brand identity. Therefore, the company must rely on the quality of its product and marketing to produce sales. Moreover, due to the complex nature and relatively high price of smartphones compared to many other mass-market items, entrants to the industry may find it difficult to gain consumers' trust. For a marketing and sales strategy to be successful, a comprehension of trends and normal behaviors is required. Knowledge of global trends can propose prospective innovations, whereas information on the tastes of UAE customers can help to adapt them to the local market. In particular, it is vital when selecting the target market, which impacts the price range significantly.

Approaches that support a low profit margin to establish a price that is lower than the competition's can be useful, but they may not always be applicable. Chen et al. (2016) report that when comparing two cellphones, buyers frequently pick for the more expensive model, indicating that they believe the price reflects quality and desire a superior product. Moreover, according to Ritchie (2019), models that are overpriced tend to be unpopular with audiences, regardless of whether the price reflects a large profit margin or a high base cost of the components. The optimum technique would be to find a midway ground that persuades consumers that the product is of good quality without setting the bar too high.

Related Research

This discussion required a survey of three types of literature: studies of customer habits, analysis of other organizations' approaches to the market, and studies of the relationship between price and value. The investigation on customer habits focuses on their adoption of smartphones and the elements that influence their decision to purchase a device. Included in this category are the works of Ameen, Chen, et al. They explore the preferences of customers and the adoption of cellphones by distinct demographic groups in the United Arab Emirates. The combination of this data permits the development of an initial pricing mechanism, which will then be modified based on the other data.

The pricing tactics implemented by other companies and their results might be quite valuable to the development of an approach. The gathered research examines Apple, Xiaomi, and Huawei's important procedures. Ritchie (2019) describes the impact of the first company's persistently high prices on the market. Rawal, Awasthi, and Upadhahay (2017) explore the approach of the second company, which is the polar opposite of Apple’s, with gadgets that are both affordable and powerful. Saif and Aimin (2015) explain Huawei's strategy and offer suggestions for its continued expansion in the Arab world. A company that joins the market should learn from the achievements and failures of these three companies, all of which enjoy great global success.

The fourth type of literature deals to the price-setting process itself, with suggestions regarding the smartphone's pricing in relation to its immediate competition. Based on data from a prominent marketplace, Primanto, ABS, and Slamet (2018) provide the essential foundation. Chen et al. (2016) revise the fundamental concept and make corrections, so enhancing the model's complexity and precision. Numerous other publications covered in this paper also examine customer purchasing decisions and satisfaction in relation to price, although their conclusions are less thorough and more applicable to other objectives. Ultimately, setting prices is a sensitive procedure that must take into account a myriad of local characteristics in order to appropriately reflect the amount that consumers are prepared to pay.

Literature Review

Successful Strategies

Apple is a well-known industry leader that maintains a substantial part of the global smartphone market. Nevertheless, according to Ritchie (2019), the company's sales have been on the decline recently, largely because to the prohibitively expensive prices of the new iPhone models. Ritchie (2019) argues that the profit margin on the smartphones is the same or lower than it was on the original versions, and that the significant price increase is matched by a corresponding increase in the phone's base cost. In addition, the elimination of subsidies exposes buyers to the phone's true, undiscounted price. iPhones are still seen as premium items, but consumers are increasingly deciding that they are too pricey to justify purchasing over competing options.

Xiaomi is a company that concentrates on the Chinese and Indian markets, but as its business grows, it has recently expanded into other regions. Figure 1 demonstrates that its presence has been growing and spreading continuously. According to Rawal et al. (2017), the corporation promotes aggressive pricing on its gadgets in order to develop brand recognition and gain a competitive edge. It generates money by the use of its customized software and the promotion of brand loyalty to induce consumers to purchase additional products created by the company and to disseminate word-of-mouth advertising. Four years after adopting this strategy, Xiaomi has become a market leader in the regions in which it operates and has become a big smartphone maker (Rawal et al., 2017). However, it should be emphasized that the company had substantial resources prior to entering the market, which may not be the case for the company used in the current circumstance.

F

Figure 1. Market Shares of Smartphone Manufacturers (“Global Market Share,” n.d.)

Huawei and Xiaomi share various commonalities, including a focus on lower price ranges and strong success in the same geographic regions. According to Saif and Aimin (2015), the company primarily targets consumers with typical salaries and sets rates to reflect their preferences. The company has more premium offers now that it has been in the market long enough to grow significantly and diversify its product lines, but these products are sometimes hampered by their identification with the brand's core competency, which is the production of inexpensive solutions. Given sufficient time, the two branches of manufacturing will likely become sufficiently distinct for consumers to stop associating them or to perceive the less expensive models as inheriting the good quality of the more expensive versions. Despite this, Huawei has a substantial global reach and can be cited as a successful example of budget phone marketing.

Pricing Methodologies

The most reasonable way to gain an advantage over the competition based on pricing alone is to set a lower price than the competitors. The research conducted by Primanto, ABS, and Slamet (2018) confirms that the demand for a specific smartphone is inversely related to its price. The lower the price of a device, the more people will consider it when purchasing a new model or replacing an older one. However, there is a minimum threshold for such manipulations that is set by the phone's base value. Even as a promotional strategy, it would be impractical for a corporation to sell its product at a loss, as the model is ultimately unsustainable and future versions offered at a profit would lack the same attractiveness and harm the brand's reputation.

However, prices that are too cheap can be seen as a lack of faith in the product and the belief that it belongs to a lower cost and quality category, which can negatively impact the product's popularity. Chen et al. (2016) state that just one-third of the respondents in their study would go for the less expensive option, and they add that a person's choice of smartphone is significantly influenced by popularity. The determination of price is a matter of striking a balance in which the offering is not overpriced, is appealing to the target audience, and demonstrates confidence through its price. The study is constrained by its small sample size and regional scope, but the trends seen can likely be extended to the majority of populations globally.

Discussion

Strategic Insights

Although Apple’s recent sales declines are not a great illustration of its strategy application, the company’s pricing policy has been constant and effective, and the technological aspect of the business is to blame. As depicted in Figure 2, the company's profit margins have remained relatively stable or declined, but the base cost of the phones has increased due to the addition of new, costly components, and the loss of subsidies has exposed the true value of the devices, which many consumers were unable to afford. This research is concerned with product accounting, which deals with pricing, and the technological aspect is irrelevant, so Apple is not necessarily an instructive example. However, the idea indicates one manner by which the corporation in the case could dramatically undercut its competition without jeopardizing revenues.

Figure 2 depicts the profit margins of Apple's smartphones. (Ritchie, 2019).

Multiple subsidies would cut the market price of the item in exchange for tying it to a contract with a certain telecoms provider. The remaining of the amount would be paid to the manufacturer, compensating it for each phone sold and assuring consumer and company satisfaction. The product might still be released to the general public at its genuine price, which would assist persuade consumers that its true cost is far higher and that they are receiving a high-quality device for a large discount. In addition, the strategy would compel the telecommunications provider to promote the relationship, generating more attention for the phone, particularly among service consumers.

Huawei provides a model of success via endurance and excellence with similarly priced low-cost phones.

Product Accounting In Smartphones Grad School Essay Help

Introduction

The smartphone market is characterized by a wide variety of products, many of which are identical in nature but have vastly varying prices. Therefore, product accounting is vital to a product's performance in the industry. Some companies set high pricing for their cellphones and experience significant sales success due to the power of their brands or other quality of life benefits. Others sell models with comparable specifications at a fraction of the cost and nevertheless achieve considerable achievements as a result of the value propositions of their products. This research report seeks to discover the ideal pricing strategies for the worldwide and United Arab Emirates sales of a particular smartphone model.

Research Background

The Situation

This study's hypothesis is that a new company is releasing its first production model in an attempt to penetrate the market. The most recent entry is built on many of the same components as rival products, but it has a number of distinguishing characteristics. Energizer’s “Power Max P18K” (n.d.) is illustrative since it features a novel front camera configuration and an exceptionally big battery, which may alleviate consumers’ concerns regarding independent usage. The model caters to a specific category of consumers, and subsequent goods may cover other niches to widen the company's appeal, but the initial attempt's success is crucial to the company's continuous existence.

However, the newly generated product lacks sufficient differentiation from existing solutions in the market. While the product's strong attributes make it among the market leaders in key categories within the sector, it lacks the exceptional characteristics of competing products. In addition, as the company's first smartphone, it has not been subjected to the scrutiny of the general public, which can discover issues that did not arise during focus group testing. In addition, it cannot leverage the reputation of its predecessors in the same manner as its competitors. As a result, it must appeal to factors other than its current value, necessitating the application of product accounting to calculate the proper price.

The smartphone market is characterized by low levels of competition, which is enabled by the industry's limited number of participants. Due to the fact that the majority of smartphones are constructed from the same or similar components, the differences between handsets sold by different firms at the same price are typically minimal. This uniformity of products shows that the system is an oligopoly, in which a small number of firms dominate the market and do not compete with one another by selling identical goods. However, the reliance of most manufacturers on the same component manufacturers also makes market entry very simple. Many of the criteria offered by industry experts can be met by a corporation by obtaining the proper components from the company they employ.

The fictional company's upcoming smartphone will be priced in the center of the market. The organization lacks the experience necessary to concentrate on the premium pricing range. Moreover, according to Gordon (2016), phones that are less expensive than more expensive models retain a significant amount of their functionalities, indicating that it is possible to create a model with outstanding specifications that is also reasonable. As the company's first entry into the smartphone industry, the model described in this article should leave a lasting impression on the general public. As such, it should have a price that allows it to be sold to a large number of people and necessary functions that justify the price.

As a mid-range device, the smartphone should appeal to the majority of demographic groups. Smartphones are a necessity in the present era, and the majority of individuals need one to fulfill their communication, entertainment, self-expression, and productivity needs. Children, adolescents, and adults are the key target markets, according to Chen, Chen, and Lin (2016), who assert that access to recreational resources and job requirement are the primary motivations for purchasing the gadgets. Moreover, according to Habbal (2017), senior citizens in the United Arab Emirates increasingly use cellphones and are solely concerned with pricing. As with many technological equipment, the devices can endure a considerable amount of time, and current smartphone owners may not necessarily be interested in a new model. People with typical salaries who are interested in replacing an aging smartphone or getting one for the first time will be the primary audience for the new model.

The Problems

A high level of market rivalry, particularly in the company's mid-priced area, is the company's greatest challenge. The smartphone must compete with numerous other products, many of which are produced and marketed by well-established corporations. In addition, the design has already been finalized, therefore the only conceivable alteration to the product's value is its price. According to Ameen (2017), “price value proved substantial in [Iraq, Jordan, and UAE]” indicating that the metric greatly influences customer decisions (p. 361). A correct determination of retail pricing can significantly add to a product's popularity, helping to establish the company's position in the market.

The company is a market newcomer with neither an established customer base nor a potent brand identity. Therefore, the company must rely on the quality of its product and marketing to produce sales. Moreover, due to the complex nature and relatively high price of smartphones compared to many other mass-market items, entrants to the industry may find it difficult to gain consumers' trust. For a marketing and sales strategy to be successful, a comprehension of trends and normal behaviors is required. Knowledge of global trends can propose prospective innovations, whereas information on the tastes of UAE customers can help to adapt them to the local market. In particular, it is vital when selecting the target market, which impacts the price range significantly.

Approaches that support a low profit margin to establish a price that is lower than the competition's can be useful, but they may not always be applicable. Chen et al. (2016) report that when comparing two cellphones, buyers frequently pick for the more expensive model, indicating that they believe the price reflects quality and desire a superior product. Moreover, according to Ritchie (2019), models that are overpriced tend to be unpopular with audiences, regardless of whether the price reflects a large profit margin or a high base cost of the components. The optimum technique would be to find a midway ground that persuades consumers that the product is of good quality without setting the bar too high.

Related Research

This discussion required a survey of three types of literature: studies of customer habits, analysis of other organizations' approaches to the market, and studies of the relationship between price and value. The investigation on customer habits focuses on their adoption of smartphones and the elements that influence their decision to purchase a device. Included in this category are the works of Ameen, Chen, et al. They explore the preferences of customers and the adoption of cellphones by distinct demographic groups in the United Arab Emirates. The combination of this data permits the development of an initial pricing mechanism, which will then be modified based on the other data.

The pricing tactics implemented by other companies and their results might be quite valuable to the development of an approach. The gathered research examines Apple, Xiaomi, and Huawei's important procedures. Ritchie (2019) describes the impact of the first company's persistently high prices on the market. Rawal, Awasthi, and Upadhahay (2017) explore the approach of the second company, which is the polar opposite of Apple’s, with gadgets that are both affordable and powerful. Saif and Aimin (2015) explain Huawei's strategy and offer suggestions for its continued expansion in the Arab world. A company that joins the market should learn from the achievements and failures of these three companies, all of which enjoy great global success.

The fourth type of literature deals to the price-setting process itself, with suggestions regarding the smartphone's pricing in relation to its immediate competition. Based on data from a prominent marketplace, Primanto, ABS, and Slamet (2018) provide the essential foundation. Chen et al. (2016) revise the fundamental concept and make corrections, so enhancing the model's complexity and precision. Numerous other publications covered in this paper also examine customer purchasing decisions and satisfaction in relation to price, although their conclusions are less thorough and more applicable to other objectives. Ultimately, setting prices is a sensitive procedure that must take into account a myriad of local characteristics in order to appropriately reflect the amount that consumers are prepared to pay.

Literature Review

Successful Strategies

Apple is a well-known industry leader that maintains a substantial part of the global smartphone market. Nevertheless, according to Ritchie (2019), the company's sales have been on the decline recently, largely because to the prohibitively expensive prices of the new iPhone models. Ritchie (2019) argues that the profit margin on the smartphones is the same or lower than it was on the original versions, and that the significant price increase is matched by a corresponding increase in the phone's base cost. In addition, the elimination of subsidies exposes buyers to the phone's true, undiscounted price. iPhones are still seen as premium items, but consumers are increasingly deciding that they are too pricey to justify purchasing over competing options.

Xiaomi is a company that concentrates on the Chinese and Indian markets, but as its business grows, it has recently expanded into other regions. Figure 1 demonstrates that its presence has been growing and spreading continuously. According to Rawal et al. (2017), the corporation promotes aggressive pricing on its gadgets in order to develop brand recognition and gain a competitive edge. It generates money by the use of its customized software and the promotion of brand loyalty to induce consumers to purchase additional products created by the company and to disseminate word-of-mouth advertising. Four years after adopting this strategy, Xiaomi has become a market leader in the regions in which it operates and has become a big smartphone maker (Rawal et al., 2017). However, it should be emphasized that the company had substantial resources prior to entering the market, which may not be the case for the company used in the current circumstance.

F

Figure 1. Market Shares of Smartphone Manufacturers (“Global Market Share,” n.d.)

Huawei and Xiaomi share various commonalities, including a focus on lower price ranges and strong success in the same geographic regions. According to Saif and Aimin (2015), the company primarily targets consumers with typical salaries and sets rates to reflect their preferences. The company has more premium offers now that it has been in the market long enough to grow significantly and diversify its product lines, but these products are sometimes hampered by their identification with the brand's core competency, which is the production of inexpensive solutions. Given sufficient time, the two branches of manufacturing will likely become sufficiently distinct for consumers to stop associating them or to perceive the less expensive models as inheriting the good quality of the more expensive versions. Despite this, Huawei has a substantial global reach and can be cited as a successful example of budget phone marketing.

Pricing Methodologies

The most reasonable way to gain an advantage over the competition based on pricing alone is to set a lower price than the competitors. The research conducted by Primanto, ABS, and Slamet (2018) confirms that the demand for a specific smartphone is inversely related to its price. The lower the price of a device, the more people will consider it when purchasing a new model or replacing an older one. However, there is a minimum threshold for such manipulations that is set by the phone's base value. Even as a promotional strategy, it would be impractical for a corporation to sell its product at a loss, as the model is ultimately unsustainable and future versions offered at a profit would lack the same attractiveness and harm the brand's reputation.

However, prices that are too cheap can be seen as a lack of faith in the product and the belief that it belongs to a lower cost and quality category, which can negatively impact the product's popularity. Chen et al. (2016) state that just one-third of the respondents in their study would go for the less expensive option, and they add that a person's choice of smartphone is significantly influenced by popularity. The determination of price is a matter of striking a balance in which the offering is not overpriced, is appealing to the target audience, and demonstrates confidence through its price. The study is constrained by its small sample size and regional scope, but the trends seen can likely be extended to the majority of populations globally.

Discussion

Strategic Insights

Although Apple’s recent sales declines are not a great illustration of its strategy application, the company’s pricing policy has been constant and effective, and the technological aspect of the business is to blame. As depicted in Figure 2, the company's profit margins have remained relatively stable or declined, but the base cost of the phones has increased due to the addition of new, costly components, and the loss of subsidies has exposed the true value of the devices, which many consumers were unable to afford. This research is concerned with product accounting, which deals with pricing, and the technological aspect is irrelevant, so Apple is not necessarily an instructive example. However, the idea indicates one manner by which the corporation in the case could dramatically undercut its competition without jeopardizing revenues.

Figure 2 depicts the profit margins of Apple's smartphones. (Ritchie, 2019).

Multiple subsidies would cut the market price of the item in exchange for tying it to a contract with a certain telecoms provider. The remaining of the amount would be paid to the manufacturer, compensating it for each phone sold and assuring consumer and company satisfaction. The product might still be released to the general public at its genuine price, which would assist persuade consumers that its true cost is far higher and that they are receiving a high-quality device for a large discount. In addition, the strategy would compel the telecommunications provider to promote the relationship, generating more attention for the phone, particularly among service consumers.

Huawei provides a model of success via endurance and excellence with similarly priced low-cost phones.

Product Accounting In Smartphones Grad School Essay Help

Introduction

The smartphone market is characterized by a wide variety of products, many of which are identical in nature but have vastly varying prices. Therefore, product accounting is vital to a product's performance in the industry. Some companies set high pricing for their cellphones and experience significant sales success due to the power of their brands or other quality of life benefits. Others sell models with comparable specifications at a fraction of the cost and nevertheless achieve considerable achievements as a result of the value propositions of their products. This research report seeks to discover the ideal pricing strategies for the worldwide and United Arab Emirates sales of a particular smartphone model.

Research Background

The Situation

This study's hypothesis is that a new company is releasing its first production model in an attempt to penetrate the market. The most recent entry is built on many of the same components as rival products, but it has a number of distinguishing characteristics. Energizer’s “Power Max P18K” (n.d.) is illustrative since it features a novel front camera configuration and an exceptionally big battery, which may alleviate consumers’ concerns regarding independent usage. The model caters to a specific category of consumers, and subsequent goods may cover other niches to widen the company's appeal, but the initial attempt's success is crucial to the company's continuous existence.

However, the newly generated product lacks sufficient differentiation from existing solutions in the market. While the product's strong attributes make it among the market leaders in key categories within the sector, it lacks the exceptional characteristics of competing products. In addition, as the company's first smartphone, it has not been subjected to the scrutiny of the general public, which can discover issues that did not arise during focus group testing. In addition, it cannot leverage the reputation of its predecessors in the same manner as its competitors. As a result, it must appeal to factors other than its current value, necessitating the application of product accounting to calculate the proper price.

The smartphone market is characterized by low levels of competition, which is enabled by the industry's limited number of participants. Due to the fact that the majority of smartphones are constructed from the same or similar components, the differences between handsets sold by different firms at the same price are typically minimal. This uniformity of products shows that the system is an oligopoly, in which a small number of firms dominate the market and do not compete with one another by selling identical goods. However, the reliance of most manufacturers on the same component manufacturers also makes market entry very simple. Many of the criteria offered by industry experts can be met by a corporation by obtaining the proper components from the company they employ.

The fictional company's upcoming smartphone will be priced in the center of the market. The organization lacks the experience necessary to concentrate on the premium pricing range. Moreover, according to Gordon (2016), phones that are less expensive than more expensive models retain a significant amount of their functionalities, indicating that it is possible to create a model with outstanding specifications that is also reasonable. As the company's first entry into the smartphone industry, the model described in this article should leave a lasting impression on the general public. As such, it should have a price that allows it to be sold to a large number of people and necessary functions that justify the price.

As a mid-range device, the smartphone should appeal to the majority of demographic groups. Smartphones are a necessity in the present era, and the majority of individuals need one to fulfill their communication, entertainment, self-expression, and productivity needs. Children, adolescents, and adults are the key target markets, according to Chen, Chen, and Lin (2016), who assert that access to recreational resources and job requirement are the primary motivations for purchasing the gadgets. Moreover, according to Habbal (2017), senior citizens in the United Arab Emirates increasingly use cellphones and are solely concerned with pricing. As with many technological equipment, the devices can endure a considerable amount of time, and current smartphone owners may not necessarily be interested in a new model. People with typical salaries who are interested in replacing an aging smartphone or getting one for the first time will be the primary audience for the new model.

The Problems

A high level of market rivalry, particularly in the company's mid-priced area, is the company's greatest challenge. The smartphone must compete with numerous other products, many of which are produced and marketed by well-established corporations. In addition, the design has already been finalized, therefore the only conceivable alteration to the product's value is its price. According to Ameen (2017), “price value proved substantial in [Iraq, Jordan, and UAE]” indicating that the metric greatly influences customer decisions (p. 361). A correct determination of retail pricing can significantly add to a product's popularity, helping to establish the company's position in the market.

The company is a market newcomer with neither an established customer base nor a potent brand identity. Therefore, the company must rely on the quality of its product and marketing to produce sales. Moreover, due to the complex nature and relatively high price of smartphones compared to many other mass-market items, entrants to the industry may find it difficult to gain consumers' trust. For a marketing and sales strategy to be successful, a comprehension of trends and normal behaviors is required. Knowledge of global trends can propose prospective innovations, whereas information on the tastes of UAE customers can help to adapt them to the local market. In particular, it is vital when selecting the target market, which impacts the price range significantly.

Approaches that support a low profit margin to establish a price that is lower than the competition's can be useful, but they may not always be applicable. Chen et al. (2016) report that when comparing two cellphones, buyers frequently pick for the more expensive model, indicating that they believe the price reflects quality and desire a superior product. Moreover, according to Ritchie (2019), models that are overpriced tend to be unpopular with audiences, regardless of whether the price reflects a large profit margin or a high base cost of the components. The optimum technique would be to find a midway ground that persuades consumers that the product is of good quality without setting the bar too high.

Related Research

This discussion required a survey of three types of literature: studies of customer habits, analysis of other organizations' approaches to the market, and studies of the relationship between price and value. The investigation on customer habits focuses on their adoption of smartphones and the elements that influence their decision to purchase a device. Included in this category are the works of Ameen, Chen, et al. They explore the preferences of customers and the adoption of cellphones by distinct demographic groups in the United Arab Emirates. The combination of this data permits the development of an initial pricing mechanism, which will then be modified based on the other data.

The pricing tactics implemented by other companies and their results might be quite valuable to the development of an approach. The gathered research examines Apple, Xiaomi, and Huawei's important procedures. Ritchie (2019) describes the impact of the first company's persistently high prices on the market. Rawal, Awasthi, and Upadhahay (2017) explore the approach of the second company, which is the polar opposite of Apple’s, with gadgets that are both affordable and powerful. Saif and Aimin (2015) explain Huawei's strategy and offer suggestions for its continued expansion in the Arab world. A company that joins the market should learn from the achievements and failures of these three companies, all of which enjoy great global success.

The fourth type of literature deals to the price-setting process itself, with suggestions regarding the smartphone's pricing in relation to its immediate competition. Based on data from a prominent marketplace, Primanto, ABS, and Slamet (2018) provide the essential foundation. Chen et al. (2016) revise the fundamental concept and make corrections, so enhancing the model's complexity and precision. Numerous other publications covered in this paper also examine customer purchasing decisions and satisfaction in relation to price, although their conclusions are less thorough and more applicable to other objectives. Ultimately, setting prices is a sensitive procedure that must take into account a myriad of local characteristics in order to appropriately reflect the amount that consumers are prepared to pay.

Literature Review

Successful Strategies

Apple is a well-known industry leader that maintains a substantial part of the global smartphone market. Nevertheless, according to Ritchie (2019), the company's sales have been on the decline recently, largely because to the prohibitively expensive prices of the new iPhone models. Ritchie (2019) argues that the profit margin on the smartphones is the same or lower than it was on the original versions, and that the significant price increase is matched by a corresponding increase in the phone's base cost. In addition, the elimination of subsidies exposes buyers to the phone's true, undiscounted price. iPhones are still seen as premium items, but consumers are increasingly deciding that they are too pricey to justify purchasing over competing options.

Xiaomi is a company that concentrates on the Chinese and Indian markets, but as its business grows, it has recently expanded into other regions. Figure 1 demonstrates that its presence has been growing and spreading continuously. According to Rawal et al. (2017), the corporation promotes aggressive pricing on its gadgets in order to develop brand recognition and gain a competitive edge. It generates money by the use of its customized software and the promotion of brand loyalty to induce consumers to purchase additional products created by the company and to disseminate word-of-mouth advertising. Four years after adopting this strategy, Xiaomi has become a market leader in the regions in which it operates and has become a big smartphone maker (Rawal et al., 2017). However, it should be emphasized that the company had substantial resources prior to entering the market, which may not be the case for the company used in the current circumstance.

F

Figure 1. Market Shares of Smartphone Manufacturers (“Global Market Share,” n.d.)

Huawei and Xiaomi share various commonalities, including a focus on lower price ranges and strong success in the same geographic regions. According to Saif and Aimin (2015), the company primarily targets consumers with typical salaries and sets rates to reflect their preferences. The company has more premium offers now that it has been in the market long enough to grow significantly and diversify its product lines, but these products are sometimes hampered by their identification with the brand's core competency, which is the production of inexpensive solutions. Given sufficient time, the two branches of manufacturing will likely become sufficiently distinct for consumers to stop associating them or to perceive the less expensive models as inheriting the good quality of the more expensive versions. Despite this, Huawei has a substantial global reach and can be cited as a successful example of budget phone marketing.

Pricing Methodologies

The most reasonable way to gain an advantage over the competition based on pricing alone is to set a lower price than the competitors. The research conducted by Primanto, ABS, and Slamet (2018) confirms that the demand for a specific smartphone is inversely related to its price. The lower the price of a device, the more people will consider it when purchasing a new model or replacing an older one. However, there is a minimum threshold for such manipulations that is set by the phone's base value. Even as a promotional strategy, it would be impractical for a corporation to sell its product at a loss, as the model is ultimately unsustainable and future versions offered at a profit would lack the same attractiveness and harm the brand's reputation.

However, prices that are too cheap can be seen as a lack of faith in the product and the belief that it belongs to a lower cost and quality category, which can negatively impact the product's popularity. Chen et al. (2016) state that just one-third of the respondents in their study would go for the less expensive option, and they add that a person's choice of smartphone is significantly influenced by popularity. The determination of price is a matter of striking a balance in which the offering is not overpriced, is appealing to the target audience, and demonstrates confidence through its price. The study is constrained by its small sample size and regional scope, but the trends seen can likely be extended to the majority of populations globally.

Discussion

Strategic Insights

Although Apple’s recent sales declines are not a great illustration of its strategy application, the company’s pricing policy has been constant and effective, and the technological aspect of the business is to blame. As depicted in Figure 2, the company's profit margins have remained relatively stable or declined, but the base cost of the phones has increased due to the addition of new, costly components, and the loss of subsidies has exposed the true value of the devices, which many consumers were unable to afford. This research is concerned with product accounting, which deals with pricing, and the technological aspect is irrelevant, so Apple is not necessarily an instructive example. However, the idea indicates one manner by which the corporation in the case could dramatically undercut its competition without jeopardizing revenues.

Figure 2 depicts the profit margins of Apple's smartphones. (Ritchie, 2019).

Multiple subsidies would cut the market price of the item in exchange for tying it to a contract with a certain telecoms provider. The remaining of the amount would be paid to the manufacturer, compensating it for each phone sold and assuring consumer and company satisfaction. The product might still be released to the general public at its genuine price, which would assist persuade consumers that its true cost is far higher and that they are receiving a high-quality device for a large discount. In addition, the strategy would compel the telecommunications provider to promote the relationship, generating more attention for the phone, particularly among service consumers.

Huawei provides a model of success via endurance and excellence with similarly priced low-cost phones.

The Great Recession Of 2008 In The United States Grad School Essay Help

Introduction

The latter months of 2007 witnessed exceptional economic development, with the Dow Jones stock market index reaching its top in October and housing values also reaching their peak. However, there were strong macroeconomic warning signs across the board indicating a recession was imminent, ranging from banks refusing to do business with one another and displaying internal problems to a housing market bubble and the infamous subprime mortgage and predatory lending practices. In September 2008, the economy began to crumble as the stock market dropped precipitously, the housing bubble burst, and financial institutions either closed or required bailouts. The macroeconomic impact was immense, affecting the global economy and trade as well as industries and individuals unrelated to the crisis's primary causes. It had enormous effects on the American economy, financial industry, regulation and policy, and risk assessment and forecasting models. It was the worst economic recession since the Great Depression of 1929. The purpose of this paper is to identify the primary causes of the 2008-2009 financial crisis (Great Recession) and to assess the effects of the recession on the macroeconomic factors outlined in the context of the overall U.S. economy.

Literature Review

Beginnings

In the early 2000s, the market underwent a temporary recession as a result of the fall of the dot-com boom, terrorist attacks, and financial sector scandals, laying the groundwork for the Great Recession. People and authorities feared the onset of a deeper recession. In an effort to forestall a recession, the Federal Reserve adopted an expansionary monetary policy and lowered interest rates 11 times by over 5% in a single year, hitting a low of 1.75 percent in December 2001. (Amadeo, 2020). This resulted in an influx of liquidity into the economy, causing bankers, firms, and private individuals to seize the chance to borrow large sums of money despite frequently lacking the assets or ability to repay it.

The Housing Market and Subprime Lending

The history of home as an investment is depicted in Figure 1. (Arora & Rathinam, 2011).

The housing market, which was intimately linked to the subprime loans and mortgages outlined previously, is cited as one of the key causes of the financial crisis. Subprime loans are a form of lending granted to less-than-ideal borrowers who lack the appropriate credit history or financial stability to manage the credit burden (Coghlan, McCorkell, & Hinkley, 2018). Early in the twenty-first century, the U.S. government embraced the strategy of providing more Americans with housing. As a result of low government interest rates, borrowers flocked to take advantage of the opportunity to purchase a home, the embodiment of the American suburban dream. Initially, banks were eager to give these loans since the federal rate was so low and they could charge consumers greater interest rates. The demand for house loans and purchasers caused a sharp increase in property values.

Midway through 2003, the federal interest rate was reduced to 1% as a result of this illusory economic boom and low inflation rates. This economic climate of easy lending and high-yield subprime mortgages resulted in the formation of a highly profitable business. Few consumers considered long-term financial planning or repercussions when they were urged to use credit to satisfy their immediate demands with significant discounts and cheap down payments. The maxim of institutions in economics is to maximize profit. For banks, investing in real estate was successful because they tempted consumers with low down payments (10%) and 3% thirty-year loan rates, but subprime mortgage contracts permitted banks to change interest rates after three years (Sorkin, 2009). When the borrower was unable to make mortgage payments, the bank would seize ownership of the property, benefit from interest rates, and effectively repeat the process.

This relates to the subsequent reason for predatory lending practices and negligent risk management by financial institutions. The banking system created a new method for repackaging subprime mortgage loans as collateralized debt obligations (CDOs) and selling them to other financial institutions. The subprime mortgages were packaged into collateralized debt obligations (CDOs) and sold as a derivative to raise cash for additional loans, with the fact that these mortgages and loans would be repaid by households serving as collateral. Simultaneously, government deregulation loosened net capital limits for major investment firms, enabling them to leverage more than 30 times the initial investment (Michello & Deme, 2012). In a way, it was a pyramid scheme that resulted in ongoing profits and price increases.

Long-Term Effects

In addition to the aforementioned short-term factors, economists also ascribe a number of long-term causes to the crisis, the majority of which involve government macroeconomic policies. As previously indicated, the Federal Reserve did not maintain good long-term planning in decreasing interest rates in conjunction with a significant deregulation of the financial industry in the years preceding up to 2008. Global financial markets exhibited a glaring excess of liquidity, which may be linked to the failure of central banks in industrialized nations to curb such liquidity and speculative price hikes. In addition, the United States possessed trade and public sector deficits, resulting in an inherent global trade imbalance. When the Federal Reserve cut interest rates for an extended period of time, the issue of excess liquidity caused by global imbalances was exacerbated. Some economists also note that increasing inequality and wage stagnation became a long-term cause of the economic crisis, with the poorest 90% of the population experiencing only a 10% inflation-adjusted salary rise from 1976 to 2006. This leads to decreased aggregate demand and consumption, which predatory lenders relied on before to the crisis by advocating and engaging in high-risk capital projects (Wisman, 2013).

The Disaster

In 2005-2006, property prices began to decline as homeownership peaked at 70 percent. In addition, the Federal interest rate began to grow to roughly 5.25 percent. Since the interest rates of many subprime mortgages were dependent on the federal one, the rising interest rates began to damage their ability to pay, resulting in a cascade of subprime loan defaults. In turn, subprime lender companies, beginning with the well-known New Century Financial, began to default. Information began to surface that huge banks and investment firms possessed trillions of subprime mortgage CDO-backed securities (Sorkin, 2009). Financial institutions began seizing funds from hedge funds in order to stay afloat, and the international interbank market fully froze, with many interbank institutions suffering substantial liquidity issues that necessitated government central bank involvement. Federal funding and discount rates were decreased to about 1%, and the National Economic Stabilization Act of 2008 was passed to acquire mortgage-backed securities, among other bailout packages (Mehdian, Rezvanian, & Stoica, 2019).

No one understood the full scale of the subprime mortgage crisis and its consequences at the time. Prior to the financial crisis, the insatiable demand for mortgage-backed securities led to reckless risk management. Because banks subdivided mortgages and sold them in tranches, pricing derivatives was challenging. Also invested in mortgage-backed securities were corporate assets, mutual funds, and pension funds, in addition to financial institutions. Even pension funds that generally invest cautiously bought in subprime mortgages, assuming they were protected by credit default swaps issued by the American Insurance Group (AIG), which would legally cover costs in the event of a mortgage default. However, as the system began to fail, AIG was unable to cover all the swaps it had sold with cash. Contrary to the assumption of the Federal Reserve at the time, the crisis affected banking and industry, which ceased lending to each other out of fear that subprime mortgages would become worthless collateral (Sorkin, 2009).

As the housing and banking markets deteriorated in the middle of 2008, the federal government initiated bailout programs. JP Morgan Chase and AIG were offered multibillion-dollar packages, while Congress permitted the acquisitions of Fannie Mae and Freddie Mac, which are still primarily government-owned (Coghlan et al., 2018). The stock market began to fall precipitously, necessitating a series of government rescue and restructuring agreements.

Figure 2 is a summary of the most significant financial figures associated with the 2008 financial crisis (Amadeo, 2020).

Consequences

The 2008 financial crisis had both short- and long-term repercussions that are still being felt today. It is essential to first assess the human and societal cost of the crisis, which has led to mistrust in the financial system, enormous job and residency losses, and even deaths owing to an increase in crime and suicides. Short-term effects included tens of billions of dollars in government bailouts and a significant reduction in public spending at all levels of government, with policies primarily benefiting companies rather than individual people. During the height of the recession, U.S. households lost an average of $5,800 in income, with an estimated $648 billion lost owing to sluggish economic growth after the crisis. During the recession, at least 5.5 million jobs were lost in the United States.

Between 2008 and 2009, the value of real estate decreased by $3.4 trillion, causing a reduction in home values. During the same time period, the stock market's value fell by $7.4 trillion (Pew Charitable Trusts, 2010). The macroeconomic and monetary expenses Long-term effects include the instability of the global financial system, which has resulted in severe austerity and political instability worldwide. However, there are some beneficial improvements, such as structural alterations and altering macroeconomic dynamics, which will be examined in the following section (Arora & Rathinam, 2011). Even with some rollbacks by the current U.S. administration, there is stronger regulation, and the government and international bodies are more aware of red signals and essential decision-making to prevent a repeat of such a terrible economic disaster.

Analysis

In addition to its magnitude, the 2008 financial crisis is distinctive among periodic economic recessions due to its inherent complexity. Although the majority of recessions are caused by macroeconomic causes, there is frequently a discernible, self-correcting cause. The concept of subprime mortgages is frequently viewed as the primary cause of this particular crisis, but it is merely a reflection of the greater disarray in the financial system at the time and highlights the other significant underlying cause of the crisis, which is the preceding government deregulation. However, now that more than a decade has passed since the crisis and its effects, it is clear how the 2008 recession altered the macroeconomics of the United States.

Prior to 2008, politicians, bankers, and academics around the globe viewed U.S. macroeconomics as a basic, predictable, and benign idea. Based on the rational expectations macroeconomic approach of the 1970s, the United States was viewed as a country with stable economic fluctuations that were virtually self-correcting due to its highly developed economy. Aside from models of analyzing and predicting the future, little has changed over the course of decades; consequently, it is possible to study past events and actions in order to anticipate the future. Macroeconomic models were linear, and a tiny shock, such as a drop in home values, could not have a significant effect, making it impossible to anticipate or solve. Moreover, since the 1980s, advanced economies have exhibited a "great moderation" characterized by a decline in the variability of production and its components, such as consumption and investment. With low and less volatile inflation and primarily minor economic shocks, monetary policy was secure. It was believed that these stringent economic measures would prevent tiny shocks from destabilizing the economy. Due to federal insurance and central bank protection regulations, even occurrences like bank runs, which are taught in history and economics classes as the worst possible outcome of a recession, are now completely avoided (Blanchard, 2014).

Small shocks ranging from the housing bubble to liquidity concerns in banks and corporations culminated to the collapse and dysfunction of the economy in 2008, which mostly caught everyone by surprise. Inadvertently, financial institutions and regulators underestimated risks as financial structures were sensitive to shocks due to their liquidity structure. In the backdrop of the subprime mortgage crisis, the collapse of the U.S. housing market raised worries about whose claims were owned by which financial institutions and which were genuinely solvent. It resulted in 'liquidity runs' not against banks, but mostly on financial institutions that operated like banks without the required safeguards or laws (Blanchard, 2014). Prior to 2008, advanced economies would deploy economic stimulus as part of an accommodating monetary policy to promote aggregate demand. Central banks would raise money supply to lower interest rates, allowing firms to borrow and expand at cheaper costs, which might have a favorable effect on employment rates and, consequently, consumer spending in the nation. As interest rates were lowered to stimulate economic activity, the zero lower bound was swiftly achieved, posing a threat of deflation that would raise the actual value of public and private debt. There was limited room for financial maneuvering in this scenario (Dequech, 2018).

The expansionary fiscal policy is an additional strategy for boosting aggregate demand. In addition to reducing taxes, fiscal policy was utilized to expand public spending to match private demand. However, this led to a rise in government debt levels and the perception of sovereign risk, which was unthinkable prior to the crisis (Blanchard, 2014). Moreover, the public and investors frequently reject this macroeconomic strategy due to the crowding out effect, which asserts that government expenditure hinders private investment. The government policy indirectly affects borrowing costs by increasing interest rates due to the increased demand for loans. Without business investment stimulus, neither the production sector nor the labor market would expand. Fiscal stimulus policies may have a short-term favorable effect, but they would effectively stifle economic growth in the long run. In spite of this, the 2008 crisis need fiscal stimulus because analysts anticipated that zero-bound interest rates would prevent a decline in private investment under the conditions (Dequech, 2018).

IS-LM refers to the Hicks-Hansen investment savings (IS) – liquidity preference-money supply (LM) model, sometimes known as the IS-LM model. The 2008 financial crisis brought to light key but mostly forgotten macroeconomic theories. In the literature study, the timeframe and effects of the recession reflect an economy that responded to negative shocks by reducing demand for goods across all industries. The Keynesian IS-LM model developed in the 1980s places demand at the center of business cycle fluctuations along with the 'paradox of thrift,' which states that during recessions, households tend to reduce spending and increase savings, whereas the opposite is required to stimulate economic growth, which in turn causes businesses to reduce production based on demand and the recession to deepen. This became abundantly visible during the Great Recession, when American savings soared.

The Great Recession Of 2008 In The United States Grad School Essay Help

Introduction

The latter months of 2007 witnessed exceptional economic development, with the Dow Jones stock market index reaching its top in October and housing values also reaching their peak. However, there were strong macroeconomic warning signs across the board indicating a recession was imminent, ranging from banks refusing to do business with one another and displaying internal problems to a housing market bubble and the infamous subprime mortgage and predatory lending practices. In September 2008, the economy began to crumble as the stock market dropped precipitously, the housing bubble burst, and financial institutions either closed or required bailouts. The macroeconomic impact was immense, affecting the global economy and trade as well as industries and individuals unrelated to the crisis's primary causes. It had enormous effects on the American economy, financial industry, regulation and policy, and risk assessment and forecasting models. It was the worst economic recession since the Great Depression of 1929. The purpose of this paper is to identify the primary causes of the 2008-2009 financial crisis (Great Recession) and to assess the effects of the recession on the macroeconomic factors outlined in the context of the overall U.S. economy.

Literature Review

Beginnings

In the early 2000s, the market underwent a temporary recession as a result of the fall of the dot-com boom, terrorist attacks, and financial sector scandals, laying the groundwork for the Great Recession. People and authorities feared the onset of a deeper recession. In an effort to forestall a recession, the Federal Reserve adopted an expansionary monetary policy and lowered interest rates 11 times by over 5% in a single year, hitting a low of 1.75 percent in December 2001. (Amadeo, 2020). This resulted in an influx of liquidity into the economy, causing bankers, firms, and private individuals to seize the chance to borrow large sums of money despite frequently lacking the assets or ability to repay it.

The Housing Market and Subprime Lending

The history of home as an investment is depicted in Figure 1. (Arora & Rathinam, 2011).

The housing market, which was intimately linked to the subprime loans and mortgages outlined previously, is cited as one of the key causes of the financial crisis. Subprime loans are a form of lending granted to less-than-ideal borrowers who lack the appropriate credit history or financial stability to manage the credit burden (Coghlan, McCorkell, & Hinkley, 2018). Early in the twenty-first century, the U.S. government embraced the strategy of providing more Americans with housing. As a result of low government interest rates, borrowers flocked to take advantage of the opportunity to purchase a home, the embodiment of the American suburban dream. Initially, banks were eager to give these loans since the federal rate was so low and they could charge consumers greater interest rates. The demand for house loans and purchasers caused a sharp increase in property values.

Midway through 2003, the federal interest rate was reduced to 1% as a result of this illusory economic boom and low inflation rates. This economic climate of easy lending and high-yield subprime mortgages resulted in the formation of a highly profitable business. Few consumers considered long-term financial planning or repercussions when they were urged to use credit to satisfy their immediate demands with significant discounts and cheap down payments. The maxim of institutions in economics is to maximize profit. For banks, investing in real estate was successful because they tempted consumers with low down payments (10%) and 3% thirty-year loan rates, but subprime mortgage contracts permitted banks to change interest rates after three years (Sorkin, 2009). When the borrower was unable to make mortgage payments, the bank would seize ownership of the property, benefit from interest rates, and effectively repeat the process.

This relates to the subsequent reason for predatory lending practices and negligent risk management by financial institutions. The banking system created a new method for repackaging subprime mortgage loans as collateralized debt obligations (CDOs) and selling them to other financial institutions. The subprime mortgages were packaged into collateralized debt obligations (CDOs) and sold as a derivative to raise cash for additional loans, with the fact that these mortgages and loans would be repaid by households serving as collateral. Simultaneously, government deregulation loosened net capital limits for major investment firms, enabling them to leverage more than 30 times the initial investment (Michello & Deme, 2012). In a way, it was a pyramid scheme that resulted in ongoing profits and price increases.

Long-Term Effects

In addition to the aforementioned short-term factors, economists also ascribe a number of long-term causes to the crisis, the majority of which involve government macroeconomic policies. As previously indicated, the Federal Reserve did not maintain good long-term planning in decreasing interest rates in conjunction with a significant deregulation of the financial industry in the years preceding up to 2008. Global financial markets exhibited a glaring excess of liquidity, which may be linked to the failure of central banks in industrialized nations to curb such liquidity and speculative price hikes. In addition, the United States possessed trade and public sector deficits, resulting in an inherent global trade imbalance. When the Federal Reserve cut interest rates for an extended period of time, the issue of excess liquidity caused by global imbalances was exacerbated. Some economists also note that increasing inequality and wage stagnation became a long-term cause of the economic crisis, with the poorest 90% of the population experiencing only a 10% inflation-adjusted salary rise from 1976 to 2006. This leads to decreased aggregate demand and consumption, which predatory lenders relied on before to the crisis by advocating and engaging in high-risk capital projects (Wisman, 2013).

The Disaster

In 2005-2006, property prices began to decline as homeownership peaked at 70 percent. In addition, the Federal interest rate began to grow to roughly 5.25 percent. Since the interest rates of many subprime mortgages were dependent on the federal one, the rising interest rates began to damage their ability to pay, resulting in a cascade of subprime loan defaults. In turn, subprime lender companies, beginning with the well-known New Century Financial, began to default. Information began to surface that huge banks and investment firms possessed trillions of subprime mortgage CDO-backed securities (Sorkin, 2009). Financial institutions began seizing funds from hedge funds in order to stay afloat, and the international interbank market fully froze, with many interbank institutions suffering substantial liquidity issues that necessitated government central bank involvement. Federal funding and discount rates were decreased to about 1%, and the National Economic Stabilization Act of 2008 was passed to acquire mortgage-backed securities, among other bailout packages (Mehdian, Rezvanian, & Stoica, 2019).

No one understood the full scale of the subprime mortgage crisis and its consequences at the time. Prior to the financial crisis, the insatiable demand for mortgage-backed securities led to reckless risk management. Because banks subdivided mortgages and sold them in tranches, pricing derivatives was challenging. Also invested in mortgage-backed securities were corporate assets, mutual funds, and pension funds, in addition to financial institutions. Even pension funds that generally invest cautiously bought in subprime mortgages, assuming they were protected by credit default swaps issued by the American Insurance Group (AIG), which would legally cover costs in the event of a mortgage default. However, as the system began to fail, AIG was unable to cover all the swaps it had sold with cash. Contrary to the assumption of the Federal Reserve at the time, the crisis affected banking and industry, which ceased lending to each other out of fear that subprime mortgages would become worthless collateral (Sorkin, 2009).

As the housing and banking markets deteriorated in the middle of 2008, the federal government initiated bailout programs. JP Morgan Chase and AIG were offered multibillion-dollar packages, while Congress permitted the acquisitions of Fannie Mae and Freddie Mac, which are still primarily government-owned (Coghlan et al., 2018). The stock market began to fall precipitously, necessitating a series of government rescue and restructuring agreements.

Figure 2 is a summary of the most significant financial figures associated with the 2008 financial crisis (Amadeo, 2020).

Consequences

The 2008 financial crisis had both short- and long-term repercussions that are still being felt today. It is essential to first assess the human and societal cost of the crisis, which has led to mistrust in the financial system, enormous job and residency losses, and even deaths owing to an increase in crime and suicides. Short-term effects included tens of billions of dollars in government bailouts and a significant reduction in public spending at all levels of government, with policies primarily benefiting companies rather than individual people. During the height of the recession, U.S. households lost an average of $5,800 in income, with an estimated $648 billion lost owing to sluggish economic growth after the crisis. During the recession, at least 5.5 million jobs were lost in the United States.

Between 2008 and 2009, the value of real estate decreased by $3.4 trillion, causing a reduction in home values. During the same time period, the stock market's value fell by $7.4 trillion (Pew Charitable Trusts, 2010). The macroeconomic and monetary expenses Long-term effects include the instability of the global financial system, which has resulted in severe austerity and political instability worldwide. However, there are some beneficial improvements, such as structural alterations and altering macroeconomic dynamics, which will be examined in the following section (Arora & Rathinam, 2011). Even with some rollbacks by the current U.S. administration, there is stronger regulation, and the government and international bodies are more aware of red signals and essential decision-making to prevent a repeat of such a terrible economic disaster.

Analysis

In addition to its magnitude, the 2008 financial crisis is distinctive among periodic economic recessions due to its inherent complexity. Although the majority of recessions are caused by macroeconomic causes, there is frequently a discernible, self-correcting cause. The concept of subprime mortgages is frequently viewed as the primary cause of this particular crisis, but it is merely a reflection of the greater disarray in the financial system at the time and highlights the other significant underlying cause of the crisis, which is the preceding government deregulation. However, now that more than a decade has passed since the crisis and its effects, it is clear how the 2008 recession altered the macroeconomics of the United States.

Prior to 2008, politicians, bankers, and academics around the globe viewed U.S. macroeconomics as a basic, predictable, and benign idea. Based on the rational expectations macroeconomic approach of the 1970s, the United States was viewed as a country with stable economic fluctuations that were virtually self-correcting due to its highly developed economy. Aside from models of analyzing and predicting the future, little has changed over the course of decades; consequently, it is possible to study past events and actions in order to anticipate the future. Macroeconomic models were linear, and a tiny shock, such as a drop in home values, could not have a significant effect, making it impossible to anticipate or solve. Moreover, since the 1980s, advanced economies have exhibited a "great moderation" characterized by a decline in the variability of production and its components, such as consumption and investment. With low and less volatile inflation and primarily minor economic shocks, monetary policy was secure. It was believed that these stringent economic measures would prevent tiny shocks from destabilizing the economy. Due to federal insurance and central bank protection regulations, even occurrences like bank runs, which are taught in history and economics classes as the worst possible outcome of a recession, are now completely avoided (Blanchard, 2014).

Small shocks ranging from the housing bubble to liquidity concerns in banks and corporations culminated to the collapse and dysfunction of the economy in 2008, which mostly caught everyone by surprise. Inadvertently, financial institutions and regulators underestimated risks as financial structures were sensitive to shocks due to their liquidity structure. In the backdrop of the subprime mortgage crisis, the collapse of the U.S. housing market raised worries about whose claims were owned by which financial institutions and which were genuinely solvent. It resulted in 'liquidity runs' not against banks, but mostly on financial institutions that operated like banks without the required safeguards or laws (Blanchard, 2014). Prior to 2008, advanced economies would deploy economic stimulus as part of an accommodating monetary policy to promote aggregate demand. Central banks would raise money supply to lower interest rates, allowing firms to borrow and expand at cheaper costs, which might have a favorable effect on employment rates and, consequently, consumer spending in the nation. As interest rates were lowered to stimulate economic activity, the zero lower bound was swiftly achieved, posing a threat of deflation that would raise the actual value of public and private debt. There was limited room for financial maneuvering in this scenario (Dequech, 2018).

The expansionary fiscal policy is an additional strategy for boosting aggregate demand. In addition to reducing taxes, fiscal policy was utilized to expand public spending to match private demand. However, this led to a rise in government debt levels and the perception of sovereign risk, which was unthinkable prior to the crisis (Blanchard, 2014). Moreover, the public and investors frequently reject this macroeconomic strategy due to the crowding out effect, which asserts that government expenditure hinders private investment. The government policy indirectly affects borrowing costs by increasing interest rates due to the increased demand for loans. Without business investment stimulus, neither the production sector nor the labor market would expand. Fiscal stimulus policies may have a short-term favorable effect, but they would effectively stifle economic growth in the long run. In spite of this, the 2008 crisis need fiscal stimulus because analysts anticipated that zero-bound interest rates would prevent a decline in private investment under the conditions (Dequech, 2018).

IS-LM refers to the Hicks-Hansen investment savings (IS) – liquidity preference-money supply (LM) model, sometimes known as the IS-LM model. The 2008 financial crisis brought to light key but mostly forgotten macroeconomic theories. In the literature study, the timeframe and effects of the recession reflect an economy that responded to negative shocks by reducing demand for goods across all industries. The Keynesian IS-LM model developed in the 1980s places demand at the center of business cycle fluctuations along with the 'paradox of thrift,' which states that during recessions, households tend to reduce spending and increase savings, whereas the opposite is required to stimulate economic growth, which in turn causes businesses to reduce production based on demand and the recession to deepen. This became abundantly visible during the Great Recession, when American savings soared.

The Great Recession Of 2008 In The United States Grad School Essay Help

Introduction

The latter months of 2007 witnessed exceptional economic development, with the Dow Jones stock market index reaching its top in October and housing values also reaching their peak. However, there were strong macroeconomic warning signs across the board indicating a recession was imminent, ranging from banks refusing to do business with one another and displaying internal problems to a housing market bubble and the infamous subprime mortgage and predatory lending practices. In September 2008, the economy began to crumble as the stock market dropped precipitously, the housing bubble burst, and financial institutions either closed or required bailouts. The macroeconomic impact was immense, affecting the global economy and trade as well as industries and individuals unrelated to the crisis's primary causes. It had enormous effects on the American economy, financial industry, regulation and policy, and risk assessment and forecasting models. It was the worst economic recession since the Great Depression of 1929. The purpose of this paper is to identify the primary causes of the 2008-2009 financial crisis (Great Recession) and to assess the effects of the recession on the macroeconomic factors outlined in the context of the overall U.S. economy.

Literature Review

Beginnings

In the early 2000s, the market underwent a temporary recession as a result of the fall of the dot-com boom, terrorist attacks, and financial sector scandals, laying the groundwork for the Great Recession. People and authorities feared the onset of a deeper recession. In an effort to forestall a recession, the Federal Reserve adopted an expansionary monetary policy and lowered interest rates 11 times by over 5% in a single year, hitting a low of 1.75 percent in December 2001. (Amadeo, 2020). This resulted in an influx of liquidity into the economy, causing bankers, firms, and private individuals to seize the chance to borrow large sums of money despite frequently lacking the assets or ability to repay it.

The Housing Market and Subprime Lending

The history of home as an investment is depicted in Figure 1. (Arora & Rathinam, 2011).

The housing market, which was intimately linked to the subprime loans and mortgages outlined previously, is cited as one of the key causes of the financial crisis. Subprime loans are a form of lending granted to less-than-ideal borrowers who lack the appropriate credit history or financial stability to manage the credit burden (Coghlan, McCorkell, & Hinkley, 2018). Early in the twenty-first century, the U.S. government embraced the strategy of providing more Americans with housing. As a result of low government interest rates, borrowers flocked to take advantage of the opportunity to purchase a home, the embodiment of the American suburban dream. Initially, banks were eager to give these loans since the federal rate was so low and they could charge consumers greater interest rates. The demand for house loans and purchasers caused a sharp increase in property values.

Midway through 2003, the federal interest rate was reduced to 1% as a result of this illusory economic boom and low inflation rates. This economic climate of easy lending and high-yield subprime mortgages resulted in the formation of a highly profitable business. Few consumers considered long-term financial planning or repercussions when they were urged to use credit to satisfy their immediate demands with significant discounts and cheap down payments. The maxim of institutions in economics is to maximize profit. For banks, investing in real estate was successful because they tempted consumers with low down payments (10%) and 3% thirty-year loan rates, but subprime mortgage contracts permitted banks to change interest rates after three years (Sorkin, 2009). When the borrower was unable to make mortgage payments, the bank would seize ownership of the property, benefit from interest rates, and effectively repeat the process.

This relates to the subsequent reason for predatory lending practices and negligent risk management by financial institutions. The banking system created a new method for repackaging subprime mortgage loans as collateralized debt obligations (CDOs) and selling them to other financial institutions. The subprime mortgages were packaged into collateralized debt obligations (CDOs) and sold as a derivative to raise cash for additional loans, with the fact that these mortgages and loans would be repaid by households serving as collateral. Simultaneously, government deregulation loosened net capital limits for major investment firms, enabling them to leverage more than 30 times the initial investment (Michello & Deme, 2012). In a way, it was a pyramid scheme that resulted in ongoing profits and price increases.

Long-Term Effects

In addition to the aforementioned short-term factors, economists also ascribe a number of long-term causes to the crisis, the majority of which involve government macroeconomic policies. As previously indicated, the Federal Reserve did not maintain good long-term planning in decreasing interest rates in conjunction with a significant deregulation of the financial industry in the years preceding up to 2008. Global financial markets exhibited a glaring excess of liquidity, which may be linked to the failure of central banks in industrialized nations to curb such liquidity and speculative price hikes. In addition, the United States possessed trade and public sector deficits, resulting in an inherent global trade imbalance. When the Federal Reserve cut interest rates for an extended period of time, the issue of excess liquidity caused by global imbalances was exacerbated. Some economists also note that increasing inequality and wage stagnation became a long-term cause of the economic crisis, with the poorest 90% of the population experiencing only a 10% inflation-adjusted salary rise from 1976 to 2006. This leads to decreased aggregate demand and consumption, which predatory lenders relied on before to the crisis by advocating and engaging in high-risk capital projects (Wisman, 2013).

The Disaster

In 2005-2006, property prices began to decline as homeownership peaked at 70 percent. In addition, the Federal interest rate began to grow to roughly 5.25 percent. Since the interest rates of many subprime mortgages were dependent on the federal one, the rising interest rates began to damage their ability to pay, resulting in a cascade of subprime loan defaults. In turn, subprime lender companies, beginning with the well-known New Century Financial, began to default. Information began to surface that huge banks and investment firms possessed trillions of subprime mortgage CDO-backed securities (Sorkin, 2009). Financial institutions began seizing funds from hedge funds in order to stay afloat, and the international interbank market fully froze, with many interbank institutions suffering substantial liquidity issues that necessitated government central bank involvement. Federal funding and discount rates were decreased to about 1%, and the National Economic Stabilization Act of 2008 was passed to acquire mortgage-backed securities, among other bailout packages (Mehdian, Rezvanian, & Stoica, 2019).

No one understood the full scale of the subprime mortgage crisis and its consequences at the time. Prior to the financial crisis, the insatiable demand for mortgage-backed securities led to reckless risk management. Because banks subdivided mortgages and sold them in tranches, pricing derivatives was challenging. Also invested in mortgage-backed securities were corporate assets, mutual funds, and pension funds, in addition to financial institutions. Even pension funds that generally invest cautiously bought in subprime mortgages, assuming they were protected by credit default swaps issued by the American Insurance Group (AIG), which would legally cover costs in the event of a mortgage default. However, as the system began to fail, AIG was unable to cover all the swaps it had sold with cash. Contrary to the assumption of the Federal Reserve at the time, the crisis affected banking and industry, which ceased lending to each other out of fear that subprime mortgages would become worthless collateral (Sorkin, 2009).

As the housing and banking markets deteriorated in the middle of 2008, the federal government initiated bailout programs. JP Morgan Chase and AIG were offered multibillion-dollar packages, while Congress permitted the acquisitions of Fannie Mae and Freddie Mac, which are still primarily government-owned (Coghlan et al., 2018). The stock market began to fall precipitously, necessitating a series of government rescue and restructuring agreements.

Figure 2 is a summary of the most significant financial figures associated with the 2008 financial crisis (Amadeo, 2020).

Consequences

The 2008 financial crisis had both short- and long-term repercussions that are still being felt today. It is essential to first assess the human and societal cost of the crisis, which has led to mistrust in the financial system, enormous job and residency losses, and even deaths owing to an increase in crime and suicides. Short-term effects included tens of billions of dollars in government bailouts and a significant reduction in public spending at all levels of government, with policies primarily benefiting companies rather than individual people. During the height of the recession, U.S. households lost an average of $5,800 in income, with an estimated $648 billion lost owing to sluggish economic growth after the crisis. During the recession, at least 5.5 million jobs were lost in the United States.

Between 2008 and 2009, the value of real estate decreased by $3.4 trillion, causing a reduction in home values. During the same time period, the stock market's value fell by $7.4 trillion (Pew Charitable Trusts, 2010). The macroeconomic and monetary expenses Long-term effects include the instability of the global financial system, which has resulted in severe austerity and political instability worldwide. However, there are some beneficial improvements, such as structural alterations and altering macroeconomic dynamics, which will be examined in the following section (Arora & Rathinam, 2011). Even with some rollbacks by the current U.S. administration, there is stronger regulation, and the government and international bodies are more aware of red signals and essential decision-making to prevent a repeat of such a terrible economic disaster.

Analysis

In addition to its magnitude, the 2008 financial crisis is distinctive among periodic economic recessions due to its inherent complexity. Although the majority of recessions are caused by macroeconomic causes, there is frequently a discernible, self-correcting cause. The concept of subprime mortgages is frequently viewed as the primary cause of this particular crisis, but it is merely a reflection of the greater disarray in the financial system at the time and highlights the other significant underlying cause of the crisis, which is the preceding government deregulation. However, now that more than a decade has passed since the crisis and its effects, it is clear how the 2008 recession altered the macroeconomics of the United States.

Prior to 2008, politicians, bankers, and academics around the globe viewed U.S. macroeconomics as a basic, predictable, and benign idea. Based on the rational expectations macroeconomic approach of the 1970s, the United States was viewed as a country with stable economic fluctuations that were virtually self-correcting due to its highly developed economy. Aside from models of analyzing and predicting the future, little has changed over the course of decades; consequently, it is possible to study past events and actions in order to anticipate the future. Macroeconomic models were linear, and a tiny shock, such as a drop in home values, could not have a significant effect, making it impossible to anticipate or solve. Moreover, since the 1980s, advanced economies have exhibited a "great moderation" characterized by a decline in the variability of production and its components, such as consumption and investment. With low and less volatile inflation and primarily minor economic shocks, monetary policy was secure. It was believed that these stringent economic measures would prevent tiny shocks from destabilizing the economy. Due to federal insurance and central bank protection regulations, even occurrences like bank runs, which are taught in history and economics classes as the worst possible outcome of a recession, are now completely avoided (Blanchard, 2014).

Small shocks ranging from the housing bubble to liquidity concerns in banks and corporations culminated to the collapse and dysfunction of the economy in 2008, which mostly caught everyone by surprise. Inadvertently, financial institutions and regulators underestimated risks as financial structures were sensitive to shocks due to their liquidity structure. In the backdrop of the subprime mortgage crisis, the collapse of the U.S. housing market raised worries about whose claims were owned by which financial institutions and which were genuinely solvent. It resulted in 'liquidity runs' not against banks, but mostly on financial institutions that operated like banks without the required safeguards or laws (Blanchard, 2014). Prior to 2008, advanced economies would deploy economic stimulus as part of an accommodating monetary policy to promote aggregate demand. Central banks would raise money supply to lower interest rates, allowing firms to borrow and expand at cheaper costs, which might have a favorable effect on employment rates and, consequently, consumer spending in the nation. As interest rates were lowered to stimulate economic activity, the zero lower bound was swiftly achieved, posing a threat of deflation that would raise the actual value of public and private debt. There was limited room for financial maneuvering in this scenario (Dequech, 2018).

The expansionary fiscal policy is an additional strategy for boosting aggregate demand. In addition to reducing taxes, fiscal policy was utilized to expand public spending to match private demand. However, this led to a rise in government debt levels and the perception of sovereign risk, which was unthinkable prior to the crisis (Blanchard, 2014). Moreover, the public and investors frequently reject this macroeconomic strategy due to the crowding out effect, which asserts that government expenditure hinders private investment. The government policy indirectly affects borrowing costs by increasing interest rates due to the increased demand for loans. Without business investment stimulus, neither the production sector nor the labor market would expand. Fiscal stimulus policies may have a short-term favorable effect, but they would effectively stifle economic growth in the long run. In spite of this, the 2008 crisis need fiscal stimulus because analysts anticipated that zero-bound interest rates would prevent a decline in private investment under the conditions (Dequech, 2018).

IS-LM refers to the Hicks-Hansen investment savings (IS) – liquidity preference-money supply (LM) model, sometimes known as the IS-LM model. The 2008 financial crisis brought to light key but mostly forgotten macroeconomic theories. In the literature study, the timeframe and effects of the recession reflect an economy that responded to negative shocks by reducing demand for goods across all industries. The Keynesian IS-LM model developed in the 1980s places demand at the center of business cycle fluctuations along with the 'paradox of thrift,' which states that during recessions, households tend to reduce spending and increase savings, whereas the opposite is required to stimulate economic growth, which in turn causes businesses to reduce production based on demand and the recession to deepen. This became abundantly visible during the Great Recession, when American savings soared.

Talent And Succession Management Strategy Grad School Essay Help

Executive Synopsis

Succession management ensures the continuation of an organization's talent pool when key portfolio holders leave. Succession management enables an organization to continue its day-to-day operations following the departure of top administration professionals, even if the individual is the CEO. Alternatively, it might be referred to as a substitute arrangement. To properly implement a succession management system, it is essential to examine the patterns and current practices followed by existing organizations. Few organizations view succession management as a crucial approach for minimizing authority shortages in specialized jobs and enabling the top people to develop core skills for future portfolios. Alternatively, some organizations view succession management as a constant struggle that is viewed as a managerial practice rather than leverage.

Introduction

In the current global economy, organizations must continually invest in human capital. As business partners, HR pioneers collaborate with senior management to recruit, develop, and retain great employees. However, inadequacies in aptitudes cause both monetary and societal challenges when competent candidates migrate globally. In light of workforce trends, such as shifting demographics, global supply chains, the aging workforce, and the rising global portability of personnel, forward-thinking organizations must reevaluate their talent management strategies in order to employ productive individuals. In this manner, kids will be prepared to succeed in an extremely competitive business climate. Furthermore, organizational culture, employee dedication, and initiative advancement have a significant impact on retaining effective employees. Considering these components and incorporating them into people management provides a road to sustaining exceptional business outcomes.

The current analysis reveals that the vast majority of HR professionals believe that attracting and retaining talent is the greatest challenge in workforce administration. Unquestionably, effective personnel management provides one of the most distinguishing purposes of essential influence today. Offering immense corporate value, people management is complex and always evolving. External variables, such as the economy, global development, and mergers/acquisitions, have an impact on talent management's fundamental achievement components. Such elements include alignment with essential objectives, dynamic CEO support, and HR management. Long-term, regular topics surrounding talent management, such as the role of line pioneers in talent advancement, are on the rise (figure 1). Typically, the most prevalent recurring themes are CEO participation, culture, administration, action plans, and responsibility (Morton, 2004).

Figure 1: Common talent management agenda principles

Prior research indicates that corporations are increasingly focusing on talent management. Organizations are shifting from reactive to proactive in their efforts to leverage talent. 53% of firms, according to SHRM's 2006 Talent Management Survey Report, have specific talent management activities in place. Of these firms, 76 per cent see talent management as a significant requirement. Similarly, 85% of HR professionals in these organizations engage directly with the administration to implement talent management solutions (Fegley, 2006).

Nevertheless, varied organizations might not define talent in the same manner. At the core of talent management is the belief in the talent and its effect on the financial bottom line. To be compelling, a talent mentality must permeate the whole organization, beginning with the CEO. Beyond succession planning for initiative portfolios at the highest level, organizations that value talent have a profound appreciation for the dedication of individuals at all levels, present and future. Essentially, talent is the vehicle that will get the firm where it needs to go (Morton, 2005).

Purpose

This paper's objective is to comprehend the role of talent and succession management strategy in keeping competent individuals.

Rationale

It is practically inevitable that human resources can and should boost the value of partnerships. The best way to accomplish this is through being a business partner; specifically by boosting the business's performance. This can be attained through effective personnel management, assisting with change management, influencing method, and a collection of other key functions that affect effectiveness.

In a demanding commercial world, talent management is a crucial determinant for organisational accomplishment. Comprehensively defined, talent management is the application of coordinated techniques or frameworks designed to increase workplace profit by creating improved methods for attracting, developing, retaining, and utilizing individuals with the required skills and disposition to meet future business needs.

Literature Review

Determinants for Talent Management

The need for human capital to achieve a competitive advantage affects talent management. Personnel management techniques focus on five critical areas: attracting, sorting, engaging, developing, and retaining talent. Although compensation and benefits are the primary priority of employees, top-tier administration firms focus on retaining and developing talent (figure 2). (Watson, 2014).

Figure 2: Seven distinguishing characteristics of elite leadership organizations

Workforce patterns determine talent management approaches. Elements like as an undeniably global and implicit workforce, diverse age groups working together, longer futures, and an engaged and independent workforce have continuously reshaped the workplace. Due to demographic shifts, the workforce is also becoming increasingly diverse in terms of age, sexual orientation, background, lifestyles, movement models, and social norms. Companies are currently benefiting from these workplace trends. Similarly, The Home Depot, Inc., the home improvement giant, focuses its recruitment efforts on seasoned professionals and partners with AARP for suggestions; 15% of its employees are over the age of 50. (Tucker, Kao, & Verma, 2005). Additionally, talent management connects to diversity and consistency. As Procter & Gamble believes that gaining the right mix of individuals is a crucial component of talent management and contracts, a big proportion of its early employees were recent college graduates (Morton, 2005).

Similarly, talent management is influenced by the anticipated skills gap in the future. Even while most businesses, commercial organizations, and occupations will not face a talent shortage, corporations are now competing for talent. Customer service, medical services, information technology, and engineering repair are examples of industries where a severe talent shortage is anticipated (Dell & Hickey, 2002). According to SHRM's 2005 'Future of the U.S. Labor Pool Survey Report,' the anticipated talent shortage in the next years would vary by company size, market segment, and industry.

Lastly, talent management is additionally determined by key business processes. Ford Motor Company, for instance, has included proficiency development into its core objectives in response to the rising demand for global specialized expertise. Corporate marking is an alternative business system that affects talent management. Companies are increasingly tying their image to their employees and corporate actions. At JPMorganChase, for instance, the concept of authority for all employees is part of the company's branding.

Accountability for Human Resource Management

The human resources department is responsible for talent management; the HR manager, in essence. He is assisted by the CEO and senior management. Though the entire organization is accountable for talent management, it is the HR manager that identifies and communicates the most effective ways to engage employees through fostering fulfillment, loyalty, and retention. HR must be a vital business partner due to its responsibility for talent management. According to a 2005 study on global human capital, HR officers play a critical role as vital business guides by helping human capital to increase the company's productivity and employees' adequacy. Due to CEO preferences, the seven most important duties of the Chief Human Resources Officer (CHRO) were corporate change, employee efficiency, talent management, HR change, authority progression, recruitment efforts, and incentives (IBM Corporation, 2005).

However, making progress with talent management operations requires organizational buy-in. This implies that all levels of administration must be aware of the significance of talent management approaches. When the board is involved, the evaluation of talent management is transparent and highly perceptible. To be effective, however, the importance must be communicated throughout the organization. In businesses with larger outputs, for instance, talent management is furthermore the responsibility of higher authorities. In the meanwhile, for talent management efforts to be effective, businesses require formal methodologies, the participation of multiple personnel, and strong links between initiative and talent that translate into distinct organisational quality-based practices.

Responsibilities for talent management are similarly reflected in allocated resources. A suitable budget plan for talent management operations, for example, is evidence of organizational obligation. According to SHRM's 2006 ‘Talent Management Survey Report’, organizations with talent management activities (72%) are more likely to have a proper recruitment plan than businesses without such activities (39%). (Fegley, 2006).

In addition, HR must educate superiors of the connection between the talent management sequence and the cost of profits. For instance, a worker’s decision to stay or leave is influenced by future career prospects in the organization and how well-prepared they are to transition to new opportunities. To maintain a competent employee, compensation alone is not sufficient. The loyalty of employees tends to be more aligned with their skills than with the organization (Dell & Hickey, 2002). Consequently, in order to attract, engage, develop, and retain talent, those tasked with talent management must know what employees value most.

The Function of HR

As a vital manager of talent management, HR has various tasks; one of the most crucial is acting as a catalyst for a talent-centric mindset. HR paves the way for the organization to possess talent management as a substance for authoritative achievement. As a business partner, HR meets expectations by collaborating with the board, the CEO, and senior management to ensure that they are focused on talent management. As a catalyst for talent management, HR also carefully considers how the company's environment supports talent. HR's role encompasses disseminating talent management reasons throughout the organization and understanding commercial competition. HR must build a coordinated and proactive strategy to talent management (the master plan), in addition to monitoring discriminatory data, such as following a turnover and understanding what factors assist retain effective employees (Figure 3).

Figure 3: Seven pillars of successful talent management

To integrate talent management into all areas of the organization, HR is also responsible for change management experts. HR engages in four talent management functions to determine this transformation: staffing, project management, authority advancement, and authoritative method. HR is responsible for four significant threats to the organization: 1) opening threat (to shield key business capacities, focus on uncommon abilities and fit to position); 2) inclination threat (to quicken authority advancement, give a full business presentation to rising stars); 3) switch threat (to avoid loss of key talent, select successors with administration capacity and contract for company talent); and 4) portfolio threat (to enhance vital talent power, focus on senior administration's commitment to development and evolvability).

Finally, optimistic HR pioneers adopt a comprehensive approach to people management. It is of the utmost importance to formulate unambiguous objectives and communicate openly about the talent management procedure. By HR explaining to management and employees why talent management is essential, how it operates, and the benefits to the organization and its members, talent management practices are more likely to be viewed as a legitimate practice (Walker & LaRocco, 2002).

Employee Dedication and Its Relationship to Talent Management

Successful talent management strategies and practices that demonstrate respect for human capital result in more engaged employees and decreased attrition. Thus, worker dedication has a substantial impact on worker benefit and talent retention. Worker dedication can be the deciding factor in whether or not the money adds up. The majority of devoted employees perform 20% better and are 87% less likely to leave. In addition, the quality, depth, and validity of HR and senior management's communication with employees, as well as the form of supervision, contribute to the development of a committed workforce. It is impossible to overemphasize the importance of the CEO as the most influential agent of worker accountability to the employment, firm, and groups. In addition, well-executed talent management practices (e.g., work-life parity projects, working from home, compressed workweeks, incentive programs, performance management frameworks) enhance worker commitment (Corporate Leadership Council, 2004).

Incentives and praise can aid in retaining talent and enhancing performance. According to a Carlson/Gallup study on employee engagement and business success, contented employees are four times more likely than dissatisfied employees to have an official evaluation system in place and receive universal recognition. Moreover, 82% reported that gratitude motivated them to increase work output (The Gallup Organization, 1998). Companies are progressively establishing formal and informal award programs. According to the SHRM's 2005 Reward Programs and Incentive Compensation Survey Report, 84% of organizations offer monetary and nonmonetary incentive programs to their employees. To be successful, however, businesses must frequently inform employees about incentive programs. Discussing incentive programs as early as during the meeting procedure demonstrates that the organization values its employees (Burke, 2005).

The method for fostering employee commitment is ongoing. Past remuneration and profits, as well as worker dedication, are best encouraged by a serious and growing work experience. Viable worker commitment – a combination of observable and intangible factors – fosters an environment of stimulation, development, learning, assistance, dedication, and appreciation. Despite this, a research revealed that less than 20% of workers were highly dedicated, 20% of the workforce was disengaged, and approximately 67% were adequately committed. The influence of worker dissatisfaction varies depending on working experience (e.g., overpowering workloads, far off and non-communicative higher authorities, few chances for progress). Respectable, devoted workers may relocate in order to be separated. The potential and challenge for HR, in collaboration with senior administration, is to increase the quality of employee dedication. Focus on commitment necessitates firm authority, a sense of imbued predetermination, self-sufficiency, accountability, and possibilities for development and advancement. Organizations must exert more effort to inspire workers and instill a sense of obsession, honor, and mission in order to increase employee commitment (Watson, 2014). Ultimately, the organizational climate determines worker dedication and retention of talent.

Studies on Talent Management

Examines on talent management uncover several normal topics. First, the emphasis on talent management enables organizations to become aware of—and assess—their workforce talent and existing and future personnel requirements. Second, organizations that apprehend the business case for talent management effectively integrate personnel management with authoritative strategy, reaping the benefits of increased work environment performance. Thirdly, businesses need effective methods for measuring skill and focusing primary issue sway.

2005 Talent Management Strategies Survey (Deloitte, 2005)

The survey indicates that more than 42 percent of organizations view the retention of efficient personnel as a risk that could significantly impact business.

Moreover, 72% of businesses are concerned about the detrimental impact that inadequate skills of incoming laborers will have on their bottom lines. The study underlines that as people born after the war turn 62 in

Quality And Environmental Management Standards Grad School Essay Help

What parallels exist between ISO 9001:2008 and ISO 14001:2004 criteria?

There are several similarities between the ISO 9001:2008 and ISO 14001:2004 requirements. Noting that the two quality standards address environmental policy and so provide crucial information on environmental conservation standards is essential (Block, 2000). Both quality criteria compliment one another. In addition, research has demonstrated that both series utilize pertinent processes while examining and identifying the effects and facets of the specified policy regulation.

In accordance with this, it is true that the training procedures followed by the two standards to ensure that their trainees are competent for the activities they perform are comparable (Block, 2000). For instance, the objective of training procedures is to generate trainees with the skills and information necessary to implement policies, in addition to promoting environmental conservation consciousness. According to Block (2000), both standards contain stated environmental-related obligations, rules, and functions. In addition, they have defined management processes that promote flexibility in daily operations.

Internal and external audit procedures are in place for both standards, according to research evidence (Block, 2000). In addition, it is crucial to note that the auditing systems have comparable formal schedules and methods for environmental management. In this instance, they are subject to regular assessment at multiple levels of the management system. Studies have demonstrated that standards maintain records, thus they share recordkeeping mechanisms (Block, 2000).

Control and auditing methods for the records they utilize are, as expected, identical. This is one of the characteristics that facilitate the implementation of a quality management system that can react to developing environmental changes. According to Block (2000), both standards have evaluation compliances and, hence, have comparable responses to noncompliance. Moreover, given the complexity of environmental issues, they employ both corrective and preventative measures.

It is essential to emphasize that communication is a feature shared by both groups, as it helps them to arrange a vast array of activities and procedures. There are numerous similarities between ISO 14002 and ISO 9001 at this time, regardless of the variances between the two quality standards. Due to their similarities, it is easy to integrate them, as they are extremely compatible, according to studies.

How can we connect the documentation systems for ISO 9001: 2008 and ISO 14001: 2004?

Generally, integration of the standards is possible due to the commonality of the pieces and resources that make them compatible. Prior to their integration, it is crucial to check that the standards' systems provide similar functions (Spilka, Kania, & Nowosielski, 2009). Obviously, in order to integrate the standards' documentation systems, it is necessary to implement a document control and management system that ensures compliance with all requirements of both standards. In accordance with this, research has demonstrated the need to find similar components in both standards in order to provide collective documentation (Spilka, Kania, & Nowosielski, 2009).

In this instance, various sections must be evaluated during the process. For instance, it is essential to evaluate the general criteria of the standards. In spite of this, it is essential to evaluate the style of communication, duties, and authority in both standards. This guarantees that the integration process meets the requirements of each standard efficiently. In addition, it is important to develop and evaluate their quality policies and objectives to guarantee that no one is left out (Spilka, Kania, & Nowosielski, 2009). From a thorough examination of the past, it is obvious that the training, awareness, and competency methods of the standards vary.

In order to maximize the effectiveness of the integrated systems, it is necessary to establish a balance between the two. In addition, it is necessary to examine documentation procedures and requirements. This pertains to the management, control, and execution of organizational policies. External and internal communication is essential when attempting to streamline paperwork requirements (Spilka, Kania, & Nowosielski, 2009).

Such requirements include each standard's ideals, goal, and objectives. Notably, the latter reduces redundant tasks while still adhering to the standards of a certain quality standard. It is vital to note that this can be simplified by developing a documentation map for the standards and then generating a harmonized one from the accessible ones. Additionally, reducing documentation procedures contributes to an increase in efficacy and credibility (Spilka, Kania, & Nowosielski, 2009).

Despite the listed causes, there are additional areas that require greater attention. This includes nonconformity control, preventive steps, corrective actions, and an internal audit. These are some of the requirements that are frequently cited as a basis for the integration of ISO 9001 and ISO 14001 series (Spilka, Kania, & Nowosielski, 2009). Nonetheless, it is essential to remember that some of the criteria are mutually exclusive, and hence they may not be compatible with the integrated management system.

Therefore, in order to accomplish quality management and environmental performance, it is necessary to eliminate certain distinct features. Obviously, since operational processes and policies cannot be disregarded, it is necessary to determine a criterion to harmonize them in order to develop an integrated documentation system.

How will the organization change as a result of their efforts to achieve ISO 9001:2008 certification?

After adopting the ISO 9001: 2008 quality management system, the Abdelkader Bakheet Law Firm and Legal Consultants will be able to better serve their clients. The firm's consumers will be more satisfied. The company would have implemented improved customer communication tactics. It will also implement regulatory procedures to ensure high-quality client service when providing legal services. Communication methods at Abdelkader Bakheet Law Firm and Legal Consultants will be enhanced.

Managers and staff will be able to communicate without significant misunderstandings. Therefore, information will be successfully transmitted to other departments. In addition, the organization will be in a better position to manage the change. Abdelkader Bakheet Law Firm and Legal Consultants will also employ the most relevant and up-to-date strategies when providing legal services. The final stage will be important for the organization, as legal fees will be drastically reduced. This will be accomplished through standardizing working conditions and service delivery to clients in the provision of legal aid.

If Abdelkader Bakheet Law Firm and Legal Consultants are ISO 9001:2008 certified, the corporation will have confidence in the safety of its investments. Banks and other financiers will be willing to do business with this law firm. According to studies, financial institutions frequently evaluate the legitimacy of a company depending on public opinion (ASQ, 2012). Consequently, Abdelkader Bakheet Law Firm and Legal Consultants will contribute to community development projects. This will be accomplished when the corporation offers its employees volunteer opportunities. These voluntary efforts will be funded by the company's profits in conjunction with the banks.

Abdelkaheet Bakheet Law Firm and Legal Consultants will undergo a transformation as a result of its efforts to attain ISO 9001: 2008 certification. The company's organizational processes will be upgraded to meet the requirements of the ISO 9001: 2008 accreditation (ASQ, 2012). The organization will be able to provide its staff a proper working environment, particularly when handling complex legal matters.

Equally, the business will be able to become more compliant with the laws of the United Arab Emirates. Long-term, Abdelkader Bakheet Law Firm and Legal Consultants will emerge as one of the top-performing professional firms providing legal services. The business will be in a position to run at lower costs. Safety in production will also increase the quality of the company's services.

This will occur as the organization adopts the improved branding practices mandated by ISO 9001:2008 certification. As a result of operating under a certified quality program, this legal business will be able to attract well-trained workers. Due to the use of high quality and lucrative operational practices when providing legal services, the business will finally benefit from reduced insurance premiums.

Suppose you are responsible for preparing and conducting an internal audit as the quality manager.

What will you do?

According to Sander (2009), the primary purpose of auditing is to oversee the operation of a management system. It involves determining whether the management system satisfies the appropriate quality criteria. I would begin an internal audit by confirming that the company's operational methods comply with all applicable regulations. In this instance, I shall concentrate on achieving improvement.

My audit will be led by a practical examination of the administrative offices. I will also employ an approach that encompasses the entire organization and not just a subset of it. This will help make my job more trustworthy.

According to studies, questioning is the most effective strategy for conducting internal audits (Sander, 2009). My worries will be universal in nature. As an experienced quality manager, I will utilize both formal and informal settings to achieve a reasonably dependable outcome. Every office will provide me opportunities. My methods will prevent the existence of inequality between top management offices, and it will also produce an atmosphere conducive to the relaxation of my respondents.

What personal "touch" will you provide to make it successful?

To ensure that I insert my own touch into the process, I will need to formulate personalized audit issues to steer the entire internal audit towards the ideal specifications. At this time, my psychologically appealing research strategy will be really useful. Not every stakeholder in my organization will have a clear knowledge of what must be done. I shall not leave them at the point of deciding between no and yes. My interview will include input from all employees. This will result in a highly satisfactory audit. In fact, my warmth will stimulate reasonable cooperation.

I shall endeavor to incorporate real-world scenarios into my internal auditing. I will also utilize all of the conversations I regularly have with fellow managers during tea breaks. It is true that many employees at various companies maintain the confidentiality of their work. By establishing a straightforward and courteous rapport with organization employees, it is feasible to collect true and necessary data, according to research. Using my auditing knowledge, I will provide the entire organization a chance to reply to the quality assurance criteria.

References

ASQ (2012). ISO Research Indicates a Rise in QMS Certifications. 34(4), 37-38, The Journal for Quality and Participation.

Block, Michael R. (2000). Utilizing a quality management system to develop an EMS. Quality Progress, 33(7), pages 82 to 87.

Sander, W. (2009). Internal ISO 9001:2008 Audits Made Simple. Quality Progress, 42(11), pages 67 to 80

Spilka, M., Kania, A., & Nowosielski, R. (2009). Integration of management systems with respect to the selected example. 35(2), 32-40, Journal of Achievements in Materials and Manufacturing Engineering.

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Strategic Leadership Integration And Action Plan Grad School Essay Help

Table of Contents
Introduction My Organization Benefiting from My New Perspective on Strategic Leadership Actions Difficulties Encountered Reference List

Introduction

Organizations, businesses, and teams can gain a great deal from good leadership methods. The course materials have shown why every individual is capable of developing a leadership philosophy with the capacity to encourage beneficial behaviours.

Every member of an organization is able to assume a variety of leadership responsibilities without necessarily being overseen by his or her superiors (Schoemaker, Krupp, & Howland, 2012). This strategy has the ability to provide favorable outcomes and contribute to the success of many businesses. The most remarkable aspect is how the course materials and exercises have altered my perception of leadership. This essay is a personal comment on the acquired abilities and skills from the course readings.

New Perspective on Strategic Leadership

Our classwork and discussions centered on the most important characteristics of strategic leadership. The activities and tasks prompted each student to consult a variety of scholarly publications and books. Numerous perspectives about the subject of strategic leadership were presented in the papers and books consulted. In addition, the class discussions facilitated my acquisition of new skills that will enable me to be an effective strategic leader. The class projects and videos outlined the most effective strategies for tackling the most significant challenges affecting a large number of employees. The papers demonstrated why leaders must continually provide innovative ideas and practices that have the potential to make their businesses successful (Ray, 2007).

Ray (2007) describes strategic leadership as "a managerial approach in which leaders positively influence others to produce desired results" (p. 23). The course materials showed why strategic leaders should always express the best visions throughout their firms using effective strategies.

The subsequent step for strategic leaders is to manage and empower every subordinate. Using the same vision, the workers should also be encouraged and persuaded. The newly formed environment becomes conducive to the implementation of new innovations. Leaders with a strategic mindset should employ comparable concepts while establishing positive organizational structures and cultures. The method can generate high-quality outcomes in the quickest timeframe possible.

The readings have also emphasized "the significance of challenging an organization's existing status quo" (Schoemaker et al., 2012, p. 2). Strategic thinkers should use their managerial abilities to challenge others' assumptions. By doing so, they will be able to generate new perspectives and viewpoints. Such perspectives will play a constructive role in tackling the organization's greatest difficulties. I have also realized the significance of having an open mind and being fearless (Schoemaker et al., 2012). These ideas will assist me in empowering diverse individuals and promoting best practices within my team. Such techniques can contribute to the success of numerous businesses.

The class readings have also provided students with the ability to anticipate (McKnight, Kaney, & Breuer, 2010). Some leaders fail to monitor possible dangers that could impact their organizations' success. In addition, some managers are unable to describe the most significant chances for performance enhancement. The exercises in class have explained why anticipation is a potent approach that can yield favorable effects quickly. Leaders with a strategic mindset must "constantly scan the internal and external environments for indicators of potential changes" (Ray, 2007, p. 76). This strategy will ensure that every new opportunity is exploited while also addressing the significant threats that could harm profitability.

I have also realized the significance of utilizing the proper instruments and resources when implementing the most desirable techniques. It is suitable for a strategic leader to provide the best sense of direction throughout the transition process (McKnight et al., 2010). Organizational ambiguities necessitate successful leadership models. Leaders with a strategic mindset should create the optimal conditions to support any suggested change. Every organization should also develop new alliances. Teams within the chosen company should also be equipped with the most effective abilities. The strategy will support every change and ultimately lead to the company's success.

Actions to Become Valuable to My Organization

The qualities and capabilities will unquestionably make me a strategic leader. I now realize that strategic leadership is a potent concept that assists managers in implementing desired changes and promoting the most effective organizational structures (Bolman & Deal, 2011). Consequently, I am confident that I possess new competencies that will contribute to my organization's objectives. I now get why businesses should embrace the concept of teamwork. Businesses and businesses should develop powerful groups with distinct objectives. I shall therefore utilize my new talents to build a formidable squad. The team will facilitate the organization's achievement of its business objectives.

The next step, following the formation of the team, will be to convince my followers to build a shared vision. Every activity conducted by the members of the group will be guided by this vision. I will also use the notion of anticipation to identify the team's most significant opportunities and resources (McKnight et al., 2010). I will implement these new ideas to enhance my leadership style. It will always be my responsibility to direct, encourage, and inspire every teammate (Ray, 2007). As a team, we will share the same goal and encourage the most effective methods for producing quality outcomes.

As a strategic leader, I will take various steps to guarantee that my corporation meets its business objectives. I will start by urging my team to develop a formidable approach. The concept of inclusion will be utilized to ensure that every individual is prepared to contribute their best ideas. The group's objectives will also match with the mission of the organization. Every activity conducted by the group will contribute to the organization's success (Schoemaker et al., 2012). Additionally, the team will be led whenever the organization implements a new change. Individuals will be empowered and provided with high-quality resources to enhance their performance (Schoemaker et al., 2012).

The next action plan will involve mentoring more company employees. I will attain this objective through increasing employee awareness of the company's goals. My strategic approach will ensure that diverse groups share values in common. The groups will be encouraged to choose leaders who share their values and can advance the most desirable practices. I will be prepared to empower these leaders and encourage them to provide their individual teams direction (Bolman & Deal, 2011). Teams will eventually concentrate on every organizational objective. The practice will facilitate the company's achievement of its commercial objectives.

The basis of these contributions will be ethical leadership. Ray (2007) discusses why ethical principles and values should guide leaders. The ethical approach will encourage positive attitudes, ideals, and values that can contribute to the well-being of all individuals. Every employee will be handled with courtesy and consideration. I will embrace significant principles including charisma, integrity, and liberty (McKnight et al., 2010).

The second crucial factor is "embracing the power of lifelong learning" (Schoemaker et al., 2012, p. 3). The practice will facilitate my acquisition of new management concepts and ideas. The acquired knowledge will constantly be utilized to mentor further employees within the firm. I will also utilize the competences to promote innovative practices that have the potential to boost the performance of the organization. I will also incorporate such managerial characteristics into my leadership philosophy. Every member in my division will be given the authority to continue concentrating on the organization's business objectives (Schoemaker et al., 2012). These efforts will ultimately contribute to the organization's profitability by enhancing its value.

It will also be suitable for me to advocate innovative organizational techniques that can make a significant difference. This objective will be accomplished by developing a successful approach that requires every follower to concentrate on achieving the best results (Schoemaker et al., 2012). I will utilize my strategic leadership skills to monitor the significant opportunities that can contribute to the organization's objectives. I will also use my expertise to identify the most significant obstacles impacting my organization's performance (Ray, 2007).

The following strategic activity will be to build a robust paradigm that can empower additional employees. Employees will be motivated through the use of a variety of incentives and resources. In addition, they will be trained and equipped with unique competences to address the difficulties facing their teams. They will be informed about the intended organizational changes.

Continuously, I will focus on the finest practices that can support new organizational changes. The staff will be prepared to support the organization's strategic objective. Additionally, I will engage with other organizational leaders to create quality results. In addition, the leaders will impart upon me new qualities that can be copied elsewhere. Additionally, the teams will be encouraged in order to promote the finest goals (Ray, 2007). The executives of the organization will be asked to provide new insights and ideas that can support the most suitable strategic processes.

Difficulties Faced

Leaders face a variety of problems and obstructions that limit their potential. Before taking this course, I encountered various difficulties and obstacles that prevented me from achieving the greatest results (Bolman & Deal, 2011). The absence of a powerful leadership concept was the initial obstacle I faced. I formerly believed that only organizational administrators should assume leadership responsibilities. This explains why my contributions to various teams were minor. The misconduct prevented my team from achieving its objectives.

The absence of a robust corporate culture has also remained a persistent obstacle for my leadership. The company has always prioritized the most effective methods to increase earnings. Unfortunately, the management does not monitor or alter the organization's existing culture.

The employees concentrate on their objectives without an effective guiding concept (Schoemaker et al., 2012). This situation explains why it has been difficult for me to advocate for the greatest group-work techniques and ideals. However, I have always utilized my skills to guide and empower every member of my team. Several departments lack the appropriate teams. This issue impacts the effectiveness of these departments.

Many of our employees are of the opinion that leadership should be supplied by departmental supervisors and managers (Hoyk & Hersey, 2008). This shortcoming has prevented me from implementing new company concepts and action plans. The majority of employees concentrate on the directives offered by their superiors (Bolman & Deal, 2011). Consequently, the workers find it difficult to accept the majority of the ideas proposed by their teammates. Consequently, the concept of teamwork has lost its significance, impacting the organization's profitability.

I also have some personal shortcomings that hinder my pursuit of leadership objectives. Initially, I have been incapable of managing my time effectively. "The ability to manage time" is one of the best qualities of a successful leader (Hoyk & Hersey, 2008, p. 56). This limitation makes it difficult for me to promote the best practices and assist my teammates' changing needs (Bolman & Deal, 2011). I am also incapable of critical thought. This shortcoming prevents me from addressing a variety of topics.

Occasionally, I am also unable to forecast certain adjustments that could enhance the functioning of the organization. However, I have been diligently attempting to enhance some of these skills. For example, the course materials have helped me to develop critical thinking skills. The materials have highlighted why strategic leaders must be able to critically examine various scenarios. These leaders should also make judgments based on accurate information that encourage best practices (Ray, 2007).

Occasionally, I become opinionated when focused on the requirements of various followers. The misconduct prevents me from supporting the ideals and needs of various folks. I now get that a strategic leader should not be opinionated, particularly while guiding followers. The leader should act rationally and refrain from being emotional. Important is to concentrate on the greatest organizational practices that can generate quality outcomes (Hoyk & Hersey, 2008).

Most of these shortcomings and obstacles to successful leadership explain why I have not realized the majority of my potential. Consequently, I intend to engage in various activities and methods that will eventually enhance my leadership skills. These skills will support my present and future job goals.

Conclusion

The texts and exercises for this course have established the characteristics that define a strategic leader. This type of leader employs concepts and ideas supported by evidence in order to alter and improve a situation. In an effort to support all organizational changes, the leadership strategy empowers groups and followers. Therefore, the materials have enhanced my leadership skills. The strategic approach will facilitate the empowerment of my followers.

I will also urge them to prioritize the most effective organizational procedures (Bolman & Deal, 2011). I also intend to address my most significant leadership-related flaws. I will develop a new leadership philosophy that is always based on empirical evidence. To become a successful strategic leader, I will consume new information. My career objectives will also be supported by the new mentality, which will ultimately lead to my achievement.

Bibliography

Bolman, L., & Deal, T. (2011). Leadership with Soul: An Unusual Journey Hoboken, NJ: Jossey-Bass.

R. Hoyk and P. Hersey (2008). The Ethical Executive: Understanding the Basis of Unethical Behavior. Stanford University Press is located in Palo Alto, California

McKnight, R., Kaney, T., & Breuer, S. (2010). Leading Execution of Strategy. TrueNorth Press, New York, NY

Ray, T. (2007). (2007). Strength Finders. Gallup Press is located in New York, New York

Schoemaker, P., Krupp, S., & Howland, S. (2012). (2012). Strategic Leadership: Essential Competencies Harvard Business Review, 1(1), pages 1 through 5.

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Team Development Theories In Organizations Grad School Essay Help

Table of Contents
Introduction The value of a team compared to individual effort, teamwork is more productive Examples of groups Negative aspect of teams Conclusion References

Introduction

A team is a collection of individuals who have assembled for the purpose of achieving a common goal or purpose. In numerous organizations, teams have always existed and will continue to exist. Teams are a vital component of an organization and its constituents. Their significance to any company is indisputable. Through teams, a company can either accomplish its vision, ambitions, and goals, or completely lose sight of them (Abernathy, 1997. p.2).

Importance of a team

What is the significance of a team, and why do most organizations strive to form not only teams but also effective teams? How are teams beneficial to an organization and its stakeholders? What exactly do they provide to a company as opposed to encouraging employee initiative?

When an organization begins to include the contributions of its members in terms of collaboration, its productivity increases significantly. This is due to the fact that when people work in teams, they generate more ideas than if they tackled the identical issues separately (Harshman & Phillips, 1994 p.23). This is because a group has a tendency to deliberate and absorb the diverse ideas of its members before selecting the finest ones. The amount of contributing ideas is also diverse and numerous.

Teamwork also builds beneficial and sometimes indispensable ties amongst coworkers. This is necessary in each particular workplace (Katzenbach, 1993. P.76). The majority of employed individuals come from diverse backgrounds, cultures, and lifestyles. It can be aggravating to have them collaborate on a daily basis to reach a same objective (3M Meeting Management Team. 1994 p.16). However, when people create teams and grow to enjoy one another, friction is typically reduced compared to when individuals operate independently. It also assists employees in understanding and utilizing their varied differences to their advantage (Margerison, 1992 p.22).

Teamwork as opposed to individual effort

It is quicker to complete a task when working in a group than when working alone. Members are able to perform tasks in accordance with their capacities thanks to the contributions of individuals who hold diverse methods of doing things (Deshmukh, 2009. P.14). Aside from this, a large project can be subdivided simply, with each employee responsible for a distinct section. As a result, what should have taken a considerable amount of time is completed in a very brief amount of time. Therefore, the team contributes the quality of swiftness to an organization (Anderson, 1992).

Concepts are typically learned more quickly by students who work in teams than by those who study independently. This is because group work enables other members to assist them in comprehending what they did and did not learn. Teamwork in this way enables them to absorb and even learn previously unknown information (Michael D. M.1995).

As team members collaborate, there is an overall improvement in individual performance. Because they instruct, correct, and challenge each other. Their abilities improve, and they perform better on average. Work ceases to be monotonous for the majority of people due to the abundance of creativity and vitality found in groups. A well-managed group improves morale (Nash, 1999. P.7).

Theory of groups

Tuckman (1965, p. 6) classifies a group or team into four tiers. This includes the stages of developing, storming, norming, and acting. Before a group can begin to function effectively in any given environment, he explains, it must experience the four steps listed.

In the forming phase, newly assembled team members are still uncertain about one another. They largely rely on the team leader, and the majority of what he or she says is accepted. They even lack specific standards and objectives for what they plan to do as a team. They continue to have many inquiries and ponder what should be done. At this point, the group leader must answer numerous questions from the members.

However, the storming phase reveals a different element of the group's dimension. In this phase, the group obtains greater clarity regarding its objectives. Tuckman (1965, p. 8) explains further that the organization at this stage is prone to power battles, with members frequently opposing the leader and his decisions.

A unified team with clearly defined roles and duties exists during the Norming stage. Collective decision-making occurs. The group can now jointly plan activities and are more committed to the team than in the past. Members can collaborate to achieve collective objectives.

In the last phase, the team is completely aware of what is required of them and where they are headed in general. They are intent on attaining their objectives and require minimal assistance from the leader. Additionally, the team is better able to address conflicts and move forward to fulfill its objectives.

There are various alternative hypotheses regarding teams, but Tuckman's theory of team formation is conclusive. Once formed, this is how the majority of groups and teams interact. Each of Tuckman's stages must be completed before a team can be considered totally effective. This hypothesis demonstrates that it takes time for a solid team to grow. It just does not happen overnight. Depending on the members of the team and their adaptability, collaboration can be accomplished as quickly as feasible or take a very long period. Once individuals learn to comprehend one another, their achievement and velocity grow. In addition, they tend to undertake new projects and strive for greater heights in group activities.

In the setting of a business that has just separated its employees into groups to work on a specific project, the majority of employees will do little during the first few sessions. They will fear expressing their opinions to the entire group. The majority of these groups' activities will be directed by their respective heads. After a particular period of time or after working together for some time, members typically begin to develop a rapport.

Examples of groups

At my workplace, for instance, the first time we were requested to perform a certain research project in teams of ten, none of us could hardly speak at the first meeting. Our self-appointed head coordinated the majority of meetings and gave us directives. Four meetings were required for us to begin expressing ourselves. The only action that thawed our cold uneasiness was when we began traveling to the field to gather data and, as a result, had to communicate with one another to obtain the proper material. The field activity compelled us to cooperate and go beyond what we desired.

Each member volunteered to work on a different area of our assigned project, which greatly facilitated the exchange of ideas. However, after a few volunteer efforts by various members, we immediately realized that certain individuals were gifted in particular areas while others were better suited for others. For instance, we have very sociable individuals who could easily interview our subjects in a hilarious manner while yet obtaining all the necessary information. Others were so proficient in writing that we entrusted them with composing and putting our project into words. We also had to provide everyone with some form of activity so that even the errant and shy individuals could join and we could obtain everyone's opinion and work.

After completing the job, we had established several acquaintances within the group. However, we were relieved that we would never again have to collaborate with others. This activity boosted our work relationships in ways we could not have anticipated.

Negative aspect of teams

It is vital to emphasize that, despite the fact that collaboration is essential and should be promoted, strong teams should either be assigned tasks that take advantage of their link or be properly supervised (Stowell 2009 p.10). This is due to the fact that, as beneficial as cooperation is, these teams may also be a source of discord within a business. They may develop into cliques. Cliques impede growth and can significantly hamper an organization or institution's ability to achieve its objectives. (20 Cornyn-Selby pages, 1994) Others alienate certain employees from the rest of the workforce, or they form distinct groups among themselves.

When teams believe that their shared goals or concerns are not being addressed, they can easily decide to confront an institution and act against it (Greer 2000 p.7). They may readily garner support from a large number of individuals. In this circumstance, it becomes difficult to control nearly the entire corporation (Beckhard & Harris1977 p.16).

Teams can also be a cover-up in that the individual efforts of a person are never truly recognized, making it difficult to reward people for meritorious work (Torres, 1991 p.33). If one employee gets rewarded and the others are not, then the other employees are often dissatisfied (Daft, 1998 p.12). In the case of students, other students in the group may shoulder the burden for those who contribute relatively little. Underachievers may gain from the efforts of others, but they do not deserve what they receive (Fisher,1995 p.13). Individually, the same pupils could perform far worse than in groups. This can also make gifted students unhappy (Dyer, 1995 p.5).

Conclusion

Nonetheless, cooperation remains the most successful approach for progressing and enhancing organizational performance (Parker, 1990 p.47). Any firm deserving of its reputation has a plan to ensure that its personnel participate in group activities on occasion. Even though teams initially create difficulties, they improve through time and can prove invaluable to a business in the long term (Daft, 1998 p. 45).

However, this does not imply that individual effort and performance should be ignored or eliminated. Teamwork should be a link that connects and collaborates with individuals to achieve an organization's goals. It should be an additive that adds beneficial changes and stimulates growth (Scholtes, 1990 p7).

References

Balanced scorecards make teamwork a reality, Abernathy, W. 58-59 in The Journal for Quality and Participation (November/December)

Anderson, K. 1992., To meet or not to meet. National Press, Shawnee Mission, KS.

Beckhard, R., and R.T. Harris, Managing complex change: Organizational transitions, 1977. Reading, Massachusetts Addison-Wesley.

A.P. Cornyn-Selby, 1999. Teamwork sabotage. The Beync Press

2009, Teamwork in the Workplace.Web. Deshmukh, U.

Team building: Current difficulties and new possibilities, by W.E. Dyer, 1995. Third edition, Reading, Massachusetts. Addison, and Wesley

1998, Organization theory and design, sixth edition, South-Western, Cincinnati, Ohio.

Fisher, K., S. Tayner, and W. Belgard. (1995). Team advice. Manhattan: McGraw-Hill

Greer, Charles R., and W. Richard Plunkett. Prentice Hall, Upper Saddle River, New Jersey.

Teaming up: Achieving organizational transformation. Harshman, C.L., and S.L. Phillips, 1994. Erlanger, KY. Pfeiffer.

The wisdom of teams: developing the high-performance organization. Harvard Business School is in Boston.

3M Meeting Management Team. 1994., Mastering meetings. Manhattan: McGraw-Hill

Margerison, C. J., "Team management" (1992). InterEditions' Paris office.

Effective Teamwork by Michael D. M. 1995. American Media Inc.

Turning team performance inside out: Team kinds and temperament for high-impact outcomes. Nash, S. M. 1999. Palo Alto, California: Davies-Black Publication.

Team players and teamwork: the new competitive business strategy. Parker, G. M., 1990. Publishers of Jossey-Bass in San Francisco.

Parker, G. M., Jerry McAdams, and David Zielinski. Rewarding teams: Lessons learned from the trenches, 2001. Jossey-Bass, San Francisco, California.

Scholtes, P. R., Brian L. J., and Barbara J.S., The team handbook, second edition, 1996. Madison: Carpenter.

Teamwork in the Workplace: A Definition, Stowell, C., 2005. Web.

1965 publication of Tuckman's Forming storming norming performing model. Australia: McGraw Hill, 3rd edition.

Torres, C. (1991). A tutorial on self-directed work teams. University of San Diego Associates, Inc.

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Enterprise Integration: The Pepsi Challenge Grad School Essay Help

This paper's primary objective is to analyze the issues that PepsiCo is now facing. Moreover, it is of the utmost necessity to design measures that could perhaps ease the situation that has lately arisen. Improving the decision-making process, enabling the company to further reinforce its position on the market, and building a more lucrative corporation are the overall objectives.

In the past decade, PepsiCo has experienced a significant decline in profits, which can be linked to a variety of factors.

Certainly, we shouldn't jump to conclusions, but it appears that this issue has two dimensions: on the one hand, we should discuss the infrastructure's idiosyncrasies and even the lack of cooperation. Second, we must not neglect the fact that this company lacks an effective information flow, which impedes decision-making and prohibits management from attaining satisfactory results (Foley, 2003, p 34).

Scholars have not reached a consensus regarding the most effective methods for enhancing the enterprise's productivity; however, they agree that in the vast majority of cases, poor outcomes are the result of a lack of coordination, particularly in the case of huge corporations (Hamilton, 2002, p 55).

In addition, it is not acceptable for us to dismiss external factors and the intense competition that PepsiCo has recently faced. In this instance, we should discuss more than just Coca-Cola. Obviously, these two companies have always vied for supremacy in the United States and around the world. However, we must also consider smaller companies that sell their products at reduced prices, which makes PepsiCo and its products less desirable.

At this time, it is important to underline that this loss in revenue is not attributable to worse product quality compared to other companies, but rather to higher procurement and delivery costs. This forces PepsiCo's management to establish greater prices for their products (Nash, 2003, p 18). However, this profit loss appears to be only the tip of the iceberg, as the long-term repercussions can be far more severe. At this juncture, enterprise integration becomes arguably the most important issue, since the efficient interaction of multiple departments is essential to the success of the organization.

PepsiCo's goods should not be solely connected with soft drinks, as is frequently the case with some individuals. In point of fact, this company is undoubtedly the most versatile in the food market, as seen by the fact that it owns brands such as Tropicana Products, Frito-Lay, Lipton Iced Tea, and many others. It is reasonable to assume that these branches or offshoots have created their own infrastructure quirks and work according to distinct patterns established long before they united with PepsiCo (Stepanek, 2003, p 3).

Consequently, there exist numerous problem-solving and management strategies. We may also argue that this firm and its branches have just formally merged, but there are still glaring differences between them, and it is vital to minimize these differences.

For instance, different divisions utilize diverse technologies and, more critically, purchase them from various vendors. At first glance, this great level of diversity may appear to provide PepsiCo significant advantages over its major competitors; yet, the more complex the organization's structure, the more difficult it is to run this corporation. The absence of coordination is nearly inescapable as a problem. Consequently, many economists and managers place a premium on integration and centralized leadership (Kent Sandoe et al, 2001, p 41).

Naturally, we may assert that the integration process is relevant to any sphere of activity, but it appears that certain parts can be united, which will reduce PepsiCo's hardware and maintenance expenses. Some company officials feel that this transfusion will have a devastating impact on the company's operations. It must be acknowledged that the process of centralization or integration is lengthy and laborious, but we should not think that it can be completed in a reasonably brief period of time. On the contrary, we must emphasize the progressive nature of this program.

To this end, management should develop a transition plan and establish dates. It should be kept in mind that this transformation may take four or five years, but under no circumstances can we assume that it can be accomplished soon. Depending on the company's size and structure, the transition phase can last anywhere from one to two years. However, given that many of PepsiCo's branches joined the company only a few years ago and continue to function in the same manner as before, such a schedule is highly improbable (Gonsalves, 2004, p 3).

Existing distinctions between the divisions reveal themselves in a variety of ways. First and foremost, we cannot overlook the delivery service's associated costs. Second, we must discuss the repercussions of the absence of coordination. It is difficult to find a universal answer to this problem, however possibly the organization should select a more effective ERP (Enterprise Resource Planning) system.

The issue is that Frito-Lay, Lipton, and other divisions now use distinct business management software. Aside from that, their proponents contend that no other changes are necessary. Perhaps the primary reason for their conviction is that they do not view PepsiCo as a single entity but rather as a collection of discrete components. But currently this organization's components do not interact as they should.

In addition to optimizing the supply chain and delivery service, an effective ERP system will ensure that the company's financial status is constantly updated. Obviously, we should not imply that management did not attempt to implement this strategy; efforts were made, but they were fundamentally flawed. The biggest issue was that the integration plan's deadlines were between 2003 and 2005.

This raises the question of whether or not this idea is feasible. One must consider the fact that PepsiCo employs over four hundred officers worldwide. Its brands have numerous international branches in Europe, Asia, Australia, etc (Stepanek et al,2003, p 4). The assumption that the corporation may become centralized in two years is extremely reckless. The 2003-launched program would have been considerably more fruitful if it had been more fluid. However, the management was primarily focused on short-term results. The fact that the optimization strategy nearly failed does not necessitate abandoning efforts to centralize the organization.

Another aspect of the issue appears to be considerably more complicated. Certainly, it is possible to implement a new ERP system and choose a more suitable procurement system. However, this is only the technical aspect of the issue. The opposition of the local executives is an additional challenge that must be overcome. This assertion requires clarification; the vast majority of divisional officials are terrified that centralization will strip them of power.

However, their concerns are supported by evidence, as their superior officers had no intention of dismissing them. The primary purpose of centralization, however, is to establish the flow of information across divisions, branches, subsidiaries, and other organizational units. For PepsiCo to become centralized, there must be a significant transformation in the organization's culture. Initially, it is essential to generate an attitude shift.

Local executives' reluctance to share power is one of the primary reasons for the failure of the optimization effort. They entirely disregarded the possibility that the policy could have helped to the growth and development of the organization. It turns out that individual goals are significantly more important than the general welfare. Now, we must define potential ways for completing this assignment. It goes without saying that integration does not target local governments. And the management should emphasize this self-evident truth.

In this regard, we must emphasize that there must be no threats or admonitions. It is vital to offer a strong impetus for the divisional management to shift their perspective on the integration process. Probably, it is vital to recognize individuals who have successfully integrated their unit into the larger system. PepsiCo's top executives have not yet taken a definitive stance on this issue, despite the fact that the situation is becoming increasingly serious. Thus, we might infer that the causes of the company's issues lie not only in delivery service or production expenses, but also in its very culture.

This earnings loss is partially attributable to the acts of PepsiCo's competitors, such as Coca-Cola, General Mills, Kraft, and others. Now, we must explain the primary distinction between these companies and Pepsi. We have already stated that Pepsi likely offers the greatest variety of goods. In stark contrast, its rivals are significantly more specialized. Coca Cola, for instance, focuses only on the production of soft beverages, whereas General Meals is primarily involved in the food processing industry. They have been able to establish a successful delivery service and select the most optimal procurement routes as a result of their increased concentration.

We must accept that Coca-Cola has numerous branches and divisions, but they operate on a different premise; first, they were formed by this firm but were not acquired. As a result, they are all more cohesive and reliant on the central leadership. Pepsi's scenario is radically different. Its branches continue to operate as distinct entities that are not subservient to the headquarters. Unlike them, PepsiCo has not yet implemented a centralized procurement system, and management is not always able to trace all transactions. Additionally, we must note the shipping service. Overall, we may claim that this process can be sped up.

A few years ago, the administration created the so-called "presell system" to reduce or streamline the supply chain (Stepanek et al, 2003 p 4). However, its impacts have not yet been fully realized. Nonetheless, it should be highlighted that the change of delivery service has produced significant outcomes in a short period of time.

Therefore, it is very plausible for us to conclude that PepsiCo's issues are the result of multiple causes. First, we should discuss the company's practices, which entirely disregard long-term goals and occasionally have pretty negative effects. The integration and centralization process cannot be finished in two years; this reform should have been implemented over a period of at least five years. The reluctance of local executive officers, who believe that centralization will rob them of control, is a second element to consider.

To facilitate the decision-making process within this corporation, the management should create an efficient ERP system, but more importantly, they must alter the company's culture. The executive executives of PepsiCo must not view the divisions as separate entities. On the contrary, they should view them as system components. Competition from other beverage and food industries has also contributed to recent declines in profits. The failure to identify the most appropriate procurement route and distribution model is the primary reason why Pepsi is unable to cut prices on their products.

Bibliography

InformationWeek, Antone Gonsalves (2004), "SAP Joins the Pepsi Generation."

Enterprise integration modeling: proceedings of the inaugural international conference, Charles J. Petrie (1992). The MIT Press.

Cheng Hsu (2007). "Service enterprise integration: an enterprise engineering perspective". Springer.

Kyle Brown, Gregor Hohpe, and Bobby Woolf (2005). "Designing, Building, and Deploying Messaging Solutions" Addison-Wesley.

InformationWeek, John Foley (2003), "Beverage Makers Seek Efficiencies."

Aditya Saharia, Kent Sandoe, Gail Corbitt, and Raymond Boykin (2001). "Enterprise Integration". Wiley.

Kim S. Nash published "Bumps and Grime" in 2003 for Baseline.

Baseline, Kim S. Nash and Mel Duvall (2003), "PepsiCo: No Deposit, No Return."

Kim S. Nash (2003), "Roadblock: The Business Unit Chief Information Officer," Baseline.

Matt Hines (2004) wrote in ZDNet, "SAP Siphons Pepsi Away from Oracle."

The New York Times, Melanie Warner (2006), "Soda Sales Fall for the First Time in 20 Years."

Mel Duvall (2003) published "Fanatical Focus on Integration" in Baseline in 2003.

Pepsi Co (2005), PepsiCo Annual Report on Form 10-K for the 2005 fiscal year, retrieved from Yahoo! Finance (2006). Web.

PBG (2006). Web.

Rick Whiting (2005) published "Analysis Tool Reduces Bottler's Costs" in InformationWeek.

"Maximizing Your ERP System: A Practical Guide for Managers," by Scott Hamilton, 2002. The McGraw-Hill Professional brand.

Stepanek, M., D. Agostino, and A. Field. "Case Study: The Pepsi Challenge." CIO Insight, 2003.

Wing Hong Lam, Wing Lam, Venky Shankararaman (2007). Enterprise integration and architecture: techniques, implementation, and technology. Concept Group Inc.

Musaji, Yusufali F., "Integrated auditing of ERP systems" John Wiley and Sons, 2002.

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Organizational Behaviour And Project Management Case Study Grad School Essay Help

Introduction

In showing the innovative Heathrow Terminal 5 project, culture, motivation, and rewards are analyzed qualitatively. The above elements are compared to proven techniques and further incorporated into a comprehensive shift in the behavioral change strategy. Consequently, it entails managing the social and physical work environment, in addition to personal risk-taking motivations. In situations with little cultural maturity, the emphasis is placed on implementing effective safety management strategies. Case study techniques for workforce administration involve a project-by-project operation involving expert persuasion and motivation. Substandard project management is detrimental and difficult to manage, particularly for megaprojects requiring significant sums of money. Regarding the Heathrow Terminal 5 project, it represents a landmark in the use of construction theories. It necessitates a complete shift in the culture and thinking of project participants. Even though Heathrow Terminal 5 is complete, there are still valuable lessons to be gained from it.

Consequently, operational behavior is explored in this study to explain why culture, motivation, and reward should never be compromised or undervalued in the operationalization of a project. Despite the fact that cost and time overruns do not guarantee success, projects are frequently completed and sealed. Individual conduct is one of the most influential aspects of efficient project management. In addition, the creation of a collaborative environment may result in the world's greatest industry performances and practices. It is crucial that project managers have a solid understanding of the culture, emotions, and behavior. Consequently, good organizational conduct is particularly acceptable for long-term initiatives with significant complexity and risk. Before this strategy could become the norm, a massive cultural shift is necessary.

The nature of the issue

The Heathrow Terminal 5 (T5) project was inaugurated at Heathrow Airport in London on March 27, 2008, in order to increase the airport's annual passenger throughput to 95 million (Heathrow Terminal 5 building projects, 2019). In the closing stages of the project, however, the greatest challenges were guaranteeing the timely delivery of assets and the equitable distribution of risk among suppliers. Due to the persistent threat to the global economy, the timely delivery of investment funds remained a significant obstacle. This was a precursor to the impending financial crisis (Winter, 2016). The second significant challenge of the T5 project was guaranteeing that all project participants would execute their obligations on schedule and within their given budgets (Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development, 2016). As a result, after the Terminal 5 project was done, the greatest challenge was identifying defective terminal functions and, as a result, stressing assessment processes for more than a year by all stakeholders, including contracting employers (Drews, 2017). Therefore, the failure of the Heathrow Terminal 5 project was intimately related to two major components: system integration and the collaboration of multiple project groups.

The Terminal 5 project required the integration of communication systems, civil systems, electrical systems, technology contractors, and mechanical systems. The aforementioned systems required co-optimization since their harmonious operation could only be achieved through comprehensive reciprocity and integration (Drews, 2017). Regarding class readings, developing projects such as Heathrow Terminal 5 requires the introduction of passion through the implementation of operational preparedness and organizational behaviors such as incentive, reward, and culture. Even if each project is distinct, it is vital to know that they must join into a gigantic integration (Hogan, 2020). Construction is a complex field that encompasses a vast array of products, manufacturers, suppliers, construction materials, installers and providers, subcontractors and contractors, construction clients, professionals, builders, designers, manufacturers of building services, and contractors for refurbishment operations.

As a result, the project's workforce included a variety of socioeconomic and ethnic groups, as well as contract and permanent staff. This diversity is responsible for the seeming need for cultural change. organizational culture refers to the shared and unacknowledged implicit assumptions that people of an organization perceive and hold on to, which govern their perception, thoughts, and responses to various settings. According to Margit (2019), human resource management theories and other cultural practices present a variety of risks and benefits. However, it has been established that enhanced organization behavior tactics and reward systems have a favorable effect on employee productivity.

The problems with the Heathrow Terminal 5 project were caused by two key issues: insufficient communication between the operators and the owner and inadequate human training, motivation, and system testing. There were also grave resource mismanagement concerns and insufficient team participation. According to Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (2016), for the T5 project to have succeeded, it would have been necessary to reject the notion that all stakeholders and staff were in total accordance with the project's manifestation. Such guidelines demand systematic thinking for the approach to difficult tasks such as the T5, which require multi-aspect strategies and several steps in the proper direction due to their uniqueness in every way (Susanne Madsen & Developing Project Leaders, 2019). It is difficult to disagree with the aforementioned viewpoint, especially when it simplifies the project strategy. In addition, the business must manage a complete presentation of the general procedures. The Heathrow Terminal 5 project needed a strategy that incorporated collaborative working, reward sharing (a clear agreement on risk and reward allocation), construction contract hazards, and team unity.

The second issue was the rigidity and oppositional nature of the project's culture. The delivery method should have been based on collaborative working, empowerment, training, motivation, and the development of a reward-open culture to foster a culture of learning. The third issue that appeared to be a difficulty for the Terminal 5 project was a lack of staff enthusiasm (Drew, 2017). According to the class readings, there is a correlation between behavioral change and employee engagement, which indicates that worker motivation helps to more effective solutions. Structured interventions encourage progressive behavior modification by emphasizing the potential repercussions of poor or risky behavior and the advantages of safe working operations. Motivation would also involve a gap analysis between the desired values or practices and the actual values or practices of the workforce. For the identified issues, the following recommendations were made.

Solutions to the Identified Issues

The Heathrow Terminal 5 project is an example of how even the most opportune efforts can fail due to poor organizational behavior. The failure of collaboration between various system integrations and groups on the T5 project led to its total failure and underwhelming debut. The management of people and resources, as well as the dysfunctional management of procedures and decision-making, were the project's biggest issues (Polin, 2018). These issues are a classic example of the need for successful organizational conduct. The primary factor motivating shareholder performance is monetary gain. Consequently, the problems can be resolved by implementing a different funding approach for disciplined stakeholders, an improved cultural variation that accommodates all the diverse stakeholders and working variations, and a potent motivational strategy to promote improved stakeholder and workforce engagement (Margit, 2020). Motivation, reward system, corporate culture, and upkeep are some of the suggested solutions for the identified difficulties.

Motivation

Worker involvement refers to the degree to which the workforce contributes to choices regarding their safety and working circumstances. Employee engagement is a sort of incentive that enables the establishment of more effective worker loyalty and lasting behavior change (Lee and Daschle, 2016). In the majority of successful project completions, a great deal of effort and time is invested in the motivation of all stakeholders, including suppliers and trade contractors. The T5 project would be required to modify latent and immediate contributors to risky behavior, to promote safer habits, and to incorporate techniques to sustain transformation over time. According to the Expectancy Theory, the offered motivation is contingent on the provided effort, which either leads to the intended performance or does not lead to the desired performance. Therefore, the Heathrow Terminal 5 project should have supplied a focal point from which the various stakeholders might have concluded that their outstanding performances would be rewarded.

The second relevant phase would consist of determining whether or not the rewarded benefits are valuable to specific stakeholders. Here, different types of awards must be assigned according to the recipients' level of significance (Lee and Daschle, 2016). In this instance, effort is equivalent to expectation, as the workforce determines if their rewards will result in good performances worthy of a valuable reward. However, it is advisable to employ an integrated strategy in this step since it allows the accommodation of root causes to be aligned with the precision provided by the organizational behavior approach.

Motivational techniques include salary, training, working conditions, recognition, job security, job retention, supervision, business policies, employment security, and career progression. As Maslow’s theory of motivation mandates, through motivating the workforce, the change will be initiated through workforce relatedness and self-actualization (Margit, 2019). In addition, tying the motivational techniques to the skill set, aptitude, and understanding of the task of the workforce would enable the Heathrow Terminal 5 workforce to exert effort out of choice, persevere and improve their skills out of choice, and maximize the extent of their efforts out of their own free will (Patrick, 2020). As a result, the application of integrated teams and motivation in the administration of the T5 has been successful.

Reward System

Creating a reward system is quite similar to creating a behavioral safety program. According to Hendijani et al. (2016), the process of constructing an effective reward system includes the explanation of expectations, the participation of the workforce, the description of the consequences of hazardous and substandard working conditions, the establishment of goals, and the provision of performance feedback. The optimum technique for developing a reward system for the Heathrow Terminal 5 project would be to deploy a blended reward program. According to Salah (2016), the workforce and contractors of the Terminal 5 project should be introduced to a strategy that values all stakeholders, including contractors, clients, and the workforce, with employment rewards, improved health and safety, enhanced welfare, and industrial relations stability for the project's sustainability. In addition, the high expenditures associated with the T5 deployment had a significant impact in the risk allocation.

According to the class readings, five theories are studied to establish an appropriate reward system in the organizational behavior of Terminal 5. The Needs Theory asks whether the employee's needs are met by the reward system. The Reinforcement Theory emphasizes the consistency and precision of transmitted messages. The Expectancy Theory assesses the valence of the reward to determine whether the workforce need and trusts the reward system. The Equity Theory evaluates whether or not the awards are seen to be equitable, but the Goal-Setting Theory highlights the importance of the organization rewarding what they have stated they desire. Therefore, the Heathrow Terminal 5 staff might be bolstered by non-financial awards, cash rewards, encouragement, and appreciation through the implementation of a productive reward system.

In addition, collective implementation of the Goal Setting Theory would have resulted in increased teamwork and overall performance. To maximize the effects of the method, incentives and goal setting should include workforce participation (McClory, 2017). In addition, clearly defined and measurable objectives stimulate performance maximization significantly more than undefined objectives. Additionally, the T5 should display the feedback in a conspicuous location, avoid recognizing the absence of risky behavior, and provide incentives for indiscretion.

Organizational Culture

Organizations ensure an effective safety management system is in place prior to implementing management and culture practices and eventually employee behavior as an organization's culture matures and its workforce becomes more stable. By adopting the adoption of organizational culture, Heathrow Terminal 5 has the opportunity to mold the behavior and structure of the stakeholders' view of conventions, values, and laws, which would eventually be passed down to younger or newer group members (Marks and Spencer, 2019). However, the organizational structure must pass three levels in order to be effective.

The first level is Observable Artifacts, which is where the expression of the T5's corporate culture is displayed for all employees. The second level is Espoused Ideals, in which the T5's beliefs and values are explicitly proclaimed in writing or orally. The last level of organizational culture is Fundamental Underlying Assumptions (Grove et al., 2018). Beliefs and values are so engrained in the workforce that employees hold these assumptions implicitly and take them for granted. The Heathrow Terminal 5 project could employ symbols like as uniforms, a website, and logos, rituals such as established routines, and physical structures such as open workplaces to reinforce the formation of their organizational culture.

In addition, by fostering a strong corporate culture characterized by commitment, loyalty, and cohesion, the T5 project will have consistent performance, be able to guide employee behavior, and provide better project outcomes. Marks and Spencer (2019) assert that, when properly managed, organizational culture has the ability to improve an organization's attitude and performance since it reveals the hidden and unconscious aspects of how work is performed inside a certain organization. Additionally, it is crucial to recognize that culture originates with its creators (Lee and Daschle, 2016). For the T5 to have a successful culture, they must acquire and retain employees with comparable ideals and attitudes. The workforce will most likely be brainwashed with the beliefs and actions of its bosses. Therefore, they must be eager to discuss ambition, teamwork, integrity, respect, and excellence.

Maintenance

Maintenance is the final step in resolving the indicated difficulties, as it is vital for achieving good transformation. Heathrow Terminal 5 may employ conservation of change tactics such as gathering feedback from implemented measures, repeating training with new information, receiving performance feedback, and assessing efficacy. The other technique is measuring efficiency to promote morale and combat workforce inconsistencies, resulting in greater output (James, 2018). The final technique of maintenance is to compare organizational goals with actual accomplishments as frequently as feasible. This makes it substantially easier to identify errors before they grow into big conflicts. It will prohibit the deployment of significant deviations from the models originally intended (James, 2018). By establishing an internal behavioral system, T5 would be able to commit a certain amount of resources to observing and monitoring the intended program's delivery, so ensuring its success. However, there are potential roadblocks and obstacles to applying the suggested solutions, as outlined below.

Obstacles and Obstacles to Implementing the Recommendations

One of the issues posed by the preceding advice is diminished group cohesion as a result of increased competition. This specific disagreement relates to the reward system where rewards are dependent on an individual's performance (William and Ryan, 2017). However, another potential barrier in the award system is the unclear “line of sight,” which would diminish the effectiveness of the incentives because they are related to group success. There is also a possible protest from the high performers since not all team players are equally productive (Geraldi et al., 2017). The diminishing rewards as the team grows larger is the third argument to the proposed reward system. Major objection to the motivation recommendation would be

Employee Financial Motivation And Job Satisfaction Grad School Essay Help

Thesis assertion

Initially, job satisfaction might be described as how an individual perceives his employment. This can be a result of performance evaluation, perception of the job, attitude toward the job, and job satisfaction, all of which contribute to specific organizational behaviors. Numerous effects, including monetary gain, can contribute to employment satisfaction. Job satisfaction contributes to the accomplishment of an organization's objectives. This is owing to the fact that a satisfied employee will perform his or her duties wholeheartedly and will do everything in their ability to ensure the success of the organization. This is due to the employee's attachment and ideals towards the organization. It is easy to identify an employee who is content with his employment in an organization based on his performance and the quality of the product or service he provides.

Most employees pursue job for the primary goal of financial gain; but, once a person reaches a particular degree of employment, financial gain loses its value.

Monetary benefit is advantageous for employees because it is monetary benefit that attracts individuals to a company. The monetary benefit is employed in the organization to enhance performance by persuading workers that their efforts are appreciated based on the returns. The monetary bonus designed by an organization should be proportional to the employee's contributions. Certain employees can experience job satisfaction as a result of monetary compensation, as some employees are satisfied with monetary compensation.

Money is one of the variables that motivates employees to be content with their jobs. The purpose of employment is to find or recruit the best candidate who can ensure that the organization generates the greatest possible results. As both an attitude toward a job and the act of doing a job properly, work satisfaction ensures that an organization's relations with the outside world are positive. The external employee can cause problems for the organization, but there is no job happiness without monetary compensation. In the employment arrangement, the employee goes to work with the expectation of earning a monetary reward. Once he is satisfied with his compensation, further variables will be evaluated. In guaranteeing that his job satisfaction. Without work satisfaction, an organization would face the challenge of employee turnover.

Satisfaction at work

Several elements of the working environment contribute to job happiness. These variables contribute to job happiness; without them, the organization will collapse due to a lack of job satisfaction. Reward system, corporate policies, responsibilities, and motivators are among the variables that contribute to job satisfaction.

Another factor that adds to job satisfaction is organizational commitment, which influences organization behavior, employee attitude, and perception. Employee recruitment, retention, and motivation will be influenced by an organization's culture in which commitment to the organization aids in the development of behavior. A worker develops a desire to continue working in the organization and to ensure its continued success.

Motivation is the process of stimulating and sustaining the efforts of employees. It entails influencing individuals to behave in a particular manner. It fluctuates in strength from person to person based on a particular combination of circumstances. These factors are tied to a single demand. Effective managers inspire employees to join the organization, remain in the organization, routinely report to work, perform at a high level while on the job, and be good corporate citizens.

monetary benefits

Employee work satisfaction and motivation are essential to the profitability and competitive advantage sources of a firm. Employer-employee relationships are established through monetary compensation, and this is how an organization achieves its mission and objectives. The monetary compensation must be acceptable to the employee. No one can deliver for more than two months without becoming disillusioned if they have not been paid. Typically, financial incentives are used to increase employee performance. This is due to the fact that good compensation typically transfer to good work, meaning that everyone is motivated to continue working for the organization that pays the salaries.

These practices must be developed and implemented if the company is to see both long-term and rapid improvement. The techniques or mechanisms designed for employee compensation are intended to recruit, retain, and motivate a sufficient number of qualified workers to achieve production requirements. This will improve performance management and promote employee happiness. In addition, these methods will enable employees to partake in the organization's prosperity and progress, and will inspire them to use their best qualities and maximize their potential to produce excellent outcomes, since their efforts will be acknowledged and rewarded.

Personal or official, private or public, formal or casual, rewards might take the shape of activities or presents.

For the reward system to be effective and increase employee satisfaction, it must be done in a way that matches the rewards to the employee, matches the rewards to the employee's accomplishments, is timely and detailed, and has a related importance and job. This will increase employee acceptance of the employed techniques and motivate them to work diligently to attain the necessary objectives or targets for increased production efficiency. In addition, if the management recognizes the desired performance as soon as it is achieved, the employee is extremely motivated and appreciative, and it encourages them to enhance their actions, as they will be aware of the best efforts that have been recognized and acknowledged.

For the incentive system to be effective as performance management, it must enable collaboration within the organization and recognize the relative worth of each position. It must be meaningful and beneficial for the organization's members. In addition, this system must be founded on objectives and attainable goals, as well as being acceptable and accessible to everybody, in order to prevent needless confrontations, since workplace competition will be minimal.

The company's planned reward system should be able to motivate and align with its objectives, goals, mission, and vision. The primary objective is to attract, retain, and manage the organization's personnel. To be able to effectively manage this resource, a monetary system must be implemented.

Therefore, management has had access to a number of payment systems for a considerable amount of time. Choice has been related in part to the goals that management hopes to achieve through the payment system, implying that some systems are better suited to the pursuit of particular goals. In addition, an organization's internal and external conditions have played a role in the choosing of a payment system. Thus, the suitability of a payment system has been correlated with the company's use of technology as well as its labor and product markets.

Some of the payment systems utilized by human resource management are advantageous to employees and the firm as a whole. The following are:

Time Rate method

Under this arrangement, employees are paid a predetermined weekly or hourly rate based on their actual time worked. They were successful. The basic rate for the position can be determined through negotiation, reference to local rates, or evaluation of the position. This approach is popular in engineering and processing sectors, as well as among clerical, supervisory, and administrative staff, where there is no strict standardization of work and talent is required. Within the paid time frame, a minimal level of performance is anticipated. The benefit of time-rated compensation for employees is that wages are predictable and consistent. In addition, they are not required to battle with supervisors and rate setters over piece rates or time allowances.

The downside of time rates is that they lack the incentive of a direct correlation between reward and effort. This issue can be resolved by adopting a system of measured day work and using merit awards, which may be in the form of hourly increases to a base salary with a typical cap.

System of performance-based pay

Under this method, a worker's pay is proportional to the quantity of products produced or the time it takes to complete a particular amount of work. It applies to simple manual tasks where an individual's effort can be measured in terms of quantity or quality. This may be accomplished via a straight or differential piece-work system.

Straight-piece-work

This is a payment of a standard cost per unit of output. This is particularly ideal for repetitive manufacturing that can be easily separated into similar components. In this method, you may either pay a worker a fixed monetary amount for each completed operation (money piece job) or pay him or her for the time given to perform a task (time piece-work). In the instance of the letter, if the worker completes the task in less time than allotted, he or she enjoys the benefits of time saved.

Differential piece-work systems allow the human resource to modify wage costs per unit based on production. As output increases, the wage cost per unit decreases in this system. Likewise, the hourly wage of workers continues to rise, although not proportionally to the increase in productivity. This technique is feasible when it is straightforward to correlate effort with output and the task is routine, repetitive, and quantifiable. While implementing the piece rate system, quality must be preserved and maintained.

This is due to the changing incomes that are not the employee's fault, the work study values that are difficult for employees to comprehend, and a lack of confidence in the reliability of such programs. However, this approach provides pressure to maximize output, which might lead to a deterioration in quality and skill. The contemporary trend toward complete quality has placed a greater focus on teamwork and assigning responsibility to employees in a way that is not supported by traditional PBR (Payment by Results) Schemes.

In this regard, the private sector is ahead of the public sector when it comes to the implementation of team or mobile working with group bonuses or even flat rate pay (Cannell and long, 1991 and Pickard, 1993). Profit sharing is also on the rise in numerous businesses.

Day-by-day job.

In this arrangement, the employee's salary is fixed with the expectation that he or she would maintain a certain level of performance. There is no short-term correlation between compensation and performance. Human resource management establishes the expected level of performance and monitors the actual level using work measuring techniques. The concept of an incentive performance level is what differentiates this system from the time rate method. By guaranteeing the incentive payment in advance, the human resource department obligates the employee to perform at the level of effort expected.

In exchange for an incentive-based degree of performance, measured-day work provides higher pay. The subsequent criteria may be helpful for its operation;

Total dedication from management, workers, and their unions. This can be achieved with proper planning. Consultation, training, and a gradual implementation of the system together. An efficient work measuring system, production planning and control methods, and inventory management techniques. The implementation of a rational pay structure with appropriate differentials from the outset of the functioning of the scheme. The structure should be established with the assistance of job evaluation and employee input. Maintaining effective control mechanisms to guarantee that corrective action is implemented promptly in the event of a shortage.

Incentive plans

This is a non-financial motive consisting of the remuneration for work of acceptable quality that exceeds a set amount or standard. It can be applied to an individual, a group, or all organizational employees, hence increasing the organization's efficiency. Enhancing an organization's efficacy naturally reduces expenses. There must be a fixed criterion for the reward, but the organization must also ensure that the program is acceptable to both the employees and the unions.

Performance-based compensation

This system is typically viewed as a means of motivating directors and senior management to achieve strategic plan-based objectives. Local government, the civil service, and the National Health Service, among others, have embraced performance-based compensation in recent years. Although this method of payment remains controversial. There are significant differences of opinion on its usefulness to practitioners, consultants, and researchers.

Today, performance-based pay is typically used to represent a specific form of compensation based on merit and evaluation. Typically, performance related compensation encompasses traditional piecework and payment by results schemes for manual laborers, commissions' systems for sales people, annual bonuses and merit pay schemes.

Paying according to performance

In addition to choosing on appropriate performance measurements, consideration must be given to the size of available rewards and how they are tied to performance. Numerous firms, particularly in the public sector, have set extremely low restrictions on performance-based pay, usually in the range of 7% or less of base pay, with a median payout assumed to be roughly half of this amount. It is hardly surprising that such schemes fail to motivate and have a substantial influence on productivity. Schemes in the private sector commonly offer the chance to earn an additional 30 percent or more on top of the base wage (Armstrong and Murlis, 1994)

Problems with performance-based compensation

Unfortunately, the majority of the available information indicates a significant level of discontent with performance-based pay and no evidence that it increases productivity. It is essential to keep in mind, when evaluating the results of recent research on performance-based pay and increased productivity, that performance-based pay frequently disrupts working practices and alters employee expectations in a manner that is upsetting to those accustomed to traditional pay systems. However, the rapidity of economic change is compelling companies to adopt performance-based compensation plans, regardless of their preferences. The study indicated that many employees opposed to having the amount of their pay packets dictated by what they perceived to be a poor line manager. The survey data demonstrates that performance pay has failed to engage employees and may have contributed to staff demoralization. (1993 according to Thompson)

To overcome these difficulties Advice from Armstrong and Murlis

Respect the culture Integrate performance-based compensation with the performance management process. Ensure that personnel have a clear understanding of performance aims and standards in relation to these targets and standards. Employees should have the ability to affect performance. Employees should be aware of their compensation. Rewards must be substantial enough to make the required efforts worthwhile (Murlis and Armstrong, 1994)

Several businesses and organizations employ this system, and they are as follows:

ICI Nissan medicines Rolls-Royce in the Derby Public Administration

Conclusion

Employee financial advantages alone cannot help an organization achieve its objectives, aims, and ambitions. The most significant aspect of human resource management is job happiness, which contributes to the success of the firm. A monetary gain is one of the variables that contribute to job satisfaction, which is comprised of a variety of factors. Money has a direct impact on the behavior and perception of employees towards the business, and without it, there will be no link between the employee and the organization.

References

Armstrong, M., and H. Murlis. 1980. Salary Administration. London: Kogan Page Ltd. Armstrong M & Murlis H. (1994) Reward Management (2nd Ed), London. Kogan Page (in association with the institute of personnel management). Performance management at the crossroads, by S. Beran and M. Thompson. Personnel management, 1991, pp. 36-39. Bowen, David E. & Lawler III, Edward E. 1992. The emancipation of service employees: what, why, how, and when Sloan Management Review. Buck, K., & Back, K. (1994). Assertiveness in the workplace. Davidson, M., and C. Cooper, "Stress and the Woman Manager," 1983. Stephen Robertson. 1974, Du Brin, Pergamon Press, Basics of Organizational Behavior The validity of Mobley's model of employee turnover, Hom, P. W., R. W. Griffeth, and C. L. Sellaro (1984). Human Behavior and Organizational Performance. Institute of Human Resource Management (1992), IPM Statement Regarding Counseling in the Workplace Lundy, O., and Cowling, A. (2000). Strategic human resource management. Managing with power: politics and influence in organizations, published by Harvard Business School Press in Boston in 1992. Storey, J., Human Resource Management, Critical Text, 2000. Thomas, K. W., and B. A. Velthouse (1990). Elements of cognitive empowerment: An interpretive model of intrinsic drive Review by the Academy of Management

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Managing Teams In An Organization Grad School Essay Help

Executive synopsis

Teams are crucial to the success of any firm. The effectiveness of teams is dependent on the style of leadership employed. Foodco is not a new company in its field, and it has had a strong position for a while. This study examines the teams in my organizations and their efforts to achieve the goals for which they were founded. The various leadership styles have been described alongside the various team kinds. This report concludes with tips for enhancing teamwork and leadership in businesses.

Research methodology

This study employs a quantitative methodology. Various tools have been utilized to confirm the nature of leadership inside the company. Utilizing questionnaires, information was collected. The results of an analysis were presented with the necessary graphs and charts. Additionally, secondary sources of information were used into the research.

Achievement with Teamwork

Nicky Hayes1 demonstrates that:

"Modern management becomes increasingly centered on the concept of the team. Management consultants advise organizational restrictions to assist cooperation, directors issue policy statements about the value of the team, and senior managers urge their subordinate employees to promote teamwork in their divisions. Where organizational culture was the buzzword for managers in the 1980s, teamwork became the management idea of the 1990s.

Introduction

My company has been in operation for the past two decades. The organization's primary mission is to manufacture high-quality consumer goods that have far-reaching benefits in terms of enhancing consumers' health, personal, and home care. The company's facilities are tasked with achieving this goal by manufacturing a vast array of consumer goods. My company is a big producer of consumer goods both domestically and abroad. The company manufactures food, personal care, and home care items. Personal and home care items include soaps, detergents, and petroleum jelly. Food products consist of margarine and cooking fat.

Vision

To be the leading and most innovative fast-moving consumer goods (FMCG) firm in the Gulf Cooperation Council (GCC) and Middle East, serving the community with superior products.

Mission

As a food products specialist, Foodco is committed to delivering excellent brands to all customers and business partners. This is accomplished by ensuring overall customer satisfaction by boosting the effectiveness and professionalism of all operations.

Since joining the company, I have been working in the personal care area, where beauty soap and general-purpose soap are produced. I am the team leader for a departmental project aimed at achieving production goals and reducing material waste.

Products of the business

Personal care items include petroleum jelly and body lotion, while home care products include beauty soaps and detergents.

Teamwork

In organizations, this refers to the unity of working together to achieve specific goals. Team spirit is vital for the increased productivity of individuals in a company because it unites perspectives, which focuses efforts on attaining the organization's goals.

Teamwork and Successful Teams

Teamwork has become a widespread concept throughout enterprises and across nations. Suppliers and manufacturers build teams to enhance the effectiveness and caliber of their services. In addition to reducing expenses, these teams ensure ongoing progress.

Creating effective groups:

The roles of the team members are as follows:

The implementer works to further the organization's objectives. The coordinator is independent and confident. The shaper is an advocate for transformation. Planting requires original thought and independent effort Investigator of resources whose duties include ideation with group members Monitor those who take the time to make sound choices. A team member who considers the perspectives of others The finisher guarantees that everything he begins is accomplished. A talented and knowledgeable professional.

Key attributes of teams

Successful teams in organizations possess essential defining characteristics that boost the performance of its members.

Cooperation

Cooperation between members of a team helps the seamless operation of group operations, making the attainment of goals at this level easier. The dispersion of group members due to a lack of cooperation means that nothing significant can occur in such a group.

Participation

Individual contributions are required to facilitate team activities. The difficulties that the group is tasked with resolving are resolved through the individual contributions and collective efforts of the team members. Without the participation of all members, choices made by the team would not be all-inclusive, but could be attributed to a single individual.

Coordination

To achieve their goals, teams must rely on the coordinated efforts of every member. This coordination is intended to guarantee that each member's input is fully integrated into the team's efforts to attain its goals.

Partnership

This is a crucial factor for the success of teams. This is due to the fact that once partnerships exist, individuals of a team can quickly recognize one another in terms of their perspectives, opinions, and efforts, allowing them to be easily integrated to achieve goals. The partnership fosters consensus and harmony within a team, as opposed to a group in which choices must be reached regardless of whether there is a partnership.

types of organizational teams

Workgroups

At the workplace, work teams are formed to promote the continuous improvement of the operations of the organization's personnel. Activities may involve punctuality to duties and other work-related tasks. They are typically permanent in nature, and people from the same department are assigned goals to accomplish.

Project groups

Project groups are temporary groups formed within an organization to tackle a specific problem or complete a specified task. The workplace is characterized by a variety of projects that must be accomplished. A person can be a member of both the work team and the project team.

Focus groups

In organizations, focus teams are formed in order to keep emphasis on the specific areas that are crucial to the organization's success. This includes waste reduction, cost reduction, and other areas.

Teams within my business

There are work teams in my organization that contribute significantly to the accomplishment of organizational objectives. Work teams inside the organization foster an environment conducive to idea generation and exchange. Through Work teams, objectives and targets are established, and their accomplishment may be measured.

Project teams exist within our organization, and they contribute to the growth and development of the organization. The teams have the opportunity to consult with outside sources, if possible, in order to fulfill their objectives more efficiently.

Team organization

"In order for a team to be creative, it must have a clear task appropriate for team performance and a vision to give creative energies focus and direction." 2

According to Tuckman, three models are used to build teams.

The first model of team creation involves people getting together informally or chaotically, followed by a formal phase and then a skilled phase.

The second model begins with the shaping and storming stage, where members are still interacting and issues are not clarified. This is followed by the norming phase, which is characterized by clarity and formality.

This paradigm concludes with a stage of performance characterized by a relaxed clarity.

The third group formation model begins with orientation, deliberation, and dispute, with no formal organization.

This is then followed by the emergence of trust and formalization.

The last phase of this paradigm is marked by reinforcing and relaxed clarity.

Five stages of group growth were developed by Bruce Tuckman.

The initial stage consists of members meeting and deciding to form the group.

Opportunities and problems within the group are discussed. This stage is characterized by misunderstanding among team members, particularly regarding their assigned roles. In addition to agreeing on roles and activities to be taken, team members also establish rules to regulate the process. Leadership is essential at this level for team development. A manager or supervisor inside an organization can provide leadership. Leadership is essential for determining the needs of the team in order to provide direction for all procedures.

The second stage entails the majority of members beginning to express their thoughts. This stage is marked by participants expressing divergent viewpoints in an open manner. There is a notable preference for details over issues, and members are notoriously untrustworthy at this point, as evidenced by the intense level of competitiveness between them. Leadership is crucial at this stage in order to promote an attitude of tolerance and patience among team members. In addition, the leader is responsible for steering the team towards the set objectives, acceptable behavior, and proper communication.

The third stage involves the formation of habits that conform to the group's rules and regulations. Members begin to demonstrate dedication to team activities.

The fourth stage is marked by high levels of member motivation, loyalty, and participation. Personal development and idea exchange are visible at this stage.

In the fifth and final stage, the accomplishments of the team since its establishment are acknowledged and celebrated.

Evaluation of my group

My team's investigation suggests that it is in the third stage of development. Members have begun to demonstrate compliance with the regulations. There is a favorable disposition toward team activities and improved communication between members. This demonstrates the transformation that has occurred during the first two stages, when members frequently clashed when attempting to convey their thoughts and perspectives.

Attributes of an effective team

Sincerity and openness

This is a quality that all members of the team should exhibit towards one another. This can be fostered by the leader urging group members to be candid and open during conversations.

Commitment

All team members are dedicated to creating success for the group. This can be promoted by encouraging team members to take team activities seriously and give them the necessary focus.

Respect one another

A successful team's members are considerate of one another in order to ensure that everyone contributes to their full potential. This can be achieved by demonstrating an appreciation for individual variations among the members.

resolving conflicts.

Successful teams constantly approach conflicts cautiously and head-on. This can be achieved by allowing members to engage in extensive debate on difficult subjects prior to decision-making to guarantee that all conflicts are resolved before moving on to other issues.

Collaboration in our organization

Attendance at team events demonstrates that there is a sense of commitment within my group. As a leader, I have observed that members are honest with one another. When a team member is ill, for example, the rest of the group will visit him/her to wish for a speedy recovery. As the leader, I am always in control, despite the fact that resolving conflicts within the team has frequently resulted in acrimonious exchanges between team members. The members maintain their concentration since the team's mission is well recognized and the majority of members meet the group's standards for participation and performance.

After conducting study on the status of my team, I've determined that despite obstacles such as the absence of consensus in certain activities, the team is performing well. It is possible for team members to debate a topic without reaching a consensus. The inability to properly listen to difficulties is also a hindrance to team building effectiveness.

During the formation phase, the team's objective is clearly articulated, and all team members are aware of their responsibilities. The members must adhere to the stated objectives and the requisite performance criteria in order to achieve the team's goals.

Analyses of my current team, other teams within my organization, and teamwork within my organization.

It was discovered that consensus building hinders team morale and objective attainment. The crew was also found to have difficulties with listening.

Team development plan

The proposal would seek to unite the members behind a single goal. This would be accomplished at a three-day retreat, which would cost each participant $100. The members would connect with one another in a relaxed setting and would unite and form bonds in preparation for future work-related team activities. In this activity, the leader would emphasize the necessity of listening, forming bonds, and accommodating one another in order to accomplish team goals. After one month, the extent of team development would be examined and the level of objective achievement would be evaluated. This would also include disputes and the members' relationships.

Indicators of an effective team leader.

According to Lipnack and Stamps, "Virtual teams can only be successful if people collaboratively manage the coordination involved in membership and leadership," which implies that managers must abandon the concepts of power and control in favor of service leadership. Team leaders have been shown to contribute to the performance of their teams in numerous ways. Effective leadership involves the following actions:

Remove hurdles and serve as a mediator between the team and upper management. They are accountable for ensuring effective communication. They serve as role models to influence the behavior of members. They facilitate action as opposed to response to circumstances. They start team conversations and significant choices. They value the contributions of every member and recognize everyone's potential. Consider issues from a broader vantage point and the roles of various members. Advocate for members' independence of thought and have faith in the team's judgments. Responsible for grouping members with similar skills and maximizing each member's potential. Include team members in the process of leadership.

Essential qualities of a good leader

A successful leader must be influential. Without influential leadership, teams are prone to lose focus and fail to accomplish their intended goals.

An effective leader is imaginative and has a dream for the organization's future, and is therefore driven and able to inspire followers toward a better future.

Effective leaders have self-assurance and self-belief. This, along with maturity and conviction, can drive a team toward success.

Leadership Designs

Autocratic leadership is authoritarian, and the leader dictates what the members are expected to do without seeking opinion from them. The leader is in fact in charge of everything. This technique is appropriate for unruly teams in which individuals must be commanded to cooperate and obtain outcomes.

Participative leadership focuses on

Strategic Objects Of The Kaiser Permanente Enterprise Grad School Essay Help

Table of Contents
Kaiser Permanente Mission Statement Vision Proclamation Value Statement Strategy and Individual Perspective Citations

Kaiser Permanente

Due to increased competition and heightened client expectations, running a successful business is currently a difficult task. In order to develop an adaptable strategy framework that would be advantageous to all stakeholders, businesses must be cognizant of their strengths and shortcomings. Consequently, it is of the utmost importance to create an effective strategy that is consistent with the company's core mission, vision, and values. In the next paper, the firm Kaiser Permanente will serve as a case study for analyzing the patterns of such symbiosis.

Purpose Statement

Researchers realized around the close of the 20th century that one of the most important strategies to assure a company's strategic success was to produce a statement asserting its individuality and identity in the market. As a result, the concept of a mission statement was developed, meaning that every business should describe its basic purpose to provide prospective clients and staff with a general understanding of what lies behind the organization's curtain (Alegre et al., 2018). Thus, the mission statement of a company has the ability to define all subsequent strategic operations, as they are all geared toward achieving the specified objective. The mission statement of Kaiser Permanente is formulated as follows:

Kaiser Permanente's mission is to offer affordable, high-quality health care and to promote the health of our members and the communities we serve. ("Who we are," n.d.)

Considering the information presented above, it should be observed that the current company's efforts in the field align with the organization's stated objective. However, the concept of cheap health care services can be construed in a variety of circumstances, calling this part of the statement into question. In other words, when discussing healthcare accessibility in any sociopolitical environment in the United States, the concept of affordable medical service seems somewhat utopian and subjective in terms of the socioeconomic groups involved. Therefore, it is essential to either emphasize the mission's context or remove it totally.

Vision Proclamation

When beginning a business, especially in the medical service industry, a corporation should ask itself a few fundamental questions to determine its key motivations and objectives. Consequently, the mission statement relates to the question “what,” whereas the company’s vision relates to the question “why,” emphasizing the beneficial impact one would have in the long run (Kirkpatrick, 2016). In the framework of the organizational fundamentals of Kaiser Permanente, the vision statement is articulated as follows:

We are trusted partners in total health, engaging with people to help them thrive, building communities that are among the healthiest in the country, and motivating America and the globe to achieve greater health. (Cooke, 2018, p. 3)

Taking a deeper look at the above-mentioned idea, it might be stated that the business is striving to align with its goal. For instance, it engages in ongoing collaborations focused at enhancing the quality of healthcare for all population groups. Moreover, the general vision statement is extremely advantageous in terms of its phrasing, as it can be adapted to virtually any socioeconomic context, hence making Kaiser Permanente a flexible company that can quickly react to digitization and societal changes. Lastly, the following framework permits the unit to provide equal weight to health plans, medical staff help, equipment evaluation, and research considerations.

Value Statement

Every organization's foundation consists of identifying a set of core principles that it will never compromise in order to remain loyal to its employees and consumers. In the case of Kaiser Permanente, these values are included into a compass that connects all concepts under the umbrella term "patient and member focus" (Cooke, 2018). The remaining four concepts derived from the core value are great service delivery, high quality, advantageous workplaces, and affordability. Considering the following factors, it is possible to infer that the organization's core strengths are in perfect alignment with its goal and vision, providing a solid foundation for generating actual outcomes through its actions. To have a deeper comprehension of the enterprise's operation, it is necessary to examine strategic planning and its relationship to the aforementioned factors.

Strategy and Individual Point of View

Defining the company's strategy is one of the most complex components of creating a successful organizational model that conforms to the founders' values and expectations. To design a strategy, one must consider a number of variables, such as activities to boost competitiveness and eliminate current errors and distortions, adaptability to the target market, activity management approaches, and opportunity utilization (Thompson & Strickland, 2003). These elements are then translated into measurable objectives that must be attained in the near or distant future by the organization. To ensure their implementation, the socioeconomic realities of the strategy will regularly reevaluate the following objectives.

When discussing Kaiser Permanente in particular, it is essential to identify which desirables should be prioritized in light of the organization's beliefs and mission. Consequently, it is of the utmost importance for the organization to ensure that community members have access to affordable healthcare, doing everything possible to realize its purpose. To this end, Kaiser Permanente highlighted a number of important strategic goals pertaining to financial accessibility, including:

Drive performance at a lower cost by employing applicable technology and methods; Pursue the concept of perpetual expansion while putting the client first. Influence national healthcare trends through the company's revolutionary and relevant strategies (Cooke, 2018).

While the following objectives are highly pertinent to the current healthcare-patient paradigm, their empirical application may be difficult due to a lack of specifics. Researchers assert that firms' strategic frameworks are measurable and realizable by creating key performance indicators (KPIs) such as a specified percentage of market share and growth to be attained within a specific time period (Thompson & Strickland, 2003). When discussing the financial objectives of the strategy, Kaiser Permanente focuses particularly on the issue of profit generation while keeping the reasonable price policy by promoting stakeholder-collaborative investments (Brown, 2020). Thus, the planning framework does not entirely align with the general points of financial objectives planning, which include the computation of yearly revenue growth % and annual shareholder value increases.

Taking into account the overall strategic objectives of Kaiser Permanente as a non-profit organization, one of the company's greatest assets is its consistency with regard to goals and expectations. In other words, the paradigm of values, mission, vision, and strategy is not conflicting, creating a pattern of consistent symbiosis within the framework. Consequently, their commercial outcomes are centered on the mission's stated outcomes, with the objective of delivering inexpensive healthcare through attracting additional investors to the industry. Future recommendations will be limited to outlining more measurable strategic strategies for helpful and accurate report analyses.

References

Alegre, I., Berbegal-Mirabent, J., Guerrero, A., & Mas-Machuca, M. (2018). The true purpose of the mission statement: a thorough literature review. 24(4), 456-473, Journal of Management and Organization.

Brown, M. (2020). 2019 financial results for hospitals in the Kaiser Foundation Health Plan.

Cooke, K. (2018). Kaiser Permanente: integration, innovation, and health care revolution. Web.

Kirkpatrick, S. A. (2016). Build a better vision statement by incorporating practical recommendations into research. The publisher Rowman & Littlefield.

Thompson, A. A., and A. J. Strickland (2003). Strategic management: theories and examples (13th ed.). McGraw-Hill.

Who are we? (n.d.).

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Legal Plan Services: Report To The Accounting Manager Grad School Essay Help

Table of Contents
Revenue side Expenses side Journal entries for revenues Journal entries for costs Report to the Legal plan services president References

Legal Plan Services specializes on the offering services to members. These services include; legal plans for commercial drivers, business owners, and law officers and the plan for the family. These services are valuable to members especially when faced with a lawsuit. In this instance, the services will be free of charge for a time that is indicated in the contract. The technique for accounting for services is outlined in International Accounting Standard 18 (IAS 18).

Lunt and Blake In the supply of services, when a transaction’s outcome can fairly be expected, then the revenue arising from such a transaction should be recognized by reference to the completion stage of the transaction as at the balance sheet date. This strategy is known as "percentage of completion." These guidelines are applied when recognizing revenue and expenses related to service transactions.

Non-refundable enrollment fees for new members, fees paid by non-members who use the services, and members' monthly contributions are the company's sources of income. The company does not engage in any other sales-related activities. The recognition of these revenues is not to the internationally recognized accounting standard.

They record the revenue even if they have not yet received it. This is against the International Accounting Standards 18, where revenues are recorded when the cash against it is in the hands of the company. Revenues are recognized when there is certainty that the economic benefits that arise from the transaction will be inflows to the firm. However, where there is doubt about the collectability of a revenue amount, that amount is recorded as an expense (Rayman, 2006).

LPS should reveal its revenue and expense recognition accounting policies. In addition, the techniques for completing each stage of the transaction must be provided. Additionally, the amount of each revenue category recognized during the period must be disclosed. Included in categories of revenue must be revenues derived from the exchange of services.

If the business receives fees from non-members, such as a monthly contribution and an enrollment fee, it is considered to be charging non-members.

Revenue side

Increase in the assets of the company(registration) Increase in the assets of the corporation (registration fee) (registration fee) Increase in the company's revenue (contribution charge)

Expenses side

Expenses increased (cost of operations) Interest cost (fees charges)

Journal entries for revenues

Dr Gain in property Cr increase on revenues

Journal entries for costs

Dr Increase in cost expenditures Reduction of expenditures

The accounting procedure of LPS conforms to the required requirements, although the recognition of various expenditures does not. They acknowledge the revenue notwithstanding the likelihood that it will be owing. This revenue recognition is misleading for users who strictly adhere to the available standards for revenue and expense recognition.

According to the terms of membership, LPS recognizes membership fees as revenue when they are due. This is not in accordance with IAS 18, which states that revenue should be recorded when it is certain that a transaction will result in a cash inflow for the company.

The amount charged to cover the cost of training for new sales associates who enroll in the company's training program is recorded as revenue at the conclusion of the program. This is contrary to IAS 18 which explains that revenue should be recognized as at the balance sheet date.

Report to the Legal plan services president

Legal Plan Services provides participants with legal services. These services include; legal plans for commercial drivers, business owners, and law officers and the plan for the family. These services are especially valuable to members who are facing a lawsuit. In this instance, the services will be provided at no cost for the duration mentioned in the agreement.

Lunt and Blake (2001),

When the outcome of a transaction can be reasonably expected in the provision of services, the revenue resulting from such a transaction should be recognized by referring to the completion stage, when the proceeds are received. These rules are used to the recognition of income and expenses related to service transactions inside an organization.

The company has the following revenues; new members enrollment fee that is non refundable, non members who get the services pay some fees and the monthly contribution from the members. The company does not engage in any other sales-related activities. These revenues are recognized without reference to any accounting standards.

They record the revenue even if they have not yet received it. The revenues are recorded before the company actually receives the cash. When it is certain that the economic gains resulting from a transaction will raise the firm's cash value, revenues are recorded. However, where there is doubt about the collectability of a revenue amount, that amount is recorded as an expense (Rayman, 2006).

LPS should reveal its revenue and expense recognition accounting policies. In addition, the techniques for completing each stage of the transaction must be provided. Additionally, the amount of each revenue category recognized during the period must be disclosed.

References

Blake, J., Lunt, H. (2001). Accounting guidelines Pearson Education is based in New York City.

Rayman, R. (2006). Accounting standards: true or false. Taylor & Francis are headquartered in Chicago.

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Psychological Egoism And Ethical Egoism Grad School Essay Help

I have always looked at myself as an unselfish person with a good sense of empathy towards my friends and other people. I have always thought about egoism as something solely negative. That was before I knew the true meaning and concept of the word. Now I am no longer so sure; is it possible to be an absolute altruist? Is it possible to keep going on an absolute altruistic line of life without any egoistic subsidiary interference?

Psychological egoism is a human beings factual motivation in life. Psychological egoism builds around that our intended actions are always controlled by our own interests, wishes and motives. We are motivated by a wish to accomplish a sort of self-fulfillment, meaning that our actions in all aspects of our lives (from buying a sandwich because we are hungry, to studying for an exam to get a good grade) are all done because it is for our own beneficial interests, wishes and motives.

The definition for ethical egoism is basically ‘how we ought to act’. Ethical egoism builds itself around the idea that the best way to promote collective reimbursement, is to follow self-interests. By always striving for our own personal self-fulfillment a person will better be able to promote what is in the best interest of the community, more so than always striving to promote the community’s interests. A person is able to hold a sociable role that supports the general public by taking care of his or her own well-being and self-interest first.

The relationship between psychological egoism and ethical egoism is very clear. Since ethical egoism states that the best way to promote the welfare of others is by promoting your own self-interest, they kind of go hand in hand. But they are different since psychological egoism focus only on self-fulfillment and self-interest. The term ego means self. A body without an ego is just empty, without a soul. To deny one’s own ego is to deny one’s own mental existence, which is naturally not good for one’s mental health. To have a good mental health involves being an integrated and harmonized human being. This anticipates that you are an egoist. Without good mental health and personal harmony one does not make the right choices for either yourself or the welfare of other people around you.

The word altruism was first used by the French philosopher, Auguste Comte. Every human beings moral purpose is to serve others well-being on the expense of your own values. Altruism considers personal interest as something negative. Self-interest is per definition unmoral. It seems like being an altruist is to go against one’s self and breaking the connection between actions and beliefs, interests, and moral thoughts. It seems that in the altruistic model one constantly is trying to please other people and letting other’s needs and interests control their own actions. By always doing this there will be a constant split between one’s actions and one’s ego, making it very hard to be a harmonized human being. Being raised in an altruistic way seems to like living in a constant conflict with one’s self. By living a life of constant conflict with one’s self, there must be a big chance of developing poor self-confidence and irrational guilt.

Guilt is something you experience when something is in conflict with your own moral belief. Rational guilt is to feel guilt when one actually harms others. That type of guilt is good, because it aids learning to show consideration when it comes to others and their feelings. But irrational guilt, feeling guilty when you have not done anything wrong, is never positive. By reflecting about altruism, the feeling that altruism can create guilt in times when one does not do what other people want becomes apparent. That could make it very hard to say no, which lead to situations of victimization and being taken advantage of. In many situations in life, it is important to have a self-defense to protect one ‘s self and interests. The concept of a self-defense will always be egoistic, and involves the sub consciousness sense what is right or wrong. If a person believes that it’s wrong to think about themselves and feel guilty to do acts that are in their own interests, it gets very hard to make the right decisions. It makes you self-destructive to feel irrational guilt all the time. One has no emotional support for your own actions. To have personal opinions, it’s necessary to have sub-conscious support. The sub-consciousness needs to work for the personal best interest, because if the sub-consciousness gives priority to other’s beliefs, it will increase one’s sensitivity to criticism. To be sensitive to criticism is the same as being sensitive to other people’s thoughts.

It might seem logical that collectivism and altruism are important values to collaborate socially. This is completely wrong. Social competence is a quality of the individual. To work socially is to work as an individual in relation to other people, and to work as an individual one needs to be an egoist. It is not possible to become social by denying one’s ego. Altruistic behavior makes it easier for other people to manipulate feelings and actions. Confidence anticipates that one can trust their own sub-consciousness. Insecurity is driven by a lack of support from the sub-conscious. An altruistic belief leads to being very influenced by other people’s beliefs, and becoming insecure in social situations. It is also hard to work socially, if one is sensitive to criticism, and feel irrational guilt. Altruism makes one a target of outside control, which makes a self-controlled life problematic.

In conclusion, there is little to no room for altruism where egoism dominates. Altruists get motivated by what other people believe is best, and it seems like they need to be part of a collective were they can agree with others and feel safe. By having this as a priority the world would not develop without egoism, because to gain full potential one needs a sense of inner motivation to reveal their talents and gain a knowledge of who they really are and of what they as a single person can become capable.

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Family presence during CPR (cardiopulmonary resuscitation) buy argumentative essay help

In a pre-hospital setting, there are few moments that are as intense as the events that take place when trying to save a life. Family presence during these resuscitation efforts has become an important and controversial issue in health care settings. Family presence during cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) is a relatively new issue in healthcare. Before the advent of modern medicine, family members were often present at the deathbed of their loved ones. A dying person’s last moments were most often controlled by his or her family in the home rather than by medical personnel (Trueman, History of Medicine). Today, families are demanding permission to witness resuscitation events. Members of the emergency medical services are split on this issue, noting benefits but also potentially negative consequences to family presence during resuscitation efforts.

A new study has found that family members who observed resuscitation efforts were significantly less likely to experience symptoms of post-traumatic stress, anxiety and depression than family members that did not. The results, published in an online article in The New England Journal of Medicine, entitled ‘Family Presence during Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation,’ were the same regardless of the survival of the patient. The study involved 570 people in France whose family members were treated by emergency medical personnel at home. These EMS teams were unique in that they were comprised of a physician, a nurse trained in emergency medicine, and two emergency medical technicians. The study found that the presence of relatives did not affect the results of CPR, nor did it increase the stress levels of the emergency medical teams. Having family present also did not result in any legal claims after the incidents occured. While the unique limitations of the study warrant consideration, the results show a definite benefit in having families stay during CPR (Jabre Family Presence).

Historically, although parents of children have been allowed to be present for various reasons, relatives of adult patients have not. As medical practices change to increasingly involve family in the care of patients, growing numbers of emergency medical practitioners say that giving relatives the option of watching CPR can be a good idea. Several national organizations, including The American Heart Association, have revised their policies to call for giving family members the option of being present during CPR (AHA Guidelines for CPR). Witnessing CPR, say some emergency medical experts and family members, can take the mystery out of what could be a potentially terrifying experience. It can provide reassurance to family members that everything is being done to save their loved ones. It also can offer closure for relatives wanting to be with their family members until the last minute (Kirkland Lasting Benefit). Another benefit is that it shows people why reviving someone in cardiac arrest is much less likely than people assume from watching it being done on television (Ledermann Family Presence During). Family members who can truly understand what it means to ‘do everything possible’ can go on to make more informed decisions about end-of-life care for themselves or their families.

There are three perspectives on this issue- that of the emergency medical personnel providing care, the family, and the patients. The resistance on the part of the medical community to family presence during CPR stems from several different concerns. The most common concern among these is that family members, when faced with overwhelming fear, stress and grief, could disrupt or delay active CPR. Another concern raised by emergency medical personnel is that the realities of CPR may simply be too traumatic for loved ones, causing them to suffer more than they potentially would have if they had never witnessed the event. Some families share this view, citing the potential for extreme distress as a main reason for not wanting to witness resuscitation (Grice Study examining attitudes). Many emergency medical personnel also fear an increased risk of liability and litigation with family members present in the room (Fullbrook the Presence of Family). The worry is that errors can occur, inappropriate comments may be made, and the actions of the personnel involved may be misinterpreted. In an already tense situation, the awareness of the family could increase the anxiety of the personnel and create a greater potential for mistakes.

Another complication that arises from having families present during resuscitation attempts is that of patient confidentiality. The patient’s right to privacy should not be circumvented with implied consent. There is always the possibility that medical information previously unknown to the family may be revealed in the chaos of resuscitation. In addition, patient dignity, whether physical or otherwise, may become compromised (Fullbrook the Presence of Family). Beyond moral considerations, legal concerns regarding revealing patient information are real. This could become an even larger issue if there is no one available to screen witnesses, which could result in unrelated people gaining access to personal information. Eventually, a breach in confidentiality can lead to a breach in the confidence that the public has gained in pre-hospital emergency care.

Family presence during CPR in a pre-hospital setting remains a highly debatable topic. This could be largely due to the fact that the needs of the emergency medical providers and the rights of the patients can be at odds with the wishes of the family members. Although there are several possible reasons why family presence is not being welcomed into daily practice, one of the major reasons could be the lack of formal written policies that define the roles of families and providers placed into this situation. Bringing family members into a situation where CPR is being performed on a loved one should not happen haphazardly. It should happen with careful concern and support for everyone involved. Policies and protocols, defined by experienced personnel, can provide legal and emotional support. They can also potentially help ease anxiety by defining expectations and placing responsibility in the hands of people who are experienced enough to know how to handle the situation appropriately. The policies and protocols should address the basic needs of all people involved. Five basic needs should be addressed:

1. The number of people allowed to be present

2. Which relatives should be allowed to be present (age, relationship, etc.)

3. The role of the family members present and what is expected of them.

4. The place where the family should remain during the duration of CPR.

5. The formal wishes of the patient- written as a directive like a living will.

An important component of this is available, trained staff that can prepare the family members for what they will witness, support them through the event, and then direct them after the event’s conclusion.

The American Heart Association states that the goals of cardiopulmonary resuscitation are, ‘to preserve life, restore health, relieve suffering, limit disability, and respect the individual’s decisions rights and privacy’ (AHA Guidelines for CPR). The practice of offering family members the opportunity to be present during CPR is a controversial ethical issue in emergency medical services. While the results of the study published on this topic in The New England Journal of Medicine clearly show no negative side effects from having families present during resuscitation attempts, the limitations of the study lend to the need for more research before it could be universally accepted.

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Respondeat Superior writing an essay help

Legal claims that derive from a situation where there are claims of negligence can sometimes involve an entity other than the neglectful parties. In certain circumstances employers are fully responsible for their employees, and the tasks they perform during working hours. During the course of this paper, the doctrine of respondeat superior will be defined and explained. Two case studies in which the doctrine was applied will also be analyzed to determine if it was applied correctly.

Respondeat superior is a legal theory that holds employers responsible for any negligent or harmful act performed by an employee during the commission of their employment duties (Thornton, 2010). The Maryland Supreme Court in 1951 was the first court to utilize respondeat superior in a court case involving a question of employer liability (Burns, 2011). This doctrine is important as it holds employers liable in court cases where one of its employees does harm to an individual. Vicarious liability and indirect liability are two base concepts that make-up respondeat superior (Thornton, 2010). Respondeat superior shows that the employer did not have to be responsible for the employee???s negligent behavior, in the form of improper training or instruction to perform harmful acts, in order for the employer to be held legally responsible.

In the case of Valle v. City of Houston, the police force was sued for excessive force and an illegal search in an attempt to remove an individual from his parent???s home (Nicholl & Kelly, 2012). The situation stemmed from a man, Omar Esparza, barricading himself in his parent???s home and refusing to come out (p. 285). After a long police standoff, the SWAT team was ordered to forcefully enter the home and remove Mr. Esparza (p. 285). The SWAT team utilized taser gun and bean bag ammunition in an attempt to subdue Mr. Esparza after they felt he posed a physical threat by wielding a hammer, but as those attempts failed the suspect was fatally wounded when an officer fired his weapon (p. 286). Shortly after the incident the mother was allowed into the home, and she reported no visible evidence that her son was possession of a hammer (p. 286). The court found that the city was not liable for damages under the theory of respondeat superior, because the order to remove the individual from the home was not made by an individual deemed as a decision-maker by the city (p. 286).

From the outside, this case seems to fit the theory of respondeat superior. As the employer, the city should be held responsible for the actions of its employees. The police, serving as the city???s employees acted in a manner that was unnecessary for the situation and in conflict of their training (p. 286). However, the court sided with the City of Houston because the chain of command was not followed in regards to the use of force (p. 286). The end result is a case where an individual made a decision that was not his to make; that ultimately cost a man his life.

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Alzheimer's Disease Grad School Essay Help

This essay has been removed.

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Research proposal: The effect of pregnancy on the adolescent pregnant teen & father my assignment essay help

Abstract: The purpose for this research paper is to address the adolescent pregnant teen & father and the effects a pregnancy has on both of their lives during and after her pregnancy. How the teens need the support of the family, community, church, and the school system. I will also address the teen father mostly disregarded in any aspect of the teen’s pregnancy and how this affects him, and how both teens need support in our society. How we can address the social problem of teen pregnancy from all avenues.

‘Three issues that have an impact on the pregnant adolescent are discussed education, identity development, and maternal support’ (Turnage & Pharris, 2013). My research focuses on adolescent pregnant teen women 19 years old and younger. It will also reflect the problems of the teen pregnant adolescents journeying thru the process of becoming a teen mother, finishing high school, developing her own identity and the maternal support she gets from her mother during her transition from pregnant teen to motherhood.

‘Several issues that differently influence the pregnant teen is individually based on the female’s chronological age’ (Turnage & Pharris, 2013). ‘For the pregnant adolescent, her pregnancy supersedes high school graduation as the benchmark for her being viewed as an adult’ (Turnage & Pharris, 2013). ‘Failure to graduate high school is associated with poor social and educational outcomes for teen mothers and their children’ (Turnage & Pharris, 2013).

‘While the pregnant adolescent is defining who she is as a person she experiences a transition to the new identity of mother’ (Turnage & Pharris, 2013). ‘During her pregnancy the adolescent’s mother is seen as the primary source of support that contributes to a positive self-image and can assist her in the adapting to the role of parent’ (Turnage & Pharris, 2013).

My research paper will also show how important it is to support the teen during and after pregnancy. It addresses the need for the teen mothers to finish high school, and find her identity. How important it is to have the support system of her mother and family to achieve all of these things. Without these support systems, the pregnant adolescent could end up in poverty, no social skills, homeless and a host of other social problems for her and her baby.

Addressed and examined is teen motherhood and its long-term mental and physical health of the teen mother’ (Patel & Sen, 2012). They used a (PCS) health survey known as SF-12 NLSY79 a study that compared two major comparisons groups of which only teens who experienced teen pregnancy and girls who did not experience teen pregnancy. On average the survey for teen mothers was on average 50.89.

The study to access the health outcome of ‘two major comparison groups, which consisted of women who were only experienced teen pregnancy & women who were having unprotected sexual relation as a teen but did not become pregnant ‘ (Patel & Sen, 2012). Estimated is that teen mothers are more likely to have poor health later in life in the study of all the comparison groups.

Along with support, they desperately need help taking care of an infant as a teen; they need a support system to take notice of how they are managing their health & well-being so that they can be a successful teen parent. In addition, being a teen parent can affect the mother’s mentally as the pressure of being new teen mom can be stressful.

The teen mothers who marry after they give birth to their children statistics state that 30 % of them will not remain in their marriages into their 40’s. This result comes from teen adolescents in a single parent home raising their child. This can put a strain on the teen adolescent because she will financially have to seek support from her family or enter into the welfare system and suffer mental health issues.

‘Adolescent teen mothers identify social support with, parenting and emotional support primary emanating from family members, particularly their own mothers, as well as from the father of the baby (Savio Beers & Lee, 2009)’. ‘Older sisters may play an important role in the support network for adolescent mothers, the supportive sister relationships decrease depressive and anxiety-related symptoms in adolescent mothers (Savio Beers & Lee, 2009).

‘For some adolescent parents, participation in a religious community programs may provide the significant social support and serve as a protective factor’ (Savio Beers & Lee, 2009). This directly stresses the point that without the support of family, community, and church with the support of the father the adolescent teen mother can suffer mental issues, poverty issues, and marriage problems.

We addressed the many issues that teen mothers have to face, so now I would like to address the teen father in our society. What are their concerns on becoming a teen father, and how do they view their role as father where their masculinity is concerned? While most of the research done on teen pregnancy and parenting mainly focusing on the mother, the father is invisible.

Interviewed were 26 young teen fathers in the mid-western American towns. The in depth survey of three themes of gender discord focused on teen father narratives, which took on responsibility, sex, being a man, this is the direct viewpoint of the invisible teen father. What they feel about getting a teen girl pregnant and what responsibility they take in the pregnancy if any. How they relate to getting a teen pregnant and how that affects his identity as a man and their masculinity.

‘Gendered assumptions regarding pregnancy and contraception’specifically that women are in charge of preventing pregnancy and they have the belief that male sexuality is uncontrollable; and that use of love and intimacy talk (Weber, J. B., 2013). The teen fathers that took the questionnaire did not blame themselves for getting the teen girl pregnant. They see the teen’s pregnancy as her problem.

Studies suggest that teen fathers are more likely to be of a minority race. He has a mother who had a baby as a teen; his parents have a minimal education. His parents do not have high expectations of him finishing school; all of these factors result in the likelihood that makes him a candidate to becoming a teenage father. ‘The research states that the teen fathers go to school fewer years less than non-teenage fathers (Fletcher & Wolfe, 2011).

‘Evidence shows that men who have children before marriage leave school earlier and have worse labor markets outcomes’ (Fletcher & Wolfe, 2011). ‘Data was used only on young men who reported a pregnancy as an adolescent’ (Fletcher & Wolfe, 2011). It affects his completion of high school.

It also affects his ability to take care of the teen mother & baby, which causes him to drop out of school early. Statistically, ‘teen fathers work more hours and earn more money following the birth of a child then his non-parent counterparts’ (Fletcher & Wolfe, 2011). Teen fatherhood results in the teen father getting married early or co-habitation with the teen mother.

In conclusion, teen pregnancy is a social problem in the United States both teens will have to suffer in their education, grow up before their time, take on adult responsibilities, and suffer financial problems to take care of the child. Which ultimately falls on the parents of the teens, society or the welfare system in which the teen mother becomes a social statistic or shall I say a number.

Teen pregnancy as of 2014 have been on the decline in the United States and increased in other states, however a positive support system for both teens is minimal at best. Socially as communities, churches and government we have to take an active role in education of abstaining from sex, talking to the teens about sex, and protecting themselves against pregnancy.

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Reconnaissance attacks in IPv6 networks college application essay help

2.1.1 Reconnaissance attacks in IPv6 networks

The 1st larger attack in IPv6 is usually a reconnaissance attack. An attacker try reconnaissance attacks to get some confidential information about the victim network that can be misused by the attacker in further attacks. For this he uses active methods, such as scanning techniques or data mining strategies. To start, an intruder begins to ping the victim network to determine the IP addresses currently used in the victim network. After getting some of the accessible system, he starts to scan the port to find out any open port in the desired system. The size of subnet is bigger than that of the in IPv4 networks. To perform a scan for the whole subnet an attacker should make 264 probes and that???s impossible. With this fact, IPv6 networks are much more resistant to reconnaissance attacks than IPv4 networks. Unfortunately, there are some addresses which are multicast address in IPv6 networks that help an intruder to identify and attack some resources in the target network.

2.1.2 Security threats related to IPv6 routing headers

As per IPv6 protocol specification, all of the IPv6 nodes must be able to process routing headers. In fact, routing headers can be used to avoid access controls based on destination addresses. Such action can cause security effects. It may be happen that an attacker sends a packet to a publicly accessible address with a routing header containing a ???forbidden??? address on the victim network. In such matter the publicly accessible host will forward the packet to the destination address stated in the routing header even though that destination is already filtered before as a forbidden address. By spoofing packet source addresses an intruder can easily perform denial of service attack with use of any publicly accessible host for redirecting attack packets.

2.1.3 Fragmentation related security threats

As per IPv6 protocol specification, packet fragmentation by the intermediate nodes is not permitted. Since in IPv6 network based on ICMPv6 messages, the usage of the path MTU discovery method is a duty, packet fragmentation is only allowed at the source node.1280 octets is the minimal size of the MTU for IPv6 network. The packets with size less than 1280 octets to be discarded unless it???s the last packet in the flow as per security reasons. With use of fragmentation, an attacker can get that port numbers not found in the first fragment and thus they bypass security monitoring devices expecting to find transport layer protocol data in the very first fragment. An attacker will send a huge amount of small fragments and create an overload of reconstruction buffers on the victim system which resulted to the system crash. To prevent system from such attacks it???s necessary to bound the total number of fragments and their permissible arrival rate.

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WMBA 6000-13 Topic: Course Evaluation custom essay help

WMBA 6000-13

Topic: Course Evaluation

Date: March 2, 2014

Based on the assigned readings for this course (Dynamic Leadership), I have read an enormous amount of information about the different categories of leaders and leadership styles. Today’s leaders are different from the leaders of twenty to fifty years ago. In the past leaders gave commands and they controlled the actions of others. Today leaders are willing to involve others in their decision making and they are more open to new possibilities.

A good leader has a vision for their organization and they know how to align and engage employees in order to promote collaboration. The successful leader knows how to lead by using superior values, principles and goals that fit the organization’s values, principles and goals. Also these leaders know that leadership is not made from authority, it’s made from trust and followership. Coleman, J., Gulati, & Segovia, W.O. (2012)

I am impressed most by the characteristics of the authentic leader because they know how to develop themselves; they use formal and informal support networks to get honest feedback in order to drive long-term results. Authentic leaders build support teams to help them stay on course and counsel them in times of uncertainty. George, B., Sims, P., Mclean, A.N. & Mayer D. (2007)

In addition, I found the Leadership Code to be important because it provides structure and guidance and helps one to be a better leader by not emphasizing one element of leadership over another. Some focus on the importance of vision for the future; others on executing in the present; others on personal charisma and character; others on engaging people’; and others on building long-term organization. The code represents about 60 to 70 percent of what makes an effective leader. Ulrich, D., Smallwood, N., Sweetman, K. (2008)

The information that I acquired from this course will help me to pursue the goal of owning a beauty supply business. Another goal that I can add to my action plan is to include not only wigs and welted hair, but I will add hair, skin and nail products to my inventory. A future goal will be to add handbags and accessories as well.

After completing my short-term goal of finishing my MBA, I can take the knowledge from this course along with my values, ethics and principles to help me to manage employees and operate a successful business. Annie Smith (March 2, 20

Coleman, J. G. (2012). Educating young leaders. Passion and Purpose , 197-202.

George, B. S. (2007). Discovering your authentic leadership. Harvard Business Review , 129-138.

Lyons, R. (2012). Dean of Haas of School of Business University of California, Berkely. It’s made from followership. (J. G. Cole, Interviewer) Coleman, J., Gulati, D., & Segovia, W.O.

Ulrich, D. S. (2008). Five rules of leadership. In The leadership code five rules to lead by. Defining Leadership Code , 1-24.

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Family presence during CPR (cardiopulmonary resuscitation) essay help services

In a pre-hospital setting, there are few moments that are as intense as the events that take place when trying to save a life. Family presence during these resuscitation efforts has become an important and controversial issue in health care settings. Family presence during cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) is a relatively new issue in healthcare. Before the advent of modern medicine, family members were often present at the deathbed of their loved ones. A dying person’s last moments were most often controlled by his or her family in the home rather than by medical personnel (Trueman, History of Medicine). Today, families are demanding permission to witness resuscitation events. Members of the emergency medical services are split on this issue, noting benefits but also potentially negative consequences to family presence during resuscitation efforts.

A new study has found that family members who observed resuscitation efforts were significantly less likely to experience symptoms of post-traumatic stress, anxiety and depression than family members that did not. The results, published in an online article in The New England Journal of Medicine, entitled ‘Family Presence during Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation,’ were the same regardless of the survival of the patient. The study involved 570 people in France whose family members were treated by emergency medical personnel at home. These EMS teams were unique in that they were comprised of a physician, a nurse trained in emergency medicine, and two emergency medical technicians. The study found that the presence of relatives did not affect the results of CPR, nor did it increase the stress levels of the emergency medical teams. Having family present also did not result in any legal claims after the incidents occured. While the unique limitations of the study warrant consideration, the results show a definite benefit in having families stay during CPR (Jabre Family Presence).

Historically, although parents of children have been allowed to be present for various reasons, relatives of adult patients have not. As medical practices change to increasingly involve family in the care of patients, growing numbers of emergency medical practitioners say that giving relatives the option of watching CPR can be a good idea. Several national organizations, including The American Heart Association, have revised their policies to call for giving family members the option of being present during CPR (AHA Guidelines for CPR). Witnessing CPR, say some emergency medical experts and family members, can take the mystery out of what could be a potentially terrifying experience. It can provide reassurance to family members that everything is being done to save their loved ones. It also can offer closure for relatives wanting to be with their family members until the last minute (Kirkland Lasting Benefit). Another benefit is that it shows people why reviving someone in cardiac arrest is much less likely than people assume from watching it being done on television (Ledermann Family Presence During). Family members who can truly understand what it means to ‘do everything possible’ can go on to make more informed decisions about end-of-life care for themselves or their families.

There are three perspectives on this issue- that of the emergency medical personnel providing care, the family, and the patients. The resistance on the part of the medical community to family presence during CPR stems from several different concerns. The most common concern among these is that family members, when faced with overwhelming fear, stress and grief, could disrupt or delay active CPR. Another concern raised by emergency medical personnel is that the realities of CPR may simply be too traumatic for loved ones, causing them to suffer more than they potentially would have if they had never witnessed the event. Some families share this view, citing the potential for extreme distress as a main reason for not wanting to witness resuscitation (Grice Study examining attitudes). Many emergency medical personnel also fear an increased risk of liability and litigation with family members present in the room (Fullbrook the Presence of Family). The worry is that errors can occur, inappropriate comments may be made, and the actions of the personnel involved may be misinterpreted. In an already tense situation, the awareness of the family could increase the anxiety of the personnel and create a greater potential for mistakes.

Another complication that arises from having families present during resuscitation attempts is that of patient confidentiality. The patient’s right to privacy should not be circumvented with implied consent. There is always the possibility that medical information previously unknown to the family may be revealed in the chaos of resuscitation. In addition, patient dignity, whether physical or otherwise, may become compromised (Fullbrook the Presence of Family). Beyond moral considerations, legal concerns regarding revealing patient information are real. This could become an even larger issue if there is no one available to screen witnesses, which could result in unrelated people gaining access to personal information. Eventually, a breach in confidentiality can lead to a breach in the confidence that the public has gained in pre-hospital emergency care.

Family presence during CPR in a pre-hospital setting remains a highly debatable topic. This could be largely due to the fact that the needs of the emergency medical providers and the rights of the patients can be at odds with the wishes of the family members. Although there are several possible reasons why family presence is not being welcomed into daily practice, one of the major reasons could be the lack of formal written policies that define the roles of families and providers placed into this situation. Bringing family members into a situation where CPR is being performed on a loved one should not happen haphazardly. It should happen with careful concern and support for everyone involved. Policies and protocols, defined by experienced personnel, can provide legal and emotional support. They can also potentially help ease anxiety by defining expectations and placing responsibility in the hands of people who are experienced enough to know how to handle the situation appropriately. The policies and protocols should address the basic needs of all people involved. Five basic needs should be addressed:

1. The number of people allowed to be present

2. Which relatives should be allowed to be present (age, relationship, etc.)

3. The role of the family members present and what is expected of them.

4. The place where the family should remain during the duration of CPR.

5. The formal wishes of the patient- written as a directive like a living will.

An important component of this is available, trained staff that can prepare the family members for what they will witness, support them through the event, and then direct them after the event’s conclusion.

The American Heart Association states that the goals of cardiopulmonary resuscitation are, ‘to preserve life, restore health, relieve suffering, limit disability, and respect the individual’s decisions rights and privacy’ (AHA Guidelines for CPR). The practice of offering family members the opportunity to be present during CPR is a controversial ethical issue in emergency medical services. While the results of the study published on this topic in The New England Journal of Medicine clearly show no negative side effects from having families present during resuscitation attempts, the limitations of the study lend to the need for more research before it could be universally accepted.

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Respondeat Superior summary and response essay help

Legal claims that derive from a situation where there are claims of negligence can sometimes involve an entity other than the neglectful parties. In certain circumstances employers are fully responsible for their employees, and the tasks they perform during working hours. During the course of this paper, the doctrine of respondeat superior will be defined and explained. Two case studies in which the doctrine was applied will also be analyzed to determine if it was applied correctly.

Respondeat superior is a legal theory that holds employers responsible for any negligent or harmful act performed by an employee during the commission of their employment duties (Thornton, 2010). The Maryland Supreme Court in 1951 was the first court to utilize respondeat superior in a court case involving a question of employer liability (Burns, 2011). This doctrine is important as it holds employers liable in court cases where one of its employees does harm to an individual. Vicarious liability and indirect liability are two base concepts that make-up respondeat superior (Thornton, 2010). Respondeat superior shows that the employer did not have to be responsible for the employee???s negligent behavior, in the form of improper training or instruction to perform harmful acts, in order for the employer to be held legally responsible.

In the case of Valle v. City of Houston, the police force was sued for excessive force and an illegal search in an attempt to remove an individual from his parent???s home (Nicholl & Kelly, 2012). The situation stemmed from a man, Omar Esparza, barricading himself in his parent???s home and refusing to come out (p. 285). After a long police standoff, the SWAT team was ordered to forcefully enter the home and remove Mr. Esparza (p. 285). The SWAT team utilized taser gun and bean bag ammunition in an attempt to subdue Mr. Esparza after they felt he posed a physical threat by wielding a hammer, but as those attempts failed the suspect was fatally wounded when an officer fired his weapon (p. 286). Shortly after the incident the mother was allowed into the home, and she reported no visible evidence that her son was possession of a hammer (p. 286). The court found that the city was not liable for damages under the theory of respondeat superior, because the order to remove the individual from the home was not made by an individual deemed as a decision-maker by the city (p. 286).

From the outside, this case seems to fit the theory of respondeat superior. As the employer, the city should be held responsible for the actions of its employees. The police, serving as the city???s employees acted in a manner that was unnecessary for the situation and in conflict of their training (p. 286). However, the court sided with the City of Houston because the chain of command was not followed in regards to the use of force (p. 286). The end result is a case where an individual made a decision that was not his to make; that ultimately cost a man his life.

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